DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0

Manual Rev. 1.0p

USER MANUAL

Galil Motion Control, Inc.

270 Technology Way

Rocklin, California

916.626.0101

[email protected]

galil.com

11/2014

Using This Manual

This user manual provides information for proper operation of the DMC-40x0 controller. A separate supplemental manual, the Command Reference, contains a description of the commands available for use with this controller. It is recommended that the user download the latest version of the Command Reference and User Manual from the

Galil Website. http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php

Your DMC-40x0 motion controller has been designed to work with both servo and stepper type motors.

Installation and system setup will vary depending upon whether the controller will be used with stepper motors or servo motors. To make finding the appropriate instructions faster and easier, icons will be next to any information that applies exclusively to one type of system. Otherwise, assume that the instructions apply to all types of systems. The icon legend is shown below.

Attention: Pertains to servo motor use.

Attention: Pertains to stepper motor use.

4080

Attention: Pertains to controllers with more than 4 axes.

Please note that many examples are written for the DMC-4040 four-axes controller or the DMC-4080 eight axes controller. Users of the DMC-4030 3-axis controller, DMC-4020 2-axes controller or DMC-4010 1-axis controller should note that the DMC-4030 uses the axes denoted as ABC, the DMC-4020 uses the axes denoted as AB, and the

DMC-4010 uses the A-axis only.

Examples for the DMC-4080 denote the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. Users of the DMC-4050 5-axes controller. DMC-

4060 6-axes controller or DMC-4070, 7-axes controller should note that the DMC-4050 denotes the axes as

A,B,C,D,E, the DMC-4060 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F and the DMC-4070 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G. The axes A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably with X, Y, Z, W.

WARNING

Machinery in motion can be dangerous!

It is the responsibility of the user to design effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machinery. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages

DMC-40x0 Contents ▫ i

Contents

Contents iii

Chapter 1 Overview 1

Introduction ...................................................................................................................

Part Numbers ................................................................................................................

1

2

Overview of Motor Types .............................................................................................

5

Overview of External Amplifiers ..................................................................................

6

Galil Internal Amplifiers and Drivers ...........................................................................

6

Functional Elements ......................................................................................................

7

Chapter 2 Getting Started 10

Layout ...........................................................................................................................

10

Power Connections .......................................................................................................

12

Dimensions ...................................................................................................................

13

Elements You Need .......................................................................................................

Installing the DMC, Amplifiers, and Motors ................................................................

15

16

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware 32

Overview .......................................................................................................................

32

Overview of Optoisolated Inputs ..................................................................................

32

Optoisolated Input Electrical Information

High Power Optoisolated Outputs

....................................................................

................................................................................

35

38

TTL Inputs and Outputs ................................................................................................

39

Analog Inputs ................................................................................................................

41

Extended I/O .................................................................................................................

41

External Amplifier Interface .........................................................................................

42

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication 49

Introduction ...................................................................................................................

49

Controller Response to Commands ..............................................................................

49

Unsolicited Messages Generated by Controller ............................................................

50

Serial Communication Ports

Ethernet Configuration

.........................................................................................

..................................................................................................

50

52

Modbus .........................................................................................................................

54

Data Record ..................................................................................................................

57

GalilSuite (Windows and Linux) ..................................................................................

61

Creating Custom Software Interfaces ...........................................................................

62

Chapter 5 Command Basics 64

Introduction ...................................................................................................................

64

Command Syntax - ASCII ............................................................................................

64

Controller Response to DATA ......................................................................................

65

Interrogating the Controller ..........................................................................................

66

Chapter 6 Programming Motion 68

Overview .......................................................................................................................

68

Independent Axis Positioning .......................................................................................

69

Independent Jogging .....................................................................................................

71

Position Tracking ..........................................................................................................

Linear Interpolation Mode ............................................................................................

72

76

Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion ..............................................

79

Electronic Gearing ........................................................................................................

86

Electronic Cam ..............................................................................................................

89

PVT Mode .....................................................................................................................

Contour Mode ...............................................................................................................

94

97

DMC-40x0 Contents ▫ ii

DMC-40x0

Virtual Axis ...................................................................................................................

Stepper Motor Operation ..............................................................................................

101

102

Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM) .................................................................

104

Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder) ....................................................................................

107

Motion Smoothing .......................................................................................................

109

Homing .........................................................................................................................

High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function) ....................................................

111

113

Chapter 7 Application Programming 114

Overview .......................................................................................................................

114

Program Format ............................................................................................................

114

Executing Programs - Multitasking

Debugging Programs

..............................................................................

....................................................................................................

116

117

Program Flow Commands ............................................................................................

118

Mathematical and Functional Expressions ...................................................................

133

Variables ........................................................................................................................

136

Operands

Arrays

.......................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................

137

138

Input of Data (Numeric and String) ..............................................................................

Output of Data (Numeric and String) ...........................................................................

141

143

Hardware I/O ................................................................................................................

147

Extended I/O of the DMC-40x0 Controller

Example Applications

.................................................................

...................................................................................................

151

153

Using the DMC Editor to Enter Programs ....................................................................

157

Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection 159

Introduction ...................................................................................................................

159

Hardware Protection

Software Protection

.....................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................

159

160

Chapter 9 Troubleshooting 164

Overview .......................................................................................................................

164

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation 167

Overview .......................................................................................................................

Operation of Closed-Loop Systems ..............................................................................

167

169

System Modeling ..........................................................................................................

170

System Analysis ............................................................................................................

174

System Design and Compensation ................................................................................

176

Appendices 179

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

179

Performance Specifications ..........................................................................................

181

Ordering Options ..........................................................................................................

182

Power Connector Part Numbers ....................................................................................

189

Input Current Limitations

Serial Cable Connections

.............................................................................................

..............................................................................................

190

191

Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit ....................................................................

193

Signal Descriptions .......................................................................................................

203

List of Other Publications .............................................................................................

205

Training Seminars

Contacting Us

.........................................................................................................

................................................................................................................

205

206

WARRANTY ................................................................................................................

207

Integrated Components 208

Overview .......................................................................................................................

208

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) 210

Description ....................................................................................................................

210

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

211

Operation .......................................................................................................................

212

Error Monitoring and Protection ...................................................................................

214

Contents ▫ iii

DMC-40x0

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140) 216

Description ....................................................................................................................

216

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

217

Operation .......................................................................................................................

218

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) 219

Description ....................................................................................................................

219

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

220

Operation .......................................................................................................................

221

Error Monitoring and Protection ...................................................................................

223

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) 225

Description ....................................................................................................................

225

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

226

Operation .......................................................................................................................

227

Error Monitoring and Protection ...................................................................................

230

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) 232

Introduction ...................................................................................................................

232

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

233

Operation .......................................................................................................................

235

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) 238

Description ....................................................................................................................

238

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

239

Operation .......................................................................................................................

240

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) 242

Description ....................................................................................................................

Electrical Specifications ................................................................................................

242

243

Operation .......................................................................................................................

244

Error Monitoring and Protection ...................................................................................

245

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012) 246

Description ....................................................................................................................

Connectors for CMB-41012 Interconnect Board .........................................................

246

247

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) 250

Description ....................................................................................................................

250

Connectors for CMB-41012 Interconnect Board .........................................................

251

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) 255

Description ....................................................................................................................

255

Connectors for ICM-42000 Interconnect Board ...........................................................

256

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) 259

Description ....................................................................................................................

259

Connectors for ICM-42100 Interconnect Board

Theory of Operation

...........................................................

......................................................................................................

260

263

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) 265

Description ....................................................................................................................

265

Connectors for ICM-42200 Interconnect Board ...........................................................

266

Contents ▫ iv

Chapter 1 Overview

Introduction

The DMC-40x0 Series are Galil’s highest performance stand-alone controller. The controller series offers many enhanced features including high speed communications, non-volatile program memory, faster encoder speeds, and improved cabling for EMI reduction.

Each DMC-40x0 provides two communication channels: high speed RS-232 (2 channels up to 115K Baud) and 100

BaseT Ethernet. The controllers allow for high-speed servo control up to 22 million encoder counts/sec and step motor control up to 6 million steps per second. Sample rates as low as 31.25 µsec per axis are available.

A Flash EEPROM provides non-volatile memory for storing application programs, parameters, arrays and firmware.

New firmware revisions are easily upgraded in the field.

The DMC-40x0 is available with up to eight axes in a single stand alone unit. The DMC-4010, 4020, 4030, 4040 are one thru four axes controllers and the DMC-4050, 4060, 4070, 4080 are five thru eight axes controllers. All eight axes have the ability to use Galil’s integrated amplifiers or drivers and connections for integrating external devices.

Designed to solve complex motion problems, the DMC-40x0 can be used for applications involving jogging, point-

to-point positioning, vector positioning, electronic gearing, multiple move sequences, contouring and a PVT Mode.

The controller eliminates jerk by programmable acceleration and deceleration with profile smoothing. For smooth following of complex contours, the DMC-40x0 provides continuous vector feed of an infinite number of linear and arc segments. The controller also features electronic gearing with multiple master axes as well as gantry mode operation.

For synchronization with outside events, the DMC-40x0 provides uncommitted I/O, including 8 optoisolated digital inputs (16 inputs for DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080), 8 high power optically isolated outputs (16 outputs for DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080), and 8 analog inputs for interface to joysticks, sensors, and pressure transducers. The DMC-40x0 also has an additional 32 I/O at 3.3V logic. Further I/O is available if the auxiliary encoders are not being used (2 inputs / each axis). Dedicated optoisolated inputs are provided for forward and reverse limits, abort, home, and definable input interrupts.

Commands are sent in ASCII. Additional software is available for automatic-tuning, trajectory viewing on a PC screen, and program development using many environments such as Visual Basic, C, C++ etc. Drivers for Windows

XP, Vista and 7 (32 & 64 bit) as well as Linux are available.

Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 1 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Part Numbers

The DMC-40x0 is modular by nature, meaning that a customer must specify several components in order to create a full part number. The user must specify the main control board (DMC), the communication board (CMB), and the interconnect module (ICM) to have a complete unit. The user can also specify an optional internal amplifier (AMP

or SDM). How these models stack up internally is shown in Figure 1.1 for 1-4 axis models.

Figure 1.1: Abstract internal layout of the DMC-40x0 for 1-4 axis models

For 5-8 axis models, the user must also specify an additional ICM and optional internal amplifier type for axis 5-8 as

shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: Abstract internal layout of the DMC-40x0 for 5-8 axis models

Each module has it's own set of part numbers and configuration options that make the full part number of a DMC-

40x0 unit. The DMC has the part number format “DMC-40X0(Y),” the CMB is “-CXXX(Y),” the ICM is “-IXXX(Y),” and the AMP/SDM is “-DXXX(Y),” where X designates different module options and Y designates different configuration options for these modules. The full DMC-40x0 part number would be the full string of individual module part

numbers combined as shown for 1-4 and 5-8 axis models in Figure 1.3.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 2

Figure 1.3: Layout of a complete DMC-40x0 part number

The placement of ICM and AMP/SDM options is extremely important for 5-8 axis models. Reading left to right, the

first ICM (Axis 1-4) will be placed in the ICM (1) spot in Figure 1.2

and the second ICM (Axis 5-8) will be placed in the ICM (2) spot. This also follows for AMP/SDM placement.

If the part number is not readily available, you can determine the information by using the 'ID' command. Issuing an 'ID' command when connected to the controller will return your controller's internal hardware configuration.

WARNING

The CMB and ICM module options effect the pin-outs of the DMC-40x0.

Use Table 1.2 and Table 1.3 below to determine your CMB and ICM part numbers then refer to the

appropriate documentation for your pin-outs before connecting any hardware.

DMC, “DMC-40X0(Y)” Options

Option Type Options Brief Description

X

Y

1,2,3,4,5,6,7, and 8

DIN

12V

-16bit

4-20mA

ISCNTL

TRES

ETL

MO

Number of control axis

DIN Rail Mount

Power Controller with 12 VDC

16-bit analog inputs

4-20mA analog inputs

Isolate Controller Power

Encoder terminating resistors

ETL certification

Motor off jumper installed

Table 1.1: Controller board, DMC, “DMC-40X0(Y)” options

Documentation

N/A

DMC, “DMC-40X0(Y)” Controller Board

Options, starting on pg 182.

Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 3 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Y

CMB, “-CXXX(Y)” Options

Option Type

XXX

Options

012

022

5V

Brief Description

Default communication board

Dual-Ethernet communication board

SSI Feedback

Documentation

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012), pg 246

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022), pg 250

5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic, pg

184

RS-422 – Serial Port Serial Communication, pg

184

P422

P1422

P2422

RS-422 on Main and Aux serial port

RS-422 on Main serial port only

RS-422 on Aux serial port only

Table 1.2: Communication board, CMB “-CXXX(Y)” options

ICM, “-IXXX(Y)” Options

Option Type

XXX

Options

000

Brief Description

Default interconnect board

Documentation

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000), pg 255

Y

100

200

SSI

BiSS

DIFF

STEP

Sine/Cosine feedback interconnect board

26-pin encoder connecter interconnect board

SSI Feedback

BiSS Feedback

Differential ±10 motor command outputs

Differential STEP/DIR outputs

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100), pg 259

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200),pg 265

ICM, “-IXXX(Y)” Interconnect Board Options, starting on pg 185

Table 1.3: Interconnect module, ICM “-IXXX(Y)” options

AMP/SDM, “-DXXXX(Y)” Options

Option Type Options Brief Description

XXXX 3020/3040

Y

3140

3240

3520/3540

3640

4040/4020

4140

100mA

SSR

HALLF

ISAMP

500 W trapazoidal servo drive

2 and 4-axis models

20 W brush-type only drive

750 W trapazoidal servo drive

600 W sinusoidal servo drive

2 and 4-axis models

20 W sinusoidal servo drive

1.4 A with 1/16 microstepping drive

3 A with 1/64 microstepping drive

100mA current

-D3140 option only

Solid state relay 1

Filtered hall sensors 1

Isolates power between amplifiers

Two banks of AMP/SDMs required

Documentation

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020), pg 210

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140), pg 216

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240), pg 219

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520), pg 225

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640), pg 232

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020), pg 238

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140), pg 242

AMP/SDM, “-DXXXX(Y)” Internal Amplifier Options, starting on pg 187

1

Not available for all amplifier options, see the proper documentation.

Table 1.4: Amplifier options, AMP/SDM “-DXXXX(Y)”

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 4

Overview of Motor Types

The DMC-40x0 can provide the following types of motor control:

1. Standard servo motors with ± 10 volt command signals

2. Brushless servo motors with sinusoidal commutation

3. Step motors with step and direction signals

4. Other actuators such as hydraulics and ceramic motors - For more information, contact Galil.

The user can configure each axis for any combination of motor types, providing maximum flexibility.

Standard Servo Motor with ±10 Volt Command Signal

The DMC-40x0 achieves superior precision through use of a 16-Bit motor command output DAC and a sophisticated

PID filter that features velocity and acceleration feed-forward, an extra pole filter and integration limits.

The controller is configured by the factory for standard servo motor operation. In this configuration, the controller provides an analog signal (±10 volts) to connect to a servo amplifier. This connection is described in Chapter 2.

Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation

The DMC-40x0 can provide sinusoidal commutation for brushless motors (BLM). In this configuration, the controller generates two sinusoidal signals for connection with amplifiers specifically designed for this purpose.

Note: The task of generating sinusoidal commutation may be accomplished in the brushless motor amplifier. If the amplifier generates the sinusoidal commutation signals, only a single command signal is required and the controller should be configured for a standard servo motor (described above).

Sinusoidal commutation in the controller can be used with linear and rotary BLMs. However, the motor velocity should be limited such that a magnetic cycle lasts at least 6 milliseconds with a standard update rate of 1 millisecond. For faster motors, please contact the factory.

To simplify the wiring, the controller provides a one-time, automatic set-up procedure. When the controller has been properly configured, the brushless motor parameters may be saved in non-volatile memory.

The DMC-40x0 can control BLMs equipped with Hall sensors as well as without Hall sensors. If Hall sensors are available, once the controller has been setup, the brushless motor parameters may be saved in non-volatile memory. In this case, the controller will automatically estimate the commutation phase upon reset. This allows the motor to function immediately upon power up. The Hall effect sensors also provide a method for setting the precise commutation phase. Chapter 2 describes the proper connection and procedure for using sinusoidal commutation of brushless motors.

Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals

The DMC-40x0 can control stepper motors. In this mode, the controller provides two signals to connect to the stepper motor: Step and Direction. For stepper motor operation, the controller does not require an encoder and operates the stepper motor in an open loop fashion. Chapter 2 describes the proper connection and procedure for using stepper motors.

If encoders are available on the stepper motor, Galil’s Stepper Position Maintenance Mode may be used

for automatic monitoring and correction of the stepper position. See Stepper Position Maintenance

Mode (SPM) in Chapter 6 for more information.

Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 5 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Overview of External Amplifiers

The amplifiers should be suitable for the motor and may be linear or pulse-width-modulated. An amplifier may have current feedback, voltage feedback or velocity feedback.

Amplifiers in Current Mode

Amplifiers in current mode should accept an analog command signal in the ±10 volt range. The amplifier gain should be set such that a +10V command will generate the maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should be 1 A/V.

Amplifiers in Velocity Mode

For velocity mode amplifiers, a command signal of 10 volts should run the motor at the maximum required speed.

The velocity gain should be set such that an input signal of 10V runs the motor at the maximum required speed.

Stepper Motor Amplifiers

For step motors, the amplifiers should accept step and direction signals.

Galil Internal Amplifiers and Drivers

With the DMC-40x0 Galil offers a variety of Servo Amplifiers and Stepper Drivers that are integrated into the same enclosure as the controller. Using the Galil Amplifiers and Drivers provides a simple straightforward motion control solution in one box. Instead of having to route a +/-10V motor command signal, or STEP/DIR to some external box, all the wiring is taken care of internally. In addition, Galil's internal amplifiers reside inside the same box as the

controller, ICM, and communication board (see Part Numbers, pg 2) saving real estate space and the hassle of

configuring a separate device.

A full list of amplifier specifications and details can be found in the Integrated Components, starting on pg 208.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 6

Functional Elements

The DMC-40x0 circuitry can be divided into the following functional groups as shown in Figure 1.4 and discussed

below.

WATCHDOG TIMER

ETHERNET

RS-232 /

RS-422

RISC BASED

MICROCOMPUTER

HIGH-SPEED

MOTOR/ENCODER

INTERFACE

FOR

A,B,C,D

ISOLATED LIMITS AND

HOME INPUTS

MAIN ENCODERS

AUXILIARY ENCODERS

+/- 10 VOLT OUTPUT FOR

SERVO MOTORS

PULSE/DIRECTION OUTPUT

FOR STEP MOTORS

32 Configurable I/O

I/O INTERFACE

HIGH SPEED ENCODER

COMPARE OUTPUT

8 UNCOMMITTED

ANALOG INPUTS

8 PROGRAMMABLE,

OPTOISOLATED

INPUTS

8 PROGRAMMABLE

HIGH POWER OPTOISOLATED

OUTPUTS

HIGH-SPEED LATCH FOR EACH AXIS

Figure 1.4: DMC-40x0 Functional Elements

Microcomputer Section

The main processing unit of the controller is a specialized Microcomputer with RAM and Flash EEPROM. The RAM provides memory for variables, array elements, and application programs. The flash EEPROM provides non-volatile storage of variables, programs, and arrays. The Flash also contains the firmware of the controller, which is field upgradeable.

Motor Interface

Galil’s GL-1800 custom, sub-micron gate array performs quadrature decoding of each encoder at up to 22 MHz. For standard servo operation, the controller generates a ±10 volt analog signal (16-bit DAC). For sinusoidal commutation operation, the controller uses two DACs to generate two ±10 volt analog signals. For stepper motor operation, the controller generates a step and direction signal.

Communication

The communication interface with the DMC-40x0 consists of high speed RS-232 and Ethernet. The Ethernet is

10/100Bt and the two RS-232 channels can generate up to 115K. An additional Ethernet port is available with the

CMB-41022, see A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022), pg 250 for details.

General I/O

The DMC-40x0 provides interface circuitry for 8 bi-directional, optoisolated inputs, 8 high power optoisolated outputs and 8 analog inputs with 12-Bit ADC (16-Bit optional). The DMC-40x0 also has an additional 32 I/O (3.3V

Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 7 DMC-40x0 User Manual

logic) and unused auxiliary encoder inputs may also be used as additional inputs (2 inputs / each axis). The general inputs as well as the index pulse can also be used as high speed latches for each axis. A high speed encoder compare output is also provided.

4080

The DMC-4050 through DMC-4080 controller provides an additional 8 optoisolated inputs and 8 high power optoisolated outputs.

System Elements

As shown in Figure 1.5, the DMC-40x0 is part of a motion control system which includes amplifiers, motors and

encoders. These elements are described below.

Power Supply

Amplifier (Driver)

Computer DMC-40x0 Controller

Encoder

Figure 1.5: Elements of Servo systems

Motor

Motor

A motor converts current into torque which produces motion. Each axis of motion requires a motor sized properly to move the load at the required speed and acceleration. (Galil’s MotorSizer Web tool can help you with motor sizing: www.galilmc.com/support/motorsizer )

The motor may be a step or servo motor and can be brush-type or brushless, rotary or linear. For step motors, the controller can be configured to control full-step, half-step, or microstep drives. An encoder is not required when step motors are used.

Other motors and devices such as Ultrasonic Ceramic motors and voice coils can be controlled with the DMC-40x0.

Amplifier (Driver)

For each axis, the power amplifier converts a ±10 volt signal from the controller into current to drive the motor.

For stepper motors, the amplifier converts step and direction signals into current. The amplifier should be sized properly to meet the power requirements of the motor. For brushless motors, an amplifier that provides electronic commutation is required or the controller must be configured to provide sinusoidal commutation. The amplifiers may be either pulse-width-modulated (PWM) or linear. They may also be configured for operation with or without a tachometer. For current amplifiers, the amplifier gain should be set such that a 10 volt command generates the maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should be 1 A/V. For velocity mode amplifiers, 10 volts should run the motor at the maximum speed.

Galil offers amplifiers that are integrated into the same enclosure as the DMC-40x0. See the Integrated section in

the Appendices or

http://galilmc.com/products/accelera/dmc40x0.html

for more information.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 8

Encoder

An encoder translates motion into electrical pulses which are fed back into the controller. The DMC-40x0 accepts feedback from either a rotary or linear encoder. Typical encoders provide two channels in quadrature, known as

MA and MB. This type of encoder is known as a quadrature encoder. Quadrature encoders may be either singleended (MA+ and MB+) or differential (MA+, MA-, MB+, and MB-). The DMC-40x0 decodes either type into quadrature states or four times the number of cycles. Encoders may also have a third channel (or index) for synchronization.

The DMC-40x0 can be ordered with 120 Ω termination resistors installed on the encoder inputs. See the Ordering

Options in the Appendix for more information.

The DMC-40x0 can also interface to encoders with pulse and direction signals. Refer to the “CE” command in the command reference for details.

There is no limit on encoder line density; however, the input frequency to the controller must not exceed 5,500,000 full encoder cycles/second (22,000,000 quadrature counts/sec). For example, if the encoder line density is 10,000 cycles per inch, the maximum speed is 300 inches/second. If higher encoder frequency is required, please consult the factory.

The standard encoder voltage level is TTL (0-5v), however, voltage levels up to 12 Volts are acceptable. (If using differential signals, 12 Volts can be input directly to the DMC-40x0. Single-ended 12 Volt signals require a bias voltage input to the complementary inputs).

The DMC-40x0 can accept analog feedback (±10v) instead of an encoder for any axis. For more information see the command AF in the command reference.

To interface with other types of position sensors such as absolute encoders, Galil can customize the controller and command set. Please contact Galil to talk to one of our applications engineers about your particular system requirements.

Sinusoidal Encoders

The DMC-40x0 can be ordered with an interconnect module that supports the use of 1Vp-p sinusoidal encoders.

This interconnect module is the ICM-42100. See A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) in the Appendix for more information.

Watch Dog Timer

The DMC-40x0 provides an internal watch dog timer which checks for proper microprocessor operation. The timer toggles the Amplifier Enable Output (AMPEN) which can be used to switch the amplifiers off in the event of a serious DMC-40x0 failure. The AMPEN output is normally high. During power-up and if the microprocessor ceases to function properly, the AMPEN output will go low. The error light will also turn on at this stage. A reset is required to restore the DMC-40x0 to normal operation. Consult the factory for a Return Materials Authorization

(RMA) Number if your DMC-40x0 is damaged.

Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 9 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 2 Getting Started

Layout

The following layouts assume either an ICM-42000(I000) or ICM-42100(I100) interconnect modules are installed.

For layouts of systems with ICM-42200’s(I200) installed please contact Galil. Overall dimensions and footprint are identical, the only differences are in connector type and location.

DMC-4040

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure 2.1: Outline of the of the DMC-40x0 1-4 axes model

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 10

DMC-4080

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 11

Figure 2.2: Outline of the of the DMC-40x0, 5-8 axes model

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Power Connections

2-pin Molex controller power connector.

SDM/AMP Power

Axis A-D

SDM/AMP Power

Axis E-H

Figure 2.3: Power Connector locations for the DMC-40x0

Figure 2.4: Power Connector used when controller is ordered without Galil Amplifiers

For more information on powering your controller see Step 4. Power the Controller, pg 17. For more information

regarding connector type and part numbers see Power Connector Part Numbers, pg 189. The power specifications

for the controller are provided in Power Requirements, pg 180. and the power specifications for each amplifier are

found under their specific section in the appendix, see Integrated Components, pg 208.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 12

Dimensions

DMC-4040

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 13

Figure 2.5: Dimensions (in inches) of DMC-40x0 (where x= 1, 2, 3, or 4 axis)

DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-4080

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure 2.6: Dimensions (in inches) of DMC-40x0 (where x= 5, 6, 7, or 8 axis)

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 14

Elements You Need

For a complete system, Galil recommends the following elements:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

DMC-40x0, motion controller where the x designates number of axis, 1-8.

Motor Amplifiers (Integrated when using Galil amplifiers and drivers)

Power Supply for Amplifiers and controller

Brush or Brushless Servo motors with Optical Encoders or stepper motors.

a. Cables for connecting to the DMC-40x0’s integrated ICM’s.

PC (Personal Computer - RS232 or Ethernet for DMC-40x0)

GalilSuite or GalilSuite Lite (Free) software package

GalilSuite is highly recommended for first time users of the DMC-40x0. It provides step-by-step instructions for system connection, tuning, and analysis.

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 15 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Installing the DMC, Amplifiers, and Motors

Installation of a complete, operational motion control system consists of the following steps:

Step 1. Determine Overall System Configuration, pg 16

Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-40x0, pg 17

Step 3. Install the Communications Software, pg 17

Step 4. Power the Controller, pg 17

Step 5. Establish Communications with Galil Software, pg 18

Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19

Step 7. Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 20

Optional for steppers

Servo motors only

Step 8. Wiring Motors to Galil's Internal Amps, pg 22

Internal amplifiers only

Step 8a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors, pg 24 Brushless motors only

Step 9. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg 29

Step 10. Tune the Servo System, pg 31

External amplifiers only

Servo motors only

WARNING

Electronics are dangerous!

Only a certified electrical technician, electrical engineer, or electrical professional should wire the DMC product and related components. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages.

All wiring procedures and suggestions mentioned in the following sections should be done with the controller in a powered-off state. Failing to do so can cause harm to the user or to the controller.

NOTE

The following instructions are given for Galil products only. If wiring an non-Galil device, follow the instructions provided with that product. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages that occur to a 3 rd party device.

Step 1. Determine Overall System Configuration

Before setting up the motion control system, the user must determine the desired motor configuration. The DMC-

40x0 can control any combination of brushless motors, brushed motors, and stepper motors. Galil has several internal amplifier options that can drive motors directly but can also control external amplifiers using either a ±10V motor command line or PWM/Step and direction lines. There are also several feedback options that the DMC can accept.

See Part Numbers, pg 2 for understanding your complete DMC unit and part number before continuing.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 16

Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-40x0

The following jumpers are located in a rectangular cut-out near the power and error lights on the communication

board. See A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012), pg 246 or A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022), pg 250 for clarification, depending on the

communication board ordered.

Motor Off Jumper

It is recommended to use the MO jumper when connecting motors for the first time. With a jumper installed at the

MO location, the controller will boot-up in the “motor off” state, where the amplifier enable signals are toggled to

“inhibit/disable”.

RS232 Baud Rate Jumpers

If using the RS232 port for communication, the baud rate is set via jumpers. To set the baud rate, use the jumper

settings as found in Baud Rate Selection, pg 51.

Master Reset and Upgrade Jumpers

Jumpers labeled MRST and UPGD are the Master Reset and Upgrade jumpers, respectively.

When the MRST pins are jumpered, the controller will perform a master reset upon a power cycle, the reset input pulled down, or a push-button reset. Whenever the controller has a master reset, all programs, arrays, variables, and motion control parameters stored in EEPROM will be erased and restored back to factory default settings.

The UPGD jumper enables the user to unconditionally update the controller’s firmware. This jumper should not be used without first consulting Galil.

Step 3. Install the Communications Software

After applying power to the controller, a PC is used for programming. Galil's development software enables communication between the controller and the host device. The most recent copy of Galil's development software can be found here: http://www.galilmc.com/support/software-downloads.php

Step 4. Power the Controller

WARNING

Dangerous voltages, current, temperatures and energy levels exist in this product and the associated amplifiers and servo motor(s). Extreme caution should be exercised in the application of this equipment. Only qualified individuals should attempt to install, set up and operate this equipment. Never open the controller box when DC power is applied

If the controller was ordered with Galil's internal amplifiers, power to the controller and amplifier is typically supplied through the amplifier's power connector. If the controller is ordered without internal amplifiers, the

power will come through a 2-pin connector on the side of the controller. See Power Connections, pg 12 for the

location of the power connections of the DMC-40x0. For pin-outs and a list of connectors to make a power cable,

see Power Connector Part Numbers, pg 189.

Different options may effect which connections and what bus voltages are appropriate. If using an internal

amplifier, the ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power, pg 183 option will require multiple connections, one to power the

controller board and another to power the amplifiers. If using two banks of amplifiers the ISAMP – Isolation of power between each AMP amplifier, pg 187 option will require that the amplifiers are powered independently.

Table 2.5 below shows which power connectors are and required for powering the system based upon the options

ordered. “X” designates a connection, these connectors are only populated if required.

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 17 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ISCNTL

Options Ordered

AMP/SDM

Axis A-D

AMP/SDM

Axis E-H

ISAMP

Controller Power

(2-pin Molex on side)

X

Power Connector Locations

AMP/SDM Power,

Axis A-D

(6- or 4-pin Molex)

AMP/SDM Power,

Axis E-H

(6- or 4-pin Molex)

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1

X

X

X

X

X

1

X

1

X

1

X

X

Table 2.5: Available power connectors based upon option ordered

1

In this configuration the amplifiers are sharing power. Their bus voltages and grounds must be from the same source to prevent damage to the controller and amplifiers.

NOTE: If the 12V option is ordered, the DMC-40x0 is automatically upgraded to ISCNTL and should be powered accordingly.

The DMC-40x0 power should never be plugged in HOT. Always power down the power supply before installing or removing power connector(s) to/from controller.

NOTE: Any emergency stop or disconnect switches should be installed on the AC input to the DC power supply.

Relays and/or other switches should not be installed on the DC line between the Galil and the Power supply. An

example system is shown in Figure 2.7 with a DMC-4080-C012-I000-I000-D3040-D3040:

Figure 2.7: Wiring for DMC-4080 with Amplifiers

The green power light indicator should go on when power is applied.

Step 5. Establish Communications with Galil Software

See Ethernet Configuration, pg 52 for details on using Ethernet with the DMC-40x0. To configure your NIC card

using Windows to connect to a DMC controller, see this two-minute video: http://www.galilmc.com/learning/two-minute-display.php?video=connecting-to-ethernet-controller

For connecting using serial, see RS-232 Configuration, pg 50 for proper configuration of the Main DMC-40x0 serial

port.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 18

See the GalilSuite manual for using the software to communicate: http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/galilsuite/index.html

Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback

The type of feedback the unit is capable of depends on the ICM (Interconnect module) chosen and additional

options ordered. Table 2.6 shows the different Encoder feedback types available for the DMC-40x0 including which

ICM and additional part numbers are required. Note that each feedback type has a different configuration command. See the Command Reference for full details on how to properly configure each axis.

Different feedback types can be used on the same controller. For instance, one axis could be using Standard quadrature and the next could be using SSI on the same ICM board. By default, all axis are configured for Standard quadrature.

Feedback Type

Standard quadrature

Step/Dir

Analog 1

SSI

BiSS

Sin/Cos, 1 V pk-pk

None 2

Other

Configuration

Command

CE

CE

AF

SI

SS

AF

ICM/Part Number Required

Standard on all units

Standard on all units

Standard on all units

(12-bit Standard. 16-bit optional)

ICM-42000 (-I000) or ICM-42200 (-I200) with the (SSI) option

ICM-42000 (-I000) or ICM-42200 (-I200) with the (BiSS) option

ICM-42100 (-I200)

Contact Galil at 1.800.377.6329

Connection Location

Encoder

Encoder

Analog

Encoder

Encoder

Encoder

--

Table 2.6: Configuration commands, ICM/Part numbers required for a given feedback type

1

All wiring/electrical information regarding using analog inputs can be found in the Analog Inputs, pg 41.

2

Although stepper systems do not require feedback, Galil supports a feedback sensor on each stepper axis. Servo motors require a position sensor.

A note about using encoders and steppers:

When a stepper is used, the auxiliary encoder for the corresponding axis is unavailable for an external connection. If an encoder is used for position feedback, connect the encoder to the main encoder input corresponding to that axis. The commanded position of the stepper can be interrogated with TD and the encoder position can be interrogated with TP.

The following steps provide a general guide for connecting encoders to the DMC unit:

Step A. Wire the encoder

The pin-outs and electrical information for SSI and BiSS options can be found here:

SSI and BiSS – SSI and BiSS Absolute encoder Option, pg 185

The rest of the encoder pin-outs is found under the ICM being used:

ICM-42000

ICM-42000 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 258

ICM-42100

ICM-42100 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 262

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 19 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ICM-42200

ICM-42200 Encoder 26 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 267

Step B. Issue the appropriate configuration commands

Find the appropriate configuration commands for your feedback type as shown in Table 2.6, pg 19.

Step C. Verify proper encoder operation

1. Ensure the motor is off my issuing an MO.

2. Check the current position by issuing TP, the value reported back is in the units of counts.

3. Move the motor by hand and re-issue TP. The returned value should have been incremented or decremented from the first TP. If there is no change, check the encoder wiring and settings and retest starting at Step 1.

4. Using the encoder specification sheet, translate a physical distance of the motor into counts read by the controller. For example, a 2000 line encoder means that the controller reads 2000*4=

8000 counts/revolution and a half turn of the motor would be 4000 counts.

5. Issue TP to determine the current motor position, record this value.

6. Move the motor by hand some measured physical distance.

7. Query TP again. Take the absolute difference from the current TP and the TP recorded from

Step 5.

8. Determine if the physical distance moved is equal to the expected amount of counts calculated in

Step 4, move on to Step 9. Otherwise, check the encoder wiring and settings and retest starting at Step 1.

9. Perform Step 5-8 again, instead moving a physical distance in the opposite direction. If the physical distance correctly translates to the expected amount of counts, the encoder is wired correctly.

Step D. Reverse encoder direction, if necessary

Table 2.7 below provides instructions for how to reverse the direction of feedback by rewiring the encoder to the

DMC controller. The direction of standard, quadrature encoders can be be reversed using the CE command.

NOTE

Reversing direction of the feedback may cause a servo motor to runaway, see Step 7. Setting

Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 20 regarding Runaway Motors.

Feedback Type

Standard Quadrature

Differential

Single-ended

Sin/Cos, 1 V pk-pk

SSI or BiSS

Analog feedback

Directions

Swap channels A+ and A-

Swap channels A+ and B+

Swap signals V

0

+ and V

0

-

Follow encoder manufacturers instructions

Cannot change the direction of feedback without external hardware to invert analog signal.

1

Table 2.7: Directions for reversing feedback direction based upon feedback type

1

The polarity of the control loop may still be inverted by either re-wiring the motor or using the MT command, see Step 7.

Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 20 regarding positive feedback loops.

Step 7. Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors

This section applies to servo motors only.

Step A. Set Torque Limit

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 20

TL will limit the output voltage of the ±10V motor command line. This output voltage is either translated into torque or velocity by the amplifier (Galil's internal amplifiers are in torque mode). This command should be used to avoid excessive torque or speed when initially setting up a servo system. The user is responsible for determining the relationship between the motor command line and the amplifier torque/velocity using the documentation of the motor and/or amplifier.

See the TL setting in the Command Reference for more details.

See the AG command in the command reference for current gains of Galil's internal amplifiers. The amplifier gain can also be used to change the ratio of outputting amps of the amplifier per commanded volts of the controller.

This is another way to limit the amount of current but can also maintain the resolution of the ±10V motor command line.

Step B. Set the Error Limit

When ER (error limit) and OE (off-on-error) is set, the controller will automatically shut down the motors when excess error (|TE| > ER) has occurred. This is an important safety feature during set up as wrong polarity can cause the motor to run away, see Step C below for more information regarding runaway motors.

NOTE: Off-on-error (OE) requires the amplifier enable signal to be connected from the controller to the amplifier.

This is automatic when using Galil's internal amplifiers, see Step 9. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg

29 for external amplifiers

Step C. Understanding and Correcting for Runaway Motors

A runaway motor is a condition for which the motor is rotating uncontrollably near it's maximum speed in a single direction. This is often caused by one of two conditions:

1. The amplifier enable signal is the incorrect logic required by the amplifier

This is only applicable to external amplifiers only.

If the motor is in a MO state when the motor runs away, the MO command is toggling your amplifier

“on/enabled” and needs to be reconfigured. The motor is running away because the controller is registering

the axis is in an “inactive” and is not attempting to control it's movement. See Step 9. Connecting External

Amplifiers and Motors, pg 29 for configuring the amplifier enable signal.

2. The motor and encoder are in opposite polarity causing a positive feedback loop

Reversed polarity is when a positive voltage on the motor command line results in negative movement of the motor.

This will result in a positive feedback loop and a runaway motor.

The following steps can be taken to detect reverse polarity, the A-axis is used as an example:

1. After connecting your servo motor using either Step 8. Wiring Motors to Galil's Internal Amps, pg 22

or Step 9. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg 29 issue the following commands:

MO A

KIA= 0

KPA= 0

KDA= 0

SH A

2. Check your current position by issuing TP A.

3. Set a small, positive voltage on your motor command line using the OF command; use a high enough voltage to get the motor to move. This will cause a runaway-like condition so have an appropriate OE set, see Step B. Example:

OFA= 0.5

4. If the motor has not been disabled by OE, disable it by issuing MO A.

5. Check the position again by using TP A.

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 21 DMC-40x0 User Manual

6. If TP has increased, than the motor command line and encoder are in correct polarity. If TP has decreased than the motor command line is in opposite polarity with the encoder.

If the system has reverse polarity, take the following steps to correct for it:

Brushed Motor

Choose one of the following:

1. Reverse the direction of the motor leads by swapping phase A and phase B

2. Reverse the direction of the encoder, see Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19

Brushless Motor

Choose one of the following:

1. Reverse direction of the encoder, see Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19

2. Reverse direction of the motor by swapping any two motor phases (or two hall sensors if using a trapezoidal amplifier). The motor will now have to be re-commutated by using either the Trapezoidal

or Sinusoidal method, see Step 8a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors, pg 24

Non-wiring Options

You can reverse the direction of the motor command line by using the MT command or reverse direction of the feedback by using the CE command (standard quadrature and step/direction feedback only). It is not recommended to correct for polarity using configuration commands as an unexpected condition may arise where these settings are accidentally over-ridden causing a runaway.

See the Command Reference for more details.

Step D. Other Safety Features

This section only provides a brief list of safety features that the DMC can provide. Other features include

Encoder Failure Detection (OA, OT, OV) , Automatic Subroutines to create an automated response to events such as limit switches toggling (#LIMSWI), command errors (#POSERR), and amplifier errors (TA,

#AMPERR), and more. For a full list of features and how to program each see Chapter 8 Hardware & Software

Protection, pg 159.

Step 8. Wiring Motors to Galil's Internal Amps

Table 2.8 below provides a general overview of the connections required for most systems connecting to a DMC

internal amplifier and controller system. Following the table is a step-by-step guide on how to do so.

Motor Type Required Connections

Brushless servo motor • Power to controller and internal amplifier

• Motor power leads to internal amplifiers

• Encoder feedback

• Hall sensors

(Not required for sinusoidal amplifiers)

Brushed servo motor • Power to controller and internal amplifier

• Motor power leads to internal amplifiers

• Encoder feedback

Stepper motor • Power to controller and internal amplifier

• Motor power leads to internal amplifier

• Encoder feedback

(optional)

Table 2.8: Synopsis of connections required to connect a motor to Galil's internal amplifiers

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 22

Step A. Connect the encoder feedback (optional for steppers)

See Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19.

Step B. Connect the motor power leads and halls (if required) to the internal amplifiers

Table 2.9 lists each of Galil's internal amplifiers and where to find documentation for pin-outs of the

amplifier connections and electrical specifications. In addition it describes the commutation method and whether halls are required.

Amplifier

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020), pg 210

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140), pg 216

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240), pg 219

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520), pg 225

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640), pg 232

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020), pg 238

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140), pg 242

Commutation

Trapezoidal

Brushed

Trapezoidal

Sinusoidal

Sinusoidal

N/A, stepper

N/A, stepper

Halls Required

Halls required for brushless motors

No

Halls required for brushless motors

Halls optional for brushless motors

Halls optional for brushless motors

No

No

Table 2.9: Amplifier documentation location, commutation, and hall requirements for each internal amplifier.

Pin-outs for the hall signals is found under the ICM being used:

ICM-42000

ICM-42000 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 258

ICM-42100

ICM-42100 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 262

ICM-42200

ICM-42200 Encoder 26 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 267

NOTE

If wiring 3-phased, brushless motors:

Skip to the additional instructions provided in Step 8a. Commutation of 3phased Brushless Motors, pg 24 to find proper commutation.

Step C. Issue the appropriate configuration commands

Table 2.10 provides a brief list of configuration commands that may need to be set depending on your motor

type and motor specifications.

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 23 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Command

MT

AG

BR

AU

TL, TK

YA

LC

Description

Configures an axis for use with either a stepper or servo motor

Amplifier gain (A/V for servos or A/Phase for steppers)

Will configure an internal servo amplifier for brushed mode

(Also used to ignore halls when the use of external amplifiers is required in lieu of an internal)

Configures the current loop update rate

(Can also be used to switch capable amplifiers between chopper and inverter mode)

Limits motor command line output in Volts, thus limiting the current in the amplifier

Stepper drive resolution (microstepping configuration)

Configures stepper motor current at holding or “rest” positions

Table 2.10: Sample of motor and amplifier configuration commands

Step D. If using a servo motor, continue to Step 10. Tune the Servo System, pg 31. If using a stepper, continue

on to Step E.

Step E. Enable and use your motor

A SH will enable the internal amplifier and a MO will disable the internal amplifier. Once enabled, you can send

DMC motion commands to move the motor, see Chapter 6 Programming Motion, pg 68 for details.

Step 8a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors

If a motor is not correctly commutated it will not function as expected. Commutation is the act of properly getting each of the 3 internal phases of a servo motor to switch at the correct time to allow smooth, 360 degree rotation in both directions. The two most common methods for doing so are trapezoidal commutation (use of Hall sensors) and through position sensor algorithms (sinusoidal commutation, no Halls required).

The following sections provide a brief description and guide on how to perform either commutation method including wiring and configuration commands. These sections are divided into Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal:

Trapezoidal Commutation

The following amplifiers support trapezoidal commutation:

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020), pg 210

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240), pg 219

Trapezoidal commutation is a time-tested way for determining the motor location within a magnetic cycle;

However, interpretation of hall sensor feedback varies between motor manufactures requiring the user to find the correct wiring combination.

Before wiring the motor the user should determine which is easier: Wiring the hall sensors or wiring the motor phases. This method will start with wiring both the halls and motor phases at random then trying each of the 6 wiring combinations of either the halls or the motor phases (not both). For each combination, the user will be asked to check the open-loop velocity in both directions . Some of the wiring combinations will lead to no motion, this is expected. The following directions are given using the A-axis as an example.

1. Wire the 3 motor phase wires and 3 hall sensors randomly. Do not connect the motor to any external mechanics or load, a free spinning motor is required for testing. Take all safety precautions necessary as the motor tests below will result in a runaway condition.

2. Set the PID’s and BR to zero and disable off-on-error (OE) to allow for full rotation of the motor in openloop. Issue the following commands from a Galil terminal program:

KPA= 0

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 24

KDA= 0

KIA= 0

BRA= 0

OE 0

SH A

3. Place a small offset voltage on the motor command line using the OF command (ex OFA= 0.5). The smallest OF possible to see motion is recommended. If no motion presents itself, increase in small increments until you see motion. If your OF is beyond what is expected to see motion, record “no motion” using one of

the tables below (Table 2.12 for swapping motor phases or Table 2.13 for swapping halls) and try the next

wiring combination.

Note: To stop the motor from spinning use either the MO A command or issue OFA= 0.

4. Once spinning, check the velocity of the motor with the TV A command. Record this value under “+

Velocity” in either Table 2.12 or Table 2.13.

5. Issue an equal but opposite OF. For example, if you previously issued OFA= 0.5 now issue OFA= -0.5.

Record this velocity under “- Velocity.”

6. Issue OFA= 0 or MO A to stop the motors. Power down the controller and amplifiers system and swap 2 wires of the hall sensors or motor power leads—whichever method is being used (Remember, chose one or the other, not both!). Keep track of what cable combinations have been tested (labeling the phases maybe

useful) in the example table in Table 2.11, motor phases were recorded based upon their insulation color.

7. Repeat steps 2-6 for every possible wiring combination, there will be six and Table 2.12 or Table 2.13 below

should be completely filled out.

8. The correct wiring combination will be the one with the least difference in magnitude between the velocities in the positive and negative direction. In the case where there are two combinations that meet this criteria,

choose the combination that has the higher velocities. In the example table shown in Table 2.11, Trial 1 would

be the correct choice.

Trial #

1

2

3

4

5

6

Phase A

Red

Red

White

White

Black

Black

Phase B

White

Black

Black

Red

Red

White

Phase C + Velocity - Velocity

Black 153700 -160000

White No motion No motion

Red No motion No motion

Black -141000 139000

White No motion No motion

Red -70000 92000

Table 2.11: Example table showing realistic test results using this commutation method

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 25 DMC-40x0 User Manual

4

5

6

Trial #

1

2

3

Phase A Phase B Phase C + Velocity - Velocity

Table 2.12: Table provided for use with swapping motor phases to achieve trapezoidal communication

4

5

6

Trial #

1

2

3

Hall A Hall B Hall C + Velocity - Velocity

Table 2.13: Table provided for use with swapping hall leads to achieve trapezoidal communication

9. Check that the motor phases and encoder feedback are in proper polarity to avoid a runaway condition. Do so by watching the different hall transitions by using the QH command and rotating the motor by hand in an MO state. If the motor and encoder polarity are correct than TP A should report a smaller number when QH A reports 1 than when QH A reports 3. If TP A is larger when QH A reports 1 than 3, then the motor is in a positive feedback state and will runaway when sent movement commands; Reverse the encoder feedback as

described in Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19.

10. Issue MO A and set OFA= 0. Set small, and appropriate values of KP A and KD A and verify the motor holds position once a SH A is issued. The motor is now under closed loop control.

11. Double check commutation by issuing a small jog command (JGA=1000; BG A) and verify the motor spins smoothly for more than 360 degrees. If the user monitors QH during the jog movement it should report a number 1-6 transitioning through the following sequence: 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5 and repeating.

12. If no runaway occurs, the motor is ready to be tuned. Skip to Step 10. Tune the Servo System, pg 31.

Sinusoidal Commutation

The following amplifiers support sinusoidal commutation:

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520), pg 225

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640), pg 232

Galil provides several sinusoidal commutation methods. The following list provides a brief description of how each

method works and Table 2.14 discusses the pros and cons of each. Detailed instructions for each method follow on pg 27.

BZ Method - The BZ method forces the motor into a zero degree magnetic phase by exciting only two of the three phases. The location on the motor within it's magnetic phases is known and sinusoidal commutation is initialized.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 26

Commands required: BA, BM, BZ

BX Method - The BX method uses a limited motion algorithm to determine the proper location of the motor within the magnetic cycle. It is expected to move no greater than 10 degrees of the magnetic cycle. The last stage of the BX command will lock the motor into the nearest 15 degree increment.

Commands required: BA, BM, BX

BI/BC Method – The motor initially boots up in a “pseudo-trapezoidal” mode. The BC function monitors the status of the hall sensors and replaces the estimated commutation phase value with a more precise value upon the first hall transition. The motor is then running in a sinusoidally commutated mode and the use of the halls are no longer required.

Commands required: BA, BM, BI, BC

BZ and QH are used to aid in the wiring process and initial set-up for this method.

Note: These list the minimum required commands to provide commutation. There are many more commutation configuration commands available not discussed here. See the Command Reference for details.

Method

BZ

BX

BI/BC

1

PRO

• Can be used with vertical or unbalanced loads

• Less sensitive to noise than BX

• Does not require halls

• Quick first-time set-up

• Provides the least amount of movement (If no hall sensors are available)

• Does not require halls

• Quick first-time set-up

CON

• Can cause significant motor movement

• May fail at hard stops

• Not recommended with vertical or unbalanced loads

• Sensitive to noise on feedback lines

• Requires some movement

• may fail at hard stops

• No unnecessary movement required

• Best option with a vertical or unbalanced load

• Requires halls

• Longer first-time set-up due to additional wiring

Table 2.14: Pros and cons of each commutation method

1

If your motor has halls, it is recommended to use the BI/BC method.

The following sections discuss how to wire and configure a motor for sinusoidal commutation using the different commutation methods:

BZ/BX Method

WARNING

The BZ command must move the motor to find the zero commutation phase. This movement is sudden and will cause the system to jerk. Larger applied voltages will cause more severe motor jerk.

The BZ and BX method are wired in the same way. Both BZ and BX require encoder feedback to the controller and the motor phases to the drive.

1. Check encoder position with the TP command. Ensure the motor is in an MO state and move the motor manually in the desired positive direction while monitoring TP. If TP reports a smaller, or more negative

number, reverse encoder direction, see Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19.

2. Select which axis will be using sinusoidal commutation by issuing the BA command.

3.Set brushless modulus, using the BM configuration command. BM is the distance, in counts, of a single magnetic cycle of the motor. This can be calculated by dividing counts/revolution of the encoder by the

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 27 DMC-40x0 User Manual

number of pole pairs of the motor. For a linear motor, the number of encoder counts per magnetic phase may need to be calculated from motor and encoder manufacturers information.

4. Try commutating the motor using either BZ or BX command. Note that the BZ and BX commands require a single argument which is the user allotted maximum voltage to be applied on the motor command line during the commutation routine. Ensure that the command voltage for BZ or BX is sufficient to move the motor.

a. If the commutation fails and TC 1 returns error codes 114 BZ command runaway or 160 BX failure, turn off the controller and amplifier and swap motor leads A and B and re-perform steps 1-

4.

b. If the commutation fails and TC 1 returns error code 112 BZ timeout, try increasing the timeout time with the BZ< t command. t defaults to 1000 msec.

5. Once commutation succeeds, servo the motor (SH) and test commutation by jogging the motor slowly (JG

1000;BG A).

a. If the motor stalls, cogs, or runs away, turn off the controller and amplifier and swap motor leads A and B and re-perform steps 1-4.

b. If the motor rotates smoothly 360 deg in both directions, the motor is properly wired and commutated. Note: Commutation initialization is required each time the controller is booted up.

BI/BC Method

NOTE

The motor must have hall sensors to work with BI/BC.

In addition, the AMP-43640 is a special case that supports hall initialization through it's general inputs, rather than standard hall pins. To query hall state in this case, use _BCx rather than QH. See the BI command for more information.

BI/BC method uses the motors hall sensors to initialize the brushless degrees of the motor.

The halls, motor phases, and encoder feedback must all be wired to the DMC. The hall inputs must be aligned so that hall A aligns with the excitement of motor phase A and B, hall B aligns with the excitement of motor phases B and C, and hall C aligns with the excitement of motor phases C and A. Setting up the motor for BI/BC initialization may require wiring changes to both the motor leads and the hall inputs. The following steps will ensure that the correct configuration is reached:

1. Put the motor in an MO state. Move the motor shaft manually in the direction desired for positive movement.

a. If TP is decreasing, reverse encoder direction. See Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19.

2. Continue to move the motor in the positive direction by hand, but now monitor the state of QH. QH should change as the motor continues to rotate in the positive direction. QH should return the sequence: 1 3 2 6 4 5.

a. If the order is reversed, swap Hall A and Hall C.

b. If all 6 states are not seen, one of the hall inputs is miswired or not connected.

3. Select which axis will be using sinusoidal commutation by issuing the BA command.

4. Set brushless modulus, using the BM configuration command. BM is the distance, in counts, of a single magnetic cycle of the motor. This can be calculated by dividing counts/revolution of the encoder by the number of pole pairs of the motor. For a linear motor, the number of encoder counts per magnetic phase may need to be calculated from motor and encoder manufacturers information.

5. Initialize the motor for hall commutation BI -1.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 28

6. Test the motor for proper commutation by enabling the motor (SH) and jogging the motor slowly (JG

1000;BG A). If the motor rotates 360 degrees without cogging, running away, or stalling, skip to step 7.

a. If the motor stalls, cogs, or runs away, issue an MO and try initialization using BZ. If the motor stalls, cogs, or runs away, after BZ, turn off the controller and amplifier and swap motor phases A and B and retry steps 3-6.

b. If commutation is still not successful after 6. a., issue the appropriate BA, BM, and BZ commands— but do not servo. Check the hall state with QH. If QH shows either of the two values shown below, then turn off the controller and amplifier and rewire the motor based on the following, and then retry step 3-6.

If QH m returns 5: Turn off the controller and amplifier and swap motor phases A and B, then B and C

If QH m returns 6: Turn off the controller and amplifier and swap motor phases A and C, then B and C

7. The motor should now be wired for sine commutation using the BI/BC method. Once BI -1 is issued, the motor is in a pseudo-trapezoidal state, you can enable sine commutation by issuing the BC command and commanding a slow jog move. Once a hall transition is found, the commutation will be in sinusoidal mode.

Step 9. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors

System connection procedures will depend on system components and motor types. Any combination of motor types can be used with the DMC-40x0. There can also be a combination of axes running from Galil integrated amplifiers and drivers and external amplifiers or drivers.

Table 2.15 below shows a brief synopsis of the connections required, the full step-by-step guide is provided below.

Motor Type

Servo motors

(Brushed and Brushless)

Stepper motor

Connection Requirements

• Power to controller and amplifier

• Amplifier enable

• Encoder feedback

• Motor command line

• See amplifier documentation for motor connections

• Power to controller and amplifier

• Amplifier enable

• PWM/Step and direction line

• Encoder feedback (optional)

• See amplifier documentation for motor connections

Table 2.15: Synopsis of connections required to connect an external amplifier

Step A. Connect the motor to the amplifier

Initially do so with no connection to the controller. Consult the amplifier documentation for instructions regarding proper connections. Connect and turn-on the amplifier power supply. If the amplifiers are operating properly, the motor should stand still even when the amplifiers are powered up.

A Note Regarding Commutation

This section applies to 3-phase external amplifiers only.

External amplifiers often will perform either trapezoidal or sinusoidal commutation without the need of a controller. In this case, be sure to use your amplifiers guide to achieve proper commutation.

Although very rare, if an external amplifier requires the controller to perform sinusoidal commutation, an additional ±10 V motor command line may be required from the DMC. In other words, two motor

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 29 DMC-40x0 User Manual

axes are needed to commutate a single external sinusoidal amplifier. See the BA command for what two motor command lines to use in this case. After the two ±10 V motor command lines are wired,

the user can use the sinusoidal commutation methods listed above under Sinusoidal Commutation, pg

26.

Step B. Connect the amplifier enable signal

Before making any connections from the amplifier to the controller, verify that the ground level of the amplifier is either floating or at the same potential as earth.

WARNING

When the amplifier ground is not isolated from the power line or when it has a different potential than that of the computer ground, serious damage may result to the computer, controller, and amplifier.

If you are not sure about the potential of the ground levels, connect the two ground signals (amplifier ground and earth) by a 10 k resistor and measure the voltage across the resistor. Only if the voltage is zero, connect the two ground signals directly.

The amplifier enable signal is defaulted to 5V, high amp enable. (the amplifier enable signal will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled). It is recommended that if an amplifier requires a different configuration, the controller should be be ordered with the desired configuration. See the ordering options below:

Amplifier Enable Configurations, pg 186

Pin-outs for the amplifier enable signal is found under the ICM being used:

ICM-42000

ICM-42000 External Driver (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male), pg 257

ICM-42000 External Driver (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male), pg 257

ICM-42100

ICM-42100 External Driver (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male), pg 261

ICM-42100 External Driver (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male), pg 261

ICM-42200

ICM-42200 Encoder 26 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 267

For full electrical specifications and wiring diagrams refer to:

External Amplifier Interface, pg 42

ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 Amplifier Enable Circuit, pg 43

ICM-42200 Amplifier Enable Circuit, pg 45

For re-configuring the ICM-42000/ICM-42100 for a different amplifier enable option, see:

Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit, pg 193

Once the amplifier enable signal is correctly wired , issuing a MO will disable the amplifier and an SH will enable it.

Step C. Connect the Encoders (optional for stepper systems)

See Step 6. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 19.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 30

Step D. Connect the Command Signals

The DMC-40x0 has two ways of controlling amplifiers:

1. Using a motor command line (±10V analog output)

The motor and the amplifier may be configured in torque or velocity mode. In the torque mode, the amplifier gain should be such that a 10V signal generates the maximum required current. In the velocity mode, a command signal of 10V should run the motor at the maximum required speed.

2. Using step (0-5V, PWM) and direction (0-5V toggling line), this is referred to as step/dir for short.

Some external amplifiers may require the use of differential step/direction or motor command lines. These are

available upon ordering the (STEP) and (DIFF) options, respectively. See DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185 and STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185 for more details.

Pin-outs for the command signals are found under the ICM being used:

The full list of ICM pin-outs are provided in Step B, above.

For full electrical specifications refer to:

External Amplifier Interface, pg 42

To configure the command signal type and other configuration commands see Table 2.16 below for a brief

synopsis. For a full list of configuration commands see the Command Reference.

Step E. Issue the appropriate configuration Commands

Command

MT

TL

TK

Description

The motor type command configures what type of control method to use

(switches axis between motor command or step/dir options)

Servo only. Limits the motor command line's continuous output in Volts

Servo only. Limits the motor command line's peak output in Volts

Table 2.16: Brief listing of most commonly used configuration commands for the motor command and step/dir lines

Step F. If using a servo motor, continue to Step 10. Tune the Servo System, pg 31. If using a stepper motor, skip

to Step G.

Step G. Enable and use your motor

A SH will enable the external amplifier, once enabled, you can send DMC motion commands to move the

motor, see Chapter 6 Programming Motion, pg 68 for details.

Step 10. Tune the Servo System

Adjusting the tuning parameters is required when using servo motors. A given set of default PID's is provided, but are not optimized and should not be used in practice.

For the theory of operation and a full explanation of all the PID and other filter parameters, see Chapter 10 Theory of Operation, pg 167.

For additional tuning resources and step-by-step tuning guides, see the following:

Application Notes

Manual Tuning Methods: http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/optima/note3413.pdf

Manual Tuning using the Velocity Zone method: http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/miscellaneous/note5491.pdf

Autotuning Tools in Galil Suite: http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/galilsuite/tuner.html

Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 31 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware

Overview

The DMC-40x0 provides optoisolated digital inputs for forward limit, reverse limit, home, and abort signals. The controller also has 8 optoisolated, uncommitted inputs (for general use) as well as 8 high power optoisolated

outputs and 8 analog inputs configured for voltages between ±10 volts.

4080

Controllers with 5 or more axes have an additional 8 optoisolated inputs and an additional 8 high power optoisolated outputs.

This chapter describes the inputs and outputs and their proper connection.

Overview of Optoisolated Inputs

Limit Switch Input

The forward limit switch (FLSx) inhibits motion in the forward direction immediately upon activation of the switch.

The reverse limit switch (RLSx) inhibits motion in the reverse direction immediately upon activation of the switch.

If a limit switch is activated during motion, the controller will make a decelerated stop using the deceleration rate previously set with the SD command. The motor will remain on (in a servo state) after the limit switch has been activated and will hold motor position. The controller can be configured to disable the axis upon the activation of a limit switch, see the OE command in the command reference for further detail.

When a forward or reverse limit switch is activated, the current application program that is running in thread zero will be interrupted and the controller will automatically jump to the #LIMSWI subroutine if one exists. This is a subroutine which the user can include in any motion control program and is useful for executing specific

instructions upon activation of a limit switch. Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions are discussed in

Chapter 7 Application Programming.

After a limit switch has been activated, further motion in the direction of the limit switch will not be possible until the logic state of the switch returns back to an inactive state. Any attempt at further motion before the logic state has been reset will result in the following error: “22 - Begin not possible due to limit switch” error.

The operands, _LFx and _LRx, contain the state of the forward and reverse limit switches, respectively (x represents the axis, A, B, C, D etc.). The value of the operand is either a ‘0’ or ‘1’ corresponding to the logic state of the limit switch. Using a terminal program, the state of a limit switch can be printed to the screen with the command, MG_LFx or MG_LRx. This prints the value of the limit switch operands for the ‘x’ axis. The logic state of the limit switches can also be interrogated with the TS command. For more details on TS see the Command

Reference.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 32

Home Switch Input

Homing inputs are designed to provide mechanical reference points for a motion control application. A transition in the state of a Home input alerts the controller that a particular reference point has been reached by a moving part in the motion control system. A reference point can be a point in space or an encoder index pulse.

The Home input detects any transition in the state of the switch and toggles between logic states 0 and 1 at every transition. A transition in the logic state of the Home input will cause the controller to execute a homing routine specified by the user.

There are three homing routines supported by the DMC-40x0: Find Edge (FE), Find Index (FI), and Standard Home

(HM).

The Find Edge routine is initiated by the command sequence: FE A, BG A. The Find Edge routine will cause the motor to accelerate, and then slew at constant speed until a transition is detected in the logic state of the Home input. The direction of the FE motion is dependent on the state of the home switch. High level causes forward motion. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. The acceleration rate, deceleration rate and slew speed are specified by the user, prior to the movement, using the commands AC, DC, and SP. When using the FE command,

it is recommended that a high deceleration value be used so the motor will decelerate rapidly after sensing the

Home switch.

The Find Index routine is initiated by the command sequence: FI A, BG A. Find Index will cause the motor to accelerate to the user-defined slew speed (SP) at a rate specified by the user with the AC command and slew until the controller senses a change in the index pulse signal from low to high. The motor then decelerates to a stop at the rate previously specified by the user with the DC command and then moves back to the index pulse and speed

HV. Although Find Index is an option for homing, it is not dependent upon a transition in the logic state of the

Home input, but instead is dependent upon a transition in the level of the index pulse signal.

The Standard Homing routine is initiated by the sequence of commands HM A, BG A. Standard Homing is a combination of Find Edge and Find Index homing. Initiating the standard homing routine will cause the motor to slew until a transition is detected in the logic state of the Home input. The motor will accelerate at the rate specified by the command, AC, up to the slew speed. After detecting the transition in the logic state on the Home

Input, the motor will decelerate to a stop at the rate specified by the command, DC. After the motor has decelerated to a stop, it switches direction and approaches the transition point at the speed of HV counts/sec.

When the logic state changes again, the motor moves forward (in the direction of increasing encoder count) at the same speed, until the controller senses the index pulse. After detection, it decelerates to a stop, moves back to the index, and defines this position as 0. The logic state of the Home input can be interrogated with the command

MG_HMA. This command returns a 0 or 1 if the logic state is low or high, respectively. The state of the Home input can also be interrogated indirectly with the TS command.

For examples and further information about Homing, see command HM, FI, FE of the Command Reference and

the section entitled Homing in the Programming Motion Section of this manual.

Abort Input

The function of the Abort input is to immediately stop the controller upon transition of the logic state.

NOTE: The response of the abort input is significantly different from the response of an activated limit switch.

When the abort input is activated, the controller stops generating motion commands immediately, whereas the limit switch response causes the controller to make a decelerated stop.

NOTE: The effect of an Abort input is dependent on the state of the off-on-error function (OE Command) for each axis. If the Off-On-Error function is enabled for any given axis, the motor for that axis will be turned off when the abort signal is generated. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop since it is no longer under servo control. If the Off-On-Error function is disabled, the motor will decelerate to a stop as fast as mechanically possible and the motor will remain in a servo state.

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 33 DMC-40x0 User Manual

All motion programs that are currently running are terminated when a transition in the Abort input is detected.

This can be configured with the CN command. For information see the Command Reference, OE and CN.

ELO (Electronic Lock-Out) Input

Used in conjunction with Galil amplifiers, this input allows the user the shutdown the amplifier at a hardware level.

For more detailed information on how specific Galil amplifiers behave when the ELO is triggered, see Integrated in

the Appendices. If using a 5-8 axis controller with two integrated amplifiers, the ELO input on the A-D connector should be used. If an ELO is sensed both amplifiers will act on it, and shut down at a hardware level.

Reset Input/Reset Button

When the Reset line is triggered the controller will be reset. The reset line and reset button will not master reset the controller unless the MRST jumper is installed during a controller reset.

Uncommitted Digital Inputs

The DMC-40x0 has 8 optoisolated inputs. These inputs can be read individually using the function @IN[x] where x specifies the input number (1 thru 8). These inputs are uncommitted and can allow the user to create conditional statements related to events external to the controller. For example, the user may wish to have the x-axis motor move 1000 counts in the positive direction when the logic state of DI1 goes high.

The Digital inputs can be used as high speed position latch inputs, see High Speed Position Capture (The Latch

Function) for more information.

This can be accomplished by connecting a voltage in the range of +5V to +28V into INCOM of the input circuitry from a separate power supply.

4080

Controllers with more than 4 axes have an additional 8 general optoisolated inputs (inputs 9-16). The

INCOM for these inputs is found on the I/O (E-H) D-Sub connector.

An additional 32 I/O are provided at 3.3V (5V option) through the extended I/O. These are not optoisolated.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 34

Optoisolated Input Electrical Information

Electrical Specifications

INCOM/LSCOM Max Voltage

INCOM/LSCOM Min Voltage

Minimum current to turn on Inputs

Minimum current to turn off Inputs once activated (hysteresis)

Maximum current per input

1

Internal resistance of inputs

24 V

DC

0 V

DC

1.2 mA

0.5 mA

11 mA

2.2 kΩ

1

See the Input Current Limitations, pg 190 section for more details.

The DMC-40x0's optoisolated inputs are rated to operate with a supply voltage of 5–24 VDC. The optoisolated inputs are powered in banks. For example, INCOM (Bank 0), located on the 44-pin I/O (A-D) D-sub connector,

provides power to DI[8:1] (digital inputs), the abort input (ABRT), reset (RST), and electric lock-out (ELO). Table 3.17

shows all the input banks power commons and their corresponding inputs for 1-4 axis controllers and Table 3.18

shows the input banks for 5-8 axis controllers.

Common Signal

INCOM (Bank 0)

LSCOM (Bank 0)

Common Signal Location

I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector

I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector

Powers Inputs Labeled

DI[8:1], ABRT, RST, ELO

FLSA, RLSA, HOMA

FLSB, RLSB, HOMB

FLSC, RLSC, HOMC

FLSD, RLSD, HOMD

Table 3.17: 1-4 axis controller INCOM and LSCOM banks and corresponding inputs powered

Common Signal

INCOM (Bank 0)

LSCOM (Bank 0)

INCOM (Bank 1)

LSCOM (Bank 1)

Common Signal Location

I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector

I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector

I/O (E-H) D-Sub Connector

I/O (E-H) D-Sub Connector

Powers Inputs

DI[8:1], ABRT, RST, ELO

FLSA, RLSA, HOMA

FLSB, RLSB, HOMB

FLSC, RLSC, HOMC

FLSD, RLSD, HOMD

DI[16:9]

FLSE, RLSE, HOME

FLSF, RLSF, HOMF

FLSG, RLSG, HOMG

FLSH, RLSH, HOMH

Table 3.18: 5-8 axis controller INCOM and LSCOM banks and corresponding inputs powered

The full pin-outs for each bank can be found in the Integrated Components, pg 208 under the ICM option ordered:

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000), A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100), or A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200).

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 35 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Wiring the Optoisolated Digital Inputs

To take full advantage of optoisolation, an isolated power supply should be used to provide the voltage at the input common connection. Connecting the ground of the isolated power to the ground of the controller will bypass optoisolation and is not recommended if true optoisolation is desired.

If there is not an isolated supply available, the 5 V

DC

, 12 V

DC

, and GND controller references may be used to power

INCOM/LSCOM. The current supplied by the controller references are limited, see +5, ±12V Power Output

Specifications, pg 180 in the Appendices for electrical specifications. Using the controller reference power

completely bypasses optoisolation and is not recommended for most applications.

Banks of inputs can be used as either active high or low. Connecting +V s

to INCOM/LSCOM will configure the inputs for active low as current will flow through the diode when the inputs are pulled to the isolated ground. Connecting the isolated ground to INCOM/LSCOM will configure the inputs for active high as current will flow through the diode when the inputs are pulled up to +V s

.

Figure 3.1 - Figure 3.5 are the optoisolated wiring diagrams for powering INCOM/LSCOM (Bank 0) and

INCOM/LSCOM (Bank 1) and their corresponding inputs.

Figure 3.1: Digital Inputs 1-8 (DI[8:1])

Figure 3.2: Digital Inputs 9-16 (DI[16:9])

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 36

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 37

Figure 3.3: Limit Switch Inputs for Axes A-D

Figure 3.4: Limit Switch Inputs for Axes E-H

Figure 3.5: ELO, Abort and Reset Inputs

DMC-40x0 User Manual

High Power Optoisolated Outputs

The DMC-40x0 has different interconnect module options, this section will describe the 500mA optically isolated outputs that are used on the ICM-42x00.

The amount of uncommitted, optoisolated outputs the DMC-40x0 has depends on the number of axis. For instance, 1-4 axis models come with a single bank of 8 outputs, Bank 0 (DO[8:1]). 5-8 axis models come with an additional bank of 8 outputs, Bank 1 (DO[16:9]), for a total of 16 outputs.

The wiring pins for Bank 0 are located on the ICM-42x00 I/O (A-D) 44 pin HD D-sub Connector and the pins for wiring Bank 1 are located on the ICM-42x00 I/O (E-H) 44 pin HD D-sub Connector. See the the Appendix for your

ICM: A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000), A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100), or A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) for pin-outs.

Description

The 500mA sourcing option, referred to as high power sourcing (HSRC), is capable of sourcing up to 500mA per output and up to 3A per bank. The voltage range for the outputs is 12-24 VDC. These outputs are capable of driving inductive loads such as solenoids or relays. The outputs are configured for hi-side (sourcing) only.

Electrical Specifications

Output PWR Max Voltage

Output PWR Min Voltage

Max Drive Current per Output

24 VDC

12 VDC

0.5 A (maximum 3A per Bank)

Wiring the Optoisolated Outputs

The output power supply will be connected to Output PWR (labeled OPWR) and the power supply return will be connected to Output GND (labeled ORET). Note that the load is wired between DO and Output GND. The wiring

diagram for Bank 0 is shown in Figure 3.6 and Bank 1 in Figure 3.7. See the “I/O 44 pin HD D-sub Connector” for

your specific ICM module in the Appendix for the correct pin-outs.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure 3.6: 500mA Sourcing wiring diagrams for Bank 0, DO[8:1]

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 38

Figure 3.7: 500mA Sourcing wiring diagram for Bank 1, DO[16:9]

TTL Inputs and Outputs

Main Encoder Inputs

The main encoder inputs can be configured for quadrature (default) or pulse and direction inputs. This configuration is set through the CE command. The encoder connections are found on the HD D-sub Encoder connectors and are labeled MA+, MA-, MB+, MB-. The '-' (negative) inputs are the differential inputs to the encoder inputs; if the encoder is a single ended 5V encoder, then the negative input should be left floating. If the encoder is a single ended and outputs a 0-12V signal then the negative input should be tied to the 5V line on the

DMC.

When the encoders are setup as step and direction inputs the MA channel will be the step or pulse input, and the

MB channel will be the direction input.

The encoder inputs can be ordered with 120Ohm termination resistors installed. See TRES – Encoder Termination

Resistors in the Appendix for more information.

Electrical Specifications

Maximum Voltage

Minimum Voltage

12 VDC

-12 VDC

Maximum Frequency (Quadrature)15 MHz

'+' inputs are internally pulled-up to 5V through a 4.7 kΩ resistor

'-' inputs are internally biased to ~1.3V

pulled up to 5V through a 7.1 kΩ resistor pulled down to GND through a 2.5kΩ resistor

The Auxiliary Encoder Inputs

The auxiliary encoder inputs can be used for general use. For each axis, the controller has one auxiliary encoder and each auxiliary encoder consists of two inputs, channel A and channel B. The auxiliary encoder inputs are mapped to the inputs 81-96. The Aux encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for step and direction outputs (stepper).

Each input from the auxiliary encoder is a differential line receiver and can accept voltage levels between ± 12 volts. The inputs have been configured to accept TTL level signals. To connect TTL signals, simply connect the

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 39 DMC-40x0 User Manual

signal to the + input and leave the - input disconnected. For other signal levels, the - input should be connected to a voltage that is ½ of the full voltage range (for example, connect the - input to 6 volts if the signal is a 0 - 12 volt logic).

Example:

A DMC-4010 has one auxiliary encoder. This encoder has two inputs (channel A and channel B). Channel A input is mapped to input 81 and Channel B input is mapped to input 82. To use this input for 2 TTL signals, the first signal will be connected to AA+ and the second to AB+. AA- and AB- will be left unconnected. To access this input, use the function @IN[81] and @IN[82].

NOTE: The auxiliary encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for stepper motor.

Electrical Specifications

Maximum Voltage

Minimum Voltage

12 VDC

-12 VDC

'+' inputs are internally pulled-up to 5V through a 4.7kΩ resistor

'-' inputs are internally biased to ~1.3V

pulled up to 5V through a 7.1kΩ resistor pulled down to GND through a 2.5kΩ resistor

Output Compare

The output compare signal is a TTL ouput signal and is available on the I/O (A-D) D-Sub connector labeled as CMP.

An additional output compare signal is available for 5-8 axes controllers on the I/O (E-H) D-sub connector.

Output compare is controlled by the position of any of the main encoder inputs on the controller. The output can be programmed to produce either a brief, active low pulse (250 nsec) based on an incremental encoder value or to activate once (“one shot”) when an axis position has been passed. When setup for a one shot, the output will stay low until the OC command is called again. For further information, see the command OC in the Command

Reference.

NOTE

Output compare is not valid with sampled feedback types such as: SSI, BiSS, Sin/Cos, and Analog

Electrical Specifications

Output Voltage

Current Output

0 – 5 VDC

20 mA Sink/Source

Error Output

The controller provides a TTL signal, ERR, to indicate a controller error condition. When an error condition occurs, the ERR signal will go low and the controller LED will go on. An error occurs because of one of the following conditions:

1. At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by using the command ER.

2. The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.

3. There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.

4. There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.

The ERR signal is found on the I/O (A-D) D-Sub connector.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 40

4080

For controllers with 5-8 axes, the ERR signal is duplicated on the I/O (E-H) D-Sub connector.

For additional information see Error Light (Red LED) in Chapter 9 Troubleshooting.

Electrical Specifications

Output Voltage

Current Output

0 – 5 VDC

20 mA Sink/Source

Analog Inputs

The DMC-40x0 has eight analog inputs configured for the range between -10V and 10V. The inputs are decoded by a 12-bit A/D decoder giving a voltage resolution of approximately .005V. A 16-bit ADC is available as an option (Ex.

DMC-4020(-16bit)-C012-I000). The analog inputs are specified as AN[x] where x is a number 1 thru 8.

AQ settings

The analog inputs can be set to a range of ±10V, ±5V, 0-5V or 0-10V, this allows for increased resolution when the full ±10V is not required. The inputs can also be set into a differential mode where analog inputs 2,4,6 and 8 can be set to the negative differential inputs for analog inputs 1,3,5 and 7 respectively. See the AQ command in the command reference for more information.

Electrical Specifications

Input Impedance (12 and 16 bit) –

Unipolar (0-5V, 0-10V) 42kΩ

Bipolar (±5V, ±10V) 31kΩ

Extended I/O

The DMC-40x0 controller offers 32 extended TTL I/O points which can be configured as inputs or outputs in 8 bit

increments. Configuration is accomplished with command CO – see Extended I/O of the DMC-40x0 Controller The

I/O points are accessed through the 44 pin D-Sub connector labeled EXTENDED I/O. See the A8 – CMB-41012 (-

C012) section in the Appendix for a complete pin out of the Extended I/O.

Electrical Specifications (3.3V – Standard)

Inputs

Max Input Voltage

Guarantee High Voltage

Guarantee Low Voltage

3.4 VDC

2.0 VDC

0.8 VDC

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 41 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Outputs

Sink/Source 4mA per output

Electrical Specifications (5V – Option)

Inputs

Max Input Voltage

Guarantee High Voltage

Guarantee Low Voltage

5.25 VDC

2.0 VDC

0.8 VDC

Outputs

Sink/Source 20mA

External Amplifier Interface

External Stepper Control

The controller provides step and direction (STPn, DIRn) outputs for every axis available on the controller. These outputs are typically used for interfacing to external stepper drivers, but they can be configured for a PWM output.

See the MT command for more details.

PWM/Step and Sign/Direction Electrical Specifications

Output Voltage 0 – 5 VDC

Current Output 20 mA Sink/Source

External Servo Control

The DMC-40x0 command voltage ranges between ±10V and is output on the motor command line - MCMn (where n is A-H). This signal, along with GND, provides the input to the motor amplifiers. The amplifiers must be sized to drive the motors and load. For best performance, the amplifiers should be configured for a torque (current) mode of operation with no additional compensation. The gain should be set such that a 10 volt input results in the maximum required current.

Motor Command Line Electrical Specifications

Output Voltage

Motor Command Output Impedance

±10 VDC

500 Ω

Amplifier Enable

The DMC-40x0 also an amplifier enable signal - AENn (where n is A-H). This signal changes under the following conditions: the motor-off command, MO, is given, the watchdog timer activates, or the OE command (Enable Off-

On-Error) is set and the position error exceeds the error limit or a limit switch is reached (see OE command in the

Command Reference for more information).

For all versions of the ICM-42x00, the default configuration of the amplifier enable signal is 5V active high amp enable (HAEN) sinking. In other words, the AEN signal will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 42

enabled. The polarity and the amplitude can be changed by configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit on the ICM-

42xx0.

If your amplifier requires a different configuration than the default 5V HAEN sinking it is highly recommended

that the DMC-40x0 is ordered with the desired configuration. See the DMC-40x0 ordering information in the catalog ( http://www.galilmc.com/catalog/cat40x0.pdf

) or contact Galil for more information on ordering different configurations.

Note: Many amplifiers designate the enable input as ‘inhibit’.

ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 Amplifier Enable Circuit

This section describes how to configure the ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 for different Amplifier Enable configurations. It is advised that the user order the DMC-40x0 with the proper Amplifier enable configuration.

The ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 gives the user a broad range of options with regards to the voltage levels present on the enable signal. The user can choose between High-Amp-Enable (HAEN), Low-Amp-Enable (LAEN), 5V logic,

12V logic, external voltage supplies up to 24V, sinking, or sourcing. Tables 3.19 and 3.20 found below illustrate the settings for jumpers, resistor packs, and the socketed optocoupler IC. Refer to Figures 3.8 and 3.9 for precise

physical locations of all components. Note that the resistor pack located at RP2 may be reversed to change the active state of the amplifier enable output. However, the polarity of RP6 must not be changed; a different resistor value may be needed to limit the current to 6 mA. The default value for RP6 is 820 Ω, which works at 5V. When using 24 V, RP6 should be replaced with a 4.7 k resistor pack.

NOTE: For detailed step-by-step instructions on changing the Amplifier Enable configuration on the ICM-42000 or

ICM-42100 see the Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit section in the Appendices.

TTL level Amp

Enable signal from controller

(SH = 5V, MO = 0V)

RP2 (470 Ohm)

Amplifier Enable Circuit

Sinking Output Configuration

(Pin 1 of LTV8441 in Pin 2 of Socket U4)

Socket U4

Pin 1 of socket

Pin 1

TTL level Amp

Enable signal from controller

(SH = 5V, MO = 0V)

RP6 (820 Ohm)

JP2

AECOM2

Amp Enable Output to Drive

(AENn)

JP1

AECOM1

JP2

AECOM2

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 43

Figure 3.8: Amplifier Enable Circuit Sinking Output Configuration

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Sinking Configuration (pin1 of LTV8441 chip in pin2 of socket U4)

Logic State JP1 JP2

5V, HAEN (Default configuration) 5V - AECOM1

5V, LAEN 5V – AECOM1

12V, HAEN +12V – AECOM1

GND – AECOM2

GND – AECOM2

GND – AECOM2

12V, LAEN

Isolated 24V, HAEN

Isolated 24V, LAEN

+12V – AECOM1

AEC1 – AECOM1

AEC1 - AECOM1

GND – AECOM2

AEC2 – AECOM2

AEC2 - AECOM2

RP2 (square pin next to RP2 label is 5V)

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

For 24V isolated enable, tie +24V of external power supply to AEC1 at the D-sub, tie common return to AEC2. Replace RP6 with a 4.7 kΩ resistor pack. For Axes A-D, AEC1 and AEC2 are located on the EXTERNAL DRIVER (A-D) D-Sub connector. For Axes E-H, AEC1 and AEC2 are located on the EXTERNAL DRIVER (E-H) D-Sub connector.

Note: AEC1 and AEC2 for axes A-D are NOT connected to AEC1 and AEC2 for axes E-H.

Table 3.19: Sinking Configuration

5V or GND

Amplifier Enable Circuit

Sourcing Output Configuration

(Pin 1 of LTV8441 in Pin 1 of Socket U4)

Socket U4

TTL level Amp

Enable signal from controller

(SH = 5V, MO = 0V)

RP2 (470 Ohm)

Pin 1 of socket

Pin 1

TTL level Amp

Enable signal from controller

(SH = 5V, MO = 0V)

RP6 (820 Ohm)

JP2

AECOM2

Amp Enable Output to Drive

(AENn)

JP1

AECOM1

JP2

AECOM2

Figure 3.9: Amplifier Enable Circuit Sourcing Output Configuration

Sourcing Configuration (pin1 of LTV8441 chip in pin1 of socket U4)

Logic State

5V, HAEN

5V, LAEN

12V, HAEN

12V, LAEN

Isolated 24V, HAEN

Isolated 24V, LAEN

JP1

GND – AECOM1

GND – AECOM1

GND – AECOM1

GND – AECOM1

AEC1 – AECOM1

AEC1 - AECOM1

JP2

5V – AECOM2

5V – AECOM2

+12V – AECOM2

+12V – AECOM2

AEC2 - AECOM2

AEC2 – AECOM2

RP2 (square pin next to RP2 label is 5V)

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

Dot on R-pack opposite RP2 label

Dot on R-pack next to RP2 label

For 24V isolated enable, tie +24V of external power supply to AEC2 at the D-sub, tie common return to AEC1. Replace RP6 with a 4.7 kΩ resistor pack. For Axes A-D, AEC1 and AEC2 are located on the EXTERNAL DRIVER (A-D) D-Sub connector. For Axes E-H, AEC1 and AEC2 are located on the EXTERNAL DRIVER (E-H) D-Sub connector.

Note: AEC1 and AEC2 for axes A-D are NOT connected to AEC1 and AEC2 for axes E-H.

Table 3.20: Sourcing Configuration

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 44

ICM-42200 Amplifier Enable Circuit

This section describes how to configure the ICM-42200 for different Amplifier Enable outputs. The ICM-42200 is designed to be used with external amplifiers. As a result, the amplifier enable circuit for each axis is individually configurable through jumper settings. The user can choose between High-Amp-Enable (HAEN), Low-Amp-Enable

(LAEN), 5V logic, 12V logic, external voltage supplies up to 24V, sinking, or sourcing. Every different configuration is described below with jumper settings and a schematic of the circuit.

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 45 DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 46

Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 47 DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 48

Chapter 4 Software Tools and

Communication

Introduction

The default configuration DMC-40x0, with the default CMB-41012 communication board, has two RS232 ports and

1 Ethernet port. An additional Ethernet port is available with the CMB-41022. The main RS-232 port is the data set and can be configured through the jumpers on the top of the controller. The auxiliary RS-232 port is the data term and can be configured with the software command CC. This configuration can be saved using the Burn (BN) instruction. The Ethernet port(s) is a 10/100BASE-T connection that auto-negotiates the speed and half or full duplex.

The GalilTools software package is available for PC computers running Microsoft Windows ® to communicate with the DMC-40x0 controller. This software package has been developed to operate under Windows and Linux, and include all the necessary drivers to communicate to the controller. In addition, GalilTools includes a software development communication library which allows users to create their own application interfaces using programming environments such as C, C++, Visual Basic, and LabVIEW.

The following sections in this chapter are a description of the communications protocol, and a brief introduction to the software tools and communication techniques used by Galil. At the application level, GalilTools is the basic programs that the majority of users will need to communicate with the controller, to perform basic setup, and to develop application code (.dmc programs) that is downloaded to the controller. At the Galil API level, the GalilTools

Communication Library is available for users who wish to develop their own custom application programs to communicate to the controller. Custom application programs can utilize API function calls directly to our DLL’s. At the driver level, we provide fundamental hardware interface information for users who desire to create their own drivers.

Controller Response to Commands

Most DMC-40x0 instructions are represented by two characters followed by the appropriate parameters. Each instruction must be terminated by a carriage return. Multiple commands may be concatenated by inserting a semicolon between each command.

Instructions are sent in ASCII, and the DMC-40x0 decodes each ASCII character (one byte) one at a time. It takes approximately 40 μsec for the controller to decode each command.

After the instruction is decoded, the DMC-40x0 returns a response to the port from which the command was generated. If the instruction was valid, the controller returns a colon (:) or the controller will respond with a

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 49 DMC-40x0 User Manual

question mark (?) if the instruction was not valid. For example, the controller will respond to commands which are sent via the main RS-232 port back through the RS-232 port, and to commands which are sent via the Ethernet port back through the Ethernet port.

For instructions that return data, such as Tell Position (TP), the DMC-40x0 will return the data followed by a carriage return, line feed and : .

It is good practice to check for : after each command is sent to prevent errors. An echo function is provided to enable associating the DMC-40x0 response with the data sent. The echo is enabled by sending the command EO 1 to the controller.

Unsolicited Messages Generated by Controller

When the controller is executing a program, it may generate responses which will be sent via the main RS-232 port or Ethernet ports. This response could be generated as a result of messages using the MG command OR as a result of a command error. These responses are known as unsolicited messages since they are not generated as the direct response to a command.

Messages can be directed to a specific port using the specific Port arguments – see the MG and CF commands in the Command Reference. If the port is not explicitly given or the default is not changed with the CF command, unsolicited messages will be sent to the default port. The default port is the main serial port. When communicating via an Ethernet connection, the unsolicited messages must be sent through a handle that is not the main communication handle from the host. The GalilTools software automatically establishes this second communication handle.

The controller has a special command, CW, which can affect the format of unsolicited messages. This command is used by Galil Software to differentiate response from the command line and unsolicited messages. The command,

CW1 causes the controller to set the high bit of ASCII characters to 1 of all unsolicited characters. This may cause characters to appear garbled to some terminals. This function can be disabled by issuing the command, CW2. For more information, see the CW command in the Command Reference.

When handshaking is used (hardware and/or software handshaking) characters which are generated by the controller are placed in a FIFO buffer before they are sent out of the controller. The size of the RS-232 buffer is 512 bytes. When this buffer becomes full, the controller must either stop executing commands or ignore additional characters generated for output. The command CW,1 causes the controller to ignore all output from the controller while the FIFO is full. The command, CW ,0 causes the controller to stop executing new commands until more room is made available in the FIFO. This command can be very useful when hardware handshaking is being used and the communication line between controller and terminal will be disconnected. In this case, characters will continue to build up in the controller until the FIFO is full. For more information, see the CW command in the

Command Reference.

Serial Communication Ports

The RS-232 and RS-422 (optional) are located on the CMB (communication board) of the DMC-40x0. Note that the auxiliary port is essentially the same as the main port except inputs and outputs are reversed.

RS-232 Configuration

The pin-outs for the RS-232 ports can be found on either A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012), pg 246 or A9 – CMB-41022 (-

C022), pg 250 depending on the CMB option ordered.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 50

Configure your PC for 8-bit data, one start-bit, one stop-bit, full duplex and no parity. The baud rate for the RS232 communication can be selected by setting the proper switch configuration on the front panel according to the table below.

Baud Rate Selection

JP1 JUMPER SETTINGS

19.2

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

38.4

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

BAUD RATE

9600

19200

38400

115200

Handshaking

The RS232 main port is set for hardware handshaking. Hardware Handshaking uses the RTS and CTS lines. The CTS line will go high whenever the DMC-40x0 is not ready to receive additional characters. The RTS line will inhibit the

DMC-40x0 from sending additional characters. Note, the RTS line goes high for inhibit.

Auxiliary RS-232 Port Configuration

The main purpose of the auxiliary RS232 port is to connect to external devices that cannot use DMC code to communicate. It is important to note that the Aux port is not an interpreted port and cannot receive DMC Galil commands directly. Instead, use CI, #COMINT, and the P2 operands to handle received data on this port.

NOTE: If you are connecting the RS-232 auxiliary port to a terminal or any device which is a DATASET, it is necessary to use a connector adapter, which changes a dataset to a dataterm. This cable is also known as a 'null' modem cable.

CC Command

The CC, or Configure Communications command, configures the auxiliary ports properties including: Baud rate, handshaking, enable/disabled port, and echo. See the CC command in the Command Reference for a full description and command syntax.

If the CC command is configured for hardware handshaking it is required to use the RTS and CTS lines. The RTS line will go high whenever the DMC is not ready to receive additional characters. The CTS line will inhibit the DMC from sending additional characters. Note, the CTS line goes high for inhibit.

RS-422 Configuration

The DMC-40x0 can be ordered with the main and/or auxiliary port configured for RS-422 communication. RS-422 communication is a differentially driven serial communication protocol that should be used when long distance serial communication is required in an application.

See RS-422 – Serial Port Serial Communication, pg 184 for pin-outs and details of the RS-422 options.

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 51 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Ethernet Configuration

Communication Protocols

The Ethernet is a local area network through which information is transferred in units known as packets.

Communication protocols are necessary to dictate how these packets are sent and received. The DMC-40x0 supports two industry standard protocols, TCP/IP and UDP/IP. The controller will automatically respond in the format in which it is contacted.

TCP/IP is a "connection" protocol. The master, or client, connects to the slave, or server, through a series of packet handshakes in order to begin communicating. Each packet sent is acknowledged when received. If no acknowledgment is received, the information is assumed lost and is resent.

Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP does not require a "connection". If information is lost, the controller does not return a colon or question mark. Because UDP does not provide for lost information, the sender must re-send the packet.

It is recommended that the motion control network containing the controller and any other related devices be placed on a “closed” network. If this recommendation is followed, UDP/IP communication to the controller may be utilized instead of a TCP connection. With UDP there is less overhead, resulting in higher throughput. Also, there is no need to reconnect to the controller with a UDP connection. Because handshaking is built into the Galil communication protocol through the use of colon or question mark responses to commands sent to the controller, the TCP handshaking is not required.

Packets must be limited to 512 data bytes (including UDP/TCP IP Header) or less. Larger packets could cause the controller to lose communication.

NOTE: In order not to lose information in transit, the user must wait for the controller's response before sending the next packet.

Addressing

There are three levels of addresses that define Ethernet devices. The first is the MAC or hardware address. This is a unique and permanent 6 byte number. No other device will have the same MAC address. The DMC-40x0 MAC address is set by the factory and the last two bytes of the address are the serial number of the board. To find the

Ethernet MAC address for a DMC-40x0 unit, use the TH command. A sample is shown here with a unit that has a serial number of 3:

Sample MAC Ethernet Address: 00-50-4C-20-04-AF

The second level of addressing is the IP address. This is a 32-bit (or 4 byte) number that usually looks like this:

192.168.15.1. The IP address is constrained by each local network and must be assigned locally. Assigning an IP address to the DMC-40x0 controller can be done in a number of ways.

The first method for setting the IP address is using a DHCP server. The DH command controls whether the DMC-

40x0 controller will get an IP address from the DHCP server. If the unit is set to DH1 (default) and there is a DHCP server on the network, the controller will be dynamically assigned an IP address from the server. Setting the board to DH0 will prevent the controller from being assigned an IP address from the server.

The second method to assign an IP address is to use the BOOT-P utility via the Ethernet connection. The BOOT-P functionality is only enabled when DH is set to 0. Either a BOOT-P server on the internal network or the Galil software may be used. When opening the Galil Software, it will respond with a list of all DMC-40x0’s and other controllers on the network that do not currently have IP addresses. The user must select the board and the software will assign the specified IP address to it. This address will be burned into the controller (BN) internally to save the IP address to the non-volatile memory.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 52

NOTE: if multiple boards are on the network – use the serial numbers to differentiate them.

CAUTION

Be sure that there is only one BOOT-P or DHCP server running. If your network has DHCP or BOOT-P running, it may automatically assign an IP address to the DMC-40x0 controller upon linking it to the network. In order to ensure that the IP address is correct, please contact your system administrator before connecting the I/O board to the Ethernet network.

The third method for setting an IP address is to send the IA command through the RS-232 port. (Note: The IA command is only valid if DH0 is set). The IP address may be entered as a 4 byte number delimited by commas

(industry standard uses periods) or a signed 32 bit number (e.g. IA 124,51,29,31 or IA 2083724575). Type in BN to save the IP address to the DMC-40x0 non-volatile memory.

NOTE: Galil strongly recommends that the IP address selected is not one that can be accessed across the Gateway.

The Gateway is an application that controls communication between an internal network and the outside world.

The third level of Ethernet addressing is the UDP or TCP port number. The Galil board does not require a specific port number. The port number is established by the client or master each time it connects to the DMC-40x0 board.

Typical port numbers for applications are:

Port 23: Telnet

Port 502: Modbus

Communicating with Multiple Devices

The DMC-40x0 is capable of supporting multiple masters and slaves. The masters may be multiple PC's that send commands to the controller. The slaves are typically peripheral I/O devices that receive commands from the controller.

NOTE: The term "Master" is equivalent to the internet "client". The term "Slave" is equivalent to the internet

"server".

An Ethernet handle is a communication resource within a device. The DMC-40x0 can have a maximum of 8

Ethernet handles open at any time. When using TCP/IP, each master or slave uses an individual Ethernet handle. In

UDP/IP, one handle may be used for all the masters, but each slave uses one. (Pings and ARPs do not occupy handles.) If all 8 handles are in use and a 9 th master tries to connect, it will be sent a "reset packet" that generates the appropriate error in its windows application.

NOTE: There are a number of ways to reset the controller. Hardware reset (push reset button or power down controller) and software resets (through Ethernet or RS232 by entering RS).

When the Galil controller acts as the master, the IH command is used to assign handles and connect to its slaves.

The IP address may be entered as a 4 byte number separated with commas (industry standard uses periods) or as a signed 32 bit number. A port number may also be specified, but if it is not, it will default to 1000. The protocol

(TCP/IP or UDP/IP) to use must also be designated at this time. Otherwise, the controller will not connect to the slave. (Ex. IHB=151,25,255,9<179>2 This will open handle #2 and connect to the IP address 151.25.255.9, port

179, using TCP/IP)

Which devices receive what information from the controller depends on a number of things. If a device queries the controller, it will receive the response unless it explicitly tells the controller to send it to another device. If the command that generates a response is part of a downloaded program, the response will route to whichever port is specified as the default (unless explicitly told to go to another port with the CF command). To designate a specific destination for the information, add {Eh} to the end of the command. (Ex. MG{EC}"Hello" will send the message

"Hello" to handle #3. TP,,?{EF} will send the z axis position to handle #6.)

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 53 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Multicasting

A multicast may only be used in UDP/IP and is similar to a broadcast (where everyone on the network gets the information) but specific to a group. In other words, all devices within a specified group will receive the information that is sent in a multicast. There can be many multicast groups on a network and are differentiated by their multicast IP address. To communicate with all the devices in a specific multicast group, the information can be sent to the multicast IP address rather than to each individual device IP address. All Galil controllers belong to a default multicast address of 239.255.19.56. The controller's multicast IP address can be changed by using the IA> u command.

Using Third Party Software

Galil supports DHCP, ARP, BOOT-P, and Ping which are utilities for establishing Ethernet connections. DHCP is a protocol used by networked devices (clients) to obtain the parameters necessary for operation in an Internet

Protocol network. ARP is an application that determines the Ethernet (hardware) address of a device at a specific

IP address. BOOT-P is an application that determines which devices on the network do not have an IP address and assigns the IP address you have chosen to it. Ping is used to check the communication between the device at a specific IP address and the host computer.

The DMC-40x0 can communicate with a host computer through any application that can send TCP/IP or UDP/IP packets. A good example of this is Telnet, a utility that comes with most Windows systems.

Modbus

An additional protocol layer is available for speaking to I/O devices. Modbus is an RS-485 protocol that packages information in binary packets that are sent as part of a TCP/IP packet. In this protocol, each slave has a 1 byte slave address. The DMC-40x0 can use a specific slave address or default to the handle number. The port number for

Modbus is 502.

The Modbus protocol has a set of commands called function codes. The DMC-40x0 supports the 10 major function codes:

Function Code Definition

01 Read Coil Status (Read Bits)

02

03

Read Input Status (Read Bits)

Read Holding Registers (Read Words)

04

05

06

07

Read Input Registers (Read Words)

Force Single Coil (Write One Bit)

Preset Single Register (Write One Word)

Read Exception Status (Read Error Code)

15

16

17

Force Multiple Coils (Write Multiple Bits)

Preset Multiple Registers (Write Words)

Report Slave ID

The DMC-40x0 provides three levels of Modbus communication. The first level allows the user to create a raw packet and receive raw data. It uses the MBh command with a function code of –1. The format of the command is

MBh = -1,len,array[] where len is the number of bytes array[] is the array with the data

The second level incorporates the Modbus structure. This is necessary for sending configuration and special commands to an I/O device. The formats vary depending on the function code that is called. For more information refer to the Command Reference.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 54

The third level of Modbus communication uses standard Galil commands. Once the slave has been configured, the commands that may be used are @IN[], @AN[], SB, CB, OB, and AO. For example, AO 2020,8.2 would tell I/O number 2020 to output 8.2 volts.

If a specific slave address is not necessary, the I/O number to be used can be calculated with the following:

I/O Number = (HandleNum*1000) + ((Module-1)*4) + (BitNum-1)

Where HandleNum is the handle number from 1 (A) to 8 (H). Module is the position of the module in the rack from

1 to 16. BitNum is the I/O point in the module from 1 to 4.

Modbus Examples

Example #1

DMC-4040 connected as a Modbus master to a RIO-47120 via Modbus. The DMC-4040 will set or clear all 16 of the

RIO’s digital outputs

1. Begin by opening a connection to the RIO which in our example has IP address 192.168.1.120

IHB=192,168,1,120<502>2

(Issued to DMC-4040)

2. Dimension an array to store the commanded values. Set array element 0 equal to 170 and array element 1 equal to 85. (array element 1 configures digital outputs 15-8 and array element 0 configures digital outputs 7-0)

DM myarray[2] myarray[0] = 170 myarray[1] = 85

(which is 10101010 in binary)

(which is 01010101in binary)

3. a) Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 15. Start at output 0 and set/clear all 16 outputs based on the data in myarray[]

MBB=,15,0,16,myarray[]

3. b) Set the outputs using the SB command.

SB2001;SB2003;SB2005;SB2007;SB2008;SB2010;SB2012;SB2014;

Results:

Both steps 3a and 3b will result in outputs being activated as below. The only difference being that step 3a will set and clear all 16 bits where as step 3b will only set the specified bits and will have no affect on the others.

Bit Number

2

3

0

1

6

7

4

5

Status

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Bit Number

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Status

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 55 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example #2

DMC-4040 connected as a Modbus master to a 3rd party PLC. The DMC-4040 will read the value of analog inputs 3 and 4 on the PLC located at addresses 40006 and 40008 respectively. The PLC stores values as 32-bit floating point numbers which is common.

1. Begin by opening a connection to the PLC which has an IP address of 192.168.1.10 in our example

IHB=192,168,1,10<502>2

2. Dimension an array to store the results

DM myanalog[4]

3. Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 4 (as specified per the PLC). Start at address

40006. Retrieve 4 modbus registers (2 modbus registers per 1 analog input, as specified by the PLC)

MBB=,4,40006,4,myanalog[]

Results:

Array elements 0 and 1 will make up the 32 bit floating point value for analog input 3 on the PLC and array elements 2 and 3 will combine for the value of analog input 4.

myanalog[0]=16412=0x401C myanalog[1]=52429=0xCCCD myanalog[2]=49347=0xC0C3 myanalog[3]=13107=0x3333

Analog input 3 = 0x401CCCCD = 2.45V

Analog input 4 = 0xC0C33333 = -6.1V

Example #3

DMC-4040 connected as a Modbus master to a hydraulic pump. The DMC-4040 will set the pump pressure by writing to an analog output on the pump located at Modbus address 30000 and consisting of 2 Modbus registers forming a 32 bit floating point value.

1. Begin by opening a connection to the pump which has an IP address of 192.168.1.100 in our example

IHB=192,168,1,100<502>2

2. Dimension and fill an array with values that will be written to the PLC

DM pump[2] pump[0]=16531=0x4093 pump[1]=13107=0x3333

3. Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 16. Start at address 30000 and write to 2 registers using the data in the array pump[]

MBB=,16,30000,2,pump[]

Results:

Analog output will be set to 0x40933333 which is 4.6V

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 56

ADDR

00

01

20

21

22

16

17

18

19

23

24

25

26-27

28-29

10

11

12

13

14

15

02

03

04-05

06

07

08

09

Data Record

The DMC-40x0 can provide a binary block of status information with the use of the QR and DR commands. These commands, along with the QZ command can be very useful for accessing complete controller status. The QR command will return 4 bytes of header information and specific blocks of information as specified by the command arguments:

QR ABCDEFGHST

Each argument corresponds to a block of information according to the Data Record Map below. If no argument is given, the entire data record map will be returned. Note that the data record size will depend on the number of axes.

Data Record Map Key

Acronym

UB

UW

SW

SL

UL

Meaning

Unsigned byte

Unsigned word

Signed word

Single long record

Unsigned long

General Controller Information and Status

TYPE ITEM

UB

UB

1

2 st nd

Byte of Header

Byte of Header

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

SW

SW

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UB

UW

UB

UB

UB

UB

3

4 rd th

Byte of Header

Byte of Header sample number general input block 0 (inputs 1-8) general input block 1 (inputs 9-16) general input block 2 (inputs 17-24) general input block 3 (inputs 25-32) general input block 4 (inputs 33-40) general input block 5 (inputs 41-48) general input block 6 (inputs 49-56) general input block 7 (inputs 57-64) general input block 8 (inputs 65-72) general input block 9 (inputs 73-80) general output block 0 (outputs 1-8) general output block 1 (outputs 9-16) general output block 2 (outputs 17-24) general output block 3 (outputs 25-32) general output block 4 (outputs 33-40) general output block 5 (outputs 41-48) general output block 6 (outputs 49-56) general output block 7 (outputs 57-64) general output block 8 (outputs 65-72) general output block 9 (outputs 73-80)

Reserved

Reserved

ADDR

30-31

32-33

51

52-55

56-59

60-61

62-63

64-65

66-69

70-71

72-73

74-75

76-79

80-81

45

46

47

48

49

50

34-35

36-37

38-39

40-41

42

43

44

TYPE ITEM

SW Reserved

SW Reserved

SW Reserved

SW Reserved

SW Reserved

SW Reserved

UB Ethernet Handle A Status

UB Ethernet Handle B Status

UB Ethernet Handle C Status

UB Ethernet Handle D Status

UB Ethernet Handle E Status

UB Ethernet Handle F Status

UB Ethernet Handle G Status

UB Ethernet Handle H Status

UB error code

UB thread status – see bit field map below

UL Amplifier Status

UL Segment Count for Contour Mode

UW Buffer space remaining – Contour Mode

UW segment count of coordinated move for S plane

UW coordinated move status for S plane – see bit field map

SL distance traveled in coordinated move for S plane

UW Buffer space remaining – S Plane

UW segment count of coordinated move for T plane

UW Coordinated move status for T plane – see bit field map

SL distance traveled in coordinated move for T plane

UW Buffer space remaining – T Plane

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 57 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ADDR

82-83

84

UW

UB

85

86-89

90-93

94-97

98-101 SL

102-105 SL

UB

SL

SL

SL

TYPE

106-109 SL

110-111 SW or UW

112

113

UB

UB

114-117 SL

118-119 UW

120 UB

1

121 UB

122-125 SL

126-129 SL

130-133 SL

134-137 SL

138-141 SL

142-145 SL

146-147 SW or UW

148

149

UB

UB

150-153 SL

154-155 UW

156 UB

157 UB

158-161 SL

162-165 SL

166-169 SL

170-173 SL

174-177 SL

178-181 SL

1

182-183 SW or UW

184

185

UB

UB

186-189 SL

190-191 UW

192

193

UB

UB

1

194-197 SL

198-201 SL

202-205 SL

206-209 SL

210-213 SL

214-217 SL

218-219 SW or UW

220

221

UB

UB

222-225 SL

1

ITEM

Axis Information

ADDR

A axis status – see bit field map below 226-227

A axis switches – see bit field map below 228

A axis stop code

A axis reference position

A axis motor position

A axis position error

A axis auxiliary position

A axis velocity

229

230-233

234-237

238-241

242-245

246-249

A axis torque

A axis analog input

A Hall Input Status

Reserved

A User defined variable (ZA)

B axis status – see bit field map below

B axis switches – see bit field map below 264

250-253

254-255

256

257

258-261

262-263

B axis stop code

B axis reference position

B axis motor position

B axis position error

B axis auxiliary position

B axis velocity

B axis torque

265

266-269

270-273

274-277

278-281

282-285

286-289

B axis analog input

B Hall Input Status

Reserved

B User defined variable (ZB)

290-291

292

293

294-297

C axis status – see bit field map below 298-299

C axis switches – see bit field map below 300

C axis stop code

C axis reference position

C axis motor position

C axis position error

C axis auxiliary position

C axis velocity

C axis torque

301

302-305

306-309

310-313

314-317

318-321

322-325

C axis analog input

C Hall Input Status

Reserved

C User defined variable (ZC)

326-327

328

329

330-333

D axis status – see bit field map below 334-335

D axis switches – see bit field map below 336

D axis stop code 337

D axis reference position

D axis motor position

D axis position error

D axis auxiliary position

D axis velocity

D axis torque

D axis analog input

D Hall Input Status

Reserved

D User defined variable (ZD)

338-341

342-345

346-349

350-353

354-357

358-361

362-363

364

365

366-369

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SW or UW 1

UB

UB

SL

UW

UB

UB

SW or UW 1

UB

UB

SL

SL

SL

SL

UB

SL

SL

SL

SW or UW 1

UB

UB

SL

UW

UB

TYPE

UW

UB

UB

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

SL

UB

SL

SL

SL

SL

SW or UW 1

UB

UB

SL

UW

UB

ITEM

E axis status – see bit field map below

E axis switches – see bit field map below

E axis stop code

E axis reference position

E axis motor position

E axis position error

E axis auxiliary position

E axis velocity

E axis torque

E axis analog input

E Hall Input Status

Reserved

E User defined variable (ZE)

F axis status – see bit field map below

F axis switches – see bit field map below

F axis stop code

F axis reference position

F axis motor position

F axis position error

F axis auxiliary position

F axis velocity

F axis torque

F axis analog input

F Hall Input Status

Reserved

F User defined variable (ZF)

G axis status – see bit field map below

G axis switches – see bit field map below

G axis stop code

G axis reference position

G axis motor position

G axis position error

G axis auxiliary position

G axis velocity

G axis torque

G axis analog input

G Hall Input Status

Reserved

G User defined variable (ZG)

H axis status – see bit field map below

H axis switches – see bit field map below

H axis stop code

H axis reference position

H axis motor position

H axis position error

H axis auxiliary position

H axis velocity

H axis torque

H axis analog input

H Hall Input Status

Reserved

H User defined variable (ZH)

1

Will be either a Signed Word or Unsigned Word depending upon AQ setting. See AQ in the Command Reference for more information.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 58

Data Record Bit Field Maps

Header Information - Byte 0, 1 of Header:

BIT 15 BIT 14 BIT 13 BIT 12

1

BIT 7

H Block Present in Data Record

N/A

BIT 6

G Block Present in Data Record

N/A

BIT 5

F Block Present in Data Record

N/A

BIT 4

E Block Present in Data Record

BIT 11

N/A

BIT 3

D Block Present in Data Record

BIT 10

I Block Present in Data Record

BIT 2

C Block Present in Data Record

BIT 9

T Block Present in Data Record

BIT 1

B Block Present in Data Record

BIT 8

S Block Present in Data Record

BIT 0

A Block Present in Data Record

Bytes 2, 3 of Header:

Bytes 2 and 3 make a word which represents the Number of bytes in the data record, including the header.

Byte 2 is the low byte and byte 3 is the high byte

NOTE: The header information of the data records is formatted in little endian (reversed network byte order).

Thread Status (1 Byte)

BIT 7

Thread 7

Running

BIT 6

Thread 6

Running

BIT 5

Thread 5

Running

BIT 4

Thread 4

Running

BIT 3

Thread 3

Running

BIT 2

Thread 2

Running

BIT 1

Thread 1

Running

BIT 0

Thread 0

Running

Coordinated Motion Status for S or T Plane (2 Byte)

BIT 15 BIT 14 BIT 13 BIT 12 BIT 11

Move in

Progress

N/A N/A N/A N/A

BIT 10

N/A

BIT 9

N/A

BIT 8

N/A

BIT 7

N/A

BIT 6

N/A

BIT 5

Motion is slewing

BIT 4

Motion is stopping due to

ST or Limit

Switch

BIT 3

Motion is making final deceleration

BIT 2

N/A

BIT 1

N/A

BIT 0

N/A

Axis Status (1 Word)

BIT 15

Move in

Progress

BIT 14 BIT 13 BIT 12

Mode of

Motion PA or PR

Mode of

Motion PA only

(FE) Find Edge in Progress

BIT 11

Home (HM) in

Progress

BIT 10

1 st Phase of HM complete

BIT 9

2 nd Phase of HM complete or FI command issued

BIT 8

Mode of

Motion Coord.

Motion

BIT 7

Negative

Direction Move

BIT 6

Mode of

Motion

Contour

BIT 5

Motion is slewing

BIT 4

Motion is stopping due to

ST of Limit

Switch

BIT 3

Motion is making final deceleration

BIT 2 BIT 1

Latch is armed

3rd Phase of

HM in Progress

BIT 0

Motor Off

Axis Switches (1 Byte)

BIT 7 BIT 6 BIT 5

N/A

BIT 4

N/A

BIT 3

State of

Forward Limit

BIT 2

State of Reverse

Limit

BIT 1

State of Home

Input

BIT 0

Stepper Mode

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 59 DMC-40x0 User Manual

BIT 31

N/A

Amplifier Status (4 Bytes)

BIT 30 BIT 29

N/A N/A

BIT 28

N/A

BIT 27

N/A

BIT 26

N/A

BIT 25

ELO Active

(Axis E-H)

BIT 24

ELO Active

(Axis A-D)

BIT 23

Peak Current

H-axis

BIT 22

Peak Current

G-axis

BIT 21

Peak Current

F-axis

BIT 20

Peak Current

E-axis

BIT 19

Peak Current

D-axis

BIT 18

Peak Current

C-axis

BIT 17

Peak Current

B-axis

BIT 16

Peak current

A-axis

BIT 15

Hall Error

H-axis

BIT 14

Hall Error

G-axis

BIT 13

Hall Error

F-axis

BIT 12

Hall Error

E-axis

BIT 11

Hall Error

D-axis

BIT 10

Hall Error

C-axis

BIT 9

Hall Error

B-axis

BIT 8

Hall Error

A-axis

BIT 7

Under Voltage

Axis (E-H)

BIT 6

Over Temp.

Axis (E-H)

BIT 5

Over Voltage

Axis (E-H)

BIT 4

Over Current

Axis (E-H)

BIT 3

Under Voltage

Axis (A-D)

BIT 2

Over Temp.

Axis (A-D)

BIT 1

Over Voltage

Axis (A-D)

BIT 0

Over Current

Axis (A-D)

Notes Regarding Velocity and Torque Information

The velocity information that is returned in the data record is 64 times larger than the value returned when using the command TV (Tell Velocity). See command reference for more information about TV.

The Torque information is represented as a number in the range of ±32767. Maximum negative torque is -32767.

Maximum positive torque is 32767. Zero torque is 0.

QZ Command

The QZ command can be very useful when using the QR command, since it provides information about the controller and the data record. The QZ command returns the following 4 bytes of information.

BYTE # INFORMATION

0 Number of axes present

1 number of bytes in general block of data record

2

3 number of bytes in coordinate plane block of data record

Number of Bytes in each axis block of data record

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 60

GalilSuite (Windows and Linux)

GalilSuite is Galil's latest set of development tools for the latest generation of Galil controllers. It is highly recommended for all first-time purchases of Galil controllers as it provides easy set-up, tuning and analysis.

GalilSuite replaces GalilToolS with an improved user-interface, real-time scopes, advanced tuning methods, and communications utilities.

Supported Controllers

DMC40x0

DMC41x3

DMC30010

DMC21x3/2

RIO47xxx

DMC18x6 - PCI Driver required, separate installer

DMC18x0 - PCI Driver required, separate installer

DMC18x2* - PCI Driver required, separate installer

Contact Galil for other hardware products

Supported Operating Systems**

Microsoft Windows 8

Microsoft Windows 7

Microsoft Windows XP SP3

Scope, Watch, and Viewer support require an Ethernet or PCI connection and controller firmware supporting the DR command

* No Scope, Watch, or Viewer support.

** Contact Galil for other OS options.

The GalilSuitecontains the following tools:

Tool

Launcher

Terminal

Editor

Viewer

Scope

Watch

Tuner

Configuration

The latest version of GalilSuite can be downloaded here: http://www.galilmc.com/support/software-downloads.php

For information on using GalilSuite see the user manual: http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php

Description

Launcher Tool with the ability to create custom profiles to manage controller connections

For sending and receiving Galil commands

To easily create and work on multiple Galil programs simultaneously

To see a complete status of all controllers on a single screen

For viewing and manipulating data for multiple controllers real-time

For simplified debugging of any controller on the system and a display of I/O and motion status

With up to four methods for automatic and manual PID tuning of servo systems

For modifying controller settings, backup/restore and firmware download

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 61 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Creating Custom Software Interfaces

Galil provides programming tools so that users can develop their own custom software interfaces to a Galil controller. For new applications, Galil recommends the GalilTools Communication Libraries.

HelloGalil – Quick Start to PC programming

For programmers developing Windows applications that communicate with a Galil controller, the HelloGalil library of quick start projects immediately gets you communicating with the controller from the programming language of your choice. In the "Hello World" tradition, each project contains the bare minimum code to demonstrate

communication to the controller and simply prints the controller's model and serial numbers to the screen Figure

4.1.

Figure 4.1: Sample program output

http://www.galilmc.com/support/hello_galil.html

Galil Communication Libraries

The Galil Communication Library (Galil class) provides methods for communication with a Galil motion controller over Ethernet, RS-232 or PCI buses. It consists of a native C++ Library and a similar COM interface which extends compatibility to Windows programming languages (e.g. VB, C#, etc).

A Galil object (usually referred to in sample code as "g") represents a single connection to a Galil controller.

For Ethernet controllers, which support more than one connection, multiple objects may be used to communicate with the controller. An example of multiple objects is one Galil object containing a TCP handle to a DMC-40x0 for commands and responses, and one Galil object containing a UDP handle for unsolicited messages from the controller. If recordsStart() is used to begin the automatic data record function, the library will open an additional

UDP handle to the controller (transparent to the user).

The library is conceptually divided into six categories:

1. Connecting and Disconnecting - functions to establish and discontinue communication with a controller.

2. Basic Communication - The most heavily used functions for command-and-response and unsolicited messages.

3. Programs - Downloading and uploading embedded programs.

4. Arrays - Downloading and uploading array data.

5. Advanced - Lesser-used calls.

6. Data Record - Access to the data record in both synchronous and asynchronous modes.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 62

C++ Library (Windows and Linux)

Both Full and Lite versions of GalilTools ship with a native C++ communication library. The Linux version (libGalil.so) is compatible with g++ and the Windows version (Galil1.dll) with Visual C++ 2008. Contact Galil if another version of the C++ library is required. See the getting started guide and the hello.cpp example in /lib.

COM (Windows)

To further extend the language compatibility on Windows, a COM (Component Object Model) class built on top of the C++ library is also provided with Windows releases. This COM wrapper can be used in any language and IDE supporting COM (Visual Studio 2005, 2008, etc). The COM wrapper includes all of the functionality of the base C++ class. See the getting started guide and the hello.* examples in \lib for more info.

For more information on the GalilTools Communications Library, see the online user manual.

http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/galiltools/library.html

Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 63 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 5 Command Basics

Introduction

The DMC-40x0 provides over 100 commands for specifying motion and machine parameters. Commands are included to initiate action, interrogate status and configure the digital filter. These commands are sent in ASCII.

The DMC-40x0 instruction set is BASIC-like and easy to use. Instructions consist of two uppercase letters that correspond phonetically with the appropriate function. For example, the instruction BG begins motion, and ST stops the motion.

Commands can be sent "live" over the communications port for immediate execution by the DMC-40x0, or an entire group of commands can be downloaded into the DMC-40x0 memory for execution at a later time.

Combining commands into groups for later execution is referred to as Applications Programming and is discussed in the following chapter.

This section describes the DMC-40x0 instruction set and syntax. A summary of commands as well as a complete listing of all DMC-40x0 instructions is included in the Command Reference.

Command Syntax - ASCII

DMC-40x0 instructions are represented by two ASCII upper case characters followed by applicable arguments. A space may be inserted between the instruction and arguments. A semicolon or <return> is used to terminate the instruction for processing by the DMC-40x0 command interpreter.

NOTE: If you are using a Galil terminal program, commands will not be processed until an <return> command is given. This allows the user to separate many commands on a single line and not begin execution until the user gives the <return> command.

NOTE

All DMC commands are two-letters sent in upper case!

For example, the command

PR 4000 <return> Position relative

Implicit Notation

PR is the two character instruction for position relative. 4000 is the argument which represents the required position value in counts. The <return> terminates the instruction. The space between PR and 4000 is optional.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 64

For specifying data for the A,B,C and D axes, commas are used to separate the axes. If no data is specified for an axis, a comma is still needed as shown in the examples below. If no data is specified for an axis, the previous value is maintained.

To view the current values for each command, type the command followed by a ? for each axis requested.

PR 1000

PR ,2000

PR ,,3000

PR ,,,4000

PR 2000, 4000,6000, 8000

PR ,8000,,9000

PR ?,?,?,?

PR ,?

Specify A only as 1000

Specify B only as 2000

Specify C only as 3000

Specify D only as 4000

Specify A,B,C and D

Specify B and D only

Request A,B,C,D values

Request B value only

Explicit Notation

The DMC-40x0 provides an alternative method for specifying data. Here data is specified individually using a single axis specifier such as A, B, C or D. An equals sign is used to assign data to that axis. For example:

PRA=1000

ACB=200000

Specify a position relative movement for the A axis of 1000

Specify acceleration for the B axis as 200000

Instead of data, some commands request action to occur on an axis or group of axes. For example, ST AB stops motion on both the A and B axes. Commas are not required in this case since the particular axis is specified by the appropriate letter A, B, C or D. If no parameters follow the instruction, action will take place on all axes. Here are some examples of syntax for requesting action:

BG A

BG B

BG ABCD

BG BD

BG

Begin A only

Begin B only

Begin all axes

Begin B and D only

Begin all axes

4080

For controllers with 5 or more axes, the axes are referred to as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. The specifiers X,Y,Z,W and A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably.

BG ABCDEFGH

BG D

Begin all axes

Begin D only

Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis

When requesting action for coordinated motion, the letter S or T is used to specify the coordinated motion. This allows for coordinated motion to be setup for two separate coordinate systems. Refer to the CA command in the

Command Reference for more information on specifying a coordinate system. For example:

BG S

BG TD

Begin coordinated sequence, S

Begin coordinated sequence, T, and D axis

Controller Response to DATA

The DMC-40x0 returns a : for valid commands and a ? for invalid commands.

For example, if the command BG is sent in lower case, the DMC-40x0 will return a ?.

:bg

?

invalid command, lower case

DMC-40x0 returns a ?

When the controller receives an invalid command the user can request the error code. The error code will specify the reason for the invalid command response. To request the error code type the command TC1. For example:

Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 65 DMC-40x0 User Manual

?TC1

1 Unrecognized command

Tell Code command

Returned response

There are many reasons for receiving an invalid command response. The most common reasons are: unrecognized command (such as typographical entry or lower case), command given at improper time (such as during motion), or a command out of range (such as exceeding maximum speed). A complete listing of all codes is listed in the TC command in the Command Reference section.

Interrogating the Controller

Interrogation Commands

The DMC-40x0 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When the command is entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage return and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF), Variable Format (VF) and Leading Zeros

(LZ) command. See Chapter 7 Application Programming and the Command Reference.

Summary of Interrogation Commands

TI

TP

TR

TS

TT

TV

RP

RL

^R^V

SC

TA

TB

TC

TD

TE

Report Command Position

Report Latch

Firmware Revision Information

Stop Code

Tell Amplifier Error

Tell Status

Tell Error Code

Tell Dual Encoder

Tell Error

Tell Input

Tell Position

Trace

Tell Switches

Tell Torque

Tell Velocity

For example, the following example illustrates how to display the current position of the X axis:

TP A

0

TP AB

0,0

Tell position A

Controllers Response

Tell position A and B

Controllers Response

Interrogating Current Commanded Values.

Most commands can be interrogated by using a question mark (?) as the axis specifier. Type the command followed by a ? for each axis requested.

PR ?,?,?,?

PR ,?

Request A,B,C,D values

Request B value only

The controller can also be interrogated with operands.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 66

Operands

Most DMC-40x0 commands have corresponding operands that can be used for interrogation. Operands must be used inside of valid DMC expressions. For example, to display the value of an operand, the user could use the command:

MG ‘operand’ where ‘operand’ is a valid DMC operand

All of the command operands begin with the underscore character (_). For example, the value of the current position on the A axis can be assigned to the variable ‘V’ with the command:

V=_TPA

The Command Reference denotes all commands which have an equivalent operand as "Operand Usage". Also, see

description of operands in Chapter 7 Application Programming.

Command Summary

For a complete command summary, see Command Reference manual.

http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php

Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 67 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 6 Programming Motion

Overview

The DMC-40x0 provides several modes of motion, including independent positioning and jogging, coordinated motion, electronic cam motion, and electronic gearing. Each one of these modes is discussed in the following sections.

The DMC-4010 are single axis controllers and use X-axis motion only. Likewise, the DMC-4020 use X and Y, the

DMC-4030 use X,Y, and Z, and the DMC-4040 use X,Y,Z, and W. The DMC-4050 use A,B,C,D, and E. The DMC-4060 use A,B,C,D,E, and F. The DMC-4070 use A,B,C,D,E,F, and G. The DMC-4080 use the axes A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H.

The example applications described below will help guide you to the appropriate mode of motion.

4080

For controllers with 5 or more axes, the specifiers, ABCDEFGH, are used. XYZ and W may be interchanged with ABCD.

EXAMPLE APPLICATION

Absolute or relative positioning where each axis is independent and follows prescribed velocity profile.

Velocity control where no final endpoint is prescribed. Motion stops on Stop command.

Absolute positioning mode where absolute position targets may be sent to the controller while the axis is in motion.

Motion Path described as incremental position points versus time.

Motion Path described as incremental position, velocity and delta time

2 to 8 axis coordinated motion where path is described by linear segments.

2-D motion path consisting of arc segments and linear segments, such as engraving or quilting.

Third axis must remain tangent to 2-D motion path, such as knife cutting.

Electronic gearing where slave axes are scaled to master axis which can move in both directions.

Master/slave where slave axes must follow a master such as conveyer speed.

MODE OF MOTION

Independent Axis Positioning

Independent Jogging

Position Tracking

Contour Mode

PVT Mode

Linear Interpolation Mode

Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation

Motion

Coordinated motion with Tangent Motion:

Electronic Gearing

Electronic Gearingwith Ramped Gearing

COMMANDS

PA, PR, SP, AC, DC

JG, AC, DC, ST

PA, AC, DC, SP, PT

CM, CD, DT

PV, BT

LM, LI, LE, VS,VR,

VA, VD

VM, VP, CR, VS,VR,

VA, VD, VE

VM, VP, CR, VS,VA,VD,

TN, VE

GA, GD, _GP, GR, GM

(if gantry)

GA, GD, _GP, GR

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 68

Moving along arbitrary profiles or mathematically prescribed profiles such as sine or cosine trajectories.

Teaching or Record and Play Back

Backlash Correction

Following a trajectory based on a master encoder position

Smooth motion while operating in independent axis positioning

Smooth motion while operating in vector or linear interpolation positioning

Smooth motion while operating with stepper motors

Gantry - two axes are coupled by gantry

Contour Mode

Contour Mode with Teach (Record and Play-

Back)

Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)

Electronic Cam

Independent Motion Smoothing

Motion Smoothing

Example - Gantry Mode

CM, CD, DT

CM, CD, DT, RA, RD,

RC

DV

EA, EM, EP, ET, EB,

EG, EQ

IT

IT

Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing): KS

GR, GM

Independent Axis Positioning

In this mode, motion between the specified axes is independent, and each axis follows its own profile. The user specifies the desired absolute position (PA) or relative position (PR), slew speed (SP), acceleration ramp (AC), and deceleration ramp (DC), for each axis. On begin (BG), the DMC-40x0 profiler generates the corresponding trapezoidal or triangular velocity profile and position trajectory. The controller determines a new command position along the trajectory every sample period until the specified profile is complete. Motion is complete when the last position command is sent by the DMC-40x0 profiler. Note: The actual motor motion may not be complete when the profile has been completed, however, the next motion command may be specified.

The Begin (BG) command can be issued for all axes either simultaneously or independently. XYZ or W axis specifiers are required to select the axes for motion. When no axes are specified, this causes motion to begin on all axes.

The speed (SP) and the acceleration (AC) can be changed at any time during motion, however, the deceleration

(DC) and position (PR or PA) cannot be changed until motion is complete. Remember, motion is complete when the profiler is finished, not when the actual motor is in position. The Stop command (ST) can be issued at any time to decelerate the motor to a stop before it reaches its final position.

An incremental position movement (IP) may be specified during motion as long as the additional move is in the same direction. Here, the user specifies the desired position increment, n. The new target is equal to the old target plus the increment, n. Upon receiving the IP command, a revised profile will be generated for motion towards the new end position. The IP command does not require a begin. Note: If the motor is not moving, the IP command is equivalent to the PR and BG command combination.

Command Summary - Independent Axis

COMMAND

PR x,y,z,w

PA x,y,z,w

SP x,y,z,w

AC x,y,z,w

DC x,y,z,w

BG XYZW

ST XYZW

IP x,y,z,w

IT x,y,z,w

AM XYZW

MC XYZW

DESCRIPTION

Specifies relative distance

Specifies absolute position

Specifies slew speed

Specifies acceleration rate

Specifies deceleration rate

Starts motion

Stops motion before end of move

Changes position target

Time constant for independent motion smoothing

Trippoint for profiler complete

Trippoint for “in position”

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 69 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The lower case specifiers (x,y,z,w) represent position values for each axis.

The DMC-40x0 also allows use of single axis specifiers such as PRY=2000

Operand Summary - Independent Axis

OPERAND

_ACx

_DCx

_SPx

_PAx

_PRx

DESCRIPTION

Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’

Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’

Returns the speed for the axis specified by ‘x’

Returns current destination if ‘x’ axis is moving, otherwise returns the current commanded position if in a move.

Returns current incremental distance specified for the ‘x’ axis

Example - Absolute Position Movement

PA 10000,20000

AC 1000000,1000000

DC 1000000,1000000

SP 50000,30000

BG XY

Specify absolute X,Y position

Acceleration for X,Y

Deceleration for X,Y

Speeds for X,Y

Begin motion

Example - Multiple Move Sequence

Required Motion Profiles:

X-Axis 500 counts Position

20000 count/sec Speed

Acceleration

Y-Axis

500000 counts/sec2

1000 counts

10000 count/sec

Z-Axis

500000 counts/sec2

100 counts

5000 counts/sec

500000 counts/sec

Position

Speed

Acceleration

Position

Speed

Acceleration

This example will specify a relative position movement on X, Y and Z axes. The movement on each axis will be

separated by 20 msec. Figure 6.1 shows the velocity profiles for the X,Y and Z axis.

#A

PR 2000,500,100

SP 20000,10000,5000

AC 500000,500000,500000

DC 500000,500000,500000

BG X

WT 20

BG Y

WT 20

BG Z

EN

Begin Program

Specify relative position movement of 2000, 500 and 100 counts for X,Y and Z axes.

Specify speed of 20000, 10000, and 5000 counts / sec

Specify acceleration of 500000 counts / sec

Specify deceleration of 500000 counts / sec 2

2 for all axes

for all axes

Begin motion on the X axis

Wait 20 msec

Begin motion on the Y axis

Wait 20 msec

Begin motion on Z axis

End Program

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 70

VELOCITY

(COUNTS/SEC)

X axis velocity profile

20000

15000

10000

5000

Y axis velocity profile

Z axis velocity profile

TIME (ms)

0 20

40 60

Figure 6.1: Velocity Profiles of XYZ

80

100

Notes on Figure 6.1: The X and Y axis have a ‘trapezoidal’ velocity profile, while the Z axis has a ‘triangular’ velocity

profile. The X and Y axes accelerate to the specified speed, move at this constant speed, and then decelerate such that the final position agrees with the command position, PR. The Z axis accelerates, but before the specified speed is achieved, must begin deceleration such that the axis will stop at the commanded position. All 3 axes have the same acceleration and deceleration rate, hence, the slope of the rising and falling edges of all 3 velocity profiles are the same.

Independent Jogging

The jog mode of motion is very flexible because speed, direction and acceleration can be changed during motion.

The user specifies the jog speed (JG), acceleration (AC), and the deceleration (DC) rate for each axis. The direction of motion is specified by the sign of the JG parameters. When the begin command is given (BG), the motor accelerates up to speed and continues to jog at that speed until a new speed or stop (ST) command is issued. If the jog speed is changed during motion, the controller will make a accelerated (or decelerated) change to the new speed.

An instant change to the motor position can be made with the use of the IP command. Upon receiving this command, the controller commands the motor to a position which is equal to the specified increment plus the current position. This command is useful when trying to synchronize the position of two motors while they are moving.

Note that the controller operates as a closed-loop position controller while in the jog mode. The DMC-40x0 converts the velocity profile into a position trajectory and a new position target is generated every sample period.

This method of control results in precise speed regulation with phase lock accuracy.

Command Summary - Jogging

COMMAND

AC x,y,z,w

BG XYZW

DC x,y,z,w

IP x,y,z,w

DESCRIPTION

Specifies acceleration rate

Begins motion

Specifies deceleration rate

Increments position instantly

IT x,y,z,w

JG

Time constant for independent motion smoothing

± x,y,z,w

Specifies jog speed and direction

ST XYZW Stops motion

Parameters can be set with individual axes specifiers such as JGY=2000 (set jog speed for Y axis to 2000).

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 71 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operand Summary - Independent Axis

OPERAND

_ACx

_DCx

_SPx

_TVx

DESCRIPTION

Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’

Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’

Returns the jog speed for the axis specified by ‘x’

Returns the actual velocity of the axis specified by ‘x’ (averaged over 0.25 sec)

Example - Jog in X only

Jog X motor at 50000 count/s. After X motor is at its jog speed, begin jogging Z in reverse direction at 25000 count/s.

#A

AC 20000,,20000

DC 20000,,20000

JG 50000,,-25000

BG X

AS X

BG Z

EN

Specify X,Z acceleration of 20000 counts / sec

Specify X,Z deceleration of 20000 counts / sec

Specify jog speed and direction for X and Z axis

Begin X motion

Wait until X is at speed

Begin Z motion

Example - Joystick Jogging

The jog speed can also be changed using an analog input such as a joystick. Assume that for a 10 Volt input the speed must be 50000 counts/sec.

#JOY

JG0

BGX

#B

V1 [email protected][1]

VEL=V1*50000/10

JG VEL

JP #B

Label

Set in Jog Mode

Begin motion

Label for loop

Read analog input

Compute speed

Change JG speed

Loop

Position Tracking

The Galil controller may be placed in the position tracking mode to support changing the target of an absolute position move on the fly. New targets may be given in the same direction or the opposite direction of the current position target. The controller will then calculate a new trajectory based upon the new target and the acceleration, deceleration, and speed parameters that have been set. The motion profile in this mode is trapezoidal. There is not a set limit governing the rate at which the end point may be changed, however at the standard TM rate, the controller updates the position information at the rate of 1msec. The controller generates a profiled point every other sample, and linearly interpolates one sample between each profiled point. Some examples of applications that may use this mode are satellite tracking, missile tracking, random pattern polishing of mirrors or lenses, or any application that requires the ability to change the endpoint without completing the previous move.

The PA command is typically used to command an axis or multiple axes to a specific absolute position. For some applications such as tracking an object, the controller must proceed towards a target and have the ability to change the target during the move. In a tracking application, this could occur at any time during the move or at regularly scheduled intervals. For example if a robot was designed to follow a moving object at a specified distance and the path of the object wasn’t known the robot would be required to constantly monitor the motion of the object that it was following. To remain within a specified distance it would also need to constantly update the position target it is moving towards. Galil motion controllers support this type of motion with the position tracking mode. This mode will allow scheduled or random updates to the current position target on the fly. Based on the new target the controller will either continue in the direction it is heading, change the direction it is moving, or decelerate to a stop.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 72

The position tracking mode shouldn’t be confused with the contour mode. The contour mode allows the user to generate custom profiles by updating the reference position at a specific time rate. In this mode, the position can be updated randomly or at a fixed time rate, but the velocity profile will always be trapezoidal with the parameters specified by AC, DC, and SP. Updating the position target at a specific rate will not allow the user to create a custom profile.

The following example will demonstrate the possible different motions that may be commanded by the controller in the position tracking mode. In this example, there is a host program that will generate the absolute position targets. The absolute target is determined based on the current information the host program has gathered on the object that it is tracking. The position tracking mode does allow for all of the axes on the controller to be in this mode, but for the sake of discussion, it is assumed that the robot is tracking only in the X dimension.

The controller must be placed in the position tracking mode to allow on the fly absolute position changes. This is performed with the PT command. To place the X axis in this mode, the host would issue PT1 to the controller if both X and Y axes were desired the command would be PT 1,1. The next step is to begin issuing PA command to the controller. The BG command isn’t required in this mode, the SP, AC, and DC commands determine the shape of the trapezoidal velocity profile that the controller will use.

Example - Motion 1:

The host program determines that the first target for the controller to move to is located at 5000 encoder counts.

The acceleration and deceleration should be set to 150,000 counts/sec2 and the velocity is set to 50,000 counts/sec. The command sequence to perform this is listed below.

#EX1

PT 1;'

AC 150000;'

DC 150000;'

SP 50000;'

PA 5000;'

EN

Place the X axis in Position tracking mode

Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec

Command the X axis to absolute position 5000 encoder counts

The output from this code can be seen in Figure 6.2, a screen capture from the GalilTools scope.

Figure 6.2: Position vs Time (msec) - Motion 1

Example - Motion 2:

The previous step showed the plot if the motion continued all the way to 5000, however partway through the motion, the object that was being tracked changed direction, so the host program determined that the actual

target position should be 2000 counts at that time. Figure 6.2 shows what the position profile would look like if the

move was allowed to complete to 5000 counts. The position was modified when the robot was at a position of

4200 counts (Figure 6.3). Note that the robot actually travels to a distance of almost 5000 counts before it turns

around. This is a function of the deceleration rate set by the DC command. When a direction change is

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 73 DMC-40x0 User Manual

commanded, the controller decelerates at the rate specified by the DC command. The controller then ramps the

velocity in up to the value set with SP in the opposite direction traveling to the new specified absolute position.

Figure 6.3 the velocity profile is triangular because the controller doesn’t have sufficient time to reach the set

speed of 50000 counts/sec before it is commanded to change direction.

The below code is used to simulate this scenario:

#EX2

PT 1;' Place the X axis in Position tracking mode

AC 150000;' Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

DC 150000;' Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

SP 50000;'

PA 5000;'

MF 4200

PA 2000;'

EN

Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec

Command the X axis to abs position 5000 encoder counts

Change end point position to position 2000

Figure 6.3: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 2

Example - Motion 3:

In this motion, the host program commands the controller to begin motion towards position 5000, changes the

target to -2000, and then changes it again to 8000. Figure 6.4 shows the plot of position vs. time and velocity vs.

time. Below is the code that is used to simulate this scenario:

#EX3

PT 1;' Place the X axis in Position tracking mode

AC 150000;' Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

DC 150000;' Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2

SP 50000;' Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec

PA 5000;' Command the X axis to abs position 5000 encoder counts

WT 300

PA -2000;' Change end point position to -2000

WT 200

PA 8000;' Change end point position to 8000

EN

Figure 6.5 demonstrates the use of motion smoothing (IT) on the velocity profile in this mode. The jerk in the

system is also affected by the values set for AC and DC.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 74

Figure 6.4: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 3

Figure 6.5: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 3 with IT 0.1

Note the controller treats the point where the velocity passes through zero as the end of one move, and the beginning of another move. IT is allowed, however it will introduce some time delay.

Trippoints

Most trippoints are valid for use while in the position tracking mode. There are a few exceptions to this; the AM and MC commands may not be used while in this mode. It is recommended that MF, MR, or AP be used, as they involve motion in a specified direction, or the passing of a specific absolute position.

Command Summary – Position Tracking Mode

COMMAND DESCRIPTION

AC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Acceleration settings for the specified axes

AP n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n

Trippoint that holds up program execution until an absolute position has been reached

DC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Deceleration settings for the specified axes

MF n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Trippoint to hold up program execution until n number of counts have passed in the forward direction. Only one axis at a time may be specified.

MR n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Trippoint to hold up program execution until n number of counts have passed in the reverse direction. Only one axis at a time may be specified.

PT n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Command used to enter and exit the Trajectory Modification Mode

PA n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Command Used to specify the absolute position target

SP n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n Speed settings for the specified axes

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 75 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Linear Interpolation Mode

The DMC-40x0 provides a linear interpolation mode for 2 or more axes. In linear interpolation mode, motion between the axes is coordinated to maintain the prescribed vector speed, acceleration, and deceleration along the specified path. The motion path is described in terms of incremental distances for each axis. An unlimited number of incremental segments may be given in a continuous move sequence, making the linear interpolation mode ideal for following a piece-wise linear path. There is no limit to the total move length.

The LM command selects the Linear Interpolation mode and axes for interpolation. For example, LM YZ selects only the Y and Z axes for linear interpolation.

When using the linear interpolation mode, the LM command only needs to be specified once unless the axes for linear interpolation change.

Specifying Linear Segments

The command LI x,y,z,w or LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h specifies the incremental move distance for each axis. This means motion is prescribed with respect to the current axis position. Up to 511 incremental move segments may be given prior to the Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion has begun, additional LI segments may be sent to the controller.

The clear sequence (CS) command can be used to remove LI segments stored in the buffer prior to the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB. The command, ST, causes a decelerated stop. The command, AB, causes an instantaneous stop and aborts the program, and the command AB1 aborts the motion only.

The Linear End (LE) command must be used to specify the end of a linear move sequence. This command tells the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last LI command. If an LE command is not given, an Abort AB1 must be used to abort the motion sequence.

It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough LI segments in the DMC-40x0 sequence buffer to ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional LI segments and no LE command, the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for LI segments that can be sent to the buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and 511 LI segments can be sent. A zero means the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full, additional LI segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.

The instruction _CS returns the segment counter. As the segments are processed, _CS increases, starting at zero.

This function allows the host computer to determine which segment is being processed.

Additional Commands

The commands VS n, VA n, and VD n are used to specify the vector speed, acceleration and deceleration. The DMC-

40x0 computes the vector speed based on the axes specified in the LM mode. For example, LM XYZ designates linear interpolation for the X,Y and Z axes. The vector speed for this example would be computed using the equation:

VS2=XS2+YS2+ZS2, where XS, YS and ZS are the speed of the X,Y and Z axes.

The controller always uses the axis specifications from LM, not LI, to compute the speed.

IT is used to set the S-curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves. The command AV n is the ‘After Vector’ trippoint, which halts program execution until the vector distance of n has been reached.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 76

An Example of Linear Interpolation Motion:

#LMOVE

DP 0,0

LMXY

LI 5000,0

LI 0,5000

LE

VS 4000

BGS

AV 4000

VS 1000

AV 5000

VS 4000

EN label

Define position of X and Y axes to be 0

Define linear mode between X and Y axes.

Specify first linear segment

Specify second linear segment

End linear segments

Specify vector speed

Begin motion sequence

Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 4000 is reached

Change vector speed

Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 5000 is reached

Change vector speed

Program end

In this example, the XY system is required to perform a 90 turn. In order to slow the speed around the corner, we use the AV 4000 trippoint, which slows the speed to 1000 count/s. Once the motors reach the corner, the speed is increased back to 4000 counts / s.

Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment

The instruction VS has an immediate effect and, therefore, must be given at the required time. In some applications, such as CNC, it is necessary to attach various speeds to different motion segments. This can be done by two functions: < n and > m

For example:LI x,y,z,w < n >m

The first command, < n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.

The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment. Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.

Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.

As an example, consider the following program.

#ALT

DP 0,0

LMXY

LI 4000,0 <4000 >1000

LI 1000,1000 < 4000 >1000

LI 0,5000 < 4000 >1000

LE

BGS

EN

Label for alternative program

Define Position of X and Y axis to be 0

Define linear mode between X and Y axes.

Specify first linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000

Specify second linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000

Specify third linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000

End linear segments

Begin motion sequence

Program end

Changing Feed Rate:

The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001. This command takes effect immediately and causes VS to be scaled. VR also applies when the vector speed is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate override. VR does not ratio the accelerations. For example, VR .5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided in half.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 77 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Command Summary - Linear Interpolation

COMMAND

LM xyzw

LM abcdefgh

LM?

LI x,y,z,w < n

LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h < n

VS n

VA n

VD n

VR n

BGS

CS

LE

LE?

AMS

AV n

IT

DESCRIPTION

Specify axes for linear interpolation

(same) controllers with 5 or more axes

Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-40x0 sequence buffer.

Zero means buffer full. 511 means buffer empty.

Specify incremental distances relative to current position, and assign vector speed n.

Specify vector speed

Specify vector acceleration

Specify vector deceleration

Specify the vector speed ratio

Begin Linear Sequence

Clear sequence

Linear End- Required at end of LI command sequence

Returns the length of the vector (resets after 2147483647)

Trippoint for After Sequence complete

Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance, n

S curve smoothing constant for vector moves

Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation

OPERAND

_AV

_CS

_LE

_LM

_VPm

DESCRIPTION

Return distance traveled

Segment counter - returns number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.

Returns length of vector (resets after 2147483647)

Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-40x0 sequence buffer.

Zero means buffer full. 511 means buffer empty.

Return the absolute coordinate of the last data point along the trajectory.

(m=X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G or H)

To illustrate the ability to interrogate the motion status, consider the first motion segment of our example,

#LMOVE, where the X axis moves toward the point X=5000. Suppose that when X=3000, the controller is interrogated using the command ‘MG _AV’. The returned value will be 3000. The value of _CS, _VPX and _VPY will be zero.

Now suppose that the interrogation is repeated at the second segment when Y=2000. The value of _AV at this point is 7000, _CS equals 1, _VPX=5000 and _VPY=0.

Example - Linear Move

Make a coordinated linear move in the ZW plane. Move to coordinates 40000,30000 counts at a vector speed of

100000 counts/sec and vector acceleration of 1000000 counts/sec2.

LM ZW

LI,,40000,30000

LE

VS 100000

VA 1000000

VD 1000000

BGS

Specify axes for linear interpolation

Specify ZW distances

Specify end move

Specify vector speed

Specify vector acceleration

Specify vector deceleration

Begin sequence

Note that the above program specifies the vector speed, VS, and not the actual axis speeds VZ and VW. The axis speeds are determined by the controller from:

VS

VZ

2

VW

2

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 78

The result is shown in Figure 6.6: Linear Interpolation.

30000

27000

POSITION W

3000

0

0

FEEDRATE

4000

POSITION Z

36000 40000

0.5

0.6

TIME (sec)

VELOCITY

Z-AXIS

0 0.1

TIME (sec)

VELOCITY

W-AXIS

Figure 6.6: Linear Interpolation

TIME (sec)

Example - Multiple Moves

This example makes a coordinated linear move in the XY plane. The Arrays VX and VY are used to store 750 incremental distances which are filled by the program #LOAD.

#LOAD

DM VX [750],VY [750]

COUNT=0

N=0

#LOOP

VX [COUNT]=N

VY [COUNT]=N

N=N+10

COUNT=COUNT+1

JP #LOOP,COUNT<750

#A

LM XY

COUNT=0

#LOOP2;JP#LOOP2,_LM=0

JS#C,COUNT=500

LI VX[COUNT],VY[COUNT]

COUNT=COUNT+1

JP #LOOP2,COUNT<750

LE

AMS

MG “DONE”

EN

#C;BGS;EN

Load Program

Define Array

Initialize Counter

Initialize position increment

LOOP

Fill Array VX

Fill Array VY

Increment position

Increment counter

Loop if array not full

Label

Specify linear mode for XY

Initialize array counter

If sequence buffer full, wait

Begin motion on 500 th

Specify linear segment

segment

Increment array counter

Repeat until array done

End Linear Move

After Move sequence done

Send Message

End program

Begin Motion Subroutine

Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion

The DMC-40x0 allows a long 2-D path consisting of linear and arc segments to be prescribed. Motion along the path is continuous at the prescribed vector speed even at transitions between linear and circular segments. The

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 79 DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0 performs all the complex computations of linear and circular interpolation, freeing the host PC from this time intensive task.

The coordinated motion mode is similar to the linear interpolation mode. Any pair of two axes may be selected for coordinated motion consisting of linear and circular segments. In addition, a third axis can be controlled such that it remains tangent to the motion of the selected pair of axes. Note that only one pair of axes can be specified for coordinated motion at any given time.

The command VM m,n,p where ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the coordinated pair and p is the tangent axis (Note: the commas which separate m,n and p are not necessary). For example, VM XWZ selects the XW axes for coordinated motion and the Z-axis as the tangent.

Specifying the Coordinate Plane

The DMC-40x0 allows for 2 separate sets of coordinate axes for linear interpolation mode or vector mode. These two sets are identified by the letters S and T.

To specify vector commands the coordinate plane must first be identified. This is done by issuing the command

CAS to identify the S plane or CAT to identify the T plane. All vector commands will be applied to the active coordinate system until changed with the CA command.

Specifying Vector Segments

The motion segments are described by two commands; VP for linear segments and CR for circular segments. Once a set of linear segments and/or circular segments have been specified, the sequence is ended with the command

VE. This defines a sequence of commands for coordinated motion. Immediately prior to the execution of the first coordinated movement, the controller defines the current position to be zero for all movements in a sequence.

Note: This ‘local’ definition of zero does not affect the absolute coordinate system or subsequent coordinated motion sequences.

The command, VP x,y specifies the coordinates of the end points of the vector movement with respect to the starting point. Non-sequential axis do not require comma delimitation. The command, CR r,q,d define a circular arc with a radius r, starting angle of q, and a traversed angle d. The notation for q is that zero corresponds to the positive horizontal direction, and for both q and d, the counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation is positive.

Up to 511 segments of CR or VP may be specified in a single sequence and must be ended with the command VE.

The motion can be initiated with a Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion starts, additional segments may be added.

The Clear Sequence (CS) command can be used to remove previous VP and CR commands which were stored in the buffer prior to the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB1. ST stops motion at the specified deceleration. AB1 aborts the motion instantaneously.

The Vector End (VE) command must be used to specify the end of the coordinated motion. This command requires the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last motion requirement. If a VE command is not given, an

Abort (AB1) must be used to abort the coordinated motion sequence.

It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough motion segments in the DMC-40x0 sequence buffer to ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional motion segments and no VE command, the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for motion segments that can be sent to the buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and

511 segments can be sent. A zero means the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full, additional segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.

The operand _CS can be used to determine the value of the segment counter.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 80

Additional commands

The commands VS n, VA n and VD n are used for specifying the vector speed, acceleration, and deceleration.

IT is the s curve smoothing constant used with coordinated motion.

Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment:

The vector speed may be specified by the immediate command VS. It can also be attached to a motion segment with the instructions

VP x,y < n >m

CR r, ɵ,δ< n >m

The first command, <n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.

The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment. Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.

Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.

Changing Feed Rate:

The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001. This command takes effect immediately and causes VS scaled. VR also applies when the vector speed is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate override. VR does not ratio the accelerations. For example,

VR 0.5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided by two.

Compensating for Differences in Encoder Resolution:

By default, the DMC-40x0 uses a scale factor of 1:1 for the encoder resolution when used in vector mode. If this is not the case, the command, ES can be used to scale the encoder counts. The ES command accepts two arguments which represent the number of counts for the two encoders used for vector motion. The smaller ratio of the two numbers will be multiplied by the higher resolution encoder. For more information, see ES command in the

Command Reference.

Trippoints:

The AV n command is the After Vector trippoint, which waits for the vector relative distance of n to occur before executing the next command in a program.

Tangent Motion:

Several applications, such as cutting, require a third axis (i.e. a knife blade), to remain tangent to the coordinated motion path. To handle these applications, the DMC-40x0 allows one axis to be specified as the tangent axis. The

VM command provides parameter specifications for describing the coordinated axes and the tangent axis.

VM m,n,p m,n specifies coordinated axes p specifies tangent axis such as X,Y,Z,W p=N turns off tangent axis

Before the tangent mode can operate, it is necessary to assign an axis via the VM command and define its offset and scale factor via the TN m,n command. m defines the scale factor in counts/degree and n defines the tangent position that equals zero degrees in the coordinated motion plane. The operand _TN can be used to return the initial position of the tangent axis.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 81 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example:

Assume an XY table with the Z-axis controlling a knife. The Z-axis has a 2000 quad counts/rev encoder and has been initialized after power-up to point the knife in the +Y direction. A 180° circular cut is desired, with a radius of

3000, center at the origin and a starting point at (3000,0). The motion is CCW, ending at (-3000,0). Note that the

0° position in the XY plane is in the +X direction. This corresponds to the position -500 in the Z-axis, and defines the offset. The motion has two parts. First, X,Y and Z are driven to the starting point, and later, the cut is performed. Assume that the knife is engaged with output bit 0.

#EXAMPLE

VM XYZ

TN 2000/360,-500

CR 3000,0,180

VE

CB0

PA 3000,0,_TN

BG XYZ

AM XYZ

SB0

WT50

BGS

AMS

CB0

MG “ALL DONE”

EN

Example program

XY coordinate with Z as tangent

2000/360 counts/degree, position -500 is 0 degrees in XY plane

3000 count radius, start at 0 and go to 180 CCW

End vector

Disengage knife

Move X and Y to starting position, move Z to initial tangent position

Start the move to get into position

When the move is complete

Engage knife

Wait 50 msec for the knife to engage

Do the circular cut

After the coordinated move is complete

Disengage knife

End program

Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence

COMMAND

VM m,n

VP m,n

DESCRIPTION

Specifies the axes for the planar motion where m and n represent the planar axes and p is the tangent axis.

Return coordinate of last point, where m=X,Y,Z or W.

CR r,ɵ,δ<n>m Specifies arc segment where r is the radius,  is the starting angle and  is the travel angle. Positive direction is CCW.

VS s,t

VA s,t

VD s,t

VR s,t

BGST

CSST

AV s,t

AMST

TN m,n

ES m,n

IT s,t

LM?

CAS or CAT

Specify vector speed or feed rate of sequence.

Specify vector acceleration along the sequence.

Specify vector deceleration along the sequence.

Specify vector speed ratio

Begin motion sequence, S or T

Clear sequence, S or T

Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance.

Holds execution of next command until Motion Sequence is complete.

Tangent scale and offset.

Ellipse scale factor.

S curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves

Return number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-40x0 sequence buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 511 means buffer is empty.

Specifies which coordinate system is to be active (S or T)

Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence

OPERAND

_VPM

_AV

_LM

_CS

_VE

DESCRIPTION

The absolute coordinate of the axes at the last intersection along the sequence.

Distance traveled.

Number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-40x0 sequence buffer.

Zero means buffer is full. 511 means buffer is empty.

Segment counter - Number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.

Vector length of coordinated move sequence.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 82

When AV is used as an operand, _AV returns the distance traveled along the sequence.

The operands _VPX and _VPY can be used to return the coordinates of the last point specified along the path.

Example:

Traverse the path shown in Figure 6.7. Feed rate is 20000 counts/sec. Plane of motion is XY

VM XY

VS 20000

VA 1000000

VD 1000000

VP -4000,0

CR 1500,270,-180

VP 0,3000

CR 1500,90,-180

VE

BGS

Specify motion plane

Specify vector speed

Specify vector acceleration

Specify vector deceleration

Segment AB

Segment BC

Segment CD

Segment DA

End of sequence

Begin Sequence

The resulting motion starts at the point A and moves toward points B, C, D, A. Suppose that we interrogate the controller when the motion is halfway between the points A and B.

The value of _AV is 2000

The value of _CS is 0

_VPX and _VPY contain the absolute coordinate of the point A

Suppose that the interrogation is repeated at a point, halfway between the points C and D.

The value of _AV is 4000+1500+2000=10,712

The value of _CS is 2

_VPX,_VPY contain the coordinates of the point C

C (-4000,3000) D (0,3000)

R = 1500

B (-4000,0)

Figure 6.7: The Required Path

A (0,0)

Vector Mode - Mathematical Analysis

The terms of coordinated motion are best explained in terms of the vector motion. The vector velocity, Vs, which is also known as the feed rate, is the vector sum of the velocities along the X and Y axes, Vx and Vy.

Vs

Vx

2

Vy

2

The vector distance is the integral of Vs, or the total distance traveled along the path. To illustrate this further, suppose that a string was placed along the path in the X-Y plane. The length of that string represents the distance traveled by the vector motion.

The vector velocity is specified independently of the path to allow continuous motion. The path is specified as a collection of segments. For the purpose of specifying the path, define a special X-Y coordinate system whose origin is the starting point of the sequence. Each linear segment is specified by the X-Y coordinate of the final point

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 83 DMC-40x0 User Manual

expressed in units of resolution, and each circular arc is defined by the arc radius, the starting angle, and the angular width of the arc. The zero angle corresponds to the positive direction of the X-axis and the CCW direction of rotation is positive. Angles are expressed in degrees, and the resolution is 1/256th of a degree. For example,

the path shown in Figure A.8 is specified by the instructions:

VP 0,10000

CR 10000, 180, -90

VP 20000, 20000

Y

20000

C D

10000

B

A X

10000

Figure A.8: X-Y Motion Path

20000

The first line describes the straight line vector segment between points A and B. The next segment is a circular arc, which starts at an angle of 180° and traverses -90°. Finally, the third line describes the linear segment between points C and D. Note that the total length of the motion consists of the segments:

A-B

B-C

Linear

Circular

10000 units

R

 

= 15708

360

10000 C-D Linear

Total 35708 counts

In general, the length of each linear segment is

L k

Xk

2

Yk

2

Where Xk and Yk are the changes in X and Y positions along the linear segment. The length of the circular arc is

L k

R k

The total travel distance is given by

D

n

k

1

L k

The velocity profile may be specified independently in terms of the vector velocity and acceleration.

For example, the velocity profile corresponding to the path of Figure A.8 may be specified in terms of the vector

speed and acceleration.

VS 100000

VA 2000000

The resulting vector velocity is shown in Figure A.9.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 84

10000

Velocity

The acceleration time, Ta, is given by

T a

VS

VA

100000

2000000

The slew time, Ts, is given by

s

T a

0.05

T s

0.357

Figure A.9: Vector Velocity Profile

T a time (s)

0.407

T s

D

VS

T a

35708

100000

0

.

05

s

The total motion time, Tt, is given by:

T t

D

  0 407

VS

T a

.

s

The velocities along the X and Y axes are such that the direction of motion follows the specified path, yet the vector velocity fits the vector speed and acceleration requirements.

For example, the velocities along the X and Y axes for the path shown in Figure A.8 are given in Figure A.10.

Figure A.10 shows the vector velocity. It also indicates the position point along the path starting at A and ending at

D. Between the points A and B, the motion is along the Y axis. Therefore,

Vy = Vs and

Vx = 0

Between the points B and C, the velocities vary gradually and finally, between the points C and D, the motion is in the X direction.

B C

A

D

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure A.10: Vector Axes Velocities

time

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Electronic Gearing

This mode allows up to 8 axes to be electronically geared to some master axes. The masters may rotate in both directions and the geared axes will follow at the specified gear ratio. The gear ratio may be different for each axis and changed during motion.

The command GAX yzw or GA ABCDEFGH specifies the master axes. GR x,y,z,w specifies the gear ratios for the slaves where the ratio may be a number between ±127.9999 with a fractional resolution of .0001. There are two modes: standard gearing and gantry mode. The gantry mode (enabled with the command GM) allows the gearing to stay enabled even if a limit is hit or an ST command is issued. GR 0,0,0,0 turns off gearing in both modes.

The command GM x,y,z,w select the axes to be controlled under the gantry mode. The parameter 1 enables gantry mode, and 0 disables it.

GR causes the specified axes to be geared to the actual position of the master. The master axis is commanded with motion commands such as PR, PA or JG.

When the master axis is driven by the controller in the jog mode or an independent motion mode, it is possible to define the master as the command position of that axis, rather than the actual position. The designation of the commanded position master is by the letter, C. For example, GACX indicates that the gearing is the commanded position of X.

An alternative gearing method is to synchronize the slave motor to the commanded vector motion of several axes performed by GAS. For example, if the X and Y motor form a circular motion, the Z axis may move in proportion to the vector move. Similarly, if X,Y and Z perform a linear interpolation move, W can be geared to the vector move.

Electronic gearing allows the geared motor to perform a second independent or coordinated move in addition to the gearing. For example, when a geared motor follows a master at a ratio of 1:1, it may be advanced an additional distance with PR, or JG, commands, or VP, or LI.

Ramped Gearing

In some applications, especially when the master is traveling at high speeds, it is desirable to have the gear ratio ramp gradually to minimize large changes in velocity on the slave axis when the gearing is engaged. For example if the master axis is already traveling at 500,000 counts/sec and the slave will be geared at a ratio of 1:1 when the gearing is engaged, the slave will instantly develop following error, and command maximum current to the motor.

This can be a large shock to the system. For many applications it is acceptable to slowly ramp the engagement of gearing over a greater time frame. Galil allows the user to specify an interval of the master axis over which the gearing will be engaged. For example, the same master X axis in this case travels at 500,000 counts/sec, and the gear ratio is 1:1, but the gearing is slowly engaged over 30,000 counts of the master axis, greatly diminishing the

initial shock to the slave axis. Figure 6.12 below shows the velocity vs. time profile for instantaneous gearing.

Figure 6.14 shows the velocity vs. time profile for the gradual gearing engagement.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 86

Figure 6.11: Velocity counts/sec vs. Time (msec) Instantaneous Gearing Engagement

Figure 6.12: Velocity (counts/sec) vs. Time (msec) Ramped Gearing

The slave axis for each figure is shown on the bottom portion of the figure; the master axis is shown on the top

portion. The shock to the slave axis will be significantly less in Figure 6.14 than in Figure 6.12. The ramped gearing

does have one consequence. There isn’t a true synchronization of the two axes, until the gearing ramp is complete.

The slave will lag behind the true ratio during the ramp period. If exact position synchronization is required from the point gearing is initiated, then the position must be commanded in addition to the gearing. The controller keeps track of this position phase lag with the _GP operand. The following example will demonstrate how the command is used.

Example – Electronic Gearing Over a Specified Interval

Objective Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -.045 times the speed of an external master. Because the master is traveling at high speeds, it is desirable for the speeds to change slowly.

Solution: Use a DMC-4030 controller where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared axes. We will implement the gearing change over 6000 counts (3 revolutions) of the master axis.

MO Z

GA Z, Z

GD 6000,6000

GR 1.132,-.045

Turn Z off, for external master

Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.

Specify ramped gearing over 6000 counts of the master axis.

Specify gear ratios

Question: What is the effect of the ramped gearing?

Answer: Below, in the example titled Electronic Gearing, gearing would take effect immediately. From the start of gearing if the master traveled 6000 counts, the slaves would travel 6792 counts and 270 counts.

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Using the ramped gearing, the slave will engage gearing gradually. Since the gearing is engaged over the interval of

6000 counts of the master, the slave will only travel ~3396 counts and ~135 counts respectively. The difference between these two values is stored in the _GPn operand. If exact position synchronization is required, the IP command is used to adjust for the difference.

Command Summary - Electronic Gearing

COMMAND

GA n

GD a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

_GPn

GR a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

GM a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

MR x,y,z,w

MF x,y,z,w

DESCRIPTION

Specifies master axes for gearing where: n = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master n = CX,CY,CZ, CW or CA, CB,CC,CD,CE,CF,CG,CH for commanded position.

n = DX,DY,DZ or DW or DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF,DG,DH for auxiliary encoders n = S or T for gearing to coordinated motion.

Sets the distance the master will travel for the gearing change to take full effect.

This operand keeps track of the difference between the theoretical distance traveled if gearing changes took effect immediately, and the distance traveled since gearing changes take effect over a specified interval.

Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.

X = 1 sets gantry mode, 0 disables gantry mode

Trippoint for reverse motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.

Trippoint for forward motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.

Example - Simple Master Slave

Master axis moves 10000 counts at slew speed of 100000 counts/sec. Y is defined as the master. X,Z,W are geared to master at ratios of 5,-.5 and 10 respectively.

GA Y,,Y,Y

GR 5,,-.5,10

PR ,10000

SP ,100000

BGY

Specify master axes as Y

Set gear ratios

Specify Y position

Specify Y speed

Begin motion

Example - Electronic Gearing

Objective: Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -0.045 times the speed of an external master. The master is driven at speeds between 0 and 1800 RPM (2000 counts/rev encoder).

Solution: Use a DMC-4030 controller, where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared axes.

MO Z

GA Z, Z

GR 1.132,-.045

Turn Z off, for external master

Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.

Specify gear ratios

Now suppose the gear ratio of the X-axis is to change on-the-fly to 2. This can be achieved by commanding:

GR 2 Specify gear ratio for X axis to be 2

Example - Gantry Mode

In applications where both the master and the follower are controlled by the DMC-40x0 controller, it may be desired to synchronize the follower with the commanded position of the master, rather than the actual position.

This eliminates the coupling between the axes which may lead to oscillations.

For example, assume that a gantry is driven by two axes, X,Y, on both sides. This requires the gantry mode for strong coupling between the motors. The X-axis is the master and the Y-axis is the follower. To synchronize Y with the commanded position of X, use the instructions:

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 88

GA, CX

GR,1

GM,1

PR 3000

BG X

Specify the commanded position of X as master for Y.

Set gear ratio for Y as 1:1

Set gantry mode

Command X motion

Start motion on X axis

You may also perform profiled position corrections in the electronic gearing mode. Suppose, for example, that you need to advance the slave 10 counts. Simply command

IP ,10 Specify an incremental position movement of 10 on Y axis.

Under these conditions, this IP command is equivalent to:

PR,10

BGY

Specify position relative movement of 10 on Y axis

Begin motion on Y axis

Often the correction is quite large. Such requirements are common when synchronizing cutting knives or conveyor belts.

Example - Synchronize two conveyor belts with trapezoidal velocity correction

GA,X

GR,2

PR,300

SP,5000

AC,100000

DC,100000

BGY

Define X as the master axis for Y.

Set gear ratio 2:1 for Y

Specify correction distance

Specify correction speed

Specify correction acceleration

Specify correction deceleration

Start correction

Electronic Cam

The electronic cam is a motion control mode which enables the periodic synchronization of several axes of motion.

Up to 7 axes can be slaved to one master axis. The master axis encoder must be input through a main encoder port.

The electronic cam is a more general type of electronic gearing which allows a table-based relationship between the axes. It allows synchronizing all the controller axes. For example, the DMC-4080 controllers may have one master and up to seven slaves.

To illustrate the procedure of setting the cam mode, consider the cam relationship for the slave axis Y, when the

master is X. Such a graphic relationship is shown in Figure 6.13.

Step 1. Selecting the master axis

The first step in the electronic cam mode is to select the master axis. This is done with the instruction

EAp where p = X,Y,Z,W,E,F,G,H p is the selected master axis

For the given example, since the master is x, we specify EAX

Step 2. Specify the master cycle and the change in the slave axis (or axes).

In the electronic cam mode, the position of the master is always expressed modulo one cycle. In this example, the position of x is always expressed in the range between 0 and 6000. Similarly, the slave position is also redefined such that it starts at zero and ends at 1500. At the end of a cycle when the master is 6000 and the slave is 1500, the positions of both x and y are redefined as zero. To specify the master cycle and the slave cycle change, we use the instruction EM.

EM x,y,z,w

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 89 DMC-40x0 User Manual

where x,y,z,w specify the cycle of the master and the total change of the slaves over one cycle.

The cycle of the master is limited to 8,388,607 whereas the slave change per cycle is limited to 2,147,483,647. If the change is a negative number, the absolute value is specified. For the given example, the cycle of the master is

6000 counts and the change in the slave is 1500. Therefore, we use the instruction:

EM 6000,1500

Step 3. Specify the master interval and starting point.

Next we need to construct the ECAM table. The table is specified at uniform intervals of master positions. Up to

256 intervals are allowed. The size of the master interval and the starting point are specified by the instruction:

EP m,n where m is the interval width in counts, and n is the starting point.

For the given example, we can specify the table by specifying the position at the master points of 0, 2000, 4000 and

6000. We can specify that by

EP 2000,0

Step 4. Specify the slave positions.

Next, we specify the slave positions with the instruction

ET[n]=x,y,z,w where n indicates the order of the point.

The value, n, starts at zero and may go up to 256. The parameters x,y,z,w indicate the corresponding slave position.

For this example, the table may be specified by

ET[0]=,0

ET[1]=,3000

ET[2]=,2250

ET[3]=,1500

This specifies the ECAM table.

Step 5. Enable the ECAM

To enable the ECAM mode, use the command

EB n where n=1 enables ECAM mode and n=0 disables ECAM mode.

Step 6. Engage the slave motion

To engage the slave motion, use the instruction

EG x,y,z,w where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slaves must be engaged.

If the value of any parameter is outside the range of one cycle, the cam engages immediately. When the cam is engaged, the slave position is redefined, modulo one cycle.

Step 7. Disengage the slave motion

To disengage the cam, use the command

EQ x,y,z,w

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 90

where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slave axes are disengaged.

3000

2250

1500

0 2000 4000 6000 Master X

Figure 6.13: Electronic Cam Example

This disengages the slave axis at a specified master position. If the parameter is outside the master cycle, the stopping is instantaneous.

To illustrate the complete process, consider the cam relationship described by the equation:

Y = 0.5 * X + 100 sin (0.18*X)

where X is the master, with a cycle of 2000 counts.

The cam table can be constructed manually, point by point, or automatically by a program. The following program includes the set-up.

The instruction EAX defines X as the master axis. The cycle of the master is

2000. Over that cycle, Y varies by 1000. This leads to the instruction EM 2000,1000.

Suppose we want to define a table with 100 segments. This implies increments of 20 counts each. If the master points are to start at zero, the required instruction is EP 20,0.

The following routine computes the table points. As the phase equals 0.18X and X varies in increments of 20, the phase varies by increments of 3.6 . The program then computes the values of Y according to the equation and assigns the values to the table with the instruction ET[N] = ,Y.

INSTRUCTION

#SETUP

EAX

EM 2000,1000

EP 20,0

N = 0

#LOOP

P = N3.6

S = @SIN [P]*100

Y = N*10+S

ET [N] =, Y

N = N+1

JP #LOOP, N<=100

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label

Select X as master

Cam cycles

Master position increments

Index

Loop to construct table from equation

Note 3.6 = 0.18 * 20

Define sine position

Define slave position

Define table

Repeat the process

Now suppose that the slave axis is engaged with a start signal, input 1, but that both the engagement and disengagement points must be done at the center of the cycle: X = 1000 and Y = 500. This implies that Y must be driven to that point to avoid a jump.

This is done with the program:

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 91 DMC-40x0 User Manual

INSTRUCTION

#RUN

EB1

PA,500

SP,5000

BGY

AM

AI1

EG,1000

AI - 1

EQ,1000

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label

Enable cam

starting position

Y speed

Move Y motor

After Y moved

Wait for start signal

Engage slave

Wait for stop signal

Disengage slave

End

Command Summary - Electronic CAM

Command

EA p

EB n

EC n

EG x,y,z,w

EM x,y,z,w

EP m,n

EQ m,n

ET[n]

EW

EY

Description

Specifies master axes for electronic cam where: p = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master or M or N a for virtual axis master

Enables the ECAM

ECAM counter - sets the index into the ECAM table

Engages ECAM

Specifies the change in position for each axis of the CAM cycle

Defines CAM table entry size and offset

Disengages ECAM at specified position

Defines the ECAM table entries

Widen Segment (see Application Note #2444)

Set ECAM cycle count

Operand Summary - Electronic CAM

Command

_EB

_EC

_EGx

_EM

_EP

_EQx

_EY

Description

Contains State of ECAM

Contains current ECAM index

Contains ECAM status for each axis

Contains size of cycle for each axis

Contains value of the ECAM table interval

Contains ECAM status for each axis

Set ECAM cycle count

Example - Electronic CAM

The following example illustrates a cam program with a master axis, Z, and two slaves, X and Y.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 92

INSTRUCTION

#A;V1=0

PA 0,0;BGXY;AMXY

EA Z

EM 0,0,4000

EP400,0

ET[0]=0,0

ET[1]=40,20

ET[2]=120,60

ET[3]=240,120

ET[4]=280,140

ET[5]=280,140

ET[6]=280,140

ET[7]=240,120

ET[8]=120,60

ET[9]=40,20

ET[10]=0,0

EB 1

JGZ=4000

EG 0,0

BGZ

#LOOP;JP#LOOP,V1=0

EQ2000,2000

MF,, 2000

ST Z

EB 0

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label; Initialize variable

Go to position 0,0 on X and Y axes

Z axis as the Master for ECAM

Change for Z is 4000, zero for X, Y

ECAM interval is 400 counts with zero start

When master is at 0 position; 1 st

point.

2

3 nd rd

4 th

point in the ECAM table

point in the ECAM table

5

6

7

8 th th th th

point in the ECAM table

point in the ECAM table

point in the ECAM table

point in the ECAM table

9 th

10

point in the ECAM table

point in the ECAM table th point in the ECAM table

Starting point for next cycle

Enable ECAM mode

Set Z to jog at 4000

Engage both X and Y when Master = 0

Begin jog on Z axis

Loop until the variable is set

Disengage X and Y when Master = 2000

Wait until the Master goes to 2000

Stop the Z axis motion

Exit the ECAM mode

End of the program

The above example shows how the ECAM program is structured and how the commands can be given to the

controller. Figure 6.14 shows the GalilTools scope capture of the ECAM profile. This shows how the motion will be

seen during the ECAM cycles. The first trace is for the A axis, the second trace shows the cycle on the B axis and the third trace shows the cycle of the C axis.

Figure 6.14: ECAM cycle with Z axis as master

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 93 DMC-40x0 User Manual

PVT Mode

The DMC-40x0 controllers now supports a mode of motion referred to as “PVT.” This mode allows arbitrary motion profiles to be defined by position, velocity and time individually on all 8 axes. This motion is designed for systems where the load must traverse a series of coordinates with no discontinuities in velocity. By specifying the target position, velocity and time to achieve those parameters the user has control over the velocity profile. Taking advantage of the built in buffering the user can create virtually any profile including those with infinite path lengths.

Specifying PVT Segments

PVT segments must be entered one axis at a time using the PVn command. The PV command includes the target distance to be moved and target velocity to be obtained over the specified timeframe. Positions are entered as relative moves, similar to the standard PR command, in units of encoder counts and velocity is entered in counts/second. The controller will interpolate the motion profile between subsequent PV commands using a 3rd order polynomial equation. During a PV segment, jerk is held constant, and accelerations, velocities, and positions will be calculated every other sample.

Motion will not begin until a BT command is issued, much like the standard BG command. This means that the user can fill the PVT buffer for each axis prior to motion beginning. The BT command will ensure that all axes begin motion simultaneously. It is not required for the “t” value for each axis to be the same, however if they are then the axes will remain coordinated. Each axis has a 255 segment buffer. This buffer is a FIFO and the available space can be queried with the operand _PVn. As the buffer empties the user can add more PVT segments.

Exiting PVT Mode

To exit PVT mode the user must send the segment command PVn=0,0,0. This will exit the mode once the segment is reached in the buffer. To avoid an abrupt stop the user should slow the motion to a zero velocity prior to executing this command. The controller will instantly command a zero velocity once a PVn=0,0,0 is executed. In addition, a ST command will also exit PVT mode. Motion will come to a controlled stop using the DC value for deceleration. The same controlled stop will occur if a limit switch is activated in the direction of motion. As a result, the controller will be switched to a jog mode of motion.

Error Conditions and Stop Codes

If the buffer is allowed to empty while in PVT mode then the profiling will be aborted and the motor will come to a controlled stop on that axis with a deceleration specified by the DC command. Also, PVT mode will be exited and the stop code will be set to 32. During normal operation of PVT mode the stop code will be 30. If PVT mode is exited normally (PVn=0,0,0), then the stop code will be set to 31.

Additional PVT Information

It is the users’ responsibility to enter PVT data that the system’s mechanics and power system can respond to in a reasonable manner. Because this mode of motion is not constrained by the AC, DC or SP values, if a large velocity or position is entered with a short period to achieve it, the acceleration can be very high, beyond the capabilities of the system, resulting in excessive position error. The position and velocity at the end of the segment are guaranteed to be accurate but it is important to remember that the required path to obtain the position and velocity in the specified time may be different based on the PVT values. Mismatched values for PVT can result in different interpolated profiles than expected but the final velocity and position will be accurate.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 94

The “t” value is entered in samples, which will depend on the TM setting. With the default TM of 1000, one sample is 976us. This means that a “t” value of 1024 will yield one second of motion. The velocity value, “v” will always be in units of counts per second, regardless of the TM setting. PVT mode is not available in the “-FAST” version of the firmware. If this is required please consult Galil.

Command Summary – PVT

COMMAND

PVa = p,v,t

_PVa

BT

_BTa

DESCRIPTION

Specifies the segment of axis 'a' for a incremental PVT segment of 'p' counts, an end speed of 'v' counts/sec in a total time of 't' samples.

Contains the number of PV segments available in the PV buffer for a specified axes.

Begin PVT mode

Contains the number PV segments that have executed

PVT Examples

Parabolic Velocity Profile

In this example we will assume that the user wants to start from zero velocity, accelerate to a maximum velocity of

1000 counts/second in 1 second and then back down to 0 counts/second within an additional second. The velocity

profile would be described by the following equation and shown in Figure 6.15.

v

(

t

)

 

1000 (

t

1 )

2

1000

Desired Velocity Profile

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

0.

25

0.

5

0.

75

1

Time(Seconds)

1.

25

1.

5

1.

75

2

Figure 6.15: Parabolic Velocity Profile

Velocity

To accomplish this we need to calculate the desired velocities and change in positions. In this example we will assume a delta time of ¼ of a second, which is 256 samples (1024 samples = 1 second with the default TM of 1000).

v

(

t

)

Velocity(counts/second)

 

1000 (

t

1 )

2

1000

p

(

t

)

Position(counts)

(

1000 (

t

1 )

2

1000 )

dt v v v v

(

(.

v

(.

5 )

(.

75 )

v

( 1 .

25 )

v

( 1 .

5 )

1 .

25

(

v

1 )

75

(

)

2

)

)

750

937.5

1000

937.5

750

437.5

437.5

0

p(0 to .25) = 57

p(.25 to .5) = 151

p(.5 to .75) = 214

p(.75 to 1) = 245

p(1 to 1.25) = 245

p(1.25 to 1.5) = 214

p(1.5 to 1.75) = 151

p(1.75 to 2) =57

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 95 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The DMC program is shown below and the results can be seen in Figure 6.16.

INSTRUCTION

#PVT

PVX = 57,437,256

PVX = 151,750,256

PVX = 214,937,256

PVX = 245,1000,256

PVX = 245,937,256

PVX = 214,750,256

PVX = 151,437,256

PVX = 57,0,256

PVX = 0,0,0

BTX

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label

Incremental move of 57 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 437 counts/sec

Incremental move of 151 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 750 counts/sec

Incremental move of 214 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 937 counts/sec

Incremental move of 245 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 1000 counts/sec

Incremental move of 245 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 937 counts/sec

Incremental move of 214 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 750 counts/sec

Incremental move of 151 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 437 counts/sec

Incremental move of 57 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 0 counts/sec

Termination of PVT buffer

Begin PVT

Actual Velocity and Position vs Time

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

800

600

400

200

1400

1200

1000

Velocity

Position

0 0

0

20

0

40

0

60

0

80

0

10

00

12

00

Time(Samples)

14

00

16

00

18

00

20

00

Figure 6.16: Actual Velocity and Position vs Time of Parabolic Velocity Profile

Multi-Axis Coordinated Move

Many applications require moving two or more axes in a coordinated move yet still require smooth motion at the same time. These applications are ideal candidates for PVT mode.

In this example we will have a 2 dimensional stage that needs to follow a specific profile. The application requires

Figure 6.17: Required XY Points

500 500

1500

2500

3300

7300

5000

4000

4200

3300

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 96

The resultant DMC program is shown below. The position points are dictated by the application requirements and the velocities and times were chosen to create smooth yet quick motion. For example, in the second segment the B axis is slowed to 0 at the end of the move in anticipation of reversing direction during the next segment.

NOTE:

INSTRUCTION

#PVT

PVA = 500,2000,500

PVB = 500,5000,500

PVA = 1000,4000,1200

PVB = 4500,0,1200

PVA = 1000,4000,750

PVB = -1000,1000,750

BTAB

PVA = 800,10000,250

PVB = 200,1000,250

PVA = 4000,0,1000

PVB = -900,0,1000

PVA = 0,0,0

PVB = 0,0,0

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label

1 st point in Figure 6.17 - A axis

1

2 st point in Figure 6.17 - B axis nd

2

3 nd rd

3 rd

point in Figure 6.17 - A axis

point in Figure 6.17 - B axis

point in Figure 6.17 - A axis

point in Figure 6.17 - B axis

Begin PVT mode for A and B axes

4

4

5 th th th

point in Figure 6.17 - A axis

point in Figure 6.17 - B axis

5 th

point in Figure 6.17 - A axis

point in Figure 6.17 - B axis

Termination of PVT buffer for A axis

Termination of PVT buffer for B axis

The BT command is issued prior to filling the PVT buffers and additional PV commands are added

during motion for demonstration purposes only. The BT command could have been issued at the end of all the PVT points in this example.

The resultant X vs. Y position graph is shown in Figure 6.18, with the specified PVT points enlarged.

X vs Y Commanded Positions

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0

-1000

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

X Axis (Counts)

Figure 6.18: X vs Y Commanded Positions for Multi-Axis

Coordinated Move

Contour Mode

The DMC-40x0 also provides a contouring mode. This mode allows any arbitrary position curve to be prescribed for

1 to 8 axes. This is ideal for following computer generated paths such as parabolic, spherical or user-defined profiles. The path is not limited to straight line and arc segments and the path length may be infinite.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 97 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Specifying Contour Segments

The Contour Mode is specified with the command, CM. For example, CMXZ specifies contouring on the X and Z axes. Any axes that are not being used in the contouring mode may be operated in other modes.

A contour is described by position increments which are described with the command, CD x,y,z,w over a time interval, DT n. The parameter, n, specifies the time interval. The time interval is defined as 2 n sample period (1 ms for TM1000), where n is a number between 1 and 8. The controller performs linear interpolation between the specified increments, where one point is generated for each sample. If the time interval changes for each segment, use CD x,y,z,w=n where n is the new DT value.

Consider, for example, the trajectory shown in Figure 6.19. The position X may be described by the points:

Point 1

Point 2

Point 3

Point 4

X=0 at T=0ms

X=48 at T=4ms

X=288 at T=12ms

X=336 at T=28ms

The same trajectory may be represented by the increments

Increment 1

Increment 2

Increment 3

DX=48

DX=240

DX=48

Time=4

Time=8

Time=16

DT=2

DT=3

DT=4

When the controller receives the command to generate a trajectory along these points, it interpolates linearly between the points. The resulting interpolated points include the position 12 at 1 msec, position 24 at 2 msec, etc.

The programmed commands to specify the above example are:

#A

CMX

CD 48=2

CD 240=3

CD 48=4

CD 0=0

#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511

EN

Specifies X axis for contour mode

Specifies first position increment and time interval, 2

End Contour buffer

Wait until path is done

2 ms

Specifies second position increment and time interval, 2 3

Specifies the third position increment and time interval, 2

ms

4

ms

POSITION

(COUNTS)

336

288

240

192

96

48

0

SEGMENT 1

4 8

SEGMENT 2

12 16 20

SEGMENT 3

Figure 6.19: The Required Trajectory

24

28

TIME (ms)

Additional Information

_CM gives the amount of space available in the contour buffer (511 maximum). Zero parameters for DT followed by zero parameters for CD will exit the contour mode.

If no new data record is found and the controller is still in the contour mode, the controller waits for new data. No new motion commands are generated while waiting. If bad data is received, the controller responds with a ?.

Specifying a -1 for the DT or as the time interval in the CD command will pause the contour buffer.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 98

Issuing the CM command will clear the contour buffer.

Command Summary - Contour Mode

COMMAND

CM XYZW

CM ABCDEFGH

CD x,y,z,w

DESCRIPTION

Specifies which axes for contouring mode. Any non-contouring axes may be operated in other modes.

Contour axes for DMC-4080

Specifies position increment over time interval. Range is

±

32,000. CD 0,0,0.. .=0 ends the contour buffer. This is much like the LE or VE commands.

CD a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h Position increment data for DMC-4080

DT n Specifies time interval 2 n sample periods (1 ms for TM1000) for position increment, where n is an integer between 1 and 8. Zero ends contour mode. If n does not change, it does not

_CM need to be specified with each CD.

Amount of space left in contour buffer (511 maximum)

General Velocity Profiles

The Contour Mode is ideal for generating any arbitrary velocity profiles. The velocity profile can be specified as a mathematical function or as a collection of points.

The design includes two parts: Generating an array with data points and running the program.

Generating an Array - An Example

Consider the velocity and position profiles shown in Figure 6.20. The objective is to rotate a motor a distance of

6000 counts in 120 ms. The velocity profile is sinusoidal to reduce the jerk and the system vibration. If we describe the position displacement in terms of A counts in B milliseconds, we can describe the motion in the following manner:

 

AT

B

1

 cos(

2

A

2 sin(

2

)

B

)

Note: ω is the angular velocity; X is the position; and T is the variable, time, in milliseconds.

In the given example, A=6000 and B=120, the position and velocity profiles are:

X = 50T - (6000/2π) sin (2πT/120)

Note that the velocity, ω, in count/ms, is

ω = 50 [1 - cos 2πT/120]

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 99

Figure 6.20: Velocity Profile with Sinusoidal Acceleration

DMC-40x0 User Manual

The DMC-40x0 can compute trigonometric functions. However, the argument must be expressed in degrees. Using our example, the equation for X is written as:

X = 50T - 955 sin 3T

A complete program to generate the contour movement in this example is given below. To generate an array, we compute the position value at intervals of 8 ms. This is stored at the array POS. Then, the difference between the positions is computed and is stored in the array DIF. Finally the motors are run in the contour mode.

Contour Mode Example

INSTRUCTION

#POINTS

DM POS[16]

DM DIF[15]

C=0

T=0

#A

V1=50*T

V2=3*T

V3=-955*@SIN[V2]+V1

[email protected][V3]

POS[C]=V4

T=T+8

C=C+1

JP #A,C<16

#B

C=0

#C

D=C+1

DIF[C]=POS[D]-POS[C]

C=C+1

JP #C,C<15

INTERPRETATION

Program defines X points

Allocate memory

Set initial conditions, C is index

T is time in ms

Argument in degrees

Compute position

Integer value of V3

Store in array POS

Program to find position differences

Compute the difference and store

#RUN

CMX

DT3

C=0

#E

Program to run motor

Contour Mode

8 millisecond intervals

CD DIF[C]

C=C+1

Contour Distance is in DIF

JP #E,C<15

CD 0=0

#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511 Wait until path is done

EN

End contour buffer

End the program

Teach (Record and Play-Back)

Several applications require teaching the machine a motion trajectory. Teaching can be accomplished using the

DMC-40x0 automatic array capture feature to capture position data. The captured data may then be played back in the contour mode. The following array commands are used:

DM C[n]

RA C[]

RD _TPX

RC n,m

RC? or _RC

Dimension array

Specify array for automatic record (up to 4 for DMC-4040)

Specify data for capturing (such as _TPX or _TPZ)

Specify capture time interval where n is 2 n sample periods (1 ms for TM1000), m is number of records to be captured

Returns a 1 if recording

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 100

Record and Playback Example:

#RECORD

DM XPOS[501]

RA XPOS[]

RD _TPX

MOX

RC2

#A;JP#A,_RC=1

#COMPUTE

DM DX[500]

Begin Program

Dimension array with 501 elements

Specify automatic record

Specify X position to be captured

Turn X motor off

Begin recording; 4 msec interval (at TM1000)

Continue until done recording

Compute DX

Dimension Array for DX

Initialize counter

Label

C=0

#L

D=C+1

DELTA=XPOS[D]-XPOS[C] Compute the difference

DX[C]=DELTA

C=C+1

JP #L,C<500

Store difference in array

Increment index

#PLAYBCK

CMX

DT2

I=0

#B

CD DX[I]; I=I+1

Repeat until done

Begin Playback

Specify contour mode

Specify time increment

Initialize array counter

Loop counter

Specify contour data I=I+1 Increment array counter

Loop until done JP #B,I<500

CD 0=0

#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511 Wait until path is done

EN

End countour buffer

End program

For additional information about automatic array capture, see

359H

Chapter 7, Arrays.

Virtual Axis

The DMC-40x0 controller has two additional virtual axes designated as the M and N axes. These axes have no encoder and no DAC. However, they can be commanded by the commands:

AC, DC, JG, SP, PR, PA, BG, IT, GA, VM, VP, CR, ST, DP, RP

The main use of the virtual axes is to serve as a virtual master in ECAM modes, and to perform an unnecessary part of a vector mode. These applications are illustrated by the following examples.

ECAM Master Example

Suppose that the motion of the XY axes is constrained along a path that can be described by an electronic cam table. Further assume that the ecam master is not an external encoder but has to be a controlled variable.

This can be achieved by defining the N axis as the master with the command EAN and setting the modulo of the master with a command such as EMN= 4000. Next, the table is constructed. To move the constrained axes, simply command the N axis in the jog mode or with the PR and PA commands.

For example,

PAN = 2000

BGN will cause the XY axes to move to the corresponding points on the motion cycle.

Sinusoidal Motion Example

The x axis must perform a sinusoidal motion of 10 cycles with an amplitude of 1000 counts and a frequency of 20

Hz.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 101 DMC-40x0 User Manual

This can be performed by commanding the X and N axes to perform circular motion. Note that the value of VS must be

VS=2π * R * F where R is the radius, or amplitude and F is the frequency in Hz.

Set VA and VD to maximum values for the fastest acceleration.

INSTRUCTION INTERPRETATION

VMXN

VA 68000000

VD 68000000

VS 125664

Select Axes

Maximum Acceleration

Maximum Deceleration

VS for 20 Hz

CR 1000, -90, 3600 Ten Cycles

VE

BGS

Stepper Motor Operation

When configured for stepper motor operation, several commands are interpreted differently than from servo mode. The following describes operation with stepper motors.

Specifying Stepper Motor Operation

Stepper motor operation is specified by the command MT. The argument for MT is as follows:

2 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses

-2 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulses

2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses and reversed direction

-2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulse and reversed direction

Stepper Motor Smoothing

The command, KS, provides stepper motor smoothing. The effect of the smoothing can be thought of as a simple

Resistor-Capacitor (single pole) filter. The filter occurs after the motion profiler and has the effect of smoothing out the spacing of pulses for a more smooth operation of the stepper motor. Use of KS is most applicable when operating in full step or half step operation. KS will cause the step pulses to be delayed in accordance with the time constant specified.

When operating with stepper motors, you will always have some amount of stepper motor smoothing, KS. Since this filtering effect occurs after the profiler, the profiler may be ready for additional moves before all of the step pulses have gone through the filter. It is important to consider this effect since steps may be lost if the controller is commanded to generate an additional move before the previous move has been completed. See the discussion

below, Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses.

The general motion smoothing command, IT, can also be used. The purpose of the command, IT, is to smooth out the motion profile and decrease ‘jerk’ due to acceleration.

Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses

For proper controller operation, it is necessary to make sure that the controller has completed generating all step pulses before making additional moves. This is most particularly important if you are moving back and forth. For example, when operating with servo motors, the trippoint AM (After Motion) is used to determine when the motion profiler is complete and is prepared to execute a new motion command. However when operating in stepper mode, the controller may still be generating step pulses when the motion profiler is complete. This is caused by the stepper motor smoothing filter, KS. To understand this, consider the steps the controller executes to generate step pulses:

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 102

First, the controller generates a motion profile in accordance with the motion commands.

Second, the profiler generates pulses as prescribed by the motion profile. The pulses that are generated by the motion profiler can be monitored by the command, RP (Reference Position). RP gives the absolute value of the position as determined by the motion profiler. The command, DP, can be used to set the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X axis to be zero.

Third, the output of the motion profiler is filtered by the stepper smoothing filter. This filter adds a delay in the output of the stepper motor pulses. The amount of delay depends on the parameter which is specified by the command, KS. As mentioned earlier, there will always be some amount of stepper motor smoothing.

Fourth, the output of the stepper smoothing filter is buffered and is available for input to the stepper motor driver.

The pulses which are generated by the smoothing filter can be monitored by the command, TD (Tell Dual). TD gives the absolute value of the position as determined by actual output of the buffer. The command, DP sets the value of the step count register as well as the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X axis to be zero.

Motion Profiler

Stepper Smoothing Filter

(Adds a Delay)

Output Buffer

Output

(To Stepper Driver)

Reference Position (RP) Step Count Register (TD)

Motion Complete Trippoint

When used in stepper mode, the MC command will hold up execution of the proceeding commands until the controller has generated the same number of steps out of the step count register as specified in the commanded position. The MC trippoint (Motion Complete) is generally more useful than AM trippoint (After Motion) since the step pulses can be delayed from the commanded position due to stepper motor smoothing.

Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors

An encoder may be used on a stepper motor to check the actual motor position with the commanded position. If an encoder is used, it must be connected to the main encoder input. Note: The auxiliary encoder is not available while operating with stepper motors. The position of the encoder can be interrogated by using the command, TP.

The position value can be defined by using the command, DE.

Note: Closed loop operation with a stepper motor is not possible.

Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation

COMMAND

DE

DP

IT

KS

MT

RP

TD

TP

DESCRIPTION

Define Encoder Position (When using an encoder)

Define Reference Position and Step Count Register

Motion Profile Smoothing - Independent Time Constant

Stepper Motor Smoothing

Motor Type (2,-2,2.5 or -2.5 for stepper motors)

Report Commanded Position

Report number of step pulses generated by controller

Tell Position of Encoder

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 103 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation

OPERAND

_DEx

_DPx

_ITx

_KSx

_MTx

_RPx

_TDx

_TPx

DESCRIPTION

Contains the value of the step count register for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the value of the main encoder for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the value of the Independent Time constant for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the value of the Stepper Motor Smoothing Constant for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the motor type value for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the commanded position generated by the profiler for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the value of the step count register for the ‘x’ axis

Contains the value of the main encoder for the ‘x’ axis

Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM)

The Galil controller can be set into the Stepper Position Maintenance (SPM) mode to handle the event of stepper motor position error. The mode looks at position feedback from the main encoder and compares it to the commanded step pulses. The position information is used to determine if there is any significant difference between the commanded and the actual motor positions. If such error is detected, it is updated into a command value for operator use. In addition, the SPM mode can be used as a method to correct for friction at the end of a microstepping move. This capability provides closed-loop control at the application program level. SPM mode can be used with Galil and non-Galil step drives.

SPM mode is configured, executed, and managed with seven commands. This mode also utilizes the #POSERR automatic subroutine allowing for automatic user-defined handling of an error event.

Internal Controller Commands (user can query):

QS Error Magnitude (pulses)

User Configurable Commands (user can query & change):

OE

YA

YB

YC

YR

YS

Profiler Off-On Error

Step Drive Resolution (pulses / full motor step)

Step Motor Resolution (full motor steps / revolution)

Encoder Resolution (counts / revolution)

Error Correction (pulses)

Stepper Position Maintenance enable, status

A pulse is defined by the resolution of the step drive being used. Therefore, one pulse could be a full step, a half step or a microstep.

When a Galil controller is configured for step motor operation, the step pulse output by the controller is internally fed back to the auxiliary encoder register. For SPM the feedback encoder on the stepper will connect to the main encoder port. Enabling the SPM mode on a controller with YS=1 executes an internal monitoring of the auxiliary and main encoder registers for that axis or axes. Position error is then tracked in step pulses between these two registers (QS command).

QS

TD

TP

YA

YB

YC

Where TD is the auxiliary encoder register(step pulses) and TP is the main encoder register(feedback encoder).

Additionally, YA defines the step drive resolution where YA = 1 for full stepping or YA = 2 for half stepping. The full range of YA is up to YA = 9999 for microstepping drives.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 104

Error Limit

The value of QS is internally monitored to determine if it exceeds a preset limit of three full motor steps. Once the value of QS exceeds this limit, the controller then performs the following actions:

1. The motion is maintained or is stopped, depending on the setting of the OE command. If OE=0 the axis stays in motion, if OE=1 the axis is stopped.

2. YS is set to 2, which causes the automatic subroutine labeled #POSERR to be executed.

Correction

A correction move can be commanded by assigning the value of QS to the YR correction move command. The correction move is issued only after the axis has been stopped. After an error correction move has completed and

QS is less than three full motor steps, the YS error status bit is automatically reset back to 1; indicating a cleared error.

Example: SPM Mode Setup

The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for a full step drive, a half step drive, and a

1/64th microstepping drive for an axis with a 1.8

o step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder. Note the necessary difference is with the YA command.

Full-Stepping Drive, X axis:

#SETUP

OE1;

KS16;

MT-2;

YA1;

YB200;

YC4000;

SHX;

WT50;

YS1;

Set the profiler to stop axis upon error

Set step smoothing

Motor type set to stepper

Step resolution of the full-step drive

Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)

Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)

Enable axis

Allow slight settle time

Enable SPM mode

Half-Stepping Drive, X axis:

#SETUP

OE1;

KS16;

MT-2;

YA2;

YB200;

YC4000;

SHX;

WT50;

YS1;

Set the profiler to stop axis upon error

Set step smoothing

Motor type set to stepper

Step resolution of the half-step drive

Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)

Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)

Enable axis

Allow slight settle time

Enable SPM mode

1/64 th Step Microstepping Drive, X axis:

#SETUP

OE1;

KS16;

MT-2;

YA64;

YB200;

YC4000;

SHX;

WT50;

YS1;

Set the profiler to stop axis upon error

Set step smoothing

Motor type set to stepper

Step resolution of the microstepping drive

Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)

Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)

Enable axis

Allow slight settle time

Enable SPM mode

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 105 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example: Error Correction

The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for the X axis, detect error, stop the motor, correct the error, and return to the main code. The drive is a full step drive, with a 1.8

count/rev encoder.

o step motor and 4000

#setup

OE 1;'

KS 16;'

MT -2,-2,-2,-2;'

YA 2;'

YB 200;'

YC 4000;'

SH A;'

WT 100;'

Set the profiler to stop axis upon error

Set step smoothing

Motor type set to stepper

Step resolution of the drive

Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)

Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)

Enable axis

Allow slight settle time

#motion;'

SP 512;'

PR 1000;'

BG A;'

EN;'

Perform motion

Set the speed

Prepare mode of motion

Begin motion

End of program subroutine

REM When error occurs, the axis will stop due to OE1. In

REM #POSERR, query the status YS and the error QS, correct,

REM and return to the main code.

#POSERR;'

WT 100;'

Automatic subroutine is called when _YS=2

Wait helps user see the correction spsave=_SPA;' Save current speed setting

JP #return,_YSA<>2;'

Return to thread zero if invalid error

SP64; Set slow speed setting for correction

MG "ERROR= ",_QSA

YRA=_QSA;'

MC A;

Else, error is valid, use QS for correction

Wait for motion to complete

MG "CORRECTED, ERROR NOW= ",_QSX

WT 100;' Wait helps user see the correction

#return

SPA=spsave;'

RE 0;'

Return the speed to previous setting

Return from #POSERR

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 106

Example: Friction Correction

The following example illustrates how the SPM mode can be useful in correcting for X axis friction after each move when conducting a reciprocating motion. The drive is a 1/64th microstepping drive with a 1.8

o step motor and

4000 count/rev encoder.

#SETUP;

KS16;

MT-2,-2,-2,-2;

YA64;

YB200;

YC4000;

SHX;

WT50;

YS1;

Set the profiler to continue upon error

Set step smoothing

Motor type set to stepper

Step resolution of the microstepping drive

Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)

Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)

Enable axis

Allow slight settle time

Enable SPM mode

#MOTION;

SP16384;

PR10000;

BGX;

MCX

JS#CORRECT;

#MOTION2

Perform motion

Set the speed

Prepare mode of motion

Begin motion

Move to correction

SP16384;

PR-10000;

BGX;

MCX

Set the speed

Prepare mode of motion

Begin motion

JS#CORRECT;

JP#MOTION

#CORRECT;

MCX

WT100;

JP#LOOP;

#END;

SPX=spx

Move to correction

Correction code spx=_SPX

#LOOP;

SP2048;

Save speed value

Set a new slow correction speed

WT100; Stabilize

JP#END,@ABS[_QSX]<10; End correction if error is within defined tolerance

YRX=_QSX; Correction move

Stabilize

Keep correcting until error is within tolerance

End #CORRECT subroutine, returning to code

EN

Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)

The DMC-40x0 provides an interface for a second encoder for each axis except for axes configured for stepper motor operation and axis used in circular compare. When used, the second encoder is typically mounted on the motor or the load, but may be mounted in any position. The most common use for the second encoder is backlash compensation, described below.

The second encoder may be a standard quadrature type, or it may provide pulse and direction. The controller also offers the provision for inverting the direction of the encoder rotation. The main and the auxiliary encoders are configured with the CE command. The command form is CE x,y,z,w (or a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h for controllers with more than

4 axes) where the parameters x,y,z,w each equal the sum of two integers m and n. m configures the main encoder and n configures the auxiliary encoder.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 107 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Using the CE Command

m= Main Encoder

0

1

2

3

Normal quadrature

Pulse & direction

Reverse quadrature

Reverse pulse & direction

n= Second Encoder

0

4

8

12

Normal quadrature

Pulse & direction

Reversed quadrature

Reversed pulse & direction

For example, to configure the main encoder for reversed quadrature, m=2, and a second encoder of pulse and direction, n=4, the total is 6, and the command for the X axis is:

CE 6

Additional Commands for the Auxiliary Encoder

The command, DE x,y,z,w, can be used to define the position of the auxiliary encoders. For example,

DE 0,500,-30,300 sets their initial values. The positions of the auxiliary encoders may be interrogated with the command, DE?. For example:

DE ?,,?

returns the value of the X and Z auxiliary encoders.

The auxiliary encoder position may be assigned to variables with the instructions

V1= _DEX

The command, TD XYZW, returns the current position of the auxiliary encoder.

The command, DV 1,1,1,1, configures the auxiliary encoder to be used for backlash compensation.

Backlash Compensation

There are two methods for backlash compensation using the auxiliary encoders:

1. Continuous dual loop

2. Sampled dual loop

To illustrate the problem, consider a situation in which the coupling between the motor and the load has a backlash. To compensate for the backlash, position encoders are mounted on both the motor and the load.

The continuous dual loop combines the two feedback signals to achieve stability. This method requires careful system tuning, and depends on the magnitude of the backlash. However, once successful, this method compensates for the backlash continuously.

The second method, the sampled dual loop, reads the load encoder only at the end point and performs a correction. This method is independent of the size of the backlash. However, it is effective only in point-to-point motion systems which require position accuracy only at the endpoint.

Continuous Dual Loop - Example

Connect the load encoder to the main encoder port and connect the motor encoder to the dual encoder port. The dual loop method splits the filter function between the two encoders. It applies the KP (proportional) and KI

(integral) terms to the position error, based on the load encoder, and applies the KD (derivative) term to the motor encoder. This method results in a stable system.

The dual loop method is activated with the instruction DV (Dual Velocity), where

DV 1,1,1,1

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 108

activates the dual loop for the four axes and

DV 0,0,0,0 disables the dual loop.

Note: that the dual loop compensation depends on the backlash magnitude, and in extreme cases will not stabilize the loop. The proposed compensation procedure is to start with KP=0, KI=0 and to maximize the value of KD under the condition DV1. Once KD is found, increase KP gradually to a maximum value, and finally, increase KI, if necessary.

Sampled Dual Loop - Example

In this example, we consider a linear slide which is run by a rotary motor via a lead screw. Since the lead screw has a backlash, it is necessary to use a linear encoder to monitor the position of the slide. For stability reasons, it is best to use a rotary encoder on the motor.

Connect the rotary encoder to the X-axis and connect the linear encoder to the auxiliary encoder of X. Assume that the required motion distance is one inch, and that this corresponds to 40,000 counts of the rotary encoder and

10,000 counts of the linear encoder.

The design approach is to drive the motor a distance, which corresponds to 40,000 rotary counts. Once the motion is complete, the controller monitors the position of the linear encoder and performs position corrections.

This is done by the following program.

INSTRUCTION

#DUALOOP

CE 0

DE0

PR 40000

BGX

#correct

AMX

V1=10000-_DEX

V2=-_TEX/4+V1

JP#END,@ABS[V2]<2

PR V2*4

BGX

JP#correct

#END

EN

INTERPRETATION

Label

Configure encoder

Set initial value

Main move

Start motion

Correction loop

Wait for motion completion

Find linear encoder error

Compensate for motor error

Exit if error is small

Correction move

Start correction

Repeat

Motion Smoothing

The DMC-40x0 controller allows the smoothing of the velocity profile to reduce the mechanical vibration of the system.

Trapezoidal velocity profiles have acceleration rates which change abruptly from zero to maximum value. The discontinuous acceleration results in jerk which causes vibration. The smoothing of the acceleration profile leads to a continuous acceleration profile and reduces the mechanical shock and vibration.

Using the IT Command:

When operating with servo motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the IT command.

This command filters the acceleration and deceleration functions to produce a smooth velocity profile. The resulting velocity profile, has continuous acceleration and results in reduced mechanical vibrations.

The smoothing function is specified by the following commands:

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 109 DMC-40x0 User Manual

IT x,y,z,w Independent time constant

The command, IT, is used for smoothing independent moves of the type JG, PR, PA and to smooth vector moves of the type VM and LM.

The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0 and 1 and determine the degree of filtering. The maximum value of 1 implies no filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles. Smaller values of the smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.

The following example illustrates the effect of smoothing. Figure 6.21 shows the trapezoidal velocity profile and

the modified acceleration and velocity.

Note that the smoothing process results in longer motion time.

Example - Smoothing

PR 20000

AC 100000

DC 100000

SP 5000

IT .5

BG X

Position

Acceleration

Deceleration

Speed

Filter for smoothing

Begin

ACCELERATION

ACCELERATION

VELOCITY

Figure 6.21: Trapezoidal velocity and smooth velocity profiles

Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing):

When operating with step motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the command, KS.

The KS command smoothes the frequency of step motor pulses. Similar to the command IT, this produces a smooth velocity profile.

The step motor smoothing is specified by the following command:

KS x,y,z,w where x,y,z,w is an integer from 0.25 to 64 and represents the amount of smoothing

The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0.25 and 64 and determine the degree of filtering.

The minimum value of 0.25 implies the least filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles. Larger values of the smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.

Note that KS is valid only for step motors.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 110

Homing

The Find Edge (FE) and Home (HM) instructions may be used to home the motor to a mechanical reference. This reference is connected to the Home input line. The HM command initializes the motor to the encoder index pulse in addition to the Home input. The configure command (CN) is used to define the polarity of the home input.

The Find Edge (FE) instruction is useful for initializing the motor to a home switch. The home switch is connected to the Homing Input. When the Find Edge command and Begin is used, the motor will accelerate up to the slew speed and slew until a transition is detected on the Homing line. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. A high deceleration value must be input before the find edge command is issued for the motor to decelerate rapidly after sensing the home switch. The Home (HM) command can be used to position the motor on the index pulse after the home switch is detected. This allows for finer positioning on initialization. The HM command and BG command causes the following sequence of events to occur.

Stage 1:

Upon begin, the motor accelerates to the slew speed specified by the JG or SP commands. The direction of its motion is determined by the state of the homing input. If _HMX reads 1 initially, the motor will go in the reverse direction first (direction of decreasing encoder counts). If _HMX reads 0 initially, the motor will go in the forward direction first. CN is the command used to define the polarity of the home input. With CN,-1 (the default value) a normally open switch will make _HMX read 1 initially, and a normally closed switch will make _HMX read zero.

Furthermore, with CN,1 a normally open switch will make _HMX read 0 initially, and a normally closed switch will make _HMX read 1. Therefore, the CN command will need to be configured properly to ensure the correct direction of motion in the home sequence.

Upon detecting the home switch changing state, the motor begins decelerating to a stop.

Note: The direction of motion for the FE command also follows these rules for the state of the home input.

Stage 2:

The motor then traverses at HV counts/sec in the opposite direction of Stage 1 until the home switch toggles again.

If Stage 3 is in the opposite direction of Stage 2, the motor will stop immediately at this point and change direction.

If Stage 2 is in the same direction as Stage 3, the motor will never stop, but will smoothly continue into Stage 3.

Stage 3:

The motor traverses forward at HV counts/sec until the encoder index pulse is detected. The motor then decelerates to a stop and goes back to the index.

The DMC-40x0 defines the home position as the position at which the index was detected and sets the encoder reading at this point to zero.

The 4 different motion possibilities for the home sequence are shown in the following table.

Switch Type

Normally Open

Normally Open

Normally Closed

Normally Closed

CN Setting

CN,-1

CN,1

CN,-1

CN,1

Initial _HMX state

1

0

0

1

Stage 1

Reverse

Forward

Forward

Reverse

Direction of Motion

Stage 2

Forward

Stage 3

Forward

Reverse Forward

Reverse Forward

Forward Forward

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 111 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example: Homing

Instruction

#HOME

CN,-1

AC 1000000

DC 1000000

SP 5000

HM

BG

AM

MG “AT HOME”

EN

Interpretation

Label

Configure the polarity of the home input

Acceleration Rate

Deceleration Rate

Speed for Home Search

Home

Begin Motion

After Complete

Send Message

End

Figure 6.22 shows the velocity profile from the homing sequence of the example program above. For this profile,

the switch is normally closed and CN,-1.

HOME

SWITCH

MOTION

BEGINS IN

FORWARD

DIRECTION

VELOCITY

MOTION

CHANGES

DIRECTION

VELOCITY

MOTION IN

FORWARD

DIRECTION

TOWARD

INDEX

VELOCITY

_HMX=0 _HMX=1

POSITION

POSITION

POSITION

INDEX PULSES

POSITION

Figure 6.22: Homing Sequence for Normally Closed Switch and CN,-1

Example: Find Edge

#EDGE

AC 2000000

DC 2000000

SP 8000

FE

BG

AM

MG “FOUND HOME”

DP 0

EN

Label

Acceleration rate

Deceleration rate

Speed

Find edge command

Begin motion

After complete

Send message

Define position as 0

End

DMC-40x0 User Manual

POSITION

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 112

Command Summary - Homing Operation

Command

FE XYZW

FI XYZW

HM XYZW

SC XYZW

TS XYZW

Description

Find Edge Routine. This routine monitors the Home Input

Find Index Routine - This routine monitors the Index Input

Home Routine - This routine combines FE and FI as Described Above

Stop Code

Tell Status of Switches and Inputs

Operand Summary - Homing Operation

Operand

_HMx

_SCx

_TSx

Description

Contains the value of the state of the Home Input

Contains stop code

Contains status of switches and inputs

High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function)

Often it is desirable to capture the position precisely for registration applications. Position capture can be

programmed to latch on either a corresponding input (see Table 6.21) or on the index pulse for that axis. The

position can be captured for either the main or auxiliary encoder within 25 microseconds of an high-to-low transition.

Input 1

Input 2

Input 3

Input 4

A-axis latch

B-axis latch

C-axis latch

D-axis latch

Input 9

Input 10

Input 11

Input 12

Table 6.21: Inputs and corresponding axis la tch

E-axis latch

F-axis latch

G-axis latch

H-axis latch

NOTE

Latching is not valid with sampled feedback types such as: SSI, BiSS, Sin/Cos, and Analog

To insure a position capture within 25 microseconds, the input signal must be a transition from high to low. Low to high transitions may have greater delay.

The software commands, AL and RL, are used to arm the latch and report the latched position respectively. The latch must be re-armed after each latching event. See the Command Reference for more details on these commands.

Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 113 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 7 Application Programming

Overview

The DMC-40x0 provides a powerful programming language that allows users to customize the controller for their particular application. Programs can be downloaded into the DMC-40x0 memory freeing the host computer for other tasks. However, the host computer can send commands to the controller at any time, even while a program is being executed. Only ASCII commands can be used for application programming.

In addition to standard motion commands, the DMC-40x0 provides commands that allow the DMC-40x0 to make its own decisions. These commands include conditional jumps, event triggers and subroutines. For example, the command JP#LOOP, n<10 causes a jump to the label #LOOP if the variable n is less than 10.

For greater programming flexibility, the DMC-40x0 provides user-defined variables, arrays and arithmetic functions.

For example, with a cut-to-length operation, the length can be specified as a variable in a program which the operator can change as necessary.

The following sections in this chapter discuss all aspects of creating applications programs. The program memory size is 80 characters x 4000 lines.

Program Format

A DMC-40x0 program consists of DMC instructions combined to solve a machine control application. Action instructions, such as starting and stopping motion, are combined with Program Flow instructions to form the complete program. Program Flow instructions evaluate real-time conditions, such as elapsed time or motion complete, and alter program flow accordingly.

Each DMC-40x0 instruction in a program must be separated by a delimiter. Valid delimiters are the semicolon (;) or carriage return. The semicolon is used to separate multiple instructions on a single program line where the maximum number of instructions on a line is limited by 80 characters. A carriage return enters the final command on a program line.

Using Labels in Programs

All DMC-40x0 programs must begin with a label and end with an End (EN) statement. Labels start with the pound

(#) sign followed by a maximum of seven characters. The first character must be a letter; after that, numbers are permitted. Spaces are not permitted in label.

The maximum number of labels which may be defined is 510.

Valid labels

#BEGIN

#SQUARE

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 114

#X1

#BEGIN1

Invalid labels

#1Square

#123

A Simple Example Program:

#START

PR 10000,20000

BG XY

AM

WT 2000

JP #START

EN

Beginning of the Program

Specify relative distances on X and Y axes

Begin Motion

Wait for motion complete

Wait 2 sec

Jump to label START

End of Program

The above program moves X and Y 10000 and 20000 units. After the motion is complete, the motors rest for 2 seconds. The cycle repeats indefinitely until the stop command is issued.

Special Labels

The DMC-40x0 have some special labels, which are used to define input interrupt subroutines, limit switch subroutines, error handling subroutines, and command error subroutines. See section on

#AMPERR Label for Amplifier error routine

705HAuto-Start Routine

#AUTO

#AUTOERR

#CMDERR

#COMINT

#ININT

#LIMSWI

#MCTIME

#POSERR

#TCPERR

Label that will automatically run upon the controller exiting a reset (power-on)

Label that will automatically run if there is an EEPROM error out of reset

Label for incorrect command subroutine

Label for Communications Interrupt (See CC Command)

Label for Input Interrupt subroutine (See II Command)

Label for Limit Switch subroutine

Label for timeout on Motion Complete trippoint

Label for excess Position Error subroutine

Label for errors over a TCP connection (error code 123)

Commenting Programs

Using the command, NO or Apostrophe (‘)

The DMC-40x0 provides a command, NO, for commenting programs or single apostrophe. This command allows the user to include up to 78 characters on a single line after the NO command and can be used to include comments from the programmer as in the following example:

#PATH

‘ 2-D CIRCULAR PATH

VMXY

‘ VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y

VS 10000

‘ VECTOR SPEED IS 10000

VP -4000,0

‘ BOTTOM LINE

CR 1500,270,-180

‘ HALF CIRCLE MOTION

VP 0,3000

‘ TOP LINE

CR 1500,90,-180

‘ HALF CIRCLE MOTION

VE

‘ END VECTOR SEQUENCE

BGS

‘ BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION

EN

‘ END OF PROGRAM

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 115 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Note: The NO command is an actual controller command. Therefore, inclusion of the NO commands will require process time by the controller.

Difference between NO and ' using the GalilTools software

The GalilTools software will treat an apostrophe (') commend different from an NO when the compression algorithm is activated upon a program download (line > 80 characters or program memory > 4000 lines). In this case the software will remove all (') comments as part of the compression and it will download all NO comments to the controller.

Executing Programs - Multitasking

The DMC-40x0 can run up to 8 independent programs simultaneously. These programs are called threads and are numbered 0 through 7, where 0 is the main thread. Multitasking is useful for executing independent operations such as PLC functions that occur independently of motion.

The main thread differs from the others in the following ways:

1. Only the main thread, thread 0, may use the input command, IN.

2. When input interrupts are implemented for limit switches, position errors or command errors, the subroutines are executed as thread 0.

To begin execution of the various programs, use the following instruction:

XQ #A, n

Where n indicates the thread number. To halt the execution of any thread, use the instruction

HX n where n is the thread number.

Note that both the XQ and HX commands can be performed by an executing program.

The example below produces a waveform on Output 1 independent of a move.

#TASK1

AT0

CB1

#LOOP1

AT 10

SB1

AT -40

CB1

JP #LOOP1

#TASK2

XQ #TASK1,1

#LOOP2

PR 1000

BGX

AMX

WT 10

JP #LOOP2,@IN[2]=1

HX

Task1 label

Initialize reference time

Clear Output 1

Loop1 label

Wait 10 msec from reference time

Set Output 1

Wait 40 msec from reference time, then initialize reference

Clear Output 1

Repeat Loop1

Task2 label

Execute Task1

Loop2 label

Define relative distance

Begin motion

After motion done

Wait 10 msec

Repeat motion unless Input 2 is low

Halt all tasks

The program above is executed with the instruction XQ #TASK2,0 which designates TASK2 as the main thread (i.e.

Thread 0). #TASK1 is executed within TASK2.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 116

Debugging Programs

The DMC-40x0 provides commands and operands which are useful in debugging application programs. These commands include interrogation commands to monitor program execution, determine the state of the controller and the contents of the controllers program, array, and variable space. Operands also contain important status information which can help to debug a program.

Trace Commands

The trace command causes the controller to send each line in a program to the host computer immediately prior to execution. Tracing is enabled with the command, TR1. TR0 turns the trace function off. Note: When the trace function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command line will be displayed as each command line is executed.

NOTE: When the trace function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command line will be displayed as each command line is executed.

Data which is output from the controller is stored in the output UART. The UART buffer can store up to 512 characters of information. In normal operation, the controller places output into the FIFO buffer. When the trace mode is enabled, the controller will send information to the UART buffer at a very high rate. In general, the UART will become full because the hardware handshake line will halt serial data until the correct data is read. When the

UART becomes full, program execution will be delayed until it is cleared. If the user wants to avoid this delay, the command CW,1 can be given. This command causes the controller to throw away the data which can not be placed into the FIFO. In this case, the controller does not delay program execution.

Error Code Command

When there is a program error, the DMC-40x0 halts the program execution at the point where the error occurs. To display the last line number of program execution, issue the command, MG _ED.

The user can obtain information about the type of error condition that occurred by using the command, TC1. This command reports back a number and a text message which describes the error condition. The command, TC0 or

TC, will return the error code without the text message. For more information about the command, TC, see the

Command Reference.

Stop Code Command

The status of motion for each axis can be determined by using the stop code command, SC. This can be useful when motion on an axis has stopped unexpectedly. The command SC will return a number representing the motion status. See the command reference for further information.

RAM Memory Interrogation Commands

For debugging the status of the program memory, array memory, or variable memory, the DMC-40x0 has several useful commands. The command, DM ?, will return the number of array elements currently available. The command, DA ?, will return the number of arrays which can be currently defined. For example, a standard DMC-

14010 will have a maximum of 24000 array elements in up to 30 arrays. If an array of 100 elements is defined, the command DM ? will return the value 15900 and the command DA ? will return 29.

To list the contents of the variable space, use the interrogation command LV (List Variables). To list the contents of array space, use the interrogation command, LA (List Arrays). To list the contents of the Program space, use the interrogation command, LS (List). To list the application program labels only, use the interrogation command, LL

(List Labels).

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 117 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operands

In general, all operands provide information which may be useful in debugging an application program. Below is a list of operands which are particularly valuable for program debugging. To display the value of an operand, the message command may be used. For example, since the operand, _ED contains the last line of program execution, the command MG _ED will display this line number.

_ED contains the last line of program execution. Useful to determine where program stopped.

_DL contains the number of available labels.

_UL contains the number of available variables.

_DA contains the number of available arrays.

_DM contains the number of available array elements.

_AB contains the state of the Abort Input

_LFx contains the state of the forward limit switch for the ‘x’ axis

_LRx contains the state of the reverse limit switch for the ‘x’ axis

Debugging Example

:

The following program has an error. It attempts to specify a relative movement while the X-axis is already in motion. When the program is executed, the controller stops at line 003. The user can then query the controller using the command, TC1. The controller responds with the corresponding explanation:

Download Code

#A

PR1000

BGX

PR5000

EN

From Terminal

:XQ #A

?003 PR5000

:TC1

?7 Command not valid while running.

:XQ #A

Program Label

Position Relative 1000

Begin

Position Relative 5000

End

Execute #A

Error on Line 3

Tell Error Code

Command not valid while running

Change the BGX line to BGX;AMX and re-download the program.

Execute #A

Program Flow Commands

The DMC-40x0 provides instructions to control program flow. The controller program sequencer normally executes program instructions sequentially. The program flow can be altered with the use of event triggers, trippoints, and conditional jump statements.

Event Triggers & Trippoints

To function independently from the host computer, the DMC-40x0 can be programmed to make decisions based on the occurrence of an event. Such events include waiting for motion to be complete, waiting for a specified amount of time to elapse, or waiting for an input to change logic levels.

The DMC-40x0 provides several event triggers that cause the program sequencer to halt until the specified event occurs. Normally, a program is automatically executed sequentially one line at a time. When an event trigger instruction is decoded, however, the actual program sequence is halted. The program sequence does not continue until the event trigger is “tripped”. For example, the motion complete trigger can be used to separate two move sequences in a program. The commands for the second move sequence will not be executed until the motion is complete on the first motion sequence. In this way, the controller can make decisions based on its own status or external events without intervention from a host computer.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 118

DMC-40x0 Event Triggers

Command

AM X Y Z W or S

(A B C D E F G H)

AD X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

AR X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

AP X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

MF X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

MR X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

MC X or Y or Z or W

(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)

AI ± n

AS X Y Z W S

(A B C D E F G H)

AT ±n,m

AV n

WT n,m

Function

Halts program execution until motion is complete on the specified axes or motion sequence(s). AM with no parameter tests for motion complete on all axes. This command is useful for separating motion sequences in a program.

Halts program execution until position command has reached the specified relative distance from the start of the move.

Only one axis may be specified at a time.

Halts program execution until after specified distance from the last AR or AD command has elapsed. Only one axis may be specified at a time.

Halts program execution until after absolute position occurs.

Only one axis may be specified at a time.

Halt program execution until after forward motion reached absolute position. Only one axis may be specified. If position is already past the point, then MF will trip immediately. Will function on geared axis or aux. inputs.

Halt program execution until after reverse motion reached absolute position. Only one axis may be specified. If position is already past the point, then MR will trip immediately. Will function on geared axis or aux. inputs.

Halt program execution until after the motion profile has been completed and the encoder has entered or passed the specified position. TW x,y,z,w sets timeout to declare an error if not in position. If timeout occurs, then the trippoint will clear and the stop code will be set to 99. An application program will jump to label #MCTIME.

Halts program execution until after specified input is at specified logic level. n specifies input line. Positive is high logic level, negative is low level. n=1 through 8 for DMC-

4010, 4020, 4030, 4040. n=1 through 16 for DMC-4050,

4060, 4070, 4080

Also n= 17-48

Halts program execution until specified axis has reached its slew speed.

For m=omitted or 0, halts program execution until n msec from reference time. AT 0 sets reference. AT n waits n msec from reference. AT -n waits n msec from reference and sets new reference after elapsed time.

For m=1. Same functionality except that n is number of samples rather than msec

Halts program execution until specified distance along a coordinated path has occurred.

For m=omitted or 0, halts program execution until specified time in msec has elapsed.

For m=1. Same functionality except that n is number of samples rather than msec.

Event Trigger Examples:

Event Trigger - Multiple Move Sequence

The AM trippoint is used to separate the two PR moves. If AM is not used, the controller returns a ? for the second

PR command because a new PR cannot be given until motion is complete.

#TWOMOVE;'

PR 2000;'

BGX;'

AMX;'

PR 4000;'

BGX;'

EN;'

Label

Position Command

Begin Motion

Wait for Motion Complete

Next Position Move

Begin 2 nd

move

End program

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 119 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Event Trigger - Set Output after Distance

Set output bit 1 after a distance of 1000 counts from the start of the move. The accuracy of the trippoint is the speed multiplied by the sample period.

#SETBIT;'

SP 10000;'

PA 20000;'

BGX;'

AD 1000;'

SB1;'

EN;'

Label

Speed is 10000

Specify Absolute position

Begin motion

Wait until 1000 counts

Set output bit 1

End program

Event Trigger - Repetitive Position Trigger

To set the output bit every 10000 counts during a move, the AR trippoint is used as shown in the next example.

#TRIP;'

JG 50000;'

BGX;n=0;'

#REPEAT;'

AR 10000;'

TPX;'

SB1;'

WT50;'

CB1;' n=n+1;'

JP #REPEAT,n<5;'

STX;'

EN;'

Label

Specify Jog Speed

Begin Motion

# Repeat Loop

Wait 10000 counts

Tell Position

Set output 1

Wait 50 msec

Clear output 1

Increment counter

Repeat 5 times

Stop

End

Event Trigger - Start Motion on Input

This example waits for input 1 to go low and then starts motion. Note: The AI command actually halts execution of the program until the input occurs. If you do not want to halt the program sequences, you can use the Input

Interrupt function (II) or use a conditional jump on an input, such as JP#GO,@IN[1] = 1.

#INPUT;'

AI-1;'

PR 10000;'

BGX;'

EN;'

Program Label

Wait for input 1 low

Position command

Begin motion

End program

Event Trigger - Set output when At speed

#ATSPEED;'

JG 50000;'

AC 10000;'

BGX;'

ASX;'

SB1;'

EN;'

Program Label

Specify jog speed

Acceleration rate

Begin motion

Wait for at slew speed 50000

Set output 1

End program

Event Trigger - Change Speed along Vector Path

The following program changes the feed rate or vector speed at the specified distance along the vector. The vector distance is measured from the start of the move or from the last AV command.

#VECTOR;'

VMXY;VS 5000;'

VP 10000,20000;'

VP 20000,30000;'

VE;'

BGS;'

AV 5000;'

VS 1000;'

EN;'

Label

Coordinated path

Vector position

Vector position

End vector

Begin sequence

After vector distance

Reduce speed

End

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 120

Event Trigger - Multiple Move with Wait

This example makes multiple relative distance moves by waiting for each to be complete before executing new moves.

#MOVES;'

PR 12000;'

SP 20000;'

AC 100000;'

BGX;'

AD 10000;'

SP 5000;'

AMX;'

WT 200;'

PR -10000;'

SP 30000;'

AC 150000;'

BGX;'

EN;'

Label

Distance

Speed

Acceleration

Start Motion

Wait a distance of 10,000 counts

New Speed

Wait until motion is completed

Wait 200 ms

New Position

New Speed

New Acceleration

Start Motion

End

Define Output Waveform Using AT

The following program causes Output 1 to be high for 10 msec and low for 40 msec. The cycle repeats every 50 msec.

#OUTPUT;'

AT0;'

SB1;'

#LOOP;'

AT 10;'

CB1;'

AT -40;'

SB1;'

JP #LOOP;'

EN;'

Program label

Initialize time reference

Set Output 1

Loop

After 10 msec from reference,

Clear Output 1

Wait 40 msec from reference and reset reference

Set Output 1

Loop

End Program

Using AT/WT with non-default TM rates

By default both WT and AT are defined to hold up program execution for 'n' number of milliseconds (WT n or AT n).

The second field of both AT and WT can be used to have the program execution be held-up for 'n' number of samples rather than milliseconds. For example WT 400 or WT 400,0 will hold up program execution for 400 msec regardless of what is set for TM. By contrast WT 400,1 will hold up program execution for 400 samples. For the default TM of 1000 the servo update rate is 976us per sample, so the difference between WT n,0 and WT n,1 is minimal. The difference comes when the servo update rate is changed. With a low servo update rate, it is often useful to be able to time loops based upon samples rather than msec, and this is where the “unscaled” WT and AT are useful. For example:

#MAIN;'

TM 250;'

#MOVE;'

PRX=1000;'

BGX;'

MCX;'

WT 2,1;'

SB1;'

EN;'

Label

250us update rate

Label

Position Relative Move

Begin Motion

Wait for motion to complete

Wait 2 samples (500us)

Set bit 1

End Program

In the above example, without using an unscaled WT, the output would either need to be set directly after the motion was complete, or 2 ms after the motion was complete. By using WT n,1 and a lower TM, greater delay resolution was achieved.

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Conditional Jumps

The DMC-40x0 provides Conditional Jump (JP) and Conditional Jump to Subroutine (JS) instructions for branching to a new program location based on a specified condition. The conditional jump determines if a condition is satisfied and then branches to a new location or subroutine. Unlike event triggers, the conditional jump instruction does not halt the program sequence. Conditional jumps are useful for testing events in real-time. They allow the controller to make decisions without a host computer. For example, the DMC-40x0 can decide between two motion profiles based on the state of an input line.

Command Format - JP and JS

FORMAT DESCRIPTION

JS destination, logical condition Jump to subroutine if logical condition is satisfied

JP destination, logical condition Jump to location if logical condition is satisfied

The destination is a program line number or label where the program sequencer will jump if the specified condition is satisfied. Note that the line number of the first line of program memory is 0. The comma designates “IF”. The logical condition tests two operands with logical operators.

Logical operators:

OPERATOR

<

>

=

<=

>=

<>

DESCRIPTION

less than greater than equal to less than or equal to greater than or equal to not equal

Conditional Statements

The conditional statement is satisfied if it evaluates to any value other than zero. The conditional statement can be any valid DMC-40x0 numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords, and arithmetic expressions. If no conditional statement is given, the jump will always occur.

Examples:

Number

Numeric Expression

Array Element

Variable

Internal Variable

I/O v1=6 v1=v7*6

@ABS[v1]>10 v1<count[2] v1<v2

_TPX=0

_TVX>500 v1>@AN[2]

@IN[1]=0

Multiple Conditional Statements

The DMC-40x0 will accept multiple conditions in a single jump statement. The conditional statements are combined in pairs using the operands “&” and “|”. The “&” operand between any two conditions, requires that both statements must be true for the combined statement to be true. The “|” operand between any two conditions, requires that only one statement be true for the combined statement to be true.

Note: Each condition must be placed in parentheses for proper evaluation by the controller. In addition, the DMC-

40x0 executes operations from left to right. See

Mathematical and Functional Expressions

for more information.

For example, using variables named v1, v2, v3 and v4:

JP #TEST,((v1<v2)&(v3<v4))

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 122

In this example, this statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST if v1 is less than v2 and v3 is less than v4. To illustrate this further, consider this same example with an additional condition:

JP #TEST, ((v1<v2) & (v3<v4)) | (v5<v6)

This statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST under two conditions; 1. If v1 is less than v2 and v3 is less than v4. OR 2. If v5 is less than v6.

Using the JP Command:

If the condition for the JP command is satisfied, the controller branches to the specified label or line number and continues executing commands from this point. If the condition is not satisfied, the controller continues to execute the next commands in sequence.

Conditional Meaning

JP #Loop,count<10 Jump to #Loop if the variable, count, is less than 10

JS #MOVE2,@IN[1]=1

Jump to subroutine #MOVE2 if input 1 is logic level high. After the subroutine MOVE2 is executed, the program sequencer returns to the main program location where the subroutine was called.

JP #BLUE,@ABS[v2]>2 Jump to #BLUE if the absolute value of variable, v2, is greater than 2

JP #C,v1*v7<=v8*v2 Jump to #C if the value of v1 times v7 is less than or equal to the value of v8*v2

JP#A Jump to #A

Example Using JP command:

Move the X motor to absolute position 1000 counts and back to zero ten times. Wait 100 msec between moves.

#BEGIN count=10

#LOOP

PA 1000

BGX

AMX

WT 100

PA 0

BGX

AMX

WT 100 count=count-1

JP #LOOP,count>0

EN

Begin Program

Initialize loop counter

Begin loop

Position absolute 1000

Begin move

Wait for motion complete

Wait 100 msec

Position absolute 0

Begin move

Wait for motion complete

Wait 100 msec

Decrement loop counter

Test for 10 times thru loop

End Program

Using If, Else, and Endif Commands

The DMC-40x0 provides a structured approach to conditional statements using IF, ELSE and ENDIF commands.

Using the IF and ENDIF Commands

An IF conditional statement is formed by the combination of an IF and ENDIF command. The IF command has as it’s arguments one or more conditional statements. If the conditional statement(s) evaluates true, the command interpreter will continue executing commands which follow the IF command. If the conditional statement evaluates false, the controller will ignore commands until the associated ENDIF command is executed OR an ELSE command occurs in the program (see discussion of ELSE command below).

Note: An ENDIF command must always be executed for every IF command that has been executed. It is recommended that the user not include jump commands inside IF conditional statements since this causes redirection of command execution. In this case, the command interpreter may not execute an ENDIF command.

Using the ELSE Command

The ELSE command is an optional part of an IF conditional statement and allows for the execution of command only when the argument of the IF command evaluates False. The ELSE command must occur after an IF command

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and has no arguments. If the argument of the IF command evaluates false, the controller will skip commands until the ELSE command. If the argument for the IF command evaluates true, the controller will execute the commands between the IF and ELSE command.

Nesting IF Conditional Statements

The DMC-40x0 allows for IF conditional statements to be included within other IF conditional statements. This technique is known as ‘nesting’ and the DMC-40x0 allows up to 255 IF conditional statements to be nested. This is a very powerful technique allowing the user to specify a variety of different cases for branching.

Command Format - IF, ELSE and ENDIF

Format:

IF conditional statement(s)

ELSE

ENDIF

Description

Execute commands proceeding IF command (up to ELSE command) if conditional statement(s) is true, otherwise continue executing at ENDIF command or optional ELSE command.

Optional command. Allows for commands to be executed when argument of

IF command evaluates not true. Can only be used with IF command.

Command to end IF conditional statement. Program must have an ENDIF command for every IF command.

Example using IF, ELSE and ENDIF:

#TEST

II,,3

MG “WAITING FOR INPUT 1, INPUT 2”

#LOOP

JP #LOOP

EN

#ININT

IF (@IN[1]=0)

IF (@IN[2]=0)

MG “ONLY INPUT 1 IS ACTIVE

ENDIF

ELSE

MG”ONLY INPUT 2 IS ACTIVE”

ENDIF

#WAIT

JP#WAIT,(@IN[1]=0) | (@IN[2]=0)

RI0

Begin Main Program “TEST”

Enable input interrupts on input 1 and input 2

Output message

Label to be used for endless loop

Endless loop

End of main program

Input Interrupt Subroutine

IF conditional statement based on input 1

2 nd

MG “INPUT 1 AND INPUT 2 ARE ACTIVE” Message to be executed if 2

ELSE

IF conditional statement executed if 1 nd st IF conditional true

IF conditional is true

ELSE command for 2 nd

End of 2 nd

IF conditional statement

Message to be executed if 2 nd IF conditional is false

conditional statement

ELSE command for 1

End of 1 st st IF conditional statement

Message to be executed if 1

Label to be used for a loop st IF conditional statement is false

conditional statement

Loop until both input 1 and input 2 are not active

End Input Interrupt Routine without restoring trippoints

Subroutines

A subroutine is a group of instructions beginning with a label and ending with an end command (EN). Subroutines are called from the main program with the jump subroutine instruction JS, followed by a label or line number, and conditional statement. Up to 8 subroutines can be nested. After the subroutine is executed, the program sequencer returns to the program location where the subroutine was called unless the subroutine stack is manipulated as described in the following section.

Example:

An example of a subroutine to draw a square 500 counts per side is given below. The square is drawn at vector position 1000,1000.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 124

#M

CB1

VP 1000,1000;LE;BGS

AMS

SB1

JS #Square;CB1

EN

#Square v1=500;JS #L v1=-v1;JS #L

EN

#L;PR v1,v1;BGX

AMX;BGY;AMY

EN

Begin Main Program

Clear Output Bit 1 (pick up pen)

Define vector position; move pen

Wait for after motion trippoint

Set Output Bit 1 (put down pen)

Jump to square subroutine

End Main Program

Square subroutine

Define length of side

Switch direction

End subroutine

Define X,Y; Begin X

After motion on X, Begin Y

End subroutine

Stack Manipulation

It is possible to manipulate the subroutine stack by using the ZS command. Every time a JS instruction, interrupt or automatic routine (such as #POSERR or #LIMSWI) is executed, the subroutine stack is incremented by 1. Normally the stack is restored with an EN instruction. Occasionally it is desirable not to return back to the program line where the subroutine or interrupt was called. The ZS1 command clears 1 level of the stack. This allows the program sequencer to continue to the next line. The ZS0 command resets the stack to its initial value. For example, if a limit occurs and the #LIMSWI routine is executed, it is often desirable to restart the program sequence instead of returning to the location where the limit occurred. To do this, give a ZS command at the end of the

#LIMSWI routine.

Auto-Start Routine

The DMC-40x0 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been saved into the controller’s non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or reset by beginning the program with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into non-volatile memory using the command, BP.

Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions

Often it is desirable to monitor certain conditions continuously without tying up the host or DMC-40x0 program sequences. The controller can monitor several important conditions in the background. These conditions include checking for the occurrence of a limit switch, a defined input, position error, or a command error. Automatic monitoring is enabled by inserting a special, predefined label in the applications program. The pre-defined labels are:

SUBROUTINE

#LIMSWI

#ININT

#POSERR

#MCTIME

#CMDERR

#AUTO

#AUTOERR

#AMPERR

DESCRIPTION

Limit switch on any axis goes low

Input specified by II goes low

Position error exceeds limit specified by ER

Motion Complete timeout occurred. Timeout period set by TW command

Bad command given

Automatically executes on power up

Automatically executes when a checksum is encountered during #AUTO startup. Check error condition with _RS.

bit 0 for variable checksum error

bit 1 for parameter checksum error

bit 2 for program checksum error

bit 3 for master reset error (there should be no program )

Error from internal Galil amplifier

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 125 DMC-40x0 User Manual

For example, the #POSERR subroutine will automatically be executed when any axis exceeds its position error limit.

The commands in the #POSERR subroutine could decode which axis is in error and take the appropriate action. In another example, the #ININT label could be used to designate an input interrupt subroutine. When the specified input occurs, the program will be executed automatically.

NOTE: An application program must be running for #CMDERR to function.

Example - Limit Switch:

This program prints a message upon the occurrence of a limit switch. Note, for the #LIMSWI routine to function, the DMC-40x0 must be executing an applications program from memory. This can be a very simple program that does nothing but loop on a statement, such as #LOOP;JP #LOOP;EN. Motion commands, such as JG 5000 can still be sent from the PC even while the “dummy” applications program is being executed.

#LOOP

JP #LOOP;EN

#LIMSWI

MG “LIMIT OCCURRED”

RE

:XQ #LOOP

:JG 5000

:BGX

Dummy Program

Jump to Loop

Limit Switch Label

Print Message

Return to main program

Download Program

Execute Dummy Program

Jog

Begin Motion

Now, when a forward limit switch occurs on the X axis, the #LIMSWI subroutine will be executed.

Notes regarding the #LIMSWI Routine:

1) The RE command is used to return from the #LIMSWI subroutine.

2) The #LIMSWI subroutine will be re-executed if the limit switch remains active.

The #LIMSWI routine is only executed when the motor is being commanded to move.

Example - Position Error

#LOOP

JP #LOOP;EN

#POSERR v1=_TEX

MG “EXCESS POSITION ERROR”

MG “ERROR=”,v1=

RE

:XQ #LOOP

:JG 100000

:BGX

Example - Input Interrupt

#A

II1

JG 30000,,,60000

BGXW

#LOOP;JP#LOOP;EN

#ININT

STXW;AM

#TEST;JP #TEST, @IN[1]=0

JG 30000,,,6000

BGXW

RI0

Dummy Program

Loop

Position Error Routine

Read Position Error

Print Message

Print Error

Return from Error

Download program

Execute Dummy Program

Jog at High Speed

Begin Motion

Label

Input Interrupt on 1

Jog

Begin Motion

Loop

Input Interrupt

Stop Motion

Test for Input 1 still low

Restore Velocities

Begin motion

Return from interrupt routine to Main Program and do not re-enable trippoints

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 126

Example - Motion Complete Timeout

#BEGIN

TW 1000

PA 10000

BGX

MCX

EN

#MCTIME

MG “X fell short”

EN

Begin main program

Set the time out to 1000 ms

Position Absolute command

Begin motion

Motion Complete trippoint

End main program

Motion Complete Subroutine

Send out a message

End subroutine

This simple program will issue the message “X fell short” if the X axis does not reach the commanded position within 1 second of the end of the profiled move.

Example - Command Error

#BEGIN speed = 2000

JG speed;BGX;

#LOOP

JG speed;WT100

JP #LOOP

EN

#CMDERR

JP#DONE,_ED<>2

JP#DONE,_TC<>6

MG “SPEED TOO HIGH”

MG “TRY AGAIN”

ZS1

JP #BEGIN

#DONE

ZS0

EN

Begin main program

Set variable for speed

Begin motion

Update Jog speed based upon speed variable

End main program

Command error utility

Check if error on line 2

Check if out of range

Send message

Send message

Adjust stack

Return to main program

End program if other error

Zero stack

End program

The above program prompts the operator to enter a jog speed. If the operator enters a number out of range

(greater than 8 million), the #CMDERR routine will be executed prompting the operator to enter a new number.

In multitasking applications, there is an alternate method for handling command errors from different threads.

Using the XQ command along with the special operands described below allows the controller to either skip or retry invalid commands.

OPERAND

_ED1

_ED2

_ED3

FUNCTION

Returns the number of the thread that generated an error

Retry failed command (operand contains the location of the failed command)

Skip failed command (operand contains the location of the command after the failed command)

The operands are used with the XQ command in the following format:

XQ _ED2 (or _ED3),_ED1,1

Where the “,1” at the end of the command line indicates a restart; therefore, the existing program stack will not be removed when the above format executes.

The following example shows an error correction routine which uses the operands.

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 127 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example - Command Error w/Multitasking

#A

JP#A

EN

Begin thread 0 (continuous loop)

End of thread 0

#B

N=-1

KP N

TY

EN

#CMDERR

IF _TC=6

N=1

XQ _ED2,_ED1,1

ENDIF

IF _TC=1

XQ _ED3,_ED1,1

ENDIF

EN

Begin thread 1

Create new variable

Set KP to value of N, an invalid value

Issue invalid command

End of thread 1

Begin command error subroutine

If error is out of range (KP -1)

Set N to a valid number

Retry KP N command

If error is invalid command (TY)

Skip invalid command

End of command error routine

Example - Communication Interrupt

A DMC-4010 is used to move the A axis back and forth from 0 to 10000. This motion can be paused, resumed and stopped via input from an auxiliary port terminal.

#BEGIN

CC 9600,0,1,0

CI 2

MG {P2}"Type 0 to stop motion"

MG {P2}"Type 1 to pause motion"

MG {P2}"Type 2 to resume motion" rate=2000

SPA=rate

#LOOP

PAA=10000

BGA

AMA

PAA=0

BGA

AMA

JP #LOOP

EN

#COMINT

JP #STOP,P2CH="0"

JP #PAUSE,P2CH="1"

JP #RESUME,P2CH="2"

EN1,1

#STOP

STA;ZS;EN

#PAUSE rate=_SPA

SPA=0

EN1,1

#RESUME

SPA=rate

EN1,1

Label for beginning of program

Setup communication configuration for auxiliary serial port

Setup communication interrupt for auxiliary serial port

Message out of auxiliary port

Message out of auxiliary port

Message out of auxiliary port

Variable to remember speed

Set speed of A axis motion

Label for Loop

Move to absolute position 10000

Begin Motion on A axis

Wait for motion to be complete

Move to absolute position 0

Begin Motion on A axis

Wait for motion to be complete

Continually loop to make back and forth motion

End main program

Interrupt Routine

Check for S (stop motion)

Check for P (pause motion)

Check for R (resume motion)

Do nothing

Routine for stopping motion

Stop motion on A axis; Zero program stack; End Program

Routine for pausing motion

Save current speed setting of A axis motion

Set speed of A axis to zero (allows for pause)

Re-enable trippoint and communication interrupt

Routine for resuming motion

Set speed on A axis to original speed

Re-enable trippoint and communication interrupt

For additional information, see section on Using Communication Interrupt.

Example – Ethernet Communication Error

This simple program executes in the DMC-40x0 and indicates (via the serial port) when a communication handle fails. By monitoring the serial port, the user can re-establish communication if needed.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 128

#LOOP

JP#LOOP

EN

#TCPERR

MG {P1}_IA4

RE

Simple program loop

Ethernet communication error auto routine

Send message to serial port indicating which handle did not receive proper acknowledgment.

Example – Amplifier Error

The program below will execute upon the detection of an error from an internal Galil Amplifier. The bits in TA1 will be set for all axes that have an invalid hall state even if BR1 is set for those axes, this is handled with the mask variable shown in the code below.

#AMPERR

REM mask out axes that are in brushed mode for _TA1 mask=(_BRH*128)+(_BRG*64)+(_BRF*32)+(_BRE*16)+(_BRD*8)+(_BRC*4)+(_BRB*2)+_BRA [email protected][mask] mask=((_TA1&mask)&$0000FFFF)

LU0;’turn off auto update of LCD

REM amplifier error status on LCD

MG″A-ER TA0″{L1},_TA0{L2};WT2000

MG″A-ER TA1″{L1},mask{L2};WT2000

MG″A-ER TA2″{L1},_TA2{L2};WT2000

MG″A-ER TA3″{L1},_TA3{L2};WT2000

LU1;’turn on Automatic Axis Update of LCD

WT5000

REM the sum of the amperr bits should be 0 with no amplifier error er=_TA0+mask+_TA2+_TA3

JP#AMPERR,er0

REM Notify user amperr has cleared

LU0

MG″AMPERR″{L1},″RESOLVED″{L2}

WT3000

LU1

RE

JS Subroutine Stack Variables (^a, ^b, ^c, ^d, ^e, ^f, ^g, ^h)

There are 8 variables that may be passed on the subroutine stack when using the JS command. Passing values on the stack is advanced DMC programming, and is recommended for experienced DMC programmers familiar with the concept of passing arguments by value and by reference.

Notes:

1. Passing parameters has no type checking, so it is important to exercise good programming style when passing parameters. See examples below for recommended syntax.

2. Do not use spaces in expressions containing ^.

3. Global variables MUST be assigned prior to any use in subroutines where variables are passed by reference.

4. Please refer to the JS command in the controller's command reference for further important information.

Example: A Simple Adding Function

#Add

JS #SUM (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8)

MG _JS

EN

'

#SUM

EN ,,(^a+^b+^c+^d+^e+^f+^g+^h)

:Executed program from program1.dmc

36.0000

;' call subroutine, pass values

;' print return value

;NO(^a,^b,^c,^d,^e,^f,^g,^h) syntax note for use

;' return sum

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 129 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example: Variable, and an Important Note about Creating Global Variables

#Var value=5 global=8

JS #SUM (&value,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

MG value

MG _JS

EN

'

#SUM

;'a value to be passed by reference

;'a global variable

;'note first arg passed by reference

;'message out value after subroutine.

;'message out returned value

;NO(* ^a,^b,^c,^d,^e,^f,^g)

^a=^b+^c+^d+^e+^f+^g+^h+global

EN ,,^a

'notes:

'do not use spaces when working with ^

'If using global variables, they MUST be created before the subroutine is run

Executed program from program2.dmc

36.0000

36.0000

Example: Working with Arrays

#Array

DM speeds[8]

DM other[256]

JS #zeroAry ( "speeds" ,0)

JS #zeroAry ( "other" ,0)

EN

'

#zeroAry

^a[^b]=0

^b=^b+1

JP #zeroAry ,(^b<^a[-1])

EN

;'zero out all buckets in speeds[]

;'zero out all buckers in other[]

;NO(array ^a, ^b) zeros array starting at index ^b

;'[-1] returns the length of an array

Example: Abstracting Axes

#Axes

JS #runMove (0,10000,1000,100000,100000)

MG "Position:" , _JS

EN

'

#runMove

~a=^a

;NO(axis ^a, PR ^b, SP ^c, AC ^d, DC ^e) Profile movement for axis

;'~a is global, so use carefully in subroutines

'try one variable axis a-h for each thread A-H

PR ~a=^b

SP ~a=^c

AC ~a=^d

DC ~a=^e

BG ~a

MC ~a

EN ,, _TP ~a

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 130

Example: Local Scope

#Local

JS #POWER (2,2)

MG _JS

JS #POWER (2,16)

MG _JS

JS #POWER (2,-8)

MG _JS

'

#POWER ;NO(base ^a,exponent^b) Returns base^exponent power.

±

integer only

^c=1

IF ^b=0

EN ,,1

ENDIF

IF ^b<0

^d=1

^b= @ABS [^b]

ELSE

;'unpassed variable space (^c-^h) can be used as local scope variables

;'special case, exponent = 0

;'special case, exponent < 0, invert result

^d=0

ENDIF

#PWRHLPR

^c=^c*^a

^b=^b-1

JP #PWRHLPR,^ b>0

;'if inversion required IF ^d=1

^c=(1/^c)

ENDIF

EN ,,^c

Executed program from program1.dmc

4.0000

65536.0000

0.0039

Example: Recursion

'although the stack depth is only 16, Galil DMC code does support recursion

JS #AxsInfo (0)

MG {Z2.0} "Recursed through " , _JS , " stacks"

EN

'

#AxsInfo

~h=^a

^b=(^a+$41)*$1000000

;NO(axis ^a) List info for axes

;'convert to Galil String

MG ^b{S1}, " Axis: " {N}

MG {F8.0

}"Position: " , _TP ~h, " Error:" , _TE ~h, " Torque:" , _TT ~h{F1.4}

;'recursion exit condition IF ^a=7

EN ,,1

ENDIF

JS #AxsInfo (^a + 1)

EN ,, _JS +1

;'stack up recursion

;' as recursion closes, add up stack depths

Executed program from program1.dmc

A Axis: Position: 00029319 Error: 00001312 Torque: 9.9982

B Axis: Position: -00001612 Error: 00000936 Torque: 1.7253

C Axis: Position: 00001696 Error:-00001076 Torque:-1.9834

D Axis: Position: -00002020 Error: 00001156 Torque: 2.1309

E Axis: Position: 00000700 Error:-00001300 Torque:-2.3963

F Axis: Position: 00000156 Error:-00000792 Torque:-1.4599

G Axis: Position: -00002212 Error: 00001732 Torque: 3.1926

H Axis: Position: 00002665 Error:-00001721 Torque:-3.1723

Recursed through 8 stacks

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 131 DMC-40x0 User Manual

General Program Flow and Timing information

This section will discuss general programming flow and timing information for Galil programming.

REM vs. NO or ' comments

There are 2 ways to add comments to a .dmc program. REM statements or NO/ ' comments. The main difference between the 2 is that REM statements are stripped from the program upon download to the controller and NO or ' comments are left in the program. In most instances the reason for using REM statements instead of NO or ' is to save program memory. The other benefit to using REM commands comes when command execution of a loop, thread or any section of code is critical. Although they do not take much time, NO and ' comments still take time to process. So when command execution time is critical, REM statements should be used. The 2 examples below demonstrate the difference in command execution of a loop containing comments.

The GalilTools software will treat an apostrophe (') comment different from an NO when the compression algorithm is activated upon a program download (line > 80 characters or program memory > 4000 lines). In this case the software will remove all (') comments as part of the compression and it will download all NO comments to the controller.

Note: Actual processing time will vary depending upon number of axes, communication activity, number of threads currently executing etc.

#a i=0;'initialize a counter t= TIME;' set an initial time reference

#loop

NO this comment takes time to process

'this comment takes time to process i=i+1;'this comment takes time to process

JP#loop,i<1000

MG TIME-t;'display number of samples from initial time reference

EN

When executed on a DMC-4020, the output from the above program returned a 116, which indicates that it took

116 samples (TM 1000) to process the commands from 't=TIME' to 'MG TIME-t'. This is about 114ms ±2ms.

Now when the comments inside of the #loop routine are changed into REM statements (a REM statement must always start on a new line), the processing is greatly reduced.

When executed on the same DMC-4020, the output from the program shown below returned a 62, which indicates that it took 62 samples to process the commands from 't=TIME' to 'MG TIME-t'. This is about 60ms ±2ms, and about 50% faster than when the comments where downloaded to the controller.

#a i=0;'initialize a counter t= TIME;' set an initial time reference

#loop

REM this comment is removed upon download and takes no time to process

REM this comment is removed upon download and takes no time to process i=i+1

REM this comment is removed upon download and takes no time to process

JP#loop,i<1000

MG TIME-t;'display number of samples from initial time reference

EN

WT vs AT and coding deterministic loops

The main difference between WT and AT is that WT will hold up execution of the next command for the specified time from the execution of the WT command, AT will hold up execution of the next command for the specified time from the last time reference set with the AT command.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 132

#A

AT0;'set initial AT time reference

WT 1000,1;'wait 1000 samples t1=TIME

AT 4000,1;'wait 4000 samples from last time reference t2=TIME-t1

REM in the above scenario, t2 will be ~3000 because AT 4000,1 will have

REM paused program execution from the time reference of AT0

REM since the WT 1000,1 took 1000 samples, there was only 3000 samples left

REM of the “4000” samples for AT 4000,1

MG t,t2;'this should output 1000,3000

EN;'End program

Where the functionality of the operation of the AT command is very useful is when it is required to have a deterministic loop operating on the controller. These instances range from writing PLC-type scan threads to writing custom control algorithms. The key to having a deterministic loop time is to have a trippoint that will wait a specified time independent of the time it took to execute the loop code. In this definition, the AT command is a perfect fit. The below code is an example of a PLC-type scan thread that runs at a 500ms loop rate. A typical implementation would be to run this code in a separate thread (ex XQ#plcscan,2).

REM this code will set output 3 high if

REM inputs 1 and 2 are high, and input 3 is low

REM else output 3 will be low

REM if input 4 is low, output 1 will be high

REM and ouput 3 will be low regardless of the

REM states of inputs 1,2 or 3

#plcscan

AT0;'set initial time reference

#scan

REM mask inputs 1-4 ti=_TI0&$F

REM variables for bit 1 and bit 3 b1=0;b3=0

REM if input 4 is high set bit 1 and clear bit 3

REM ti&8 - gets 4th bit, if 4th bit is high result = 8

IF ti&8=8;b1=1;ELSE

REM ti&7 get lower 3 bits, if 011 then result = 3

IF ti&7=3;b3=1;ENDIF;ENDIF

REM set output bits 1 and 3 accordingly

REM set outputs at the end for a PLC scan

OB1,b1;OB3,b3

REM wait 500ms (for 500 samples use AT-500,1)

REM the '-' will reset the time reference

AT-500

JP#scan

Mathematical and Functional Expressions

Mathematical Operators

For manipulation of data, the DMC-40x0 provides the use of the following mathematical operators:

Operator

%

&

|

()

*

/

+

-

Function

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Modulus

Logical And (Bit-wise)

Logical Or (On some computers, a solid vertical line appears as a broken line)

Parenthesis

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 133 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Mathematical operations are executed from left to right. Calculations within parentheses have precedence.

Examples:

speed = 7.5*V1/2 count = count+2

The variable, speed, is equal to 7.5 multiplied by V1 and divided by 2 result =_TPX-(@COS[45]*40) Puts the position of X - 28.28 in result. 40 * cosine of 45 is 28.28

temp = @IN[1]&@IN[2]

The variable, count, is equal to the current value plus 2.

temp is equal to 1 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high

Mathematical Operation Precision and Range

The controller stores non-integers in a fixed point representation (not floating point). Numbers are stored as 4 bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fraction within the range of ± 2,147,483,647.9999. The smallest number representable (and thus the precision) is 1/65536 or approximately 0.000015.

Example:

Using basic mathematics it is known that 1.4*(80,000) = 112,000. However, using a basic terminal, a DMC controller would calculate the following:

:var= 1.4*80000;'

:MG var;'

111999.5117

:

Storing the result of 1.4*80000 in var

Prints variable "var" to screen

The reason for this error relies in the precision of the controller. 1.4 must be stored to the nearest multiple of

1/65536, which is 91750/65536 = 1.3999. Thus, (91750/65536)*80000 = 111999.5117 and reveals the source of the error.

By ignoring decimals and multiplying by integers first (since they carry no error), and then adding the decimal back in by dividing by a factor of 10 will allow the user to avoid any errors caused by the limitations of precision of the controller. Continuing from the example above:

:var= 14*80000;'

:MG var;'

1120000.0000

:var= var/10;'

:MG var;'

112000.0000

:

Ignore decimals

Print result

Divide by 10 to add in decimal

Print correct result

Bit-Wise Operators

The mathematical operators & and | are bit-wise operators. The operator, &, is a Logical And. The operator, |, is a

Logical Or. These operators allow for bit-wise operations on any valid DMC-40x0 numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords, and arithmetic expressions. The bit-wise operators may also be used with strings. This is useful for separating characters from an input string. When using the input command for string input, the input variable will hold up to 6 characters. These characters are combined into a single value which is represented as 32 bits of integer and 16 bits of fraction. Each ASCII character is represented as one byte (8 bits), therefore the input variable can hold up to six characters. The first character of the string will be placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will be placed in the lowest significant byte of the fraction. The characters can be individually separated by using bit-wise operations as illustrated in the following example:

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 134

#TEST

IN “ENTER”,len{S6}

[email protected][len]

Flen=$10000*Flen len1=(Flen&$00FF) len2=(Flen&$FF00)/$100 len3=len&$000000FF len4=(len&$0000FF00)/$100 len5=(len&$00FF0000)/$10000 len6=(len&$FF000000)/$1000000

MG len6 {S4}

MG len5 {S4}

MG len4 {S4}

MG len3 {S4}

MG len2 {S4}

MG len1 {S4}

EN

Begin main program

Input character string of up to 6 characters into variable ‘len’

Define variable ‘Flen’ as fractional part of variable ‘len’

Shift Flen by 32 bits (IE - convert fraction, Flen, to integer)

Mask top byte of Flen and set this value to variable ‘len1’

Let variable, ‘len2’ = top byte of Flen

Let variable, ‘len3’ = bottom byte of len

Let variable, ‘len4’ = second byte of len

Let variable, ‘len5’ = third byte of len

Let variable, ‘len6’ = fourth byte of len

Display ‘len6’ as string message of up to 4 chars

Display ‘len5’ as string message of up to 4 chars

Display ‘len4’ as string message of up to 4 chars

Display ‘len3’ as string message of up to 4 chars

Display ‘len2’ as string message of up to 4 chars

Display ‘len1’ as string message of up to 4 chars

This program will accept a string input of up to 6 characters, parse each character, and then display each character.

Notice also that the values used for masking are represented in hexadecimal (as denoted by the preceding ‘$’). For

more information, see section Sending Messages.

To illustrate further, if the user types in the string “TESTME” at the input prompt, the controller will respond with the following:

S

T

T

E

M

E

Response from command MG len6 {S4}

Response from command MG len5 {S4}

Response from command MG len4 {S4}

Response from command MG len3 {S4}

Response from command MG len2 {S4}

Response from command MG len1 {S4}

Functions

FUNCTION

@SIN[n]

@COS[n]

@TAN[n]

@ASIN*[n]

@ACOS*[n]

@ATAN*[n]

@COM[n]

@ABS[n]

@FRAC[n]

@INT[n]

@RND[n]

@SQR[n]

@IN[n]

@OUT[n]

@AN[n]

DESCRIPTION

Sine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)

Cosine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)

Tangent of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)

Arc Cosine of n, between 0 and 180 . Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.

Arc Tangent of n, between -90 and +90 . Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees

1’s Complement of n

Absolute value of n

Fraction portion of n

Integer portion of n

Round of n (Rounds up if the fractional part of n is .5 or greater)

Square root of n (Accuracy is

±

.004)

Return digital input at general input n (where n starts at 1)

Return digital output at general output n (where n starts at 1)

Return analog input at general analog in n (where n starts at 1)

*Note that these functions are multi-valued. An application program may be used to find the correct band.

Functions may be combined with mathematical expressions. The order of execution of mathematical expressions is from left to right and can be over-ridden by using parentheses.

Examples:

[email protected][V7] v2=5*@SIN[pos] [email protected][1]

The variable, v1, is equal to the absolute value of variable v7.

The variable, v2, is equal to five times the sine of the variable, pos.

The variable, v3, is equal to the digital value of input 1.

v4=2*([email protected][5]) The variable, v4, is equal to the value of analog input 5 plus 5, then multiplied by 2.

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 135 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Variables

For applications that require a parameter that is variable, the DMC-40x0 provides 510 variables. These variables can be numbers or strings. A program can be written in which certain parameters, such as position or speed, are defined as variables. The variables can later be assigned by the operator or determined by program calculations.

For example, a cut-to-length application may require that a cut length be variable.

Example:

posx=5000

PR posx

JG rpmY*70

Assigns the value of 5000 to the variable posx

Assigns variable posx to PR command

Assigns variable rpmY multiplied by 70 to JG command.

Programmable Variables

The DMC-40x0 allows the user to create up to 510 variables. Each variable is defined by a name which can be up to eight characters. The name must start with an alphabetic character; however, numbers are permitted in the rest of the name. Spaces are not permitted. Variable names should not be the same as DMC-40x0 instructions. For example, PR is not a good choice for a variable name.

Note: It is generally a good idea to use lower-case variable names so there is no confusion between Galil commands and variable names.

Examples of valid and invalid variable names are:

Valid Variable Names

posx pos1 speedZ

Invalid Variable Names

RealLongName ; ‘Cannot have more than 8 characters

123 speed Z

; ‘Cannot begin variable name with a number

; ‘Cannot have spaces in the name

Assigning Values to Variables:

Assigned values can be numbers, internal variables and keywords, functions, controller parameters and strings.

The range for numeric variable values is 4 bytes of integer (231) followed by two bytes of fraction

(±2,147,483,647.9999).

Numeric values can be assigned to programmable variables using the equal sign.

Any valid DMC-40x0 function can be used to assign a value to a variable. For example, [email protected][v2] or [email protected][1].

Arithmetic operations are also permitted.

To assign a string value, the string must be in quotations. String variables can contain up to six characters which must be in quotation.

Examples:

posX=_TPX speed=5.75

[email protected][2] v2=v1+v3*v4 var=”CAT”

MG var{S3}

Assigns returned value from TPX command to variable posx.

Assigns value 5.75 to variable speed

Assigns logical value of input 2 to variable input

Assigns the value of v1 plus v3 times v4 to the variable v2.

Assign the string, CAT, to var

Displays the variable var – (CAT)

Assigning Variable Values to Controller Parameters

Variable values may be assigned to controller parameters such as SP or PR.

PR v1 Assign v1 to PR command

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 136

SP vS*2000 Assign vS*2000 to SP command

Displaying the value of variables at the terminal

Variables may be sent to the screen using the format, variable=. For example, v1= , returns the value of the variable v1.

Example - Using Variables for Joystick

The example below reads the voltage of an X-Y joystick and assigns it to variables vX and vY to drive the motors at proportional velocities, where:

10 Volts = 3000 rpm = 200000 c/sec

Speed/Analog input = 200000/10 = 20000

#JOYSTIK

JG 0,0

BGXY

AT0

#LOOP

Label

Set in Jog mode

Begin Motion

Set AT time reference

Loop [email protected][1]*20000 Read joystick X [email protected][2]*20000 Read joystick Y

JG vX,vY

AT-4

JP#LOOP

EN

Jog at variable vX,vY

Wait 4ms from last time reference, creates a deterministic loop time

Repeat

End

Operands

Operands allow motion or status parameters of the DMC-40x0 to be incorporated into programmable variables and expressions. Most DMC commands have an equivalent operand - which are designated by adding an underscore

(_) prior to the DMC-40x0 command. The command reference indicates which commands have an associated operand.

Status commands such as Tell Position return actual values, whereas action commands such as KP or SP return the values in the DMC-40x0 registers. The axis designation is required following the command.

Examples of Internal Variables:

posX=_TPX deriv=_KDZ*2

JP #LOOP,_TEX>5

JP #ERROR,_TC=1

Assigns value from Tell Position X to the variable posX.

Assigns value from KDZ multiplied by two to variable, deriv.

Jump to #LOOP if the position error of X is greater than 5

Jump to #ERROR if the error code equals 1.

Operands can be used in an expression and assigned to a programmable variable, but they cannot be assigned a value. For example: _KDX=2 is invalid.

Special Operands (Keywords)

The DMC-40x0 provides a few additional operands which give access to internal variables that are not accessible by standard DMC-40x0 commands.

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 137 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Keyword

_BGn

_BN

_DA

_DL

_DM

_HMn

_LFn

_LRX

_UL

TIME

Function

*Returns a 1 if motion on axis ‘n’ is complete, otherwise returns 0.

*Returns serial # of the board.

*Returns the number of arrays available

*Returns the number of available labels for programming

*Returns the available array memory

*Returns status of Home Switch (equals 0 or 1)

Returns status of Forward Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)

Returns status of Reverse Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)

*Returns the number of available variables

Free-Running Real Time Clock (off by 2.4% - Resets with power-on).

Note: TIME does not use an underscore character (_) as other keywords.

* - These keywords have corresponding commands while the keywords _LF, _LR, and TIME do not have any associated commands. All keywords are listed in the Command Reference.

Examples of Keywords:

v1=_LFX v3=TIME v4=_HMW

Assign V1 the logical state of the Forward Limit Switch on the X-axis

Assign V3 the current value of the time clock

Assign V4 the logical state of the Home input on the W-axis

Arrays

For storing and collecting numerical data, the DMC-40x0 provides array space for 24000 elements. The arrays are one dimensional and up to 30 different arrays may be defined. Each array element has a numeric range of 4 bytes of integer (2 31 ) followed by two bytes of fraction (+/-2,147,483,647.9999).

Arrays can be used to capture real-time data, such as position, torque and analog input values. In the contouring mode, arrays are convenient for holding the points of a position trajectory in a record and playback application.

Defining Arrays

An array is defined with the command DM. The user must specify a name and the number of entries to be held in the array. An array name can contain up to eight characters, starting with an uppercase alphabetic character. The number of entries in the defined array is enclosed in [ ].

Example:

DM posx[7]

DM speed[100]

DA posx[]

Defines an array names 'posx' with seven entries

Defines an array named speed with 100 entries

Frees array space

Assignment of Array Entries

Like variables, each array element can be assigned a value. Assigned values can be numbers or returned values from instructions, functions and keywords.

Array elements are addressed starting at count 0. For example the first element in the 'posx' array (defined with the DM command, DM posx[7]) would be specified as posx[0].

Values are assigned to array entries using the equal sign. Assignments are made one element at a time by specifying the element number with the associated array name.

NOTE: Arrays must be defined using the command, DM, before assigning entry values.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 138

Examples:

DM speed[10] speed[0]=7650.2

speed[0]= posx[10]=_TPX con[1][email protected][pos]*2 timer[0]=TIME

Dimension speed Array

Assigns the first element of the array, 'speed' the value 7650.2

Returns array element value

Assigns the 10 th element of the array 'posx' the returned value from the tell position command.

Assigns the second element of the array 'con' the cosine of the variable POS multiplied by 2.

Assigns the first element of the array timer the returned value of the TIME keyword.

Using a Variable to Address Array Elements

An array element number can also be a variable. This allows array entries to be assigned sequentially using a counter.

Example:

#A count=0;DM pos[10]

#LOOP

WT 10 pos[count]=_TPX pos[count]= count=count+1

JP #LOOP,count<10

EN

Begin Program

Initialize counter and define array

Begin loop

Wait 10 msec

Record position into array element

Report position

Increment counter

Loop until 10 elements have been stored

End Program

The above example records 10 position values at a rate of one value per 10 msec. The values are stored in an array named 'pos'. The variable, 'count', is used to increment the array element counter. The above example can also be executed with the automatic data capture feature described below.

Uploading and Downloading Arrays to On Board Memory

The GalilTools software is recommended for downloading and uploading array data from the controller. The

GalilTools Communication library also provides function calls for downloading and uploading array data from the controller to/from a buffer or a file.

Arrays may also be uploaded and downloaded using the QU and QD commands.

QU array[],start,end,delim

QD array[],start,end where array is an array name such as A[].

start is the first element of array (default=0) end is the last element of array (default=last element) delim specifies whether the array data is separated by a comma (delim=1) or a carriage return

(delim=0).

The file is terminated using <control>Z, <control>Q, <control>D or \.

Automatic Data Capture into Arrays

The DMC-40x0 provides a special feature for automatic capture of data such as position, position error, inputs or torque. This is useful for teaching motion trajectories or observing system performance. Up to eight types of data can be captured and stored in eight arrays. The capture rate or time interval may be specified. Recording can done as a one time event or as a circular continuous recording.

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 139 DMC-40x0 User Manual

RC n,m

RC?

Command Summary - Automatic Data Capture

Command

RA n[ ],m[ ],o[ ],p[ ]

RD type1,type2,type3,type4

Description

Selects up to eight arrays for data capture. The arrays must be defined with the DM command.

Selects the type of data to be recorded, where type1, type2, type3, and type 4 represent the various types of data (see table below). The order of data type is important and corresponds with the order of n,m,o,p arrays in the RA command.

The RC command begins data collection. Sets data capture time interval where n is an integer between 1 and 8 and designates 2 n msec between data. m is optional and specifies the number of elements to be captured. If m is not defined, the number of elements defaults to the smallest array defined by DM. When m is a negative number, the recording is done continuously in a circular manner. _RD is the recording pointer and indicates the address of the next array element. n=0 stops recording.

Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress

Data Types for Recording:

Data type Description

TIME

_AFn

_DEX

_NOX

_OP

_RLX

_RPX

_SCX

_TEX

_TI

_TPX

Controller time as reported by the TIME command

Analog input (n=X,Y,Z,W,E,F,G,H, for AN inputs 1-8)

2 nd encoder position (dual encoder)

Status bits

Output

Latched position

Commanded position

Stop code

Position error

Inputs

Encoder position

_TSX

_TTX

Switches (only bit 0-4 valid)

Torque (reports digital value

±

32544)

Note: X may be replaced by Y,Z or W for capturing data on other axes.

Operand Summary - Automatic Data Capture

_RC

_RD

Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress

Returns address of next array element.

Example - Recording into An Array

During a position move, store the X and Y positions and position error every 2 msec.

#RECORD

DM XPOS[300],YPOS[300]

DM XERR[300],YERR[300] Define X,Y error arrays

RA XPOS[],XERR[],YPOS[],YERR[] Select arrays for capture

RD _TPX,_TEX,_TPY,_TEY

Begin program

Define X,Y position arrays

PR 10000,20000

RC1

BG XY

#A;JP #A,_RC=1

MG “DONE”

EN

#PLAY

N=0

JP# DONE,N>300

N=

X POS[N]=

Y POS[N]=

XERR[N]=

YERR[N]=

N=N+1

#DONE

EN

Select data types

Specify move distance

Start recording now, at rate of 2 msec

Begin motion

Loop until done

Print message

End program

Play back

Initial Counter

Exit if done

Print Counter

Print X position

Print Y position

Print X error

Print Y error

Increment Counter

Done

End Program

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 140

De-allocating Array Space

Array space may be de-allocated using the DA command followed by the array name. DA*[0] deallocates all the arrays.

Input of Data (Numeric and String)

Sending Data from a Host

The DMC unit can accept ASCII strings from a host. This is the most common way to send data to the controller such as setting variables to numbers or strings. Any variable can be stored in a string format up to 6 characters by simply specifying defining that variable to the string value with quotes, for example: varS = “STRING”

Will assign the variable 'varS' to a string value of “STRING”.

To assign a variable a numerical value, the direct number is used, for example: varN = 123456

Will assign the variable 'varN' to a number of 123,456.

All variables on the DMC controller are stored with 4 bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fractional data.

Operator Data Entry Mode

The Operator Data Entry Mode provides for un-buffered data entry through the auxiliary RS-232 port. In this mode, the DMC-40x0 provides a buffer for receiving characters. This mode may only be used when executing an applications program.

The Operator Data Entry Mode may be specified for Port 2 only. This mode may be exited with the \ or <escape> key.

NOTE: Operator Data Entry Mode cannot be used for high rate data transfer.

Set the third field of the CC command to one to set the Operator Data Entry Mode.

To capture and decode characters in the Operator Data Mode, the DMC-40x0 provides special the following keywords:

Keyword

P2CH

P2ST

P2NM

P2CD

Function

Contains the last character received

Contains the received string

Contains the received number

Contains the status code:

-1 mode disabled

0 nothing received

1 received character, but not <enter>

2 received string, not a number

3 received number

NOTE: The value of P2CD returns to zero after the corresponding string or number is read.

These keywords may be used in an applications program to decode data and they may also be used in conditional statements with logical operators.

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Example

Instruction

JP #LOOP,P2CD< >3

JP #P,P2CH="V"

PR P2NM

JS #XAXIS,P2ST="X"

Interpretation

Checks to see if status code is 3 (number received)

Checks if last character received was a V

Assigns received number to position

Checks to see if received string is X

Using Communication Interrupt

The DMC-40x0 provides a special interrupt for communication allowing the application program to be interrupted by input from the user. The interrupt is enabled using the CI command. The syntax for the command is CI n: n = 0 n = 1 n = 2 n = -1

Don't interrupt Port 2

Interrupt on <enter> Port 2

Interrupt on any character Port 2

Clear any characters in buffer

The #COMINT label is used for the communication interrupt. For example, the DMC-40x0 can be configured to interrupt on any character received on Port 2. The #COMINT subroutine is entered when a character is received and the subroutine can decode the characters. At the end of the routine the EN command is used. EN,1 will reenable the interrupt and return to the line of the program where the interrupt was called, EN will just return to the line of the program where it was called without re-enabling the interrupt. As with any automatic subroutine, a program must be running in thread 0 at all times for it to be enabled.

Example

A DMC-40x0 is used to jog the A and B axis. This program automatically begins upon power-up and allows the user to input values from the main serial port terminal. The speed of either axis may be changed during motion by specifying the axis letter followed by the new speed value. An S stops motion on both axes.

Instruction

#AUTO speedA=10000 speedB=10000

CI 2

JG speedA, speedB

BGXY

#PRINT

MG{P2}"TO CHANGE SPEEDS"

MG{P2}"TYPE A OR B"

MG{P2}"TYPE S TO STOP"

#JOGLOOP

JG speedA, speedB

JP #JOGLOOP

EN

#COMINT

JP #A,P2CH="A"

JP #B,P2CH="B"

JP #C,P2CH="S"

ZS1;CI2;JP#JOGLOOP

#A;JS#NUM speedX=val

ZS1;CI2;JP#PRINT

#B;JS#NUM speedY=val

ZS1;CI2;JP#PRINT

#C;ST;AMX;CI-1

MG{^8}, "THE END"

ZS;EN,1

#NUM

MG "ENTER",P2CH{S},"AXIS

SPEED" {N}

#NUMLOOP; CI-1

Interpretation

Label for Auto Execute

Initial A speed

Initial B speed

Set Port 2 for Character Interrupt

Specify jog mode speed for A and B axis

Begin motion

Routine to print message to terminal

Print message

Loop to change Jog speeds

Set new jog speed

End of main program

Interrupt routine

Check for A

Check for B

Check for S

Jump if not X,Y,S

New X speed

Jump to Print

New Y speed

Jump to Print

Stop motion on S

End-Re-enable interrupt

Routine for entering new jog speed

Prompt for value

Check for enter

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 142

#NMLP

JP #NMLP,P2CD<2

JP #ERROR,P2CD=2 val=P2NM

EN

#ERROR;CI-1

MG "INVALID-TRY AGAIN"

JP #NMLP

EN

Routine to check input from terminal

Jump to error if string

Read value

End subroutine

Error Routine

Error message

End

Inputting String Variables

String variables with up to six characters may be input using the specifier, {Sn} where n represents the number of string characters to be input. If n is not specified, six characters will be accepted. For example, IN "Enter A,B or C",

V{S} specifies a string variable to be input.

The DMC-40x0, stores all variables as 6 bytes of information. When a variable is specified as a number, the value of the variable is represented as 4 bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fraction. When a variable is specified as a string, the variable can hold up to 6 characters (each ASCII character is 1 byte). When using the IN command for string input, the first input character will be placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will be placed in the lowest significant byte of the fraction. The characters can be individually separated by using bit-wise operations, see section Bit-wise Operators.

Output of Data (Numeric and String)

Numerical and string data can be output from the controller using several methods. The message command, MG, can output string and numerical data. Also, the controller can be commanded to return the values of variables and arrays, as well as other information using the interrogation commands (the interrogation commands are described in chapter 5).

Sending Messages

Messages may be sent to the bus using the message command, MG. This command sends specified text and numerical or string data from variables or arrays to the screen.

Text strings are specified in quotes and variable or array data is designated by the name of the variable or array.

For example:

MG "The Final Value is", result

In addition to variables, functions and commands, responses can be used in the message command. For example:

MG "Analog input is", @AN[1]

MG "The Position of A is", _TPA

Specifying the Port for Messages:

The port can be specified with the specifier, {P1} for the main serial port {P2} for auxiliary serial port, or {En} for the

Ethernet port.

MG {P2} "Hello World" Sends message to Auxiliary Port

Formatting Messages

String variables can be formatted using the specifier, {Sn} where n is the number of characters, 1 thru 6. For example:

MG STR {S3}

This statement returns 3 characters of the string variable named STR.

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Numeric data may be formatted using the {Fn.m} expression following the completed MG statement. {$n.m} formats data in HEX instead of decimal. The actual numerical value will be formatted with n characters to the left of the decimal and m characters to the right of the decimal. Leading zeros will be used to display specified format.

For example:

MG "The Final Value is", result {F5.2}

If the value of the variable result is equal to 4.1, this statement returns the following:

The Final Value is 00004.10

If the value of the variable result is equal to 999999.999, the above message statement returns the following:

The Final Value is 99999.99

The message command normally sends a carriage return and line feed following the statement. The carriage return and the line feed may be suppressed by sending {N} at the end of the statement. This is useful when a text string needs to surround a numeric value.

Example:

#A

JG 50000;BGA;ASA

MG "The Speed is", _TVA {F5.0} {N}

MG "counts/sec"

EN

When #A is executed, the above example will appear on the screen as:

The Speed is 50000 counts/sec

Using the MG Command to Configure Terminals

The MG command can be used to configure a terminal. Any ASCII character can be sent by using the format {^n} where n is any integer between 1 and 255.

Example:

MG {^07} {^255} sends the ASCII characters represented by 7 and 255 to the bus.

Summary of Message Functions

Function Description

" "

{Fn.m}

Surrounds text string

Formats numeric values in decimal n digits to the left of the decimal point and m digits to the right

{P1}, {P2} or {En} Send message to Main Serial Port, Auxiliary Serial Port or Ethernet Port

{$n.m} Formats numeric values in hexadecimal

{^n}

{N}

{Sn}

Sends ASCII character specified by integer n

Suppresses carriage return/line feed

Sends the first n characters of a string variable, where n is 1 thru 6.

Displaying Variables and Arrays

Variables and arrays may be sent to the screen using the format, variable= or array[x]=. For example, v1= returns the value of v1.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 144

Example - Printing a Variable and an Array element

Instruction

#DISPLAY

DM posA[7]

PR 1000

BGX

AMX v1=_TPA posA[1]=_TPA v1=

Interpretation

Label

Define Array posA with 7 entries

Position Command

Begin

After Motion

Assign Variable v1

Assign the first entry

Print v1

Interrogation Commands

The DMC-40x0 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When these command are entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage return and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF), and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. For a complete description of interrogation commands, see

363H

Chapter 5.

Using the PF Command to Format Response from Interrogation Commands

The command, PF, can change format of the values returned by theses interrogation commands:

BL ?

DE ?

DP ?

EM ?

FL ?

IP ?

TP

LE ?

PA ?

PR ?

TN ?

VE ?

TE

The numeric values may be formatted in decimal or hexadecimal with a specified number of digits to the right and left of the decimal point using the PF command.

Position Format is specified by:

PF m.n

where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4) A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format.

Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement. Hex values should be input as signed 2's complement, where negative numbers have a negative sign. The default format is PF 10.0.

If the number of decimal places specified by PF is less than the actual value, a nine appears in all the decimal places.

Example

Instruction

:DP21

:TPA

0000000021

:PF4

:TPA

0021

:PF-4

:TPA

$0015

:PF2

:TPA

99

Interpretation

Define position

Tell position

Default format

Change format to 4 places

Tell position

New format

Change to hexadecimal format

Tell Position

Hexadecimal value

Format 2 places

Tell Position

Returns 99 if position greater than 99

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Adding Leading Zeros from Response to Interrogation Commands

The leading zeros on data returned as a response to interrogation commands can be added by the use of the command, LZ. The LZ command is set to a default of 1.

LZ0

TP

-0000000009, 0000000005

LZ1

TP

-9, 5

Disables the LZ function

Tell Position Interrogation Command

Response (With Leading Zeros)

Enables the LZ function

Tell Position Interrogation Command

Response (Without Leading Zeros)

Local Formatting of Response of Interrogation Commands

The response of interrogation commands may be formatted locally. To format locally, use the command, {Fn.m} or

{$n.m} on the same line as the interrogation command. The symbol F specifies that the response should be returned in decimal format and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the right of the decimal.

TP {F2.2}

-05.00, 05.00, 00.00, 07.00

TP {$4.2}

FFFB.00,$0005.00,$0000.00,$0007.00

Tell Position in decimal format 2.2

Response from Interrogation Command

Tell Position in hexadecimal format 4.2

Response from Interrogation Command

Formatting Variables and Array Elements

The Variable Format (VF) command is used to format variables and array elements. The VF command is specified by:

VF m.n

where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4).

A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format. The default format for VF is VF 10.4

Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement.

Instruction

v1=10 v1=

:0000000010.0000

VF2.2

v1=

:10.00

VF-2.2

v1=

$0A.00

VF1 v1=

:9

Interpretation

Assign v1

Return v1

Response - Default format

Change format

Return v1

Response - New format

Specify hex format

Return v1

Response - Hex value

Change format

Return v1

Response - Overflow

Local Formatting of Variables

PF and VF commands are global format commands that affect the format of all relevant returned values and variables. Variables may also be formatted locally. To format locally, use the command, {Fn.m} or {$n.m} following the variable name and the ‘=’ symbol. F specifies decimal and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the right of the decimal.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 146

Instruction

v1=10 v1=

:0000000010.0000

v1={F4.2}

:0010.00

v1={$4.2}

:$000A.00

v1="ALPHA" v1={S4}

:ALPH

The local format is also used with the MG command.

Interpretation

Assign v1

Return v1

Default Format

Specify local format

New format

Specify hex format

Hex value

Assign string "ALPHA" to v1

Specify string format first 4 characters

Converting to User Units

Variables and arithmetic operations make it easy to input data in desired user units such as inches or RPM.

The DMC-40x0 position parameters such as PR, PA and VP have units of quadrature counts. Speed parameters such as SP, JG and VS have units of counts/sec. Acceleration parameters such as AC, DC, VA and VD have units of counts/sec2. The controller interprets time in milliseconds.

All input parameters must be converted into these units. For example, an operator can be prompted to input a number in revolutions. A program could be used such that the input number is converted into counts by multiplying it by the number of counts/revolution.

Instruction

#RUN

MG "ENTER # OF REVOLUTIONS";n1=-1

#rev;JP#rev,n1=-1

PR n1*2000

MG "ENTER SPEED IN RPM";s1=-1

#spd;JP#spd,s1=-1

SP s1*2000/60

MG "ENTER ACCEL IN RAD/SEC2";a1=-1

#acc;JP#acc,a1=-1

AC a1*2000/(2*3.14)

BG

EN

Interpretation

Label

Prompt for revs

Wait until user enters new value for n1

Convert to counts

Prompt for RPMs

Wait for user to enter new value for s1

Convert to counts/sec

Prompt for ACCEL

Wait for user to enter new value for a1

Convert to counts/sec2

Begin motion

End program

Hardware I/O

Digital Outputs

The DMC-40x0 has an 8-bit uncommitted output port and an additional 32 I/O which may be configured as inputs or outputs with the CO command for controlling external events. The DMC-4050 through DMC-4080 has an additional 8 outputs. Each bit on the output port may be set and cleared with the software instructions SB (Set Bit) and CB (Clear Bit), or OB (define output bit).

Example- Set Bit and Clear Bit

Instruction

SB6

CB4

Interpretation

Sets bit 6 of output port

Clears bit 4 of output port

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Example- Output Bit

The Output Bit (OB) instruction is useful for setting or clearing outputs depending on the value of a variable, array, input or expression. Any non-zero value results in a set bit.

Instruction

OB1, POS

OB 2, @IN [1]

OB 3, @IN [1]&@IN [2]

OB 4, COUNT [1]

Interpretation

Set Output 1 if the variable POS is non-zero. Clear Output 1 if POS equals 0.

Set Output 2 if Input 1 is high. If Input 1 is low, clear Output 2.

Set Output 3 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high.

Set Output 4 if element 1 in the array COUNT is non-zero.

The output port can be set by specifying an 16-bit word using the instruction OP (Output Port). This instruction allows a single command to define the state of the entire 16-bit output port, where bit 0 is output 1, bit1 is output2 and so on. A 1 designates that the output is on.

Example- Output Port

Instruction

OP6

OP0

OP 255

Interpretation

Sets outputs 2 and 3 of output port to high. All other bits are 0. (21 + 22 = 6)

Clears all bits of output port to zero

Sets all bits of output port to one.

(20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27)

The output port is useful for setting relays or controlling external switches and events during a motion sequence.

Example - Turn on output after move

Instruction

#OUTPUT

PR 2000

BG

AM

SB1

WT 1000

CB1

EN

Interpretation

Label

Position Command

Begin

After move

Set Output 1

Wait 1000 msec

Clear Output 1

End

Digital Inputs

The general digital inputs for are accessed by using the @IN[n] function or the TI command. The @IN[n] function returns the logic level of the specified input, n, where n is a number 1 through 48.

Example - Using Inputs to control program flow

Instruction

JP #A,@IN[1]=0

JP #B,@IN[2]=1

AI 7

AI -6

Interpretation

Jump to A if input 1 is low

Jump to B if input 2 is high

Wait until input 7 is high

Wait until input 6 is low

Example - Start Motion on Switch

Motor A must turn at 4000 counts/sec when the user flips a panel switch to on. When panel switch is turned to off position, motor A must stop turning.

Solution: Connect panel switch to input 1 of DMC-40x0. High on input 1 means switch is in on position.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 148

Instruction

#S;JG 4000

AI 1;BGA

AI -1;STA

AMA;JP #S

EN

Interpretation

Set speed

Begin after input 1 goes high

Stop after input 1 goes low

After motion, repeat

The Auxiliary Encoder Inputs

The auxiliary encoder inputs can be used for general use. For each axis, the controller has one auxiliary encoder and each auxiliary encoder consists of two inputs, channel A and channel B. The auxiliary encoder inputs are mapped to the inputs 81-96.

Each input from the auxiliary encoder is a differential line receiver and can accept voltage levels between ± 12 volts. The inputs have been configured to accept TTL level signals. To connect TTL signals, simply connect the signal to the + input and leave the - input disconnected. For other signal levels, the - input should be connected to a voltage that is ½ of the full voltage range (for example, connect the - input to 5 volts if the signal is a 0 - 12 volt logic).

Example:

A DMC-4010 has one auxiliary encoder. This encoder has two inputs (channel A and channel B). Channel A input is mapped to input 81 and Channel B input is mapped to input 82. To use this input for 2 TTL signals, the first signal will be connected to AA+ and the second to AB+. AA- and AB- will be left unconnected. To access this input, use the function @IN[81] and @IN[82].

NOTE: The auxiliary encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for stepper motor.

Input Interrupt Function

The DMC-40x0 provides an input interrupt function which causes the program to automatically execute the instructions following the #ININT label. This function is enabled using the II m,n,o command. The m specifies the beginning input and n specifies the final input in the range. The parameter o is an interrupt mask. If m and n are unused, o contains a number with the mask. For example, II,,5 enables inputs 1 and 3.

A low input on any of the specified inputs will cause automatic execution of the #ININT subroutine. The Return from Interrupt (RI) command is used to return from this subroutine to the place in the program where the interrupt had occurred. If it is desired to return to somewhere else in the program after the execution of the #ININT subroutine, the Zero Stack (ZS) command is used followed by unconditional jump statements.

IMPORTANT

Use the RI command (not EN) to return from the #ININT subroutine.

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Example - Input Interrupt

Instruction Interpretation

#A

II 1

JG 30000,-20000

BG AB

#B

TP AB

WT 1000

#LOOP;JP #LOOP,@IN[1]=0

JG 15000,10000

WT 300

BG AB

RI

Label #A

Enable input 1 for interrupt function

Set speeds on A and B axes

Begin motion on A and B axes

Label #B

Report A and B axes positions

Wait 1000 milliseconds

Jump to #B JP #B

EN

#ININT

End of program

Interrupt subroutine

MG "Interrupt has occurred" Displays the message

ST AB Stops motion on A and B axes

Loop until Interrupt cleared

Specify new speeds

Wait 300 milliseconds

Begin motion on A and B axes

Return from Interrupt subroutine

Jumping back to main program with #ININT

To jump back to the main program using the JP command, the RI command must be issued in a subroutine and then the ZS command must be issued prior to the JP command. See Application Note # 2418 for more information.

http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/optima/note2418.pdf

Analog Inputs

The DMC-40x0 provides eight analog inputs. The value of these inputs in volts may be read using the @AN[n] function where n is the analog input 1 through 8. The resolution of the Analog-to-Digital conversion is 12 bits (16bit ADC is available as an option). Analog inputs are useful for reading special sensors such as temperature, tension or pressure.

The following examples show programs which cause the motor to follow an analog signal. The first example is a point-to-point move. The second example shows a continuous move.

Example - Position Follower (Point-to-Point)

Objective - The motor must follow an analog signal. When the analog signal varies by 10V, motor must move

10000 counts.

Method: Read the analog input and command A to move to that point.

Instruction

#POINTS

SP 7000

AC 80000;DC 80000

#LOOP

[email protected][1]*1000

PA VP

BGA

AMA

JP #LOOP

EN

Interpretation

Label

Speed

Acceleration

Read and analog input, compute position

Command position

Start motion

After completion

Repeat

End

Example - Position Follower (Continuous Move)

Method: Read the analog input, compute the commanded position and the position error. Command the motor to run at a speed in proportions to the position error.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 150

Instruction

#CONT

AC 80000;DC 80000

JG 0

BGX

#LOOP [email protected][1]*1000 ve=vp-_TPA vel=ve*20

JG vel

JP #LOOP

EN

Interpretation

Label

Acceleration rate

Start job mode

Start motion

Compute desired position

Find position error

Compute velocity

Change velocity

Change velocity

End

Example – Low Pass Digital Filter for the Analog inputs

Because the analog inputs on the Galil controller can be used to close a position loop, they have a very high bandwidth and will therefor read noise that comes in on the analog input. Often when an analog input is used in a motion control system, but not for closed loop control, the higher bandwidth is not required. In this case a simple digital filter may be applied to the analog input, and the output of the filter can be used for in the motion control application. This example shows how to apply a simple single pole low-pass digital filter to an analog input. This code is commonly run in a separate thread (XQ#filt,1 – example of executing in thread 1).

#filt

REM an1 = filtered output. Use this instead of @AN[1] [email protected][1];'set initial value

REM k1+k2=1 this condition must be met

REM use division of m/2^n for elimination of round off

REM increase k1 = less filtering

REM increase k2 = more filtering k1=32/64;k2=32/64

AT0;'set initial time reference

#loop

REM calculate filtered output and then way 2 samples from last

REM time reference (last AT-2,1 or AT0) an1=(k1*@AN[1])+(k2*an1);AT-2,1

JP#loop

Extended I/O of the DMC-40x0 Controller

The DMC-40x0 controller offers 32 extended I/O points which can be configured as inputs or outputs in 8 bit increments through software. The I/O points are accessed through 1 44 pin high density connector.

Configuring the I/O of the DMC-40x0

The 32 extended I/O points of the DMC-40x0 series controller can be configured in blocks of 8. The extended I/O is denoted as blocks 2-5 or bits 17-48.

The command, CO, is used to configure the extended I/O as inputs or outputs. The CO command has one field:

CO n where n is a decimal value which represents a binary number. Each bit of the binary number represents one block of extended I/O. When set to 1, the corresponding block is configured as an output.

The least significant bit represents block 2 and the most significant bit represents block 5. The decimal value can be calculated by the following formula. n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 5*n5 where nx represents the block. If the nx value is a one, then the block of 8 I/O points is to be configured as an output. If the nx value is a zero, then the block of 8

I/O points will be configured as an input. For example, if block 4 and 5 is to be configured as an output, CO 12 is issued.

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8-Bit I/O Block

17-24

25-32

33-40

41-48

Block

2

3

4

5

Binary Representation

2 0

2 1

2

2

2

3

Decimal Value for Block

1

2

4

8

The simplest method for determining n:

Step 1. Determine which 8-bit I/O blocks to be configured as outputs.

Step 2. From the table, determine the decimal value for each I/O block to be set as an output.

Step 3. Add up all of the values determined in step 2. This is the value to be used for n.

For example, if blocks 2 and 3 are to be outputs, then n is 3 and the command, CO3, should be issued.

NOTE: This calculation is identical to the formula: n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 5*n5 where nx represents the block.

Saving the State of the Outputs in Non-Volatile Memory

The configuration of the extended I/O and the state of the outputs can be stored in the non-volatile flash memory with the BN command. If no value has been set, the default of CO 0 is used (all blocks are inputs).

Accessing Extended I/O

4080

When configured as an output, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands (where n=1 through 8 and 17 through 48). Outputs may also be defined with the conditional command, OBn (where n=1 through 8 and 17 through 48).

For 5-8 axis controllers, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands (where n=1 through 48).

The command, OP, may also be used to set output bits, specified as blocks of data. The OP command accepts 3 parameters. The first parameter sets the values of the main output port of the controller (Outputs 1-8, block 0).

The additional parameters set the value of the extended I/O as outlined:

OP m,a,b where m is the decimal representation of the bits 1-8 (values from 0 to 255) and a,b,c,d represent the extended I/O in consecutive groups of 16 bits (values from 0 to 65535). Arguments which are given for I/O points which are configured as inputs will be ignored. The following table describes the arguments used to set the state of outputs.

Argument

m a b

Blocks

0

2,3

4,5

Bits

1-8

17-32

33-48

Description

General Outputs

Extended I/O

Extended I/O

For example, if block 8 is configured as an output, the following command may be issued:

OP 7,,7

This command will set bits 1,2,3 (block 0) and bits 33,34,35 (block 4) to 1. Bits 4 through 8 and bits 36 through 48 will be set to 0. All other bits are unaffected.

When accessing I/O blocks configured as inputs, use the TIn command. The argument 'n' refers to the block to be read (n=0,2,3 or 4). The value returned will be a decimal representation of the corresponding bits.

Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] function (where n=1 through 8 or 17 through 48). If the following command is issued;

Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] function (where n=1 through 48).

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MG @IN[17] the controller will return the state of the least significant bit of block 2 (assuming block 2 is configured as an input).

Example Applications

Wire Cutter

An operator activates a start switch. This causes a motor to advance the wire a distance of 10”. When the motion stops, the controller generates an output signal which activates the cutter. Allowing 100 ms for the cutting completes the cycle.

Suppose that the motor drives the wire by a roller with a 2” diameter. Also assume that the encoder resolution is

1000 lines per revolution. Since the circumference of the roller equals 2π inches, and it corresponds to 4000 quadrature, one inch of travel equals:

4000/2π = 637 count/inch

This implies that a distance of 10 inches equals 6370 counts, and a slew speed of 5 inches per second, for example, equals 3185 count/sec.

The input signal may be applied to I1, for example, and the output signal is chosen as output 1. The motor velocity

profile and the related input and output signals are shown in Figure 7.1.

The program starts at a state that we define as #A. Here the controller waits for the input pulse on I1. As soon as the pulse is given, the controller starts the forward motion.

Upon completion of the forward move, the controller outputs a pulse for 20 ms and then waits an additional 80 ms before returning to #A for a new cycle.

INSTRUCTION

#A

AI1

PR 6370

SP 3185

BGX

AMX

SB1

WT 20

CB1

WT 80

JP #A

FUNCTION

Label

Wait for input 1

Distance

Speed

Start Motion

After motion is complete

Set output bit 1

Wait 20 ms

Clear output bit 1

Wait 80 ms

Repeat the process

START PULSE I1

MOTOR VELOCITY

OUTPUT PULSE output

TIME INTERVALS move wait ready move

Figure 7.1: Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 153 DMC-40x0 User Manual

X-Y Table Controller

An X-Y-Z system must cut the pattern shown in Figure 7.2. The X-Y table moves the plate while the Z-axis raises and

lowers the cutting tool.

The solid curves in Figure 7.2 indicate sections where cutting takes place. Those must be performed at a feed rate

of 1 inch per second. The dashed line corresponds to non-cutting moves and should be performed at 5 inch per second. The acceleration rate is 0.1 g.

The motion starts at point A, with the Z-axis raised. An X-Y motion to point B is followed by lowering the Z-axis and performing a cut along the circle. Once the circular motion is completed, the Z-axis is raised and the motion continues to point C, etc.

Assume that all of the 3 axes are driven by lead screws with 10 turns-per-inch pitch. Also assume encoder resolution of 1000 lines per revolution. This results in the relationship:

1 inch = 40,000 counts and the speeds of

1 in/sec = 40,000 count/sec

5 in/sec = 200,000 count/sec an acceleration rate of 0.1g equals

0.1g = 38.6 in/s2 = 1,544,000 count/s 2

Note that the circular path has a radius of 2” or 80000 counts, and the motion starts at the angle of 270° and traverses 360° in the CW (negative direction). Such a path is specified with the instruction

CR 80000,270,-360

Further assume that the Z must move 2” at a linear speed of 2” per second. The required motion is performed by the following instructions:

INSTRUCTION

#A

VM XY

VP 160000,160000

VE

VS 200000

VA 1544000

BGS

AMS

PR,,-80000

SP,,80000

BGZ

AMZ

CR 80000,270,-360

VE

VS 40000

BGS

AMS

PR,,80000

BGZ

AMZ

PR -21600

SP 20000

BGX

AMX

PR,,-80000

BGZ

AMZ

CR 80000,270,-360

VE

FUNCTION

Label

Circular interpolation for XY

Positions

End Vector Motion

Vector Speed

Vector Acceleration

Start Motion

When motion is complete

Move Z down

Z speed

Start Z motion

Wait for completion of Z motion

Circle

Feed rate

Start circular move

Wait for completion

Move Z up

Start Z move

Wait for Z completion

Move X

Speed X

Start X

Wait for X completion

Lower Z

Z second circle move

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 154

VS 40000

BGS

AMS

PR,,80000

BGZ

AMZ

VP -37600,-16000

VE

VS 200000

BGS

AMS

EN

Raise Z

Return XY to start

Figure 7.2: Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals

Speed Control by Joystick

The speed of a motor is controlled by a joystick. The joystick produces a signal in the range between -10V and

+10V. The objective is to drive the motor at a speed proportional to the input voltage.

Assume that a full voltage of 10 Volts must produce a motor speed of 3000 rpm with an encoder resolution of 1000 lines or 4000 count/rev. This speed equals:

3000 rpm = 50 rev/sec = 200000 count/sec

The program reads the input voltage periodically and assigns its value to the variable VIN. To get a speed of

200,000 ct/sec for 10 volts, we select the speed as:

Speed = 20000 x VIN

The corresponding velocity for the motor is assigned to the VEL variable.

Instruction

#A

JG0

BGX

#B

[email protected][1]

VEL=VIN*20000

JG VEL

JP #B

EN

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 155 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Position Control by Joystick

This system requires the position of the motor to be proportional to the joystick angle. Furthermore, the ratio between the two positions must be programmable. For example, if the control ratio is 5:1, it implies that when the joystick voltage is 5 Volts, corresponding to 1028 counts, the required motor position must be 5120 counts. The variable V3 changes the position ratio.

INSTRUCTION

#A

V3=5

DP0

JG0

BGX

#B

[email protected][1]

V2=V1*V3

V4=V2-_TPX-_TEX

V5=V4*20

JG V5

JP #B

EN

FUNCTION

Label

Initial position ratio

Define the starting position

Set motor in jog mode as zero

Start

Read analog input

Compute the desired position

Find the following error

Compute a proportional speed

Change the speed

Repeat the process

End

Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop

The continuous dual loop, enabled by the DV1 function is an effective way to compensate for backlash. In some cases, however, when the backlash magnitude is large, it may be difficult to stabilize the system. In those cases, it may be easier to use the sampled dual loop method described below.

This design example addresses the basic problems of backlash in motion control systems. The objective is to control the position of a linear slide precisely. The slide is to be controlled by a rotary motor, which is coupled to the slide by a lead screw. Such a lead screw has a backlash of 4 micron, and the required position accuracy is for

0.5 micron.

The basic dilemma is where to mount the sensor. If you use a rotary sensor, you get a 4 micron backlash error. On the other hand, if you use a linear encoder, the backlash in the feedback loop will cause oscillations due to instability.

An alternative approach is the dual-loop, where we use two sensors, rotary and linear. The rotary sensor assures stability (because the position loop is closed before the backlash) whereas the linear sensor provides accurate load position information. The operation principle is to drive the motor to a given rotary position near the final point.

Once there, the load position is read to find the position error and the controller commands the motor to move to a new rotary position which eliminates the position error.

Since the required accuracy is 0.5 micron, the resolution of the linear sensor should preferably be twice finer. A linear sensor with a resolution of 0.25 micron allows a position error of ±2 counts.

The dual-loop approach requires the resolution of the rotary sensor to be equal or better than that of the linear system. Assuming that the pitch of the lead screw is 2.5mm (approximately 10 turns per inch), a rotary encoder of

2500 lines per turn or 10,000 count per revolution results in a rotary resolution of 0.25 micron. This results in equal resolution on both linear and rotary sensors.

To illustrate the control method, assume that the rotary encoder is used as a feedback for the X-axis, and that the linear sensor is read and stored in the variable LINPOS. Further assume that at the start, both the position of X and the value of LINPOS are equal to zero. Now assume that the objective is to move the linear load to the position of

1000.

The first step is to command the X motor to move to the rotary position of 1000. Once it arrives we check the position of the load. If, for example, the load position is 980 counts, it implies that a correction of 20 counts must be made. However, when the X-axis is commanded to be at the position of 1000, suppose that the actual position

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 156

is only 995, implying that X has a position error of 5 counts, which will be eliminated once the motor settles. This implies that the correction needs to be only 15 counts, since 5 counts out of the 20 would be corrected by the Xaxis. Accordingly, the motion correction should be:

Correction = Load Position Error - Rotary Position Error

The correction can be performed a few times until the error drops below ±2 counts. Often, this is performed in one correction cycle.

Example:

INSTRUCTION FUNCTION

Label

Define starting positions as zero

#A

DP0

LINPOS=0

PR 1000

BGX

#B

AMX

WT 50

LINPOS = _DEX

ERR=1000-LINPOS-_TEX

JP #C,@ABS[ERR]<2

PR ERR

BGX

JP #B

#C

EN

Required distance

Start motion

Wait for completion

Wait 50 msec

Read linear position

Find the correction

Exit if error is small

Command correction

Repeat the process

Using the DMC Editor to Enter Programs

The GalilTools software package provides an editor and utilities that allow the upload and download of DMC programs to the motion controller.

Application programs for the DMC-40x0 may also be created and edited locally using the DMC-40x0.

The DMC-40x0 provides a line Editor for entering and modifying programs. The Edit mode is entered with the ED instruction. (Note: The ED command can only be given when the controller is in the non-edit mode, which is signified by a colon prompt).

In the Edit Mode, each program line is automatically numbered sequentially starting with 000. If no parameter follows the ED command, the editor prompter will default to the last line of the last program in memory. If desired, the user can edit a specific line number or label by specifying a line number or label following ED.

ED

:ED 5

:ED #BEGIN

Puts Editor at end of last program

Puts Editor at line 5

Puts Editor at label #BEGIN

Line numbers appear as 000,001,002 and so on. Program commands are entered following the line numbers.

Multiple commands may be given on a single line as long as the total number of characters doesn’t exceed 80 characters per line.

While in the Edit Mode, the programmer has access to special instructions for saving, inserting and deleting program lines. These special instructions are listed below:

Edit Mode Commands

<RETURN>

Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 157 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Typing the return key causes the current line of entered instructions to be saved. The editor will automatically advance to the next line. Thus, hitting a series of <RETURN> will cause the editor to advance a series of lines.

Note, changes on a program line will not be saved unless a <return> is given.

<cntrl>P

The <cntrl>P command moves the editor to the previous line.

<cntrl>I

The <cntrl>I command inserts a line above the current line. For example, if the editor is at line number 2 and

<cntrl>I is applied, a new line will be inserted between lines 1 and 2. This new line will be labeled line 2. The old line number 2 is renumbered as line 3.

<cntrl>D

The <cntrl>D command deletes the line currently being edited. For example, if the editor is at line number 2 and

<cntrl>D is applied, line 2 will be deleted. The previous line number 3 is now renumbered as line number 2.

<cntrl>Q

The <cntrl>Q quits the editor mode. In response, the DMC-40x0 will return a colon.

After the Edit session is over, the user may list the entered program using the LS command. If no operand follows the LS command, the entire program will be listed. The user can start listing at a specific line or label using the operand n. A command and new line number or label following the start listing operand specifies the location at which listing is to stop.

Example:

Instruction

:LS

:LS 5

:LS 5,9

:LS #A,9

:LS #A, #A +5

Interpretation

List entire program

Begin listing at line 5

List lines 5 thru 9

List line label #A thru line 9

List line label #A and additional 5 lines

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 158

Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection

Introduction

The DMC-40x0 provides several hardware and software features to check for error conditions and to inhibit the motor on error. These features help protect the various system components from damage.

WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to design effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Since the DMC-40x0 is an integral part of the machine, the engineer should design his overall system with protection against a possible component failure on the DMC-40x0.

Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages.

Hardware Protection

The DMC-40x0 includes hardware input and output protection lines for various error and mechanical limit conditions. These include:

Output Protection Lines

Amp Enable

This signal goes low when the motor off command is given, when the position error exceeds the value specified by the Error Limit (ER) command, or when off-on-error condition is enabled (OE1) and the abort command is given.

Each axis amplifier has separate amplifier enable lines. This signal also goes low when the watch-dog timer is activated, or upon reset.

Note: The standard configuration of the AEN signal is high amplifier enable (HAEN). Both the polarity and the amplitude can be changed. To make these changes, see section entitled

364H

Amplifier Circuit in Chapter 3.

Error Output

The error output is a TTL signal which indicates an error condition in the controller. This signal is available on the interconnect module as ERR. When the error signal is low, this indicates an error condition and the Error Light on

the controller will be illuminated. For details on the reasons why the error output would be active see Error Light

(Red LED) in Chapter 9.

Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 159 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Input Protection Lines

General Abort

A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration. For any axis in which the Off-

On-Error function is enabled, the amplifiers will be disabled. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop. If the

Off-On-Error function is not enabled, the motor will instantaneously stop and servo at the current position. The

Off-On-Error function is further discussed in this chapter.

The Abort input by default will also halt program execution; this can be changed by changing the 5 command. See the CN command in the command reference for more information.

th field of the CN

Selective Abort

The controller can be configured to provide an individual abort for each axis. Activation of the selective abort signal will act the same as the Abort Input but only on the specific axis. To configure the controller for selective abort, issue the command CN,,,1. This configures the inputs 5,6,7,8,13,14,15,16 to act as selective aborts for axes

A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H respectively.

ELO (Electronic Lock Out)

Used in conjunction with Galil amplifiers, this input allows the user the shutdown the amplifier at a hardware level.

For more detailed information on how specific Galil amplifiers behave when the ELO is triggered, see Integrated in

the Appendices.

Forward Limit Switch

Low input inhibits motion in forward direction. If the motor is moving in the forward direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if the motor is moving in the forward direction, the controller will automatically jump to the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches. The OE command can also be configured so that the axis will be disabled upon the activation of a limit switch.

Reverse Limit Switch

Low input inhibits motion in reverse direction. If the motor is moving in the reverse direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if the motor is moving in the reverse direction, the controller will automatically jump to the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches. The OE command can also be configured so that the axis will be disabled upon the activation of a limit switch.

Software Protection

The DMC-40x0 provides a programmable error limit as well as encoder failure detection. It is recommended that both the position error and encoder failure detection be used when running servo motors with the DMC-40x0.

Along with position error and encoder failure detection, then DMC-40x0 has the ability to have programmable software limit.

Position Error

The error limit can be set for any number between 0 and 2147483647 using the ER n command. The default value for ER is 16384.

Example:

ER 200,300,400,500

ER,1,,10

Set X-axis error limit for 200, Y-axis error limit to 300, Z-axis error limit to 400 counts, W-axis error limit to 500 counts

Set Y-axis error limit to 1 count, set W-axis error limit to 10 counts.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 160

The units of the error limit are quadrature counts. The error is the difference between the command position and actual encoder position. If the absolute value of the error exceeds the value specified by ER, the controller will generate several signals to warn the host system of the error condition. These signals include:

Signal or Function

# POSERR

Error Light

OE Function

AEN Output Line

State if Error Occurs

Jumps to automatic excess position error subroutine

Turns on

Shuts motor off if OE1 or OE3

Switches to Motor Off state

The Jump on Condition statement is useful for branching on a given error within a program. The position error of

X,Y,Z and W can be monitored during execution using the TE command.

Encoder Failure detection

The encoder failure detection on the controller operates based upon two factors that are user settable, a threshold of motor command output (OV), a time above that threshold (OT) in which there is no more than 4 counts of change on the encoder input for that axis. The encoder failure detection is activated with the OA command. When an encoder failure is detected and OA is set to 1 for that axis, the same conditions will occur as a position error.

Conditions for proper operation of Encoder Failure detection

The axis must have a non-zero KI setting order to detect an encoder failure when the axis is not profiling.

The IL command must be set to a value greater than the OV setting

The TL command must be set to a value greater than the OV setting

Example:

The A axis is setup with the following settings for encoder failure detection:

OA 1

OT 500

OV 3

OE 1

ER 1000

The A axis is commanded to move 300 counts, but the B channel on the encoder has failed and no longer operates.

Because the ER setting is greater than the commanded move, the error will not be detected by using the OE and ER commands, but this condition will be detected as a encoder failure. When the axis is commanded to move a 300 counts, the position error will cause the motor command voltage to be increased to a value that will be greater than the OV value, 3 volts in this case. Once the motor command output is greater than the OV threshold for more than than the 500ms defined by the OT command AND there has been less than 4 counts of change on the encoder, then the controller will turn off that axis due to an encoder failure. The motor will have moved some distance during this operation, but it will be shut down before a full runaway condition occurs.

Using Encoder Failure to detect a hard stop or stalled motor

The encoder failure detection can also be used to detect when an axis is up against a hard stop. In this scenario the motor command will be commanded above the OV threshold, but because the motor is not moving the controller will detect this scenario as an encoder failure.

Programmable Position Limits

The DMC-40x0 provides programmable forward and reverse position limits. These are set by the BL and FL software commands. Once a position limit is specified, the DMC-40x0 will not accept position commands beyond the limit. Motion beyond the limit is also prevented.

Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 161 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Example:

DP0,0,0 Define Position

BL -2000,-4000,-8000 Set Reverse position limit

FL 2000,4000,8000

JG 2000,2000,2000

BG XYZ

Set Forward position limit

Jog

Begin

(motion stops at forward limits)

Off-On-Error

The DMC-40x0 controller has a built in function which can turn off the motors under certain error conditions. This function is known as ‘Off-On-Error”. To activate the OE function for each axis, specify 1, 2 or 3 for that axis. To disable this function, specify 0 for the axes. When this function is enabled, the specified motor will be disabled under the following 3 conditions:

1. The position error for the specified axis exceeds the limit set with the command, ER

2. A hardware limit is reached

3. The abort command is given

4. The abort input is activated with a low signal.

Note: If the motors are disabled while they are moving, they may ‘coast’ to a stop because they are no longer under servo control.

To re-enable the system, use the Reset (RS) or Servo Here (SH) command.

Examples:

OE 1,1,1,1

OE 0,1,0,1

OE 2,3

Enable off-on-error for X,Y,Z and W

Enable off-on-error for Y and W axes and disable off-on-error for W and Z axes

Enable off-on-error for limit switch for the X axis, and position error (or abort input) and limit switch for the Y axis

Automatic Error Routine

The #POSERR label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if error on any axis exceeds the error limit specified by ER, a encoder failure is detected, or the abort input is triggered. The error routine must be closed with the RE command. The RE command returns from the error subroutine to the main program.

NOTE: The Error Subroutine will be entered again unless the error condition is cleared.

Example:

#A;JP #A;EN

#POSERR

MG “error”

SB 1

STX

AMX

SHX

RE

“Dummy” program

Start error routine on error

Send message

Fire relay

Stop motor

After motor stops

Servo motor here to clear error

Return to main program

Limit Switch Routine

The DMC-40x0 provides forward and reverse limit switches which inhibit motion in the respective direction. There is also a special label for automatic execution of a limit switch subroutine. The #LIMSWI label specifies the start of the limit switch subroutine. This label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if any limit switch is activated and that axis motor is moving in that direction. The RE command ends the subroutine.

The state of the forward and reverse limit switches may also be tested during the jump-on-condition statement.

The _LR condition specifies the reverse limit and _LF specifies the forward limit. X,Y,Z, or W following LR or LF specifies the axis. The CN command can be used to configure the polarity of the limit switches.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 162

Limit Switch Example:

#A;JP #A;EN

#LIMSWI

V1=_LFX

V2=_LRX

JP#LF,V1=0

JP#LR,V2=0

JP#END

#LF

MG “FORWARD LIMIT”

STX;AMX

PR-1000;BGX;AMX

JP#END

#LR

MG “REVERSE LIMIT”

STX;AMX

PR1000;BGX;AMX

#END

RE

Dummy Program

Limit Switch Utility

Check if forward limit

Check if reverse limit

Jump to #LF if forward

Jump to #LR if reverse

Jump to end

#LF

Send message

Stop motion

Move in reverse

End

#LR

Send message

Stop motion

Move forward

End

Return to main program

Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 163 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Chapter 9 Troubleshooting

Overview

The following discussion may help you get your system to work.

Potential problems have been divided into groups as follows:

1. Installation

2. Stability and Compensation

3. Operation

4. Error Light (Red LED)

The various symptoms along with the cause and the remedy are described in the following tables.

Installation

SYMPTOM

Motor runs away with no connections from controller to amplifier input.

Motor is enabled even when

MO command is given

Unable to read main or auxiliary encoder input.

Unable to read main or auxiliary encoder input.

Encoder Position Drifts

DIAGNOSIS

Adjusting offset causes the motor to change speed.

The SH command disables the motor

The encoder does not work when swapped with another encoder input.

The encoder works correctly when swapped with another encoder input.

Swapping cables fixes the problem

CAUSE

1. Amplifier has an internal offset.

REMEDY

1. Adjust amplifier offset. Amplifier offset may also be compensated by use of the offset configuration on the controller (see the OF command).

2. Replace amplifier.

Refer to Chapter 3 or contact Galil.

2. Damaged amplifier.

1. The amplifier requires the a different Amplifier

Enable setting on the

Interconnect Module

1. Wrong encoder connections.

2. Encoder is damaged

3. Encoder configuration incorrect.

1. Wrong encoder connections.

1. Check encoder wiring. For single ended encoders (CHA and CHB only) do not make any connections to the CHA- and CHB- inputs.

2. Replace encoder

3. Check CE command

1. Check encoder wiring. For single ended encoders (MA+ and MB+ only) do not make any connections to the MA- and MB- inputs.

2. Check CE command 2. Encoder configuration incorrect.

3. Encoder input or controller is damaged

1. Poor Connections / intermittent cable

3. Contact Galil

Review all connections and connector contacts.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 9 Troubleshooting ▫ 164

Encoder Position Drifts Significant noise can be seen on MA+ and / or MB+ encoder signals

1. Noise Shield encoder cables

Avoid placing power cables near encoder cables

Avoid Ground Loops

Use differential encoders

Use ±12V encoders

Stability

SYMPTOM

Servo motor runs away when the loop is closed.

Motor oscillates.

DIAGNOSIS

Reversed Motor Type corrects situation (MT -1)

CAUSE

1.

Wrong feedback polarity.

2.

Too high gain or too little damping.

REMEDY

Reverse Motor or Encoder Wiring

(remember to set Motor Type back to default value: MT 1)

Decrease KI and KP. Increase KD.

Operation

SYMPTOM DIAGNOSIS

Controller rejects commands. Response of controller from

TC1 diagnoses error.

Motor Doesn’t Move Response of controller from TC1 diagnoses error.

CAUSE

1.

Anything

2.

Anything

REMEDY

Correct problem reported by TC1

Correct problem reported by SC

Error Light (Red LED)

The red error LED has multiple meanings for Galil controllers. Here is a list of reasons the error light will come on and possible solutions:

Under Voltage

If the controller is not receiving enough voltage to power up.

Under Current

If the power supply does not have enough current, the red LED will cycle on and off along with the green power

LED.

Position Error

If any axis that is set up as a servo (MT command) has a position error value (TE) that exceeds the error limit (ER) - the error light will come on to signify there is an axis that has exceeded the position error limit. Use a DP*=0 to set all encoder positions to zero or a SH (Servo Here) command to eliminate position error.

Invalid Firmware

If the controller is interrupted during a firmware update or an incorrect version of firmware is installed - the error light will come on. The prompt will show up as a greater than sign “>” instead of the standard colon “:” prompt.

Use GalilTools software to install the correct version of firmware to fix this problem.

Self Test

During the first few seconds of power up, it is normal for the red LED to turn on while it is performing a self test. If the self test detects a problem such as corrupted memory or damaged hardware - the error light will stay on to signal a problem with the board. To fix this problem, a Master Reset may be required. The Master Reset will set

Chapter 9 Troubleshooting ▫ 165 DMC-40x0 User Manual

the controller back to factory default conditions so it is recommended that all motor and I/O cables be removed for safety while performing the Master Reset. Cables can be plugged back in after the correct settings have been loaded back to the controller (when necessary). To perform a Master Reset - find the jumper location labeled MR or MRST on the controller and put a jumper across the two pins. Power up with the jumper installed. The Self-Test will take slightly longer - up to 5seconds. After the error light shuts off, it is safe to power down and remove the

Master Reset jumper. If performing a Master Reset does not get rid of the error light, the controller may need to be sent back to the factory to be repaired. Contact Galil for more information.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 9 Troubleshooting ▫ 166

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation

Overview

The following discussion covers the operation of motion control systems. A typical motion control system consists

of the elements shown in Figure 10.1.

COMPUTER CONTROLLER DRIVER

ENCODER MOTOR

Figure 10.1: Elements of Servo Systems

The operation of such a system can be divided into three levels, as illustrated in Figure 10.2. The levels are:

1. Closing the Loop

2. Motion Profiling

3. Motion Programming

The first level, the closing of the loop, assures that the motor follows the commanded position. This is done by closing the position loop using a sensor. The operation at the basic level of closing the loop involves the subjects of modeling, analysis, and design. These subjects will be covered in the following discussions.

The motion profiling is the generation of the desired position function. This function, R(t), describes where the motor should be at every sampling period. Note that the profiling and the closing of the loop are independent functions. The profiling function determines where the motor should be and the closing of the loop forces the motor to follow the commanded position

The highest level of control is the motion program. This can be stored in the host computer or in the controller.

This program describes the tasks in terms of the motors that need to be controlled, the distances and the speed.

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 167 DMC-40x0 User Manual

LEVEL

3

MOTION

PROGRAMMING

2

MOTION

PROFILING

1

CLOSED-LOOP

CONTROL

Figure 10.2: Levels of Control Funtions

The three levels of control may be viewed as different levels of management. The top manager, the motion program, may specify the following instruction, for example.

PR 6000,4000

SP 20000,20000

AC 200000,00000

BG X

AD 2000

BG Y

EN

This program corresponds to the velocity profiles shown in Figure 10.3. Note that the profiled positions show

where the motors must be at any instant of time.

Finally, it remains up to the servo system to verify that the motor follows the profiled position by closing the servo loop.

The following section explains the operation of the servo system. First, it is explained qualitatively, and then the explanation is repeated using analytical tools for those who are more theoretically inclined.

X VELOCITY

Y VELOCITY

X POSITION

Y POSITION

Figure 10.3: Velocity and Position Profiles

TIME

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 168

Operation of Closed-Loop Systems

To understand the operation of a servo system, we may compare it to a familiar closed-loop operation, adjusting the water temperature in the shower. One control objective is to keep the temperature at a comfortable level, say

90 degrees F. To achieve that, our skin serves as a temperature sensor and reports to the brain (controller). The brain compares the actual temperature, which is called the feedback signal, with the desired level of 90 degrees F.

The difference between the two levels is called the error signal. If the feedback temperature is too low, the error is positive, and it triggers an action which raises the water temperature until the temperature error is reduced sufficiently.

The closing of the servo loop is very similar. Suppose that we want the motor position to be at 90 degrees. The motor position is measured by a position sensor, often an encoder, and the position feedback is sent to the controller. Like the brain, the controller determines the position error, which is the difference between the commanded position of 90 degrees and the position feedback. The controller then outputs a signal that is proportional to the position error. This signal produces a proportional current in the motor, which causes a motion until the error is reduced. Once the error becomes small, the resulting current will be too small to overcome the friction, causing the motor to stop.

The analogy between adjusting the water temperature and closing the position loop carries further. We have all learned the hard way, that the hot water faucet should be turned at the “right” rate. If you turn it too slowly, the temperature response will be slow, causing discomfort. Such a slow reaction is called over-damped response.

The results may be worse if we turn the faucet too fast. The overreaction results in temperature oscillations.

When the response of the system oscillates, we say that the system is unstable. Clearly, unstable responses are bad when we want a constant level.

What causes the oscillations? The basic cause for the instability is a combination of delayed reaction and high gain.

In the case of the temperature control, the delay is due to the water flowing in the pipes. When the human reaction is too strong, the response becomes unstable.

Servo systems also become unstable if their gain is too high. The delay in servo systems is between the application of the current and its effect on the position. Note that the current must be applied long enough to cause a significant effect on the velocity, and the velocity change must last long enough to cause a position change. This delay, when coupled with high gain, causes instability.

This motion controller includes a special filter which is designed to help the stability and accuracy. Typically, such a filter produces, in addition to the proportional gain, damping and integrator. The combination of the three functions is referred to as a PID filter.

The filter parameters are represented by the three constants KP, KI and KD, which correspond to the proportional, integral and derivative term respectively.

The damping element of the filter acts as a predictor, thereby reducing the delay associated with the motor response.

The integrator function, represented by the parameter KI, improves the system accuracy. With the KI parameter, the motor does not stop until it reaches the desired position exactly, regardless of the level of friction or opposing torque.

The integrator also reduces the system stability. Therefore, it can be used only when the loop is stable and has a high gain.

The output of the filter is applied to a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The resulting output signal in the range between +10 and -10 Volts is then applied to the amplifier and the motor.

The motor position, whether rotary or linear is measured by a sensor. The resulting signal, called position feedback, is returned to the controller for closing the loop.

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 169 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The following section describes the operation in a detailed mathematical form, including modeling, analysis and design.

System Modeling

The elements of a servo system include the motor, driver, encoder and the controller. These elements are shown in

Figure 10.4. The mathematical model of the various components is given below.

CONTROLLER

R

C

X

DIGITAL

FILTER

Y

ZOH DAC

V

AMP

E

MOTOR

P

ENCODER

Figure 10.4: Functional Elements of a Motion Control System

Motor-Amplifier

The motor amplifier may be configured in three modes:

1. Voltage Drive

2. Current Drive

3. Velocity Loop

The operation and modeling in the three modes is as follows:

Voltage Drive

The amplifier is a voltage source with a gain of K v motor position, P, is

[V/V]. The transfer function relating the input voltage, V, to the

P V

K

V

m

1



ST e

1

 where

T m

RJ K t

2 and

T e

L R

[s]

[s]

and the motor parameters and units are

J

K t

R

L

Torque constant [Nm/A]

Armature Resistance Ω

Combined inertia of motor and load [kg.m

2

Armature Inductance [H]

]

When the motor parameters are given in English units, it is necessary to convert the quantities to MKS units. For example, consider a motor with the parameters:

K t

= 14.16 oz - in/A = 0.1 Nm/A

R = 2 Ω

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 170

J = 0.0283 oz-in-s

2

= 2 * 10

-4

kg . m

2

L = 0.004H

Then the corresponding time constants are

T m

= 0.04 sec and

T e

= 0.002 sec

Assuming that the amplifier gain is K v

= 4, the resulting transfer function is

P/V = 40/[s(0.04s+1)(0.002s+1)]

Current Drive

The current drive generates a current I, which is proportional to the input voltage, V, with a gain of K a

. The resulting transfer function in this case is

P/V = K a

K t

/ Js

2 where Kt and J are as defined previously. For example, a current amplifier with K a described by the previous example will have the transfer function:

= 2 A/V with the motor

P/V = 1000/s

2

[rad/V]

If the motor is a DC brushless motor, it is driven by an amplifier that performs the commutation. The combined transfer function of motor amplifier combination is the same as that of a similar brush motor, as described by the previous equations.

Velocity Loop

The motor driver system may include a velocity loop where the motor velocity is sensed by a tachometer and is fed

back to the amplifier. Such a system is illustrated in Figure 10.5. Note that the transfer function between the input

voltage V and the velocity ω is:

ω /V = [K a

K t

/Js]/[1+K a

K t

K g

/Js] = 1/[K g

(sT

1

+1)] where the velocity time constant, T

1

, equals

T

1

= J/K a

K t

K g

This leads to the transfer function

P/V = 1/[K g

s(sT

1

+1)]

V

K a

Kt/Js

K g

Figure 10.5: Elements of velocity loops

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 171 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The resulting functions derived above are illustrated by the block diagram of Figure 10.6.

VOLTAGE SOURCE

V

E

K v

(ST m

1/K e

+1)(ST e

+1)

W

1

S

P

CURRENT SOURCE

V

I

K a

K t

JS

W

1

S

P

VELOCITY LOOP

V

1

K g

(ST

1

+1)

W

1

S

P

Figure 10.6: Mathematical model of the motor and amplifier in three operational modes

Encoder

The encoder generates N pulses per revolution. It outputs two signals, Channel A and B, which are in quadrature.

Due to the quadrature relationship between the encoder channels, the position resolution is increased to 4N quadrature counts/rev.

The model of the encoder can be represented by a gain of

K f

= 4N/2π [count/rad]

For example, a 1000 lines/rev encoder is modeled as

K f

= 638

DAC

The DAC or D-to-A converter converts a 16-bit number to an analog voltage. The input range of the numbers is

65536 and the output voltage range is ±10V or 20V. Therefore, the effective gain of the DAC is

K= 20/65536 = 0.0003 [V/count]

Digital Filter

The digital filter has three element in series: PID, low-pass and a notch filter. The transfer function of the filter. The transfer function of the filter elements are:

PID D(z) =

K

(

Z

Z

A

)

CZ

Z

1

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 172

Low-pass L(z) =

1

B

Notch

(

Z

N(z) =

(

Z

z

)(

Z p

)(

Z

z

)

p

)

The filter parameters, K, A, C and B are selected by the instructions KP, KD, KI and PL, respectively. The relationship between the filter coefficients and the instructions are:

K = (KP + KD)

A = KD/(KP + KD)

C = KI

B = PL

The PID and low-pass elements are equivalent to the continuous transfer function G(s).

G(s) = (P + sD + I/s) ∙ a / (s + a) where,

P = KP

D = T∙KD

I = KI/T

1 a =

T

1

n

1

B

 where T is the sampling period, and B is the pole setting

For example, if the filter parameters of the DMC-40x0 are

KP = 16

KD = 144

KI = 2

PL = 0.75

T = 0.001 s the digital filter coefficients are

K = 160

A = 0.9

C = 2 a = 250 rad/s and the equivalent continuous filter, G(s), is

G(s) = [16 + 0.144s + 2000/s] ∙ 250/ (s+250)

The notch filter has two complex zeros, z and , and two complex poles, p and .

The effect of the notch filter is to cancel the resonance affect by placing the complex zeros on top of the resonance poles. The notch poles, P and p, are programmable and are selected to have sufficient damping. It is best to select the notch parameters by the frequency terms. The poles and zeros have a frequency in Hz, selected by the command NF. The real part of the poles is set by NB and the real part of the zeros is set by NZ.

The most simple procedure for setting the notch filter, identify the resonance frequency and set NF to the same value. Set NB to about one half of NF and set NZ to a low value between zero and 5.

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 173 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ZOH

The ZOH, or zero-order-hold, represents the effect of the sampling process, where the motor command is updated once per sampling period. The effect of the ZOH can be modeled by the transfer function

H(s) = 1/(1+sT/2)

If the sampling period is T = 0.001, for example, H(s) becomes:

H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)

However, in most applications, H(s) may be approximated as one.

This completes the modeling of the system elements. Next, we discuss the system analysis.

System Analysis

To analyze the system, we start with a block diagram model of the system elements. The analysis procedure is illustrated in terms of the following example.

Consider a position control system with the DMC-40x0 controller and the following parameters:

K t

= 0.1

J = 2 * 10

-4

R = 2

K a

= 4

KP = 12.5

KD = 245

KI = 0

N = 500

T = 1

Nm/A kg.m

2

Amp/Volt

Counts/rev ms

Torque constant

System moment of inertia

Motor resistance

Current amplifier gain

Digital filter gain

Digital filter zero

No integrator

Encoder line density

Sample period

The transfer function of the system elements are:

Motor

M(s) = P/I = K t

/Js

2

= 500/s

2

[rad/A]

Amp

K a

= 4 [Amp/V]

DAC

K d

= 0.0003 [V/count]

Encoder

K f

= 4N/2π = 318 [count/rad]

ZOH

2000/(s+2000)

Digital Filter

KP = 12.5, KD = 245, T = 0.001

Therefore,

D(z) = 1030 (z-0.95)/Z

Accordingly, the coefficients of the continuous filter are:

P = 50

D = 0.98

The filter equation may be written in the continuous equivalent form:

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 174

G(s) = 50 + 0.98s = .098 (s+51)

The system elements are shown in Figure 10.7.

V

FILTER

50+0.980s

ZOH

2000

S+2000

DAC

0.0003

AMP

4

MOTOR

500

S 2

ENCODER

318

Figure 10.7: Mathematical model of the control system

The open loop transfer function, A(s), is the product of all the elements in the loop.

A(s) = 390,000 (s+51)/[s

2

(s+2000)]

To analyze the system stability, determine the crossover frequency, ω c done by the Bode plot of A(j ω c

), as shown in Figure 10.8.

at which A(j ω c

) equals one. This can be

Magnitude

4

1

0.1

50 200 2000 W (rad/s)

Figure 10.8: Bode plot of the open loop transfer function

For the given example, the crossover frequency was computed numerically resulting in 200 rad/s.

Next, we determine the phase of A(s) at the crossover frequency.

A(j200) = 390,000 (j200+51)/[(j200)2 . (j200 + 2000)]

α = Arg[A(j200)] = tan-1(200/51)-180° -tan-1(200/2000)

α = 76° - 180° - 6° = -110°

Finally, the phase margin, PM, equals

PM = 180° + α = 70°

As long as PM is positive, the system is stable. However, for a well damped system, PM should be between 30° and

45°. The phase margin of 70° given above indicated over-damped response.

Next, we discuss the design of control systems.

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 175 DMC-40x0 User Manual

System Design and Compensation

The closed-loop control system can be stabilized by a digital filter, which is pre-programmed in the DMC-40x0 controller. The filter parameters can be selected by the user for the best compensation. The following discussion presents an analytical design method.

The Analytical Method

The analytical design method is aimed at closing the loop at a crossover frequency, ω c

, with a phase margin PM.

The system parameters are assumed known. The design procedure is best illustrated by a design example.

Consider a system with the following parameters:

K t

J = 2 * 10

-4

R = 2

Nm/A kg.m

2

Torque constant

System moment of inertia

Motor resistance

K a

= 2

N = 1000

Amp/Volt

Counts/rev

Current amplifier gain

Encoder line density

The DAC of the DMC-40x0 outputs ±10V for a 16-bit command of ±32768 counts.

The design objective is to select the filter parameters in order to close a position loop with a crossover frequency of

ωc = 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45 degrees.

The first step is to develop a mathematical model of the system, as discussed in the previous system.

Motor

M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js

2

= 1000/s

2

Amp

K a

= 2 [Amp/V]

DAC

K d

= 10/32768 = .0003

Encoder

K f

= 4N/2π = 636

ZOH

H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)

Compensation Filter

G(s) = P + sD

The next step is to combine all the system elements, with the exception of G(s), into one function, L(s).

L(s) = M(s) K a

K d

K f

H(s) =3.17∙10

6

/[s

2

(s+2000)]

Then the open loop transfer function, A(s), is

A(s) = L(s) G(s)

Now, determine the magnitude and phase of L(s) at the frequency ωc = 500.

L(j500) = 3.17∙106/[(j500)2 (j500+2000)]

This function has a magnitude of

|L(j500)| = 0.00625

and a phase

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 176

Arg[L(j500)] = -180° - tan-1(500/2000) = -194°

G(s) is selected so that A(s) has a crossover frequency of 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45°. This requires that

|A(j500)| = 1

Arg [A(j500)] = -135°

However, since

A(s) = L(s) G(s) then it follows that G(s) must have magnitude of

|G(j500)| = |A(j500)/L(j500)| = 160 and a phase arg [G(j500)] = arg [A(j500)] - arg [L(j500)] = -135° + 194°= 59°

In other words, we need to select a filter function G(s) of the form

G(s) = P + sD so that at the frequency ω c

=500, the function would have a magnitude of 160 and a phase lead of 59 degrees.

These requirements may be expressed as:

|G(j500)| = |P + (j500D)| = 160 and arg [G(j500)] = tan-1[500D/P] = 59°

The solution of these equations leads to:

P = 160 cos 59° = 82.4

500D = 160 sin 59° = 137

Therefore,

D = 0.274

and

G = 82.4 + 0.2744s

The function G is equivalent to a digital filter of the form:

D(z) = KP + KD(1-z-1) where

P = KP

D = KD∙ T and

KD = D/T

Assuming a sampling period of T=1ms, the parameters of the digital filter are:

KP = 82.4

KD = 247.4

The DMC-40x0 can be programmed with the instruction:

KP 82.4

KD 68.6

Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 177 DMC-40x0 User Manual

In a similar manner, other filters can be programmed. The procedure is simplified by the following table, which summarizes the relationship between the various filters.

Equivalent Filter Form - DMC-40x0

Digital D(z) =[K(z-A/z) + Cz/(z-1)]∙(1-B)/(Z-B)

KP, KD, KI, PL K = (KP + KD)

A = KD/(KP+KD)

C = KI

B = PL

Digital D(z) = [KP + KD(1-z-1) + KI/2(1-z-1)] ∙(1-PL)/(Z-PL)

Continuous

PID, T

G(s) = (P + Ds + I/s)∙a/(s+a)

P = KP

D = T * KD

I = KI / T a = 1/T ln(1/PL)

DMC-40x0 User Manual Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 178

Appendices

Electrical Specifications

NOTE

Servo Control

Electrical specifications are only valid once controller is out of reset.

Motor command line

Main and auxiliary encoder inputs

±

10 V analog signal

Resolution: 16-bit DAC or 0.0003 volts

3 mA maximum.

Output impedance – 500 Ω

TTL compatible, but can accept up to

±

12 volts

Quadrature phase on CHA, CHB

Single-ended or differential

Maximum A, B edge rate: 22 MHz

Minimum IDX pulse width: 45 nsec

Stepper Control

STPn (Step)

DIRn (Direction)

Input / Output

TTL (0-5 volts) level at 50% duty cycle.

6,000,000 pulses/sec maximum frequency

TTL (0-5 volts)

Opto-isolated Inputs: DI[16:1]*, Limit switches, home, abort, reset

2.2 kΩ in series with opto-isolator

Active high or low requires at least 1mA to activate.

Once activated, the input requires the current to go below 0.5mA.

All Limit Switch and Home inputs use one common voltage (LSCOM) which can accept up to 24 volts.

Voltages above 24 volts require an additional resistor.

≥ 1 mA = ON; ≤ 0.5 mA = OFF

*[8:1] for 1-4 axes models, [16:1] for 5-8 axes models

Appendices ▫ 179 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Analog Inputs: AI[8:1] ±

10 volts

12-Bit Analog-to-Digital converter

16-bit optional

Optoisolated Digital Outputs: DO[16:1]* 500mA Sourcing

Extended I/O: IO[80:17]

Auxiliary Inputs as Uncommitted Inputs:

DI[96:81]*

*[8:1] for 1-4 axes models, [16:1] for 5-8 axes models

Configurable 0-5V TTL as Inputs or Outputs

Configured by the CO command in banks of 8

The auxiliary pins can be used as uncommitted inputs and are assigned to the following bits:

Axis A: DI81, DI82

Axis B: DI83, DI84

Axis C: DI85, DI86

Axis D: DI87, DI88

Axis E: DI89, DI90

Axis H: DI95, DI96

These inputs have the same specifications as listed above for encoder inputs.

Axis F: DI91, DI92

Axis G: DI93, DI94

*The number of auxiliary inputs is dependent on the number of axes ordered

Power Requirements

20-80 V

DC

12-16 W at 25° C

+5, ±12V Power Output Specifications

Output Voltage

+5V

+12V

-12V

Tolerance

±

5%

±

5%

±

5%

Max Current Output

1.1A

40mA

40mA

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 180

Performance Specifications

Minimum Servo Loop Update Time/Memory:

Normal

Minimum Servo Loop Update Time

DMC-4010

DMC-4020

DMC-4030

DMC-4040

DMC-4050

DMC-4060

DMC-4070

DMC-4080

Position Accuracy

Velocity Accuracy

Long Term

Short Term

Position Range

Velocity Range

Velocity Resolution

Motor Command Resolution

Variable Range

Variable Resolution

Number of Variables

Array Size

Program Size

Command Processing

62.5 µsec

62.5 µsec

125 µsec

125 µsec

156.25 µsec

156.25 µsec

187.5 µsec

187.5 µsec

±

1 quadrature count

Phase-locked, better than 0.005%

System dependent

±

2147483647 counts per move

Up to 22,000,000 counts/sec servo;

6,000,000 pulses/sec-stepper

2 counts/sec

16 bit or 0.0003 V

±

2 billion

1 x 10

510

-4

24000 elements, 30 arrays

4000 lines x 80 characters

~40 msec per command

Environmental

Operating Temperature

Humidity

0-70 deg C

20-95% RH, non-condensing

Appendices ▫ 181 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Ordering Options

Overview

The DMC-40x0 can be ordered in many different internal boards, the DMC, ICM, and CMB are required, and the

AMP/SMD are optional. See Part Numbers, pg 2 for a full explanation of the internal layout and the Integrated

Components, pg 208 for a description of the different board options. These individual boards have their own set of

options that can modify them. This section provides information regarding the different options available for these different boards. For information on pricing and how to order a controller with these options, see our DMC-40x0 part number generator on our website.

http://www.galilmc.com/products/dmc-40x0-part-number.php

DMC, “DMC-40X0(Y)” Controller Board Options

The following options are the “Y” configuration options that can be added to the DMC-40X0 part number. Multiple

Y-options can be ordered per board.

DIN – DIN Rail Mounting

The DIN option on the DMC-40x0 motion controller provides DIN rail mounts on the base of the controller. This will allow the controller to be mounted to any standard DIN rail.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(DIN)-C012-I000

12V – Power Controller with 12VDC

The 12V option allows the controller to be powered with a regulated 12V supply. The tolerance of the 12V input must be within ±5%. If ordered with an internal amplifier, the 12V will automatically be upgraded to the ISCNTL

option, see ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power, pg 183. In either case, the DMC controller board will be powered

through the 2-pin Molex connector on the side of the controller as shown in the Power Connections, pg 12. Molex

connector part numbers and power connector pin-outs can be found here: Power Connector Part Numbers, pg 189.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(12V)-C012-I000

TRES – Encoder Termination Resistors

The TRES option provides termination resistors on all of the main and auxiliary encoder inputs on the DMC-40x0 motion controller. The termination resistors are 120 Ω, and are placed between the positive and negative

differential inputs on the Main A, B, Index channels as well as the Auxiliary A and B channels as in Figure A.1.

Note: Single ended encoders will not operate correctly with the termination resistors installed. If a combination of differential encoder inputs with termination resistors and single ended encoders is required on the same interconnect module, contact Galil directly.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 182

Figure A.1: Encoder Inputs with -TRES option

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(TRES)-C012-I000

-16 bit – 16 bit Analog Inputs

The -16 bit option provides 16 bit analog inputs on the DMC-40x0 motion controller. The standard resolution of the analog inputs is 12 bits.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(-16bit)-C012-I000

4-20mA – 4-20mA analog inputs

The 4-20mA option converts all 8 analog inputs into 4-20mA analog inputs. This is accomplished by installing 475W precision resistors between the analog inputs and ground. When using this option the analog inputs should be configured for 0-10V analog inputs using the AQ command (AQ n,4). The equation for calculating the current is:

I ma

= 2.105 V

Where I ma

= current in mA

V = Voltage reading from DMC-40x0

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(4-20mA)-C012-I000

ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power

The ISCNTL option isolates the power input for the controller from the power input of the amplifiers. With this option, the power is brought in through the 2 pin Molex connector on the side of the controller as shown in the

Power Connections section in Chapter 2. This option is not valid when Galil amplifies are not ordered with the

DMC-40x0. Molex connector part numbers and power connector pin-outs can be found here: Power Connector

Part Numbers, pg 189.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(ISCNTL)-C012-I000-D3020

ETL – ETL Certified DMC-40x0

The DMC-40x0 can be ordered in a configuration that is ETL listed. ETL Mark is shown in Figure A.2.

Figure A.2: ETL Mark with (ETL) Option

Appendices ▫ 183 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(ETL)-C012-I000

MO – Motor Off Jumpers Installed

When a jumper is installed on the “MO” pins, the controller will be powered up in the “motor off” state. This option will cause jumper to be installed at the factory.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010(MO)-C012-I000

CMB, “-CXXX(Y)” Communication Board Options

The following options are the “Y” configuration options that can be added to the -CXXX part number. Multiple Yoptions can be ordered per board.

5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic

The 5V option for the CMB-41012 configures the 32 configurable extended I/O for 5V logic. The standard

configuration for the extended I/O is 3.3V. For more information see the Extended I/O section in Chapter 3.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012(5V)-I000

RS-422 – Serial Port Serial Communication

The default serial configuration for the DMC-40x0 is to have RS-232 communication on both the Main (P1) and Aux

(P2) serial ports. The controller can be ordered to have RS-422 on the Main, Aux or both serial ports for either the

CMB-41012 (-C012) or th CMB-41022 (-C022). For more information about RS-232 and RS-422 port settings, see

the Serial Communication Ports section in Chapter 4.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012(P1422)-I000

RS-422-Main Port

Standard connector and cable when DMC-40x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.

Pin #

6

7

4

5

8

9

1

2

3

Signal

RTS-

TXD-

RXD-

CTS-

GND

RTS+

TXD+

RXD+

CTS+

RS-422-Auxiliary Port

Standard connector and cable when DMC-40x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.

Pin #

6

7

4

5

8

9

1

2

3

Signal

CTS-

RXD-

TXD-

RTS-

GND

CTS+

RXD+

TXD+

RTS+

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 184

RS-232/422 Configuration Jumpers

Location

JP2 (-C012, default)

JP3 (-C022)

JP2 (-C012, default)

JP2 (-C022)

JP2 (-CO12, default)

JP3 (-C022)

Label

ARXD

ACTS

MRXD

MCTS

APWR

Function (If jumpered)

Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Receive” inputs on the Aux Serial port. Pins 2 and 7 on RS-422 Auxiliary Port.

Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Clear To

Send” inputs on the Aux Serial port. Pins 1 and 6 on RS-422 Auxiliary Port.

Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Receive” inputs on the Main Serial port. Pins 3 and 8 on RS-422 Main Port.

Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Clear To

Send” inputs on the Main Serial port. Pins 4 and 9 on RS-422 Main Port.

Do not use with RS-422 option.

Note: The ARXD, ACTS, MRXD and MCTS should be installed for single-drop RS-422. For multi-drop, the jumpers should be installed on the last device.

ICM, “-IXXX(Y)” Interconnect Board Options

The following options are the “Y” configuration options that can be added to the -IXXX part number. Multiple Yoptions can be ordered per board.

DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs

The DIFF option configures the ICM interconnect module with differential analog motor command outputs. Single-

ended motor command outputs are standard. See the individual ICM sections in Integrated Components for pinout

information.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012-I000(DIFF)

STEP – Differential step and direction outputs

The STEP option configures the ICM interconnect module with differential step and direction outputs. Single-

ended step and direction outputs are standard. See the individual ICM sections in Integrated Components for

pinout information.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012-I000(STEP)

SSI and BiSS – SSI and BiSS Absolute encoder Option

The BiSS and SSI options configures the ICM interconnect module for BiSS or SSI absolute encoder inputs. See the

SS and SI commands in the DMC-40x0 Command Reference. Pin-out information is shown below for the ICM-

42000 and the ICM-42200.

ICM-42000 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (BiSS or SSI Option)

6

7

4

5

2

3

Pin #

1

Label

MI+

MB+

MA+

AB+

GND

MI-

MB-

Description

I+ Index Pulse Input

B+ Main Encoder Input

A+ Main Encoder Input

Data + (Dn+ or SLO+)

Digital Ground

I- Index Pulse Input

B- Main Encoder Input

8 MAA- Main Encoder Input

Appendices ▫ 185 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Pin #

8

9

10

11

12

13

5

6

7

3

4

1

2

Label

ICM-42200 Encoder 26 pin HD D-Sub Connector (BiSS or SSI Option)

Description Pin # Label Description

RES

Reserved / Hall 2

1

14 FLS Forward Limit Switch Input

AEN

DIR

HOM

LSCOM

AA-

MI+

MA-

+5V

GND

ENBL-

RES

STP

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Amplifier Enable

Direction

Home

Limit Switch Common

Clock - (Cn- or MA-)

I+ Index Pulse Input

PWM/Step

AA-

HALA

AA+

AB-

HALB

HALC

+5V

A- Main Encoder Input

+5V

Digital Ground

Amp Enable Return

Reserved / Hall 1/ Dir_N

2

21

22

23

24

15

16

17

18

19

20

Clock - (Cn- or MA-)

A Channel Hall Sensor

Clock + (Cn+ or MA+)

Data - (Dn- or SLO-)

B Channel Hall Sensor

C Channel Hall Sensor

+5V

25

26

RES

RLS

AB-

AA+

AB+

MI-

MB+

GND

MCMD

ENBL+

MB-

MA+

Data + (Dn+ or SLO+)

I- Index Pulse Input

B+ Main Encoder Input

Digital Ground

Motor Command

Amp Enable Power

Reserved / Hall 0 / Step_N

3

Reverse Limit Switch Input

Data - (Dn- or SLO-)

Clock + (Cn+ or MA+)

B- Main Encoder Input

A+ Main Encoder Input

Note: This option is not valid with the ICM-42100 (-I100). Consult Galil if the Sinusoidal encoder and SSI encoder interfaces are required on the same set of 4 axes.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012-I000(SSI)

Amplifier Enable Configurations

The default amplifier enable configuration for the ICM interconnect modules is 5V, HAEN, SINK. This is 5V logic, high amplifier enable, and sinking. The amplifier enable configuration can be configured at the factory or in the field. It is recommended that the correct amplifier enable configuration be ordered from the factory when using the ICM-42000 (-I000) or the ICM-42100 (-I100). The Galil internal amplifiers will work with any amplifier enable configurations set on the interconnect module.

See the Amplifier Interface section in Chapter 3 for more information.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4010-C012-I000(24V,HAEN,SINK)

5V – 5V Amplifier Enable Voltage

Uses the DMC-40x0 internal 5V for the amplifier enable circuit.

12V – 12V Amplifier Enable Voltage

Uses the DMC-40x0 internal 12V for the amplifier enable circuit.

24V – 24V Amplifier Enable Voltage

ICM is configured to be run from an external power supply of 13 -24VDC.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 186

LAEN – Low Amplifier Enable

The controller sets the amplifier enable signal to logic low to enable the drive.

HAEN – High Amplifier Enable

The controller sets the amplifier enable signal to logic high to enable the drive.

SINK – Sinking Amplifier Enable

The amplifier will sink to controller ground with 5V and 12V options or to external supply ground when 24V is ordered.

Source – Sourcing Amplifier Enable

The amplifier will source the internal 5V, 12V or the external 13-24V DC supply.

AMP/SDM, “-DXXXX(Y)” Internal Amplifier Options

ISAMP – Isolation of power between each AMP amplifier

The ISAMP option separates the power pass-through between the Axes 1-4 amplifier and the Axes 5-8 amplifier.

This allows the 2 internal amplifiers to be powered at separate voltages.

If the ISCNTL option is NOT ordered on the DMC-40x0, the amplifier with the higher bus voltage will automatically power the controller. The amplifier with the higher voltage, and the voltage level does not have to be specified during time of purchase as long as the voltage falls within the range of 20-80VDC.

This option is only valid on the 5-8 Axes amplifier board.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4080-C012-I000-I000-D3040-D3040(ISAMP)

SR90 – SR-49000 Shunt Regulator Option

The SR-49000 is a shunt regulator for the DMC-40x0 controller and internal amplifiers. This option is highly recommended for any application where there is a large inertial load, or a gravitational load. To calculate if your system requires a Shut Regulator, see Application Note #5448: “Shunt Regulator Operation” linked below: http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/miscellaneous/note5448.pdf

The SR-49000 is installed inside the box of the DMC-40x0 controller, so it does not effect the form of the unit.

The SR-49000 can be ordered to activate at different voltage levels: 33V, 66V, and 90V. These would be ordered as

-SR33, -SR66, and -SR90 respectively. -SR90 is typically ordered because Galil's internal amplifiers can generally be powered up to 80VDC. As a functional example, -SR90 shunt regulator activates when the voltage supplied to the amplifier rises above 90V. When activated, the power from the power supply is dissipated through a 5W, 20W power resistor.

When used a 5-8 axis controller with two internal amplifiers, the -SRn (where n is 33, 66, or 90) option can protect

both internal amplifiers. However, with an -ISAMP (ISAMP – Isolation of power between each AMP amplifier)

option, the -SRn option will only protect the first four axis with internal amplifiers.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4040-C022-I200-I200-D3040-SR90

100mA – 100mA Maximum Current output for AMP-43140

The 100mA option configures the AMP-43140 (-D3140) for 10mA/V gain with a maximum current output of

100mA.

Appendices ▫ 187 DMC-40x0 User Manual

This option is only valid with the AMP-43140.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3140(100mA)

SSR – Solid State Relay Option for AMP-43140

The SSR option configures the AMP-43140 (-D3140) with Solid State Relays on the motor power leads that are

engaged and disengaged when the amplifier is enabled and disabled. See the -SSR Option in the AMP-43140

section of the Appendix for more information.

This option is only valid with the AMP-43140.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3140(SSR)

HALLF – Filtered Hall Sensor Inputs

The HALLF option will place a capacitor between the hall input and digital GND to filter unwanted noise. This results in cleaner, more reliable hall sensor reads. The HALLF option is only available for Galil's internal PWM amplifiers.

Part number ordering example: DMC-4020(MO)-C012-I000-D3020(HALLF)

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 188

Power Connector Part Numbers

Overview

The DMC-40x0 uses Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™ Receptacle Housing connectors for connecting DC Power to the Amplifiers,

Controller, and Motors. This section gives the specifications of these connectors. For information specific to your

Galil amplifier or driver, refer to the specific amplifier/driver in the Integrated Components section.

Molex Part Numbers

There are 3 different Molex connectors used with the DMC-40x0. The type of connectors on any given controller will be determined be the Amplifiers/Drivers that were ordered. Below are tables indicating the type of Molex

Connectors used and the specific part numbers used on each Amplifier or Driver. For more information on the connectors, go to

366H http://www.molex.com/

On Board Connector

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

MOLEX# 39-31-0020

Common Mating Connectors*

MOLEX# 39-01-2065

MOLEX# 39-01-2045

MOLEX# 39-01-2025

Crimp Part Number

MOLEX# 44476-3112

MOLEX# 44476-3112

MOLEX# 44476-3112

Type

6 Position

4 Position

2 Position

*The mating connectors listed are not the only mating connectors available from Molex. See 366H http://www.molex.com/ for the full list of available mating connectors.

Galil Amplifier / Driver

None

AMP-43040

AMP-43140

SDM-44040

SMD-44140

Power

Motor

Power

Motor

Power

Motor

Power

Motor

On Board Connector

MOLEX# 39-31-0020

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

MOLEX# 39-31-0020

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Type

2 Position

6 Position

4 Position

4 Position

2 Position

6 Position

4 Position

6 Position

4 Position

Appendices ▫ 189 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Input Current Limitations

The current for an optoisolated input shall not exceed 11mA. Some applications may require the use of an external resistor (R) to limit the amount of current for an input. These external resistors can be placed in series between the inputs and their power supply (Vs). To determine if an additional resistor (R) is required, follow Equation A1 below for guidance.

1 mA<

Vs

R+2200 Ω

<

11 mA

Equation A1: Current limitation requirements for each input.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 190

Serial Cable Connections

The DMC-40x0 requires the transmit, receive, and ground for slow communication rates. (i.e. 9600 baud) For faster rates the handshake lines are required. The connection tables below contain the handshake lines.

Standard RS-232 Specifications

25 pin Serial Connector (Male, D-type)

This table describes the pinout for standard serial ports found on most computers.

22

23

24

25

19

20

21

16

17

18

13

14

15

10

11

12

7

8

9

4

5

6

Pin #

1

2

3

NC

DTR

NC

RI

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

GND

DCD

NC

NC

NC

NC

Function

NC

TXD

RXD

RTS

CTS

DSR

Appendices ▫ 191 DMC-40x0 User Manual

9 Pin Serial Connector (Male, D-type)

Standard serial port connections found on most computers.

8

9

6

7

2

3

4

5

Pin #

1

Function

DCD

RXD

TXD

RTS

GND

DSR

RTS

CTS

RI

DMC-40x0 Serial Cable Specifications

Cable to Connect Computer 25 pin to Main Serial Port

25 Pin (Male - computer)

5 CTS

3 RXD

2 TXD

4 RTS

7 GND

9 Pin (female - controller)

8 RTS

2 TXD

3 RXD

7 CTS

5 GND

Cable to Connect Computer 9 pin to Main Serial Port Cable (9 pin)

9 Pin (FEMALE - Computer)

2 RXD

3 TXD

5 GND

7 RTS

8 CTS

9 Pin (FEMALE - Controller)

2 TXD

3 RXD

5 GND

7 CTS

8 RTS

Cable to Connect Computer 25 pin to Auxiliary Serial Port Cable (9 pin)

25 Pin (Male - terminal)

4 RTS

2 TXD

3 RXD

5 CTS

7 GND

Computer +5V

9 Pin (male - controller)

8 CTS

2 RXD

3 TXD

7 RTS

5 GND

9 (Jumper APWR if required)

Cable to Connect Computer 9 pin to Auxiliary Serial Port Cable (9 pin)

9 Pin (FEMALE - terminal)

4 RTS

3 TXD

2 RXD

1 CTS

5 GND

Controller +5V

9 Pin (MALE - Controller)

8 CTS

2 RXD

3 TXD

7 RTS

5 GND

9 (Jumper APWR if required)

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 192

Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit

ICM-42000 and ICM-42100

The following section details the steps needed to change the amplifier enable configuration for the DMC-40x0 controller with an ICM-42000 or ICM-42100. For detailed instruction on changing the amplifier enable configuration on a DMC-40x0 with an ICM-42200 see the section in Chapter 3 labeled ICM-42200 Amplifier Enable

Configuration. For electrical details about the amplifier enable circuit, see the ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 Amplifier

Enable Circuit section in Chapter 3.

For DMC-4080 refer to DMC-4080 (Steps 1 and 2) section below.

NOTE: From the default configuration, the configuration for +12V High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration does not

require the remove of the metal cover. This can be achieved by simply changing the jumpers.

DMC-4040 (Steps 1 and 2)

Step 1: Remove Cover

1.

2.

Cover Removal:

A.

Remove Jack Screws (20 Places)

B.

Remove #6-32x3/16” Button Head Cover Screws (4 Places)

Lift Cover Straight Up and Away from Unit.

Step 2: Remove ICM

Appendices ▫ 193

For DMC-4040 – Proceed to Step 3: Configure Circuit

DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-4080 (Steps 1 and 2)

Step 1: Remove Cover

1.

2.

Cover Removal:

A.

B.

Remove Jack Screws (34 Places)

Remove #6-32x3/16” Button Head Cover Screws (4 Places)

Lift Cover Straight Up and Away from Unit.

Step 2: Remove ICM(s)

DMC-4040 and DMC-4080 (Step 3)

Step 3: Configure Circuit

Reference the instructions below for the desired configuration, and then proceed to Step 4.

+5V High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration (Default) pg 195

+5V Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration pg 195

+5V High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 196

+5V Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 196

+12V High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration pg 197

+12V Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration pg 197

+12V High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 198

+12V Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 198

Isolated Power High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration pg 199

Isolated Power Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration pg 199

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 194

Isolated Power High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 200

Isolated Power Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration pg 200

+5V High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration (Default)

Default Configuration Shipped with controller when no specific setup is ordered.

+5V Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Reverse RP2

Appendices ▫ 195 DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0 User Manual

+5V High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

4.

Reverse RP2

Change JP1 to GND

Change JP2 to +5V

+5V Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

Change JP1 to GND

Change JP2 to +5V

Appendices ▫ 196

Appendices ▫ 197

+12V High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration

(Does not require the removal of Metal)

From Default Configuration:

1.

Change JP1 to +12V

+12V Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Reverse RP2

2.

Change JP1 to +12V

DMC-40x0 User Manual

DMC-40x0 User Manual

+12V High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

4.

Reverse RP2

Change JP1 to GND

Change JP2 to +12V

+12V Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

Change JP1 to GND

Change JP2 to +12V

Appendices ▫ 198

Appendices ▫ 199

Isolated Power High Amp Enable Sinking Configuration

AEC1 = V+

AEC2 = V-

For +5V to +12V, RP6 = 820 Ω

For +13V to +24V, RP6 = 4.7 kΩ

From Default Configuration:

1.

Change JP1 to AEC1

2.

3.

Change JP2 to AEC2

If AEC1 is +13V to +24V, Replace RP6 with 4.7K

Resistor Pack

Isolated Power Low Amp Enable Sinking Configuration

AEC1 = V+

AEC2 = V-

For +5V to +12V, RP6 = 820 Ω

For +13V to +24V, RP6 = 4.7 kΩ

From Default Configuration:

1.

Reverse RP2

2.

3.

4.

Change JP1 to AEC1

Change JP2 to AEC2

If AEC1 is +13V to +24V, Replace RP6 with 4.7K

Resistor Pack

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Isolated Power High Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

AEC1 = V-

AEC2 = V+

For +5V to +12V, RP6 = 820 Ω

For +13V to +24V, RP6 = 4.7 kΩ

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

Reverse RP2

Change JP1 to AEC1

4.

5.

Change JP2 to AEC2

If AEC2 is +13V to +24V, Replace RP6 with 4.7K

Resistor Pack

Isolated Power Low Amp Enable Sourcing Configuration

AEC1 = V-

AEC2 = V+

For +5V to +12V, RP6 = 820 Ω

For +13V to +24V, RP6 = 4.7 kΩ

From Default Configuration:

1.

Move U4 up one pin location on socket

2.

3.

4.

Change JP1 to AEC1

Change JP2 to AEC2

If AEC2 is +13V to +24V, Replace RP6 with 4.7K

Resistor Pack

For Steps 4 and 5 with a DMC-4080 refer to DMC-4080 (Steps 4 and 5) section below.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 200

DMC-4040 (Steps 4 and 5)

Step 4: Replace ICM

Step 5: Replace Cover

Notes:

1.

Cover Installation:

A.

Install Jack Screws (20 Places)

B.

Install #6-32x3/16” Button Head Cover Screws(4 Places)

DMC-4080 (Steps 4 and 5)

Step 4: Replace ICM(s)

Appendices ▫ 201 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Step 5: Replace Cover

Notes:

1.

Cover Installation:

A.

B.

Install Jack Screws (34 Places)

Install #6-32x3/16” Button Head Cover Screws(4 Places)

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 202

Signal Descriptions

Outputs

Motor Command

Amplifier Enable

PWM / Step

PWM / Step

Sign / Direction

Error

Output 1-Output 8

Output 9-Output 16

(DMC-4050 thru 4080)

± 10 Volt range signal for driving amplifier. In servo mode, motor command output is updated at the controller sample rate. In the motor off mode, this output is held at the OF command level.

Signal to disable and enable an amplifier. Amp Enable goes low on Abort and OE1.

PWM/STEP OUT is used for directly driving power bridges for DC servo motors or for driving step motor amplifiers. For servo motors: If you are using a conventional amplifier that accepts a ±10 Volt analog signal, this pin is not used and should be left open. The PWM output is available in two formats: Inverter and Sign Magnitude. In the Inverter mode, the

PWM (64kHz) signal is .2% duty cycle for full negative voltage, 50% for 0

Voltage and 99.8% for full positive voltage (64kHz Switching Frequency).

In the Sign Magnitude Mode (MT1.5), the PWM (128 kHz) signal is 0% for

0 Voltage, 99.6% for full voltage and the sign of the Motor Command is available at the sign output (128kHz Switching Frequency).

For stepper motors: The STEP OUT pin produces a series of pulses for input to a step motor driver. The pulses may either be low or high. The pulse width is 50%.

Used with PWM signal to give the sign of the motor command for servo amplifiers or direction for step motors.

The signal goes low when the position error on any axis exceeds the value specified by the error limit command, ER.

The high power optically isolated outputs are uncommitted and may be designated by the user to toggle relays and trigger external events. The output lines are toggled by Set Bit, SB, and Clear Bit, CB, instructions. The

OP instruction is used to define the state of all the bits of the Output port.

Inputs

Encoder, MA+, MB+

Encoder Index, MI+

Encoder, MA-, MB-, MI-

Auxiliary Encoder, AA+, AB+, Aux

A-, Aux B-

Abort

Reset

Electronic Lock Out

Position feedback from incremental encoder with two channels in quadrature, CHA and CHB. The encoder may be analog or TTL. Any resolution encoder may be used as long as the maximum frequency does not exceed 22,000,000 quadrature states/sec. The controller performs quadrature decoding of the encoder signals resulting in a resolution of quadrature counts (4 x encoder cycles). Note: Encoders that produce outputs in the format of pulses and direction may also be used by inputting the pulses into CHA and direction into Channel B and using the

CE command to configure this mode.

Once-Per-Revolution encoder pulse. Used in Homing sequence or Find

Index command to define home on an encoder index.

Differential inputs from encoder. May be input along with CHA, CHB for noise immunity of encoder signals. The CHA- and CHB- inputs are optional.

Inputs for additional encoder. Used when an encoder on both the motor and the load is required. Not available on axes configured for step motors.

A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration. Also aborts motion program.

A low input resets the state of the processor to its power-on condition.

The previously saved state of the controller, along with parameter values, and saved sequences are restored.

Input that when triggered will shut down the amplifiers at a hardware level. Useful for safety applications where amplifiers must be shut down at a hardware level.

Appendices ▫ 203 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Forward Limit Switch

Reverse Limit Switch

Home Switch

Input 1 - Input 8 isolated

Input 9 - Input 16 isolated

Latch

When active, inhibits motion in forward direction. Also causes execution of limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN command.

When active, inhibits motion in reverse direction. Also causes execution of limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN command.

Input for Homing (HM) and Find Edge (FE) instructions. Upon BG following

HM or FE, the motor accelerates to slew speed. A transition on this input will cause the motor to decelerate to a stop. The polarity of the Home

Switch may be set with the CN command.

Uncommitted inputs. May be defined by the user to trigger events.

Inputs are checked with the Conditional Jump instruction and After Input instruction or Input Interrupt. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is latch Z and Input 4 is latch W if the high speed position latch function is enabled.

High speed position latch to capture axis position on occurrence of latch signal. AL command arms latch. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input

3 is latch Z and Input 4 is latch W. Input 9 is latch E, input 10 is latch F, input 11 is latch G, input 12 is latch H.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 204

List of Other Publications

"Step by Step Design of Motion Control Systems" by Dr. Jacob Tal

"Motion Control Applications" by Dr. Jacob Tal

"Motion Control by Microprocessors" by Dr. Jacob Tal

Training Seminars

Galil, a leader in motion control with over 500,000 controllers working worldwide, has a proud reputation for anticipating and setting the trends in motion control. Galil understands your need to keep abreast with these trends in order to remain resourceful and competitive. Through a series of seminars and workshops held over the past 20 years, Galil has actively shared their market insights in a no-nonsense way for a world of engineers on the move. In fact, over 10,000 engineers have attended Galil seminars. The tradition continues with three different seminars, each designed for your particular skill set-from beginner to the most advanced.

MOTION CONTROL MADE EASY

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Those who need a basic introduction or refresher on how to successfully implement servo motion control systems.

TIME: 4 hours (8:30 am-12:30 pm)

ADVANCED MOTION CONTROL

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Those who consider themselves a "servo specialist" and require an in-depth knowledge of motion control systems to ensure outstanding controller performance. Also, prior completion of “Motion Control Made Easy" or equivalent is required. Analysis and design tools as well as several design examples will be provided.

TIME: 8 hours (8:00 am-5:00 pm)

PRODUCT WORKSHOP

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Current users of Galil motion controllers. Conducted at Galil’s headquarters in Rocklin, CA, students will gain detailed understanding about connecting systems elements, system tuning and motion programming. This is a

“hands-on” seminar and students can test their application on actual hardware and review it with Galil specialists.

Attendees must have a current application and recently purchased a Galil controller to attend this course.

TIME: Two days (8:30-4:30pm)

Appendices ▫ 205 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Contacting Us

Galil Motion Control

270 Technology Way

Rocklin, CA 95765

Phone: 916-626-0101

Fax: 916-626-0102

E-Mail Address: [email protected]

Web: 370H http:// www.

galilmc.com/

DMC-40x0 User Manual Appendices ▫ 206

WARRANTY

All controllers manufactured by Galil Motion Control are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship for a period of 18 months after shipment. Motors, and Power supplies are warranted for 1 year. Extended warranties are available.

In the event of any defects in materials or workmanship, Galil Motion Control will, at its sole option, repair or replace the defective product covered by this warranty without charge. To obtain warranty service, the defective product must be returned within 30 days of the expiration of the applicable warranty period to Galil Motion

Control, properly packaged and with transportation and insurance prepaid. We will reship at our expense only to destinations in the United States and for products within warranty.

Call Galil to receive a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) number prior to returning product to Galil.

Any defect in materials or workmanship determined by Galil Motion Control to be attributable to customer alteration, modification, negligence or misuse is not covered by this warranty.

EXCEPT AS SET FORTH ABOVE, GALIL MOTION CONTROL WILL MAKE NO WARRANTIES EITHER EXPRESSED OR

IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO SUCH PRODUCTS, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL

OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.

COPYRIGHT (3-97)

The software code contained in this Galil product is protected by copyright and must not be reproduced or disassembled in any form without prior written consent of Galil Motion Control, Inc.

Appendices ▫ 207 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Integrated Components

Overview

When ordered, the following components will reside inside the box of the DMC-40x0 motion controller. The amplifiers and stepper drivers provide power to the motors in the system, and the interconnect modules and communication boards provide the connections for the signals and communications.

For a complete understanding of where th internal components reside in the DMC-40x0 controller, please see Part

Numbers, pg 2. The full documentation for each of these components is listed in the following sections with a brief

summary below.

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) 2- and 4-axis 500W Servo Drives

The AMP-43040 (four-axis) and AMP-43020 (two-axis) are multi-axis brush/brushless amplifiers that are capable of handling 500 watts of continuous power per axis. The AMP-43040/43020 Brushless drive modules are connected to a DMC-40x0. The standard amplifier accepts DC supply voltages from 20-80 VDC.

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140) 4-axis 20W Linear Servo Drives

The AMP-43140 contains four linear drives for operating small brush-type servo motors. The AMP-43140 requires a ± 12–30 DC Volt input. Output power is 20 W per amplifier or 60 W total. The gain of each transconductance linear amplifier is 0.1 A/V at 1 A maximum current. The typical current loop bandwidth is 4 kHz.

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) 4-Axis 750W Servo Drive

The AMP-43240 is a multi-axis brush/brushless amplifiers that is capable of handling 750 watts of continuous power per axis. The AMP-43240 Brushless drive module is connected to a DMC-40x0. The standard amplifier accepts DC supply voltages from 20-80 VDC.

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) 4-Axis Sinusoidal Brushless Drive

The AMP-43540 contains four PWM drives for sinusoidally commutating brushless motors. It is capable of up to 8

Amps of continuous current and 15Amps of peak current and requires a single DC supply voltage in the range of 18-

80 VDC.

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) 20W Sinusoidal Brushless Drive

The AMP-43640 contains four linear drives for sinusoidally commutating brushless motors. The AMP-43640 requires a single 18–30VDC input. Output power delivered is typically 20 W per amplifier or 80 W total.

DMC-40x0 User Manual Integrated Components ▫ 208

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) 4-axis Stepper Drives

The SDM-44040 is a stepper driver module capable of driving up to four bipolar two-phase stepper motors. The current is selectable with options of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.4 Amps/Phase. The step resolution is selectable with options of full, half, 1/4 and 1/16.

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) 4-axis Microstep Drives

The SDM-44140 microstepper module drives four bipolar two-phase stepper motors with 1/64 microstep resolution (the SDM-44140 drives two). The current is selectable with options of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, & 3.0 Amps per axis.

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012)Communications Board

The CMB-41012 provides the connections for the Ethernet and serial communication. It also breaks out the

Extended I/O into a convenient D-sub connector for interface to external devices.

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) Communications Board

The CMB-41012 provides Dual-Ethernet ports and serial communication. It also breaks out the Extended I/O into a convenient D-sub connector for interface to external devices.

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) Interconnect Module

The ICM-42000 breaks out the internal CPU connector into convenient D-sub connectors for interface to external amplifiers and I/O devices.

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) Sinusoidal Encoder Interpolation Module

The ICM-42100 accepts sinusoidal encoder signals instead of digital encoder signals as accepted by the ICM-42000 and the ICM-42200.

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) Interconnect Module

The ICM-42200 provides a pin-out that is optimized for easy connection to external drives.

Integrated Components ▫ 209 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020)

Description

The AMP-43040 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four transconductance, PWM amplifiers for driving brushless or brush-type servo motors. Each amplifier drives motors operating at up to 7 Amps continuous,

10 Amps peak, 20–80 VDC. The gain settings of the amplifier are user-programmable at 0.4 Amp/Volt, 0.7 Amp/Volt and 1 Amp/Volt. The switching frequency is 60 kHz. The drive for each axis is software configurable to operate in either a chopper or inverter mode. The chopper mode is intended for operating low inductance motors. The amplifier offers protection for over-voltage, under-voltage, over-current, short-circuit and over-temperature. Two

AMP-43040s can be used in 5- thru 8-axis controllers. A shunt regulator option is available. A two-axis version, the

AMP-43020 is also available. If higher voltages are required, please contact Galil.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure A1.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3040(DMC-4040 with AMP-43040)

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 210

Electrical Specifications

The amplifier is a brush/brushless trans-conductance PWM amplifier. The amplifier operates in torque mode, and will output a motor current proportional to the command signal input.

Supply Voltage:

Continuous Current:

20-80 V

DC

7 A

Peak Current

Nominal Amplifier Gain

Switching Frequency

10 A

0.7 A/V

Minimum Load Inductance

60 kHz (up to 140 kHz available-contact Galil)

L(mH )=

Vs(V )

480∗I

Ripple

(

A)

Where:

Vs = Supply Voltage

Brushless Motor Commutation angle

I ripple

= 10% of the maximum current at chosen gain setting

120° (60° option available)

The default PWM output operation on the AMP-430x0(-D3040, -D3020) is Inverter Mode. The minimum inductance calculations above are based on Inverter mode. If you have a motor with lower inductance, Chopper mode can be applied for the PWM output. Contact a Galil Applications Engineer to review minimum inductance requirements if Chopper mode operation is required.

Mating Connectors

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 211

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

1

2

3

4

Power Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

Motor Connector

Phase C (N/C for Brushed Motors)

Phase B

No Connect

Phase A

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operation

Brushless Motor Setup

NOTE: If you purchased a Galil motor with the amplifier, it is ready for use. No additional setup is necessary.

To begin the setup of the brushless motor and amplifier, it is first necessary to have communications with the motion controller. It is also necessary to have the motor hardware connected and the amplifier powered to begin the setup phase. After the encoders and motor leads are connected, the controller and amplifier need to be configured correctly in software. Take all appropriate safety precautions. For example, set a small error limit

(ER*=1000), a low torque limit (TL*=3), and set off on Error to 1 for all axes (OE*=1).

The AMP-430x0 requires that the hall commutation for a brushless motor be manually configured. Details on how to determine the correct commutation for a brushless motor, see Application Note # 5489.

http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/miscellaneous/note5489.pdf

Brushed Motor Operation

The AMP-43040 and AMP-43020 also allow for brush operation. To configure an axis for brush-type operation, connect the 2 motor leads to Phase A and Phase B connections for the axis. Connect the encoders, homes, and limits as required. Set the controller into brush-axis operation by issuing BR n,n,n,n. By setting n=1, the controller will operate in brushed mode on that axis. For example, BR 0,1,0,0 sets the Y-axis as brush-type, all others as brushless. If an axis is set to brush-type, the amplifier has no need for the Hall inputs. These inputs can subsequently be used as general-use inputs, queried with the QH command.

Setting Amplifier Gain and Current Loop Bandwidth

AG command:

AG setting

m = 0 m = 1 m = 2

Gain Value

0.4 A/V

0.7 A/V

1.0 A/V

Table A1.1: Amplifier Gain Settings for AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020)

The gain is set with the AG command as shown in Table A1.1 for AG n=m. Select the amplifier gain that is appropriate for the motor. The gain settings for the amplifier are identical for the brush and brushless operation.

The amplifier gain command (AG) can be set to 0, 1, or 2 corresponding to 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 A/V. In addition to the gain, peak and continuous torque limits can be set through TK and TL respectively. The TK and TL values are entered in volts on an axis by axis basis. The peak limit will set the maximum voltage that will be output from the controller to the amplifier. The continuous current will set what the maximum average current is over a one

second interval. Figure A1.2 is indicative of the operation of the continuous and peak operation. In this figure, the

continuous limit was configured for 2 volts, and the peak limit was configured for 10 volts.

AU and AW commands:

With the AMP-43040 and 43020, the user is also given the ability to choose between normal and high current bandwidth (AU). In addition, the user can calculate what the bandwidth of the current loop is for their specific combination (AW). To select normal current loop gain for the X axis and high current loop gain for the Y axis, issue

AU 0,1. The command AW is used to calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier using the basic amplifier parameters.

To calculate the bandwidth for the X axis, issue AWX=v,l,n where v represents the DC voltage input to the card, l represents the inductance of the motor in millihenries, and n represents 0 or 1 for the AU setting.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 212

NOTE:For most applications, unless the motor has more than 5 mH of inductance with a 24V supply, or 10 mH of inductance with a 48 volts supply, the normal current loop bandwidth option should be chosen. AW will return the current loop bandwidth in Hertz.

Figure A1.2: Peak Current Operation

Chopper Mode

The AMP-430x0 can be put into what is called a “Chopper” mode. The chopper mode is in contrast to the normal inverter mode in which the amplifier sends PWM power to the motor of ±VS. In chopper mode, the amplifier sends a 0 to +VS PWM to the motor when moving in the forward direction, and a 0 to –VS PWM to the motor when moving in the negative direction.

This mode is set with the AU command. A setting of 0.5 is Chopper mode with normal current bandwidth. A setting of 1.5 is Chopper mode with high current bandwidth.

This mode is useful when using low inductance motors because it reduces the losses due to switching voltages across the motor windings. It is recommended to use chopper mode when using motors with 200-500 H inductance.

Using External Amplifiers

Use connectors on top of controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. In order to use the full torque limit, make sure the AG setting for the axes using external amplifiers are set to 0 or 1. Set the BR command to 1 for any axis that will be setup to run external amplifiers (this will disable the hall error protection). For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 213 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Error Monitoring and Protection

The amplifier is protected against over-voltage, under-voltage, over-temperature, and over-current for brush and brushless operation. The controller will also monitor for illegal Hall states (000 or 111 with 120° phasing). The controller will monitor the error conditions and respond as programmed in the application. The errors are monitored via the TA command. TA n may be used to monitor the errors with n = 0, 1, 2, or 3. The command will return an eight bit number representing specific conditions. TA0 will return errors with regard to under voltage, over voltage, over current, and over temperature. TA1 will return hall errors on the appropriate axes, TA2 will monitor if the amplifier current exceeds the continuous setting, and TA3 will return if the ELO input has been triggered.

The user also has the option to include the special label #AMPERR in their program to handle soft or hard errors.

As long as a program is executing in thread zero and the #AMPERR label is included, when an error is detected the program will jump to the label and execute the user defined routine. Note that the TA command is a monitoring function only, and does not generate an error condition. The over voltage condition will not permanently shut down the amplifier or trigger the #AMPERR routine. The amplifier will be momentarily disabled; when the condition goes away, the amplifier will continue normal operation assuming it did not cause the position error to exceed the error limit.

Hall Error Protection

During normal operation, the controller should not have any Hall errors. Hall errors can be caused by a faulty Halleffect sensor or a noisy environment. The state of the Hall inputs can also be monitored through the QH command.

Hall errors will cause the amplifier to be disabled if OE 1 is set, and will cause the controller to enter the #AMPERR subroutine if it is included in a running program.

Under-Voltage Protection

If the supply to the amplifier drops below 18 VDC, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will return to normal operation once the supply is raised above the 18V threshold; TA 0 will tell the user whether the supply is in the acceptable range.

NOTE: If there is an #AMPERR routine and the controller is powered before the amplifier, then the #AMPERR routine will automatically be triggered.

Over-Voltage Protection

If the voltage supply to the amplifier rises above 94 VDC, then the amplifier will automatically disable. The amplifier will re-enable when the supply drops below 90 V.

Over-Current Protection

The amplifier also has circuitry to protect against over-current. If the total current from a set of 2 axes (ie A and B or C and D) exceeds 20 A, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will not be re-enabled until there is no longer an over-current draw and then either SH command has been sent or the controller is reset. Since the AMP-43040 is a trans-conductance amplifier, the amplifier will never go into this mode during normal operation. The amplifier will be shut down regardless of the setting of OE, or the presence of the #AMPERR routine.

NOTE: If this fault occurs, it is indicative of a problem at the system level. An over-current fault is usually due to a short across the motor leads or a short from a motor lead to ground.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 214

Over-Temperature Protection

The amplifier is also equipped with over-temperature protection.

Rev A and Rev B amplifiers:

If the average heat sink temperature rises above 100°C, then the amplifier will be disabled. The over-temperature condition will trigger the #AMPERR routine if included in the program on the controller.

The amplifier will re-enable when the temperature drops below 100 °C.

Rev C and newer amplifiers:

If the average heat sink temperature rises above 80°C, then the amplifier will be disabled. The over-temperature condition will trigger the #AMPERR routine if included in the program on the controller.

The amplifier will not be re-enabled until the temperature drops below 80°C and then either an SH command is sent to the controller, or the controller is reset (RS command or power cycle).

Rev C Amplifiers began shipping in December 2008.

A1 – AMP-430x0 (-D3040,-D3020) ▫ 215 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140)

Description

The AMP-43140 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four linear drives for operating small, brushtype servo motors. The AMP-43140 requires a ± 12-30 VDC input. Output power is 20 W per amplifier or 60 W total. The gain of each transconductance linear amplifier is 0.1 A/V at 1 A maximum current. The typical current loop bandwidth is 4 kHz.

The AMP-43140 can be ordered to have a 100mA maximum current output where the gain of the amplifier is

10mA/V. Order as ‘-D3140(100mA)’.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure A2.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3140 (DMC-4040 with AMP-43140)

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140) ▫ 216

Electrical Specifications

The amplifier is a brush type trans-conductance linear amplifier. The amplifier operates in torque mode, and will output a motor current proportional to the command signal input.

DC Supply Voltage:

Max Current (per axis)

Amplifier gain:

Power output (per channel):

Total max. power output:

Mating Connectors

±12-30 VDC (bipolar)

In order to run the AMP-43140 in the range of ±12-20 VDC, the

ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power option must be ordered

1.0 Amps (100mA option)

0.1 A/V (10mA/V option)

20 W

60 W

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-01-2045

2-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-01-2025

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

Pin Number

1,2

3

4

1

2

Power Connector

Connection

Power Supply Ground

-VS (-DC Power)

+VS (DC Power)

Motor Connector

Motor Lead A-

Motor Lead A+

A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140) ▫ 217 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operation

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

-SSR Option

The AMP-43140 linear amplifier require a bipolar power supply. It is possible that the plus and minus (V+ and V-) rise to nominal voltage at different rates during power up and any difference between voltage levels will be seen as an offset in the amplifier. This offset may cause a slight jump during power up prior to the controller establishing closed-loop control. When ordered with the –SSR option a solid state relay is added to the amplifier. This relay disconnects the amplifier power from the motor power leads when the controller is placed in the motor-off state. If the MO jumper is installed, or the MO command is burned into memory, the addition of the –SSR option will eliminate any jump due to the power supply.

Using External Amplifiers

Use the connectors on top of the controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A2 – AMP-43140 (-D3140) ▫ 218

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240)

Description

The AMP-43240 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four transconductance, PWM amplifiers for driving brushless or brush-type servo motors. Each amplifier drives motors operating at up to 10 Amps continuous,

20 Amps peak, 20–80 VDC. The gain settings of the amplifier are user-programmable at 0.5 Amp/Volt, 1.0 Amp/Volt and 2.0 Amp/Volt. The switching frequency is 24 kHz. The drive operates in a Chopper Mode. The amplifier offers protection for over-voltage, under-voltage, over-current, short-circuit and over-temperature. Two AMP-43240s can be used in 5- thru 8-axis controllers. A shunt regulator option is available. If higher voltages are required, please contact Galil.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 219

Figure A3.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3240(DMC-4040 with AMP-43240)

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Electrical Specifications

The amplifier is a brush/brushless trans-conductance PWM amplifier. The amplifier operates in torque mode, and will output a motor current proportional to the command signal input.

Supply Voltage:

Continuous Current:

20-80 VDC

10 Amps

Peak Current

Nominal Amplifier Gain

Switching Frequency

20 Amps

1.0 Amps/Volt

Minimum Load Inductance:

24 kHz

L(mH )=

Vs(V )

192∗I

Ripple

(

A)

Where:

Vs = Supply Voltage

Brushless Motor Commutation angle

I ripple

= 10% of the maximum current at chosen gain setting

120° (60° option available)

The default PWM output operation on the AMP-43240(-D3240) is Inverter Mode. The minimum inductance calculations above are based on Inverter mode. If you have a motor with lower inductance, Chopper mode can be applied for the PWM output. Contact a Galil Applications Engineer to review minimum inductance requirements if Chopper mode operation is required.

Mating Connectors

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

1

2

3

4

Power Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

Motor Connector

Phase C (N/C for Brushed Motors)

Phase B

No Connect

Phase A

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 220

Operation

Brushless Motor Setup

NOTE: If you purchased a Galil motor with the amplifier, it is ready for use. No additional setup is necessary.

To begin the setup of the brushless motor and amplifier, it is first necessary to have communications with the motion controller. It is also necessary to have the motor hardware connected and the amplifier powered to begin the setup phase. After the encoders and motor leads are connected, the controller and amplifier need to be configured correctly in software. Take all appropriate safety precautions. For example, set a small error limit

(ER*=1000), a low torque limit (TL*=3), and set off on Error to 1 for all axes (OE*=1).

The AMP-43240 requires that the hall commutation for a brushless motor be manually configured. Details on how to determine the correct commutation for a brushless motor, see Application Note # 5489.

http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/miscellaneous/note5489.pdf

Brushed Motor Operation

The AMP-43240 allows for brush operation. To configure an axis for brush-type operation, connect the 2 motor leads to Phase A and Phase B connections for the axis. Connect the encoders, homes, and limits as required. Set the controller into brush-axis operation by issuing BR n,n,n,n. By setting n=1, the controller will operate in brushed mode on that axis. For example, BR 0,1,0,0 sets the Y-axis as brush-type, all others as brushless. If an axis is set to brush-type, the amplifier has no need for the Hall inputs. These inputs can subsequently be used as general-use inputs, queried with the QH command.

Setting Amplifier Gain and Current Loop Bandwidth

AG command:

AG setting

m = 0 m = 1 m = 2

Gain Value

0.5 A/V

1.0 A/V

2.0 A/V

Table A3.22: Amplifier Gain Settings for AMP-43240

Select the amplifier gain that is appropriate for the motor. The gain settings for the amplifier are identical for brush

and brushless operation. The gain is set with the AG command as shown in Table A3.22 for AG n=m.

In addition to the gain, peak and continuous torque limits can be set through TK and TL respectively. The TK and TL values are entered in volts on an axis by axis basis. The peak limit will set the maximum voltage that will be output from the controller to the amplifier. The continuous current will set what the maximum average current is over a

one second interval. Figure A3.2 is indicative of the operation of the continuous and peak operation. In this figure,

the continuous limit was configured for 2 volts, and the peak limit was configured for 10 volts.

Note: The TL command is limited to 5 with the amplifier gain setting of 2.0A/V

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 221 DMC-40x0 User Manual

AU and AW commands:

With the AMP-43240, the user is also given the ability to choose between normal and high current bandwidth (AU).

In addition, the user can calculate what the bandwidth of the current loop is for their specific combination (AW).

To select normal current loop gain for the X axis and high current loop gain for the Y axis, issue AU 0,1. The command AW is used to calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier using the basic amplifier parameters. To calculate the bandwidth for the X axis, issue AWX=v,l,n where v represents the DC voltage input to the card, l represents the inductance of the motor in millihenries, and n represents 0 or 1 for the AU setting.

NOTE:For most applications, unless the motor has more than 5 mH of inductance with a 24V supply, or 10 mH of inductance with a 48 volts supply, the normal current loop bandwidth option should be chosen. AW will return the current loop bandwidth in Hertz.

Figure A3.2: Peak Current Operation

Chopper Mode

The AMP-43240 runs in what is called a “Chopper” mode. The chopper mode is in contrast to the normal inverter mode (AMP-43040) in which the amplifier sends PWM power to the motor of ±VS. In chopper mode, the amplifier sends a 0 to +VS PWM to the motor when moving in the forward direction, and a 0 to –VS PWM to the motor when moving in the negative direction.

Using External Amplifiers

Use connectors on top of controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. In order to use the full torque limit, make sure the AG setting for the axes using external amplifiers are set to 0 or 1. Set the BR command to 1 for any axis that will be setup to run external amplifiers (this will disable the hall error protection). For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 222

Error Monitoring and Protection

The amplifier is protected against over-voltage, under-voltage, over-temperature, and over-current for brush and brushless operation. The controller will also monitor for illegal Hall states (000 or 111 with 120° phasing). The controller will monitor the error conditions and respond as programmed in the application. The errors are monitored via the TA command. TA n may be used to monitor the errors with n = 0, 1, 2, or 3. The command will return an eight bit number representing specific conditions. TA0 will return errors with regard to under voltage, over voltage, over current, and over temperature. TA1 will return hall errors on the appropriate axes, TA2 will monitor if the amplifier current exceeds the continuous setting, and TA3 will return if the ELO input has been triggered.

The user also has the option to include the special label #AMPERR in their program to amplifier errors. As long as a program is executing in thread zero and the #AMPERR label is included, when an error is detected the program will jump to the label and execute the user defined routine. Note that the TA command is a monitoring function only, and does not generate an error condition.

See the TA command for detailed information on bit status during error conditions.

Hall Error Protection

During normal operation, the controller should not have any Hall errors. Hall errors can be caused by a faulty Halleffect sensor or a noisy environment. The state of the Hall inputs can also be monitored through the QH command. Hall errors will cause the amplifier to be disabled if OE 1 is set, and will cause the controller to enter the

#AMPERR subroutine if it is included in a running program.

Under-Voltage Protection

If the supply to the amplifier drops below 18 VDC, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will return to normal operation once the supply is raised above the 18V threshold.

NOTE: If there is an #AMPERR routine and the controller is powered before the amplifier, then the #AMPERR routine will automatically be triggered.

Over-Voltage Protection

If the voltage supply to the amplifier rises above 94 VDC, then the amplifier will automatically disable. The amplifier will re-enable when the supply drops below 90 V.

The over voltage condition will not permanently shut down the amplifier or trigger the #AMPERR routine. The amplifier will be momentarily disabled; when the condition goes away, the amplifier will continue normal operation assuming it did not cause the position error to exceed the error limit.

Over-Current Protection

The amplifier also has circuitry to protect against over-current. If the total current from a set of 2 axes (ie A and B or C and D) exceeds 40 A, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will not be re-enabled until there is no longer an over-current draw and then either SH command has been sent or the controller is reset. Since the AMP-43240 is a transconductance amplifier, the amplifier will never go into this mode during normal operation. The amplifier will be shut down regardless of the setting of OE, or the presence of the #AMPERR routine.

NOTE: If this fault occurs, it is indicative of a problem at the system level. An over-current fault is usually due to a short across the motor leads or a short from a motor lead to ground.

A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 223 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Over-Temperature Protection

The amplifier is also equipped with over-temperature protection.

If the average heat sink temperature rises above 80°C, then the amplifier will be disabled. The over-temperature condition will trigger the #AMPERR routine if included in the program on the controller.

The amplifier will not be re-enabled until the temperature drops below 80°C and then either an SH command is sent to the controller, or the controller is reset (RS command or power cycle).

DMC-40x0 User Manual A3 – AMP-43240 (-D3240) ▫ 224

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520)

Description

The AMP-43540 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four sinusoidally commutated, PWM amplifiers for driving brushed or brushless servo motors. Each amplifier drives motors operating at up to 8 Amps continuous, 15 Amps peak, 20–80 VDC. The gain settings of the amplifier are user-programmable at 0.4 Amp/Volt,

0.8 Amp/Volt and 1.6 Amp/Volt. The switching frequency is 33 kHz. The amplifier offers protection for over-voltage, under-voltage, over-current, short-circuit and over-temperature. Two AMP-43540s can be used for 5- thru 8-axis controllers. A shunt regulator option is available. A two-axis version, the AMP-43520 is also available. If higher voltages are required, please contact Galil.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 225

Figure A4.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3540(DMC-4040 with AMP-43540)

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Electrical Specifications

The amplifier is a brush/brushless transconductance PWM amplifier. The amplifier operates in torque mode, and will output a motor current proportional to the command signal input.

Supply Voltage:

Continuous Current:

20-80 VDC

8 Amps

Peak Current

Nominal Amplifier Gain

Switching Frequency

15 Amps

0.8 Amps/Volt

Minimum Load Inductance:

33 kHz

L(mH )=

Vs(V )

264∗I

Ripple

(

A)

Where:

Vs = Supply Voltage

Brushless Motor Commutation angle

I ripple

= 10% of the maximum current at chosen gain setting

120°

The default PWM output operation on the AMP-435x0(-D3540,-D3520) is Inverter Mode. The minimum inductance calculations above are based on Inverter mode. If you have a motor with lower inductance, Chopper mode can be applied for the PWM output. Contact a Galil Applications Engineer to review minimum inductance requirements if Chopper mode operation is required.

Mating Connectors

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Power Connector

1

2

3

4

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

Motor Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

Phase C

Phase B (N/C for Brushed Motors)

No Connect

Phase A

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 226

Operation

Commutation Related Velocity

When using sinusoidal commutation and higher speed applications, it is a good idea to calculate the speed at which commutation can start to affect performance of the motor. In general, it is recommended that there be at least 8 servo samples for each magnetic cycle. The time for each sample is defined by TM, “TM 1000” is default and is in units of μs per sample or [μs/sample]. TM can be lowered to achieve higher speeds.

Below is the equation that can be used to calculate the desired maximum commutation speed in counts per second

[cts/s]:

m×10

6

Speed

[

cts/ s ]

=

(

TM ×n)

Where,

m

is the number of counts per magnetic cycle [cts/magnetic cycle]

n

is the desired number of (TM) samples per magnetic cycle (8 or more recommended) [samples/magnetic cycle ]

Example:

Assume that an encoder provides 4000 [cts/rev] and that a motor has 2 pole pairs. Each pole pair represents a single magnetic cycle.

m

can be calculated as follows:

m=

4000

[

cts /rev ]

2

[

magnetic cycles]

=

2000

[

cts /magnetic cycle]

If “TM 250” is set and 8 servo samples per magnetic cycle is desired, the maximum speed in counts per second would be:

Speed=

2000

[

cts/ magneticcycle ]

×

10

6

[

μs / s]

250

[

μs / sample]

×

8

[

samples / magneticccycle ]

=

1,000,000

[

cts / s]

Setting up the Brushless Mode and finding proper commutation

Using the D3540 requires version 1.1d revision firmware or higher; be sure this is installed on your controller: http://www.galilmc.com/support/firmware-downloads.php

The 6 commands used for set up are the BA, BM, BX, BZ, BC and BI commands. Please see the command reference for details. Further information on setting up commutation on the AMP-43540 can also be found here: http://www.galilmc.com/techtalk/drives/wiring-a-brushless-motor-for-galils-sine-amplifier/

1.

Issue the BA command to specify which axis you want to use the sinusoidal amplifier on

2.

Calculate the number of encoder counts per magnetic cycle. For example, in a rotary motor that has 2 pole pairs and 10,000 counts per revolution, the number of encoder counts per magnetic cycle would be 10,000/2

= 5000. Assign this value to BM

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 227 DMC-40x0 User Manual

3.

Issue either the BZ or BX command. Either the BX or BZ command must be executed on every reset or powerup of the controller.

BZ Command:

Issue the BZ command to lock the motor into a phase. Note that this will cause up to ½ a magnetic cycle of motion. Be sure to use a high enough value with BZ to ensure the motor is locked into phase properly.

BX Command:

Issue the BX command. The BX command utilizes a minimal movement algorithm in order to determine the correct commutation of the motor. As of April 2011 this command was still in the Beta testing phase.

Setting Amplifier Gain and Current Loop Gain

The AG command will set the amplifier gain (Amps/Volt), and the AU command will set the current loop gain for the AMP-43540. The current loop gain will need to be set based upon the bus voltage and inductance of the motor and is critical in providing the best possible performance of the system.

AG command:

The AMP-43540 has 3 amplifier gain settings. The gain is set with the AG command as shown in Table A4.23 for AG

n=m:

AG setting Gain Value

m = 0 0.4 A/V m = 1 m = 2

0.8 A/V

1.6 A/V

Table A4.23: Amplifier Gain Settings for AMP-43540

The axis must be in a motor off (MO) state prior to execution of the AG command. With an amplifier gain of 2

(1.6A/V) the maximum motor command output is limited to 5V (TL of 5).

AU command:

Proper configuration of the AU command is essential to optimum operation of the AMP-43540. This command sets the gain for the current loop on the amplifier. The goal is to set the gain as high as possible without causing the

current loop to go unstable. In most cases AU 0 should not be used. Table A4.24 indicates the recommended

AUn=m settings for 24 and 48 VDC power supplies.

To set the AU command, put the axis in a motor off (MO) state, set the preferred AG setting, and then set the AU setting. To verify that the current loop is stable, set the PID's to 0 (KP, KD and KI) and then enable the axis (SH). An unstable current loop will result in oscillations of the motor or a high frequency “buzz” from the motor.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 228

Vsupply VDC Inductance L (mH) m =

48

48

48

48

48

24

24

24

24

24

-

-

L < 1

1 < L < 2.3

2.3 < L < 4.2

4.2 < L

L < 2.4

2.4 < L < 4.2

4.2 < L < 7

7 < L

Table A4.24: Amplifier Current Loop Gain Settings

2

3

4

0

1

0

1

2

3

4

Setting Peak and Continuous Current (TL and TK)

To set TL and TK for a particular motor, find the continuous current and peak current ratings for that motor and divide that number by the amplifier gain. For example, a particular motor has a continuous current rating of 2.0 A and peak current rating of 5.0 A. With an AG setting of 1, the amplifier gain of the AMP-43540 is 0.8A/V

TL setting = (2.0A) / (0.8A/V) = 2.5V (TL n=2.5)

TK setting = (5.0A) / (0.8A/V) = 7.5V (TK n=6.25)

Figure A4.2: Peak Current Operation

Brushed Motor Operation

The AMP-43540 can be setup to run brushed motors by setting the BR command to 1 for a particular axis. Wire the motor power leads to phases A and C on the motor power connector. Do not set BA, BM or use the BX command for any axis that is driving a brushed motor.

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 229 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Using External Amplifiers

The BR command must be set to a -1 for any axis where an AMP-43540 is installed but the use of an external axis is required. This setting will disable the requirement to have the BA, BM and BX or BZ commands executed prior to being able to issue the SH command for that axis. BR-1 is required for both external servo and stepper drivers.

Use the connectors on top of the controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

Error Monitoring and Protection

The amplifier is protected against over-voltage, under-voltage, over-temperature, and over-current for brush and brushless operation. The controller will monitor the error conditions and respond as programmed in the application. The errors are monitored via the TA command. TA n may be used to monitor the errors with n = 0, 2, or 3. The command will return an eight bit number representing specific conditions. TA0 will return errors with regard to under voltage, over voltage, over current, and over temperature. TA2 will monitor if the amplifier current exceeds the continuous setting, and TA3 will return if the ELO input has been triggered.

The user also has the option to include the special label #AMPERR in their program to handle amplifier errors. As long as a program is executing in thread zero and the #AMPERR label is included, when an error is detected the program will jump to the label and execute the user defined routine. Note that the TA command is a monitoring function only, and does not generate an error condition.

See the TA command for detailed information on bit status during error conditions.

Under-Voltage Protection

If the supply to the amplifier drops below 18 VDC, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will return to normal operation once the supply is raised above the 18V threshold.

NOTE: If there is an #AMPERR routine and the controller is powered before the amplifier, then the #AMPERR routine will automatically be triggered.

Over-Voltage Protection

If the voltage supply to the amplifier rises above 94 VDC, then the amplifier will automatically disable. The amplifier will re-enable when the supply drops below 90 V.

The over voltage condition will not permanently shut down the amplifier or trigger the #AMPERR routine. The amplifier will be momentarily disabled; when the condition goes away, the amplifier will continue normal operation assuming it did not cause the position error to exceed the error limit.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 230

Over-Current Protection

The amplifier also has circuitry to protect against over-current. If the total current from a set of 2 axes (ie A and B or C and D) exceeds 20 A, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will not be re-enabled until there is no longer an over-current draw and then either SH command has been sent or the controller is reset. Since the AMP-43540 is a trans-conductance amplifier, the amplifier will never go into this mode during normal operation. The amplifier will be shut down regardless of the setting of OE, or the presence of the #AMPERR routine.

NOTE: If this fault occurs, it is indicative of a problem at the system level. An over-current fault is usually due to a short across the motor leads or a short from a motor lead to ground.

Over-Temperature Protection

The amplifier is also equipped with over-temperature protection.

If the average heat sink temperature rises above 80°C, then the amplifier will be disabled. The over-temperature condition will trigger the #AMPERR routine if included in the program on the controller.

The amplifier will not be re-enabled until the temperature drops below 80°C and then either an SH command is sent to the controller, or the controller is reset (RS command or power cycle).

A4 – AMP-435x0 (-D3540,-D3520) ▫ 231 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640)

Introduction

The AMP-43640 contains four linear drives for sinusoidally commutating brushless motors. The AMP-43640 requires a single 15–30VDC input. Output power delivered is typically 20 W per amplifier or 80 W total. The gain of each transconductance linear amplifier is 0.2 A/V. Typically a 24VDC supply will deliver 1A continuous and 2A peak while a 30VDC will be able to provide 1.0 A continuous and 2.0 A peak. The current loop bandwidth is approximately 4 kHz. By default the amplifier will use 12 bit DAC’s however there is an option for 16 bit DAC’s to increase the current resolution for systems with high feedback gain.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure A5.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D3640 (DMC-4040 with AMP-43640)

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 232

Electrical Specifications

The amplifier is a brushless type trans-conductance linear amplifier for sinusoidal commutation. The amplifier outputs a motor current proportional to the command signal input.

DC Supply Voltage:

Continuous Current

Peak Current (per axis)

Amplifier gain:

Power output (per channel):

15-30 VDC

In order to run the AMP-43640 in the range of 15-20 VDC, the

ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power option must be ordered

1.0 Amps

2.0 Amps

0.2 A/V

20 W (see section below)

Total max. power output: 80 W (assuming proper thermal mounting and heat

dissipation)

The amplifier has built in thermal protection which will cause the amplifier to be disabled until the temperature of the transistors falls below the threshold.

Mating Connectors

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

Power Connector

1

2

3

4

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

Motor Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

Phase C

Phase B

No Connect

Phase A

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 233 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Power

Unlike a switching amplifier a linear amplifier does not have a straightforward relationship between the power delivered to the motor and the power lost in the amplifier. Therefore, determining the available power to the motor is dependent on the supply voltage, the characteristics of the load motor, and the required velocity and current.

All of the power delivered by the power supply is either used in the motor or lost in the amplifier.

Power of Power Supply

P ps

P m

P

A

The power to the motor is both the power used to provide motion and the power lost to heat.

Power of the motor

P m

= Work + Power Lost in Motor

P m

Power of amplifier

P

A

V s

i

*

R m

K e

*

Velocity

*

i

K e

*

Velocity

*

i

i

2

R m

In addition there is a minimum power dissipated by the amplifier when powered regardless of load. The minimum power that the amplifier will consume is roughly

P

A

, min

 drop across op amp power stages + drop across sense resistor + op amp supply

P

A

, min

4 *

i

i

2

* .

5

N

Where N =1.5W for 24V and N = 3W for 48V

For example: assume a 24VDC supply and a motor with currents of 1 and .5 amps.

R m

4ohms and

K e

5

V

/

RPM

and desired output

First calculate the minimum power used in the amplifier.

P

A

, min

( 1

amp

)

4 *

i

i

2

* .

5

1 .

5

6

W

P

A

, min

(.

5

amp

)

4 * .

5

.

5

2

* .

5

3

5 .

125

W

The power used by the motor will vary by its velocity even though the power lost in the motor is a constant for each value of current. The more power sent to the motor, the less power will be dissipated by the amplifier as heat.

10

5

0

0

20

15

25

Power Dissipated by the Amplifier for a Given Velocity and Current

1 2

Velocity (kRPM)

Figure A5.2: Power Dissipation for Velocity and Current

3

1 Amp

.5 Amp

DMC-40x0 User Manual A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 234

Operation

Commutation Related Velocity

When using sinusoidal commutation and higher speed applications, it is a good idea to calculate the speed at which commutation can start to affect performance of the motor. In general, it is recommended that there be at least 8 servo samples for each magnetic cycle. The time for each sample is defined by TM, “TM 1000” is default and is in units of μs per sample or [μs/sample]. TM can be lowered to achieve higher speeds.

Below is the equation that can be used to calculate the desired maximum commutation speed in counts per second

[cts/s]:

m×10

6

Speed

[

cts /s ]

=

(

TM ×n)

Where,

m

is the number of counts per magnetic cycle [cts/magnetic cycle]

n

is the desired number of (TM) samples per magnetic cycle (8 or more recommended) [samples/magnetic cycle ]

Example:

Assume that an encoder provides 4000 [cts/rev] and that a motor has 2 pole pairs. Each pole pair represents a single magnetic cycle.

m

can be calculated as follows:

m=

4000

[

cts /rev ]

2

[

magnetic cycles]

=

2000

[

cts /magnetic cycle]

If “TM 250” is set and 8 servo samples per magnetic cycle is desired, the maximum speed in counts per second would be:

Speed=

2000

[

cts/ magneticcycle ]

×

10

6

[

μs / s]

250

[

μs / sample]

×

8

[

samples / magneticccycle ]

=

1,000,000

[

cts / s]

Finding Proper Commutation

Using the D3640 requires version 1.1d revision firmware or higher; be sure this is installed on your controller: http://www.galilmc.com/support/firmware-downloads.php

The 6 commands used for set up are the BA, BM, BX, BZ, BC and BI commands. Please see the command reference for details.

For detailed information on setting up commutation on the AMP-43640 can be found here: http://www.galilmc.com/techtalk/drives/wiring-a-brushless-motor-for-galils-sine-amplifier/

1.

Issue the BA command to specify which axis you want to use the sinusoidal amplifier on

2.

Calculate the number of encoder counts per magnetic cycle. For example, in a rotary motor that has 2 pole pairs and 10,000 counts per revolution, the number of encoder counts per magnetic cycle would be 10,000/2

= 5000. Assign this value to BM

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 235 DMC-40x0 User Manual

3.

Issue either the BZ or BX command. Either the BX or BZ command must be executed on every reset or powerup of the controller.

BZ Command:

Issue the BZ command to lock the motor into a phase. Note that this will cause up to ½ a magnetic cycle of motion. Be sure to use a high enough value with BZ to ensure the motor is locked into phase properly.

BX Command:

Issue the BX command. The BX command utilizes a minimal movement algorithm in order to determine the correct commutation of the motor.

Setting Peak and Continuous Current (TL and TK)

The peak and continuous torque limits can be set through TK and TL respectively. The TK and TL values are entered in volts on an axis by axis basis. The peak limit will set the maximum voltage that will be output from the controller

to the amplifier. The continuous current will set what the maximum average current is over a one second interval.

Figure A5.3 is indicative of the operation of the continuous and peak operation. In this figure, the continuous limit

was configured for 2 volts, and the peak limit was configured for 10 volts.

The TL command is limited to 5V for the AMP-43640. This limits to continuous current output of the amplifier to

1A. The TK command can be set to 9.998V, which provides a peak current output of 2A.

To set TL and TK for a particular motor, find the continuous current and peak current ratings for that motor and divide that number by the amplifier gain. For example, a particular motor has a continuous current rating of 0.5A and peak current rating of 1.5A. The gain of the AMP-43640 is 0.2A/V

TL setting = (0.5A) / (0.2A/V) = 2.5V (TL n=2.5)

TK setting = (1.5A) / (0.2A/V) = 7.5V (TK n=7.5)

Figure A5.3: Peak Current Operation

Brushed Motor Operation

The AMP-43640 must be configured for brushed motor operation at the factory. Contact Galil prior to placing the order. Once the amplifier is configured for a brushed motor, the controller needs to be set for brushed mode by setting the BR command to a value of 1. The A and C motor phases are used for connecting to the brushed motor

(B phase is a no connect).

DMC-40x0 User Manual A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 236

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

Using External Amplifiers

The BR command must be set to a -1 for any axis where an AMP-43640 is installed but the use of an external axis is required. This setting will disable the requirement to have the BA, BM and BX or BZ commands executed prior to being able to issue the SH command for that axis. BR-1 is required for both external servo and stepper drivers.

Use the connectors on top of the controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

A5 – AMP-43640 (-D3640) ▫ 237 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020)

Description

The SDM-44040 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four drives for operating two-phase bipolar step motors. The SDM-44040 requires a single 12-30 VDC input. The unit is user-configurable for 1.4 A, 1.0 A, 0.75

A, or 0.5 A per phase and for full-step, half-step, 1/4 step or 1/16 step. A two-axis version, the SDM-44020 is also available.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure A6.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D4040 (DMC-4040 with SDM-44040)

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) ▫ 238

Electrical Specifications

DC Supply Voltage:

Max Current (per axis)

Maximum Step Frequency:

Motor Type:

Mating Connectors

12-30 VDC

In order to run the SDM-44040 in the range of 12-20 VDC, the

ISCNTL – Isolate Controller Power option must be ordered

1.4 Amps/Phase Amps (Selectable with AG command)

6 MHz

Bipolar 2 Phase

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

1

2

3

4

Power Connector

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

Motor Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

B-

A-

B+

A+

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) ▫ 239 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operation

The SDM-44040 should be setup for Active High step pulses (MT-2 or MT-2.5).

The AG command sets the current on each axis, the LC command configures each axis’s behavior when holding position and the YA command sets the step driver resolution. These commands are detailed below, see also the command reference for more information:

Current Level Setup (AG Command)

AG configures how much current the SDM-44040 delivers to each motor. Four options are available: 0.5A, 0.75A,

1.0A, and 1.4 Amps

Drive Current Selection per Axis: AG n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n n = 0 0.5 A n = 1 0.75 A (default) n = 2 1.0 A n = 3 1.4 A

Low Current Setting (LC Command)

LC configures each motor’s behavior when holding position (when RP is constant) and multiple configurations:

LC command set to 0 “Full Current Mode” - causes motor to use 100% of peak current (AG) while at a

“resting” state (profiler is not commanding motion). This is the default setting.

LC command set to 1 “Low Current Mode” - causes motor to use 25% of peak current while at a “resting” state. This is the recommended configuration to minimize heat generation and power consumption.

LC command set to an integer between 2 and 32767 specifying the number of samples to wait between the end of the move and when the amp enable line toggles

Percentage of full (AG) current used while holding position with LC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n

n = 0

100%

n = 1

25%

The LC command must be entered after the motor type has been selected for stepper motor operation (i.e. MT-2,-

2,-2,-2). LC is axis-specific, thus LC1 will cause only the X-axis to operate in “Low Current” mode.

Step Drive Resolution Setting (YA command)

When using the SDM-44040, the step drive resolution can be set with the YA command

Step Drive Resolution per Axis: YA n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n n = 1 Full 1 n = 2 Half n = 4 1/4 n = 16 1/16

DMC-40x0 User Manual A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) ▫ 240

1 When running in full step mode – the current to the motor is 70% of maximum. All micro-step settings are able to deliver full current.

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

Using External Amplifiers

Use the connectors on top of the controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

Protection Circuitry

The SDM-44040 has short circuit protection. The short circuit protection will protect against phase to phase shorts, a shorted load and a short to ground or chassis.

In the event of any of a fault, TA0 will change state and the SDM-44040 will be disabled.

In the event that power is removed to the SDM-44040 but not to the controller, an amplifier error will occur.

To recover from an error state, all 4 axes need to be set into MO state, LC must set to 0 and then the SH command must be issued.

A6 – SDM-440x0 (-D4040,-D4020) ▫ 241 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140)

Description

The SDM-44140 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and contains four microstepping drives for operating twophase bipolar stepper motors. The drives produce 64 microsteps per full step or 256 steps per full cycle which results in 12,800 steps/rev for a standard 200-step motor. The maximum step rate generated by the controller is

6,000,000 microsteps/second. The SDM-44140 drives motors operating at up to 3 Amps at 20 to 60 VDC (available voltage at motor is 10% less).There are four software selectable current settings: 0.5 A, 1 A, 2 A and 3 A. Plus, a selectable lowcurrent mode reduces the current by 75% when the motor is not in motion. No external heatsink is required.

Note: Do not “hot swap” the motor power or supply voltage power input connections. If the amp is enabled when the motor connector is connected or disconnected, damage to the amplifier can occur. Galil recommends powering the controller and amplifier down before changing the connector, and breaking the AC side of the power supply connection in order to power down the amplifier. The ELO input may be used to cut power to the motors in an Emergency Stop or Abort situation.

DMC-40x0 User Manual

Figure A7.1: DMC-4040-C012-I000-D4140 (DMC-4040 with SDM-44140)

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) ▫ 242

Electrical Specifications

DC Supply Voltage:

Max Current (per axis)

Max Step Frequency:

Motor Type:

Switching Frequency:

Minimum Load Inductance:

Mating Connectors

20-60 VDC

3.0 Amps (Selectable with AG command)

6 MHz

Bipolar 2 Phase

60 kHz

0.5 mH

POWER

A,B,C,D: 4-pin Motor

Power Connectors

On Board Connector

6-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0060

4-pin

Molex Mini-Fit, Jr.™

MOLEX# 39-31-0040

Terminal Pins

MOLEX#44476-3112

MOLEX#44476-3112

For mating connectors see http://www.molex.com/

Power Connector

1

2

3

4

Pin Number

1,2,3

4,5,6

Motor Connector

Connection

DC Power Supply Ground

+VS (DC Power)

B-

A-

B+

A+

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) ▫ 243 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Operation

The SDM-44140 should be setup for Active High step pulses (MT-2 or MT-2.5).

The AG command sets the current on each axis and the LC command configures each axis’s behavior when holding position. These commands are detailed below:

Current Level Setup (AG Command)

AG configures how much current the SDM-44140 delivers to each motor. Four options are available: 0.5A, 1.0A,

2.0A, and 3.0Amps (Note: when using the 3.0A setting, mounting the unit to a metal or heat dissipating surface is recommended).

Drive Current Selection per Axis: AG n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n n = 0 0.5 A n = 1 1 A (default) n = 2 2 A n = 3 3.0 A

Low Current Setting (LC Command)

LC configures each motor’s behavior when holding position (when RP is constant) and multiple configurations:

LC command set to 0 “Full Current Mode” - causes motor to use 100% of peak current (AG) while at a

“resting” state (profiler is not commanding motion). This is the default setting.

LC command set to 1 “Low Current Mode” - causes motor to use 25% of peak current while at a “resting” state. This is the recommended configuration to minimize heat generation and power consumption.

LC command set to an integer between 2 and 32767 specifying the number of samples to wait between the end of the move and when the amp enable line toggles

Percentage of full (AG) current used while holding position with LC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n

n = 0 n = 1

100%

25%

The LC command must be entered after the motor type has been selected for stepper motor operation (i.e. MT-2,-

2,-2,-2). LC is axis-specific, thus LC1 will cause only the X-axis to operate in “Low Current” mode.

ELO Input

If the ELO input on the controller is triggered, the amplifier will be shut down at a hardware level, the motors will be essentially in a Motor Off (MO) state. TA3 will change state and the #AMPERR routine will run when the ELO input is triggered. To recover from an ELO, an MO followed by a WT 2, and an SH must be issued, or the controller must be reset.

It is recommended that OE1 be used for all axes when the ELO is used in an application.

See the Optoisolated Input Electrical Information section in Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware for information on

connecting the ELO input.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) ▫ 244

Using External Amplifiers

Use the connectors on top of the controller to access necessary signals to run external amplifiers. For more

information on connecting external amplifiers, see Step A in Chapter 2.

Error Monitoring and Protection

The amplifier is protected against under-voltage and over-current conditions. The controller will monitor the error conditions and respond as programmed in the application. The errors are monitored via the TA command. TA n may be used to monitor the errors with n = 0 or 3. The command will return an eight bit number representing specific conditions. TA0 will return errors with regard to under voltage, and over current. TA3 will return if the ELO input has been triggered.

The user also has the option to include the special label #AMPERR in their program to handle soft or hard errors.

As long as a program is executing in thread zero and the #AMPERR label is included, when an error is detected the program will jump to the label and execute the user defined routine. Note that the TA command is a monitoring function only, and does not generate an error condition.

See the TA command for detailed information on bit status during error conditions.

Over-Current Protection

The stepper driver has circuitry to protect against over-current. If the total current from a set of 2 axes (ie A and B or C and D) exceeds 10 A, the SDM-44140 will be disabled. The amplifier will not be re-enabled until there is no longer an over-current draw and then either SH command has been sent or the controller is reset. The amplifier will never go into this mode during normal operation. The amplifier will be shut down regardless of the setting of

OE, or the presence of the #AMPERR routine.

NOTE: If this fault occurs, it is indicative of a problem at the system level. An over-current fault is usually due to a short across the motor leads or a short from a motor lead to ground.

Under-Voltage Protection

If the supply to the amplifier drops below 12 VDC, the amplifier will be disabled. The amplifier will return to normal operation once the supply is raised above the 12V threshold.

Note: If there is an #AMPERR routine and the controller is powered before the amplifier, then the #AMPERR routine will automatically be triggered.

A7 – SDM-44140 (-D4140) ▫ 245 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012)

Description

The CMB-41012 provides the connections for the Ethernet and Serial communication as well as the D-Sub connector for the Extended I/O. The CMB-41012 also contains the 8x2 character LCD.

See Extended I/O, pg 41 for Electrical Specifications of Extended I/O.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012) ▫ 246

Connectors for CMB-41012 Interconnect Board

CMB-41012 Extended I/O 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

11

12

13

14

7

8

9

10

Pin # Label Description

1 IO18 I/O bit 18

2

3

IO21 I/O bit 21

IO24 I/O bit 24

4

5

6

IO26 I/O bit 26

IO29 I/O bit 29

IO32 I/O bit 32

IO33 I/O bit 33

IO36 I/O bit 36

IO38 I/O bit 38

N/C No Connect

IO41 I/O bit 41

IO44 I/O bit 44

IO47 I/O bit 47

N/C No Connect

15 RES Reserved 1

26

27

28

29

22

23

24

25

Pin # Label Description

16 IO17 I/O bit 17

17

18

IO20

IO23

I/O bit 20

I/O bit 23

19

20

21

IO25

IO28

IO31

I/O bit 25

I/O bit 28

I/O bit 31

N/C

IO35

IO37

N/C

IO40

IO43

IO46

IO48

No Connect

I/O bit 35

I/O bit 37

No Connect

I/O bit 40

I/O bit 43

I/O bit 46

I/O bit 48

30 +3.3V +3.3V 2

41

42

43

44

37

38

39

40

Pin # Label Description

31 IO19 I/O bit 19

32

33

IO22 I/O bit 22

GND Digital Ground

34

35

36

IO27 I/O bit 27

IO30 I/O bit 30

GND Digital Ground

IO34 I/O bit 34

N/C No Connect

GND Digital Ground

IO39 I/O bit 39

IO42 I/O bit 42

IO45 I/O bit 45

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

Note: All I/O bits are software configurable inputs or outputs. See the CO command for details.

1

Reserved when 5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic option is ordered on CMB

2

5V when 5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic option is ordered on CMB.

RS-232-Main Port (Male)

Standard connector and cable, 9-Pin

7

8

9

4

5

6

2

3

Pin

1

Signal

NC

TXD

RXD

NC

GND

NC

CTS

RTS

NC

RS-232-Auxiliary Port (Female)

Standard connector and cable, 9-Pin

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012) ▫ 247 DMC-40x0 User Manual

5

6

3

4

7

8

9

Pin #

1

2

Ethernet

The Ethernet connection is Auto MDIX, 100bT/10bT.

6

7

8

2

3

4

5

Pin

1

Signal

TXP

TXN

RXP

NC

NC

RXN

NC

NC

Signal

NC

RXD

TXD

NC

GND

NC

RTS

CTS

NC (5V with APWR Jumper)

Jumper Description for CMB-41012

Jumper

Option Jumper

Motor Off Jumper

Baud Rate Jumper

Baud Rate Jumper

Firmware Upgrade Jumper

Master Reset Jumper

Label

OPT

MO

38.4K

19.2K

UPGD

MRST

Function (If jumpered)

Reserved

When controller is powered on or reset, Amplifier Enable lines will be in a Motor Off state. A SH will be required to re-enable the motors.

Baud Rate setting – see

367H table below

Baud Rate setting – see

368H table below

Used to upgrade the controller if the unit becomes unresponsive.

Master Reset enable. Returns controller to factory default settings and erases EEPROM. Requires power-on or RESET to be activated.

Baud Rate Jumper Settings

19.2

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

38.4

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

BAUD RATE

9600

19200

38400

115200

DMC-40x0 User Manual A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012) ▫ 248

RS-232 Configuration Jumpers

Location Label Function (If jumpered)

JP2 ARXD

RS-422 Option Only: See RS-422 – Serial Port Serial Communication, pg 184 for

ACTS details.

MRXD

MCTS

APWR Connects 5V to pin 9 of the RS-232 Auxiliary Port

LCD Description

In the default state, the LCD provides the status information for the number of axes available on the controller. This automatic LCD status update can also be disabled and text can be written directly to the display with the MG command. The LU command is used to enable and disable the LCD update. The contrast can also be set with LB command.

For more information see the LU, LB and MG commands in the DMC-40x0 Command Reference.

The following table describes the information shown when the LCD update is enabled (LU1):

Axis Status

P

H

V

C e

F

T

S

L

M

E

A

I i

O

Description

Idle

Lower power idle

Motor Off

Axis Moving in independent mode

Position Error exceeded TE > ER

Stopped from ST command

Decelerating or stopped by Limit switch

Stopped by Abort

Running in Vector or Lienar Interpolation Mode

Running in Contour Mode

Running in PVT mode

Running in a Homing routine

Running in eCAM mode.

Amplifier Fault

Detected

A8 – CMB-41012 (-C012) ▫ 249 DMC-40x0 User Manual

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022)

Description

The CMB-41022 differs from the CMB-41012 (default) in that it has second Ethernet port, as shown in the figure above. The CMB provides the connections for both Ethernet and Serial communication as well as the 44-pin HD D-

Sub connector for the Extended I/O. An 8x2 character LCD screen is used to display the status of each axis, or can display a custom message if desired.

See Extended I/O, pg 41 for Electrical Specifications of Extended I/O.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) ▫ 250

Connectors for CMB-41012 Interconnect Board

CMB-41022 Extended I/O 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

Pin Label Description

12

13

14

10

11

8

9

5

6

7

3

4

1

2

15

IO18 I/O bit 18

IO21 I/O bit 21

IO24 I/O bit 24

IO26 I/O bit 26

IO29 I/O bit 29

IO32 I/O bit 32

IO33 I/O bit 33

IO36 I/O bit 36

IO38 I/O bit 38

N/C No Connect

IO41 I/O bit 41

IO44 I/O bit 44

IO47 I/O bit 47

N/C No Connect

RES

Reserved

1

Pin

27

28

29

23

24

25

26

20

21

22

16

17

18

19

30

Label Description

IO17 I/O bit 17

IO20 I/O bit 20

IO23 I/O bit 23

IO25 I/O bit 25

IO28 I/O bit 28

IO31 I/O bit 31

N/C No Connect

IO35 I/O bit 35

IO37 I/O bit 37

N/C No Connect

IO40 I/O bit 40

IO43 I/O bit 43

IO46 I/O bit 46

IO48 I/O bit 48

+3.3V

+3.3V

2

Pin

42

43

44

38

39

40

41

35

36

37

31

32

33

34

Label Description

IO19 I/O bit 19

IO22 I/O bit 22

GND Digital Ground

IO27 I/O bit 27

IO30 I/O bit 30

GND Digital Ground

IO34 I/O bit 34

N/C No Connect

GND Digital Ground

IO39 I/O bit 39

IO42 I/O bit 42

IO45 I/O bit 45

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

Note: All I/O bits are software configurable inputs or outputs. See the CO command for details.

1

Supplies 5V – when 5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic option is ordered on CMB.

2

Becomes reserved when 5V – Configure Extended I/O for 5V logic option is ordered on CMB.

JP2 - RS-232-Main Port

Standard 9-pin male D-sub connector.

4

5

6

Pin

1

2

3

7

8

9

Signal

NC

TXD

RXD

NC

GND

NC

CTS

RTS

N/C

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) ▫ 251 DMC-40x0 User Manual

JP3 - RS-232-Auxiliary Port

Standard 9-pin female D-sub connector.

3

4

5

Pin

1

2

8

9

6

7

Signal

NC

RXD

TXD

NC

GND

NC

RTS

CTS

N/C

1

1

5V with APWR Jumper

J1/J6 - Ethernet

The Ethernet connection is Auto MDIX, 100bT/10bT.

5

6

3

4

Pin

1

2

7

8

Signal

TXP

TXN

RXP

NC

NC

RXN

NC

NC

On the each Ethernet port there are two LEDs that indicate the status of the port's Ethernet connection.

Green Link LED (LNK):

The green LED indicates there is a valid Ethernet connection. This

LED will show that the physical Ethernet layer (the cable) is connected. This LED will also blink to show both transmit and receive activity across the connection.

Orange LED (SPD) : The orange LED indicates the speed of the Ethernet connection. It will be illuminated for a 100bT connection, and will be off for a 10bT connection.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) ▫ 252

Jumper Description for CMB-41012

Jumper

Option Jumper

Motor Off Jumper

Baud Rate Jumper

Baud Rate Jumper

Firmware Upgrade Jumper

Master Reset Jumper

Label

OPT

MO

38.4K

19.2K

UPGD

MRST

Function (If jumpered)

Reserved

When controller is powered on or reset, Amplifier Enable lines will be in a Motor Off state. A SH will be required to re-enable the motors.

Baud Rate setting – see

367H table below

Baud Rate setting – see

368H table below

Used to upgrade the controller if the unit becomes unresponsive.

Master Reset enable. Returns controller to factory default settings and erases EEPROM. Requires power-on or RESET to be activated.

Baud Rate Jumper Settings

19.2

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

RS-232 Configuration Jumpers

38.4

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

BAUD RATE

9600

19200

38400

115200

Location

JP3

JP2

JP3

Label

ARXD

ACTS

MRXD

MCTS

APWR

Function (If jumpered)

RS-422 Option Only: See RS-422 – Serial Port Serial Communication, pg 184 for

details.

Connects 5V to pin 9 of the RS-232 Auxiliary Port

LCD Description

In the default state, the LCD provides the status information for the number of axes available on the controller. This automatic LCD status update can also be disabled and text can be written directly to the display with the MG command. The LU command is used to enable and disable the LCD update. The contrast can also be set with LB command.

For more information see the LU, LB and MG commands in the DMC-40x0 Command Reference.

A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) ▫ 253 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The following table describes the information shown when the LCD update is enabled (LU 1):

Axis Status

E

S

L

A

V

I i

O

M e

F

T

C

P

H

Description

Idle

Lower power idle

Motor Off

Axis Moving in independent mode

Position Error exceeded TE > ER

Stopped from ST command

Decelerating or stopped by Limit switch

Stopped by Abort

Running in Vector or Lienar Interpolation Mode

Running in Contour Mode

Running in PVT mode

Running in a Homing routine

Running in eCAM mode.

Amplifier Fault

Detected

DMC-40x0 User Manual A9 – CMB-41022 (-C022) ▫ 254

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000)

Description

The ICM-42000 resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and breaks out the internal CPU board connector into convenient D-sub connectors for interface to external amplifiers and I/O devices.The ICM-42000 provides a 15-pin

HD D-sub connector for the encoders on each axis, a 15-pin D-sub for analog inputs, a 44-pin HD D-sub for I/O, and a 44-pin D-sub for the motor command signals.Eight 500 mA highside drive outputs are available (total current not to exceed 3 A).The ICM-42000 is user-configurable for a broad range of amplifier enable options including: High amp enable, Low amp enable, 5 V logic, 12 V logic, external voltage supplies up to 24 V and sinking or sourcing.

Two ICMs are required for 5- thru 8-axis controllers.

For more information regarding the Amplifier Enable Operation, see Chapter 3 and Configuring the Amplifier

Enable Circuit in the Appendix. For electrical specifications on the I/O, see Chapter 3.

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) ▫ 255 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Connectors for ICM-42000 Interconnect Board

ICM-42000 I/O (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Pin Label

10

11

12

13

8

9

6

7

3

4

1

2

5

14

15

Description

ERR Error Output

DI1 Digital Input 1/ A latch

DI4

DI7

Digital Input 4 / D latch

Digital Input 7

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOMA Home Switch A

HOMB Home Switch B

HOMC Home Switch C

HOMD Home Switch D

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 0)

DO3 Digital Output 3

DO6 Digital Output 6

ORET Output GND (Bank 0)

+5V +5V

Pin

25

26

27

28

21

22

23

24

16

17

18

19

20

29

30

Label Description

RST Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI3

DI6

Digital Input 3 / C latch

Digital Input 6

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSA Reverse Limit Switch A

RLSB Reverse Limit Switch B

RLSC Reverse Limit Switch C

RLSD Reverse Limit Switch D

N/C No Connect

DO2

DO5

Digital Output 2

Digital Output 5

DO8

+5V

Digital Output 8

+5V

Pin

40

41

42

43

36

37

38

39

31

32

33

34

35

44

Label Description

GND Digital Ground

DI2 Digital Input 2 / B latch

DI5

DI8

Digital Input 5

Digital Input 8

GND Digital Ground

FLSA Forward Limit Switch A

FLSB Forward Limit Switch B

FLSC Forward Limit Switch C

FLSD Forward Limit Switch D

GND Digital Ground

DO1 Digital Output 1

DO4

DO7

Digital Output 4

Digital Output 7

CMP Output Compare (A-D)

ICM-42000 I/O (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

4080

For DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080 controllers only.

Pin Label

1

Description

ERR Error Output

2 DI9 Digital Input 9 / E latch

11

12

13

14

15

9

10

7

8

5

6

3

4

DI12 Digital Input 12/H latch

DI15 Digital Input 15

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOME Home Switch E

HOMF Home Switch F

HOMG Home Switch G

HOMH Home Switch H

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 1)

DO11 Digital Output 11

DO14 Digital Output 14

ORET Output GND (Bank 1)

+5V +5V

Pin

16

17

26

27

28

29

30

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

Label

RST

Description

Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI11 Digital Input 11 / G latch

DI14 Digital Input 14

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSE Reverse Limit Switch E

RLSF Reverse Limit Switch F

RLSG Reverse Limit Switch G

RLSH Reverse Limit Switch H

N/C No Connect

DO10 Digital Output 10

DO13 Digital Output 13

DO16 Digital Output 16

+5V +5V

Pin

31

32

41

42

43

44

37

38

39

40

33

34

35

36

Label Description

GND Digital Ground

DI10 Digital Input 10 / F latch

DI13 Digital Input 13

DI16 Digital Input 16

GND Digital Ground

FLSE Forward Limit Switch E

FLSF Forward Limit Switch F

FLSG Forward Limit Switch G

FLSH Forward Limit Switch H

GND Digital Ground

DO9 Digital Output 9

DO12 Digital Output 12

DO15 Digital Output 15

CMP Output Compare (E-H)

DMC-40x0 User Manual A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) ▫ 256

ICM-42000 External Driver (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

13

14

15

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Pin Label

1

Description

RES

Reserved / Step A_N

2

2

3

4

STPC PWM / Step C

RES

Reserved / Step D_N

2

RES

Reserved / Dir A_N

2

DIRC Sign / Direction C

RES

Reserved / Dir D_N

2

AENA Amplifier Enable A

AEND Amplifier Enable D

N/C No Connect

-12V -12V

MCMB Motor Command B

RES

Reserved / MCMDC_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

+5V +5V

Pin

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Label Description

STPA PWM / Step A

RES

Reserved / Step B_N

2

STPD PWM / Step D

DIRA Sign / Direction A

RES

Reserved / Dir B_N

2

DIRD Sign / Direction D

AEC1 Amp Enable Common 1

AENC Amplifier Enable C

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

RES

Reserved / MCMDA_N

1

MCMC Motor Command C

RES

N/C

N/C

Reserved / MCMDD_N

1

No Connect

No Connect

Pin

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

Label Description

STPB PWM / Step B

RES

Reserved / Step C_N

2

GND Digital Ground

DIRB Sign / Direction B

RES

Reserved / Dir C_N

2

GND Digital Ground

AENB Amplifier Enable B

AEC2 Amp Enable Common 2

GND Digital Ground

MCMA Motor Command A

RES

Reserved / MCMDB_N

1

MCMD Motor Command D

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

1

Negative differential motor command outputs when (DIFF) option is ordered, see DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185

2

Negative differential step and direction outputs when (STEP) option is ordered, see STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185

ICM-42000 External Driver (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

4080

For DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080 controllers only.

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

5

6

7

Pin Label

1

2

Description

RES

Reserved / Step E_N

2

STPG PWM / Step G

3

4

RES

Reserved / Step H_N

RES

Reserved / Dir E_N

2

2

DIRG Sign / Direction G

RES

Reserved / Dir H_N

2

AENE Amplifier Enable E

AENH Amplifier Enable H

N/C No Connect

-12V -12V

MCMF Motor Command F

RES

Reserved / MCMDG_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

+5V +5V

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

18

19

20

21

22

Pin

16

17

Label Description

STPE PWM / Step E

RES

Reserved / Step F_N

2

STPH PWM / Step H

DIRE Sign / Direction E

RES

Reserved Dir F_N

2

DIRH Sign / Direction H

AEC1 Amp Enable Common 1

AENG Amplifier Enable G

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

RES

Reserved / MCMDE_N

1

MCMG Motor Command G

RES

N/C

N/C

Reserved / MCMDH_N

1

No Connect

No Connect

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

33

34

35

36

37

Pin

31

32

Label Description

STPF PWM / Step F

RES

Reserved / Step G_N

2

GND Digital Ground

DIRF Sign / Direction F

RES

Reserved / Dir G_N

2

GND Digital Ground

AENF Amplifier Enable F

AEC2 Amp Enable Common 2

GND Digital Ground

MCME Motor Command E

RES

Reserved / MCMDF_N

1

MCMH Motor Command H

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

1

Negative differential motor command outputs when (DIFF) option is ordered, see DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185

2

Negative differential step and direction outputs when (STEP) option is ordered, see STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185

A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) ▫ 257 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ICM-42000 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Pin

7

8

9

5

6

10

11

12

13

14

15

1

2

3

4

Label Description

MI+ I+ Index Pulse Input

MB+ B+ Main Encoder Input

MA+ A+ Main Encoder Input

AB+ B+ Aux Encoder Input

GND Digital Ground

MII- Index Pulse Input

MBB- Main Encoder Input

MAA- Main Encoder Input

AAA- Aux Encoder Input

HALA A Channel Hall Sensor

AA+ A+ Aux Encoder Input

ABB- Aux Encoder Input

HALB B Channel Hall Sensor

HALC C Channel Hall Sensor

+5V +5V

ICM-42000 Analog 15 pin D-sub Connector (Male)

Pin

9

10

11

7

8

3

4

5

6

1

2

12

13

14

15

Label Description

AGND Analog Ground

AI1 Analog Input 1

AI3

AI5

Analog Input 3

Analog Input 5

AI7 Analog Input 7

AGND Analog Ground

-12V -12V

+5V +5V

AGND Analog Ground

AI2

AI4

Analog Input 2

Analog Input 4

AI6

AI8

Analog Input 6

Analog Input 8

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

Jumper Description for ICM-42000

Jumper

Amplifier Enable

Label

GND

+5V

+12V

AEC1

AEC2

Function (If jumpered)

Connect AECOM1 or AECOM2 to Digital Ground

Connect AECOM1 or AECOM2 to Controller +5V

Connect AECOM1 or AECOM2 to Controller +12V

Connect AECOM1 to AEC1 pin on External Driver D-Sub

Connect AECOM2 to AEC2 pin on External Driver D-Sub

Note: See ICM-42000 and ICM-42100 Amplifier Enable Circuit in Chapter 3 and

Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit in the Appendix for more information.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A10 – ICM-42000 (-I000) ▫ 258

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100)

Description

The ICM-42100 (-I100) option resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and accepts sinusoidal encoder signals in addition to standard, differential quadrature encoder signals 1 . The -I100 board can provide interpolation for up to four 1 V pk-pk

differential sinusoidal encoders resulting in a higher position resolution. The AF command is used to select the degree of interpolation, see AF in the command reference for more details.

1 NOTE

Rev B (Rev 1) and newer boards accept quadrature signals but they must be differential.

Rev A (Rev 0) ICM-42100 boards only accept Sin/Cos feedback and does not accept quadrature at all.

See the ID command in the Command Reference for board identification.

With the ICM-42100, wiring either Sin/Cos or standard differential encoders on an axis will use the same pins, see

ICM-42100 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female), pg 262 for pin-outs. In addition the -I100 board provides

access to much of the I/O of the controller, see Connectors for ICM-42100 Interconnect Board, pg 260 for a

complete listing.

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 259 DMC-40x0 User Manual

The DMC-40x0 requires specific firmware for the implementation of Sin/Cos encoders. Any DMC-40x0 ordered with the -I100 board will automatically be loaded with this firmware at the factory. With this firmware, the maximum speed settings will be increased from 22,000,000 [cts/s] to 50,000,000 [cts/s].

See Theory of Operation, pg 263 and Calculating Equivalent Counts, pg 264 for learning how the DMC-40x0

interpolates Sin/Cos signals.

Connectors for ICM-42100 Interconnect Board

Pin

11

12

13

14

9

10

7

8

3

4

1

2

5

6

15

ICM-42100 I/O (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Label Description

ERR

DI1

DI4

DI7

Error Output

Digital Input 1/ A latch

Digital Input 4 / D latch

Digital Input 7

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOMA Home Switch A

HOMB Home Switch B

HOMC Home Switch C

HOMD Home Switch D

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 0)

DO3 Digital Output 3

DO6 Digital Output 6

ORET Output GND (Bank 0)

+5V +5V

Pin

26

27

28

29

22

23

24

25

16

17

18

19

20

21

30

Label Description

RST Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI3 Digital Input 3 / C latch

DI6 Digital Input 6

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSA Reverse Limit Switch A

RLSB Reverse Limit Switch B

RLSC Reverse Limit Switch C

RLSD Reverse Limit Switch D

N/C No Connect

DO2 Digital Output 2

DO5 Digital Output 5

DO8 Digital Output 8

+5V +5V

Pin

41

42

43

44

37

38

39

40

31

32

33

34

35

36

Label Description

GND Digital Ground

DI2 Digital Input 2 / B latch

DI5 Digital Input 5

DI8 Digital Input 8

GND Digital Ground

FLSA Forward Limit Switch A

FLSB Forward Limit Switch B

FLSC Forward Limit Switch C

FLSD Forward Limit Switch D

GND Digital Ground

DO1 Digital Output 1

DO4 Digital Output 4

DO7 Digital Output 7

CMP Output Compare (A-D)

ICM-42100 I/O (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

9

10

7

8

5

6

3

4

11

12

13

14

15

Pin

1

2

4080

For DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080 controllers only.

Label Description

ERR Error Output

DI9 Digital Input 9 / E latch

DI12 Digital Input 12/H latch

DI15 Digital Input 15

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOME Home Switch E

HOMF Home Switch F

HOMG Home Switch G

HOMH Home Switch H

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 1)

DO11 Digital Output 11

DO14 Digital Output 14

ORET Output GND (Bank 1)

+5V +5V

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

26

27

28

29

30

Pin

16

17

Label Description

RST Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI11 Digital Input 11 / G latch

DI14 Digital Input 14

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSE Reverse Limit Switch E

RLSF Reverse Limit Switch F

RLSG Reverse Limit Switch G

RLSH Reverse Limit Switch H

N/C No Connect

DO10 Digital Output 10

DO13 Digital Output 13

DO16 Digital Output 16

+5V +5V

37

38

39

40

33

34

35

36

41

42

43

44

Pin Label

31

32

Description

GND Digital Ground

DI10 Digital Input 10 / F latch

DI13 Digital Input 13

DI16 Digital Input 16

GND Digital Ground

FLSE Forward Limit Switch E

FLSF Forward Limit Switch F

FLSG Forward Limit Switch G

FLSH Forward Limit Switch H

GND Digital Ground

DO9 Digital Output 9

DO12 Digital Output 12

DO15 Digital Output 15

CMP Output Compare (E-H)

DMC-40x0 User Manual A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 260

Pin

3

4

1

2

5

8

9

10

6

7

11

12

13

14

15

ICM-42100 External Driver (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

Label Description

RES

Reserved / Step A_N

2

STPC PWM / Step C

RES

Reserved / Step D_N

2

RES

Reserved / Dir A_N

2

DIRC Sign / Direction C

RES

Reserved / Dir D_N

2

AENA Amplifier Enable A

AEND Amplifier Enable D

N/C No Connect

-12V -12V

MCMB Motor Command B

RES

Reserved / MCMDC_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

+5V +5V

Pin

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Label Description

STPA PWM / Step A

RES

Reserved / Step B_N

2

STPD PWM / Step D

DIRA Sign / Direction A

RES

Reserved / Dir B_N

2

DIRD Sign / Direction D

AEC1 Amp Enable Common 1

AENC Amplifier Enable C

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

RES

Reserved / MCMDA_N

1

MCMC Motor Command C

RES

Reserved / MCMDD_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

Pin

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

Label Description

STPB PWM / Step B

RES

Reserved / Step C_N

2

GND Digital Ground

DIRB Sign / Direction B

RES

Reserved / Dir C_N

2

GND Digital Ground

AENB Amplifier Enable B

AEC2 Amp Enable Common 2

GND Digital Ground

MCMA Motor Command A

RES

Reserved / MCMDB_N

1

MCMD Motor Command D

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

1

Negative differential motor command outputs when (DIFF) option is ordered, see DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185

2

Negative differential step and direction outputs when (STEP) option is ordered, see STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185

ICM-42100 External Driver (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Male)

4080

Pin

1

8

9

6

7

4

5

2

3

10

11

12

13

14

15

For DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080 controllers only.

Label Description

RES

Reserved / Step E_N

2

STPG PWM / Step G

RES

Reserved / Step H_N

2

RES

Reserved / Dir E_N

2

DIRG Sign / Direction G

RES

Reserved / Dir H_N

2

AENE Amplifier Enable E

AENH Amplifier Enable H

N/C No Connect

-12V -12V

MCMF Motor Command F

RES

Reserved / MCMDG_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

+5V +5V

Pin

16

21

22

23

24

17

18

19

20

25

26

27

28

29

30

Label Description

STPE PWM / Step E

RES

Reserved / Step F_N

2

STPH PWM / Step H

DIRE Sign / Direction E

RES

Reserved / Dir F_N

2

DIRH Sign / Direction H

AEC1 Amp Enable Common 1

AENG Amplifier Enable G

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

RES

Reserved / MCMDE_N

1

MCMG Motor Command G

RES

Reserved / MCMDH_N

1

N/C No Connect

N/C No Connect

Pin#

31

36

37

38

39

32

33

34

35

40

41

42

43

44

Label Description

STPF PWM / Step F

RES

Reserved / Step G_N

2

GND Digital Ground

DIRF Sign / Direction F

RES

Reserved / Dir G_N

2

GND Digital Ground

AENF Amplifier Enable F

AEC2 Amp Enable Common 2

GND Digital Ground

MCME Motor Command E

RES

Reserved / MCMDF_N

1

MCMH Motor Command H

GND Digital Ground

N/C No Connect

1

Negative differential motor command outputs when (DIFF) option is ordered, see DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185

2

Negative differential step and direction outputs when (STEP) option is ordered, see STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 261 DMC-40x0 User Manual

ICM-42100 Encoder 15 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Label

MI+

MB+

MA+

AB+

GND

MI-

MB-

MA-

AA-

HALA

AA+

AB-

HALB

HALC

+5V

Pin

1

8

9

6

7

4

5

2

3

1

11

12

13

14

15

Sin/Cos Feedback Standard Quadrature

V

0

+ Index Pulse Input

V

2

+ Main Encoder Input

V

1

+ Main Encoder Input

V

0

- Index Pulse Input

V

2

- Main Encoder Input

V

1

- Main Encoder Input

I+ Index Pulse Input

B+ Main Encoder Input

A+ Main Encoder Input

B+ Aux Encoder Input

Digital Ground

Index Pulse Input

B- Main Encoder Input

A- Main Encoder Input

A- Aux Encoder Input

A Channel Hall Sensor

A+ Aux Encoder Input

B- Aux Encoder Input

B Channel Hall Sensor

C Channel Hall Sensor

+5V

ICM-42100 Analog 15 pin D-sub Connector (Male)

Pin

9

10

7

8

5

6

3

4

1

2

11

12

13

14

15

Label Description

AGND Analog Ground

AI1 Analog Input 1

AI3

AI5

Analog Input 3

Analog Input 5

AI7 Analog Input 7

AGND Analog Ground

-12V -12V

+5V +5V

AGND Analog Ground

AI2 Analog Input 2

AI4

AI6

Analog Input 4

Analog Input 6

AI8 Analog Input 8

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

DMC-40x0 User Manual A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 262

Theory of Operation

Traditional quadrature rotary encoders work by having two sets of lines inscribed radially around the circumference of an optical disk. A light is passed through each of these two sets of lines. On the other side of the gratings, photo sensors detect the presence (or absence) of these lines. These two sets of lines are offset from each other such

that one leads the other by one quarter of a complete cycle as shown in Figure A11.1 below. These signals are

commonly referred to as the Channels A and B. The direction of rotation of the encoder can be inferred by which of the A and B signals leads the other. Each rising or falling edge indicates one quadrature count. Thus, for a complete cycle of the square wave there are a total of four encoder counts.

Channel A

Channel B

Figure A11.1: Quadrature Encoder Signals

A sinusoidal encoder is similar to a quadrature encoder in that it produces two signals that are read from two sets of lines inscribed on an optical disk. The difference is that the two signals are output as analog sinusoidal waves as

shown in Figure A11.2.

V a

V b

Figure A11.2: Sinusoidal Encoder Signals

When the DMC-40x0 is ordered with the ICM-42100, the position is tracked on two levels. First, the number of coarse cycles is counted much like is done with a quadrature encoder. On the fine level the precise position inside the cycle is determined from the two sinusoidal signals using bit-wise interpolation. This interpolation can be set

A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 263 DMC-40x0 User Manual

by the user in the range of 2 5 through 2 12 points per sinusoidal cycle via AF command. See the AF command in the command reference for more information.

The unique position within one cycle can be read using the following equation:

Fine

2 n

360 tan

1



V b

V a



The overall position can be determined using:

Position

Coarse_cyc les

2

n

Fine

Where: n is the number of bits of resolution that were used in the conversion.

Coarse_cycles is the whole number of cycles counted.

Fine is the interpolated position within one cycle.

Vb and Va are the two signals as indicated in Figure A11.2.

Calculating Equivalent Counts

The units of distance is counts in DMC code and all feedback types, including sin/cos feedback, is translated into equivalent counts. Below is a brief example of how a user would calculate sin/cos periods into counts which is helpful in determining the resolution of the system.

Example:

Assume that a motor has 1000 sin/cos periods per revolution. With no interpolation the controller will interpret a single sin/cos period as 4 equivalent counts. Thus the total counts per revolution would be as follows:

1000

[ sin/ cos period

rev

]

×

4

[

counts

sin/ cos period

]

=

4000

[

counts / rev]

Using “AF 5” the user has selected to interpolate the the sin/cos signal to 2 5 following counts/rev would calculated as follows:

counts per sin/cos period. The

1000

[ sin/ cos period

rev

]

×

2

5

[

counts

sin /cos period

]

=

32,000

[

counts / rev]

DMC-40x0 User Manual A11 – ICM-42100 (-I100) ▫ 264

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200)

Description

The ICM-42200 interconnect option resides inside the DMC-40x0 enclosure and provides a pin-out that is optimized for easy connection to external drives. The ICM-42200 uses 26-pin HD D-sub connectors for each axis that includes encoder, limit, home, and motor command signals. Other connectors include a 44-pin HD D-sub for digital I/O, and a 15-pin LD D-sub for analog I/O. The ICM-42200 is configurable on each individual axis for high or low amplifier enable; 5 V, 12 V or isolated input power (up to 24 V); sinking or sourcing. The DMC-40x0 cover does not have to be removed to install these options. Two ICMs are required for 5- through 8-axis controllers.

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) ▫ 265 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Connectors for ICM-42200 Interconnect Board

ICM-42200 I/O (A-D) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Pin Label

9

10

7

8

5

6

3

4

1

2

11

12

13

14

15

Description

ERR

DI1

Error Output

Digital Input 1/ A latch

DI4

DI7

Digital Input 4 / D latch

Digital Input 7

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOMA Home Switch A

HOMB Home Switch B

HOMC Home Switch C

HOMD Home Switch D

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 0)

DO3 Digital Output 3

DO6 Digital Output 6

ORET Output GND (Bank 0)

+5V +5V

Pin

16

17

22

23

24

25

18

19

20

21

26

27

28

29

30

Label Description

RST Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI3

DI6

Digital Input 3 / C latch

Digital Input 6

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSA Reverse Limit Switch A

RLSB Reverse Limit Switch B

RLSC Reverse Limit Switch C

RLSD Reverse Limit Switch D

N/C

DO2

DO5

DO8

+5V

No Connect

Digital Output 2

Digital Output 5

Digital Output 8

+5V

Pin

31

32

37

38

39

40

33

34

35

36

41

42

43

44

Label Description

GND Digital Ground

DI2 Digital Input 2 / B latch

DI5

DI8

Digital Input 5

Digital Input 8

GND Digital Ground

FLSA Forward Limit Switch A

FLSB Forward Limit Switch B

FLSC Forward Limit Switch C

FLSD Forward Limit Switch D

GND Digital Ground

DO1

DO4

Digital Output 1

Digital Output 4

DO7 Digital Output 7

CMP Output Compare (A-D)

ICM-42200 DMC-40x0 I/O (E-H) 44 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

Pin

1

8

9

10

6

7

4

5

2

3

11

12

13

14

15

4080

For DMC-4050 thru DMC-4080 controllers only.

Label

ERR

Description

Error Output

DI9 Digital Input 9 / E latch

DI12 Digital Input 12/H latch

DI15 Digital Input 15

ELO Electronic Lock Out

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

HOME Home Switch E

HOMF Home Switch F

HOMG Home Switch G

HOMH Home Switch H

OPWR Output PWR (Bank 1)

DO11 Digital Output 11

DO14 Digital Output 14

ORET Output GND (Bank 1)

+5V +5V

Pin

16

21

22

23

24

25

17

18

19

20

26

27

28

29

30

Label

RST

Description

Reset Input

INCOM Input Common

DI11 Digital Input 11 / G latch

DI14 Digital Input 14

ABRT Abort Input

N/C No Connect

RLSE Reverse Limit Switch E

RLSF Reverse Limit Switch F

RLSG Reverse Limit Switch G

RLSH Reverse Limit Switch H

N/C No Connect

DO10 Digital Output 10

DO13 Digital Output 13

DO16 Digital Output 16

+5V +5V

Pin Label

31

Description

GND Digital Ground

36

37

38

39

40

32

33

34

35

41

42

43

44

DI10 Digital Input 10 / F latch

DI13 Digital Input 13

DI16 Digital Input 16

GND Digital Ground

FLSE Forward Limit Switch E

FLSF Forward Limit Switch F

FLSG Forward Limit Switch G

FLSH Forward Limit Switch H

GND Digital Ground

DO9 Digital Output 9

DO12 Digital Output 12

DO15 Digital Output 15

CMP Output Compare (E-H)

DMC-40x0 User Manual A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) ▫ 266

ICM-42200 Encoder 26 pin HD D-Sub Connector (Female)

10

11

8

9

12

13

Pin Label

1

Description

RES

Reserved / Hall 2

3

4

5

2

3

6

7

AEN Amplifier Enable

DIR Direction

HOM Home

LSCOM Limit Switch Common

AAA- Aux Encoder Input

MI+ I+ Index Pulse Input

MAA- Main Encoder Input

+5V +5V

GND Digital Ground

ENBL- Amp Enable Return

RES

Reserved / Hall 1

3

/ Dir_N

1

STP PWM/Step

Pin

21

22

23

24

25

26

18

19

20

14

15

16

17

Label Description

FLS

AB+

MI-

MB+

Forward Limit Switch Input

B+ Aux Encoder Input

I- Index Pulse Input

B+ Main Encoder Input

GND Digital Ground

MCMD Motor Command

ENBL+ Amp Enable Power

RES

Reserved / Hall 0

3

/ Step_N

2

RLS

AB-

AA+

Reverse Limit Switch Input

B- Aux Encoder Input

A+ Aux Encoder Input

MB-

MA+

B- Main Encoder Input

A+ Main Encoder Input

1

Negative differential motor command outputs when (DIFF) option is ordered, see DIFF – Differential analog motor command outputs, pg 185

2

Negative differential step and direction outputs when (STEP) option is ordered, see STEP – Differential step and direction outputs, pg 185

3

Hall inputs when ordered with a Galil internal trapezoidal amplifier. Otherwise, tied to ground in standard configuration.

ICM-42200 Analog 15 pin D-sub Connector (Male)

Pin

10

11

12

13

8

9

6

7

3

4

1

2

5

14

15

Label Description

AGND Analog Ground

AI1 Analog Input 1

AI3

AI5

AI7

Analog Input 3

Analog Input 5

Analog Input 7

AGND Analog Ground

-12V -12V

+5V +5V

AGND Analog Ground

AI2

AI4

AI6

AI8

Analog Input 2

Analog Input 4

Analog Input 6

Analog Input 8

N/C No Connect

+12V +12V

A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) ▫ 267 DMC-40x0 User Manual

Jumper Description for ICM-42200

Jumper

Q and P

2

3

4

5

6

Label

1

Function (If jumpered)

Sink/Source Selection

Sink/Source Selection

Sink/Source Selection

HAEN/LAEN Selection

5V/12V/External Power Selection

5V/12V/External Power Selection

See ICM-42200 Amplifier Enable Circuit in Chapter 3 for detailed information regarding the PQ jumpers.

DMC-40x0 User Manual A12 – ICM-42200 (-I200) ▫ 268

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