My Guide to Total Knee Joint Replacement

My Guide to Total Knee Joint Replacement
My Guide to
Total Knee Joint
Replacement
NS8401-8293 (Rev. 2013/04/25)
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The following people are acknowledged
for their contributions to the development
and revision of this guide:
Mary Helen Adams, Physiotherapy
Barbara Berg Troyer, Nursing
Dr. R.B. Bourne, Orthopaedic Surgeon
Hazel Celestino, Clinical Educator Orthopaedics
Laurie Flodrowski, Occupational Therapy
Bob Harris, Nurse Practitioner
Dr. J. Howard, Orthopaedic Surgeon
Donna Kalman, Manager Orthopaedics
Dr. S. MacDonald, Orthopaedic Surgeon
Lina Martins, Nurse Educator
George Moogk, Graphic Artist
Allan Murray, Physiotherapy
Steve Newman, Nursing
Tia DiPasquale, Occupational Therapy
Ravi Rastogi, Clinical Specialist, Physiotherapy
Sylvia Simon, Coordinator Orthopaedics
Michelle Smart, Physiotherapy
Cheryl Talbot, Nurse Practitioner
Marg Vaz, Clinical Specialist, Physiotherapy
Pathway to Recovery: My Guide to Total Knee Joint Replacement published by
Copyright 2002
(Revised 2013)
No part of Pathway to Recovery: My Guide to Total Knee Joint Replacement
may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from
London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada
Exception: Organizations that have purchased the Guide have permission to
reproduce parts of the Guide for internal use only.
ISBN 0-9690619-9-4
Additional copies may be purchased from
The office of the Director of Surgery
339 Windermere Road, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5A5
Telephone 519-685-8500 ext. 76770
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INTRODUCTION
Research shows that people who are well prepared and fully participate in their care have a
smoother and faster recovery after joint replacement surgery.
This guide will give you and your family information about your total knee joint replacement. It
is divided into five sections:
Section 1:
General Information About Your Knee and Total Knee Joint Replacement
Section 2:
What to Expect Before and After Surgery
Section 3:
Things to Remember at Home
Section 4:
Exercises Following Total Knee Joint Replacement
Section 5:
Final Remarks
Please read this guide and write down any questions you may have
in the spaces provided. Please remember to bring this guide with
you for your hospital stay and follow-up visits.
Important: If your surgeon or health care team gives you different advice
than what has been provided in this booklet, please follow the
individualized directions you receive.
For the most current information on Total Knee Joint Replacement,
please visit the web-site at
http://www.lhsc.on.ca/jointreplacement
INTRODUCTION
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Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................
i
Section 1: General Information About Your Knee and Total Knee Joint Replacement
- Structure of the Knee Joint.............................................................................
- Function of the Knee Joint .............................................................................
- Knee Pain .......................................................................................................
- What is a Total Knee Joint Replacement (Arthroplasty)?...............................
- Why Have a Total Knee Joint Replacement?.................................................
- Risks and Benefits of Total Knee Joint Replacement ....................................
- What Happens in Surgery? ............................................................................
- How Long Will I Be in Hospital? .....................................................................
- What is a Revision Total Knee Replacement? ...............................................
- What Results Can I Expect? ..........................................................................
- Risks and Benefits of Revision Total Knee Replacement ..............................
- What Happens After Revision Knee Surgery? ...............................................
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2
3
3
4
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5
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6
Section 2: What to Expect Before and After Surgery
- My Pre-Admission Clinic Visit.........................................................................
- Day Before Surgery........................................................................................
- Day of Surgery ...............................................................................................
- Arriving at the Hospital ...................................................................................
- Surgical Preparation Area .............................................................................
- Operating Room .............................................................................................
- Post-Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU).................................................................
- Day of Surgery - Post-Operative ....................................................................
- First Day After Surgery - Post-Operative Day 1 .............................................
- Second Day After Surgery - Post-Operative Day 2........................................
- Third Day After Surgery - Post-Operative Day 3............................................
- Using Crutches ...............................................................................................
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Section 3: Things to Remember at Home
- At Home (checklist) ........................................................................................ 15
- Problems to Watch for When at Home........................................................... 15
- Prevention of Edema (Swelling) ..................................................................... 16
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Section 3: Things to Remember at Home (continued)
- Prevention of Constipation .............................................................................
- Care of Your Incision at Home .......................................................................
- Safety Proofing Your Home ...........................................................................
- Return Visits ...................................................................................................
- Further Return Visits.......................................................................................
- Long Term Care of Your Knee........................................................................
16
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Section 4: Exercises Following Total Knee Joint Replacement
- Exercises Following Total Knee Joint Replacement.......................................
19
- Guidelines For Your Physiotherapy
- Icing...........................................................................................................
20
- Ambulation ................................................................................................
20
- Range of Motion........................................................................................
20
- Exercises in BED............................................................................................
21
- Exercises SITTING.........................................................................................
23
- Stage II Exercise Program.............................................................................. 24-28
Section 5: Final Remarks
- Telephone Directory........................................................................................
- Supporting Our Program ................................................................................
- Joint Replacement Surgery Patient Checklist ................................................
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SECTION 1
General
Information
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GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR KNEE
AND TOTAL KNEE JOINT REPLACEMENT
Structure of the Knee Joint
• The knee joint (Figure 1) is the largest joint in the body.
• The knee joint is made up of the kneecap (patella), the thigh (femur) and shin (tibia) bones
of the leg.
• Articular cartilage is a smooth elastic tissue that covers and cushions the surfaces of these
bones and allows them to move smoothly.
• Menisci are "pads" of cartilage found between the thigh and the shin bones that act as
"shock absorbers" to protect the bone surfaces.
• Ligaments give support to the knee in all directions.
• Muscles move the bones of the leg and provide strength.
• The knee moves like a hinge.
Figure 1 - Structure of the Knee Joint
FEMUR
PATELLA
(Kneecap)
MENISCI
TIBIA
FIBULA
Function of the Knee Joint
The knee joint allows your leg to:
•
•
straighten (extend)
bend (flex)
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Knee Pain
Arthritis is a common age-related disease leading to knee pain.
The knee becomes painful when:
• cartilage is destroyed
• irregular bone surfaces appear
• muscles weaken and the joint becomes stiff
• swelling occurs in the knee
These changes in the knee joint often result in:
• pain, especially when walking
• swelling, stiffness and deformity
• grinding sensation when bending
• "favoring" the knee and loss of movement
• instability in the knee/leg
• limp
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What is a Total Knee Joint
Replacement (Arthroplasty)?
It is the resurfacing of the bone surfaces in your knee joint with a low friction metal and plastic
spacer. The artificial joint is made up of:
• metal which wraps around the bottom of your thigh bone (femoral component)
• metal or plastic which resurfaces the top of your shin bone (tibial component)
• plastic which resurfaces the underside of your kneecap (patellar component)
• plastic liner on top of the metal tibial component (plastic spacer)
Figure 2 - Total Knee Joint Replacement
PATELLAR
COMPONENT/
BUTTON
FEMORAL
COMPONENT
PLASTIC SPACER
METAL
TIBIAL
COMPONENT
Why Have a Total
Knee Joint Replacement?
• to end or reduce your pain, stiffness and deformity
• to improve your knee movement and stability
• to improve your quality of life
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Risks and Benefits of Total Knee Joint Replacement
With your decision to proceed with total knee joint replacement, you will have already
discussed the benefits and risks of this surgery with your surgeon. To date, over six million
knee joint replacements have been performed worldwide. They have proven to be extremely
durable. Ninety to ninety-five percent success rates at ten to twenty year check-ups are
common.
As with any operation, total knee joint replacement has a number of potential but uncommon risks.
These include:
• Anesthetic complication
• Medical complication
• Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (blood clot in legs or lungs)
• Death (0.7%)
• Infection (approximately 0.5%)
• Slow healing
• Technical complication (i.e. damage to skin, muscle, bone, nerve or blood vessel)
• Post-operative stiffness
• Post-operative pain
• Late wear or loosening of the implant needing revision (between 0.5 and 1% per year)
• Limp
Your surgeon will review these with you before your surgery and answer any of your questions.
What Happens in Surgery?
Your knee surgery will take about two hours. The surgeon:
• removes damaged bone from your knee joint
• selects and fits your new joint according to your individual size
• may use surgical bone cement to anchor your new knee to the bone
How Long Will I Be in Hospital?
The goal for our patients is to be able to go home 2 days after a total knee joint replacement
and 3 to 4 days after a revision total knee replacement.
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Revision Total Knee Joint Replacement
What is a Revision Total Knee Replacement?
In patients over age 60 years, it is hoped that a total knee replacement will last the lifetime of
the patient. Occasionally, implants fail for a variety of reasons such as polyethylene (plastic)
wear, loosening, instability or deep infection. A revision total knee replacement often involves
removing the implant put in during the first operation, and replacing this with a new total knee
device.
What Results Can I Expect?
Revision total knee replacement is a more difficult and lengthy operation than the initial total
knee replacement, but can offer extremely good results in terms of pain relief and restoration
of function. The chances of an excellent result are slightly lower than those of the primary
procedure, but still in the range of 80-90%.
What Are the Risks of Revision Total Knee Replacement?
As with any operation, a revision total knee replacement has a number of potential risks.
These would include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anesthetic complication
Flaring up of medical condition(s)
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (blood clot in legs or lungs)
Death (0.7%)
Infection (approximately 2-5%)
Slow healing
Slow convalescence
Technical complication (ie. damage to skin, muscle, bone, nerve or blood vessel)
Post-operative instability of the knee
Knee stiffness
Late wear and loosening of the implant needing revision (approximately 1% per year)
Limp
Your surgeon will review these with you before your surgery, and answer any of your
questions.
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What Happens in Revision Surgery?
A revision total knee replacement usually takes 3-4 hours to perform.
The surgeon must:
•
•
expose and remove the failed implant
re-insert all or part of a new total knee replacement depending on what had to be fixed
What Happens After Revision Surgery?
The information in the Guide will generally apply to you. However, after a revision total knee
replacement your weight bearing and exercises may be more restricted than with your first
replacement. You may require a brace while you are recovering. Your physician, nurse and
physiotherapist will discuss these restrictions with you.
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SECTION 2
What to Expect
Before and
After
Surgery
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Helpful Information to Be Prepared for Your Visit to X-ray:
● There may be a significant wait for your x-ray
● Bring any medication, food or hydration you may require
● Bring any mobility aids that you may normally use or require to move in x-ray ie. walker,
cane, etc.
● Wear comfortable, loose clothing without metal components
ie. if you wear jeans with rivets and zippers, you will be asked to change to a hospital gown
● You will be required to stand to have the knee x-ray views completed
Post-Operative X-rays for Clinic Appointments:
● Do NOT come earlier than the appointment time you were given.
These are booked to preceed your clinic appointment times.
● Arriving early to x-ray WILL NOT speed up your clinic visit
After I have signed consent for surgery, I purchase my Surgery Preparation Package in the
hospital pharmacy. This includes two chlorhexidine cleansing sponges, My Guide to Total
Knee Replacement and a DVD of information to help prepare me for surgery.
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WHAT TO EXPECT BEFORE AND AFTER SURGERY
My Pre-Admission Clinic (PAC) Visit
c I bring in all of my prescribed medications, vitamins and herbal supplements in their
original containers. I take my medications as usual this day.
c I will spend about 4-6 hours in the Pre-Admission Clinic.
c I bring "My Guide to Total Knee Joint Replacement” with me to the Pre-Admission
Clinic visit.
c I provide a medical and nursing history and undergo a physical examination.
c I receive information about the Perioperative Blood Conservation Program.
c I may see an anesthetist or internist.
In some cases, this may need to occur at another appointment.
c I have bloodwork, x-rays, a urine test and any other tests that are ordered by the doctor.
c I may be asked to be a part of a research study.
c I understand what equipment (ie. walker, crutches) I will need after my surgery and where I
can obtain it.
c I have received the Same Day Admission Program - Patient Information pamphlet.
c I have my questions about the surgery and my hospitalization answered.
c I understand what to expect of my surgery and post-operative care.
c I understand when and how to use the Chlorhexidine cleansing sponges I purchased from
the hospital pharmacy.
c I leave the Pre-Admission Clinic satisfied that my needs have been met and will be met
during my hospital stay.
c If out-patient physiotherapy followup is required, I understand that I am responsible for
making the necessary arrangements in my community.
*I will call to make an appointment for physiotherapy. This appointment should be booked
for one (1) week after my surgery. If I have any problems obtaining this appointment, I will
notify staff at the time of my admission.
c If I am having both knees replaced at the same time, I will see an occupational therapist.
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c I understand that I will be discharged on the 2nd or 3rd day after surgery.
c Hospital stays are becoming shorter all the time with improved surgeries. The length of
time you spend in hospital depends upon the type of joint replacement you have and
your overall health. Some people go home the day after surgery and many go home
Day 2 or 3. Those with serious health concerns may stay a little longer. People tend to
heal best and most safely in their own home.
c I will arrange for tranportation home and for any additional help tthat I may require.
Discharge time is by 11 a.m. on discharge day.
Following surgery you will use crutches or a walker for at least 6 weeks. Some surgeons may
allow you to advance to a cane in this time period. If you have crutches at home please have
them brought into hospital after your surgery. Crutches may also be purchased at the hospital.
If you need a walker or a cane, rental can be arranged from services in your community.
Doctors recommend that you do not drive your car for at least 6 weeks following surgery. It is
therefore important that you arrange a ride to physiotherapy by family, friends, or public
transportation. Depending on your medical and physical status, physiotherapy may be
arranged through the Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) Program.
What Happens if I Do Not Feel Well?
c I call my surgeon immediately if I develop a cold or my health changes in ANY way as
I get closer to my surgery.
Day Before Surgery
c My surgeon’s office will call between noon and 3 p.m. to confirm the time of surgery. If I
have not heard from the surgeon’s office by 3 p.m., I will call the surgeon’s office to confirm
the surgery time.
c I remove polish from fingernails and toenails.
c I shower or bathe the night before and the day of surgery.
c I use the cleansing sponges, following the instructions given to me by my pre-admission
clinic nurse. There are also printed instructions that come with the cleansing sponges.
c I have nothing to eat or drink after midnight the night before my surgery and on the day
of surgery.
c I do not chew gum, have candy or smoke after midnight the night before my surgery and
on the day of surgery.
c I follow any special instructions given to me by the doctor or nurse to prepare for surgery.
c I remember not to shave my legs less than 48 hours before surgery.
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Day of Surgery
c I pack a small overnight case or bag with 2-3 sets of night clothes, bath robe, slippers,
crutches, knee guide booklet and personal care items (toothbrush, toothpaste,
mouthwash, soap, lotion, razor, comb, deodorant, tissues and feminine hygiene products). I
ask a family member to keep this bag and bring to my room after my surgery.
c I have had nothing to eat or drink after midnight the night before my surgery.
c I do not take any medications unless told to do so with a sip of water.
c I may wear dentures, glasses, hearing aids, or hair pieces, but they will be removed before
surgery. I will bring containers for these.
c I may brush my teeth the morning of surgery, being careful not to swallow any water.
c I do not bring large amounts of money, jewellery, or other valuables.
c I do not wear makeup.
c I do not wear contact lenses.
c I follow any special instructions given to me by the doctor or nurse to prepare for surgery.
c
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
c
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Arriving at the Hospital
c I report to Pre-Admission Clinic and then I will be directed to go to the Surgical Preparation
Area, where I will be prepared for surgery.
c I arrive 2 ½ - 3 hours before as I have been instructed by the doctor’s secretary.
Surgical Preparation Area
c I get dressed in a hospital gown.
c I have my blood pressure, pulse and breathing rate checked.
c I will have an intravenous started.
c The nurse will ask me if I have any new medications added to my home list.
c The nurse will ask me about medications taken today.
c I may have preoperative medications given to me. This may include a rectal suppository to
help control my pain after surgery
c I will speak to my anesthetist or delegate.
c I will speak to my surgeon or delegate.
c I will have my leg marked by my surgeon or delegate.
c I am taken to the operating room.
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Operating Room
c My surgery takes 1-1/2 to 3 hours depending on the surgery being performed.
c I am taken to the Post-Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU) in my bed.
Post-Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU)
c I have my blood pressure, pulse, and breathing rate checked.
c I receive medication for my pain by pushing the PCA (pain pump) button, or pain
medication may be given to me by the nurse.
c I have my circulation, sensation, and pulses checked and I am asked to move my foot.
c I will have an x-ray done of my knee.
c I will have a large gauze bandage over my knee, which my nurse will check regularly.
c I may have a drainage tube in my knee.
c I will be moved to the Inpatient Unit to be monitored closely for my first post-operative
night.
Day of Surgery - Post-Operative
c My surgeon speaks with me or my family about the surgery.
c I have my foot, gauze bandage, blood pressure, pulse and breathing rate checked often.
c I ask for and receive pain medication as I need it. I may control this by pushing a PCA
(pain pump) button.
c I use a bedpan or urinal the day and night of my surgery. I may have a urinary catheter
in place.
c I may start to drink if I wish.
c I ask for medications to settle my stomach if needed.
c I may be given oxygen overnight.
c My family is welcome to stay with me until visiting hours are over, recognizing my need for
rest after surgery.
c I am reminded not to put a pillow under my knee.
c I may be assisted to sit at the side of my bed and may walk a short distance.
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The following may be used as a checklist.
First Day After Surgery (Post-Operative Day 1)
c Visiting may be interrupted to provide appropriate patient care and therapy or restricted if
safety and privacy rights need to be protected.
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
I will begin to eat solid food today.
I am assisted to sit up, given a basin of water and helped to bathe.
My physiotherapist and/or nurse reviews how much weight I may put on my leg.
My physiotherapist and/or nurse shows me how to use a walker.
My physiotherapist and/or nurse may help me to sit in a chair.
My physiotherapist and/or nurse help me walk to the hallway.
My nurse removes my knee drainage tube, if present, and changes my initial bandage.
This may produce mild discomfort for a short time.
c I have blood taken.
c My intravenous is taken out if I am drinking well. If I have had a revision knee replacement,
my intravenous may be left in for a few more days.
c
c
c
c
c
My oxygen tubing may be removed.
I receive the medications that I was taking at home.
I ask for and receive medication as needed for pain, nausea, and vomiting.
I receive a blood thinner by injection or pill.
My nurse teaches me how to give myself a blood thinner by injection or explains the blood
thinner tablet I may be given.
c My temperature, pulse, breathing rate and blood pressure are taken regularly throughout
the day and night.
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
My circulation, sensation, and pulses are checked. I am asked to move my foot.
I am asked to deep breathe and cough regularly.
I am asked to do foot and ankle exercises regularly.
I have my knee bandage checked regularly for any drainage.
I am helped to turn from side to side.
I ask for help to walk to the bathroom.
My physiotherapist will teach me range of motion exercises.
Ice will be applied at least 3 times per day during your stay to help with the control of
swelling. It can be applied more often as needed. Ask your nurse.
NOTE: if you purchased a CorFlex Ice Wrap, change the gel packs every 2 waking hours.
It may be removed during sleep.
c
c
c
c
I will ask for my pain medication about 1 hour prior to my exercises.
My pain begins to ease over the first day or two.
I report any numbness or tingling in my foot to my nurse.
I will do my exercises on my own in the evening as instructed by my physiotherapist.
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c I will ask my nurse for ice before doing my exercises in the evening.
c I may go home today.
The following may be used as a checklist.
Second Day After Surgery (Day of Discharge. Post-Operative Day 2 - 3)
c I may go home today.
c I may have blood taken.
c I bathe at the side of the bed.
c I eat my meals sitting in the chair.
c I demonstrate how to give my blood thinner by injection or my nurse reviews my blood
thinner tablet.
c My physiotherapist and nurse help me to progress my walking with the walker.
c I advance to crutches if able.
c I walk to the hall and/or bathroom today with assistance or supervision.
c I will continue to do range of motion exercises for my knee 3 times per day.
c I may have ice put on my knee to relieve pain and reduce swelling.
c I have my knee bandage checked regularly for any drainage.
c I receive a laxative at bedtime as needed.
c My plans for discharge are reviewed and I am aware of my responsibilities:
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c Physiotherapy appointment confirmed or I have a number to call if not confirmed
c exercises
c dressings/obtaining gauze for dressings
c I confirm my ride home and am aware of the 1100 o’clock discharge time
I climb stairs with my physiotherapist.
I am told about problems to watch for when at home (see page 15 and 16, Section 3).
I may be given a staple remover and letter to give to my doctor.
I am given a prescription for pain medication and my blood thinner.
If I have any questions about going home, I will ask my nurse or therapist.
If I have any questions about my medication, I ask my nurse.
I am given a card for my wallet that says I have had a joint replacement
I am given an appointment to come to the orthopaedic clinic on the main floor.
I am taken to the front door in a wheelchair when my ride arrives.
*Note:
Some people who have knee replacement surgery have also had a history of problems in other joints. If you
find you are having difficulties managing your daily activities because of pain or stiffness in your knee and/or
other joints, such as your hips or non-operative knee, you might benefit from seeing an Occupational
Therapist. For example, if both knees are affected by arthritis you may find a raised toilet seat helpful. You
may discuss a referral to Occupational Therapy with any member of your health care team.
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Using Crutches:
When using crutches, I put my weight on my palms, not my
armpits. I do not twist to turn - I take small steps instead. I am
sure to follow the advice given to me about how much weight I
can put on my leg.
I follow the sequence of
1. Crutches
2. Sore (Operated) Leg
3. Good (Non-Operated) Leg
My physiotherapist will check my crutches to ensure proper
fit and safety before I use them.
Crutches on Stairs:
Instructions whether to use one crutch or two on stairs will be
given by my physiotherapist depending on my individual home
setting or needs.
c To go up the stairs, using my crutches:
1. I put my non-operated leg on the stair.
2. I put my operated leg on the stair.
3. I put my crutches on the stair.
c To go down the stairs, using my crutches:
1. I put my crutches on the stair below.
2. I put my operated leg on the stair.
3. I put my non-operated leg on the stair.
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SECTION 3
Activities of Daily
Living Following
Total Knee Joint
Replacement
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THINGS TO REMEMBER AT HOME
The following may be used as a checklist.
At Home
c I will be instructed on my 2 week follow up visit. I will receive a letter to take to my
GP and a staple remover or a return appointment to my surgeon.
c My pain and swelling should continue to improve over the next few weeks.
c I do my knee exercises 3 times a day as taught.
c I see a physiotherapist within 1 week of my discharge as arranged.
c I do not drive until my surgeon sees me at the 6-week appointment.
c I will be given instructions when I can shower by my surgeon.
c I call my surgeon with any questions or concerns I have. My surgeon's number is
provided on my wallet card.
Problems to Watch For When at Home
If I experience any of the following symptoms or have any concerns, I will call my
surgeon or family physician.
1. Increased pain in calf or thigh of either leg.
2. Increased pain in leg.
3. Decrease in range of motion of my knee.
4. Increased swelling, tenderness, or redness in either leg.
5. Temperature above 38ºC taken at least 30 minutes after eating or drinking.
6. Increased drainage from the incision, redness, or opening of incision edges.
7. Increased difficulty with walking.
8. If I develop shortness of breath or chest pain/tightness, I will go to my local
Emergency Department.
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Prevention of Edema (Swelling):
Edema or swelling occurs as a natural response to surgery and tissue injury. Swelling tends to
increase in the affected leg when sitting or standing, but should decrease over time and should
be less upon waking in the morning. Pain and redness should not be present. If you
experience increasing pain or redness contact your physician. To minimize swelling lie down
several times per day with your leg slightly elevated. Continue the foot and ankle pumping
exercises while lying down. Avoid prolonged periods of sitting with your legs in a dependent
position. Doing your exercises as instructed by your physiotherapist should also reduce the
swelling.
Prevention of Constipation:
Pain pills, reduced activity and changes in your diet can lead to constipation. Adding fibre to
your diet such as fruits, vegetables and bran, as well as increasing your fluid intake can all
help to prevent this. Some patients may need to take Metamucil, stool softeners, laxatives or
even enemas. If you continue to have difficulties, please contact your family doctor or
pharmacist.
Care of Your Incision at Home
1. Follow the wound care instructions provided to you in hospital. A shower is
acceptable but do not submerge in water (baths, whirlpool or swimming pool) for
6 weeks after surgery.
2. Look at the incision every other day and watch for any redness, drainage or
opening of the edges. Your nurse will provide specific dressing instruction should
you go home with a wound that still has drainage.
3. Change the bandage when necessary and replace it with a new sterile bandage.
Bandages can be bought at a pharmacy. Do not touch the incision with your hands.
Remember: Wash your hands before and after incision care.
4. If you have staples, have them removed by your family doctor or surgeon, two
weeks after your surgery.
5. NO lotions, ointments or creams should be applied over or around the incision area
until you have your 6 week follow-up appointment with your surgeon.
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To Avoid Falls, Safe Proof Your Home
1. Install railings along stairs.
2. Remove scatter rugs.
3. Move telephone wires and electrical cords out of the way.
4. DO NOT wax your floors.
5. Use night lights, especially between your bedroom and the bathroom.
6. DO NOT move too quickly. Let people know that it will take you longer to get
to the phone or the door.
7. Keep a clear path between frequently used areas.
8. Wear non-skid, supportive footwear at all times.
9. Wear your eye glasses as required.
The following may be used as checklist.
Return Visits
c I return to see my surgeon about 6 weeks after my surgery, in some cases earlier visits
will be scheduled.
c I go to the orthopaedic out-patient clinic on the 1st floor.
c I may be asked to go to the X-ray department on the 2nd floor after I have registered
(1/2 hour before my clinic appointment).
c I then go back to the outpatient clinic on First Floor where my x-ray can be reviewed on
computer.
c I bring a list of questions/concerns that I might have.
c I may be asked to fill out a questionnaire while I am waiting to see the surgeon.
c I bring any note from my therapist to my surgeon.
c I am told by the surgeon if I need to follow restrictions any longer.
c I may now be allowed to drive
c Yes
c No
c I may be given a note by the surgeon to give to my Physiotherapist.
c I am given an appointment for my next return visit.
c I will ask my surgeon about return to specific activities (ie. golf, tennis, gardening, etc.)
The London Health Sciences Centre Foundation usually calls discharged patients within 6
weeks of discharge for donations. Please consider directing any donations to the Orthopaedic
program (see Page 31).
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The following may be used as checklist.
Further Return Visits
c
c
c
c
I return to see my surgeon 3 months, and 1 year after my surgery.
I am seen every 1 to 2 years thereafter.
I may have x-rays done at each visit.
I may contact my surgeon for earlier visits if I develop any problems or have concerns.
Examples: increased pain lasting more than a few days, developing a limp or unable to
weight bear through the surgical leg, a loss of range of motion, signs and symptoms of
infection.
Long Term Care of Your Knee
1. Do not lift objects more than 50 pounds repeatedly.
2. There is usually no limit to walking, bicycling, or swimming.
3. Certain higher level activities are not recommended with a knee replacement,
including but not limited to tennis, jogging and contact sports. Please discuss
specific activity questions with your surgeon.
4. Remind your doctors and dentists that you have had a total knee replacement. You
will need to take a prophylactic (preventative) antibiotic before dental work or
surgery for at least 2 years. In some cases, life-long prevention may be
recommended by your surgeon.
5. You may resume sexual activity when you are comfortable. You should take care for
the first 6 weeks after surgery. The safest position is on your back, on the bottom,
legs apart to prevent direct pressure on your knee incision.
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SECTI ON 4
Exercises
Following
Total Knee Joint
Replacement
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EXERCISES FOLLOWING TOTAL KNEE JOINT REPLACEMENT
The following exercises are designed to improve your range of motion and muscle strength in
your knee following your total knee joint replacement. These exercises will be reviewed with
you by your physiotherapist (P.T.), and will be started on Day 1 of your hospital stay. You need
to continue doing these exercises when you go home.
All exercises should be carried out just as they are written. Any questions should be referred to
your physiotherapist.
Exercises should be done
three (3) times daily.
Repeat each exercise ten (10) times.
Continue to exercise at home.
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Guidelines For Your Physiotherapy
Icing
Icing should be done prior to exercising and at any time for pain relief and to decrease
swelling. Ice can be applied directly over the knee, front and back, using a bag of frozen
vegetables or crushed ice, for 15-20 minutes. Keep your dressings dry by placing saran
wrap/plastic over your knee before applying the ice.
Ambulation
Continue to use your walking aid until you return to the clinic, or until you are progressed by
your Physiotherapist.
Range of Motion
You should keep your knee moving to prevent it from getting stiff, when you are not exercising.
This should be done several times every hour, in sitting and in lying. Bend your knee as far as
it will go, then allow it to straighten out as far as it will go. Repeat this 10 times.
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Knee Exercises After Your Surgery
Exercises in BED
Exercise #1:
*This exercise improves the bend of your knee.
Sitting or lying on your bed, with your operated leg straight out in front of you, loop the strap
around your foot. Slowly bend your operated knee, using the strap to assist, until you feel a
stretch over the top of your knee.
• Hold for 5 seconds
• Relax
• Repeat exercise 10 times.
OR
• Place a towel or a sling around your
thigh. Bend your knee, keeping your heel
on the bed or sliding board, using a
towel or sling to help.
Pull until you feel a stretch over the top
of your knee. Hold for 5 seconds, Relax
and repeat 10 times.
Exercise #2:
*This exercise stretches your calf muscle.
Sit on your bed, with your operated leg
straight out in front of you, loop the strap
around the ball of your foot. Hold on to the
strap with both hands. Keep your knee
straight and gently pull on the strap, bringing
your toes towards you, until you feel a stretch
in your calf.
• Hold for 5 seconds
• Relax
• Repeat exercise 10 times.
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Exercise #3
*This exercise strengthens your thigh muscle.
Sit on your bed, with your operated leg straight out in front of you, pull your toes up, tighten
your thigh muscles, and press the back of your knee down on the bed.
• Hold for 5 seconds
• Relax
• Repeat exercise 10 times.
Exercise #4
*This exercise strengthens your thigh muscle.
Lie on your back, place a rolled towel (6 inches in diameter or use a 48 oz. juice can) under
your operated knee. Pull your toes up and lift your heel off the bed making sure that your thigh
remains supported on the roll.
• Hold your heel up for 5 seconds
• Relax
• Repeat exercise 10 times.
You may use the strap to assist you if needed.
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Exercises in SITTING
Exercise #5:
*This exercise stretches your hamstring muscle.
Sit on the edge of the bed, with your operated
leg supported on the bed. Your other foot is
touching the floor for support. Gently lean
forward over your operated leg, until you feel a
stretch in the back of your thigh. Your operated
leg should remain straight while you stretch.
• Hold for 5 seconds
• Relax
• Repeat exercise 10 times.
Exercise #6:
*This exercise stretches your hamstrings and strengthens your thigh muscle.
Sit in a chair with your feet on the floor. Lift your
foot and straighten your knee, keeping your back
straight.
• Hold for 5 seconds
• Relax your thigh muscles slowly to a count of 5
• Repeat exercise 10 times
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Stage II Exercise Program
The following exercises are designed to improve your mobility and your muscle strength
following your total knee joint replacement.
Exercises should be done 3 times daily.
Repeat each exercise 10 times.
Exercise #1:
Quadriceps Stretch
*This exercise stretches the group of muscles in front of your thigh. You may use a towel in
around your ankle to assist with the knee bend.
• Lying on your stomach, bend your knee as far as it will go. Using a towel or sling around
your ankle pull your heel towards your buttock. Hold for 5 seconds.
• Stand. Hold on to a table or chair for support. Use a
towel around the ankle of the leg being stretched
and bend your knee until you feel a stretch in the
front of your thigh. Hold for 5 seconds.
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Soleus Stretch
Exercise #2
• Face the wall and stand a few feet from it. Place your leg
being stretched behind the other leg. Place your hands on the
wall. Keep your back heel on the ground and bend this knee
slightly. Now lean forward. Hold for 5 seconds.
Achilles Stretch
Exercise #3
• This exercise stretches your calf muscle and heel cord. Face
the wall and stand a few feet from it. Place your leg being
stretched behind the other leg. Place your hands on the wall.
Keep the back leg straight and heel on the ground. Lean
forward. Keep your back straight. You should feel a stretch in
the back of your calf muscles. Hold for 5 seconds.
Hamstring Strengthening
Exercise #4
• In standing, back straight. Bend your knee and lift your heel
up for 5 seconds. Lower your heel down for a count of 5
seconds. As you get stronger, you may use a weight around
your ankle to make this exercise harder. Start with one pound
and increase this gradually.
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Straight Leg Raises
Exercises #5
• Lying on your back with your non-operated leg bent and the operated leg straight. Lift your
operated leg about 6 inches off the bed. Hold for 5 seconds. Return your leg to the bed
slowly to a count of 5 seconds. Relax and repeat 10 times.
As your get better control of your thigh muscles try lifting your leg to only 4 and then
eventually 2 inches off the bed.
Exercise #6
• Tie an elastic or nylon stocking around the leg of a chair.
Place the other end of the elastic around your ankle.
Straighten your knee to pull against the elastic.
Hold for 5 seconds, relax to a count of 5 seconds.
Exercise #7
• Tie an elastic or nylon stocking around the leg of
a table that you are facing. Place the other end of
the elastic around your ankle. Bend your knee to
pull against the elastic. Hold to a count of 5
seconds.
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Exercise #8
• Find a chair with arm rests. You should be seated at a
comfortable height from the floor. Sit at the edge of the chair
and gradually stand up to a count of 5 seconds. You may
require assistance of the arm rests to begin. As your thigh
muscle strength improves, try to use your arms as little as
possible. Then gradually progress to lowering yourself into the
chair so that you use control of your thigh muscles. As you
improve your strength use the arm rests as little as possible.
Stationary Bike
Exercise #9
• You may use a stationary bike to assist you in getting your
range of motion. To start, adjust the seat so that it is a
comfortable height so that your thigh muscles feel a stretch,
not pain. Do not use resistance right away. Keep adjusting the
seat height as necessary. As your knee gets stronger, you
may gradually increase the resistance.
Strengthening
Exercise #10
• It is important that you do not aggravate your condition. You
should not experience pain while you are doing these
exercises.
Wall Sits:
Start one stride length away from the wall.
1. Your feet should be shoulder width apart
2. Place your back against the wall.
3. Bend your knees to a comfortable level.
4. Be sure your knees are not ahead of your ankles.
5. Hold your position for as long as tolerated.
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Short Squats
Exercise #11
Start with your feet should width apart.
1. Do a slow knee bend.
2. Keep your knee cap lined up between your second and
third toes.
3. Slowly straighten up.
4. Do not lock your knees back between each repetition.
5. Tighten your buttocks and stomach muscles
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SECTION 5
Final
Remarks
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TELEPHONE DIRECTORY
Here is a list of phone numbers that you might find helpful.
Dr. J. Howard’s office ............ 519-663-3551
Dr. B. Lanting's office ............ 519-663-3335
Dr. S. MacDonald's office ...... 519-663-3689
Dr. J. McAuley’s office ........... 519-663-3307
Dr. R. McCalden's office ........ 519-663-3049
Dr. D. Naudie's office............. 519-663-3407
Dr. E. Vasarhelyi's office........ 519-663-4123
℡
Orthopaedic Inpatient Area ....................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 32454
Orthopaedic Outpatient Area .................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 32487
Occupational Therapy ............................................... 519-663-3502
Physiotherapy Department........................................ 519-663-3503
Pre-Admission Clinic ................................................. 519-685-8500 ext. 34750
Nurse Practitioners:
Robert Harris....................................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 32409
Terry Lyne McLaughlin........................................ 519-685-8500 ext. 36843
Ann Whitley......................................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 34859
Maribeth Witteveen ............................................. 519-685-8500 ext. 36315
Manager Orthopaedics:
Carla Cormack .................................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 34886
Coordinator Orthopaedics:
Sylvia Simon ....................................................... 519-685-8500 ext: 34942
Clinical Educator Orthopaedics:
Hazel Celestino................................................... 519-685-8500 ext. 36309
Community Care Access Centre (London) ............... 519-473-2222
Arthritis Society ......................................................... 519-433-2191
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SUPPORTING OUR PROGRAM
With the help of our generous community members, the Orthopaedics Program at University
Hospital is on the leading edge of medical advances, living its mission of excellence in
research, education and patient care.
Government funding is not enough to meet all our needs in advancing health care. We count
on generous donations from our community to buy equipment, help improve facilities, advance
research and introduce new programs.
Many people give to the London Health Sciences Centre, Orthopaedics Program to say thankyou for the wonderful treatment they or the people they love have received at the Hospital.
Others give because they want to know that outstanding health care will be available when
they or others need it. To make this easy for you we have developed the form below. Please
place a check P in the appropriate box ( c ) below and enter the amount in the column
provided on the right.
Amount ($)
Orthopaedic Patient Care:
c Nursing
___________________________
c Occupational Therapy
___________________________
c Physiotherapy
___________________________
Orthopaedic Research
c Dr. J. Howard
c Knee
c
c Dr. B. Lanting
c Knee
c
c Dr. S. MacDonald
c Knee
c
c Dr. J. McAuley
c Knee
c
c Dr. R. McCalden
c Knee
c
c Dr. D. Naudie
c Knee
c
c Dr. E. Vasarhelyi
c Knee
c
Hip
___________________________
Hip
___________________________
Hip
___________________________
Hip
___________________________
Hip
___________________________
Hip
___________________
Hip
___________________________
c Operating Room Equipment
___________________________
c Outpatient Clinic Equipment
___________________________
Please complete this form and return it with your commitment
London Health Sciences Foundation
c/o Arthroplasty Program, University Hospital
747 Baseline Road East, London, Ontario N6C 2R6
Telephone: 519-685-8409
Thank you for your continued support
If there is any more that we can do for you please let us know.
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Joint Replacement Surgery
Patient Checklist
www.lhsc.on.ca/jointreplacement
With joint replacement surgery, the surgery itself is just one component of the whole
process. In order for your surgery to be successful, there are things that you can and
should do to be adequately prepared.
It is important to discuss with your family and friends your decision to have surgery and
how they may be of assistance to you before, during, and after surgery. Things to
consider and arrange are:
‰
‰
I am aware discharge is 1-2 days after surgery.
I have made arrangements for transportation in an appropriate vehicle to take me home and
to my appointments ie. With your family physician, physiotherapist and surgeon
‰
I have practiced car transfers so that I can follow the movement restrictions I may have after
surgery
‰
I have arranged for help at home following discharge ie. Assistance with grocery shopping,
meal preparation, house cleaning, laundry, and general errands after surgery
‰
If I am unable to manage at home, I have made arrangements for an alternate discharge
destination ie. respite bed, relatives or friends home
Some people who have knee replacement surgery have also had a history of problems in other
joints. You may benefit from seeing an Occupational Therapist while in hospital. You may also
wish to arrange in advance of your surgery to have some of the following equipment available on
your return home:
‰ Crutches
‰ Standard walker with no wheels
‰ Raised toilet seat (optional)
‰ Other:_________________________________________________
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