User Guide to Home Office Immigration Statistics

User Guide to Home Office Immigration Statistics
User Guide to Home Office
Immigration Statistics
Last updated: 27 August 2015
Contents
Section
Page
1
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 3
2
Glossary of terms ........................................................................................................ 6
3
Conventions used in Immigration Statistics........................................................... 16
4
Information affecting all topics ................................................................................ 20
5
Visas and Sponsorship ............................................................................................. 29
6
Admissions................................................................................................................. 39
7
Extensions .................................................................................................................. 47
8
Settlement................................................................................................................... 49
9
Citizenship .................................................................................................................. 53
10
Asylum ........................................................................................................................ 60
11
Detention ................................................................................................................... 74
12
Removals and voluntary departures........................................................................ 81
13
European Economic Area ......................................................................................... 87
14
Work ............................................................................................................................ 93
15
Study ........................................................................................................................... 97
16
Family ........................................................................................................................ 100
17
Other sources of information on immigration and migration ............................. 104
18
Geographical regions for tables ……….…………………………………………..... 110
2
1
Introduction
This ‘User Guide to Home Office Immigration Statistics’ is designed to be a useful reference guide with
explanatory notes on the issues and classifications which are key to the production and presentation
of the Home Office’s quarterly Immigration Statistics releases.
Statistics covered
The Immigration Statistics release provides information on the following broad topics based on the
Home Office’s operation of immigration control and related processes, including the work of UK Border
Force and UK Visas and Immigration. Most of the statistics therefore relate to people who are subject
to immigration control (i.e. from outside the European Economic Area).












Visas: entry clearance visas granted
Admissions: passengers allowed entry and passengers initially refused entry
Extensions: people given permission to extend their stay
Settlement: people given permission to stay permanently
Citizenship: people granted British citizenship
Asylum: people applying for asylum
Detention: people detained under Immigration Act powers
Removals and voluntary departures: people who leave the country either voluntarily
or forcibly, whom, in the main, the Home Office has sought to remove
European Economic Area: information on nationals from the EEA
Work: immigration for work
Study: immigration for study
Family: immigration for family reasons
Purpose
Immigration Statistics provides figures on the levels and trends in numbers of people who are covered
by the UK’s immigration control and related processes, based on a range of administrative and other
data sources used. The purpose of the statistics is: to give an overview of the work of the Home
Office, including that of UK Border Force and UK Visas and Immigration, and other government
departments and agencies dealing with immigration; to help inform users including the government,
Parliament, the media and the wider public; and to support the development and monitoring of policy.
Currently, these statistics are published four times a year, in February, May, August and November;
with detailed annual tables updated once a year, generally in August.
The UK Statistics Authority assessed the release in autumn 2011 and published the assessment
report on 2 February 2012, continuing the designation of the release as National Statistics.
In general, the commentary on each topic is intended to provide an overview of trends over several
years, subject to data availability, and does not necessarily focus on the latest quarterly data (e.g. if
substantive trends indicated are unchanged).
The current system of immigration control is based on the Immigration Act 1971, which came into
force on 1 January 1973, and subsequent amendments to the law. Policy and operational changes, as
well as overall factors which influence the levels of immigration, such as the economic climate, can
affect the figures. The availability and allocation of resources within the Home Office can affect the
number of decisions made. Further information on the work of the Home Office can be found in its
annual report and in publications referred to in the Other sources of information on immigration
and migration section of this User Guide.
3
The Immigration Statistics release does not give details on the numbers leaving the UK, as the Home
Office does not count everyone out of the country, or on the numbers of foreign nationals living in the
UK. Alongside the information provided by the Home Office concerning immigration control, official
figures on international migration (immigration, emigration and net migration) and on the number of
foreign-born nationals in the UK are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Further
information on related data is available in the Other sources of information on immigration and
migration section of this User Guide.
Where are the latest published statistics?
The latest Immigration Statistics release, including data tables and commentary, can be found at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/home-office/series/immigration-statistics-quarterlyrelease.
The dates of future editions of Immigration Statistics are pre-announced and can be found via the UK
National Statistics Publication Hub: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/index.html.
Information on how the Home Office complies with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics is
available
at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/home-office/about/statistics#officialstatistics.
The ‘Immigration Statistics’ release is a National Statistics output produced to the highest professional
standards and free from political interference. It has been produced by statisticians working in the
Home Office Science Unit in accordance with the Home Office’s ‘Statement of compliance with the
Code of Practice for Official Statistics’ which covers our policy on revisions and other matters. The
Chief Statistician, as Head of Profession, reports to the National Statistician with respect to all
professional statistical matters and oversees all Home Office National Statistics products with respect
to the Code, being responsible for their timing, content and methodology. The Home Office
Responsible Statistician is Chris Kershaw.
Feedback and enquiries
We welcome feedback on Immigration Statistics, which can be provided by email or in writing, or via
the Migration Statistics User Forum https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/wa.exe?SUBED1=MIGRATIONSTATS. A short survey on the immigration Statistics release is also included here:
http://www.homeofficesurveys.homeoffice.gov.uk/s/ImmigrationStatisticsSurvey.
If you have any questions about Immigration Statistics, please send an email to:
[email protected]
Alternatively, write to:
The Editor, Immigration Statistics
Migration Statistics
Home Office Science
17th Floor, Lunar House,
40 Wellesley Road
Croydon, CR9 2BY.
Press enquiries should be made to:
Home Office Press Office
Peel Building
2 Marsham Street
London, SW1P 4DF
Tel: 020 7035 3535.
4
Summary flowchart - Control of Immigration (1)(2)
Non-Visa national
Legend
Visa national
Likely path
Possible other
Prior entry clearance
not required (3)
Prior Entry clearance
is mandatory (3)
Returned to: country of
nationality; country where
journey originated; or other
safe third country
Apply at a British mission overseas for
leave to enter the United Kingdom
Refused leave to enter
(Admissions)
Removed or departed
voluntarily
(Removals and
voluntary departures)
Refused leave
to enter
(Visas)
Apply for asylum
at the border
(Asylum)
Apply for asylum
in country
(Asylum)
UK Border
(Admissions)
Granted asylum,
humanitarian protection
or discretionary leave
(Asylum)
Refused extension
of leave to remain
(Extensions)
Persons
who
evade
border
control
Granted
entry to the
UK
Detained and / or granted
temporary admission while
asylum claim processed
Illegally reside in the UK
Stay in the UK
Apply for
extension of
leave to remain
Refused asylum,
humanitarian
protection or
discretionary leave
(Asylum)
Granted indefinite
leave to enter
Border Control
UK Border
Refused asylum,
humanitarian protection
or discretionary leave
(Asylum)
Granted leave
to enter (Visas)
Apply for indefinite
leave to remain
(i.e. settlement)
Granted extension of
leave to remain
(Extensions)
Refused
settlement
(Settlement)
Breach a condition of
leave granted or
commit a criminal
offence
Return home /
further travel
Granted
settlement
(Settlement)
Permanent residence
in the UK : no restrictions
Refused leave to remain
in the United Kingdom
Removed or departed
voluntarily
(Removals and
voluntary departures)
Breach immigration rules or
a condition of leave granted
Illegally reside
in the UK
Enforcement / removal action initiated
Removed or departed voluntarily
(Removals and voluntary
departures)
Grants of British Citizenship
(Citizenship)
UK Border
(1) This flo wchart pro vides a summary o f immigratio n co ntro l and do es no t include a reference to all aspects o f immigratio n; including peo ple detained under Immigratio n
Rules (info rmatio n o n which can be fo und in the 'Detentio n' to pic). The chart also excludes references to resettled refugees and perso ns that 'switch' their
immigratio n status.
(2) Fo r definitio ns, please refer to the glo ssary o f terms sectio n o f this user guide.
(3) No n-visa natio nals seeking to enter the United Kingdo m in a visa catego ry o r fo r lo nger than 6 mo nths require a visa, whereas tho se seeking to enter the United
Kingdo m fo r 6 mo nths o r less do no t.
5
2
Glossary of terms
This glossary accompanies the Immigration Statistics releases. It is intended to give an overview of
the terms, rather than a full technical description.
If there are terms in the Immigration Statistics releases that you would like to be explained in this
glossary, please contact: [email protected]
Acronyms
HSMP
Highly Skilled Migrant Programme
SAWS Seasonal Agricultural Workers
Scheme
ILR
Indefinite Leave to Remain
SBS
NS
National Statistic
UASC Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking
Child
PBS
Points-based system
WRS
Sector Based Scheme
Worker Registration Scheme
Terms
Within an explanation of a term, words in bold are explained elsewhere in the glossary.
Accession is the event of becoming a Member State of the European Union.
Accession Residence Card: A document issued to third country national family members of Croatian
authorised workers. The accession residence card is valid for 12 months and confirms the holders
right to live and work in the UK
Accession Worker Cards were documents issued to Bulgarian and Romanian nationals from 2007 to
2013 conferring permission to work, where they were subject to the requirement to obtain such
permission before commencing employment in the UK and to highly skilled individuals who were
exempt from this requirement to confirm their right to work.
After-entry application to vary leave to remain is an application from a person wishing to extend or
change the status of their stay in the UK. An individual is required to apply for an extension or change
in status before their existing permission to enter or stay has expired. Within the Immigration Rules, an
individual may make more than one application in any given year.
An age-disputed application is when an asylum applicant claim that they are under 18 years of age
is doubted and they have little or no evidence to support their claimed age. The Home Office policy is
to treat an applicant whose physical appearance/demeanour very strongly suggests that they are
significantly over 18 years of age as adults until there is credible documentary or other persuasive
evidence to demonstrate the age claimed. All other applicants will be afforded the benefit of doubt and
treated as children until a careful, case law compliant, assessment of their age has been completed by
a local authority.
Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) refers to a range of programmes that are available to individuals
who are in the asylum system or who are irregular migrants and who wish to return home permanently
to either their (non-EEA) country of origin or to a third country where they are permanently admissible.
The Home Office has been funding AVR programmes since 1999. They are delivered by Choices, a
subsidiary of the independent charity Refugee Action (prior to April 2011, by the International
Organization for Migration).
6
An asylum applicant is a person who either: (a) makes a request to be recognised as a
refugee under the Refugee Convention on the basis that it would be contrary to the UK's
obligations under the Convention for him to be removed from or required to leave the UK, or (b)
otherwise makes a request for international protection.
Border Force Officers (previously known as Immigration or UK Border Agency Officers) working at
the primary control point are responsible for checking the right of entry to the UK of all individuals
arriving at seaports, airports and via the Channel Tunnel. As well as examining documentation and
goods, they may gather intelligence.
British citizens are people with citizenship usually through a connection with the UK: birth, adoption,
descent, registration, or naturalisation. British citizens have the right of abode in the UK.
British overseas citizens are people connected with the former British colonies who, for the most
part, did not acquire citizenship of the new country when it attained independence. Hong Kong British
dependent territories citizens became British overseas citizens on 1 July 1997 if they would otherwise
have been stateless.
British overseas territories citizens (BOTCs) are people with citizenship through a connection with
a British overseas territory such as Gibraltar, St Helena, etc. known as ‘British dependent territories
citizens’ before February 2002. Hong Kong British dependent territories citizens lost that citizenship
automatically on 1 July 1997 but may still hold another form of British nationality. However, from 21
May 2002, BOTCs became British citizens.
Citizenship is the term used in the International Passenger Survey (IPS) to define the country for
which a migrant is a passport holder. This refers specifically to the passport being used to enter/leave
the UK at the time of interview. It does not refer to any other passport(s) which migrants with multiple
citizenships may hold. More generally a British citizen as described in IPS statistics includes those
with UK nationality usually through a connection with the UK: birth, adoption, descent, registration, or
naturalisation. British nationals have the right of abode in the UK.
A Certificate of Sponsorship is required for skilled workers (Tier 2) and youth mobility and temporary
workers (Tier 5). It is required as part of the application process for entry clearance and leave to
remain.
The Common Travel Area consists of the UK, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the Republic
of Ireland.
Confidence Interval - This is the range within which the true value of a population parameter lies with
known probability. For example the 95% confidence interval represents the range in which there are
19 chances out of 20 that the true figure would fall (had all migrants been surveyed). The uppermost
and lowermost values of the confidence interval are termed ‘confidence limits’.
A Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies is required for students (Tier 4). It is required as part of
the application process for entry clearance and leave to remain.
Commonwealth: Fifty-three countries are members of The Commonwealth. More information is
available from http://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries.
Derivative Residence Card: A document issued to third country nationals who derive a right of
residence in the UK from EU law rather than the Free Movement Directive. The Derivative residence
card is issued with a validity of 5 years. Applicants are not obliged to obtain such a document, but it
does confirm their residence in the UK.
Discretionary leave (DL) may be considered for an individual who is not accepted as being in need of
international protection (i.e. asylum or Humanitarian Protection (HP)) but who is able to demonstrate
particularly compelling reasons why removal would not be appropriate. Until 9 July 2012, Discretionary
7
Leave was usually granted for a period of 3 years. From 9 July 2012, the period of leave
granted has been determined by a consideration of the individual facts of the case but
would not normally be for more than 30 months (two and a half years) at a time. Further leave may be
granted, subject to a review of the individual’s circumstances. A short period of DL may be granted to
individuals who have been refused asylum and Humanitarian Protection because they have committed
a particularly serious crime but who cannot currently be removed from the UK for legal reasons. Until 6
April 2013, DL was granted to Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children (UASC) who were not
considered to be in need of international protection but who could not be removed because the
Secretary of State was not satisfied that safe and adequate reception arrangements were in place in
the country to which they were to be removed. Until 9 July 2012, UASC DL was usually granted for a
period of 3 years or up until they are aged 17½, whichever came first. From 9 July 2012, UASC DL
was granted for a period of 30 months (two and a half years) or up until they are aged 17½, whichever
comes first. On 6 April 2013, UASC DL was replaced by UASC leave when the policy on granting
discretionary leave to UASC was incorporated into the Immigration Rules, under Paragraphs 352ZC –
352ZF. However, the database used to record information on UASCs, the Case Information Database
(CID), was not amended to include this new outcome until July 2013. During the period April to July
2013 the outcome UASC DL was used to record information on CID.
A document certifying permanent residence (table ee_02) is issued to EEA nationals to confirm
their right of permanent residence in the UK. EEA nationals acquire this right after living in the UK for a
continuous period of five years in accordance with EU laws relating to free movement rights. They are
not obliged to apply for a document certifying permanent residence.
Employment and Support Allowance is an allowance aimed at helping people with an illness or
disability to move into work.
In an enforced removal, it has been established that a person has breached UK immigration laws
and / or has no valid leave to remain in the UK. They have declined to leave voluntarily and the Home
Office enforces their departure from the UK.
Entry clearance takes the form of a sticker, also called a vignette, which is placed in a person’s travel
document. Entry Clearance can be called a visa (for visa nationals), an entry certificate (for non-visa
nationals), or a family permit for family members of EEA nationals. These documents are to be taken
as evidence of the holder’s eligibility to travel to the UK, and accordingly accepted as “entry
clearances” within the meaning of the Immigration Act 1971. The term “visa” may be used as a generic
term for all types of Entry Clearance but in Immigration Statistics it does not refer to an entry
certificate.
An entry clearance visa is a document permitting the bearer to travel to the UK and leave to enter
from the grant date. It is activated upon passing through UK immigration control. There are three
categories of visa: temporary, leading to settlement and settlement. Visas are required by nationals or
citizens of the countries and territorial entities listed in Appendix 1 on the Immigration Rules known as
‘visa nationals’. Nationals of countries not on this list are known as ‘non-visa nationals’. A non-visa
national does not need a visa to come to the UK for less than six months, unless it is a requirement of
the immigration category under which they are entering. A non-visa national coming to the UK for
more than six months will need a visa.
The European Economic Area (EEA) consists of the 28 countries of the European Union, plus
Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. Nationals of the EEA and Switzerland have rights of free
movement within the UK.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Ireland, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Croatia joined the EU28 on 1st July 2013.
8
EU2 are the two countries that joined the European Union on 1 January 2007: Bulgaria
and Romania.
EU8 are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union on 1 May
2004: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The
EU8 does not include the other two countries that joined on this date: Cyprus and Malta.
A failed asylum seeker is an individual whose application for asylum and other forms of protection
has been refused and who has exhausted their appeal rights.
Family formation and reunion is a summary category used in descriptions of settlement statistics
reflecting people granted settlement on grounds of their relationship to another person already settled
or a British citizen. It includes husbands, wives, children, parents, grandparents and other and
unspecified dependants.
Family Life (10 year) route: Partners and parents who apply in the UK and are granted leave to
remain on a 10 year route to settlement on the basis of their family life where the relevant provisions
in Appendix FM to the Immigration Rules (including EX.1) apply.
First-tier Tribunal Judges hear and decide appeals against decisions made by the Home Secretary
on immigration and asylum matters in the First-tier Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber).
A foreign national offender (FNO) (previously referred to as a ‘foreign national prisoner’) is someone
who:
 is not a British citizen; and
 is/has been remanded in custody, and convicted and given a custodial sentence in
the UK for any offence.
An FNO can be convicted and have served their sentence while on remand, so would not necessarily
have been sent to prison.
In 2001, asylum seekers granted asylum were granted refugee status and Indefinite Leave to
Remain. In July 2005, however this policy changed so that asylum seekers granted asylum are
granted refugee status and five years limited leave to remain.
The Habitual Residence Test is a test for all individuals, including returning British nationals, who
have recently arrived in the country and who make a claim for income-related social security benefits.
The individual must satisfy the decision-making authorities that, firstly, they have a right to reside and,
secondly, that they are habitually resident in the Common Travel Area and can be treated as such.
Harm Matrix: The harm matrix is a tool to assess the level of harm associated with a particular
individual. In order to provide clarity, consistency and measurement, levels of harm have been divided
into four broad categories: A, B, C and D, with A being the highest harm.
The Highly Skilled Migrant Programme (HSMP) began on 28 January 2002. It differed from the
work permit system in that it did not require an employer to obtain a permit for the individual.
Applicants were assessed on a points system, based on their qualifications, earning ability and
experience. The programme has now been replaced by PBS Tier 1.
The Home Office is responsible for immigration, security, law and order in the UK.
Humanitarian Protection (HP) is leave granted to a person who is not a refugee as defined by the
Refugee Convention but who would, if removed, face in the country of return a real risk to life or
person arising from the death penalty; unlawful killing; torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment; or serious and individual threat by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of
international or internal armed conflict. HP is normally granted for a period of five years, after which
9
the person can apply for indefinite leave to remain. A person who is granted HP is
allowed to work and has access to public funds.
Immigration Enforcement – Arrest Trained Immigration Officers: Immigration Officers undertake a
range of activities which support the detection, apprehension and removal of immigration offenders.
This includes tracking down illegal migrants and targeting companies that flout the rules by employing
workers illegally. Specific duties include: carrying out enforcement operations, including driving official
vehicles, transporting of offenders, searching property or persons, collecting, preserving and recording
evidence.
Indefinite leave to remain is a grant of settlement (after entry) to a non-EEA national.
Initial decision is a decision by the Home Office on an application regarding immigration control,
subject to right of appeal.
The International Passenger Survey (IPS) is a survey of a random sample of passengers entering
and leaving the UK by air, sea or the Channel Tunnel. Between 700,000 and 800,000 people are
interviewed on the IPS each year. Of those interviewed, approximately 4,000-5,000 people each year
are identified as long-term international migrants.
Jobseeker’s Allowance (income-based) is the main benefit for people between 18 and state
pension age who are out of work or work less than 16 hours a week on average, based on income and
savings criteria.
A juxtaposed control is a UK Border Zone set up, by international treaty, in another country to
enforce UK immigration, detection or police powers before the passenger physically arrives on UK
sovereign territory.
A landing card is a form completed by all passengers subject to immigration control, which is given to
the Border Force Officer on arrival. A landing card is completed for each journey; a person who
makes more than one journey is counted on each occasion. A controlled landing card is one where the
passenger has been granted leave to enter and is intending to stay for at least six months; a noncontrolled landing card is one where the passenger is intending to stay for less than six months and
does not intend to work.
Leave to remain is permission to stay in the UK either temporarily (limited leave to remain) or
permanently (indefinite leave to remain). In this release, an extension of leave to remain is known as
‘extension of stay’.
Migrant switchers are people who stated the intention in the IPS to stay in the destination country for
at least a year, and are therefore counted as migrants, but who actually left sooner.
Nationality is often used interchangeably with citizenship, and some datasets, refer to ‘nationals’ of a
country rather than ‘citizens’. Different datasets have different ways of establishing someone’s
nationality. The Annual Population Survey, which underlies the population estimates by nationality,
simply asks people ‘what is your nationality?’ However, the IPS, National Insurance numbers (NINos)
(from Department for Work and Pensions data) and entry clearance visa data are based on people’s
passports. For asylum statistics the nationality is as stated on the ‘Case Information Database’. This
will usually be based on documentary evidence, but sometimes asylum seekers arrive in the UK
without any such documentation.
Non-compliance grounds signify a failure to cooperate with the process to examine and decide the
asylum claim within a reasonable period. This includes refusals for failure to respond to invitations to
interview to establish identity.
A non-suspensive appeal is a right of appeal where UK Visas and Immigration has concluded that
there are insufficient grounds shown that would qualify for a grant of asylum, Humanitarian
10
Protection or Discretionary Leave to remain (known as a ‘clearly unfounded claim’) and
the applicant will not have the right to appeal against the decision while still in the UK.
Applications from nationals of a ‘designated’ State who have had their application refused are bound
by legislation to have their claims certified as clearly unfounded unless the Secretary of State is not
satisfied that the claim is clearly unfounded. In cases where certification is applied, the applicant
retains a right of appeal, which can only be submitted out-of country, termed as the ‘Non-Suspensive
Appeals’ process. Claims from nationals of all other States may be considered for certification on a
case-by-case basis.
In a notified voluntary departure, it has been established that a person has breached UK
immigration laws and / or has no valid leave to remain in the UK. Removal directions may or may not
have been set to administratively remove or deport the person from the country; however, the person
has notified the Home Office that they wish to make their own arrangements to leave the country and
has provided evidence to this effect. The Home Office will have been required to facilitate/monitor the
departure as necessary.
Official Statistics are defined in the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 as all those
statistical outputs produced by central Government departments and agencies, by the Office for
National Statistics, by the devolved administrations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, or by
other Crown bodies. Official statistics include several categories of statistics produced by public
bodies:
•
'National Statistics' - these are certified as compliant with the Code of Practice for Official
Statistics.
•
statistics produced by the GSS that are not 'National Statistics'
•
statistics produced by Crown Bodies but not under the professional management of the GSS
•
statistics produced by non-Crown Bodies included in secondary legislation
In the Immigration Statistics release, any data described as ‘Official Statistics’ are drawn from the
Home Office’s administrative systems and have not necessarily been subject to the same detailed
verification processes as those badged as National Statistics (NS). For example such figures may
include:
(a) data produced internally for operational management purposes in the first instance, rather
than produced solely for the published statistics;
(b) data added to the Home Office’s migration statistics publications after these were last
designated as National Statistics and prior to re-designation as NS by the UK Statistics
Authority.
Under the Statistics and Registration Act 2007 framework, the designation of new statistics as
‘National Statistics’ is undertaken by the UK Statistics Authority. Hence (b) are therefore described as
Official Statistics rather than National Statistics. The UK Statistics Authority has designated the
statistics within Immigration Statistics as National Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and
Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Official
Statistics. In previous versions of this User Guide, Official Statistics have also been referred to as
‘management information’.
Other confirmed voluntary departures: persons who it has been established have left or have been
identified leaving the UK without formally informing the immigration authorities of their departure.
These persons can be identified either at embarkation controls or by a variety of data-matching
initiatives.
Ordinary visitors are non-EEA nationals admitted to the UK for a period not exceeding six months on
condition that they do not work, reside in the UK for long periods or access public funds.
Passengers returning includes both: people who are settled in the UK, who have been absent for
less than two years; and those subject to a limited leave to enter who have returned within the time
limit of that leave. The initial admissions of such passengers will have been counted in a specific
category in the relevant time period.
11
A permanent residence card is issued to non-EEA family members of EEA nationals to
confirm their right of permanent residence in the UK as a family member of an EEA
national. They must have been living in accordance with EU laws relating to free movement rights for
a continuous period of five years. The permanent residence card is valid for ten years. Non-EEA
family members are not obliged to apply for a permanent residence card.
The Points-based system (PBS) is the main route for non-EEA nationals working and studying in the
UK. It consists of five 'tiers'. See the definitions for the individual tiers, Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, Tier 4 and
Tier 5 for further information.
Port of entry is an airport, seaport or rail terminal through which people from outside the UK enter the
country.
Post-decision reviews are sometimes carried out on asylum initial decisions for a number of
reasons. An asylum decision by the Secretary of State can be later reviewed as a result of additional
information and/or significant changes in the applicant’s current circumstances and the relevant
country of origin information.
Principal applicant is the main applicant named. There is one per application. A principal applicant
can have no, one or more dependants.
Private Life: grant of leave to remain in the UK because the person has established a private life in
the UK. In order to be eligible to apply for leave to remain on the basis of private life in the UK, the
applicant must have resided continuously in the UK for at least 20 years or be able to demonstrate
that there are very significant obstacles to their integration in the country to which they would return.
For young people aged between 18 and 24 the applicant must have resided continuously in the UK for
at least half of their life, and for children aged under 18 the applicant must have resided continuously
in the UK for at least 7 years and show that it would not be reasonable to expect them to leave the UK.
Applicants can only apply for this route from within the UK.
Refugee is defined, by the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and
1967 Protocol (the ‘Refugee Convention’), as being a person who, owing to a well-founded fear of
being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or
political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality (or habitual residence, where stateless and
who is unable or, owing to such a fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country.
Recognition of refugee status by the UK is a pre-requisite to the grant of asylum in the country.
Registration certificates (table ee_02) are issued to EEA nationals to confirm their right of residence
in the UK on the basis that they are exercising a Treaty Right or they are the family member of an EEA
national who is exercising Treaty Rights in the UK. EEA nationals are not obliged to apply for a
registration certificate unless they are applying on the basis of being an extended family member of
another EEA national.
Registration certificates (tables ee_01 and ee_01_q) are documents issued to Bulgarian, Romanian
and Croatian nationals as evidence they were exempt from the requirement to obtain permission
before commencing employment in the UK. Transitional restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian
nationals were lifted on 1st January 2014.
Removal of time limit is administrative action resulting in a non-EEA national being granted
indefinite leave to remain.
Residence cards (table ee_02) are issued to non-EEA national family members of an EEA national
who is exercising Treaty Rights in the UK. It confirms their right of residence as a family member of an
EEA national and is normally issued for a period of five years. Non-EEA national family members of an
EEA national do not need to apply for a residence card unless they are applying on the basis of being
an extended family member of an EEA national.
12
Restricted Leave (RL) From 2 September 2011, all individuals refused asylum or
Humanitarian Protection on the grounds of their war crimes or other international crimes
committed prior to their arrival in the UK, but who cannot be immediately removed due to the
European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), may be granted Restricted Leave to remain for a
maximum of six months at a time.
Right of abode is the legal description of a person’s right to enter and live in the UK without any
immigration restrictions. All British citizens have the right of abode along with some Commonwealth
citizens. This can be evidenced by a British citizen passport or a certificate of entitlement in a foreign
passport.
The Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS) was a scheme under which Bulgarian and
Romanian nationals aged 18 or over could be admitted to the UK to undertake seasonal work on
farms. SAWS dated from the immediate post-war years, as a way of bringing in short-term labour to
gather harvests, and its general principles remain to provide short-term seasonal labour for the
agricultural industry. The scheme operated under an annual quota system. Before restriction to
Bulgarian and Romanian nationals in 2007, the majority of participants were from Eastern Europe and
the states of the former USSR. The Scheme has been discontinued following the removal of labour
market restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian nationals at the end of 2013.
Section 4 support: An individual may be eligible for support under Section 4(2) of the Immigration
and Asylum Act 1999 if their asylum application has been determined as refused and appeals rights
are exhausted, but they are destitute and there are reasons that temporarily prevent them from leaving
the UK.
Section 95 support: Support may be provided under Section 95 of the Immigration and Asylum Act
1999 to destitute asylum seekers until their asylum claim is finally determined. Section 95 support can
be provided as both accommodation and subsistence, or accommodation or subsistence only.
Section 98 support: While a claim for Section 95 support is being considered, Section 98 permits
the Secretary of State to provide or arrange for the provision of support for asylum seekers or
dependants of asylum seekers who appear to be destitute. Section 98 support is temporary
accommodation and is intended for short-term use.
The Sector Based Scheme (SBS) was a quota-based scheme for Bulgarian and Romanian nationals
aged between 18 and 30, which only covered the food-manufacturing sector. SBS for other
nationalities was closed in December 2006; prior to this, SBS was a quota-based scheme for overseas
nationals to work in the hospitality and food-processing sectors. The Scheme has been discontinued
following the removal of labour market restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian nationals at the end of
2013.
Settlement is a grant of indefinite leave to enter (on arrival) or indefinite leave to remain (after entry)
to a non-EEA national.
Statistical Significance - The International Passenger Survey interviews a sample of passengers
passing through ports within the UK. As with all sample surveys, the estimates produced from them
are based upon one of a number of different samples that could have been drawn at that point in time.
This means that there is a degree of variability around the estimates produced. This variability
sometimes may present misleading changes in figures as a result of the random selection of those
included in the sample. If a change or a difference between estimates is described as 'statistically
significant', it means that statistical tests have been carried out to reject the possibility that the change
has occurred by chance. Therefore statistically significant changes are very likely to reflect real
changes in migration patterns.
Students are non-EEA nationals travelling to the UK primarily or solely for the purpose of study.
13
The short-term student category replaced the student visitor category on 24 April 2015
and provides for those people who wish to come to the UK in order to undertake a short
period of study which will be completed within the period of their leave (maximum six months unless
applying under the concession for English language courses – 11 months). Short-term students
cannot work, including undertaking a paid or unpaid work placement as part of their course.
Support is the provision of accommodation and/or subsistence to those seeking asylum. See Section
4 support, Section 95 support and Section 98 support.
Third Country, or safe third country, is a country of which the applicant is not a national or citizen and
in which a person’s life or liberty is not threatened by reason of race, religion, nationality, membership
of a particular social group or political opinion. It is also one from which a person would not be sent to
another State in contravention of his rights under the 1951 Convention. Most Third Country cases are
those which come under the arrangements provided by the Dublin Convention or the Dublin II
Regulation (the “Dublin arrangements”). Asylum claims may be refused without substantive
consideration of the application if the applicant can be returned to a safe third country.
Tier 1 of the points-based system: For high value individuals who will contribute to growth and
productivity.
Tier 2 of the points-based system: For skilled workers from outside the EEA with a skilled job offer to
fill gaps in the UK labour force.
Tier 3 of the points-based system: For limited numbers of low-skilled workers needed to fill specific
temporary labour shortages (this has never been implemented).
Tier 4 of the points-based system: Students.
Tier 5 of the points-based system: Youth mobility and temporary workers: people allowed to work in
the UK for a limited period of time to satisfy primarily non-economic objectives.
UK ancestry is a possible route of entry to work and/or settle in the UK for Commonwealth citizens
without right of abode if they can show that they have a grandparent who was born in the UK. For
these purposes Commonwealth Countries are defined in Schedule 3, British Nationality Act 1981.
UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) is a part of the Home Office and is responsible for providing
decisions regarding entry for people travelling to the UK, with emphasis on customer satisfaction for
business people and tourists alike.
An Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Child (UASC) is defined in the Immigration Rules as a person
who:
 is under 18 years of age when the asylum application is submitted.
 is applying for asylum in their own right; and
 is separated from both parents and is not being cared for by an adult who in law or
by custom has responsibility to do so.
A child may move between the unaccompanied and accompanied categories while their applications
are under consideration, e.g. where a child arrives alone but is later united with other family members
in the UK, or a child arrives with their parents or close relatives but is later abandoned, or a trafficked
child, or one brought in on false papers with an adult claiming to be a relative.
Unsubstantiated cases are where the applicant has failed to substantiate their claim for asylum
through non-attendance at the substantive interview and who is found to have absconded from their
registered address. Also called non-substantiated claims.
14
Upper Tribunal Judges hear and decide appeals against decisions made by the Firsttier Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber) and judicial review claims against certain
decisions of the Home Office.
Visa: see Entry clearance.
A visa national is: a national of a country listed as requiring a visa for any type of entry to the UK; a
stateless person; a holder of a non-national travel document unless issued by the UK; or a holder of a
passport issued by an authority that is not recognised in the UK. Visa nationals must obtain entry
clearance before travelling to the UK, except in certain circumstances, unless they are returning
residents or those with permission to stay who are returning after a temporary absence.
Visitor switchers are people who stated the intention in the IPS to stay in the destination country for
less than a year, but who actually stay for a year or longer.
Voluntary departures comprise notified voluntary departures, assisted voluntary returns and other
confirmed voluntary departures.
Withdrawn is an application that can be withdrawn explicitly by the applicant by signing the relevant
form or implicitly through failing to attend the substantive interview (see unsubstantiated cases),
leaving the UK without prior authorisation prior to the conclusion of the asylum claim or failing to
complete an asylum questionnaire as requested. An appeal can be withdrawn by either the appellant
or the Home Office.
Worker authorisation registration certificates are documents issued to Croatian nationals
conferring permission to work, where they are subject to the requirement to obtain such permission
before commencing employment in the UK and to highly skilled individuals who are exempt from this
requirement to confirm their right to work.
Worker Registration Scheme (WRS): Under this scheme, which ended on 30 April 2011, EU8
nationals who took up employment in the UK were required to apply to register that employment under
the WRS within one month of commencing work. The requirement to register employment no longer
applied if the individual completed 12 months continuous registered employment in the UK. The
requirement to register did not apply to work in a self-employed capacity.
Work permit holder is a migrant who is granted leave for work permit employment (paragraphs 128
to 133 of the Immigration Rules).
15
3 Conventions
Statistics
used
in
Immigration
Rounding
Data are mainly provided unrounded in the data tables of the Immigration Statistics release. This is to
promote transparency and allow users to exploit the data further.
However, caution should be taken when comparing small differences between time periods; while care
is taken in collecting and collating all the information obtained, the figures are subject to the
inaccuracies inherent in any large recording system and are not necessarily accurate to the last digit.
There are a range of different types of errors possible, such as those resulting from recording errors or
misclassifications.
The data provided rounded are:
 passenger arrivals; sampling methods are used to provide counts of completed
landing cards and therefore these data are rounded – see the Admissions section
of this User Guide for details on the sampling and rounding methods used;
 grants of settlement to Commonwealth citizens and foreign nationals in Table se_06
between 1960 and 1996 which are rounded to the nearest ten; and between 1997
and 2002 which are rounded to the nearest five due to unrounded data not currently
being available; and
 asylum applications received by other countries in Table as_07_q which are rounded
to the nearest 100.
 asylum applications: Table as_01 for 1989 to 1993 and as_02 for 1989 to 2001 are
rounded to the nearest 5, Table as_02 for 1991 to 2001 are rounded to the nearest
100 due to dependants applications being estimated.
In the topic briefs, data have occasionally been rounded for ease of reading, where appropriate based
on the size of numbers that are being reported. Each topic brief reports any rounding used. In all
cases, except passenger arrivals data, the round-half-away-from-zero method is used (see below).
Percentages are rounded to the nearest per cent using the round-half-away-from-zero method.
The round-half-away-from-zero method has been used, so that in the borderline case where the
fraction of the percentage is exactly 0.5, the rounded figure is equal to y + 0.5 if y is positive, and y 0.5 if y is negative. For example, 23.5 per cent is rounded to 24 per cent, and -23.5 per cent is
rounded to -24 per cent. When rounding whole numbers the result is similar; for example, when
rounding to the nearest 100, 1,250 would be reported as 1,300.
Where data are rounded, they may not sum to the totals shown, or, in the case of percentages, to 100 per
cent, because they have been rounded independently.
Use of symbols
The following symbols have been used in the tables:
:
z
*
Not available.
Not applicable.
Number is too small to be shown (used in tables where figures have been rounded).
16
Using the data: filtering of tables
Several of the tables accompanying the Immigration Statistics releases include filters (buttons in the
cells at the top of columns) to allow users to select which part of the data they wish to view. Many
tables, especially those with the column heading ‘Country of nationality’, will be already filtered when
the file is first downloaded.
To use the filters click on the button and select the item you want to see from the list presented. The
icon within the button changes colour and/or shape to indicate a filter has been selected for that
column.
To undo or change the selection click on the button again and select another item from the list
presented. More than one column can be filtered at the same time.
The colour and form of the icon shown in the filter button may differ according to the package being
used to view the table. Filtering may not be possible when viewed on some mobile devices.
Classification of countries and nationalities
In the Immigration Statistics release, some data are available by country of nationality. The country of
nationality recorded is based on the documentation, generally passports, provided by the individual at
the point of recording the details. For asylum statistics, the country of nationality is usually based on
documentary evidence, although sometimes the asylum seeker would arrive in the UK without any
such documentation.
As far as is sensible, a full country of nationality list has been provided.
The heading ‘British overseas citizens’ includes British protected persons and British subjects under
the British Nationality Act 1981 and covers those people classified in the pre-1983 issues of this
publication as ‘United Kingdom Passport Holders’, as well as British overseas citizens. Those
recorded as British overseas territories citizens (BOTCs) from Hong Kong, stateless persons from
Hong Kong, British nationals (overseas) and holders of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
passports are recorded under ‘Hong Kong’, and other people recorded as BOTCs are included under
the relevant geographical region.
The state union of Serbia and Montenegro came to an end after Montenegro’s formal declaration of
independence on 3 June 2006 and Serbia’s formal declaration of independence on 5 June 2006.
Serbia and Montenegro may be counted together due to the use of a single (Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia) passport until 31 December 2010 when the Yugoslav passport became invalid. After this
date, only passports issued by the separate jurisdictions have been accepted.
Prior to July 2011, Sudan includes all individuals presenting travel documents or passports relating to
that country. Since July 2011, nationals of South Sudan who presented Sudanese travel documents
may continue to be recorded under Sudan; those presenting travel documents from South Sudan are
recorded as nationals of Sudan (South).
Following requests from UNHCR and Asylum Aid in 2011/12, those recognised as either ‘Stateless’ or
a ‘Refugee’ are available as separate ‘Country of nationalities’ within the nationality tables. ‘Stateless’
refers individuals recorded as: Kuwaiti Bidoun; recognised as Stateless by UNHCR (the UN Refugee
Agency) under Article 1 of the 1954 Convention relating to the status of Stateless Persons; or
stateless on the relevant record held by the Home Office. ‘Refugee’ refers to those: recognised as a
refugee by UNHCR under Article 1 of the 1951 Convention relating to the status of Refugees; or
recorded as a refugee on the relevant record held by the Home Office.
17
Revisions to data
We anticipate that data for the latest full calendar year and, where applicable, quarters from the
current calendar year will be revised in due course. On occasion, earlier data will be revised. The data
will generally only be revised once in a year and considered final after a further 12 months, unless
significant errors are discovered or the data are Official Statistics.
Provisional citizenship data, and from 2013, extensions data, are expected to be revised in May of
each year; all other provisional data are expected to be revised in August of each year. In addition,
removals and voluntary departures data are checked each quarter to see whether provisional quarterly
data needs to be revised.
It is not possible to evaluate whether any future revisions will be upward or downward; but the reasons
for revisions are likely to include:
 late reporting of cases – a small proportion of cases are not included when the
statistics are produced;
 the results of data-cleansing exercises, such as data identified that cannot be
included when the statistics are calculated because of missing or invalid values, the
identification of duplicates in the data; and
 reconciliations with alternative data sources which identify cases not yet included in
the statistics.
Despite all our best efforts, there may occasionally be a need to amend publications to correct errors
(these may occur if, for example, data supplied to us are subsequently found to be incorrect).
Significant errors in published statistics will be corrected as soon as possible (i.e. by amending
electronic versions of the release and including a prominent alert on our website to notify users of the
change), and we will “correct errors discovered in statistical reports and alert stakeholders, promptly”
in line with the Code of Practice, Principle 2, Practice 7. We will use appropriate methods to
communicate with users. An error is considered to be significant if the resultant change would qualify
or contradict the conclusions that would previously have been drawn from the data.
If the error is minor or textual, or insignificant in the sense that any correction would be reasonably
deemed inconsequential, we will not issue a correction immediately, but will do so when a new release
is due for publication.
If we discover an error which is insubstantial but which, in our professional judgement, warrants
immediate correction we will amend electronic copies of the published release and ensure that the
revision is clearly identified in the amended publication.
In order to make clear our revisions, rather than marking revised data in tables directly, our approach
is to highlight revisions in the ‘About this release’ page, the ‘Notes’ worksheet, topic briefing text and in
the User Guide, depending on how important the revisions are.
Further details on the Revisions Policy for the Home Office can be found on the Home Office Science,
Research and Statistics web pages within the Statement of Compliance with the Code of Practice at:
http://homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/science-research-statistics/research-statistics/home-officescience/ho-compliance-state-11.
Revisions analysis
The table below shows that revisions to the annual 2014 figures first published in February 2015 have
been small. Two exceptions to this are the ‘Voluntary departures’ and the ‘Detention (children entering)’
series.
18
Series
Asylum applications (main applicants)
Asylum applications (inc. dependants)
Asylum initial decisions (main applicants)
Enforced removals
Refused entry at port and subsequently
departed
Voluntary departures
Detention (total entering)
Detention (children entering)
Detention (total leaving)
Detention (children leaving)
Grants of an extension of stay (inc.
dependants)
Grants of settlement (inc. dependants)
Entry
clearance
visas
granted
(inc.
dependants)
Citizenship grants (all)
Admissions (total passenger arrivals, millions)
Admissions (Non-EEA national arrivals,
millions)
Published
Feb 15
24,914
31,433
19,936
12,460
15,943
Revision May
15 - percentage
change with
Feb 15
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
Revision Aug
15 –
percentage
change with
Feb 15
+0.5%
+2.9%
-0.8%
+1.3%
+0.3%
24,001
30,365
99
29,655
99
236,572
+9.6%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
+0.1%
+14.8%
0.0%
+29.3%
0.0%
+27.3%
n/a
103,147
2,449,351
n/a
n/a
+0.9%
125,755
117.0
14.5
-0.08%
+0.1%
+0.7%
n/a
+0.1%
+0.7%
‐0.0%
Explanation of revisions for children in detention data
Data revisions on the number of children entering and leaving detention occur when a more recent
data extract is used to produce the figures. Later extracts will reflect changes made to date of birth
information about individuals (after reviews, new evidence or ‘Merton’ assessments). These changes
do not alter the total number of people entering or leaving detention (which changed by less than 0.1%
for the 2014 totals published in August 2015), but may increase or decrease the number of children
reported as entering or leaving detention.
Explanation of revisions for voluntary departures
Figures for voluntary departures are particularly vulnerable to upward revision. These occur when data
matching for the “other confirmed voluntary departures” subset is undertaken retrospectively to check
departures. “Other confirmed voluntary departures” are cases where a person has been identified as
having left the UK when they no longer had the right to remain in the UK, either as a result of
embarkation controls or by subsequent data matching on Home Office systems. These figures are
revised for two consecutive quarters.
Factors affecting the statistics
Immigration Rules, which are laid before Parliament by the Home Secretary, govern the entry and
refusal of entry of passengers into the UK, the conditions of stay in the UK, the variation of such
conditions following entry, settlement and the deportation or removal of individuals.
Current Immigration Rules are stated in ‘Statement of Changes in Immigration Rules’ HC 395, which
took effect from 1 October 1994. This consolidated previous rule changes, although there have been
changes to the rules since 1994. Some of these changes have affected the statistics and the most
important changes are given in the ‘Policy and Legislative Changes Timeline’ published alongside this
User Guide.
19
4
Information affecting all topics
Potential uses of the data provided in the Immigration Statistics release
The following list of uses of Official Statistics was produced by the UK Statistics Authority
(http://www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/monitoring/monitoring-reviews/monitoring-brief-62010---the-use-made-of-official-statistics.pdf).
We have indicated a range of the expected uses of the data within Immigration Statistics in bold with
some examples.
i. Informing the general public’s choices:
a. about investment decisions
b. about service providers
c. about lifestyle choices
d. about the state of the economy, society and the environment e.g. via Parliament and the
media
e. about the performance of government and public bodies e.g. via Parliament and the media
ii. Government decision-making about policies, and associated decisions about related programmes
and projects:
a. policy making
b. policy monitoring
iii. Resource allocation – typically by central and local government
iv. Informing private sector commercial choices:
a. targeting local markets
b. targeting households and individuals
c. designing market research surveys
v. Informing public marketing campaigns
vi. Supporting third sector activity:
a. lobbying
b. funding applications
vii. Facilitating academic research
Users of the Home Office immigration statistics
The responses to the February–May 2011 statistical consultation included evidence of the use made
of the immigration statistics published by the Home Office by a range of users. These included:
Greater London Authority (GLA)
“Staff in both the Intelligence Unit and the Health and Communities Unit at the GLA makes significant
use of the Home Office statistics on immigration for a number of analyses and policy development,
including supporting the London Strategic Migration Partnership.”
Migration Advisory Committee (MAC)
“The Migration Advisory Committee is a regular user of the Home Office’s statistical outputs and these
data are vital in supporting its advice to the Government. In particular, the MAC draws extensively on
entry clearance visas granted, by immigration category; passengers given leave to enter, by
immigration category; managed migration statistics on grants of further leave to remain; settlement
(indefinite leave to remain) and citizenship statistics; and A8 and A2 accession statistics.”
Refugee Council
The Refugee Council reported that they value publication of immigration statistics and regard them as
an essential part of the transparency and openness of management of the Home Office. The Refugee
Council use data on detained fast-track process for monitoring.
20
Asylum Support Appeals Project (ASAP)
ASAP use asylum and asylum support data to monitor the impact and effectiveness of
Home Office policies and procedures; inform service provision and resource allocation (e.g. future
demand for legal advice/representation); and compare/corroborate with frontline evidence.
Wales Strategic Migration Partnership
Wales Strategic Migration Partnership use data for planning of services within local areas.
Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association (ILPA)
ILPA use data within information dissemination to members; for evidence-based research and opinion.
Other identified users (individuals’ names omitted):
Asylum Aid
Asylum, Refugee and Migration Services, Directorate for Adults, Manchester City Council
Bail for Immigration Detainees
Bank of England
Centre for Migration Policy Research, Swansea University
Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), University of Oxford
Confederation of British Industry (CBI)
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Department for Communities and Local Government
Department for Work and Pensions
Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of Oxford
European Migration Network
Eurostat
HM Treasury
IGC Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees
Institute for Public Policy Research
Institute of Employment Studies at Sussex
London School of Economics
Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford
Migration Research Unit, University College London
Migration Watch UK
National Institute of Economic & Social Research
National Records of Scotland
North West Regional Strategic Migration Partnership Support Team
Nuffield College, University of Oxford
OECD International Migration Division
Office for National Statistics
School of Geography, University of Leeds
Trades Union Congress (TUC)
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD): Kings College,
University of Cambridge
Wales Strategic Migration Partnership
Warwick Institute of Employment Research at Warwick
Welsh Refugee Council/Cyngor Ffoaduriaid Cymru
Within the Home Office the statistics are used by a range of policy advisers, social researchers and
economists in order to inform policy and operational decisions by Ministers.
Examples of uses of the statistics:
(Note: the examples given below identify some uses of the statistics; however, their inclusion does not
indicate that they are endorsed by Home Office Migration Statistics or that they represent any official
view of the Home Office).
21
Policy monitoring, lobbying
Refugee Council
-briefing on the asylum statistics
http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/policy/briefings/2012/asylumstatsMay2012
-press statements
http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/news/archive/news/2011/november/241111_press_statement_home
_office_stats_libyan_syrian_asylum_numbers_increase
http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/latest/news/774_new_asylum_statistics_show_increase_in_libyan_a
nd_syrian_nationals_seeking_safety_here
Asylum Aid
-policy briefs
http://www.asylumaid.org.uk/data/files/womenbriefing.pdf
Migration Observatory
- briefings
http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings
- data resources
http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/data-and-resources/charts/create/international-comparisons
-policy primers
http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/policy-primers
ICAR
-statistics briefings
Key Statistics about Asylum Seeker Applications in the UK
http://www.icar.org.uk/ICAR%20Statistics%20Paper%201%20%20December%202009%20update.pdf
Asylum Decision Making and Appeals Process
http://www.icar.org.uk/ICAR%20Statistics%20Paper%202%20-%20March%2009%20Update.pdf
Informing the general public’s choices: about the performance of government and public
bodies
UNHCR statistics reports
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c4d6.html
-news release
http://www.unhcr.org/4f7063116.html and statistics trends
http://www.unhcr.org/4e9beaa19.html
Eurostat statistical reports
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_sta
tistics
Migrants in Europe 2011 edition A statistical portrait of the first and second generation
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-31-10-539/EN/KS-31-10-539-EN.PDF
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-BP-02-006/EN/KS-BP-02-006-EN.PDF
OECD International Migration Outlook
http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/internationalmigrationoutlook2011.htm
UK country notes, free download
http://www.oecd.org/migration/48364632.pdf
The Guardian
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/may/24/net-migration-uk-250000-a-year?INTCMP=SRCH
22
BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-18189797
Government decision making about policies, and associated decisions about related
programmes and projects: policy making and policy monitoring
Migration Advisory Committee reports and publications
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/migration-advisory-committee
Home Office consultations on changes to policy
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications?departments%5B%5D=uk-visas-andimmigration&publication_filter_option=consultations
House of Commons Public Accounts Committee (2009): Management of asylum applications
report http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmpubacc/325/325.pdf
Home Affairs Committee Report: Immigration Cap
http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/home-affairscommittee/news/101028-immigration-cap-report/
House of Commons library briefing papers
http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN05881
Impact assessment [change to family rules]
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/257357/fam-impactstate.pdf Underpinning announcement of change to policy
http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN06353
Prime Minister’s speech
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-13083781
“But by far the biggest route for non-EU entrants into this country has been the student visa route.
Immigration by students has almost trebled in the past decade.
Last year, some 303,000 visas were issued overseas for study in the UK. But the most significant
route to permanent settlement is the economic migration route.
Last year, 84,000 people who initially came on a work visa got the right to settle here.”
PQ answers
PQ 208559
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm140912/text/140912w0001.htm
PQ 197467
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/cm140512/text/140512w0004.htm
(ONS) Migration Statistics Quarterly Report
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/migration-statistics-quarterly-report/february-2013/msqrfeb13.html
(DWP) National Insurance Number (NINo) Allocations to Adult Overseas Nationals
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-insurance-number-allocations-to-adult-overseasnationals-entering-the-uk
Strengths, limitations and data quality
Below are some general strengths and limitations of the Immigration Statistics release.
Strengths of the data provided in the Immigration Statistics release:
23




Very detailed information based on administrative sources providing exact
counts by detailed nationality.
Very timely (published within two months of the reference period e.g. data for calendar year
2012 published before the end of February 2013).
Low revision levels. Details of the extent of revisions following annual totals published in
February 2012 are given in the ‘Revisions Analysis’ section of the User Guide in ‘Conventions
used in Immigration Statistics’.
Possible to see how changes to the UK’s immigration control system have direct impacts on
the numbers, which are used to directly monitor that system.
Limitations of the data provided in the Immigration Statistics release:



Home Office data are not as suitable as ONS data for understanding overall trends in all UK
immigration, emigration and net migration.
Home Office generally relates to those subject to immigration control, rather than all
immigration including by UK and other EU nationals; therefore for analysis of total immigration
ONS data are more appropriate
(http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration).
Home Office data do not provide information on emigration.
Specific examples
Home Office data on their own do not provide a measure of net migration and the contribution of net
migration to population growth so cannot be used to directly measure progress against the current
government target to reduce net migration to the ‘tens of thousands’.
Equally, visas granted data are more timely than ONS immigration data, and as shown in the work,
study and family briefing sections, they are likely to be a useful leading indicator for the non-EU
component of the ONS immigration figures.
Data quality of administrative data
During the first half of 2002, an integrated database CID (Case Information Database) was introduced
to record case information. This database took over from many other databases, was built for
administrative purposes, and information is collated from it for statistical purposes subject to data
quality.
Age/Sex Unknown
Some tables on settlement, citizenship, asylum and removals and voluntary departures provide a split
by age and / or sex. Within these tables, there are categories for ‘Sex unknown’ and ‘Age unknown’ or
‘Age/sex unknown’, which reflect:


Individuals where the date of birth and / or sex is not recorded in the appropriate field of the
CID. In some cases the age and sex may be recorded elsewhere, but it is not possible to use
this information in the published tables;
Individuals where the date of birth has been identified as being incorrectly entered, for
example, providing a negative age or where the date of birth is entered as 01/01/1901.
The first of the two types of data issues are the most common.
For asylum dependants, the age at application is based on their age at the date the main application
was made. Therefore, in cases where the child is born after the original asylum application, the
recorded age at application will be negative. These are not considered to be data quality issues, but
will appear in ‘Age unknown’ as the age is not known at the time of the application.
24
Specific data quality issues are detailed in each relevant topic.
Overall assessments of data quality
More generally, data quality has a range of aspects including accessibility, methods, relevance and
the extent to which they comply with the best practices and requirements outlined in the Code of
Practice for Official Statistics. In autumn 2011, the UK Statistics Authority assessed Immigration
Statistics against the Code, as part of its routine programme of assessments. This report can be found
on the UK Statistics Authority’s website at
http://www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/assessment/assessment-reports/index.html.
The assessment report published on 2 February 2012 was written on an exceptions basis and hence
focussed on the five requirements to be met in order for the release to be re-designated as National
Statistics. The report also commented briefly on existing strengths, noting that: the figures “are readily
accessible, produced according to sound methods and managed impartially and objectively in the
public interest”; and “help inform users such as the government, Parliament, the media and the wider
public about immigration control activities, and support the development and monitoring of immigration
policy”; and that “Many users commented that they found the new format in which the statistics are
presented easier to use”.
Following improvements made in the May 2012 and August 2012 editions, the UK Statistics Authority
have written to Home Office’s Chief Statistician confirming the designation of Immigration Statistics as
National Statistics.
Previous reviews of the statistics, which also addressed aspects of data quality, are listed below.
Asylum and migration – a review of Home Office Statistics by the National Audit Office May 2004
http://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2004/05/0304625.pdf
Review of Home Office publications of Control of Immigration Statistics August 2006
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/im
mig_review_06.pdf
Other documents with respect to this review are:
Projection
Initiation
Document
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/
rds/pdfs05/immigpid.pdf
Early Findings
Paper
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/
rds/pdfs05/earlyfindings.pdf
Abstract
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http:/rds.homeoffice.go
v.uk/rds/closed-stats-consults.html##
Implementation
Plan August
2006
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.g
ov.uk/rds/pdfs07/cpreview07.pdf
Review of Border and Immigration Agency Statistics on “Control of Immigration” – consultation
February 2008
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs07/bi
a-immig-stat-review-07.pdf
25
Official Statistics and National Statistics
Official Statistics are data which are collected for the purpose of supporting government business.
In the Immigration Statistics release, any data described as ‘Official Statistics’ are drawn from the
Home Office’s administrative systems and have not necessarily been subject to the same detailed
verification processes as those badged as National Statistics (NS). For example such figures may
include:
(a) data produced internally for operational management purposes in the first instance, rather
than produced solely for the published statistics; or
(b) data added to the Home Office’s migration statistics publications after these were last
designated as National Statistics and prior to re-designation as NS by the UK Statistics
Authority.
Under the Statistics and Registration Act 2007 framework, the designation of new statistics as
‘National Statistics’ is undertaken by the UK Statistics Authority. Hence (b) are therefore described as
Official Statistics rather than National Statistics.
The UK Statistics Authority last designated the Immigration Statistics release as National Statistics in
November 2012, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying
compliance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.
Designation can be broadly interpreted to mean that the statistics:
 meet identified user needs;
 are well explained and readily accessible;
 are produced according to sound methods; and
 are managed impartially and objectively in the public interest.
Once statistics have been designated as National Statistics it is a statutory requirement that the Code
of Practice shall continue to be observed.
In previous versions of this User Guide, Official Statistics have also been referred to as ‘management
information’.
Information about the policy context
A summary of the UK government’s immigration and asylum policy, plans and measures introduced
has been published by the House of Commons library.
Migration Statistics - Commons Library Standard Note Published 05 June 2013 | Standard notes
SN06077; Authors: Oliver Hawkins
http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN05829
Further information about UK government policy, including links to the Home Office website, is given
in the ‘Other sources of information’ section.
People covered by the Immigration Statistics release
The statistics in the Immigration Statistics release generally relate to people who do not have an
automatic right to enter or live in the UK and who come into contact with the Home Office during a
particular time period.
There are therefore fewer data available on:
26




British citizens;
those Commonwealth citizens who have the right of abode;
citizens of the Republic of Ireland and other parts of the Common Travel Area; and
nationals of the European Economic Area and Swiss nationals (see below).
Together with passengers in direct transit, people in the categories listed above account for almost
90% of the total passenger arrivals from outside the Common Travel Area (UK, the Channel Islands,
the Isle of Man and the Republic of Ireland).
However, some data on nationals of the Republic of Ireland, other parts of the Common Travel Area,
Commonwealth, European Economic Area and Swiss nationals are included in:








Entry clearance visas where applications have been made;
Total passenger arrivals;
Grants of settlement (where applicable and available);
Grants of British citizenship;
Asylum where applications have been made;
Detention;
Removals and voluntary departures;
Bulgarian, Romanian and Croatian nationals who require work authorisation
documentation or are exercising a Treaty right; and
 Issue and refusal of residence documentation to EEA nationals and their family
members.
Total passenger arrivals figures also include British citizens. Additionally, long-term migration data
published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) include all nationalities.
Enlargement of the EU/EEA since 1994
European Union (EU) nationals, previously European Community (EC) nationals, have had the right to
enter and live in the UK without immigration control since 1973.
On 1 January 1994, the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement came into force, meaning that
this right was extended to all EEA nationals. At the time, the EEA countries were the 12 Member
States of the European Union, together with Austria, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway.
Austria, Finland and Sweden subsequently became Member States of the European Union on 1
January 1995 and Liechtenstein became part of the European Economic Area on 1 May 1995.
An agreement, giving the same rights to Swiss nationals, came into force on 1 June 2002.
The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia (‘EU8
countries’) together with Cyprus and Malta became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004. From
this date, nationals of Cyprus and Malta have had full free movement rights and rights to work, and
restrictions on nationals from EU8 countries working in the UK via the Worker Registration Scheme
were put in place; these restrictions ended on 1 May 2011.
Bulgaria and Romania (the ‘EU2 countries’) became part of the European Union on 1 January 2007.
Nationals from these countries did not have an automatic right to work in the UK; under the Accession
(Immigration and Worker Authorisation) Regulations 2006, under which they were required to obtain
appropriate authorisation to work, unless they are exempt from the requirements. Transitional
restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian nationals were lifted on 1 January 2014.
27
Croatia joined the European Union (EU) on 1 July 2013. Transitional arrangements
(https://www.gov.uk/croatian-national) were introduced to restrict Croatian nationals'
access to the UK labour market.
28
5
Visas and Sponsorship
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics on:
 Sponsoring employers and education institutions on the Home Office ‘Register of
Sponsors’ (Tables cs_01_q; cs_02_q; cs_07_q and cs_08_q);
 Applicants for both visas and extensions of stay for work who use a Certificate of
Sponsorship, by Industry type and nationality (Tables cs_03 - cs_06);
 Applicants for both visas and extensions of stay for study who use a Confirmation of
Acceptance for Studies, by education provider and nationality (Tables cs_09 cs_14).
 Entry clearance visa applications and outcomes, broken down by category and
country of nationality (Tables vi_01_q – vi_06 q o) and appeals (Table vi_ 07)
broken down by issuing post.
All of the tables listed above are published in the “Sponsorship” and “Visas” volumes. As a brief guide,
 Sponsorship contains tables cs 01 q to cs 14 q,
 Volume 1 of Visas contains tables vi 01 q to vi 05 q,
 Volume 2 of Visas contains tables vi 06 q and vi 06 q w,
 Volume 3 of Visas contains tables vi 06 q s to vi 06 q o.
CERTIFICATE OF SPONSORSHIP
ACCEPTANCE FOR STUDIES (CAS)
(CoS)
AND
CONFIRMATION
OF
Within the topic briefs for work and study, the use of CoS and CAS are referred to as ‘sponsored visa
applications’.
Data source
The statistics on CoS and CAS used are extracted from the Home Office’s Sponsorship Management
system (SMS). The data derived from SMS are administrative information used by sponsors to
allocate certificates.
Background on the statistics
Certificate of Sponsorship (CoS) for skilled individuals (Tier 2) and youth mobility and temporary
workers (Tier 5)
As part of the application process for visas and for extensions, skilled individuals must obtain a
certificate of sponsorship from a registered employer.
Any organisation that wishes to sponsor a worker must be registered on the Home Office’s Register of
Sponsors’.
For the CoS process, the following steps occur after an employer (sponsor) has been accepted onto
the Tier 2/5 organisations register:
1. A sponsor is able to apply to the Home Office for an annual allocation of CoS.
2. The Home Office then allocates a number of CoS to the sponsor.
29
3. The sponsor then assigns a CoS to an individual (who may be applying for a visa
from outside the UK or for an extension of stay if already in the UK).
4. The individual then uses the CoS as part of a visa application (or application for an extension
of stay).
Tier 2 (General) is currently subject to a limit on the number of CoS that can be allocated to new hires
earning less than £150,000 per year or for dependants of Tier 4 students who wish to switch into Tier
2 (General). The sponsor must apply for an allocation for these ‘restricted’ CoS on a case-by-case
basis to be considered at a monthly allocation meeting, held by the Home Office.
Once assigned, a CoS must be used to apply for leave within three months. If not used, the CoS
status changes to ‘Expired’. The CoS may also be withdrawn by the sponsor or cancelled by the
Home Office.
Sponsors can apply for an additional allocation of CoS if required, although certain limits apply
depending on the tier in which the sponsor is licensed.
Sponsors are given an A or B rating when they join the register. The B rating is a transitional rating
and means that the sponsor is working with the Home Office to improve their systems. The A rating is
granted where the Home Office are satisfied that the sponsor has the systems in place to carry out
their sponsor duties. Sponsors may apply for, and be granted, a premium level of customer service
from the Home Office and as such have an A (Premium) rating.
A sponsor may be licensed under more than one tier, and may have different ratings for each tier.
Industry sector has been classified using the 21 sections of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
listed on the Office for National Statistics website
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/classifications/current-standard-classifications/standardindustrial-classification/index.html.
Further information about CoS is given at https://www.gov.uk/uk-visa-sponsorship-employers.
Confirmation of acceptance for studies (CAS)
To apply for a student visa or for an extension as a student (Tier 4), individuals must use a
confirmation of acceptance for studies (CAS) from a sponsoring educational institution using the four
step process similar to CoS.
All Tier 4 sponsors are expected to be education providers who can meet the standards the Home
Office have set for highly trusted sponsors (HTS). When a sponsor successfully applies for a Tier 4
sponsor licence, the Home Office will give them an A-rating. This is a transitional rating for 12 months.
The sponsor must apply for HTS status no later than 12 months from the date they were granted their
licence.
Prior to 5 September 2011, it was possible for some CAS sponsors to be B-rated. This was either
because the Home Office had concerns about their ability to meet all of their sponsor duties or
because they had interim accreditation from one of the previously approved accreditation bodies.
Legacy sponsors cannot sponsor any new students. They can continue to sponsor existing students
who are already studying with them until they finish their course or until their licence expires,
whichever happens first
A sponsor may be licensed under more than one category within Tier 4.
Further information about CAS is given at https://www.gov.uk/tier-4-general-visa.
30
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Key terms
In order to distinguish from data on applications for (out of country) entry clearance visas, and to avoid
the use of technical jargon, the text about certificates of sponsorship used in applications for visas
instead employs the more succinct term ‘sponsored work visa applications’; similarly the use of
certificates of sponsorship in applications for (in country) extensions is described as ‘sponsored
applications for extensions for work’.
In order to distinguish from data on applications for (out of country) entry clearance visas, and to avoid
the use of technical jargon, the text about confirmations of acceptance for studies used in applications
for visas instead employs the more succinct term ‘sponsored study visa applications’; similarly the use
of confirmations of acceptance for studies in applications for (in country) extensions is described as
‘sponsored applications for extensions to study’.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the numbers of ‘sponsors on the register’ and ‘CoS used’ and ‘CAS used’
is considered to be high. These data:





are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
include register totals produced directly from the Home Office’s published list (register) of
sponsors which is subject to scrutiny by the sponsors themselves, providing external scrutiny
checking of the sponsor status, for example.
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors; and
undergo a reconciliation process (total numbers of sponsors matches published totals produced
independently by the Home Office).
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as nationality is very low, with such missing data reported as
unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The following
are known data quality issues:

information on sponsors’ industry category is self-completed, and may be subject to
classification errors (particularly at more detailed levels).
Compilation method
Information about numbers of sponsors and their status has been produced by Migration Statistics
based on copies of the published Register of Sponsors. CoS used and CAS used statistics are
produced by the Sponsorship Analysis Team within the Home Office. The Migration Statistics team
within the Home Office, who do not have access to the source live database, prepare the tables for
publication.
31
Quality and process checks carried out
The Migration Statistics team at the Home Office undertake cross-checking of
consistent totals, as part of the production process. For example CoS used totals
against data relating to visas and to extensions for Tiers 2 and 5. Data are
consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated with
operational and policy teams.
tables, to ensure
can be compared
also checked for
the Home Office
The prepared text is checked against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for
checking that the commentary appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
ENTRY CLEARANCE VISAS
Data source
The statistics on entry clearance visas are sourced from the Home Office Proviso-Central Referencing
System (CRS) visa casework system maintained by the Home Office International Group and
processed by ‘posts’. The information is gathered for the purpose of processing entry clearance visa
applications.
Background on the statistics
Different nationalities have different visa requirements for entering and staying in the UK:
 European Economic Area (EEA) and Swiss nationals do not require a visa to come to the UK;
 for over 100 other nationalities, covering three-quarters of the world population, a visa is
required for entry to the UK for any purpose or for any length of stay (i.e. “visa nationals”); and
 for all remaining nationalities (i.e. “non-visa nationals”) a visa is required for those wanting to
come to the UK for over six months, or for most types of work.
Before travelling to the UK, visa nationals are required to obtain entry clearance from a British
diplomatic post (visa-issuing section) abroad. Since October 2000, under the Immigration (Leave to
Enter and Remain) Order 2000, entry clearance serves a dual purpose. It allows the visa holder to
travel to, and also enter the UK, from the grant date and is activated on passing through UK
immigration control.
Entry clearance visa statistics cover a range of permitted lengths of stay, including those for less than
a year. Visas granted for study and some work-related visas, together with other visa types such as
EEA family permits and some dependants wishing to join or accompany other immigrants, allow
temporary entry clearance and require the individual to renew the visa before it expires should they
wish to stay longer. Some work and family visas allow a person to apply to stay indefinitely after a
certain period. A number of other entry clearance visas, including some family visas, permit a person
to stay indefinitely. However, the administrative database does not allow the resulting numbers of
visas granted to be accurately split into the three classifications of ‘temporary’, ‘leading to settlement’
and ‘settlement’, as some visas are used for more than one of these classifications.
Entry clearance visas can be applied for and granted to a main applicant and their dependants.
Dependants are allocated an entry clearance category according to the circumstances of their
application. Within the Points-based system (PBS), a child or partner will be recorded as a dependant
under the tier of the main applicant, unless he/she has applied for and been granted a PBS visa in
their own right, when they will be included as a main applicant. Outside of the PBS, many visas for
dependants are specific to the visa for the main applicant. However, there are a number of visas which
act as a catch-all for dependants – these are included within ‘Dependants joining/accompanying’.
32
There are also some visas which can be used for both main applicants and dependants
and therefore it is not possible to provide an accurate split of total main applicants and
total dependants.
Using the data
The figures of entry clearance visas granted show intentions to visit rather than actual arrivals and
individuals can arrive at any time during the period that the visa is valid.
Entry clearance visa data therefore provide an indication of the number of people who have an
intention to enter the UK and are available on a timelier basis than admissions of passengers given
leave to enter and estimates from the Office for National Statistics on long-term international
migration. The number of entry clearance visas granted is an indicator of the level of immigration of
non-EEA nationals; in recent years the trends for work and study visas, arrivals and inflow of long-term
migrants from the International Passenger Survey have tended to follow similar patterns. See ‘Related
statistics published elsewhere’.
Figures published in Immigration Statistics releases are shown by quarter and calendar year within the
tables and on a rolling-year basis in the topic commentary, due to the seasonality of much of the data.
Key terms
Dependants joining/accompanying are dependants applying for a visa on the basis of their
relationship with another migrant, who is not a settled person or British citizen. Following changes to
the rules, from the second quarter of 2011 until the second quarter of 2012, this category included new
family members who came to the UK to join a person granted refugee status or humanitarian
protection but who had yet to apply for or be granted settlement.
The Family route primarily covers visas where an individual is applying for a visa on the basis of their
relationship to a person settled in the UK or a British citizen. Published entry clearance statistics do
not separately identify adult dependent relatives of British Citizens and persons settled in the UK,
including under Appendix FM or under paragraph 317 of the Immigration Rules. The following is a
brief summary of the individuals included in each Family category.

Family route: Child
o Children travelling to the UK for adoption;
o From July 2012: 'post-flight' children joining those with refugee leave or humanitarian
protection (previously included in Dependants joining/accompanying: Child).
This category does not include children of a parent given limited leave to enter or remain in the UK for
a probationary period. They are included in Dependants joining/accompanying: Child using the
same visa endorsement as children joining/accompanying migrants in other routes.

Family route: Child (for immediate settlement)
o Adopted children;
o Children accompanying or joining parent(s) who are settled or being admitted for
settlement in the UK.

Family route: Partner includes:
o Fiancé(e)s and proposed civil partners;
o Partners granted visas for a probationary period;
o From July 2012: 'post-flight' partners joining those with refugee leave or humanitarian
protection (previously included in Dependants joining/accompanying: Partner).

Family route: Partner (for immediate settlement) - route closed to new entrants, except:
o Partners who are able to rely on transitional arrangements;
33
o
Partners of HM forces who qualify for immediate settlement.

Family route: Other
o Family reunion: pre-existing family members (partners, minor children) of a person with
refugee leave or humanitarian protection, who has not yet obtained British citizenship;
o From July 2012: dependants who are not partners or children of those with refugee leave
or humanitarian protection (previously included in Dependants joining/accompanying:
Other);
o From July 2012: parents with access rights to a child (previously included in Visitors).

Family route: Other (for immediate settlement)
o Dependants who are not partners or children of British Citizens or settled persons.
The Home Office does not record the statistics for adult dependent relatives based on which category
of the rules the application was made under. The entry clearance endorsements used for adult
dependent relative applications are also used to record applications under other routes, for example
children applying for indefinite leave under part 8 of the Immigration Rules. It is therefore not possible
to identify adult dependent relatives without the inspection of individual case records. The Home Office
is reviewing the collection of data relating to adult dependent relative settlement visas.
Other key terms for entry clearance visas can be found in the glossary of terms.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Changes to data affecting the statistics
Data on entry clearance visas have been released in a variety of publications; between 1979 and 2002
entry clearance statistics were published in the ‘Control of Immigration: United Kingdom’ and in ‘Entry
Clearance Statistics’, a financial year publication, between 2001 and 2008/09; and since the second
quarter of 2008 within the Immigration Statistics release and its predecessor.
Visa statistics dating back to 2001/02, originally published by the UK Border Agency of the Home
Office, are available from the National Archives website at
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://www.ukvisas.gov.uk/en/aboutus/stat
istics/visastatsarchive.
Caution should be exercised about making longer time series comparisons based on archived visa
statistics because of important changes over time to the method by which visa statistics have been
compiled and reported. Between the second quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2011,
improvements were made to the presentation of the statistics. The latest release provides comparable
data for all time periods back to the first quarter of 2005.
Due to a change of database in 2004, comparable data are not available for years prior to 2004.
For the release of entry clearance visa statistics in Immigration Statistics October – December 2012,
the published tables were revised to include quarterly rather than annual data where appropriate.
Data on appeals are only available from 2008 following a change to the procedures for the recording
of events on the Proviso-Central Referencing System (CRS) visa case working system in 2007.
34
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of entry clearance visas is considered to be high. These
data:






are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following August
and have not, in recent years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are subsequently
checked 12 months later and the provisional status of the data is altered to final;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors; and
undergo a reconciliation process.
The main types of errors and other potential quality issues are thought to relate to recording and
classification issues. The level of missing data on related fields such as nationality is very low, with
such missing data reported as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation
methods are used. The following are known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases.





While EEA nationals are not required to hold visas, the data contain some applications and
grants of visas recorded as relating to EEA nationals. Grants are in the region of 400–1,400 per
year. Approximately 95% of these are those recorded as Cypriots, but most likely these people
are from the area not under the effective control of the Republic of Cyprus. Further internal
investigation of the data has suggested that there has been some misclassification of the data
categories relating to Northern Cyprus nationals. This affects tables published prior to August
2014. The data has been corrected in the August 2014 edition, including for historical data.
Prior to the August 2014 edition, data for visas relating to Ghurkhas discharged before 1997
and to widow(er)s of Ghurkhas discharged before 1997 were included under the Family route.
In the August 2014 edition these data have been re-classified under the ‘Other settlement
(indefinite leave)’ category, including for historical data.
Prior to the August 2014 edition the visa figures concerning Refugees also included some visa
applications and grants relating to Stateless individuals. In the August 2014 edition data
relating to these visas have been reclassified under ‘Stateless’, including for historical data.
Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur visas, which became available out-of-country in April 2013, were
not included in the visa tables prior to the August 2014 edition, due to delays in the updates to
data processing systems.
Where visa endorsements have been replaced, or are no longer used, data for the new
endorsement codes are aggregated as far as possible to be comparable with existing data. The
data for the new endorsements are presented alongside data for existing endorsements,
accompanied by a note to explain the change.
Compilation method
Entry clearance visa data come from the Proviso-Central Referencing System (CRS) visa case
working system. Data are extracted to produce statistics on visa applications, grants, and appeals
worldwide. The visa case working database (CRS) is live so reports produced by the management
information teams will continually update.
35
Entry clearance statistics are produced by International Group within the Home Office.
The Migration Statistics team within the Home Office, who do not have access to the
source database, prepare the tables for publication.
Quality and process checks carried out
The Migration Statistics team at the Home Office undertake cross-checking of tables, to ensure
consistent totals, as part of the production process. Data are also checked for consistency against
previous totals, and significant changes investigated with Home Office operational and policy teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere, and making comparisons between
difference sources
 Admissions (passenger arrivals), see the Admissions topic and below for an







explanation of the relationship and differences between the data;
Extensions of stay, see the Extensions topic and below;
Statistics specific to work, study and family routes, see the Work, Study and Family
cross-cutting topics (these cross-cutting topics pull together subsets data from
different sources e.g. the Work topic includes and compares data on admissions,
visas and the International Passenger Survey (IPS) relating to those coming to the
UK to work);
IPS estimates of immigration, see below;
‘Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies’, see below;
‘Certificate of Sponsorship’, see below; and
Appeals of visa decisions, see below.
Data on migration applications decided within published standards and the cost per
decision for all permanent and temporary migration applications are published as
Official Statistics by Home Office as part of their key input and impact indicators.
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data.
Making comparisons between different sources
Admissions (Passenger arrivals)
Similarly to entry clearance visas, admissions (passenger arrivals) of non-EEA nationals are available
by category. However, data on admissions and on entry clearance cannot be directly compared as
they use different counts of the same group of people. Entry clearance counts number of visas, and
arrivals counts number of passengers, both of which may count an individual twice in the same period,
but for different reasons. In addition, the latest data released relate to different time periods.
There are a range of other reasons for the differences between these figures, which include:
 visas can be granted in one period and the individual arrives in a later period;
 the individual may not arrive;
 the individual may make more than one journey into the UK in the period the visa is
valid;
 not all individuals arriving require a visa for entry; and
36
 arrivals are based on estimates of landing cards, while visas granted
are sourced from the database used to process the visas.
There are further differences when data are considered at a category level. The ‘short-term student’
visa, which became obsolete on 1 September 2007 when the ‘student visitor’ visa was introduced, is
included within ‘student visitors’ for entry clearance visa data and ‘students’ for passenger arrivals
data; the rules that applied for short-term students provide a reasonable equivalence to student
visitors for entry clearance visas, but not for passengers arriving.
Extensions of stay
Entry clearance visas granted and grants of an extension of stay should not be summed as they are
indicators of different aspects of migration. Also, individuals could be counted in both if the two grants
occur within the same year.
Extensions of stay in a particular category can be granted to those who entered on the same or a
different category. The latter group of people are sometimes known as ‘switchers’.
In some circumstances, extensions of stay may be applied for by someone who originally did not
require an entry clearance visa due to their nationality and original intended length of stay.
Long-Term International Migration estimates of immigration
Estimates of people immigrating to the UK, broken down by country of citizenship and reason for
immigration, are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in two series:
 Long-Term International Migration (LTIM);
 International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates of long-term international migration,
providing a series by country of citizenship and reason for immigration.
These data are published by ONS in the Migration Statistics Quarterly Report. ONS’s overall data
provide a better indication of long-term trends of immigration than visas granted and passenger
arrivals data, because the ONS totals include UK and other EU nationals, and because visas granted
and passenger arrivals data include visitors and short-term migrants.
Entry clearance visas are only required for some nationals (see above), whereas all nationals are
included in the IPS.
ONS uses the United Nations (UN) definition of ‘migrants’ which is those moving to a country for a
year or more. Therefore, for non-EEA nationals, entry clearance visas are granted to those counted as
long-term migrants and others besides. Some visas are only valid for less than a year, but for those
granted with visas that could be for longer than a year, there is no actual information as to the
intended length of stay.
In summary, the differences between visas granted and long-term migrants are:
 visas can be granted in one period and the individual arrives in a later period;
 the individual may not arrive;
 visa issuances include those intending to enter for less than 12 months and
therefore not in the same group as long-term migrants;
 the visa granted may be different from the main reason of stay stated in response to
the IPS, including those who switch visas while in the UK; and
 not all long-term migrants require a visa for entry, in particular EEA and Swiss
nationals.
37
The LTIM and IPS estimates are based on a survey which is subject to sampling error.
Details of the standard errors and variability are available from the links below to the ONS
website.
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration.
However, the Work, Study and Family cross-cutting topics do provide comparisons between HO data
(admissions and visa) and more detailed ONS data for non-EU nationals (sourced and reproduced
from the Migration Statistics Quarterly Report tables).
Appeals of visa decisions
Appeals of visa decisions are undertaken by the HM Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS). HMCTS
take a decision and then inform individual visa-issuing ‘posts’ of the outcome for onward processing of
the visa in the case of allowed appeals. In the Immigration Statistics release, visa appeal outcomes
are based on the date that the appropriate ‘post’ received the notification from the Tribunal, which may
be four to eight weeks after the appeal when there is no delay. This is different to data published by
the HMCTS, which refer to appeal decision date. Differences can also arise due to administrative
procedures at individual ‘posts’ or due to a delay in the reporting and recording process (e.g. due to
geographical location). In addition, appeals recorded by the Tribunal are counts of main appellants,
while data released within Immigration Statistics include dependants. Data published by the HMCTS
are available in Quarterly Statistics for the Tribunals.
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-justice/series/tribunals-statistics
Since May 2010 all appeals have been reviewed by an Entry Clearance Managers (ECM). Cases
conceded on appeal by an ECM appear within the figures in the published tables but do not proceed
to tribunal and do not appear in figures relating to tribunal outcomes. 2011 was the first full year when
these reviews took place.
38
6
Admissions
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics – on:
 Passenger arrivals, broken down by purpose of journey for non-EEA nationals (Tables ad_01 –
ad_03) and
 Passengers initially refused entry, split by UK ports and juxtaposed controls, and country of
nationality (Tables ad_04 and ad_04_q).
Data source
The total number of passengers entering the UK is derived from monthly returns made by Border
Force staff based at 40 border control points (ports). Data from smaller ports are included in the
returns made by these ports. Where data are not provided by a port (three ports in the current period),
data are sourced from other organisations (i.e. Civil Aviation Authority; Department for Transport; and
Eurotunnel). The total is shown broken down into three broad nationality groupings: ‘British nationals’;
‘Other EEA nationals’; and ‘Non-EEA nationals’. There is no single source of data that allows for this
split.
Non-EEA nationals are sourced from landing cards completed by passengers arriving at UK ports and
published in Table ad_02.
Other EEA nationals (excluding British) are sourced from quarterly data from the International
Passenger Survey produced by the Office for National Statistics.
British nationals are based on a calculation using the previous sources of data (see compilation
method below).
Background on the statistics
Statistical information on non-EEA nationals is collated from landing cards after a passenger has been
allowed entry to the country and does not form part of the border control or security process.
The cards are separated into two main arrival types, non-controlled or controlled, determined by the
conditions a passenger is granted leave to enter under. Non-controlled relates to those passengers
entered on standard conditions of entry (e.g. visitors; passengers in transit; and passengers returning
after a temporary absence abroad). Non-controlled arrivals accounted for 94% of all non-EEA
passenger journeys made. All other cards are considered to be controlled cards.
Non-controlled cards
Each month, non-controlled cards relating to arrivals at Heathrow and Gatwick terminals are sampled
due to the large volume of arrivals at these ports (see compilation method for details). All other ports
collate non-controlled data by counting all cards and providing a monthly return that shows the
nationality and category of those arrivals.
Controlled cards
Controlled cards are sent by all ports to a central point within the Home Office. Information from each
card (including that required for statistical analysis) is extracted and held on a central database.
Data are then provided to Migration Statistics to collate the data for publication.
39
Key terms
Many of the key terms are covered in the glossary of terms.
Passengers returning includes both people who are settled in the UK and who have been absent for
less than two years, and those subject to a limited leave to enter who have returned within the time
limit of that leave. The initial admissions of such passengers will have been counted in one of the
specific categories of Table ad_02 in the relevant time period.
Refugees, exceptional leave cases and their dependants covers people who have applied for
asylum at ports (and their accompanying dependants) and who have been granted asylum,
humanitarian protection, discretionary leave or who have been allowed to stay under the Family
Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) Exercise (see below), and are hence given leave to enter. Port
asylum applicants are usually given temporary admission initially while their claim is being considered,
and the grant of leave to enter may therefore occur some time after the initial entry to the country.
These figures are not directly comparable with those in Table as_01 since they exclude grants to incountry asylum applicants, and include dependants.
Others given leave to enter includes people of independent means and their dependants, non-EEA
family members of EEA nationals, members of international organisations treated as exempt and
serving forces and their dependants.
40
Changes to data affecting the statistics
The data on visitors, students, passengers in transit and passengers returning (previously settled) are
based, mainly or partly depending on the category, on a sample of such people. Improvements to the
sampling methodology were introduced from July 2003 and therefore caution should be exercised
when making statistical comparisons with earlier periods at a detailed level.
Between February 2006 and May 2008, estimates were used to count non-controlled, non-EEA
nationals arriving at Stansted Airport rather than processing individual landing cards. Data relating to
controlled arrivals (e.g. work permit holders and their dependants, working holiday-makers, UK
ancestry, domestic workers, au pairs, spouses, fiancé(e)s, etc.) were processed in the normal way.
For 2006 data it was possible to estimate Stansted non-controlled arrivals by category and nationality
using 2005 actual figures, but this method could not be used to estimate 2007 and 2008 data. Instead,
a very broad estimate has been produced for non-controlled non-EEA arrivals at Stansted that shows
total arrivals and the category a passenger was granted leave to enter in. This does not, however,
allow an estimation of the greater detail needed for some of the tables, for example nationality by
reason of entry.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the passenger arrivals at UK ports of entry is considered to be high. These
data:





are largely based on administrative counts of the Home Office arrivals processes for non-EEA
nationals at UK ports (including sampling for Heathrow and Gatwick), as well as port totals
validated by comparison with an alternative source (Civil Aviation Authority);
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following
August and have not, in recent years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are
subsequently checked 12 months later and the provisional status of the data is altered to final;
and
undergo a detailed checking process, including comparison with alternative sources of data at
the port level (Civil Aviation Authority), checking by line managers of coding carried out by
Border Force Officers, comparison with data for previous periods, and validation checks (see
below for further details).
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as nationality is as a proportion relatively low, with such missing
data reported as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used
to take account of such issues.
There are data quality issues concerning a very small fraction (<1%) of the admissions totals, for
example:

Out of the total 14.6 million arrivals in 2014 in the ‘Other category’ (Table ad_03_o), a very
small proportion (19,800) were arrivals where the category of arrival was not known. It has not
been possible to revisit these data. This issue has occurred in previous years when: 30,000
41

arrivals in 2013; 59,700 arrivals in 2012 and 74,900 arrivals in 2011 were recorded as
category unknown.
A few admissions were shown as being in PBS categories before the start of the PBS. It is not
possible to determine the correct category of entry so these eight admissions have been
included within the category ‘Others given leave to enter’.
Compilation method
Passenger arrival data are sourced from returns made by individual ports and landing cards
completed by non-EEA nationals crossing the UK border. Landing cards are either collated at Port or
sent to the Landing Card Unit, Home Office (see ‘background on the statistics’). Data are then input
onto a database from which the data are collated and published as National Statistics quarterly (total
passenger arrivals) or half-yearly (non-EEA nationals).
Combined with data from the International Passenger Survey, summary and detailed tables can be
compiled using the derivation indicated below. A summary of the compilation process is given
overleaf.
The derivation of the British nationals figure is as follows:
a)
b)
c)
Total passenger arrivals from monthly returns made by ports
Non-EEA nationals from landing cards
EEA nationals (except British nationals)
‘British nationals’ is calculated as (a) minus (b) minus (c).
Sampling method for Heathrow and Gatwick
Non-controlled cards are separated into two groups, ‘American nationals’ and ‘other nationals’. They
are then weighed to estimate the total number in each group. A random 1 in 50 sample is taken of all
‘American national’ arrivals and used to estimate the total for each category of arrival. Similarly, a
complete count of the ‘other nationals’ group (all non-American non-EEA nationals) is made for a
defined seven-day period in each month (the same weekly period is used for consistency; however,
different weeks are used for each port). Final monthly totals for both individual nationalities and
category of arrival are estimated based on these counts (for American nationals and for non-American
non-EEA nationals) and the estimated total for non-EEA nationals. The combined total for
Heathrow/Gatwick for American non-controlled cards represented 78% of the national total for 2014;
for non-American non-EEA nationals, the corresponding figure was 73%.
Rounding method
For data on passenger arrivals, data of 1,000 or fewer are rounded to the nearest five. Numbers
greater than 1,000 are rounded to three significant figures.
The technicalities of the rounding method are as follows: Expressing the unrounded figure using
(normalised) scientific notation Y x 10X, Y is rounded to two decimal places, using the round-half-toeven method. The round-half-to-even method has been used so that, in the borderline case where the
thousandth fraction of Y is exactly 0.005, Y is rounded (to two decimal places) up or down to the
nearest even hundredth. The mid-way point is rounded up half of the time and down the other half
under this method, so the method is unbiased. For example, rounding:




2,034,999 = 2.034999 x 106 results in 2,030,000;
2,035,000 = 2.035 x 106 results in 2,040,000, as 0.04 is the nearest even hundredth;
2,045,000 = 2.045 x 106 results in 2,040,000, as 0.04 is the nearest even hundredth; and
2,045,001 = 2.045001 x 106 results in 2,050,000.
42
Quality and process checks carried out
Data are quality assured at different stages.







As part of the Border Force quality assurance process a percentage of landing cards are checked
by line managers to ensure that Border Force Officers have coded the ‘nationality’ and ‘category
of entry’ information legibly and accurately.
Within the Landing Card Unit processes and equipment are regularly checked, reviewed and
calibrated to ensure the accuracy of the sampling process.
Each month data are checked to ensure ports have made a return and that the data received are
in line with the same month in previous years. Ports are contacted where there are significant
differences, or a return has not been made, and asked to confirm the data or explain the
differences.
Total passenger arrival data for airports are checked against monthly data provided by the Civil
Aviation Authority. http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=80&pagetype=88&pageid=3&sglid=3
Total passenger arrivals data for the port of Dover are provided by the Department for Transport
and subject to their internal quality assurance processes. Maritime Statistics publications are
available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-transport/series/ports-statistics
Total passenger arrival data for passengers travelling on Eurostar are provided by Eurostar
International Ltd and are subject to their internal quality assurance processes.
Quarterly checks are made to identify errors on controlled cards. These relate to either incorrect
codes or categories of entry in which only certain nationalities can gain entry. When identified the
scanned image of the card is checked and the record amended.
Related statistics published elsewhere, and making comparisons between
different sources







Entry clearance visas, see the “Visas” topic for an explanation of the relationship and differences
between the data;
Extensions of stay, see the Extensions topic;
Statistics specific to work, study and family routes, see the Work, Study and Family topics;
International Passenger Survey estimates of immigration, see below for an explanation of the
relationship and differences between the data;
Home Office business plan impact and input indicators showing various management data,
available from https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/uk-visas-and-immigration .
The Civil Aviation Authority publishes statistics relating to UK airports, available from
http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=80&pagetype=88&pageid=3&sglid=3); and
Maritime Statistics are published by the Department for Transport and are available at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-transport/series/ports-statistics
Historical data on travel trends from 1980 to 2014 were published in ONS’s bulletin ‘Travel trends
2014’ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ott/travel-trends/2014/rpt-travel-trends--2014.html
Data on the clearance of passengers at the border within published standards and the cost of
passengers cleared at the border are published as official statistics by the Home Office as part of their
key input and impact indicators. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparencydata
Long-term International Migration estimates of immigration
Estimates of people immigrating to the UK, broken down by country of citizenship and reason for
immigration are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in two series:
43
 Long-Term International Migration (LTIM): and
 International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates of long-term international migration, providing a
series by country of citizenship and reason for immigration.
These data provide a better indication of long-term trends of immigration than visa grants and
passenger arrivals data, due to changes in immigration legislation and lack of information on the
intentions of those not subject to immigration control; in particular, trends of student immigration are
better tracked due to the introduction of the ‘student visitor’ category on 1 September 2007.
In summary, the differences between passenger arrivals and long-term migrants are:
 passenger arrivals are based on estimates of landing cards, while long-term migrants are based
on the International Passenger Survey which uses different sampling methods;
 passenger arrivals include those intending to stay for less than 12 months and therefore not in
the same group as long-term migrants;
 the entry code on the landing card may be different from the stated main reason of stay when
answering the IPS, including those who switch visas while in the UK; and
 passenger arrivals by category exclude EEA and Swiss nationals, while data from the IPS relate
to EU and non-EU nationals.
PASSENGERS INITIALLY REFUSED ENTRY
Data source
The statistics on passengers initially refused entry are extracted from the Home Office’s Case
Information Database (CID).
Background on statistics
Individuals seeking to enter the UK are required to satisfy a Border Force Officer that they meet the
relevant criteria for entry, as defined under the Immigration Rules.
In order to comply with this, passengers must present themselves, on arrival at a port of entry, to a
Border Force Officer. Under Schedule 2 of the Immigration Act 1971 the officers have the power to
conduct further examinations in cases where they are not immediately satisfied that the passenger
meets the requirements of the Immigration Rules. Officers who exercise these powers are utilising the
powers provided under Paragraph 2(1) of Schedule 2 to the Immigration Act 1971.
A Border Force Officer may examine a person who has arrived in the UK in order to determine the
following: whether or not they are a British citizen; whether or not they may enter without leave; and
whether:
 they have been given leave to enter which is still in force;
 they should be given leave to enter and for what period and on what conditions (if any); or
 they should be refused leave to enter.
‘Refused leave to enter’ relates to non-asylum cases dealt with at ports of entry. A person who is
initially refused entry may then, where the Border Force Officer deems it to be appropriate, be granted
‘temporary admission’. Officers will only grant ‘temporary admission’ where the individual
circumstances of the passenger are considered acceptable to warrant reporting restrictions and
following successful completion of the appropriate risk assessment. This will be done as an alternative
to immigration detention in line with guidance in the Government White Paper (1998). These grounds
may be related to: an outstanding asylum claim; an appeal against a refusal of entry; or to allow travel
44
arrangements to be made or removal directions to be set. A grant of ‘temporary admission’
results in the passenger being exceptionally admitted to the UK in accordance with the legal
direction of a Border Force Officer and the passenger must comply with the related conditions in
accordance with the Immigration Act 1971 for the duration of the ‘temporary admission’.
The UK has several agreements with France, allowing the UK authorities to carry out immigration and
other controls on French territory (called juxtaposed controls), and for French authorities to do the
same in the UK. Juxtaposed controls have existed at the Channel Tunnel sites in Coquelles, France
and Cheriton, Kent since the opening of the tunnel in 1994. An agreement with the French and Belgian
authorities signed at the end of October 2004 allows juxtaposed controls at Brussels Gare du Midi.
These juxtaposed controls allow immigration controls to be carried out before a person physically
enters the country.
Changes to data affecting the statistics
Data on passengers initially refused entry have been available since 2004, and a split of those refused
entry by port location (UK/juxtaposed controls) available from 2005 onwards.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of passengers initially refused entry at port is considered
to be high. These data:




are administrative counts of Border Force’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors;
undergo a detailed reconciliation process; and
are subject to internal data quality checks.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The following are
known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases.


In some cases, there is insufficient evidence on the database to confirm that a refusal took
place, in which case it is not counted. As part of the quarterly reconciliation process, Migration
Statistics investigate these cases and pass the issues back to Border Force. If the record is
amended and the relevant additional information added, these refusals are counted in the
revised figures; and
Prior to 2005, the total number of those refused at juxtaposed controls was not recorded.
Data are supplied to Eurostat, the European statistical organisation, under definitions in line with EU
statistical legislation. The figures supplied to Eurostat are not quality assured to the same level as the
data published in Immigration Statistics, as it is not possible to reconcile the data under the definitions
used by Eurostat with the Home Office.
Compilation method
Each Friday evening, a weekly ‘snapshot’ of the Case Information Database (CID) is taken. On a
quarterly basis, generally during the second week after the end of the reference period, an extract of
passengers initially refused at entry data is taken from this ‘snapshot’ by Migration Statistics. This
extract is filtered using established, tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are no
duplicates within the data, to produce the data due to be published.
45
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the passengers initially refused at entry dataset with operational
management teams within the Home Office, by comparing a unique identifier from each refusal in the
Migration Statistics extract against record-level data provided by the Home Office. Where a refusal is
found in only one of the extracts, a number of data quality checks are carried out, including that each
refusal is correctly linked to a refusal screen on CID. The Home Office is also asked to investigate the
discrepancies using detailed sources on individual cases. A case is only included in the published
tables if: it appears in both extracts; or it appears in one of the extracts and Migration Statistics have
checked that it is correctly recorded as a refusal.
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Removals and voluntary departures – all people removed from the UK, including non-asylum
cases refused entry at port and subsequently removed.
46
7
Extensions
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics – on:
 Grants and refusals of extensions of (in-country) stay (Tables ex_01 - expc_01_o).
Data source
The statistics on grants and refusals of extensions of stay are extracted from the Home Office’s Case
Information Database (CID). The data are derived from administrative information used for the
processing of applications for extension of stay.
Background on statistics
Statistics on extensions of stay (also known as “after-entry applications to vary leave to remain”) relate
to people wishing to extend or change the status of their stay in the UK. An individual is required to
apply for an extension or change in status before their existing permission to enter or stay expires. An
individual may make more than one application in any given year.
Information on applications for extensions of stay is not published within the Immigration Statistics
releases.
Using the data
Entry clearance visas granted and grants of an extension of stay should not be summed as they are
indicators of different aspects of migration. Also, individuals could be counted twice if the two grants
occur within the same year.
Key terms
Key terms for extensions can be found in the glossary of terms.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Other factors affecting the statistics
Changing resource priorities within the Home Office as well as policy changes and other factors need
to be considered when comparing the number of decisions on extensions of stay.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of those granted an extension of stay is considered to be
high. These data:


are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
47



are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following May;
and
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex, category and nationality is low, with such missing data
reported as unknown and therefore no statistical grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are
used. For a very small proportion of the data (less than 0.5%) further information is used for validation
and classification purposes, further reducing missing data (e.g. where the sex of the applicant was not
recorded, three cases in 2014 were classified based on the applicant’s title).
Compilation method
Each quarter, generally during the first week after the end of the reference period, an extract of
extensions data is taken from the Case Information Database (CID) by Migration Statistics. This
extract is filtered using established, tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are no
duplicates within the data, to produce the data due to be published.
Quality and process checks carried out
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
Data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with Home Office operational and policy teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Entry clearance visas, see the Visas topic;
 Passenger arrivals, see the Admissions topic; and
 Statistics specific to work, study and family routes, see the Work, Study and Family topics.
Information on the changes to the student and high value work routes from April 2011 and to the
family route from July 2012 are provided in the Policy and Legislative Changes Timeline. Further
details are available from http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN05829.pdf.
48
8
Settlement
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics – on:
 Grants of settlement, by category of grant, and refusals (Tables se_01 - se_06).
Data source
The statistics on grants and refusals of settlement are extracted from the Home Office’s Case
Information Database (CID) and data from landing cards. The data derived from CID are
administrative information used for the processing of applications for settlement. Before 2002, data
were extracted from legacy systems.
Background on statistics
The settlement figures comprise people granted settlement on arrival (also known as ‘indefinite leave
to enter’), and people who have applied for settlement having lived in the UK for a certain length of
time – for example, currently five years for workers in certain routes (also known as ‘on removal of
time limit’ or ‘indefinite leave to remain’). Following changes in immigration legislation in the 1980s, the
majority of grants (around 98%) are to people already in the country.
The statistics of grants of settlement – i.e. people subject to immigration control who are allowed to
remain in the UK indefinitely – provide a measure of the longer-term immigration of people subject to
immigration control. Settlement generally occurs after a period of two or more years of residency in the
UK.
Most applicants also have to demonstrate knowledge of the English language. Those granted
settlement are able to, without restriction: work or study; travel into and out of the UK; access state
benefits, including access to the National Health Service (NHS); sponsor an immigration application,
for example to be joined by a spouse or an elderly relative; and register their UK-born child as a British
citizen. It does not entitle the person to a British passport (which requires British citizenship) or to vote
in general elections, which requires Commonwealth or Irish Republic citizenship.
Dependants are eligible to apply for settlement at the same time as the main migrant, as long as they
have lived with him or her in the UK for a probationary period. Dependants who entered the UK after 9
July 2012 are required to complete a five year probationary period before they can apply for
settlement (previously there was a two year probationary period).
Grants are counted once in the year in which they occur; subsequent journeys are counted in Table
ad_02 as described in the Admissions topic notes. If a settled person is absent from the UK for more
than two years he/she will be treated as a new arrival unless there are special circumstances;
immediate settlement may be granted again, in which case the person would be counted in more than
one year’s figures of settlement, or the person might be re-admitted with limited leave.
Numbers of applications for settlement are not published within the Immigration Statistics releases.
Using the data
When comparing some aspects of settlement data, significant changes in the Immigration Rules,
enlargement of the European Union, and various Home Office programmes need to be considered,
including:
49
 family formation and reunion grants in 2003 to 2005 are likely to have been affected by
the increase in the qualifying period for settlement in April 2003, delaying grants that may
otherwise have occurred earlier;
 work-related grants in 2006 to 2008 are likely to have been affected by the increase in the
qualifying period in April 2006, delaying grants that may otherwise have occurred earlier; and
 asylum-related grants of settlement were at high levels between 2004 and 2007 due to the
Family Indefinite Leave to Remain exercise and due to grants to people given exceptional leave
four years previously.
Table se_05 provides data on grants of settlement following a stay in the UK (on removal of time limit)
to non-EEA nationals by age. The age profile is not representative of the age profile of everyone
granted settlement, as a relatively high proportion of under 16s are granted settlement on arrival.
In Table se_06, Pakistan, which rejoined the Commonwealth on 1 October 1989, has been regarded
as ‘Commonwealth’ for the whole period since 1960; South Africa, which rejoined the Commonwealth
on 1 June 1994 has only been regarded as ‘Commonwealth’ for the period it has been a member;
Mozambique joined the Commonwealth in 1995 and has been regarded as ‘Commonwealth’ from
1996; Zimbabwe has been included in ‘Foreign’ from 2004; Rwanda has been included in
‘Commonwealth’ from 2010, having joined the Commonwealth on 29 November 2009; Fiji, which is
currently suspended, is currently included within the ‘Commonwealth’ statistics. For the purposes of
this table, the term ‘Foreign’ means ‘non-Commonwealth’ up to 1998 and ‘non-Commonwealth and
non-EEA’ from 1999 onwards.
Key terms
Many of the key terms are covered in the glossary of terms.
Granted settlement in own right means that the individual was eligible to apply for settlement under
one of the provisions of the Immigration Rules and this was not dependent on their relationship to
another person (for example, a spouse or parent) already settled or settling at the same time.
Other grants on a discretionary basis include grants after a long period of continuous residence in
the UK. It also includes those people granted settlement after applying under the regularisation
scheme for overstayers (people who had permission to enter or remain in the UK for a limited time
only and who had remained beyond the time allowed) and people granted indefinite leave outside the
Immigration Rules under measures aimed at clearing the backlog of outstanding unresolved cases
from before March 2007 involving unsuccessful asylum applicants.
Claim to right of abode upheld and other grants includes grants to those previously settled but
then absent from the UK for some time and who, on return, were initially re-admitted with limited leave.
Grants of settlement to refugees and exceptional leave, humanitarian protection and
discretionary leave cases are of those granted settlement after a period of residence in the UK.
Between July 1998 and 30 August 2005, it also includes grants of settlement at the time of the grant of
asylum.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of those granted settlement is considered to be high.
These data:
50





are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are
defined in UK legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s
administrative databases;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following
August; and
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex, category and nationality is low, with such missing data
reported as unknown and therefore no statistical grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are
used. For a very small proportion of the data (less than 0.5%) further information is used for validation
and classification purposes, further reducing missing data (e.g. where the sex of the applicant was not
recorded, 1 case in 2012 was classified based on the applicant’s title).
Compilation method
Each quarter, generally during the first week after the end of the reference period, an extract of incountry settlement data is taken from the Case Information Database (CID) by Migration Statistics.
This extract is filtered using established, tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are
no duplicates within the data, to produce the data due to be published.
Data on persons admitted to the UK with an indefinite leave to enter visa are extracted from the
Landing Card System (LCS) database. In 2014, settlement grants of this type made up only 2% of
total grants.
Quality and process checks carried out
The data are checked for completeness and any data issues investigated.
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
Data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with Home Office operational and policy teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Statistics specific to work and family routes, see the Work and Family topics;
 Asylum grants, see the Asylum topic;
 IPS estimates of long-term international migration, see below for an explanation of the
differences between the data; and
 Data on the number of Life in the UK Tests taken and the pass rate, for settlement applications,
are published as Official Statistics and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data.
51
Long-Term International Migration estimates of immigration
Estimates of people immigrating to the UK, broken down by country of citizenship and reason for
immigration are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in two series:
 Long-Term International Migration (LTIM): and
 International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates of long-term international migration, providing a
series by country of citizenship and reason for immigration.
The statistics of grants of settlement – i.e. people subject to immigration control who are allowed to
remain in the UK indefinitely – provide a measure of the longer-term immigration of people subject to
immigration control. Settlement generally occurs after a period of two or more years of residency in the
UK.
By comparison, international migration as measured by the ONS International Passenger Survey is
based on change of usual residence for a period of at least a year, using the UN definition of an
international migrant: ‘An international long-term migrant is defined as a person who moves to a
country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year, so that the country
of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence.’
52
9
Citizenship
53
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics – on:
 Applications received for British citizenship (Tables cz_01, cz_01_q and cz_03);
 Grants of British citizenship, including basis of grant, previous country of nationality, age and
sex (Tables cz_02, cz_02_q and cz_03 – cz_07);
 Renunciations of British citizenship (Table cz_10);
 Refusals of British citizenship, including reason for refusal (Tables cz_03 and cz_09); and
 Attendances at British citizenship ceremonies (Table cz_08).
Data source
Data for late 2001 to date are extracted from the Home Office’s Case Information Database (CID),
after caseworkers have entered information relating to the applications, decisions and ceremonies
attended. Data for 1990 to mid/late 2001 are derived from the legacy administrative database of
citizenship grants used before the introduction of CID. Figures for 1962 to 1989 are drawn from the
relevant published statistical bulletins or Command Papers for those years.
Background on the statistics
All applications for citizenship are dealt with as main applicants.
There are currently six forms of British nationality.
 British citizens are the majority. They have that citizenship usually through: birth, adoption,





descent, registration, or naturalisation; and have the right of abode in the UK.
British overseas territories citizens (BOTCs) – known as British dependent territories citizens
(BDTCs) before February 2002 – have that citizenship through a connection with a British
overseas territory such as Gibraltar, St Helena, etc. Hong Kong BDTCs lost that citizenship
automatically on 1 July 1997 but may still hold another form of British nationality (see below).
However, from 21 May 2002, BOTCs became British citizens.
British overseas citizens (BOCs) are a smaller group connected with the former British
colonies who, for the most part, did not acquire citizenship of the new country when it attained
independence. Hong Kong BDTCs became BOCs on 1 July 1997 if they would otherwise have
been stateless.
British nationals (overseas) (BN(O)s) are a separate sub-group of former Hong Kong BDTCs.
The vast majority of British Nationals (Overseas) are ethnically Chinese who became Chinese
on 1 July 1997. Although their BDTC status was lost on that date they are, as BN(O)s, entitled
to hold a British passport.
British subjects (BSs) are a reducing group of people who normally hold that status either:
(a) by virtue of their birth in Eire (now the Irish Republic) before 1 January 1949;
(b) because they were BSs before 1 January 1949 through a connection with a place
which became a Commonwealth country on that date and, although they were
potentially citizens of that country, did not acquire citizenship of that or any other
country before 1 January 1983. Known as British subjects without citizenship before
1983, they would lose that status if they acquired another nationality.
British protected persons (BPPs) are a small group of people who hold that status through a
connection (normally birth) with a place which was either a UK protectorate, protected state,
mandated or trust territory. In most cases, BPP status was lost if the place was part of a country
which attained independence or if they acquired another nationality.
Further information on the types of British nationality can be found on the Home Office web site:
https://www.gov.uk/browse/citizenship/citizenship.
54
Categories of grants relate to the section of the British Nationality Act 1981 under which
citizenship was acquired. The following is a brief summary of the provisions of the relevant sections of
the Act, grouped as they appear in table cz_07.
Naturalisation based on residence
 s.6(1) – naturalisation of an adult by virtue of five years’ residence in the UK or UK Crown
service.
Naturalisation based on marriage
 s.6(2) – naturalisation of an adult who is married to a British citizen by virtue of three years’
residence in the UK.
Entitlement to registration as an adult
 s.7 – transitional entitlements to registration of a Commonwealth citizen who was resident in the
UK.
 s.10(1) – entitlement to acquire British citizenship by a person who had renounced citizenship of
the UK and Colonies before 1983.
 s.13(1) – entitlement to resume British citizenship by a person who has previously renounced it.
 s.8(1) – transitional entitlement to registration of a woman still married since before 1983 to a
man who became a British citizen on 1 January 1983.
Entitlement to registration as a child
 s.1(3) – entitlement to registration of a minor born in the UK after 1 January 1983 when one of
his/her parents later becomes a British citizen or becomes settled in the UK.
 s.1(3A) – entitlement to registration of a minor born in the UK after 1 January 1983 when one of
his/her parents later becomes a member of the armed forces.
 s.3(2) – entitlement to registration of a minor less than one year old born outside the UK after 1
January 1983 (or outside the UK and the qualifying territories since 21 May 2002) to a parent
who was a British citizen by descent.
 s.3(5) – entitlement to registration of a minor born outside the UK after 1 January 1983 (or
outside the UK and the qualifying territories after 21 May 2002) to a parent who was a British
citizen by descent where the minor and parents are resident in the UK or a qualifying territory.
 s.4D – entitlement to registration for children born outside the UK after 13 January 2010 to a
parent serving in the armed forces.
 s.9 – transitional entitlement to registration of a minor less than one year old born abroad on or
after 1 January 1983 who, if they had been born before 1 January 1983 and had been
registered by a consul, would have become a British citizen on 1 January 1983.
Entitlement to registration on other grounds
 s.1(4) – entitlement to registration of a person in the UK after 1 January 1983 who spent the first
ten years of his/her life in the UK.
 s.4B – entitlement to registration for British overseas citizens, British subjects, British protected
persons and British nationals (overseas) who have no other citizenship or nationality.
 s.4C – entitlement to registration for certain people born after 7 February 1961 and before 1
January 1983 to mothers who were citizens of the UK and Colonies at the time of their birth.
 s.4(2) – entitlement to registration of a British overseas territories citizen, a British overseas
citizen, a British national (overseas), a British subject or a British protected person resident in
the UK.
 Schedule 2 – entitlement to registration of a stateless person.
Entitlement to registration under section 5
 s.5 – entitlement to registration of a British overseas territories citizen from Gibraltar.
Discretionary registration as an adult
 s.10(2) – discretionary registration of a person connected with the UK who renounced
citizenship of the UK and Colonies before 1983.
 s.13(3) – discretionary registration of a person who has previously renounced British citizenship.
55
 s.8(2) and 8(3) – transitional discretionary registration of a woman married before 1983
to a man who either (a) became or would have become a British citizen but for his death (and
they were no longer married) or renounced citizenship (and they were still married).
Discretionary registration as a child
 s.3(1) – discretionary registration of a minor as a British citizen.
Discretionary registration on other grounds
 s.4A – discretionary registration for adults and minors who are British overseas territories
citizens by connection with a qualifying territory.
 s.4(5) – discretionary registration on the grounds of Crown service in a British overseas territory
of a British overseas territories citizen, a British overseas citizen, a British national (overseas), a
British subject or a British protected person.
Transitional arrangement, small numbers of which were granted mainly under sections 6(1) and 6(2)
between 1990 and 1999
 Schedule 8 – relates to applications made before the commencement of the 1981 Act and
provides that: (a) applications will continue to be decided in accordance with the provisions of
the previous nationality Acts and (b) applicants, if successful, acquire the citizenship they would
have acquired on 1 January 1983 if the application had been decided before 1983.
Under the British Nationality Act 1981 it is possible for British citizens who are over 18 years of age
and of full capacity to apply to renounce their nationality, although renunciation will only be granted
where that applicant already has or is about to acquire citizenship of another country. Further
information on renunciation of British citizenship is available on the Home Office website:
https://www.gov.uk/renounce-british-nationality.
Key terms
Grant: A positive outcome of an application for British citizenship before attending a citizenship
ceremony by applicants over 18 years of age. Children under 18 do not have to take the
Oath/Affirmation or Pledge.
Rejection: In 2005 and 2006, new processes for rejecting applications, before any substantive
consideration of the case, were introduced. Those with situations where the applicant is found to be
British already or whose application is not at the outset supported by the requisite evidence of
entitlement to or qualification for British citizenship.
Entitlement: The applicant satisfied the conditions specified by the 1981 Act.
Discretionary: The success of the application depends, either in whole or in part, on the Secretary of
State being satisfied on the basis of all the information at their disposal that it would be appropriate to
grant it.
Ceremony attended: A ceremony organised by County or Local Authorities for successful applicants
over 18 years of age for British citizenship. At the ceremony the applicant takes the Oath or
Affirmation of allegiance to Her Majesty the Queen and the Pledge of loyalty to the UK. Since 1
January 2004 this has been the final stage in the process of attaining British citizenship.
Changes to data affecting the statistics
Reported figures of applications have previously included both British citizenship and right of abode in
the UK as a Commonwealth national, although right of abode decisions are not included in the tables
on decisions. From 2002, it has been possible to separately identify right of abode and British
citizenship applications allowing the figures to be presented separately.
56
The figures relating to grants of British citizenship to residents of Hong Kong in the UK from
2006 onwards are drawn from a new source of more complete data. It is understood that
figures for 2005 and earlier years significantly undercount grants of this type. There is, therefore, a
discontinuity in the series between 2005 and 2006.
Figures relating to grants of renunciation of British citizenship between 2002 and 2004 were subject to
minor revision in Immigration Statistics October – December 2011. They were revised to include cases
found to have been previously excluded due to their being recorded using an unexpected value within
the administrative database. The increases were from 1,141 to 1,194 in 2002 (up 5%), from 684 to
755 in 2003 (up 10%) and from 675 to 680 in 2004 (up 1%). Data for 2005 onward were unaffected by
this issue.
The reported number of British citizenship ceremonies attended in 2012 was subject to a minor
revision in Immigration Statistics January to March 2014. A further 1,087 persons attending
ceremonies were added due to late reporting by some authorities, increasing the total by 1% from
140,286 to 141,373. Further small revisions were made for the same reason in Immigration Statistics
January to March 2015, increasing the numbers of persons attending ceremonies in 2008 from 95,453
to 95,975 (up 1%), in 2009 from 153,856 to 154,993 (up 1%), in 2010 from 145,279 to 146,264 (up
1%), in 2011 from 134,949 to 135,790 (up 1%), in 2012 from 141,373 to 144,357 (up 2%) and in 2013
from 152,965 to 155,385 (up 2%).
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Other factors affecting the statistics
The variations in totals of applications recorded, and decisions made, reflect changing resource
priorities within the Home Office, as well as policy changes and other factors.
The number of decisions made in 2008 was comparatively low when staff resources were temporarily
transferred from decision-making to deal with the administration of new applications.
Grant levels reduced in the second and third quarters of 2014 as UKVI resources were used to assist
HM Passport Office.
Data quality
The data reflect the outcome of reconsidered decisions. These may result in outcomes recorded in
later periods i.e. a refusal which is followed by a reconsidered decision may be shown as a grant in a
later period. Such reconsiderations appear to make little difference to the overall trends in the data,
based on the size of revisions made.
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of those granted and refused British citizenship is
considered to be high. These data:




are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised regularly as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following May
57


and have not, in recent years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are
subsequently checked 12 months later and the provisional status of the data is
altered to final;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors; and
undergo a thorough reconciliation process including some data cleansing.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex and nationality is very low, with such missing data reported
as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The
following are known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases (under 0.1%).


In a small number of cases (under 0.01% annually) data appear inconsistent, for example
where the recorded case type and section of the British Nationality Act 1981 do not represent
a valid combination under the published Immigration Rules. These records are excluded from
the published data and, where resources allow, are passed back to Home Office for
investigation and correction.
In Table cz_05 data for 2002 includes a significant proportion of records (27%) for which the
sex of the applicant was not recorded. This was due to the introduction of a new
administrative database (the Case Information Database – CID) in late 2001. Processes for
the capture of this information were introduced during 2002, reducing missing values to 2% or
less of the total in 2003 and subsequent years.
Additionally, data relating to decisions are subject to revisions as a result of the outcomes of the
administrative reconsideration of a small (0.01%) proportion of cases.
Applications made in the first quarter of 2012 were originally estimated based on a combination of
records in the Home Office administrative IT system and manual counts of applications which had not
yet been recorded on the IT system. These estimates were rounded to the nearest 100. The estimates
of application figures were revised to show the actual numbers in May 2013. The estimate for the first
quarter of 2012 of 53,600 first published in May 2012 was replaced with actual figures derived from
the IT system of 54,972 in May 2013.
Data are supplied to Eurostat, the European statistical organisation, under definitions in line with EU
statistical legislation. There are slight differences between the presentations of nationality breakdowns
in Immigration Statistics and those provided to Eurostat, relating to the regional geographic groupings.
Compilation method
On a quarterly basis, generally during the first week after the end of the reference period, extracts of
British citizenship applications and decisions data are taken from a weekly refreshed ‘snapshot’ of the
Case Information Database (CID) by Migration Statistics. This extract is filtered using established,
tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are no duplicates within the data, to produce
the data due to be published.
A further extract of applications data is taken three weeks after the end of the period to mitigate a
degree of late recording on CID, due to resource issues within the Home Office. This is, where
necessary, combined with manual counts of applications awaiting entry on the database to arrive at
estimates of applications received. These data are revised subsequently following input of applications
data.
Annual data on persons attending citizenship ceremonies are extracted from CID as part of an annual
process. Data for grants of British Overseas Territory Citizenship granted in the British Overseas
Territories (see Table cz_05) are supplied annually by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Home Office processes require persons granted British citizenship who go on to sponsor another
58
person applying for a change in their immigration status to be recorded as a British citizen in
CID; hence a small number of records (under 0.5% of the data) in the original CID extract are
found to have a recorded nationality of British Citizen, rather than the applicant’s original nationality. A
data-cleansing exercise is undertaken annually by staff in Migration Statistics to recode the recorded
nationalities in these cases within the statistical dataset, by referring to the audit logs for the nationality
field in CID.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the summary figures for applications along with grants and refusals of
citizenship with teams within the Home Office, by comparing the figures with similar data compiled for
operational management purposes. Where these figures differ by more than 1 or 2% the discrepancy
is investigated. Differences of less than 1 or 2% may occur due to differences in definition employed in
the generation of the Home Office operational management information or due to slight differences in
the date on which data were extracted from CID.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trends seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Eurostat comparisons of grants of citizenship across different European countries:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-statistics-in-focus/-/KS-SF-11-024
; and
 Data on the number of Life in the UK Tests taken and the pass rate, for citizenship applications,
are published as Official Statistics and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data
 ‘Who are the UK's new citizens?’: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS) Breakfast
Briefing
Summary,
July
2011
http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/files/People/staff_publications/Gidley/5671%20Compas%
20Briefing%20Doc%207_5%20final.pdf
 Eurostat comparisons of grants of citizenship across different European countries: ‘EU Member
states granted citizenship to more than 800,000 persons in 2010’ (EUROSTAT Statistics in
Focus 45/2012). http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-statistics-in-focus/-/KS-SF-12045
The regular data on grants (acquisition) and renunciation (loss) of citizenship collected by Eurostat for
all Member States is published at:
Acquisition of citizenship data for European member states, 2002 to 2013.
http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=migr_acq&lang=en
Loss of citizenship data for European member states, 2007 to 2013.
http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=migr_lct&lang=en
59
10 Asylum
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published – as National Statistics – on:
 Applications for asylum (including fresh claims) (Tables as_01 – as_04, as_06);
 Initial decisions on asylum applications (grants and refusals of asylum, discretionary leave and








humanitarian protection) (Tables as_01, as_02, as_05, as_06);
Asylum applications received in Europe and elsewhere (Table as_07);
Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children (UASCs) (Tables as_08 – as_09);
Age-disputed cases (Table as_10);
The fast-track process (Tables as_11 and as_12);
Non-suspensive appeals (Table as_13_q);
Asylum appeals (Table as_14);
Applications for asylum support and those in receipt of support (Tables as_15 – as_18);
Resettlement schemes (Table as_19_q).
Data source
The data relating to the processing of asylum applications and appeals are extracted from the Home
Office’s Case Information Database (CID).
Data relating to asylum support are extracted from a database specifically for the processing and
provision of asylum support (ASYS).
Data specific to the resettlement scheme are extracted from another database maintained by the
Home Office, specifically for this process.
Background on statistics
Asylum is protection given by a country to someone who is fleeing persecution in their own country. It
is given under the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. The Convention
defines a refugee as a person who, “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of
race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the
country of his nationality and unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the
protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former
habitual residence, as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to
it.”
The criteria for recognition as a refugee, and hence the granting of asylum, are set out in the 1951
United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, extended in its application by the 1967
Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. The 1951 Convention is given effect in British law by
references in the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002, the Asylum and Immigration Appeals
Act 1993, the Refugee and Person in Need of International Protection (Qualification) Regulations
2006, and the Immigration Rules.
Under paragraph 334 of the Immigration Rules, an asylum applicant will be granted asylum in the UK
if the Secretary of State is satisfied that:
 they are in the UK or have arrived at a port of entry in the UK;
60
 they are a refugee, as defined in regulation 2 of the Refugee or Person in Need of
International Protection (Qualification) Regulations 2006;
 there are no reasonable grounds for regarding them as a danger to the security of the UK;
 they do not, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, constitute
danger to the community of the UK; and
 refusing their application would result in them being required to go (whether immediately or after
the time limited by any existing leave to enter or remain), in breach of the Geneva Convention,
to a country in which their life or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion,
nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group.
An application which does not meet these criteria will be refused. In certain circumstances an
applicant may be granted humanitarian protection (HP) in accordance with paragraph 339C of the
Immigration Rules, discretionary leave (DL) for a limited period, or a grant of leave to remain (LTR)
under family or private life rules.
Under the 1951 Geneva Convention and the Immigration Rules, there is no obligation to consider an
asylum application made overseas. An individual seeking international protection would be expected
to approach the authorities or the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in the
first country of refuge and has no entitlement to travel to the UK in order to submit an asylum claim or
further submissions. No overseas applications by the individual should be recorded as having been
lodged since 1992.
The figures for applications only relate to the initial application for asylum. They exclude applications
to upgrade HP or DL to refugee status and for further extensions of stay. Grants of HP, DL or LTR
under family or private life rules are only recorded in the statistics on the first occasion that it is
granted, not again when it is extended.
Fresh claims
When a human rights or asylum claim has been refused, withdrawn or treated as withdrawn under
paragraph 333C of Immigration Rule 353 and any appeal relating to that claim is no longer pending,
the decision-maker will consider any further submissions and, if rejected, will then determine whether
they amount to a fresh claim. The submissions will amount to a fresh claim if they are significantly
different from the material that has previously been considered. The submissions will only be
significantly different if the content:
 had not already been considered; and
 taken together with the previously considered material, created a realistic prospect of success,
notwithstanding its rejection.
Asylum cases pending
This series counts the number of asylum cases lodged since April 2006 that are pending. These
pending cases include those awaiting an initial decision, together with those that have had an initial
decision and are still pending further review, such as those in the appeals process, but exclude those
that are pending a judicial review. They do not include failed asylum seekers.
Further work is needed to assure the quality of the earlier records before information on applications
from earlier years can be published.
An individual’s asylum application may be pending a decision for a number of reasons, including
reasons within and outside the control of the Home Office. These reasons may include, but are not
exclusively, the complexity of the case, the paperwork provided by the individual, the resources
available to process the application and the decision by an individual as to whether to appeal against
an initial decision.
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Outcomes of applications
The analysis of the outcomes of asylum applications are the recorded outcomes of the group (or
cohort) of applicants in any one year, as at a particular time. A proportion of applications made in each
of the years provided will be awaiting the outcome of an initial decision or an appeal. Applications from
earlier years will inherently have had longer for the case to be processed than those from more recent
years. This dataset is updated, in full, annually.
There are a large variety of routes that an asylum application can take to a final asylum outcome. As a
consequence, analysis of the outcomes of asylum applications in any one year requires interpretation
for a small percentage of cases. This interpretation is undertaken consistently by established
computer code. The proportions and underlying figures for final outcomes of the analysis of
applications for the group (or cohort) of applicants in any one year, are therefore estimated.
Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children
An Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Child (UASC) is a person under 18, applying for asylum on his or
her own right, who is separated from both parents and is not being cared for by an adult who by law
has responsibility to do so.
The method for counting Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children was changed in August 2013.
The counting definition for applications from a UASC now used is: An asylum application received
from a main applicant who is treated as an unaccompanied child for at least one day from the date of
their application, up until, where applicable, the initial decision.
The counting definition for an initial decision or withdrawal is: An initial decision on or application
withdrawal from someone treated as an unaccompanied child for at least one day between the dates
of their asylum application and the initial decision, though excluding anyone whose recorded date of
birth indicates they were over 18 at the date of the application.
The age groups provided relate to the age at application, initial decision or withdrawal (as
appropriate), based on the date of birth recorded when the data were extracted.
Age-disputed cases
When an asylum applicant’s claim to be a child is doubted and they have little or no evidence to
support their claimed age, the Home Office will conduct an initial age assessment. Applicants whose
physical appearance/demeanour very strongly suggests that they are significantly over 18 years of
age will be treated as adults until there is credible documentary or other persuasive evidence to
demonstrate the age claimed. All other applicants will be afforded the benefit of doubt and treated as
children until an assessment of their age has been completed.
The method for counting age disputed applications was changed in August 2013. The counting
definition for age disputes raised now used is: An age assessment request raised for a main asylum
applicant. 'Age disputes raised' relates to the number of age assessment requests made in a quarter
where the asylum application was made in the same or an earlier quarter, together with asylum
applications raised where there is an age assessment outstanding from a previous quarter. Within the
quarterly table, the data are split based on whether the asylum application was existing (i.e made in a
previous period).
The number of ‘age disputes resolved’ are also provided and relate to the number of age assessments
marked as completed during a quarter. The age groups provided relate to the age the individual was
considered to be when the age assessment request were raised, based on the date of birth recorded
when the data were extracted. It is expected that the date of birth would have been updated to reflect
the outcome of the age assessment. Therefore these data are provided to give an indication of
proportions of individuals who have been subject to an age assessment that are considered to be a
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child or adult as result of the assessment. Not all age disputes are fully recorded as closed
following an age assessment, so data quality is not considered as high for resolved age
disputes as other asylum data sets.
Fast-track process
Asylum cases are considered for the fast-track process by NAAU (National Asylum Allocations Unit)
only if there is a power in immigration law to detain and it appears that a quick decision is possible.
Children; pregnant women; families (except in some instances of a family split); and people with a
physical or mental condition (which cannot be treated in a detained situation) are not considered for
the process. A decision on the asylum case, including appeal, should be concluded within 14 days.
Cases may be taken out of the fast-track system before the initial decision and processed in the usual
way. Reasons for removal from the fast-track process include: pre-decision appointments made by the
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture or the Helen Bamber Foundation; applicants
granted bail by the courts; and cases reclassified by the courts.
The Immigration and Asylum Appeals (Fast-Track Procedure) Rules set out the procedure for
appealing if asylum and leave to enter is refused for those designated as fast-track cases. The Fast
Track Procedure Rules have shorter time limits for the appellant and the respondent throughout the
appeals process. People on the fast-track scheme are detained during the course of their appeal. The
rules also set out the times within which the Tribunal will deal with the appeals. The rules include
safeguards, which enable appellants who may not be suitable for the fast-track process to be
transferred from the scheme to the main appellate system.
The non-suspensive appeals process
Applicants who are refused asylum, HP and DL may have the application for asylum termed clearly
unfounded, whether due to their country of nationality being a ‘designated’ state or on a case-by-case
basis. Where an application is clearly unfounded, any subsequent appeal has to be made through the
non-suspensive appeals process (see glossary of terms).
The table for Non-Suspensive Appeals been redesigned to provide more detailed information and
clarity of definitions. 'Total eligible for the non-suspensive appeals process' includes main applicants
who have been refused asylum, HP or DL where the refusal was certified as clearly unfounded.
Previously this category included a broader definition; main applicants refused asylum, HP or DL.
Since 22 May 2007 the designated countries have been: Albania, Bolivia, Bosnia, Brazil, Ecuador,
Gambia (males only), Ghana (males only), India, Jamaica, Kenya (males only), Liberia (males only),
Macedonia, Malawi (males only), Mali (males only), Mauritius, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro,
Nigeria (males only), Peru, Serbia, Sierra Leone (males only), South Africa and Ukraine. Kosovo was
designated until 17 February 2008, but returned to the list on 3 March 2010. South Korea has been
designated since 3 March 2010.
Asylum appeals
The HM Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS) (formerly Tribunals Service Immigration and Asylum
and the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal (AIT)), an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice, hears
and decides appeals against decisions made by the Home Office. It consists of the First-tier Tribunal
Immigration and Asylum Chamber and Upper Tribunal Immigration and Asylum Chamber (FTTIAC
and UTIAC). The First-tier Tribunal Judge will decide whether the appeal against the decision is
successful or not (this is known as the decision being ‘allowed’ or ‘dismissed’).
Before April 2005, there was a two-tier system for asylum and immigration appeals. Appeals were
made initially to Immigration Adjudicators in the Immigration Appellate Authority (IAA) at the first tier,
with an onward right to the Immigration Appeals Tribunal (IAT). If the application to the IAT was
refused there was the right to seek a statutory review of that decision by a High Court judge (on the
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papers). If the application was allowed by the Tribunal, or by a judge following statutory
review, and the appeal was then given a fresh decision by the IAT, parties could appeal to
the Court of Appeal on the ground that the IAT made an error of law when reaching its decision.
The creation of the AIT, under the provisions of the Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants
etc.) Act 2004, intended to improve the speed and finality of the appeals and removals system. The
provisions of the Act aim to tackle abuse of the asylum system and illegal immigration; encourage
properly managed legal migration that benefits the UK economically and socially; and help to integrate
legal migrants, genuine refugees and new citizens.
Between April 2005 and 1 February 2010 there was a single-tier system for asylum and immigration
appeals, the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal (AIT). Appeals before the AIT were decided by
Immigration Judges.
In the event that a party (either the appellant or the Secretary of State) thinks that the First-tier
Tribunal made an error of law when reaching its decision, they can apply to the First-tier Tribunal for
permission to appeal to the Upper Tribunal. If the application is refused, an application for permission
to appeal can be made directly to the Upper Tribunal. Cases heard at the Upper Tribunal Immigration
and Asylum Chamber are a subset of data published in Quarterly statistics for the Tribunals Service.
Following consideration a party may request a High Court Judge and, subsequently, the Court of
Appeal to consider the case. Data on appellate cases heard by a High Court Judge or the Court of
Appeal
are
available
from:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-ofjustice/series/courts-and-sentencing-statistics.
Asylum appeals data published by Home Office Migration Statistics are sourced from the Case
Information Database (CID) and relate to main asylum applicants at the First-Tier Tribunal Immigration
and Asylum Chamber. Records on the database are updated from record-level data provided by the
HM Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS), who produce similar statistics for main appellants. This
procedure provides consistent data across all datasets relating to asylum published in the release
Immigration Statistics, but different from those published by The Ministry of Justice (MOJ).
MOJ published statistics provide counts of principal appellants sourced from the HMCTS database.
Within these statistics there tend to be higher numbers of principal appellants than main asylum
applicant appeals because:
1)
HMCTS has a wider definition of asylum appeals, including some human rights cases
and appeals on extensions of asylum, humanitarian protection and discretionary leave; and
2)
principal appellants include some individuals classed as dependants by the Home Office.
The MOJ statistics on immigration and asylum appeals at First-Tier Tribunal and subsequent stages
are available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/tribunals-statistics
Asylum support
Asylum support was set up to provide for asylum seekers while they await a decision on their asylum
application. Asylum seekers who apply for asylum support under Section 95 of the Immigration and
Asylum Act 1999 can receive: accommodation only (where they are allocated accommodation in a
dispersal area and must otherwise support themselves); or subsistence only (where they receive cash
to support themselves but must find their own accommodation); or accommodation and subsistence
(where they are allocated accommodation in a dispersal area and cash to support themselves).
Individuals are generally eligible for support under Section 4 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 if
their asylum application has been finally determined as refused but they are destitute and there are
reasons that temporarily prevent them from leaving the UK. These reasons are that:
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 the applicant is in the process of taking reasonable steps to leave the UK or place




themselves in a position in which they can leave the UK; or
the applicant is unable to leave the UK because of a physical impediment to travel or some
other medical reason; or
the applicant is unable to leave the UK because there is no current viable route of return to the
country of origin; or
permission has been obtained to proceed with a judicial review against a decision relating to the
person’s asylum claim; or
the provision of support is otherwise necessary to avoid a breach of a person’s human rights.
Support under Section 4 is provided in the form of accommodation and vouchers to cover the cost of
food and other basic essential items.
The provision of initial accommodation is a temporary arrangement for asylum seekers who would
otherwise be destitute and who are:
 supported under Section 98 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 and are awaiting a
decision from the Secretary of State on whether they may receive asylum support under Section
95 of that Act; or
 supported under Section 95 and are awaiting transfer to their dispersal accommodation.
Asylum applicants who are receiving asylum support can have their support terminated for various
reasons. If an asylum seeker receives refugee status, HP, DL, or another form of grant, they cease to
be eligible for asylum support, and become entitled to apply for mainstream benefits. If an asylum
seeker receives a final negative decision, and is a single applicant or a family with no children under
18, they also have their support terminated, although asylum support policy incorporates safeguards
for a number of categories of vulnerable failed asylum seekers including families with dependent
children under the age of 18 years who continue receiving support until they leave the UK. Support
can also be terminated or suspended if asylum seekers do not abide by the regulations set out when
the support is provided to them, for example, if the asylum seeker does not move into the allocated
accommodation.
The Home Office assumed responsibility for supporting asylum seekers from April 2000 when the
National Asylum Support Service (NASS), a directorate of the Immigration and Nationality Directorate
(IND), was created. NASS was set up to provide accommodation and/or subsistence payments to
asylum seekers so that they could support themselves while they were awaiting a decision on their
asylum application. Any person applying for asylum in the UK after 3 April 2000 would only be eligible
to apply for support through NASS (apart from some in-country cases that were part of the roll-out).
Before 3 April 2000, asylum seekers, depending on the location of their application for asylum, could
apply for support from the Department of Social Security (now part of the Department for Work and
Pensions) or local authorities.
NASS was disbanded in 2006. This service is now delivered by Asylum Support teams (part of
International and Immigration Asylum Group) based in various regional locations, but managed
centrally. The legislation in respect of eligibility for asylum support, and the categories of support
available, has not changed.
Where an applicant has made more than one application for support during a year, only one
application is recorded in the tables. The data in the tables therefore reflect the total number of main
applicants applying for support. It should be noted, however, that where an applicant has made an
application for support in two separate years this will be recorded as an application in each year.
The figures relating to asylum seekers in receipt of support include dependants, unless otherwise
stated.
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Asylum seekers are accommodated in Northern Ireland only if they apply for asylum there.
Resettlement schemes
The UK Gateway Protection Resettlement Programme is operated in partnership with the United
Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR).Gateway demonstrates the UK’s proud tradition of
providing protection to refugees; and of the UK’s commitment to supporting UNHCR’s global effort to
provide durable solutions to the plight of refugees. On resettlement the refugees are provided with a
twelve month package of housing and integration support provided by partnerships involving local
authorities and NGOs.
The Home Office also operates the smaller Mandate scheme which is designed to resettle individual
refugees from anywhere in the world who have been recognised as refugees by UNHCR, and judged
by them to be in need of resettlement; and who have a close family member in the UK who is willing to
accommodate them.
Those arriving in the UK under the Syrian Vulnerable Persons Relocation scheme are granted
Humanitarian Protection (not refugee status). The scheme was launched in January 2014 with the first
arrivals coming in March 2014. The figures do not include those relocated to the UK under the ex
gratia scheme for Afghan locally engaged civilians.
Post-decision review
There are a number of reasons why an initial decision may be subject to a post-decision review; an
asylum decision by the Secretary of State can be later reviewed as a result of additional information
and/or significant changes in the applicant’s current circumstances and the relevant country of origin
information. Following consultation in 2011, data on post-decision reviews are no longer published in
the Immigration Statistics releases. See the Summary of responses to the consultation published
alongside Immigration Statistics: April – June 2011.
Comparison to asylum applications in other countries
Data on asylum applications made in selected other countries are sourced from a number of
international organisations, including Eurostat, UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees) and IGC (Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees). The data
have been provided to these organisations by the named countries. In some cases, the countries
listed have not released asylum applications for the full time period and figures have been estimated
through extrapolation from earlier data. In consequence, figures for countries other than the UK may
over- or under-record depending on data available and recent trends. The notes page within the
Asylum tables list the countries where asylum applications have been estimated.
Key terms
Other grants: grants under family and private life rules from 9 July 2012; Leave Outside the Rules,
which was introduced for those refused asylum from 1 April 2013; and UASC leave, which was
introduced for Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children refused asylum but eligible for temporary
leave from 1 April 2013.
Other key terms for asylum can be found in the glossary of terms.
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Changes to data affecting the statistics
Asylum applications and decisions
Data after April 2000 for asylum applications and May 2000 for asylum decisions have been taken
from the Asylum Case Information Database. Prior to this date, manual counts were taken. Most of the
historical manual count figures relate to main applicants excluding dependants.
Since 2007, third country cases are no longer automatically defined as asylum cases unless the
person has claimed asylum in the UK. This change affects a small number of cases.
Following the introduction of a new approach to family and private life involving considering
applications against a new set of immigration rules from July 2012, asylum tables have been updated
to include outcomes related to these types of applications. For more information please see the
glossary for definitions of Private Life and Family Life (10-year) route and the Policy and Legislative
Timeline.
From April 2013, grants of DL to UASCs was replaced by UASC leave when the policy on granting
discretionary leave to UASC was incorporated into the Immigration Rules, under Paragraphs 352ZC –
352ZF. The asylum tables were updated to include the new outcome related to these types of UASC
applications. For more information please see the glossary for a definition of UASC leave.
From 2 September 2011, all individuals refused asylum or Humanitarian Protection on the grounds of
their war crimes or other international crimes committed prior to their arrival in the UK, but who cannot
be immediately removed due to the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), may be granted
Restricted Leave to Remain for a maximum of six months at a time. The asylum tables were updated
to include the new outcome under the Discretionary Leave category for these types of applications.
For more information please see the glossary for a definition of Restricted Leave and the Policy and
Legislative Timeline.
Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children and age disputed cases
An internal review of the UASC and age dispute data highlighted issues with the definitions used for
these data up to May 2013, in particular that the definition for UASCs was broader than it should be as
it included all asylum applicants who had ever been recorded as an unaccompanied minor and not just
those who were unaccompanied during their asylum application.
From Immigration Statistics April - June 2013, the definitions were refined.
UASC application
An asylum applicant previously counted in the UASC application data is no longer included if:
(a) They were considered an unaccompanied minor only in the period before the asylum
application;
(b) They were considered a UASC for less than 1 day;
(c) The applicant is listed as over 18 at application, but remain recorded as an unaccompanied
minor on the administrative database; or
(d) They were only considered a UASC after the initial decision was made.
UASC initial decisions and withdrawals
The definitional change made for initial decisions and withdrawals are the same as for a UASC
application, above, except the addition that the recorded date of birth must now show that they are
under 18 when they applied.
For applications, initial decisions and withdrawals only the last time they are considered a UASC is
counted.
67
Raised age dispute
An age dispute previously included in the data will no longer be included if it was resolved
before the date of the asylum application. In addition, each separate age dispute on the same person
are now counted.
The numbers now relate to the quarter when the individual becomes an asylum applicant with an age
dispute rather than the quarter the asylum application is made.
Overall, the changes reduced the number of asylum applicants counted in the published figures as
UASCs, while it made little overall difference to the number of age disputes counted in the published
figures. The actual impact as a result of these counting definition changes for 2012 and the first
quarter of 2013 were reported in the ‘About this release’ section of Immigration Statistics April - June
2013.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Other factors affecting the statistics
In July 1998 the White Paper entitled ‘Fairer, Faster and Firmer – A Modern Approach to Immigration
and Asylum’ was published. It made a number of proposals on asylum, several of which were
implemented immediately (27 July 1998) as there was no need for primary legislation. These had the
effect of abolishing the four-year qualifying period for grants of settlement to those recognised as
refugees and given asylum and reducing it from seven to four years for those granted exceptional
leave. In early 1999 the Home Office established units to implement further measures outlined in the
White Paper.
In February 2005 the Government announced a five-year strategy for asylum and immigration:
‘Controlling our borders: Making migration work for Britain’. This was built upon by the Immigration and
Nationality Directorate (IND) Review (Fair, Effective, Transparent and Trusted) in July 2006. Both
outlined how asylum claims would be managed more closely under the New Asylum Model and
introduced a single case owner managing both the case and the claimant throughout; changes in the
process for managing detained fast-track and non-detained cases; and a change from obtaining
settlement when asylum is granted to settlement after five years, during which time cases are
reviewed for any changes to the situation of the country of nationality and any circumstances that
would make the refugee ineligible for refugee status. The first complete case management teams
became operational in June 2005 and since March 2007 the majority of new asylum claims cases
have been managed end-to-end by one of the regional asylum teams. The aim is to recognise readily
those with well-founded claims, to maximise deterrents against unfounded applications, and to ensure
that a higher percentage of asylum seekers whose claims fail are quickly removed from the UK.
Changes in non-detained cases included the use of managed accommodation, requirements to report
regularly, the serving of appeal outcomes in person and linking an applicant’s access to support to
their compliance with the process. The Home Affairs Select Committee was informed in December
2006 that the programme of work on the older unresolved (legacy) asylum cases had begun. A Case
Resolution Directorate was formed to carry through this work. The review of legacy asylum cases was
completed in March 2011.
In July 2006, the Home Secretary announced to Parliament that the backlog of cases involving
unsuccessful asylum applicants who were still living in the UK would be resolved on a case-by-case
basis within the next five years in accordance with the legal framework and with the following priorities:
 those who may pose a risk to the public;
 those who can be removed more easily;
 those receiving support; and
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 those who may be allowed to stay in the UK.
Data quality
All asylum data relating to the UK:



are administrative counts of casework processes, which are defined in UK legislation and are
recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative databases;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following
August; and
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex and nationality is very low, with such missing data reported
as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The
following are known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases:



incomplete date of birth;
incorrect outcome selected, for example, exceptional leave to remain (after 1 April 2003),
humanitarian protection (HP) and discretionary leave (DL) (before 1 April 2003); and
case created on CID before the date of application.
Asylum applications and initial decisions
The data quality for the total numbers of asylum applications and initial decisions is considered to be
high. In addition to the above, these data:



undergo a reconciliation process;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office; and
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework.
The number of asylum applications and decisions relating to dependants are subject to a slightly
larger percentage increase than those relating to main applicants between the data published each
quarter and the revised data published in August. This increase is expected, and is not considered to
be a data quality issue, as the count of dependants includes those who are born or join the main
applicant after the asylum application is made, with the dependant being counted in the same quarter
that the original asylum claim was recorded. This also affects the number of dependants counted as
‘Age unknown’ in Table as_04. For asylum dependants, the age at application is based on their age at
the date the main application was made. Therefore, in cases where the child is born after the original
asylum application, the recorded age at application will be negative. These are not considered to be
data quality issues, but will appear in ‘Age unknown’ as the age is not known at the time of the
application.
Non-suspensive appeals process and asylum cases pending
Data is considered to be high. The non-suspensive appeals data are subsets of the asylum
applications and initial decisions data and undergo a separate reconciliation process. Both datasets
undergo a detailed reconciliation process.
Asylum appeals, asylum support and resettlement
Data on asylum appeals are considered to be high and are tracked against similar data from Ministry
of Justice.
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Data on resettlement are considered to be high; these data are regularly assessed as part of
the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework.
Data of asylum support are considered to be high; the totals are quality assured by the Home Office.
Outcome analysis
The outcome analysis of asylum applications table provides data relating to asylum applications,
appeals, fresh claims and removals and voluntary departures. The quality of these data is considered
to generally be high. The table also provides estimated outcomes of applications; these data are
considered to be of medium data quality as they report on the outcomes of a complex system and in a
small proportion of cases, the outcome has to be interpreted. This interpretation is undertaken
consistently through established computer code.
Fresh claims, the fast-track process, UASCs and age disputes
Data are considered to be medium to high quality.
All data on the fast-track process have undergone a reconciliation process with Harmondsworth and
Yarl’s Wood. For data relating to 2012 an improved reconciliation exercise was undertaken. A total of
270 cases (slightly more than 10%) were removed from the original data following this detailed
exercise as they were determined to have never been accepted on the Fast-Track process. This
suggests that data for earlier years may over-count.
In 2013, the data on asylum applicants accepted onto the fast-track process, and outcomes of these
applications, were consolidated to show totals rather than being broken down by detention facility.
This is to reflect changes to operational procedures which mean that it is not possible to allocate fasttrack cases to specific sites.
In 2014, the data went through a detailed reconciliation process with Harmondsworth and Yarl’s Wood
and a few data quality issues were identified. A number of improvements were made to the extraction
process. Data for earlier years do not get revised.
The method for recording an individual as being an UASC or being subject to an age assessment on
the CID database means that while new cases are considered to be well-recorded, instances where
the individual is no longer a UASC or has had an age assessment made may not be recorded in a
quantifiable way. For example, theoretically (1) the CID database allows those who turn 18 to remain
recorded as an unaccompanied minor; and (2) the caseworker may record the outcome of an age
assessment as a note, but not officially close the age dispute. The computer code employed has been
written and tested to mitigate these possible scenarios as far as possible, although the counts may
include some applicants as UASCs and age disputes in error.
Data supplied to Eurostat
Data are supplied to Eurostat, the European statistical organisation, under definitions in line with EU
statistical legislation. There are differences between definitions of the asylum figures in Immigration
Statistics and those provided to Eurostat. These are detailed under ‘Related statistics published
elsewhere’.
Data on asylum applications in other countries
Data on the number of asylum applications received in other countries are based on data supplied by
the individual countries to international organisations. Not all countries provide data to the end of the
period in time for each release of Immigration Statistics. Where a figure is unavailable for a given
month, we estimate it using the average of the last three months available, provided that the time
series has not shown large increases or decreases. Where a series is erratic, we estimate the figure
using the average of the last 12 months.
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The sources and countries currently requiring estimation are detailed in the asylum table
notes.
Compilation method
Each Friday evening, a weekly ‘snapshot’ of the Case Information Database (CID) is taken. On a
monthly and quarterly basis, generally during the second week after the end of the reference period,
an extract of asylum data is taken from this ‘snapshot’ by Migration Statistics. This extract is filtered
using established, tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are no duplicates within
the data, to produce the data due to be released.
The only exceptions to this are the data on supported asylum seekers, the fast-track process and
resettlement of refugees.
The process for compiling data on asylum support for years up to and including 2012 used a different
method to data for 2013 onwards, although the data source is the same. For data up to 2012, each
day, a list of the records added or amended on the Asylum Support System (ASYS) was produced. On
a weekly basis, the daily lists were added together and then to the information from the previous week
to produce a ‘snapshot’ of ASYS for Migration Statistics. For data from 2013, each week a ‘snapshot’
of the Asylum Support System (ASYS) is taken. During the second week after the end of the reference
period, an extract of support data are taken from the appropriate ‘snapshot’ by Migration Statistics. In
both cases, the ‘snapshot’ is filtered using established, tested computer code, which, for example,
adds Region, Local Authority, Parliamentary Constituency and Ward to each record using the
postcode information.
Data on the resettlement of refugees are provided directly by the Home Office.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the asylum applications, initial decisions, withdrawals, fresh claims and
asylum cases pending data for main applicants with teams within the Home Office, by ensuring that
the total number of records produced separately by the Home Office is within 2% of the data extracted
by Migration Statistics. If the total is not within 2%, then analysis of the individual records are made.
Migration Statistics reconcile data on the non-suspensive appeals process with a team within the
Home Office, by comparing a unique identifier from each case in the Migration Statistics extract
against record-level data provided by the Home Office. When an individual is found within only one of
the extracts detailed data quality checks are carried out to ascertain whether the case should be
counted.
Data on asylum support are quality assured with a team within the Home Office, by comparing the
figures against their own records.
Data on the fast-track process are quality assured by teams at Harmondsworth and Yarl’s Wood
against their own records. See the data quality section above for further details.
Trends of asylum appeals are compared against figures published by the HM Courts and Tribunal
Service.
All data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with Home Office operational and policy teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the tables ready for release are checked by a second member of the
Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked against the tables.
Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary appropriately describes the trend seen
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in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Figures on asylum applicants who are removed or depart voluntarily are included in the
Removals and voluntary departures topic;
 Figures on asylum-related grants of settlement are included in the Settlement topic;
 The Ministry of Justice publishes data on immigration and asylum appeals at First-tier Tribunal






and subsequent stages; see below for an explanation of the relationship and differences
between the data;
Data on asylum applications, withdrawals and cases pending are released on a monthly basis
and are available from
http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=migr_asyappctzm&lang=enHome
Office Business Plan impact indicators showing the percentage of asylum applications
concluded in one year are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/uk-visas-and-immigration;
Asylum performance framework measures and data on the controlled asylum archive are
published as Official Statistics and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data;
The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) publishes an annual report entitled ‘Asylum
Trends in Industrialised Countries’
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c4b8.html which
includes an international comparison of the number of applications for asylum;
Eurostat comparisons of various data relating to asylum applications and decisions are
available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database;
see below for an explanation of the relationship and differences between the data; and
International comparisons for asylum applications and decisions can be found on the Eurostat
website, at:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/asylum-and-managed-migration/publications
Asylum appeals
Asylum appeals data are sourced from the Home Office database and relate to main asylum
applicants at the First-tier Tribunal Immigration and Asylum Chamber. The Home Office database
records are updated from record-level data provided by the HM Courts and Tribunals Service
(HMCTS). This provides consistent data across all datasets relating to asylum published in
Immigration Statistics, but is different from the HMCTS published statistics which provide counts of
principal appellants sourced from the HMCTS database. There tend to be higher numbers of principal
appellants than main asylum applicant appeals as:
 HMCTS has a wider definition of asylum appeals, including some human rights cases and
appeals on extensions of asylum, humanitarian protection and discretionary leave; and
 principal appellants include some individuals classed as dependants by the Home Office.
The Ministry of Justice publishes data on immigration and asylum appeals at First-tier Tribunal and
subsequent stages. These data are available from:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-justice/series/tribunals-statistics.
Eurostat data
Under European legislation the UK is required to comply with parts of Article 4: (Asylum Statistics) of
regulation (EC) No 862/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics
on migration and international protection:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:199:0023:0029:EN:PDF.
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This regulation aims to achieve greater comparability in migration and asylum statistics
across Europe through the adoption of harmonised definitions.
There are differences between definitions of the asylum figures in Immigration Statistics and those
provided to Eurostat. For asylum applications these are as follows:
 the Immigration Statistics figures on fresh applications include those who have made a fresh
claim in the same reference month, while figures provided to Eurostat exclude these applicants;
 the figures on withdrawn applications published in Immigration Statistics only show withdrawn
first applications and will continue to do so. The figures provided to Eurostat include withdrawn
re-applications as well;
 the Immigration Statistics figures on pending applications include withdrawn applications, while
figures provided to Eurostat exclude these;
 figures in the Immigration Statistics are National Statistics, whereas the monthly information on
the most recent months provided to Eurostat is based on provisional Official Statistics, which is
subject to change;
 from November 2012, the data have been provided to Eurostat monthly and revised annually,
usually in August; the data are not revised quarterly in line with the Immigration Statistics
release.
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11 Detention
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published on three main series of data as National Statistics:
 People entering detention (including occurrences of people entering detention) – (Tables dt_01
– dt_04_q);
 People leaving detention – (Tables dt_05 – dt_10);
 People in detention as at the last day of each quarter (i.e. on a snapshot basis) – (Tables
dt_11_q – dt_13_q); and
 Defendants proceeded against for offences under Immigration Acts 1971 to 2007 in England
and Wales – (Tables pr_01).
DETENTION
Data source
The statistics on detention are extracted from the Home Office’s Case Information Database (CID).
The data are derived from administrative information used for the allocating of bed occupancy. Those
relating to people in detention (on a snapshot basis) on the last day of each quarter are reconciled
with all immigration removal centres, short-term holding facilities and pre-departure accommodation in
the Home Office immigration detention estate.
The information on detainees held in prison establishments in England and Wales solely under
Immigration Act Powers has been supplied by the National Offender Management Service (an
Executive Agency of the Ministry of Justice).
These figures have been drawn from weekly manual returns from individual prisons, which, as with
any large scale manual recording system, is subject to possible error(s) with individual data entry and
processing.
At any given time, the data may include a small number of individuals who have never served a
custodial sentence. These individuals are held in prisons as they present specific risk factors that
indicate they pose a serious risk of harm to the public or to the good order of an Immigration Removal
Centre, including the safety of staff and other detainees, which cannot be managed within the regime
applied in Immigration Removal Centres.
Background on the statistics
Immigration legislation provides powers of detention. Every person detained, including special cases,
is issued with an IS91 Authority to Detain form. Detention may be used whilst identity and basis of
claim are established, where there is a risk of absconding, as part of fast-track asylum procedures (in
the case of straightforward asylum claims that can be decided quickly) and in support of the removal
of failed asylum seekers and others who have no legal right to be in the UK. Special cases include:
sensitive cases; spouses of British Citizens or EEA nationals; unaccompanied young persons under
18; unaccompanied children who are to be returned to an EU Member State; an FNO under the age of
18 who has completed a custodial sentence; families with minor children; and detention in police cells
for longer than two nights.
An individual may be held and remain in immigration detention for a variety of reasons, including
reasons within and outside the control of the Home Office. Those outside the control of the Home
Office may include but are not exclusively: individual compliance with immigration procedures,
including providing appropriate paperwork; and barriers to removal relating to the individual’s personal
74
circumstances or circumstances related to the intended country of return. Reasons within the
control of the Home Office include: where the Home Office has assessed it is not in the
public interest to release the individual pending removal. The Home Office has a statutory duty to
review detention at least every 28 days to ensure that the detained person continues to meet the
published detention criteria and that detention is still the most appropriate course.
Published detention figures relate only to those detained solely under Immigration Act powers, in
immigration removal centres, short term holding facilities and pre departure accommodation, and
exclude those detained for criminal purposes and those who are detained under both criminal and
immigration powers. Published detention statistics exclude detainees in short-term holding rooms at
ports and airports (for less than 24 hours), police cells and Prison Service establishments; reliable
data have not been available for these individuals since March 2006.
Published data on people entering detention (including occurrences of people entering detention) have
only been available since 2009.
On leaving detention, people can be removed from the UK, granted leave to enter/remain, granted
temporary admission/release or bailed. Figures on people leaving detention from 2010 are not directly
comparable with previous figures due to a revised methodology being used.
Background on the statistics relating to families and children
In 2010, the Coalition Programme for Government made a commitment to end the detention of
children (i.e. persons aged under 18) for immigration purposes.
A Home Office review began in June 2010 to consider how this could be done in a way which protects
the welfare of children while ensuring the return of families who have no right to be in the UK. For the
purpose of the review, Home Office defined “detention” as the holding of children with families in
immigration removal centres such as Yarl’s Wood. As a result of this review, in December 2010, the
Government published details of its new approach to returning families without permission to be in the
UK. The new process for managing the removal of families with no right to be in the UK (The Family
Returns Process) began on 1 March 2011.
The final stage of the process includes the possibility of requiring families to stay in 'pre-departure
accommodation' as a last resort if they fail to co-operate with other options to leave the UK, such as
the offer of assisted voluntary return. Families can only be referred to pre-departure accommodation
after advice has been sought from the Independent Family Returns Panel, an independent body of
child welfare experts.
The pre-departure accommodation located near Gatwick Airport, in West Sussex, Cedars, opened in
August 2011. It provides freedom of movement within a secure perimeter for up to nine families at a
time who are accommodated in self-contained apartments.
The 2010 Home Office review stated that families with children may be held on arrival while checks
are made to determine whether they should be admitted to the country and, if not, until a return flight
can be arranged for them and the December 2010 report of the review stated that ‘We will hold
families only in very limited circumstances for border and other high risk cases’. The family unit at
Tinsley House remains in use for these families. In rare cases, it may be used for families with criminal
and other high-risk members who cannot be safely accommodated in pre-departure accommodation.
This includes where a foreign national mother and baby from a prison mother and baby unit are being
returned during the Early Removal Scheme (ERS) period but it is not practicable or desirable, owing to
time or distant constraints, to transfer them direct from prison to the airport for removal. The family unit
may be used for adults deemed more at risk, if there are no families detained.
Stays within pre-departure accommodation and the family unit at Tinsley House are limited to a
maximum of 72 hours prior to a family’s planned removal date from the UK, although there is provision
for a family to remain for up to seven days with ministerial approval.
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The other circumstances in which children are detained at immigration removal centres and
are:
 where an individual considered an adult on entry to the immigration detention estate has their
age disputed. Once identified as an ‘age dispute case’ it is Home Office policy to release the
individual into the care of a local authority as soon as appropriate arrangements can be made
because of the possibility that he/she is under 18 years of age and while awaiting a Merton
compliant age assessment, which will be conducted in the community. While awaiting an age
assessment and if an age assessment shows the individual is under 18, the individual will be
counted as aged under 18; and
 in criminal cases, detention of a foreign national offender under 18 may be authorised in
exceptional circumstances where it can be shown that they pose a serious risk to the public and
a decision to deport or remove has been taken. This detention is subject to Ministerial
authorisation and advice is also sought from the Independent Family Returns Panel.
Further information are available from:
 Coalition Programme for Government:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/78977/coalition_p
rogramme_for_government.pdf
 December 2010 report into the ‘Review into Ending the Detention of Children For Immigration
Purposes’
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/257654/childdetention-conclusions.pdf
 The independent family returns panel annual report:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/independent-family-returns-panel-annual-report2011-to-2012
Further information on immigration removal centres and short-term holding facilities can be found on
the UK Border Agency (now Home Office) ‘Immigration Removal Centre’ web pages at the following
link: https://www.gov.uk/immigration-removal-centre.
Further information on pre-departure accommodation can be found at the following link:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/guidance-on-cedars-pre-departure-accommodation.
Changes to data affecting the statistics
Following the closure of the Detainee Location and Management Information System (DELMIS) in
October 2006, figures on all people in detention (on a snapshot basis) by length of detention and all
people leaving detention ceased to be published as no sufficiently robust quality assurance could be
performed on the data. However:
 Figures on children detained by length of detention continued to be published. Figures for all
people detained by length of detention resumed publication in February 2009.
 Figures on people removed from the UK on leaving detention resumed in August 2007 and,
following the publication of figures on people entering detention in February 2009, it became
possible to publish overall figures on all people leaving detention. Figures on all people leaving
detention resumed publication (broken down by reason for leaving, place of last detention, age
and sex) in November 2010, with a breakdown by country of nationality following in February
2011 and length of detention in May 2011.
Before 2009, data on people in detention (on a snapshot basis) were published as at the last Saturday
of each quarter; from 2009 onwards the data have been published as at the last day of each quarter.
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Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Revisions
Revisions to the data on the number of children entering detention occur when a more recent data
extract is used to produce the figures. Later extracts will reflect changes made to date of birth
information about individuals (after reviews, new evidence or ‘Merton’ assessments). These changes
do not change the total number of people entering detention, but may increase or decrease the
number of children entering detention.
For more information see ‘Revisions Analysis’ in the ‘Conventions used in Immigration Statistics’
section of this User Guide.
Other changes affecting the statistics
Since the beginning of 2004, the following immigration removal centres and short-term holding
facilities have closed:





Dover Harbour – 31 July 2010;
Oakington Reception Centre – 12 November 2010;
Harwich – 30 November 2010;
Lindholme – 23 December 2011; and
Haslar IRC – 23 April 2015.
Additionally, Yarl’s Wood closed to families with children on 16 December 2010.
Since the beginning of 2004, the following immigration removal centres and short-term holding
facilities have opened:




Brook House – 18 March 2009;
Morton Hall – 16 May 2011;
Larne House – 5 July 2011; and
The Verne – 28 September 2014.
In March 2011 Tinsley House (Family Unit) IRC was reopened, after refurbishment, predominately for
families detained at the Border, whilst awaiting a decision to allow entry to the UK. Tables for
detention of children now identify numbers held in Tinsley House (Family Unit) IRC from 2013
onwards.
Cedars, the pre-departure accommodation designed for children and their families opened on 17
August 2011. Cedars was specifically designed to provide a secure facility for children and their
families. Whilst children are detained in Cedars PDA under Immigration Act powers, they are not held
in the same conditions as previously found in adult detention facilities
From 16 July 2012, following a change in operational policy, Colnbrook immigration removal centre
now accepts detainees directly on entering detention, rather than initially entering detention at
Colnbrook short term holding facility before being transferred to Colnbrook immigration removal
centre.
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Data quality
Overall, the data quality for people detained (snapshot figures) and children entering and leaving
detention is considered to be high; data quality for people entering and leaving detention are
considered to be medium to high.
All data:





are administrative counts of the Home Office detention bed occupancy allocation on Home
Office administrative database;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of Home Office;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling error;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in February each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following
August and have not, in recent years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are
subsequently checked 12 months later and the provisional status of the data is altered to final;
and
undergo a detailed reconciliation process.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex and nationality is very low, with such missing data reported
as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The
following are known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases:





overlapping periods of detention;
incomplete date of birth;
not detained in a immigration removals centre, short-term holding facility or pre-departure
accommodation;
incorrect detention closure reason; and
incorrect detention closure date/time.
These issues are mostly captured within specified data quality reports run at the same time as the
data are filtered. As part of the quarterly reconciliation process, Migration Statistics investigate these
cases and pass the issues back to operational colleagues. If the record is amended, the relevant
additional information is included.
Length of detention is the number of nights spent in the place of detention, which is calculated using
the date that a bed is allocated to an individual and the date that the bed is unallocated. The data
extracted do not allow for a calculation of the exact number of hours of detention.
Compilation method
Each Friday evening, a weekly ‘snapshot’ of the Case Information Database (CID) is taken by Home
Office. On a quarterly basis, extracts of the detention data are taken from this ‘snapshot’ and provided
directly by Home Office. These extracts are filtered using established, tested computer code, which,
for example, ensures there are no duplicates within the data, to produce the data due to be published.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the detention datasets with immigration teams within Home Office, by
comparing a unique identifier for each detention in the Migration Statistics extract against record-level
data provided by Home Office. Where an individual is found within only one of the extracts detailed
data quality checks are carried out to ascertain whether the case should be included.
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Data on children undergo more detailed checks, including confirmation of the place of
detention and individual case-by-case reconciliation with the Family Returns Unit.
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
Data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with immigration operational teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 All removals from the UK, see the Removals and voluntary departures topic;
 Asylum cases in the detained fast-track process, see the Asylum topic;
 Following a request in the House of Lords for more detailed statistics on children, since October
2010 a monthly series of children entering detention, broken down by place of initial detention
and age, has been published as Official Statistics. These are available from:
https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/children-entering-detention-underimmigration-act-powers;
 Data on the Family returns process are published as Official Statistics and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data ; and
 Short statistical article on Foreign National Offenders in detention and leaving detention,
available
from:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/foreign-national-offenders-indetention-and-leaving-detention.
PROSECUTIONS FOR IMMIGRATION OFFENCES
Data source
The statistics on prosecutions for immigration offences are supplied by the Ministry of Justice (MOJ).
Background on the statistics
The figures relate to the principal immigration offence. This is where a defendant is prosecuted for at
least one immigration offence but may have also been prosecuted for another non-immigration
offence. When a defendant has been prosecuted for two or more immigration offences it is the
immigration offence for which the heaviest penalty is imposed. Where the same disposal is imposed
for two or more immigration offences, the immigration offence selected is the immigration offence for
which the statutory maximum penalty is the most severe. Where a defendant is prosecuted for one or
more non-immigration offences and one or more immigration offences the offence recorded is the
principal immigration offence.
More detailed information is available from the MOJ Criminal Statistics Guide
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-justice/series/criminal-justice-statistics - the
guide is available with the latest ‘Criminal justice statistics’ release.
Every effort is made to ensure that the figures presented are accurate and complete. However, it is
important to note that these data have been extracted from large administrative data systems
generated by the courts and police forces. As a consequence, care should be taken to ensure data
collection processes and their inevitable limitations are taken into account when those data are used.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics perform a number of checks on the data supplied by the MOJ; these are:
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 joint working with immigration policy teams and the MOJ statistical team to identify
new immigration offences or changes to existing offences to ensure they have been accounted
for;
 checking that totals sum; and
 examining the data to identify differences in the trends that may require further investigation.
Revisions
Revisions to the data on prosecutions for immigration offences occur when the sources of
administrative systems or methodology changes, receipt of subsequent information, and errors in
statistical systems and processes. More detailed information is available from the ‘Revisions’ section
of the MOJ Criminal Statistics Guide https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-ofjustice/series/criminal-justice-statistics.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Data on all prosecutions are published by the MOJ and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-justice/series/criminal-justice-statistics
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12 Removals and voluntary departures
Statistics covered by this topic
Data on removals and voluntary departures are based on individual cases. Multiple removals of the
same person within a year are counted as multiple departures.
Figures are published on enforced removals, refused entry at port and subsequently removed and
voluntary departures from the UK – as National Statistics – broken down by:
 Type of applicant, split by: main asylum cases, dependants of main asylum cases and nonasylum cases (Tables rv_01 and rv_01_q);
 Type of departure, split by: enforced removals, non-asylum cases refused entry at port and





subsequently removed, Assisted Voluntary Returns, notified voluntary departures and other
confirmed voluntary departures (Tables rv_01, rv_03 and rv_06);
Country of nationality (Tables rv_03 - rv_05);
Country of destination (Tables rv_06 and rv_06_q);
Age and sex (Tables rv_02 and rv_04);
Removals of foreign national offenders (Table rv_07_q); and
Harm assessment of enforced removals and voluntary departures (Table rv_08 and rv_08_q).
Data source
The statistics on departures are extracted from the Home Office’s Case Information Database (CID).
The data are derived from administrative information used for the processing of cases which are
subject to removal action.
Background on statistics
Individuals seeking to enter the UK must satisfy a Border Force Officer that they meet the relevant
criteria for entry, as defined under the Immigration Rules drafted in accordance with the Immigration
Act 1971 (as amended). In order to comply with this requirement, passengers must present
themselves, on arrival at a port of entry, to a Border Force Officer. Under Schedule 2 of the
Immigration Act 1971 officers have the power to conduct further examinations in cases where they are
not immediately satisfied that the passenger meets the requirements of the Immigration Rules.
Officers who exercise these powers are utilising the powers provided under paragraph 2(1) of
Schedule 2 to the Immigration Act 1971.
A Border Force Officer may examine a person who has arrived in the UK in order to determine the
following: whether or not they are a British citizen; whether or not they may enter without leave; and
whether:
 they have been given leave to enter which is still in force;
 they should be given leave to enter and for what period and on what conditions, (if any); or
 they should be refused leave to enter.
A person who is initially refused entry may then be removed. Removal may be immediate; on the next
available flight, which may require temporary admission; or may be after a grant of temporary
admission for another reason, such as an appeal against a refusal of entry. The removal may
therefore be in a different period to the initial refusal.
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The Home Office also seeks to remove people who do not have any legal right to stay in the
UK. This includes people who:
 enter, or attempt to enter, the UK illegally (including people entering clandestinely and by




means of deception on entry);
overstay their period of legal right to remain in the UK;
breach their conditions of leave;
are subject to deportation action; and
have been refused asylum.
People who have claimed asylum and whose claims have been refused, and who have exhausted any
rights of appeal, which would suspend removal, can be removed as a result of enforcement action (by
deportation, administrative or illegal entry powers); this may include some cases dealt at
port/juxtaposed controls. People who have claimed asylum can also be removed under third country
provisions without substantive consideration of their asylum claim.
Data on cases refused entry at port and subsequently removed by port location (UK/juxtaposed
controls) have only been available from 2007.
It is not possible within the figures split by main applicants and dependants to determine what
proportion of removals are families, and these figures should not be used for the purpose of
considering family removals.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Key terms
Other key terms for enforced removal, voluntary departures and foreign national offender can be found
in the glossary of terms
Facilitated Return Scheme (FRS) is a scheme designed to help and incentivise non-EEA foreign
national offenders’ return to their home country. The scheme covers time-expired prisoners and those
who wish to benefit from the early removal scheme or to serve the remainder of their custodial
sentence in a prison in their home country.
Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) refers to a range of programmes that are available to individuals
who are in the asylum system or who are irregular migrants and who wish to return home permanently
to either their (non-EEA) country of origin or to a third country where they are permanently admissible.
The Home Office has been funding AVR programmes since 1999. They are delivered by Choices, a
subsidiary of the independent charity Refugee Action (prior to April 2011, by the International
Organization for Migration). From 1 April 2014, the AVR programme is not available to people held in
detention. There are three main programmes available.
 The Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme (VARRP) assists asylum
seekers at any stage of the process, or failed asylum seekers. This also includes those who
have been granted time-limited exceptional leave to remain or discretionary leave.
 The Assisted Voluntary Return for Irregular Migrants (AVRIM) programme assists irregular
migrants. This includes victims of trafficking or smuggling, illegal entrants and those who have
overstayed on their visa.
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 Assisted Voluntary Return for Families and Children (AVRFC) is for families
comprising a maximum of two adult parents or legal guardians and at least one child (under 18)
and for unaccompanied children (under 18) who have either sought asylum or who are in the
UK illegally and wish to return home. Returnees receive support in acquiring travel
documentation, flight to country of origin and onward domestic transport, assistance at
departure and arrival airports and reintegration assistance including a relocation grant on
departure for immediate resettlement needs and, once home, a range of reintegration options.
The scheme offers flexibility of reintegration for the whole family and increased emphasis is
placed on the use of reintegration assistance for educational needs as well as income
generation.
Other confirmed voluntary departures: persons who it has been established have left or have been
identified leaving the UK without formally informing the immigration authorities of their departure.
These persons can be identified either at embarkation controls or by a variety of data-matching
initiatives.
Examples of such initiatives include:



Embark Operations: Immigration Officers interview departing foreign nationals to establish
their immigration status and confirm the person’s embarkation. Embarkation controls ceased
from June 2014.
Operation Hedera: Visa applications are matched against records of foreign nationals with no
valid leave in the UK to establish whether the person has left the UK without informing the
immigration authorities.
Operation Semaphore: Airline passenger data are matched against records of foreign
nationals with no valid leave in the UK to establish whether the person has left the UK without
informing the immigration authorities.
Deportations are a specific subset of departures which are enforced either following a criminal
conviction or when it is judged that a person’s removal from the UK is conducive to the public good;
the deportation order prohibits the person returning to the UK until such time as it may be revoked.
Most illegal immigrants are removed under administrative or illegal entry powers from the UK and not
deported. Published information on those deported from the UK is not separately available.
EU nationals removed or departing voluntarily: For EU nationals there are two distinct types of
removal under the EU law framework – administrative removal which specifically applies for those EU
nationals not exercising or abusing Treaty rights, and deportation on public policy grounds. Both types
of removals are included in the published data under “Enforced removal” category.
Harm Matrix: The harm matrix is a tool to assess the level of harm associated with a particular
individual. In order to provide clarity, consistency and measurement, levels of harm have been divided
into four broad categories: A, B, C and D, with A being the highest harm.
 Category A (highest harm) – has committed offences including serious criminal offences such
as terrorist activity, murder, rape, people and drug trafficking, violent crime and child abuse;
 Category B (high harm) – has committed other criminal offences including illegal working,
dishonest claim for asylum support and identity fraud; and
 Category C (medium harm) – has committed other offences, not linked to any of the above
more serious criminality, including minor immigration offences, a drain on public funds and
antisocial behaviour.
 Category D (low harm) – has committed other low level offences, including shoplifting. Harm
Category “D (low harm)” was introduced in the first quarter of 2012. Prior to 2012, Harm
Category D would have been classified as part of the previous Harm Category C.
83
In some cases, people who have departed will not have been assessed and these are
reported as ‘Cases not assessed’. These mainly relate to people who have already left or are
detected leaving the UK of their own accord and were not subject to a pre-departure harm
assessment.
The harm matrix was introduced in 2007 for the Public Service Agreement 3 Indicator 4, which is no
longer an official measurement of Home Office performance. However, the data continue to be
collected and monitored.
Changes to data affecting the statistics
Since 2006, cases that had initially been refused leave to enter at ports but were subsequently dealt
with in-country are classified as ‘Enforced removals’ or ‘voluntary departures’ and no longer classified
as ‘Refused entry at port and subsequently removed’.
Since 2007, third country cases are no longer automatically defined as asylum cases unless the
person has claimed asylum in the UK. This change affects a small number of cases. This
reclassification has no effect on the total removals and voluntary departures recorded.
Revisions
As the data matching for the other confirmed voluntary departures is undertaken retrospectively this
means these figures are particularly subject to greater upward revision than would be the case for
other categories of departure. In the light of the high use of retrospective data matching to check
departures, figures are reviewed each quarter to decide whether they require revision. Figures for
notified voluntary departures and other confirmed voluntary departures are revised for two consecutive
quarters.
For more information on revisions please see ‘Revisions Analysis’ in the ‘Conventions used in
immigration statistics’ section of the User Guide.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of those removed and departed voluntarily is considered
to be high. These data:
 are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK






legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised closely as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
enforced removals and cases initially refused entry at port and subsequently departed have not,
in recent years, altered significantly between initial provisional totals released in February each
year and subsequent revised totals released in the following August and have not, in recent
years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are subsequently checked 12 months later
and the provisional status of the data is altered to final;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors;
undergo a detailed reconciliation process; and
are subject to internal data quality checks.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex and nationality is very low, with such missing data reported
as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The
following are known data quality issues which affect a small number of cases.
84
 In some cases, there is insufficient evidence on the database to confirm that a removal
took place, in which case it will not be counted. As part of the quarterly reconciliation process,
Migration Statistics investigate these cases and pass the issues back to the Home Office. If the
record is amended and the relevant additional information added, these removals are counted
in the same quarter or in revised figures.
 Figures for ‘Under 14’/‘14-15’/‘16-17’ may overstate because some applicants aged 18 or over
may claim to be younger on their date of departure.
Data are supplied to Eurostat, the European statistical organisation, under definitions in line with EU
statistical legislation. There are differences between definitions of the removals and voluntary
departure figures in Immigration Statistics and those provided to Eurostat. These are detailed under
‘Related statistics published elsewhere’. The figures supplied to Eurostat are not quality assured to the
same level as the data published in Immigration Statistics, as it is not possible to reconcile the data
under the definitions used by Eurostat with the Home Office.
Compilation method
Each Friday evening, a weekly ‘snapshot’ of the Case Information Database (CID) is taken. On a
quarterly basis, generally during the second week after the end of the reference period, an extract of
removals and voluntary departures data is taken from this ‘snapshot’ by Migration Statistics. This
extract is filtered using established, tested computer code, which, for example, ensures there are no
duplicates within the data, to produce the data due to be published.
The only exceptions to this are the data on the harm assessment of those removed, which are
provided directly by the Home Office.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the removals and voluntary departures dataset with teams within the
Home Office, by comparing a unique identifier from each removal in the Migration Statistics extract
against record-level data provided by the Home Office. Where a removal is found in only one of the
extracts, a number of data quality checks are carried out, including: that each asylum removal is
correctly linked to an asylum case outcome on CID; and that the removal categories are consistent
with Home Office data. The team in the Home Office are also asked to investigate the discrepancies
using detailed sources on individual cases. A case is only included in the published tables if: it
appears in both extracts; or it appears in one of the extracts and Migration Statistics team is happy
that it is correctly recorded as a removal. For example, if the removal date indicated was before an
application date for the same case, then further investigation would be undertaken.
These checks against record-level data are not undertaken for the statistics on foreign national
offenders and harm assessment. However, the harm assessment data are matched to the reconciled
enforced removals and voluntary departures data to ensure consistency.
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
Data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with Home Office operational and policy teams.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked
against the publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary
appropriately describes the trend seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Asylum applications and decisions, see the Asylum topic;
85
 People recorded as being removed from the UK on leaving detention, see the
Detention topic;
 Passengers initially refused entry at port, see the Admissions topic;
 Data on the Family returns process are published as Official Statistics and are available from
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data; and
 Eurostat comparisons of removals are available from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database; see below for an
explanation of the relationship and differences between the data.
Eurostat data
Under European legislation the UK is also required to comply with parts of Article 7 of regulation (EC)
No 862/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics on migration and
international protection:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:199:0023:0029:EN:PDF.
This regulation aims to achieve greater comparability in migration and asylum statistics across Europe
through the adoption of harmonised definitions.
There are slight differences between definitions of the removals and voluntary departure figures in
Immigration Statistics and those provided to Eurostat, as follows:
 data provided to Eurostat since 2010 have been counts of individuals removed; multiple notices
issued to the same person in the same year are not counted, while data published within
Immigration Statistics count each removal;
 the Immigration Statistics figures include: Dublin removals; multiple removals by the same
person in the same reference month; and removals of European Union nationals, while figures
provided to Eurostat exclude these departures; and
 data provided under Article 7.1b also exclude departures to the following destinations:
European Union countries, Norway, Switzerland and Northern Cyprus.
86
13 European Economic Area
Statistics published in Immigration Statistics
Figures are published on:
 Applications from Bulgarian and Romanian nationals for accession worker cards, registration
certificates, the Sector Based Scheme (SBS) and the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme
(SAWS) (Table ee_01_q);
 Applications from Croatian nationals for accession worker cards and registration certificates;
 Issues and refusals of residence documentation to EEA nationals and their family members
(Table ee_02).
Commentary on applications from Bulgarian, Romania and Croatian nations can be found in the Work
topic while commentary on issues and refusals of residence documentation to EEA nationals and their
family member can be found in the Family topic.
Background on the statistics
The European Economic Area (EEA) consists of countries within the EU as at end of September 2013
together with Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. 28 nationals of the EEA and Switzerland have rights
of free movement within the UK. This means that there is less information on numbers coming to the
UK than for nationals of other countries.
Related statistics published elsewhere
Figures on the transitional measures put in place by the UK Government to regulate EU8 nationals’
access to the labour market (through the Workers Registration Scheme) and to restrict access to
benefits were previously published in Immigration Statistics. The data tables were dropped from the
release after the transitional measures came to an end. The full data sets are available in Immigration
Statistics: October – December 2011 available from
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130128103514/http:/www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/
science-research-statistics/research-statistics/immigration-asylum-research/immigration-q4-2011/
The Migration Advisory Committee report ‘Migrant Seasonal Workers’,
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/257242/migrantseasonal-workers.pdf includes detailed analysis of the SBS and SAWS schemes.
Croatia joined the European Union (EU) on 1 July 2013. Transitional arrangements
https://www.gov.uk/croatian-national were introduced to restrict Croatian nationals' access to the UK
labour market.
APPLICATIONS FROM BULGARIAN, ROMANIAN AND CROATIAN NATIONALS
Data source
Data are extracted from Home Office administrative databases, after caseworkers have entered
information relating to the applications and decisions. Data relating to Accession Worker Cards and
Registration Certificates are derived from a subset of records on the Case Information Database
(CID). Figures of Sector Based Scheme applications granted are taken from information recorded in
the globe database (originally used for the administration of work permits before the implementation of
the Points Based System) while Seasonal Agricultural Workers information is taken from a dedicated
database used to administer the scheme by the Home Office.
87
Background on the statistics
On 1 January 2007, Bulgaria and Romania (the EU2 countries) joined the European Union. Access to
the UK labour market was opened gradually to workers from the EU2 countries. The transitional
arrangements enforced by the Accession (Immigration and Worker Authorisation) Regulations 2006
require EU2 nationals to apply for an accession worker card to gain authorisation to work in the UK, or
a registration certificate if a student (and working whilst they study) or highly skilled person, unless
they are exempt from those requirements.
Access for skilled workers at NVQ level 3 and above is managed through the work permit
arrangements. Access for lower-skilled workers is restricted to those using existing schemes (the
Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme and the Sector Based Scheme) for the agricultural and foodprocessing sectors. These low-skilled schemes are restricted to Bulgarian and Romanian nationals.
Following 12 months’ legal employment in the UK, EU2 national workers obtain full free movement
rights.
Those who are: exempt from worker authorisation requirements due to their status in the UK prior to
accession or certain family links to UK nationals, settled persons or EEA nationals; self-employed;
self-sufficient; a student; or a family member of main applicants can apply for a registration certificate
to confirm they are entitled to live in the UK.
These restrictions are not affected by the closure of the Worker Registration Scheme, which only
applied to the countries which joined the European Union in 2004.
The independent Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) was asked in May 2011 to consider whether
the UK labour market was experiencing, or threatened by, a serious disturbance and to look at the
consequences of maintaining or lifting the current employment restrictions on workers from these two
countries. A report, ‘Review of the transitional restrictions on access of Bulgarian and Romanian
nationals to the UK labour market’, from the MAC looked at the impact on the domestic labour market
if
the
transitional
controls
were
removed.
The
report,
available
from
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/review-of-the-restrictions-on-bulgaria-and-romaniannationals, found that lifting the current restrictions could cause more EU2 nationals to come to the UK
to work, particularly in lower-skilled occupations where there is greater risk of displacement of resident
workers and a negative impact on wages. The Government announced on 23 November 2011 that
these controls would be extended until the end of 2013.
Transitional restrictions on Bulgarian and Romanian nationals were lifted on 1 January 2014.
Following the accession of Croatia to the EU on 1st July 2013 similar transitional restrictions to those
relating to Bulgarian and Romanians were placed on their working in the UK. More information can be
found on the Home Office web site at https://www.gov.uk/croatian-national.
Key terms
Accession worker cards are issued to highly skilled, skilled and temporary workers from Bulgaria,
Romania and Croatia. Highly skilled applicants are exempt from transitional restrictions while skilled
and temporary workers employed by companies in the UK are issued a certificate for 12 months, after
which they may apply for a registration certificate.
Registration certificates are issued to Bulgarian, Romanian and Croatian nationals who are exempt
from the transitional controls and employed workers after 12 months living in the UK in accordance
with the Regulations.
Definitions of document types can be found in the glossary of terms.
88
Changes in the data affecting the statistics
The Immigration Statistics: July–September 2011 release significantly revised the figures for
applications received and approvals for registration certificates and accession worker cards from EU2
nationals, to include additional data found to have been incorrectly excluded from previous reports.
This mainly affected figures for the first and second quarters of 2011, which were revised upward
significantly; the revised total approvals for accession worker cards and for registration certificates for
the first six months of 2011 are approximately six times higher than previously indicated. Figures for
2007 to 2010 were also revised, but changed by only 1 or 2%.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
Data quality
Data regarding applications and decisions in accession worker card and registration certificate
requests from EU2 (Bulgarian and Romanian) and Croatian nationals along with approvals under the
Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS) and Sector Based Scheme (SBS) are based on
defined reports supplied by the Home Office and are not subject to the detailed checks of record-level
data used for other data included in this release. However, overall the data quality for the numbers
published is considered to be high, although initial estimates of quarterly totals for applications and
decisions are subject to considerable revisions. These data:
 are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
 are scrutinised regularly as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
 are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
 do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors; and
 undergo thorough checks by staff in Migration Statistics prior to publication.
For both accession worker cards and registration certificates there are two reasons why initial
quarterly figures have underestimated the final position:


decisions data relate to the corresponding cohort of applications, such that for applications
made in the latest quarter, decisions will be made in the same or later quarters (e.g. not all
applications made in Q1 have decisions made in Q1, so the level of decisions made relating to
those Q1 applications will increase over time as more decisions are completed); and
as decisions are made, and data are entered on administrative systems, the initial figures for
the number of applications are likely to increase slightly.
Compilation method
On a quarterly basis, during the first week after the end of the reference period Migration Statistics
issue a request to Home Office staff responsible for the administration of the schemes relating to EU2
and Croatian workers in the UK for updated figures, supplying template tables and instructions for their
completion. Home Office staff use reports tested and validated for accuracy to extract the data from
the administrative database and place it in the template, which is then returned to Migration Statistics.
The figures for SAWs approved in Table ee_01 do not exactly match quotas for each calendar year.
This is due in part to lags between the issue of cards by the Home Office to scheme operators,
sometimes up to three months in advance of the quota year in order to facilitate their recruitment
process, and the actual issue of cards. SAWs approved may also include replacement cards not
89
included in the quota figure. SAWs quotas for 2007 and 2008 were 16,250 and for 2009 to 2013 were
21,250.
Quality and process checks carried out
Before the refreshed template is returned to Migration Statistics the data it contains are checked by at
least one other member of the Home Office team to ensure local compilation of data has been carried
out correctly.
On receipt of the refreshed template Migration Statistics review the figures supplied by the Home
Office, comparing them with data supplied previously and query any changes of more than 1% in
those figures published previously. Where error or omissions in the data provided are found they are
corrected before publication, wherever possible.
A cross-check of tables, to ensure consistent totals, is undertaken as part of the production process.
Data are also checked for consistency against previous totals, and significant changes investigated
with Home Office operational and policy teams. Where the reasons for changes in the data can be
identified (e.g. operational or policy changes) appropriate commentary is added to the text and table
notes.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables and text are checked by a second
member of the Migration Statistics team. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the
commentary appropriately describes the trends seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
Figures on allocations of National Insurance numbers (NINos) – compulsory for people wishing to
work in the UK, whether short term or long term and which give an approximation of the uptake of
work by non-UK nationals – are published by the Department for Work and Pensions:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-insurance-number-allocations-to-adult-overseasnationals-entering-the-uk.
The Office for National Statistics has published on its web site a guide to the availability of data
regarding Bulgarian and Romanian migration in 2014:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/migration-statistics-quarterly-report/november-2013/stybulgaria-and-romania.html
ISSUES AND REFUSALS OF RESIDENCE DOCUMENTATION TO EEA
NATIONALS AND THEIR FAMILY MEMBERS
Data source
Data are extracted from the Home Office administrative database, after caseworkers have entered
information relating to the applications and decisions.
Background on the statistics
Under the Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006, EEA nationals (and their family members) have an
initial right to reside in the UK for three months without conditions. To have a right to reside in the
country longer than this the EEA national must be exercising a Treaty Right, described in domestic
regulations as being a qualified person. To be considered a qualified person, they must be a
jobseeker, worker, self-employed person, self-sufficient or a student. After living in the UK for a
continuous period of five years in accordance with the EEA Regulations, an EEA national and any
family member will acquire the right of permanent residence in the UK.
90
Key terms
Registration certificates and residence cards are issued as confirmation that an EEA national is a
qualified person, or as conformation of a person’s right to reside as a family member of an EEA
national.
Documents certifying permanent residence and permanent residence cards are issued after five
continuous years living in the UK in accordance with the EEA Regulations.
Definitions of document types can be found in the glossary of terms.
Grants: The issue of documentation under the Immigration (EEA) Regulations 2006 to EEA nationals
and their family members.
Changes in the data affecting the statistics
The number of decisions made in 2009 and 2010 rose compared to 2008 following various operational
and procedural measures introduced during 2009 to improve performance in the Home Office.
In 2011 and 2012 a pre-consideration sift of applications was used to identify those without key
information or documentation. These applications were rejected as invalid and returned to the
applicant. The pre-consideration sift was discontinued in late 2012. Applicants whose request for
documentation is rejected as invalid may apply again including the required information and this is
likely to account for a proportion of the increase in decisions in 2011. Applications rejected as invalid
are now shown separately in Table ee_02.
On 1st July 2013 a fee for the processing of EEA residence documentation was introduced. This led to
a increase in the number of applications rejected as invalid in the later half of 2013 due to their not
including the fee.
Data quality
Overall, the data quality for the total numbers of those granted and refused EEA residence documents
is considered to be high. These data:






are administrative counts of the Home Office’s casework processes, which are defined in UK
legislation and are recorded under detailed categories on the Home Office’s administrative
database;
are scrutinised regularly as part of the performance monitoring of the Home Office;
are regularly assessed as part of the Home Office’s Quality Assurance Framework;
have not, in recent years, had to be altered significantly between initial provisional totals
released in August each year and subsequent revised totals released in the following August
and have not, in recent years, had to be revised at all when the annual data are subsequently
checked 12 months later and the provisional status of the data is altered to final;
do not require sampling processes for the compilation of the figures and hence have no
associated sampling errors; and
undergo a thorough reconciliation process.
The main types of errors are thought to relate to recording and classification errors. The level of
missing data on related fields such as sex and nationality is very low, with such missing data reported
as unknown and therefore no grossing, imputation or other estimation methods are used. The
following are known data quality issues which affect a small number (less than 1%) of cases:

In a small number of cases the recorded data appears inconsistent, for example where the
recorded case type and statistics category do not represent a valid combination under the
91
published Immigration Rules e.g. for a non-EEA national allowed to stay in the UK by virtue of
their relationship to a non-British EEA citizen the Statistics Category recorded should indicate
a document recognising their right to reside has been issued rather than a grant of leave to
remain under the Immigration Rules. These records are included in the category ‘Other’ within
the published data and, where resources allow, are passed back to the Home Office for
investigation and correction.
Compilation method
On an annual basis, generally during the first week after the end of the reference period, extracts of
general immigration casework decisions data are taken from a weekly refreshed ‘snapshot’ of the
Case Information Database (CID) by Migration Statistics. This extract is filtered using established,
tested computer code, which selects EEA residence document records into a separate dataset and,
for example, ensures there are no duplicates within the data, to produce the data tables that are
subsequently published.
Quality and process checks carried out
Migration Statistics reconcile the summary figures for grants and refusals of EEA residence
documents with teams within the Home Office, by comparing the figures with similar data compiled for
operational management purposes. Where these figures differ by more than 1 or 2% the discrepancy
is investigated. Differences of less than 1 or 2% can occur due to differences in definition employed in
the generation of Home Office management information for operational reasons or due to slight
differences in the date on which data were extracted from CID.
After these reconciliation checks, the publication-ready tables are checked by a second member of the
Migration Statistics team against the raw data. The prepared text is also checked against the
publication-ready tables. Statisticians are responsible for checking that the commentary appropriately
describes the trends seen in the data and is not biased.
Related statistics published elsewhere
Entry clearance visas – EEA Family Permits, see the Visas topic.
IPS ESTIMATES OF IMMIGRATION
These data are provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and further information can be
obtained from:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=International+Migrationhttp://www.ons.gov.uk/o
ns/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration.
Data quality
The data are mainly based on the International Passenger Survey and therefore subject to sampling
error. Information on the sampling errors for ONS’s international migration statistics can be found at:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/population-andmigration/international-migration-methodology/long-term-international-migration-estimatesmethodology.pdf
Long-Term International Migration 1 series (methodology) 2010 contains tables showing the
components and adjustments for Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) and the standard errors
and non response associated with the International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates.
92
14 Work
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published on:






Entry clearance visas granted for work;
Sponsored visa applications (Certificate of Sponsorship used)
Admissions for work;
Grants of (in-country) extensions of stay for work;
Work-related grants of settlement; and
International Passenger Survey estimates of work-related immigration.
Background on the statistics
There are a range of measures used to monitor those subject to immigration control coming to the UK
to work. These include those listed above together with numbers allocated National Insurance
numbers, which provide an indication of migrants entering the labour market.
The figures reflect changes over time in levels of immigration to the UK, as well as policy and
legislative changes. The availability and allocation of resources within the Home Office can affect the
number of decisions.
These various statistics and research can appear to give different pictures of immigration for work.
Often this is because the latest data for different measures cover different time periods. They also
count different aspects of the immigration process, with some showing intentions or permissions,
whilst others show actual events.
The Points-based system
The Points-based system (PBS) rationalises the immigration control processes for people coming into
the UK for work or study who are not EEA or Swiss nationals; although not all work and study
endorsements were superseded by a PBS endorsement.
The PBS has five “Tiers”; four of these (Tiers 1, 2, 3 and 5) relate to permission to work:




Tier 1 provides a route for high value workers;
Tier 2 provides a route for skilled workers with a job offer;
Tier 3 relates to unskilled workers (never implemented);
Tier 5 is for temporary workers and youth mobility, providing a route for those coming to the UK
for primarily non-economic reasons.
Within Tiers 1, 2 and 5 there are sub-categories of endorsements.
Tier 1 was phased in between February and June 2008. Subsequent changes are:
 Tier 1 General route was closed to new “out of country” entry clearance visa applicants from 23
December 2010 and to those applying inside the UK to switch from most categories from 6 April
2011;
 a new Tier 1 route (Exceptional Talent) was introduced from 9 August 2011;
 Tier 1 Post-study route was closed to new applicants from 6 April 2012;
 a new Tier 1 Graduate entrepreneur category was introduced from 6 April 2012;
93
 continuing routes for Tier 1 are: Entrepreneurs; Investors; Graduate entrepreneurs;
and Exceptional Talent.
Tiers 2 and 5 were implemented in November 2008. Tier 3 has never been implemented.
All pre-PBS equivalent entry clearance visas should now be obsolete, but visas continue to be granted
in old endorsements. For admissions, extensions of stay and settlement, the phasing out of old
categories will take longer.
The government asked the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) in March 2011 to consider the
following question: ‘In which occupation(s) or job title(s) skilled to National Qualifications Framework
level 4 or above is there a shortage of labour that it would be sensible to fill using labour from outside
the European Economic Area (EEA)?’ The MAC published a report (12 September 2011) on ‘Skilled
shortage sensible – full review of the recommended shortage occupation lists for the UK and Scotland’
recommending changes to the shortage occupation list under Tier 2 of the points-based system. The
MAC’s report can be found at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/recommended-shortageoccupation-lists-for-the-uk-and-scotland-full-review-sep-2011.
The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) also published a report, ‘Analysis of the points-based
system – Settlement rights of migrants in Tier 1 and Tier 2’, on 4 November 2011 advising the
government on how to determine which skilled migrant workers can settle in the UK. The MAC was
commissioned by the government in June 2011 to identify the most suitable economic criteria for
determining which Tier 2 migrant workers could settle permanently in the UK and what the economic
effects of restricting or removing Tier 1 or Tier 2 settlement rights would be. The report is available
from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/settlement-rights-of-migrants-tier-1-and-2
Accession countries
The independent Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) was asked in May 2011 to consider whether
the UK labour market was experiencing, or threatened by, a serious disturbance and to look at the
consequences of maintaining or lifting the current employment restrictions on workers from Bulgaria
and Romania. A report, ‘Review of the transitional restrictions on access of Bulgarian and Romanian
nationals to the UK labour market’, from the MAC looked at the impact on the domestic labour market
if
the
transitional
controls
were
removed.
The
report,
available
from
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/review-of-the-restrictions-on-bulgaria-and-romaniannationals, found that lifting the current restrictions could cause more EU2 nationals to come to the UK
to work, particularly in lower-skilled occupations where there is greater risk of displacement of resident
workers and a negative impact on wages. The Government announced on 23 November 2011 that
these controls would be extended until the end of 2013.
More information on the restrictions on workers from Bulgaria and Romania are described in the EEA
section.
CERTIFICATE OF SPONSORSHIP (COS)
Please refer to the Visas and Sponsorship section of this User Guide for further information.
ENTRY CLEARANCE VISAS
Where possible, entry clearance visas that have been superseded by the PBS and are therefore now
obsolete have been linked to the tier that they relate to and are referred to as ‘pre-PBS equivalents’.
This helps to provide a consistent time series. For some work-related endorsements, an obsolete
endorsement has been split between one or more of the tiers or could now be equivalent to
endorsements both within and outside the PBS. These are grouped into Work (Other): Other permit
free employment not allocated’.
Please refer to the Visas and Sponsorship section of this User Guide for further information,
including a comparison of entry clearance data with admissions data and IPS estimates of
immigration.
94
ADMISSIONS
Please refer to the Admissions section of this User Guide for further information, including a
comparison between admissions data and IPS estimates of immigration.
EXTENSIONS OF STAY
Please refer to the Extensions section of this User Guide for further information.
GRANTS OF SETTLEMENT
Please refer to the Settlement section of this User Guide for further information.
IPS ESTIMATES OF WORK-RELATED IMMIGRATION
These data are provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and further information can be
obtained from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration.
In addition, information on the comparison of inflow of long-term migrants with entry clearance visas
and admissions can be found in the Visas and Sponsorship and Admissions section of this User
Guide, respectively.
Data quality
The data are mainly based on the International Passenger Survey and therefore subject to sampling
error. Information on the sampling errors for ONS’s international migration statistics can be found at:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/population-andmigration/international-migration-methodology/long-term-international-migration-estimatesmethodology.pdf
Long-Term International Migration 1 series (methodology) 2010 contains tables showing the
components and adjustments for Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) and the standard errors
and non response associated with the International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates.
Related statistics published elsewhere
 Office for National Statistics international migration statistics on those migrating for work, and
labour market statistics (including employment rates and changes by country of birth and by
nationality) can be found at:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Labour+Market
 National Insurance Number Allocations to Adult Overseas Nationals entering the UK
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-work-pensions/series/nationalinsurance-number-allocations-to-adult-overseas-nationals-entering-the-uk are published by the
Department for Work and Pensions. On 20 January 2012, the department published a report on
‘Nationality at point of National Insurance number registration of DWP benefit claimants:
February 2011 working age benefits’
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/196677/nat_nino
_regs.pdf
 Reports of the Migration Advisory Committee can be found at
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/migration-advisory-committee
 Salt, J., 2012, International Migration and the United Kingdom: Report of the United Kingdom
SOPEMI Correspondent to the OECD
95
http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/research/transnational-spaces/migration-researchunit/pdfs/sopemi-report-2012, 2013, London: Migration Research Unit.
 OECD publish an annual volume analysing international migration and presenting international
comparisons, entitled International Migration Outlook
http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/imo2013.htm
 The ‘Migrant Journey’ research reports provide analysis on migrants’ journeys through the
immigration
system.
See
Migrant
Journey:
Fourth
Report
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migrant-journey-fourth-report. For more information
see ‘Other sources of information on immigration and migration’.
 The UK Border Agency report ‘Points-based system Tier 1: an operational assessment –
November 2010’ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/points-based-system-tier-1-anoperational-assessment looked into the jobs being done by migrants who were in the UK under
Tier 1 of the points-based system, to inform subsequent decisions about the points-based
system, in particular the closure of the Tier 1 General and Tier 1 Post-Study routes.
96
15 Study
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published on:





Entry clearance visas granted for study;
Sponsored visa applications (Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies used)
Admissions for study;
Grants of (in-country) extensions of stay for study; and
IPS estimates of immigration for study.
Background on the statistics
There are a number of different measures monitoring numbers of people coming to the UK for study,
as listed above.
These various statistics and research can appear to give different pictures of student immigration.
Often this is because the latest data for different measures cover different time periods. They also
count different aspects of the immigration process, with some showing intentions or permissions, while
others show actual events.
The Points-based system
The points-based system (PBS) rationalises the immigration control processes for people coming into
the UK to work or study who are not EEA or Swiss nationals; although not all work and study
endorsements were superseded by a PBS endorsement.
The PBS has five “tiers”, one of which (Tier 4) provides a route for students to study with an approved
education provider. Tier 4 was implemented in March 2009.
All pre-PBS equivalent entry clearance visas should now be obsolete, but visas continue to be granted
in old endorsements. For admissions and extensions of stay, the phasing out of old categories will
take longer.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
For information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
CONFIRMATION OF ACCEPTANCE FOR STUDIES (CAS)
Please refer to the Visas and Sponsorship section of this User Guide for further information.
ENTRY CLEARANCE VISAS
In the Study section, student entry clearance and passenger arrivals data are quoted excluding the
‘student visitor’ category to make them more consistent with the IPS estimates of immigration for
study, as ‘student visitors’ are allowed a maximum six-month stay and would not be counted as longterm migrants.
Individuals applying under the ‘student visitor’ category, which is for those people who wish to come to
the UK as a visitor and undertake a short period of study and those studying on short courses who do
97
not intend to work part-time or undertake a paid or unpaid work placement as part of their
course, may previously have been classified as ‘visitors’ or ‘short-term students’ respectively.
Where possible, entry clearance visas that have been superseded by the PBS and are therefore now
obsolete have been linked to the tier that they relate to and are referred to as ‘pre-PBS equivalents’. In
addition, ‘short-term students’ which was closed as a route in September 2007 are counted within the
‘student visitor’ classification for the purpose of the visa data. This helps to provide a consistent time
series.
Please refer to the Visas and Sponsorship section of this User Guide for further information,
including the comparability of entry clearance visas with passenger arrivals data, extensions and
inflow of long-term migrants.
ADMISSIONS
‘Short-term students’ which was closed as a route in September 2007 are counted within the ‘student’
classification for the purpose of the admissions data.
Please refer to the Admissions section of this User Guide for further information, including a
comparison between admissions data and IPS estimates of immigration.
EXTENSIONS OF STAY
Please refer to the Extensions section of this User Guide for further information.
IPS ESTIMATES OF IMMIGRATION FOR STUDY
These data are provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and further information can be
obtained from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration.
In addition, information about the comparison of inflow of long-term migrants with entry clearance
visas and admissions can be found in the Visas and Sponsorship and Admissions sections of this
User Guide respectively.
Data from ONS on long-term international migration provide a better indication of long-term trends of
immigration than visa grants and passenger arrivals data, due to changes in immigration legislation
and lack of information on the intentions of those not subject to immigration control; in particular,
trends of student immigration are better tracked due to the introduction of the ‘student visitor’ category
on 1 September 2007.
However, ONS records those coming to the UK who state their main reason for migrating is for study;
people migrating for other reasons may also choose to study while in the UK.
Data quality
The data are mainly based on the International Passenger Survey and therefore subject to sampling
error. Information on the sampling errors for ONS’s international migration statistics can be found at:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/population-andmigration/international-migration-methodology/long-term-international-migration-estimatesmethodology.pdf
Long-Term International Migration 1 series (methodology) 2010 contains tables showing the
components and adjustments for Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) and the standard errors
and non response associated with the International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates.
98
Related statistics published elsewhere


‘The ‘Migrant Journey’ research reports provide analysis on migrants’ journeys through the
immigration system. For more information see ‘Other sources of information on immigration
and migration’.
Data published by the Higher Education Statistics Authority on Overseas students in UK
Higher Education Institutions provides student flows (e.g. entrants) and stocks (e.g.
enrolments) available from http://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php/content/view/1897/239/.
99
16 Family
Statistics covered by this topic
Figures are published on:





Entry clearance visas granted for family reasons;
Admissions for family reasons;
Grants of (in-country) extensions of stay for family reasons;
Family formation and reunion grants of settlement; and
IPS estimates of immigration for family reasons.
Key terms
There are a number of ways that allow people to come to the UK for family reasons. The traditional
‘family route’ is made up of those coming to join or accompany family members who are British
citizens or settled people. This includes fiancé(e)s, proposed civil partners, spouses, civil partners,
unmarried or same-sex partners, children and adult dependent relatives. Others come as dependants
of people who have not been granted the right to stay permanently, for example the family members of
those working or studying in the UK (dependants joining / accompanying). There are also those who
come for a short time to visit family members (visitors).
The numbers coming for family reasons are monitored using a number of different measures, as listed
above.
These various statistics can appear to give different pictures of family immigration. This is because
they use different definitions of ‘family’ and count different aspects of the immigration process, with
some showing intentions or permissions, while others show actual events.
Changes in legislation and policy affecting the statistics
Following a consultation on family migration, a number of changes to the Immigration Rules came into
effect on 9 July 2012. The changes included:
 introduction of a minimum income threshold of £18,600 (with higher levels for also sponsoring




non-EEA dependent children);
extending from 2 years to 5 years the minimum probationary period before non-EEA spouses
and partners can apply for settlement in the UK;
abolishing immediate settlement for the migrant spouse or partner where a couple have been
living together overseas for at least 4 years, and requiring them to complete a 5 year
probationary period.
introduction of a genuineness test for relationships; and
allowing adult dependants to settle in the UK only where they can demonstrate that, as a result
of age, illness or disability, they require a level of long-term personal care that can only be
provided by a relative in the UK, and requiring them to apply from overseas rather than switch in
the UK from another category, for example as a visitor.
The new Immigration Rules also aims to balance the rights of the individual with the public interest in
controlling immigration and protecting the public, with requirements defining the basis on which a
person can enter or remain in the UK on the basis of their family or private life.
100
Further information about the rules changes, including consultation proposals and responses,
announcements about the changes, impact assessments and the report of the Migration
Advisory Committee are available at <https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/family-and-private-life-rulechanges-9-july-2012>. The 2011 Family Consultation concentrated on the ‘family route’ (non-EEA
nationals entering or remaining in the UK on the basis of a relationship with a British citizen or a
person settled in the UK) but also looked more widely at all forms of family migration, including Point
Based System dependants, refugee family reunion and family visitors.
It is not possible to separately identify applications made or decided under the previous or new rules.
Not all of the family route statistics from 9 July 2012 onwards relate to the new Immigration Rules in
Appendix FM for the reasons outlined below:
 Applications made in the quarters shown in the data may be resolved in subsequent periods or
may be resolved at the end of the period covered by the data. Decisions may relate to
applications made in earlier quarters, and may include decisions based on the family
Immigration Rules in place before 9 July 2012.
 There was a late surge, prior to 9 July 2012, in applications under the old rules which will be
reflected in the data on decisions made on or after that date. The data also include the outcome
of appeals: an appeal outcome from a case decided under the rules in force prior to 9 July 2012
may appear as a decision from 9 July 2012.
 The Immigration Rules in force before 9 July 2012 still applied after this date to fiancé(e)s or
proposed civil partners granted entry clearance or leave to remain before 9 July 2012 or who
applied before this date and were awaiting a decision. They could apply to switch into the
partner route on the basis of the previous maintenance requirement and two year probationary
period before settlement.
 Some applicants can still apply under old family rules via transitional arrangements. Hence the
statistics include both cases under the new and old rules and this will continue particularly in the
extensions data (where transitional arrangements will have a longer effect) for future years.
 The new family rules were not applied to partners of members of HM Forces on 9 July 2012:
applicants could rely on the pre-9 July 2012 rules until 30 November 2013. New Immigration
Rules for partners of members of HM Forces were introduced on 1 December 2013 in Appendix
Armed Forces but further transitional arrangements mean that some partners of members of
HM Forces still received a decision under the pre-9 July 2012 rules from 1 December 2013.
 Some family rules were unaffected by the 9 July 2012 changes, such as children eligible to
apply for immediate settlement under Part 8 of the Immigration Rules.
Adult Dependent Relatives
The published statistics do not separately identify adult dependent relatives (ADRs) or cases decided
under the old or new rules. Within the published entry clearance visa tables, data relating to adult
dependent relatives of a British Citizen in the UK or a settled person in the UK are included in the
category ‘Family: Other (for immediate settlement)’ but cannot be identified separately from applicants
in other routes covered by this category.
The Home Office is reviewing the collection of data relating to ADR settlement visas. Data are being
developed and, subject to resolving any data quality/recording issues, it is planned to publish data in
the future specifically relating to those settlement visas.
A manual review of the available management information to identify ADR applications granted in the
period from 1 November 2012 to 30 September 2013 indicates that 34 settlement visas were issued in
101
that period to an adult dependent relative under the new family Immigration Rules. This
information is provisional and subject to change. Corresponding information on applications
is not available.
Cases on hold
Spouse or partner and child applications under Appendix FM to the Immigration Rules which fell for
refusal solely because they did not meet the minimum income threshold were subject to a hold on
decision-making following the 5 July 2013 High Court judgment in MM & Others
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/minimum-income-threshold-information-for-family-visaapplicants/minimum-income-threshold-information-for-family-visa-applicants.
On 11 July 2014 the Court of Appeal upheld the lawfulness of the minimum income threshold for
spouses/partners and children applying in the family route.
From 28 July 2014, the 4,000 individuals whose applications (visa or extension) were then on hold,
pending the Court of Appeal judgment, will receive a decision.
For further information on changes to immigration legislation affecting the statistics, see the Policy and
Legislative Changes Timeline published alongside the User Guide.
ENTRY CLEARANCE VISAS
Key terms
Dependants joining/accompanying are dependants applying for a visa on the basis of their
relationship with another migrant, who is not a settled person or a British Citizen. Following changes to
the rules, from the second quarter of 2011 until the second quarter of 2012, this category included new
family members who came to the UK to join a person granted refugee status or humanitarian
protection but who had yet to apply for or be granted settlement.
The Family route covers visas where an individual is applying for a visa on the basis of their
relationship to a person settled in the UK or a British citizen. The Family route: child includes adult
offspring of the settled person or British Citizen. The Family route: other encompasses dependants
who are not offspring or partners, such as elderly relatives. This category also includes:-
 following changes to the rules from July 2012, ’post-flight’ family members and adult dependent
relatives joining those who have been granted refugee status or humanitarian protection; and
 family members of those granted refugee status and who had gained settlement, or who had yet
to gain settlement status if the individual coming to the country applied for a visa prior to the
second quarter of 2011.
Please refer to the Visas and Sponsorship section of this User Guide for further information,
including a comparison of entry clearance visas data with admissions data and IPS estimates of
immigration.
ADMISSIONS
Please refer to the Admissions section of this User Guide for further information, including a
comparison between admissions data and IPS estimates of immigration.
EXTENSIONS OF STAY
Please refer to the Extensions section of this User Guide for further information.
102
GRANTS OF SETTLEMENT
Please refer to the Settlement section of this User Guide for further information.
IPS ESTIMATES OF DEPENDANTS JOINING/ACCOMPANYING OTHERS
These data are provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and further information can be
obtained from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration.
In addition, information about the comparison of inflow of long-term migrants with entry clearance
visas and admissions can be found in the Visas and Sponsorship and Admissions sections of this
User Guide respectively.
Data quality
The data are mainly based on the International Passenger Survey and therefore subject to sampling
error. Information on the sampling errors for ONS’s international migration statistics can be found at:
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/specific/population-andmigration/international-migration-methodology/long-term-international-migration-estimatesmethodology.pdf
Long-Term International Migration 1 series (methodology) 2010 contains tables showing the
components and adjustments for Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) and the standard errors
and non response associated with the International Passenger Survey (IPS) estimates.
Related statistics published elsewhere
The ‘Migrant Journey’ research reports provide analysis on migrants’ journeys through the immigration
system. For more information see ‘Other sources of information on immigration and migration’.
103
17 Other sources of information
immigration and migration
on
The UK National Statistics publication hub (www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/population/) lists a wide range of
statistical publications on immigration and migration that are designated National Statistics and
produced by Home Office Science, the Office for National Statistics, the Department for Work and
Pensions and the devolved administrations. In addition, there are a number of Official Statistics
publications from other government departments and agencies, statistics from international
organisations and other sources of information on immigration and migration.
Unless specified otherwise, the (non-research) UK materials referenced below are published as
designated National Statistics releases/publications.
Current Home Office statistical and research publications
Monthly Asylum Statistics – Official Statistics – available from the Home Office webpages; first
published by the Home Office on 24 June 2010 (https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-datasets/monthly-asylum-application-tables).
Children entering detention held solely under Immigration Act powers, by age and place of
initial detention – Official Statistics – available on a monthly basis from the Home Office webpages;
first published by the Home Office on 25 November 2010 (https://www.gov.uk/government/statisticaldata-sets/children-entering-detention-under-immigration-act-powers).
Migrant Journey (research reports)
In 2010, the UK Border Agency (now Home Office) published the ‘The Migrant Journey’ research
report which measures migrants’ journeys through the immigration system using administrative data.
This report presents the initial results of the analysis based on the behaviour of migrants granted leave
to enter the UK in 2004 and those granted settlement in 2009.
For more information see the ‘Migrant Journey’ report (Achato, Eaton and Jones, 2010):
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-migrant-journey-research-report-43.
In 2011, the UK Border Agency (now Home Office) published findings from a second report which
gives further analysis of the cohort of migrants reported in ‘The Migrant Journey’ to identify the most
common nationalities seeking entry and settlement.
For more information see the ‘Migrant Journey: Second Report’ (Achato, Eaton and Jones, 2011):
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migrant-journey-research-report-57
In 2013 the Home Office published a third report which continues the series by providing new analysis
on two further cohorts of migrants granted entry clearance visas in 2005 and 2006 and migrants
granted settlement in 2010 and 2011. The report also provides updated estimates for the previously
published 2004 and 2009 cohorts. For the first time migrants granted visit visas have been included.
For more information see the ‘Migrant Journey: Third Report’ (Eaton, 2013):
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migrant-journey-third-report
In 2014 the Home Office published a fourth report which continues to explore migrants’ journeys
through the UK’s immigration.
For more information see the ‘Migrant Journey: Fourth Report’:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migrant-journey-fourth-report
104
In 2015 the Home Office published a fifth report which continues to explore migrants’
journeys through the UK’s immigration.
For more information see the ‘Migrant Journey: Fifth Report’:
https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/migrant-journey-fifth-report
Research Reports on immigration control are published by Home Office Science as reports and
occasional papers:
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/home-office/series/migration-research-and-analysis.
Previous Home Office statistical publications
Statistical information on grants of British citizenship was published annually in the Home Office
British Citizenship Statistical Bulletin (previously titled ‘Persons Granted British Citizenship, United
Kingdom’). The last bulletin was published on 27 May 2010 and is available from the archived Home
Office website:
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/immigrati
on-asylum-publications.html).
Control of Immigration: Quarterly Statistical Summary, United Kingdom, available from the
archived Home Office website; published by the Home Office between 21 August 2008 and 26 May
2011:
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130128103514/http:/www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications
/science-research-statistics/research-statistics/immigration-asylum-research/).
Control of Immigration: Statistics, United Kingdom were published in the form of a Command
Paper until 2006 and as an online bulletin between 2007 and 2009. Previous editions are available
online from The Stationery Office website (www.official-documents.gov.uk/) and the archived Home
Office website
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130128103514/http:/www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications
/science-research-statistics/research-statistics/immigration-asylum-research/).
Before 2008, statistics on asylum applications and decisions were published annually in the Asylum
Statistics United Kingdom bulletin available online from:
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/immigrati
on-asylum-publications.html).
The amalgamation of the Control of Immigration, British Citizenship Statistics and the Asylum
Statistics publications was in line with wider developments in the reporting of migration statistics to
reduce the number of separate publications and give a coherent picture within the annual and
quarterly publications following the Review of Border and Immigration Agency (now Home Office)
Statistics on “Control of Immigration” and the 2011 Consultation on changes to immigrationrelated Home Office statistical outputs. See ‘Recent and previous reviews’ below.
Until May 2009, the Home Office published quarterly Official Statistics on the Worker Registration
Scheme (Accession Monitoring Report) and the schemes for Bulgarian and Romanian nationals
(Bulgarian and Romanian Accession Statistics). Past copies are available from the archived Home
Office website:
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100503160445/http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/about
us/reports/). Key findings and summary data for the EU2 countries continue to be included within the
Immigration Statistics releases; data on the Worker Registration Scheme were published for the
final time on 25 August 2011 following its closure at the end of April 2011.
105
Migration transparency data
Performance data related to areas in the Home Office business plan which lists the key input and
impact
indicators
relating
to
borders
and
immigration
are
available
here:
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-transparency-data. This release also includes
data which is regularly requested from the Home Office by the Home Affairs Select Committee on
borders, immigration and HM Passport Office.
Office for National Statistics (ONS) publications
The ONS have published a conceptual framework for UK population and migration statistics at
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/method-quality/imps/latest-news/conceptual-framework/aconceptual-framework-for-population-and-migration-statistics---download-file.pdf which aims to
facilitate communication with users of population and migration statistics through the development of a
shared understanding of the underlying concepts, the available data and the methods used to produce
key outputs. Where relevant, Home Office will adopt the framework in its future development of
statistics.
The Migration Statistics Quarterly Report summarises the latest migration-related statistics. It is
produced jointly by ONS, the Home Office and the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP). It
includes data on long-term international migration to and from the UK and migrant applications for
work in the UK, and the control of immigration. It also links to the interactive ‘Local Area Migration
Indicators’ tool. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration
The Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) publication (MN Series) presents statistics on flows
of international migrants to and from the UK and England and Wales. It breaks down flows by
variables including citizenship, country of birth, country of last or next residence, reason for migration,
occupation, length of stay, age, sex, marital status and UK area of destination or origin.
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration
Data from the International Passenger Survey (IPS) are also available – these are a component of
LTIM but do not provide full migration figures. They do, however, allow cross-tabulations of different
migrant characteristics. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Migration
National Population Projections by age and sex are produced for the UK and constituent countries
every two years. Details of the latest (2010-based) projections and historical projections are currently
available via the National Statistics hub: www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/population/.
ONS also publishes information about international migration alongside other population and
demographic information in a number of publications, including:
Population Trends
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Population
Social Trends
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Population
Regional Trends
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=Agriculture+and+Environment
Other statistical publications
DWP publishes data on non-UK nationals registering for a National Insurance Number (NINo) for the
purposes of work, benefits or tax credits. National Insurance Numbers allocated to Adult Overseas
Nationals is available via the National Statistics hub: (www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/population/).
106
The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) publishes Long-term
International
Migration
Estimates
for
Northern
Ireland
(http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default.asp18.htm) and the General Register Office for Scotland
(GROS) (www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/) reports data on Population by Country of Birth and
Nationality and the High Level Summary of Statistical Trends publication includes data on
migration.
The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) publishes Tribunals Service, Quarterly Statistics and Annual
Statistics containing financial year data on applications and decisions of immigration appeals
(https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-justice/series/tribunals-statistics).
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is mandated, by the United Nations,
to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems
worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to
ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with
the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. The UNHCR
website (www.unhcr.org/) includes statistics on refugees.
The Statistical Office of the European Communities
(Eurostat:
(http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/)) is the statistical arm of the
European Commission, producing data for the European Union (EU) and promoting harmonisation of
statistical methods across the member states. Since 2008, all Member States are required to submit
data to Eurostat on international protection and migration as part of the Migratory Statistics Regulation
EC No. 862/2007. The long-term aim of this regulation is to enable international comparisons across
the European Union, focusing on international migration (stocks and flows), prevention of illegal entry
and stay (refusals, apprehensions and returns) and international protection (asylum).
The European Commission launched the European Migration Network (EMN) in 2003
(http://emn.intrasoft-intl.com/html/index.html). The EMN is a network of national contact points (NCPs)
with the purpose of collating, analysing, providing access to and facilitating the exchange of
information on migration and asylum to inform policy making across the European Union. As part of
this work regular themed research reports are produced, which contain an overview of the latest policy
and statistical information, as well as an Annual Policy Report. Currently, an Annual Report on
Migration and International Protection Statistics is produced by all Member States and combined
into a synthesis report by the EMN as a source for international comparisons across the European
Union. Since 2008, this report has mainly used data supplied to Eurostat as part of the Migratory
Statistics Regulation (EC No, 862/2007).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was established in 1961. Its
mission has been to help its member countries to achieve sustainable economic growth and
employment and to raise the standard of living in member countries while maintaining financial
stability. The OECD collects statistics annually from statistical agencies and other institutions of its
member countries needed for the analysis of economic and social developments by its in-house
analysts, committees, working parties, and member country governments. OECD databases and
publications of migration statistics, including Databases on Migration in OECD countries and the
annual International Migration Outlook (SOPEMI) can be found on the OECD website:
(http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,3699,en_2649_37415_1_1_1_1_37415,00.html).
Salt, J., 2012, International Migration and the United Kingdom: Report of the United Kingdom SOPEMI
Correspondent to the OECD (http://www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/research/transnational-spaces/migrationresearch-unit/pdfs/sopemi-report-2012), 2012, London: Migration Research Unit.
OECD publish an annual volume analysing international migration and presenting international
comparisons, entitled International Migration Outlook (http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/imo2013.htm)
107
The United Nations Statistics Division and the United Nations Population Division also
provide data on migration – including stocks, flows, labour migration and asylum:
(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sconcerns/migration/).
Other sources of information
The Home Office is responsible for securing the UK borders and controlling migration in the UK. The
Home Office manages border control for the UK, enforcing immigration and customs regulations; and
considers applications for permission to enter or stay in the UK, citizenship and asylum.
The Government wishes to manage legal migration in the interests of the UK economy, and there are
eligibility requirements for people who want to work in the UK. The Working in the UK section of the
UK Border Agency (now Home Office) website (https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ukvisas-and-immigration) provides details of most of the routes available to foreign nationals who want to
come to the UK to work and the Policy and Law section provides a reference source on immigration
and asylum law. The About Us section provides a growing number of Official Statistics on the
immigration work of the Home Office.
International Group, part of the Home Office, runs the UK’s visa service through British diplomatic
posts abroad, visa application centres and online. Online information is available on visa applications
(https://www.gov.uk/visas-immigration).
Previously, the Home Office published statistics on entry clearance which provided details of all visas
applications, grants and refusals worldwide
(http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100422120657/http://www.ukvisas.gov.uk/en/aboutus/sta
tistics/). These are now incorporated within Immigration Statistics releases.
The COI Service is a team of specialist researchers who research and collate information on countries
giving rise to asylum claims in the UK
(http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/policyandlaw/guidance/coi/).
The Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration (THESIM) project brings
together data suppliers and users at the national and EU level, and has also created a strong
international network of key academic experts on migration statistics in the EU. The project included
creating a book, THESIM: Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration
(fee required), which provides an up-to-date and comprehensive picture of the whole system of
statistical data sources on international migration and asylum in the European Union
(www.uclouvain.be/en-12321.html).
Users of migration statistics are able to join an email-based User Group forum for discussion. The
user group can be accessed at: https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A0=migration-stats.
Recent and previous reviews
Consultation on changes to immigration-related Home Office statistical outputs (2011), summary of
responses
to
the
consultation
and
outcomes
are
available
from
https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/consultation-on-changes-to-immigration-related-homeoffice-statistical-outputs
UK Statistics Authority Migration Statistics: The Way Ahead (July 2009)
http://www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/reports---correspondence/reports/authority-report-4--migrationstatistics-the-way-ahead.pdf.
Review of Border and Immigration Agency Statistics on Control of Immigration (February 2008)
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs07/bi
a-immig-stat-review-07.pdf.
108
These reviews followed the National Statistics Quality Review (NSQR) of “Control of
Immigration United Kingdom” publications. The final report and the Home Office’s
implementation plan can be found on the Home Office website:
 review of Home Office publications of Control of Immigration Statistics (August 2006)
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdf
s06/immig_review_06.pdf.
 review of Home Office publications of Control of Immigration Statistics – Implementation Plan
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdf
s07/cpreview07.pdf.
Asylum and migration – a review of Home Office Statistics by the National Audit Office (May 2004)
http://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2004/05/0304625.pdf
Legislation governing Home Office Science outputs
 Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, and the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.
 Control of Immigration statistics: The first permanent control over the admission and residence
of foreigners in peacetime was established by the Aliens Act 1905. Annual reports of HM
Inspector under the Act from 1906 to 1913 inclusive, which included statistics on foreign
passengers arriving and departing, were published as Command Papers. No foreign passenger
traffic figures were published for the period 1 July 1914 to 31 December 1919. Quarterly returns
of foreign passenger traffic were published as Command Papers for the period 1 January 1920
to 30 June 1939. Annual returns giving a more detailed analysis were published for the years
1921 to 1938. The series was suspended on the outbreak of war. Following a number of
requests for permission to use figures since 1939 a Command Paper volume was published
providing information for the years 1939 to 1951. This Command Paper stated the intention to
publish figures annually.
 Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 July 2007 on
Community statistics on migration and international protection and repealing Council
Regulation, (EEC) No 311/76 on the compilation of statistics on foreign workers.
109
18 Geographical regions for tables
New geographical regions have been included in the Immigration Statistics tables from 27 November
2014 to broadly reflect the country groupings that ONS consulted on in early 2014
<http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/about-ons/get-involved/consultations/consultations/country-groupings-ininternational-migration-statistics/index.html>. These will provide a more detailed breakdown of our
figures by geographical region and not in any way restrict the information already available at the level
of individual country of nationality. The following table shows the old and new geographical region for
each country of nationality.
For consistency with the ONS groupings, subdivisions of EU nationalities have been used in the
breakdown, though the numbers in our statistical series are generally very low, reflecting the fact that
EU nationals are not normally subject to most forms of immigration control. The grouping also keeps
‘Middle East’ separate from the ONS ‘Central Asia’ category as our complete counts of numbers
support such separation and there is user interest in continuing to maintain a ‘Middle East’ category.
Along with other changes the definition of ‘Europe Other’ no longer includes central Asian former
Soviet republics, such as Kazakhstan.
Country of nationality
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla (British)
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda (British)
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
British overseas citizens
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina
Old region
Asia
Europe
Africa
Oceania
Europe
Africa
Americas
Americas
Americas
Europe
Americas
Oceania
Europe
Europe
Americas
Middle East
Asia
Americas
Europe
Europe
Americas
Africa
Americas
Asia
Americas
Americas
Europe
Africa
Americas
Other
Asia
Europe
Africa
110
New region
Asia Central
Europe Other
Africa North
Oceania
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
America Central and South
America Central and South
Europe Other
America Central and South
Oceania
EU 14
Europe Other
America Central and South
Middle East
Asia South
America Central and South
Europe Other
EU 14
America Central and South
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
Asia South
America Central and South
America Central and South
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
Other
Asia South East
EU 2
Africa Sub-Saharan
Burma
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands (British)
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Croatia
Cuba
Curacao
Cyprus
Cyprus (Northern part of)
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Falkland Islands (British)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
Former Yugoslavia
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar (British)
Greece
Greenland
Asia
Africa
Asia
Africa
Americas
Africa
Americas
Africa
Africa
Americas
Asia
Oceania
Oceania
Americas
Africa
Africa
Africa
Oceania
Americas
Europe
Americas
Americas
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Africa
Americas
Americas
Asia
Americas
Africa
Americas
Africa
Africa
Europe
Africa
Americas
Europe
Oceania
Europe
Europe
Europe
Americas
Oceania
Africa
Africa
Europe
Europe
Africa
Europe
Europe
Europe
111
Asia South East
Africa Sub-Saharan
Asia South East
Africa Sub-Saharan
America North
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
Asia East
Oceania
Oceania
America Central and South
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
America Central and South
EU Other
America Central and South
America Central and South
EU Other
Europe Other
EU 8
EU 14
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
America Central and South
Asia South East
America Central and South
Africa North
America Central and South
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
EU 8
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
Europe Other
Oceania
EU 14
Europe Other
EU 14
America Central and South
Oceania
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Europe Other
EU 14
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
EU 14
Europe Other
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Korea (North)
Korea (South)
Kosovo
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Americas
Americas
Americas
Americas
Africa
Africa
Americas
Americas
Oceania
Americas
Asia
Europe
Europe
Asia
Asia
Middle East
Middle East
Europe
Middle East
Europe
Africa
Americas
Asia
Middle East
Europe
Africa
Oceania
Asia
Asia
Europe
Middle East
Europe
Asia
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Africa
Africa
Europe
Europe
Europe
Asia
Europe
Africa
Africa
Asia
Asia
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Americas
Africa
Africa
112
America Central and South
America Central and South
Oceania
America Central and South
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
America Central and South
Oceania
America Central and South
Asia East
EU 8
Europe Other
Asia South
Asia South East
Middle East
Middle East
EU 14
Middle East
EU 14
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
Asia East
Middle East
Asia Central
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
Asia East
Asia East
Europe Other
Middle East
Asia Central
Asia South East
EU 8
Middle East
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa North
Europe Other
EU 8
EU 14
Asia East
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Asia South East
Asia South
Africa Sub-Saharan
EU Other
Oceania
America Central and South
Africa North
Africa Sub-Saharan
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat (British)
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Oman
Other and unknown
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands (British)
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Refugee
Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Africa
Americas
Oceania
Europe
Europe
Asia
Europe
Americas
Africa
Africa
Africa
Oceania
Asia
Europe
Americas
Oceania
Oceania
Americas
Africa
Africa
Oceania
Oceania
Oceania
Europe
Middle East
Middle East
Other
Asia
Oceania
Americas
Oceania
Americas
Americas
Asia
Oceania
Europe
Europe
Americas
Middle East
Other
Africa
Europe
Europe
Africa
Oceania
Europe
Africa
Middle East
Africa
Europe
Europe
Africa
Africa
113
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
Oceania
Europe Other
Europe Other
Asia East
Europe Other
Other
Africa North
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
Asia South
EU 14
America Central and South
Oceania
Oceania
America Central and South
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
Oceania
Oceania
Europe Other
Middle East
Middle East
Other
Asia South
Oceania
America Central and South
Oceania
America Central and South
America Central and South
Asia South East
Other
EU 8
EU 14
America North
Middle East
Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
EU 2
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Middle East
Africa Sub-Saharan
Europe Other
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Sri Lanka
St. Helena (British)
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Maarten (Dutch Part)
St. Martin (French Part)
St. Pierre and Miquelon
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Stateless
Sudan
Sudan (South)
Surinam
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands (British)
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands (British)
Virgin Islands (US)
Wallis and Futuna
Western Sahara
Yemen
Asia
Europe
Europe
Oceania
Africa
Africa
Americas
Europe
Asia
Africa
Americas
Americas
Americas
Americas
Americas
Americas
Other
Africa
Africa
Americas
Europe
Africa
Europe
Europe
Middle East
Asia
Europe
Africa
Asia
Africa
Oceania
Oceania
Americas
Africa
Europe
Europe
Americas
Oceania
Africa
Europe
Middle East
Americas
Americas
Europe
Oceania
Europe
Americas
Asia
Americas
Americas
Oceania
Africa
Middle East
114
Asia South East
EU 8
EU 8
Oceania
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
Other
EU 14
Asia South
Other
America Central and South
America Central and South
America Central and South
America Central and South
America Central and South
America Central and South
Other
Africa North
Africa Sub-Saharan
America Central and South
Europe Other
Africa Sub-Saharan
EU 14
Europe Other
Middle East
Asia East
Asia Central
Africa Sub-Saharan
Asia South East
Africa Sub-Saharan
Oceania
Oceania
America Central and South
Africa North
Europe Other
Asia Central
Other
Oceania
Africa Sub-Saharan
Europe Other
Middle East
America North
America Central and South
Asia Central
Oceania
Europe Other
America Central and South
Asia South East
Other
America North
Oceania
Africa North
Middle East
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Africa
Africa
115
Africa Sub-Saharan
Africa Sub-Saharan
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