ZigBit™ Evaluation Kit 1.2 User's Guide

ZigBit™ Evaluation Kit 1.2 User's Guide
ZigBit™ Evaluation Kit 1.2
User’s Guide
Doc. S-ZEK-451 v.1.1
March 2007
© 2007 MeshNetics
ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
© 2007 MeshNetics. All rights reserved.
No part of the contents of this manual may be transmitted or reproduced in any form or by any means without the
written permission of MeshNetics.
Disclaimer
MeshNetics believes that all information is correct and accurate at the time of issue. MeshNetics reserves the right
to make changes to this product without prior notice. Please visit MeshNetics website for the latest available
version.
MeshNetics does not assume any responsibility for the use of the described product or convey any license under
its patent rights.
MeshNetics warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in
accordance with MeshNetics standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the
extent MeshNetics deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where mandated by government
requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
Trademarks
MeshNetics®, ZigBit, eZeeNet, ZigBeeNet, SensiLink, as well as MeshNetics and ZigBit logos are trademarks of
MeshNetics Ltd.
All other product names, trade names, trademarks, logos or service names are the property of their respective
owners.
Technical Support
Please e-mail your product-related questions to support@meshnetics.com. If you like to speak to one of our
product specialists you can call the phone number listed below.
Development Support
Software customization services can be provided on terms and conditions mutually agreed by MeshNetics and
end-user.
Contact Information
MeshNetics
9 Dmitrovskoye Shosse, Moscow 127434, Russia
Tel: +7 (495) 725 8125
Office hours: 8:00am – 5:00pm (Central European Time)
Fax: +7 (495) 725 8116
E-mail: support@meshnetics.com
www.meshnetics.com
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
Table of Contents
1.
Introduction...................................................... 6
4.6.5. Visualization of the Sensor Data .................32
Intended Audience and Purpose............................... 6
5.
SerialNet..........................................................33
Safety and Precautions ............................................. 6
6.
Serial Bootloader...........................................35
Related documents.................................................... 6
7.
Troubleshooting ............................................37
Abbreviations and Acronyms .................................... 7
Appendices................................................................39
2.
Evaluation Kit Overview................................. 9
Appendix A.
Distribution CD File Structure .........39
2.1.
Hardware General Specifications ............................. 9
Appendix B.
Using JTAG emulator .....................39
2.2.
MeshBean2 Featured Components ....................... 11
2.2.1. ZigBit Module............................................... 11
2.2.2. Sensors........................................................ 11
2.2.3. USB-COM Bridge........................................ 11
2.3.
MeshBean2 Board Design ...................................... 11
2.3.1. Connectors and Jumpers............................ 13
2.3.2. Buttons, Switches and LEDs ...................... 16
2.4.
eZeeNet Software.................................................... 16
3.
Getting Started .............................................. 18
3.1.
Overview .................................................................. 18
3.2.
System Requirements............................................. 18
3.3.
PC Software Installation .......................................... 19
3.4.
Connecting the Board to PC ................................... 20
3.5.
Powering the Boards ............................................... 20
3.6.
Testing the Board .................................................... 21
3.7.
Measuring Power Consumption.............................. 22
3.8.
Antenna Precautions ............................................... 22
4.
WSN Demo Application ............................... 23
4.1.
Overview .................................................................. 23
4.2.
Programming the Boards ........................................ 24
4.2.1. Using Serial Bootloader .............................. 24
4.2.2. Using JTAG ................................................. 25
4.3.
Using the Boards ..................................................... 25
4.4.
Sensors Data and Battery Level Indication............. 27
4.5.
WSN Monitor ........................................................... 27
4.6.
Operating the WSN Demo ...................................... 29
4.6.1. Starting WSN Demo on MeshBean2 nodes29
4.6.2. Setting up node timeouts ............................ 29
4.6.3. Node Reset.................................................. 30
4.6.4. Changing Frequency Channels.................. 30
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
List of Figures
Figure 1. The Evaluation Kit delivery set............................... 9
Figure 2. MeshBean2 Layout .............................................. 12
Figure 3. MeshBean2 functional diagram ........................... 13
Figure 4. eZeeNet Block Diagram ....................................... 17
Figure 5. COM port drivers in the Windows Device
Manager window.................................................. 19
Figure 6. Hardware test report............................................. 22
Figure 7. WSN Monitor GUI................................................. 28
Figure 8. Example of file containing the node titles............. 29
Figure 9. WSN Monitor Tools/Settings menu ..................... 30
Figure 10. Resetting the node ............................................. 30
Figure 11. Setting channel mask dialog box ....................... 31
Figure 12. Setting the channel mask using checkboxes .... 31
Figure 13. AVR Studio dialog box for JTAG firmware
downloading ......................................................... 40
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
List of Tables
Table 1. MeshBean2 Board Specifications......................... 10
Table 2. Expansion connector pinout.................................. 13
Table 3. JTAG connector pinout.......................................... 15
Table 4. J1 jumper settings: current measurement........... 15
Table 5. J2 jumper settings: ZigBit power source ............. 15
Table 6. J3 jumper settings: RS-232/USB selection......... 16
Table 7. RS-232 cable pinout .............................................. 16
Table 8. System requirements............................................. 18
Table 9. COM-port settings for hardware testing................ 21
Table 10. DIP-switch configurations used in WSN Demo .. 26
Table 11. LED indication implied in WSN Demo ................ 26
Table 12. COM-port settings for SerialNet Demo............... 33
Table 13. Bootloader Options.............................................. 35
Table 14. Typical problems and solutions........................... 37
Table 15. The CD contents.................................................. 39
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
1. Introduction
Intended Audience and Purpose
This document is intended for engineers and software developers working with ZigBit
Evaluation Kit. The kit may be used to evaluate the performance and features of the ZigBit
modules and the eZeeNet software.
Safety and Precautions
The product contains electronics, which are electrically sensitive. Please take necessary
precautions when using such devices. MeshNetics does its best to protect the product
components from electrostatic discharge phenomena, but we encourage our users to
follow common guidelines to avoid electrostatics by using proper grounding, etc.
The product follows the FCC (Part 15)/CE rules applicable to the devices radiating in the
uncontrolled environment.
Any modifications of the hardware, its components or improper use of the product can
cause an uncontrolled violation of the in-band or out-band radiation levels. It can result in
progressing violation of emission level limits, thus causing harmful interference.
Please check your local regulations to make sure that the product’s electromagnetic
radiation level specified in this document complies.
Precautions
The product radiates power in the microwave band. Although the levels are considered to
be low (less than 2 mW), it is reasonable to protect the operating personnel from possible
harmful impact of the electromagnetic field. When the parts of the product are turned on,
an operator should avoid touching the PCB antenna and the board itself. The
recommended distance between an operator and antenna should be more than 20
centimeters.
The AC/DC adapters included into the product contain high voltage circuits. General
precautions, like checking the power cord before use if boards are mains powered, should
be taken.
The ZigBit™ Evaluation Kit contains fragile components. Please handle with care.
Related documents
[1]
ZigBit™ OEM Module. Product Datasheet. MeshNetics Doc. M-251~01
[2]
eZeeNet™ IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee Software. Product Datasheet. MeshNetics Doc.
M-251~02
[3]
eZeeNet™ Software 1.6. SerialNet™ Reference Manual. AT-Command Set.
MeshNetics Doc. P-EZN-452~01
[4]
eZeeNet™ Software 1.6. eZeeNet™ API. Reference Manual. MeshNetics Doc.
P-EZN-452~02
[5]
MeshBean2-P p/n WDB-A1281-P1 Rev. 2.0. Schematics. MeshNetics Doc.
P-MB2P-461~01
[6]
ZigBit™ Module. Application Note. ZigBit Power Consumption Testing. MeshNetics
Doc. AN-481~01
[7]
© 2007 MeshNetics
ZigBee Document 053474r08, February 17, 2006
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
[8]
Serial asynchronous automatic dialing and control. ITU-T Recommendation V.250,
05/99
[9]
IEEE Std 802.15.4-2003 IEEE Standard for Information technology – Part 15.4
Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications
for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)
[10]
TSL2550 Ambient Light Sensor With Smbus Interface. TAOS Datasheet
TAOS029E. –February 2006.
http://www.taosinc.com/images/product/document/tsl2550-e67.pdf
[11]
LM73 2.7V, SOT-23, 11-to-14 Bit Digital Temperature Sensor with 2-Wire Interface.
National Semiconductor Corporation Datasheet DS201478. July 2006.
http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM73.html#Datasheet
[12]
CP2102, Single-Chip USB to UART Bridge, Rev. 1.1 9/05, www.silabs.com
[13]
AVR Studio. User Guide.
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2510.pdf.
[14]
JTAGICE mkII User Guide.
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2562.pdf
[15]
avr-libc Reference Manual 1.4.3
[16]
WinAVR User Manual – 20060125/ By Eric B. Weddington.
[17]
Using the GNU Compiler Collection/ By Richard M. Stallman and the GCC
Developer Community.
[18]
8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 64K/128K/256K Bytes in-System Programmable
Flash. ATMEL Preliminary Doc. 2549J-AVR-09/06.
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc2549.pdf
Abbreviations and Acronyms
© 2007 MeshNetics
API
Application Programming Interface
BOM
Bill of Materials
Channel Mask
Channel mask is a number that defines the set of working channels.
Coordinator
Within ZigBee networks, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for
starting the network and for choosing certain key network
parameters. The network may be extended through the use of
ZigBee router.
DIP
Dual In-line Package
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
End-device
In ZigBee networks, the ZigBee end-device provides sensor data
sent to a router and is requesting a router periodically in duty cycle.
End-device is often subjected to power management restrictions, so
it may be in sleeping mode most of the time.
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
GUI
Graphical User Interface
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
© 2007 MeshNetics
HAL
Hardware Abstraction Layer
IDE
Integrated Development Environment
JTAG
Digital interface for debugging of embedded devices, also known as
IEEE 1149.1 standard interface
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LQI
Link Quality Indicator
MAC
Medium Access Control layer
MCU
Microcontroller Unit. In this document, it also means the processor,
which is the core of ZigBit module
MIPS
Million Instructions per Second
NWK
Network layer
PAN ID
Personal Area Network Identifier. In ZigBee, it is 16-bit number which
must be unique for each one of multiple networks working on the
same frequency channel
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
PHY
Physical layer
RF
Radio Frequency
Router
In ZigBee networks, routers transfer data and control messages
through the network using a hierarchical routing strategy. The ZigBee
coordinator is also responsible for routing.
RS-232
Serial binary data interconnection interface, which is commonly used
in computer serial ports
RSSI
Received Signal Strength Indicator
TOS
Open-source operating system TinyOS
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VCP
Virtual Com Port
WSN
Wireless Sensor Network
ZEK
ZigBit Evaluation Kit
ZDK
ZigBit Development Kit
ZigBee
Wireless networking standard targeted at low-power sensor
applications
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
2. Evaluation Kit Overview
ZigBit™ Evaluation Kit (ZEK) is a simple, out-of-the-box solution designed for evaluating
wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It provides evaluation boards based on the ZigBit
module and eZeeNet Software.
ZigBit Evaluation Kit includes:
1.
MeshBean2 board (2 pieces) with ZigBit module and PCB antenna
2.
MeshBean2 board (1 piece) with ZigBit module and dual-chip antenna on ZigBit
3.
AC/DC power adapter (3 pieces) with USA and European connectors
4.
USB cable (3 pieces)
5.
RS-232 cable (2 pieces)
6.
Software & Documentation CD (1 piece).
Figure 1. The Evaluation Kit delivery set
MeshBean2 board is intended for the evaluation of the ZigBit module’s performance. The
ZigBit module with the embedded eZeeNet Software provides the MeshBean2 board’s
wireless connectivity and makes it function as a node in a ZigBee network.
The MeshBean2 board can be configured to operate as a network coordinator, a router or
an end-device, by means of setting DIP-switches (see Section 2.3.2) and/or sending ATcommands. The node’s role is defined by the embedded applications.
The boards are delivered with a ZigBit preprogrammed with the Hardware Test and Serial
Bootloader firmware. For full list of demo applications see Section 2.4.
All the necessary technical documents on the MeshBean2 board (schematic, BOM,
Gerber files, etc.) are available upon request.
2.1. Hardware General Specifications
MeshBean 2 basic parameters are presented in Table 1.
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
Table 1. MeshBean2 Board Specifications
Parameter
Value
RF
Compliance
2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4-2003
Operating Band
2400–2483.5 MHz
TX Output Power
from -17 dBm to +3 dBm
RF Transceiver
AT86RF230-ZU
Antenna
2.4 GHz (PCB on-board antenna or on-chip antenna)
MCU
Microcontroller
ATmega1281V
RAM
8 kBytes
Flash Memory
128 kBytes
EEPROM
4 kBytes
Performance
Up to 4 MIPS throughput at 4 MHz Clock
Power
Power Supply
Dual AA Type Battery, automatically switched to USB or AC/DC
adapter
Over-Voltage
Protection
Yes
Reverse Polarity
Protection
Yes
Operating Voltage
Range
1.8...3.6 V
Voltage Supervisor
Yes
Miscellaneous
Sensors
Digital: Ambient Light/ Ambient Air Temperature
LED Indicators
3 programmable color status LEDs
external power supply status LED
Switches
3 DIP switches
Buttons
2 programmable buttons
Size
60 x 63 x 24 mm
Operating
Temperature Range
-40°C to 85°C. Minor degradation of clock stability may occur
beyond the -20°C to +70°C range.
This User’s Guide contains general information only. Detailed specifications of the ZigBit
module are available in the ZigBit datasheet [1] which contains exhaustive information on
the ZigBit interfaces, voltage levels, power consumption etc.
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
NOTE:
The absolute maximum ratings for the ZigBit module are specified in the ZigBit datasheet
[1]. These are the stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these
conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for the
extended periods may affect device’s reliability.
2.2. MeshBean2 Featured Components
2.2.1. ZigBit Module
ZigBit module is an ultra-compact, low-power, high sensitivity2.4GHz 802.15.4/ZigBee
OEM module from MeshNetics. ZigBit module is based on Atmel’s Z-Link 2.4GHz
platform. It includes ATmega1281V Microcontroller and AT86RF230 RF Transceiver.
In ZEK, it is delivered installed on MeshBean2 board.
Two different versions of ZigBit modules are available [1]: a version with balanced RF port for
applications where the benefits of PCB or external antenna can be utilized, and a version with a
chip antenna satisfying the needs of size-sensitive applications.
2.2.2. Sensors
The board uses light sensor TSL2550T from TAOS (see [10]) and temperature sensor
LM73CIMK (see [11]) from National Semiconductors. Both sensors are connected in
parallel to the I2C bus. For more information on the sensors see their datasheets on the
manufacturers’ corresponding websites www.taosinc.com and www.national.com.
2.2.3. USB-COM Bridge
USB to RS-232 bridge controller CP2102 from Silicon Labs installed on the board
provides seamless USB interface (see [12]). As a result the USB port is visible as generic
COM port with a particular number. The driver set for Windows and other operating
systems can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s website www.silabs.com.
2.3. MeshBean2 Board Design
The MeshBean2 board contains the ZigBit module, which is functioning as
ZigBee/802.15.4 transceiver. It also includes sensors, buttons, DIP-switches, and some
interfaces on the Expansion Connector.
The board includes the following interfaces:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
© 2007 MeshNetics
USB 2.0 port
RS-232 interface
Buffered I2C interface with ESD protection and voltage level translation
Light and temperature sensors
2 push buttons controlling the software
1 reset button
3 DIP switches
3 software-controlled LEDs
Symmetrical dipole PCB antenna (for balanced RF output version of ZigBit only)
JTAG connector for software download and debugging
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
•
•
•
•
•
Power connector (3 V)
20-pin expansion connector to access specific ZigBit’s interfaces
Battery compartment for AA-size batteries
3 configuration jumpers
3 clamps for power consumption measurements.
Also, the board contains an internal voltage regulator to supply most of the components
with 3.6 V. This is needed if ZigBit’s MCU is to be run at 8 MHz.1.
NOTE:
Normally ZigBit module is powered directly by the batteries, USB or AC/DC adapter (via
protection circuitry); however, Jumper J2 (see Table 5) can switch ZigBit to 3.6 V supply.
See Figure 2 for MeshBean2 layout and Figure 3 for the board functional diagram.
ZigBit
module
PCB
Antenna
DIP
switches LEDs
DC
Connector
Light
sensor
JTAG
Connector
Temperature
sensor
Battery
Holder
Button 2,
SW2
USB
Connector
Expansion
Connector
Reset
button
Button 1,
SW1
Figure 2. MeshBean2 with PCB on-board antenna
1
8MHz requires changes in the eZeeNet Software that normally runs at 4 MHz in order to extend the voltage range and
decrease power consumption.
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
Figure 3. MeshBean2 functional diagram
2.3.1. Connectors and Jumpers
The board connector pinouts and jumper settings are presented in Table 2 through
Table 7.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
All manipulations of connectors or jumpers should be done when the board is not
powered!
Table 2. Expansion connector pinout
© 2007 MeshNetics
Pin
Name
I/O
Description
1
UART_RTS
Input
Request to Send Pin. Active Low
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
© 2007 MeshNetics
Pin
Name
I/O
Description
2
UART_TXD
Input
Transmit Data pin (meaning that the host device
will transmit the data to this line).
3
UART_CTS
Output
Clear To Send signal from the module. Active
low
4
UART_RXD
Output
Receive Data pin (meaning that the host device
will receive the data from this line).
5
GND
Digital/analog ground
6
GND
Digital/analog ground
7
I2C_CLK
Input
I2C clock. It is connected to the I2C_CLK pin of
the module via low-voltage level translators. For
details, refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
8
I2C_DATA
Bidirectional
I2C data. It is connected to the I2C_DATA pin of
the module via low-voltage level translators. For
details, refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
9
+3.6V
Output
Output of internal voltage regulator. Normally,
the voltage is 3.6 V.
10
V_XX
Output
ZigBit supply voltage.
11
RESET
Input
Reset pin. Active low. This pin is connected in
parallel to the RESET button on the board.
12
USART_TXD
Output
This is Transmit Data pin for USART0 interface
of the ZigBit module. It is connected directly to
the USART0_TXD pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
13
USART_RXD
Input
This is Receive Data pin for USART0 interface
of the ZigBit module. It is connected directly to
the USART0_RXD pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
14
USART_CLK
Input
This is Clock Data pin for USART0 interface of
the ZigBit module. It is connected directly to the
USART0_EXTCLK pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
15
GND
16
ADC_INPUT1
Input
ADC input. This pin is connected directly to the
ADC_INPUT_1 pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
17
ADC_INPUT2
Input
ADC input. This pin is connected directly to the
ADC_INPUT_2 pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
18
ADC_INPUT3
Input
ADC input. This pin is connected directly to the
ADC_INPUT_3 pin of the module. For details,
refer to ZigBit datasheet [1].
19
GND
Digital/analog ground
20
GND
Digital/analog ground
digital/analog ground
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
GENERAL NOTES:
Pins 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18 are not buffered and driven by the MCU pins directly. Thus this
interface should be used with precautions at the low supply voltages to avoid damaging
the module.
Pins 7 and 8 are connected via voltage level translators with ESD protection. Thus these
pins can be used easily to connect extra I2C sensors without extra logic.
Voltage on the V_XX pin does not depend on the state of jumper J1 and ammeter
connection between clamps CM+, CM-.
Table 3. JTAG connector pinout
Pin
Name
Description
1
JTAG_TCK
Scan clock
2
JTAG_GND
Digital ground
3
JTAG_TDO
Test data output
4
JTAG_VCC
Controller supply voltage
5
JTAG_TMS
Test mode select
6
JTAG_RST
Reset controller; active low
7
N_Cont
Not connected
8
N_Cont
Not connected
9
JTAG_TDI
Test data input
10
JTAG_GND
Digital ground
NOTE:
JTAG header pinout is compatible with ATmega JTAGICE mkII in-circuit emulator
connector.
Table 4. J1 jumper settings: current measurement
Jumper position
Description
J1 is connected
This position is used for normal operation.
J1 is disconnected
In this position, the ZigBit module is not powered
while remaining parts of the board are powered.
This position is used to measure the current
consumption of the ZigBit module (see Section 3.7).
Table 5. J2 jumper settings: ZigBit power source
© 2007 MeshNetics
Jumper position
Description
J2 connects pins POWER and BAT
ZigBit is powered by primary source (battery, USB
or AC/DC adapter)
J2 connects POWER and USB
ZigBit is powered by 3.6 V internal voltage regulator
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
Table 6. J3 jumper settings: RS-232/USB selection
Jumper position
Description
J3 connects central pin and the
RS-232 pin
The board will use RS-232 port (available on the
expansion connector) for connection to the host
J3 connects central pin and the
USB pin
The board will use USB for connection to the host
IMPORTANT NOTES:
Any other position of jumpers J2 and J3 or their omission may cause permanent
damage of the hardware.
Powering the board without J1 jumper and ammeter connection between clamps CM+ and
CM- may cause a permanent damage of the hardware.
Table 7. RS-232 cable pinout
Signal
Expansion connector
RS-232 connector
RXD
4: UART_RXD
2
TXD
2: UART_TXD
3
CTS
3: UART_CTS
8
RTS
1: UART_RTS
7
GND
5, 6, 15, 19, 20: GND
5
2.3.2. Buttons, Switches and LEDs
The board includes 2 buttons, 3 DIP switches, one Reset button that generates hardware
reset signal, 3 software-defined LEDs (green, yellow and red) and one blue LED indicating
powering the board from the USB. Any on-board button, DIP-switch and LED can be
controlled with the application running on the ZigBit.
For instance, the status of any DIP-switch will be ignored when running SerialNet (see
Section 5). DIP switches can be tested when running the Hardware Test application (see
Section 3.6).
2.4. eZeeNet Software
eZeeNet Software from MeshNetics is a robust IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee software that runs
on ZigBit modules and organizes a self-healing, self-organizing mesh network. It is
specifically tailored for easy-to-use networking in sensing, control, monitoring and data
acquisition applications. t provides easy to use networking, with a routing mechanism that
optimizes network traffic and reduces power consumption.
eZeeNet Software offers a user-friendly API for network and smart power management,
including data exchange, network formation/node join, PAN ID management, channel
selection, TX power control etc. The eZeeNet provides a wide range of software interfaces
for standard peripherals of supported hardware modules. The eZeeNet comes with the
Framework layer which eases application development and simplifies integration.
Another configuration of eZeeNet Software, SerialNet, enables the user to develop
customized WSN applications without programming the modules directly or writing any
embedded software (see Section 5).
© 2007 MeshNetics
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
The structure of eZeeNet Software is presented in Figure 4. It is detailed in datasheet [2].
Figure 4. eZeeNet Block Diagram
ZigBit Evaluation Kit contains the following demo applications delivered in binary form:
•
•
•
Hardware Test
WSN Demo
SerialNet application.
The Hardware Test application (see Section 3.6) is a simple application which tests
correct operation of major MeshBean2 board components.
The WSN Demo application is a ZEK feature program demonstrating the WSN
performance, as presented in details in Section 4.
The SerialNet is intended to control the WSN nodes via serial AT-commands (Section 5).
eZeeNet Software lets AT-commands be interpreted locally or forwarded for execution on
remote nodes.
The following sample applications are delivered with source code:
•
•
•
•
•
© 2007 MeshNetics
WSN Demo
Low Power
Ping-Pong
Peer-To-Peer
Blink minimal sample application.
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ZIGBIT™ EVALUATION KIT 1.2 - USER’S GUIDE
3. Getting Started
3.1. Overview
This section provides step-by-step instructions on how to handle the boards, to make initial
testing and reprogram the firmware, to run sample applications and start developing
custom applications using eZeeNet API.
3.2. System Requirements
Before employing the Kit, a user should become aware of the minimum system
requirements (see Table 8).
Table 8. System requirements
Parameter
Value
Note
PC
CPU
Intel Pentium III or higher,
800 MHz
RAM
128 Mbytes
Hard disk free space
50 MBytes
JTAG emulator
JTAGICE mkII emulator
with cable
Needed to download firmware
into the MeshBean2 board
through JTAG (see Appendix B).
It can be acquired from
distributors of this product.
Software
Operating system
Windows2000/XP
USB driver
CP210x USB to UART
Bridge VCP Driver
Needed to connect MeshBean2
to PC via USB port (see Section
3.4).
IDE
AVR Studio 4.12 +
Service Pack + WinAVR
Needed to download firmware
image through JTAG (see
Appendix B).
Serial Bootloader utility
Needed to download firmware
image without using JTAG (see
Appendix B).
WSN Monitor installer
package
Needed to install the WSN
Monitor application (see Section
4.5).
Java machine
© 2007 MeshNetics
Java Runtime
Environment JRE 5.0
Update 8 (version 1.5.0)
Needed to run the WSN Monitor
application (see Section 4.5).
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3.3. PC Software Installation
USB driver fitting different Windows versions can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s
site:
http://www.silabs.com/tgwWebApp/public/web_content/products/Microcontrollers/USB/en/
mcu_vcp.htm.
Install the VCP driver kit from Silicon Laboratories and connect the MeshBean2 board to
the USB port. Windows should detect the new hardware, and driver installation wizard will
appear. Follow the instructions provided. When the process is completed, make sure that
the driver is installed successfully and the new COM port is present in the device list.
Invoke the Device Manager window shown in Figure 5, by commanding:
(Start/Settings/Control Panel/System/Hardware/Device Manager.
To resolve possible problems see Section 3.4.
Figure 5. COM port drivers in the Windows Device Manager window
Running WSN Monitor requires Java machine, version not older than 1.5.0 (build
1.5.0_08-b03). Download Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 5.0 Update 8 from
http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp and follow the upcoming installation
instructions.
After you get Java machine and USB driver on your PC, run the WSN Monitor installer
package from the ZEK Distribution CD (see Appendix A) and follow the instructions. There
may be other Java instances occasionally installed on your computer. To avoid confusion,
edit start.bat file in the directory containing the WSN Monitor to provide full path to the
Java 1.5.0 executable filespecify its file name extension (.exe) explicitly.
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NOTE:
Unlike WSN Monitor, the Serial Bootloader utility (see Section 6) does not require any
special installation. Just copy the program from the ZEK distribution CD to any directory on
your PC.
Current version of the AVR Studio [13] with Service Pack may be freely downloaded from
the Atmel’s website (http://www.atmel.com). Simply launch the downloaded installer
programs and follow set up instructions.
The WinAVR suite of development tools can be downloaded from
http://sourceforge.net/projects/winavr. To install WinAVR just follow the setup instructions.
3.4. Connecting the Board to PC
The board can be connected to the PC via the RS-232 port, usuing serial cable, or via
USB, using USB cable. The connection mode is controlled by setting of jumper J3 (see
Table 6).
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Both ports share the same physical port on the board and cannot be used simultaneously.
You can use serial port to connect the MeshBean2 to both PC and any other unit
supporting RS-232 connectivity. RS-232 cable pinout is presented in Table 7.
USB connection is preferable when portable PCs are used. Batteries are not required
when the board is powered via USB. Yet another advantage of using the USB connection
is possibility to connect several boards to a single PC.
Different applications running on the board may require different settings of the COM port
(the particular settings for the specific cases will be described later in this document).
Using the RS-232 port does not require specific drivers for Windows or other operating
systems. On the contrary, USB connection requires installation of the driver for a specific
USB-COM virtual port (see details in Section 3.3).
IMPORTANT NOTES:
When USB connection is used, the COM-port number could be changed by the Windows
operating system if the board is reconnected. Use Windows Control Panel to check the
actual port number.
Under some circumstances, the boards can conflict with other USB devices already
installed. In such cases, the Windows Device Manager may show a problem occurred
during the plug-and-play procedure or it may not detect the USB-UART bridge controller at
all. Possible solution is to change the USB ID for the board using special utility available
from the USB controller manufacturer. See Section 7 for details.
3.5. Powering the Boards
The boards can be powered by two AA-size batteries, via the USB host port, if connected
that way, or via AC/DC adaptor. The nominal voltage is 3 V. Using AC/DC adaptor
automatically disables AA batteries. Using USB port disables AC/DC adaptor source.
In order to make accurate measurements of sensor parameters, the battery powering is
recommended. USB powering is not stable enough, which can affect transmitting power
level and in other RF parameters.
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IMPORTANT NOTES:
Although the board includes voltage protection circuitry, using AC/DC adaptors other than
those included in the Kit may cause permanent damage of the board.
It is strongly recommended to check the power supply voltage before programming the
boards by Serial Bootloader or by JTAG. Power drops, happened during the programming
process, can result an inoperable state of the ZigBit or its permanent damage.
Using the discharged batteries (when the voltage is below the specified limit) can also
cause damage of flash memory or EEPROM. If that would happen, programming might
fail, if using the Serial Bootloader the only option then would be then to use the JTAG
emulator (see 0).
Using nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries is allowed but with some precautions. Their
cell potential is nominally 1.2 V. Although a pair gives 2.4 V thus fitting the operating
voltage range (see Section 2.1) still it is lower than 3 V which a pair of the most popular
alkaline cells give. Hence, nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries may not be a proper
alternative of the alkaline cells for all applications.
3.6. Testing the Board
Begin evaluation of the network features with testing hardware. Initially, all boards are
preprogrammed with the Hardware Test Application that allows checking the interfaces
installed on the board, excluding RF port. To accomplish the tests, connect the board to
the PC and run standard Hyper Terminal utility which is a part of Windows 2000/XP:
Start/All Programs/ Accessories/ Communications/ Hyper Terminal.
COM-port parameters should be set to the values given in Table 9.
Table 9. COM-port settings for hardware testing
Option
Value
Data Rate
38400 bps
Data Bits
8
Parity
Stop Bits
Flow Control
None
1
None
When the testing software runs normally, all the board LEDs are blinking. Reports are
generated each 5 sec (see Figure 6) including the status of buttons, DIP switches and
sensors. To check hardware, you can perform simple manipulations with the board: press
the buttons, move the DIP-switches, screen the light sensor with your palm, touch the
temperature sensor with your finger and so on. You should see the changes in
parameters reported by Hyper Terminal window (see Figure 6).
NOTE:
During the operation, if you reconnect the board to USB or power the board off, the
operating system may arbitrarily change the port number for this particular USB
connection. Hyper Terminal does not recognize such changes. If this happened, you have
to reconnect Hyper Terminal to the proper port. Simply select File/New Connection
menu item and repeat the same procedure that you were doing at the beginning.
Hardware Test Application is delivered in image files (see Appendix A) and can be
downloaded to a board anytime.
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Figure 6. Hardware test report
3.7. Measuring Power Consumption
The board allows the ZigBit module’s power consumption measurement. To perform the
measurements, simply connect ammeter to the clamps CM+ and CM- and remove jumper
J1. Make sure that the board is powered by batteries only. However, such measurements
would not be absolutely correct, because power is consumed by the interfaces and the
peripherals connected to the ZigBit. To make the measurements correctly, all interfaces
excluding RF ports should be disconnected from ZigBit module. Refer to the Application
note [6] for details.
3.8. Antenna Precautions
Each type of antenna: PCB antenna and dual-chip antenna – ,were matched and tuned,
taking into account all the components adjacent to the antenna, including the ZigBit
module shield, battery compartment and plastic legs. Any object placed in close proximity
to the antenna can affect its performance. Do not put the module into enclosure. Do not
mount the board on metal surface. Do not use metal screws longer than 5 mm to fasten
the board on legs. These factors may affect the performance.
Mount plastic legs from the bottom side only (where the battery compartment is located).
Use plastic screws to fasten the legs. Do not use the legs made of different plastic
material. Omitting the plastic legs may significantly affect the antenna performance.
The pattern of antenna is wide. In far field zone, electromagnetic radiation appears
stronger in horizontal plane in the direction normal to the dipoles. But the pattern is more
complex at the distances of several centimeters. This fact should be taken into account in
hardware testing, in WSN evaluation and application development. An approximate field
pattern is given in the ZigBit datasheet [1].
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4. WSN Demo Application
4.1. Overview
The networking performance of ZigBit platform is demonstrated with the WSN Demo
application which is based on the eZeeNet Software API. This application comprises
embedded firmware, supporting functions for coordinator, router and end device, and the
GUI part – the WSN Monitor which is run on PC.
Thanks to the WSN Demo application embedded, the MeshBean2 boards are organized
into a set of nodes constituting a wireless network. In duty circle, end devices and routers
update the on-board sensor readings and send them in packets to coordinator. That data
is displayed on WSN Monitor panes as temperature, light and battery level
measurements.
End device is mostly sleeping, consuming very low power, and it wakes up shortly for
activities each 10 seconds. During the sleep period, you can force end device for waking
up by pressing the SW1 button.
Router sends data each 1 second. The coordinator transmits the received packets, along
with its own sensor data, to the GUI application (WSN Monitor), using UART.
The network size is not limited by WSN Demo. In real time, WSN Monitor visualizes the
network topology in a tree form. It also displays the node parameters like addresses, node
sensor information and node link quality data.
Measured in dBm, RSSI indicates link’s current condition. With the resolution not better
than 3 dBm, this is not a very accurate measurement. LQI is a certain numeric value
defined within the 0...255 range to measure the link quality. Larger values mean better
link, while values close to zero indicate poor condition.
Using WSN Monitor controls you can change the network channel mask, node timeouts
and you can reset any node remotely.
NOTES:
The WSN Demo is extended to support both ZigBit and other platform devices [2].
Heterogeneous configurations can be implemented. For instance, a set of AVR
RZ502/STK500/STK501 modules, RCBs from Atmel and MeshNetics’ Meshbean2 boards
can operate as a single WSN. The connected PC with WSN Monitor will visualize the
network information.
You can run the WSN Demo without connecting to PC. The LEDs of a board indicate the
board current state and activities.
In regard to the WSN Demo, using the boards is described in Section 4.3. GUI is
described in Section 4.5. Operation instructions are given in Section 4.6.
The application source code is delivered with the ZigBit Development Kit.
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4.2. Programming the Boards
All the boards can be programmed in two ways: either you can use Serial Bootloader utility
(see Section 4.2.1) or you can do it under AVR Studio, using JTAG emulator. For
instance, JTAGICE mkII from Atmel [14]2 (see Section 4.2.2) is employed.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Be careful in making choice for programming the node. Each one of MeshBean2 boards
come with the bootstrap downloaded into the MCU, which is needed to run Serial
Bootloader. If JTAG has been used, it will make impossible using Serial Bootloader,
unless bootstrap is reloaded to the board.
To get interconnected in WSN network each node should be identified with a unique MAC
address. Once MAC address is not defined by hardware, the node addressing ID should
be programmed. Programming a MeshBean2 board with MAC address can be performed
in two alternative ways.
MAC address can be downloaded to a board by means of Serial Bootloader running with
the key specified within command line (see Section 6).
Otherwise, MAC address can be programmed using SerialNet AT-commands, as
described in [3].
4.2.1. Using Serial Bootloader
To program a board using Serial Bootloader do the following steps:
1.
Connect the board to the PC via USB or RS-232 port depending on the setting of
jumper J3 (see Table 6).
2.
Run Serial Bootloader specifying the image file, COM port and the optional keys in
command line (see Section 6).
3.
Press reset button on the board.
4.
Release reset button on the board. Serial Bootloader waits for approximately 30
seconds for the button to be released. If this does not happen, the booting process
will stop.
NOTE:
If a node has been configured as end-device and it is currently controlled by the running
application, the node should be powered off before reprogramming.
Make sure that J3 setting on the board corresponds to the actual RS-232/USB connection
type.
Serial Bootloader indicates the operation progress. Once loading is finished successfully,
the board will restart automatically. If loading fails, Serial Bootloader will indicate the
reason. In the rare cases, booting process can fail due to the communication errors
between the board and the PC. If this happened, try to repeat booting or try to use normal
RS-232 port instead of USB. If booting fails, the previous program written to the board can
be corrupted, but the board can be reprogrammed again.
2
Another JTAG programmer may be also used but it should be compatible with the Atmel 1281 MCU.
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4.2.2. Using JTAG
In programming the board using JTAG, link JTAG emulator together with the MeshBean
on-board JTAG connector (see Figure 2). Start downloading process following the
instructions from [13] and [14].
Check ON the following options in Fuses Tab before downloading the images through
JTAG:
Brown-out detection disabled; [BODLEVEL=111]
JTAG Interface Enabled; [JTAGEN=0]
Serial program downloading (SPI) enabled; [SPIEN=0]
Boot Flash section size=1024 words Boot start
address=$FE00;[BOOTSZ=10]
Divide clock by 8 internally; [CKDIV8=0]
Int. RC Osc.; Start-up time: 6 CK + 65 ms; [CKSEL=0010
SUT=01]
Uncheck the rest of options. Make sure the following hex value string appears at the
bottom of Fuses Tab: 0xFF, 0x9D, 0x62.
Additionally check ON the following option if the nodes will be programmed with Serial
Bootloder:
Boot Reset vector Enabled (default address=$0000);
[BOOTRST=0]
Make sure the following hex value string appears at the bottom of Fuses Tab:
0xFF, 0x9C, 0x62.
By default, each board (MCU) comes programmed with the fuse bit latter option above
enabled.
4.3. Using the Boards
At node startup, current channel mask is regularly read from EEPROM. If channel mask
was previously loaded to EEPROM using Serial Bootloader, then no special actions
described below is needed before starting WSN Demo. Nevertheless, if you need to load
channel mask to EEPROM from flash (from an image file) then initializing the node for the
first time must be performed as follows.
Press and hold the SW1 onboard button first (see Figure 2). Turn power on the board with
holding the button pressed for at least 1 second. The LED1 will get flashing 3 times. Next,
LED1, LED2 and LED3 will start blinking for 2 sec to indicate the acceptance of channel
mask in EEPROM.
NOTE:
With the above operation completed, the channel mask preloaded to EEPROM will be
lost.
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Starting the WSN Demo, do the following:
1.
Configure one single node as a coordinator, and the others as routers/end-devices
(see Table 10)
2.
Connect the coordinator node to the PC using USB port on the coordinator board
3.
Power on the coordinator node
4.
Run WSN Montitor (see Section 4.6.1)
5.
Power on and reset the rest of the nodes.
NOTE:
When running WSN Demo, channel mask can be changed anytime later with sending the
command from the WSN Monitor (see Section 4.6.4). Issued recently from WSN Monitor
and received on a node, channel mask is permanently stored in its EEPROM after getting
power on and off. To restore the default channel mask in EEPROM repeat a node
reinitializing procedure described above in this section.
Table 10. DIP-switch configurations used in WSN Demo
DIP-switches
Description
1
2
3
ON
ON
X
Board is configured to be a coordinator.
ON
OFF
X
Board is configured to be a router.
OFF
OFF
X
Board is configured to be an end-device.
Coordinator organizes the wireless network automatically. Upon starting, any node
informs the network on its role. At that moment LED1, LED2 and LED3 are flashing once
on router, they are flashing twice on end device and they are flashing three times on
coordinator.
After joining the network, a node starts sending data to the coordinator which is indicated
by LEDs.
WSN activity is observed in two ways:
•
•
controlling the on-board LEDs (see LED indication described in Table 11)
controlling the network information through the WSN Monitor installed on PC.
Table 11. LED indication implied in WSN Demo
LED state
Node State
Network searching
LED1 (Red)
LED2(Yellow)
OFF
OFF
Having joined to network
blinking
ON
Message receiving
flashing
ON
Message transmitting
flashing
Changing channel mask
blinking
blinking
blinking
OFF
OFF
OFF
Sleeping (for end device only)
© 2007 MeshNetics
LED3(Green)
ON
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LED state
Role indication (at startup)
All LEDs are flashing once on router, twice on
end device and three times on coordinator
Idle (invalid DIP switch configuration)
MAC address missed
ON
ON
If you turn on the power on the coordinator, it will switch to the active state, even if no child
nodes are present. This is normal, it means that the coordinator is ready and child nodes
can join the network with coordinator’s PAN ID.
By default, coordinator uses predefined PAN ID valued as D162, which is recognized by
all routers. Changing PAN ID is not allowed.
NOTES:
The predefined value of D162 originates from eZeeNet version V. 1.6; it is supposed to
change with next versions of eZeeNet.
If coordinator is not present or it is not turned on, the routers will stay in the network search
mode. In this mode, routers scan the selected frequency channels continuously to search
for a network with the selected PAN ID.
In rare cases, if radio channel is busy on the selected frequency channels the coordinator
node will stay in the network searching mode. If this happened, you should change the
channel in changing channel mask, using WSN Monitor.
4.4. Sensors Data and Battery Level Indication
Each board measures temperature, light and its own battery level; they send the data
values to the coordinator and, further to the PC. The WSN Monitor application displays the
values next to a node icon along with presenting them in graphs (see Section 4.5).
The temperature sensor measures ambient temperature. The sensor’s actual resolution is
actually better than 1 degree, but the sensor data is depicted in the WSN Monitor charts
with 1 degree resolution.
Light sensor measures ambient illumination in Lux.
Typical accuracy of the battery voltage indicator is about 0.1 V, which is enough for most
applications and self-monitoring tasks.
NOTES:
In case of the board is powered via USB port, the battery level can be shown improperly.
Typically, it shows 0.6 V due to the power protection circuitry. However, if batteries are
installed into the battery compartment, when the board is connected to the USB the
battery level indication will be correct.
In case of the board is powered via USB port, the heating voltage regulator, which is
located next to the temperature sensor, can distort the sensor readings. Use batterypowered boards for more accurate measurements.
4.5. WSN Monitor
WSN Monitor is a PC-based GUI application for WSN Demo that serves to display WSN
topology and other information about WSN network. See WSN Monitor screen in Figure 7.
It contains the Network Topology Pane, Sensor Data Graph Pane, Node Data Table Pane
and Toolbars.
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In real time, Network Topology Pane displays the network tree. That helps to control the
network formation and evolution while the nodes join, send data or leave. The Network
Topology pane updates automatically while the network nodes are discovered and joined
through coordinator. The nodes which are denoted with their names are presented in
icons with the node data tips. The nodes are organized into a tree once interconnected via
parent/child links tipped with RSSI and LQI values.
Node Data Pane displays node sensor data (see Section 4.4). It is presented in graphs
and in table. There are other parameters for each node which are presented in table.
Node Data Pane includes a pull-down Sensor Selection menu to display a particular
sensor data.
Use text menu upside and toolbars controlling visualization.
Figure 7. WSN Monitor GUI
Node names are contained in the node titling file. By default, it is located at "C:\Program
Files\Meshnetics\WSN Monitor\resources\configuration\NodeNames.txt”. Nevertheless,
the root directory of the program can be set up during installation.
This file has the following format. It is headed by the string “-- NodeNames --”, which is
followed by the list in lines each containing 64-bit MAC address and the node name. For
example, see Figure 8. If “NodeNames.txt” file is not found or its format is not recognized,
the WSN Monitor will designate its own names.
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Figure 8. Example of file containing the node titles
4.6. Operating the WSN Demo
4.6.1. Starting WSN Demo on MeshBean2 nodes
First, connect the coordinator node to the USB or RS-232 port, according to the J3 jumper
setting (see Table 6). Then run the WSN Monitor application. At start up, WSN monitor will
attempt using the default COM port to connect to the coordinator. The WSN Monitor
screen pops up but the coordinator node icon will not yet appear on the Topology Pane
yet (see Figure 7). You have to set a proper COM port via Tools/Settings menu (see
Figure 9). Restart the program if the icon does not appear.
4.6.2. Setting up node timeouts
The Tools/Settings menu contains several parameters. The timeouts are used to
setup the visualization for coordinator, routers and end devices considering them having
disappeared from the network due to link drop, power down, or reset. A node timeout
means the awaiting time during which the WSN Monitor is expecting to receive data
packet from that node, updating the Topology tree. To get it smooth for changes in
topology picture, setting timeouts to 3 sec is recommended for coordinator and router and
that to 30 sec for end device. Those timeouts cover 3 periods between packet sending.
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Figure 9. WSN Monitor Tools/Settings menu
4.6.3. Node Reset
A node can be reset by means of the WSN Monitor using the Tools/Send Command
menu (see Figure 10). Node can be either identified by its MAC address or be selected
from the list of the nodes which are currently present in the Topology Pane.
Figure 10. Resetting the node
4.6.4. Changing Frequency Channels
The network operation is supported on 16 upper channels in 2.4 GHz band, with the
numbers of 11(0x0B) through 26(0x1A). Use Tools/Send Command dialog box to
set channel mask. By default, current channel mask is displayed there (see Figure 10).
Enter mask directly in hex format or click “...” button.
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NOTE:
Channel mask is a bitfield which defines the channels available. The 5 most significant bits
(b27,... , b31) of channel mask should be set to 0. The rest 27 least significant bits
(b0, b1,... b26) indicate availability status for each of the 27 valid channels
(1=available, 0=unavailable).
Figure 11. Setting channel mask dialog box
Otherwise you can open another dialog box by clicking the “…” button. Use checkboxes to
select the channels thus setting some of them ON (see Figure 12).
Figure 12. Setting the channel mask using checkboxes
When changing channel mask, coordinator sends the command to all of the nodes and
waits for 1 minute more after having received the last packet using old channel mask.
Next, coordinator forms the network on the new channel.
When channel mask command is being accepted by router or end device the node stops
sending packets for 1 minute and starts blinking the LED1, LED2 and LED3. Next, it leaves
the network and proceeds joining using new channel mask.
When router is rejoining, the network indication LED, LED3, is blinking. Upon joining,
LED3 is ON.
When end device is rejoining, the network indication LED, LED3, is blinking. Upon joining,
LED3 turns ON. LED1 flashes shortly to indicate sending a packet, LED1 flashes shortly to
indicate having received acknowledgement. Next, all LEDs turn OFF when end device is
falling to sleep.
When channel mask is being changed, the topology screen may not display real topology
tree. After changing channel mask, the network topology tree is actualized.
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4.6.5. Visualization of the Sensor Data
To help monitoring the network structure and the status of a particular node in real time
the network topology is visualized on the Topology Pane (see Figure 7). Visualization
helps to control the network formation and evolution while the nodes join, send data or
leave. The Network Topology pane updates automatically during the network nodes have
been discovered and joined through coordinator.
Having the topology diagram and using the GUI controls, user can select any node to
monitor the node activity and see the node data in three different forms:
•
•
•
Text table
Chart
Sensor data values on the Topology Diagram . These have arrows next to them
indicating relative increase or decrease.
Topology Pane displaces temperature and light sensor readings as well as battery level
for each selected node (marked by dashed line). Also, these data values are shown on the
Sensor Data Graph Pane. You can easily check how they change over time.
The Sensor Data Graph Pane includes a pull-down Sensor Selection menu for sensor
data to display. Use the button on the Sensor Control Toolbar to display the desired types
of sensor data.
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5. SerialNet
SerialNet is a configuration of eZeeNet Software which allows control over the most of the
ZigBit/eZeeNet functionality through any communication interface using standardized
Hayes-like AT-command set.
The commands come from RS-232/USB interface in simple text form, and the language
principles are described in ITU-T V.250 recommendation (see [8]).
NOTES:
Strictly, the SerialNet is an application developed “on top” of eZeeNet API.
Before running SerialNet application make sure that the corresponding image file is
downloaded to each of the node’s board correspondingly (see Appendix A).
See the set of supported AT-commands, syntax and detailed description of each one in
the Reference Manual [3]. Chapter “Examples” of that document shows how to use the
commands for doing the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
to control LED and DIP switches
to create a network (set the node roles and addresses)
to transmit data between the nodes
to manage PAN ID and frequency channels
to forward commands for remote execution
to control end-device power consumption.
Thanks to flexibility of AT-commands, you can create your own scenarios of
communications that reflect your particular applications and needs. The examples will
provide you with a good toolset for your network evaluation.
A variety of terminal programs provide capability to write AT-commands scripts and to
analyze the responses from a board. This extends your capability of remote control over
MeshBean2 boards. For example, you can simulate the sensor readings that should be
sent periodically to the coordinator node, or implement other scenarios.
Before running the application, check the connection between the board and the PC and
set in the terminal software (see Table 12) the following parameters of the COM-port.
Table 12. COM-port settings for SerialNet Demo
Option
Value
Data Rate
38400 bps
Data Bits
8
Parity
Stop Bits
Flow Control
None
1
none
To run SerialNet application, download the corresponding image file (see Table 15) into
the boards. Follow step-by-step instructions from the Examples Section of the document
[3]. Use AT-command samples to control your network conditions and to manage data
transmission.
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NOTE:
The +IFC command and the +IPR command change the rate and flow control
parameters of RS-232/USB port. If any of these commands are used, the COM-port
settings on the terminal program running on the PC should be changed appropriately.
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6. Serial Bootloader
Serial Bootloader allows downloading an image file into the board using USB/RS-232
connection. Serial Bootloader is controlled by the command-line options. Usage:
bootloader –p port_number –f file_name [-b baud_rate] [-h]
[-s bootstrap_size] [-M MAC address] [-C Channel mask]
[P PANID]
Table 13. Bootloader Options
Option
Description
Default value
-p port
COM port
-f file_name
Name of Motorola SREC file
-b baud_rate
Baud rate in bits per second
(1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400,
57600, 115200)
38400
-h
Hardware flow control, if used
None
-s size
The size of bootstrap code in words
(512, 1024, 2048, 4096)
1024
-M MAC
MAC address in HEX format to be assigned
to the node
-C channel mask
Channel mask in HEX format to be assigned
to the network
-P PANID
PANID in HEX format to be assigned to the
network
Example for using Serial Bootloader:
bootloader –f wsndemo.srec –p COM5 –M 1 –C 100000 –P 5320
The above command demonstrates loading the WSN Demo image into the node
connected to PC through COM5, with assigning the following parameters:
MAC address = 0x1
Channel mask = 0x100000
PANID = 0x5320.
Serial Bootloader can be used apart of downloading any image. The following command
Bootloader –p COM5 –M 2 –C 100000 –P 5320
is intended to assign to a node the parameters below:
MAC address = 0x2
Channel mask = 0x100000
PANID = 0x5320.
Baud rate, flow control modes, the bootstrap code size are set for a node to the default
values (see Table 13) if the corresponding options are omitted in command line.
Serial Bootloader recognizes image files in Motorola hexadecimal format, also known as
SREC format. Such file names have the .srec extension. Motorola SREC files for Serial
Bootloader contain both flash memory and EEPROM images. A user’s application
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developed with AVR Studio can be converted into the SREC format using the AVRobjcopy utility so it becomes downloadable via serial booting process.
IMPORTANT NOTES:
Serial Bootloader is designed so that if any of -M, -C or -P options is specified in
command line, it overrides the corresponding parameter which was recently stored in
EEPROM. Furthermore, the relevant value(s) which was set inside the downloaded image
file will be ignored.
Without the –f option explicitly used, i.e. without any image file download, applying any
other option in command line can be used to change the node EEPROM settings with no
interference to the application code downloaded before.
There are some minor limitations to the software downloaded via serial booting process.
Serial Bootloader cannot rewrite the upper 2 kBytes of memory starting from the address
0xFC00, because this part of memory is used by special bootstrap code.
The bootstrap code residing in the MCU is an own part of the eZeeNet software
supporting communication with the Serial Bootloader. Normally, it should not get disabled.
However, due to the nature of booting protocol, bootstrap code delays the software reset
process for approximately 500 msec. If it is not acceptable, the serial bootloading feature
can be disabled by reprogramming the corresponding fuse bits [18], using JTAG emulator
(see Section 4.2.2).
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7. Troubleshooting
In case of any operational problem with your system please check the power first, and
make sure that all of your equipment is properly connected.
Check if your PC conforms to the minimum system requirements (see Section 3.2). Check
if the PC interfaces (COM, USB) are present and drivers are installed.
Check on LED indication of a node if it is not responding or behaving unusually. Make
sure the DIP switches are set according to the application running on the board.
You can retest the particular node as described in Section 3.6, if needed.
You may be required to reset the node.
The following list represents some typical problems that you may encounter while working
with the Evaluation Kit and possible solutions.
Table 14. Typical problems and solutions
Problem
Solution
The board does not
indicate its activity with
LEDs.
Make sure that either WSN Demo image or Hardware Test
image is loaded. For SerialNet, the LED status is controlled
by AT-commands.
In effort to connect several
boards to the same PC
their detection fails due to
ID recognition conflict.
Detect ID for any single connected board using the
USBView.exe utility from Silicon Laboratories which can be
downloaded from
http://www.silabs.com/tgwWebApp/public/web_content/produ
cts/Microcontrollers/USB/en/USBXpress.htm. You can use
the CP210xSetIDs.exe utility from Silicon Laboratories
which is included in AN144SW. It is described at
http://www.silabs.com/public/documents/tpub_doc/anote/Micr
ocontrollers/Interface/en/an144.pdf and can be downloaded
from
http://www.silabs.com/public/documents/software_doc/others
oftware/Microcontrollers/Interface/en/an144sw.zip.
WSN Monitor fails to start.
Locate the executable file for Java installed in your system.
Next, locate the directory containing the WSN Monitor
application installed. Edit the start.bat command file
there. Specify full path to the located Java executable file in
the default command line and its file name extension. Then
save the command file edited. With these instructions
performed, WSN Monitor should start correctly.
See sample command line below:
C:\jre1.5\ bin\java.exe -classpath
.;lib\junit.jar;lib\log4j-1.3.jar;lib\jgraph
.jar;lib\comm.jar -Xmx200m
com.meshnetics.controller.MainClass
© 2007 MeshNetics
No node is shown on the
Topology Pane in the
WSN Monitor
Check if the WSN Monitor uses proper COM port and if not,
change it and restart the program.
WSN Monitor shows NO
DATA in the Sensor Data
Graph Pane.
No node is selected. Select the required node by mouseclicking on it.
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Problem
Solution
Node titles displayed on
the Topology Pane do not
show node destinations.
The displayed titles do not necessarily relate to the node
functions but they can be redefined by user anytime. These
names are stored in the node title file (see Section 4.5) along
with MAC addresses mapped to the nodes.
At WSN Monitor startup, all
node’s LEDs are blinking,
or none of them is flashing.
The WSN Demo application was not downloaded into the
node. Load this application to the node.
Neither Serial Bootloader
nor another application
work with a node, except
for the Hardware Test.
Make sure that J3 setting on the board corresponds to the
actual RS-232/USB connection type.
Make sure the microcontroller flash memory was not erased
before, and the bootstrap was not lost there after having the
node programmed through JTAG.
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Appendices
Appendix A. Distribution CD File Structure
Table 15. The CD contents
Directory/File
Description
Readme.html
Installation instructions
and quick start guide
./Documentation
Documentation
./Information
Datasheets and
application notes
./Bootloader/Bootloader.exe
Serial Bootloader
executable file
./Test/HardwareTest.srec
./Test/HardwareTest.hex
Hardware Test image files
./Demo/WSN/WSNDemo.srec
./Demo/WSN/WSNDemo.hex
WSN Demo image files
./Demo/WSN/WSNMonitorSetup.exe
WSN Monitor Installer
./Demo/SerialNet/SerialNet.srec
./Demo/SerialNet/SerialNet.hex
SerialNet image files
Appendix B. Using JTAG emulator
Programming with JTAG gives more flexibility in managing the loading process, but
requires special hardware. For Windows environment we recommend using the AVR
Studio 4.12 + Service Pack. AVaRICE 2.40 may be used for Linux. In both cases, the
recommended JTAG emulator is JTAGICE mkII from Atmel. Other programming devices
can be utilized as well, but make sure that the particular model supports programming an
Atmega1281 MCU before use.
Motorola HEX files for Serial Bootloader contain both flash memory and EEPROM
images. AVR Studio does not support downloads of such combined files into the MCU.
Instead, it requires separate images for flash memory and EEPROM, and it recognizes
files in the Intel HEX format only. This is the reason why we also deliver 2 separate image
files in the Intel HEX format that are downloadable by AVR Studio or other JTAG tools.
Both files have the same names but different extensions. EEPROM image has .eep
extension while flash image has .hex extension. To download the firmware, follow the
instructions from the device manufacturer’s manuals [13], [14], [15]. Sample pop-up
window is shown on Figure 13.
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Figure 13. AVR Studio dialog box for JTAG firmware downloading
The well-known command line utility avrdude, which is a part of WinAVR environment
(http://sourceforge.net/projects/winavr) can be used for download as well. This utility
recognizes both Intel HEX and Motorola HEX formats.
IMPORTANT NOTES:
To avoid accidental corruption of the bootstrap code that supports serial booting and
provides normal operation of the eZeeNet Software, it is recommended to avoid erasing
device and changing any fuse bit or any lock bit.
For JTAG programming, the Boot Reset vector should be disabled. To enable serial
booting this fuse bit should be enabled. Do not change the other fuse bits.
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