Manual - Cimtec Automation

Manual - Cimtec Automation
GE
Intelligent Platforms
Programmable Control Products
PACSystems* RXi
Distributed IO Controller
User’s Manual, GFK-2816
December 2012
GFL-002
Warnings, Cautions and Notes
as Used in this Publication
Warning
Warning notices are used in this publication to emphasize that hazardous voltages, currents,
temperatures, or other conditions that could cause personal injury exist in this equipment or
may be associated with its use.
In situations where inattention could cause either personal injury or damage to equipment, a
Warning notice is used.
Caution
Caution notices are used where equipment might be damaged if care is not taken.
Note: Notes merely call attention to information that is especially significant to
understanding and operating the equipment.
This document is based on information available at the time of its publication. While efforts
have been made to be accurate, the information contained herein does not purport to cover
all details or variations in hardware or software, nor to provide for every possible contingency
in connection with installation, operation, or maintenance. Features may be described herein
which are not present in all hardware and software systems. GE Intelligent Platforms
assumes no obligation of notice to holders of this document with respect to changes
subsequently made.
GE Intelligent Platforms makes no representation or warranty, expressed, implied, or
statutory with respect to, and assumes no responsibility for the accuracy, completeness,
sufficiency, or usefulness of the information contained herein. No warranties of
merchantability or fitness for purpose shall apply.
* indicates a trademark of GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All
other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
©Copyright 2012 GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Contact Information
If you purchased this product through an Authorized Channel Partner, please contact the
seller directly.
General Contact Information
Online technical support and GlobalCare
http://www.ge-ip.com/support
Additional information
http://www.ge-ip.com/
Solution Provider
[email protected]
Technical Support
If you have technical problems that cannot be resolved with the information in this guide,
please contact us by telephone or email, or on the web at www.ge-ip.com/support
Americas
Online Technical Support
www.ge-ip.com/support
Phone
1-800-433-2682
International Americas Direct Dial
1-780-420-2010 (if toll free 800 option is unavailable)
Technical Support Email
[email protected]
Customer Care Email
[email protected]
Primary language of support
English
Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
Online Technical Support
www.ge-ip.com/support
Phone
+800-1-433-2682
EMEA Direct Dial
+420-23-901-5850 (if toll free 800 option is unavailable
or dialing from a mobile telephone)
Technical Support Email
[email protected]
Customer Care Email
[email protected]
Primary languages of support
English, French, German, Italian, Czech, Spanish
Asia Pacific
Online Technical Support
www.ge-ip.com/support
Phone
+86-400-820-8208
+86-21-3217-4826 (India, Indonesia, and Pakistan)
Technical Support Email
[email protected] (China)
[email protected] (Japan)
[email protected] (remaining Asia customers)
Customer Care Email
[email protected]
[email protected] (China)
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual –December 2012
3
Contents
Chapter 1.
Introduction ...................................................................................... 11
1.1
Specifications .......................................................................................................... 12
1.1.1
CPU Specifications ........................................................................................ 12
1.1.2
Communications Support............................................................................... 12
1.1.3
Mechanical Specifications.............................................................................. 13
1.1.4
Environmental Specifications ......................................................................... 14
1.2
RXi Controller User Features .................................................................................. 15
1.2.1
Indicator and Port Locations .......................................................................... 15
1.2.2
Status LED Operation .................................................................................... 15
1.2.3
PROFINET and GbE Port LEDs .................................................................... 16
1.3
Additional Information .............................................................................................. 16
Chapter 2.
2.1
Installation ........................................................................................ 17
Mounting Options .................................................................................................... 17
2.2
Installation Guidelines ............................................................................................. 17
2.2.1
Grounding ...................................................................................................... 18
2.2.2
Mounting Orientation...................................................................................... 19
2.2.3
Dimensions and Clearances for Installation .................................................. 20
2.3
Mounting Procedures .............................................................................................. 21
2.3.1
Mounting the RXi Controller Directly on a Panel ........................................... 21
2.3.2
Mounting the RXi Controller on a DIN Rail .................................................... 22
2.3.3
Mounting the RXi Controller on a Panel Using a Backplate .......................... 24
2.3.4
Installing the IDM on the RXi Controller......................................................... 25
2.4
Connectors and Cabling .......................................................................................... 26
2.4.1
Connecting Input Power................................................................................. 26
2.4.2
Connecting to the GbE Port ........................................................................... 27
2.4.3
Connecting to a PROFINET Network ............................................................ 29
2.5
Replacing the RTC Battery...................................................................................... 30
Chapter 3.
Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration ..................... 32
3.1
Connecting Input Power and the GbE Cable .......................................................... 32
3.2
Initial Powerup ......................................................................................................... 32
3.3
Establishing PME Communications with the Unit and Downloading a Project ....... 33
3.4
Configuring the Embedded PROFINET Controller (PNC) and its IO Devices on a
PROFINET Network ........................................................................................................... 35
3.5
Intelligent Display Module (IDM) - Basic Operations............................................... 36
Chapter 4.
Configuration ................................................................................... 37
4.1
Configuring Controller Operation............................................................................. 37
4.1.1
Controller Settings Parameters ...................................................................... 38
4.1.2
Controller Scan Parameters........................................................................... 39
4.1.3
Controller Memory Parameters ...................................................................... 42
4.1.4
Fault Parameters ........................................................................................... 44
4.1.5
Scan Sets Parameters ................................................................................... 44
4.1.6
Modbus TCP Address Map ............................................................................ 45
4.1.7
Access Control ............................................................................................... 46
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Contents
4.2
Configuring the Embedded PROFINET Controller (PNC) ...................................... 47
4.2.1
System Planning for PROFINET Networks ................................................... 48
4.2.2
Basic Configuration Steps.............................................................................. 48
4.2.3
Configuring the Embedded PNC ................................................................... 49
4.2.4
Configuring PROFINET LANs........................................................................ 54
4.2.5
Adding a GE Intelligent Platforms PROFINET Scanner to a LAN ................. 56
4.2.6
Adding a Third-Party IO-Device to a LAN ...................................................... 59
4.2.7
Viewing / Editing IO-Device Properties .......................................................... 63
4.2.8
Assigning IO-Device Names .......................................................................... 65
4.2.9
After the Configuration is Stored to the RXi CPU .......................................... 67
4.3
Configuring the Embedded Ethernet Interface ........................................................ 68
4.3.1
Ethernet Interface Configuration Parameters ................................................ 68
4.3.2
Pinging TCP/IP Ethernet Interfaces on the Network ..................................... 69
4.3.3
Terminals Tab ................................................................................................ 69
4.4
Storing (Downloading) Hardware Configuration...................................................... 70
Chapter 5.
CPU Operation ................................................................................. 71
5.1
CPU Sweep ............................................................................................................. 71
5.1.1
Parts of the CPU Sweep ................................................................................ 72
5.1.2
CPU Sweep Modes ........................................................................................ 74
5.2
Program Scheduling Modes .................................................................................... 77
5.3
Window Modes ........................................................................................................ 77
5.4
Data Coherency in Communications Windows ....................................................... 77
5.5
Run/Stop Operations ............................................................................................... 78
5.5.1
CPU Stop Modes ........................................................................................... 79
5.5.2
Stop-to-Run Mode Transition ......................................................................... 80
5.6
Flash Memory Operation ......................................................................................... 81
5.7
Logic/Configuration Source and CPU Operating Mode at Power-up ...................... 82
5.8
Clocks and Timers ................................................................................................... 83
5.8.1
Elapsed Time Clock ....................................................................................... 83
5.8.2
Time of Day Clock .......................................................................................... 83
5.8.3
Watchdog Timer ............................................................................................. 84
5.8.4
Timed Contacts .............................................................................................. 86
5.9
System Security....................................................................................................... 87
5.9.1
Passwords and Privilege Levels .................................................................... 87
5.9.2
OEM Protection .............................................................................................. 88
5.10 PACSystems I/O System ........................................................................................ 89
5.10.1
I/O System Diagnostic Data Collection .......................................................... 89
5.11 Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences ................................................................. 90
5.11.1
Power-Up Sequence ...................................................................................... 90
The operation of input and output defaults for remote I/O modules in an RXi
PROFINET network is described in “11.7.5, I/O Defaults Operation.“........... 90
5.11.2
Power-Down Sequence ................................................................................. 90
5.11.3
Retention of Data Memory across Power Failure .......................................... 90
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Contents
Chapter 6.
Program Organization ..................................................................... 91
6.1
Structure of a PACSystems Application Program ................................................... 91
6.1.1
Blocks............................................................................................................. 91
6.1.2
Functions and Function Blocks ...................................................................... 91
6.1.3
How Blocks Are Called .................................................................................. 92
6.1.4
Nested Calls ................................................................................................... 92
6.1.5
Types of Blocks .............................................................................................. 93
6.1.6
Local Data .................................................................................................... 104
6.1.7
Parameter Passing Mechanisms ................................................................. 105
6.1.8
Languages ................................................................................................... 106
6.1.9
RXi Controller Instruction Set....................................................................... 107
6.2
Controlling Program Execution.............................................................................. 109
6.3
Interrupt-Driven Blocks .......................................................................................... 109
6.3.1
Interrupt Handling ........................................................................................ 109
6.3.2
Configuring Timed Interrupts ....................................................................... 110
6.3.3
Interrupt Block Scheduling ........................................................................... 111
Chapter 7.
CPU Program Data ......................................................................... 112
7.1
Variables................................................................................................................ 112
7.1.1
Mapped Variables ........................................................................................ 112
7.1.2
Symbolic Variables ...................................................................................... 113
7.1.3
I/O Variables ................................................................................................ 113
7.1.4
Arrays ........................................................................................................... 116
7.1.5
Variable Indexes and Arrays ........................................................................ 116
7.1.6
Ensuring that a Variable Index does not Exceed the Upper Boundary of an
Array............................................................................................................. 118
7.2
Reference Memory ................................................................................................ 119
7.2.1
Word (Register) References ........................................................................ 119
7.2.2
Bit (Discrete) References ............................................................................. 121
7.3
User Reference Size and Default .......................................................................... 122
7.3.1
%G User References and CPU Memory Locations ..................................... 122
7.4
Transitions and Overrides ..................................................................................... 123
7.5
Retentiveness of Logic and Data .......................................................................... 123
7.6
Data Scope ............................................................................................................ 124
7.7
System Status References .................................................................................... 125
7.7.1
%S References ............................................................................................ 125
7.7.2
%SA, %SB, and %SC References .............................................................. 126
7.8
How Program Functions Handle Numerical Data ................................................. 128
7.8.1
Data Types ................................................................................................... 128
7.8.2
Floating Point Numbers ............................................................................... 130
7.9
User Defined Types: .............................................................................................. 132
7.9.1
Working with UDTs ...................................................................................... 132
7.9.2
UDT Properties ............................................................................................ 132
7.9.3
UDT Limits ................................................................................................... 133
7.9.4
Run Mode Store of UDTs............................................................................. 133
7.9.5
UDT Operational Notes................................................................................ 134
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7.10
Operands for Instructions ...................................................................................... 134
7.11
Word-for-Word Changes ....................................................................................... 135
Chapter 8.
Diagnostics..................................................................................... 136
8.1
Fault Handling Overview: ...................................................................................... 136
8.1.1
System Response to Faults ......................................................................... 136
8.1.2
Fault Tables ................................................................................................. 136
8.1.3
Fault Actions and Fault Action Configuration............................................... 137
8.2
Using the Fault Tables .......................................................................................... 138
8.2.1
Controller Fault Table .................................................................................. 138
8.2.2
I/O Fault Table ............................................................................................. 140
8.3
System Handling of Faults .................................................................................... 142
8.3.1
System Fault References............................................................................. 142
8.3.2
Using Fault Contacts.................................................................................... 145
8.3.3
Using Point Faults ........................................................................................ 146
8.3.4
Using Alarm Contacts .................................................................................. 146
8.4
Controller Fault Details .......................................................................................... 147
8.4.1
Controller Fault Groups................................................................................ 147
8.4.2
Controller Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions .................................. 150
8.5
I/O Fault Details ..................................................................................................... 158
8.5.1
I/O Fault Groups .......................................................................................... 158
8.5.2
I/O Fault Categories ..................................................................................... 159
8.5.3
I/O Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions ............................................. 161
Chapter 9.
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) Interface Overview and Operation ........ 169
9.1
PACSystems GbE Communications Features ...................................................... 169
9.2
Station Manager .................................................................................................... 169
9.3
IP Addressing ........................................................................................................ 170
9.4
SRTP Server ......................................................................................................... 170
9.4.1
SRTP Inactivity Timeout .............................................................................. 170
9.5
Modbus TCP Server Operation ............................................................................. 171
9.5.1
Modbus Conformance Classes .................................................................... 171
9.5.2
Server Protocol Services ............................................................................. 171
9.5.3
Station Manager Support ............................................................................. 171
9.5.4
Reference Mapping...................................................................................... 171
9.5.5
Address Configuration ................................................................................. 173
9.5.6
Modbus Function Codes .............................................................................. 174
9.6
Modbus TCP Client (Channels) Operation ............................................................ 175
9.6.2
Operation of the Communications Request ................................................. 178
9.6.3
The COMM_REQ Command Block ............................................................. 179
9.6.4
Modbus TCP Channel Commands .............................................................. 180
9.7
Controlling Communications in the Ladder Program ............................................ 196
9.7.1
Essential Elements of the Ladder Program ................................................. 196
9.7.2
COMM_REQ Example ................................................................................. 197
9.7.3
Troubleshooting a Ladder Program ............................................................. 202
9.7.4
Monitoring the Communications Channel .................................................... 203
9.7.5
Sequencing Communications Requests ...................................................... 203
9.7.6
Major and Minor Error Codes in the COMM_REQ Status Word ................. 204
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9.8
Ethernet Interface Diagnostics .............................................................................. 212
9.8.1
Diagnostics Tools ......................................................................................... 212
9.8.2
Troubleshooting Common Ethernet Difficulties ........................................... 217
9.8.3
COMM_REQ Flooding Can Interrupt Normal Operation ............................. 219
9.8.4
Channels Operation Depends Upon Controller Input Scanning .................. 220
Chapter 10.
10.1
PROFINET Controller Overview .................................................... 221
Ethernet Network Ports ......................................................................................... 221
10.2 PROFINET Networks for PACSystems ................................................................. 222
10.2.1
Basic System: One RXi Controller using a single port ................................ 222
10.2.2
Basic System: One RXi Controller using Multiple Ports .............................. 223
10.2.3
Basic System: Third-Party Devices and PME Programmer ........................ 224
10.3
Glossary of PROFINET Terms .............................................................................. 225
Chapter 11.
PROFINET Controller Operation ................................................... 227
11.1 PROFINET Operation Overview ........................................................................... 227
11.1.1
PROFINET Communications ....................................................................... 227
11.1.2
Application Relationships ............................................................................. 228
11.1.3
Types of PROFINET Communications ........................................................ 229
11.1.4
External Switch VLAN Priority Settings ....................................................... 230
11.2 Operations of the PROFINET Controller in the RXi System ................................. 231
11.2.1
Duplicate PROFINET Device IP Address .................................................... 231
11.2.2
Duplicate PROFINET Controller IP Address ............................................... 232
11.3
I/O Scanning .......................................................................................................... 232
11.4
Data Coherency..................................................................................................... 233
11.5
Performance Factors ............................................................................................. 234
11.6
PROFINET IO Update Rate Configuration ............................................................ 234
11.7 RXi CPU Operations for PROFINET ..................................................................... 235
11.7.1
Reference ID Variables for the RXi Application ........................................... 235
11.7.2
PNIO_DEV_COMM Function Block ............................................................. 236
11.7.3
DO I/O for Remote IO Modules.................................................................... 237
11.7.4
Scan Set I/O for Remote I/O Modules ......................................................... 238
11.7.5
I/O Defaults Operation ................................................................................. 238
11.8 PROFINET Controller Diagnostics ........................................................................ 239
11.8.1
Powerup and Reset ..................................................................................... 239
11.8.2
PROFINET Controller Status Reporting ...................................................... 240
11.8.3
PROFINET IO Alarms .................................................................................. 241
11.8.4
PROFINET Controller Faults in the Fault Tables......................................... 241
Chapter 12.
12.1
PROFINET Redundant Media ........................................................ 242
PROFINET Media Redundancy Protocol .............................................................. 242
12.2 MRP Failover Performance ................................................................................... 243
12.2.1
Guidelines for Update Rates for Bumpless Operation during MRP Ring
Recovery ...................................................................................................... 243
12.2.2
Effect of MRC LinkUp/LinkDown Detection on Failover Performance......... 244
12.2.3
Test Packet Timeout Interval ....................................................................... 244
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Contents
12.3
Ring Topology with One Controller ....................................................................... 245
12.4
Ring Topology with Multiple Controllers ................................................................ 246
12.5 Setting Up Media Redundancy Protocol ............................................................... 247
12.5.1
Media Redundancy Setup for a PROFINET Controller ............................... 247
12.5.2
Sequence for Enabling Media Redundancy ................................................ 247
12.6
Sequence for Replacing a Media Redundancy Manager ..................................... 248
12.7
Procedure for Disabling Media Redundancy......................................................... 248
Chapter 13.
PROFINET Network Management ................................................. 249
13.1 SNMP .................................................................................................................... 249
13.1.1
Overview of SNMP ....................................................................................... 249
13.1.2
Supported SNMP Features .......................................................................... 250
13.1.3
SNMP Read Access .................................................................................... 251
13.1.4
SNMP Write Access ..................................................................................... 251
13.1.5
MIB-II Groups Supported ............................................................................. 251
13.1.6
MIB-II System Group Values ....................................................................... 252
13.2 LLDP...................................................................................................................... 253
13.2.1
Overview of LLDP ........................................................................................ 253
13.2.2
LLDP Operation ........................................................................................... 253
13.2.3
LLDP TLVs ................................................................................................... 253
Appendix A CPU Performance Data.................................................................. 256
Appendix B PROFINET IO Performance Examples ......................................... 264
B.1.1.
B.1.2.
1ms PROFINET Update Rate Systems ....................................................... 265
16ms PROFINET Update Rate Systems ..................................................... 266
Appendix C User Memory Allocation ................................................................ 267
C.2.1.
C.2.2.
%L and %P Program Memory ..................................................................... 268
Program Logic and Overhead ...................................................................... 268
Appendix D Product Certifications and Standards ......................................... 269
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 1. Introduction
The RXi Controller combines the PACSystems control engine with PROFINET-based
distributed I/O and gigabit Ethernet (GbE) communications into a single package.
■ Dual-core COMExpress CPU architecture –provides high performance in rugged
applications.
■
Integrated redundant PROFINET I/O interface provides a Gigabit/100 Megabit
Ethernet I/O network connection with built-in Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP)
delivering IO cabling redundancy with no external switches.
■
Built-in data storage – Internal industrial grade SSD drive provides long-term data
retention.
■
High performance industrial control platform incorporates patented thermal
monitoring technology and sophisticated passive cooling techniques that eliminate
reliance on fans for cooling.
■
Embedded Ethernet interface supports up to 32 simultaneous SRTP Server
connections, up to 16 simultaneous Modbus TCP Server connections, and up to 16
simultaneous Modbus TCP Client channels.
An Intelligent Display Module with a multi-touch panel display is mounted on the RXi
Controller for enhanced operator usability.
RXi Controller (shown with Intelligent Display Module)
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Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1
Specifications
Part Numbers
ICRXICTL000
ICRXIACCIDM01
ICRXIACCBPL
(rev B or later required)
IC690ACC001
1.1.1
1.1.2
RXi Controller
Intelligent Display Module (IDM)
Optional Backplate for DIN rail mounting
Real Time Clock (RTC) battery, replacement
CPU Specifications
Processor
1.0GHz
Program storage
10 MB of user memory and 10MB of user flash storage
Non-volatile storage
Non-volatile storage (NVS) can retain data indefinitely without
loss of data integrity.
Time of day clock (RTC) accuracy
Maximum drift of ±2 seconds/day at 25°C
Real Time Clock battery
Estimated life of 5 years; must be replaced every 5 years on
a regular maintenance schedule.
Elapsed time clock (internal timing)
accuracy
± 0.01% maximum
Floating point
64 bit
Program Blocks
Up to 512 program blocks. Maximum size for a block is
128KB.
Memory
%I and %Q: 32Kbits for discrete
%AI and %AQ: configurable up to 32Kwords
%W: configurable up to the maximum available user memory
Symbolic: configurable up to the maximum available user
memory
Communications Support
Gigabit Ethernet Interface Specifications
12
Port connector
RJ-45 Port: 8-pin female shielded RJ-45 with 10/100/1000
Mbps
LAN
IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control Class I
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Medium Access Control 10/100 Mbps
Number of IP addresses
One
Max. no. of SRTP server connections
Forty-seven SRTP connections available through the front
panel GbE port
Modbus TCP server connections
16
Modbus TCP/IP channels (client)
16
Remote Station Manager over UDP
Yes - Monitor mode commands only. Refer to the Station
Manager Manual, GFK-2225 for command operation.
Configurable Advanced User
Parameters
Not supported in initial release.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Chapter 1. Introduction
PROFINET Controller (PNC) Specifications
PROFINET version
PROFINET Version 2.2 General Class A IO-Controller
Port connectors
Two RJ-45 with 10/100/1000 Mbps.
Supports PROFINET and Media Redundancy Protocol
(MRP).
LAN
IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control Class I
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Medium Access Control 10/100/1000
Mbps
Maximum I/O Memory
128 Kbytes of combined input/output memory
CPU status bits
32
PROFINET IO-Device data update
rates on the PROFINET network
Configurable: 1ms, 2ms, 4ms, 8ms, 16ms, 32ms, 64ms,
128ms, 256ms and 512ms
Number of IP addresses
One
Number of MAC addresses
Seven. One per external port and four internal.
System maximum limits
IO-Devices per IO-Controller
128 per PNC at 16–512ms update intervals. For limits at
shorter update intervals, refer to “4.2.1, System Planning.”
IO-Devices per network
255 per network
IO-Devices per RXi CPU
128 per RXi Controller
IO-Controllers per network
8
Number of PROFINET slots per device 256
Number of PROFINET subslots per
slot
256
Number of PROFINET submodules
per RXi CPU
2048
Programmer Limits
1.1.3
PROFINET IO networks
16
Number of IO-Controllers
128
Number of IO-Devices
4080 (255 per network × 16 PROFINET networks)
Total number of devices
4208
Mechanical Specifications
Dimensions:
RXi Controller with lid
Backplate
Weight:
RXi Controller with lid
Backplate
Power requirements (RXi Controller
with IDM)
GFK-2816
191.8mm x 115.6mm x 78.7mm
(7.55 in x 4.55 in. x 3.1 in)
223.5 mm x 115.6 mm x 17.8 mm
(8.80 in. x 4.55 in. x 0.7 in.)
1.814 Kg (4 lbs)
0.908 Kg (2 lb)
1.5 A at 24 VDC (18–32 VDC) = 36 Watts
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
13
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1.4
Environmental Specifications
Note:
The RXi Controller shall be installed in a location that is not exposed to corrosive
gases or liquids, rain, or direct sunlight, and that meets the environmental
specifications listed below.
Description
Comments
Vibration
10 - 57 Hz, 0.006 in. displacement peak-peak
57 - 500 Hz, 1.0 g acceleration
Shock
15G, 11ms
Ambient Operating
Temperature
Panel mount: -25 to +50C: [inlet] (-13° F to 122°F)
DIN rail mount: -25 to +45C: [inlet] (-13° F to 113°F)
Storage Temperature
-40 to +85 C (-40°F to 185°F)
Humidity
5% to 95%, non-condensing
Environment
Pollution Degree 2 as defined below.
Altitude
0–2000 m
A Pollution Degree 2 environment:

14
Pollution Degree 2 applies where there is only non-conductive pollution that might
temporarily become conductive due to occasional condensation.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.2
RXi Controller User Features
1.2.1
Indicator and Port Locations
1.2.2
Status LED Operation
LED State
GFK-2816
RXi Controller State
Blue, blinking
Power on
Green, blinking
Operating system initialization complete/Jump to Application
Blue, solid
Stop mode
Green, solid
Run mode
Red, solid
Stop Fault
Red, steady blink
Stop-Halt
Red, blink code
Critical Failure
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Chapter 1. Introduction
1.2.3
PROFINET and GbE Port LEDs
Each port has two LED indicators, ACTIVITY and LINK.
ACTIVITY
LED
LINK
LED
LED
ACTIVITY
LINK
1.3
LED State
Blinking, Amber
On, Green
Operating State
10/100/1000 activity
Gigabit link status
Additional Information
For additional information, refer to the manuals listed below. Manuals can be downloaded
from the Support website.
VersaMax PROFINET Scanner User’s Manual, GFK-2721
PACSystems RSTi Network Adapter Manual, GFK-2746
VersaPoint IC220PNS001 Datasheet, GFK-2572
VersaPoint IC220PNS002 Datasheet, GFK-2573
VersaPoint System Installation Manual, GFK-2736
C Programmer's Toolkit for PACSystems User's Manual, GFK-2259E
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Chapter 2. Installation
Chapter 2. Installation
2.1
Mounting Options
Note:
■
■
■
Before selecting a mounting method, refer to the thermal requirements in
“1.1.4, Environmental Specifications.”
Direct mounting onto a panel.
DIN rail mounting using the optional Backplate (ICRXIACCBPL).
Panel mounting using the optional Backplate.
Mounting methods are described in detail on pages 21 through 25.
2.2
Installation Guidelines
■
■
■
■
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The RXi Controller must be mounted with its cooling fins vertical to ensure adequate
airflow.
The panel should be capable of supporting the weight of the controller without distortion
to the panel.
Adequate airflow around the exterior of the unit is essential to maintain safe interior
temperature of the unit. Inlets and outlets must not be obstructed. For details, see
page 20.
You may need to allow more space for installation of cables and connectors than what is
required for heat dissipation. To avoid impacting mechanical reliability and signal quality,
cable installation must comply with the minimum bend radius specified by the cable
manufacturer.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
17
Chapter 2. Installation
2.2.1
Grounding
Note:
■
■
■
■
■
These grounding connections serve as a path for reducing electrical interference and
emissions and are required for the RXi Controller to comply with the standards
identified in Appendix D.
The panel that the controller or DIN rail is mounted to must have a safety ground
connection to protective earth. This ground wire must be at least #16 AWG (1.31mm2).
If the controller is mounted on the Backplate, connect the ground wire to the 8mm
grounding stud on the Backplate and to protective earth (ground).
Connect the frame ground connection on the power plug to protective earth.
Terminate all ground wires at the same grounding point.
Make all ground wires as short as possible.
Panel
Earth
Ground
Central
Ground Point
Ground Wiring Example
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Chapter 2. Installation
2.2.2
Mounting Orientation
The cooling fins on the back of the controller must be vertical.
Correct
Power and communications
port connections
Incorrect
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
19
Chapter 2. Installation
2.2.3
Dimensions and Clearances for Installation
Dimensions
RXi Controller:
Backplate:
Minimum clearances for heat
dissipation
51
mm
(2")
Note:
191.8 mm x 115.6 mm x 81.3 mm
(7.55 in x 4.55 in. x 3.2 in)
226 mm x 137 mm x 12 mm
(8.90 in. x 5.39 in. x 0.47 in.)
Each side: 51mm (2 inches)
Top and bottom: 127mm (5 inches)
191.8 mm
(7.55")
51
mm
(2")
Dimensions for clearances not shown to scale.
Clearances for Heat Dissipation
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Chapter 2. Installation
2.3
Mounting Procedures
The RXi Controller has four captive machine screws in its base for attaching the unit to the
Backplate or panel.
Note:
2.3.1
Before selecting a mounting method, refer to the thermal requirements in
“1.1.4, Environmental Specifications.”
Mounting the RXi Controller Directly on a Panel
You will need the following:
■
■
■
One flathead or large Phillips screwdriver
One 2.5mm hex driver (included with the RXi Controller)
#29 (0.116”) drill bit and M4x0.7 tap
The Controller has four captive machine screws in its base for attaching the unit to the panel.
1.
Drill four mounting holes using the spacing shown in the following drawing and tap
M4x0.7 thru.
2.
Align the Controller’s four mounting screws with the mounting holes in the panel.
3.
Using the hex driver, hand-tighten the mounting screws.
4.
To install the IDM, see 2.3.4, “Installing the IDM on the RXi Controller.”
M4 Thru
171.7mm
(6.76”)
95.5mm
(3.76”)
Drilling Pattern for Direct Panel Mounting
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21
Chapter 2. Installation
2.3.2
Mounting the RXi Controller on a DIN Rail
You will need the following:
■
■
■
One 2.5mm hex driver (included with the RXi Controller)
One flathead or large Phillips screwdriver
One Backplate, ICRXIACCBPL
When installed on the Backplate, the controller mounts to a standard EN 50022 DIN rail with
the following dimensions.
1. Install the RXi Controller on the Backplate.
a. Place the RXi and Backplate on a flat surface.
b. Make sure the top of the RXi is positioned at the top of the Backplate.
c.
Align the RXi’s four mounting screws with the mounting holes in the Backplate.
d. Using the 2.5mm hex driver (provided), tighten the four mounting screws.
e. To install the IDM, see 2.3.4, “Installing the IDM on the RXi Controller.”
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Chapter 2. Installation
2. Install the unit on the DIN Rail.
a. Start with the unit rotated approximately 20º from the panel.
b. Engage the latches at either the top or bottom of the black DIN rail clip (attached to
the adaptor) onto the DIN rail.
c.
Rotate the unit toward the DIN rail and engage both sets of latches with the rail.
d. Press the unit into place.
c.
b.
a.
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23
Chapter 2. Installation
2.3.3
Mounting the RXi Controller on a Panel Using a Backplate
When mounting the Controller/Backplate assembly on the panel, you can insert the screws
from the front of the Backplate or from the back of the panel.
You will need the following:
■
■
■
■
One ICRXIACCBPL Backplate
Four machine screws with maximum thread size ¼-20 (standard) or M6 (metric)
If you want to insert the screws from the front of the panel, you will need four nuts. (If the
screws are inserted from the back, they are threaded into the Backplate holes.)
Driver for the selected machine screws
1. Install the controller on the Backplate. (See step 1 on page 21.)
2. Drill four holes in the panel using the spacing shown in the following drawing.
208.3mm
(8.2")
119.4mm
(4.7")
Drilling Pattern for Panel Mounting Using a Backplate
3. Remove the rubber feet from the Backplate mounting holes.
4. Use the four mounting screws to attach the Controller/Backplate assembly to the panel.
Torque settings for the fasteners used to mount the Backplate should be determined
according to standard industry practices or manufacturer’s recommendations.
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PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Chapter 2. Installation
2.3.4
Installing the IDM on the RXi Controller
The IDM should be installed after the RXi Controller has been mounted on the panel or
DIN rail.
Place the IDM on the RXi and use a flathead or large Phillips screwdriver to hand-tighten the
four captive screws.
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25
Chapter 2. Installation
2.4
Connectors and Cabling
Power and communication connectors for the RXi Controller are described in this section.
All connectors are located on the bottom panel of the controller.
Summary of Cabled Ports
Connection
Shielding
Required
24 VDC
3 m (9.8 ft.)
No
PROFINET 1
100 m (328 ft.)
Yes1
PROFINET 2
100 m (328 ft.)
Yes1
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)
100 m (328 ft.)
Yes1
1
2.4.1
Maximum Length
Shielded cable required for 1 Gbps operation.
Connecting Input Power
You will need:
■
An 18–32VDC, 36W (minimum) power supply. The power supply must be either:
A UL Listed (or equivalent) Limited Power Source (LPS) or Class 2 power source capable
of providing 18–32VDC, 36W minimum
or
A low voltage/limited current (LVLC) power source (the combination of an isolated DC
supply and a fuse, listed 32VDC minimum and 3A maximum, connected in series with the
output of the power supply).
■
■
■
A power cord with 18 AWG wires (0.82mm2)
A frame ground wire, 18 AWG (0.82mm2)
An input power terminal block (provided)
1.
Using the power cord, attach the power supply to the power terminal block.
2.
Recommended wire stripping length is 7mm (0.28 in).
3.
Insert the plug into the RXi’s Input Power connector and securely tighten the attaching
screws.
FGND
24 VDC
0 VDC
Note:
26
There are no user-serviceable fuses in the RXi Controller.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Chapter 2. Installation
2.4.2
Connecting to the GbE Port
The RXi Controller provides an RJ-45 Ethernet network port connector that supports
10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T communications. The port automatically senses
the data rate (10, 100 or 1000Mbps), duplex (half duplex or full duplex), and cabling
arrangement (straight through or crossover) of the attached link.
The following diagram shows a typical connection of the PC running Proficy* Machine Edition
(PME) software to the RXi’s GbE port.
Note:
Shielded cable is required for 1 Gbps operation.
Hub/Switch/Repeater
GbE port on
RXi Controller
Programmer
10Base-T/100Base-Tx/1000BASE-T
Twisted Pair Cable
To other network
devices
2.4.2.1 Ethernet Media
The RXi Controller can operate directly on 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX or 1000BASE-T media
via its network port. All three arrangements can use up to 100m of twisted pair cable between
each node and a switch, hub, or repeater.
Note:
For all three types, shielded twisted pair (STP) cable is required to maintain
CE compliance.
10BASE-T: Two pairs of wire are used, one for transmission, and the other for receive.
100BASE-TX: Two pairs of wire are used, one for transmission, and the other for receive.
1000BASE-T: Four pairs of wire are used for simultaneous transmission and receive in both
directions.
Note:
GFK-2816
Pin assignments are provided for diagnostic purposes only. Ethernet cables are
available from commercial distributors. We recommend purchasing rather than
making cables.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
27
Chapter 2. Installation
10Base-T/100Base-Tx Port Pin Assignments
Pin Number
Signal
Description
1
TD+
Transmit Data +
2
TD-
Transmit Data -
3
RD+
Receive Data +
4
NC
No connection
5
NC
No connection
6
RD-
Receive Data -
7
NC
No connection
8
NC
No connection
1000Base-T Port Pin Assignments
Pin Number
Signal
Description
1
BI_DA+
Bi-directional pair A+ (Transmit)
2
BI_DA-
Bi-directional pair A- (Transmit)
3
BI_DB+
Bi-directional pair B+ (Receive)
4
BI_DC+
Bi-directional pair C+
5
BI_DC-
Bi-directional pair C-
6
BI_DB-
Bi-directional pair B- (Receive)
7
BI_DD+
Bi-directional pair D+
8
BI_DD-
Bi-directional pair D-
The operation of the Ethernet port LED indicators, ACTIVITY and LINK, is described in 1.2.3,
“PROFINET and GbE Port LEDs.”
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Chapter 2. Installation
2.4.3
Connecting to a PROFINET Network
The RXi Controller provides two RJ-45 ports for PROFINET network connections. They can
also be used for general Ethernet communications on a 10BaseT, 100BaseTX, or 1000BaseT IEEE 802.3 network.
PROFINET IO can be connected to either of the two PROFINET ports. Use of Media
Redundancy Protocol (MRP) requires both PROFINET ports. If MRP is not used, the
PROFINET IO can be connected to either port.
Note:
For sample PROFINET network topologies, see 10.2, PROFINET Networks
for PACSystems.
Caution
Do not connect both ports on the RXi to the same device, either directly
or indirectly, unless Media Redundancy is enabled in the PROFINET
interface configuration.
If Media Redundancy will be used, do not close the network ring until a
Media Redundancy configuration that contains a Media Redundancy
Manager (MRM) node has been downloaded to the RXi. If an MRM is not
present, packets can continuously cycle on the network, using up
significant network bandwidth.
2.4.3.1 PROFINET Media
10BaseT: uses a twisted pair cable of up to 100 meters in length between a node and
another node, switch, hub, or repeater. 10Mbs can be used for general Ethernet traffic, but
not for PROFINET communications.
100BaseTX: uses a cable of up to 100 meters in length between a node and another node,
switch, hub, or repeater. The cable should be data grade Category 5e or better shielded
twisted pair (STP).
1000BaseT: uses a cable of up to 100 meters in length between a node and another node,
switch, hub, or repeater. The cable should be data grade Category 5e or better STP.
The operation of the Ethernet port LED indicators, ACTIVITY and LINK, is described in 1.2.3,
“PROFINET and GbE Port LEDs.”
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29
Chapter 2. Installation
2.5
Replacing the RTC Battery
The real-time clock is backed up by a lithium coin cell battery, IC690ACC001, which has an
estimated life of 5 years and must be replaced every 5 years on a regular maintenance
schedule. There are no diagnostics or indicators that monitor RTC battery status.
If the RTC battery fails, the CPU date and time is reset to 12:00 AM, 01-01-2008 at startup.
The CPU operates with a failed or missing RTC battery; however the initial CPU TOD clock
information will be incorrect.
Warning
If the unit has been recently powered down, the battery may be too hot
to touch safely. To avoid burns, use precautions, such as allowing the
battery sufficient time to cool before handling it.
Caution
To avoid damage from electrostatic discharge, adhere to the following
precautions when removing the Display Module:
▪
▪
Wear a properly functioning antistatic strap and be sure that you
are fully grounded. Never touch any components inside the
Display Module unless you are wearing an antistatic strap.
Extra caution should be taken in cold, dry weather, when static
charges can easily build up.
You will need the following:
■
■
■
One flat (or large Phillips) screwdriver
One small Phillips screwdriver
IC690ACC001 battery
1. Remove power from the RXi Controller.
2. Loosen the four captive screws on the Display Module and remove it.
3. Remove the inner lid from the RXi Controller.
4. Remove the RTC battery from the retaining clip, being careful to not bend the positive
terminal clip.
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Chapter 2. Installation
Battery
Warnings
Use of a different type of battery than that specified here may present a
risk of fire or explosion.
Battery may explode if mistreated. Do not recharge, disassemble, heat
above 100°C (212°F) or incinerate.
Note: For proper disposal, refer to Battery Disposal document 82A1540-MD01.
5. Install the new battery in the retaining clip.
Install the battery with the positive (+) side up (with the + side away from the circuit
board). The coin cell must be inserted at an angle under the positive terminal clip and
then slid into the carrier and snapped into place.
6. Replace the inner lid on the RXi Controller and hand-tighten the four captive screws
to secure it.
7. Replace the Display Module on the RXi Controller and hand-tighten the four screws
to secure it.
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31
Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
Before you attempt to power up the RXi Controller for the first time, inspect the unit for loose
or damaged components. If damage is observed (for example, in the form of bent component
leads or loose components), contact GE Intelligent Platforms for additional instructions.
Depending on the severity of the damage, it may be necessary to return the product to the
factory for repair.
Do not apply power to the unit if it has visible damage. Applying power to a unit with
damaged components may cause additional damage.
You will need the following:
■
■
■
3.1
Power supply and power cord. See 2.4.1, “Connecting Input Power” for requirements.
Ethernet cables. See 2.4.2, “Connecting to the GbE Port” for requirements.
Proficy Machine Edition software, version 7.50 or later
Connecting Input Power and the GbE Cable
1. Connect input power as described in 2.4.1, “Connecting Input Power.”
2. Connect the PC running PME software to the GbE port as described in 2.4.2, “Connecting
to the GbE Port.”
3.2
Initial Powerup
1. Apply Power and start the RXi Controller
2. When 24 VDC is applied to the input terminals, the powerup process begins. During
startup and initialization, the Status LED blinks blue and then green.
■ Blinking blue while the RXi Controller is starting up
■ Solid blue when the RXi Controller has completed startup. (It will be in Stop mode).
Note that the IDM identifies the RXi Controller as “Default” until a project is downloaded
to it.
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Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
3.3
Establishing PME Communications with the Unit and Downloading a Project
1. Set the IP Address on the RXi.
Caution
The Ethernet interface must be configured with the correct IP Address for
proper operation in a TCP/IP Ethernet network. Using incorrect IP addresses
can disrupt network operation for the RXi and other nodes on the network.
- The GbE port’s default IP address is 192.168.0.100.
- The subnet and subnet mask of the RXi and the PME computer must match.
- The subnet for the GbE port and the PROFINET ports must be different.
If the default IP address is not suitable to your application, you can use the IDM to assign
a temporary IP address to the controller. To enter a new IP address using the IDM, first
perform a Clear All operation, then change the IP address using the Set Temporary IP
function.
Setting the Temporary IP Address Using the IDM
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Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
2. Go online with PME software.
In PME, create a project with a PACSystems RXi target.
In the Inspector, set the active target’s IP Address property to the RXi’s address.
Right click the target and select Go Online or click the Online/Offline toolbar button.
Sample Configuration for RXi Ethernet Interface
3. Download a project and start the RXi. From the RXi target right-click menu, or the
PME toolbar:
Set PME to Monitor mode.
Select Download and Start.
The PME status bar indicates the status of the RXi Controller.
Note that the IDM identifies the RXi Controller as “Default” until a project is downloaded to it.
IDM Display after Initial Powerup
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Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
3.4
Configuring the Embedded PROFINET Controller (PNC) and its IO Devices on a
PROFINET Network
Basic configuration steps for a PROFINET network:
1.
Configure the PROFINET Controller parameters and properties in PME’s hardware
configuration tool.
2.
Add IO-Devices to the PROFINET network. These can be GE Intelligent Platforms
PROFINET Scanner (PNS) modules or third-party IO-Devices.
3.
Configure the IO-Devices.
4.
Store the configuration data from PME to the RXi.
Sample PROFINET Network Configuration with RSTi PNS Node
For additional information about setting up your PROFINET network, refer to
4.2, “Configuring the Embedded PROFINET Controller.”
Note:
GFK-2816
The subnet for the two PROFINET ports must be different from the subnet for the
port used for the PME software connection. Until a configuration is stored for the
PROFINET ports’ IP address, subnet and gateway, their default values are 0.0.0.0.
Also, the device name of the PROFINET Controller functionality is NULL
(empty string).
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
35
Chapter 3. Getting Started: Initial Powerup and Configuration
3.5
Intelligent Display Module (IDM) - Basic Operations
Although PME is required to create and download configuration and logic to the RXi, you can
perform many operations with the IDM. These include setting an initial IP address, starting or
stopping the RXi, and viewing and clearing fault tables.With the IDM, you can perform many
operations on the RXi Controller without the need for going online with the programming
software.
View and change
display settings
View model and version
information for IDM
Press the RXi target to
access controller details
and settings
Set the Run/Stop
state
Clear all Controller
memory or clear
selected fault tables
Drag down to view a list of
faults and access fault
details
Select sweep mode and
set communications
window times
Enter a password
Press to return to previous
View and clear Controller
and I/O fault tables
Set a temporary IP
address
View Rxi controller model
and version information
The use of IDM’s “Provide Password” allows entries that match the passwords defined using
PME.
CAUTION
Passwords loaded to Flash cannot be cleared using Clear Flash or by
downloading new firmware. You must document the password because
it is not possible for you to restore a unit to the default, no-passwords
condition.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Chapter 4. Configuration
The PACSystems RXi Controller and PROFINET I/O system is configured using Proficy
Machine Edition Logic Developer-PLC programming software. Refer to the Machine Edition
Logic Developer-PLC Getting Started Manual, GFK-1918 and the online help for a description
of configuration functions.
To configure the PROFINET interface, refer to 4.2, “Configuring the Embedded PROFINET
Controller.” For details on configuring the Ethernet interface, refer to 4.3, "Configuring the
Embedded Ethernet Interface.”
4.1
Configuring Controller Operation
To configure the RXi Controller’s embedded CPU functionality using the PME Logic
Developer-PLC programming software:
1. In the Project tab of the Navigator, expand your PACSystems RXi target and the
hardware configuration.
2. Right click the Controller and choose Configure. The Parameter Editor window displays
the CPU parameters.
3. To edit a parameter value, select the desired tab, then click in the appropriate Values
field.
4. Store the configuration to the Controller so these settings can take effect. For details, see
“4.4, Storing (Downloading) Hardware Configuration.”
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Chapter 4. Configuration
These parameters specify basic operating characteristics of the CPU. For additional details
on how these parameters affect CPU operation, refer to Chapter 5.
4.1.1
Controller Settings Parameters
Settings Parameters
Passwords
Specifies whether passwords are Enabled or Disabled. Default: Enabled.
Notes: If Enhanced Security is enabled in the target properties, the Passwords
setting will be Enabled and read-only, and the Access Control tab (page 46)
appears.
When passwords are disabled, they cannot be re-enabled without clearing
Controller memory.
Stop-Mode I/O Scanning
Specifies whether the I/O is scanned while the Controller is in Stop mode.
Default: Disabled
Watchdog Timer (ms)
(Milliseconds in 10 ms increments.) Requires a value that is greater than the program
sweep time.
The software watchdog timer is designed to detect "failure to complete sweep"
conditions. The CPU restarts the watchdog timer at the beginning of each sweep. The
watchdog timer accumulates time during the sweep. The software watchdog timer is
useful in detecting abnormal operation of the application program, which could prevent
the CPU sweep from completing within the watchdog time period.
Valid range: 10 through 2550, in increments of 10.
Default: 200.
Logic/Configuration
Power-up Source
Specifies the location/source of the logic and configuration data that is to be used (or
loaded/copied into RAM) after each power up.
Choices: Always RAM, Always Flash, Conditional Flash.
Default: Always RAM.
Data Power-up Source
Specifies the location/source of the reference data that is to be used (or loaded/copied
into RAM) after each power up.
Choices: Always RAM, Always Flash, Conditional Flash.
Default: Always RAM.
Power-up Mode
Selects the CPU mode to be in effect immediately after power-up.
Choices: Last, Stop, Run.
Default: Last (the mode it was in when it last powered down).
Notes: If Logic/Configuration Power-up Source is set to Always RAM, the CPU
powers up in Stop mode regardless of the setting of the Power-up Mode
parameter.
If Power-up Mode is set to Last and Logic/Configuration Power-up Source is
set to Always Flash or Conditional Flash, the CPU powers up in
Run/Disabled mode.
Modbus Address Space
Mapping Type
Specifies the type of memory mapping to be used for data transfer between Modbus
TCP/IP clients and the PACSystems controller.
Choices:
Disabled: The “Disabled” setting is intended for use in systems containing Ethernet
firmware that does not support Modbus TCP.
Standard Modbus Addressing: Causes the Ethernet firmware to use the standard
map, which is displayed on the Modbus TCP Address Map tab.
Default: Disabled
For details on the PACSystems RXi implementation of Modbus TCP server, refer
to”9.6, Modbus TCP Client (Channels) Operation.”
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1.2
Controller Scan Parameters
These parameters determine the characteristics of CPU sweep execution.
Scan Parameters
Sweep Mode
The sweep mode determines the priority of tasks the CPU performs during the sweep and
defines how much time is allotted to each task. The parameters that can be modified vary
depending on the selection for sweep mode.
The Controller Communications Window, Backplane Communications Window, and
Background Window phases of the sweep can be run in various modes, based on the sweep
mode.
Choices:
■ Normal mode: The sweep executes as quickly as possible. The overall Controller sweep
time depends on the logic program and the requests being processed in the windows and
is equal to the time required to execute the logic in the program plus the respective
window timer values. The window terminates when it has no more tasks to complete. This
is the default value.
■ Constant Window mode: Each window operates in a Run-to-Completion mode. The
Controller alternates among three windows for a time equal to the value set for the window
timer parameter. The overall sweep time is equal to the time required to execute the logic
program plus the value of the window timer. This time may vary due to sweep-to-sweep
differences in the execution of the program logic.
■ Constant Sweep mode: The overall sweep time is fixed. Some or all of the windows at the
end of the sweep might not be executed. The windows terminate when the overall sweep
time has reached the value specified for the Sweep Timer parameter.
Logic Checksum
Words
The number of user logic words to use as input to the checksum algorithm each sweep.
Valid range: 0 through 32760, in increments of 8.
Default: 16.
Controller
Communication
Window Mode
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Normal.) Execution settings for the Controller
Communications Window.
Choices:
■ Complete: The window runs to completion. There is no time limit.
■ Limited: Time sliced. The maximum execution time for the Controller Communications
Window per scan is specified in the Controller Communications Window Timer parameter.
Default: Limited.
Controller
Communications
Window Timer (ms)
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Normal. Read-only if the Controller
Communications Window Mode is set to Complete.) The maximum execution time for the
Controller Communications Window per scan. This value cannot be greater than the value for
the watchdog timer.
The valid range and default value depend on the Controller Communications Window Mode:
■ Complete: There is no time limit.
■ Limited: Valid range: 0 through 255 ms.
Default: 10.
Caution
Setting the Limited Controller Communications Window Timer too low
will constrain the ability of the IDM to communicate with the controller.
This will interfere with the ability of the IDM to report controller status
and to command controller state changes.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Scan Parameters
Backplane
Communication
Window Mode
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Normal.) Execution settings for the Backplane
Communications Window.
Choices:
■ Complete: The window runs to completion. There is no time limit.
■ Limited: Time sliced. The maximum execution time for the Backplane Communications
Window per scan is specified in the Backplane Communications Window Timer
parameter.
Default: Complete.
Note: Even though the RXi Controller does not operate on a backplane, the Backplane
Communications window still runs and settings that affect it will be fulfilled.
Backplane
Communications
Window Timer (ms)
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Normal. Read-only if the Backplane
Communications Window Mode is set to Complete.) The maximum execution time for the
Backplane Communications Window per scan. This value can be greater than the value for the
watchdog timer.
The valid range and the default depend on the Backplane Communications Window Mode:
Complete: There is no time limit. The Backplane Communications Window Timer parameter is
read-only.
Limited: Valid range: 0 through 255 ms.
Default: 10ms
Background
Window
Timer (ms)
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Normal.) The maximum execution time for the
Background Communications Window per scan. This value cannot be greater than the value
for the watchdog timer.
Valid range: 0 through 255
Default: 0
Sweep Timer (ms)
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Constant Sweep.) The maximum overall scan time.
This value cannot be greater than the value for the watchdog timer.
Some or all of the windows at the end of the sweep might not be executed. The windows
terminate when the overall Controller sweep time has reached the value specified for the
Sweep Timer parameter.
Valid range: 5 through 2550, in increments of 5. If the value typed is not a multiple of 5ms, it is
rounded to the next highest valid value.
Default: 100.
Window Timer (ms)
(Available only when Sweep Mode is set to Constant Window.) The maximum combined
execution time per scan for the Controller Communications, Backplane Communications, and
Background Communications windows. This value cannot be greater than the value for the
watchdog timer.
Valid range: 3 through 255, in increments of 1.
Default: 10.
Number of Last
Scans
The number of scans to execute after the CPU receives an indication that a transition from Run
to Stop mode should occur. (Used for Stop and Stop Fault, but not Stop Halt.)
Choices: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Defaults:
▪
▪
40
0 when creating a new PACSystems RXi target or converting a Series 90-70 target to RXi.
1 when converting a Series 90-30 target to RXi.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1.2.1 Using the IDM to select Sweep modes and Communications Window Values
You can use the IDM to change the CPU sweep mode and values for the communications
windows as follows:
To access additional screens, touch the Next button.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1.3
Controller Memory Parameters
The PACSystems user memory contains the application program, hardware configuration
(HWC), registers (%R), bulk memory (%W), analog inputs (%AI), analog outputs (%AQ), and
managed memory.
Managed memory consists of allocations for symbolic variables and I/O variables. The
symbolic variables feature allows you to create variables without having to manually locate
them in memory. An I/O variable is a symbolic variable that is mapped to a module’s inputs
and outputs in the hardware configuration. For details on using symbolic variables and I/O
variables, refer to 7.1 Variables.
The amount of memory allocated to the application program and hardware configuration is
automatically determined by the actual program (including logic, C data, and %L and %P),
hardware configuration, and symbolic variables created in the programming software. The
rest of the user memory can be configured to suit the application. For example, an application
may have a relatively large program that uses only a small amount of register and analog
memory. Similarly, there might be a small logic program but a larger amount of memory
needed for registers and analog inputs and outputs.
Appendix C provides a summary of items that count against user memory.
4.1.3.1 Calculation of Memory Required for Managed Memory
The total number of bytes required for symbolic and I/O variables is calculated as follows:
[((number of symbolic discrete bits) × 3) / (8 bits/byte)]
+ [((number of I/O discrete bits) × Md) / (8 bits/byte)]
+ [(number of symbolic words × (2 bytes/word)]
+ [(number of I/O words) × (Mw bytes/word)]
Md = 3 or 4. The number of bits is multiplied by 3 to keep track of the force, transition, and
value of each bit. If point faults are enabled, the number of I/O discrete bits is multiplied by 4.
Mw = 2 or 3. There are two 8-bit bytes per 16-bit word. If point faults are enabled, the number
of bytes is multiplied by 3 because each I/O word requires an extra byte.
4.1.3.2 Calculation of Total User Memory Configured
The total amount of configurable user memory (in bytes) configured in the CPU is calculated
as follows:
Total managed memory (bytes)
+ Total reference words × (2 bytes/word)
+ [if Point Faults are enabled] (Total words of %AI memory + total words of %AQ
memory) × (1 byte / word)
+ [if Point Faults are enabled] (Total bits of %I memory + total bits of %Q memory) / 8
bits/byte)
Note:
42
The total number of reference points is considered system memory and is not
counted against user memory.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Memory Allocation Configuration
Memory Parameters
Reference Points
%I Discrete Input, %Q Discrete Output,
%M Internal Discrete, %S System, %SA
System, %SB System, %SC System, %T
Temporary Status, %G Genius Global
The upper range for each of these memory types. Read only.
Total Reference Points
Read only. Calculated by the programming software.
Reference Words
%AI Analog Input
Valid range: 0 through 32,640 words.
Default: 64
%AQ Analog Output
Valid range: 0 through 32,640 words.
Default: 64
%R Register Memory
Valid range: 0 through 32,640 words.
Default: 1024.
%W Bulk Memory
Valid range: 0 through maximum available user RAM.
Increments of 2048 words.
Default: 0.
Total Reference Words
Read only. Calculated by the programming software.
Managed Memory
Symbolic Discrete (Bits)
The configured number of bits reserved for symbolic discrete variables.
Valid range: 0 through 83,886,080 in increments of 32768 bits.
Default: 32,768.
Symbolic Non-Discrete (Words)
The configured number of 16-bit register memory locations reserved for
symbolic non-discrete variables.
Valid range: 0 through 5,242,880 in increments of 2048 words.
Default: 65,536.
I/O Discrete (Bits)
The configured number of bits reserved for discrete IO variables.
Valid range: 0 through 83,886,080 in increments of 32768 bits.
Default: 0
I/O Non-Discrete (Words)
The configured number of 16-bit register memory locations reserved for
non-discrete IO variables.
Valid range: 0 through 5,242,880 in increments of 2048 words.
Default: 0
Total Managed Memory Required (Bytes)
Read only. See page 42 for calculation.
Total User Memory Required (Bytes)
Read only. See page 42 for calculation.
Point Fault References
The Point Fault References parameter must be enabled if you want to
use fault contacts in your logic. Assigning point fault references causes
the CPU to reserve additional memory.
When you download both the HWC and the logic to the Controller, the
download routine checks if there are fault contacts in the logic and if there
are, it checks if the HWC has the Point Fault References parameter set to
Enabled. If the parameter is Disabled, an error is displayed in the
Feedback Zone.
When you download only logic to the Controller, the download routine
checks if there are fault contacts in the logic and if there are, it checks if
the HWC on the Controller has the Point Fault References parameter set
to Enabled. If the parameter is Disabled, an error is displayed in the
Feedback Zone.
Default: Disabled
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1.4
Fault Parameters
You can configure each fault action to be either diagnostic or fatal.
A diagnostic fault does not stop the Controller from executing logic. It sets a diagnostic
variable and is logged in a fault table.
A fatal fault transitions the Controller to the Stop Faulted mode. It also sets a diagnostic
variable and is logged in a fault table.
Fault Parameters
I/O Controller or I/O Bus Fault
(Fault group 9.)
When a bus fault, a global memory fault, or an IOC hardware fault occurs, system
variable #IOC_FLT (%SA22) turns on. (To turn it off, cycle power or clear the I/O
Fault table.) Default: Diagnostic
CPU Over Temperature
(Fault group 24, error code 1.) When the operating temperature of the CPU
exceeds the normal operating temperature, system variable #OVR_TMP (%SA8)
turns ON. (To turn it OFF, clear the controller fault table or reset the Controller.)
Default: Diagnostic.
Controller Fault Table Size
(Read-only.) The maximum number of entries in the Controller Fault Table.
Value set to 64.
I/O Fault Table Size
(Read-only.) The maximum number of entries in the I/O Fault Table.
Value set to 64.
4.1.5
Scan Sets Parameters
You can create multiple sets of asynchronous I/O scans, with a unique scan rate assigned to
each scan set. You can assign up to 31 scan sets for a total of 32. Scan set 1 is the standard
scan set where I/O is scanned once per sweep. Each module is assigned to a scan set in the
module’s configuration. Scan Set 1 is the default scan set.
Scan Set Parameters
Number
A sequential number from 1 to 32 is automatically assigned to each scan set. Scan set 1 is
reserved for the standard scan set.
Scan Type
Determines whether the scan set is enabled (as a fixed scan) or is disabled.
Choices: Disabled, Fixed Scan.
Default: Disabled.
Number of Sweeps
(Editable only when the Scan Type is set to Fixed Scan.) The scan rate of the scan set. A value
of 0 prevents the I/O from being scanned.
Valid range: 0 through 64.
Default: 1.
Output Delay
(Editable only when the Number of Sweeps is non-zero.) The number of sweeps that the output
scan is delayed after the input scan has occurred.
Valid range: 0 to (number of Sweeps - 1)
Default: 0.
Description
(Editable only when the Scan Type is set to Fixed Scan.) Brief description of the scan set (32
characters maximum).
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4.1.6
Modbus TCP Address Map
This read-only tab displays the standard mapping assignments between Modbus address
space and the CPU address space. Ethernet interfaces in the PACSystems controller use
Modbus-to-Controller address mapping based on this map.
Modbus Register
The Modbus protocol uses five reference table designations:
0xxxx Coil Table. Mapped to the %Q table in the CPU.
1xxxx Input Discrete Table. Mapped to the %I table in the CPU.
3xxxx Input Register Table. Mapped to the %AI register table in the CPU.
4xxxx Holding Register Table. Mapped to the %R table in the CPU.
6xxxx File Access Table. Mapped to the %W table in the CPU.
Start Address
Lists the beginning address of the mapped region.
End Address
Lists the ending address of the mapped region. For word memory types (%AI, %R and %W)
the highest address available is configured on the Memory tab.
Controller Memory
Address
Lists the memory type of the mapped region.
Length
Displays the length of the mapped region.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.1.7
Access Control
The Access Control list allows you to specify the reference address ranges that can be
accessed by non-local devices such as HMIs and other controllers. To use this feature,
Enhanced Security must be enabled in the target’s properties.
When Enhanced Security mode is enabled, any reference address range not defined can not
be accessed by other devices. External reads and writes that do not exist in the table are
rejected by the firmware.
If overlapping memory ranges are defined, they must have the same Access level.
For symbolic variables, access control is specified by the variable’s Publish property, which
includes a Read Only and Read/Write setting.
Note:
When requesting data from an external device, some drivers packetize data to
optimize communication. If a request attempts to read a value that is not published,
the entire packet will fail. A fault has been added to the fault table to help you
understand a failed read/write. After addressing the fault, you must clear the fault in
order to try again.
When you go online with the controller with enhanced security enabled, you will be taken to
Privilege Level 1 and PME displays a security icon.
Memory Area
The memory area in which the reference address range is defined.
Default: Select an Area
Choices: %AI Analog Input, %AQ Analog Output, %I Discrete Input, %G Genius Global,
%M Internal Discrete, %Q Discrete Output, %R Register Memory, %S System,
%SA System, %SB System, %SC System, %T Temporary Status,
%W Bulk Memory.
Start
The starting offset of the reference address range.
Default: 0 (not valid)
Valid range:
For %S, %SA, %SB and %SC, must be 1.
All other memory types: 1 through the upper limit of the reference address range.
Must be less than the End value.
End
The ending offset of the reference address range.
Default: 0 (not valid)
Valid range:
For %S, %SA, %SB and %SC, must be 128.
All other memory types: Any value greater than Start, through the upper limit of the
reference address range.
For word memory types (%AI, %R and %W) the highest address available is configured on
the Memory tab.
Access
Selects the type of external access allowed for the defined address range.
Choices: Read-Only, Read/Write
Default: Read-Only
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2
Configuring the Embedded PROFINET Controller (PNC)
This section explains how to configure the RXi PNC and its IO-devices in a PACSystems RXi
Controller system.
The Proficy Machine Edition programming software is used to create and download the
configuration for an RXi PROFINET network and its devices. Additional information about RXi
configuration is available in the Proficy Machine Edition online help.
This section discusses the following topics:
▪ System Planning
▪
Basic Configuration Steps
▪
Configuring the PNC
▪
o
The PNC’s LAN
o
Configuring PNC Parameters
Configuring PROFINET LANs
o
▪
Adding GE Intelligent Platforms IO-Devices to a LAN
▪
Adding Third-Party IO-Devices to a LAN
o
Editing Third-Party IO-Device Parameters
o
Configuring Sub-modules of an IO-Device
▪
Viewing / Editing IO-Device Properties
▪
Assigning IO-Device Names
▪
Configuring IO-Devices
▪
After the Configuration is Stored to the RXi CPU
o
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Configuring the LAN Properties
Clearing the RXi Controller Configuration
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.1
System Planning for PROFINET Networks
4.2.1.1 Device Ownership
Note that all modules in an IO-Device must belong to the same PROFINET network. That is,
they are all owned by the same PNC. Modules on an IO-Device cannot be split
between PNCs.
4.2.1.2 PNC Loading Limits
To prevent overloading of the PNC, the maximum number of IO-Devices that can be
configured is limited to the equivalent of eight devices with update rates of 1ms.
Devices configured with a longer update periods present smaller data loads to the PNC.
For example, a device with an update rate of 2ms is equivalent to ½ device at 1ms.
The maximum number of devices allowed (up to 128) is determined by their update rates
as shown in the following calculation:
SUM
Number of Devices at Update Rate x
Update Rate x
≤8 devices/ms
4.2.1.3 Maximum Configuration at Each Update Rate
Update Rate
Total Number of Devices per PNC
1
8
2
16
4
32
8
64
16 – 512
128 (total device limit)
If the configuration exceeds the equivalent of eight devices with 1ms update rates, PROFICY
Machine Edition will not store the configuration.
4.2.2
Basic Configuration Steps
The basic configuration steps for a PROFINET network are:
■
■
Configure the parameters of the PNC.
Select the PNC and add IO-Devices to its LAN. These IO-Devices can be GE Intelligent
Platforms PNS modules or third-party IO-Devices. PNS modules and third-party
IO-Devices use GSDML files to describe their capabilities. PME imports these GSDML
files and incorporates the devices into the configuration.
Configure the parameters of the IO-Devices.
■
■
■
■
■
48
Configure the communications properties of the PNC, PNS modules, and third-party
IO-Devices in the PME Inspector pane.
Add modules to the IO-Device remote nodes.
Configure the parameters of the modules and sub-modules in the remote nodes.
When the configuration is ready, use the Discovery and Configuration Protocol (DCP)
tool in Machine Edition to assign a name to each IO-Device so the PNC can connect to
the devices and deliver their configuration.
Store the configuration data from the programmer to the RXi Controller.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.3
Configuring the Embedded PNC
This section describes one technique to configure the parameters of the RXi embedded PNC.
The PME InfoViewer describes alternate menus and keyboard operations that can be used to
perform the same functions.
1. In the Project tab of the Navigator, expand the PACSystems RXi Target.
2. Click the PROFINET Controller. The PNC parameters are displayed in the Parameter
Editor window. Its communications properties appear in the Inspector pane.
3. Edit the PNC’s parameters and its communications properties as described in this
chapter.
4.2.3.1 Exploring PROFINET Networks
To explore the PROFINET networks in the system while PROFICY Machine Edition is online
with the RXi system, right-click on the Target icon (not the PNC) and select Explore
PROFINET Networks under the Online Commands menu item. The PNC will show version
information about all the devices on its network such as PNS modules and modules in remote
nodes, whether the devices are configured or not.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.3.2 Viewing the PROFINET Controller’s LAN
To view the LANs in the project, click Tools in the PROFICY Machine Edition toolbar, and
select LAN View, or right-click the PNC and select Manage LANs.
Adding the first RXi target to the project automatically creates a LAN for it. For each
subsequent RXi target, an existing LAN can be selected or a new LAN can be created.
Opening the LAN View shows PNCs on their assigned LANs.
A LAN can also be added to the project by right-clicking the PROFINET icon in the LAN View
and selecting Add LAN.
A PNC can be moved to a different LAN by selecting the module in the Navigator and
dragging it to the target LAN. Here, the PNC has been moved from LAN02 (see above) to
LAN01:
4.2.3.3 Configuring PROFINET Controller Parameters
Configure the PNC parameters by editing the tabs as appropriate. Additional settings can be
viewed and edited in the module properties, which are displayed in the Inspector window.
Settings
Status Address, Length: The Status Address is the reference memory location for the
PNC’s 32 bits of status data. The Status address can be assigned to valid %I, %Q, %R, %AI,
%AQ, %W, %G, %T or %M memory by right-clicking on the Status Address field and
selecting the Data Entry tool. The default value is the next available %I address. See
11.8, PROFINET Controller Diagnostics for definitions of the status bits that the module
writes to this address.
If Variable Mode is set to True in the PROFINET Controller properties, the Terminals Tab will
be displayed instead of the Settings.
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Note:
Because point faults are not supported with %G, %T and %M, the other memory
types or I/O Symbolics are preferred.
Media Redundancy Tab
By default, a PNC is not set up for Media Redundancy. If the system will use Media
Redundancy (see Chapter 12, PROFINET Redundant Media for more information), open the
Media Redundancy Tab and select either Client or Manager:
If the PNC will be a Media Redundancy Client, click on Ring Port 1 and Ring Port 2 to choose
the module ports then select the Domain Name that will be used.
If the PNC will be a Media Redundancy Manager, edit the Ring Port settings as above. You
can also change the Default Test Interval in the range of 10 to 1000ms and the Test
Monitoring Count (2 to 10). For the Media Redundancy Manager, the Domain Name can be
edited by typing over the default name.
Note:
GFK-2816
In an MRP ring with a large number of clients, storing a configuration that causes all
clients to reconfigure (for example, changing the Domain Name) may generate a
large number of Loss/Addition of Device faults. This is expected behavior and all
devices should automatically return to operational.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Terminals Tab
This configuration tab is displayed only when the PROFINET Controller’s Variable Mode
property is set to True. When Variable Mode is selected, the Status bits are referenced as I/O
variables that are mapped to the status bits on this configuration tab.
The use of I/O variables allows you to configure the PNC without having to specify the
reference addresses to use for the status information. Instead, you can directly associate
variable names with the status bits. For more information, refer to “7.1.3, I/O Variables.”
4.2.3.4 Configuring PROFINET Controller Properties
Description: (Read-only) Description of the controller type.
Reference Address 1: Starting address for status bits assigned in the Settings tab. (Not
displayed if Variable Mode is set to True.)
Variable Mode: When enabled (set to True), the Status bits are referenced as I/O variables
that are mapped to the status bits on the Terminals tab.
Reference Variable: (Optional) Allows you to create a reference ID variable to identify
the PNC. For details, see “11.7.1, Reference ID Variables for the RXi Application.”
Network Identification: (Read only) The name of the IO LAN that the PNC belongs to.
Device Name: The name that identifies the PNC on the LAN. Must be unique on the IO LAN.
Device Description: (Optional) A user-defined description of the PNC.
IP Address: The IP address of the PNC. Must be not be used for any other device in the
LAN. PME sets the default value to the lowest available IP address in the valid range.
LAN: These properties apply to the PROFINET LAN. You can view them in the Inspector
when you select a LAN controller in the hardware configuration, or in LAN View.
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4.2.3.5 Non-Volatile Configuration Parameters and Properties for PNC
These values are updated the first time a hardware configuration is stored to the RXi. They
are not reset to the default values when configuration is cleared; they can only change when
a new hardware configuration is stored.
Parameter
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Description
Default Value
IP Address
IP Address of the PNC.
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
Subnet mask of the PNC.
0.0.0.0
Default Gateway
Default Gateway for the PNC.
0.0.0.0
Device Name
PNC’s PROFINET Device Name. Defaults to empty
string indicating the PNC is not named.
“ “
Media Redundancy
Media redundancy role: Specifies whether media
redundancy is disabled (None), or if it is enabled as a
Client or as a Manager.
None
Ring Port 1 ID
Indicates one of the two network ports involved in
Media Redundancy.
Valid range: 1 to 2.
1
Ring Port 2 ID
Indicates one of the two network ports involved in
Media Redundancy.
Valid range: 1 to 2.
2
Default Test Interval
Interval for sending test frames on ring ports in
millisecond units.
Valid range: 10 to 1000ms.
20 ms
Test Monitoring Count
Indicates the number of consecutive failed test frames
before declaring a ring failure.
Valid range: 2 to 10.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.4
Configuring PROFINET LANs
To view the LANs in the project, click on Tools in the Machine Edition toolbar, and select LAN
View from the menu.
Expand the LAN icon in the LAN View to see the devices it includes.
4.2.4.1 Configuring the LAN Properties
Machine Edition automatically assigns a set of default properties to the LAN. Select the LAN
icon in the LAN viewer to display or edit its communications properties in the Inspector pane:
LAN Name: this can be edited or the default name can be used. Space characters are not
permitted.
Description: an optional description of up to 255 characters can be entered for the LAN.
LAN ID: (read-only) this number identifies the LAN in the PROFICY Machine Edition project.
Network Speed: the bandwidth available on the network. The default of 1Gbps can be
changed to 100Mbps.
Maximum Utilization (%): the maximum percentage of total network bandwidth that can be
used for PROFINET I/O traffic. It can be edited to any value between 10 and 80 (do not enter
the % character). Consider other network traffic when changing this parameter.
IP Range Lower Limit: the lowest IP address for automatically assigning IP addresses to
PNCs and LAN devices. Default is 192.168.x.1, where x is the lowest number not used by
another LAN in the project.
IP Range Upper Limit: the highest IP address for automatically assigning IP addresses to
PNCs and LAN devices. Default is 192.168.x.254, where x is the lowest number not used by
another LAN in the project.
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Subnet Mask: Mechanism that filters network communications so that they are routed only to
subnets to which they are addressed. The value defined here propagates to PNCs and I/O
devices throughout the network.
Caution
If the subnet mask is improperly set, devices may be unable to
communicate on the network and might disrupt network
communications. Contact your network administrator to assign values
that work with an existing network.
PROFINET can only communicate to nodes in the local subnet. All nodes on the LAN must
be in the same subnet. The IP Range Lower/Upper Limits indicate the auto-assignment
range. The range of the LAN is the subnet mask range. A node can be assigned to any
address in the subnet (which may be outside of the auto-assignment range given in the
dialog), but the addresses for all nodes must be in the subnet.
Gateway: The IP Address of the device that connects two (sub) networks that use different
communications protocols, enabling them to communicate with each other. The value defined
here propagates to PNCs and I/O devices throughout the network.
Caution
If the gateway is improperly set, devices may be unable to
communicate on the network and might disrupt network
communications. Contact your network administrator to assign values
that work with an existing network.
IO-Controllers: (Read-only.) The number of I/O Controllers configured to reside on the LAN.
IO-Devices: (Read-only.) The number of I/O devices configured to reside on the LAN.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.5
Adding a GE Intelligent Platforms PROFINET Scanner to a LAN
To add a PROFINET Scanner (PNS) to a LAN, in the Navigator, right-click the PNC and
select Add IO-Device. The PROFINET Device Catalog, which is populated by the GSDML
files installed with PME, appears.
In the PROFINET Device Catalog, expand the device family and choose the module type.
The following examples show a VersaMax PNS.
Select the PNS type and click OK. The PNS appears in the Navigator window:
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4.2.5.1 Configuring a PROFINET Scanner
After adding a PNS to the LAN, its parameters can be configured by either double-clicking the
scanner in the Navigator, or right-clicking and selecting Configure from the menu.
PROFINET Scanner Parameters
The parameters displayed will depend on the type of PNS. For configuration details, refer to
the user manual for the PNS.
The following example shows the Settings for a VersaMax PNS.
The PNS module’s GSDML tab displays the information from its GSDML file.
This information cannot be edited.
Note:
GFK-2816
For some PNS modules, additional GSDML information can be viewed by
double-clicking components within the module’s node in the Navigator view.
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4.2.5.2 Adding Modules to a Remote Node
To add a module to the remote node, right click on the PNS icon in the Navigator and select
Change Module List. In the right pane of the Change Module List window, expand the list of
module types.
The following example shows the list of module types for a VersaMax PNS. For modules
supported by a particular PNS type, refer to the documentation for that device.
Select modules from the list and drag them to their slot locations in the remote node.
(If you need to delete a module on the left, select it and press the keyboard Delete key).
When the modules on the left are correct, click OK to add them to the configuration.
4.2.5.3 Configuring Module Parameters
After adding modules to the remote node, their parameters must be configured. This includes
configuring a set of basic parameters (such as: reference address, length, scan set, carrier,
report faults). For configuration details for those basic parameters refer to the documentation
for the PNS module.
Some PNS modules support submodules. The configuration process for these is similar to
that for modules.
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4.2.6
Adding a Third-Party IO-Device to a LAN
To add a third-party IO-Device to a LAN, in the Navigator right-click on a PNC and select Add
IO-Device. Choose the module type and click Have GSDML.
All third-party IO-Devices require GSDML files to be included in the system configuration. The
GSDML file for the device must be present on the computer being used for the configuration.
Provide a path to the file and click OK. The device is added to the configuration. PROFICY
Machine Edition extracts necessary parameters from the GSDML file and makes the data
available for editing within PROFICY Machine Edition.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.6.1 Editing Third-Party IO-Device Parameters
To configure a third-party IO-Device’s parameters, either double-click on the module in the
Navigator, or right-click on the module and select Configure from the menu. Upon opening
the IO-Devices configuration, you will see an IO-Device Access Point tab, a GSDML Details
tab, and possibly additional parameter tabs (if defined by the device manufacturer in the
associated GSDML file).
IO-Device Parameters (IO-Device Access Point Tab)
Use the IO-Device Access Point Tab to set up the device’s interface to the RXi Controller:
Inputs Default: Choose whether the RXi CPU will set inputs from the remote node to Off, or
Hold Last State in the following cases:

The PNC is not operational.

The PNC cannot reach the device due to cable or network configuration issues.

The device is not able to scan the sub-module in its remote node.
I/O Scan Set: The scan set for an IO-Device defaults to scan set 1. Scan sets are defined in
the CPU’s Scan Sets tab. The valid range is 1 through 32; the default value is 1.
IO-Device Parameters (Media Redundancy Tab)
If the IO-Device supports Media Redundancy (see Chapter 12, PROFINET Redundant Media
for more information), a Media Redundancy Tab will be present. Open the Media
Redundancy Tab and select either Client or Manager:
If the IO-Device will be a Media Redundancy Client, you can select which port will be used for
Ring Port 1 and which will be used for Ring Port 2.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
If the IO-Device will be a Media Redundancy Manager, you can edit the Ring Port selections
as above. The device’s GSDML file determines the valid ranges for Default Test Interval and
Test Monitoring Count.
For the Media Redundancy Manager, the Domain Name can be edited by typing over the
default name.
IO-Device Parameters (Device Parameters Tab)
Additional Device Parameters tabs can be used to select additional device options, as
defined by the device manufacturer.
Note:
The names of the tabs and parameters are derived from manufacturer specific
information contained in the associated GSDML file. For example:
IO-Device Parameters (GSDML Details Tab)
The GSDML Details tab displays the device’s GSDML parameters, which cannot be edited.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.6.2 Configuring Sub-Modules of a Third-Party IO-Device
To configure the sub-modules of a third-party IO-Device, expand it in the Navigator. For
example:
This example’s device is a switch. The parameters of its ports can be viewed and edited by
either double-clicking on a port, or selecting a port then right-clicking and selecting Configure
from the menu.
Select the individual ports, for the above example IO-Device, the port parameters will appear
for editing.
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Sub-Module Parameters (GSDML Tab)
The GSDML tab displays the device’s GSDML parameters, which cannot be edited.
4.2.7
Viewing / Editing IO-Device Properties
In addition to the parameter configuration described on the previous pages, all IO-Devices
(PNS modules and third-party devices) have other configurable properties. These properties
are displayed in the Proficy Machine Edition Inspector pane when the device is selected in
the Navigator.
In the Inspector, properties that are not grayed-out can be used as is or edited as
appropriate.
Device Number: A number automatically assigned to the device in the configuration.
Update Rate: The period between PROFINET cyclic data transfers between an IO-Controller
and an IO-Device. It defaults to 32ms for VersaMax PNS modules, and 128ms for other
devices. To change the update period of the PROFINET production cycle for the IO-Device,
use the drop-down list to select 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 512ms:
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Note: Because the update rate affects loading on the PNC, the maximum number of
devices (up to 128) is limited to the equivalent of eight devices with 1ms update
rates. For additional information, see “PNC Loading Limits” on page 48.
Reference Variable: To be used by the PNIO_DEV_COMM logic blocks. The choice defaults
to none. To create a reference variable for the device, use the drop-down list to select
Create. The variable name appears in the Inspector field:
IO LAN: (Read-only) Identifies the LAN of which the IO-Device is a part.
Device Name: This can be edited within the Inspector, or the default name can be used.
Space characters are not permitted.
Device Description: An optional description can be entered for the IO-Device.
IP Address: IP address for the IO-Device. Default is assigned the lowest value that is
currently available within the automatic IP address range defined for the LAN on which the
device resides.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.8
Assigning IO-Device Names
After the PNS and third-party IO-Devices on the LAN have been entered into the
configuration, the Discovery and Configuration Protocol (DCP) tool in PME must be used to
assign a name to each IO-Device. This step is required before downloading the configuration
from the PNC, or the PNC will be unable to connect to the devices and deliver their
configuration.
The programmer must be connected to the RXi Controller system and the LAN and its
devices must be installed.
To open the DCP tool, right-click the hardware configuration containing the PROFINET
Controller and choose Launch Discovery Tool from the menu.
Use the Connection dropdown list to select the computer port being used by the programmer
to communicate with the RXi system:
The choices should match the windows network setting in the computer’s network control
panel.
In the DCP tool, use the LAN list to select the configured LAN to validate the results against.
Once a LAN is selected, click Refresh Device List to display a list of actual devices on the
LAN. Each device can be in one of three states as indicated by the symbol in the Status
column:
indicates that the actual Device’s Name, IP address, subnet, gateway matches the
configured Device of the same Name residing on the selected LAN.
indicates that the actual Device’s Name matches, but the IP address, subnet, or
gateway doesn't match the configured Device of the same Name residing on the selected
LAN.
indicates that the actual Device’s Name does not match any configured Device
residing on the selected LAN. Either there is no device name configured in the system, or that
name is on a different LAN.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
If the name of the device on the network is not correct, you must update the device name. To
do this, select the device in the list of devices and click Edit Device. This will open a new
dialog that can be used to set various parameters, including device name, directly on the
device.
Note:
66
Only the device name is required to match configuration in order for the PNC to
successfully deliver configuration to the device.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.2.9
After the Configuration is Stored to the RXi CPU
If the configuration is stored to non-volatile memory, the RXi Controller maintains
configuration data over a power cycle.
The PNC transfers the configuration for remote IO-Devices over the PROFINET network.
PROFINET delivers IO-Device configurations when the IO-Controller establishes an
Application Relationship (AR) with the IO-Device. If all Application Relationships (AR)s are
lost, the IO-Device does not change the configuration of any of its I/O sub-modules. Each
sub-module retains the most recent configuration received since it was last powered up or
restarted. If a sub-module has not been configured since powerup or restart, it remains in its
hardware default condition. When the AR(s) are re-established and a configuration is sent to
the IO-Device, and the configuration of a sub-module has changed, the IO-Device applies the
new configuration.
If the PNC cannot connect to an IO-Device, the PNC logs a Loss of Device fault to the
Controller Fault tables. The PNC periodically attempts to establish communications and
configure the IO-Device. When one of these subsequent connect/configuration attempts is
successful, the PNC logs an Addition of Device fault for that IO-Device in the Controller Fault
tables.
Note:
It may take up to 5–10 seconds for the PNC to establish a connection to an
IO-Device, including one that previously existed, but was lost.
Whether or not an IO-Device sets its outputs to their defaults when it receives a configuration
depends on the type of device. Refer to the device manufacturer’s documentation to
determine this behavior.
If a PNS is powered up after receiving a configuration and the connection is then lost,
configuration defaults are applied when the connection is lost. On a subsequent connection, if
the same configuration is sent, outputs remain at the configuration defaults until the first
output data arrives. If a different configuration is sent, output defaults transition to the new
defaults until the first output data arrives.
Clearing the RXi Controller Configuration
If the programmer or IDM clears an RXi Controller’s configuration, only the non-volatile PNC
parameters are retained. For a list of these parameters, see “4.2.3.5, Non-Volatile
Configuration Parameters and Properties for PNC.”
When the configuration is cleared, all open PROFINET IO-Device connections are closed.
IO-Devices react to clearing the PNC as a loss of connectivity and take appropriate actions
such as defaulting outputs.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.3
Configuring the Embedded Ethernet Interface
Before you can use the embedded Ethernet Interface, you must configure it using the
programming software.
Ethernet interface configuration includes the following procedures:
▪
▪
Using the IDM to assign a temporary IP address (page 33) for initial network operation,
such as connecting the programmer to download the hardware configuration.
Configuring the characteristics of the Ethernet interface.
To configure the embedded Ethernet interface:
1. Right click the Ethernet interface to display its parameters: IP Address, Subnet
Mask and Gateway IP Address. Consult your network administrator for the
proper values for these parameters.
2. Go online with the target and download the configuration through the embedded
Ethernet port, using the factory-loaded default IP address which is
192.168.0.100. This address is intended only for initial connection in order to
complete the configuration. (To set the IP address PME will use to connect to the
RXi, edit the IP Address setting in the target properties.)
4.3.1
Ethernet Interface Configuration Parameters
Configuration Mode: This is fixed as TCP/IP.
IP Addresses: These values should be assigned by the person in charge of your network
(the network administrator). TCP/IP network administrators are familiar with these
parameters. It is important that these parameters are correct, otherwise the Ethernet
Interface may be unable to communicate on the network and/or network operation may be
corrupted. It is especially important that each node on the network is assigned a unique IP
address.
If you have no network administrator and are using a simple isolated network with no
gateways, you can use the following range of values for the assignment of local IP
addresses:
10.0.0.1
First Ethernet interface
10.0.0.2
Second Ethernet interface
10.0.0.3
Third Ethernet interface
.
.
.
.
.
.
10.0.0.255 Programmer TCP or host
Also, in this case, set the subnet mask to 255.0.0.0 and the gateway IP address to 0.0.0.0.
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Chapter 4. Configuration
Note:
If the isolated network is connected to another network, the IP addresses 10.0.0.1
through 10.0.0.255 must not be used and the subnet mask, and gateway IP address
must be assigned by the network administrator. The IP addresses must be assigned
so that they are compatible with the connected network.
Status Address: The Status Address is the reference memory location for the Ethernet
Interface status data. The Ethernet Interface automatically maintains 16 LAN Interface Status
(LIS) bits in this location. The Status address can be assigned to valid %I, %Q, %R, %AI,
%AQ or %W memory. The default value is the next available %I address.
Note:
Do not use the 80 bits configured as Ethernet Status data for other purposes or data
will be overwritten.
Note:
If the Ethernet interface’s Variable Mode property is set to true, the Status Address
parameter is removed from the Settings tab. Instead, Ethernet Status references
must be defined as I/O variables on the Terminals tab.
Length: This is the total length of the Ethernet Interface status data. This is automatically set
to either 80 bits (for %I and %Q Status address locations) or 5 words (for %R, %AI, %AQ and
%W Status address locations).
For definitions of the Ethernet interface Status bits, refer to 9.8.1.3, Ethernet Interface
Status Bits.”
4.3.2
Pinging TCP/IP Ethernet Interfaces on the Network
PING (Packet InterNet Grouper) is the name of a program used on TCP/IP networks to test
reachability of destinations by sending them an ICMP echo request message and waiting for
a reply. Most nodes on TCP/IP networks, including the PACSystems Ethernet Interface,
implement a PING command.
You should ping each installed Ethernet Interface. When the Ethernet Interface responds to
the ping, it verifies that the interface is operational and configured properly. Specifically it
verifies that acceptable TCP/IP configuration information has been downloaded to the
Interface.
4.3.2.1 Determining if an IP Address is Already Being Used
Note: This method does not guarantee that an IP address is not duplicated. It will not detect
a device that is configured with the same IP address if it is temporarily off the network.
It is very important not to duplicate IP addresses. To determine if another node on the
network is using the same IP address:
1. Disconnect your Ethernet Interface from the LAN.
2. Ping the disconnected Interface’s IP address. If you get an answer to the ping, the
chosen IP address is already in use by another node. You must correct this situation by
assigning a unique IP address.
4.3.3
Terminals Tab
This configuration tab is displayed only when the Ethernet interface’s Variable Mode property
is set to True. When Variable Mode is selected, the Ethernet Status bits are referenced as I/O
variables that are mapped to the Ethernet status bits on this configuration tab.
The use of I/O variables allows you to configure the Ethernet interface without having to
specify the reference addresses to use for the status information. Instead, you can directly
associate variable names with the status bits. For more information, refer to “7.1.3,
I/O Variables.”
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Chapter 4. Configuration
4.4
Storing (Downloading) Hardware Configuration
A PACSystems control system is configured by creating a configuration file in the
programming software, then transferring (downloading) the file from the programmer to the
controller.
The CPU stores the configuration file in its non-volatile memory. After the configuration is
stored, I/O scanning is enabled or disabled according to the newly stored configuration
parameter, Stop-Mode I/O.
Before you can store the hardware configuration to the RXi Controller, you must first set the
IP address in the Ethernet Interface using the IDM (page 33.)
1. In the programmer software, go to the Project tab of the Navigator, right click the Target,
choose Set as Active Target and then Go Online.
2. Right click the Target and choose Online Commands, Set Programmer Mode. Make sure
the CPU is in Stop mode.
3. Right click the Target node, and choose Download to Controller.
4. In the Download to Controller dialog box, select the items to download and click OK.
70
Note:
If you download to a PACSystems target that already has a project on it, the existing
project is overwritten.
Note:
If hardware configuration and logic are coupled they cannot be stored independently.
They must be stored at the same time.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
Chapter 5. CPU Operation
This chapter describes the operating modes of a PACSystems RXi CPU and describes the
tasks the CPU carries out during these modes. The following topics are discussed:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
5.1
CPU Sweep
Program Scheduling Modes
Window Modes
Run/Stop Operations
Flash Memory Operation
Clocks and Timers
System Security
I/O System
Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences
CPU Sweep
The application program in the CPU executes repeatedly until stopped by a command from
the programmer, from another device, from the Intelligent Display Module, or a fatal fault
occurs. In addition to executing the application program, the CPU obtains data from input
devices, sends data to output devices, performs internal housekeeping, performs
communications tasks, and performs self-tests. This sequence of operations is called
the sweep.
The CPU sweep runs in one of three sweep modes:
Normal Sweep
Constant
Sweep
Constant
Window
Note:
In this mode, each sweep can consume a variable amount of time. The Logic
Window is executed in its entirety each sweep. The Communications and
Background Windows can be set to execute in Limited or Run-to-Completion
mode.
In this mode, each sweep begins at a user-specified Constant Sweep time after
the previous sweep began. The Logic Window is executed in its entirety each
sweep. If there is sufficient time at the end of the sweep, the CPU alternates
among the Communications and Background Windows, allowing them to
execute until it is time for the next sweep to begin.
In this mode, each sweep can consume a variable amount of time. The Logic
Window is executed in its entirety each sweep. The CPU alternates among the
Communications and Background Windows, allowing them to execute for a time
equal to the user-specified Constant Window timer.
The information presented above summarizes the different sweep modes. For
additional information on each mode, refer to “5.1.2, CPU Sweep Modes.”
The CPU also operates in one of four Run/Stop Modes (for details, see “5.5, Run/Stop
Operations”):
■
■
■
■
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Run/Outputs Enabled
Run/Outputs Disabled
Stop/IO Scan
Stop/No IO
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.1.1
Parts of the CPU Sweep
The major phases in a typical CPU sweep are shown in the following figure.
Housekeeping
Start-of-Sweep
input scan
Application Program
Task Execution
(Logicwindow)
WINDOW)
Output Scan
Prog
window
scheduled
?
no
yes
Controller
Communications
Window
Comm
window
scheduled
?
no
yes
Backplane
Communications
Window
Background
task
scheduled
?
no
yes
Background task
Window
Parts of a Typical CPU Sweep
72
Start next sweep
SWEEP
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
Major Phases in a Typical CPU Sweep
Phase
Activity
Housekeeping
The housekeeping portion of the sweep performs the tasks necessary to prepare for the
start of the sweep. This includes updating %S bits, determining timer update values and
determining the mode of the sweep (Stop or Run.
Input Scan
During the input scan, the CPU reads input data from the embedded PNC.
Note: The input scan is not performed if a program has an active Suspend I/O
function on the previous sweep.
Application Program Task
Execution (Logic Window)
The CPU solves the application program logic. It always starts with the first instruction in
the program. It ends when the last instruction is executed. Solving the logic creates a
new set of output data.
Interrupt driven logic can execute during any phase of the sweep. For details on
controlling the execution of programs, refer to “Chapter 6, Program Organization.”
A list of execution times for instructions can be found in “Appendix A, CPU Performance
Data.”
Output Scan
The CPU writes output data to the embedded PNC.
If the CPU is in Run mode and it is configured to perform a background checksum
calculation, the background checksum is performed at the end of the output scan. The
default setting for number of words to checksum each sweep is 16. If the words to
checksum each sweep is set to zero, this processing is skipped. The background
checksum helps ensure the integrity of the user logic while the CPU is in Run mode.
The output scan is not performed if a program has an active Suspend I/O function on
the current sweep.
Controller Communications Communications on the Ethernet ports are serviced in this window. The CPU always
Window
executes this window.
Time and execution of the Controller Communications Window can be configured using
the programming software. It can also be dynamically controlled from the user program
using Service Request function #3. The window time can be set to a value from 0 to 255
milliseconds (default is 10 milliseconds).
If the Controller Communications Window is set to 0, there are two ways to open the
window: perform a power-cycle or go to Stop mode.
Backplane
Communications Window
Background Window
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Even though the RXi Controller does not operate on a backplane, the Backplane
Communications window still runs and parameters that affect it are implemented.
The Backplane Communications Window defaults to Complete (Run to Completion)
mode. This window can also run in Limited mode, in which the maximum time allocated
for the window per scan is specified.
The mode and time limit can be configured and stored to the CPU, or it can be
dynamically controlled from the user program using Service Request function #4. The
Backplane Communications Window time can be set to a value from 0 to 255ms
(default is 255ms). This allows communications functions to be skipped during certain
time-critical sweeps.
CPU self-tests occur in this window.
A CPU self-test is performed in this window. Included in this self-test is a verification of
the checksum for the CPU operating system software.
The Background Window time defaults to 0 milliseconds. A different value can be
configured and stored to the CPU, or it can be changed online using the programming
software.
Time and execution of the Background Window can also be dynamically controlled from
the user program using Service Request function #5. This allows background functions
to be skipped during certain time-critical sweeps.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.1.2
CPU Sweep Modes
5.1.2.1 Normal Sweep Mode
In Normal Sweep mode, each sweep can consume a variable amount of time. The Logic
window is executed in its entirety each sweep. The Communications window can be set to
execute in a Limited or Run-to-Completion mode. Normal Sweep is the most common sweep
mode used for control system applications.
The following figure illustrates three successive CPU sweeps in Normal Sweep mode. Note
that the total sweep times may vary due to sweep-to-sweep variations in the Logic,
Communications and Background windows.
SWEEP n
SWEEP n+1
SWEEP n+2
HK
HK
HK
INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
LOGIC
LOGIC
LOGIC
OUTPUT
CC
OUTPUT
CC
BPC
BPC
BG
OUTPUT
BG
CC
Abbreviations:
BPC
HK = Housekeeping
CC = Controller Communications Window
BPC = Backplane Communications Window
BG = Background Window
BG
Typical Sweeps in Normal Sweep Mode
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.1.2.2 Constant Sweep Mode
In Constant Sweep mode, each sweep begins at a specified Constant Sweep time after the
previous sweep began. The Logic Window is executed in its entirety each sweep. If there is
sufficient time at the end of the sweep, the CPU alternates among the Controller
Communications, Backplane Communications, and Background windows, allowing them to
execute until it is time for the next sweep to begin. Some or all of the Communications and
Background Windows may not be executed. The Communications and Background Windows
terminate when the overall CPU sweep time has reached the value specified as the Constant
Sweep time.
One reason for using Constant Sweep mode is to ensure that I/O data are updated at
constant intervals.
The value of the Constant Sweep timer can be configured to be any value from 5 to 2550
milliseconds. The Constant Sweep timer value may also be set and Constant Sweep mode
may be enabled or disabled by the programming software or by the user program using
Service Request function #1. The Constant Sweep timer has no default value; a timer value
must be set prior to or at the same time Constant Sweep mode is enabled.
If the sweep exceeds the Constant Sweep time in a given sweep, the CPU places an
oversweep alarm in the Controller Fault table and sets the OV_SWP (%SA0002) status
reference at the beginning of the next sweep. Additional sweep time due to an oversweep
condition in a given sweep does not affect the time given to the next sweep.
The following figure illustrates four successive sweeps in Constant Sweep mode with a
Constant Sweep time of 100 milliseconds. Note that the total sweep time is constant, but an
oversweep may occur due to the Logic Window taking longer than normal.
SWEEP n
t = 0 ms
SWEEP n+1
t = 100 ms
SWEEP n+2
t = 220 ms
SWEEP n+3
t = 320 ms
HK
HK
HK
HK
INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
LOGIC
LOGIC
LOGIC
LOGIC
OUTPUT
Constant
Sweep
Time
CC
OUTPUT
CC
BPC
BPC
BG
BG
OUTPUT
CC
BPC
SYS
BG
SYS
BG
Abbreviations:
20 ms oversweep
OUTPUT
HK = Housekeeping
PRG = Programmer Window.
BPC = Backplane Communications Window.
CC = Controller Communications Window
BG = Background Window
Typical Sweeps in Constant Sweep Mode
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.1.2.3 Constant Window Mode
In Constant Window mode, each sweep can consume a variable amount of time. The Logic
Window is executed in its entirety each sweep. The CPU alternates among the three
windows, allowing them execute for a time equal to the value set for the Constant Window
timer. The overall CPU sweep time is equal to the time required to execute the
Housekeeping, Input Scan, Logic Window, and Output Scan phases of the sweep plus the
value of the Constant Window timer. This time may vary due to sweep-to-sweep variances in
the execution time of the Logic Window.
Constant Sweep mode could be used for an application that requires a certain amount of time
between the Output Scan and the Input Scan, permitting inputs to settle after receiving output
data from the program.
The value of the Constant Window timer can be any value from 3 to 255 milliseconds, and
can be set by the programming software or by the user program using Service Request
functions #3, #4, and #5.
The following figure illustrates three successive sweeps in Constant Window mode. Note that
the total sweep times may vary due to sweep-to-sweep variations in the Logic Window, but
the time given to the Communications and Background windows is constant. Some
Communications or Background Windows may be skipped, suspended, or run multiple times
based on the Constant Window time.
SWEEP n
SWEEP n+1
SWEEP n+2
HK
HK
HK
INPUT
INPUT
INPUT
LOGIC
LOGIC
LOGIC
OUTPUT
CC
OUTPUT
CC
BPC
BPC
OUTPUT
BG
BG
CC
CC
CC
Constant
Window
Time
SYS
BG
Abbreviations:
BPC
HK = Housekeeping
CC = Controller Communications Window
BPC = Backplane Communications Window
BG = Background Window
Typical Sweeps in Constant Window Mode
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.2
Program Scheduling Modes
The CPU supports one program scheduling mode, the Ordered mode. An ordered program is
executed in its entirety once per sweep in the Logic Window.
5.3
Window Modes
The previous section describes the phases of a typical CPU sweep. The Controller
Communications, Backplane Communications, and Background windows can be run in
various modes, based on the CPU sweep mode. (CPU sweep modes are described in detail
on page 74.) The following three window modes are available:
Run-toCompletion
Constant
Limited
5.4
In Run-to-Completion mode, all requests made when the window has started
are serviced. When all pending requests in the given window have completed,
the CPU transitions to the next phase of the sweep. (This does not apply to the
Background window because it does not process requests.)
In Constant Window mode, the total amount of time that the Controller
Communications window, Backplane Communications window, and
Background window run is fixed. If the time expires while in the middle of
servicing a request, these windows are closed, and communications will be
resumed the next sweep. If no requests are pending in this window, the CPU
cycles through these windows the specified amount of time polling for further
requests. If any window is put in constant window mode, all are in constant
window mode.
In Limited mode, the maximum time that the window runs is fixed. If time
expires while in the middle of servicing a request, the window is closed, and
communications will be resumed the next time that the given window is run. If
no requests are pending in this window, the CPU proceeds to the next phase of
the sweep.
Data Coherency in Communications Windows
When running in Constant or Limited Window mode, the Controller and Backplane
Communications Windows may be terminated early in all CPU sweep modes. If an external
device, such as CIMPLICITY HMI, is transferring a block of data, the coherency of the data
block may be disrupted if the communications window is terminated prior to completing the
request. The request will complete during the next sweep; however, part of the data will have
resulted from one sweep and the remainder will be from the following sweep. When the CPU
is in Normal Sweep mode and the Communications Window is in Run-to-Completion mode,
the data coherency problem described above does not exist.
Note:
External devices that communicate to the CPU while it is stopped will read
information as it was left in its last state. This may be misleading to operators viewing
an HMI system that does not indicate CPU Run/Stop state. Process graphics will
often indicate everything is still operating normally.
Also, note that non-retentive outputs do not clear until the CPU is changed from Stop
to Run.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.5
Run/Stop Operations
The PACSystems CPUs support four run/stop modes of operation. You can change these
modes in the following ways: configuration from the programming software, LD function
blocks, and system calls from C applications. Switching to and from various modes can be
restricted based on privilege levels, passwords, etc.
Mode
The CPU runs user programs and continually scans inputs and outputs. The
Controller and Backplane Communications Windows are run in Limited,
Run-to-Completion, or Constant mode.
Run/Outputs
Disabled
The CPU runs user programs and continually scans inputs, but updates to outputs
are not performed. Outputs are held in their configured default state in this mode.
The Controller and Backplane Communications Window are run in Limited,
Run-to-Completion, or Constant mode.
Stop/IO Scan
Enabled
The CPU does not run user programs, but the inputs and outputs are scanned.
The Controller and Backplane Communications Windows are run in
Run-to-Completion mode. The Background Window is limited to 10 ms.
Stop/IO Scan
Disabled
The CPU does not run user programs, and the inputs and outputs are not
scanned. The Controller and Backplane Communications Windows are run in a
Run-to-Completion mode. The Background Window is limited to 10 ms.
Note:
78
Operation
Run/Outputs
Enabled
You cannot add to the size of %P and %L reference tables in Run Mode unless the
%P and %L references are the first of their type in the block being stored or the block
being stored is a totally new block.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.5.1
CPU Stop Modes
The CPU has two modes of operation while it is in Stop mode:
■
■
I/O Scan Enabled - the Input and Output scans are performed each sweep
I/O Scan Disabled - the Input and Output scans are skipped
When the CPU is in Stop mode, it does not execute the application program. You can
configure whether the I/O is scanned during Stop mode. Communications with the
programmer and intelligent option modules continue in Stop mode.
In both Stop modes, the Controller Communications and Backplane Communications
windows run in Run-to-Completion mode and the Background window runs in Limited mode
with a 10 millisecond limit.
The number of last scans can be configured in the hardware configuration. Last scans are
completed after the CPU has received an indication that a transition from Run to Stop or Stop
Faulted mode should occur. The default is 0.
The application program can use SVC_REQ13 to stop the CPU after a specified number of
scans. All I/O will go to their configured default states, and a diagnostic message will be
placed in the Controller Fault Table.
Start-of-Sweep
Housekeeping
Input Scan
Executes in
Stop-I/O Scan Enabled
mode only
Output Scan
Executes in
Stop-I/O Scan Enabled
mode only
Controller
Communications
Window
Backplane
Communications
Window
Background Task
Window
Runs
to
completion
Runs
to
Completion
Limited
(10ms)
CPU Sweep in Stop- I/O Disabled and Stop- I/O Enabled Modes
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5.5.2
Stop-to-Run Mode Transition
The CPU performs the following operations on Stop-to-Run transition:
■
■
■
■
Validation of sweep mode and program scheduling mode selections
Validation of references used by programs with the actual configured sizes
Re-initialization of data areas for external blocks and standalone C programs
Clearing of non-retentive memory
Note:
80
You can use the IDM to change the RXi Controller’s run/stop state as follows.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.6
Flash Memory Operation
The CPU stores the current configuration and application in user memory. You can also store
this data into non-volatile flash memory. The PACSystems CPU provides enough flash
memory to hold all of user space, all reference tables that aren't counted against user space,
and any overhead required. For details on which items count against user memory space,
refer to Appendix C.
By default, the CPU reads program logic and configuration, and reference table data from
user memory at powerup. However, logic/configuration and reference tables can each be
configured to always read from flash or conditionally read from flash. To configure these
parameters in the programming software, select the CPU’s Settings tab in Hardware
Configuration.
If logic/configuration and/or reference tables are configured for conditional powerup from
flash, these items are restored from flash to user memory when user memory is corrupted or
not preserved. When user memory is preserved, no flash operation occurs.”
If logic/configuration and/or reference tables are configured to always power up from flash,
these items are restored from flash to user memory regardless of the state of the user
memory.
Note:
If any component (logic/configuration or reference tables) is read from flash,
OEM-mode and passwords are also read from flash.
In addition to configuring where the CPU obtains logic, configuration, and data during
powerup, the programming software provides the following flash operations:
■
■
■
■
Write a copy of the current configuration, application program, and reference tables
(excluding overrides) to flash memory. Note that a write-to-flash operation causes all
components to be stored to flash.
Read a previously stored configuration and application program, and/or reference table
values from flash into user memory.
Verify that flash and user memory contain identical data.
Clear flash contents.
Flash read and write operations copy the contents of flash memory or user memory as
individual files. The programming software displays the progress of the copy operation and
allows you to cancel a flash read or write operation during the copy process instead of waiting
for the entire transfer process to complete. The entire user memory image must be
successfully transferred for the flash copy to be considered successful. If an entire write-toflash transfer is not completed due to canceling, power cycle, or some other intervention, the
CPU will clear flash memory. Similarly, if a read-from-flash transfer is interrupted, user
memory will be cleared.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.7
Logic/Configuration Source and CPU Operating Mode at Power-up
Flash and user memory can contain different values for the Logic/Configuration Power-up
Source parameter. The following tables summarize how these settings determine the
logic/configuration source after a power cycle. CPU mode is affected by the Power-up Mode
and Stop-Mode I/O Scanning parameters, and the power down mode as shown in the tables
on page 83.
Before Power Cycle
Logic/Configuration
Power-up Source
in Flash
Logic/Configuration
Power-up Source in RAM
After Power Cycle
Origin of
Logic/Configuration
CPU Mode
Always Flash
Memory not preserved
(i.e. memory corrupted)
Flash
See “CPU Mode when Memory is not Preserved and
Power-up Source is Flash” on page 83.
Always Flash
No configuration in RAM,
memory preserved
Flash
See” Memory Preserved” on page 83.
Always Flash
Always Flash
Flash
Always Flash
Conditional Flash
Flash
Always Flash
Always RAM
Flash
Conditional Flash
Memory not preserved
(i.e. memory corrupted)
Flash
Conditional Flash
No configuration in RAM,
memory
preserved
Conditional Flash
Always Flash
RAM
Conditional Flash
Conditional Flash
RAM
Conditional Flash
Always RAM
Always RAM
Memory not preserved
(i.e. memory corrupted)
Uses default
Stop Disabled
logic/configuration
Always RAM
No configuration in RAM,
memory preserved
Uses default
Stop Disabled
logic/configuration
Always RAM
Always Flash
Flash
Always RAM
Conditional Flash
RAM
Always RAM
Always RAM
RAM
See “CPU Mode when Memory is not Preserved and
Power-up Source is Flash” on page 83.
Uses default
Stop Disabled
logic/configuration
See ”CPU Mode when Memory is Preserved” on
page 83.
RAM
See ”CPU Mode when Memory is Preserved” on
page 83.
No Configuration in Memory not preserved
Flash
(i.e. memory corrupted)
Uses default
Stop Disabled
logic/configuration
No Configuration in No configuration in RAM,
Flash
memory preserved
Uses default
Stop Disabled
logic/configuration
No Configuration in Always Flash
Flash
RAM
No Configuration in Conditional Flash
Flash
RAM
No Configuration in Always RAM
Flash
RAM
82
See ”CPU Mode when Memory is Preserved” on
page 83.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
CPU Mode when Memory is not Preserved and Power-up Source is Flash
Configured
Power-up Mode
CPU Mode
Run
Run Enabled
Stop
Stop Disabled
Last
Run Disabled
CPU Mode when Memory is Preserved
Configuration Parameters
Power Down Mode
CPU Mode
Power-up Mode Stop-Mode I/O Scanning
5.8
Run
N/A
N/A
Run Enabled
Stop
Enabled
N/A
Stop Enabled
Stop
Disabled
N/A
Stop Disabled
Last
N/A
Stop Disabled
Stop Disabled
Last
Enabled
Stop Enabled
Stop Enabled
Last
Disabled
Stop Enabled
Stop Disabled
Last
N/A
Run Disabled
Run Disabled
Last
N/A
Run Enabled
Run Enabled
Clocks and Timers
Clocks and timers provided by the CPU include an elapsed time clock, a time-of-day clock,
and software and hardware watchdog timers.
For information on timer instructions provided by the CPU instruction set, refer to the Proficy
Machine Edition online help.
5.8.1
Elapsed Time Clock
The elapsed time clock tracks the time elapsed since the CPU powered on. The clock is not
retentive across a power failure; it restarts on each power-up. This seconds count rolls over
(seconds count returns to zero) approximately 100 years after the clock begins timing.
Because the elapsed time clock provides the base for system software operations and timer
function blocks, it may not be reset from the user program or the programmer. However, the
application program can read the current value of the elapsed time clock by using Service
Request #16 or Service Request #50, which provides higher resolution.
5.8.2
Time of Day Clock
A hardware real time clock (RTC) maintains the time of day (TOD) in the CPU. The
time-of-day clock maintains the following time functions:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
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Year (two digits)
Month
Day of month
Hour
Minute
Second
Day of week
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
The TOD clock is battery-backed and maintains its present state across a power failure. The
time-of-day clock handles month-to-month and year-to-year transitions and automatically
compensates for leap years through year 2036.
You can read and set the hardware TOD time and date through the application program
using Service Request function #7.
5.8.2.1 High-Resolution Time of Day Software Clock
A high-resolution software TOD clock is implemented in firmware to provide nanoseconds
resolution. When the high-resolution software TOD clock is set, the hardware TOD clock is
set with the YYYY: Mon: Day: Hr: Min: Sec fields in the POSIX time, the RTC is read, and the
delta between the POSIX time and the value read from the RTC is computed and saved.
Thus, if 1-second resolution is desired the hardware TOD clock is read. Otherwise, the
high-resolution software TOD clock is read to provide greater resolution. When the latter
occurs, the hardware RTC is read and the saved delta added to the value read.
When the SNTP Time Transfer feature is implemented, all SNTP time updates received at
the CPU shall update the high-resolution software TOD clock.
5.8.3
Watchdog Timer
5.8.3.1 Software Watchdog Timer
A software watchdog timer in the CPU is designed to detect “failure to complete sweep”
conditions. The timer value for the software watchdog timer is set using the programming
software. The allowable range for this timer is 10 to 2550 milliseconds; the default value is
200 milliseconds. The software watchdog timer always starts from zero at the beginning of
each sweep.
The software watchdog timer is useful in detecting abnormal operation of the application
program that prevents the CPU sweep from completing within the user-specified time.
Examples of such abnormal application program conditions are as follows:
■
■
■
Excessive recursive calling of a block
Excessive looping (large loop count or large amounts of execution time for each iteration)
Infinite execution loop
When selecting a software watchdog value, always set the value higher than the longest
expected sweep time to prevent accidental expiration. For Constant Sweep mode, allowance
for oversweep conditions should be considered when selecting the software watchdog timer
value.
The watchdog timer continues during interrupt execution. Queuing of interrupts within a single
sweep may cause watchdog timer expiration.
If the software watchdog timeout value is exceeded, the CPU goes to Stop-Halt mode. A fault
is placed in the Controller Fault table and outputs go to their default state. The CPU will
communicate with the programmer and the IDM; no other communications or operations are
possible. To recover, cycle power.
To extend the current sweep beyond the software watchdog timer value, the application
program can restart the software watchdog timer using Service Request function #8.
However, the software watchdog timer value may only be changed from the configuration
software.
The programmer can connect to the CPU in Stop-Halt mode through the embedded Ethernet
port without a reset or power cycle.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.8.3.2 Hardware Watchdog Timer
A backup circuit provides additional protection for the CPU. If this backup circuit activates, the
CPU is immediately placed in Reset mode. Outputs go to their default state and no
communications of any form are possible, and the CPU will halt.
CPU Response to a Hardware Watchdog Timeout:

The CPU automatically restarts and goes into Stop-Halt mode.

The CPU retains fault tables after a hardware watchdog timeout.

While the CPU is in Stop-Halt mode, you can connect the programmer software or PACs
Analyzer to view the fault tables, including all faults logged before the timeout. (The
PACS Analyzer software can be downloaded from the Support website.)
The CPU does not retain Controller and I/O Fault tables following recovery from the
Stop-Halt state. To recover from Stop-Halt mode and return to normal operation, all
non-volatile memory must be cleared. This can be done by power cycling the unit.


During startup following hardware watchdog reset, the CPU logs an informational fault
with Error Code 446, which indicates a watchdog auto-reset occurred.
Note:
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PACSystems does not support Fatal Fault Retries.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.8.4
Timed Contacts
The PACSystems has four timed contacts that can be used to provide regular pulses of
power flow to other program functions. Timed contacts cycle on and off, in square-wave form,
every 0.01 second, 0.1 second, 1.0 second, and 1 minute. Timed contacts can be read by an
external communications device to monitor the state of the CPU and the communications
link. Timed contacts are also often used to blink pilot lights and LEDs.
The timed contacts are referenced as T_10MS (0.01 second), T_100MS (0.1 second),
T_SEC (1.0 second), and T_MIN (1 minute). These contacts represent specific locations in
%S memory:
#T_10MS
0.01 second timed contact %S0003
#T_100MS 0.1 second timed contact
%S0004
#T_SEC
1.0 second timed contact
%S0005
#T_MIN
1.0 minute timed contact
%S0006
These contacts provide a pulse having an equal on and off time duration. The following timing
diagram illustrates the on/off time duration of these contacts.
X
SEC
T XXXXX
X/2
SEC
X/2
SEC
Caution
Do not use timed contacts for applications requiring accurate
measurement of elapsed time. Timers, time-based subroutines, and PID
blocks are preferred for these types of applications.
The CPU updates the timed contact references based on a free-running
timer that has no relationship to the start of the CPU sweep. If the
sweep time remains in phase with the timed contact clock, the contact
will always appear to be in the same state. For example, if the CPU is in
constant sweep mode with a sweep time setting of 100ms, the T_10MS
and T_100MS bits will never toggle.
For additional information using the timed contacts instructions, refer to the Proficy Machine
Edition online help.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.9
System Security
The PACSystems CPU supports the following two types of system security:
■
■
5.9.1
Passwords/privilege levels
OEM protection
Passwords and Privilege Levels
Passwords are a configurable feature of the PACSystems CPU. Their use is optional and can
be set up using the programming software. Passwords provide different levels of access
privilege for the CPU.
The default state is no password protection. Each privilege level in the CPU may have a
unique password; however, the same password can be used for more than one level.
Passwords are one to seven ASCII characters in length. Passwords can be changed only
through the programming software.
After passwords have been set up, access to the CPU via any communications path is
restricted from the levels at which the passwords are set, unless the proper password has
been entered. Once a password has successfully been accepted, access to the privilege
level requested and below is granted (for example, providing the password for level 3 allows
access to functions at levels 1, 2, and 3).
Note:
The Run Mode selection on the Intelligent Display Module overrides password
protection. Even though the programmer may not be able to switch between Run and
Stop mode, the IDM can do so.
Privilege Levels
Level
Password
4
Yes
Write to configuration or logic. Configuration may only be written in Stop mode; logic
may be written in Stop or Run mode. Set or delete passwords for any level.
Note: This is the default privilege for a connection to the CPU if no passwords
are defined.
Access Description
3
Yes
Write to configuration or logic when the CPU is in Stop mode, including word-for-word
changes, addition/deletion of program logic, and the overriding of discrete I/O.
2
Yes
Write to any data memory. This does not include overriding discrete I/O. The CPU can
be started or stopped. CPU and I/O fault tables can be cleared.
1
Yes
Read any CPU data, except for passwords. This includes reading fault tables,
performing datagrams, verifying logic/configuration, loading program and
configuration, etc. from the CPU. None of this data may be changed. At this level,
transition to Run mode from the programmer is not allowed.
5.9.1.1 Protection Level Request from Programmer
Upon connection to the CPU, the programmer requests the CPU to move to the highest
non-protected level.
The programmer requests a privilege level change by supplying the new privilege level and
the password for that level. If the password sent by the programmer does not agree with the
password stored in the CPU’s password access table for the requested level, the privilege
level change is denied and a fault is logged in the Controller Fault table. The current privilege
level is maintained, and no change occurs. A request to change to a privilege level that is not
password protected is made by supplying the new level and a null password. A privilege
change may be to a lower level as well as to a higher level.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.9.1.2 Disabling Passwords
The use of password protection is optional, unless Enhanced Security is enabled. To prevent
the use of password protection, disable the feature in the programming software’s hardware
configuration.
Note:
To enable passwords after they have been disabled, the CPU must be power-cycled.
Password protection prevents firmware upgrades. Before attempting a firmware
upgrade, disable password protection, then enable it after the upgrade.
5.9.2
OEM Protection
OEM protection is similar to the passwords and privilege levels. However, OEM protection
provides a higher level of security. The OEM protection feature is enabled/disabled using a 1
to 7 character password. When OEM protection is enabled, all read and write access to the
CPU program and configuration is prohibited.
Protection for an OEMs’ investment in software is provided in the form of a special password
known as the OEM key. When the OEM key has been given a non-blank value, the CPU may
be placed in a mode in which reads, writes, and verification of the logic and/or configuration
are prohibited. This allows a third-party OEM to create Control Programs for the CPU and
then set the OEM-locked mode, which prevents the end user from reading or modifying the
program.
5.9.2.1 OEM Protection in Systems that Load from Flash Memory
For users that want the CPU to load from flash upon powerup, a special provision is made to
activate OEM protection based on the OEM key stored in flash memory. If the OEM key that
was stored to flash is non-blank, and the CPU is configured to load logic/configuration from
flash, then upon powerup OEM protection is activated automatically. This is true even when
OEM protection is not re-activated after the download
Users should be careful to record the OEM key for future reference if they are storing a
non-blank OEM key to flash memory. If disabling OEM protection, be sure to clear the OEM
key that is stored in flash memory.
5.9.2.2 OEM Protection and Firmware Upgrades
A firmware upgrade may be performed while a CPU is OEM protected. However, if a nonblank OEM key is stored to flash memory, and the CPU is configured to load
logic/configuration from flash, then OEM protection remains active after the completion of a
firmware upgrade.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.10
PACSystems I/O System
The embedded PNC provides the interface between the CPU and other devices. For details,
see “11.7, RXi CPU Operations for PROFINET.”
5.10.1 I/O System Diagnostic Data Collection
Diagnostic data in a PACSystems I/O system is obtained via diagnostic bits sent from the I/O
modules to their PROFINET scanners. Diagnostic bits indicate the current fault status of the
associated module. Bits are set when faults occur and are cleared when faults are cleared.
Diagnostic data is not maintained for modules from other manufacturers.
Note:
GFK-2816
At least two sweeps must occur to clear the diagnostic bits: one scan to send the %Q
data to the module and one scan to return the %I data to the CPU. Because module
processing is asynchronous to the controller sweep, more than two sweeps may be
needed to clear the bits, depending on the sweep rate and the point at which the data
is made available to the module.
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Chapter 5. CPU Operation
5.11
Power-Up and Power-Down Sequences
5.11.1 Power-Up Sequence
System power-up consists of the following parts:
■
■
■
■
Power-up self-test
CPU memory validation
System configuration
I/O system initialization
5.11.1.1 Power-Up Self-Test
On system power-up, the CPU module executes hardware checks and software validity
checks.
In the initial release, a failed battery fault is logged in the Controller fault table.
5.11.1.2 CPU Memory Validation
The next phase of system power-up is the validation of the CPU memory. First, the system
verifies that user memory areas are still valid. A known area of user memory is checked to
determine if data was preserved. Next, if a ladder diagram program exists, a checksum is
calculated across the _MAIN ladder block. If no ladder diagram program exists, a checksum
is calculated across the smallest standalone C program.
When the system is sure that the user memory is preserved, a known area of the bit cache
area is checked to determine if the bit cache data was preserved. If this test passes, the Bit
Cache memory is left containing its power-up values. (Non-retentive outputs are cleared on a
transition from Stop to Run mode.) If the checksum is not valid or the retentive test on the
user memory fails, the bit cache memory is assumed to be in error and all areas are cleared.
The CPU is now in a cleared state, the same as if a new CPU module were installed. All logic
and configuration files must be stored from the programmer to the CPU.
5.11.1.3 System Configuration
After completing its self-test, the CPU performs the system configuration. It first clears all
system diagnostic bits in the bit cache memory. This prevents faults that were present before
power-down but are no longer present from accidentally remaining as faulted.
5.11.1.4 I/O System Initialization
The operation of input and output defaults for remote I/O modules in an RXi PROFINET
network is described in “11.7.5, I/O Defaults Operation.“Power-Down Sequence
System power-down occurs when the CPU detects that incoming DC power has dropped
below 18VDC for more than 15ms.
5.11.2 Retention of Data Memory across Power Failure
User memory is not retained across a power failure.
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Chapter 6. Program Organization
Chapter 6. Program Organization
This chapter provides information about the operation of application programs in a
PACSystems CPU.
■
■
■
6.1
Structure of the Application Program
Controlling Program Execution
Interrupt-Driven Blocks
Structure of a PACSystems Application Program
A PACSystems application consists of one block-structured application program. The
application program contains all the logic needed to control the operations of the CPU and
the modules in the system. Application programs are created using the programming
software and transferred to the CPU. Programs are stored in the CPU’s non-volatile memory.
During the CPU Sweep (described in Chapter 5), the CPU reads input data from the modules
in the system and stores the data in its configured input memory locations. The CPU then
executes the entire application program once, using this fresh input data. Executing the
application program creates new output data that is placed in the configured output memory
locations.
After the application program completes its execution, the CPU writes the output data to
modules in the system.
A block-structured program always includes a _MAIN block. Program execution begins with
the _MAIN block. Counting the _MAIN block, the program can contain up to 512 blocks.
6.1.1
Blocks
A block is a named section of executable logic that can be downloaded to and run on the
target controller. The logic in a block can include functions, function blocks and calls to other
blocks.
6.1.2
Functions and Function Blocks
A function is a type of instruction that has no internal storage (instance data). Therefore, it
produces the same result for the same set of input values every time it executes.
A function block defines data as a set of inputs and output parameters that can be used as
software connections to other blocks and internal variables. It has an algorithm that runs
every time the function block is executed. Because a function block has instance data, that is
it can store values, it has a defined state.
The following types of instructions make up the PACSystems instruction set.
Instruction Type
Functions
Built-in function blocks
Standard function blocks
Note:
GFK-2816
Instance Data
None
WORD array.
Structure variable. (See “Instance Data
Structures” on page 99.)
Examples
BIT_SEQ, ADD, RANGE
TMR, PID_IND, PID_ISA
TP, TOF, TON
A user defined function block (UDFB) is a block of logic that can be called in your
program logic to create multiple instances of the block, allowing you to create a block
of logic once and reuse it as if it was a standard function block instruction. For
additional information, see pages 93 and 98.
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6.1.3
How Blocks Are Called
A block executes when called from the program logic in
the _MAIN block or another block. In this example,
LD_BLK1 is always called. Conditional logic can be
used to control calling a block. For LD_BLK2 to be
called, input %I00500 and output %Q00100 must be
ON. For details on using the Call function, refer to the
Proficy Machine Edition online help.
6.1.4
Nested Calls
The CPU allows nested block calls as long as there is enough execution stack space to
support the call. If there is not enough stack space to support a given block call, an
“Application Stack Overflow” fault is logged. In these circumstances, the CPU cannot execute
the block. Instead, it sets all of the block’s Boolean outputs to FALSE, and resumes execution
at the point after the block call instruction.
Note:
To halt the CPU when there is not enough stack space to execute a block, there are
two choices. The best method is to add logic to detect the occurrence of any User
Application Fault by testing the diagnostic bit %SA38, and then call SVC_REQ 13 to
halt the CPU. An alternative method is to add logic that tests for a negative OK value
coming out of the block and then call SVC_REQ 13 to halt the CPU.
A call depth of eight levels or more can be expected, except in rare cases where several of
the called blocks have very large numbers of parameters. The actual call depth achieved
depends on several factors, including the amount of data (non-Boolean) flow used in the
blocks, the particular functions called by the blocks, and the number and types of parameters
defined for the blocks. If blocks use less than the maximum amount of stack resources, more
than eight nested calls may be possible. The call level nesting counts the _MAIN block as
level 1.
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6.1.5
Types of Blocks
PACSystems supports four types of blocks.
Block Type
Local Data
Programming
Languages
Size Limit
Parameters
Block
Has its own local data
LD
FBD
ST
128 KB
0 inputs
1 output
Parameterized Block
Inherits local data
from caller
LD
FBD
ST
128 KB
63 inputs
64 outputs
User Defined Function
Block (UDFB)
Has its own local data
LD
FBD
ST
128 KB
63 inputs
64 outputs
Unlimited internal member
variables
External Block
Inherits local data
from caller
C
user memory size limit 63 inputs
(10 MB)
64 outputs
All PACSystems block types automatically provide an OK output parameter. The name used
to reference the OK parameter within a block is Y0. Logic within the block can read and write
the Y0 parameter. When a block is called, its Y0 parameter is automatically initialized to
TRUE. This will result in a positive power flow out of the block call instruction when the block
completes execution, unless Y0 is set to FALSE within the logic of the block.
For all block types, the maximum number of input parameters is one less than the maximum
number of output parameters. This is because the EN input to the block call is not considered
to be an input parameter to the block. It is used in LD language to determine whether or not
to call the block, but is not passed into the block if the block is called.
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6.1.5.1 Program Blocks
Any block can be a program block. The _MAIN block is automatically declared when you
create a block-structured program. When you declare any other block, you must assign it a
unique block name. A block is automatically configured with no input parameters and one
output parameter (OK).
When a block-structured program is executed, the _MAIN block is automatically executed.
Other blocks execute when called from the program logic in the _MAIN block, another block,
or itself. In the following example, if %M00001 is ON, the block named ProcessEGD will be
executed:
Program Blocks and Local Data
Program blocks support the use of %P global data. In addition, each block, except _MAIN,
has its own %L local data. Blocks do not inherit %L local data from their callers.
Using Parameters with a Program Block
Every block is automatically defined to have one formal ‘power flow’ (or OK) output
parameter, named Y0. Y0 is a BOOL parameter of LENGTH 1, passed by initial-value result.
It indicates successful execution of the block. It can be read and written to by the logic within
the block.
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6.1.5.2 Parameterized Blocks
Any block except _MAIN can be a parameterized block. When you declare a parameterized
block, you must assign it a unique block name. A parameterized block can be configured with
up to 63 input and 64 output parameters.
A parameterized block executes when called from the program logic in the _MAIN block,
another block, or itself. In the following example, if %I00001 is set, the parameterized block
named LOAD_41 will be executed.
Parameterized Blocks and Local Data
Parameterized blocks support the use of %P global data. Parameterized blocks do not have
their own %L data, but instead inherit the %L data of their calling blocks. Parameterized
blocks also inherit the FST_EXE system reference and “time stamp” data that is used to
update timer functions from their calling blocks. If %L references are used within a
parameterized block and the block is called by _MAIN, %L references will be inherited from
the %P references wherever encountered in the parameterized block (for example, %L0005 =
%P0005).
Note:
GFK-2816
It is possible, by using Online Editing in the programming software to cause a
parameterized block to use %L higher than allowed because of the way it inherits
data. Using a word-for-word change to restore this reference to a valid address does
not correct the block because the variable still exists in the variable list. Deleting the
variable from the variable list does not cause an update to the CPU, so the
parameterized block still sees the reference out of range fault. To correct this
condition, you must remove the unused variables from the variable list after deleting
them from the logic.
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Using Parameters with a Parameterized Block
A parameterized block may be defined to have between 0 and 63 formal input parameters,
and between 1 and 64 formal output parameters. A ‘power-flow out’ (or OK) parameter,
named Y0, is automatically defined for every parameterized block. It is a BOOL parameter of
LENGTH 1, and indicates the successful execution of the parameterized block. It can be read
and written to by the parameterized block’s logic.
The following table lists the TYPEs, LENGTHs, and parameter-passing mechanisms allowed
for parameterized block parameters. (For definitions of the parameter passing types, see
“Parameter Passing Mechanisms” on page 105.)
Type
BOOL
Length
1 to 256
Default Parameter Passing Mechanism
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by value result; except Y0, which is by initial-value
result
BYTE
1 to
1024
INPUTS: by reference
INT, UINT, and WORD
1 to 512
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
DINT, REAL, and
DWORD
1 to 256
LREAL
1 to 128
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
function block*
1
UDFB*
1
User Defined Type
(UDT)
1 to
1024
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
*
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
A maximum of 16 input parameters can be of type function block or UDFB.
The PACSystems default parameter passing mechanisms correspond to the way that
parameterized subroutine block (PSB) parameters are passed on 90-70 controllers. The
parameter passing mechanisms of formal parameters cannot be changed from their default
values.
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Arguments or “actual parameters” are passed into a parameterized block when a
parameterized block call is executed. In general, arguments to formal parameters may come
from any memory type, may be data flow, and may be constants (when the formal
parameter’s LENGTH is 1). The following list contains the restrictions on arguments relative
to this general rule:
■
■
%S memory addresses cannot be used as arguments to any output parameter. This is
because user logic is not allowed to write to %S memory.
Indirect references used as arguments are resolved immediately before the
parameterized block is called, and the corresponding direct reference is passed into the
block. For example, where %R1 contains the value 10 and @R1 is used as an argument
to a call, immediately before calling the block, @R1 is resolved to be %R10, and %R10 is
passed in as the argument to the block. During execution of the block, the argument
remains as %R10, regardless of whether the value in %R1 changes.
In general, formal parameters within a parameterized block may be used with any instruction
or with any block call, as long as their TYPE and LENGTH are compatible with what the
instruction, function, or block call requires. The following list contains the restrictions on
formal parameters relative to this general rule:
■
■
■
■
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Formal parameters cannot be used on legacy transitional contacts or coils, or on FAULT,
NOFLT, HIALM, or LOALM contacts. However, formal parameters can be used on IEC
transitional contacts and coils.
Formal BOOL input parameters cannot be used on coils or as output arguments to a
function or to a block call.
Formal parameters cannot be used with the DO I/O function.
Formal parameters cannot be used with indirect referencing.
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6.1.5.3 User Defined Function Blocks
Users can define their own blocks, which have parameters and instance data, instead of
being limited to the standard and built-in function blocks provided in the PACSystems
instruction set. In many cases, the use of this feature results in a reduction in total program
size.
A member variable
is not passed into
or out of a UDFB as
a parameter. A
member variable is
used only within the
logic of a function
block.
Once defined, multiple instances of a UDFB can be created by calling it within the program
logic. Each instance has its own unique copy of the function block’s instance data, which
consists of the function block’s internal member variables and all of its input and output
parameters except those that are passed by reference. When a UDFB is called on a given
instance, the UDFB’s logic operates on that instance’s copy of the instance data. The values
of the instance data persist from one execution of the UDFB to the next.
A UDFB cannot be triggered by an interrupt.
UDFB logic is created using FBD, LD or ST. UDFB logic can make calls to all the other types
of PACSystems blocks (blocks, parameterized blocks, external blocks and other UDFBs).
Blocks, parameterized blocks, and other UDFBs can make calls to UDFBs.
Unless otherwise stated, the PACSystems implementation of UDFBs meets the IEC 61131-3
requirements for user defined function blocks.
Defining a UDFB
To create a UDFB in the programming software, create an LD, FBD or ST block in the
Program Blocks folder. In the Properties for the block, select Function Block.
To define instance data for a UDFB, select Parameters in the block’s properties. Input and
output parameters are defined in the same way as for parameterized blocks. In the following
example, three internal member variables are defined: temp, speed, and modelno.
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Creating UDFB Instances
You create an instance of a UDFB by calling it in your logic and assigning an instance name
in the function properties.
In the following LD example, the first rung creates two instances of the UDFB, Motors. The
instance variables associated with the instances are motors.motor1 and motors.motor2. The
second rung uses the two instances of the internal variable temp in logic.
Instance Data Structures
A variable with the format function_block_name.instance_name is
automatically created for each instance of a UDFB. The instance data
makes up a single composite variable that is of a structure type. The
example to the right shows the variable structures associated with two
instances of the UDFB named Motors. Each instance variable has
elements corresponding to parameters In1, Out1, and Y0, and internal
variables modelno, speed, and temp.
Instances are created as symbolic variables, never as mapped
variables. This ensures that instance data is only referenced by the
instance name and not by a memory address, which means that no
aliases can be created for the UDFB data elements. The indirect
reference operator cannot be used on an instance variable because
indirect references are not permitted on symbolic variables.
UDFBs and Scope
Unlike a parameterized subroutine, a UDFB has its own %L memory.
By default, internal variables of a UDFB have local scope, making them visible only to the
logic inside the UDFB. They cannot be read or written by any external logic or by the
hardware configuration. An internal variable can be made visible outside the UDFB by
changing its scope to global. Logic outside the UDFB can read but cannot write to internal
variables whose scope is global.
Note:
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If you give internal variables global scope, your application will not conform to IEC
requirements.
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Using Parameters with UDFBs
UDFBs support up to 63 inputs and up to 64 outputs.
Each UDFB has a predefined Boolean output parameter, Y0, which the CPU sets to true
upon each invocation of the block. Y0 can be controlled by logic within the block and provides
the output status of the block.
The following table lists the TYPEs, LENGTHs, and parameter-passing mechanisms allowed
for UDFB parameters. For additional information on parameter passing, see “Parameter
Passing Mechanisms” on page 105.
Type
Length
BOOL
1 to 256
BYTE
1 to
1024
Parameter Passing Mechanism
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
value, or value result. (Default: value)
Not Applicable if passed by
reference, since not stored in
instance data.
Can be retentive (default) or
nonretentive for value or value
result.
OUTPUTS: by result; except Y0, which is by
initial-value result
Retentive (default) or
Nonretentive
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
value, or value result. (Default: value)
Retentive for value or value
result.
Not applicable for reference
OUTPUTS: by result
INT, UINT, and WORD
1 to 512
DINT, REAL, and
DWORD
1 to 256
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
value, or value result. (Default: value)
OUTPUTS: by result
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
value, or value result. (Default: value)
OUTPUTS: by result
LREAL
1 to 128
Function block (standard
or PACMotion)
1
Retentiveness of Instance
Data for Parameters
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
value, or value result. (Default: value)
Retentive for value or value
result.
Not applicable for reference
Retentive for value or value
result.
Not applicable for reference
OUTPUTS: by result
Retentive for value or value
result.
Not applicable for reference
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
(Default: reference)
Not applicable since passed by
reference
OUTPUTS: by result
UDFB*
1
UDT
1 to
1024
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference,
friend
Not applicable since passed by
reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
*
INPUTS: by reference, constant reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
Not applicable since passed by
reference
A maximum of 16 input parameters can be of type UDFB.
If an input parameter is passed by reference or by value result, it requires an argument. All
other parameters of a UDFB are optional. That is, they do not have to be given arguments on
each instance of the UDFB. If no argument is given for an optional parameter, the variable
element associated with the parameter retains the value it previously had.
UDFB outputs cannot be passed as arguments to input parameters that are passed by
reference or passed by value result. This restriction prevents modification of a UDFB output.
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Using Internal Member Variables with UDFBs
A UDFB can have any number of internal member variables. Internal variables’ values are
not passed through the input and output parameters. An internal variable cannot have the
same name as a parameter of the UDFB it is defined in.
An internal variable can be:
■
■
■
■
Any basic type supported by PACSystems (BOOL, INT, UINT, DINT, REAL, LREAL,
BYTE, WORD, and DWORD).
A UDFB type. Such member variables are known as nested instances. For example, the
function block “Motor” can have an internal variable of type “Valve,” where Valve is a
UDFB type. Note that defining a member variable as a UDFB type does not create an
instance.
A nested instance cannot be of the same type as the UDFB being defined because this
would set up an infinitely recursive definition. Nor can any level of a nested instance be of
the same type as the parent UDFB being defined. For example, the UDFB “Motor” cannot
have an internal variable of type “Valve,” if the Valve UDFB contains an internal variable
of type “Motor.”
A UDT. A structured, user-defined data type consisting of elements of other selected data
types.
A one-dimensional array.
Internal variables of TYPE BOOL can be retentive (default) or nonretentive. All other TYPEs
must be retentive.
Member variables corresponding to a UDFB’s input parameters cannot be read or written
outside of the UDFB. (This is more restrictive than the IEC 61131-3 requirements for user
defined function blocks.) Member variables corresponding to the UDFB’s output parameters
can be read but not written outside the UDFB.
Internal member variables that have basic types may be given initial values. The same initial
values apply to all instances of a UDFB. If an initial value isn’t given, the internal member
variable is set to zero when the application transitions to RUN mode for the first time.
An internal member variable that is a nested instance has initial values as specified by its
UDFB type definition.
Initial values are not stored during a RUN mode store. They will not take effect until a Stop
mode store is performed.
UDFB Logic
An instance of a BOOL parameter or internal variable can be forced ON or OFF, or used with
transition-detecting instructions. The exception to this is that BOOL input parameters passed
by reference cannot be forced or used with the Series 90-70 legacy transition-detecting
instructions (POSCOIL, NEGCOIL, POSCON and NEGCON) because their values are not
stored in instance data.
All input parameters to a UDFB, and their corresponding instance data elements, can be read
by their UDFB’s logic.
Input parameters that are passed by reference or passed by value result to a UDFB can be
written to by their UDFB’s logic. Input parameters passed by value cannot be written to by
their UDFB logic. Note that the restriction on writing to input parameters passed by value
does not apply to other types of blocks.
All UDFB output parameters can be both read and written to by their logic.
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UDFB Operation with Other Blocks
A UDFB instance that is of global scope can be invoked by another UDFB’s logic or any other
block’s logic.
A UDFB instance that is passed (by reference) as an argument to a UDFB can be invoked by
the UDFB’s logic.
A UDFB instance that is passed (by reference) as an argument to a parameterized block can
be invoked by the parameterized block’s logic.
The output parameters, and their corresponding instance data elements, of a UDFB instance
that is passed as an argument can be read but not modified by the receiving block’s logic.
The input parameters of a UDFB instance that is passed as an argument cannot be read or
modified by the receiving block’s logic. The internal variables of a UDFB instance that is
passed as an argument cannot be modified by the receiving block’s logic. They can be read if
their scope is global, but not if their scope is local.
6.1.5.4 External Blocks
External blocks are developed using external development tools as well as the C
Programmer’s Toolkit for PACSystems. Refer to the C Programmer’s Toolkit for PACSystems
User’s Manual, GFK-2259 for detailed information regarding external blocks.
Any block except _MAIN can be an external block. When you declare an external block, you
must assign it a unique block name. It can be configured with up to 63 input parameters and
64 output parameters.
An external block executes when called from the program logic in the _MAIN block or from
the logic in another block, parameterized block, or UDFB. External blocks themselves cannot
call any other block. In the following example, if %I00001 is set, the external block named
EXT_11 is executed.
Note:
Unlike other block types, external blocks cannot call other blocks.
External Blocks and Local Data
External blocks support the use of %P global data. External blocks do not have their own %L
data, but instead inherit the %L data of their calling blocks. They also inherit the FST_EXE
system reference and the “time stamp” data that is used to update timer function blocks from
their calling blocks. If %L references are used within an external block and the block is called
by _MAIN, %L references will be inherited from the %P references wherever encountered in
the external block (for example, %L0005 = %P0005).
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Initialization of C Variables
When an external block is stored to the CPU, a copy of the initial values for its global and
static variables is saved. However, if static variables are declared without an initial value, the
initial value is undefined and must be initialized by the C application. (Refer to “Global
Variable Initialization” and “Static Variable” in the C Programmer’s Toolkit for PACSystems,
GFK-2259). The saved initial values are used to re-initialize the block’s global and static
variables whenever the CPU transitions from Stop to Run.
Using Parameters With an External Block
An external block may be defined to have between zero and 63 formal input parameters and
between one and 64 formal output parameters. A ‘power-flow out’ (or OK) parameter, named
Y0, is automatically defined for every external block. Y0 is a BOOL parameter of LENGTH 1,
and indicates the successful execution of the block. It can be read and written to by the
external block’s logic.
The following table gives the TYPEs, LENGTHs, and parameter-passing mechanisms
allowed for external block parameters.
Type
BOOL
Length
1 to 256
Default Parameter Passing Mechanism
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference; except Y0, which is
by initial-value result
BYTE
1 to 1024
INT, UINT, and WORD
1 to 512
DINT, REAL, and
DWORD
1 to 256
LREAL
1 to 128
UDT*
1 to 128
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: by reference
INPUTS: by reference
OUTPUTS: not allowed
*
To use a UDT, you must include the UDT definition as a C structure in the external block.
For details, see "Using a UDT as a C block input parameter data type" in the online help.
The PACSystems default parameter passing mechanisms correspond to the way that
external block parameters are passed on 90-70 controllers. The parameter passing
mechanisms of formal parameters cannot be changed from their default values.
You must define a name for each formal input and output parameter.
Arguments, or “actual parameters”, are passed into an external block when an external block
call is executed.
Arguments may be any valid reference address including an indirect reference, may be flow,
or may be a constant if the corresponding parameter’s LENGTH is 1.
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6.1.6
Local Data
Each block or UDFB in a block-structured program has an associated local data block.
_MAIN’s data block memory is referenced by %P; all other data block memories are
referenced by %L.
The size of the data block is dependent on the highest reference in its block for %L and in all
blocks for %P.
data
%P
data
%L
_MAIN
Block
2
block
Data
%L
Block
3
Data
%L
Block
4
All blocks within the program can use data associated with the _MAIN block (%P). Blocks
and UDFBs can use their own %L data as well as the %P data that is available to all blocks.
The _MAIN block cannot use %L.
External blocks and parameterized blocks can use the Local Data (%L) of their calling block
as well as the %P data of the _MAIN block. If a parameterized block or external block is
called by MAIN, all %L references in the parameterized block or external block will actually be
references to corresponding %P references (for example, %L0005 = %P0005). In addition to
inheriting the Local Data of their calling blocks, parameterized blocks and external blocks
inherit the FST_EXE status of their calling blocks.
data
%P
Inherits as %L
_MAIN
Block
PSB 1
or
EB 1
data
%L
Inherits as %L
BLOCK
1
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PSB 2
or
EB 2
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6.1.7
Parameter Passing Mechanisms
All blocks (except _MAIN) have at least one parameter and thus are affected by parameter
passing mechanisms. A “parameter passing mechanism” describes the way that data is
passed from an argument in a calling block to a parameter in the called block, and from the
parameter in the called block back to the argument in the calling block.
PACSystems supports the following parameter-passing mechanisms: pass by reference,
pass by constant reference, pass by value, pass by value result, pass by result and pass by
initial-value result. An additional type, pass by friend, is available when the input Data Type is
a UDFB. A parameter is defined by its TYPE, LENGTH, and parameter passing mechanism.



GFK-2816
When a parameter is passed by reference, the address of its argument is passed into
the function block instance or parameterized block. All logic within the called block that
reads or writes to the parameter directly reads or writes to the actual argument.
When a parameter is passed by constant reference, the CPU passes a reference
address pointer, symbolic variable pointer, or I/O variable pointer into the function block
instance or parameterized block. The instance or block can only read the reference
address or variable.
When a parameter is passed by friend (UDFB inputs only), the CPU passes a UDFB
instance variable pointer into the function block instance or parameterized block. The
instance or block can write to any output or member, whether public or private, of the
UDFB instance variable passed as a friend.
Tip: In the logic of a UDFB, when you want to pass the UDFB as a friend, assign the
pseudo-variable "#This" to the input that expects an instance variable of that UDFB type.
In the following example, the In2 input of the LDPSB parameterized block expects a
UDFB instance variable friend of the ABC data type. Inside the logic of ABC, assign
"#This" to In2 in the call to LDPSB.
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
When a parameter is passed by value (UDFB inputs only), the value of its argument is
copied into a local stack memory associated with the called block. All logic within the
called block that reads or writes to the parameter is reading or writing to this stack
memory. Thus no changes are ever made to the actual argument.
When a parameter is passed by value result (UDFB inputs only), the value of its
argument is copied into a local stack memory associated with the called block, and the
address of its argument is saved. All logic within the called block that reads or writes to
the parameter is reading or writing to this stack memory. When the called block
completes its execution, the value in the stack memory is copied back to the actual
argument’s address. Thus no changes are made to the actual argument while the called
block is executing, but when it completes execution, the actual argument is updated.

6.1.8
Languages
The RXi Controller supports the following IEC 61131-3 programming languages:
■
■
■
106
Ladder Diagram (LD)
Structured Text
Function Block Diagram
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6.1.9
RXi Controller Instruction Set
The following instructions and standard library functions make up the RXi CPU’s
instruction set. For detailed information on using these programming elements, refer to the
Proficy Machine Edition online help.
GFK-2816
Bit Operation
GT_INT
DEG_TO_RAD_LREAL
Data Table
AND_WORD
GT_DINT
RAD_TO_DEG_REAL
SORT_INT
AND_DWORD
GT_REAL
RAD_TO_DEG_LREAL
SORT_UINT
OR_WORD
GT_LREAL
BCD-4 to REAL
SORT_WORD
OR_DWORD
GT_UINT
BCD-8 to REAL
TBLRD_INT
XOR_WORD
GE_INT
LREAL_TO_DINT
TBLRD_DINT
XOR_DWORD
GE_DINT
LREAL_TO_REAL
TBLWRT_INT
NOT_WORD
GE_REAL
Data Move
TBLWRT_DINT
NOT_DWORD
GE_LREAL
BLKCLR
FIFORD_INT
MCMP_WORD
GE_UINT
BITSEQ
FIFORD_DINT
MCMP_DWORD
LT_INT
MOVE_BIT
FIFOWRT_INT
SHL_WORD
LT_DINT
MOVE_DINT
FIFOWRT_DINT
SHL_DWORD
LT_REAL
MOVE_INT
LIFORD_INT
SHR_WORD
LT_LREAL
MOVE_UINT
LIFORD_DINT
SHR_DWORD
LT_UINT
MOVE_WORD
LIFOWRT_INT
ROL_WORD
LE_INT
MOVE_DWORD
LIFOWRT_DINT
ROL_DWORD
LE_DINT
MOVE_REAL
LIFOWRT_DWORD
ROR_WORD
LE_UINT
MOVE_LREAL
Array
ROR_DWORD
LE_REAL
MOVE_DATA
LE_LREAL
ARRAY_MOVE_BIT
BTST_WORD
MOVE_DATA_EX
ARRAY_MOVE_BYTE
BTST_DWORD
Conversion
MOVE_TO_FLAT
ARRAY_MOVE_WORD
BSET_WORD
BCD-4 to INT
MOVE_FROM_FLAT
ARRAY_MOVE_DWORD
BSET_DWORD
DINT to INT
BLKMOV_WORD
ARRAY_MOVE_DINT
BCLR_WORD
UINT to INT
BLKMOV_DWORD
ARRAY_MOVE_INT
BCLR_DWORD
BCD-8 to DINT
BLKMOV_DINT
ARRAY_MOVE_UINT
BPOS_WORD
INT to DINT
BLKMOV_INT
SRCH_BYTE
BPOS_DWORD
UINT to DINT
BLKMOV_REAL
SRCH_WORD
Relational
INT to UINT
BLKMOV_UINT
SRCH_DWORD
CMP_INT
DINT to UINT
DAT_INIT_ASCII
CMP_DINT
BCD-4 to UINT
DAT_INIT_COMM
ARRAY_RANGE_
WORD
CMP_REAL
INT to BCD-4
DAT_INIT_DLAN
CMP_LREAL
UINT to BCD-4
DAT_INIT_DINT
CMP_UINT
DINT to BCD-8
DAT_INIT_DWORD
EQ_DATA
REAL_TO_INT
DAT_INIT_INT
EQ_DINT
REAL_TO_UINT
DAT_INIT_REAL
EQ_INT
REAL_TO_LREAL
DAT_INIT_LREAL
EQ_LREAL
REAL_TO_DINT
DAT_INIT_WORD
EQ_REAL
INT_TO_REAL
DAT_INIT_UINT
EQ_UINT
UINT_TO_REAL
SWAP_WORD
NE_INT
DINT_TO_REAL
SWAP_DWORD
NE_DINT
DINT_TO_LREAL
SHFR_BIT
NE_UINT
REAL_TRUN_INT
SHFR_WORD
NE_REAL
REAL_TRUN_DINT
SHFR_DWORD
NE_LREAL
DEG_TO_RAD_REAL
ARRAY_RANGE_
DWORD
ARRAY_RANGE_DINT
ARRAY_RANGE_INT
ARRAY_RANGE_UINT
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Chapter 6. Program Organization
Trigonometric
Timers
ADD_INT
SIN_REAL
ONDTR
ADD_DINT
SIN_LREAL
OFDT
ADD_REAL
COS_REAL
TMR
ADD_LREAL
COS_LREAL
TOF
ADD_UINT
TAN_REAL
TON
7,Read or change the
time-of-day clock
SUB_INT
TAN_LREAL
TP
8,Reset watchdog timer
SUB_DINT
ASIN_REAL
Counters
SUB_REAL
ASIN_LREAL
UPCTR
9,Read sweep time from
beginning of sweep milliseconds
SUB_LREAL
ACOS_REAL
DNCTR
10,Read target name
MUL_INT
ACOS_LREAL
Control
11,Read controller ID
MUL_DINT
ATAN_REAL
MUL_REAL
ATAN_LREAL
JUMPN
12,Read controller run
state
MUL_LREAL
Logarithmic
MUL_MIXED
LOG_REAL
MCRN/ENDMCRN
Combined
MUL_UINT
LOG_LREAL
DOIO
DIV_INT
LN_REAL
DOIO with ALT
DIV_DINT
LN_LREAL
DRUM_SEQ
DIV_REAL
EXPT_REAL
SCAN_SET_IO
DIV_LREAL
EXPT_LREAL
SUS_IO
DIV_MIXED
EXP_REAL
COMM_REQ
MOD_INT
EXP_LREAL
CALL/RETURN
(C Block)
MOD_DINT
MOD_UINT
ABS_INT
ABS_DINT
ABS_REAL
PID
PIDISA
PIDIND
Range
ABS_LREAL
RANGE_INT
SCALE_INT
RANGE_DINT
SCALE_DINT
RANGE_DWORD
SCALE_UINT
SQRT_INT
SQRT_DINT
SQRT_REAL
SQRT_LREAL
108
5,Change background
task window mode and
timer value
Math
FOR/NEXT
CALL/RETURN (LD)
CALL/RETURN (PSB)
Service Requests
(SVC_REQ)
1,Change/read constant
sweep timer
2,Read window modes
and time values
3,Change controller
communications window
mode and timer value
4,Change backplane
communications window
mode and timer value
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
6,Change/read number
of words to checksum
13,Shut down (stop)
controller
14,Clear controller or
I/O fault tables
15,Read last-logged
fault table entry
16,Read elapsed time
clock - microseconds
18,Read I/O override
status
19,Set run
enable/disable
20,Read fault tables
21,User-defined fault
logging
22,Mask/unmask timed
interrupts
23,Read master
checksum
50,Read elapsed time
clock – nanoseconds
51,Read sweep time
from beginning of sweep
- nanoseconds
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Chapter 6. Program Organization
6.2
Controlling Program Execution
There are many ways in which program execution can be controlled to meet the system’s
timing requirements. The PACSystems CPU instruction set contains several powerful control
functions that can be included in an application program to limit or change the way the CPU
executes the program and scans I/O. For details on using these functions, refer to the Proficy
Machine Edition online help.
The following is a partial list of commonly used methods:
■
■
■
■
■
6.3
The Jump (JUMPN) function can be used to cause program execution to move either
forward or backward in the logic. When a JUMPN function is active, the coils in the part of
the program that is skipped are left in their previous states (not executed with negative
power flow, as they are with a Master Control Relay). Jumps cannot span blocks.
The nested Master Control Relay (MCRN) function can be used to execute a portion of
the program logic with negative power flow. Logic is executed in a forward direction and
coils in that part of the program are executed with negative power flow. Master Control
Relay functions can be nested to 255 levels deep.
The Suspend I/O function can be used to stop both the input scan and output scan for
one sweep. I/O can be updated, as necessary, during the logic execution through the use
of DO I/O instructions.
The Service Request function can be used to suspend or change the time allotted to the
window portions of the sweep.
Program logic can be structured so that blocks are called more or less frequently,
depending on their importance and on timing constraints. The CALL function can be used
to cause program execution to go to a specific block. Conditional logic placed before the
Call function controls the circumstances under which the CPU executes the block logic.
After the block execution is finished, program execution resumes at the point in the logic
directly after the CALL instruction.
Interrupt-Driven Blocks
Timed interrupts can be used to start a block’s execution. These interrupts are generated by
the CPU based on a user-specified time interval with an initial delay (if specified) applied on
Stop-to-Run transition of the CPU.
Caution
Interrupt-driven block execution can interrupt the execution of
non-interrupt-driven logic. Unexpected results may occur if the
interrupting logic and interrupted logic access the same data. If
necessary, Service Request #17can be used to temporarily mask Timed
Interrupt-driven logic from executing when shared data is being
accessed.
6.3.1
Interrupt Handling
A Timed interrupt can be associated with any block except _MAIN, as long as the block has
no parameters other than an OK output. After an interrupt has been associated with a block,
that block executes each time the interrupt trigger occurs. A given block can have multiple
timed interrupt triggers associated with it. It is executed each time any one of its associated
interrupts triggers. For details on how interrupt blocks are prioritized, refer to “Interrupt Block
Scheduling” on page 111.
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If a parameterized block or external block is triggered by an interrupt, it inherits %P data as
its %L local data. For example, a %L00005 reference in the parameterized block or C block
actually references %P00005.
Note:
Timer function blocks do not accumulate time if used in a block that is executed as a
result of an interrupt.
Blocks that are triggered by interrupts can make calls to other blocks. The application stack
used during interrupt-driven execution is different from the stack used during normal blockstructured program execution. In particular, the nested call limit is different from the limit
described for calls from the _MAIN block. If a call results in insufficient stack space to
complete the call, the CPU logs an ”Application Stack Overflow” fault.
Note:
We strongly recommend that interrupt-driven blocks not be called from the _MAIN
block or other non-interrupt driven blocks because the interrupt and non-interrupt
driven blocks could be reading and writing the same global memories at
indeterminate times relative to each other. In the example below INT1, INT2,
BLOCK5, and PB1 should not be called from _MAIN, BLOCK2, BLOCK3,
or BLOCK4.
INT Block 1
_MAIN
Block
Block
2
INT Block 2
Block
5
Block
3
PB
1
Block
4
6.3.2
Configuring Timed Interrupts
A block can be configured to execute on a specified time interval with an initial delay (if
specified) applied on a Stop-to-Run transition of the CPU.
To configure a timed interrupt block, specify the following parameters in the scheduling
properties for the block:
Time Base
The smallest unit of time that you can specify for Interval and Delay. The time base
can be 1.0 second, 0.10 second, or 0.01 second, or 0.001 second.
Interval
Specifies how frequently the block executes in multiples of the time base.
Delay
(Optional) Specifies an additional delay for the first execution of the block in multiples
of the time base.
The first execution of a Timed Interrupt block will occur at
((delay * time base) + (interval * time base)) after the CPU is placed in Run mode.
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6.3.3
Interrupt Block Scheduling
You can select one of two types of interrupt block scheduling at the target level:
■
■
Normal block scheduling allows you to associate a maximum of 16 Timed Interrupts.
With normal block scheduling, all interrupt-triggered blocks have equal priority. This is the
default scheduling mode.
Preemptive block scheduling allows you to associate a maximum of 32 interrupt
triggers. With preemptive block scheduling, each trigger can be assigned a relative
priority.
6.3.3.1 Normal Block Scheduling
Interrupt-driven logic has the highest priority of any user logic in the system. The execution of
a block triggered from an interrupt preempts the execution of the normal CPU sweep
activities. Execution of the normal CPU sweep activities is resumed after the interrupt-driven
block execution completes.
If the CPU receives one or more interrupts while executing an interrupt block, it places the
incoming interrupts into the queue while it finishes executing the current interrupt block. If an
interrupt driven block is already in the queue, additional interrupts that occur for this block are
ignored.
6.3.3.2 Preemptive Block Scheduling
Preemptive scheduling allows you to assign a priority to each interrupt trigger. The priority
values range from 1 to 16, with 1 being the highest. A single block can have multiple
interrupts with different priorities or the same priorities.
An incoming interrupt is handled according to its priority compared to that of the currently
executing block as follows:
■
■
■
If an incoming interrupt has a higher priority than the interrupt associated with the block
that is currently executing, the currently executing block is stopped and put in the
interrupt queue. The block associated with the incoming interrupt begins executing.
If an incoming interrupt has the same priority as the interrupt trigger associated with the
block that is currently executing, that block continues to execute and the incoming
interrupt is placed in the queue.
If an incoming interrupt has a lower priority than the interrupt associated with the block
that is currently executing, the incoming interrupt is placed in the queue.
When the CPU completes the execution of an interrupt block, the block associated with the
interrupt trigger that has the highest priority in the queue begins execution — or resumes
execution if the block's execution was preempted by another interrupt block and was placed
in the queue.
If multiple blocks in the queue have the same interrupt priority, their execution order is not
deterministic.
Note:
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Certain functions, such as DOIO and some SVC_REQs may cause a block to yield to
another queued block that has the same priority.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
This chapter describes the types of data that can be used in an application program, and
explains how that data is stored in the PACSystems CPU’s memory.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
7.1
Variables
Reference Memory
User Reference Size and Default
Transitions and Overrides
Retentiveness of Logic and Data
Data Scope
System Status References
How Program Functions Handle Numerical Data
User Defined Types (UDTs)
Word-for-Word Changes
Operands for Instructions
Variables
A variable is a named storage space for data values. It represents a memory location in the
target PACSystems CPU.
A variable can be mapped to a reference address (for example, %R00001). If you do not map
a variable to a specific reference address, it is considered a symbolic variable. The
programming software handles the mapping for symbolic variables in a special portion of
PACSystems user space memory.
A variable’s data type determines the kinds of values it can store. For example, variables
with a UINT data type store unsigned whole numbers with no fractional part. Data types are
described in “How Program Functions Handle Numerical Data” on page 128.
In the programming software, all variables in a project are displayed in the Variables tab of
the Navigator. You create, edit, and delete variables in the Variables tab. Some variables are
also created automatically by certain components (such as TIMER variables when you add a
Timer instruction to ladder logic). The data type and other properties of a variable, such as
reference address are configured in the Inspector.
For more information about system variables, which are created when you create a target in
the programming software, refer to page 125.
7.1.1
Mapped Variables
Mapped (manually located) variables are assigned a specific reference address. For details
on the types of reference memory and their uses, refer to page 119.
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7.1.2
Symbolic Variables
Symbolic variables are variables for which you do not specify a reference address (similar to
a variable in a typical high-level language). Except as noted in this section, you can use these
in the same ways that you use mapped variables.
In the programming software, a symbolic variable is displayed with a blank address. You can
change a mapped variable to a symbolic variable by removing the reference address from the
variable’s properties. Similarly, you can change a symbolic variable into a mapped variable
by specifying a reference address for the variable in its properties.
The memory required to support symbolic variables counts against user space. The amount
of space reserved for these variables is configured on the Memory tab in the CPU hardware
configuration.
7.1.2.1 Restrictions on the Use of Symbolic Variables
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
7.1.3
Symbolic variables cannot be used with indirect references (for example, @Name). For a
description of indirect references, see page 119.
A variable must be globally scoped and published (internal or external) to be used in a C
block.
Symbolic variables cannot be used in the COMM_REQ status word.
Use of symbolic variables is not supported on web pages.
Symbolic Boolean variables are not allowed on non-BOOL parameters.
Symbolic non-discrete variables cannot be used on Transitional contacts and coils.
(Symbolic discrete variables are supported.)
Overrides and Forces cannot be used on symbolic non-discrete variables. (Symbolic
discrete variables are supported.)
If Enhanced Security is enabled for a target, external devices such as HMIs and other
controllers cannot access a symbolic variable unless the variable’s Publish property is set
to External Read/Write or External Read-Only.
Arrays of the following data types are not supported:
Arrays of user defined function block (UDFB) instance variables.
Arrays of TON, TOF, or TP instance variables.
Arrays of reference ID variables (RIVs) that contain one or more linked RIV elements.
Note: A RIV array is supported when none of its elements is linked.
I/O Variables
An I/O variable is a symbolic variable that is mapped to a terminal in the hardware
configuration. A terminal can be an actual physical discrete or analog I/O point or mapped to
status data. The use of I/O variables allows you to configure hardware modules without
having to specify the reference addresses to use when scanning their inputs and outputs.
Instead, you can directly associate variable names with a module’s inputs and outputs.
As with symbolic variables, memory required to support I/O variables counts against user
space. You can configure the space available for I/O variables in the Memory tab of the
PACSystems CPU.
For a given module, you must use either I/O variables or manually located mapped variables:
you cannot use both in combination. It is not necessary to map all points on a module. Points
that are disconnected or unused can be skipped. When points are skipped, space is reserved
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
in user memory for that point (that is, a 32-point discrete module will always use 32 bits of
memory).
The hardware configuration (HWC) and logic become coupled in a PACSystems target on
your computer as soon as you do one of the following: Enable I/O variables for a (even if you
don't create any I/O variables) or upload a coupled HWC and logic from a PACSystems
controller. The HWC and logic become coupled in a PACSystems controller when coupled
HWC and logic are downloaded to it.
Effects of coupled HWC and logic:




Whether the HWC and logic are coupled in the PACSystems target on your computer
or in the PACSystems controller, you cannot download or upload the HWC and logic
independently.
When the HWC and logic are coupled in the PACSystems controller, you cannot
clear the HWC and the logic independently.
As for any download, you cannot run mode store (RMS) the HWC and logic
independently.
The HWC must be completely equal for you to make word-for-word changes, launch
the Online Test mode of Test Edit, or accept the edits of Test Edit.
I/O variables can be used any place that other symbolic variables are supported, such as in
logic as parameters to built-in function blocks, user defined function blocks, parameterized
function blocks, C blocks, bit-in-word references, and transitional contacts and coils.
7.1.3.1 Restrictions on the Use of I/O Variables








114
Since I/O variables are a form of symbolic variable, the same restrictions that apply to
other symbolic variables of the same data type and array bounds apply to I/O variables.
Only a global variable can become an I/O variable. A local variable cannot become an I/O
variable.
You can map only a discrete variable to a discrete terminal.
You can map only a non-discrete variable to an analog terminal.
Arrays and UDT variables must fit on the number of terminals in the reference address
node counting from and including the terminal where you enter the array head or UDT
variable. For example, if you have 32 analog terminals and you have a WORD array of
12 elements, you can map it to terminal 21 or any terminal before it (1 through 20).
You can map a discrete array only to a terminal 8n+1, where n = 0, 1, 2, and so on. The
"+1" is there because the terminals are numbered beginning with 1. If you map it to a
terminal other than 8n+1, an error occurs upon validation.
An I/O variable cannot be mapped to more than one location in hardware configuration.
For the DO_IO function block, if an I/O variable is assigned to the ST parameter, then the
same I/O variable must also be assigned to the END parameter, and the entire module is
scanned.
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7.1.3.2 I/O Variable Format
You create I/O variables by assigning them on the Terminals tab in PME Hardware
Configuration. The variable structure is created automatically, and uses the format
%vdr.s.[z.]g.t, where:
v = I (input) or Q (output)
d = data type: X (discrete) or W (analog).
[z] = subslot number. Always 0 for RXi Controllers.
g = segment number. Always 1 for the RXi Ethernet interface; always 2 for the RXi PNC.
t = terminal number. One-based, that is, the numbering begins at 1.
Supported I/O Variable Types
Data Type
Mnemonic
X
W
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Supported Data
Types
Number of Consecutive Terminals Required
BOOL variable
1
BOOL array
Number of elements in array.
BYTE variable
8
BYTE array
8n, where n is the number of array elements.
DINT variable
2
DINT array
Number of elements in array times 2
DWORD variable
2
DWORD array
Number of elements in array times 2
INT variable
1
INT array
Number of elements in array
LREAL variable
4
LREAL array
Number of elements in array times 4
REAL variable
2
REAL array
Number of elements in array times 2
UINT variable
1
UINT array
Number of elements in array
WORD variable
1
WORD array
Number of elements in array
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7.1.4
Arrays
An array is a complex data type composed of a series of variable elements with identical data
types. Any variable can become an array, except for another array, a variable element, or a
UDFB. In Machine Edition, you can create single-dimensional arrays and two-dimensional
arrays.
In the controller CPU, each element of an array is treated as a separate variable with a
separate, read-only reference address. The "root" node of the array variable also has a
reference address that is editable. When you set or change the reference address of the
"root" node of an array variable, the reference addresses of its elements are filled in with a
range of addresses starting at that reference address and incremented for each element so
as to create contiguous non-overlapping memory.
7.1.5
Variable Indexes and Arrays
The RXi Controller supports variable indexes for arrays. With a variable index, when logic is
executed, the value of the variable is evaluated and the corresponding array element is
accessed.
Note:
The numbering of array elements is zero-based.
For example, to access an element of the array named ABC, you could write ABC[DEF] in
logic. When logic is executed, if the value of DEF is 5, then ABC[DEF] is equivalent to
ABC[5], and the sixth element of array ABC is accessed.
If the value of the variable index exceeds the array boundary, a non-fatal fault is logged to the
Controller Fault table. In LD, the instruction for which this occurred does not pass power to
the right.
Requirements and Support
An index variable must be of the INT, UINT, or DINT data type.
The valid range of values for an index variable is 0 through Y, where Y = [the number of array
elements in the array] - 1. Ensuring that a variable index does not exceed the upper boundary
of an array.
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An index variable can be one of the following:








Symbolic variable
I/O variable
Variable mapped to % memory areas such as %R
Structure element
Array element with a constant index
Array element with a variable index
Alias variable
In the logic of a UDFB or parameterized block: formal parameter
The following support a variable index:



Array elements of any data type except STRING
Parameter array elements of any data type
Alias variables
Dimensional support:


One-dimensional (1D) formal parameter arrays in the logic of a UDFB or
parameterized block
2D support for the top level of an array of structures and 1D support for a structure
element that is an array. For example:
PQR[a, b].STRU[y].Zed,
where Zed is an element of the array of structures STRU, which itself is an element
of the 2D array of structures PQR.

1D and 2D arrays for other variables
Other features:

An array with a variable index supports a bit reference, for example
MyArray[nIndex].X[4],
where .X[4] is the fifth bit of the value stored in MyArray[nIndex]. The bit reference
itself, [4] in the example, must be a constant.

In LD, the following word-for-word changes are supported for array elements with
variable indexes:
Replacing an index variable with another index variable
Replacing an index variable with a constant
Replacing a constant with an index variable
In LD, Diagnostic Logic Blocks support the use of array elements with
variable indexes.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
The following do not support array elements with variable indexes:

Indirect references

Reference ID variables (RIVs) and I/O variables when accessed in the Hardware
Configuration
Note:

In logic, RIVs and I/O variables support variable indexes.
STRING variables
A variable index cannot be one of the following:



A math expression. For example, ABC[GH+1] is not supported.
An indirect reference. For example, W[@XYZ] is not supported.
A bit reference. For example, ABC[DEF.X[3]] is not supported.
Note:



7.1.6
You can use a bit reference on an array element designated by a variable
index. For example, ABC[DEF].X[3] is supported.
An array head. For example, if MNP and QRS are arrays, MNP[QRS] is not
supported, but MNP[QRS[3]] and MNP[QRS[TUV]] are, where TUV is an index
variable.
A negative index. This generates a run-time non-fatal CPU fault.
A value greater than Y, where Y = [number of array elements] - 1. This generates a
run-time non-fatal CPU fault.
Ensuring that a Variable Index does not Exceed the Upper Boundary of an Array
One-Dimensional Array
1. Once per scan, execute ARRAY_SIZE_DIM1 to count the number of elements in
the array.
Note: The array size of a variable can be changed in a run mode store but it will not be
changed while logic is executing.
ARRAY_SIZE_DIM1 places the count value in the variable associated with its output Q.
2.
Before executing an instruction that uses a variable index, compare the value of the index
variable with the number of elements in the array.
Tip: In LD, use a RANGE instruction.
Notes Checking before executing each instruction that uses an indexed variable is
recommended in case logic has modified the index value beyond the array size or in
case the array size has been reduced before the scan to less than the value of an
index variable that has not been reduced accordingly since.
Valid range of an index variable: 0 through (n–1), where n is the number of array
elements. Array indexes are zero-based.
Two-Dimensional Array

Execute both ARRAY_SIZE_DIM1 and ARRAY_SIZE_DIM2 to count the number of
elements in respectively the first and second dimensions of the array.
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7.2
Reference Memory
The CPU stores program data in bit memory and word memory. Both types of memory are
divided into different types with specific characteristics. By convention, each type is normally
used for a specific type of data, as explained below. However, there is great flexibility in
actual memory assignment.
Memory locations are indexed using alphanumeric identifiers called references. The
reference’s letter prefix identifies the memory area. The numerical value is the offset within
that memory area, for example %AQ0056.
7.2.1
Word (Register) References
Type
Description
%AI
The prefix %AI represents an analog input register. An analog input register holds the value of
one analog input or other non-discrete value.
%AQ
The prefix %AQ represents an analog output register. An analog output register holds the value
of one analog output or other non-discrete value.
%R
Use the prefix %R to assign system register references that will store program data such as the
results of calculations.
%W
Retentive Bulk Memory Area, which is referenced as %W (WORD memory).
%P
Use the prefix %P to assign program register references that will store program data with the
_MAIN block. This data can be accessed from all program blocks. The size of the %P data block
is based on the highest %P reference in all blocks. %P addresses are available only to the LD
program they are used in, including C blocks called from LD blocks; they are not system-wide.
Note:
All register references are retained across a power cycle to the CPU.
7.2.1.1 Indirect References
An indirect reference allows you to treat the contents of a variable assigned to an LD
instruction operand as a pointer to other data, rather than as actual data. Indirect references
are used only with word memory areas (%R, %W, %AI, %AQ, %P, and %L). An indirect
reference in %W requires two %W locations as a DWORD indirect index value. For example,
@%W0001 would use the %W2:W1 as a DWORD index into the %W memory range. The
DWORD index is required because the %W size is greater than 65K.
Indirect references cannot be used with symbolic variables.
To assign an indirect reference, type the @ character followed by a valid reference address
or variable name. For example, if %R00101 contains the value 1000, @R00101 instructs the
CPU to use the data location of %R01000.
Indirect references can be useful when you want to perform the same operation to many
word registers. Use of indirect references can also be used to avoid repetitious logic within
the application program. They can be used in loop situations where each register is
incremented by a constant or by a value specified until a maximum is reached.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.2.1.2 Bit in Word References
Bit in word referencing allows you to specify individual bits in a word reference type as inputs
and outputs of Boolean expressions, functions, and calls that accept bit parameters (such as
parameterized blocks). This feature is restricted to word references in retentive memory. The
bit number in the bit within word construct must be a constant.
You can use the programmer or an HMI to set an individual bit on or off within a word, or
monitor a bit within a word. Also, C blocks can read, modify, and write a bit within a word.
Bit in Word references can be used in the following situations:
■
■
■
In retentive 16-bit memory (AI, AQ, R, W, P, and L) and symbolics.
On all contacts and coils except legacy transition contacts (POSCON/NEGCON) and
transition coils (POSCOIL/NEGCOIL).
On all functions and call parameters that accept single or unaligned bit parameters.
Functions that accept
unaligned discrete references
Parameters
ARRAY MOVE (BIT)
SR and DS
ARRAY RANGE (BIT)
Q
MOVE (BIT)
IN and Q
SHFR (BIT)
IN, ST and Q
The use of Bit in Word references has the following restrictions:
■
■
■
■
■
Bit in Word references cannot be used on legacy transition contacts
(POSCON/NEGCON) and transition coils (POSCON/NEGCON).
The bit number (index) must be a constant; it cannot be a variable.
Bit addressing is not supported for a constant.
Indirect references cannot be used to address bits in 16-bit memory.
You cannot force a bit within 16-bit memory.
Examples: :
%R2.X [0] addresses the first (least significant) bit of %R2
%R2.X [1] addresses the second bit of %R2. In the examples
In the examples [0] and [1] are the bit indexes. Valid bit indexes for the different variable
types are:
BYTE variable
WORD, INT, or UINT variable
DWORD or DINT variable
120
[0] through [7]
[0] through [15]
[0] through [31]
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7.2.2
Bit (Discrete) References
Type
Description
%I
Represents input references. %I references are located in the input status table, which stores
the state of all inputs received from input modules during the last input scan. A reference
address is assigned to discrete input modules using your programming software. Until a
reference address is assigned, no data will be received from the module. %I memory is always
retentive.
%Q
Represents physical output references. The coil check function checks for multiple uses of %Q
references with relay coils or outputs on functions. You can select the level of coil checking
desired (Single, Warn Multiple, or Multiple).
%Q references are located in the output status table, which stores the state of the output
references as last set by the application program. This output status table’s values are sent to
output modules at the end of the program scan. A reference address is assigned to discrete
output modules using your programming software. Until a reference address is assigned, no
data is sent to the module. A particular %Q reference may be either retentive or non-retentive.
%M
Represents internal references. The coil check function of your programming software checks
for multiple uses of %M references with relay coils or outputs on functions. A particular %M
reference may be either retentive or non-retentive.
%T Represents temporary references. These references are never checked for multiple coil use
and can, therefore, be used many times in the same program even when coil use checking is
enabled—this is not a recommended practice because it makes subsequent trouble-shooting
more difficult. %T may be used to prevent coil use conflicts while using the cut/paste and file
write/include functions. Because this memory is intended for temporary use, it is cleared on
Stop-to-Run transitions and cannot be used with retentive coils.
%S Represent system status references. These references are used to access special CPU data
%SA such as timers, scan information, and fault information. For example, the %SC0012 bit can be
%SB used to check the status of the Controller Fault table. Once the bit is set on by an error, it will
%SC not be reset until after the sweep. %S, %SA, %SB, and %SC can be used on any contacts.
■ %SA, %SB, and %SC can be used on retentive coils -(M)-.
Note: Although the programming software forces the logic to use retentive coils with %SA,
%SB, and %SC references, most of these references are not preserved across power
cycles regardless of the state of the Energy Pack if one exists.
%S can be used as word or bit-string input arguments to functions or function blocks.
%SA, %SB, and %SC can be used as word or bit-string input or output arguments to functions
and function blocks.
For a description of the behavior of each bit, see “System Status References” on page 125.
%G
Note:
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Represents global data references. These references are used to access data shared among
several control systems.
For details on retentiveness, refer to “Retentiveness of Logic and Data” on page 123.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.3
User Reference Size and Default
Maximum user references and default reference sizes are listed in the table below.
Item
Range
Default
Reference Points
%I reference
32768 bits
32768 bits
%Q reference
32768 bits
32768 bits
%M reference
32768 bits
32768 bits
%S total (S, SA, SB, SC) 512 bits
(128 each)
512 bits
(128 each)
%T reference
1024 bits
1024 bits
%G
7680 points
7680 points
Total Reference Points
107520
107520
%AI reference
0—32640 words
64 words
%AQ reference
0—32640 words
64 words
Reference Words
%R, 1K word increments 0—32640 words
1024 words
%W
0—maximum available user RAM
0 words
Total Reference Words
0—maximum available user RAM
1152 words
%L (per block)
8192 words
8192 words
%P (per program)
8192 words
8192 words
Symbolic Discrete
0—83,886,080 (bits)
32768
Symbolic Non-Discrete
0—5,242,880 (words)
65536
I/O Discrete
0 through 83,886,080
0
I/O Non-Discrete
0 through 5,242,880.
0
Total Symbolic
0—42,088,704 bytes
143360
(This is the total memory available for the combined total
of symbolic memory. This also includes other user
memory use, program etc.)
Managed Memory
7.3.1
%G User References and CPU Memory Locations
The CPU contains one data space for all of the global data references (%G). The internal
CPU memory for this data is 7680 bits long.
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7.4
Transitions and Overrides
The %I, %Q, %M, and %G user references, and symbolic variables of type BOOL, have
associated transition and override bits. %T, %S, %SA, %SB, and %SC references have
transition bits but not override bits. The CPU uses transition bits for counters, transitional
contacts, and transitional coils. Note that counters do not use the same kind of transition bits
as contacts and coils. Transition bits for counters are stored within the locating reference.
The transition bit for a reference tells whether the most recent value (ON, OFF) written to the
reference is the same as the previous value of the reference. Therefore when a reference is
written and its new value is the same as its previous value, its transition bit is turned OFF.
When its new value is different from its previous value, its transition bit is turned ON. The
transition bit for a reference is affected every time the reference is written to. The source of
the write is immaterial; it can result from a coil execution, an executed function’s output, the
updating of reference memory after an input scan, etc.
When override bits are set, the associated references cannot be changed from the program
or the input device; they can only be changed on command from the programmer. Overrides
do not protect transition bits. If an attempted write occurs to an overridden memory location,
the corresponding transition bit is cleared.
7.5
Retentiveness of Logic and Data
Data is defined as retentive if it is saved by the CPU when the CPU transitions from STOP
mode to RUN mode.
The following items are retentive:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
program logic
fault tables and diagnostics
checksums for program logic
overrides and output forces
word data (%R, %W, %L, %P, %AI, %AQ)
bit data (%I, %G, and reserved bits)
%Q and %M variables that are configured as retentive (%T data is non-retentive and
therefore not saved on STOP to RUN transitions.)
symbolic variables that have a data type other than BOOL
symbolic variables of BOOL type that are configured as retentive
Retentive data is also preserved during power-cycles of the CPU with Energy Pack
backup. Exceptions to this rule include most of the %S, %SA, %SB, and %SC
references. These references are initialized to zero at power-up regardless of the state of
the Energy Pack if one exists. (See page 125 for a description of the behavior of each
system status reference.)
When %Q or %M variables are configured as retentive, the contents are retained through
power loss and Run-to-Stop-to-Run transitions.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.6
Data Scope
Each of the user references has “scope”; that is, it may be available throughout the system,
available to all programs, restricted to a single program, or restricted to local use within a
block.
User Reference Type
Range
Scope
%I, %Q, %M, %T, %S, %SA, %SB,
%SC, %G, %R, %W, %AI, %AQ,
convenience references
Global
From any program, block, or host
computer. Variables defined in these
registers have system (global) scope by
default. However, variables with local
scope can also be assigned in these
registers.
Symbolic variable
Global
From any program, block, or host
computer. Symbolic variables have
system (global) scope by default.
However, symbolic variables with local
scope can be created using the naming
conventions for local variables.
I/O variable
Global
From any program, block, or host
computer.
%P
Program
From any block, but not from other
programs (also available to a host
computer).
%L
Local
From within a block only (also available to
a host computer).
In an LD block:
■
■
■
124
%P should be used for program references that are shared with other blocks.
%L are local references that can be used to restrict the use of register data to that block.
These local references are not available to other parts of the program.
%I, %Q, %M, %T, %S, %SA, %SB, %SC, %G, %R, %W, %AI, and %AQ references are
available throughout the system.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
System Status References
7.7
System status references in the CPU are assigned to %S, %SA, %SB, and %SC memory.
The four timed contacts (time tick references) include #T_10MS, #T_100MS, #T_SEC, and
#T_MIN. Examples of other system status references include #FST_SCN, #ALW_ON, and
#ALW_OFF
Note:
%S bits are read-only bits; do not write to these bits. You may, however, write to
%SA, %SB, and %SC bits.
Listed below are available system status references that may be used in an application
program. When entering logic, either the reference or the nickname can be used. Refer to
“Chapter 8, Diagnostics” for detailed fault descriptions and information on correcting faults.
7.7.1
%S References
Reference
Name
Definition
%S0001
#FST_SCN Current sweep is the first sweep in which the LD executed. Set the first time the user
program is executed after a Stop/Run transition and cleared upon completion of its
execution.
%S0002
#LST_SCN
Set when the CPU transitions to run mode and cleared when the CPU is performing its
final sweep. The CPU clears this bit and then performs one more complete sweep
before transitioning to Stop or Stop Faulted mode. If the number of last scans is
configured to be 0, %S0002 will be cleared after the CPU is stopped and user logic will
not see this bit cleared.
%S0003
#T_10MS
0.01 second timed contact.
%S0004
#T_100MS
0.1 second timed contact.
%S0005
#T_SEC
1.0 second timed contact.
%S0006
#T_MIN
1.0 minute timed contact.
%S0007
#ALW_ON
%S0008
#ALW_OFF Always OFF.
%S0009
#SY_FULL
Set when the Controller Fault table fills up (size configurable with a default of 16 entries).
Cleared when an entry is removed from the Controller Fault table and when the fault
table is cleared.
%S0010
#IO_FULL
Set when the I/O fault table fills up (size configurable with a default of 32 entries).
Cleared when an entry is removed from the I/O fault table and when the I/O fault table is
cleared.
%S0011
Always ON.
#OVR_PRE Set when an override exists in %I, %Q, %M, or %G, or symbolic BOOL memory.
%S0012
#FRC_PRE Reserved.
%S0013
#PRG_CHK Set when background program check is active.
%S0014
#PLC_BAT
Note:
Energy Pack is connected and functioning = 0
Energy Pack is not connected or has failed = 1
The #FST_EXE name is not associated with a %S address; it must be referenced by the name “#FST_EXE”
only. This bit is set when transitioning from Stop to Run and indicates that the current sweep is the first
time this block has been called.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.7.2
%SA, %SB, and %SC References
Note:
Reference
Name
%SA0001
#PB_SUM
Set when a checksum calculated on the application program does not match the
reference checksum. If the fault was due to a temporary failure, the condition can be
cleared by storing the program again to the CPU. If the fault was due to a memory
failure, the Controller must be replaced.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0002
#OV_SWP
Set when the CPU detects that the previous sweep took longer than the time specified
by the user. To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the
Controller. Only occurs if the Controller is in Constant Sweep mode.
%SA0003
#APL_FLT
Set when an application fault occurs. To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or
power cycle the Controller.
%SA0009
#CFG_MM
Set when a configuration mismatch fault is logged in the fault tables. To clear this bit,
clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0008
#OVR_TMP Set when the operating temperature of the Controller exceeds the normal operating
temperature. To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the
Controller.
%SA0010
#HRD_CPU Set when the diagnostics detects a problem with the CPU hardware. To clear this bit,
clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0013
#LOS_IOC
Set when a Bus Controller stops communicating with the CPU.
To clear this bit, clear the I/O fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0014
#LOS_IOM
Set when an I/O module stops communicating with the CPU.
To clear this bit, clear the I/O fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0015
#LOS_SIO
Reserved.
%SA0022
#IOC_FLT
Set when a Bus Controller reports a bus fault, a global memory fault, or an IOC
hardware fault. To clear this bit, clear the I/O fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0023
#IOM_FLT
Set when an I/O module reports a circuit or module fault.
To clear this bit, clear the I/O fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0027
#HRD_SIO
Reserved.
%SA0029
#SFT_IOC
Set when there is a software failure in the embedded PNC.
To clear this bit, clear the I/O Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SA0081 –
%SA0112
126
%SA, %SB, and %SC contacts are not set or reset until the input scan phase of the
sweep following the occurrence of the fault or a clearing of the fault table(s). %SA,
%SB, and %SC contacts can also be set or reset by user logic and CPU monitoring
devices.
Definition
Set when a user-defined fault is logged in the Controller Fault table.
To clear these bits, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller. Userdefined faults are created using SVC_REQ 21.
%SB0001
#WIND_ER Set when there is not enough time to start the Programmer Window in Constant Sweep
mode. To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SB0009
#NO_PROG Set when the CPU powers up with memory preserved, but no user program is present.
Cleared when the CPU powers up with a program present or by clearing the Controller
Fault table.
%SB0010
#BAD_RAM Set when the CPU detects corrupted user memory at power-up. Cleared when the CPU
detects that user memory is valid at power-up or by clearing the Controller Fault table.
%SB0011
#BAD_PWD Set when a password access violation occurs. Cleared when
the Controller Fault table is cleared or when the Controller is power cycled.
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Reference
Name
Definition
%SB0012
#NUL_CFG Set when an attempt is made to put the CPU in Run mode when there is no
configuration data present.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SB0013
#SFT_CPU Set when the CPU detects an error in the CPU operating system software.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SB0014
#STOR_ER Set when an error occurs during a programmer store operation.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SB0016
#MAX_IOC
Set when more than 32 IOCs are configured for the system.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SB0017
#SBUS_FL
Set when the CPU fails to gain access to the bus.
To clear this bit, clear the Controller Fault table or power cycle the Controller.
%SC0009
#ANY_FLT
Set when any fault occurs that causes an entry to be placed in the CPU or I/O fault table.
Cleared when both fault tables are cleared or when the Controller is power cycled.
%SC0010
#SY_FLT
Set when any fault occurs that causes an entry to be placed in the Controller Fault table.
Cleared when the Controller Fault table is cleared or when the Controller is power
cycled.
%SC0011
#IO_FLT
Set when any fault occurs that causes an entry to be placed in the I/O fault table.
Cleared when the I/O fault table is cleared or when the Controller is power cycled.
%SC0012
#SY_PRES Set as long as there is at least one entry in the Controller Fault table. Cleared when the
Controller Fault table is cleared.
%SC0013
#IO_PRES
Set as long as there is at least one entry in the I/O fault table. Cleared when the I/O fault
table is cleared.
%SC0014
#HRD_FLT
Set when a hardware fault occurs. Cleared when both fault tables are cleared or when
the Controller is power cycled.
%SC0015
#SFT_FLT
Set when a software fault occurs. Cleared when both fault tables are cleared or when
the Controller is power cycled.
Fault references consist of System Fault References, Configurable Fault References and
Non-Configurable Fault References. These are discussed in “8.3, System Handling of
Faults.”
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
How Program Functions Handle Numerical Data
7.8
Regardless of where data is stored in memory – in one of the bit memories or one of the word
memories – the application program can handle it as different data types.
7.8.1
Data Types
Type
Name
Description
BOOL
Boolean
The smallest unit of memory. Has two states, 1 or 0. A
BOOL array may have length N.
BYTE
Byte
Has an 8-bit value. Has 256 values (0–255). A BYTE
array may have length N.
WORD
Word
Uses 16 consecutive bits of data memory. The valid
range of word values is 0000 hex to FFFF hex.
DWORD
Double Word
Has the same characteristics as a single word data
type, except that it uses 32 consecutive bits in data
memory instead of only 16 bits.
UINT
Unsigned
Integer
Uses 16-bit memory data locations. They have a valid
range of 0 to +65535 (FFFF hex).
INT
Signed
Integer
Uses 16-bit memory data locations, and are
represented in 2’s complement notation. The valid
range of an INT data type is –32768 to +32767.
DINT
Double
Precision
Integer
REAL
Floating Point
LREAL
Double
Precision
Floating Point
Data Format
Register
(16 bit states)
1
16
1
Register 2
32
128
Four-Digit
BCD
17
16
(32 bit states)
1
Register
(Binary value)
1
16
1
Register 1
S
16
(Two’s
Complement
1 value)
s=sign bit (0=positive,
1=negative)
Register 1
Stored in 32-bit data memory locations (two consecutive Register 2
s
16-bit memory locations). Always signed values (bit 32
32
17 16
1
is the sign bit). The valid range of a DINT data type is
(Binary value)
-2147483648 to +2147483647
s=sign bit (0=positive,
1=negative)
Register 2
Register 1
Uses 32 consecutive bits (two consecutive 16-bit
memory locations). The range of numbers that can be
32
17
16
1
stored in this format is from ±1.401298E-45 to
(IEEE
format)
±3.402823E+38. For the IEEE format, refer to “Floating
Point Numbers” on page 130.
Register 2
Register 1
Uses 64 consecutive bits (four consecutive 16-bit
memory locations). The range of numbers that can be
32
17
16
1
stored in this format is from ±2.2250738585072020E308 to ±1.7976931348623157E+308. For the IEEE
Register 4
Register 3
format, refer to “Floating Point Numbers” on page 130.
64
BCD-4
Register 1
Uses 16-bit data memory locations. Each binary coded
decimal (BCD) digit uses four bits and can represent
numbers between 0 and 9. This BCD coding of the 16
bits has a legal value range of 0 to 9999.
49
48
(IEEE format)
33
Register 1
4 3 2 1
13 9 5 1
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
Type
Name
Description
Data Format
BCD-8
Eight-Digit
BCD
Register 2
Register 1
Uses two consecutive 16-bit data memory locations (32
8 7 6 5
4 3 8 1
consecutive bits). Each BCD digit uses 4 bits per digit to
represent numbers from 0 to 9. The complete valid
32 29 25 21 17 16 13 9 5 1
range of the 8-digit BCD data type is 0 to 99999999.
(8 BCD digits)
MIXED
Mixed
Available only with the MUL and DIV functions. The
MUL function takes two integer inputs and produces a
double integer result. The DIV function takes a double
integer dividend and an integer divisor to product an
integer result.
ASCII
ASCII
Note:
GFK-2816
16
16
32
=
32
16
16
=
Eight-bit encoded characters. A single word reference is
required to make two (packed) ASCII characters. The
first character of the pair corresponds to the low byte of
the reference word. The remaining 7 bits in each section
are converted.
Using functions that are not explicitly bit-typed will affect transitions for all bits in the written
byte/word/dword. For information about using floating point numbers, refer to “Floating Point
Numbers” on page 130.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.8.2
Floating Point Numbers
Floating point numbers are stored in one of two IEEE 754 standard formats that uses
adjacent 16-bit words: 32-bit single precision or 64-bit double precision.
The REAL data type represents single precision floating point numbers. The LREAL data
type represents double precision floating point numbers. REAL and LREAL variables are
typically used to store data from analog I/O devices, calculated values, and constants.
Types of Floating Point Variables
Data Type
Precision and Range
REAL
Limited to 6 or 7 significant digits, with a range of approximately
±1.401298x10-45 through ±3.402823x1038.
LREAL
Limited to 17 significant digits, with a range of approximately
±2.2250738585072020x10-308 to ±1.7976931348623157x10308.
Note:
The programming software allows 32-bit and 64-bit arguments (DWORD, DINT,
REAL, and LREAL) to be placed in discrete memories such as %I, %M, and %R in the
PACSystems target.
7.8.2.1 Internal Format of REAL Numbers
Bits 17-32
Bits 1-16
32
17 16
1
23-bit mantissa
8-bit exponent
1-bit sign (Bit 32)
Register use by a single floating point number is diagrammed below. For example, if the
floating point number occupies registers R5 and R6, R5 is the least significant register and
R6 is the most significant register.
Most Significant Register
Bits 17-32
32
Least Significant Register
Bits 1-16
17
Most Significant Bit
Least Significant Bit
16
1
Most Significant Bit
Least Significant Bit
7.8.2.2 Internal Format of LREAL Numbers
Bits 49-64
Bits 33-48
Bits 17-32
Bits 1-16
1
52-bit mantissa
11-bit exponent
1-bit sign (Bit 64)
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7.8.2.3 Errors in Floating Point Numbers and Operations
Overflow occurs when a REAL or LREAL function generates a number outside the allowed
range. When this occurs, the Enable Out output of the function is set Off, and the result is set
to positive infinity (for a number greater than the upper limit) or negative infinity (for a number
less than the lower limit). You can determine where this occurs by testing the sense of the
Enable Out output.
Binary representations of Infinity and NaN values have exponents that contain all 1s.
IEEE 754 Infinity Representations
REAL
POS_INF (positive infinity)
LREAL
= 7F800000h = 7FF0000000000000h
NEG_INF (negative infinity) = FF800000h = 7FF0000000000001h
If the infinities produced by overflow are used as operands to other REAL or LREAL
functions, they may cause an undefined result. This undefined result is referred to as an NaN
(Not a Number). For example, the result of adding positive infinity to negative infinity is
undefined. When the ADD_REAL function is invoked with positive infinity and negative infinity
as its operands, it produces an NaN. If any operand of a function is a NaN, the result will be
some NaN.
Note:
For NaN, the Enable Out output is Off (not energized).
IEEE 754 Representations of NaN values:
Note:
GFK-2816
REAL
LREAL
7F800001 through 7FFFFFFF
7FF8000000000001 through 7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FF800001 through FFFFFFFF
FFF0000000000001 through FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
For releases 5.0 and greater, the CPU may return slightly different values for NaN
compared to previous releases. In some cases, the result is a special type of NaN
displayed as #IND in Machine Edition. In these cases, for example, EXP(-infinity),
power flow out of the function is identical to that in previous releases.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.9
User Defined Types:
A UDT is a structured data type consisting of elements of other selected data types. Each
top-level UDT element can be one of the following:
Top-level UDT Element
Example
Simple data type, except STRING
INT
Another UDT, except any in which the current UDT is
nested at any level.
Note: A UDT cannot be nested within itself.
A UDT named UDT_ABC has a top-level element whose
data type is another UDT, named UDT_2.
Array of a simple data type
LREAL array of length 8.
Array of UDTs
Note: A UDT cannot be nested within itself.
A UDT named UDT_ABC has a top-level element that is an
array whose data type is another UDT, named UDT_row.
7.9.1
Working with UDTs
1.
2.
3.
4.
7.9.2
In PROFICY Machine Edition, add a UDT as a
node under a target in the Project tab of the
Navigator.
A UDT is saved with the target it’s used in.
Edit the UDT properties and define the elements in
UDT’s structure.
Create a variable whose data type is the UDT.
By default, the variable resides in symbolic memory. You can convert the symbolic
variable to an I/O variable by assigning it to an I/O terminal.
Use the variable in logic.
the
UDT Properties
Name: The UDT’s name. Maximum length: 32 characters.
Description: The user-defined description of the UDT.
Memory Type: The type of symbolic or I/O variable memory in which a variable of this UDT
resides.
Non-Discrete: (Default) Word-oriented memory organized in groups of 16 contiguous bits.
Discrete: Bit-oriented memory.
Notes: You cannot nest a UDT of one memory type in a UDT of a different memory type.
Changing the memory type propagates to existing variables of this UDT only after
target validation.
Is Fixed Size: If set to True, you can increase the Size (Bytes) value to a maximum of 65,535
bytes to create a buffer at the end of the UDT. The buffer is included in the memory allocated
to every downloaded variable of that UDT data type. Use of a buffer may allow run mode
store of a UDT when the size of the UDT definition has changed. For details, see page 133.
If set to False (default), the Size (Bytes) value is read-only and does not include a buffer at
the end of the UDT.
Size (bytes): (Read-only when Is Fixed Size is set to False.) The total number of bytes
required to store a structure variable of the user-defined data type (UDT).
Bytes Remaining: (Read-only; displayed if Is Fixed Size is set to True.) The UDT's buffer
size; the number of bytes available before the actual size of the UDT reaches the value of the
Size (bytes) property.
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7.9.3
UDT Limits


Maximum number of UDTs per target: 2048
Maximum UDT size: 65,535 bytes
Note: Bit spares created to line up the end of a section of BOOL variables or arrays
with the end of a byte will count toward the maximum size.



Maximum number of top-level UDT elements: 1024
Maximum array size of a top-level UDT element: 1024 array elements
UDTs do not support the following:
Two-dimensional arrays
Function block data types
Enumerated data types
You cannot nest a UDT of one memory type in a UDT of a different memory type.




7.9.4
You cannot alias a variable to a UDT variable or UDT variable element.
A FAULT contact supports a BOOL element of a UDT I/O variable, but not a BOOL
element of a UDT parameter in a UDFB or parameterized block.
POSCON and NEGCON do not support BOOL elements of UDT parameters in
parameterized blocks or UDFBs.
Run Mode Store of UDTs
An RMS can be performed on a target that contains a variable of a UDT, unless:






GFK-2816
An operation in the UDT editor modifies the offset or bit mask of an element that has the
same name before and after the operation.
The size of the UDT definition increases.
Array length increases.
The memory type of the UDT definition changes.
There is a data type change in the UDT definition, except for the following
interchangeable data types:
WORD, INT, UINT
DWORD, DINT
The UDT definition is renamed.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
7.9.5
UDT Operational Notes



By default, a UDT variable resides in symbolic memory. You can convert the symbolic
variable to an I/O variable.
All UDT elements are public and, therefore, readable and writeable.
Properties of elements of UDT variables:
The Input Transfer List and Output Transfer List properties are read-only and set to
False.
The Retentive property is editable only for BOOLs and only if the UDT Memory Type is
discrete. For UDTs whose Memory Type is non-discrete, a BOOL variable has its
Retentive property set to True during validation.

UDT variables are supported in LD, FBD, and ST blocks, as well as in Diagnostic Logic
Blocks.
For additional operational notes, refer to the programmer Help.
7.10
Operands for Instructions
The operands for PACSystems instructions can be in the following forms:
■
■
Constants
Variables that are located in any of the PACSystems memory areas (%I, %Q, %M,
%T, %G, %S, %SA, %SB, %SC, %R, %W, %L, %P, %AI, %AQ)
■ Symbolic variables, including I/O variables
■ Parameters of a Parameterized block or C block
■ Power flow
■ Data flow
■ Computed references such as indirect references or bit-in-word references
■ BOOL arrays
An operand’s type and length must be compatible with that of the parameter it is being
passed into. PACSystems instructions and functions have the following operand restrictions:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
134
Constants cannot be used as operands to output parameters because output values
cannot be written to constants.
Variables located in %S memory cannot be used as operands to output parameters
because %S memory is read-only.
Variables located in %S, %SA, %SB, and %SC memories cannot be used as operands to
numerical parameters such as INTs, DINTs, REALs, LREALs, etc.
Data flow is prohibited on some input parameters of some functions. This occurs when
the function, during the course of its execution, actually writes a value to the input
parameter. Data flow is prohibited in these cases because data flow is stored in a
temporary memory and any updated value assigned to it would be inaccessible to the
user application.
The arguments to EN, OK, and many other BOOLEAN input and output parameters are
restricted to be power flow.
Restrictions on using Parameterized block or External block parameters as operands to
instructions or functions are documented in “6.1.5.2, Parameterized Blocks.”
References in discrete memory (I, Q, M, and T) must be byte-aligned.
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Chapter 7. CPU Program Data
Note the following:
■
■
Indirect references, which are available for all WORD-oriented memories (%R, %W, %P,
%L, %AI, %AQ), can be used as arguments to instructions wherever located variables in
the corresponding WORD-oriented memory are allowed. Note that indirect references are
converted into their corresponding direct references immediately before they are passed
into an instruction or function.
Bit-in-word references are generally allowed on contact and coil instructions other than
transition contacts and coils. They are also allowed as arguments to function parameters
that accept single or unaligned bits.
BOOL arrays can be used as parameters to an instruction instead of variables of other data
types. The array must be of sufficient length to replace the given data type. For example,
instead of using a 16-bit INT variable, you could use a BOOL array of length 16 or more.
The following conditions must be met:




The BOOL array must be byte-aligned, that is, the reference address of the first element
of the BOOL array must be 8n + 1, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on. For example,
%M00033 is byte-aligned, because 33 = (8 × 4) + 1.
The parameter in question must support discrete memory reference addresses.
The instruction in question must not have a Length parameter. (The Length parameter is
displayed as ?? in the LD editor until a value is assigned.)
The data type to be replaced with a BOOL array must be one of the following:
Data Type

7.11
Minimum Length
BYTE
8
INT, UINT, WORD
16
DINT, DWORD, REAL
32
REAL
64
Excess bits are ignored. For example, if you use a BOOL array of length 12 instead of an
8-bit BYTE, the last four bits of the BOOL array are ignored.
Word-for-Word Changes
Many changes to the program that do not modify the size of the program are considered
word-for-word changes. Examples include changing the type of contact or coil, or changing a
reference address used for an existing function block.
Symbolic Variables
Creating, deleting, or modifying a symbolic variable definition is not a word-for-word change.
The following are word-for-word changes:
■
■
■
GFK-2816
Switching between two symbolic variables
Switching between an symbolic variable and a mapped variable
Switching between a constant and a symbolic variable
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Chapter 8. Diagnostics
This chapter explains the PACSystems fault handling system, provides definitions of fault
extra data, and suggests corrective actions for faults.
Faults occur in the control system when certain failures or conditions happen that affect the
operation and performance of the system. Some conditions, such as the loss of an I/O
module, may impair the ability of the PACSystems controller to control a machine or process.
Other conditions, such as when a new module comes online and becomes available for use,
may be displayed to inform or alert the user.
Any detected fault is recorded in the controller fault table or the I/O fault table, as applicable.
Information in this chapter is organized as follows:
■ Fault Handling Overview
■ Using the Fault Tables
■ System Handling of Faults
■ Controller Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
■ I/O Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
8.1
136
138
142
150
150
Fault Handling Overview:
The PACSystems CPU detects three classes of faults:
Fault Class
8.1.1
Examples
Internal Failures (Hardware)
Non-responding modules
Memory checksum errors
External I/O Failures (Hardware)
Loss of module
Addition or module
Operational Failures
Communication failures
Configuration failures
Password access failures
System Response to Faults
Hardware failures require that either the system be shut down or the failure be tolerated. I/O
failures may be tolerated by the control system, but they may be intolerable by the application
or the process being controlled. Operational failures are normally tolerated.
Faults have three attributes:
8.1.2
Fault Table Affected
I/O fault table
controller fault table
Fault Action
Fatal
Diagnostic
Informational
Configurability
Configurable
Nonconfigurable
Fault Tables
The PACSystems CPU maintains two fault tables, the Controller Fault table for internal CPU
faults and the I/O Fault table for faults generated by I/O devices (including I/O controllers).
For more information, see “Using the Fault Tables” on page 138.
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8.1.3
Fault Actions and Fault Action Configuration
Fatal faults cause the fault to be recorded in the appropriate table, diagnostic variables to be
set, and the system to be stopped. Only fatal faults cause the system to stop.
Diagnostic faults are recorded in the appropriate table, and any diagnostic variables are set.
Informational faults are only recorded in the appropriate table.
Fault Action
Response by CPU
Fatal
Log fault in fault table.
Set fault references.
Go to Stop/Fault mode.
Diagnostic
Log fault in fault table.
Set fault references.
Informational
Log fault in fault table.
The hardware configuration can be used to specify the fault action of some fault groups. For
these groups, the fault action can be configured as either fatal or diagnostic. When a fatal or
diagnostic fault within a configurable group occurs, the CPU executes the configured fault
action instead of the action specified within the fault.
Note:
The fault action displayed in the expanded fault details indicates the fault action
specified by the fault that was logged, but not necessarily the executed fault action.
To determine what action was executed for a particular fault in a configurable fault
group, you must refer to the hardware configuration settings.
Faults that are part of configurable fault groups:
Fault Action Displayed
in Fault Table
Informational
Diagnostic
Fatal
Fault Action Executed
Informational
Diagnostic or Fatal.
Determined by action
selected in Hardware
Configuration.
Diagnostic or Fatal.
Determined by action
selected in Hardware
Configuration.
Faults that are part of nonconfigurable fault groups:
GFK-2816
Fault Action Displayed in
Fault Table
Informational
Diagnostic
Fatal
Fault Action Executed
Informational
Diagnostic
Fatal
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.2
Using the Fault Tables
To display the fault tables in Logic Developer software,
1. Go online with the PACSystems.
2. Select the Project tab in the Navigator, right click the Target node and choose
Diagnostics. The Fault Table Viewer appears.
The controller fault table and the I/O fault table display the following information:
Controller Time/Date The current date and time of the CPU.
8.2.1
Last Cleared
The date and time faults were last cleared from the fault table. This information
is maintained by the PACSystems controller.
Status
Displays “Updating” while the programmer is reading the fault table. Status is
“Online” when update is complete.
Total Faults
The total number of faults since the table was last cleared.
Entries Overflowed
The number of entries lost because the fault table has overflowed since it was
cleared. Each fault table can contain up to 64 faults.
Controller Fault Table
The controller fault table displays CPU faults such as password violations, configuration
mismatches, parity errors, and communications errors.
The controller fault table provides the following information for each fault:
138
Location
Identifies the location of the fault by rack.slot (always 0.0 for the RXi Controller).
Description
Corresponds to a fault group, which is identified in the fault Details.
Date/Time
The date and time the fault occurred based on the CPU clock.
Details
To view detailed information, click the fault entry. See “Viewing Controller Fault
Details” for more information.
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8.2.1.1 Viewing Controller Fault Details
Note:
The fault action displayed in the expanded fault details indicates the fault action
specified by the fault that was logged, but not necessarily the executed fault action.
To determine what action was executed for a particular fault in a configurable fault
group, you must refer to the hardware configuration settings.
To see controller fault details, click the fault entry. The detailed information box for the fault
appears. (To close this box, click the fault.)
The detailed information for controller faults includes the following:
Error Code
Further identifies the fault. Each fault group has its own set of error codes.
Group
Group is the highest classification of a fault and identifies the general category
of the fault. The fault description text displayed by your programming software
is based on the fault group and the error codes.
Fatal, Diagnostic, or Informational. For definitions of these actions, refer to
page 137.
Not used for most faults. When used, provides additional information for
Technical Support representatives.
Provides additional information for diagnostics by Technical Support engineers.
Explanations of this information are provided as appropriate for specific faults
in “Controller Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions” on page 150.
Action
Task Number
Fault Extra Data
8.2.1.2 User Defined Faults
User-defined faults can be logged in the controller fault table. When a user-defined fault
occurs, it is displayed in the appropriate fault table as “Application Msg (error_code):” and
may be followed by a descriptive message up to 24 characters. The user can define all
characters in the descriptive message. Although the message must end with the null
character, e.g., zero (0), the null character does not count as one of the 24 characters. If the
message contains more than 24 characters, only the first 24 characters are displayed.
Certain user-defined faults can be used to set a system status reference
(%SA0081–%SA0112).
User-defined faults are created using Service Request 21.
Note:
GFK-2816
When a user-defined fault is displayed in the Controller Fault table, a value of -32768
(8000 hex) is added to the error code. For example, the error code 5 will be displayed
as -32763.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.2.2
I/O Fault Table
The I/O fault table displays I/O faults such as circuit faults, address conflicts, forced circuits,
I/O module addition/loss faults and I/O bus faults.
The fault table displays a maximum of 64 faults. When the fault table is full, it displays the
earliest 32 faults (33—64) and the last 32 faults (1—32). When another fault is received, fault
32 is shoved out of the table. In this way, the first 32 faults are preserved for the user to view.
The I/O fault table provides the following information for each fault:
Location
CIRC No.
Variable Name
Ref. Address
Fault Category
Fault Type
Date/Time
Details
140
Identifies the location of the fault by rack.slot.device.rack.slot.subslot. (For an RXi
Controller, the rack.slot designation is always 0.0.)
When applicable, identifies the specific I/O point on the module.
If the fault is on a point that is mapped to an I/O variable, and the variable is set to
publish (either internal or external), the I/O fault table displays the variable name.
Unpublished I/O variables will not be displayed in this field.
If the fault is on a point that is mapped to a reference address, this field identifies the
I/O memory type and location (offset) that corresponds to the point experiencing the
fault.
Note: The Reference Address field displays 16 bits and %W memory has a 32-bit
range. Addresses in %W are displayed correctly for offsets in the 16-bit
range (65,535). For %W offsets greater than 16-bits, the I/O Fault Table
displays a blank reference address.
Specifies a general classification of the fault.
Consists of subcategories under certain fault categories. Set to zero when not
applicable to the category.
The date and time the fault occurred based on the CPU clock.
To view detailed information, click the fault entry. See “Viewing I/O Fault Details” for
more information.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.2.2.1 Viewing I/O Fault Details
To see I/O fault details, click the fault entry. The detailed information box for the fault
appears. (To close this box, click the fault.)
The detailed information for I/O faults includes:
I/O Bus
This number is always 1.
Bus Address
The serial bus address of the device that reported or has the fault.
Point Address
Identifies the point on the I/O device that has the fault when the fault is a
point-type fault.
Fault group is the highest classification of a fault. It identifies the general
category of the fault.
Fatal, Diagnostic, or Informational. For definitions of these actions, refer to
page 137.
Identifies the category of the fault.
Group
Action
Category
Fault Type
Fault Extra Data
Fault Description
GFK-2816
Identifies the fault type by number. Set to zero when not applicable to the
category.
Provides additional information for diagnostics by Technical Support
engineers. Explanations of this information are provided as appropriate for
specific faults in “I/O Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions” on page 150.
Provides a specific fault code when the I/O fault category is a circuit fault
(discrete circuit fault, analog circuit fault, low-level analog fault) or module
fault. It is set to zero for other fault categories.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.3
System Handling of Faults
The system fault references listed below can be used to identify the specific type of fault that
has occurred. (A complete list of system status references is provided in 7.7, System Status
References.)
8.3.1
System Fault References
System Fault
Reference
Address
Description
#ANY_FLT
%SC0009
Any new fault in either table since the last power-up or clearing
of the fault tables.
#SY_FLT
%SC0010
Any new system fault in the controller fault table since the last
power-up or clearing of the fault tables.
#IO_FLT
%SC0011
Any new fault in the I/O fault table since the last power-up or
clearing of the fault tables.
#SY_PRES
%SC0012
Indicates that there is at least one entry in the Controller Fault
table.
#IO_PRES
%SC0013
Indicates that there is at least one entry in the I/O Fault table.
#HRD_FLT
%SC0014
Any hardware fault.
#SFT_FLT
%SC0015
Any software fault.
On power-up, the system fault references are cleared. If a fault occurs, the positive contact
transition of any affected reference is turned on the sweep after the fault occurs. The system
fault references remain on until both fault tables are cleared or All Memory in the CPU is
cleared.
When a system fault reference is set, additional fault references are also set. These other
types of faults are listed in “Fault References for Configurable Faults” on page 143 and “Fault
References for Non-Configurable Faults” on page 144.
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8.3.1.1 Fault References for Configurable Faults
Fault
(Default
Action)
Address
#SBUS_ER
(diagnostic)
%SA0032
System bus error.
#HRD_FLT, #SY_PRES,
#SY_FLT
#SFT_IOC1
(diagnostic)
%SA0029
Non-recoverable software error in an I/O Controller
(IOC).
#IO_FLT, #IO_PRES,
#SFT_FLT
#LOS_RCK2
(diagnostic)
%SA0012
Loss of rack (loss of power) or missing a configured
rack.
#SY_FLT, #SY_PRES,
#IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#LOS_IOC3
(diagnostic)
%SA0013
Loss of I/O Controller or missing a configured Bus
Controller.
#IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#LOS_IOM
(diagnostic)
%SA0014
Loss of I/O module (does not respond), or missing a
configured I/O module.
#IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#LOS_SIO
(diagnostic)
%SA0015
Loss of intelligent module (does not respond), or missing #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
a configured module.
#IOC_FLT
(diagnostic)
%SA0022
Non-fatal bus or I/O Controller error, more than 10 bus
errors in 10 seconds. (Error rate is configurable.)
#IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#CFG_MM
(fatal)
%SA0009
Configuration mismatch. Wrong module type detected.
The CPU does not check the configuration parameter
settings for individual modules.
#SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#OVR_TMP
(diagnostic)
%SA0008
CPU temperature has exceeded its normal operating
temperature.
#SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
Description
May Also Be Set
1
The #SFT_IOC software fault will have the same action as what you set for #LOS_IOC.
When a Loss of Rack or Addition of Rack fault is logged, individual loss or add faults for
each module in that rack are usually not generated.
3
Even if the #LOS_IOC fault is configured as Fatal, the CPU will not go to STOP/FAULT.
2
Note:
GFK-2816
If the fault action for a fault logged to the fault table is informational, the configured
action is not used. For example, if the logged fault action is informational, but you
configure it as fatal, the action is still informational.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.3.1.2 Fault References for Non-Configurable Faults
Fault
Address
Description
Result
#HRD_CPU
(fatal)
%SA0010
CPU hardware fault (such as failed memory
device).
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES, #HRD_FLT
#HRD_SIO
(diagnostic)
%SA0027
Non-fatal hardware fault on any module in the
system, such as failure of a serial port on a
LAN interface module.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES, #HRD_FLT
#SFT_SIO
(diagnostic)
%SA0031
Non-recoverable software error in a LAN
interface module.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES, #SFT_FLT
#PB_SUM
(fatal)
%SA0001
Program or block checksum failure during
power-up or in Run mode.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#LOW_BAT
(diagnostic)
%SA0011
Energy Pack status. For details, see “Battery
Status (Group 18)” on page 147.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#OV_SWP
(diagnostic)
%SA0002
Constant sweep time exceeded.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#SY_FULL
#IO_FULL
(diagnostic)
%SA0022
Controller fault table full (64 entries).
I/O fault table full (64 entries).
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES, #IO_FLT,
#IO_PRES
#APL_FLT
(diagnostic)
%SA0003
Application fault.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#ADD_RCK
%SA0017
Reserved.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#ADD_IOC
(diagnostic)
%SA0018
Extra IOC, or previously faulted I/O Controller
is no longer faulted.
Sets #IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#ADD_IOM
(diagnostic)
%SA0019
Extra IO module, or previously faulted I/O
module is no longer faulted.
Sets #IO_FLT, #IO_PRES
#ADD_SIO
(diagnostic)
%SA0020
New intelligent module is added, or previously
faulted module no longer faulted.
Sets #SY_FLT, #SY_PRES
#IOM_FLT
(diagnostic)
%SA0023
Point or channel on an I/O module; a partial
failure of the module.
Sets #IO_FLT, I#O_PRES
#NO_PROG
(information)
%SB0009
No application program is present at power-up.
Should only occur the first time the Controller
is powered up or if the user memory containing
the program fails.
CPU will not go to Run mode; it
continues executing Stop mode sweep
until a valid program is loaded. This can
be a “null” program that does nothing.
Sets #SY_FLT and #SY_PRES.
#BAD_RAM
(fatal)
%SB0010
Corrupted program memory at power-up.
Sets #SY_FLT and #SY_PRES.
Program could not be read and/or did not pass
checksum tests.
#WIND_ER
(information)
%SB0001
Window completion error. Servicing of
Controller Communications or Logic Window
was skipped. Occurs in Constant Sweep
mode.
Sets #SY_FLT and #SY_PRES.
#BAD_PWD
(information)
%SB0011
Change of privilege level request to a
protection level was denied; bad password.
Sets #SY_FLT and #SY_PRES.
#NUL_CFG
(fatal)
%SB0012
No configuration present upon transition to
Run mode. Running without a configuration is
equivalent to suspending the I/O scans.
Sets #SY_FLT and #SY_PRES.
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Fault
Address
Description
Result
#SFT_CPU
(fatal)
%SB0013
CPU software fault. A non-recoverable error
CPU immediately transitions to Stop-Halt
has been detected in the CPU. May be caused mode. The only activity permitted is
by Watchdog Timer expiring.
communication with the programmer. To
be cleared, controller power must be
cycled. Sets SY_FLT, SY_PRES, and
SFT_FLT.
#STOR_ER
(fatal)
%SB0014
Download of data to CPU from the
programmer failed; some data in CPU may be
corrupted.
8.3.2
CPU will not transition to Run mode. This
fault is not cleared at power-up,
intervention is required to correct it. Sets
SY_FLT and SY_PRES.
Using Fault Contacts
Fault (-[F]-) and no-fault (-[NF]-) contacts can be used to detect the presence of I/O faults in
the system. These contacts cannot be overridden. The following table shows the state of fault
and no-fault contacts.
Condition
[F]
[NF]
Fault Present
Fault Absent
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
An NF contact will be ON (F contact will be OFF) when the referenced I/O point is not faulted,
or the referenced I/O point does not exist in the hardware configuration.
GFK-2816
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.3.3
Using Point Faults
Point faults pertain to external I/O faults, although they are also set due to the failure of
associated higher-level internal hardware (for example, IOC failure or loss of a rack). To use
point faults, they must be enabled in Hardware Configuration on the Memory parameters tab
of the CPU.
When enabled, a bit for each discrete I/O point and a byte for each analog I/O channel are
allocated in CPU memory. The CPU memory used for point faults is included in the total
reference table memory size. The FAULT and NOFLT contacts described in “Using Fault
Contacts” on page 145 provide access to the point faults.
The full support of point fault contacts depends on the capability of the I/O module. Some
modules do not support point fault contacts. The point fault contacts for these modules
remain all off, unless a Loss of I/O Module occurs, in which case the CPU turns on all point
fault contacts associated with the lost module.
8.3.4
Using Alarm Contacts
High (-[HA]-) and low (-[LA]-) alarm contacts are used to represent the state of the analog
input module comparator function. To use alarm contacts, point faults must first be enabled in
Hardware Configuration on the Memory parameters tab of the CPU.
The following example logic uses both high and low alarm contacts.
Note:
146
HA and LA contacts do not create an entry in a fault table.
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8.4
Controller Fault Details
8.4.1
Controller Fault Groups
Group
Name
Default
Fault Action1
Configurable
Comments
4
Loss of or Missing Option
Module
Diagnostic
No
If one of these faults is logged
against the Ethernet interface,
contact Technical Support and
provide the information contained in
the fault entry.
8
Reset of, Addition of, or
Extra Option Module
N/A
No
If one of these faults is logged
against the Ethernet interface,
contact Technical Support and
provide the information contained in
the fault entry.
11
System Configuration
Mismatch
Fatal
No
Occurs when the module occupying
a slot is different from that specified
in the configuration file.
If a system configuration mismatch
occurs when the CPU is in Run
mode, the fault action will be
Diagnostic regardless of the fault
configuration. For additional
information, see 4.1.4, “Fault
Parameters.”
12
System Bus Error
Diagnostic
No
Occurs when the CPU encounters a
bus error.
13
CPU or PNC hardware
failure
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects a
hardware failure, such as a memory
failure or a communications port
failure.
14
Module Hardware Failure
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects a
non-fatal hardware failure on any
module in the system.
16
Option Module Software
Failure
N/A
No
Occurs when:
▪
▪
▪
A non-recoverable software
failure occurs on an intelligent
option module.
The module type is not a
supported type.
The Ethernet Interface logs an
event in its Ethernet exception
log.
1
The fault action indicated is not applicable if the fault is displayed as informational. Faults displayed as
informational, always behave as informational.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group
148
Name
Default
Fault Action1
Configurable
Comments
17
Program or Block
Checksum Failure Group
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects error
conditions in program or blocks. It
also occurs during Run mode
background checking. In all cases,
the Fault Extra Data field of the
controller fault table record contains
the name of the program or block in
which the error occurred.
18
Battery Status Group
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects a
failed or missing Energy Pack
19
Constant Sweep Time
Exceeded
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU operates in
Constant Sweep mode and detects
that the sweep has exceeded the
constant sweep timer.
In the fault extra data, the DWORD
at byte offset 8 contains the amount
of time that the sweep went beyond
the constant sweep time (in
microsecond units). Stored in Big
Endian format.
20
System Fault Table Full
N/A
No
Occurs when the Controller Fault
Table reaches its limit (see
page 138).
21
I/O Fault Table Full
N/A
No
Occurs when the I/O Fault Table
reaches its maximum configured
limit (see page 140). To avoid loss
of additional faults, clear the earliest
entry from the table.
22
User Application Fault
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects a
fault in the user program.
24
CPU Over Temperature
Diagnostic
Yes
The Controller’s normal operating
temperature exceeded.
129
No User Program on
Power-up
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU powers up
with its memory preserved but no
user program exists in the CPU. The
CPU detects the absence of a user
program on power-up; the controller
stays in Stop mode.
130
Corrupted User Program on
Power-up
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU detects
corrupted user RAM. The CPU will
remain in Stop mode.
131
Window Completion Failure
N/A
No
Generated by the pre-logic and
end-of-sweep processing software in
the CPU. The fault extra data
contains the name of the task that
was executing when the error
occurred.
132
Password Access Failure
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU receives a
request to change to a new privilege
level and the password included with
the request is not valid for that level.
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Group
Name
Default
Fault Action1
Configurable
Comments
134
Null System Configuration
for Run Mode
N/A
No
Occurs when the CPU transitions
from Stop to one of the Run modes
and a configuration file is not
present. The transition to Run is
permitted, but no I/O scans occur.
135
CPU or PNC System
Software Failure
N/A
No
Generated by the operating software
of the CPU. They occur at many
different points of system operation.
When a fatal fault occurs, the CPU
immediately transitions to Stop-Halt.
The only activity permitted when the
CPU is in this mode is
communications with the
programmer. The only method of
clearing this condition is to cycle
power on the controller.
137
Communications Failure
During Store
N/A
No
Occurs during the store of programs
or blocks and other data to the CPU.
The stream of commands and data
for storing programs or blocks and
data starts with a special start-ofsequence command and terminates
with an end-of-sequence command.
140
Non-critical CPU or PNC
software event
N/A
No
Used for recording conditions in the
system that may provide valuable
information to Technical Support.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.4.2
Controller Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
Each fault explanation contains a fault description and instructions to correct the fault. Many
fault descriptions have multiple causes. In these cases, the error code and additional fault
information are used to distinguish among fault conditions sharing the same fault description.
Group/
Error Code
11-10
Description
Unsupported feature
Cause
Byte 8 of the fault extra data contains a
reason code indicating what feature is not
supported.
Recommended Correction
▪
▪
11-11
LAN Softswitch/modem
mismatch
Configuration of LAN module does not
match modem type or configuration
programmed by softswitch utility.
▪
▪
Change the module
configuration.
Correct configuration of
modem type.
Consult the LAN Interface
manual for configuration
setup.
11-13
DCD length mismatch
Directed control data lengths do not match.
See Fault Extra Data for DCD
length mismatch on page 156.
11-14
LAN duplicate MAC
address
This LAN Interface module has the same
MAC address as another device on the
LAN. The module is off the network.
▪
▪
Change the module’s
MAC address.
Change the other device’s
MAC address.
11-15
LAN duplicate MAC
address resolved
Previous duplicate MAC address has been
resolved. The module is back on the
network.
Informational. No correction
required.
11-16
LAN MAC address
mismatch
MAC address programmed by softswitch
utility does not match configuration stored
from software.
Change MAC address on
softswitch utility or in software.
11-37
Controller reference out
of range
A reference on either the trigger, disable, or
I/O specification is out of the configured
limits.
Modify the incorrect reference
to be within range, or increase
the configured size of the
reference data.
11-38
Bad program
specification
The I/O specification of a program is
corrupted.
Contact Technical Support.
11-39
Unresolved or disabled
interrupt reference
An interrupt trigger reference is either out of
range or disabled in the I/O module’s
configuration.
▪
▪
150
Update the module to a
revision that supports the
feature.
Remove or correct the
interrupt trigger
reference.
Update the configuration
file to enable this
particular interrupt.
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Group/
Error Code
Description
Cause
Recommended Correction
11-81
Valid module
substitution detected.
A module configured for a PROFINET
device does not exactly match what is
physically present on the device, but the
device indicates it is a valid substitution.
The module should operate
properly in the presence of this
fault. However, to eliminate
the fault, try one or more of the
following:
Make sure the module is
plugged in the correct location
and move if necessary.
Update the configuration
stored to the PNC to exactly
match the module present.
Replace the module on the
device to match the
configuration.
11-82
Module configuration
mismatch during
configuration.
A module configured for a PROFINET
device does not match the module that is
physically present on the device.
The module will not operate
properly, therefore try one or
more of the following:
Make sure the module is
plugged in the correct location
and move if necessary.
Update the configuration
stored to the PNC to equal the
actual module present
Replace the module on the
device to match configuration.
11-83
Module configuration
mismatch detected after
module hot-insertion.
A module has been hot-inserted in to a
PROFINET device, and the physical
module does not match the configured
module.
Either update the configuration
stored to the PNC to equal the
actual module present, or
replace the module on the
device to match configuration.
11-all others
Module and
configuration do not
match
The module occupying a slot is not of the
same type that the configuration indicates.
▪
Time-of-Day clock not
battery-backed
The battery-backed value of the time-of-day
clock has been lost.
13-110
▪
▪
Replace the module in the
slot with the type
indicated in the
configuration.
Update the configuration.
Replace the RTC battery.
Do not remove power
from the RXi until
replacement is complete.
Reset the time-of-day
clock using your
programming software.
▪
13-168
CPU’s critical operating
temperature exceeded.
The CPU’s critical operating temperature
exceeded.
Turn off the RXi Controller to
allow heat to disperse and
implement measures to
regulate ambient operating
temperature.
13-h
PNC hardware failure.
The PNC has encountered a hardware
related failure.
h – Error code that provides more
information about what part of the PNC’s
hardware had failure.
Contact Technical Support.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Error Code
13-All others
Description
CPU hardware failure
Cause
For a memory failure in the CPU (one of
the faults reported as a CPU hardware
failure), the address of the failure is stored
in the first four bytes of the Fault Extra
Data.
Recommended Correction
Replace the module
14-450
through
14-454
LAN interface hardware
failure
Contact Technical Support.
14-All others
Module hardware failure
A module hardware failure has been
detected.
Replace the affected module.
16-1
Unsupported board type
The board is not one of the supported
types.
▪
▪
16-2, 16-3
COMM_REQ frequency
too high
COMM_REQs are being sent to a module
faster than it can process them.
▪
16-4 through
16-399
Option module software
failure
Software failure detected on an option
module.
▪
LAN system software
fault
The Ethernet interface software has
detected an unusual condition and
recorded an event in its exception log.
The Fault Extra Data contains the
corresponding event in the Ethernet
exception log, which can be viewed by the
Ethernet interface’s Station Manager
function. The first two digits of Fault Extra
Data contain the Event type; the remaining
data correspond to the four-digit values for
Entry 2 through Entry 6. Some exceptions
may also contain optional multi-byte SCode
and other data.
▪
16-400 and
higher
152
Upload the configuration
file and verify that the
software recognizes the
board type in the file. If
there is an error, correct it,
download the corrected
configuration file, and
retry.
Display the controller fault.
Contact Technical Support
and provide the
information contained in
the fault entry.
Change the application
program to send
COMM_REQs to the
module at a slower rate or
check the completion
status of each
COMM_REQ before
sending the next.
Reload software into the
indicated module.
Replace the module.
For information on interpreting
the fault extra data, refer to the
PACSystems TCP/IP
Communications Station
Manager Manual, GFK-2225.
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Group/
Error Code
17-All error
codes
Description
Program or block
checksum failure
Cause
The CPU has detected a corrupted
program or block.
The name of the offending program block is
contained in the first eight bytes of the Fault
Extra Data field.
Recommended Correction
▪
▪
▪
Clear CPU memory and
retry the store.
Examine C application for
errors.
Display the controller fault
table. Contact Technical
Support and provide the
information contained in
the fault entry.
18-0
Failed battery
Not applicable for the initial release.
Not applicable for the initial
release.
18-1
Low battery
Not applicable for the initial release.
Not applicable for the initial
release.
19-0
Constant sweep
While operating in Constant Sweep mode,
the CPU detected that the sweep has
exceeded the constant sweep timer. The
fault extra data contains the over sweep
time in microseconds in 4 bytes.
▪
▪
Increase constant sweep
time.
Remove logic from
application program..
20-0
System fault table full
The Controller Fault Table has reached its
limit (see page 138).
Clear the controller fault table.
21-0
I/O fault table full
The I/O Fault Table has reached its
maximum configured limit (see page 140).
To avoid loss of additional faults, clear the
earliest entry from the table.
Clear the I/O fault table.
22-2
Software watchdog
timer expired
The watchdog timer has expired. When this
happens, the CPU stops executing the user
program and enters Stop-Halt mode. To
recover, cycle power to the Controller.
Causes of timer expiration include:
Looping, via jump, very long program, etc.
Determine what caused the
expiration (logic execution,
external event, etc.) and
correct.
Use the system service
function block to restart the
watchdog timer.
22-7
Application stack
overflow
Block call depth has exceeded the CPU
capability.
Increase the program’s stack
size or adjust application
program to reduce nesting.
22-17
Program run time error
A run-time error occurred during execution
of a program.
Correct the specific problem in
the application.
22-34
Unsupported protocol
Hardware does not support configured
protocol.
22-51
Flash read failed
Possible causes:
▪
▪
Files not in flash. (May be caused by
power cycle during flash write.)
Could not read from flash because
OEM protection is enabled.
22-52
Memory reference out
of range
A user logic memory reference, which is
computed during logic execution, is out of
range. Includes indirect references, array
element references, and potentially other
types of references.
Correct logic or adjust memory
size in hardware configuration.
22-53
Divide by zero
attempted in user logic.
User logic contained a divide by zero
operation. (Applies to ST and FBD logic.)
Correct logic.
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Group/
Error Code
Description
Cause
Recommended Correction
22-54
Operand is not byte
aligned.
A variable in user logic is not properly bytealigned for the requested operation.
Correct logic or adjust memory
size in hardware configuration.
22-59
PSB called by a block
whose %L or %P
memory is not large
enough to
accommodate this
reference
Parameterized blocks do not have their
own %L data, but instead inherit the %L
data of their calling blocks. If %L references
are used within a parameterized block and
the block is called by _MAIN, %L
references are inherited from the %P
references wherever encountered in the
parameterized block (for example, %L0005
= %P0005). For a discussion of the use of
local data with parameterized blocks, refer
to 6.1.5.2, “Parameterized Blocks.”
Determine which block called
the parameterized subroutine
block and increase the size of
%L or %P memory allocated
to the calling block. (To do
this, change the Extra Local
Words setting in the block’s
Properties.)
For additional details, see
page 156.
24-1
Overtemperature
failure.
CPU’s normal operating temperature
exceeded.
Turn off RXi to allow heat to
disperse and implement
measures to regulate ambient
operating temperature.
129-0
No user program on
powerup
The RXi Controller has powered up with its
memory preserved but no user program
exists in the CPU. The CPU detects the
absence of a user program on power-up;
the controller stays in Stop mode.
Download an application
program before attempting to
go to Run mode.
130-1
Corrupted user RAM on
powerup
The CPU detected corrupted user RAM on
power-up.
▪
▪
▪
154
Cycle power.
Examine any C
applications for errors.
Replace the RXi
Controller.
130-7
User memory not
preserved over power
cycle
This is expected operation for the initial
release.
This is expected operation for
the initial release.
131-0
Window completion
failure
While operating in Constant Sweep mode,
the constant sweep time was exceeded
before the programmer window had a
chance to begin executing.
Increase the constant sweep
timer value.
131-1
Logic window skipped
The logic window was skipped due to lack
of time to execute.
▪
▪
Increase base cycle time.
Reduce Communications
Window time.
132-0
Password access
failure
The CPU has received a request to change
to a new privilege level and the password
included with the request was not valid for
that level.
Retry the request with the
correct password.
134-0
System configuration
for run mode
The CPU transitioned from Stop to one of
the Run modes and a configuration file was
not present. The transition to Run is
permitted, but no I/O scans occur.
Download a configuration file.
135-90
User shut down
requested
The SVC_REQ #13 (User Shut Down)
instruction has executed in the application
program.
None required. Informationonly alarm.
135-216
Processor exception
trap
The processor has detected an error
condition while executing an instruction.
The CPU was placed into Stop-Halt mode.
Cycle power to clear the StopHalt condition.
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Group/
Error Code
Description
Cause
Recommended Correction
135-218
Critical overtemperature
failure
CPU’s critical operating temperature
exceeded.
Turn off RXi to allow heat to
disperse and implement
measures to regulate ambient
operating temperature.
135-All
others
Critical fatal error.
A critical fatal error has occurred during
normal Controller operation from which the
Controller cannot recover.
Display the controller fault
table. Contact Technical
Support and provide the
information contained in the
fault entry.
For details, see page 156.
137-0
Communications failure
during store
Communications with the programming
device performing the store was interrupted
another failure that terminates the store
occurred. As long as this fault is present in
the system, the controller will not transition
to Run mode. This fault is not automatically
cleared on power-up; you must specifically
clear the condition.
Clear the fault and retry the
download of the program or
configuration file.
137-1
Communications lost
during run mode store
Communications or power was lost during
a Run Mode Store. The new program or
block was not activated and was deleted.
Perform the Run Mode Store
again.
137-2
Communications lost
during cleanup for run
mode store
Communications was lost, or power was
lost during the cleanup of old programs or
blocks during a Run Mode Store. The new
program or block is installed, and the
remaining programs and blocks were
cleaned up.
None required. This fault is
informational.
137-3
Power lost during a run
mode store
Power was lost in the middle of a Run
Mode Store.
Delete and restore the
program. This error is fatal.
140-1
through 14030
Events during power-up
Records conditions that may provide useful
information to Technical Support.
No corrective action is
required unless this fault
occurs with other specific
faults.
140-31
through 14052
Miscellaneous internal
system events
Records conditions that may provide useful
information to Technical Support.
No corrective action is
required unless the fault
occurs with other specific
faults.
Access control fault
If data access is prevented because of the
Enhanced Security settings, the Controller
logs a fault into the fault table. This fault
can be used to help diagnose access
problems. To prevent overflowing the fault
table, only one fault is logged until the fault
table is cleared.
No corrective action is
required unless this fault
occurs with other specific
faults.
See page 157 for additional
information.
Miscellaneous internal
system events
Records non-critical conditions that may
provide useful information to Technical
Support.
This fault is informational.
No corrective action is
required unless this fault
occurs with other specific
faults.
140-53
140-54 and
greater
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Controller Fault Notes
This section contains additional information about specific faults listed in 8.4.2 Controller
Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions.
8.4.2.1 Error code 11-13, DCD Length Mismatch Fault Extra Data
Byte
Value
[0]
FF
[1]
Bus address
[2]
Module’s directed data length
[3]
Configured module’s directed data length
8.4.2.2 Error Code 18-1, Low Battery Fault
The battery status bits indicate the Energy Pack status.
PLC_BAT
(%S0014)
LOW_BAT
(%SA0011)
0
0
Does not apply to the initial release.
1
1
Energy Pack not connected or has failed
0
1
Does not apply to the initial release.
Energy Pack Status
8.4.2.3 Error Code 22-59, PSB called by a block whose %L or %P memory is not large enough
The maximum size of %L or %P is 8192 words per block. If your application needs more
space, consider changing some %P or %L references to %R, %W, %AI, or %AQ. These
changes require a recompilation of the program block and a Stop Mode store to the CPU.
It is possible, by using Online Editing in the programming software to cause a parameterized
block to use %L higher than allowed because of the way it inherits data. To correct this
condition, delete the %L variables from the logic and then remove the unused variables from
the variable list. To implement these changes, you must recompile program block and
perform a Stop Mode store to the CPU.
8.4.2.4 Error Code 135-xxx,CPU Internal System Error
Fault Extra Data
Value (First Byte)
Description
DEVICE_NOT_AVAILABLE
CF
Specific device is not available in the system.
BAD_DEVICE_DATA
CC
Data stored on device has been corrupted
and is no longer reliable. Or, Flash Memory
has not been initialized.
DEVICE_RW_ERROR
CB
Error occurred during a read/write of the
Flash Memory device.
FLASH_INCOMPAT_ERROR
8E
Data in Flash Memory is incompatible with
the CPU firmware release due to the CPU
firmware revision numbers, the instruction
groups supported, or the CPU model
number.
ITEM_NOT_FOUND_ERROR
8D
One or more specified items were not found
in Flash Memory.
Error
156
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8.4.2.5 Error code 140-53, Access Control Fault
8.4.2.6 Fault example
Location: 0.8 Date/Time: 07-07-2013 17:06:55.087
Group:140 INFO_CPU_SOFTWR - CPU software event
Error Code:53 Action:1 Task Num:3
Extra Data: 00 fa 02 a5 00 00 00 00 01 1e 06 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00
Meaning of this example fault
A 1-bit READ request beginning at %S7 was rejected due to an access violation.
Interpreting the Fault Extra Data
Bytes 1 through 8: Ignored when decoding a security-related fault.
Byte 9: The operation during which the fault occurred.


01 (as in the example): Read
02: Write
Byte 10: The hexadecimal value (HV) that represents a CPU memory area.
HV
Memory area
08
%R (Register memory)
0A
%AI (Analog input memory)
0C
%AQ (Analog output memory)
10
%I (Discrete input memory)
12
%Q (Discrete output memory)
14
%T (Discrete temporary status memory)
16
%M (Discrete momentary internal memory)
18
%SA (Discrete system memory A)
1A
%SB (Discrete system memory B)
1C
%SC (Discrete system memory C)
1E
%S (Discrete system memory)
38
%G (Genius global memory)
C4
%W (Bulk Memory)
Bytes 11–18: 0-based bit offset of the memory area being accessed. The 8-byte value is
encoded in little endian format, meaning that the byte values are reversed. In the example,
the value is 0x0000000000000006, which is equal to 1-based bit offset 7.
Bytes 19–22: The length in bits of data requested. In the example, 1 bit was requested.
Bytes 23–24: Ignored when decoding a security-related fault.
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8.5
I/O Fault Details
The I/O fault table reports the following data about faults:
■ Fault Group
■ Fault Action
■ Fault category
■ Fault type
■ Fault description
All faults have a fault category, but a fault type and fault group may not be listed for every
fault. To view the detailed information pertaining to a fault, click the fault entry in the I/O Fault
Table.
An I/O fault table entry contains up to 21 bytes of I/O fault extra data that contains additional
information related to the fault. Not all entries contain I/O fault extra data.
Note:
8.5.1
The model number mismatch and I/O type mismatch faults are reported in the
controller fault table under the System Configuration Mismatch group. They are not
reported in the I/O fault table.
I/O Fault Groups
Group Number
Group Name
Default Fault Action2
Configurable
2
Loss of or Missing IOC
Diagnostic
No
3
Loss of or Missing I/O module
Diagnostic
No
6
Addition or Reset of, or Extra IOC
N/A
No
7
Addition of or Extra I/O module
N/A
No
Diagnostic
Yes
N/A
No
Same As Group 2 3
No
N/A
No
Diagnostic
No
9
IOC or I/O Bus Fault
10
I/O Module Fault
15
IOC Software Failure
16
Module Software Failure
28
PROFINET alarms
2
The fault action indicated is not applicable if the fault is displayed as informational. Faults displayed as
informational, always behave as informational.
3
The fault action for the IOC Software Failure group 15 always matches the action used by the Loss of
or Missing IOC group 2. If the Loss of or Missing IOC group is configured, the IOC Software Failure
group is also configured to take the same fault action.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.5.2
I/O Fault Categories
Category
Circuit Fault (1)
Fault
Description
Fault Type
Discrete Fault (1)
Analog Fault (2)
Fault Extra Data
Loss of User Side Power (01 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Short Circuit in User Wiring (02 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Sustained Overcurrent (04 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Low or No Current Flow (08 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Switch Temperature Too High (10 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Switch Failure (20 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Point Fault (83 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Output Fuse Blown (84 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Low Alarm (01 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel High Alarm (02 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Under Range (04 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Over Range (08 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Open Wire (10 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Over Range or Open Wire (18 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Output Channel Under Range (20 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Output Channel Over Range (40 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Expansion Channel Not Responding
(80 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Invalid Data (81 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Low-Level
Input Channel Low Alarm (01 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Analog Fault (4)
Input Channel High Alarm (02 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Under Range (04 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Over Range (08 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Open Wire (10 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Wiring Error (20 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Internal Fault (40 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Input Channel Shorted (80 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Invalid Data (81 hex)
Circuit Configuration
Loss of Block (2)
Not Specified (0)
NA
Device Configuration
Number of Input Circuits
Number of Output
Circuits
Addition of Block (3)
NA
NA
Device Configuration
Number of Input Circuits
Number of Output
Circuits
I/O Bus Fault (6)
Bus Fault (1)
NA
NA
SBA Conflict (3)
PROFINET Multiple media
redundancy manager faults
GFK-2816
Refer to Group 6 faults in “I/O Fault
Descriptions and Corrective Actions“
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Category
Fault
Description
Fault Type
Fault Extra Data
Addition of IOC (9)
NA
Extra Module (01 hex)
Reset Request (02 hex)
NA
Loss of IOC (10)
NA
NA
Timeout
Unexpected State
Unexpected Mail Status
IOC Software Faults (11)
NA
NA
NA
Loss of I/O Module (14)
0
Loss of sub-module on PROFINET
device
NA
2
PROFINET supervisor controlling a
PROFINET device’s submodule
Refer to Groups 7 and 15 faults in in “I/O NA
Addition of I/O Module (15)
Fault Descriptions and Corrective
Actions “
Extra I/O Module (16)
NA
NA
NA
Extra Block (17)
NA
NA
NA
IOC Hardware Faults (18)
NA
Refer to Group 9 faults in “I/O Fault
NA
Descriptions and Corrective Actions
“
Reset of IOC (27)
NA
NA
PROFINET device
communications faults (33)
NA
Refer to Group 3 faults “I/O Fault
Descriptions and Corrective Actions
“
PROFINET device port faults (35)
NA
Refer to Group 3 faults “I/O Fault
Descriptions and Corrective Actions“
PROFINET network interface
added (34)
NA
PROFINET network port faults
(36)
NA
Addition of network port
PROFINET alarms (36 – 67)
NA
Faults related to PROFINET alarms and
diagnostics.
PROFINET load (69)
NA
PNC has become heavily loaded.
PROFINET controller no longer
heavily loaded (70)
NA
Duplicate IP address detected on
the network (71)
NA
Duplicate IP address resolved
(72)
NA
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Alarm details
GFK-2816
Chapter 8. Diagnostics
8.5.3
I/O Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
2-10
Description
Loss of or missing IO
controller
Recommended
Correction
Cause
Note: This fault is always
displayed as Fatal in the I/O Fault
Table, regardless of its configured
action.
There are no fault types or fault
descriptions associated with this
category.
The CPU generates this error when
it cannot communicate with an I/O
Controller and an entry for the IOC
exists in the configuration file.
This fault is also logged when an
IOC is hot removed (No corrective
action necessary in this case).
▪
▪
▪
▪
Verify that the module in
the slot/bus address is
the correct module.
Review the configuration
file and verify that it is
correct.
Replace the module.
If fault is not resolved,
display the controller fault
table. Contact Technical
Support, giving them all
the information contained
in the fault entry.
3-2-0-0
Loss of Device
A configured PROFINET device is
no longer present on the network.
Notes:
The network connection issue might
be in the interconnecting network
between the controller and the
device, and not necessarily at the
device itself
In an MRP ring with a large number
of clients, storing a configuration that
causes all clients to reconfigure (for
example, changing the Domain
Name) may generate a large
number of Loss/Addition of Device
faults. This is expected behavior and
all devices should automatically
return to operational.
If this is unexpected operation,
either re-connect missing
PROFINET device on the
network, or remove the device
from the PNC’s configuration.
3-14-0-0
Loss of sub-module on
PROFINET device.
A configured PROFINET submodule is no longer present.
If the submodule is missing,
then replace the missing
submodule on the device. If
the submodule is present,
check for a malfunction on the
submodule (e.g. loss of field
power, hardware failure, etc.).
3-14-2-0
PROFINET Device’s submodule under control of
PROFINET Supervisor.
A PROFINET Supervisor has taken
control of a PROFINET device’s
sub-module, for which the PNC is
currently configured and to which it
is connected.
If this is unexpected operation,
investigate the reason for
Supervisor taking control.
Investigate reason for
Supervisor taking control.
3-33-0-0
Loss of network interface on
PROFINET device.
A configured network interface on
the PROFINET device is no longer
present.
Repair or replace the missing
or malfunctioning network
interface on the device.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Recommended
Correction
Description
Cause
3-33-2-0
PROFINET Device’s network
interface under control of
PROFINET Supervisor.
A PROFINET Supervisor has taken
control of a PROFINET device’s
network interface, for which the PNC
is currently configured and to which
it is connected.
If this is unexpected operation,
investigate the reason for
Supervisor taking control.
3-35-0-0
Loss of network port on
PROFINET device.
A configured network port on the
PROFINET device is no longer
present.
Repair or replace the missing
or malfunctioning network port
on the device.
3-35-2-0
PROFINET Device’s network
port under control of
PROFINET Supervisor.
A PROFINET Supervisor has taken
control of a PROFINET device’s
network port, for which the PNC is
currently configured and to which it
is connected.
If this is unexpected operation,
Investigate reason for
Supervisor taking control.
6-27
Reset of IOC
The fault category Reset of I/O
Controller has no fault types or fault
descriptions associated with it. The
default fault action for this category
is Diagnostic.
The CPU generates this message
when an I/O Controller is reset.
No corrective action
necessary.
7-3-0-0
Addition of Device.
A configured PROFINET device that
was previously missing has been
reconnected.
None.
Note: In an MRP ring with a
large number of clients, storing
a configuration that causes all
clients to reconfigure (for
example, changing the
Domain Name) may generate
a large number of
Loss/Addition of Device faults.
This is expected behavior and
all devices should
automatically return to
operational.
7-15-0-0
Addition of Submodule
A configured PROFINET submodule
that was previously reported lost has
just been added to the device.
None.
7-15-1-0
Submodule released by
PROFINET IO Supervisor
A configured PROFINET submodule
that was previously controlled by a
PROFINET IO Supervisor has just
been released.
None.
7-16
Extra I/O module
The fault category Extra I/O Module
applies to discrete and analog I/O
modules. There are no fault types or
fault descriptions associated with
this category.
The CPU generates this error when
it detects an I/O module in a slot that
the configuration file indicates
should be empty.
▪
A configured PROFINET interface
that was previously reported lost has
been added to the device.
None.
7-34-0-0
162
Addition of network interface.
▪
Remove the module. (It
may be in the wrong slot.)
Update and restore the
configuration file to include
the extra module.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Description
Recommended
Correction
Cause
7-36-0-0
Addition of network port.
A configured PROFINET port that
was previously reported lost has
been added to the device.
None.
7-36-1-0
Network port released by
PROFINET IO Supervisor.
A configured PROFINET port that
was previously controlled by a
PROFINET IO Supervisor has been
released.
None.
9-6-10-0
Multiple Media Redundancy
Managers have been
detected on the network.
The PNC is configured as a Media
Redundancy Manager and other
Media Redundancy Managers are
currently present on the network.
Update the PNC configuration
to change its MRP role to
either Disabled or Client, or
remove all of the other devices
on the network that are also
acting as a Media Redundancy
Manager.
9-6-11-0
Multiple Media Redundancy
Managers are no longer
present on the network.
The PNC is configured as a Media
Redundancy Manager and it had
detected that multiple Media
Redundancy Managers were on the
network, but now those other
managers are no longer present.
No action necessary. The
network is expected to only
have a single Media
Redundancy Manager present.
9-6-12-0
The Media Redundancy
Manager has detected that
the network ring has been
broken.
The PROFINET MRP network ring is
broken.
The MRP Ethernet ring is
broken. Possible causes
include damaged or
disconnected cable or power
loss to a node or switch.
Locate and repair the
cause(s).
9-6-13-0
The Media Redundancy
Manager has detected that
the network ring has been
repaired.
The PROFINET MRP network ring is
closed/okay.
No action necessary. This is
the normal, expected state of
an MRP Ethernet ring.
9-11-3-1
Invalid MAC address
detected.
PNC no longer has a valid MAC
address.
Contact customer service.
9-11-3-3
Media redundancy
configuration error.
The PNC has encountered a
problem attempting to configure
media redundancy operation.
Contact customer service.
9-11-5-x4
Internal runtime error.
PNC has encountered an internal
error during its operation.
Contact customer service.
9-18-1-1
PNC exceeded its
recommended operating
temperature.
The temperature detected by the
PNC has exceeded its safe
operating temperature.
Reduce the temperature of the
environment where the PNC is
operating.
9-18-1-2
Watchdog Timeout Error
PNC application code restarted due
to a hardware watchdog timeout.
Contact customer service.
4
X – Type value will be equal to the Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
Y – Description value will be equal to the Extended Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Description
Recommended
Correction
Cause
9-69-0-0
PNC has become heavily
loaded.
The PNC has become heavily
loaded with activity (Continued use
in this mode may cause degradation
of system performance (possibly
including delayed IO updates) and
potential loss of network
communications.
Reduce load on PNC. One or
more of the following can be
tried to reduce load:

Increase the configured
update rate value (i.e. IO
received less frequently)
of one or more
PROFINET Devices
configured on the PNC.

Reduce the number of
PROFINET Devices
configured on the PNC.
9-70-0-0
PNC is no longer heavily
loaded.
Load applied to PNC has been
reduced to an acceptable level, after
it was previously heavily loaded.
None.
9-71-0-0
Duplicate IP address detected
on the network.
PNC has detected a duplicate IP
address on the network. The
location associated with the fault will
indicate whether the duplication is
with the PNC itself, or with a
configured PROFINET Device.
Either remove the device on
the network that has the
duplicate IP address, or assign
a new IP address to either the
PNC or the conflicting device.
Note: The Fault Extra Data
displays the MAC addresses
of the conflicting devices in the
MAC 1 field (bytes 8–13) and
the MAC 2 field (bytes 14–19).
If the PNC is one of the
devices with a conflicting IP
address, MAC 1 will be 0. This
data is stored in Big Endian
(most significant byte in lowest
address) format.
Also, if the conflict is between
PROFINET devices on the
network, the DCP Tool can be
used to help find the conflict.
Sorting by IP address within
the tool may make it easier to
find the duplicates.
9-72-0-0
Duplicate IP address conflict
resolved.
PNC has detected that a previously
duplicated IP address conflict has
been resolved. The location
associated with the fault will indicate
whether the duplication was with the
PNC itself, or with a configured
PROFINET Device.
None.
10-8-0-128
Module fault
An internal failure has been detected
in a module.
Replace the affected module.
10-8-0-129
Watchdog timeout
The CPU generates this error when
it detects that an input module
watchdog timer has expired.
Replace the input module.
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Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Description
Recommended
Correction
Cause
▪
10-8-0-132
Output fuse blown
The CPU generates this error when
it detects a blown fuse on an output
module.
10-9-0-1
Extra module
Module present, but not configured.
Update the configuration file or
remove the module.
10-9-0-2
Reset request
Module added back after reset
request.
Informational. No action
necessary.
No action is necessary if the
faulted module is in a remote
rack and is returning due to a
remote rack power cycle.
28-37-0-0
Unexpected PROFINET
Alarm received.
The PNC has received a PROFINET
alarm that is unexpected. Possible
causes could include a malformed
PROFINET Alarm packet or an
Alarm for a PROFINET sub-module
that is not configured.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-38-0-0
Manufacturer specific
Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a
manufacturer specific diagnostic
condition has been detected on the
PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-39-0-0
Manufacturer specific
Diagnosis Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a
manufacturer specific diagnostic
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-40-x-05
Channel Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has
occurred on the PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-41-x-0
Channel Diagnosis
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has been
resolved on the PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
▪
Determine and repair the
cause of the fuse blowing,
and replace the fuse.
Replace the module.
5
X – Type value will be equal to the Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
Y – Description value will be equal to the Extended Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Description
Recommended
Correction
Cause
28-42-x-y6
Channel Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Extended
Channel data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has
occurred on the PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
For complex analog modules,
the reference address
displayed in the fault identifies
faults in all channels using the
discrete status data of the
module’s first channel. If the
fault is on channel 1, the
reference address is bit 1 of
the channel 1 status data; if
the fault is on channel 2, the
reference address is bit 2 of
the channel 1 status data, etc.
28-43-x-y
Channel Diagnosis
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Extended Channel data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has been
resolved on the PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-44-x-y
Channel Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Qualified
Channel data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has
occurred on the PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-45-x-y
Channel Diagnosis
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Qualified Channel data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Channellevel diagnostic condition has been
resolved on the PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-46-0-0
Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains only
Maintenance status).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a diagnostic
condition has been detected on the
PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-47-0-0
Diagnosis Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains only
Maintenance status).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a diagnostic
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device and maintenance
is no longer required.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
28-48-0-0
Diagnosis Appears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a diagnostic
condition has been detected on the
PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data.
6
X – Type value will be equal to the Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
Y – Description value will be equal to the Extended Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
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Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Description
Cause
Recommended
Correction
28-49-0-0
Diagnosis Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a diagnostic
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-50-0-0
PROFINET Status Alarm
received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating a status change
on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-51-0-0
PROFINET Update Alarm
received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating a change to an
operating parameter has been
changed outside of the PNC’s
control.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-52-0-0
Port Data Change PROFINET
Alarm received (Alarm
contains manufacturer
specific data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating a Port change on
the PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-53-x-07
Port Data Error Appears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
has occurred on the PROFINET
device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-54-x-0
Port Data Error Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-55-x-y
Port Data Error Appears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Extended
Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
has occurred on the PROFINET
device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-56-x-y
Port Data Error Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Extended
Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-57-x-y
Port Data Error Appears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Qualified
Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
has occurred on the PROFINET
device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-58-x-y8
Port Data Error Disappears
PROFINET Alarm received
(Alarm contains Qualified
Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a Port Error
condition has been resolved on the
PROFINET device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
7
X – Type value will be equal to the Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
Y – Description value will be equal to the Extended Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
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Chapter 8. Diagnostics
Group/
Category
Type/
Error Code
Recommended
Correction
Description
Cause
28-59-0-0
Port Data Change PROFINET
Alarm received (Alarm
contains only Maintenance
status).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating a Port change on
the PROFINET device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-60-0-0
Network Component Problem
Alarm received (Alarm
contains manufacturer
specific data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component has encountered a
problem on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-61-x-0
Network Component Problem
Appears PROFINET Alarm
received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component has encountered a
problem on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-62-x-0
Network Component Problem
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received.
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component problem has been
resolved on the PROFINET Device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-63-x-y
Network Component Problem
Appears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Extended Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component has encountered a
problem on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-64-x-y
Network Component Problem
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Extended Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component problem has been
resolved on the PROFINET Device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-65-x-y
Network Component Problem
Appears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Qualified Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component has encountered a
problem on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-66-x-y
Network Component Problem
Disappears PROFINET Alarm
received (Alarm contains
Qualified Channel Data).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component problem has been
resolved on the PROFINET Device.
None.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
28-67-0-0
Network Component Problem
Alarm received (Alarm
contains only Maintenance
status).
A PROFINET Alarm has been
received indicating that a network
component has encountered a
problem on the PROFINET Device.
Consult Device manufacturer
documentation.
Note: Alarm details are
provided in the Fault Extra
Data
8
X – Type value will be equal to the Channel Error Type field of the PROFINET Alarm.
Y – Description value will be equal to the Extended Channel Error Type field of the
PROFINET Alarm.
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Chapter 9. Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) Interface Overview and Operation
The embedded RXi Ethernet Interface enables the controller to communicate with other
PACSystems equipment and with Series 90 and VersaMax controllers. The Ethernet
Interface provides TCP/IP communications with other controllers and computers running the
TCP/IP version of the programming software. These communications use the proprietary
SRTP protocol over a four-layer TCP/IP (Internet) stack.
The Ethernet Interface has SRTP server capability. As a server, the Ethernet Interface
responds to requests from devices such as the programming software, a Host computer
running an SRTP application, or another controller acting as a client.
The initial release does not support SRTP client channel, Modbus TCP server, or Ethernet
Global Data protocols.
9.1
PACSystems GbE Communications Features
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
9.2
Full controller programming and configuration services with inactivity timeout
TCP/IP communication services using SRTP (server)
Modbus TCP Server, supporting Modbus Conformance classes 0, 1, and 2.
Modbus TCP Client, supporting Modbus Conformance classes 0, 1, and Function
Codes 15, 22, 23, and 24 for Conformance class 2.
Extended connectivity via IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet
LAN port connector.
Network switch that has Auto negotiate, Sense, Speed, and crossover detection.
Direct connection to BaseT (twisted pair) network switch, hub, or repeater without an
external transceiver.
Monitor mode station management and diagnostic tools. For information on using
these commands, refer to the Station Manager Manual, GFK-2225.
Internet access for firmware updates via a web page through standard web browsers.
Station Manager
The built-in Station Manager function of the Ethernet Interface provides on-line monitor mode
access to the Ethernet Interface over the Ethernet cable.
For remote Station Manager operation over the Ethernet network, the Ethernet interface uses
IP addressing. A PACSystems Ethernet Interface cannot send or receive remote Station
Manager messages sent to a MAC address.
Refer to the PACSystems TCP/IP Ethernet Communications Station Manager Manual,
GFK-2225 for complete information on the Station Manager.
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9.3
IP Addressing
Each TCP/IP node on a network must have a unique IP address. The TCP/IP Ethernet
Interface is such a node, as is a PC running TCP/IP. There may be other nodes on the
network that are not involved with communications to the controllers, but regardless of
function, each TCP/IP node must have its own IP address. It is the IP address that identifies
each node on the IP network (or system of connected networks). The term “host” is often
used to identify a node on a network.
9.4
SRTP Server
Remote Series 90 PLCs that use SRTP Channels COMM_REQs expect the CPU to be in
slot 1. In order to support communications with Series 90 SRTP clients such as Series 90
PLCs using SRTP Channels, the RXi internally redirects incoming SRTP requests addressed
to rack 0, slot 1 to rack 0, slot 0.
9.4.1
SRTP Inactivity Timeout
The Ethernet interface supports inactivity checking on SRTP server connections with the
Proficy Machine Edition programmer. With this feature, the Ethernet interface removes an
abandoned SRTP server connection and all of its resources when there is no activity on the
connection for a specified timeout interval. (For example, when communication with the
programmer is lost.) Until the server connection is removed, other programmers cannot
switch from Monitor to Programmer mode.
Without the SRTP inactivity timeout, an abandoned SRTP server connection persists until the
underlying TCP connection eventually times out (typically 7 minutes). All network PME
programmer connections initially use an SRTP inactivity timeout value of 30 seconds PME
can override the initial timeout value on a particular server connection. Typically the PME
programmer sets the SRTP inactivity timeout to 20 seconds. An inactivity timeout value of
zero disables SRTP inactivity timeout checking.
The SRTP server uses an internal inactivity timeout resolution of 5 seconds. This has two
effects. First, any non-zero inactivity timeout value is rounded up to the next multiple of 5
seconds. Additionally, the actual SRTP inactivity timeout detection for any individual
connection may vary up to an additional 5 seconds. The actual inactivity detection time will
never be less than the specified value.
Note: The SRTP inactivity timeout applies only to programmer connections over SRTP. It
does not affect HMI or SRTP channels.
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9.5
Modbus TCP Server Operation
The Modbus TCP Server supports up to 16 simultaneous connections. These connections
are not shared with any other applications. Other TCP-based application protocols such as
SRTP Server use a different set of TCP connections.
9.5.1
Modbus Conformance Classes
PACSystems Modbus TCP Server supports Modbus Conformance classes 0, 1, and 2.
The RXi Ethernet interface has been certified by the Modbus TCP Conformance Test
Laboratory to be in conformance with Conformance Test Policy Version 2.1.
9.5.2
Server Protocol Services
The Modbus TCP Server responds to incoming Request Connection, Terminate Connection
and Request Service messages. The client with which the server is interacting should wait for
the server’s response before issuing the next Request Service, otherwise requests could
be lost.
There is no inactivity timeout in the server. If a client opens a connection, that connection
stays open until the connection is terminated.
9.5.3
Station Manager Support
The Modbus TCP Server supports the standard Station Manager monitor mode commands:
STAT, TALLY, and TRACE. The Modbus TCP Server task letter is “o.”
9.5.4
Reference Mapping
The Modbus protocol’s reference table definition is different from the internal structure of the
PACSystems reference tables. Modbus refers to Holding Register, Input Register, Input
Discrete and Coil tables; PACSystems uses Discrete Input (%I), Discrete Output (%Q),
Analog Input (%AI), Register (%R), and Word (%W) reference tables for Modbus data. The
following table shows how each Modbus table is mapped to the PACSystems reference
tables.
Modbus Reference Tables
Modbus File
Access
(6xxxx)
Modbus Holding
Register Table
(4xxxx)
Modbus Input
Register Table
(3xxxx)
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
--F1,R1 –
F525,R2880
(16-bit words)
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1 – 32640
(16-bit words)
---
1 – 32640
(16-bit words)
Modbus Input
Discrete Table
(1xxxx)
Modbus
Coil Table
(0xxxx)
PACSystems
Reference
Tables
1 – 32768
(bits)
---
%I1 – 32768
(bits)
---
---
%AI1 – 32640
(16-bit words)
1 – 32768
(bits)
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
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%Q1 – 32768
(bits)
%R1 – 32640
(16-bit words)
%W1 –
5,242,880
(16-bit words)
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9.5.4.1 Modbus File Access Table
The Modbus File Access table is mapped exclusively to PACSystems %W memory.
Applicable Functions
▪
▪
Read File Record
Write File Record
Translating %W Reference Addresses
To find the PACSystems %W memory address equivalent of a Modbus File and Record:
%W = 10,000 (F-1) + R
To find the Modbus File and Record equivalent of a PACSystems %W memory address:
File =
W-1
+1
10,000
(Discard any fractional portion;
round the result downward to
the next integer value).
Record = W – (10,000 (F – 1))
Caution
If you use the Modbus function Write File Record, and specify multiple
record sections, the first N-1 sections will be written to the server’s
Controller reference memory, even if an error prevents the writing of
the last section.
9.5.4.2 Modbus Holding Register Table
The Modbus Holding Register table is mapped exclusively to the CPU Register (%R) table.
Applicable Functions
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Read Multiple Registers
Write Multiple Registers
Write Single Register
Mask Write Register
Read/Write Multiple Registers
9.5.4.3 Modbus Input Register Table
The Modbus Input Register table is mapped exclusively to the CPU Analog Input (%AI) table.
Applicable Functions
▪
Read Input Registers
9.5.4.4 Modbus Input Discrete Table
The Modbus Input Discrete table is mapped exclusively to the CPU Discrete Input (%I) table.
Applicable Functions
▪
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9.5.4.5 Modbus Coil Table
The Modbus Coil table is mapped exclusively to the CPU Discrete Output (%Q) table.
Applicable Functions
▪
▪
▪
9.5.5
Read Coils
Write Coils
Write Single Coil
Address Configuration
Address mapping is done in the Machine Edition Hardware Configuration of the CPU. The
Modbus TCP Server does not use COMM_REQs to configure address mapping.
Each Controller memory area is mapped to an appropriate Modbus address space. On the
Settings tab, Modbus Address Space Mapping can be set to Standard Modbus Addressing or
Disabled. If Modbus Address Space Mapping is set to Standard, the Modbus TCP Address
Map tab displays the standard reference assignments.
Number
Modbus Register
Start
Address
End
Address
Controller
Memory
Address
Length
1
0xxxx – Coil Table
1
32768
%Q00001
32768
2
1xxxx Discrete
Table
1
32768
%I00001
32768
3
3xxxx Input
Registers
1
1028
%AI00001
1028
4
4xxxx – Register
Table
1
1024
%R00001
1024
5
6yxxx – Internal
Table
0
0
%W0001
0
When Modbus Address Space Mapping is set to Disabled on the Settings tab, the Modbus
TCP Address Map tab does not appear.
If the CPU does not receive an address map from PME, the Ethernet interface will respond to
Modbus TCP clients with Exception Code 4, Slave Device Failure. This same exception code
will also be returned when the Controller’s hardware configuration is cleared.
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9.5.6
Modbus Function Codes
This section summarizes the mapping of PACSystems reference tables to Modbus addresses
by the Modbus function codes supported by the Modbus TCP Server. The mapping shown in
this table assumes that the RXi Controller is configured to use its default reference table
sizes.
Modbus
Modbus Function Code
174
RXi Controller
Table
Start
Address
Length
Start
Address
Length
1
5
15
Read Coils
Write Single Coil
Write Multiple Coils
0xxxx
1
32768
%Q00001
32768
2
Read Discrete Inputs
1xxxx
1
32768
%I00001
32768
3
6
16
22
23
Read Holding Registers
Write Single Register
Write Multiple Registers
Mask Write Register
Read/Write Multiple Registers
4xxxx
1
1024
%R00001
1024
4
Read Input Registers
3xxxx
1
64
%AI00001
64
7
8
Read Exception Status
Diagnostics
n/a
N/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
20
21
Read File Record
Write File Record
6yxxxx
1
0
%W00001
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9.6
Modbus TCP Client (Channels) Operation
Modbus TCP Client allows the PACSystems controller to initiate data transfer with other
Modbus TCP server devices on the network. The RXi Controller supports 16 Modbus TCP
Client channels.
Modbus TCP channels are set up in the application program. The Modbus TCP Client
supports COMM_REQ driven channel commands to open new channels, close existing
channels, and transfer data on an existing channel.
This section explains how to program communications over the Ethernet network using
Modbus TCP Channel commands. This information applies only to RXi Controllers being
used as clients to initiate Modbus TCP communications.
9.6.1.1 Structure of the Communications Request
The Communications Request is made up of the following elements:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
COMM_REQ instruction
COMM_REQ Command Block
Channel Command
Status Data (COMM_REQ Status word, LAN Interface Status and Channel Status bits)
The logic program controlling execution of the COMM_REQ Function Block
9.6.1.2 COMM_REQ Function Block
The COMM_REQ instruction triggers the execution of the Channel command. In the
COMM_REQ function block, you specify the rack and slot location of the Ethernet interface
(0 for RXi), a task value (65536 for RXi), and the address of the location in memory that
contains the command block. The COMM_REQ function block provides a fault output that
indicates certain programming errors.
For details on programing a COMM_REQ instruction, refer to the Proficy Machine Edition
online help.
9.6.1.3 COMM_REQ Command Block
The COMM_REQ Command Block structure that contains information about the Channel
command to be executed. The Command Block consists of two parts:
Common Area - includes the address of the COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word).
Data Block Area - describes the Channel command to be executed.
When the COMM_REQ function is initiated, the command block is transferred to the Ethernet
interface for action.
9.6.1.4 Modbus TCP Channel Commands
The Channel commands are a set of client commands used to communicate with a server.
Up to 16 channels (numbered 1–16) can be established. The channel number is specified in
the Command Block for the Channel command. The channel can be monitored using the
Channel Status bits.
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9.6.1.5 Modbus TCP Status Data
Several types of status data are available to the client application program.
LAN Interface Status Bits (LIS Bits): The LIS bits comprise bits 1–16 of the 80-bit status area.
The location of this 80-bit status area is assigned using the Configuration software. The LIS
bits contain information on the status of the Local Area Network (LAN) and the Ethernet
interface.
Channel Status Bits: The Channel Status bits comprise bits 17–48 (32 bits) of the 80-bit status
area. When used for Modbus TCP channels, these bits consist of a connection open bit and
an unused bit, reserved for future use, for each of the 16 channels that can be established.
Status bits for unused channels are always set to zero.
The status bits are updated in the CPU once each controller scan by the Ethernet interface.
These bits can be used to prevent initiation of a COMM_REQ function when certain errors
occur or to signal a problem on an established channel. The starting location of these bits is
set up when the module is configured.
The status bits are updated in the CPU once each controller scan by the Ethernet interface.
These bits can be used to prevent initiation of a COMM_REQ function when certain errors
occur or to signal a problem on an established channel. The starting location of these bits is
set up when the module is configured.
For definitions of the LIS and Channel Status bits, refer to 9.8.1.3, “Ethernet Interface
Status Bits.”
COMM_REQ Status Word( CRS Word) : The 16-bit CRS word receives the initial status of the
communication request. The location of the CRS word is assigned for each COMM_REQ
function in the COMM_REQ Command Block.
FT Output of the COMM_REQ Function Block: This output indicates that the RXi CPU detected
errors in the COMM_REQ function block and/or Command Block and did not pass the
Command Block to the Ethernet interface.
9.6.1.6 Logic Program Execution of the COMM_REQ Function Block
The COMM_REQ must be initiated by a one-shot to prevent the COMM_REQ from being
executed repeatedly each CPU scan, which would overrun the capability of the Ethernet
interface and possibly require a manual restart. The LAN Interface OK bit should be used as
an interlock to prevent execution of the COMM_REQ function when the Ethernet interface is
not operational. Following initiation of a COMM_REQ on a channel, no further COMM_REQs
should be issued to that channel until the Ethernet interface returns a non-zero CRS word to
the program.
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9.6.1.7 COMM_REQ Status Word
The COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word) provides detailed information on the status of the
COMM_REQ request. The communications status word is not updated in the CPU each
scan. It is generally used to determine the cause of a communication error after the
COMM_REQ function is initiated. The cause is reported in the form of an error code
described later in this section. The COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word) is returned from the
Ethernet interface to the RXi CPU immediately if the Command Block contains a syntax error
or if the command is local. The location of the CRS word is defined in the Command Block for
the COMM_REQ function.
The COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word) reports status in the format shown below. The
CRS word location is specified in Words 3 and 4 of the Command Block.
CRS Word in
Hex Format
High
Low
00
00
Minor Error Codes (high byte)
Success and Major Error Codes (low byte)
The Ethernet Interface reports the status of the COMM_REQ back to the status location. See
9.7.6, “Major and Minor Error Codes in the COMM_REQ Status Word” for COMM_REQ
major and minor error codes that may be reported in the CRS words for Modbus TCP
commands.
9.6.1.8 FT Output of the COMM_REQ Function Block
This output is set if there is a programming error in the COMM_REQ function block itself, if
the rack and slot specified in the COMM_REQ SYSID parameter is incorrect, or if the data
block length specified in the Command Block is out of range. This output also may indicate
that no more COMM_REQ functions can be initiated in the ladder program until the Ethernet
interface has time to process some of the pending COMM_REQ functions.
If the FT Output is set, the CPU does not transfer the Command Block to the Ethernet
interface. In this case, the other status indicators are not updated for this COMM_REQ.
The FT Output passes power upon the following errors:
▪
▪
▪
▪
GFK-2816
Invalid rack/slot specified. The module at this rack/slot is unable to receive a
COMM_REQ.
Invalid Task ID.
Invalid Data Block length (zero or greater than 128).
Too many simultaneous active COMM_REQs (overloading either the CPU or the
Ethernet interface).
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9.6.2
Operation of the Communications Request
The diagram below shows how Communications Requests are executed to complete a data
read from the remote Modbus TCP device. The figure illustrates the successful operation of a
data read.
Domain of a TCP connection
Domain of a remote server
Domain of a channel
Client
PACSystems
RXi CPU
Client
Ethernet
Interface
PLC
Backplane
LAN
Server
Ethernet Interface
Server
Interface
Server
CPU
Power flows to Open
Connection COMM_REQ in
ladder program
Command Block sent to
Interface
COMM_REQ
Status Word
Channel Open Bit is
set to 1
Power flows to Read
COMM_REQ in ladder
program
Command Block sent to
Interface
Verify Command
Block and set up
channel to server
Return COMM_REQ
Status (CRS) Word
to CPU
Accept
connection
Send connection
acknowledgement
Set Channel Open Bit
Verify
Command Block
and set up channel
to server
Read Request
Read Request
Data
Data
COMM_REQ
Status Word
Power flows to Close
Connection COMM_REQ in
ladder program
Command Block sent to
Interface
COMM_REQ
Status Word
Channel Open Bit is
set to 0
Data
This sequence must
be repeated for each
read or write request
Data
Return COMM_REQ
Status (CRS) Word
to CPU
Verify
Command Block
and close channel
to server
Return COMM_REQ
Status (CRS) Word
to CPU
Receive Disconnect
Send disconnect
acknowledgement
Clear Channel Open Bit
1. A Communications Request begins when there is power flow to a COMM_REQ
function in the client. The Command Block data is sent from the CPU to the Ethernet
interface.
2. The COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word) is returned immediately if the Command
Block is invalid. If the syntax is correct, then the CRS word is returned after the
transfer of data.
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9.6.3
The COMM_REQ Command Block
The Command Block contains the details of a command to be performed by the Interface.
The address in CPU memory of the Command Block is specified by the IN input of the
COMM_REQ function block. This address can be any valid address within a word-oriented
area of memory. The Command Block is usually set up using either the BLOCK MOVE or the
DATA INIT COMM programming instruction. The Command Block has the following structure:
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Words 7 and up
Data Block Length (words)
WAIT/NOWAIT Flag
CRS Word Memory Type
CRS Word Address Offset
Reserved
Reserved
Data Block (Channel Command Details)
When entering information for the Command Block, refer to these definitions:
(Word 1) Data Block Length: This is the length in words of the Data Block portion of the
Command Block. The Data Block portion starts at Word 7 of the Command Block. The length
is measured from the beginning of the Data Block at Word 7, not from the beginning of the
Command Block. The correct value for each command, and the associated length of each
command, is specified in the next section.
(Word 2) WAIT/NOWAIT Flag: This flag must be set to zero for TCP/IP Ethernet
Communications.
COMM_REQ Status Word (CRS): The Ethernet interface updates the CRS word to show success
or failure of the command. Command words 3 and 4 specify the CPU memory location of the
CRS word.
(Word 3) COMM_REQ Status Word Memory Type: This word specifies the memory type for the
CRS word. The memory types are listed in the table below:
Type
Value
(Decimal)
Value
(Hex)
%R
%AI
%AQ
%I
8
10
12
16
70
18
72
20
74
22
76
56
86
196
08H
0AH
0CH
10H
46H
12H
48H
14H
4AH
16H
4CH
38H
56H
C4H
%Q
%T
%M
%G
%W
GFK-2816
Description
Register memory (word mode)
Analog input memory (word mode)
Analog output memory (word mode)
Discrete input memory (byte mode)
Discrete input memory (bit mode)
Discrete output memory (byte mode)
Discrete output memory (bit mode)
Discrete temporary memory (byte mode)
Discrete temporary memory (bit mode)
Discrete momentary internal memory (byte mode)
Discrete momentary internal memory (bit mode)
Discrete global data table (byte mode)
Discrete global data table (bit mode)
Word memory (word mode limited to %W1 - %W65536)
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(Word 4) COMM_REQ Status Word Address Offset: This word contains the offset within the
memory type selected. The status word address offset is a zero-based number. For
example, if you want %R1 as the location of the CRS word, you must specify a zero for the
offset. The offset for %R100 would be 99 decimal. Note that this is the only zero-based field
in the Channel commands.
(Word 5): Reserved. Set to zero.
(Word 6): Reserved. Set to zero.
(Words 7 and up) Data Block: The Data Block defines the Channel command to be performed.
For information on how to fill in the Channel command information, see the next section.
9.6.4
Modbus TCP Channel Commands
The RXi Ethernet interface supports the following channel commands:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Open a Modbus TCP Connection (3000)
Close a Modbus TCP Connection (3001)
Read Data from a Modbus Server Device to the controller (3003)
Write Data from the controller to a Modbus Server Device (3004)
Read/Write Multiple Registers between controller memory and a Modbus Server Device
(3005)
Mask Write Register Request to a Modbus Server Device (3009)
Note that Modbus TCP channel COMM_REQs do not contain a parameter to configure a
timeout value. Enforcing a timeout for a Modbus channel command is at the discretion of the
user and must be implemented in the user application.
9.6.4.1 Open a Modbus TCP Client Connection (3000)
The Modbus TCP Ethernet interface transfers data to or from another Modbus TCP device
using a channel. Up to 16 channels are available for Modbus TCP client communications.
The Open Modbus TCP COMM_REQ requests the communication subsystem to associate a
channel with a remote Modbus TCP device. Using the other COMM_REQs defined in this
section, the RXi controller can transfer data to and from a remote device.
Once a channel is allocated for Modbus TCP Client communications, the channel remains
allocated (i.e. another protocol such as SRTP Channels cannot use the channel). The
channel connection is released only when:
■
■
■
the application program closes the channel
the channel is automatically closed when the controller transitions to STOP,
the Ethernet interface is reset or the underlying TCP connection is terminated
The IP address of the remote Modbus TCP device is specified in the Open Modbus TCP
COMM_REQ using the standard dotted-decimal format. No other IP address format is
accepted.
The COMM_REQ Status Word (CRS) indicates the success or failure of the Open Modbus
TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ. If the COMM_REQ requests an invalid channel number
or an already allocated channel the COMM_REQ fails and the CRS is set to a non-zero value
to identify the failure. See “9.6.1.5, Modbus TCP Status Data” for detailed CRS failure codes.
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Command 3000 Example
Establish a channel (Channel 5) to a remote Modbus TCP device at IP address 10.0.0.1.
Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec
00008
00000
00008
00009
00000
00000
03000
(Hex)
(0008)
(0000)
(0008)
(0009)
(0000)
(0000)
(0BB8)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Open Modbus TCP Client Connection
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00005
00001
00004
00010
00000
00000
00001
(0005)
(0001)
(0004)
(0010)
(0000)
(0000)
(0001)
Channel number (5)
Remote Device Address Type
Length of Remote Device Address
Numeric value of 1st Octet
Numeric value of 2nd Octet
Numeric value of 3rd Octet
Numeric value of 4th Octet
*
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block. Only
this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 is the command id for an Open Modbus TCP Client
Connection COMM_REQ. If successful a TCP connection with the specified device is
allocated.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 specifies the channel number to allocate for the Modbus
TCP Client connection. Channels 1–16 can be used for Client communications.
(Word 9) Address Type: Word 9 specifies the type of IP Address specified for the remote device.
A value of one (1) is required in this word.
(Word 10) Length of IP Address: Word 10 specifies the length of the IP Address. A value of four
(4) is required in this word.
(Word 11) IP Address 1st Octet: Word 10 specifies the value of the first octet of the IP Address.
(Word 12) IP Address 2nd Octet: Word 11 specifies the value of the second octet of the IP
Address.
(Word 13) IP Address 3rd Octet: Word 12 specifies the value of the third octet of the IP Address.
(Word 14) IP Address 4th Octet: Word 13 specifies the value of the fourth octet of the IP Address.
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9.6.4.2 Close a Modbus TCP Client Connection (3001)
The application program closes a Modbus TCP Client Connection by issuing the Close
Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ. The Close COMM_REQ closes the underlying
TCP connection and frees the channel for other communication tasks.
An error response is returned if the channel number in the COMM_REQ identifies a nonModbus TCP Client connection or an inactive channel.
Command 3001 Example
Terminate the Modbus TCP Client connection established on Channel 5. Return the
COMM_REQ Status word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Word 8
*
Dec
00002
00000
00008
00009
00000
00000
03001
00005
(Hex)
(0002)
(0000)
(0008)
(0009)
(0000)
(0000)
(0BB9)
(0005)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Close Modbus TCP Client Connection
Channel number (5)
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 requests the Close channel service.
(Word 8) Channel Command Number: Word 8 identifies a channel previously opened with an
Open Modbus TCP Client Connection request. If a Close Modbus TCP Client Connection is
sent to a channel that is already closed, a success CRS value of 1 will be returned.
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9.6.4.3 Read Data from a Modbus TCP Device (3003
The Read Data from a Modbus TCP Device COMM_REQ requests a data transfer from a
Modbus TCP device to the controller. The Read Data COMM_REQ must reference an active
Modbus TCP channel previously established with the Open Modbus TCP Client Connection
COMM_REQ.
Registers, Coils or Exception Status data may be read from the remote Modbus TCP device.
The Modbus Function Code specifies the data type. Valid Function Codes for the Read Data
COMM_REQ are presented in the following table.
Function
Code
Description
Modbus Server
Memory Region
Accessed*
Data Unit
Size
Maximum Data
Units
1
Read Coils
Internal Bits or
Physical coils
Bit
2000
2
Read Input Discretes
Physical Discrete
Inputs
Bit
2000
3
Read Multiple
Registers
Internal Registers or
Physical Output
Registers
Register
(16-bit Word)
125
4
Read Input Registers
Physical Input
Registers
Register
(16-bit Word)
125
7
Read Exception
Status
Server Exception
Memory
Byte
Not Applicable
24
Read FIFO Queue
Internal Registers or
Physical Output
Registers
Register
(16-bit Word)
32
The table above describes the general Modbus server memory areas. The actual memory
accessed is dependent on how the server maps the Modbus memory regions to the server’s
local memory.
An Address and Length specify the location of the data in the remote device and the number
of data units to transfer. The Length is the number of Registers or Coils to transfer. Modbus
Function Code 7, Read Exception Status does not require the address as the remote device
retrieves the exception status from an internal location.
When transferring data between server bit or coil memory to RXi Controller bit memory, only
the number of bits specified is transferred. For example, if the COMM_REQ requests to read
9 coils from the Remote Device and requests to put the data at %M00001 in the Local
Controller (using a bit type memory type), %M00001 through %M00009 will be updated with
the data from the Remote Device and %M00010 through %M00016 will be unaffected.
However, if server bit or coil memory is transferred to the controller byte or word memory, the
following rules apply:
1. Transferring discrete data from the Remote Device to Local Controller Word (16-bit)
memory: If the number of requested coils is not a multiple of 16, the data is padded with
0s to a 16-bit boundary. For example if the COMM_REQ requests reading 17 coils from
the Remote Device and requests to place this data at %R00010, %R00010 (all 16 bits)
and bit 0 of %R00011 will be updated with values from the Remote Device and bits 1
through 15 of %R00011 will be set to 0.
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2. Transferring discrete data from the Remote Device to Local Controller byte memory
(using byte type memory type): If the number of requested coils is not on an 8-bit
boundary, the data is padded with 0s to an 8-bit boundary. For example if the
COMM_REQ requests 9 coils from the Remote Device and requests to place this data at
%M00001, %M00001 through %M00009 will be updated with values from the Remote
Device and %M00010 through %M00016 will be set to 0.
Data returned from the remote device is stored in the controller data area specified in the
Read Modbus TCP Device COMM_REQ. Data can be stored in any of the controller data
areas. Refer to page 185 for the list of data areas and identification codes for the controller.
Note that the first item referred to in each data area is item 1 not item 0.
The COMM_REQ Status Word (CRS) indicates the success or failure of the Read Data
COMM_REQ. If the COMM_REQ requests an invalid channel number or any other field is
invalid the COMM_REQ fails and the CRS is set to a non-zero value to identify the failure.
For detailed CRS failure codes, see “9.6.1.5, Modbus TCP Status Data.”
Command 3003 Example 1
Read four Input Registers from Input Registers in the remote Modbus TCP device. Store the
registers at location %R20. Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03003 (0BBB)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10) *
Reserved
Reserved
Read from a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006 (0006)
00004 (0004)
00008 (0008)
00020 (0014)
00200 (00C8)
00004 (0004)
00001 (0001)
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code (Read Input Registers)
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
Address in the Remote Server
Number of Registers in the Remote Device
Unit Identifier
*
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Read Data from
Modbus TCP Device command block.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 4, Read Input
Registers.
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(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10-11 specify the location in the local controller
where the Ethernet interface will store data received from the remote device. Valid values for
Word 10 are listed below.
Type
%W
%R
%AI
%AQ
%I
%Q
%T
%M
%SA
%SB
%SC
%S *
%G

Value
(Decimal) Description
196
8
10
12
16
70
18
72
20
74
22
76
24
78
26
80
28
82
30
84
56
86
Word memory (word mode)
Register memory (word mode)
Analog input memory (word mode)
Analog output memory (word mode)
Discrete input memory (byte mode)
Discrete input memory (bit mode)
Discrete output memory (byte mode)
Discrete output memory (bit mode)
Discrete temporary memory (byte mode)
Discrete temporary memory (bit mode)
Discrete momentary internal memory (byte mode)
Discrete momentary internal memory (bit mode)
Discrete system memory group A (byte mode)
Discrete system memory group A (bit mode)
Discrete system memory group B (byte mode)
Discrete system memory group B (bit mode)
Discrete system memory group C (byte mode)
Discrete system memory group C (bit mode)
Discrete system memory (byte mode)
Discrete system memory (bit mode)
Discrete global data table (byte mode)
Discrete global data table (bit mode)
Read-only memory, cannot be written to.
(Word 11) Local Controller Memory Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in
the local controller in which the data from the remote device is to be stored. The value
entered is the offset (1-based) from the beginning of CONTROLLER memory for the memory
type and mode specified in Word 10. This offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words
depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of values depend on the CONTROLLER’s
memory ranges. Be sure this area is large enough to contain the requested data without
overwriting other application data.
(Word 12) Remote Device Address: Word 12 specifies the address in the remote Modbus
TCP device. Note: The function code determines the Modbus server address area, Word 12
is the address within this area.
(Word 13) Number Registers in Remote Device: Words 13 specifies the quantity of
registers (16bit words) to read from the remote device.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify
the address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a
special control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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Command 3003, Example 2
Read nine (9) Input Discretes starting from Discrete input address 5 in the remote Modbus
TCP server. Store the registers at location %T3(bit mode). Return the COMM_REQ Status
word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03003 (0BBB)
Length of Channel command Data Block (8–14 words)
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10) *
Reserved
Reserved
Read from a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006
00002
00074
00003
00005
00009
00001
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code (Read Input Discretes)
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
Address in the Remote Device
Number of Input Discretes to Read from the Remote Device
Unit Identifier
*
(0006)
(0002)
(004A)
(0003)
(0005)
(0009)
(0001)
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Read Data
from Modbus TCP Device command block.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 2, Read Input
Discretes.
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10-11 specify the location in the local
controller where the Ethernet interface will store data received from the remote device. Valid
values for Word 10 are listed on page 185.
(Word 11) Local Controller Memory Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in
the local controller in which the data from the remote device is to be stored. The value
entered is the offset (1-based) from the beginning of controller memory for the memory type
and mode specified in Word 10. This offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on
the mode specified. Valid ranges of values depend on the controller’s memory ranges. Be
sure this area is large enough to contain the requested data without overwriting other
application data.
(Word 12) Remote Device Address: Word 12 specifies the address in the remote Modbus
TCP device.
(Word 13) Number Registers in Remote Device: Words 13 specifies the quantity of input
discretes to read from the remote device.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify
the address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a
special control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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Command 3003, Example 3 – Read Exception Status
Read the Exception Status from the remote Modbus TCP server. Store the Exception Data at
location %Q4(bit mode). Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03003 (0BBB)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10) *
Reserved
Reserved
Read from a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006
00007
00072
00004
00000
00001
00001
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code (Read Exception Status)
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
Reserved
Data Size
Unit Identifier
*
(0006)
(0007)
(0048)
(0004)
(0000)
(0001)
(0001)
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Read Exception
Status from the Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 7, Read Exception
Status.
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10-11 specify the location in the local controller
where the Ethernet interface will store data received from the remote device. Valid values for
Word 10 are listed on page 185.
(Word 11) Local Controller Memory Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in the local
controller in which the data from the remote device is to be stored. The value entered is the
offset (1-based) from the beginning of controller memory for the memory type and mode
specified in Word 10. This offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode
specified. Valid ranges of values depend on the controller’s memory ranges. Be sure this
area is large enough to contain the requested data without overwriting other application data.
(Word 12) Reserved: Word 12 is reserved and must be set to zero.
(Word 13) Data Size: Word 13 is the data size and must be set to 1.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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Command 3003, Example 4 – Read FIFO Queue
Read the FIFO Queue from the remote Modbus TCP server. Store the FIFO Queue Data at
location %W1. Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03003 (0BBB)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10) *
Reserved
Reserved
Read from a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006
00024
00196
00001
00048
00001
00001
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code (Read FIFO Queue)
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
FIFO Pointer Address
Data Size (Unused)
Unit Identifier
*
(0006)
(0018)
(00C4)
(0001)
(0030)
(0001)
(0001)
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Read Exception
Status from the Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 24, Read FIFO
Queue.
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10-11 specify the location in the local controller
where the Ethernet interface will store data received from the remote device. Valid values for
Word 10 are listed on page 185.
(Word 11) Local Controller Memory Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in the local
controller in which the data from the remote device is to be stored. The value entered is the
offset (1-based) from the beginning of controller memory for the memory type and mode
specified in Word 10. This offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode
specified. Valid ranges of values depend on the controller’s memory ranges. Be sure this
area is large enough to contain the requested data without overwriting other application data.
(Word 12) FIFO Pointer Address: Word 12 is the FIFO pointer address in the Remote Device.
(Word 13) Data Size: Word 13 is unused because the return data size is dependent on the
number of items in the server’s FIFO queue when the command is received. Zero (0) through
32 registers can be returned as a result of this function code.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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9.6.4.4 Write Data to a Modbus TCP Device (3004)
The Write Data to a Modbus TCP Device COMM_REQ requests a data transfer from the
controller to a Modbus TCP server. The Write Data COMM_REQ must reference an active
Modbus TCP channel previously established with the Open Modbus TCP Client Connection
COMM_REQ.
Registers or Coils may be written to the remote Modbus TCP device. The Modbus Function
Code specifies the data type. Valid Function Codes for the Write Data COMM_REQ are
presented in the following table:
Function
Code
Description
Modbus Server Memory
Region Accessed
Data Unit
Size
Maximum Data
Units
5
Write Single Coil
Internal Bits or Physical coils
Bit
1
6
Write Single
Register
Internal Registers or Physical
Output Registers
Register
1
15
Write Multiple
Coils
Internal Bits or Physical coils
Bit
1968
16
Write Multiple
Registers
Internal Registers or Physical
Output Registers
Register
123
An Address Offset and Length specify the location in the Modbus TCP device and the
number of data units to transfer. The Address Offset is the offset from the Base Address for
that memory region in the server. The Length is the number of Registers or Coils to transfer.
The source for the data written to the Modbus TCP device can be any of the controller data
areas (see page 185).
Function Code 5, Write Single Coil, forces a Coil On or Off. To force a coil off, the value zero
(0) is used as the COMM_REQ data value. If the controller memory type is a bit type, the
remote device coil is set to the same state as the specified controller memory location. If the
controller memory type is a byte or word type, a value of zero (0) is used to force a coil off
and a value of one (1) is used to force a coil on.
Function Code 15, Write Multiple Coils, forces multiple Coils On or Off. If the controller
memory type is a bit type, remote device coils are set to the same state as the corresponding
bits in the specified controller memory location. If the controller memory type is byte or word
type, the remote device coils follow the state of the packed bits contained in the byte or word
memory. For example, if 16 coils are written to a PACSystems Modbus server starting at
%Q1 from the client controller memory at %R1 containing a value of 0x1111, the following
remote server coils will be set %Q1, %Q5, %Q9 and %Q13 and the following remote server
bits will be cleared: %Q2, %Q3, %Q4, %Q6, %Q7, %Q8, %Q10, %Q11, %Q12, %Q14,
%Q15, %Q16.
The COMM_REQ Status Word (CRS) indicates the success or failure of the Write Data
COMM_REQ. If the COMM_REQ specifies an invalid channel number or any other invalid
field the COMM_REQ fails and the CRS is set to a non-zero value to identify the failure. See
“9.6.1.5, Modbus TCP Status Data” for detailed CRS failure codes.
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Command 3004, Example 1 – Set Single Register
Write one register from %AI10 to register address 200 in the remote Modbus TCP server.
Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10. Use channel 6, a channel previously opened
with the Open Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03004 (0BBC)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Write to a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006 (0006)
00006 (0006)
00010 (000A)
00010 (000A)
00200 (00C8)
00001 (0001)
00001 (0001)
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code – Write Single Register
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
Address in the Remote Device
Number of Registers in the Remote Device
Unit Identifier
*
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Write Data to
remote Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Function Code 6, Write Single Register.
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10–11 specify the location in the local controller
from where the Ethernet interface will get the data to be written to the remote controller. Valid
values for Word 10 are listed on page 185.
(Word 11) Local Controller Starting Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in the local
controller from which the data is to be written. The value entered is the offset (1-based) from
the beginning of controller memory for the memory type and mode specified in Word 10. This
offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of
values depend on the controller’s memory ranges.
(Word 12) Remote Device Address: specifies the destination register in the remote device.
(Word 13) Number Registers in Remote Device: Word 13 specifies the quantity of registers to write
to the remote device. For Function Code 6, Write Single Register this must be set to 1.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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Command 3004, Example 2 – Write Single Coil
Set coil 501 ON in the remote Modbus TCP device using the value at %Q4. Return the
COMM_REQ Status word to %R10. Use channel 6, a channel previously opened with the
Open Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ.
Dec (Hex)
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03004 (0BBC)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Write to a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
00006 (0006)
00005 (0005)
00072 (0048)
00004 (0004)
00501 (01F5)
00001 (0001)
00001 (0001)
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code – Write Single Coil
Local Controller Memory Type
Local Controller Starting Address
Address in the Remote Device
Number of Coils in the Remote Device.
Unit Identifier
*
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command
Block. Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Write Data to
Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 5 Write Single Coil.
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10–11 specify the location in the local controller
from where the Ethernet interface will get the data to be written to the remote controller. Valid
values for Word 10 are listed on page 185.
(Word 11) Local Controller Starting Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in the local
controller from which the data is to be written. The value entered is the offset (1-based) from
the beginning of controller memory for the memory type and mode specified in Word 10. This
offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of
values depend on the controller’s memory ranges.
(Word 12) Remote Device Address: Word 12 specifies the destination coil address in the Modbus
TCP device.
(Word 13). Number Coils in Remote Device: Words 13 specifies the quantity of coils to write to the
remote device. For Modbus Function Code 5, Write Single Coil, this must be set to 1.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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Command 3004, Example 3 – Set Multiple Registers
Write the four registers from Discrete Input Memory (%I40 to) address 200 in the remote
Modbus TCP server. Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10. Use channel 6, a
channel previously opened with the Open Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ.
Dec (Hex)
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
00008
00000
00008
00009
00000
00000
Word 7
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
Word 14
03004 (0BBC)
00006 (0006)
00016 (0010)
00016 (0010)
00040 (0028)
00200 (00C8)
00004 (0004)
00001 (0001)
*
(0008)
(0000)
(0008)
(0009)
(0000)
(0000)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Write to a Modbus TCP Device
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code – Write Multiple Registers
Controller Memory Type
Controller Starting Address
Address in the Remote Device
Number of Registers in the Remote Device
Unit Identifier
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Write Data to
Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Modbus Function Code 16, Write Multiple
Registers
(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type: Words 10–11 specify the location in the local controller
where the Ethernet interface will get the data to be written to the remote controller. Values for
Word 10 are listed on page 185. The value 16 specifies Discrete Input Memory %I (byte
mode).
(Word 11) Local Controller Starting Address: Word 11 determines the starting address in the local
controller from which the data is to be written. The value entered is the offset (1-based) from
the beginning of controller memory for the memory type and mode specified in Word 10. This
offset will be either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of
values depend on the controller’s memory ranges.
(Word 12) Remote Device Address: Word 12 specifies the destination register in the remote
Modbus TCP device.
(Word 13) Number Registers in Remote Device: Words 13 specifies the quantity of registers to
write to the remote device.
(Word 14) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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9.6.4.5 Read/Write Multiple Registers to/from a Modbus Server Device (3005)
The Read/Write Multiple Registers to/from a Modbus Server Device COMM_REQ is used to
read and write data between the remote server and the controller with one COMM_REQ
operation. Note, the write operation occurs first and the data exchange does not occur
coherently (i.e. data can change in the server between the write and read operations).
Command 3005, Example – Read/Write Multiple Register
Write 10 values starting at %R100 in the Local Controller to register address 200 in the
remote Modbus TCP server and read 20 values starting from register 300 in the remote
Modbus TCP server and write this value to %R300 in the Local Controller. Return the
COMM_REQ Status word to %R10. Use channel 6, a channel previously opened with the
Open Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ.
Dec (Hex)
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
00014 (000E)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03005 (0BBD)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Read/Write Multiple Registers to/from a Modbus TCP Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
00006 (0006)
00023 (0017)
00008 (0008)
Word 11
00300 (012C)
Word 12
00000 (0000)
Word 13
Word 14
Word 15
00300 (012C)
00020 (0014)
00008 (0008)
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code – Read/Write Multiple Registers
Local Controller Memory Type of memory to write with data read
from Remote Device
Local Controller Starting Address (LSW) of memory to write with data
read from Remote Device
Local Controller Starting Address (MSW) of memory to write with
data read from Remote Device (normally 0 unless %W is used)
Address to Read From on Remote Server
Number of Memory Units to Read from Remote Device (1 to 125)
Local Controller Memory Type of memory to use for writing to the
Remote Device
Word 16
00100 (0064)
Word 17
00000 (0000)
Word 18
Word 19
Word 20
00200 (00C8)
00010 (000A)
00001 (0001)
*
Local Controller Starting Address (LSW) of memory to use for writing
to the Remote Device
Local Controller Starting Address (MSW) of memory to use for
writing to the Remote Device (normally 0 unless %W is used)
Address to Write to on the Remote Server
Number of Memory Units to Write to the Remote Device (1 to 121)
Unit Identifier
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Read/Write
Multiple Register operation on remote Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Function Code 23, Read/Write Multiple
Register.
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(Word 10) Local Controller Memory Type (Write With Data Read From Server): Words 10–12 specify
the location in the local controller where the Ethernet interface will write data received from
the remote server. Values for Word 10 are listed on page 185. The value 8 specifies Register
Memory %R.
(Word 11) Local Controller Starting Address LSW (Write With Data Read From Server): Word 11
determines the least significant word (LSW) of the starting address in the local controller from
which the data is to be written. The value entered is the offset (1-based) from the beginning
of controller memory for the memory type and mode specified in Word 10. This offset will be
either in bits, bytes, or words depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of values
depend on the controller’s memory ranges.
(Word 12) Local Controller Starting Address MSW (Write With Data Read From Server): Word 12
determines the most significant word (MSW) of the starting address in the local controller
from which the data is to be written. This value will typically be 0 unless the address is above
65535 for %W memory.
(Word 13) Remote Device Read Address: Word 13 specifies the register(s) to read from the remote
Modbus TCP device.
(Word 14) Number Registers to Read From Remote Device: Words 14 specifies the quantity of
registers to read from the remote device.
(Word 15) Local Controller Memory Type (Read Data to Write to Server): Words 15–17 specify the
location in the local controller where the Ethernet interface will read data to use for writing to
the remote server. Values for Word 15 are listed on page 185. The value 8 specifies Register
Memory %R.
(Word 16) Local Controller Starting Address LSW (Read Data to Write to Server): Word 16 determines
the least significant word (LSW) of the starting address in the local controller from which the
data is to be read. The value entered is the offset (1-based) from the beginning of controller
memory for the memory type and mode specified in Word 15. This offset will be either in bits,
bytes, or words depending on the mode specified. Valid ranges of values depend on the
controller’s memory ranges.
(Word 17) Local Controller Starting Address MSW (Read Data to Write to Server): Word 17 determines
the most significant word (MSW) of the starting address in the local controller from which the
data is to be read. This value will typically be 0 unless the address is above 65535 for %W
memory.
(Word 18) Remote Device Write Address: Word 18 specifies the register(s) to be written on the
remote Modbus TCP device.
(Word 19) Number Registers to Write To Remote Device: Words 19 specifies the quantity of
registers to write to the remote device.
(Word 20) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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9.6.4.6 Mask Write Register Request to a Modbus Server Device (3009)
The Mask Write Register Request to a Modbus Server Device COMM_REQ is used to modify
the contents of a specified remote device register using a combination of an AND mask, OR
mask and the current register’s value. This function is used to set or clear individual bits in a
register. The register is modified per the following algorithm:
Register value = ((Current register value) AND (And Mask Value)) OR
((OR Mask Value) AND (NOT(And Mask Value)))
Command 3009, Example – Mask Write Register
Modify register at address 200 in the remote Modbus TCP server and clear all bits except bit
0. Return the COMM_REQ Status word to %R10. Use channel 6, a channel previously
opened with the Open Modbus TCP Client Connection COMM_REQ.
Word 1
Word 2
Word 3
Word 4
Word 5
Word 6
Word 7
Dec (Hex)
00008 (0008)
00000 (0000)
00008 (0008)
00009 (0009)
00000 (0000)
00000 (0000)
03009 (0BC1)
Length of Channel command Data Block
Always 0 (no-wait mode request)
Memory type of CRS word (%R)
CRS word address minus 1 (%R10)*
Reserved
Reserved
Mask Write Register to a Modbus TCP Server Device
Word 8
Word 9
Word 10
Word 11
Word 12
Word 13
00006 (0006)
00022 (0016)
00200 (00C8)
00001 (0001)
00000 (0000)
00001 (0001)
Channel number (6)
Modbus Function Code – Write Mask Register
Address in the Remote Device
AND Mask
OR Mask
Unit Identifier
*
Word 4 (CRS word address) is the only zero-based address in the Command Block.
Only this value requires subtracting 1 from the intended address.
(Word 7) Channel Command Number: Word 7 identifies the COMM_REQ as a Mask Write
Register operation on remote Modbus TCP device.
(Word 8) Channel Number: Word 8 identifies the channel number previously allocated for
communication with the remote Modbus TCP server.
(Word 9) Modbus Function Code: Word 9 specifies Function Code 22, Mask Write Register.
(Word 10) Remote Device Address: specifies the destination register in the remote device.
(Word 11) AND Mask: Word 11 specifies the AND mask to be used in the Mask Write operation.
For this example, all bits are cleared except bit 0.
(Word 12) OR Mask: Word 12 specifies the OR mask to be used in the Mask Write operation. In
this example, no bits are to be set.
(Word 13) Unit Identifier: This field is typically used by Ethernet to Serial bridges to specify the
address of a Modbus Slave on a multidrop link. The Modbus TCP Unit Identifier is a special
control code used in a Modbus TCP message block.
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9.7
Controlling Communications in the Ladder Program
This section provides tips on how to control communications in your ladder program. Only
segments of actual ladder logic are included. Topics discussed are:
▪
▪
▪
9.7.1
Essential Elements of the Ladder Program
Troubleshooting Your Ladder Program
Monitoring the Communications Channel
Essential Elements of the Ladder Program
Every ladder program, whether in the developmental phase or the operational phase, should
do the following before initiating a COMM_REQ function.
1. Initiate the COMM_REQ function with a one-shot transitional coil. This prevents sending
the same COMM_REQ Command Block more than once.
2. Include at least the LAN Interface OK bit in the LAN Interface Status Word as an interlock
contact for the COMM_REQ function. You may choose to add more interlocks.
3. Zero the word location you specify for the COMM_REQ Status (CRS) word and the FT
outputs of the COMM_REQ function block before the COMM_REQ function is initiated.
4. Move the command code and parameters for the Channel command into the memory
location specified by the IN input of the COMM_REQ function block before the
COMM_REQ function is initiated.
Note:
When using a Write Data or Read/Write COMM_REQ, data is not read from the local
controller synchronously with execution of the COMM_REQ. A number of CPU
sweeps may occur before the data is read. It is recommended that the data not be
changed until after the COMM_REQ Status Word indicates completion of the
command.
The example ladder program segment starting on the next page illustrates how to incorporate
these important points in your program.
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9.7.2
COMM_REQ Example
The input values for the Block Move Functions in this example are taken from the Open
Modbus TCP Connection (3000), Modbus TCP Read (3003), and Close Modbus TCP
Connection (3001) examples in this chapter.
Named variables are used in this example to make the ladder program easier to follow.
LAN_IF_OK is bit 16 of the LAN Interface Status bits. LAN_OK is bit 13 of the LAN Interface
Status bits.
Rung # 1: Input LAN_IF_OK (bit 16 of the LAN Interface Status bits) monitors the health of
the Ethernet interface. Input LAN_OK (bit 13 of the LAN Interface Status bits) monitors the
online/offline status of the Ethernet interface. If both bits are set, it is OK to send a
COMM_REQ and the ETH_READY coil is ON. ETH_READY is used as an interlock for
Rungs 2-16.
Rung # 2: When ETH_READY is set, Input DO_OPEN triggers OPEN_REQ, which enables
execution of the MOVE and COMM_REQ functions for the Open Modbus TCP Connection
COMM_REQ. OPEN_REQ is a one-shot (Positive Transition) coil, activating once when both
ETH_READY and DO_OPEN have transitioned from OFF to ON.
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Rung # 3: The MOVE WORD function moves a zero to the CRS word referenced in the
Command Block (see rung #4). This clears the CRS word. This rung also resets the
OPEN_FLT output coil of the COMM_REQ function block in rung #5.
It is essential that the CRS Status Word and the COMM_REQ fault output coil be cleared
each time before initiating a COMM_REQ function.
Rung # 4: The BLKMV INT functions set up the COMM_REQ Command Block contents.
When this rung is activated, the constant operands are moved into the memory beginning at
the address specified. The constant operands in this example are defined in the Open
Modbus TCP Connection Example on page 180.
Note:
A single DATA_INIT_COMM
function can be used instead
of BLKMOV_INT functions to
populate the Command Block.
Rung # 5: The COMM_REQ function block has following parameters:
▪
▪
▪
▪
198
The IN field points to the starting location of the Command Block parameters (%R00301
in this example).
The SYSID field defines the target rack and slot of the Ethernet interface to receive the
command data. For the RXi Ethernet interface, the value must be 0.
For the RXi Ethernet interface, TASK must be set to 65536 (0x10000).
The FT output (energizes the OPEN_FLT coil in this example) is turned ON (set to 1) if
there were problems that prevented the delivery of the Command Block to the Ethernet
interface. In this case, the other status indicators are not updated for this COMM_REQ.
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Rung # 6: When ETH_READY is set the CRS word for the Open Modbus TCP Connection
COMM_REQ is monitored for a status of 1, indicating that the Open COMM_REQ completed
successfully. The CRS word change to 1 sets coil OPEN_SUCCESS.
Rung # 7: When OPEN_SUCCESS is set it triggers READ_REQ, which enables execution of
the BLKMOV, MOVE and COMM_REQ functions for the Modbus TCP Read COMM_REQ.
READ_REQ is a one-shot (Positive Transition) coil, activating once when OPEN_SUCCESS
transitions from OFF to ON.
Rung # 8: The MOVE WORD function moves a zero to the CRS word referenced in the
Command Block (see rung #9). This clears the CRS word. This rung also resets the
READ_FLT output coil of the COMM_REQ function block in rung #10.
Rung # 9: The DATA_INIT_COMM function sets up the COMM_REQ Command Block
contents. When this rung is activated, the constant operands are moved into the memory
specified in the DATA_INIT_COMM properties. The constant operands in this example are
defined in the Modbus TCP Read example on page 183.
Rung # 10: The COMM_REQ function block has the same input parameters has in Rung 5.
The FT output (energizes the READ_FLT coil in this example) is turned ON (set to 1) if there
were problems preventing the delivery of the Command Block to the Ethernet interface. In
this case, the other status indicators are not updated for this COMM_REQ.
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Rung # 11: When ETH_READY is set the CRS word for the Modbus TCP Read
COMM_REQ is monitored for a status of 1, indicating that the Read COMM_REQ completed
successfully. The CRS word change to 1 sets coil READ_SUCCESS.
Rung # 12: When READ_SUCCESS is set it triggers CLOSE_REQ, which enables execution
of the BLKMOV, MOVE and COMM_REQ functions for the Close Modbus TCP Connection
COMM_REQ. CLOSE_REQ is a one-shot (Positive Transition) coil, activating once when
READ_SUCCESS transitions from OFF to ON.
Rung # 13: The MOVE WORD function moves a zero to the CRS word referenced in the
Command Block. This rung also resets the CLOSE_FLT output coil of the COMM_REQ
function block in rung #15.
Rung # 14: The DATA_INIT_COMM function sets up the COMM_REQ Command Block
contents. When this rung is activated, the constant operands are moved into the memory
beginning at the address indicated in the instruction. The constant operands in this example
are defined in the Close Modbus TCP Connection example on page 182.
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Rung # 15: The COMM_REQ Function has the same input parameters as in Rung 5.
The FT output (energizes the CLOSE_FLT coil in this example) is turned ON (set to 1) if
there were problems preventing the delivery of the Command Block to the Ethernet interface.
In this case, the other status indicators are not updated for this COMM_REQ.
Rung # 16: When ETH_READY is set the CRS word for the Close Modbus TCP Connection
COMM_REQ is monitored for a status of 1, indicating that the Close COMM_REQ completed
successfully. The CRS word change to 1 sets coil CLOSE_SUCCESS.
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9.7.3
Troubleshooting a Ladder Program
There are several forms of status data that can be accessed by the application program. The
use of the LAN Interface OK bit in the LAN Interface Status Word was described in the
example program. Some status data can be used to troubleshoot a program in its
developmental stage. The two primary sources of this data are the FT Output on the
COMM_REQ function block and the COMM_REQ Status word (CRS word).
FT Output is ON
If after executing a COMM_REQ Function, the FT Output is ON, there is a programming error
in one or more of the following areas.
▪
▪
▪
Invalid rack/slot specified. The module at this rack/slot is unable to receive a
COMM_REQ Command Block.
Invalid Task ID. TASK must be set to 65536 (0x10000).
Invalid Data Block length (0 or greater than 128).
COMM_REQ Status Word is Zero (0) and FT Output is OFF
If after executing a COMM_REQ function, the CRS word is zero (0) and the FT Output is
OFF, then the Command Block has been sent to the Ethernet interface, but no status has
been returned yet. If this condition persists, check the Controller Fault Table for information.
COMM_REQ Status Word is Not One (1)
If after executing a COMM_REQ function, the CRS word is not one (1) indicating success,
then there were:
▪
▪
Errors in the Command Block (the Channel command code or parameters), or
The command parameters were valid but there was an error in completing the request.
If the CRS word does not contain a 1 indicating success, then it contains either a 0 or a code
indicating what error occurred.
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9.7.4
Monitoring the Communications Channel
The status data can be used to monitor communications and take action after certain events.
9.7.4.1 Monitoring the COMM_REQ Status Word
It is critical to monitor the CRS word for each COMM_REQ function. First, zero the
associated CRS word before executing the COMM_REQ function. When the CRS word
becomes non-zero, the Ethernet interface has updated it. If the CRS word is updated to a
value of 1, the Command Block was processed successfully by the Ethernet interface. If the
CRS word has a value other than 1, an error occurred in processing the Command Block.
Do not use data received from a server until the CRS word for that channel is 1. In addition,
do not initiate additional commands to a channel until the CRS word has been updated. The
exception to this rule is when you want to terminate a command by using the Close Modbus
TCP Connection command.
9.7.4.2 Monitoring the Channel Open Bit
This bit is 1 when a Channel has successfully established a connection with a remote server,
and is 0 when a Channel has been closed.. The Channel Open Bit is meaningful when the
CPU is in Run mode and the particular channel is being used by Modbus TCP. The Channel
Open Bit is set at the same time the successful status is returned to the CRS word for the
Open Modbus TCP Connection COMM_REQ.
9.7.5
Sequencing Communications Requests
If the Ethernet interface receives Command Blocks from the CPU faster than it can process
them, the Ethernet interface will log an exception event 08, Entry 2=0024H and will log the
Controller Fault Table entry:
“Backplane Communications with Controller Fault; Lost Request”
Note:
Although there is no backplane in the RXi, this terminology is used because the RXi
shares code and fault text strings with the RX3i and RX7i controllers, which do have
backplanes.
Only one COMM_REQ function per channel can be pending at one time. A COMM_REQ
function is pending from the time it is initiated in the ladder program until its CRS word has
been updated to a non-zero value by the Ethernet interface.
9.7.5.1 PACSystems Modbus Client Endian Conversion Example
The following example table shows the Endian conversion behavior for the PACSystems
Modbus Client:
Memory
Location /
Type
Memory value
example
Transfer
Direction
Memory
Location /
Type
Resulting Value After
Transfer
Notes
Client Bit
%M16-%M1 =
0x4321

Server Word
%R1 = 0x4321
End-to-end bytes
unswapped
Server Bit
%M16-%M1 =
0x4321

Client Word
%R1 = 0x4321
End-to-end bytes
unswapped
Client Word
%R1 = 0x4321

Server Bit
%M16-%M1 = 0x4321
End-to-end bytes
unswapped
Server Word
%R1 = 0x4321

Client Bit
%M16-%M1 = 0x4321
End-to-end bytes
unswapped
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9.7.6
Major and Minor Error Codes in the COMM_REQ Status Word
9.7.6.1 Major Error Codes in the COMM_REQ Status Word
Success or a Major Error Code appears in the low byte of the COMM_REQ Status Word.
Hexadecimal values for the low byte are listed below. For many Major Error Codes, additional
information appears as a Minor Error Code in the high byte of the COMM_REQ Status Word.
Hexadecimal values for the high byte are listed on the following pages.
Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
204
Major Error Description
01H
Successful Completion. (This is the expected completion value in the COMM_REQ Status word.)
02H
Insufficient Privilege at server controller. For a PACSystems or Series 90-70 server controller, the minor error
code contains the privilege level required for the service request.
04H
Protocol Sequence Error. The server CPU has received a message that is out of order. Contact Technical
Support for assistance.
05H
Service Request Error at server controller. The minor error code contains the specific error code. See the
following table of Minor Error codes.
06H
Illegal Mailbox Type at server controller. Service request mailbox type is either undefined or unexpected.
Contact Technical Support for assistance.
07H
The server controller CPU’s Service Request Queue is full, usually due to heavy CPU loading. The client
should retry later. It is recommended that the client wait a minimum of 10 milliseconds before sending another
service request.
0BH
Illegal Service Request. The requested service is either not defined or not supported at the server controller.
(This value is returned in lieu of the actual service request error (01H), to avoid confusion with the normal
successful COMM_REQ completion.) Contact Technical Support for assistance.
11H
SRTP Error Code at server. An error was detected at the SRTP server. See the following table of Minor Error
codes.
82H
Insufficient Privilege at client controller. The minor error code contains the privilege level required for the
service request.
84H
Protocol Sequence Error. The CPU has received a message that is out of order. Contact Technical Support for
assistance.
85H
Service Request Error at the client controller. The minor error code contains the specific error code. See the
following table of Minor Error codes.
86H
Illegal Mailbox Type. Service request mailbox type is either undefined or unexpected. Contact Technical
Support for assistance.
87H
The client controller CPU’s Service Request Queue is full. The client should retry later. It is recommended that
the client wait a minimum of 10 milliseconds before sending another service request.
8BH
Illegal Service Request. The requested service is either not defined or not supported. (This value is returned in
lieu of the actual service request error (01H), to avoid confusion with the normal successful COMM_REQ
completion.). Contact Technical Support for assistance.
90H
Client (Channels) error. See the following table of Minor Error codes.
91H
Modbus TCP error code at server. An error was detected at the Modbus TCP server. See the following table of
Minor Error codes.
A0H
Reserved.
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9.7.6.2 Minor Error Codes for Major Error Code 05H (at Remote Server Controller) and 85H (at Client Controller)
Error Status (Hexadecimal)
Error Description
Remote Server
Client
8F05H
8F85H
Session already exists.
8E05H
8E85H
Memory write is prohibited.
9005H
9085H
Invalid controller memory reference range.
9305H
9385H
Text buffer length/count does not agree with request parameters.
C105H
C185H
Invalid block state transition.
C305H
C385H
Text length does not match traffic type.
C605H
C685H
Control Program (CP) tasks exist but requestor not logged into main CP.
C705H
C785H
Passwords are set to inactive and cannot be enabled or disabled.
C805H
C885H
Password(s) already enabled and cannot be forced inactive.
C905H
C985H
Login using non-zero buffer size required for block commands.
CA05H
CA85H
Device is write-protected.
CB05H
CB85H
A comm or write verify error occurred during save or restore.
CC05H
CC85H
Data stored on device has been corrupted and is no longer reliable.
CD05H
CD85H
Attempt was made to read a device but no data has been stored on it.
CE05H
CE85H
Specified device has insufficient memory to handle request.
CF05H
CF85H
Specified device is not available in the system (not present).
D105H
D185H
Packet size or total program size does not match input.
D205H
D285H
Invalid write mode parameter.
D505H
D585H
Invalid block name specified.
D605H
D685H
Total datagram connection memory exceeded.
D705H
D785H
Invalid datagram type specified.
D805H
D885H
Point length not allowed.
D905H
D985H
Transfer type invalid for this Memory Type selector.
DA05H
DA85H
Null pointer to data in Memory Type selector.
DB05H
DB85H
Invalid Memory Type selector in datagram.
DC05H
DC85H
Unable to find connection address.
DD05H
DD85H
Unable to locate given datagram connection ID.
DE05H
DE85H
Size of datagram connection invalid.
DF05H
DF85H
Invalid datagram connection address.
E005H
E085H
Service in process cannot login.
E405H
E485H
Memory Type for this selector does not exist.
E905H
E985H
Memory Type selector not valid in context.
EA05H
EA85H
Not logged in to process service request.
EE05H
EE85H
Could not return block sizes.
EF05H
EF85H
Programmer is already attached.
F005H
F085H
Request only valid in stop mode.
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Error Status (Hexadecimal)
Error Description
206
Remote Server
Client
F105H
F185H
Request only valid from programmer.
F205H
F285H
Invalid program cannot log in.
F405H
F485H
Invalid input parameter in request.
F505H
F585H
Invalid password.
F605H
F685H
Invalid sweep state to set.
F705H
F785H
Required to log in to a task for service.
F805H
F885H
Invalid program name referenced.
F905H
F985H
Task address out of range.
FC05H
FC85H
I/O configuration is invalid.
FE05H
FE85H
No privilege for attempted operation.
FF05H
FF85H
Service request has been aborted.
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9.7.6.3 Minor Error Codes for Major Error Code 11H (at Remote Server Controller)
Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
SRTP Error Description
0111H
Generic SRTP error.
0211H
The controller is inaccessible.
0311H
Reserved.
0411H
Unexpected SRTP version encountered in received message.
0511H
Unrecognized SRTP message received.
0611H
Data present in SRTP message, which should not contain data.
0711H
Generic resource problem detected.
0811H
SRTP message encountered in inappropriate connection state.
0911H
Generic refusal by backplane driver to handle request.
0A11H
Recognized but unsupported SRTP message received.
0B11H
Lost transaction in server.
0C11H
Error sending SRTP PDU to the client controller.
1411H
Unable to allocate a text buffer from dual port memory.
1711H
Invalid text length detected in a mailbox message.
1811H
Invalid number of destinations detected in a mailbox message.
1911H
Invalid source detected in a mailbox message.
1A11H
Invalid slot number detected in a mailbox message.
1B11H
Invalid rack number detected in a mailbox message.
1D11H
Bad text buffer address in dual port memory.
2111H
Unable to find control data required to send a mailbox message to the controller.
2211H
Timed out waiting for availability of mail communications with the controller.
2311H
Invalid task ID detected while attempting to send a mailbox message to the controller.
2411H
Unable to send mailbox message to controller because the mail queue is full.
2611H
Unable to communicate with controller.
2711H
Backplane driver not initialized or unable to acquire a dual port memory semaphore.
2A11H
The backplane driver could not access the controller.
2B11H
Invalid binding on the message sent to the backplane driver.
2C11H
The message could not be sent to its destination because the mailbox was not open.
2D11H
The maximum number of transfers to the destination is already taking place.
2E11H
The maximum number of transfers of this transfer type is already taking place.
2F11H
Cannot obtain a backplane transfer buffer.
3011H
Cannot obtain resources other than backplane transfer buffers.
3111H
Connection ID or block transfer ID is not valid.
3211H
Timed out waiting for controller CPU response.
3311H
The controller CPU aborted the request.
3411H
An invalid message type was specified.
3511H
The specified task is not registered.
3611H
The mailbox offset specified is invalid.
3711H
The backplane task could not be registered because the message response handler was not specified.
3811H
The backplane task could not be registered because the unsolicited mailbox message handler was not
specified.
3911H
The backplane task could not be registered because a required parameter was not specified.
3A11H
More than the allowable byte length in a single transfer.
3B11H
Bad sequence number in the request.
3C11H
Invalid command in request.
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Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
208
SRTP Error Description
3D11H
Response length does not match length specified in the response qualifier.
3E11H
Request failed because the controller’s Service Request Processor is not initialized.
3F11H
Request failed due to an error in the remote device, most likely running out of Dual-Port RAM text buffers.
4011H
Unable to free dual port memory that was allocated for a connection or block transfer area.
4111H
The backplane task could not be registered because the service request handler was not specified.
4211H
No dual port memory was allocated for the connection or block transfer area needed to process the
request.
4311H
Failure to register with backplane driver because the requested task is already registered.
4411H
Request failed because an invalid field was identified in the request mailbox qualifier.
E811H
Unable to send request to the controller because an internal message queue is full.
E911H
Unable to send request to the controller because the text buffer type is invalid.
EA11H
Unable to send request to the controller because the mailbox utility function is invalid.
EB11H
Unable to send request to the controller because the mailbox message is not specified.
EC11H
Unable to send request to the controller because the internal message queue is not initialized.
FE11H
Request failed due to mailbox error on remote device. The remote device log will have more information.
2911H
The backplane driver is not initialized.
2A11H
The backplane driver could not access the controller.
2F11H
Request failed due to an invalid parameter detected in the remote device. The remote device log will have
more information.
3011H
The specified task is not registered.
3111H
Failure to register with backplane driver because the requested task is already registered.
3211H
Unable to find resource necessary for backplane driver to process a service request.
3311H
Bad sequence number detected in the service request because it is already in use.
3411H
Invalid data detected that prevents backplane driver from completing a request.
3611H
More than the allowable byte length in a single transfer.
4811H
Memory resource problem detected.
4911H
Network buffer resource problem detected.
4C11H
Error detected while attempting to receive mailbox messages from the controller.
4D11H
Timed out waiting to obtain a backplane transfer buffer.
4E11H
Timed out waiting to transfer a mailbox message to the controller.
4F11H
Timed out waiting for controller CPU response.
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9.7.6.4 Minor Error Codes for Major Error Code 90H (at Client Controller)
Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
Error Description
0190H
Timeout expired before transfer completed; still waiting on transfer.
0290H
Period expired before transfer completed; still waiting on transfer.
8190H
COMM_REQ data block too short for the command.
8290H
COMM_REQ data block too short for server controller node address.
8390H
Invalid server memory type.
8490H
Invalid Program Name.
8590H
Invalid Program Block Name.
8690H
Zero server unit length is not allowed.
8790H
Server unit length is too large.
8890H
Invalid channel number.
8990H
Invalid time unit for period. (Maximum permitted 3965 hours)
8A90H
Period value is too large.
8B90H
Zero server memory starting address is not allowed.
8C90H
Invalid client memory type.
8D90H
Invalid server host address type.
8E90H
Invalid IP address integer value. (Must be 0–255)
8F90H
Invalid IP address class. (Must be valid Class A, B, or C IP address)
May also occur if the destination IP address in the COMM_REQ is same as the sender’s IP address.
9090H
Insufficient TCP connection resources to do request.
9190H
Zero local starting address is not allowed.
9290H
Address length value invalid. Must be 4 for address type 1.
9390H
COMM_REQ data block too short for Program Block name (including 0 pad).
9490H
COMM_REQ data block too short for Program name (including 0 pad).
9590H
Internal API error. See Controller Fault Table or exception log for details. This problem may occur due to the
Ethernet Interface being asked to perform beyond its capacity. Try transferring less data per message or
establishing fewer simultaneous connections.
9690H
Underlying TCP connection aborted (reset) by server end point.
9790H
Underlying TCP connection aborted by client end point.
9890H
The remote server has no Service Request Processor.
9A90H
Response to session request did not arrive in proper order.
9B90H
Session denied by server controller.
9C90H
Data response did not arrive in proper order.
9D90H
Data response had unexpected size.
9E90H
Unrecognized COMM_REQ command code.
A190H
Invalid CRS word memory type.
A290H
Failed an attempt to update the CRS word.
A390H
Reserved.
A490H
Reserved.
A590H
Reserved.
A690H
Invalid bit mask.
A790H
Unable to connect to remote device.
A890H
Channel Resources in Use. Try the command again; a resource will become available.
A990H
“Establish Read/Write/Send Info Report Channel” COMM_REQ was received while an Abort was in progress.
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Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
AA90H
Error Description
An attempt to establish a TCP connection with a Remote Server has failed. Check the following:
▪
▪
▪
210
Make sure the Server is turned on.
Make sure cables are connected.
If using a switch, make sure the switch is turned on.
AB90H
A COMM_REQ was discarded because the application program issued the COMM_REQ before the COMM_REQ
Status Word for the previous COMM_REQ was set.
AC90H
A protocol error occurred while communicating with the local controller.
AD90H
A TCP Timeout occurred while communicating with the Remote Controller.
AE90H
A protocol error occurred while communicating with the local Controller.
B490H
The channel that the application is trying to open is already open.
B590H
The channel the application is trying to access is owned by a different protocol.
B690H
COMM_REQ specified an invalid Modbus function code.
B790H
COMM_REQ specified an invalid Modbus unit ID.
B890H
COMM_REQ specified an invalid number of subrequests.
B990H
A COMM_REQ subrequest specified an invalid record number.
C090H
Reserved.
FF90H
Abort in progress on a channel
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9.7.6.5 Minor Error Codes for Major Error Code 91H (at Remote Modbus TCP Server)
The Minor codes for Major Error Code 91H indicate standard Modbus exception codes
returned from the remote Modbus TCP server/slave device.
Error Status
(Hexadecimal)
Error Description
0191H
Illegal function. The function code received in the query is not an allowable action for the server. (Modbus exception
code 01 ILLEGAL FUNCTION)
0291H
Illegal Data Address. The data address received in the query is not an allowable address for the server. The
combination of reference number and transfer length is invalid. (Modbus exception code 02 ILLEGAL DATA
ADDRESS)
0391H
Illegal Data Value. A value in the query field is not an allowable value for the server. This indicates a fault in the
remainder of the request, such as that the implied length is incorrect. It specifically does NOT mean that a data item
submitted for storage in the server has an incorrect value. (Modbus exception code 03 ILLEGAL DATA VALUE)
0491H
Slave Device Failure. An unrecoverable error occurred while the server was attempting to perform the requested
action. (Modbus exception code 04 SLAVE DEVICE FAILURE)
0591H
Acknowledge. Used for Programmer operations only. Our Modbus TCP server does not support Modbus
programmer operations. (Modbus exception code 05 ACKNOWLEDGE)
0691H
Slave Device Busy. The server is unable to accept and process this Modbus request. (Modbus exception code 06
SLAVE DEVICE BUSY)
0791H
Negative Acknowledge. An internal server error occurred while attempting to process a Modbus request. (Modbus
exception code 07 NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE)
0891H
Memory Parity Error. (Function codes 20 and 21 only.) The extended file area failed to pass a consistency check.
(Modbus exception code 08 MEMORY PARITY ERROR)
0991H
Reserved. (Modbus exception code 09 RESERVED)
0A91H
Gateway Path Unavailable. Gateway was unable to allocate a PATH to process the request. Usually means the
gateway is misconfigured or overloaded. (Modbus exception code 10 GATEWAY PATH UNAVAILABLE)
0B91H
Gateway Target No Response. No response was obtained from target device. Usually means that the device is not
present on the network. (Modbus exception code 11 GATEWAY TARGET NO RESPONSE)
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9.8
Ethernet Interface Diagnostics
9.8.1
Diagnostics Tools
The following tools are available to assist you in diagnosing problems with the Ethernet
Interface and the network.
▪
▪
▪
Controller Fault table
Ethernet status bits
Station Manager
9.8.1.1 Controller Fault Table
Use the Controller Fault table to troubleshoot a problem once the Interface is running. It
provides a record of exceptions logged by the controller, the Ethernet Interface, and other I/O
and communications modules. The Controller Fault table is accessed through the
programming software or the IDM.
The table on the next two pages lists Ethernet interface faults and corrective actions.
To access the details of a Controller Fault Table entry, double-click the Fault Table entry and
the details are displayed as “fault extra data”. Refer to the online help in the programming
software for more information.
An example of the fault extra data is shown below:
160006000300050000000000000000000000000000000000
For Ethernet Interfaces the leftmost 14 digits of fault extra data (underlined in the example
above) show the corresponding log Events (2 digits) and Entries 2, 3, and 4 (in that order, 4
digits each). The example above is reporting an Event 16, Entry 2=6, Entry 3=3, and
Entry 4=5.
For Controller Fault table entries generated by the Ethernet Interface, the Detailed Fault Data
for that entry contains the same data as the corresponding event in the Ethernet Interface’s
exception log. Refer to GFK-2225, TCP/IP Ethernet Communications for the PACSystems
Station Manager Manual, for information on how to interpret Ethernet exception log events.
Controller Fault Table Descriptions
Controller Fault
212
User Action
Backplane communications with
controller fault; lost request
Check to make sure that the logic application is not sending
COMM_REQs faster than the Ethernet Interface can process
them. Reduce the rate at which the application is sending
COMM_REQs to the Ethernet interface. If problem persists,
contact Technical Support.
Mailbox queue full –
COMM_REQ aborted
Check to make sure that the logic application is not sending
COMM_REQs faster than the Ethernet Interface can process
them. Reduce the rate at which the application is sending
COMM_REQs to the Ethernet interface. If problem persists,
contact Technical Support.
Bad local application request;
discarded request
Check for valid COMM_REQ command code. If problem persists,
contact Technical Support.
Bad remote application request;
discarded request
Try to validate the operation of the remote node. If problem
persists, contact Technical Support.
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Controller Fault
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User Action
Can’t locate remote node;
discarded request
Error reported when message received where IP/MAC address
cannot be resolved. Error may indicate that remote host is not
operational on the network. Check that remote host is operational
on network and its addresses are correct.
COMM_REQ - Bad task ID
programmed
Message from controller for unknown Ethernet Interface task.
Check COMM_REQ function block.
COMM_REQ - Wait mode not
allowed
Check COMM_REQ to make sure sent in no-wait mode.
Configured gateway address
bad; can’t talk off local net
Error in configuration. Verify that IP address, Subnetwork Mask,
and default Gateway IP address are correct.
Connection to remote node
failed; resuming without it
Underlying communications software detects error transferring
data; resuming. If persistent error,
check connection to LAN and operation of remote node.
LAN controller fault; restart LAN
I/F
HW fault, perform a power cycle. If problem persists, contact
Technical Support.
LAN controller Tx underflow;
attempt recovery
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN controller under
run/overrun; resuming
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN data memory exhausted check parameters; resuming
The Ethernet Interface does not have free memory to process
communications. If problem persists, contact Technical Support.
LAN duplicate MAC Address;
resuming
A frame was received in which the source MAC Address was the
same as this station’s MAC Address. All stations on a network
must have a unique MAC address. Immediately isolate the
offending station; it may be necessary to turn it off or disconnect it
from the network. This station remains Online unless you intervene
to take it Offline.
LAN I/F can’t init - check
parameters; running soft Sw utl
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN I/F capacity exceeded;
discarded request
Verify that connection limits are not being exceeded.
LAN interface hardware failure;
switched off network
Replace the Ethernet Interface.
LAN network problem exists;
performance degraded
Excessive backlog of transmission requests due to excessive
traffic on the network. For a sustained period the MAC was unable
to send frames as quickly as requested. If problem persists,
contact Technical Support.
LAN severe network problem;
attempting recovery
External condition prevented transmission of frame in specified
time. Could be busy network or network problem. Check
transceiver to make sure it is securely attached to the network.
LAN system-software fault;
aborted, connection resuming
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN system-software fault;
restarted LAN I/F
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN system-software fault;
resuming
Internal system error. If problem persists, contact Technical
Support.
LAN transceiver fault; OFF
network until fixed
Transceiver or transceiver cable failed or became disconnected.
Reattach the cable or replace the transceiver cable. Check SQE
test switch if present on transceiver.
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Controller Fault
User Action
Local request to send was
rejected; discarded request
Internal error. Check that the Ethernet Interface is online. If
problem persists, contact Technical Support.
Memory backup fault; may lose
configuration/log on restart
Internal error accessing non-volatile device. If problem persists,
contact Technical Support. Replace the Ethernet Interface.
Module software corrupted;
requesting reload
Catastrophic internal system error. Contact Technical Support.
Module state doesn’t permit
Comm_Req; discarded
COMM_REQ received when Ethernet Interface cannot process
COMM_REQ. Make sure Ethernet Interface is configured and
online. Error may occur if the logic application is sending
COMM_REQs faster than the Ethernet Interface can process
them. Reduce the rate at which COMM_REQs are sent.
Unsupported feature in
configuration
An attempt has been made to configure a feature not supported by
the Ethernet Interface. Check CPU and Ethernet Interface
revisions, order upgrade kit for CPU and/or Ethernet Interface.
Can’t locate remote node;
discarded request
A specified remote device does not exist on the network. Check
that the remote device IP address is correct and that the remote
device is functioning properly.
Mailbox Queue full – Comm_req
aborted
The CPU is attempting to send COMM_REQs faster than the
Ethernet Interface can receive them. The controller logic program
should retry the COMM_REQ after a short delay. If the condition
persists, the logic application should be revised to reduce the rate
at which it sends COMM_REQs to the Ethernet Interface.
Non-critical CPU software event
The CPU is attempting to send mail messages faster than they
can be retrieved by the Ethernet Interface; the messages are
discarded. This can result in subsequent “Backplane
communications with controller fault; lost request” faults.
9.8.1.2 Station Manager
You can use the Station Manager to troubleshoot a problem with the Ethernet Interface, the
network or with your application.
Only monitor commands are supported in the first release:
EXS, HELP, LOG, LTIME, NODE, PLCREAD, SOSW, STAT, TALLY and TIME
The LOG, TALLY, and STAT Station Manager commands are especially useful.
■
■
■
The LOG command provides a complete record of exceptions occurring with the network
and Interface.
The TALLY command provides statistics about operation and performance of the network
and Interface. The RXi embedded Ethernet interface supports the C, I, J, L, M, P, U, V,
and W tasks.
The STAT command provides the current status of specific components of the Ethernet
interface. The RXi embedded Ethernet interface supports the B, C, I, L, M, U, V and W
tasks.
Refer to the TCP/IP Ethernet Communications for PACSystems Station Manager Manual,
GFK-2225, for information on how to access and use the Station Manager software.
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9.8.1.3 Ethernet Interface Status Bits
The Ethernet Interface status bits occupy a single block of either reference memory or I/O
variables. The access type and location of the Ethernet Interface Status bits is specified
during configuration of the Ethernet Interface. The Ethernet interface updates its bits in the
CPU once each controller scan.
The first 16 bits of the block are the LAN Interface Status (LIS) bits. The next 64 bits are the
Channel Status bits (2 for each channel).
Status Bits
LAN
Interface
Status
Channel
Status
Brief Description
1
Port full duplex
2
Port operating at highest supported speed
3
Reserved
4
Reserved
5
Reserved
6
Reserved
7-8
Reserved
9
Any Channel Error (error on any channel)
10–12
Reserved
13
LAN OK
14
Resource problem
15
Reserved
16
LAN Interface OK
17
Channel Open - Channel 1
18
Reserved – Channel 1
...
...
47
Channel Open - Channel 16
48
Reserved – Channel 16
49–80
Reserved
9.8.1.4 LAN Interface Status (LIS) Bits
The LAN Interface Status bits (bits 1 – 16) monitor the health of the Ethernet Interface.
Note:
Unless the “LAN Interface OK” bit is set (Status Bit 16), the other status bits
are invalid.
Bit 1, Port set to Full Duplex: This bit is set to 1 when the port is set to full duplex. Fullduplex or half-duplex operation is automatically negotiated between the Ethernet Interface
and its immediately-connected network device, usually a network hub or switch. If this bit is 0,
the port is in half-duplex Ethernet mode. This bit is only valid if bit 13 (LAN OK) is 1.
Bit 2, Port Operating at Highest Supported Speed: This bit is set to 1 when the port is
operating at its highest supported speed.
Bit 9, Any Channel in Error: This bit (normally 0) indicates one or more of the channels are
in error.
Bit 13, LAN OK: This bit is 1 as long as the Ethernet Interface sis able to communicate on
the network. If the network becomes inaccessible due to local or network problems, this bit is
set to 0. If LAN communication becomes possible again, it is set to 1.
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Bit 14, Resource Problem: This bit is set to 1 if the Ethernet Interface software has a
resource problem (i.e., lack of data memory). The bit is reset to 0 on a subsequent controller
sweep. The Ethernet Interface may or may not be able to continue functioning, depending on
the severity of the problem. Look in the Controller Fault Table for details. In addition, the
Station Manager STAT B and LOG commands can be used. See the Station Manager
Manual, GFK-2225, for more information.
Bit 16, LAN Interface OK Bit: This bit is set to 1 by the Ethernet Interface each controller
scan. If the Ethernet Interface cannot access the controller, the CPU sets this bit to 0. When
this bit is 0, all other Ethernet Interface Status bits are invalid.
9.8.1.5 Channel Status Bits
The Channel Status bits provide runtime status information for each communication channel.
Each channel has two status bits; the meaning of the channel status bits depends upon the
type of communication performed on that channel.
Each Modbus channel has a dedicated status bit:
(Status Bits 17, 19, 21 ... 47) Connection Open Bit: This bit is 1 when a TCP connection exists for
the associated channel. The bit is 0 when the connection does not exist or is unused (either
never created or has disconnected). The bit is also set to zero when the controller goes to
STOP, because all connections are automatically closed upon STOP transition.
(Status Bits 18, 20, 22 ...46, 48–80) Reserved: When a Channel is in use as a Modbus TCP
Channel, these bits are not used.
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9.8.2
Troubleshooting Common Ethernet Difficulties
Some common Ethernet errors are described below. Ethernet errors are generally indicated
in the Controller Fault Table and the Ethernet exception log. As previously explained,
Controller Faults generated by the Ethernet interface contain Ethernet exception events
within the extra fault data. See the TCP/IP Communications for PACSystems Station
Manager Manual, GFK-2225 for detailed descriptions of Ethernet exception events.
9.8.2.1 COMM_REQ Fault Errors
When the controller CPU attempts to initiate COMM_REQs to the Ethernet Interface more
rapidly than the Ethernet Interface can accept them, the COMM_REQ delivery will fail. The
fault output of the COMM_REQ function block will be set and the COMM_REQ will not be
delivered to the Ethernet Interface. In this case, the logic program should attempt to initiate
the COMM_REQ on another sweep after a very short delay. This condition may arise when
the logic Program attempts to initiate greater than 16 COMM_REQs in the same logic sweep.
Sustained heavy COMM_REQ delivery from the CPU to the Ethernet Interface can use a
considerable portion of the Ethernet Interface’s processing capability. Under heavy
COMM_REQ load, the Ethernet Interface may discard some received COMM_REQs until it is
once again able to process further COMM_REQs. In such cases, the Ethernet Interface
increments the “CmrqDscd” tally; this tally is available via the TALLY C Station Manager
command.
Under sustained extremely heavy COMM_REQ load, the Ethernet Interface may not respond
to Station Manager commands and possibly some network communications. A COMM_REQ
fault may be logged in the Controller Fault Table (see Controller Fault Table Descriptions,
earlier in this chapter.) If this occurs, first switch the controller CPU to STOP mode, which
ceases COMM_REQ delivery in order to resume normal Ethernet operation. Then modify the
logic application to reduce the COMM_REQ traffic to a manageable level.
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9.8.2.2 Controller Timeout Errors
Controller timeout errors may occur when the SRTP traffic to the Ethernet Interface exceeds
the controller’s ability to process the requests, or when the controller is unable to deliver mail
to the Ethernet Interface. Controller Timeout errors will take down an SRTP Server
connection; in this case, the remote SRTP client must establish a new SRTP connection to
the Ethernet Interface.
This error is indicated in the Controller Fault Table as:
“Backplane communication with controller fault; lost request”
with exception Event = 8, Entry 2 = 8
These errors may also be accompanied by any of the following:
“Backplane communication with controller fault; lost request”
with exception Event = 8, Entry 2 = 6; location = Ethernet Interface
“LAN system-software fault; resuming”
with exception Event = 8, Entry 2 = 16; location = Ethernet Interface
“Non-critical CPU software event”
status code (bytes 5-8) = 80 3a 00 12; location = CPU module
The controller Timeout condition occurs when the CPU cannot process requests within a
specified timeout period. The remedy is to reduce the rate of requests, or increase the
processing capacity in the controller.
Cause
Corrective Action
Heavy COMM_REQ traffic.
Reduce the rate at which the logic application sends
COMM_REQs to the Ethernet Interface.
Heavy SRTP traffic.
Reduce the size, number, or frequency of SRTP requests at
the remote SRTP client.
Long controller sweep time.
Modify the controller application to reduce the controller
sweep time.
Controller Communication Window
set to LIMITED mode.
Change to RUN-TO-COMPLETION mode.
9.8.2.3 Station Manager Lockout under Heavy Load
Sustained heavy SRTP Server load can utilize all processing resources within the Ethernet
interface, effectively locking out the Station Manager function. The Station Manager appears
inoperative under either local or remote operation. The Ethernet interface always gives higher
priority to data communication functions than to the Station Manager. When the processing
load is reduced, the Station Manager becomes operative once again.
This condition is not reported to the Controller Fault Table or Ethernet exception log.
9.8.2.4 Ping Restrictions
To conserve network data buffer resources, the CPU process only one ICMP control
message at a time. An ICMP Echo (ping) request that arrives while the CPU is processing
another ICMP control message is discarded. When multiple remote hosts attempt to ping the
CPU at the same time, some individual ping requests may be ignored depending upon the
timing of the ping requests on the network.
Discarded ping requests are not reported to the Controller Fault table or Ethernet
exception log.
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9.8.2.5 SRTP and Modbus TCP Connection Timeout
When the Ethernet Interface is abruptly disconnected from a remote SRTP or Modbus TCP
device (for example, by disconnecting the Ethernet cable), the underlying TCP connection
attempts to re-establish communication. By default, the underlying TCP connection in the
Ethernet Interface remains open for 7 minutes while TCP attempts to reconnect. During this
interval, the SRTP or Modbus TCP connection is unavailable. If all the SRTP or Modbus TCP
connections in the Ethernet Interface are in use or otherwise unavailable, a new SRTP or
Modbus TCP server connection must wait until an existing SRTP or Modbus TCP connection
times out. If the SRTP server connection was used by the Programmer, any new
Programmer connection is restricted to Monitor operation until the previous connection times
out and is cleaned up.
For details, see 9.4.1, SRTP Inactivity Timeout.”
Note that the TCP connection timeout interval applies to all TCP-based connections at this
Ethernet interface. This includes all SRTP, Modbus TCP, FTP, and web server
communications.
The underlying TCP connection timeout is normal expected behavior, and is consistent with
our other controller products.
9.8.2.6 Sluggish Programmer Response after Network Disruption
The network programmer attempts to use a special “privileged” SRTP server connection at
the Ethernet Interface in order to establish and maintain connection even under heavy load
due SRTP connections. The Ethernet Interface allows three privileged connections. When the
maximum number of privileged connections is in use, no other privileged connections are
permitted until a current privileged connection is terminated. This normally occurs when the
network programmer disconnects from the target controller.
As described above under “SRTP Connection Timeout”, when the programmer-controller
network connection is abruptly broken (not the orderly termination performed during
disconnection), the SRTP server connection and its underlying TCP connection remain alive
until either an SRTP inactivity timeout occurs (20 –30 seconds), or the TCP connection times
out (about 7 minutes). If the maximum privileged connections are in use and the programmer
reconnects during this interval, it obtains a new, non-privileged connection. Under heavy load
at the Ethernet Interface, the programmer may experience sluggish response over this nonprivileged connection. If this occurs, you can manually disconnect and reconnect the
programmer after the previous connection has timed out. Upon reconnection, the
programmer should once again obtain a privileged connection.
9.8.3
COMM_REQ Flooding Can Interrupt Normal Operation
The controller logic application program should generally wait for a response from each
COMM_REQ function block before activating another COMM_REQ function block to the
same endpoint. Extremely heavy COMM_REQ delivery loading, such as activating the same
COMM_REQ every logic sweep, can prevent normal SRTP, Modbus, and Station Manager
operation. During such loading, the Ethernet LAN LED may be frozen. Under extreme
COMM_REQ loading, the Ethernet interface may automatically restart.
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9.8.4
Channels Operation Depends Upon Controller Input Scanning
Communication channels operation always includes updating the Channel Status Bits
(located within the Ethernet Status data) into controller memory, which occurs when the
controller scans inputs from the Ethernet module. At least one controller input scan must
occur for each data transfer on a channel, so the channel can run no faster than the controller
scans the Ethernet Status data. When the Ethernet interface is configured to use an I/O Scan
Set than runs more slowly than the controller sweep, each channel must wait until the next
time that its scan set runs to transfer its Channel Status bits. This can reduce channels
performance.
If the Ethernet interface is configured to use an inactive I/O Scan Set, the Channels Status
bits will not be transferred and channel operations will not complete.
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Chapter 10. PROFINET Controller Overview
The embedded PNC provides an integrated redundant PROFINET I/O interface. It
provides all the functions, services, and protocols required for certification as a
PROFINET IO Version 2.2 IO Controller, running at both 100Mbps and 1Gbps.
The two PNC ports support 10/100/1000Mbps copper connections. The network can include
media interfaces of more than one type if using an external programmable switch.
PROFINET communications on the network require 100 or 1000 Mbps link speed. The
10Mbps speed cannot be used for PROFINET communications. However, 10Mbps can be
used for other types of Ethernet traffic, such as ping.
Features of the RXi PNC include:
■
■
■
■
■
10.1
Full programming and configuration services for the PNC, GE Intelligent Platforms’
PROFINET Scanners (PNSs) and third-party IO-Devices using PROFICY Machine
Edition software.
Support for star, ring, and daisy-chain/line network topologies.
No external switches are required for any ring and line topologies.
Support for media redundancy
Provides an internal clock for time-stamped diagnostics entries.
Ethernet Network Ports
The PNC connects to a PROFINET network via one or both of its two external switch ports.
For details, see “2.4.3, Connecting to a PROFINET Network.”
The PROFINET protocol supported by the PACSystems RXi can be sent and received over
either of the two external ports.
The Controller is assigned seven Ethernet MAC addresses: one for each of the three external
Ethernet ports and four for the internal switch.
Each external switch port has an associated link-up/link-down status bit that can be
monitored to check the operating status of the port (see 11.8.2 “PROFINET Controller Status
Reporting” for information about the PNC status bits.
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10.2
PROFINET Networks for PACSystems
PROFINET is an open standard for industrial automation that is based on Industrial Ethernet.
The PROFINET IO framework allows the creation of I/O data exchanges between controllers
and distributed devices. It also allows configuration, parameterization, and diagnostics
communication between controllers and devices.
Note:
The PNC operates only in autonegotiate mode. All PROFINET bus devices and
switches that are connected to the PNC should be configured to use autonegotiation.
10.2.1 Basic System: One RXi Controller using a single port
Components of the RXi PROFINET network consist of a PACSystems RXi Controller
communicating with IO Devices on the PROFINET bus. IO Devices on the network can
include GE Intelligent Platforms PNS modules and a wide range of third-party devices. The
example below shows a basic system with one RXi Controller, and a PROFINET network
with GE Intelligent Platforms IO-Scanners and third-party IO-Devices.
An RXi Controller can control up to 128 devices. The PROFINET Scanners can interface
multiple devices such as discrete and analog modules to the PROFINET network.
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10.2.2 Basic System: One RXi Controller using Multiple Ports
The illustration below shows a basic system consisting of an RXi Controller node controlling
one PROFINET network. The network can connect up to 128 compatible IO-Devices,
including any combination of GE Intelligent Platforms PROFINET Scanners and third-party
IO-Devices.
This example shows an RXi Controller that is directly connected to two separate IO-Devices
in a star topology. Although each IO-Device is connected to a separate Ethernet port on the
PNC, they are all on the same network. The IO-Devices in this example are VersaMax
PROFINET Scanners, but other types of IO-Devices can also be used.
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10.2.3 Basic System: Third-Party Devices and PME Programmer
Third-party IO Devices can be used with the PNC if their manufacturer provides a GSDML file
that can be imported into Proficy Machine Edition. The GSDML file defines the characteristics
of the IO-Device and its I/O modules. Importing a third-party IO-Device GSDML file and
configuring third-party IO-Devices are described in 4.2.6, “Adding a Third-Party IO-Device to
a LAN” and in the PME online help.
After receiving a third-party device’s configuration, the PNC connects to the third-party
IO-Device if the device is available, transfers the configuration to the device, and starts
exchanging I/O and alarm data with the device.
The following illustration shows a programmer connection (for configuration, user logic
programming, and monitoring), the concept of GSDML import, an optional external Ethernet
switch, and the ability to connect field buses to a PROFINET IO-Device. Third-party
IO-Devices that have only one Ethernet port may require the use of an external switch.
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10.3
Glossary of PROFINET Terms
AR
Application Relationship. PROFINET term for a relationship that is established
between an IO-Controller/Supervisor and IO-Device. For any data to be exchanged
between an IO-Controller/Supervisor and a given IO-Device, an Application
Relationship must be established. Within the Application Relationship, various
Communication Relationships are then established for the different types of data to
be exchanged.
Broadcast
In Ethernet, the transmission of a network message to all hosts on the network.
CR
Communication Relationship. PROFINET term for a channel that is established
within an Application Relationship to transfer specific data between an IOController/Supervisor and a given IO-Device. Multiple CRs are established within an
AR to transfer data.
DAP
Device Access Point. This access point is used to address an IO-Device as an
entity.
Gratuitous
ARPs
An Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request sent by the host to resolve its own IP
address.
GSDML
General Station Description Markup Language - definition of PROFINET Device
Characteristics.
IOC
PROFINET IO-Controller
IOD
PROFINET IO-Device
IOCR
Input Output Communication Relationship – describes the type (input/output) and
amount of I/O data to be transferred, the sequence of the transfers and the transfer
cycle between a PROFINET IO-Controller (or IO-Supervisor) and a PROFINET IODevice.
IOCS
PROFINET Input/Output Consumer Status is transmitted on the PROFINET network
to provide feedback on Input Data for an IO controller and Output Data for an IO
device.
IOPS
PROFINET Input/Output Provider Status is transmitted on the PROFINET network to
provide feedback on Output Data for an IO controller and the Input Data for an IO
device.
IOxS
PROFINET abbreviation for the IOCS and/or IOPS (see above).
LLDP
Link Layer Discovery Protocol. IEEE standardized protocol used by network devices
to advertise their identity and capabilities.
MRC
Media Redundancy Client. Within Media Redundancy Protocol, an MRC is
responsible for helping the MRM detect breaks/no breaks in the ring.
MRM
Media Redundancy Manager. Within Media Redundancy Protocol, an MRM is
responsible for ensuring that the ring does not have a closed loop, while
simultaneously ensuring maximal connectivity between nodes on the ring.
MRP
Media Redundancy Protocol. An Ethernet protocol that provides redundant paths
for PROFINET-IO cyclic traffic by supporting a ring topology.
Multicast
In Ethernet, the transmission of a network message to all hosts within a host
group.
NMS
Network Management System. Executes applications that monitor and control
managed devices in an SNMP-managed network.
If the IOCR Update Period is greater than the Send Clock time, the Update Period
is divided into multiple phases where each phase is equal to one Send Clock.
Phase
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CPU Node
In a PACSystems RXi PROFINET network, a CPU Node is a node that has a
PACSystems RXi Controller that is connected to the PROFINET network.
RDO
Record Data Object. Services used to read and write structured data stored in a
PROFINET IO-Device.
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226
Reduction
Ratio
Along with Send Clock determines the Update Period for a PROFINET cyclic data
transfer between two devices (see IOCR). The Update Period equals the Reduction
Ratio multiplied by the Send Clock time. For example, if the Reduction Ratio is 4
and the Send Clock is 1ms, the Update Period is 4ms.
Remote Node
For an RXi PROFINET network, a Remote Node is any PROFINET IO-Device, such
as a rack of I/O modules with a Remote Scanner or a third party PROFINET
IO-Device.
RTA
Real-Time Acyclic. A PROFINET-IO Mechanism used to exchange non-periodic
data such as alarms.
RTC
Real-Time Cyclic. A PROFINET-IO Mechanism used to exchange input and output
data.
Send Clock
Value between 1 and 128 inclusive in 31.25 µs units (equivalent to a range of
31.25 µs to 4 ms) used to calculate the Update Period for a PROFINET cyclic data
transfer between two devices (see IOCR). The Send Clock is the basis for all other
scheduling parameters.
Send Offset
The time to delay a scheduled PROFINET cyclic data transfer frame. Measured in
nanoseconds from 0 to 3,999,999. Must be less than the Send Clock time.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. UDP-based network protocol that facilitates
the exchange of management information between network devices.
Submodule
PROFINET-IO representation of the smallest configurable entity of a PROFINET
Module.
Unicast
In Ethernet, the transmission of a network message to an individual host.
Update Period
The time between PROFINET cyclic data transfers between an IO-Controller and an
IO-Device.
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Chapter 11. PROFINET Controller Operation
This chapter describes:
11.1
■
PROFINET Operation Overview
- PROFINET Communications
- Application Relationships
- Types of PROFINET Communications
- External Switch VLAN Priority Settings
■
Operations of the PNC
- Duplicate Device IP Address Detection
- Duplicate Controller IP Address Detection
- Resolving Duplicate IP Addresses
■
■
I/O Scan Timing
RXi CPU Operations for PROFINET
- Reference ID Variables for the RXi Application
- The PNIO_DEV_COMM function block
- DO I/O for Remote I/O Modules
- Scan Set I/O for Remote I/O Modules
- RXi CPU Defaults Inputs
- RXi CPU Defaults Outputs
PROFINET Operation Overview
An RXi Controller uses PROFINET communications for data exchange. The same network
can also be used for basic Ethernet communications, but use of a separate Ethernet LAN and
RXi Ethernet interface is recommended for most applications.
A PROFINET network can include three types of devices:
PROFINET IO-Controller
The RXi Controller operates as an IO-Controller. It is a controlling
device that is associated with one or more IO-Devices.
PROFINET IO-Device
A PROFINET IO-Device is a distributed I/O Device that is coupled to
a PROFINET IO-Controller via PROFINET.
PROFINET IO-Supervisor
An IO-Supervisor can be a programming device, a computer, or an
HMI device. The PROFINET IO-Supervisor is typically used for
commissioning or diagnostics.
11.1.1 PROFINET Communications
Communications on an RXi PROFINET network use the standard PROFINET
communications described in this section.
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11.1.2 Application Relationships
Before an RXi PROFINET IO-Controller can exchange data with a PROFINET IO-Device, an
Application Relationship (connection) must be established between the devices. The RXi
PROFINET IO-Controller automatically sets up the correct number and types of Application
Relationship and Communication Relationship channels (see below) based on its Proficy
Machine Edition configuration. Usually, only one Application Relationship is established per
IO-Device.
Communication Relationships within an Application Relationship
Within each Application Relationship, the RXi PROFINET IO-Controller establishes the
following types of Communication Relationships (CRs):
■
■
■
Record Data CRs – always the first to be established within an Application Relationship.
Record Data Communication Relationships are used for non-real-time transfers of data
records such as startup parameter data, diagnostics data, identification data, and
configuration data.
IO CRs – used for the real-time, cyclic transfer of I/O data
Alarm CR – used for real-time, acyclic transfer of alarms and events
The illustration below represents an Application Relationship between a PACSystems
Controller and an IO-Device. In this example, the IO-Device is a VersaMax PNS with
VersaMax I/O modules, but the same principles apply for all IO-Controllers and IO-Devices.
Application Relationship
RXi Controller
Record Data Communication Relationship
IO-Device, such as
VersaMax PROFINET Scanner
I/O Data Communication Relationship
Alarm Communication Relationship
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11.1.3 Types of PROFINET Communications
The PNC uses two types of PROFINET communication transfers: real-time and non-realtime. The illustration below shows real-time communications as solid lines and non-real-time
communications as dashed lines.
RXi
Controller
Real-time data:
Inputs, Outputs,
Alarms
PROFINET
IO-Device
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RXi Controller
with PNC
Non-real-time data:
parameters, configuration, etc
PROFINET
IO-Device
■
Real-Time (RT) communication: PROFINET real-time communication is used for timesensitive data. A PROFINET IO-Controller and PROFINET IO-Device use two types of
real-time communications to exchange data: cyclic communication and acyclic
communication:
- Real-time Cyclic communication is used to periodically transfer the application’s input
and output data. Cyclic communication occurs each PROFINET IO production cycle.
- Real-time Acyclic communication is used to transfer non-periodic data such as
alarms. Acyclic communication occurs only when needed.
■
Non-Real-Time (NRT) communication: PROFINET non-real-time communication is
used for less time-sensitive data such as configuration, parameterization, diagnostics,
and identification data.
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11.1.4 External Switch VLAN Priority Settings
The PROFINET-IO specification indicates the VLAN priorities for each type of Ethernet traffic
that originates from a PROFINET node. VLAN priorities range from 0 to 7, with 7 being the
highest.
The switch on the PNC supports just four traffic classes, giving four levels of preference.
Incoming traffic without a VLAN priority is assigned to the lowest priority traffic class. The
table below lists the VLAN priorities, and their corresponding priorities in the PNC:
VLAN
Priority
PNC Priority
Ethernet Traffic
Description
7
Highest priority
MRP
Media Redundancy
6
Second-highest
priority
RT_CLASS_1
Cyclic PROFINET IO
High Priority RTA_CLASS_1
High-Priority PROFINET
Alarms
Third-highest
priority
Low Priority RTA_CLASS_1
Low-Priority PROFINET
Alarms
Lowest priority
(reserved)
(reserved)
IP
DCP
Device Discovery and
Configuration
5
4, 3, 2, 1
0
If a system includes external switches, these switches must be configured to match the VLAN
Priority groupings listed above for the PNC.
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11.2
Operations of the PROFINET Controller in the RXi System
The PNC performs the following operations:

Consumes PROFINET IO-Device configuration from the CPU and transfers it to the
IO-Devices over the PROFINET network.

Consumes input data from each PROFINET IO-Device and makes that data
available to the CPU during the CPU’s input scan.

Produces the output data that it receives from the CPU during the CPU’s output scan
to each PROFINET IO-Device.

Receives PROFINET alarms and diagnostics from PROFINET IO-Devices and
converts them to a PACSystems format.

Automatically converts between the little-endian data format recognized by the RXi
CPU and the big-endian format used for PROFINET communications.

Checks for duplicate IP addresses as described below.
11.2.1 Duplicate PROFINET Device IP Address
The PNC will detect an IP address conflict between a device that it is configured to
communicate with and another device in two situations:

First, duplicates are detected when the PNC is trying to initially establish communications
with the configured PROFINET IO Device. During the connection sequence, the PNC
queries the network to see whether any other node has the same IP address as the
configured device.

Second, duplicates are detected when a network device announces its presence9 on the
network and that device’s IP address is identical to that of a PROFINET IO Device that
the PNC is currently communicating with.
In both cases, the PNC attempts to establish or maintain the connection and logs a Duplicate
IP Address Detected fault for the device. The PNC then periodically queries the network for
resolution of the IP address conflict. If the IP address conflict is resolved, the PNC logs a
Duplicate IP Address Resolved fault for the device.
9
The PROFINET Controller uses the ARP protocol to detect duplicate IP addresses. Devices that issue
a gratuitous ARP to announce their presence on the network are detected.
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11.2.2 Duplicate PROFINET Controller IP Address
The PNC detects that a network device has the same IP address as its own during powerup,
when a new hardware configuration is downloaded from the programmer, and during
operation when a device with a conflicting IP address announces its presence10 on the
network.
When a duplicate is detected during powerup, PNC reset, or new hardware configuration
store, the PNC:

logs a Duplicate IP Address Detected fault for itself,

does not connect to any configured PROFINET IO Devices,

periodically queries the network for resolution of the IP address conflict.
When a duplicate IP address is detected after the PNC has established connection to
configured IO Devices, the PNC:

logs a Duplicate IP Address Detected fault for itself,

disconnects from all currently-connected PROFINET IO Devices,

logs a Loss of Device fault for each PROFINET IO Device that was disconnected,
When the IP conflict is resolved, the PNC:

logs a Duplicate IP Address Resolved fault for itself,

attempts to re-connect all configured PROFINET IO Devices,

logs an Addition of Device fault for each connected PROFINET IO Device to indicate
that device is back online.
Note:
Power cycling an RXi Controller with the same IP address as another node on the
network will result in two Duplicate IP Address Detected faults in the I/O Fault table.
This is normal behavior that occurs because the PNC retains IP parameters through
a power cycle and attempts to exist on the network before receiving a new
configuration from the CPU. The first fault occurs before the PNC receives the new
configuration and the second fault occurs after the PNC receives its new
configuration. Both faults result in the PNC not attempting to connect to the network.
Resolving Duplicate IP Addresses
When an IP address conflict exists, IP-based network communication with the device(s) may
be disrupted. The IP address conflict should be resolved by disconnecting one of the
offending devices from the network or assigning each a unique address. The Duplicate IP
Address Detected fault lists the MAC address of the offending devices in bytes 8 – 13 and 14
– 19 of the Fault Extra Data. The Discovery and Configuration Protocol (DCP) tool in Proficy
Machine Edition may be useful to identify PROFINET devices on the network with conflicting
IP addresses.
11.3
I/O Scanning
In the PACSystems RXi PROFINET network, multiple I/O cycles run asynchronously and
independently. The example below illustrates typical cycles in a system with an RXi
Controller and VersaMax PNS modules used as IO-Devices. Cycles may be different for
other GE Intelligent Platforms scanners and third-party devices.
10
The PROFINET Controller uses the ARP protocol to detect duplicate IP addresses. Devices that
issue a gratuitous ARP to announce their presence on the network are detected.
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C
P
U
PROFINET IO
Production Cycle
P
N
C
RXi CPU Sweep
PROFINET
IO-Device Scan
PROFINET IO
P
S
11.4
P
N
S
DI
P
S
P
N
S
DI

PROFINET IO-Device Scan: in this example, each VersaMax PNS scans all the
modules in its node as quickly as possible. The PNS stores the modules’ input data
into its internal memory. On each PNS output scan, the Scanner writes the output
data from its internal memory to the modules in its node.

PROFINET IO Production Cycle: each PNC and each IO-Device publishes data
from its internal memory onto the network at each scheduled PROFINET production
cycle (note: production cycles between IO-Controllers and IO-Devices are not
synchronized, each publishes at its configured update rate independently). The PNC
publishes output data received from the RXi CPU to each IO-Device, and the
IO-Device publishes input data from its memory to the PNC.

RXi CPU Sweep: the sweep includes both an input scan and an output scan. The
CPU input scan retrieves the current input data from the PNC. This input data is then
available for use by the application logic. After the logic solution, the CPU output
scan writes the outputs to the PNC.

3rd party devices: The conveyance of I/O data between an I/O module and the
PROFINET IO network is device dependent. Third party manufacturer documentation
should be referred to for specifics for a particular device.
Data Coherency
In a PACSystems RXi PROFINET network, it is important to note that I/O data coherency is
at the PROFINET submodule level. The PNC coherently transfers I/O data to and from the
CPU on a PROFINET submodule basis. This means that output data from a single CPU
output scan for multiple PROFINET submodules may not be transferred during the same
PROFINET IO production cycle. Conversely, input data consumed from a single PROFINET
IO cycle by the PNC may not be consumed during a single CPU input scan.
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11.5
Performance Factors
There are many factors that affect the timing of I/O as it flows through the system. Primary
factors include:
 CPU Sweep Time

Configured PROFINET IO Update Rate(s)

Number of PROFINET IO Devices

Number of IO modules

Network latency and loading (for example, switching hardware, additional
non-PROFINET network traffic)

I/O Module Filter Times
When designing a PROFINET IO system, consider and weigh these factors appropriately to
achieve an optimal IO system for the application.
11.6
PROFINET IO Update Rate Configuration
Selecting PROFINET IO update rates is one of the primary means for adjusting performance
of the system. Consider the following when choosing an appropriate value.
 In general, for most applications, there is little benefit to configuring PROFINET IO
update rates faster than half the CPU Sweep time. Scheduling PROFINET IO update
rates faster than required by the application creates unnecessary loading on the
network, PNC, and PROFINET IO devices.
234

Keep in mind that transferring IO over the PROFINET IO network could take up to
one complete PROFINET update cycle time for the transfer to actually occur. Since
PROFINET IO production is asynchronous to the source of the produced data, in the
worst case the new production data could miss a PROFINET IO production cycle,
and thus must await the next cycle. Note, this means for an I/O loopback situation
where an application asserts an output and expects to see the output echoed on
another input, there are two PROFINET transfers involved, therefore it may take two
PROFINET IO production cycles (one for each data transfer).

It is possible that the RXi CPU, through application logic actions, can update output
data for a Remote IO Module faster than the usual I/O update rate of that remote I/O
module. The application logic must be careful not to update output data faster than
the scanning of the Remote IO Module (which is a function of both the PROFINET IO
Update Rate and IO-Device Scan). Otherwise, output data from the CPU may not
transfer to the Remote IO Module before being overwritten by new output data from
the application logic.
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11.7
RXi CPU Operations for PROFINET
This section describes several CPU functions as related to their operation when used with a
PROFINET network.
In addition, the RXi CPU and Proficy Machine Edition provide special tools for use in systems
with PROFINET:

Reference ID Variables (RIVs)

PNIO_DEV_COMM function block
11.7.1 Reference ID Variables for the RXi Application
RIVs are available to the application logic to provide a simple symbolic reference to an entity.
The following RIV types are defined for use with PNCs and IO-Devices.
RIVs are assigned in Proficy Machine Edition by editing the Properties for a PNC or
IO-Device in the hardware configuration.
Reference ID Variable Data Types
Data Type
Associated With
PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF
PROFINET Controller
PNIO_DEVICE_REF
PROFINET IO-Device
PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF Variable
The PNC in a hardware configuration can have a PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF variable
assigned to it.
When assigned, it is linked to the PNC and its value cannot be changed. If a linked
PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF variable is present, the application logic and hardware
configuration are coupled. The name of the PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF linked variable
corresponds to the controller’s device name used in the hardware configuration to identify the
module on the PROFINET network. If the PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF variable is renamed,
Proficy Machine Edition will make sure all uses of that variable in logic indicate the new
variable name.
Unlinked PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF variables can be passed to the IN and Q parameters of
the MOVE_DATA function block. Linked PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF variables can only be
passed to the IN parameter of the MOVE_DATA function block.
PNIO_DEVICE_REF Variable
An RIV of type PNIO_DEVICE_REF uniquely identifies a PROFINET IO-Device. It is an
unsigned integer in the range of 1 – 255.
Each PROFINET IO-Device in an RXi hardware configuration can have a
PNIO_DEVICE_REF variable assigned to it. When assigned, it is linked to a PROFINET IODevice. When a linked PNIO_DEVICE_REF is present, the logic and hardware configuration
are coupled. The name of the PNIO_DEVICE_REF linked variable corresponds to a
combination of the LAN ID and the device name used to identify the IO-Device on that LAN. If
the PNIO_DEVICE_REF variable is renamed, Proficy Machine Edition will make sure all uses
of that variable in logic indicate the new variable name.
Unlinked PNIO_DEVICE_REF variables can be passed to the IN and Q parameters of the
MOVE_DATA function block. Linked PNIO_DEVICE_REF variables can only be passed to
the IN parameter of the MOVE_DATA function block.
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11.7.2 PNIO_DEV_COMM Function Block
The PNIO_DEV_COMM function block monitors communications between a specified PNC
and a specified IO-Device.
PNIO_DEV_COMM can be used by the application logic to take a corrective action or turn on
an indicator if a specific device fails. It might also be used by a custom HMI to show which
PROFINET IO-Device connections are currently established.
It is recommended that the All Devices Connected status bit be checked first to determine
whether all devices belonging to the PNC are functioning. If this bit is 0, indicating that one or
more devices is not OK, the PNIO_DEV_COMM function block can then be used to
determine which specific devices are not communicating. For details on this status bit, refer
to “11.8.2, PROFINET Controller Status Reporting.”
Parameters and Outputs of PNIO_DEV_COMM
PNIO_DEV_COMM returns a Boolean indication of whether or not a given PNC is currently
communicating with a specified IO-Device. The PNC is identified by the IO Controller input
parameter, which is a PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF data type. The IO-Device is identified by
the IODevice input parameter, which is a PNIO_DEVICE_REF data type.
PNIO_DEV_COMM has two Boolean outputs (in addition to ENO) labeled OK and Primary.
OK is set ON/true if the PNC is successfully communicating with the IO-Device, otherwise it
is OFF/false.
The application logic must identify the PNC and the IO-Device in a symbolic manner, passing
appropriate Reference ID Variables (see the following example) to the corresponding input
parameters.
Example
In the following sample logic, the RIV iolan_controller01_L3 is assigned to the PNC and the
RIV versamax_pns01_L3 is assigned to an IO-Device.
If the iolan_controller01_L3 PNC is communicating with the versamax_pns01_L3 IO-Device,
the Bool variable LC_PNC01_PNS01_Status is set on. In a simplex (non-redundant) system,
Primary is set to On if OK is set to on. .
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11.7.3 DO I/O for Remote IO Modules
In addition to the normal I/O updates that occur during the RXi CPU’s scan, the application
program in the CPU can use the DO I/O function to access the I/O data associated with
Remote IO Modules on the PROFINET network during the logic portion of the CPU sweep.
The DO I/O function can obtain or update the most recent I/O data that is being consumed
from or published to the Remote IO Module by the PROFINET IO Controller. The DO I/O
function can also be used to obtain data associated with the PNC itself.
It is important to remember that the I/O data being read or written by the DO I/O function is
data currently being stored by the PNC in its memory. Executing a DO I/O function from the
CPU does not cause additional data to be produced or consumed on the PROFINET
NETWORK. Updates of the actual Remote IO Module I/O data occur during the configured
PROFINET cyclic scanning schedule. The DO I/O function provides the benefit of
immediately updating I/O data at the PNC, as opposed to waiting for the next normal RXi I/O
scan. The DO I/O function can also be used to obtain the PNC’s latest input status data
values (see 11.8 “PROFINET Controller Diagnostics”).
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11.7.4 Scan Set I/O for Remote I/O Modules
The Scan Set I/O function of the RXi CPU requests the scanning of remote modules that are
members of a configured scan set. The Scan Set I/O function operates like a DO I/O function,
with the added ability to identify and group the modules to be scanned. Modules are grouped
according to their configured scan sets. As with the DO I/O function, the Scan Set I/O
function updates/consumes data stored in the local PNC; it does not directly update
IO-Devices in remote nodes.
11.7.5 I/O Defaults Operation
11.7.5.1 RXi CPU Defaults - Inputs
The CPU defaults input data from remote I/O modules under the following conditions:

the remote module signals its input data is no longer valid (e.g. due to local module fault)

the remote module is removed from the network

the remote module loses power or fails

the PROFINET network connection (Application Relationship) associated with the input
data is lost.
The CPU defaults the input values of an input module based on the input default state
configured for the I/O Device. Inputs may be configured to either Hold Last State or Force Off
(zero).
If a PNC loses connections to an I/O device, the following actions occur:
1. The CPU defaults the input values of all input modules assigned to it within the
IO-Device.
2. The PNC logs a Loss of Device fault in the CPU’s I/O fault table.
3. The I/O point fault contacts for the I/O references and variables associated with the
IO-Device are set to the faulted state (if point faults are enabled on the CPU).
11.7.5.2 RXi CPU Defaults - Outputs
Outputs default when the CPU is no longer providing the data (e.g. when CPU has IO
disabled). I/O modules control their own output defaults based on either their configuration or
on a fixed output default behavior (typically 0) if the module’s output default behavior is not
configurable.
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11.8
PROFINET Controller Diagnostics
This section describes:
■
■
■
■
■
Problems During Powerup
Status Reporting
Fault Contacts
PROFINET I/O Alarms
PROFINET Controller Faults in the RXi Fault Tables
- Clearing the RXi Fault Tables
- Faults Reported to the RXi Controller Fault Table
- Faults Reported to the RXi I/O Fault Table
11.8.1 Powerup and Reset
During powerup and reset, the PNC runs diagnostics and initializes its hardware components.
When the necessary hardware components have been initialized and tested, the PNC
transitions to normal operation.
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11.8.2 PROFINET Controller Status Reporting
The PNC provides 32 bits of status information to a configured location in the RXi CPU’s
reference memory.
The status data consists of the Module OK bit, which indicates the health of the PNC itself, a
status bit for each external port, and a bit that indicates the connection status of the
configured devices.
All Status bits are active high. The status location may be configured in %I, %Q, %AI, %AQ,
%R, %G, %T, %M or %W or I/O Variable reference memory in the RXi CPU.
Bit
Name
1
Module OK
2
Port1 Link Up
3
Port2 Link Up
4
5
6-8
9
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
All Devices
Connected*
10-32
*
240
Reserved
Description
Indicates the health of the PNC
1 indicates the PNC is functioning properly.
0 indicates the PNC is powering up or has failed.
1 indicates the port is connected to another device and is operating
correctly.
0 indicates the port is not connected to another device or has an error
preventing communications.
1 indicates the port is connected to another device and is operating
correctly.
0 indicates the port is not connected to another device or has an error
preventing communications.
Reserved. Always 0.
Reserved. Always 0.
Reserved. Always 0.
1 indicates all configured devices are connected and communicating
over PROFINET.
0 indicates no devices are configured or one or more configured
devices have not established a PROFINET connection.
Set to 0
Individual device statuses (as reported by the PNIO_DEV_COMM function block) are
updated prior to the All Devices Connected bit. Therefore, it is possible (depending
on PNC loading) to see via the PNIO_DEV_COMM function block that every
individual device is connected while the All Devices Connected bit is not yet set. To
avoid this inconsistency, it is recommended that the All Devices Connected bit be
checked first, before checking individual device connection status using the
PNIO_DEV_COMM function block.
For details on using the PNIO_DEV_COMM function block, refer to
“11.7.2, PNIO_DEV_COMM Function Block.”
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11.8.3 PROFINET IO Alarms
PROFINET IO uses Alarms to transfer indications of changes or problems in the remote
IO-Device. For example, Diagnosis Alarms are used to indicate a problem with a channel
such as a short circuit, a blown fuse, or overtemperature condition. The PNC translates
PROFINET alarms into CPU faults for the RXi CPU. The illustration below shows what
happens when a problem is detected on one of the channels of a module within a remote
IO-Device, in this case, a VersaMax PROFINET Scanner.
4
RX3i Controller
3
5
1
1.
The PROFINET Controller establishes
Application Relationship (AR) and then
Alarm Communication Relationship (CR)
with IO-Device
2.
Module detects a problem (such as shortcircuit) and reports it to IO-Device
(PROFINET Scanner).
3.
IO-Device sends Alarm to PROFINET
Controller via Alarm CR.
4.
PROFINET Controller logs fault in the RXi
CPU fault table.
5.
PROFINET Controller sends Alarm ACK
to IO-Device via Alarm CR.
IO-Device
2
11.8.3.1 PROFINET Alarm Action
If a PROFINET I/O Alarm occurs, the action is Diagnostic (the action type is not
configurable). When a fault in this group is processed, the CPU sets the following status bits:
#ANY_FLT, #IO_FLT, #IO_PRES, and #PNIO_ALARM (%SA30).
The #PNIO_ALARM status bit is cleared when the I/O fault table is cleared.
11.8.4 PROFINET Controller Faults in the Fault Tables
PNC faults are logged in the CPU’s fault tables: the Controller Fault Table or the I/O
Fault Table. For summaries of faults and corrective actions, see:
8.4.2, Controller Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
8.5.3, I/O Fault Descriptions and Corrective Actions
11.8.4.1 Clearing the RXi Fault Tables
■
■
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Clearing one or both of the CPU’s fault tables has no effect on the Diagnosis conditions
maintained by any IO-Device.
When the CPU’s fault tables are cleared, PROFINET-related faults are not re-reported,
even if the condition that is causing the fault still exists. You should address or record the
CPU faults before clearing them.
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Chapter 12. PROFINET Redundant Media
Chapter 12. PROFINET Redundant Media
The PNC supports PROFINET Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP). It can be used as either a
Media Redundancy Manager (MRM) or Media Redundancy Client (MRC) on a redundant
media ring.
Media Redundancy enables the network to recover from a network link or switch failure.
Because it operates transparently to applications using the network, no changes to the
application are needed to use media redundancy.
This chapter describes:
12.1

PROFINET Media Redundancy Protocol

MRP Failover Performance

Ring Topology with One Controller

Ring Topology with Multiple Controllers

Setting Up Media Redundancy Protocol for a PROFINET IO-Controller

Sequence for Enabling Media Redundancy

Sequence for Replacing a Media Redundancy Manager

Procedure for Disabling Media Redundancy
PROFINET Media Redundancy Protocol
PROFINET Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) supports devices configured in a ring
topology with a maximum of 1 Manager and 63 Clients. It is based on the functions of
IEC 62439. Media Redundancy Protocol is not routable between different IP subnets.
Each device within a Redundant Media network has at least two physical pathways to two
other devices on the network. To connect to the ring, each device requires an integrated
switch with at least two external ports (ring ports) that support Media Redundancy Protocol.
Devices that are not MRP-capable can be connected to a device such as an MRP-capable
switch in the ring, but they cannot be in the ring themselves. The redundant paths only
extend to the devices on the ring that are MRP-capable and enabled.
One of the devices on the ring must be configured as the MRM, and all the other devices
must be configured as MRCs.
The MRM disables one of the segments of the ring so that a loop is not created in the
network. To disable a segment, the MRM either:

blocks one of its two Ethernet switch ports used to form the ring when the ring is closed,
or

forwards communications to both switch ports if one of the other ring segments is missing
(ring open) and passes messages through the Media Redundancy Manager to
communicate with devices on the other side of the failed segment.
When Media Redundancy is enabled for the RXi PROFINET Controller, it can be used as
either an MRM or MRC.
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12.2
MRP Failover Performance
There are two ways an MRM detects a break in the ring:

a message from an MRC that provides LinkUp/LinkDown detection

a test packet timeout interval
A network using Media Redundancy Protocol recovers from a ring failure within 80
milliseconds when running at 100 Mbps full duplex with default values. Actual failover time
depends on the device responsiveness to network disconnection and reconnection, number
of devices in the ring, media speed, length of media, and frequency of sending test frames
over the network. Network recovery time is shorter with fewer devices, faster media speed,
and shorter media lengths. Third-party devices in the MRP ring may introduce additional
network recovery time.
For bumpless network recovery (without disturbing IO communications to an IO-Device), the
Update Rate for the IO-Device should be configured to be greater than 1/3 of the network
recovery time. This permits the ring to be disconnected or reconnected without timing out the
communication connection between the IO-Device and its IO-Controller. Devices that do not
provide LinkUp/LinkDown detection of failure or recovery of a connection should be taken into
account when calculating network recovery time.
12.2.1 Guidelines for Update Rates for Bumpless Operation during MRP Ring Recovery
If an application requires the PROFINET IO Devices to operate bumplessly through ring
network recovery (no observed loss and subsequent addition of PROFINET IO Devices while
the ring network recovers), the following network and application design guidelines for
minimum IO Update Rates must be observed:
■
If only one RXi is in the ring acting as the Media Redundancy Manager (MRM) and all of
the Media Redundancy Clients (MRCs) are VersaMax PNSs:
■
If multiple RXis are in the ring (one RXi acting as the MRM and other RXi(s) as MRC(s))
where VersaMax PNSs are the only PROFINET IO Devices:
Using the PROFINET ports on the RXi, IO Update Rate = 1 ms minimum
IO Update Rate = 16 ms minimum
MRP Test Packet Interval = 10 ms
MRP Test Packet Count to 2.
■
If 3rd party MRCs used in the ring, set a minimum IO update rate to the larger of the
options that follow:
-
-
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Minimum IO Update Rate configurable in PME that is at least 1/3 the time of the worst-case
ring recovery stated by 3rd party manufacturer, regardless of ports utilized. (for example, if a
manufacturer states their worst-case ring recovery is 90 ms, the minimum IO update rate
allowed would be 90/3 = 30 ms ~ 32ms.)
or
IO Update Rate = 16 ms minimum
MRP Test Packet Interval = 10 ms
MRP Test Packet Count = 2.
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12.2.2 Effect of MRC LinkUp/LinkDown Detection on Failover Performance
If a client device in a media redundancy ring provides LinkUp/LinkDown detection, the
network recovery time can be significantly shorter than the test packet timeout interval
because the break is detected immediately.
When MRCs do not provide LinkUp/LinkDown detection, network recovery time also depends
upon the test packet timeout interval because a break in the ring will not be detected until this
interval has elapsed.
12.2.3 Test Packet Timeout Interval
The Default Test Interval and Test Monitoring Count parameters determine the frequency of
network integrity checks and the number of failed integrity checks to allow before declaring a
ring failure. For a PNC acting as Media Redundancy Manager, these parameters are set as
part of the Proficy Machine Edition hardware configuration and determine the Test Packet
Timeout Interval.
Test Packet Timeout Interval = Default Test Interval × (Test Monitoring Count plus 1)
(For example, the default test packet timeout interval is 20ms × (3+1) = 80ms.)
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12.3
Ring Topology with One Controller
The diagram below illustrates a simple ring topology with one RXi Controller node and three
IO-Devices on the same PROFINET network. In this example, the RXi Controller is
configured to be the Media Redundancy Manager and the IO-Devices, in this case VersaMax
PNS modules, are configured to be Media Redundancy Clients.
IO LAN 1
RXi Controller Node
IO-Device
IO-Device
IO-Device
As a Media Redundancy Manager, the PNC detects when the network ring has been broken
and repaired. Each time the PNC detects that the ring has been broken or repaired, a fault is
reported in in the CPU’s I/O Fault Table. As a Media Redundancy Manager, the PNC detects
whether another Media Redundancy Manager is on the same ring. If more than one Media
Redundancy Manager is present on the same ring, the PNC logs an entry in the I/O Fault
Table. Upon detecting that there are no longer multiple Media Redundancy Managers on the
ring, the PNC also logs a fault in the I/O Fault Table to indicate that the invalid setup has
been resolved.
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12.4
Ring Topology with Multiple Controllers
The next illustration shows a more complex network. There are two RXi CPU nodes and five
IO-Devices, in this case, VersaMax PNS modules.
All devices are on the same network ring. One PNC is configured as the Media Redundancy
Manager (MRM); the other PNC and all PROFINET Scanners are configured as Media
Redundancy Clients (MRCs).
IO LAN 1
RXi Controller
Node
IO LAN 1
IO LAN 1
RXi Controller
Node
IO-Device
IO-Device
IO-Device
IO-Device
IO-Device
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12.5
Setting Up Media Redundancy Protocol
Media Redundancy must first be set up in the hardware configuration of all devices on the
ring. Parameters for configuring Media Redundancy using Proficy Machine Edition are
described in “Media Redundancy Tab” on page 51.
For port locations, refer to 1.2, “RXi Controller User Features.”
12.5.1 Media Redundancy Setup for a PROFINET Controller
A PNC can be configured as either a Media Redundancy Manager (MRM) or a Media
Redundancy Client (MRC). Only one device on the ring can be configured as the Media
Redundancy Manager. All other devices on the ring must be configured as Media
Redundancy Clients.
By default, Media Redundancy is disabled for the PNC. To be used, it must first be enabled
and set up in the configuration.
Configuring a Media Redundancy Manager includes specifying a test interval and retry count
for ring failure checking. It also includes specifying which of the PNC’s switch ports are
connected to the ring.
The PNC stores the current Media Redundancy Protocol configuration settings in non-volatile
storage so it can configure the switch port appropriately at powerup. The PNC disables all its
external Ethernet ports until it has retrieved and applied the Media Redundancy Protocol
configuration from its non-volatile storage.
12.5.2 Sequence for Enabling Media Redundancy
To avoid network loops occurring before the Media Redundancy configuration parameters
are stored, the network must first be set up with the ring broken at one point. Otherwise,
packets could continuously cycle on the network and use up significant network bandwidth.
The ring should not be closed until the Media Redundancy configuration parameters are
successfully stored to the Media Redundancy Manager and the Media Redundancy Manager
is operational.
If more than one Media Redundancy Manager is present on the same ring, each PNC that is
configured as a Media Redundancy Manager will log a fault in the CPU’s I/O Fault Table.
When the hardware configuration is cleared, the Media Redundancy configuration
parameters (Media Redundancy Manager or Client) are kept until a new setting is stored. If
power is lost, the Media Redundancy configuration settings are preserved.
Note:
GFK-2816
When configuring a Media Redundancy Manager in an open ring, the PNC may
initially report the ring to be closed. This indication will immediately be followed by a
ring open event. This is expected behavior defined by the MRP specification.
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12.6
Sequence for Replacing a Media Redundancy Manager
If it is necessary to replace the PNC that is serving as the Media Redundancy Manager, the
replacement module must be set up as a Media Redundancy Manager before adding it to the
ring. Alternatively, the ring must be opened before powering up the new PNC and adding it to
the network, as described above.
The following procedure can be used to replace a PNC that is operating as Media
Redundancy Manager while allowing the devices on the ring to continue operating.
1. Physically disconnect both of the ring’s network connections from the RXi Controller that
is serving as the Media Redundancy Manager.
2. Replace the RXi Controller.
3. Using the Machine Edition programmer, make sure the hardware configuration is stored
to the RXi Controller.
4. Using the Machine Edition programmer, view the Fault Tables to make sure the PNC is
operating correctly.
5. Physically reconnect both of the ring’s network connections to the replacement RXi
Controller.
12.7
Procedure for Disabling Media Redundancy
When disabling Media Redundancy, the ring must be physically opened before storing
configuration to the modules. Here is the procedure to successfully disable Media
Redundancy on a network.
1. If the ring has no breaks in it, physically disconnect one (and only one) of the ring’s
network connections from the PNC that’s currently the Media Redundancy Manager.
2. Change the configuration for the device that is the Media Redundancy Manager so that it
will no longer be the Media Redundancy Manager. If a PNC is the Media Redundancy
Manager, use Proficy Machine Edition to disable the Media Redundancy role on that
PNC and then to download the hardware configuration. (If a third-party IO-controller is the
Media Redundancy Manager, the appropriate third-party configuration tool must be used
instead.)
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Chapter 13. PROFINET Network Management
Chapter 13. PROFINET Network Management
The PNC supports the SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and LLDP (Link Layer
Discovery Protocol) standards to facilitate network management.
This chapter describes:
13.1
■
SNMP
- Overview of SNMP
- Supported SNMP Features
- SNMP Read Access
- MIB-II Groups Supported
- MIB-II System Group Values
■
LLDP
- Overview of LLDP
- LLDP Operation
- LLDP TLV Structures
SNMP
The PNC’s built-in SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Server/Agent function can
be used by a third-party SNMP Client or Network Management Station to access network
data.
13.1.1 Overview of SNMP
SNMP is a UDP-based network protocol that facilitates the exchange of management
information between network devices. An SNMP-managed network consists of three key
components: managed devices, agents, and network management systems (NMS).
A managed device is a network node that contains an SNMP agent and that resides on a
managed network. Managed devices exchange management information with NMSs via their
local agent.
An agent is a network management software module that resides on a managed device. An
agent maintains a collection of management information that it provides in an
SNMP-compatible format upon request to NMSs.
An NMS executes applications that monitor and control managed devices.
The collections of management information maintained by agents and managed devices are
generally referred to as Management Information Bases (MIBs). A MIB is a collection of
information organized into a hierarchical structure where related items are grouped together
in “groups.” MIBs are used to organize and standardize the management information on
agents and can be accessed via commands provided within the SNMP protocol.
The SNMP protocol is currently defined by five protocol specifications: SNMPv1, SNMPv2,
SNMPv2c, SNMPv2u, and SNMPv3.
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NMSs use four basic classes of SNMP commands to retrieve and alter data on managed
devices:
■
■
■
The read (GET) command is used by an NMS to monitor managed devices through
examination of the values of different variables maintained within the managed devices’
MIBs.
The trap (TRAP, INFORM) command is used by an NMS to get asynchronous
notifications when certain events occur on managed devices. In SNMP Version 2, traps
are not set via the protocol but are defined at the managed device by local action.
Traversal operations (GETNEXT and GETBULK) are used by an NMS to determine
which variables a managed device supports and to sequentially gather information from
the MIBs.
SNMP is a well-defined protocol; additional information is available in books and the World
Wide Web.
13.1.2 Supported SNMP Features
The PNC supports:
■
■
■
■
SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c
MIB-II (see RFC 1213 for details)
LLDP MIB (see IEEE 802.1AB for details)
LLDP 802.3 Extension MIB (see IEEE 802.1AB for details)
The PNC does not:
■
■
■
250
Support SNMPv3.
Provide asynchronous notifications via SNMP.
Generate SNMP TRAP or INFORM messages.
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13.1.3 SNMP Read Access
SNMP provides standard commands that allow a client to read SNMP data. The PNC
supports all of these commands.

GET

GETNEXT

GETBULK
The SNMP Community strings supported for read access are:

public

pub

icmp

private

priv
These community strings are fixed and cannot be changed.
13.1.4 SNMP Write Access
The RXi Controller does not support SNMP writes.
13.1.5 MIB-II Groups Supported
The PNC supports all of the mandatory values in the following groups of the MIB-II
specification:

System group

Interfaces group

IP group

ICMP group

TCP group

UDP group

Transmission group (802.3 Ethernet subset)

SNMP group
The EGP group and Address Translation group of MIB-II are not supported.
The meanings of the values in these groups are well defined by standard literature. However,
the contents of some values are implementation-specific. This section explains contents of
values specific to the PNC.
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13.1.5.1 Interface Number
Many MIB-II groups use an SNMP interface number to refer to a device port. For the RXi
PNC the interface numbers are:
Physical Port
SNMP Interface Number
External Port #1
1
External Port #2
2
Internal Data Port
3
13.1.5.2 MIB-II Interface Group Values
For the MIB-II Interface Group, the ifDescr value provides a textual description of the
corresponding interface/port. The values returned for that item are the same as the port
numbers listed above.
The counters ifInDiscards and ifInUnknownProtocols are always reported as zero.
13.1.6 MIB-II System Group Values
Many of the items provided by the MIB-II System Group are implementation-specific. The
values that are returned for the PNC are described below.
Name
252
Value
sysDescr
Text description of the device being managed. For example:
PROFINET IO-Controller, ICRXICTL000
sysObjectID
Uniquely identifies the kind of device being managed. The first part of the
value returned (1.3.6.1.4.1.24893) indicates that this is a GE Intelligent
Platforms device. The two numbers after that (1.5) indicate that it is a product
made for the Control Systems Business. The three numbers after that identify
(in order):

Family: RXi = 1

Product: PACSystems RXi PNC = 2

Model: (specific to each Family/Product combination)
For the RXi PNC: 1.3.6.1.4.1.24893.1.5.1.2.1
sysContact
Nothing (empty string)
sysName
The Device Name assigned to the node. If the Device Name hasn’t been
assigned yet, an empty string is returned.
sysLocation
Nothing (empty string)
sysServices
79 (0x4F)
This value indicates the PNC has Layers 1–4 (physical, datalink, network and
transport) and Layer 7 (application) functionality.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Chapter 13. PROFINET Network Management
13.2
LLDP
The PNC implements the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). A PROFINET IO-Supervisor
or other network host may use LLDP to discover the PROFINET network.
13.2.1 Overview of LLDP
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol is an IEEE standardized protocol used by network devices
to advertise their identity and capabilities and receive that information from physically
adjacent link layer peers. LLDP data packets are sent by devices from each of their interfaces
at fixed intervals. The LLDP packets are multicast and are not forwarded by network
switches.
Each LLDP packet consists of one LLDP Data Unit (LLDPDU). Each LLDPDU is a sequence
of Type-Length-Value (TLV) structures.
LLDP Data Unit Contents
Chassis ID TLV structure (mandatory, always first)
Port ID TLV structure (mandatory, always second)
Time to Live TLV structure (mandatory, always third)
Optional Structures (any number of these, in any order)
.
.
.
End of PDU TLV (mandatory, always last)
13.2.2 LLDP Operation
The LLDP agent in the PNC multicasts LLDP messages to the network at 5 second intervals,
or when a change occurs in any of the local data that is delivered within the LLDP message.
The LLDP messages are transmitted from each external port that is connected to a network.
13.2.3 LLDP TLVs
The following is a brief description of the RXi PNC LLDP TLVs.
13.2.3.1 Chassis ID TLV
The Chassis ID is always the first TLV in the LLDPDU. Chassis ID identifies the particular
device on the network. PROFINET defines two possible Chassis ID formats; each format has
a different Chassis ID subtype. The PNC generally uses the Name of Station (NOS) as the
Chassis ID. If for some reason the station name is changed to the empty string “”, the internal
MAC address is used instead.
ID Subtype
GFK-2816
Meaning
Value
7
PNIO Chassis ID
Name of Station (character string)
4
MAC Address
Internal MAC Address of Ethernet controller
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
253
Chapter 13. PROFINET Network Management
13.2.3.2 Port ID TLV
The Port ID is always the second TLV in the LLDPDU. The Port ID identifies the individual
network port on the device. PROFINET defines the Port ID as a character string.
ID Subtype
7
Meaning
PNIO Port ID
Value
“port-PPP-SSSSS” (length = 14 bytes)
PPP specifies the decimal port number in the range 001 to 002. SSSSS specifies the decimal
slot number of the Controller in the range 00000 to 65535.
13.2.3.3 Time to Live TLV
Time to Live is always the third TLV in the LLDPDU. Time to Live specifies the number of
seconds that the information in this LLDPDU remains valid after delivery on the network. A
Time to Live value of 0 instructs the receiver to immediately invalidate the data in this
LLDPDU and is issued when the PNC has changed a parameter that is advertised in its
LLDP.
The PNC sets the Time to Live value to 20 seconds.
13.2.3.4 End Of PDU TLV
The End Of PDU TLV is always the last TLV in the LLDPDU. This TLV carries no
device information.
13.2.3.5 PROFINET Port Status TLV
The PROFINET Port Status TLV indicates the current PROFINET status of the network port
over which this LLDP message is sent. As the PNC does not support RT Class 2 or RT Class
3, the subfields are set to off (0x0000).
13.2.3.6 PROFINET MRP Port Status TLV
The PROFINET MRP Port Status indicates the current MRP status of the network port over
which this LLDP message is sent.
This TLV is required when the LLDP sender is an MRP port. It is not present in the LLDP
packet issued from a non-MRP port.
The PNC supports the following values:
Subfield
Value
MRP Domain ID
Contains the MRP domain UUID. Assigned internally by the network node.
Set to 0xFFFFFFFF-FFFF-FFFF-FFFF- FFFFFFFFFFFF.
MRRT Port Status
0x00 = Off / Not Used
13.2.3.7 PROFINET Chassis MAC TLV
The PROFINET Chassis MAC indicates the internal MAC address used by the PROFINET
stack. This is not the MAC address of any individual network port.
254
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Chapter 13. PROFINET Network Management
13.2.3.8 MAC/PHY Config/Status TLV
The MAC/PHY Configuration/Status indicates the supported auto-negotiation capability, the
current negotiated capability, and the MAU type of the network port over which this LLDP
message is sent.
Field
Values
Auto-negotiation
Support/Status
RXi PNC
Bit 0: Autonegotiation supported
(1 = Yes, 0 = No)
Bit 1: Autonegotiation status
(1 = Enabled, 0 = Disabled)
Bits 2-7: Reserved
0x03 (Autonegotiation
supported and enabled)
Auto-negotiation
Advertised
Capability
Copper Ports:
0x6C03 = 10/100/1000T
HD+FD
Operational
MAU Type
Typical values are:
0x000B: 10BaseT FD
0x0010: 100BaseTX FD
0x001E: 1000BaseT FD (Copper)
Copper Ports:
0x001E = 1000T FD
13.2.3.9 Management Address TLV
The Management Address is the address associated with the local LLDP agent that may be
used to reach higher layers within the device to assist with LLDP operations. Typically, this
indicates how to reach the LLDP MIB. The Management Address TLV contains three fields:
Management Address, Interface Number, and Object Identifier (OID).
Management Address
The Management Address indicates the management address of this device. For the RXi
PNC, the management address is the IP address of the device.
Subtype
4
Meaning
IPv4 address
Address Value
IPv4 address of this device
Interface Number
The Interface Number identifies a specific interface or port at the specified management
address. Thus the interface number varies with the network port number. The RXi Controller
uses the current network port number.
Subtype
3
Meaning
System port number
Address Value
Management port number (1-max network ports)
Object Identifier (OID)
The OID specifies a MIB object (typically the LLDP MIB) in ASN.1 format that is reachable at
the specified management address and interface number. A length of zero means that an
OID is not provided. The OID value is internally assigned by, and meaningful only to, the
LLDP device.
GFK-2816
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
255
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Appendix A
CPU Performance Data
This appendix contains instruction and overhead timing collected for the RXi CPU. This
timing information can be used to predict CPU sweep times.
A.1.
Instruction Timing
The tables in this section list the execution and incremental times in microseconds for each
function supported by the RXi CPU.
Execution Times
Two execution times are shown for each instruction.
Execution Time
Description
Enabled
Time in microseconds required to execute the function or function block when
power flows into the function with valid inputs.
Disabled
Time in microseconds required to execute the function when it is not enabled.
Notes:




All times represent typical execution time. Times may vary with input and error
conditions.
Enabled time is for single length units of word-oriented memory.
DO_IO time was measured using a discrete output module.
Timers are updated each time they are encountered in the logic by the amount of time
consumed by the last sweep.
RXi Incremental Times
An Increment time is shown for functions that can have variable length inputs.
Incremental time is added to the base function time for each addition to the length of an input
parameter. This time applies only to functions that can have varying input lengths (Search,
Array Moves, etc.)
Units:



256
For table functions, increment is in units of length specified.
For bit operation functions, increment is microseconds per bit.
For data move functions, microseconds per unit.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
RXi Instruction Times
Instruction
GFK-2816
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
ABS_DINT
0.464
0.296
0
ABS_INT
0.457
0.297
0
ABS_LREAL
0.574
0.3
0
ABS_REAL
0.455
0.278
0
ACOS
0.725
0.272
0
ACOS_LREAL
0.972
0.293
0
ADD_DINT
0.598
0.414
0
ADD_INT
0.548
0.416
0
ADD_LREAL
0.701
0.429
0
ADD_REAL
0.581
0.411
0
ADD_UINT
0.563
0.402
0
AND_DWORD
0.868
0.509
0.04076
AND_WORD
0.856
0.512
0.02306
ARRAY_MOV_BIT
1.021
0.651
0.00313
ARRAY_MOV_BYTE
0.839
0.645
0.00292
ARRAY_MOV_DINT
0.842
0.642
0.01374
ARRAY_MOV_DWORD
0.85
0.643
0.01432
ARRAY_MOV_INT
0.876
0.662
0.00613
ARRAY_MOV_UINT
0.887
0.658
0.00596
ARRAY_MOV_WORD
0.858
0.665
0.00646
ARRAY_RANGE_DINT
1.036
0.589
0.09073
ARRAY_RANGE_DWORD
1.044
0.598
0.0912
ARRAY_RANGE_INT
1.04
0.573
0.0929
ARRAY_RANGE_UINT
1.044
0.593
0.1036
ARRAY_RANGE_WORD
1.02
0.597
0.1046
ASIN
0.725
0.272
0
ASIN_LREAL
0.874
0.275
0
ATAN
0.648
0.285
0
ATAN_LREAL
0.741
0.295
0
BCD4_TO_INT
0.48
0.334
0
BCD4_TO_REAL
0.499
0.33
0
BCD4_TO_UINT
0.506
0.356
0
BCD8_TO_DINT
0.492
0.298
0
BCD8_TO_REAL
0.526
0.317
0
BCLR_DWORD
0.608
0.343
0
BCLR_WORD
0.628
0.362
0
BIT_POS_DWORD
1.05
0.399
0.45679
BIT_POS_WORD
0.836
0.421
0.20669
BIT_SEQ
0.088
0.087
0
BLK_CLR_WORD
0.56
0.33
0.00707
BLKMOV_DINT
0.898
0.694
0
BLKMOV_DWORD
0.888
0.683
0
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
257
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
BLKMOV_INT
0.868
0.692
0
BLKMOV_REAL
0.863
0.65
0
BLKMOV_UINT
0.83
0.657
0
BLKMOV_WORD
0.862
0.699
0
BIT_SET_DWORD
0.621
0.365
0
BIT_SET_WORD
0.621
0.371
0
BIT_TST_DWORD
0.732
0.429
0.0002
BIT_TST_WORD
0.72
0.425
0.0004
CALL_C
2.154
0.082
0
CALL_LDBK
1.649
0.102
0
CALL_PSB
1.203
0.096
0
CMP_DINT
0.642
0.301
0
CMP_INT
0.624
0.289
0
CMP_LREAL
0.754
0.352
0
CMP_REAL
0.661
0.302
0
CMP_UINT
0.655
0.312
0
COMM_REQ
248.372
0.476
0
COS
0.603
0.274
0
COS_LREAL
0.72
0.294
0
DATA_INIT_ASCII
0.21
0.366
0.00339
DATA_INIT_COMM
0.222
0.335
0.00607
DATA_INIT_DINT
0.21
0.343
0.01236
-
-
DATA_INIT_DLAN
258
-
DATA_INIT_DWORD
0.199
0.323
0.01262
DATA_INIT_INT
0.226
0.339
0.00612
DATA_INIT_LREAL
0.254
0.378
0.02637
DATA_INIT_REAL
0.221
0.328
0.01241
DATA_INIT_UINT
0.224
0.336
0.00622
DATA_INIT_WORD
0.225
0.323
0.00648
DEG_2_RAD
0.451
0.265
0
DEG_2_RAD_LREAL
0.597
0.294
0
DINT_TO_BCD8
0.549
0.308
0
DINT_TO_INT
0.442
0.301
0
DINT_TO_LREAL
0.449
0.304
0
DINT_TO_REAL
0.498
0.304
0
DINT_TO_UINT
0.459
0.298
0
DIV_DINT
0.624
0.436
0
DIV_INT
0.578
0.413
0
DIV_LREAL
0.731
0.41
0
DIV_MIXED
0.569
0.404
0
DIV_REAL
0.585
0.399
0
DNCTR
1.044
1.041
0
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
DO_IO
4.79
0.405
0
DO_IO WITH ALT
4.882
0.412
0
DRUM
1.543
1.227
0
EQ_DATA
GFK-2816
-
-
-
EQ_DINT
0.51
0.256
0
EQ_INT
0.544
0.255
0
EQ_LREAL
0.469
0.3
0
EQ_REAL
0.538
0.272
0
EQ_UINT
0.481
0.234
0
EXP
0.645
0.285
0
EXP_LREAL
0.883
0.311
0
EXPT
1.019
0.344
0
EXPT_LREAL
0.667
0.346
0
FIFO_RD_DINT
0.799
0.492
0.01372
FIFO_RD_INT
0.817
0.495
0.00614
FIFO_WRT_DINT
0.744
0.477
0.00003
FIFO_WRT_INT
0.763
0.496
-0.00017
FOR
0.434
0.302
0
GE_DINT
0.511
0.268
0
GE_INT
0.539
0.249
0
GE_LREAL
0.602
0.297
0
GE_REAL
0.557
0.261
0
GE_UINT
0.507
0.26
0
GT_DINT
0.46
0.252
0
GT_INT
0.525
0.273
0
GT_LREAL
0.481
0.329
0
GT_REAL
0.472
0.248
0
GT_UINT
0.462
0.233
0
INT_TO_BCD4
0.495
0.306
0
INT_TO_DINT
0.429
0.293
0
INT_TO_REAL
0.472
0.32
0
INT_TO_UINT
0.467
0.306
0
JUMPN
0.134
0.056
0
LE_DINT
0.492
0.238
0
LE_INT
0.553
0.262
0
LE_LREAL
0.478
0.312
0
LE_REAL
0.5
0.236
0
LE_UINT
0.506
0.246
0
LIFO_RD_DINT
0.73
0.485
0.00017
LIFO_RD_INT
0.745
0.481
-0.00011
LIFO_WRT_DINT
0.762
0.512
-0.00003
LIFO_WRT_DWORD
0.762
0.498
-0.00027
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
259
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
260
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
LIFO_WRT_INT
0.74
0.479
0.00014
LN
0.644
0.282
0
LN_LREAL
0.728
0.289
0
LOG
0.62
0.264
0
LOG_LREAL
0.719
0.27
0
LREAL_TO_DINT
0.677
0.3
0
LREAL_TO_REAL
0.497
0.263
0
LT_DINT
0.49
0.278
0
LT_INT
0.515
0.258
0
LT_LREAL
0.447
0.313
0
LT_REAL
0.485
0.258
0
LT_UINT
0.45
0.231
0
MASK_CMP_DWORD
1.408
0.779
0.05294
MASK_CMP_WORD
1.364
0.776
0.04576
MCRN
0.166
0.159
0
MOD_DINT
0.618
0.42
0
MOD_INT
0.585
0.418
0
MOD_UINT
0.585
0.42
0
MOVE_FROM_FLAT
2.256
1.123
0
MOVE_TO_FLAT
2.256
1.123
0
MOVE_BIT
0.761
0.387
0.00249
MOVE_DATA
-
-
-
MOVE_DATA_EX_INPUTREF
2.32
1.076
0
MOVE_DATA_INPUTREF
1.942
0.847
0
MOVE_DINT
0.526
0.327
0.01379
MOVE_DWORD
0.551
0.374
0.01347
MOVE_INT
-
-
0
MOVE_LREAL
0.583
0.383
0.0287
MOVE_REAL
0.529
0.354
0.0134
MOVE_UINT
0.541
0.347
0.0062
MOVE_WORD
0.549
0.374
0.006
MUL_DINT
0.633
0.418
0
MUL_INT
0.575
0.398
0
MUL_LREAL
0.705
0.425
0
MUL_MIXED
0.589
0.457
0
MUL_REAL
0.595
0.418
0
MUL_UINT
0.544
0.403
0
NE_DINT
0.496
0.289
0
NE_INT
0.466
0.277
0
NE_LREAL
0.454
0.319
0
NE_REAL
0.49
0.269
0
NE_UINT
0.482
0.265
0
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
GFK-2816
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
NOT_DWORD
0.707
0.362
0.02917
NOT_WORD
0.699
0.371
0.01689
OFDTR
1.104
1.02
0
ONDTR
1.141
0.919
0
OR_DWORD
0.905
0.532
0.04118
OR_WORD
0.855
0.512
0.02337
PID_IND
1.692
1.563
0
PID_ISA
1.727
1.594
0
RAD_2_DEG
0.448
0.268
0
RAD_2_DEG_LREAL
0.597
0.292
0
RANGE_DINT
0.742
0.542
0
RANGE_DWORD
0.757
0.552
0
RANGE_INT
0.715
0.562
0
REAL_TO_DINT
0.54
0.291
0
REAL_TO_INT
0.586
0.303
0
REAL_TO_LREAL
0.491
0.264
0
REAL_TO_UINT
0.554
0.291
0
ROL_DWORD
0.813
0.393
0.03971
ROL_WORD
0.805
0.4
0.02681
ROR_DWORD
0.793
0.374
0.0322
ROR_WORD
0.784
0.375
0.02617
SCALE_DINT
0.942
0.573
0
SCALE_INT
0.967
0.583
0
SCALE_UINT
0.942
0.552
0
SCANSET_IO_INOUT
32.943
0.423
0
SHFR_BIT
1.282
0.68
0.0053
SHFR_DWORD
1.578
1.087
0.04544
SHFR_WORD
1.622
1.125
0.03731
SHL_DWORD
1.07
0.769
0.0328
SHL_WORD
1.127
0.785
0.02066
SHR_DWORD
1.109
0.767
0.04167
SHR_WORD
1.076
0.752
0.02627
SIN
0.621
0.277
0
SIN_LREAL
0.743
0.297
0
SORT_INT
9.27
0.339
0.19969
SORT_UINT
9.214
0.336
0.2004
SORT_WORD
9.208
0.332
0.1995
SQRT_DINT
0.525
0.283
0
SQRT_INT
0.478
0.289
0
SQRT_LREAL
0.738
0.302
0
SQRT_REAL
0.551
0.301
0
SRCHBYTE
0.9
0.6
0.01154
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
261
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
262
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
SRCHDWORD
0.931
0.61
0.01717
SRCHWORD
0.98
0.611
0.01627
SUB_DINT
0.582
0.398
0
SUB_INT
0.556
0.395
0
SUB_LREAL
0.701
0.428
0
SUB_REAL
0.585
0.415
0
SUS_IO
1.309
0.103
0
SVC_REQ 1
1.437
0.244
0
SVC_REQ 2
1.747
0.234
0
SVC_REQ 3
1.018
0.26
0
SVC_REQ 4
0.995
0.242
0
SVC_REQ 5
1.001
0.236
0
SVC_REQ 6
1.013
0.245
0
SVC_REQ 7
2.534
0.231
0
SVC_REQ 8
4.307
0.234
0
SVC_REQ 9
1.441
0.232
0
SVC_REQ 10
1.493
0.234
0
SVC_REQ 11
1.068
0.238
0
SVC_REQ 12
0.634
0.232
0
SVC_REQ 13
1.684
0.259
0
SVC_REQ 14
113.149
0.243
0
SVC_REQ 15
0.626
0.35
0
SVC_REQ 16
1.372
0.237
0
SVC_REQ 17
0.774
0.237
0
SVC_REQ 18
34.532
0.257
0
SVC_REQ 19
1.755
0.256
0
SVC_REQ 20
5.241
0.254
0
SVC_REQ 21
11.909
0.232
0
SVC_REQ 22
0.672
0.238
0
SVC_REQ 23
24.311
0.214
0
SVC_REQ 24
0.611
0.234
0
SVC_REQ 25
0.711
0.23
0
SVC_REQ 50
1.344
0.215
0
SVC_REQ 51
1.409
0.214
0
SW_POS
0.506
0.292
0
SWAP_DWORD
0.623
0.365
0.02767
SWAP_WORD
0.626
0.357
0.016
TAN
0.73
0.276
0
TAN_LREAL
0.855
0.296
0
TBL_RD_DINT
0.77
0.549
0.0002
TBL_RD_INT
0.809
0.585
0.00018
TBL_WRT_DINT
0.894
0.575
0.00012
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Appendix A. CPU Performance Data
Instruction
A.1.
Enabled
Disabled
Increment
TBL_WRT_INT
0.876
0.537
0.00007
TMR
1.11
1.008
0
TOF
1.954
1.059
0
TON
1.177
1.057
0
TP
1.404
1.061
0
TRUNC_DINT
0.591
0.249
0
TRUNC_INT
0.55
0.212
0
UINT_TO_BCD4
0.49
0.313
0
UINT_TO_DINT
0.487
0.346
0
UINT_TO_INT
0.452
0.314
0
UINT_TO_REAL
0.475
0.321
0
UPCTR
1.049
1.042
0
XOR_DWORD
0.88
0.522
0.04049
XOR_WORD
0.887
0.533
0.02306
PROFINET Controller and PROFINET IO Sweep Impact
The controller CPU sweep impact for a PROFINET IO network is a function of the number of
PNCs, the number of PROFINET devices, and the number of each PROFINET device’s
IO modules. PROFINET IO Performance Examples are provided in Appendix B.
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Appendix B. PROFINET IO Performance Examples
Appendix B
PROFINET IO Performance Examples
Note:
The configurations and performance numbers shown here are examples; Actual
performance timings will vary depending on your exact configuration and network
setup.
This section presents various PROFINET IO systems and their measured I/O performance
for a simple 16 point Discrete I/O Loopback. Additional details of each system configuration
are in a section following the table below.
The I/O Loopback measurements were done by wiring the outputs of a discrete output
module directly to the inputs of a discrete input module, and using Ladder Logic to measure
the time difference between setting the outputs and reading the same data on the
corresponding inputs. Proficy Machine Edition was attached to the RXi during testing. The
average, minimum, and maximum loopback times were captured from a 4 hour sample
period. In addition, since the CPU sweep time is a primary factor in the accuracy and
precision of the I/O Loopback times recorded, the average and maximum CPU sweep times
for each system are given.
Note:
CPU Sweep time variations between systems are not completely a function of
varying PROFINET IO. Sweep time was also influenced by variations in logic.
# PROFINET
Devices/Modules
# PROFINET
Discretes/Analogs
CPU Sweep (ms)
Average (Max)
16pt Loopback (ms)
Average (Min, Max)
A.1 - Single Device
1/4
192 / 0
3.7 (5.8)
9 (6, 18)
A.2 - Multi-Device
8 / 14
824 / 0
5.4 (8.5)
10 (5, 18)
A.2.1 - Multi-Device w/ MRP
8 / 14
824 / 0
5.5 (8.8)
11 (5, 21)
B.1 - Multi-Device
20 / 29
1928 / 0
5.4 (7.9)
21 (5, 43)
B.1.1 - Multi-Device w/ MRP
20 / 29
1928 / 0
5.2 (7.5)
22 (5, 46)
B.2 - Large System
64 / 89
5176 / 445
12.3 (15.6)
35 (11, 51)
128 / 275
8376 / 565
19.1 (22.9)
43 (18, 63)
System Configuration
1ms PROFINET Update Rate
16ms PROFINET Update Rate
B.3 - Very Large System
Number of modules only includes I/O modules; does not include head-ends or
power supplies.
264
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Appendix B. PROFINET IO Performance Examples
B.1.
System Descriptions
B.1.1. 1ms PROFINET Update Rate Systems
A.1 – Single Device
The PNC was connected to a single VersaMax PNS
(IC200PNS001) configured for a 1msec. PROFINET update rate.
The PNS contained four mixed discrete 16 point in/out modules
(IC200MDD844). Each I/O module had its outputs tied to the
inputs of an adjoining I/O module, and each input module was
configured with a 1ms Input DC Filter time. The I/O Loopback
measurement was taken using one of the IC200MDD844
modules.
A.2 – Multi-Device
The PNC was connected in a network bus configuration to eight
different VersaMax PNS modules (IC200PNS001), each
configured for a 1ms PROFINET update rate. Each PNS
contained at least one discrete input or output module. The I/O
Loopback measurement was taken using a 16 point output
module (IC200MDL741) owned by one VersaMax PNS, that was
then tied to the 16 point input module (IC200MDL640) owned by a
different VersaMax PNS. The input module (IC200MDL640) was
configured for a 0ms Input DC Filter time.
A.2.1 - Multi-Device with MRP
This system is identical to the A.2 – Multi-Device configuration,
except that Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) was in use. To
exercise MRP, the network was set up in a ring configuration and
the PNC was configured as an MRP Manager with a configured
Default Test Interval of 20ms.
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265
Appendix B. PROFINET IO Performance Examples
B.1.2. 16ms PROFINET Update Rate Systems
B.1 – Multi-Device
This system contained an RXi controller connected in a network bus
configuration to 20 VersaMax PNS modules (IC200PNS001), each
configured for a 16ms PROFINET update rate.
Each PNS contained at least 1 discrete input, discrete output, analog
input, or analog output module.
The IO Loopback measurement was taken using a 16-point output
module (IC200MDL741) owned by one VersaMax PNS, that was
then tied to the 16 point input module (IC200MDL640) owned by a
different VersaMax PNS.
The input module (IC200MDL640) was configured for a 0ms Input
DC Filter time.
B.1.1 – Multi-Device with MRP
This system is identical to the B.1 – Multi-Device configuration,
except that MRP was in use. The network was set up in a ring
configuration and the PNC was configured as an MRP Manager with
a configured Default Test Interval of 20ms.
B.2 – Large System
This system contained an RXi controller connected in a network bus
configuration to 64 VersaMax PNS modules (IC200PNS001), each
configured for a 16ms PROFINET update rate.
Each PNS contained at least one discrete input, discrete output,
analog input, or analog output module.
The I/O Loopback measurement was taken using a 16 point output
module (IC200MDL741) owned by one VersaMax PNS, that was
then tied to the 16 point input module (IC200MDL640) owned by a
different VersaMax PNS.
The input module (IC200MDL640) was configured for a 1ms Input
DC Filter time.
B.3 – Very Large System
This system contained an RXi controller connected in a network
bus configuration to 64 VersaMax PNS modules (IC200PNS001)
and 64 third-party PROFINET devices.
Each PROFINET device was configured for a 16ms PROFINET
update rate and contained at least one discrete input, discrete
output, analog input, or analog output module.
The I/O Loopback measurement was taken using a 16 point
output module (IC200MDL741) owned by one VersaMax PNS,
that was then tied to the 16 point input module (IC200MDL640)
owned by a different VersaMax PNS.
The input module (IC200MDL640) was configured for a 1ms
Input DC Filter time.
266
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Appendix C. User Memory Allocation
Appendix C
User Memory Allocation
User Memory Size is the number of bytes of memory available to the user for controller
applications.
Model
User Memory Size
Bytes
10MB
10,485,760
ICRXICTL000
C.1.
Items that Count Against User Memory
The following items count against the CPU memory and can be used to estimate the
minimum amount of memory required for an application. Additional space may be required for
items such as zipped source files, user heap, and published symbols.
Register Memory Size (%R)
Bytes = %R references configured  2
Word Memory Size (%W)
Bytes = %W references configured  2
Analog Inputs (%AI)
If point faults enabled: Bytes = %AI references configured  3
If point faults disabled: Bytes = %AI references configured  2
Analog Outputs (%AQ)
If point faults enabled: Bytes = %AQ references configured  3
If point faults disabled: Bytes = %AQ references configured  2
Discrete Point Faults
If point faults enabled: Bytes = 3072
Managed Memory
(Symbolic Variable and I/O
Variable Storage)
The total number of bytes required for symbolic and I/O variables. Calculated as
follows:
[(number of symbolic discrete bits) × 3 / (8 bits/byte)]
+ [(number of I/O discrete bits) × Md / (8 bits/byte)]
+ [(number of symbolic words) × (2 bytes/word)]
+ [(number of I/O words) × (Mw bytes/word)]
Md = 3 or 4. The number of bits is multiplied by 3 to keep track of the force, transition,
and value of each bit. If point faults are enabled, the number of I/O discrete bits is
multiplied by 4.
Mw = 2 or 3. There are two 8-bit bytes per 16-bit word. If point faults are enabled, the
number of bytes is multiplied by 3 because each I/O word requires an extra byte.
I/O Scan Set File
(included in HWC)
Based on number of scan sets used.
Note: 32 bytes of user memory are consumed if the application scans all I/O every
sweep (the default).
User Programs
See “User Program Memory Usage” page 268 for details on user programs.
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267
Appendix C. User Memory Allocation
C.2.
User Program Memory Usage
Space required for user logic includes the following items.
C.2.1. %L and %P Program Memory
%L and %P are charged against your user space and sized depending on their use in your
applications. The maximum size of %L or %P is 8192 words per block.
The %L and %P tables are sized to allow extra space for Run Mode Stores according to the
following rules.
■
■
■
■
■
If %L memory is not used in the block, the %L memory size is 0 bytes. If %L memory
is used in the block, a buffer is added beyond the highest %L address actually used
in logic or in the variable table. The default buffer size is 256 bytes, but can be
changed by editing the Extra Local Words parameter in the block Properties.
The same rules apply for the size of %P memory, but %P memory can be used in
any block in the program.
The buffer cannot make the %P or %L table exceed the maximum size of 8,192
words. In such a case, a smaller buffer is used.
You can add, change, or delete %L and/or %P variables in your application and Run
Mode Store the application if these variables fit in the size of the last-stored %L/%P
tables (where the "size" includes the previous buffer space), or if going from a zero to
non-zero size.
The size of the %L/%P tables is always recalculated for Stop Mode Stores.
C.2.2. Program Logic and Overhead
The data area for C (.gefelf) blocks is considered part of the user program and counts
against the user program size. Additional space is required for information internal to
the CPU that is used for execution of the C block.
The program block is based on overhead for the block itself plus the logic and
register data being used (that is, %L).
Note:
The LD program’s stack is not counted against the CPU’s memory size.
Note: If your application needs more space for LD logic, consider changing some %P or %L
references to %R, %W, %AI, or %AQ. Such changes require a recompilation of the program
block and a Stop Mode store to the CPU.
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Appendix D. Product Certifications and Standards
Appendix D
Product Certifications and Standards
This appendix describes the compliance markings that appear on the PACSystems RXi
Controller and the corresponding standards to which the products have been certified.
D.1.
Agency Approvals
Description
Comments
N.A. Safety for Information
Technology Equipment
Certification by Underwriter's Laboratories to
UL 60950-1and CSA 60950-1
N.A. Safety for Industrial Control
Equipment
Certification by Underwriter's Laboratories to
UL 508 and CSA C22.2 No 142 - M1987
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Directive
European EMC
Self-Declaration in accordance with European
Directives; Refer to Technical Support at
http://www.ge-ip.com/ for EC Declaration of
Conformity
Note:
GFK-2816
Agency
Standard or
Marking
The agency approvals listed above and on the Declaration of Conformities are
believed to be accurate; however, a product’s agency approvals should be verified by
the marking on the unit itself.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
269
Appendix D. Product Certifications and Standards
D.2.
Standards Overview
For environmental specifications, refer to 1.1.4, Environmental Specifications.
EMC Emissions and Immunity Specifications
EMC Product Standards
Industrial Control
Equipment
EN 61131-2
Information Technology
Equipment
EN 55024
EN 55024
Generic Standards
EN 61000-6-2
EN 61000-6-4
EMC Zone B requirements
Immunity
Emissions
EMC EMISSIONS
Emissions
CISPR 11/EN 55011/ 30 – 1000 MHz, radiated, Group 1, Class A,
EN55016-2-3
FCC 47CFR15
30 – 7500 MHz, radiated, Class A
CISPR 22/EN55022
30 – 6000 MHz, radiated, Class A,
Ethernet port: 0.15 – 30 MHz, conducted, Class A
EN61000-4-21
8.0 kV air, 4.0 kV contact,
EMC IMMUNITY
Electrostatic Discharge
1
RF Susceptibility
EN 61000-4-3
1kHz sine wave, 80% AM
10 V/m, 80 – 1000 MHz
3 V/m, 1.0 – 2.0 GHz
1 V/m, 2.0 – 2.7 GHz
Fast Transient
EN 61000-4-41
DC Input: 2 kV, 33 nF direct
Ethernet port, shielded:
1.1 kV, capacitive clamp
RS-232 port, unshielded:
1.1 kV, capacitive clamp
Surge
EN 61000-4-51
DC Input: 0.5 kV, 12 ohms (CM); 0.5 kV,
2 ohms (DM)
Ethernet port, shielded: ±1.0 kV, 2 ohms (CM)
Conducted RF Immunity
EN 61000-4-61
DC Input: 10 V, CDN
Ethernet port, shielded: 10 V, current clamp
RS-232 port, unshielded: 10 V, current clamp
Damped Oscillatory Wave EN 61000-4-18
1
DC Input: 2. 5kV, 1 MHz (CM/DM);
Ethernet port, shielded: 2.5 kV, 1 MHz (CM)
RS-232 port, unshielded: 2.5 kV, 1 MHz (CM)
1
EN 61000-4-x series of tests are technically equivalent to the IEC 61000-4-x series.
Product Safety
Ordinary Locations:
270
UL/CSA/EN/IEC 60950-1
Requires: LPS or Class 2 power source, Pollution Degree 2 environment
UL508, CSA 22.2 No 142
Requires: LPS, Class 2, or LVLC power source, Pollution Degree 2
environment
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Appendix D. Product Certifications and Standards
D.3.
Government Regulations
The FCC requires the following note to be published according to FCC guidelines:
Note:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is
operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his
own expense.
Industry Canada requires the following note to be published:
Note:
GFK-2816
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
271
Index
@
indirect references, 119
Access control, 46
Air flow, 17
Alarm contacts, 146
Alarm CR, 228
Altitude specification, 14
Analog input register references (%AI),
119
Analog output register references (%AQ),
119
Application relationship (AR), 228
PROFINET
defined, 225
Arrays, 116
accessing elements with variable index,
116
Auto-Located symbolic variables, 113
Autonegotiation, 222
Basic System, 223
Battery, real time clock (RTC), 30
Bit in Word references, 120
Bit references, 121
Blocks
and local data, 94
external, 102
parameterized, 95
program, 94
types, 93
UDFBs, 98
Broadcast
PROFINET, defined, 225
Bulk memory, 119
Cables
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), 27
summary, 26
Channel Commands, 180
Establish Write Channel (2004), 189
Establishing a channel (3001), 182
Mask Write Register Request to a
Modbus Server Device (3009), 195
Open a Modbus TCP Client Connection
(3000), 180
Read Data from a Modbus TCP Device
(3003), 183
GFK-2816
Read/Write Multiple Registers to/from a
Modbus Server Device (3005), 193
Channel Error bit, 203, 216
Channel Status bits, 176
Channels
Monitoring, 203
Clearances, 20
Client/Server Capability, 169
Clocks, 83
elapsed time clock, 83
reading with SVCREQ #16 or #50, 83
time-of-day clock, 83
reading and setting, 83
Coherency, 233
COMM_REQs
Channel Commands, 175
Command Block, 175, 179
controlling execution, 176
fault errors, 217
function block, 175
functions, maximum pending, 203
Status words, 176, 177, 203
major and minor error codes, 204
Communication relationship (CR), 228
PROFINET, defined, 225
Configuration
PROFINET update rate, 234
storing (downloading), 70
system, 90
Connectors
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), 27
PROFINET, 29
Controller Fault Table, 212
Convenience references. See System
status references
Coupled variables, 114
CPU memory validation, 90
CPU Node
PROFINET, defined, 225
CPU sweep
Stop modes, 79
Data coherency, 233
Data coherency in communications
windows, 77
Data retentiveness
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
273
Index
power cycle, 90
Stop to Run mode transition, 123
Data scope, 124
Data Transfer bit, 216
Data types, 128
DCP. See Discovery and Configuration
Protocol
Declaration of Conformities, 269
Determining if an IP address has been
used, 69
Device access point (DAP)
PROFINET, defined, 225
Device Name
PNC, 53
Diagnostics
CPU, 136
Ethernet interface, 212
PNC, 239
Dimensions
mounting, 20
Disabling Media Redundancy, 248
Discovery and Configuration Protocol, 65
PROFINET diagnostics, 164
Discrete references, 121
size and default, 122
Do I/O
in an interrupt block, 111
DO I/O for Remote IO Modules, 237
Downloading configuration
details, 70
Duplicate controller IP addresses, 232
Duplicate device IP addresses, 231, 232
Elapsed time clock, 83
reading with SVCREQ #16 or #50, 83
Enabling Media Redundancy, 247
Enhanced security, 46
Environmental specifications, 14
Errors
in floating point numbers, 131
Ethernet (GbE)
connectors, 27
Ethernet (GbE) interface
configuring, 68
features, 169
operation, 169
Ethernet interface status bits, 215
Examples
274
alarm contacts, 146
bit in word references, 120
configuring submodules on the
PROFINET network, 62
fault classes, 136
PNIO_DEV_COMM, 236
PROFINET IO alarms, 241
PROFINET IO performance, 264
PROFINET IO-Device scan, 233
ring topology, 245
sample logic for Modbus TCP client,
197
user defined types, 132
External blocks, 102
Fault contacts, 145
Fault handling
actions, 137
CPU configuration, 44
overview, 136
system, 142
system response, 136
Fault references
alarm contacts, 146
point faults, 146
Fault table, 212
Fault tables
using, 138
Fault tables, Controller, 138
descriptions and corrective actions, 150,
156, 241
groups, 147
Fault tables, I/O, 140
categories, 159
descriptions and corrective actions, 161
groups, 158
Faults
fault contacts, 145
system, 142
non-configurable, 144
user-defined, 139
%SA bits, 126
FCC notice, 271
Flash memory, 81
Floating point numbers, 130
errors in, 131
Formal parameters
restrictions, 97
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Index
FT Output of the COMM_REQ function block, 176,
177
Function Block Diagram, 106
Gateway
PNC, 53
configuration, 55
Genius I/O
diagnostic data collection, 89
Getting started, 32
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)
connectors, 27
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) interface
configuring, 68
features, 169
operation, 169
status bits, 215
Global data references (%G), 121
Glossary
PROFINET terms, 225
Gratuitous ARP
PROFINET, defined, 225
Grounding, 18
GSDML
PROFINET, defined, 225
GSDML file
third-party devices, 59, 224
Hardware variables, 113
coupled, 114
Humidity specification, 14
I/O scanning, 232
I/O system
initialization, 90
I/O variables, 113
coupled, 114
Indicators
ports, 16
power, 15
Indirect references
word, 119
Input references (%I), 121
Inputs default, 238
Installation, 17
directly on a panel, 21
guidelines, 17
on a DIN rail, 22
space required, 20
GFK-2816
Instruction set
by functional group, 107
function block timing, 256
operands, LD, 134
Intelligent Display Module (IDM)
assigning temporary IP address, 33
controller communications window
timer, 39
initial powerup, 34
installing, 25
overview, 36
part number, 12
passwords, 36, 87
setting run/stop mode, 80
setting Sweep modes and
Communications Window values, 41
Internal references (%M), 121
Interrupt blocks, 109
interrupt handling, 109
scheduling, 111
timed interrupts, 110
IO CRs, 228
IO Devices, 222
IOC
PROFINET, defined, 225
IOC (I/O controller), 143
IOCR
PROFINET, defined, 225
IOCS
PROFINET, defined, 225
IOD
PROFINET, defined, 225
IO-Devices
properties, 63
IOPS
PROFINET
defined, 225
IOxS
PROFINET, defined, 225
IP address, 13
Configuration, 68
Determining if it has been used, 69
duplicate PROFINET controller, 232
duplicate PROFINET device, 231
Format, 170
Isolated network, 68
PNC, 53
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
275
Index
PNC LAN configuration, 54
PROFINET Controller, 52
Ladder Diagram, 106
Ladder programming
COMM_REQs, 196
LAN
specifications, 13
LAN configuration, 50
ID, 54
IP address, 54
Name, 54
Properties, 54
LAN Interface OK bit, 216
LAN Interface Status (LIS) bits, 215
LAN Interface Status bits, 176
LAN View, 50, 54
Last scans, 40, 79
LDPROG01, 91
LEDs
ports, 16
power, 15
Limits
data loading, 48
LLDP (Link Layer Discover Protocol), 253
PROFINET, defined, 225
Logic program
controlling execution of COMM_REQs,
176
Logic/configuration power-up source, 82
Loss of device, 161, 238
Loss of IO Controller, 161
LREAL numbers
internal format of, 130
MAC addresses, 13
Mapping
modbus to ENIU memory, 171
Media Redundancy
configuration, 51
Media Redundancy Clients (MRCs), 242
Media Redundancy Manager (MRM), 242
Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP), 242
Memory, 13
configuration, 42
retention of data memory across power
cycle, 90
MIB (management information base), 249
MIB-II groups supported, 251
276
Modbus
reference tables, 171
Modbus Address Space Mapping, 173
Modbus Function Codes, 174
Modbus TCP Channel Commands, 180
Establish Write Channel (2004), 189
Establishing a channel (3001), 182
Mask Write Register Request to a
Modbus Server Device (3009), 195
Open a Modbus TCP Client Connection
(3000), 180
Read Data from a Modbus TCP Device
(3003, 183
Read/Write Multiple Registers to/from a
Modbus Server Device (3005), 193
Modbus TCP Channel Commands, 175
Mode transition
stop-to-run, 80
Modes of operation, CPU, 78
Monitoring the communications channel,
203
Mounting
dimensions, 20
DIN rail, 22
orientation, 19
panel, direct, 21
panel, with a Backplate, 24
space required, 20
MRC
PROFINET, defined, 225
MRM
PROFINET, defined, 225
MRP
PROFINET, defined, 225
MRP failover performance, 243
Multicast
PROFINET, defined, 225
NaN (Not a Number)
defined, 131
Nested calls, 92
Network speed
configuration, 54
Network utilization, 54
NMS (network management system), 249
PROFINET, defined, 225
Non-volatile configuration parameters, 53
Normal block scheduling, 111
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Index
Normal sweep mode
application program task execution, 73
programmer communications window,
73
Null system configuration for RUN mode,
154
Numerical data, 128
OEM protection, 88
Online editing, 156
Operands for instructions, 134
Operation overview
PROFINET, 227
Output references (%Q), 121
Output scan, 73
Outputs default, 238
Overflow
floating point numbers, 131
Overrides, 123
Parameter passing mechanisms, 105
Parameterized blocks, 95
and local data, 95
reference out of range, 95
referencing formal parameters, 96
Passwords, 87
enabling after disabled, 88
Performance
CPU, 256
PROFINET
examples, 264
factors, 234
Phase
PROFINET, defined, 225
Ping
pinging the TCP/IP interfaces on the
network, 69
restrictions, 218
PNIO_CONTROLLER_REF Variable, 235
PNIO_DEV_COMM function block, 236
PNIO_DEVICE_REF Variable, 235
Point faults, 146
Ports, 221
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE), 27
PROFINET, 29
summary, 26
Power supply requirements, 26
Power-down sequence, 90
Powerup, 239
GFK-2816
Power-up sequence, 90
CPU memory validation, 90
I/O system initialization, 90
logic/configuration source, 82
power-up self-test, 90
system configuration, 90
Preemptive block scheduling, 111
Privilege levels, 87
PROFINET
connectors, 29
PROFINET communications, 229
PROFINET Controller (PNC)
configuration, 49
diagnostics, 239
parameters, 50
status bits, 240
PROFINET IO alarms, 241
Program blocks, 94
and local data, 94, 104
how blocks are called, 92
types, 93
Program execution
controlling, 109
Program name, 91
Program organization, 91
Program register references (%P), 119
Program scan, 73
Program structure
how blocks are called, 92
program blocks and local data, 104
Programmer Response, 219
Protection level request, 87
RDO
PROFINET, defined, 225
REAL numbers
internal format of, 130
Real time clock (RTC), 83
battery, replacing, 30
Record Data CRs, 228
Reduction Ratio
PROFINET, defined, 226
Redundant Media, PNC
monitor count, 53
Ring Port, 53
Role, 53
test interval, 53
Reference ID Variables (RIVs), 52, 235
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
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Index
References, 119
associated transitions and overrides,
123
data scope, 124
discrete references, 121
indirect, 119
register references, 119
size and default value, 122
system fault references, 142
system status (%S), 125
Remote Node
PROFINET, defined, 226
Retentiveness
of logic and data across power cycle, 90
of logic and data across Stop to Run
mode transition, 123
RFI standards, 271
Ring port
configuration, 51
Ring topologies, 242
with multiple controllers, 246
with one controller, 245
RTA
PROFINET, defined, 226
RTC (Real-Time Cyclic)
PROFINET, defined, 226
Run/stop operations, 78
run/outputs disabled, 78
run/outputs enabled, 78
stop/IO scan, 78
stop/No IO scan, 78
Scan parameters, 39
Scan set
for remote I/O modules, 238
Scan sets
parameters, 44
Scanning
I/O, 232
Scope
data, 124
Security, system, 87
privilege levels, 87
Self-test
I/O system initialization, 90
power-up self-test, 90
Send Clock
PROFINET, defined, 226
278
Send Offset
PROFINET, defined, 226
Sequencing communications requests,
203
Server Capability, 169
Server Protocol Services, 171
Service Request Transfer Protocol (SRTP)
inactivity timeout, 170, 219
Shock specification, 14
Simple isolated network configuration, 68
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol), 249
features supported, 250
PROFINET, defined, 226
Station Manager, 169
Ethernet interface diagnostics, 214
Station Manager supported by Modbus
Server, 171
Status address location, 50, 69
Status bits
CPU, 13
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) interface, 215
PROFINET Controller, 240
Status data, Channel Commands, 176
STOP modes, 79
Storing configuration, 70
Structure of application programs, 91
Structure variables, 99
Structured Text, 106
Submodule
PROFINET, defined, 226
Subnet mask
PNC, 53
defined, 55
Subroutines
Call function, 109
Sweep, CPU, 71
modes, 74
Stop modes, 79
Symbolic variables, 113
System configuration, 90
System fault references, 142
System operation
clocks and timers, 83
I/O system, 89
passwords, 87
power-down sequence, 90
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
GFK-2816
Index
power-up sequence, 90
retention of data memory across power
cycle, 90
system security, 87
System register references (%R), 119
System status references (%S), 121, 125
Technical Support, 3
Temperature, operating, 14
Temporary references (%T), 121
Test packet timeout interval
media redundancy, 244
Third-party devices
configuration, 59
Third-party IO Devices, 224
Time tick references, 125
Timed contacts, 86, 125
Timed interrupts, 110
Time-of-day clock, 83
reading and setting, 83
Timeout Errors, 218
Timers, 83
function blocks, updated, 256
watchdog timer, 84
Timing
I/O scanning, 232
instructions, 256
Transitions, 123
Troubleshooting
Ladder programs, 202
UDFBs
defining, 98
instance data, 99
instances, 99
internal variables, 101
logic restrictions, 101
parameters, 100
scope, 99
Unicast
PROFINET, defined, 226
Update rate (update period)
PROFINET, defined, 226
GFK-2816
Update rate (update period), PROFINET
available rates, 13
configuring, 63, 234
data loading, 48
in MRP ring, 243
User defined faults, 139
User defined types (UDTs), 132
User references, 119
system fault references, 142
Variables, 112
C, initialization, 103
I/O, 113
coupled, 114
mapped, 112
member, 98
symbolic, 113
VersaMax modules
configuration, 58
VersaMax PROFINET Scanner
parameters, 57
Vibration specification, 14
VLAN Priority Settings, 230
Watchdog timer
restarting, 84
Watchdog timers, 84
hardware, 85
software, 84
Window modes, 77
Constant Window mode, 77
Limited mode, 77
Run-to-Completion, 77
Word references, 119
Word register references (%W), 119
Word-for-word changes
attempting to correct parameterized
block reference, 95
defined, 135
privilege level, 87
symbolic variables, 135
Y0 parameter, 94, 96
PACSystems* RXi Distributed IO Controller User’s Manual–December 2012
279
GE Intelligent Platforms
Information Centers
Headquarters:
1-800-433-2682 or 1-434-978-5100
Global regional phone numbers
are available on our web site
www.ge-ip.com
Additional Resources
For more information, please visit the GE
Intelligent Platforms web site:
www.ge-ip.com
©2012 GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc. All Rights Reserved
*Trademark of GE Intelligent Platforms, Inc.
All other brands or names are property of their respective holders.
GFK-2816
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