Bike Manual

Winora Group

Bike Manual

Englisch

Mountain Bike (MTB)

Saddle

Seat post

Seat post clamp

Rear shock

Rear brake

Drive

Front derailleur

Cassette sprockets

Rear derailleur

Crankset

Chain

Pedal x w

Stem u v

I.

II.

Handlebars

Shift lever

Headset

Brake system

Brake lever

Brake

Rotor

III.

IV.

Wheel

Quick-release

Tyre

Hub

Spoke

Rim

Valve

Frame

1 Top tube

2 Down tube

3 Seat tube

4 Chainstay

Suspension fork

I. Fork crown

II. Stanchion tube

III. Lower leg

IV. Drop-out

Trekking Bike

Saddle

Seat post

Seat post clamp

Pannier rack

Lighting

Rear light

Reflector

Mudguard

Drive

Front derailleur

Cassette sprockets

Rear derailleur

Crankset

Chain

Headset

Rear brake

Pedal x

Kickstand

Stem w u v

Frame

1 Top tube

2 Down tube

3 Seat tube

4 Chainstay

Handlebars

I.

II.

III.

IV.

Shift lever

Suspension fork

I. Fork crown

II. Stanchion tube

III. Lower leg

IV. Drop-out

Brake system

Brake lever

Brake

Lighting

Front light

Hub dynamo

Reflector ring

Wheel

Quick-release

Tyre

Hub

Spoke

Rim

Valve

Road Racing Bike

Saddle

Seat post

Seat post clamp

Rear brake

Drive

Front derailleur

Cassette sprockets

Rear derailleur

Crankset

Chain

Pedal

Headset x w u v

Stem

Handlebars

Shift lever

Brake system

Brake lever

Brake

I.

II.

Frame

1 Top tube

2 Down tube

3 Seat tube

4 Chainstay

Fork

I. Fork blade

II. Drop-out

Wheel

Quick-release

Tyre

Hub

Spoke

Rim

Valve

1 Welcome

In purchasing this bicycle you have chosen a product of high quality and technology. Each component of your new bicycle has been designed, manufactured and assembled with great care and expertise. Your dealer gave the bicycle its final assembly and performed a function check to guarantee proper operation. You can now set off to enjoy your new bicycle feeling safe and secure.

This manual contains a wealth of information on the proper use of your bicycle, its maintenance and operation as well as interesting details about bicycle design and engineering. Please read these instructions thoroughly.

We are sure that even if you have been cycling all your life you will find it worthwhile. Bicycle technology has developed at a rapid pace during recent years. Therefore, before setting off on your new bicycle, be sure to read at least the chapter “Before Your FIRST Ride“.

To have as much fun as possible during cycling, be sure to carry out the minimum functional check described in chapter “Before EVERY Ride” before setting off. This manual cannot teach you the skills of a bicycle mechanic. Even a manual as big as an encyclopaedia could not describe every possible combination of available bicycles and components. It therefore focuses on your newly purchased bicycle and standard components providing important information and warnings.

When doing maintenance or repair work, be aware that the detailed instructions provided in your manual only refer to these bicycles.

The information included here is not applicable to any other bicycle. As bicycles come in a wide variety of designs with frequent model changes, the routines described may not be complete. In addition, please observe the instructions of the component suppliers that you have received from your bicycle dealer.

Be aware that these instructions may require further explanation, depending on the experience and/or skills of the person doing the work. For some jobs you may require additional (special) tools or supplementary instructions.

For your own safety, never do work on your bicycle unless you feel absolutely sure about it. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

1

Before you set off, let us point out a few things that are very important to every cyclist: Never ride without a properly adjusted helmet and without glasses and take care to always wear suitable clothing. At least you should wear straight cut trousers and shoes fitting the pedal system. Always ride carefully on public roads and observe the traffic rules so as not to endanger yourself or others.

This manual cannot teach you how to ride. Please be aware that cycling is a hazardous activity that requires the rider to stay in control of his or her bicycle at all times.

Like any sport, cycling involves the risk of injury. Keep this in mind. When you decide to ride a bicycle you need to accept the risk inherent to cycling.

Please note that on a bicycle you have no protection technology around you

(e.g. bodywork, airbag) like you have in a car. Therefore, always ride carefully and respect other traffic participants. Never ride under the influence of drugs, medication, alcohol or when you are tired. Do not ride with a second person on your bicycle and always ride with your hands on the handlebars.

Observe the legal regulations concerning off-road cycling. These regulations may differ in each country. Please respect nature when riding off-road.

Only use your bicycle on signposted, well-maintained trails and hard-surface roads.

First we would like to familiarise you with the various components used on your bicycle. Please unfold the cover of this manual. Here you will find the diagrams of three bicycles showing all the essential components. Leave the page unfolded as you read so that you can easily locate the components as they are referred to in the text.

Have a nice cycle trip!

Your WINORA GROup team

Imprint

Editor and photos:

WINORA GROUP

Winora-Staiger GmbH

D-97404 Schweinfurt

Phone: +49 (0) 9721 / 65 01-0

Mail: [email protected]

Web: www.winora-group.de

Concept, text, photos, graphic design and editorial team:

Zedler – Institut für Fahrradtechnik und -Sicherheit GmbH

D-71634 Ludwigsburg

Mail: [email protected]

Web: www.zedler.de

Technical details in the text and illustrations of this manual are subject to change.

Liability of the editor, editorial department and other third parties for articles in this brochure and damage whatsoever resulting thereof shall be excluded, unless they are due to gross negligence.

© No part of this publication may be reprinted, translated, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means, e.g. electronic, mechanical, by hand or otherwise for another business purpose without prior written permission of the author or the editor.

Edition 2, February 2012

2 3

Before you set off, let us point out a few things that are very important to every cyclist: Never ride without a properly adjusted helmet and without glasses and take care to always wear suitable clothing. At least you should wear straight cut trousers and shoes fitting the pedal system. Always ride carefully on public roads and observe the traffic rules so as not to endanger yourself or others.

This manual cannot teach you how to ride. Please be aware that cycling is a hazardous activity that requires the rider to stay in control of his or her bicycle at all times.

Like any sport, cycling involves the risk of injury. Keep this in mind. When you decide to ride a bicycle you need to accept the risk inherent to cycling.

Please note that on a bicycle you have no protection technology around you

(e.g. bodywork, airbag) like you have in a car. Therefore, always ride carefully and respect other traffic participants. Never ride under the influence of drugs, medication, alcohol or when you are tired. Do not ride with a second person on your bicycle and always ride with your hands on the handlebars.

Observe the legal regulations concerning off-road cycling. These regulations may differ in each country. Please respect nature when riding off-road.

Only use your bicycle on signposted, well-maintained trails and hard-surface roads.

First we would like to familiarise you with the various components used on your bicycle. Please unfold the cover of this manual. Here you will find the diagrams of three bicycles showing all the essential components. Leave the page unfolded as you read so that you can easily locate the components as they are referred to in the text.

Have a nice cycle trip!

Your WINORA GROup team

Imprint

Editor and photos:

WINORA GROUP

Winora-Staiger GmbH

D-97404 Schweinfurt

Phone: +49 (0) 9721 / 65 01-0

Mail: [email protected]

Web: www.winora-group.de

Concept, text, photos, graphic design and editorial team:

Zedler – Institut für Fahrradtechnik und -Sicherheit GmbH

D-71634 Ludwigsburg

Mail: [email protected]

Web: www.zedler.de

Technical details in the text and illustrations of this manual are subject to change.

Liability of the editor, editorial department and other third parties for articles in this brochure and damage whatsoever resulting thereof shall be excluded, unless they are due to gross negligence.

© No part of this publication may be reprinted, translated, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means, e.g. electronic, mechanical, by hand or otherwise for another business purpose without prior written permission of the author or the editor.

Edition 2, February 2012

2 3

Contents

1 Welcome

Imprint

Table of Contents

1.1 General Notes on this Manual

1.2 Before Your First Ride

1.3 Before Every Ride

1.4 After an Accident

1.5 How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles

1.5.1 Quick-Releases

1.5.2 Thru Axles

2 Intended Use

2.1 General Overview

2.1.1 City, Touring, Sports, Kids’ and Youth Bicycles

2.1.2 Trekking Bicycles / ATB

2.1.3 Mountain Bikes (MTB) / Cross Bicycles

2.1.4 Road Racing Bicycles

2.2 Intended use – HAIBIKES

2.2.1 Performance Line

2.2.2 Comp Line and Pro Line

2.2.3 Special Edition

2.2.4 Life Line

2.3 Intended use – Winora Bicycles

2.3.1 Trekking Line / S.U.B. Line

2.3.2 Cross Line

2.3.3 Folding Bicycles

2.3.4 City Line

2.3.5 ATB Line

2.3.6 Kids’ Bicycles

2.3.7 E-Bike / Pedelec

2.4 Intended use – Staiger Bicycles

2.4.1 Urban Line

2.4.2 ATB Line

4

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24

24

24

24

25

25

25

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26

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21

21

22

23

17

17

17

18

18

19

4

7

8

1

3

10

12

13

13

15

2.4.3 Sport Line

2.4.4 Trekking Line

2.5 Intended use – Sinus Bicycles

2.5.1 Comfort Edition

2.5.2 Trekking Edition

2.5.3 Travel Edition

2.5.4 Cross Edition

2.5.5 Race and Fitness Edition

2.5.6 Folding Bicycles

3 Legal Requirements for Riding on Public Roads

4 Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and Country

4.1 Safe Cycling on public Roads

4.2 Environment – Cycling Off-Road

5 Brake System

5.1 General Information

5.1.1 Brakes – How They Work and What to Do About Wear

5.2 Rim Brakes

5.2.1 V-Brakes

5.2.1.1 Functional Check

5.2.1.2 Power Modulator

5.2.1.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.2 Racing and/or Side-Pull Brakes

5.2.2.1 Functional Check

5.2.2.2 Vertical Adjustment

5.2.2.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.3 Cyclocross Cantilever Brakes

5.2.3.1 Functional Check

5.2.3.2 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.4 Hydraulic Rim Brakes

5.2.4.1 Checking and Readjusting

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30

30

31

26

26

27

27

27

27

28

28

28

32

32

33

34

34

34

35

35

36

36

36

36

37

37

37

37

38

5.3 Disc Brakes

5.3.1 Checking Hydraulic Disc Brakes

5.3.2 Checking and Readjusting Mechanical Disc Brakes

5.4 Roller, Drum and Back-pedal Brakes

5.4.1 Checking and Readjusting Hand-Operated Brakes

5.4.2 Checking and Readjusting Back-Pedal Brakes

6 Drive System

6.1 Gears

6.1.1 Bottom Bracket - Crankset

44

44

44

6.2 Derailleur Gears

6.2.1 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Operate Them

45 on Mountain, Fitness, City, Kids’ and Trekking Bicycles 45

6.2.2 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Use Them on Road Racing Bicycles 46

6.3 Checking and Readjusting Derailleur Gears

6.3.1 Rear Derailleur

6.3.2 Checking the Limit Stops

6.3.3 Front Derailleur

48

48

49

50

6.4 Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs) 51

6.4.1 Multi-Speed Hubs - How They Work and How to Use Them 51

6.4.2 Checking and Readjusting 52

52 6.5 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears

6.5.1 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears - How They Work and

How to Use Them

6.5.2 Readjusting (Internal Gear Hubs)

6.6 Crank System

6.7 Chain

53

53

53

54

6.7.1 Chain Maintenance

6.7.2 Chain Wear

6.7.3 Adjusting the Chain Tension of Single Speed Bicycles and

Multi-Speed Hubs

54

54

55

7 Wheels and Tyres

7.1 Tyres, Tubes, Rim Tape, Valves, Inflation pressure

7.2 Rim Trueness, Spoke Tension

56

56

58

39

39

39

42

42

43

7.3 Wheel Fastening with Quick-Releases

7.4 Wheel Fastening with Thru Axle Systems

7.5 puncture

7.5.1 Wheel Removal

7.5.2 Tyre Removal (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

7.5.3 Tyre Mounting (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

7.5.4 Removal of Tubeless Tyres

7.5.5 Repair of Tubeless Tyres

7.5.6 Mounting Tubeless Tyres

7.5.7 Removal of Tubular Tyres

7.5.8 Mounting Tubular Tyres

7.5.9 Wheel Mounting

7.6 Special Features of Carbon Wheels

8 Headset

8.1 Checking the Headset

8.2 Readjusting a Conventional Headset

8.3 Readjusting an Aheadset

®

9 Suspension

9.1 Glossary

9.2 Suspension Forks

9.2.1 Adjusting the Spring Rate

9.2.2 Adjusting the Damping Control

9.2.3 Adjusting the Travel

9.2.4 Maintenance

9.3 Rear Shock

9.3.1 Adjusting the Seating Position

9.3.2 Adjusting the Spring Rate

9.3.3 Adjusting the Damping Control

9.3.4 Maintenance

9.4 Suspension Seat posts

9.4.1 Adjustment

9.4.2 Check and Maintenance

10 Carbon – Important Information

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5

Contents

1 Welcome

Imprint

Table of Contents

1.1 General Notes on this Manual

1.2 Before Your First Ride

1.3 Before Every Ride

1.4 After an Accident

1.5 How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles

1.5.1 Quick-Releases

1.5.2 Thru Axles

2 Intended Use

2.1 General Overview

2.1.1 City, Touring, Sports, Kids’ and Youth Bicycles

2.1.2 Trekking Bicycles / ATB

2.1.3 Mountain Bikes (MTB) / Cross Bicycles

2.1.4 Road Racing Bicycles

2.2 Intended use – HAIBIKES

2.2.1 Performance Line

2.2.2 Comp Line and Pro Line

2.2.3 Special Edition

2.2.4 Life Line

2.3 Intended use – Winora Bicycles

2.3.1 Trekking Line / S.U.B. Line

2.3.2 Cross Line

2.3.3 Folding Bicycles

2.3.4 City Line

2.3.5 ATB Line

2.3.6 Kids’ Bicycles

2.3.7 E-Bike / Pedelec

2.4 Intended use – Staiger Bicycles

2.4.1 Urban Line

2.4.2 ATB Line

4

24

24

24

24

24

25

25

25

26

26

26

21

21

21

22

23

17

17

17

18

18

19

4

7

8

1

3

10

12

13

13

15

2.4.3 Sport Line

2.4.4 Trekking Line

2.5 Intended use – Sinus Bicycles

2.5.1 Comfort Edition

2.5.2 Trekking Edition

2.5.3 Travel Edition

2.5.4 Cross Edition

2.5.5 Race and Fitness Edition

2.5.6 Folding Bicycles

3 Legal Requirements for Riding on Public Roads

4 Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and Country

4.1 Safe Cycling on public Roads

4.2 Environment – Cycling Off-Road

5 Brake System

5.1 General Information

5.1.1 Brakes – How They Work and What to Do About Wear

5.2 Rim Brakes

5.2.1 V-Brakes

5.2.1.1 Functional Check

5.2.1.2 Power Modulator

5.2.1.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.2 Racing and/or Side-Pull Brakes

5.2.2.1 Functional Check

5.2.2.2 Vertical Adjustment

5.2.2.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.3 Cyclocross Cantilever Brakes

5.2.3.1 Functional Check

5.2.3.2 Synchronising and Readjusting

5.2.4 Hydraulic Rim Brakes

5.2.4.1 Checking and Readjusting

29

30

30

31

26

26

27

27

27

27

28

28

28

32

32

33

34

34

34

35

35

36

36

36

36

37

37

37

37

38

5.3 Disc Brakes

5.3.1 Checking Hydraulic Disc Brakes

5.3.2 Checking and Readjusting Mechanical Disc Brakes

5.4 Roller, Drum and Back-pedal Brakes

5.4.1 Checking and Readjusting Hand-Operated Brakes

5.4.2 Checking and Readjusting Back-Pedal Brakes

6 Drive System

6.1 Gears

6.1.1 Bottom Bracket - Crankset

44

44

44

6.2 Derailleur Gears

6.2.1 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Operate Them

45 on Mountain, Fitness, City, Kids’ and Trekking Bicycles 45

6.2.2 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Use Them on Road Racing Bicycles 46

6.3 Checking and Readjusting Derailleur Gears

6.3.1 Rear Derailleur

6.3.2 Checking the Limit Stops

6.3.3 Front Derailleur

48

48

49

50

6.4 Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs) 51

6.4.1 Multi-Speed Hubs - How They Work and How to Use Them 51

6.4.2 Checking and Readjusting 52

52 6.5 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears

6.5.1 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears - How They Work and

How to Use Them

6.5.2 Readjusting (Internal Gear Hubs)

6.6 Crank System

6.7 Chain

53

53

53

54

6.7.1 Chain Maintenance

6.7.2 Chain Wear

6.7.3 Adjusting the Chain Tension of Single Speed Bicycles and

Multi-Speed Hubs

54

54

55

7 Wheels and Tyres

7.1 Tyres, Tubes, Rim Tape, Valves, Inflation pressure

7.2 Rim Trueness, Spoke Tension

56

56

58

39

39

39

42

42

43

7.3 Wheel Fastening with Quick-Releases

7.4 Wheel Fastening with Thru Axle Systems

7.5 puncture

7.5.1 Wheel Removal

7.5.2 Tyre Removal (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

7.5.3 Tyre Mounting (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

7.5.4 Removal of Tubeless Tyres

7.5.5 Repair of Tubeless Tyres

7.5.6 Mounting Tubeless Tyres

7.5.7 Removal of Tubular Tyres

7.5.8 Mounting Tubular Tyres

7.5.9 Wheel Mounting

7.6 Special Features of Carbon Wheels

8 Headset

8.1 Checking the Headset

8.2 Readjusting a Conventional Headset

8.3 Readjusting an Aheadset

®

9 Suspension

9.1 Glossary

9.2 Suspension Forks

9.2.1 Adjusting the Spring Rate

9.2.2 Adjusting the Damping Control

9.2.3 Adjusting the Travel

9.2.4 Maintenance

9.3 Rear Shock

9.3.1 Adjusting the Seating Position

9.3.2 Adjusting the Spring Rate

9.3.3 Adjusting the Damping Control

9.3.4 Maintenance

9.4 Suspension Seat posts

9.4.1 Adjustment

9.4.2 Check and Maintenance

10 Carbon – Important Information

73

73

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74

76

77

77

78

78

79

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82

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83

83

84

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63

63

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59

60

60

61

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70

71

71

5

11 Dirt-, Freeride-, Downhill-Bikes – Special Features

11.1 Adjusting the Correct Saddle Height

12 Lighting

12.1 Bottle Dynamo

12.2 Hub Dynamo

12.3 Troubleshooting

13 Kids’ Bicycles

13.1 useful Information for parents

13.2 Adjustment

14 Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider

14.1 Adjusting the Saddle to the Correct Height

14.1.1 What to Bear in Mind with Integrated Seat Posts

14.2 Adjusting the Height of the Handlebars

14.2.1 Adjustable Stems

14.2.2 Conventional Stems

14.2.3 Stems for Threadless Systems, the Aheadset

®

-System

14.2.4 Adjusting Adjustable Handlebar Systems (A.H.S.)

96

97

98

99

14.3 Correcting the Fore-to-Aft position and Tilt of the Saddle 100

14.3.1 Adjusting Saddle Position and Tilt 100

93

93

95

96

14.4 Adjusting the Brake Levers and the Handlebars 101

14.4.1 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Road Racing Bicycles 101

14.4.2 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars and Brake Levers on

102 Road Racing Bicycles

14.4.3 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Trekking, City, BMX,

Kids’ and Mountain Bikes

14.4.4 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and Brake

103

Levers of Trekking, City, BMX, Kids’ and Mountain Bikes 104

15 All About Bicycles

15.1 Transporting Baggage

15.1.1 Transporting Baggage with Full-Suspension Frames

106

106

107

86

87

88

88

88

88

90

90

91

15.2 Taking Children with You

15.2.1 Child Carriers

15.2.2 Child Trailers

15.2.3 Kids’ Tandem Bicycles / Trailer Systems

15.3 Taking the Bicycle by Car

15.4 Taking the Bicycle by plane

15.5 Accessories

15.5.1 Additional Fittings

15.5.2 Trailers

15.5.3 Bar Ends

15.5.4 Cycle Computers

15.5.5 Baskets

15.5.6 Puncture Kit

15.5.7 Kickstand

15.5.8 Mirrors

15.5.9 Mudguards

15.5.10 Bicycle Locks

15.6 proper Cycling Equipment

15.6.1 Cycling Helmets

15.6.2 Proper Cycling Clothing

15.6.3 Cycling Glasses

15.6.4 Shoes and Pedals

16 General Notes on Care and Inspection

16.1 Cleaning and Caring for the Bicycle

16.2 Sheltering and Storing the Bicycle

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

18 Recommended Tightening Torques

19 Warranty and Guarantee

19.1 Warranty

19.2 Wearing parts

19.3 Guarantee of WINORA-STAIGER GmbH

20 Service Schedule (to be stamped)

6

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1.1 General Notes on this Manual

The technology of today’s bicycles has become very complex. As there is a vast range of bicycle components, this manual focuses on the most important parts including general features. Therefore, be sure to observe the additional adjustment and/or maintenance instructions of the respective component manufacturers that you have received from your bicycle dealer together with this manual.

If you intend to do any maintenance or repair work by yourself, you should keep in mind that today’s bicycle technology requires a considerable amount of know-how as well as special tools (a) , such as e.g. a torque wrench (b) .

Have your bicycle serviced by your bicycle dealer to be on the safe side.

The following information refers to your bicycle by using the specific technical terms. Therefore, make yourself familiar with your bicycle. Please unfold the front cover of this manual. You will find the diagrams of three bicycles showing the components found on your bicycle. Leave the page unfolded as you read so that you can easily locate the components as they are referred to in the text.

The table of contents will quickly lead you to the part you are interested in.

This symbol signifies information about how to handle the product or refers to a passage in the operating instructions that deserves your special attention.

This symbol indicates an imminent risk of damage to your bicycle or the environment unless you comply with the instructions given or take preventive measures.

This symbol indicates an imminent risk to your life or health (e.g. as a result of a crash or accident) unless you comply with the instructions given or take preventive measures.

Please note that the aforementioned consequences will not be repeated each time the symbols appear in the manual.

This manual does not help you to assemble a bicycle from individual parts, to repair it or to make a partly assembled bicycle ready-for-use!

Technical details in the text and illustrations of this manual are subject to change.

This manual complies with the requirements of the European standards EN

14764 / EN 14765 / EN 14766 und EN 14781.

Be sure to also observe the included instructions of the component manufacturers. This manual is subject to European law. If delivered to countries outside Europe, supplementary information has to be provided by the bicycle manufacturer.

a b

7

11 Dirt-, Freeride-, Downhill-Bikes – Special Features

11.1 Adjusting the Correct Saddle Height

12 Lighting

12.1 Bottle Dynamo

12.2 Hub Dynamo

12.3 Troubleshooting

13 Kids’ Bicycles

13.1 useful Information for parents

13.2 Adjustment

14 Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider

14.1 Adjusting the Saddle to the Correct Height

14.1.1 What to Bear in Mind with Integrated Seat Posts

14.2 Adjusting the Height of the Handlebars

14.2.1 Adjustable Stems

14.2.2 Conventional Stems

14.2.3 Stems for Threadless Systems, the Aheadset

®

-System

14.2.4 Adjusting Adjustable Handlebar Systems (A.H.S.)

96

97

98

99

14.3 Correcting the Fore-to-Aft position and Tilt of the Saddle 100

14.3.1 Adjusting Saddle Position and Tilt 100

93

93

95

96

14.4 Adjusting the Brake Levers and the Handlebars 101

14.4.1 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Road Racing Bicycles 101

14.4.2 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars and Brake Levers on

102 Road Racing Bicycles

14.4.3 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Trekking, City, BMX,

Kids’ and Mountain Bikes

14.4.4 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and Brake

103

Levers of Trekking, City, BMX, Kids’ and Mountain Bikes 104

15 All About Bicycles

15.1 Transporting Baggage

15.1.1 Transporting Baggage with Full-Suspension Frames

106

106

107

86

87

88

88

88

88

90

90

91

15.2 Taking Children with You

15.2.1 Child Carriers

15.2.2 Child Trailers

15.2.3 Kids’ Tandem Bicycles / Trailer Systems

15.3 Taking the Bicycle by Car

15.4 Taking the Bicycle by plane

15.5 Accessories

15.5.1 Additional Fittings

15.5.2 Trailers

15.5.3 Bar Ends

15.5.4 Cycle Computers

15.5.5 Baskets

15.5.6 Puncture Kit

15.5.7 Kickstand

15.5.8 Mirrors

15.5.9 Mudguards

15.5.10 Bicycle Locks

15.6 proper Cycling Equipment

15.6.1 Cycling Helmets

15.6.2 Proper Cycling Clothing

15.6.3 Cycling Glasses

15.6.4 Shoes and Pedals

16 General Notes on Care and Inspection

16.1 Cleaning and Caring for the Bicycle

16.2 Sheltering and Storing the Bicycle

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

18 Recommended Tightening Torques

19 Warranty and Guarantee

19.1 Warranty

19.2 Wearing parts

19.3 Guarantee of WINORA-STAIGER GmbH

20 Service Schedule (to be stamped)

6

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126

127

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130

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112

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113

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114

114

115

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1.1 General Notes on this Manual

The technology of today’s bicycles has become very complex. As there is a vast range of bicycle components, this manual focuses on the most important parts including general features. Therefore, be sure to observe the additional adjustment and/or maintenance instructions of the respective component manufacturers that you have received from your bicycle dealer together with this manual.

If you intend to do any maintenance or repair work by yourself, you should keep in mind that today’s bicycle technology requires a considerable amount of know-how as well as special tools (a) , such as e.g. a torque wrench (b) .

Have your bicycle serviced by your bicycle dealer to be on the safe side.

The following information refers to your bicycle by using the specific technical terms. Therefore, make yourself familiar with your bicycle. Please unfold the front cover of this manual. You will find the diagrams of three bicycles showing the components found on your bicycle. Leave the page unfolded as you read so that you can easily locate the components as they are referred to in the text.

The table of contents will quickly lead you to the part you are interested in.

This symbol signifies information about how to handle the product or refers to a passage in the operating instructions that deserves your special attention.

This symbol indicates an imminent risk of damage to your bicycle or the environment unless you comply with the instructions given or take preventive measures.

This symbol indicates an imminent risk to your life or health (e.g. as a result of a crash or accident) unless you comply with the instructions given or take preventive measures.

Please note that the aforementioned consequences will not be repeated each time the symbols appear in the manual.

This manual does not help you to assemble a bicycle from individual parts, to repair it or to make a partly assembled bicycle ready-for-use!

Technical details in the text and illustrations of this manual are subject to change.

This manual complies with the requirements of the European standards EN

14764 / EN 14765 / EN 14766 und EN 14781.

Be sure to also observe the included instructions of the component manufacturers. This manual is subject to European law. If delivered to countries outside Europe, supplementary information has to be provided by the bicycle manufacturer.

a b

7

8 a

1.2 Before Your First Ride

1. Be sure to use your bicycle only for its intended purpose, as it may otherwise not stand up to the stress and fail! Risk of an accident!

For more information on the intended use read chapter “Intended use”.

2. The maximum overall weight (including rider, baggage and bike) your bicycle is designed for, is specified in chapter “Intended use”.

3. Are you familiar with the brakes (a) ? Check whether the lever of the front brake is in the position you are used to (right or left). If it is not, you will need to learn to get used to it, as inadvertent use of the front brake can throw you off your bicycle (b) . Or ask your bicycle dealer to switch the brake levers. Due to the specific intended use, some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

Your new bicycle is equipped with modern brakes which may be far more powerful than those you were used to so far! Be sure to first practise using the brakes on a level, non-slip surface off public roads!

For more information see chapter “Brake System”.

Please be aware that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, when you are riding with your hands on an aerodynamic handlebar, on a multiposition handlebar or on bar ends

(c)

. The brake levers are not within easy reach.

4. Are you familiar with the type and functioning of the gears? If not, make yourself familiar with the gears in a place free of traffic.

For more information see chapter “Drive System”.

5. Are both saddle and handlebars properly adjusted? Check whether your toes reach to the floor when you are sitting on the saddle (d) . Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you if you are not happy with your seating position.

For more information see chapter “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

Make particularly sure there is enough space between your crotch and the top tube so that you do not hurt yourself, if you have to get off your bicycle quickly.

6. If your bicycle is equipped with clipless or step-in pedals (a) , do not set off until you have practised engaging and disengaging the shoes from the pedals in stationary (b) .

For more information see chapter “proper Cycling Equipment”. Be sure to also read the operating instructions for the pedals delivered by your bicycle dealer.

A lack of practice when using clipless pedals or too much spring tension in the mechanism can lead to a very firm connection, from which you cannot quickly step out! Risk of an accident!

7. If you have bought a suspension bicycle, you should ask your bicycle dealer to adjust the suspension mechanism to your needs before delivery. Improperly adjusted suspension components are liable to malfunction or damage. In any case they will impair the performance of your bicycle as well as your safety whilst riding.

For more information see chapters “Suspension Forks”, “Rear Shock” and “Suspension Seat posts”. Further notes regarding full-suspension bicycles and forks may be enclosed with this manual.

b c d a b

9

8 a

1.2 Before Your First Ride

1. Be sure to use your bicycle only for its intended purpose, as it may otherwise not stand up to the stress and fail! Risk of an accident!

For more information on the intended use read chapter “Intended use”.

2. The maximum overall weight (including rider, baggage and bike) your bicycle is designed for, is specified in chapter “Intended use”.

3. Are you familiar with the brakes (a) ? Check whether the lever of the front brake is in the position you are used to (right or left). If it is not, you will need to learn to get used to it, as inadvertent use of the front brake can throw you off your bicycle (b) . Or ask your bicycle dealer to switch the brake levers. Due to the specific intended use, some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

Your new bicycle is equipped with modern brakes which may be far more powerful than those you were used to so far! Be sure to first practise using the brakes on a level, non-slip surface off public roads!

For more information see chapter “Brake System”.

Please be aware that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, when you are riding with your hands on an aerodynamic handlebar, on a multiposition handlebar or on bar ends

(c)

. The brake levers are not within easy reach.

4. Are you familiar with the type and functioning of the gears? If not, make yourself familiar with the gears in a place free of traffic.

For more information see chapter “Drive System”.

5. Are both saddle and handlebars properly adjusted? Check whether your toes reach to the floor when you are sitting on the saddle (d) . Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you if you are not happy with your seating position.

For more information see chapter “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

Make particularly sure there is enough space between your crotch and the top tube so that you do not hurt yourself, if you have to get off your bicycle quickly.

6. If your bicycle is equipped with clipless or step-in pedals (a) , do not set off until you have practised engaging and disengaging the shoes from the pedals in stationary (b) .

For more information see chapter “proper Cycling Equipment”. Be sure to also read the operating instructions for the pedals delivered by your bicycle dealer.

A lack of practice when using clipless pedals or too much spring tension in the mechanism can lead to a very firm connection, from which you cannot quickly step out! Risk of an accident!

7. If you have bought a suspension bicycle, you should ask your bicycle dealer to adjust the suspension mechanism to your needs before delivery. Improperly adjusted suspension components are liable to malfunction or damage. In any case they will impair the performance of your bicycle as well as your safety whilst riding.

For more information see chapters “Suspension Forks”, “Rear Shock” and “Suspension Seat posts”. Further notes regarding full-suspension bicycles and forks may be enclosed with this manual.

b c d a b

9

1.3 Before Every Ride

Your bicycle has undergone numerous tests during production and a final check has been carried out by your bicycle dealer. Nevertheless, be sure to check the following points to exclude any malfunctioning that may be due to the transport of your bicycle or to work a third person may have performed on your bicycle before delivery:

1. Are the quick-release levers of the front and rear wheel properly closed and the bolts of the seat post and other components correctly tightened

(a) ? For more information see chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

Improperly closed quick-releases can cause bicycle components to come loose. Risk of an accident!

2. Are the tyres in good condition and do they have sufficient pressure?

Make a “thumb test“ (b) . For more information see chapter “Wheels and

Tyres”.

3. Spin the wheels to check whether the rims are true. Watch the gap between rim and brake pad or, in the case of disc brakes, between frame and rim or tyre. Untrue rims can be an indication of tyres with ruptured sides or broken axles or spokes. For more information see chapter

“Wheels and Tyres”.

4. Test the brakes while stationary by firmly pulling the brake levers towards the handlebars (c) .

The brake pads of rim brakes must hit the rim with their entire surface without touching the tyre. You should not be able to pull the lever all the way to the handlebars! The same applies to the brake levers of disc brakes. You should not be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars! Make sure there is no brake fluid leakage. Also check the thickness of the brake pads. For more information see chapter “Brake System”.

5. Let your bicycle bounce on the ground from a small height. If there is any rattling, check where it comes from. Check the bearings and bolts, if necessary.

6. If you want to ride on public roads, make sure your bicycle is equipped according to the regulations of your country (d) . Riding without lights and reflectors in dark or dim conditions is very dangerous, because other road users will see you too late or not at all. A set of lights that corresponds to the regulations is a must on public roads. Turn on the lights as soon as dusk sets in. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads“.

7. If your bicycle has suspension, check the frame: Press down on your bicycle and see whether the spring elements retract and extend as usual

(a+b) .

For more information see chapters “Suspension Forks” and “Rear

Shock”. Further notes regarding full-suspension bicycles and forks may be enclosed with this manual.

8. If your bicycle has a kickstand, make sure it is fully raised before you set off. Risk of an accident!

Do not use your bicycle, if it fails on one of these points! Riding a defective bicycle can result in serious accidents! If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

During use your bicycle is undergoing stress resulting from the surface of the road and through the rider’s action. Due to these dynamic loads, the different parts of your bicycle react with wear and fatigue. Please check your bicycle regularly for wear marks, scratches

(c)

, bent parts, colour changes and any indication of cracking. Parts which have reached the end of their lifespan may break without previous warning. Let your dealer maintain and service your bicycle regularly and in cases of doubt it is always best to replace parts.

Do not forget to take a high quality D- or chain lock

(d)

with you on your ride. The only way to effectively protect your bicycle against theft is to lock it to an immovable object.

a

10 b c d a b c d

11

1.3 Before Every Ride

Your bicycle has undergone numerous tests during production and a final check has been carried out by your bicycle dealer. Nevertheless, be sure to check the following points to exclude any malfunctioning that may be due to the transport of your bicycle or to work a third person may have performed on your bicycle before delivery:

1. Are the quick-release levers of the front and rear wheel properly closed and the bolts of the seat post and other components correctly tightened

(a) ? For more information see chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

Improperly closed quick-releases can cause bicycle components to come loose. Risk of an accident!

2. Are the tyres in good condition and do they have sufficient pressure?

Make a “thumb test“ (b) . For more information see chapter “Wheels and

Tyres”.

3. Spin the wheels to check whether the rims are true. Watch the gap between rim and brake pad or, in the case of disc brakes, between frame and rim or tyre. Untrue rims can be an indication of tyres with ruptured sides or broken axles or spokes. For more information see chapter

“Wheels and Tyres”.

4. Test the brakes while stationary by firmly pulling the brake levers towards the handlebars (c) .

The brake pads of rim brakes must hit the rim with their entire surface without touching the tyre. You should not be able to pull the lever all the way to the handlebars! The same applies to the brake levers of disc brakes. You should not be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars! Make sure there is no brake fluid leakage. Also check the thickness of the brake pads. For more information see chapter “Brake System”.

5. Let your bicycle bounce on the ground from a small height. If there is any rattling, check where it comes from. Check the bearings and bolts, if necessary.

6. If you want to ride on public roads, make sure your bicycle is equipped according to the regulations of your country (d) . Riding without lights and reflectors in dark or dim conditions is very dangerous, because other road users will see you too late or not at all. A set of lights that corresponds to the regulations is a must on public roads. Turn on the lights as soon as dusk sets in. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads“.

7. If your bicycle has suspension, check the frame: Press down on your bicycle and see whether the spring elements retract and extend as usual

(a+b) .

For more information see chapters “Suspension Forks” and “Rear

Shock”. Further notes regarding full-suspension bicycles and forks may be enclosed with this manual.

8. If your bicycle has a kickstand, make sure it is fully raised before you set off. Risk of an accident!

Do not use your bicycle, if it fails on one of these points! Riding a defective bicycle can result in serious accidents! If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

During use your bicycle is undergoing stress resulting from the surface of the road and through the rider’s action. Due to these dynamic loads, the different parts of your bicycle react with wear and fatigue. Please check your bicycle regularly for wear marks, scratches

(c)

, bent parts, colour changes and any indication of cracking. Parts which have reached the end of their lifespan may break without previous warning. Let your dealer maintain and service your bicycle regularly and in cases of doubt it is always best to replace parts.

Do not forget to take a high quality D- or chain lock

(d)

with you on your ride. The only way to effectively protect your bicycle against theft is to lock it to an immovable object.

a

10 b c d a b c d

11

1.4 After an Accident

1. Check whether the wheels are still firmly fixed in the drop-outs and whether the rims are still centred with respect to the frame or fork. Spin the wheels. If the width of the gap changes markedly and you cannot true the rim where you are, you will need to open the rim brakes a little so that the rim can run between the brake pads without touching them.

Caution: This will reduce the braking performance. For more information see chapters “Brake System” and “Wheels and Tyres”.

2. Check that handlebars and stem are neither bent nor broken and that they are level and upright. Make sure the stem is firmly fixed on the fork by taking the front wheel between your knees and by trying to twist the handlebars relative to the front wheel (a) . Briefly lean on the brake levers to make sure the handlebars are firmly fixed in the stem. For more information see chapters “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider” and “Headset”.

3. Check whether the chain still runs on the chainrings and sprockets (b) .

If your bicycle fell over on the chain side, verify the proper functioning of the gears. Ask somebody to lift the bicycle by the saddle and gently shift through all the gears. Pay particular attention when shifting to the small gears, making sure the rear derailleur does not get too close to the spokes as the chain climbs onto the larger sprockets (c) . If the rear derailleur or the drop-outs are bent, this can cause the rear derailleur to collide with the spokes and result in an accident! This in turn can destroy the rear derailleur, the rear wheel or the frame.

Check the front derailleur, as a damaged gear changer can throw off the chain, thus interrupting the power train of the bicycle (see chapter “Drive

System”).

4. Make sure the saddle is not twisted using the top tube or the bottom bracket shell as a reference (d) .

5. Lift your bicycle up a few centimetres and let it bounce onto the ground. If this causes any sort of noise, search for loosened bolts or components.

6. Finally, take a good look at the whole bicycle to detect any deformations, discolourations or cracks.

Only if your bicycle passed these checks without any problems should you ride back very carefully, taking the shortest possible route. Do not brake hard or accelerate and do not ride your bicycle out of the saddle. If you are in doubt about the performance of your bicycle, have yourself picked up by car, instead of taking any risk. Back home you need to check your bicycle thoroughly. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Bent parts made of aluminium must not be repaired, i.e. straightened, as the risk of breakage would still remain. This applies in particular to forks, handlebars, stems, cranksets and pedals. Be sure to replace them as a precaution.

For more information regarding carbon parts see chapter ”Carbon – Important Information“.

1.5 How to use Quick-Releases and

Thru Axles

1.5.1 Quick-Releases

Your bicycle is fitted with quick-releases to ensure fast adjustments, assembly and disassembly. Be sure to check whether all quick-releases are tight before you set off on your bicycle. Quick-releases should be handled with great care, as they directly affect your safety.

Practise the use of quick-releases to avoid any accidents.

Quick-release mechanisms essentially consist of two operative elements:

1. The hand lever on one side of the hub which creates a clamping force via a cam when you close it (a) .

2. The tightening nut on the other side of the hub with which the initial tension on the threaded rod is set.

Make sure the levers of both quick-releases at the front and rear wheel are always on the side opposite to the chain. This will help you to avoid mounting the front wheel the wrong way round. By contrast, with disc brakes the front quick-release is usually mounted with its lever to the right.

Never ride a bicycle without having first checked whether the wheels are securely fastened! A wheel that comes loose whilst riding will throw you off your bicycle!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases, be sure to lock the frame to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

How to Fasten Components Securely

Open the quick-release. The marking “Open“ on the lever should become visible now

(b)

.

Do not touch the rotor directly after stopping – you may burn your fingers! Always let the rotor cool down before opening the quick-releases!

Move the lever back, as if to close it. Now you should be able to read ”Close“ on the outside of the lever. When you start closing the lever you should feel virtually no resistance with your hand until the lever is at right angle to the frame/fork. a

12 b c d a b c d

13

1.4 After an Accident

1. Check whether the wheels are still firmly fixed in the drop-outs and whether the rims are still centred with respect to the frame or fork. Spin the wheels. If the width of the gap changes markedly and you cannot true the rim where you are, you will need to open the rim brakes a little so that the rim can run between the brake pads without touching them.

Caution: This will reduce the braking performance. For more information see chapters “Brake System” and “Wheels and Tyres”.

2. Check that handlebars and stem are neither bent nor broken and that they are level and upright. Make sure the stem is firmly fixed on the fork by taking the front wheel between your knees and by trying to twist the handlebars relative to the front wheel (a) . Briefly lean on the brake levers to make sure the handlebars are firmly fixed in the stem. For more information see chapters “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider” and “Headset”.

3. Check whether the chain still runs on the chainrings and sprockets (b) .

If your bicycle fell over on the chain side, verify the proper functioning of the gears. Ask somebody to lift the bicycle by the saddle and gently shift through all the gears. Pay particular attention when shifting to the small gears, making sure the rear derailleur does not get too close to the spokes as the chain climbs onto the larger sprockets (c) . If the rear derailleur or the drop-outs are bent, this can cause the rear derailleur to collide with the spokes and result in an accident! This in turn can destroy the rear derailleur, the rear wheel or the frame.

Check the front derailleur, as a damaged gear changer can throw off the chain, thus interrupting the power train of the bicycle (see chapter “Drive

System”).

4. Make sure the saddle is not twisted using the top tube or the bottom bracket shell as a reference (d) .

5. Lift your bicycle up a few centimetres and let it bounce onto the ground. If this causes any sort of noise, search for loosened bolts or components.

6. Finally, take a good look at the whole bicycle to detect any deformations, discolourations or cracks.

Only if your bicycle passed these checks without any problems should you ride back very carefully, taking the shortest possible route. Do not brake hard or accelerate and do not ride your bicycle out of the saddle. If you are in doubt about the performance of your bicycle, have yourself picked up by car, instead of taking any risk. Back home you need to check your bicycle thoroughly. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Bent parts made of aluminium must not be repaired, i.e. straightened, as the risk of breakage would still remain. This applies in particular to forks, handlebars, stems, cranksets and pedals. Be sure to replace them as a precaution.

For more information regarding carbon parts see chapter ”Carbon – Important Information“.

1.5 How to use Quick-Releases and

Thru Axles

1.5.1 Quick-Releases

Your bicycle is fitted with quick-releases to ensure fast adjustments, assembly and disassembly. Be sure to check whether all quick-releases are tight before you set off on your bicycle. Quick-releases should be handled with great care, as they directly affect your safety.

Practise the use of quick-releases to avoid any accidents.

Quick-release mechanisms essentially consist of two operative elements:

1. The hand lever on one side of the hub which creates a clamping force via a cam when you close it (a) .

2. The tightening nut on the other side of the hub with which the initial tension on the threaded rod is set.

Make sure the levers of both quick-releases at the front and rear wheel are always on the side opposite to the chain. This will help you to avoid mounting the front wheel the wrong way round. By contrast, with disc brakes the front quick-release is usually mounted with its lever to the right.

Never ride a bicycle without having first checked whether the wheels are securely fastened! A wheel that comes loose whilst riding will throw you off your bicycle!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases, be sure to lock the frame to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

How to Fasten Components Securely

Open the quick-release. The marking “Open“ on the lever should become visible now

(b)

.

Do not touch the rotor directly after stopping – you may burn your fingers! Always let the rotor cool down before opening the quick-releases!

Move the lever back, as if to close it. Now you should be able to read ”Close“ on the outside of the lever. When you start closing the lever you should feel virtually no resistance with your hand until the lever is at right angle to the frame/fork. a

12 b c d a b c d

13

Over the second half of its travel the resistance you feel should increase significantly. Towards the end of its travel you should need very much strength to close the lever. Use the ball of your thumb to push it in all the way while your fingers pull on an immovable part, such as the fork or the rear stay ((c) p. 13) , but not on a rotor or spoke.

In its end position, the lever should be parallel to the bicycle, i.e. it should not stick out to the side ((d) p. 13) . The lever should lie close to the frame or the fork so that it cannot be opened accidentally.

To check whether the lever is securely locked apply pressure to the end of the hand lever and try to turn it while it is closed. If you can turn the lever around, open it and increase the initial tension. Screw the tightening nut on the opposite side clockwise by half a turn. Close the lever and check it again for tightness.

Finally, lift the bicycle a few centimetres so that the wheel no longer touches the ground and hit the tyre from above (a) . If it is properly fastened, the wheel will remain firmly fixed in the drop-outs of the frame without any rattling noise.

If your seat post is equipped with a quick-release mechanism, check whether the saddle is firmly fixed by trying to twist it relative to the frame (b) .

With insufficiently closed quick-releases and thru axles the wheels can come loose, thus creating a serious risk of accident!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases

(c)

, be sure to lock the frame to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

As an anti-theft measure you can replace the quick-releases by special locks

(d)

. They can only be opened and closed with a special, coded key or an Allen key. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

With the DT Swiss RWS system the clamping force is not created via a cam, but by tightening a bolted connection with a lever.

Tighten the system by turning the lever clockwise while holding the clamping nut tight.

Depending on frame or fork the lever may touch either frame or fork during tightening. If it does, pull out the lever, turn it back, let it engage again before retightening.

In its end position, the lever should be parallel to the bicycle, i.e. it should not stick out. The lever should lie close to the frame or the fork so that it cannot be opened accidentally.

1.5.2 Thru Axles

Thru axles are mounted when the bicycle has to withstand high stress occurring e.g. during freeriding, downhill riding etc. or jumps. They provide suspension forks with a suitable stiffness.

Before mounting or replacing a fork/wheel combination, be sure to read the operating instructions of the respective suspension fork or wheel manufacturer first.

Notes on How to Mount Thru Axle Wheels

There is a wide range of thru axle systems available now. Some systems are tightened with quick-releases. Other systems may require special tools

(a+b) for assembly or disassembly.

Be sure to read the respective manual before doing any assembly work.

If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Improperly mounted wheels may throw you off your bicycle or result in serious accidents!

Check the mounting after one to two hours of use and then every 20 hours.

If your bicycle is equipped with a Maxle thru axle system (c) with quickrelease, put the wheel into the fork and mount the rotor in the brake calliper.

Bring the wheel into the correct position between the drop-outs and slide the axle with the open Maxle quick-release lever from the right side through the drop-out and the hub. As soon as the axle thread engages with the thread of the left drop-out, tighten it by turning the whole Maxle clockwise.

Close the Maxle thru axle quick-release lever like a usual quick-release lever

(see above section “How to Fasten Components Securely“).

The E-Thru system

(d) has been developed jointly by Shimano and Fox and has a 15 mm thru axle that optimises weight. It is mounted like the Maxle system and also operated with a quick-release lever. The special feature of the E-Thru compared to usual quick-release systems is the firm, bolted connection of the tightening nut to the fork leg on the opposite side of the quick-release lever.

For the removal of the front wheel you may need tools

((a) p. 16) depending on the fork manufacturer and thru axle system. To remove the wheel, loosen the axle support at the fork and remove the axle completely from the hub.

To remount the front wheel proceed in the reverse order. Make sure all bolts/quick-release systems are tightened properly.

a

14 b c d a b c d

15

Over the second half of its travel the resistance you feel should increase significantly. Towards the end of its travel you should need very much strength to close the lever. Use the ball of your thumb to push it in all the way while your fingers pull on an immovable part, such as the fork or the rear stay ((c) p. 13) , but not on a rotor or spoke.

In its end position, the lever should be parallel to the bicycle, i.e. it should not stick out to the side ((d) p. 13) . The lever should lie close to the frame or the fork so that it cannot be opened accidentally.

To check whether the lever is securely locked apply pressure to the end of the hand lever and try to turn it while it is closed. If you can turn the lever around, open it and increase the initial tension. Screw the tightening nut on the opposite side clockwise by half a turn. Close the lever and check it again for tightness.

Finally, lift the bicycle a few centimetres so that the wheel no longer touches the ground and hit the tyre from above (a) . If it is properly fastened, the wheel will remain firmly fixed in the drop-outs of the frame without any rattling noise.

If your seat post is equipped with a quick-release mechanism, check whether the saddle is firmly fixed by trying to twist it relative to the frame (b) .

With insufficiently closed quick-releases and thru axles the wheels can come loose, thus creating a serious risk of accident!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases

(c)

, be sure to lock the frame to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

As an anti-theft measure you can replace the quick-releases by special locks

(d)

. They can only be opened and closed with a special, coded key or an Allen key. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

With the DT Swiss RWS system the clamping force is not created via a cam, but by tightening a bolted connection with a lever.

Tighten the system by turning the lever clockwise while holding the clamping nut tight.

Depending on frame or fork the lever may touch either frame or fork during tightening. If it does, pull out the lever, turn it back, let it engage again before retightening.

In its end position, the lever should be parallel to the bicycle, i.e. it should not stick out. The lever should lie close to the frame or the fork so that it cannot be opened accidentally.

1.5.2 Thru Axles

Thru axles are mounted when the bicycle has to withstand high stress occurring e.g. during freeriding, downhill riding etc. or jumps. They provide suspension forks with a suitable stiffness.

Before mounting or replacing a fork/wheel combination, be sure to read the operating instructions of the respective suspension fork or wheel manufacturer first.

Notes on How to Mount Thru Axle Wheels

There is a wide range of thru axle systems available now. Some systems are tightened with quick-releases. Other systems may require special tools

(a+b) for assembly or disassembly.

Be sure to read the respective manual before doing any assembly work.

If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Improperly mounted wheels may throw you off your bicycle or result in serious accidents!

Check the mounting after one to two hours of use and then every 20 hours.

If your bicycle is equipped with a Maxle thru axle system (c) with quickrelease, put the wheel into the fork and mount the rotor in the brake calliper.

Bring the wheel into the correct position between the drop-outs and slide the axle with the open Maxle quick-release lever from the right side through the drop-out and the hub. As soon as the axle thread engages with the thread of the left drop-out, tighten it by turning the whole Maxle clockwise.

Close the Maxle thru axle quick-release lever like a usual quick-release lever

(see above section “How to Fasten Components Securely“).

The E-Thru system

(d) has been developed jointly by Shimano and Fox and has a 15 mm thru axle that optimises weight. It is mounted like the Maxle system and also operated with a quick-release lever. The special feature of the E-Thru compared to usual quick-release systems is the firm, bolted connection of the tightening nut to the fork leg on the opposite side of the quick-release lever.

For the removal of the front wheel you may need tools

((a) p. 16) depending on the fork manufacturer and thru axle system. To remove the wheel, loosen the axle support at the fork and remove the axle completely from the hub.

To remount the front wheel proceed in the reverse order. Make sure all bolts/quick-release systems are tightened properly.

a

14 b c d a b c d

15

To mount the axle use only the tools recommended by the manufacturer. Make it a rule to use a torque wrench

(b)

. Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer! Over tighte ning the axle can damage the axle or the fork leg.

Check the bolts after one to two hours of use and then every

20 hours.

Besides the front thru axle systems, there are also rear thru axle systems, such as the X-12 rear axle system from Syntace. This system combines extreme stiffness with light weight.

The X-12 system comes in two different versions:

· The key version (with Allen bolt)

· The QR version (with RWS quick-release lever)

To remove the rear wheel release the axle

(c)

(with Allen key or quick-release, depending on the system) and pull it out, before removing the rear wheel in the usual way.

Make sure not to insert the axle into the hub before mounting the rear wheel.

Perform the rear wheel mounting in the usual manner. Due to the axle guides (d) the rear wheel is automatically in its correct position and requires no further adjustment. Once you have mounted the rear wheel, insert and tighten the axle.

The manufacturers of thru axle systems deliver their products with detailed instructions. Read them carefully before removing the wheel or doing any maintenance work.

2 Intended Use

2.1 General Overview

Please observe the following information on our HAIBIKE, Sinus, Staiger and Winora bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country”.

2.1.1 City, Touring, Sports, Kids’ and Youth Bicycles

(a+b)

Provided the bicycle is equipped according to the road traffic (licencing) regulations of your country!

Due to their design and equipment, e.g. with active and passive lighting devices, this type of bicycle is intended to be used on public roads and hard-surface tracks.

City, touring and sport bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight

(accumulated weight of rider, baggage, trailer load and bicycle) of 120 kg, kids’ and youth bicycles for a weight of 80 kg. The maximum weight limit for pannier racks is marked on the component.

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for these bicycles are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary.

This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one.

Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safetyrelevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for riding off-road or in any competition whatsoever.

The correct saddle height of kids’ bicycles (c) is between 435 mm and 635 mm. They are usually designed for a cyclist’s weight of 30 kg.

Although the saddles of BMX bicycles are often adjusted to a rather low height, they are not kids’ bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country” as well as the information provided in chapter “Kids’

Bicycles”.

The distinguishing difference between toy bicycles (d) and kids’ bicycles is their maximum saddle height of 435 mm. In Germany, for example, cycling with toy bicycles on public roads is therefore not allowed. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of toy bicycles.

a

16 b c d a b c d

17

To mount the axle use only the tools recommended by the manufacturer. Make it a rule to use a torque wrench

(b)

. Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer! Over tighte ning the axle can damage the axle or the fork leg.

Check the bolts after one to two hours of use and then every

20 hours.

Besides the front thru axle systems, there are also rear thru axle systems, such as the X-12 rear axle system from Syntace. This system combines extreme stiffness with light weight.

The X-12 system comes in two different versions:

· The key version (with Allen bolt)

· The QR version (with RWS quick-release lever)

To remove the rear wheel release the axle

(c)

(with Allen key or quick-release, depending on the system) and pull it out, before removing the rear wheel in the usual way.

Make sure not to insert the axle into the hub before mounting the rear wheel.

Perform the rear wheel mounting in the usual manner. Due to the axle guides (d) the rear wheel is automatically in its correct position and requires no further adjustment. Once you have mounted the rear wheel, insert and tighten the axle.

The manufacturers of thru axle systems deliver their products with detailed instructions. Read them carefully before removing the wheel or doing any maintenance work.

2 Intended Use

2.1 General Overview

Please observe the following information on our HAIBIKE, Sinus, Staiger and Winora bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country”.

2.1.1 City, Touring, Sports, Kids’ and Youth Bicycles

(a+b)

Provided the bicycle is equipped according to the road traffic (licencing) regulations of your country!

Due to their design and equipment, e.g. with active and passive lighting devices, this type of bicycle is intended to be used on public roads and hard-surface tracks.

City, touring and sport bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight

(accumulated weight of rider, baggage, trailer load and bicycle) of 120 kg, kids’ and youth bicycles for a weight of 80 kg. The maximum weight limit for pannier racks is marked on the component.

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for these bicycles are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary.

This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one.

Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safetyrelevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for riding off-road or in any competition whatsoever.

The correct saddle height of kids’ bicycles (c) is between 435 mm and 635 mm. They are usually designed for a cyclist’s weight of 30 kg.

Although the saddles of BMX bicycles are often adjusted to a rather low height, they are not kids’ bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country” as well as the information provided in chapter “Kids’

Bicycles”.

The distinguishing difference between toy bicycles (d) and kids’ bicycles is their maximum saddle height of 435 mm. In Germany, for example, cycling with toy bicycles on public roads is therefore not allowed. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of toy bicycles.

a

16 b c d a b c d

17

Be sure to observe the regulations for riding on public roads in your country, if you want to participate in road traffic with your child. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads“.

2.1.2 Trekking Bicycles / ATB

(a+b)

Due to their design and equipment, e.g. with active and passive lighting devices, this type of bicycle is intended to be used on public roads and hard-surface tracks. Furthermore, it can be used for riding on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall load 140 kg. Maximum trailer load 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example: Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

The maximum weight limit for pannier racks (if mounted) is marked on this component.

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for these bicycles are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary.

This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one.

Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safetyrelevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for any competitions whatsoever.

2.1.3 Mountain Bikes (MTB) / Cross Bicycles

(c)

Due to their design and equipment this type of bicycle is not intended to be used on public roads. If you intend to use this type of bicycle on public roads, it must be fitted with the devices and equipment prescribed for this purpose

(see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads”).

Mountain bikes are designed to be used for off-road cycling and for riding over natural terrain (e.g. terrain of a mountain bike marathon and crosscountry racing).

Mountain / cross bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle) of 110 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for cycling offroad (d) are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary. This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one. Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safety-relevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

a

18 b c d

This type of bicycle is neither suitable for all-mountain and enduro use, dowhnhill riding/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc., nor for competitive use, such as downhill, dual slalom, freeride races etc.

2.1.4 Road Racing Bicycles

(a+b)

Due to its design and components the road racing bicycle is intended to be used for training purposes on roads with tarred, sufficiently paved and smooth surfaces. For indoor training, road racing bicycles are only suitable for freewheeling rollers without brakes or a frame clamping mechanism.

In Germany road racing bicycles that do not weigh more than 11 kg are allowed on public roads, even if not fully equipped. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of road racing bicycles.

Road racing bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle) of 110 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for training purposes or competitions are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary. This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one. Non-observance of the intended use or noncompliance with the safety-relevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for cycling on tracks and forest trails or off-road.

The intended use of all types of bicycles also includes the observance of the tightening torques, maintenance

(c)

and service intervals, as described on pages 122 to 125 of this manual.

All information in this manual is given in general terms for various types of bicycle and does not cover each type down to the last detail. For this reason, be sure to also observe the operating instructions of individual component manufacturers that are provided together with your bicycle

(d)

. In the event these accompanying documents do not answer all your questions, please contact your bicycle dealer who will be pleased to help you.

a b c

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

Component

Lighting

Tyres

Tyres

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes, (rim-), brake pads

Brake cables

Brakes (disc-)

Suspension fork

Suspension fork

Suspension seat post

Suspension seat post

Rims with rim brakes

Bottom bracket

Bottom bracket

Chain

Chain

Crankset

Painted / anodised surfaces

Wheels / spokes

122

What to do

Check

Check pressure

Check tread and side walls

Check lever travel, wear of brake pads, position of pads relative to rim

Test brakes in stationary

Clean

Visual inspection

Replace liquid (Dot-liquids)

Check and retighten bolts, if necessary

Change oil or grease elastomers

Service

Check for play

Check thickness, replace if necessary

Check for play

Regrease (shell)

Check and grease, if necessary

Check and replace, if necessary

Check and retighten, if necessary

Impregnate

Check for trueness and tension

Before every ride Monthly Annually

At the latest after second set of brake pads is worn down

After 800 km (500 miles)

At least every 6 months d

19

Be sure to observe the regulations for riding on public roads in your country, if you want to participate in road traffic with your child. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads“.

2.1.2 Trekking Bicycles / ATB

(a+b)

Due to their design and equipment, e.g. with active and passive lighting devices, this type of bicycle is intended to be used on public roads and hard-surface tracks. Furthermore, it can be used for riding on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall load 140 kg. Maximum trailer load 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example: Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

The maximum weight limit for pannier racks (if mounted) is marked on this component.

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for these bicycles are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary.

This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one.

Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safetyrelevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for any competitions whatsoever.

2.1.3 Mountain Bikes (MTB) / Cross Bicycles

(c)

Due to their design and equipment this type of bicycle is not intended to be used on public roads. If you intend to use this type of bicycle on public roads, it must be fitted with the devices and equipment prescribed for this purpose

(see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public Roads”).

Mountain bikes are designed to be used for off-road cycling and for riding over natural terrain (e.g. terrain of a mountain bike marathon and crosscountry racing).

Mountain / cross bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle) of 110 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for cycling offroad (d) are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary. This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one. Non-observance of the intended use or non-compliance with the safety-relevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

a

18 b c d

This type of bicycle is neither suitable for all-mountain and enduro use, dowhnhill riding/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc., nor for competitive use, such as downhill, dual slalom, freeride races etc.

2.1.4 Road Racing Bicycles

(a+b)

Due to its design and components the road racing bicycle is intended to be used for training purposes on roads with tarred, sufficiently paved and smooth surfaces. For indoor training, road racing bicycles are only suitable for freewheeling rollers without brakes or a frame clamping mechanism.

In Germany road racing bicycles that do not weigh more than 11 kg are allowed on public roads, even if not fully equipped. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of road racing bicycles.

Road racing bicycles are designed for a permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle) of 110 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

The safety-relevant equipment and components required for training purposes or competitions are included in the delivery. Their reliable functioning has to be checked by the user or the bicycle dealer at regular intervals and repaired, if necessary. This type of bicycle is not designed for any other use than the intended one. Non-observance of the intended use or noncompliance with the safety-relevant information in this manual may result in failure of the bicycle. Manufacturers and dealers cannot be held liable for damage resulting thereof.

This type of bicycle is not suitable for cycling on tracks and forest trails or off-road.

The intended use of all types of bicycles also includes the observance of the tightening torques, maintenance

(c)

and service intervals, as described on pages 122 to 125 of this manual.

All information in this manual is given in general terms for various types of bicycle and does not cover each type down to the last detail. For this reason, be sure to also observe the operating instructions of individual component manufacturers that are provided together with your bicycle

(d)

. In the event these accompanying documents do not answer all your questions, please contact your bicycle dealer who will be pleased to help you.

a b c

Component

Lighting

Tyres

Tyres

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes, (rim-), brake pads

Brake cables

Brakes (disc-)

Suspension fork

Suspension fork

Suspension seat post

Suspension seat post

Rims with rim brakes

Bottom bracket

Bottom bracket

Chain

Chain

Crankset

Painted / anodised surfaces

Wheels / spokes

122

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

What to do

Check

Check pressure

Check tread and side walls

Check lever travel, wear of brake pads, position of pads relative to rim

Test brakes in stationary

Clean

Visual inspection

Replace liquid (Dot-liquids)

Check and retighten bolts, if necessary

Change oil or grease elastomers

Service

Check for play

Check thickness, replace if necessary

Check for play

Regrease (shell)

Check and grease, if necessary

Check and replace, if necessary

Check and retighten, if necessary

Impregnate

Check for trueness and tension

Before every ride Monthly Annually

At the latest after second set of brake pads is worn down

After 800 km (500 miles)

At least every 6 months d

19

Bicycles delivered with this manual are only designed to be used by one person

(a)

and not to be ridden hands-free.

Overstress may result in breakage or failure of essential components, such as e.g. frame, handlebars or forks. This can lead to an accident with unforeseeable consequences including death!

Trailers

(b)

must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use appropriate trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

a

20 b

2.2 Intended use – HAIBIKES

The Performance Line, Comp Line and Special Edition bicycles are usually not compliant with the vehicle safety standards and road traffic licensing regulations. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country.

2.2.1 performance Line

Youth Mountain Bike (a)

Designed for leisure and recreational cycling on hard-surface tracks, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Youth BMX Bicycle (b)

Designed for leisure and recreational cycling on hard-surface tracks, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever or show rides in BMX parks, ramps or in skate parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 80 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Dirt Line

Designed for harder use on secured terrain, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever or show rides over ramps or in skate parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 80 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.2.2 Comp Line and pro Line

Mountain Bike (c)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling.

Suitable for competitions of this kind, however not for downhill (DH), freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Road Racing Bicycle (d)

Designed for road racing on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

Suitable for competitions of this kind (cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races).

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

a b c d

21

Bicycles delivered with this manual are only designed to be used by one person

(a)

and not to be ridden hands-free.

Overstress may result in breakage or failure of essential components, such as e.g. frame, handlebars or forks. This can lead to an accident with unforeseeable consequences including death!

Trailers

(b)

must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use appropriate trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

a

20 b

2.2 Intended use – HAIBIKES

The Performance Line, Comp Line and Special Edition bicycles are usually not compliant with the vehicle safety standards and road traffic licensing regulations. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country.

2.2.1 performance Line

Youth Mountain Bike (a)

Designed for leisure and recreational cycling on hard-surface tracks, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Youth BMX Bicycle (b)

Designed for leisure and recreational cycling on hard-surface tracks, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever or show rides in BMX parks, ramps or in skate parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 80 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Dirt Line

Designed for harder use on secured terrain, not a sports bicycle! Not suitable for any competitions whatsoever or show rides over ramps or in skate parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 80 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.2.2 Comp Line and pro Line

Mountain Bike (c)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling.

Suitable for competitions of this kind, however not for downhill (DH), freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Road Racing Bicycle (d)

Designed for road racing on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

Suitable for competitions of this kind (cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races).

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

a b c d

21

2.2.3 Special Edition

The equipment to be mounted on frames and framesets should comply with the respective series-production bicycles. This applies in particular to the quality and sizes of stems, seat posts etc. as well as to tyre widths and permitted effective lengths

(travel) of forks and rear shocks. If in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer or our after-sales service for advice.

XC Line (a)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling for training and competitive purposes. Not suitable for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Enduro Line (b)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling for training and competitive purposes as well as for touring. Not suitable for downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Road Racing Bicycle (c)

Designed for road racing for training and competitive purposes (road races, cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races) on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Cyclocross (d)

Designed for off-road cycling for training and competitive purposes over typical cyclocross terrain, e.g. on field tracks and forest trails. Not suitable for mountain bike use, in particular for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Downhill

Downhill bicycles are designed for high standard downhill races.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Freeride

Designed for jumps and drops in most challenging terrains and in bicycle parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.2.4 Life Line

Life Line bicycles (a+b) were developed by and for women and their specific needs.

Mountain Bike

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling, as well as for competitions of this kind. Not suitable for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

a

22 b c d a b

23

2.2.3 Special Edition

The equipment to be mounted on frames and framesets should comply with the respective series-production bicycles. This applies in particular to the quality and sizes of stems, seat posts etc. as well as to tyre widths and permitted effective lengths

(travel) of forks and rear shocks. If in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer or our after-sales service for advice.

XC Line (a)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling for training and competitive purposes. Not suitable for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Enduro Line (b)

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling for training and competitive purposes as well as for touring. Not suitable for downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Road Racing Bicycle (c)

Designed for road racing for training and competitive purposes (road races, cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races) on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Cyclocross (d)

Designed for off-road cycling for training and competitive purposes over typical cyclocross terrain, e.g. on field tracks and forest trails. Not suitable for mountain bike use, in particular for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Downhill

Downhill bicycles are designed for high standard downhill races.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Freeride

Designed for jumps and drops in most challenging terrains and in bicycle parks.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.2.4 Life Line

Life Line bicycles (a+b) were developed by and for women and their specific needs.

Mountain Bike

Designed for off-road cycling, i.e. cross-country (XC) and marathon cycling, as well as for competitions of this kind. Not suitable for all-mountain, enduro, downhill (DH) riding, freeride, dual slalom, downhill/freeride parks, jumps, drops etc.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

a

22 b c d a b

23

2.3 Intended use – Winora Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.3.1 Trekking Line / S.u.B. Line

(a)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.3.2 Cross Line

(b)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.3 Folding Bicycle

(c)

Designed for cycling on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components.

Please consult the regulations in the country where you use the folding bicycle.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

2.3.4 City Line

(d)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.3.5 ATB Line

(a)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

These bicycles are not sports bicycles. Not suitable for any kind of competition or show event.

Permissible overall weight: 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.6 Kids’ Bicycles

(b)

Designed to be used for the typical type of kids’ cycling, comparable to that of a city bicycle. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of kids’ bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country” as well as the information provided in chapter “Kids’

Bicycles”.

Permissible overall weight: 60 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

With some kids’ bicycles baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.7 E-Bike / pedelec

(c+d)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Additional power of up to 25 km/h (16 mph) provided by an electric motor only whilst pedalling. Riding a pedelec in the EU requires neither a driving licence nor insurance!

Permissible overall load 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Baggage transport on pannier rack or in pannier bags. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier bags matching the fixing points.

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

In the EU riders of a fast pedelec (over 25 km/h/16 mph) must be at least 16 years old. Both insurance and type approval are matters of national legislation. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country.

If you are in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer.

a

24 b c d a b c d

25

2.3 Intended use – Winora Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.3.1 Trekking Line / S.u.B. Line

(a)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.3.2 Cross Line

(b)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.3 Folding Bicycle

(c)

Designed for cycling on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components.

Please consult the regulations in the country where you use the folding bicycle.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

2.3.4 City Line

(d)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.3.5 ATB Line

(a)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

These bicycles are not sports bicycles. Not suitable for any kind of competition or show event.

Permissible overall weight: 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.6 Kids’ Bicycles

(b)

Designed to be used for the typical type of kids’ cycling, comparable to that of a city bicycle. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of kids’ bicycles.

Please follow the tips provided in section “Safe Cycling on

Public Roads” in chapter “Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and

Country” as well as the information provided in chapter “Kids’

Bicycles”.

Permissible overall weight: 60 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

With some kids’ bicycles baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.3.7 E-Bike / pedelec

(c+d)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Additional power of up to 25 km/h (16 mph) provided by an electric motor only whilst pedalling. Riding a pedelec in the EU requires neither a driving licence nor insurance!

Permissible overall load 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Baggage transport on pannier rack or in pannier bags. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier bags matching the fixing points.

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

In the EU riders of a fast pedelec (over 25 km/h/16 mph) must be at least 16 years old. Both insurance and type approval are matters of national legislation. Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country.

If you are in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer.

a

24 b c d a b c d

25

2.4 Intended use – Staiger Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.4.1 urban Line

(a)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.4.2 ATB Line

(b)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

These bicycles are not sports bicycles! Not suitable for any kind of competitions or show event.

Permissible overall weight: 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.4.3 Sport Line

(c)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.4.4 Trekking Line

(d)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5 Intended use – Sinus Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.5.1 Comfort Edition

(a)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.2 Trekking Edition

(b+c)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.3 Travel Edition

(d)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

a

26 b c d a b c d

27

2.4 Intended use – Staiger Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.4.1 urban Line

(a)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.4.2 ATB Line

(b)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

These bicycles are not sports bicycles! Not suitable for any kind of competitions or show event.

Permissible overall weight: 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.4.3 Sport Line

(c)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

Baggage transport in rucksack or retro fitted pannier rack only. Ask your bicycle dealer for suitable pannier racks which match the fixing points.

2.4.4 Trekking Line

(d)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5 Intended use – Sinus Bicycles

Trailers must be mounted to models with hydraulic brake systems only! Only use suitable trailers that were mounted professionally by your bicycle dealer. Full-suspension models are generally not approved for trailer mounting.

2.5.1 Comfort Edition

(a)

Designed for everyday use in the city on public roads and bicycle lanes.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.2 Trekking Edition

(b+c)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.3 Travel Edition

(d)

Designed for riding on public roads and hard-surfaced tracks as well as on easy terrain, e.g. on trails and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

a

26 b c d a b c d

27

2.5.4 Cross Edition

(a)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.5 Race and Fitness Edition

(b)

Designed for road racing for training and competitive purposes (road races, cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races) on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

For indoor training, road racing bicycles are only suitable for freewheeling rollers without brakes or a frame clamping mechanism.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.5.6 Folding Bicycles (c+d)

Designed for cycling on tarred or paved tracks with a smooth surface. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components.

Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of folding bicycles.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

3 Legal Requirements for Riding on

Public Roads

If you want to use your bicycle for riding on public roads, it has to be equipped according to the regulations of your country. Pay particular attention to your bicycle being equipped with the prescribed set of lights

(a) and reflectors (b) . Ask your bicycle dealer to inform you about the regulations in force in your country. Make yourself familiar with the road traffic regulations for riding on public roads and off-road.

a

28 b c d a b

29

2.5.4 Cross Edition

(a)

Designed for typical trekking use off public roads and on tracks and designated bicycle routes through forests.

Permissible overall weight: 140 kg. Maximum trailer load: 40 kg. With a trailer the permissible overall weight is reduced by the trailer load. Example:

Trailer load 30 kg, permissible overall weight of the bicycle 110 kg.

2.5.5 Race and Fitness Edition

(b)

Designed for road racing for training and competitive purposes (road races, cyclosportive, audax, marathon and club races) on tarred or paved roads with a smooth surface.

For indoor training, road racing bicycles are only suitable for freewheeling rollers without brakes or a frame clamping mechanism.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 120 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

2.5.6 Folding Bicycles (c+d)

Designed for cycling on tarred or paved tracks with a smooth surface. For riding on public roads it must be fitted with additional lighting components.

Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country concerning the usage of folding bicycles.

Permissible overall weight (accumulated weight of rider, baggage in rucksack and bicycle): 100 kg. Not suitable for child carrier and trailer mounting!

Be sure to observe the specific operating instructions included with the folding bicycle.

3 Legal Requirements for Riding on

Public Roads

If you want to use your bicycle for riding on public roads, it has to be equipped according to the regulations of your country. Pay particular attention to your bicycle being equipped with the prescribed set of lights

(a) and reflectors (b) . Ask your bicycle dealer to inform you about the regulations in force in your country. Make yourself familiar with the road traffic regulations for riding on public roads and off-road.

a

28 b c d a b

29

4 Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and Country

4.1 Safe Cycling on public Roads

Keep in mind your bicycle is not only sports equipment (a) , but also an ecofriendly means of transport. Many cities and villages are very committed to improving cycling conditions by creating cycle lanes and by allowing cyclists to ride the wrong way up one-way streets. When you set off on your bicycle always be aware that you are among the vulnerable road user groups. Bicycles do not have airbags, safety belts or a crush zone. A collision may have serious long-term negative consequences to your health. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and try to avoid dangerous situations beforehand.

This manual cannot teach you how to ride or make you familiar with all rules of conduct on public roads. For more information please contact a road safety organization in your country, a bicycle club or comparable organizations.

Tips on how to ride safely on public roads: a) Ensure your bicycle is roadworthy.

b) Make yourself familiar with the traffic rules in your country.

c) Ride with caution. Do not endager or provoke other road users.

d) Cycling is not allowed on motorways. Danger to life! Please check the regulations in your country.

e) For safety reasons you are not allowed to listen to music through headphones on public roads. Do not use your mobile either.

f) Keep sufficient distance between you and the vehicles ahead. Their stopping distance is usually significantly shorter.

g) In wet conditions please cycle with caution. With less grip your stopping distance will get longer. At about 18 km/h (11 mph) you make about 5 metres per second. In wet conditions the stopping distance is twice to three-times as long as in dry conditions. Adapt your riding habits to the ever changing conditions on the street. Be sure to cycle at moderate speed and do not brake too late.

h) Switch on the lighting in poor visibility conditions, such as fog, rain, dawn, dusk and darkness. Bright clothing will help you to get noticed, especially in poor light. Be sure to wear straight cut trousers or straps or cycle clips when you set off on your bicycle. A helmet and protective glasses (b) are a must for cycling safely.

a

30 b i) The following places are typical accident blackspots, where you should cycle with particular caution:

· Junctions, even with a cycle lane parallel to the road; danger by cars running in the same direction and turning to the left or right; danger by oncoming traffic.

· Crossing railway tracks can be hazardous for cyclists, as a trapped front wheel can throw the cyclist off. Be sure to cross railway tracks at right angle.

· With a truck or bus besides you, e.g. in front of traffic lights. You may be overlooked by the driver and are at risk of being run over when the truck or bus turns to the left or right.

· On cycle lanes: take care of dogs and children crossing the lane unmindfully.

Make yourself familiar with the traffic rules before cycling on public roads. Anticipate the mistakes of other road users!

Parents should take their time to introduce their children (a) to safe cycling on public roads. In Germany children must cycle on pavements until the age of eight. Between the age of eight and ten they are still allowed to do so.

For crossing the street, children must get off their bicycle. Please check the regulations in your country.

Parents are advised to sign their children up to courses where they learn how to safely cycle on public roads offered by road safety organizations or the like. For more information see chapter “Kids’ Bicycles”.

4.2 Environment – Cycling Off-Road

A bicycle is the ideal means of transport for any nature lover (b) . Today, cycling plays a major role in recreational activities. Cycling through parks and forest trails has become most popular. To protect nature and avoid conflicts between cyclists, hikers and municipal authorities it is crucial that certain basic rules are followed.

To protect wildlife habitat and the flora, please ride on signposted tracks and lanes only and avoid any off-road cycling across grassland, fields and through forest. Never ride through waters! Be sure when riding off-road that you do not ride faster than your cycling skills allow.

Always be respectful to walkers and hikers and ready to brake when riding downhill or if the road ahead is not clear. Mind your speed and do not leave skid marks.

Please throw your litter in litter bins or take it home.

Ensure an environmentally friendly disposal of lubricants, cleaning and care products after use. These agents must not be disposed of with domestic waste, in nature or emptied into drains.

Cycling off-road requires a great deal of skill, physical fitness and full concentration. Start with easy cycling tours and increase the degree of difficulty step by step. Please note that though looking easy, the tricks of a professional actually require years of training. Do not overestimate your riding skills!

Mountain bikers will find further information at Deutschen Initiative Mountainbike (www.dimb.de) or at International Mountain

Bicycling Association (www.imba.com).

a b

31

4 Useful Tips for Cycling in Town and Country

4.1 Safe Cycling on public Roads

Keep in mind your bicycle is not only sports equipment (a) , but also an ecofriendly means of transport. Many cities and villages are very committed to improving cycling conditions by creating cycle lanes and by allowing cyclists to ride the wrong way up one-way streets. When you set off on your bicycle always be aware that you are among the vulnerable road user groups. Bicycles do not have airbags, safety belts or a crush zone. A collision may have serious long-term negative consequences to your health. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and try to avoid dangerous situations beforehand.

This manual cannot teach you how to ride or make you familiar with all rules of conduct on public roads. For more information please contact a road safety organization in your country, a bicycle club or comparable organizations.

Tips on how to ride safely on public roads: a) Ensure your bicycle is roadworthy.

b) Make yourself familiar with the traffic rules in your country.

c) Ride with caution. Do not endager or provoke other road users.

d) Cycling is not allowed on motorways. Danger to life! Please check the regulations in your country.

e) For safety reasons you are not allowed to listen to music through headphones on public roads. Do not use your mobile either.

f) Keep sufficient distance between you and the vehicles ahead. Their stopping distance is usually significantly shorter.

g) In wet conditions please cycle with caution. With less grip your stopping distance will get longer. At about 18 km/h (11 mph) you make about 5 metres per second. In wet conditions the stopping distance is twice to three-times as long as in dry conditions. Adapt your riding habits to the ever changing conditions on the street. Be sure to cycle at moderate speed and do not brake too late.

h) Switch on the lighting in poor visibility conditions, such as fog, rain, dawn, dusk and darkness. Bright clothing will help you to get noticed, especially in poor light. Be sure to wear straight cut trousers or straps or cycle clips when you set off on your bicycle. A helmet and protective glasses (b) are a must for cycling safely.

a

30 b i) The following places are typical accident blackspots, where you should cycle with particular caution:

· Junctions, even with a cycle lane parallel to the road; danger by cars running in the same direction and turning to the left or right; danger by oncoming traffic.

· Crossing railway tracks can be hazardous for cyclists, as a trapped front wheel can throw the cyclist off. Be sure to cross railway tracks at right angle.

· With a truck or bus besides you, e.g. in front of traffic lights. You may be overlooked by the driver and are at risk of being run over when the truck or bus turns to the left or right.

· On cycle lanes: take care of dogs and children crossing the lane unmindfully.

Make yourself familiar with the traffic rules before cycling on public roads. Anticipate the mistakes of other road users!

Parents should take their time to introduce their children (a) to safe cycling on public roads. In Germany children must cycle on pavements until the age of eight. Between the age of eight and ten they are still allowed to do so.

For crossing the street, children must get off their bicycle. Please check the regulations in your country.

Parents are advised to sign their children up to courses where they learn how to safely cycle on public roads offered by road safety organizations or the like. For more information see chapter “Kids’ Bicycles”.

4.2 Environment – Cycling Off-Road

A bicycle is the ideal means of transport for any nature lover (b) . Today, cycling plays a major role in recreational activities. Cycling through parks and forest trails has become most popular. To protect nature and avoid conflicts between cyclists, hikers and municipal authorities it is crucial that certain basic rules are followed.

To protect wildlife habitat and the flora, please ride on signposted tracks and lanes only and avoid any off-road cycling across grassland, fields and through forest. Never ride through waters! Be sure when riding off-road that you do not ride faster than your cycling skills allow.

Always be respectful to walkers and hikers and ready to brake when riding downhill or if the road ahead is not clear. Mind your speed and do not leave skid marks.

Please throw your litter in litter bins or take it home.

Ensure an environmentally friendly disposal of lubricants, cleaning and care products after use. These agents must not be disposed of with domestic waste, in nature or emptied into drains.

Cycling off-road requires a great deal of skill, physical fitness and full concentration. Start with easy cycling tours and increase the degree of difficulty step by step. Please note that though looking easy, the tricks of a professional actually require years of training. Do not overestimate your riding skills!

Mountain bikers will find further information at Deutschen Initiative Mountainbike (www.dimb.de) or at International Mountain

Bicycling Association (www.imba.com).

a b

31

5 Brake System

5.1 General Information

Brakes (a+b) are used for adjusting one’s speed to the surrounding terrain and traffic. In an emergency situation, the brakes must bring the bicycle to a halt as quickly as possible. In the process of such emergency braking, the rider’s weight shifts forward, thus reducing the load on the rear wheel (c+d) .

The rate of deceleration is primarily limited by the danger of the rear wheel losing contact with the ground resulting in an overturning of the bicycle and secondly by the tyres’ grip on the road. This problem becomes particularly acute when riding downhill. Therefore, in case of an emergency braking situation you have to try to put your weight back as far as possible.

Actuate both brakes simultaneously and bear in mind that, due to the weight transfer, the front brakes can generate a far better braking effect on a surface with good grip.

The braking conditions on unpaved surfaces differ, i.e. overbraking the front wheel can make the wheel slip away. Therefore, be sure to practise braking on different kinds of surface.

Please note that some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

This is to prevent the rider from falling down his bicycle by too strongly applying the front brake. This means, however, also a reduction of the braking effect. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and with this fact in mind. Do not use such type of mountain bike on public roads!

Wet weather reduces the braking power. Apply the brakes carefully when riding on wet or slippery surface, as the tyres can easily slip away. Therefore, reduce your speed when riding in such conditions.

Prolonged braking or permanent dragging of brake pads can lead to overheating of the rims in the case of rim brakes. This can damage the inner tube or make the tyre slip on the rim causing a sudden loss of air which could lead to a serious accident.

With disc brakes too, prolonged braking or permanent dragging of brake pads can lead to an overheating of the brake system. This can lead to a reduction of the braking power or brake failure. Risk of an accident!

When riding downhill, get used to braking hard and then releasing the brake again, whenever the road surface and the situation allows for it. If you are in doubt about the braking action, stop and let the brake system cool down.

a

32 b c d a

The assignment of brake lever to brake calliper can vary

(a)

, e.g. left lever acts on front brake. Make yourself familiar with the lever-to-brake assignment or ask your bicycle dealer to change the brakes as you want them.

Be careful while getting used to the brakes

(b)

. Practise emergency stops in a place free of traffic until you are comfortable controlling your bicycle. This can save you from having accidents.

Wet weather reduces your braking power and the road grip of the tyres. Be aware of longer stopping distances when riding in the rain, reduce your speed and actuate the brakes carefully.

Ensure that braking surfaces are absolutely free of wax, grease and oil. Risk of an accident!

5.1.1 Brakes – How They Work and What to Do About Wear

Actuating the hand lever on the handlebars (c+d) causes a brake pad to be pressed against a brake surface, and the ensuing friction slows down the wheel. If water, dirt or oil gets in contact with one of the braking surfaces, this changes the coefficient of friction and deceleration is reduced. This is why brakes respond with a slight delay and less powerfully in wet weather.

In order to maintain their effectiveness, brakes need to be checked and readjusted regularly.

b c d

33

5 Brake System

5.1 General Information

Brakes (a+b) are used for adjusting one’s speed to the surrounding terrain and traffic. In an emergency situation, the brakes must bring the bicycle to a halt as quickly as possible. In the process of such emergency braking, the rider’s weight shifts forward, thus reducing the load on the rear wheel (c+d) .

The rate of deceleration is primarily limited by the danger of the rear wheel losing contact with the ground resulting in an overturning of the bicycle and secondly by the tyres’ grip on the road. This problem becomes particularly acute when riding downhill. Therefore, in case of an emergency braking situation you have to try to put your weight back as far as possible.

Actuate both brakes simultaneously and bear in mind that, due to the weight transfer, the front brakes can generate a far better braking effect on a surface with good grip.

The braking conditions on unpaved surfaces differ, i.e. overbraking the front wheel can make the wheel slip away. Therefore, be sure to practise braking on different kinds of surface.

Please note that some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

This is to prevent the rider from falling down his bicycle by too strongly applying the front brake. This means, however, also a reduction of the braking effect. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and with this fact in mind. Do not use such type of mountain bike on public roads!

Wet weather reduces the braking power. Apply the brakes carefully when riding on wet or slippery surface, as the tyres can easily slip away. Therefore, reduce your speed when riding in such conditions.

Prolonged braking or permanent dragging of brake pads can lead to overheating of the rims in the case of rim brakes. This can damage the inner tube or make the tyre slip on the rim causing a sudden loss of air which could lead to a serious accident.

With disc brakes too, prolonged braking or permanent dragging of brake pads can lead to an overheating of the brake system. This can lead to a reduction of the braking power or brake failure. Risk of an accident!

When riding downhill, get used to braking hard and then releasing the brake again, whenever the road surface and the situation allows for it. If you are in doubt about the braking action, stop and let the brake system cool down.

a

32 b c d a

The assignment of brake lever to brake calliper can vary

(a)

, e.g. left lever acts on front brake. Make yourself familiar with the lever-to-brake assignment or ask your bicycle dealer to change the brakes as you want them.

Be careful while getting used to the brakes

(b)

. Practise emergency stops in a place free of traffic until you are comfortable controlling your bicycle. This can save you from having accidents.

Wet weather reduces your braking power and the road grip of the tyres. Be aware of longer stopping distances when riding in the rain, reduce your speed and actuate the brakes carefully.

Ensure that braking surfaces are absolutely free of wax, grease and oil. Risk of an accident!

5.1.1 Brakes – How They Work and What to Do About Wear

Actuating the hand lever on the handlebars (c+d) causes a brake pad to be pressed against a brake surface, and the ensuing friction slows down the wheel. If water, dirt or oil gets in contact with one of the braking surfaces, this changes the coefficient of friction and deceleration is reduced. This is why brakes respond with a slight delay and less powerfully in wet weather.

In order to maintain their effectiveness, brakes need to be checked and readjusted regularly.

b c d

33

5.2 Rim Brakes

The friction generated by braking causes wear to the brake pads (a) as well as to the rims. Frequent rides in the rain and dirt and over hilly terrain can accelerate wear on both braking surfaces.

Rims are provided with wear indicators, i.e. grooves (b) or circular indentations. If the rim is worn down to the point where the grooves or indentations are no longer visible, they need to be replaced. Once the abrasion of the rim has reached a certain critical point, the rim may break under the tyre pressure. This can make the wheel jam or the inner tube burst, both of which can cause an accident!

The grooves in the brake pads are worn down by braking. See your bicycle dealer and ask them to examine the remaining thickness of the rims when you have worn through your second set of brake pads at the latest. Your bicycle dealer has a special measuring device for determining the remaining thickness of the rims.

Wet weather reduces your braking power. Be aware of longer stopping distances when riding in the rain!

When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Ensure that the brake pads are absolutely free of wax, grease and oil.

Have your rims regularly inspected and measured by a bicycle dealer

(c)

.

Brake cables that are damaged

(d)

, e.g. frayed, should be replaced immediately, as they can otherwise fail in a critical moment, possibly causing a crash.

5.2.1 V-Brakes

Common V-brake designs have two brake arms mounted separately on either side of the rim. When actuating the brake lever, both arms are tightened by the cable, the pads touch the rim.

5.2.1.1 Functional Check

Check whether the brake pads are accurately aligned with the rims and still sufficiently thick. You can judge the wear of the brake pads by the appearance of the grooves. If the pads are worn down to the bottom of the grooves, it is time to replace them.

The brake pads must hit the rim simultaneously, first touching it with the front portion of their surface. At the moment of first contact the rear portion of the pads should be a millimetre away from the rim. Viewed from the top the brake pads form a “V“ with the trough pointing to the front ((a) p. 35) . This V-shaped setting prevents the brakes from screeching when applied.

The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars. You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop.

Only a successful passing of all these points will ensure a correctly adjusted brake.

Adjusting the position of the brake pads relative to the rims requires a considerable degree of skill. Replacing and adjusting the brake pads is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

5.2.1.2 power Modulator (b)

Some V-brakes of city and trekking bicycles are fitted with a power modulator that acts as brake force control during braking hereby limiting the brake force.

This device is intended to prevent overbraking and a blocking of the front wheel.

An inappropriately adjusted power modulator may result in severe accidents. Ask your bicycle dealer about the system your bicycle is fitted with.

5.2.1.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

Almost all brake designs have a bolt located next to one or both brake callipers for adjusting the initial spring tension (c) . Adjust this bolt carefully until the distance between brake pads and rim is the same on either side.

To adjust the brakes, unscrew the knurled lock ring located at the point where the brake cable enters the brake lever on the handlebars (d) .

Unscrew the knurled, slotted adjusting bolt by a few turns. This reduces the free travel of the brake lever.

Keeping the adjusting bolt firm, tighten the lock ring against the brake lever mount. This prevents the adjusting bolt from coming loose by itself.

Ensure that the slot of the bolt faces neither forward nor upward, as this would permit water or dirt to enter.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard.

a

34 b c d a b c d

35

5.2 Rim Brakes

The friction generated by braking causes wear to the brake pads (a) as well as to the rims. Frequent rides in the rain and dirt and over hilly terrain can accelerate wear on both braking surfaces.

Rims are provided with wear indicators, i.e. grooves (b) or circular indentations. If the rim is worn down to the point where the grooves or indentations are no longer visible, they need to be replaced. Once the abrasion of the rim has reached a certain critical point, the rim may break under the tyre pressure. This can make the wheel jam or the inner tube burst, both of which can cause an accident!

The grooves in the brake pads are worn down by braking. See your bicycle dealer and ask them to examine the remaining thickness of the rims when you have worn through your second set of brake pads at the latest. Your bicycle dealer has a special measuring device for determining the remaining thickness of the rims.

Wet weather reduces your braking power. Be aware of longer stopping distances when riding in the rain!

When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Ensure that the brake pads are absolutely free of wax, grease and oil.

Have your rims regularly inspected and measured by a bicycle dealer

(c)

.

Brake cables that are damaged

(d)

, e.g. frayed, should be replaced immediately, as they can otherwise fail in a critical moment, possibly causing a crash.

5.2.1 V-Brakes

Common V-brake designs have two brake arms mounted separately on either side of the rim. When actuating the brake lever, both arms are tightened by the cable, the pads touch the rim.

5.2.1.1 Functional Check

Check whether the brake pads are accurately aligned with the rims and still sufficiently thick. You can judge the wear of the brake pads by the appearance of the grooves. If the pads are worn down to the bottom of the grooves, it is time to replace them.

The brake pads must hit the rim simultaneously, first touching it with the front portion of their surface. At the moment of first contact the rear portion of the pads should be a millimetre away from the rim. Viewed from the top the brake pads form a “V“ with the trough pointing to the front ((a) p. 35) . This V-shaped setting prevents the brakes from screeching when applied.

The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars. You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop.

Only a successful passing of all these points will ensure a correctly adjusted brake.

Adjusting the position of the brake pads relative to the rims requires a considerable degree of skill. Replacing and adjusting the brake pads is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

5.2.1.2 power Modulator (b)

Some V-brakes of city and trekking bicycles are fitted with a power modulator that acts as brake force control during braking hereby limiting the brake force.

This device is intended to prevent overbraking and a blocking of the front wheel.

An inappropriately adjusted power modulator may result in severe accidents. Ask your bicycle dealer about the system your bicycle is fitted with.

5.2.1.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

Almost all brake designs have a bolt located next to one or both brake callipers for adjusting the initial spring tension (c) . Adjust this bolt carefully until the distance between brake pads and rim is the same on either side.

To adjust the brakes, unscrew the knurled lock ring located at the point where the brake cable enters the brake lever on the handlebars (d) .

Unscrew the knurled, slotted adjusting bolt by a few turns. This reduces the free travel of the brake lever.

Keeping the adjusting bolt firm, tighten the lock ring against the brake lever mount. This prevents the adjusting bolt from coming loose by itself.

Ensure that the slot of the bolt faces neither forward nor upward, as this would permit water or dirt to enter.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard.

a

34 b c d a b c d

35

5.2.2 Racing and/or Side-pull Brakes

With side-pull brakes (a) the brake arms are suspended from a common point, thus forming an integral system. When actuating the brake lever, both arms are tightened by the cable, the pads touch the rim.

5.2.2.1 Functional Check

Check whether the brake pads are accurately aligned with the rims and still sufficiently thick. You can judge the wear of the brake pads by the appearance of the grooves. If the pads are worn down, it is time to replace them.

When you actuate the brake lever, both brake arms must contact the rim simultaneously without touching the tyre.

The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars. You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop. Only a successful passing of all these points will ensure a correctly adjusted brake!

Brake adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

5.2.2.2 Vertical Adjustment

Release the fastening bolt of the brake pad by one to at most two complete turns (b) . Push the brake pad to the correct height and align it according to the rim before retightening the fastening bolt to the specified torque.

5.2.2.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

With dual pivot brakes, turn the small (headless) screw, located at the side or on top of the calliper, until the left and right brake pad are at the same distance from the rim (c) .

Furthermore, check whether the bolt connecting the brake to the frame is still tightened to the prescribed torque, as specified in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”.

To adjust the brake, turn the knurled nut or bolt through which the brake cable passes at the brake calliper (d) until the travel of the brake lever suits your needs. Following the stationary test, check the brakes in a place free of traffic.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard without touching the tyre. Verify that the brake lever cannot be pulled all the way to the handlebars.

5.2.3 Cyclocross Cantilever Brakes

Some cyclocross bicycles (a) are fitted with additional brake levers (b) to ensure braking from a secure handlebar position, i.e. with the hands on the horizontal part of a drop bar. These brake levers can be used on an equal footing, but not simultaneously with the other brake levers. In cyclocross conditions standard side-pull brakes would get clogged with mud. For this reason cyclocross bicycles are fitted with cantilever brakes that provide more mud clearance to the dirty tyres.

5.2.3.1 Functional Check

As with all rim brakes, the brake pads should be accurately aligned with the rims and be sufficiently thick. They should hit the rim first with the front portion of their surface. The rear portion of the pads should be a millimetre away from the rim. Viewed from the top the brake pads form a “V“ with the trough pointing to the front (c) . The brake arms including pads must hit the rim simultaneously. The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars.

You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop.

5.2.3.2 Synchronising and Readjusting

Almost all cantilever brakes have a bolt located next to one brake pad (d) for adjusting the initial spring tension. Adjust this bolt until the distance between brake pad and rim is equal on either side.

To readjust the brake, release the knurled lock ring located at the cable hanger or brake lever. Unscrew the knurled, slotted adjusting bolt by a few turns. This reduces the free travel of the brake lever.

Adjusting the position of the brake pads relative to the rims requires a considerable degree of skill. Replacing and adjusting the brake pads is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard.

5.2.4 Hydraulic Rim Brakes

Hydraulic brakes ((a) p. 38) are extremely powerful and require very little maintenance.

With this brake type, as well, the brake pads wear down and the lever travel increases. Most brake models are, however, fitted with a bolt or a small knob at the brake lever to compensate the wear.

Manufacturers of hydraulic brakes deliver their products with detailed instructions. Read them carefully before removing the wheel or doing any maintenance work. Misuse can lead to brake failure or accidents!

a

36 b c d a b c d

37

5.2.2 Racing and/or Side-pull Brakes

With side-pull brakes (a) the brake arms are suspended from a common point, thus forming an integral system. When actuating the brake lever, both arms are tightened by the cable, the pads touch the rim.

5.2.2.1 Functional Check

Check whether the brake pads are accurately aligned with the rims and still sufficiently thick. You can judge the wear of the brake pads by the appearance of the grooves. If the pads are worn down, it is time to replace them.

When you actuate the brake lever, both brake arms must contact the rim simultaneously without touching the tyre.

The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars. You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop. Only a successful passing of all these points will ensure a correctly adjusted brake!

Brake adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

5.2.2.2 Vertical Adjustment

Release the fastening bolt of the brake pad by one to at most two complete turns (b) . Push the brake pad to the correct height and align it according to the rim before retightening the fastening bolt to the specified torque.

5.2.2.3 Synchronising and Readjusting

With dual pivot brakes, turn the small (headless) screw, located at the side or on top of the calliper, until the left and right brake pad are at the same distance from the rim (c) .

Furthermore, check whether the bolt connecting the brake to the frame is still tightened to the prescribed torque, as specified in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”.

To adjust the brake, turn the knurled nut or bolt through which the brake cable passes at the brake calliper (d) until the travel of the brake lever suits your needs. Following the stationary test, check the brakes in a place free of traffic.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard without touching the tyre. Verify that the brake lever cannot be pulled all the way to the handlebars.

5.2.3 Cyclocross Cantilever Brakes

Some cyclocross bicycles (a) are fitted with additional brake levers (b) to ensure braking from a secure handlebar position, i.e. with the hands on the horizontal part of a drop bar. These brake levers can be used on an equal footing, but not simultaneously with the other brake levers. In cyclocross conditions standard side-pull brakes would get clogged with mud. For this reason cyclocross bicycles are fitted with cantilever brakes that provide more mud clearance to the dirty tyres.

5.2.3.1 Functional Check

As with all rim brakes, the brake pads should be accurately aligned with the rims and be sufficiently thick. They should hit the rim first with the front portion of their surface. The rear portion of the pads should be a millimetre away from the rim. Viewed from the top the brake pads form a “V“ with the trough pointing to the front (c) . The brake arms including pads must hit the rim simultaneously. The brake lever must always remain clear of the handlebars.

You should not even be able to pull them all the way to the handlebars in the event of an emergency stop.

5.2.3.2 Synchronising and Readjusting

Almost all cantilever brakes have a bolt located next to one brake pad (d) for adjusting the initial spring tension. Adjust this bolt until the distance between brake pad and rim is equal on either side.

To readjust the brake, release the knurled lock ring located at the cable hanger or brake lever. Unscrew the knurled, slotted adjusting bolt by a few turns. This reduces the free travel of the brake lever.

Adjusting the position of the brake pads relative to the rims requires a considerable degree of skill. Replacing and adjusting the brake pads is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Always test the brakes’ function when stationary after adjusting them, making sure the brake pads fully engage with the rim when you pull them hard.

5.2.4 Hydraulic Rim Brakes

Hydraulic brakes ((a) p. 38) are extremely powerful and require very little maintenance.

With this brake type, as well, the brake pads wear down and the lever travel increases. Most brake models are, however, fitted with a bolt or a small knob at the brake lever to compensate the wear.

Manufacturers of hydraulic brakes deliver their products with detailed instructions. Read them carefully before removing the wheel or doing any maintenance work. Misuse can lead to brake failure or accidents!

a

36 b c d a b c d

37

5.2.4.1 Checking and Readjusting

Check the pads regularly for wear and alignment. Indicators, i.e. usually grooves in the pads, tell you whether the brake pads are worn down or not.

If the pads are worn down to the bottom of the grooves, it is time to replace them (b) .

Keep the brake callipers, especially the brake pad area, clean, as dirt can prevent the pads from travelling back in their rest position. Regularly check the lines and connections for leaks.

Loose connections or leaky brake lines can drastically impair braking power. If you find leaks in the brake system or buckled lines, contact your bicycle dealer. Risk of an accident!

a

38 b

5.3 Disc Brakes

The most striking feature of disc brakes (a) is that they combine outstanding braking power with good weather resistance. They respond a lot faster in wet conditions than rim brakes do and achieve their normal high braking power within a very short time. They require fairly little maintenance and do not wear down the rims as rim brakes do. However, they tend to be noisy when they are wet.

New brake pads have to be bedded in before they reach their optimal braking performance. For this purpose, accelerate the bicycle 30 to 50 times to around 30 km/h (18 mph) and bring it to a halt each time. This procedure is finished, when the force required at the lever for braking has stopped decreasing.

The brake levers can be adjusted to the size of your hands, allowing you to operate them with optimal effectiveness. In most cases this is done by means of a small Allen bolt located directly at the brake lever (b) . You may need to readjust the brake pads, as well. Please read the manual of the brake manufacturer.

With mechanical disc brakes the travel of the brake lever becomes longer as the brake pads wear down (c) . It is therefore necessary to readjust these brakes regularly. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

If your brake system works with DOT brake fluid, the latter needs to be replaced regularly according to the intervals prescribed by the manufacturer.

The manufacturers of disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

Disc brakes get hot in use. For this reason do not touch the brakes directly after stopping, especially after a long downhill ride.

Do not open the brake lines. Brake fluid can be very unhealthy and damaging to the paint if it leaks out.

5.3.1 Checking Hydraulic Disc Brakes

Regularly check the lines

(d) and connections for leaks while pulling on the lever. If brake fluid leaks out, contact your bicycle dealer immediately, as a leak can render your brakes ineffective.

a b c d

39

5.2.4.1 Checking and Readjusting

Check the pads regularly for wear and alignment. Indicators, i.e. usually grooves in the pads, tell you whether the brake pads are worn down or not.

If the pads are worn down to the bottom of the grooves, it is time to replace them (b) .

Keep the brake callipers, especially the brake pad area, clean, as dirt can prevent the pads from travelling back in their rest position. Regularly check the lines and connections for leaks.

Loose connections or leaky brake lines can drastically impair braking power. If you find leaks in the brake system or buckled lines, contact your bicycle dealer. Risk of an accident!

a

38 b

5.3 Disc Brakes

The most striking feature of disc brakes (a) is that they combine outstanding braking power with good weather resistance. They respond a lot faster in wet conditions than rim brakes do and achieve their normal high braking power within a very short time. They require fairly little maintenance and do not wear down the rims as rim brakes do. However, they tend to be noisy when they are wet.

New brake pads have to be bedded in before they reach their optimal braking performance. For this purpose, accelerate the bicycle 30 to 50 times to around 30 km/h (18 mph) and bring it to a halt each time. This procedure is finished, when the force required at the lever for braking has stopped decreasing.

The brake levers can be adjusted to the size of your hands, allowing you to operate them with optimal effectiveness. In most cases this is done by means of a small Allen bolt located directly at the brake lever (b) . You may need to readjust the brake pads, as well. Please read the manual of the brake manufacturer.

With mechanical disc brakes the travel of the brake lever becomes longer as the brake pads wear down (c) . It is therefore necessary to readjust these brakes regularly. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

If your brake system works with DOT brake fluid, the latter needs to be replaced regularly according to the intervals prescribed by the manufacturer.

The manufacturers of disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

Disc brakes get hot in use. For this reason do not touch the brakes directly after stopping, especially after a long downhill ride.

Do not open the brake lines. Brake fluid can be very unhealthy and damaging to the paint if it leaks out.

5.3.1 Checking Hydraulic Disc Brakes

Regularly check the lines

(d) and connections for leaks while pulling on the lever. If brake fluid leaks out, contact your bicycle dealer immediately, as a leak can render your brakes ineffective.

a b c d

39

Check the pads for wear by inspecting the thickness of the braking material attached to the backing plate within the brake calliper (a) or view through the window on the upper side of the calliper (b) . If there is approximately 1mm of material left on each brake pad, remove the pads according to the manufacturer’s instructions, check them thoroughly and replace them, if necessary.

Dirty brake pads and rotors can lead to drastically reduced braking power. Therefore, make sure the brake remains free of oil and other fluids, especially when you clean your bicycle or grease the chain. Dirty brake pads can under no circumstances be cleaned, they must be replaced! Rotors can be cleaned with warm water and mild soap. There are also special brake cleaners available.

Loose connections and leaky brake lines drastically impair braking power. If you find leaks in the brake system or buckled lines, contact your bicycle dealer immediately.

The manufacturers of hydraulic disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

5.3.2 Checking and Readjusting Mechanical

Disc Brakes

Regularly check whether you get a positive braking response before the lever touches the handlebars.

Make sure the brake cables are in sound condition!

To a certain extent, wear of the brake pads can be compensated directly at the hand lever. Unscrew the union nut on the bolt through which the cable enters the lever and then unscrew the bolt until the lever has the desired travel (c) . Retighten the lock nut by taking care that the slot of the bolt does not face upward or forward, as this would permit an unnecessarily high amount of water or dirt to enter (d) .

Now check the functioning of the brake and see to it that the brake pads do not drag on the rotor ((a) p. 41) when you release the brake lever and let the wheel spin.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever makes the arm on the brake calliper change its position. This can reduce braking power and result in a complete brake failure in an extreme case!

Some systems must be readjusted directly at the brake calliper to compensate wear. For more information please read the enclosed manual of the brake manufacturer.

Some models offer further ways of adjusting the brakes directly at the brake calliper, though this requires a certain amount of skill. In any case, be sure to read the original instructions of the brake manufacturer before adjusting the brakes. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Damaged cables

(b)

should be replaced immediately, as they can snap.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever can drastically reduce the maximum braking performance.

The manufacturers of mechanical disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

If your brake system works with DOT brake fluid, the latter needs to be replaced regularly according to the intervals prescribed by the manufacturer.

a

40 b c d a b

41

Check the pads for wear by inspecting the thickness of the braking material attached to the backing plate within the brake calliper (a) or view through the window on the upper side of the calliper (b) . If there is approximately 1mm of material left on each brake pad, remove the pads according to the manufacturer’s instructions, check them thoroughly and replace them, if necessary.

Dirty brake pads and rotors can lead to drastically reduced braking power. Therefore, make sure the brake remains free of oil and other fluids, especially when you clean your bicycle or grease the chain. Dirty brake pads can under no circumstances be cleaned, they must be replaced! Rotors can be cleaned with warm water and mild soap. There are also special brake cleaners available.

Loose connections and leaky brake lines drastically impair braking power. If you find leaks in the brake system or buckled lines, contact your bicycle dealer immediately.

The manufacturers of hydraulic disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

5.3.2 Checking and Readjusting Mechanical

Disc Brakes

Regularly check whether you get a positive braking response before the lever touches the handlebars.

Make sure the brake cables are in sound condition!

To a certain extent, wear of the brake pads can be compensated directly at the hand lever. Unscrew the union nut on the bolt through which the cable enters the lever and then unscrew the bolt until the lever has the desired travel (c) . Retighten the lock nut by taking care that the slot of the bolt does not face upward or forward, as this would permit an unnecessarily high amount of water or dirt to enter (d) .

Now check the functioning of the brake and see to it that the brake pads do not drag on the rotor ((a) p. 41) when you release the brake lever and let the wheel spin.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever makes the arm on the brake calliper change its position. This can reduce braking power and result in a complete brake failure in an extreme case!

Some systems must be readjusted directly at the brake calliper to compensate wear. For more information please read the enclosed manual of the brake manufacturer.

Some models offer further ways of adjusting the brakes directly at the brake calliper, though this requires a certain amount of skill. In any case, be sure to read the original instructions of the brake manufacturer before adjusting the brakes. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Damaged cables

(b)

should be replaced immediately, as they can snap.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever can drastically reduce the maximum braking performance.

The manufacturers of mechanical disc brakes usually deliver their products with detailed instructions. Be sure to read them carefully before removing a wheel or doing any maintenance work.

If your brake system works with DOT brake fluid, the latter needs to be replaced regularly according to the intervals prescribed by the manufacturer.

a

40 b c d a b

41

5.4 Roller, Drum and Back-pedal Brakes

These types of brakes are hardly found any more and only still common on city (a) and kids’ bicycles (b) . The brake mechanism of these brakes is fully enclosed and combined with a geared hub. Their brake pads and surfaces are largely protected against the influences of the weather.

The braking force is transmitted through cables from the levers to the brakes.

5.4.1 Checking and Readjusting Hand-Operated Brakes

Check whether the inner cables of the Bowden cables in the area of the grips and brake itself are still in sound condition. They must not be frayed.

Damaged cables should be replaced immediately, as they can snap. Brakes that have been adjusted at the brake lever only can lose their braking power.

Regularly check whether you get a positive braking response before the lever touches the handlebars (c) .

To a certain extent, wear of the brake pads can be compensated directly at the hand lever. Unscrew the union nut on the bolt through which the cable enters the lever and then unscrew the bolt until the lever has the desired travel.

Retighten the lock nut by taking care that the slot of the bolt does not face upward or forward, as this would permit an unnecessarily high amount of water or dirt to enter (d) .

Now check the functioning of the brake and see to it that the brake pads do not drag along the braking surface when you release the brake lever and let the wheel spin.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever makes the arm on the brake calliper change its position. This can reduce braking power which may be insufficient in an extreme case! After having repeatedly readjusted your brake on your own, ask your bicycle dealer to do this delicate job.

If you intend to do any further adjustment on your brake, be sure to read the original instructions of the brake manufacturer before you start. In case you are in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer for help.

Check regularly whether the torque support is still firmly attached to the frame or fork (a) . Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

The risk of overheating is particularly high with closed brake systems

(b)

.

Brake overheating occurs on prolonged (steep) downhill rides with permanent brake dragging. Brake fade is a result thereof which, in extreme cases, may lead to brake failure. Therefore, if you notice a reduction of the braking effect, stop and let the brake system cool down. Sometimes, it will be enough to operate the front and rear brake in an alternating pattern. If that will not suffice, stop for a couple of minutes before you set off again.

5.4.2 Checking and Readjusting Back-pedal Brakes

This brake is operated by pedalling backward. For maximum braking power, step on one of the pedals in its rearmost position with the cranks horizontal.

With SRAM models braking power is increased when you have switched to a lower gear beforehand.

With back-pedal brakes the chain tension has to be checked regularly (c) .

The amount of play, midway between chainring and sprocket, should not be more than two centimetres.

If there is any play, have the chain tightened by your bicycle dealer!

Check regularly whether the brake torque arm (torque support)

(d)

is still firmly attached to the frame or fork. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended

Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Please note that there is no rear wheel braking with a slipped chain! Risk of an accident!

a

42 b c d a b c d

43

5.4 Roller, Drum and Back-pedal Brakes

These types of brakes are hardly found any more and only still common on city (a) and kids’ bicycles (b) . The brake mechanism of these brakes is fully enclosed and combined with a geared hub. Their brake pads and surfaces are largely protected against the influences of the weather.

The braking force is transmitted through cables from the levers to the brakes.

5.4.1 Checking and Readjusting Hand-Operated Brakes

Check whether the inner cables of the Bowden cables in the area of the grips and brake itself are still in sound condition. They must not be frayed.

Damaged cables should be replaced immediately, as they can snap. Brakes that have been adjusted at the brake lever only can lose their braking power.

Regularly check whether you get a positive braking response before the lever touches the handlebars (c) .

To a certain extent, wear of the brake pads can be compensated directly at the hand lever. Unscrew the union nut on the bolt through which the cable enters the lever and then unscrew the bolt until the lever has the desired travel.

Retighten the lock nut by taking care that the slot of the bolt does not face upward or forward, as this would permit an unnecessarily high amount of water or dirt to enter (d) .

Now check the functioning of the brake and see to it that the brake pads do not drag along the braking surface when you release the brake lever and let the wheel spin.

Repeated readjustment at the brake lever makes the arm on the brake calliper change its position. This can reduce braking power which may be insufficient in an extreme case! After having repeatedly readjusted your brake on your own, ask your bicycle dealer to do this delicate job.

If you intend to do any further adjustment on your brake, be sure to read the original instructions of the brake manufacturer before you start. In case you are in doubt, ask your bicycle dealer for help.

Check regularly whether the torque support is still firmly attached to the frame or fork (a) . Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

The risk of overheating is particularly high with closed brake systems

(b)

.

Brake overheating occurs on prolonged (steep) downhill rides with permanent brake dragging. Brake fade is a result thereof which, in extreme cases, may lead to brake failure. Therefore, if you notice a reduction of the braking effect, stop and let the brake system cool down. Sometimes, it will be enough to operate the front and rear brake in an alternating pattern. If that will not suffice, stop for a couple of minutes before you set off again.

5.4.2 Checking and Readjusting Back-pedal Brakes

This brake is operated by pedalling backward. For maximum braking power, step on one of the pedals in its rearmost position with the cranks horizontal.

With SRAM models braking power is increased when you have switched to a lower gear beforehand.

With back-pedal brakes the chain tension has to be checked regularly (c) .

The amount of play, midway between chainring and sprocket, should not be more than two centimetres.

If there is any play, have the chain tightened by your bicycle dealer!

Check regularly whether the brake torque arm (torque support)

(d)

is still firmly attached to the frame or fork. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended

Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Please note that there is no rear wheel braking with a slipped chain! Risk of an accident!

a

42 b c d a b c d

43

6 Drive System

The drive system includes all bicycle parts that are crucial for the transmission of the pedalling power to the rear wheel (a+b) , i.e. bottom bracket, crankset-chainrings, pedals, sprockets and chain.

6.1 Gears

The gears on your bicycle serve to adjust your pedalling power to the terrain you are riding on and the desired speed. A low gear (where in the case of derailleur gears the chains runs on the small chainring and a large sprocket) allows you to climb steep hills with moderate pedalling force. You must, however, pedal relatively fast. High gears (large chainring, small sprocket) are for riding downhill. Every turn of the pedals takes you many metres forward at correspondingly high speed.

Derailleur gears always work according to the following principle:

Large chainring

Small chainring

Large sprocket

Small sprocket

– high/heavy gear – higher transmission

– low/easy gear

– low/easy gear

– lower transmission

– lower transmission

– high/heavy gear – higher transmission

Normally, the shifters are mounted as follows:

Right shifter

Left shifter

– sprockets

– chainrings

On level ground your pedalling speed, also referred to as cadence, should be higher than 60 strokes a minute. Racing cyclists pedal at a rate between

90 and 110 strokes a minute on level ground. When climbing uphill, your cadence will naturally fall off somewhat. Your pedalling should, however, always remain fluid.

6.1.1 Bottom Bracket – Crankset

The bottom bracket (c+d) composed of ball bearings, cups, sealing rings and spindle normally comes as a compact unit. This is to protect the sealed cartridge bottom bracket against penetrating dirt, water or mud. The compact bottom bracket is maintenance free and delivered without play. Check the bottom bracket bearing in the bottom bracket shell for play at regular intervals. The crank arms may come loose in use over time. Regularly check whether they are firmly attached to the spindle. Grab the crank and try to jiggle it forcefully. It must be absolutely free of play.

If the crank arms have play, the crankset mounting may sustain damage. Risk of breakage!

6.2 Derailleur Gears

Derailleur gears are currently the most effective type of power transmission on bicycles. With specially designed sprocket teeth, flexible chains and indexed lever positions, gear shifting has become very easy. Some systems have an indicator on the handlebars showing the currently used gear.

Modern bicycles can have up to 33 speeds. It is not advisable to use gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this reduces power transmission efficiency and hastens wear of the chain. An unfavourable run of the chain is when the smallest chainring is used with one of the two or three outermost (smallest) sprockets (a) or when the largest chainring is used with one of the inmost (largest) sprockets (b) .

Always wear straight-cut trousers or use cycle clips or the like

(c)

to make sure your trousers do not get caught in the chain or chainrings.

Shifting gears under load, i.e. while pedalling hard, can make the chain slip. At the front derailleur the chain may even slip off the chainrings and result in an accident.

At least the durability of the chain will be shortened considerably.

6.2.1 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Operate

Them on Mountain, Fitness, City, Kids’ and Trekking

Bicycles

Gear shifting is initiated by actuating a shifter, a combined brake and gear lever unit or by a short turn of the wrist with the twist grip, as the case may be.

With Shimano Rapidfire plus shifters pressing the large shifter moves the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pulling the small lever, located in front of the handlebars from the rider’s viewpoint and operated with the index finger (index finger lever) shifts the chain towards the smaller sprockets. This means that any gear shift made by pushing the large thumb shifter on the right produces a lower gear, while pressing the large thumb shifter on the left moves the chain to the larger chainring, thus producing a higher gear.

The Shimano Rapidfire plus shifters with 2-way release

(d)

(e.g. XTR from model 2007 on) work according to the usual Rapidfire principle (see above).

The small index finger lever can be operated with the thumb, as well. The chain runs to the small chainring or small sprockets. You can shift several gears with one action. Pulling or pushing the shifting lever shortly results in a single gear change, pulling or pushing it long leads to two gear shifts.

Shimano Rapid Rise derailleurs use a return spring with reversed spring direction. Shifting with this derailleur is reversed from common derailleurs, i.e. actuating the big shifter with the right hand leads to a higher gear.

a

44 b c d a b c d

45

6 Drive System

The drive system includes all bicycle parts that are crucial for the transmission of the pedalling power to the rear wheel (a+b) , i.e. bottom bracket, crankset-chainrings, pedals, sprockets and chain.

6.1 Gears

The gears on your bicycle serve to adjust your pedalling power to the terrain you are riding on and the desired speed. A low gear (where in the case of derailleur gears the chains runs on the small chainring and a large sprocket) allows you to climb steep hills with moderate pedalling force. You must, however, pedal relatively fast. High gears (large chainring, small sprocket) are for riding downhill. Every turn of the pedals takes you many metres forward at correspondingly high speed.

Derailleur gears always work according to the following principle:

Large chainring

Small chainring

Large sprocket

Small sprocket

– high/heavy gear – higher transmission

– low/easy gear

– low/easy gear

– lower transmission

– lower transmission

– high/heavy gear – higher transmission

Normally, the shifters are mounted as follows:

Right shifter

Left shifter

– sprockets

– chainrings

On level ground your pedalling speed, also referred to as cadence, should be higher than 60 strokes a minute. Racing cyclists pedal at a rate between

90 and 110 strokes a minute on level ground. When climbing uphill, your cadence will naturally fall off somewhat. Your pedalling should, however, always remain fluid.

6.1.1 Bottom Bracket – Crankset

The bottom bracket (c+d) composed of ball bearings, cups, sealing rings and spindle normally comes as a compact unit. This is to protect the sealed cartridge bottom bracket against penetrating dirt, water or mud. The compact bottom bracket is maintenance free and delivered without play. Check the bottom bracket bearing in the bottom bracket shell for play at regular intervals. The crank arms may come loose in use over time. Regularly check whether they are firmly attached to the spindle. Grab the crank and try to jiggle it forcefully. It must be absolutely free of play.

If the crank arms have play, the crankset mounting may sustain damage. Risk of breakage!

6.2 Derailleur Gears

Derailleur gears are currently the most effective type of power transmission on bicycles. With specially designed sprocket teeth, flexible chains and indexed lever positions, gear shifting has become very easy. Some systems have an indicator on the handlebars showing the currently used gear.

Modern bicycles can have up to 33 speeds. It is not advisable to use gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this reduces power transmission efficiency and hastens wear of the chain. An unfavourable run of the chain is when the smallest chainring is used with one of the two or three outermost (smallest) sprockets (a) or when the largest chainring is used with one of the inmost (largest) sprockets (b) .

Always wear straight-cut trousers or use cycle clips or the like

(c)

to make sure your trousers do not get caught in the chain or chainrings.

Shifting gears under load, i.e. while pedalling hard, can make the chain slip. At the front derailleur the chain may even slip off the chainrings and result in an accident.

At least the durability of the chain will be shortened considerably.

6.2.1 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to Operate

Them on Mountain, Fitness, City, Kids’ and Trekking

Bicycles

Gear shifting is initiated by actuating a shifter, a combined brake and gear lever unit or by a short turn of the wrist with the twist grip, as the case may be.

With Shimano Rapidfire plus shifters pressing the large shifter moves the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pulling the small lever, located in front of the handlebars from the rider’s viewpoint and operated with the index finger (index finger lever) shifts the chain towards the smaller sprockets. This means that any gear shift made by pushing the large thumb shifter on the right produces a lower gear, while pressing the large thumb shifter on the left moves the chain to the larger chainring, thus producing a higher gear.

The Shimano Rapidfire plus shifters with 2-way release

(d)

(e.g. XTR from model 2007 on) work according to the usual Rapidfire principle (see above).

The small index finger lever can be operated with the thumb, as well. The chain runs to the small chainring or small sprockets. You can shift several gears with one action. Pulling or pushing the shifting lever shortly results in a single gear change, pulling or pushing it long leads to two gear shifts.

Shimano Rapid Rise derailleurs use a return spring with reversed spring direction. Shifting with this derailleur is reversed from common derailleurs, i.e. actuating the big shifter with the right hand leads to a higher gear.

a

44 b c d a b c d

45

With the Shimano Dual Control (a) gear and brake lever components, the brake lever has to be pushed downward to shift to the smaller sprockets and larger chainrings. Pulling the lever upward or actuating the small thumb shifter located under the handlebars, will give you a larger sprocket and a smaller chainring, both leading to a lower gear.

Pressing the large shifting lever of SRAM trigger shifters

(b) located under the handlebars with your thumb, shifts the chain to the larger chainrings and larger sprockets. The smaller shifter, also located under the handlebars, but a bit higher than the big one, is pushed with the thumb, too, and makes the chain move to the smaller chainrings and smaller sprockets.

The principle of twist grips is different (c) . Twisting the right-hand grip towards you moves the chain to a larger sprocket giving you a lower gear, while the same movement on the left produces a higher gear by moving the chain to the larger chainrings. The shifting direction may vary in this case, as well.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the levers or twist grips of your bicycle.

It is therefore crucial when switching gears to continue pedalling smoothly and without too much force. Do not shift under load, as this will shorten the durability of the chain considerably.

Furthermore, this can lead to a chain-suck, i.e. the chain can get jammed between chain stay and chainrings. Avoid shifting gears while pedalling with force, in particular when shifting with the front derailleur.

Avoid gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this will increase wear.

6.2.2 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to use

Them on Road Racing Bicycles

On classic road racing bicycles the shifting levers are integrated with the brake lever.

On a Campagnolo Ergopower (d) equipped bicycle, moving the small lever located behind the brake lever inward with your index or middle finger, shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pressing the lever inside the brake hood with your thumb, shifts the chain to the smaller sprockets. By pressing once you can shift up to three sprockets.

With Shimano Dual Control levers (a) , swivelling the entire brake lever inward shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Up to three sprockets can be shifted per tap. Moving the small lever alone that is located behind the brake lever the chain moves towards the smaller sprockets, but only one sprocket per tap.

SRAM DoubleTap (b) levers have only one shifting lever positioned behind the brake lever. Tapping the lever to its end shifts the gear one to three sprockets higher. A short tap moves the chain to the next smaller sprocket.

With Shimano, SRAM and Campagnolo bar end shifters (c) for triathlon and time trial use the shifting lever is pressed downward to move the chain to the smaller sprockets to achieve a higher gear and to the smaller chainrings to achieve a lower gear. By pulling the shifting lever upward you can switch to the larger sprockets and larger chainrings.

The shifting levers for flat bars

(d) are located underneath the handlebars. By shifting the right big lever with the thumb the chain moves to larger sprockets, i.e. in a lower gear. The smaller lever is shifted with the index finger or thumb and switches in higher gears. By operating the big shifter with the thumb on the left side the chain moves to the larger chainring, i.e. to a higher gear.

With the Shimano Sora and 2200 group swivelling the entire brake lever inward, shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pushing the lever inside the brake hood with your thumb shifts the chain to the smaller sprockets.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the levers of your bicycle.

Do not shift under load, as this will shorten the durability of the chain considerably. Furthermore, this can lead to a chain-suck, i.e. the chain can get jammed between chain stay and chainrings. Avoid shifting gears while pedalling with force, in particular when shifting with the front derailleur.

Avoid gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this will increase wear.

a

46 b c d a b c d

47

With the Shimano Dual Control (a) gear and brake lever components, the brake lever has to be pushed downward to shift to the smaller sprockets and larger chainrings. Pulling the lever upward or actuating the small thumb shifter located under the handlebars, will give you a larger sprocket and a smaller chainring, both leading to a lower gear.

Pressing the large shifting lever of SRAM trigger shifters

(b) located under the handlebars with your thumb, shifts the chain to the larger chainrings and larger sprockets. The smaller shifter, also located under the handlebars, but a bit higher than the big one, is pushed with the thumb, too, and makes the chain move to the smaller chainrings and smaller sprockets.

The principle of twist grips is different (c) . Twisting the right-hand grip towards you moves the chain to a larger sprocket giving you a lower gear, while the same movement on the left produces a higher gear by moving the chain to the larger chainrings. The shifting direction may vary in this case, as well.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the levers or twist grips of your bicycle.

It is therefore crucial when switching gears to continue pedalling smoothly and without too much force. Do not shift under load, as this will shorten the durability of the chain considerably.

Furthermore, this can lead to a chain-suck, i.e. the chain can get jammed between chain stay and chainrings. Avoid shifting gears while pedalling with force, in particular when shifting with the front derailleur.

Avoid gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this will increase wear.

6.2.2 Derailleur Gears – How They Work and How to use

Them on Road Racing Bicycles

On classic road racing bicycles the shifting levers are integrated with the brake lever.

On a Campagnolo Ergopower (d) equipped bicycle, moving the small lever located behind the brake lever inward with your index or middle finger, shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pressing the lever inside the brake hood with your thumb, shifts the chain to the smaller sprockets. By pressing once you can shift up to three sprockets.

With Shimano Dual Control levers (a) , swivelling the entire brake lever inward shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Up to three sprockets can be shifted per tap. Moving the small lever alone that is located behind the brake lever the chain moves towards the smaller sprockets, but only one sprocket per tap.

SRAM DoubleTap (b) levers have only one shifting lever positioned behind the brake lever. Tapping the lever to its end shifts the gear one to three sprockets higher. A short tap moves the chain to the next smaller sprocket.

With Shimano, SRAM and Campagnolo bar end shifters (c) for triathlon and time trial use the shifting lever is pressed downward to move the chain to the smaller sprockets to achieve a higher gear and to the smaller chainrings to achieve a lower gear. By pulling the shifting lever upward you can switch to the larger sprockets and larger chainrings.

The shifting levers for flat bars

(d) are located underneath the handlebars. By shifting the right big lever with the thumb the chain moves to larger sprockets, i.e. in a lower gear. The smaller lever is shifted with the index finger or thumb and switches in higher gears. By operating the big shifter with the thumb on the left side the chain moves to the larger chainring, i.e. to a higher gear.

With the Shimano Sora and 2200 group swivelling the entire brake lever inward, shifts the chain towards the larger sprockets. Pushing the lever inside the brake hood with your thumb shifts the chain to the smaller sprockets.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the levers of your bicycle.

Do not shift under load, as this will shorten the durability of the chain considerably. Furthermore, this can lead to a chain-suck, i.e. the chain can get jammed between chain stay and chainrings. Avoid shifting gears while pedalling with force, in particular when shifting with the front derailleur.

Avoid gears which involve an extremely oblique run of the chain, as this will increase wear.

a

46 b c d a b c d

47

6.3 Checking and Readjusting Derailleur

Gears

The derailleur gears of your bicycle were carefully adjusted by your dealer before delivery. However, Bowden cables may stretch a little on the first kilometres/miles, making gear shifting imprecise.

Adjusting the front and rear derailleur accurately is a job for an experienced mechanic.

If you want to try adjusting it yourself, be sure to read the operating instructions of the manufacturer. In case you have any problems with the gears, please contact your bicycle dealer!

6.3.1 Rear derailleur

Increase the tension of the Bowden cable by turning the adjustable cable stop at the shifting lever

(a) or the adjusting bolt through which it runs into the rear derailleur of mountain, city, kids’ and trekking bicycles (b) .

Rear derailleurs are not all equipped with an adjusting bolt!

If you have a road racing bicycle the adjustment is carried out by turning the adjusting bolts at the right cable stop on the down tube. There is another adjusting bolt directly at the rear derailleur.

To do so, shift to the smallest sprocket (c) and turn the clicking bolts anticlockwise in half turns until the cable is slightly tensioned.

After tensioning the Bowden cable check whether the chain immediately climbs onto the next larger sprocket. To find out you either have to turn the cranks by hand

(d) or ride the bicycle and change gears.

If the chain easily climbs onto the next larger sprocket, check whether it just as easily shifts to the small sprockets. You may need several tries.

Adjusting the front and rear derailleur accurately is a job for an experienced mechanic. Please observe the instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you have any problems with the gears, contact your bicycle dealer.

Ask a helper to lift the rear wheel. By turning the cranks and shifting through you can easily check the function.

6.3.2 Checking the Limit Stops

The limit screws are adjusted by your bicycle dealer. They do not alter their position during normal use.

If your bicycle has tipped over or the rear derailleur received a blow, the rear derailleur or its mount might be bent. It is advisable to check its range of movement and readjust the limit screws, if necessary, after such an incident or after mounting new wheels on your bicycle

(a)

.

Shift with the right shifting lever to the highest gear. The inner cable is relaxed and the chain running on the smallest sprocket. Look from the rear of the bicycle at the cassette and check whether the teeth of the smallest sprocket and the teeth of the guide pulley are all in a perfectly vertical line

(b)

.

If necessary, correct the position by means of the limit screws. The limit screws on rear derailleurs are often marked “H” for high gear and “L” for low gear (c) . In this case high gear stands for high transmission ratio, i.e. with the chain running on the smallest sprocket.

If the screws are not marked, you will have to find out by trial and error.

Turn one of the screws by counting the number of turns and watch the rear derailleur. If it does not move, you are turning the wrong one. Turn back the counted rotations to find its original position.

Turn the screw clockwise to shift the rear derailleur towards the wheel and anticlockwise to shift it away from the wheel.

Continue by shifting the rear derailleur to the largest sprocket. Make sure the rear derailleur does not collide with the spokes. When the chain runs on the largest sprocket see whether you can shift the rear derailleur even further by moving the shifting lever to the end of its travel. Then press the rear derailleur further towards the spokes by hand (d) . Spin the wheel. If the derailleur cage moves towards the spokes or if the chain begins to move beyond the largest sprocket, the derailleur movement range needs to be limited. Turn the limit screw marked “L” clockwise until the rear derailleur is clear of the spokes.

Be sure to go on a test ride in a place free of traffic, after adjusting the gears of your bicycle.

Improperly adjusted limit stops or a bent rear derailleur mount can result in a severe damage to the bicycle and a rear wheel blocking. Risk of an accident!

a

48 b c d a b c d

49

6.3 Checking and Readjusting Derailleur

Gears

The derailleur gears of your bicycle were carefully adjusted by your dealer before delivery. However, Bowden cables may stretch a little on the first kilometres/miles, making gear shifting imprecise.

Adjusting the front and rear derailleur accurately is a job for an experienced mechanic.

If you want to try adjusting it yourself, be sure to read the operating instructions of the manufacturer. In case you have any problems with the gears, please contact your bicycle dealer!

6.3.1 Rear derailleur

Increase the tension of the Bowden cable by turning the adjustable cable stop at the shifting lever

(a) or the adjusting bolt through which it runs into the rear derailleur of mountain, city, kids’ and trekking bicycles (b) .

Rear derailleurs are not all equipped with an adjusting bolt!

If you have a road racing bicycle the adjustment is carried out by turning the adjusting bolts at the right cable stop on the down tube. There is another adjusting bolt directly at the rear derailleur.

To do so, shift to the smallest sprocket (c) and turn the clicking bolts anticlockwise in half turns until the cable is slightly tensioned.

After tensioning the Bowden cable check whether the chain immediately climbs onto the next larger sprocket. To find out you either have to turn the cranks by hand

(d) or ride the bicycle and change gears.

If the chain easily climbs onto the next larger sprocket, check whether it just as easily shifts to the small sprockets. You may need several tries.

Adjusting the front and rear derailleur accurately is a job for an experienced mechanic. Please observe the instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you have any problems with the gears, contact your bicycle dealer.

Ask a helper to lift the rear wheel. By turning the cranks and shifting through you can easily check the function.

6.3.2 Checking the Limit Stops

The limit screws are adjusted by your bicycle dealer. They do not alter their position during normal use.

If your bicycle has tipped over or the rear derailleur received a blow, the rear derailleur or its mount might be bent. It is advisable to check its range of movement and readjust the limit screws, if necessary, after such an incident or after mounting new wheels on your bicycle

(a)

.

Shift with the right shifting lever to the highest gear. The inner cable is relaxed and the chain running on the smallest sprocket. Look from the rear of the bicycle at the cassette and check whether the teeth of the smallest sprocket and the teeth of the guide pulley are all in a perfectly vertical line

(b)

.

If necessary, correct the position by means of the limit screws. The limit screws on rear derailleurs are often marked “H” for high gear and “L” for low gear (c) . In this case high gear stands for high transmission ratio, i.e. with the chain running on the smallest sprocket.

If the screws are not marked, you will have to find out by trial and error.

Turn one of the screws by counting the number of turns and watch the rear derailleur. If it does not move, you are turning the wrong one. Turn back the counted rotations to find its original position.

Turn the screw clockwise to shift the rear derailleur towards the wheel and anticlockwise to shift it away from the wheel.

Continue by shifting the rear derailleur to the largest sprocket. Make sure the rear derailleur does not collide with the spokes. When the chain runs on the largest sprocket see whether you can shift the rear derailleur even further by moving the shifting lever to the end of its travel. Then press the rear derailleur further towards the spokes by hand (d) . Spin the wheel. If the derailleur cage moves towards the spokes or if the chain begins to move beyond the largest sprocket, the derailleur movement range needs to be limited. Turn the limit screw marked “L” clockwise until the rear derailleur is clear of the spokes.

Be sure to go on a test ride in a place free of traffic, after adjusting the gears of your bicycle.

Improperly adjusted limit stops or a bent rear derailleur mount can result in a severe damage to the bicycle and a rear wheel blocking. Risk of an accident!

a

48 b c d a b c d

49

6.3.3 Front Derailleur

The range within which the front derailleur (a) keeps the chain on the chainring without itself touching the chain is very small. This adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

It is often better to let the chain drag slightly on the derailleur than to risk having the chain fall off the chainring, which would interrupt the power train.

The front derailleur, just like the rear derailleur, has limit screws marked “H” and “L” that reduce the movement range (b) .

As with the rear derailleur, the cable of the front derailleur is subject to lengthening and hence to reduced precision in gear changing.

If necessary, shift to the small chainring and increase the tension of the

Bowden cable by turning the adjusting bolt through which it passes at the entry to the gear shifter (c) or at the frame under the down tube (d) .

Always check after an accident whether the guide plates of the front derailleur are still parallel to the chainrings!

Adjusting the front derailleur is a very delicate job. Improper adjustment can cause the chain to jump off, thus interrupting the power train. This can cause an accident!

Be sure to go on a test ride in a place free of traffic, after adjusting the gears of your bicycle.

6.4 Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs)

Two advantages of multi-speed hubs (a) are their enclosed design and the fact that you can switch through all gears by the same lever. Besides this, the chain lasts a lot longer than with derailleur gears, provided it is serviced regularly.

Multi-speed or internal gear hubs from Shimano are available with a freewheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or roller brake, or with an integrated drum brake, also referred to as back-pedal brake. The latter is operated by pedalling backward. The best braking power is achieved with the pedals on a horizontal level.

Multi-speed or internal gear hubs from SRAM are available with a freewheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or drum brake, or with an integrated drum brake, also referred to as back-pedal brake. The latter is operated by pedalling backward. The best braking power is achieved with the pedals on a horizontal level and in low gears.

Rohloff speedhubs are available with a free-wheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated rim brake (mechanical or hydraulic), or with a disc brake (mechanical or hydraulic).

NuVinci hubs make gear shifting smooth, i.e. you always ride in the appropriate gear. With NuVinci hubs power transmission is ensured by balls.

6.4.1 Multi-Speed Hubs – How They Work and

How to use Them

Internal gear hubs are equipped with a twist grip or thumb shifter for changing gears as well as with an indicator showing the current gear. According to the hub manufacturer you can either continue pedalling without load on the pedals or freewheel. Read the operating instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! In any case, make sure changing gears makes as little noise as possible.

SRAM twist grip shifters (b) : To change gears, twist the grip, stop pedalling for a moment and do not move the pedals. SRAM I-Motion also allows gear shifting during pedalling and in stationary.

Twist grip shifters for Shimano Nexus

(c) and Rohloff hubs

(d)

: Continue pedalling during shifting. However, to ensure a jerk-free and low-noise gear shifting, be sure to reduce your pedalling power.

a

50 b c d a b c d

51

6.3.3 Front Derailleur

The range within which the front derailleur (a) keeps the chain on the chainring without itself touching the chain is very small. This adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

It is often better to let the chain drag slightly on the derailleur than to risk having the chain fall off the chainring, which would interrupt the power train.

The front derailleur, just like the rear derailleur, has limit screws marked “H” and “L” that reduce the movement range (b) .

As with the rear derailleur, the cable of the front derailleur is subject to lengthening and hence to reduced precision in gear changing.

If necessary, shift to the small chainring and increase the tension of the

Bowden cable by turning the adjusting bolt through which it passes at the entry to the gear shifter (c) or at the frame under the down tube (d) .

Always check after an accident whether the guide plates of the front derailleur are still parallel to the chainrings!

Adjusting the front derailleur is a very delicate job. Improper adjustment can cause the chain to jump off, thus interrupting the power train. This can cause an accident!

Be sure to go on a test ride in a place free of traffic, after adjusting the gears of your bicycle.

6.4 Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs)

Two advantages of multi-speed hubs (a) are their enclosed design and the fact that you can switch through all gears by the same lever. Besides this, the chain lasts a lot longer than with derailleur gears, provided it is serviced regularly.

Multi-speed or internal gear hubs from Shimano are available with a freewheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or roller brake, or with an integrated drum brake, also referred to as back-pedal brake. The latter is operated by pedalling backward. The best braking power is achieved with the pedals on a horizontal level.

Multi-speed or internal gear hubs from SRAM are available with a freewheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or drum brake, or with an integrated drum brake, also referred to as back-pedal brake. The latter is operated by pedalling backward. The best braking power is achieved with the pedals on a horizontal level and in low gears.

Rohloff speedhubs are available with a free-wheel, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated rim brake (mechanical or hydraulic), or with a disc brake (mechanical or hydraulic).

NuVinci hubs make gear shifting smooth, i.e. you always ride in the appropriate gear. With NuVinci hubs power transmission is ensured by balls.

6.4.1 Multi-Speed Hubs – How They Work and

How to use Them

Internal gear hubs are equipped with a twist grip or thumb shifter for changing gears as well as with an indicator showing the current gear. According to the hub manufacturer you can either continue pedalling without load on the pedals or freewheel. Read the operating instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! In any case, make sure changing gears makes as little noise as possible.

SRAM twist grip shifters (b) : To change gears, twist the grip, stop pedalling for a moment and do not move the pedals. SRAM I-Motion also allows gear shifting during pedalling and in stationary.

Twist grip shifters for Shimano Nexus

(c) and Rohloff hubs

(d)

: Continue pedalling during shifting. However, to ensure a jerk-free and low-noise gear shifting, be sure to reduce your pedalling power.

a

50 b c d a b c d

51

Twist grip shifter for NuVinci hubs: To change gears, twist the grip, stop pedalling for a moment and do not apply any load to the pedals. You need not stop to do so. Smooth gear shifting is best with the pedals on a vertical line, i.e. one above the other.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the shift levers or twist grips of your bicycle.

6.4.2 Checking and Readjusting

Multi-speed hubs need not be adjusted very often. The adjusting mechanism is mainly located at the hub (a) or at the gear box. There are two (red) marks which have to be brought into alignment by adjusting the cable directly at the lever or twist grip (see adjustment of the derailleur gear). Carefully read the operating instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Regularly check the reliable fit of the bolted connection of the hub and of the torque arm to the frame

(b)

.

If you have a Rohloff speed hub, be sure to make an oil change annually or after 5,000 km (3,100 miles). If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

6.5 Combined Derailleur / Hub Gears

These gear systems combine the properties of both gear systems. There is one shifter that is intended to switch the speed hub, whereas a second shifter operates either the front derailleur of the derailleur gear or the rear derailleur.

The Shimano Intego system (c+d) is available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or roller brake.

The SRAM Dual Drive system is also available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V-, disc or drum brake.

The Shimano Alfine 2x8 system is available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- and disc brake.

Make yourself familiar with your gear system and the brakes in a place free of traffic.

The proper adjustment of the derailleur-hub gear system is a job best left to a skilled mechanic. Before doing any adjusting, be sure to read the instructions of the gear manufacturer.

6.5.1 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears – How They Work and

How to use Them

With a Shimano Intego gear system you can shift through the gears of the speed hub with the shifter and lever on the left side.

The thumb of your right hand switches the 8-speed derailleur gear. On both sides the big shifters are for the higher (heavier) gears.

With the SRAM Dual Drive (a) both shifters are with one hand. The slide shifter is operated with the thumb to choose a primary transmission for the terrain you are riding on. To change this gear, stop pedalling for a moment without moving the pedals.

The SRAM Dual Drive 27 speed is also available with two separate trigger shifters!

With the Alfine gear shifting the big thumb shifter on the left lever moves the chain to the larger chainring. The small index finger lever moves the chain to the small chainring.

On the right lever shifting the big thumb shifter leads to a higher gear, whereas shifting the small shifter makes for a lower gear.

The twist grip is to switch through the gears of the derailleur gear. To do so, please continue pedalling with reduced power.

6.5.2 Readjusting (Internal Gear Hubs)

The speed hub of the combined gear system is adjusted, as described in chapter “Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs)”, the derailleur gears as described in chapters “Derailleur Gears” and “Rear Derailleur”.

Regularly check the reliable fit of the bolted connection of the hub torque arm to the frame

(b)

.

6.6 Crank System

The SRAM Hammerschmidt (c+d) allows two different gear ratios.

Shifting is performed with a trigger shifter on the left side. Pressing the big thumb shifter makes for a lower gear ratio.

a

52 b c d a b c d

53

Twist grip shifter for NuVinci hubs: To change gears, twist the grip, stop pedalling for a moment and do not apply any load to the pedals. You need not stop to do so. Smooth gear shifting is best with the pedals on a vertical line, i.e. one above the other.

Practise switching gears in a place free of traffic until you are familiar with the functioning of the shift levers or twist grips of your bicycle.

6.4.2 Checking and Readjusting

Multi-speed hubs need not be adjusted very often. The adjusting mechanism is mainly located at the hub (a) or at the gear box. There are two (red) marks which have to be brought into alignment by adjusting the cable directly at the lever or twist grip (see adjustment of the derailleur gear). Carefully read the operating instructions of the gear manufacturer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Regularly check the reliable fit of the bolted connection of the hub and of the torque arm to the frame

(b)

.

If you have a Rohloff speed hub, be sure to make an oil change annually or after 5,000 km (3,100 miles). If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

6.5 Combined Derailleur / Hub Gears

These gear systems combine the properties of both gear systems. There is one shifter that is intended to switch the speed hub, whereas a second shifter operates either the front derailleur of the derailleur gear or the rear derailleur.

The Shimano Intego system (c+d) is available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- or roller brake.

The SRAM Dual Drive system is also available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V-, disc or drum brake.

The Shimano Alfine 2x8 system is available with a free-wheel only, i.e. the free-wheel hub is combined with a hand activated V- and disc brake.

Make yourself familiar with your gear system and the brakes in a place free of traffic.

The proper adjustment of the derailleur-hub gear system is a job best left to a skilled mechanic. Before doing any adjusting, be sure to read the instructions of the gear manufacturer.

6.5.1 Combined Derailleur/Hub Gears – How They Work and

How to use Them

With a Shimano Intego gear system you can shift through the gears of the speed hub with the shifter and lever on the left side.

The thumb of your right hand switches the 8-speed derailleur gear. On both sides the big shifters are for the higher (heavier) gears.

With the SRAM Dual Drive (a) both shifters are with one hand. The slide shifter is operated with the thumb to choose a primary transmission for the terrain you are riding on. To change this gear, stop pedalling for a moment without moving the pedals.

The SRAM Dual Drive 27 speed is also available with two separate trigger shifters!

With the Alfine gear shifting the big thumb shifter on the left lever moves the chain to the larger chainring. The small index finger lever moves the chain to the small chainring.

On the right lever shifting the big thumb shifter leads to a higher gear, whereas shifting the small shifter makes for a lower gear.

The twist grip is to switch through the gears of the derailleur gear. To do so, please continue pedalling with reduced power.

6.5.2 Readjusting (Internal Gear Hubs)

The speed hub of the combined gear system is adjusted, as described in chapter “Multi-Speed Hubs (Internal Gear Hubs)”, the derailleur gears as described in chapters “Derailleur Gears” and “Rear Derailleur”.

Regularly check the reliable fit of the bolted connection of the hub torque arm to the frame

(b)

.

6.6 Crank System

The SRAM Hammerschmidt (c+d) allows two different gear ratios.

Shifting is performed with a trigger shifter on the left side. Pressing the big thumb shifter makes for a lower gear ratio.

a

52 b c d a b c d

53

6.7 Chain

6.7.1 Chain Maintenance

Regular and correct lubrication of your bicycles chain makes for enjoyable riding and prolongs its service life. It is not the quantity, but the distribution and regular application of lubricant that counts.

Clean the dirt and oil off your chain with an oily rag from time to time

(a)

.

Special degreasers are not necessary.

Having cleaned the chain as thoroughly as possible, apply chain oil, wax or grease to the chain links (b) . To lubricate the chain, drip the lubricant onto the rollers of the lower run of the chain while you turn the crank. Once this is done, turn the cranks a few more times; then let the chain rest for a few minutes so that the lubricant can disperse.

Finally wipe off excess lubricant with a rag so that it does not spatter around during riding or can collect road dirt.

For the sake of the environment, use biodegradable lubricants only. Bear in mind that some of the lubricant can end up on the ground, especially in wet conditions.

Make sure the braking surfaces of the rims, the rotors and the brake pads remain clear of lubricants, as the brakes will fail otherwise.

6.7.2 Chain Wear

Although the chain is one of the parts of a bicycle that wears, there are still ways for you to prolong its service life. Make sure the chain is lubricated regularly, especially after riding in the rain. Try to only use gears which run the chain in the straightest line between the sprockets and chainrings and get in the habit of high cadence pedalling.

Chains of bicycles with derailleur gears are worn out after approx. 800 to

2,500 km (500 to 1,550 miles) or 40 to 125 hours of use. Chains of road racing bicycles have reached the end of their service life after approx. 2,000 to

4,500 km (1,200 to 2,800 miles). Heavily stretched chains impair the operation of derailleur gears. Cycling with a worn-out chain also accelerates the wear of the sprockets and chainrings. Replacing these components is relatively expensive compared with the costs of a new chain. It is therefore advisable to check the condition of the chain at regular intervals.

To check chain wear, run the chain on the largest chainring. Take the chain between your thumb and index finger and try to lift it off the teeth. If you can lift it off clearly, it is stretched and should be replaced

(c)

.

Your bicycle dealer has accurate measuring instruments for precise chain inspection (d) . Replacing the chain should ideally be left to an expert, as this requires special tools. In addition, you need to select a chain matching your gear system.

An improperly joined or heavily worn chain can break and may cause an accident.

6.7.3 Adjusting the Chain Tension of Single Speed

Bicycles and Multi-Speed Hubs

The chain tension of single speed bicycles has to be checked and re-tensioned, if necessary, after approx. 1,000 km (620 miles) or 50 hours of use.

The amount of play, midway between chainring and sprocket, should not be more than two centimetres (a) .

Release the rear wheel axle bolts or nuts with an appropriate tool.

Adjust the chain tension by pulling the rear wheel to the rear or by releasing/tightening the chain tensioner. The chain tension is correct when the amount of vertical play midway between chainring and sprocket does not exceed two centimetres with a tightened rear wheel. Check the vertical play in several areas. Furthermore, you should be able to rotate the crank without resistance.

Adjust the rear wheel in the centre of the rear drop-outs by using the chain adjuster as limit stop.

Tighten the rear wheel axle nuts with a torque wrench.

The chain adjusters

(b)

only serve to tension the chain and to pre-adjust the rear wheel. They are not designed to fix the wheel in its position or to avoid any falling out.

a

54 b c d a b

55

6.7 Chain

6.7.1 Chain Maintenance

Regular and correct lubrication of your bicycles chain makes for enjoyable riding and prolongs its service life. It is not the quantity, but the distribution and regular application of lubricant that counts.

Clean the dirt and oil off your chain with an oily rag from time to time

(a)

.

Special degreasers are not necessary.

Having cleaned the chain as thoroughly as possible, apply chain oil, wax or grease to the chain links (b) . To lubricate the chain, drip the lubricant onto the rollers of the lower run of the chain while you turn the crank. Once this is done, turn the cranks a few more times; then let the chain rest for a few minutes so that the lubricant can disperse.

Finally wipe off excess lubricant with a rag so that it does not spatter around during riding or can collect road dirt.

For the sake of the environment, use biodegradable lubricants only. Bear in mind that some of the lubricant can end up on the ground, especially in wet conditions.

Make sure the braking surfaces of the rims, the rotors and the brake pads remain clear of lubricants, as the brakes will fail otherwise.

6.7.2 Chain Wear

Although the chain is one of the parts of a bicycle that wears, there are still ways for you to prolong its service life. Make sure the chain is lubricated regularly, especially after riding in the rain. Try to only use gears which run the chain in the straightest line between the sprockets and chainrings and get in the habit of high cadence pedalling.

Chains of bicycles with derailleur gears are worn out after approx. 800 to

2,500 km (500 to 1,550 miles) or 40 to 125 hours of use. Chains of road racing bicycles have reached the end of their service life after approx. 2,000 to

4,500 km (1,200 to 2,800 miles). Heavily stretched chains impair the operation of derailleur gears. Cycling with a worn-out chain also accelerates the wear of the sprockets and chainrings. Replacing these components is relatively expensive compared with the costs of a new chain. It is therefore advisable to check the condition of the chain at regular intervals.

To check chain wear, run the chain on the largest chainring. Take the chain between your thumb and index finger and try to lift it off the teeth. If you can lift it off clearly, it is stretched and should be replaced

(c)

.

Your bicycle dealer has accurate measuring instruments for precise chain inspection (d) . Replacing the chain should ideally be left to an expert, as this requires special tools. In addition, you need to select a chain matching your gear system.

An improperly joined or heavily worn chain can break and may cause an accident.

6.7.3 Adjusting the Chain Tension of Single Speed

Bicycles and Multi-Speed Hubs

The chain tension of single speed bicycles has to be checked and re-tensioned, if necessary, after approx. 1,000 km (620 miles) or 50 hours of use.

The amount of play, midway between chainring and sprocket, should not be more than two centimetres (a) .

Release the rear wheel axle bolts or nuts with an appropriate tool.

Adjust the chain tension by pulling the rear wheel to the rear or by releasing/tightening the chain tensioner. The chain tension is correct when the amount of vertical play midway between chainring and sprocket does not exceed two centimetres with a tightened rear wheel. Check the vertical play in several areas. Furthermore, you should be able to rotate the crank without resistance.

Adjust the rear wheel in the centre of the rear drop-outs by using the chain adjuster as limit stop.

Tighten the rear wheel axle nuts with a torque wrench.

The chain adjusters

(b)

only serve to tension the chain and to pre-adjust the rear wheel. They are not designed to fix the wheel in its position or to avoid any falling out.

a

54 b c d a b

55

7 Wheels and Tyres

The wheel consists of the hub, the spokes and the rim. The tyre is mounted onto the rim so that it encases the inner tube. There is a rim tape running around the trough of the rim to protect the sensitive inner tube against the spoke nipples and the edges of the rim trough, which are often sharp (a) .

The wheels are subjected to considerable stress through the weight of the rider and any carried baggage as well as through bumpy road surfaces and terrain. Although wheels are manufactured with great care and delivered accurately trued, this does not prevent the spokes and nipples from losing a little tension on the first kilometres/miles. Ask your bicycle dealer to check and true up the wheels after you have bedded them in over about 100 to

300 kilometres (60 to 180 miles) or 5 to 15 hours of use.

Check the wheels regularly, especially after bedding them in. It will rarely be necessary to tighten the spokes (b) .

7.1 Tyres, Tubes, Rim Tape, Valves,

Inflation pressure

The tyres should provide the friction needed for carrying the bicycle forward on the riding surface. At the same time they should grant minimum rolling friction and enhance the rider’s comfort by absorbing small shocks. Both the rolling friction and the grip depend on the nature of the tyre carcass, the rubber compound and the type of tyre profile. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you choose from the numerous types of tyres (c+d) .

If you want to replace a tyre, you need to consider the sizing system and the actual size of the old tyre. The latter is specified in two different units on the side of the tyre. One of the sizes is the standardised size in millimetres which is more precise, e.g. the number sequence 52-559 means that the tyre is

52 mm wide when fully inflated and has an inner diameter of 559 millimetres.

The other size is indicated in inches (26x2.35).

Mounting a new tyre of another dimension might possibly cause the tip of your shoe to touch the front wheel while steering.

During compression of the suspension system a wheel can get jammed, as well. Risk of an accident!

a

56 b c d

Tyres have to be inflated to the correct air pressure. Properly inflated tyres are also more resistant to punctures. An insufficiently inflated inner tube can easily get pinched (“snakebite”), when it goes over a sharp kerb.

The air pressure recommended by the manufacturer is given on the side of the tyre or on the type label (a) . The lower of the two pressure specifications makes for better cushioning for lightweight riders and is therefore best for cycling on a rough surface. Rolling resistance decreases with growing pressure, but so does comfort. Highly inflated tyres are therefore most suitable for heavy riders and for riding on tarred roads.

Inflation pressure is often given in the old system of units, i.e. in psi (pounds per square inch). The table below (b) gives the most common pressure values in terms of both systems.

Tyres allowing an inflation pressure of 5 bars or more have to be mounted on hook bead rims, identifiable by the designation

“C“. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

The tyre and rim alone are not able to hold the air. Therefore, an inner tube has to be placed inside the tyre to retain the air pressure.

This does not apply to the following tyre systems:

· The tubeless wheel/tyre systems (tubeless/UST-tyres/NoTubes systems). In this case, the rim and the tyre hold the air without an inner tube.

For more information read the chapter on UST tyres further below or the respective instructions, before doing any work on such kind of tyres.

a

psi bar psi bar

30 2,1 90 6,2

40 2,8 100 6,9

50 3,5 110 7,6

60 4,1 120 8,3

70 4,8 130 9,0

80 5,5 140 9,7 b

· Tubular tyres for road racing bicycles. This tyre provides an airtight design without inner tube. In case of a puncture there is no inner tube to be removed or repaired. This particular design requires special rims without rim flanges.

If you have a bicycle with tubeless tyres, please read the instructions of the tyre/rim manufacturer.

Treat your tyres well, in particular avoid sharp edges where possible! Never inflate your tyres beyond the maximum permissible pressure, otherwise one of them might burst or come off the rim during the ride. Risk of an accident!

There are three valve types in general use on today’s bicycles:

1. Sclaverand or Presta valves (c) : This type is nowadays used on almost all types of bicycles. It is designed to withstand extremely high pressures.

2. Schrader or car valve (d) : This is an adapted car tyre valve which is mainly used on mountain bikes.

3. Dunlop or Woods valve, the usual valve.

These three valve types are fitted with a plastic cap to protect them from dirt.

c d

57

7 Wheels and Tyres

The wheel consists of the hub, the spokes and the rim. The tyre is mounted onto the rim so that it encases the inner tube. There is a rim tape running around the trough of the rim to protect the sensitive inner tube against the spoke nipples and the edges of the rim trough, which are often sharp (a) .

The wheels are subjected to considerable stress through the weight of the rider and any carried baggage as well as through bumpy road surfaces and terrain. Although wheels are manufactured with great care and delivered accurately trued, this does not prevent the spokes and nipples from losing a little tension on the first kilometres/miles. Ask your bicycle dealer to check and true up the wheels after you have bedded them in over about 100 to

300 kilometres (60 to 180 miles) or 5 to 15 hours of use.

Check the wheels regularly, especially after bedding them in. It will rarely be necessary to tighten the spokes (b) .

7.1 Tyres, Tubes, Rim Tape, Valves,

Inflation pressure

The tyres should provide the friction needed for carrying the bicycle forward on the riding surface. At the same time they should grant minimum rolling friction and enhance the rider’s comfort by absorbing small shocks. Both the rolling friction and the grip depend on the nature of the tyre carcass, the rubber compound and the type of tyre profile. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you choose from the numerous types of tyres (c+d) .

If you want to replace a tyre, you need to consider the sizing system and the actual size of the old tyre. The latter is specified in two different units on the side of the tyre. One of the sizes is the standardised size in millimetres which is more precise, e.g. the number sequence 52-559 means that the tyre is

52 mm wide when fully inflated and has an inner diameter of 559 millimetres.

The other size is indicated in inches (26x2.35).

Mounting a new tyre of another dimension might possibly cause the tip of your shoe to touch the front wheel while steering.

During compression of the suspension system a wheel can get jammed, as well. Risk of an accident!

a

56 b c d

Tyres have to be inflated to the correct air pressure. Properly inflated tyres are also more resistant to punctures. An insufficiently inflated inner tube can easily get pinched (“snakebite”), when it goes over a sharp kerb.

The air pressure recommended by the manufacturer is given on the side of the tyre or on the type label (a) . The lower of the two pressure specifications makes for better cushioning for lightweight riders and is therefore best for cycling on a rough surface. Rolling resistance decreases with growing pressure, but so does comfort. Highly inflated tyres are therefore most suitable for heavy riders and for riding on tarred roads.

Inflation pressure is often given in the old system of units, i.e. in psi (pounds per square inch). The table below (b) gives the most common pressure values in terms of both systems.

Tyres allowing an inflation pressure of 5 bars or more have to be mounted on hook bead rims, identifiable by the designation

“C“. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

The tyre and rim alone are not able to hold the air. Therefore, an inner tube has to be placed inside the tyre to retain the air pressure.

This does not apply to the following tyre systems:

· The tubeless wheel/tyre systems (tubeless/UST-tyres/NoTubes systems). In this case, the rim and the tyre hold the air without an inner tube.

For more information read the chapter on UST tyres further below or the respective instructions, before doing any work on such kind of tyres.

a

psi bar psi bar

30 2,1 90 6,2

40 2,8 100 6,9

50 3,5 110 7,6

60 4,1 120 8,3

70 4,8 130 9,0

80 5,5 140 9,7 b

· Tubular tyres for road racing bicycles. This tyre provides an airtight design without inner tube. In case of a puncture there is no inner tube to be removed or repaired. This particular design requires special rims without rim flanges.

If you have a bicycle with tubeless tyres, please read the instructions of the tyre/rim manufacturer.

Treat your tyres well, in particular avoid sharp edges where possible! Never inflate your tyres beyond the maximum permissible pressure, otherwise one of them might burst or come off the rim during the ride. Risk of an accident!

There are three valve types in general use on today’s bicycles:

1. Sclaverand or Presta valves (c) : This type is nowadays used on almost all types of bicycles. It is designed to withstand extremely high pressures.

2. Schrader or car valve (d) : This is an adapted car tyre valve which is mainly used on mountain bikes.

3. Dunlop or Woods valve, the usual valve.

These three valve types are fitted with a plastic cap to protect them from dirt.

c d

57

The car valve can be inflated with a suitable pump directly after removing the protective cap.

With Presta valves you first have to undo the small knurled nut a little and depress it carefully until air starts to escape (a) . Check the nut is tightened and seated in its stem, otherwise air may slowly leak out. Tyres with car valves can conveniently be inflated at car filling stations with a compressed air dispenser. The same applies to Presta valves fitted with a special adapter. A compressed air dispenser must be used very carefully as you may otherwise overinflate the tyre and make it burst. To let out air, press the needle in the centre of the car valve or the knurled nut of the Presta valve using e.g. a spanner/key. Hand pumps are often unsuitable for inflating tyres to high pressures. A better choice is a foot-operated or a track pump equipped with a pressure gauge (b) .

Always ride your bicycle with the prescribed tyre pressure and check the pressure at regular intervals, at least once a week.

Replace tyres with a worn tread or with brittle or frayed sides. Dampness and dirt penetrating the tyre can cause damage to its inner structure. The inner tube might burst. Risk of an accident!

Observe the maximum pressure value of the rim. The pressure is dependent on the tyre width! You will find the values in the enclosed manuals of the rim manufacturers.

7.2 Rim Trueness, Spoke Tension

To obtain true running of the wheel, the tension exerted by the spokes has to be distributed evenly around the rim (c) . If the tension of a single spoke changes, e.g. as a result of riding fast over a kerb or of a loose nipple, the tensile forces acting on the rim become unbalanced and the wheel will no longer run true.

The functioning of your bicycle may even be impaired before you notice the wobbling appearance of a wheel that has gone out of true.

With rim brakes the sides of the rims also serve as braking surfaces. An untrue wheel can impair your braking power. It is therefore advisable to check the wheels for trueness from time to time. For this purpose lift the wheel off the ground and spin it with your hand. Watch the gap between the rim and the brake pads. If the gap varies by more than a millimetre, you should ask an expert to true up the wheel (d) .

Do not ride with untrue wheels. In the case of extreme side-toside wobbles, the brake pads of rim brakes can miss the rim and get caught in the spokes! This normally instantly jams the wheel and throws you off your bicycle.

Loose spokes must be tightened at once. Otherwise the load on the other spokes and the rim will increase.

Truing (retruing) wheels is a difficult job which you should definitely leave to your bicycle dealer!

7.3 Wheel Fastening with Quick-Releases

The wheels are attached to the frame at the hub axles. Each axle is clamped tight in the drop-outs (a) by means of a quick-release.

Quick-releases require no tools at all. Just release the lever (b) , unscrew it a few turns, if necessary, and take out the wheel (see chapter “How to use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles“).

However, a thief will find this just as easy to do! As an anti-theft measure you can replace the quick-releases by special locks. They can only be opened and closed with a special, coded key or an Allen key (c) .

Never ride a bicycle without having checked first whether the wheels are securely fastened! A wheel that comes loose during riding is very likely to cause an accident!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases, be sure to lock it to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

7.4 Wheel Fastening with Thru Axle Systems

There is a wide range of different thru axle systems (d) currently available.

Some of them are fastened with quick-releases, whereas others require special tools for assembly or disassembly.

Check the fastening after one to two hours of use and then every 20 hours of use.

More and more mountain bikes are fitted with thru axle systems.

For more information read chapter “How to Use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

Always observe the enclosed instructions of the fork manufacturer.

a

58 b c d a b c d

59

The car valve can be inflated with a suitable pump directly after removing the protective cap.

With Presta valves you first have to undo the small knurled nut a little and depress it carefully until air starts to escape (a) . Check the nut is tightened and seated in its stem, otherwise air may slowly leak out. Tyres with car valves can conveniently be inflated at car filling stations with a compressed air dispenser. The same applies to Presta valves fitted with a special adapter. A compressed air dispenser must be used very carefully as you may otherwise overinflate the tyre and make it burst. To let out air, press the needle in the centre of the car valve or the knurled nut of the Presta valve using e.g. a spanner/key. Hand pumps are often unsuitable for inflating tyres to high pressures. A better choice is a foot-operated or a track pump equipped with a pressure gauge (b) .

Always ride your bicycle with the prescribed tyre pressure and check the pressure at regular intervals, at least once a week.

Replace tyres with a worn tread or with brittle or frayed sides. Dampness and dirt penetrating the tyre can cause damage to its inner structure. The inner tube might burst. Risk of an accident!

Observe the maximum pressure value of the rim. The pressure is dependent on the tyre width! You will find the values in the enclosed manuals of the rim manufacturers.

7.2 Rim Trueness, Spoke Tension

To obtain true running of the wheel, the tension exerted by the spokes has to be distributed evenly around the rim (c) . If the tension of a single spoke changes, e.g. as a result of riding fast over a kerb or of a loose nipple, the tensile forces acting on the rim become unbalanced and the wheel will no longer run true.

The functioning of your bicycle may even be impaired before you notice the wobbling appearance of a wheel that has gone out of true.

With rim brakes the sides of the rims also serve as braking surfaces. An untrue wheel can impair your braking power. It is therefore advisable to check the wheels for trueness from time to time. For this purpose lift the wheel off the ground and spin it with your hand. Watch the gap between the rim and the brake pads. If the gap varies by more than a millimetre, you should ask an expert to true up the wheel (d) .

Do not ride with untrue wheels. In the case of extreme side-toside wobbles, the brake pads of rim brakes can miss the rim and get caught in the spokes! This normally instantly jams the wheel and throws you off your bicycle.

Loose spokes must be tightened at once. Otherwise the load on the other spokes and the rim will increase.

Truing (retruing) wheels is a difficult job which you should definitely leave to your bicycle dealer!

7.3 Wheel Fastening with Quick-Releases

The wheels are attached to the frame at the hub axles. Each axle is clamped tight in the drop-outs (a) by means of a quick-release.

Quick-releases require no tools at all. Just release the lever (b) , unscrew it a few turns, if necessary, and take out the wheel (see chapter “How to use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles“).

However, a thief will find this just as easy to do! As an anti-theft measure you can replace the quick-releases by special locks. They can only be opened and closed with a special, coded key or an Allen key (c) .

Never ride a bicycle without having checked first whether the wheels are securely fastened! A wheel that comes loose during riding is very likely to cause an accident!

If your bicycle is equipped with quick-releases, be sure to lock it to an immovable object together with the wheels when you leave it outside.

7.4 Wheel Fastening with Thru Axle Systems

There is a wide range of different thru axle systems (d) currently available.

Some of them are fastened with quick-releases, whereas others require special tools for assembly or disassembly.

Check the fastening after one to two hours of use and then every 20 hours of use.

More and more mountain bikes are fitted with thru axle systems.

For more information read chapter “How to Use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

Always observe the enclosed instructions of the fork manufacturer.

a

58 b c d a b c d

59

7.5 puncture

Flat tyres are the most common cause of puncture during cycling. However, as long as you have the necessary tools for changing tyres and inner tubes and a spare tube or a repair kit, this need not mean the end of your cycle ride. For bicycles with quick-releases all you need in addition are two tyre levers and a pump

(a)

.

Be sure to read chapters “Wheel Mounting” and“How to Use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles” before wheel removal. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

7.5.1 Wheel Removal

Step one with road racing bicycle brakes

Open the release lever

(b) of the brake (Shimano, SRAM) or shift the bolt in the gear/brake lever at the handlebar (Campagnolo). If your bicycle has derailleur gears, shift to the smallest sprocket. This shifts the rear derailleur right to the outside where it does not interfere with the removal of the wheel.

Step one with the brakes of mountain, fitness, city, kids’ and trekking bicycles

If your bicycle has rim brakes (cantilever or V-brakes) you first have to unhook the brake cable from the brake arm. To do this, grip the brake with one hand and press the brake pads and arms together. In this position it should be easy to disengage the usually barrel shaped nipple or, in the case of V-brakes, the outer cable.

If your bicycle has hydraulic rim brakes (c) from Magura, unlock its quickrelease on one side of the brake and take it off the mounting bolt.

If your bicycle has drum or roller brakes and internal gear hubs, loosen the torque arm supporting the drive and braking force on the frame. Furthermore, you need to disconnect the shifting cables and the clickbox respectively before removing the wheel.

If you have disc brakes (hydraulic and mechanical), you should first check the exact position and condition of the brake pads and/or wear indicators

(ear or nose-shaped metal protrusions) (d) . In this way you will be able to tell after the removal whether the brake pads are still in their correct position.

Read the brake manufacturer’s instructions!

Do not pull the (disc) brake lever with a removed wheel and make sure to mount the safety locks when removing the wheel.

Rotors can become hot, so let them cool down before removing a wheel.

Please read the operating instructions of the brake and the gear manufacturer.

If you have derailleur gears, you should shift the chain to the smallest sprocket before removing the rear wheel. This shifts the rear derailleur right to the outside where it does not interfere with the removal of the wheel.

Open the quick-release, as described in chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

If you cannot remove the wheel after releasing the lever, this is due to the drop-out safety tabs. They come as metal catches which engage with recesses in the drop outs. Just release the quick-release adjusting nut a little and slip the wheel past the tabs.

You will find it easier to remove the rear wheel, when you pull the rear derailleur slightly backwards (a) . Lift the bicycle off the ground and give the wheel a gentle tap with your hand so that it drops out.

If you have a bicycle with thru axles, please read chapter “How to use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

In case you are in doubt about how to handle thru axles, please contact your bicycle dealer.

In the case of combined derailleur and internal gear hubs the clickbox must also be removed first before you can dismount the rear wheel, as is the case with typical derailleur gear rear wheels.

7.5.2 Tyre Removal (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

Remove the cap and the fastening nut off the valve and deflate the tyre completely (b) . Press the tyre from the sides towards the centre of the rim.

You will find it easier to remove the tyre, if you do this around its entire circumference.

Apply a plastic tyre lever to one bead of the tyre about 5 cm beside the valve and lever the tyre out of the rim in this area (c) . Hold the tyre lever tight in its position. Slip the second tyre lever between rim and tyre at a distance of about ten centimetres on the other side of the valve and lever the next portion of the bead over the edge of the rim.

After levering a part of the tyre bead over the edge of the rim you should normally be able to slip off the whole tyre on one side by moving the tyre lever around the whole circumference. Now you can remove the inner tube (d) . See to it that the valve does not get caught, as this can damage the inner tube.

If necessary you can remove the whole tyre by pulling the other tyre bead off the rim. Repair the puncture according to the instructions of the repair kit manufacturer or replace the inner tube by a new one.

a

60 b c d a b c d

61

7.5 puncture

Flat tyres are the most common cause of puncture during cycling. However, as long as you have the necessary tools for changing tyres and inner tubes and a spare tube or a repair kit, this need not mean the end of your cycle ride. For bicycles with quick-releases all you need in addition are two tyre levers and a pump

(a)

.

Be sure to read chapters “Wheel Mounting” and“How to Use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles” before wheel removal. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

7.5.1 Wheel Removal

Step one with road racing bicycle brakes

Open the release lever

(b) of the brake (Shimano, SRAM) or shift the bolt in the gear/brake lever at the handlebar (Campagnolo). If your bicycle has derailleur gears, shift to the smallest sprocket. This shifts the rear derailleur right to the outside where it does not interfere with the removal of the wheel.

Step one with the brakes of mountain, fitness, city, kids’ and trekking bicycles

If your bicycle has rim brakes (cantilever or V-brakes) you first have to unhook the brake cable from the brake arm. To do this, grip the brake with one hand and press the brake pads and arms together. In this position it should be easy to disengage the usually barrel shaped nipple or, in the case of V-brakes, the outer cable.

If your bicycle has hydraulic rim brakes (c) from Magura, unlock its quickrelease on one side of the brake and take it off the mounting bolt.

If your bicycle has drum or roller brakes and internal gear hubs, loosen the torque arm supporting the drive and braking force on the frame. Furthermore, you need to disconnect the shifting cables and the clickbox respectively before removing the wheel.

If you have disc brakes (hydraulic and mechanical), you should first check the exact position and condition of the brake pads and/or wear indicators

(ear or nose-shaped metal protrusions) (d) . In this way you will be able to tell after the removal whether the brake pads are still in their correct position.

Read the brake manufacturer’s instructions!

Do not pull the (disc) brake lever with a removed wheel and make sure to mount the safety locks when removing the wheel.

Rotors can become hot, so let them cool down before removing a wheel.

Please read the operating instructions of the brake and the gear manufacturer.

If you have derailleur gears, you should shift the chain to the smallest sprocket before removing the rear wheel. This shifts the rear derailleur right to the outside where it does not interfere with the removal of the wheel.

Open the quick-release, as described in chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

If you cannot remove the wheel after releasing the lever, this is due to the drop-out safety tabs. They come as metal catches which engage with recesses in the drop outs. Just release the quick-release adjusting nut a little and slip the wheel past the tabs.

You will find it easier to remove the rear wheel, when you pull the rear derailleur slightly backwards (a) . Lift the bicycle off the ground and give the wheel a gentle tap with your hand so that it drops out.

If you have a bicycle with thru axles, please read chapter “How to use

Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

In case you are in doubt about how to handle thru axles, please contact your bicycle dealer.

In the case of combined derailleur and internal gear hubs the clickbox must also be removed first before you can dismount the rear wheel, as is the case with typical derailleur gear rear wheels.

7.5.2 Tyre Removal (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

Remove the cap and the fastening nut off the valve and deflate the tyre completely (b) . Press the tyre from the sides towards the centre of the rim.

You will find it easier to remove the tyre, if you do this around its entire circumference.

Apply a plastic tyre lever to one bead of the tyre about 5 cm beside the valve and lever the tyre out of the rim in this area (c) . Hold the tyre lever tight in its position. Slip the second tyre lever between rim and tyre at a distance of about ten centimetres on the other side of the valve and lever the next portion of the bead over the edge of the rim.

After levering a part of the tyre bead over the edge of the rim you should normally be able to slip off the whole tyre on one side by moving the tyre lever around the whole circumference. Now you can remove the inner tube (d) . See to it that the valve does not get caught, as this can damage the inner tube.

If necessary you can remove the whole tyre by pulling the other tyre bead off the rim. Repair the puncture according to the instructions of the repair kit manufacturer or replace the inner tube by a new one.

a

60 b c d a b c d

61

If you have a puncture whilst riding, do not pull the whole inner tube out of the tyre. Leave the valve sticking through the rim, inflate the inner tube and bring it close to your ear. In most cases you can hear the air coming out. At home you can help yourself with a bucket of water where you can locate the hole by the bubbles. When you have found the hole, look for the corresponding place on the tyre and check it. Often, you will find a foreign body sticking in the tyre, which ought to be removed.

Otherwise another puncture can occur.

When you have removed the tyre, you should also check the rim tape (a) . It should lie squarely in the trough of the rim, covering all spoke nipples, and should not be torn anywhere or brittle. In the case of double wall rims the tape must cover the entire rim base, but it should not be so broad as to stand up along the inside edges of the rim trough. Rim tapes for this type of rim should only be made of textile or durable plastic. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Replace spoilt rim tapes immediately.

If the fabric of the tyre is destroyed by the perforating object, replace the tyre to be on the safe side.

Dismounting a Rohloff rear wheel requires special handling.

Please follow the enclosed Rohloff instructions!

7.5.3 Tyre Mounting (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

When mounting a tyre make sure no foreign matter, such as dirt or sand, gets inside the tyre and you do not damage the inner tube in the process.

Slip one bead of the tyre onto the rim (b) . Using your thumbs, press the bead over the edge of the rim and then around the entire circumference.

This should normally be possible without using tools.

Stick the valve of the inner tube through the hole in the rim (c) . Inflate the inner tube slightly so that it becomes round and push it into the tyre all the way round. Make sure not to leave any folds in the inner tube.

To finish mounting the tyre, start at the opposite side of the valve. Using your thumbs, press as much of the second bead of the tyre over the edge of the rim as you can (d) . Make sure the inner tube does not get pinched and squashed between tyre and rim. You can prevent this by pushing the inner tube into the hollow of the tyre with a finger as you work along.

Work the tyre into the rim, approaching the valve symmetrically from both sides. Towards the end, you will have to pull the tyre vigorously downwards to make the already mounted portion of the tyre slip towards the deepest part of the rim trough. This will ease the job noticeably on the last centimetres.

Before fitting the tyre completely on the rim check again whether the inner tube lies properly inside the tyre and press the last stretch of tyre over the edge of the rim using the balls of your thumbs (a) .

If this does not work, you will have to use the tyre levers (b) . Make sure the blunt ends point towards the inner tube and the inner tube does not get damaged.

Push the valve a little into the tyre so that the inner tube does not get caught between the rim and the tyre beads. Check whether the valve stands upright. If not, dismount one bead again and reposition the inner tube. To make sure the inner tube does not get pinched between rim and bead, inflate the tyre a little and then move it sideways back and forth between the sides of the rim. While doing this you can check whether the rim tape has shifted.

Inflate the inner tube to the desired pressure. The maximum pressure is indicated on the side of the tyre.

Check the seating of the tyre by means of the “witness line” running around the side of the tyre just above the edge of the rim (c) . The distance between the line and the edge of the rim should be even around the entire circumference of the tyre.

7.5.4 Removal of Tubeless Tyres

(d)

Deflate the tyre completely. Press the tyre from the sides towards the centre of the rim, until both beads lie slack in the centre of the rim. Start removing the tyre at the point opposite the valve and lift one tyre bead with your fingers over the edge of the rim. Do not use tyre levers! Slip the entire tyre bead over the rim. Then pull the other bead off the rim, as well.

7.5.5 Repair of Tubeless Tyres

In the event of a puncture tubeless tyres also work with an inserted inner tube. First remove the perforating object, as far as available, from the tyre and remove the valve from the rim. Insert a slightly inflated new inner tube into the tyre. Mount the tyre as described below and make sure it is properly seated in the rim and inflated to the specified pressure.

Tubeless tyres can be sealed on the inside with a conventional repair patch, as well. Observe the instructions of the repair kit manufacturer.

Improper mounting can lead to malfunctioning or even result in tyre failure. Therefore, be sure to follow the instructions of the manufacturer enclosed with the delivery.

a

62 b c d a b c d

63

If you have a puncture whilst riding, do not pull the whole inner tube out of the tyre. Leave the valve sticking through the rim, inflate the inner tube and bring it close to your ear. In most cases you can hear the air coming out. At home you can help yourself with a bucket of water where you can locate the hole by the bubbles. When you have found the hole, look for the corresponding place on the tyre and check it. Often, you will find a foreign body sticking in the tyre, which ought to be removed.

Otherwise another puncture can occur.

When you have removed the tyre, you should also check the rim tape (a) . It should lie squarely in the trough of the rim, covering all spoke nipples, and should not be torn anywhere or brittle. In the case of double wall rims the tape must cover the entire rim base, but it should not be so broad as to stand up along the inside edges of the rim trough. Rim tapes for this type of rim should only be made of textile or durable plastic. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Replace spoilt rim tapes immediately.

If the fabric of the tyre is destroyed by the perforating object, replace the tyre to be on the safe side.

Dismounting a Rohloff rear wheel requires special handling.

Please follow the enclosed Rohloff instructions!

7.5.3 Tyre Mounting (Clincher, Folding Tyres)

When mounting a tyre make sure no foreign matter, such as dirt or sand, gets inside the tyre and you do not damage the inner tube in the process.

Slip one bead of the tyre onto the rim (b) . Using your thumbs, press the bead over the edge of the rim and then around the entire circumference.

This should normally be possible without using tools.

Stick the valve of the inner tube through the hole in the rim (c) . Inflate the inner tube slightly so that it becomes round and push it into the tyre all the way round. Make sure not to leave any folds in the inner tube.

To finish mounting the tyre, start at the opposite side of the valve. Using your thumbs, press as much of the second bead of the tyre over the edge of the rim as you can (d) . Make sure the inner tube does not get pinched and squashed between tyre and rim. You can prevent this by pushing the inner tube into the hollow of the tyre with a finger as you work along.

Work the tyre into the rim, approaching the valve symmetrically from both sides. Towards the end, you will have to pull the tyre vigorously downwards to make the already mounted portion of the tyre slip towards the deepest part of the rim trough. This will ease the job noticeably on the last centimetres.

Before fitting the tyre completely on the rim check again whether the inner tube lies properly inside the tyre and press the last stretch of tyre over the edge of the rim using the balls of your thumbs (a) .

If this does not work, you will have to use the tyre levers (b) . Make sure the blunt ends point towards the inner tube and the inner tube does not get damaged.

Push the valve a little into the tyre so that the inner tube does not get caught between the rim and the tyre beads. Check whether the valve stands upright. If not, dismount one bead again and reposition the inner tube. To make sure the inner tube does not get pinched between rim and bead, inflate the tyre a little and then move it sideways back and forth between the sides of the rim. While doing this you can check whether the rim tape has shifted.

Inflate the inner tube to the desired pressure. The maximum pressure is indicated on the side of the tyre.

Check the seating of the tyre by means of the “witness line” running around the side of the tyre just above the edge of the rim (c) . The distance between the line and the edge of the rim should be even around the entire circumference of the tyre.

7.5.4 Removal of Tubeless Tyres

(d)

Deflate the tyre completely. Press the tyre from the sides towards the centre of the rim, until both beads lie slack in the centre of the rim. Start removing the tyre at the point opposite the valve and lift one tyre bead with your fingers over the edge of the rim. Do not use tyre levers! Slip the entire tyre bead over the rim. Then pull the other bead off the rim, as well.

7.5.5 Repair of Tubeless Tyres

In the event of a puncture tubeless tyres also work with an inserted inner tube. First remove the perforating object, as far as available, from the tyre and remove the valve from the rim. Insert a slightly inflated new inner tube into the tyre. Mount the tyre as described below and make sure it is properly seated in the rim and inflated to the specified pressure.

Tubeless tyres can be sealed on the inside with a conventional repair patch, as well. Observe the instructions of the repair kit manufacturer.

Improper mounting can lead to malfunctioning or even result in tyre failure. Therefore, be sure to follow the instructions of the manufacturer enclosed with the delivery.

a

62 b c d a b c d

63

7.5.6 Mounting Tubeless Tyres

Before mounting a tyre make sure it is free of dirt and lubricant on the inside and around the beads. Do not use tyre levers!

To prevent any damage, wet both beads all around with soapy water or with tyre mounting lubricant and press the tyre with your hands onto the rim.

Press one bead over its entire circumference over one edge of the rim and then the second tyre bead (a) . Centre the tyre in the rim. Make sure the tyre is properly seated in the rim base and the beads lie symmetrically on either side of the valve. Inflate the tyre with a compressor or a CO2-cartridge to the maximum permissible pressure so that it can get seated on the rim. The permissible pressure is usually specified on the side of the tyre.

Check whether the tyre is properly seated by inspecting the fine witness line

(b) just above the rim edge. This line should be even to the rim all around the tyre. Starting from the maximum tyre pressure you can now reduce the pressure through the valve to suit your needs. Please observe the recommended tyre pressure range.

Tubeless tyres must be mounted on UST rims or UST wheels

(Mavic and other manufacturers) only.

7.5.7 Removal of Tubular Tyres

To remove the tubular push it a little to the side of the rim at a place opposite the valve until a gap appears and the tyre starts to come off. If the tubular remains stubborn, stick a plastic tyre lever into the gap and lift the tyre off the rim

(c)

.

After a puncture the tubular is no longer securely fixed on the rim. Be sure to ride back very carefully by taking the shortest route possible. Do not accelerate or brake hard! For your own safety, have yourself picked up, if you are in doubt.

7.5.8 Mounting Tubular Tyres

To mount a tubular tyre properly so that it durably stays in place you should take your time and proceed stepwise. A little practice and experience with the glue (d) and tubular model you are using can speed up the job!

For your own safety, ask your bicycle dealer to mount a tubular.

Tubular tyres can be glued either with liquid tyre glue or with adhesive tape.

One advantage of using tape is that it can be done fairly quickly. However, this may not always give a sufficiently firm bond of the tyre on the rim. In the event of a roadside puncture the tape will often cling to the dismounted tyre and your spare tyre may not bond to the rim sufficiently well.

A poorly glued tubular tyre can come off the rim. Risk of an accident!

A better alternative, therefore, is to glue the tyre to a generous bed of several layers of liquid tyre glue. Glue not only gives a firmer bond, it usually also remains on the rim when dismounting the tyre. However, back home again you should remove the spare tyre nevertheless. To achieve a stronger bond you can then retreat the adhesive bed and the tyre with glue and remount the tyre.

Tyre glues do not only stick on rims and tyres, they also cling quite stubbornly to fingers and clothes. This makes it advisable to wear old clothes when mounting tubulars.

When mounting a tyre on a rim that has already been used, it may be necessary to remove glue residues and dirt with a steel brush or with emery cloth. When you are done, wipe the rim with a soft cloth and benzine

(a)

.

Benzine and tyre glue should only be used in a well aired place, since both materials are highly flammable. Keep them in a safe place out of children’s reach!

Remove the protective valve cap and mount a valve extension, if necessary, to the valve head unscrewed before, if you intend to mount the tyre in a deep section rim

(b)

. Inflate the tyre to a point where it starts to become round and then stick the valve through the hole in the rim (c) .

Starting from the valve and working in both directions press the tyre into the rim all the way round. If you are unable to mount it completely on the rim or if this would require excessive force, leave off trying, since it might not work with force alone.

If this is the case the pumped up tyre must be kept on the wheel rim for a few days. Don’t use force to stretch the tyre (d) . Then check again whether the tyre can be easily mounted.

After mounting the tubular tyre, spin the wheel and see whether the tyre runs true. The area where the valve comes out of the tyre is often thickened which leads to a vertical runout of the rim and makes the wheel jolt during the ride.

a

64 b c d a b c d

65

7.5.6 Mounting Tubeless Tyres

Before mounting a tyre make sure it is free of dirt and lubricant on the inside and around the beads. Do not use tyre levers!

To prevent any damage, wet both beads all around with soapy water or with tyre mounting lubricant and press the tyre with your hands onto the rim.

Press one bead over its entire circumference over one edge of the rim and then the second tyre bead (a) . Centre the tyre in the rim. Make sure the tyre is properly seated in the rim base and the beads lie symmetrically on either side of the valve. Inflate the tyre with a compressor or a CO2-cartridge to the maximum permissible pressure so that it can get seated on the rim. The permissible pressure is usually specified on the side of the tyre.

Check whether the tyre is properly seated by inspecting the fine witness line

(b) just above the rim edge. This line should be even to the rim all around the tyre. Starting from the maximum tyre pressure you can now reduce the pressure through the valve to suit your needs. Please observe the recommended tyre pressure range.

Tubeless tyres must be mounted on UST rims or UST wheels

(Mavic and other manufacturers) only.

7.5.7 Removal of Tubular Tyres

To remove the tubular push it a little to the side of the rim at a place opposite the valve until a gap appears and the tyre starts to come off. If the tubular remains stubborn, stick a plastic tyre lever into the gap and lift the tyre off the rim

(c)

.

After a puncture the tubular is no longer securely fixed on the rim. Be sure to ride back very carefully by taking the shortest route possible. Do not accelerate or brake hard! For your own safety, have yourself picked up, if you are in doubt.

7.5.8 Mounting Tubular Tyres

To mount a tubular tyre properly so that it durably stays in place you should take your time and proceed stepwise. A little practice and experience with the glue (d) and tubular model you are using can speed up the job!

For your own safety, ask your bicycle dealer to mount a tubular.

Tubular tyres can be glued either with liquid tyre glue or with adhesive tape.

One advantage of using tape is that it can be done fairly quickly. However, this may not always give a sufficiently firm bond of the tyre on the rim. In the event of a roadside puncture the tape will often cling to the dismounted tyre and your spare tyre may not bond to the rim sufficiently well.

A poorly glued tubular tyre can come off the rim. Risk of an accident!

A better alternative, therefore, is to glue the tyre to a generous bed of several layers of liquid tyre glue. Glue not only gives a firmer bond, it usually also remains on the rim when dismounting the tyre. However, back home again you should remove the spare tyre nevertheless. To achieve a stronger bond you can then retreat the adhesive bed and the tyre with glue and remount the tyre.

Tyre glues do not only stick on rims and tyres, they also cling quite stubbornly to fingers and clothes. This makes it advisable to wear old clothes when mounting tubulars.

When mounting a tyre on a rim that has already been used, it may be necessary to remove glue residues and dirt with a steel brush or with emery cloth. When you are done, wipe the rim with a soft cloth and benzine

(a)

.

Benzine and tyre glue should only be used in a well aired place, since both materials are highly flammable. Keep them in a safe place out of children’s reach!

Remove the protective valve cap and mount a valve extension, if necessary, to the valve head unscrewed before, if you intend to mount the tyre in a deep section rim

(b)

. Inflate the tyre to a point where it starts to become round and then stick the valve through the hole in the rim (c) .

Starting from the valve and working in both directions press the tyre into the rim all the way round. If you are unable to mount it completely on the rim or if this would require excessive force, leave off trying, since it might not work with force alone.

If this is the case the pumped up tyre must be kept on the wheel rim for a few days. Don’t use force to stretch the tyre (d) . Then check again whether the tyre can be easily mounted.

After mounting the tubular tyre, spin the wheel and see whether the tyre runs true. The area where the valve comes out of the tyre is often thickened which leads to a vertical runout of the rim and makes the wheel jolt during the ride.

a

64 b c d a b c d

65

Remove the burrs from the valve hole of an aluminium rim or countersink it with a big drill, a triangular scraper or a round file. If you have carbon rims, be careful when removing the burrs from the hole edge with a round file. Insert the file only from the outside to the inside and not vice versa, otherwise the fibres of the synthetic matrix might fray out. Seal the area with instant glue subsequently. This pretreatment will lead to an improved valve fitting to the rim. If time allows, you can leave the unglued tyre inflated on the rim for a few days to make the final mounting easier.

Clean the base of the rim from any grease or oil using a rag soaked in spirit or benzine. Wait for the solvent to evaporate completely before you start to glue the tyre onto the rim. Gluing the tyre is easiest with the wheel clamped in a truing stand (a) or mounted on an old fork clamped in a vice.

With liquid tyre glue you will need several layers to create a good adhesive bed. Spread the tyre glue evenly and as thinly as possible around almost the entire circumference of the rim. Leave a section of five to ten centimetres without glue at a place opposite the valve to make it easier to remove the tyre again at a later time. With a little practice you will be able to apply the glue straight from the tube

(b)

. If this does not work at first you might find it easier to use a stiff brush. If you are using tyre glue from a can you will need a brush in any case.

Allow the tyre glue to dry until a finger test will proof that it is tacky-dry. This can take up to a few hours. In the same way add another two thin films of glue and let them dry. Leave the wheel as it is until at least the next day.

Before mounting the tyre also apply a film of glue to the base tape. To complete the adhesive bed add one last film of glue.

Let the topmost coat flash off for a short moment, but not dry, and place the wheel on the ground with the valve hole facing upwards. Inflate the tyre until it starts to round and then stick the valve through the valve hole of the rim

(c) and press it firmly against the rim. Make sure the sides of the tyre do not touch the adhesive bed, as your tyre will otherwise look smudgy right away.

If you have taken care to leave the section opposite the valve hole free of glue, you need not be concerned about glue smearing on the ground or dirt getting into the glue when you place the wheel on the ground.

Take hold of the tyre right and left of the valve with both hands, pull it vigorously downward and work it bit by bit into the base of the rim (d) until you have about 20 centimetres left to go.

Starting from the top again on either side of the valve pull the tyre down with your hands, letting them gradually slip down to the yet unmounted section. Keeping the tyre taut by holding your fingers against the rim and your thumbs on the tyre, brace the wheel against your hips. Heave the tyre into the base of the rim (a) with your two thumbs.

When the tyre is seated in the base the next job is to centre it, as it will rarely run true right away. Clamp the wheel in the mounting stand again and spin it

(b) . If the tread does not run accurately in the centre or if there is any lateral swerving of the tubular, lift it in that area, twist it a little and place it down again.

When the tyre runs smoothly in the centre take the wheel off the mounting stand and inflate the tyre to approximately half its nominal pressure. Lean your hands on the ends of the axle and quick-release skewers and roll the wheel a few metres on the ground (c) . As you roll the wheel, vary between pressing it vertically downward and at a slant to one and to the other side.

If the tyre still runs true during the final check, inflate it to its maximum pressure and wait 8 hours at least or even better a whole day, before setting off for the first time.

7.5.9 Wheel Mounting

Mounting the wheel is done in the reverse order of dismounting. Make sure the wheel is correctly seated in the drop-outs (d) and accurately centred between the fork legs or the seat and chain stays.

Make sure the quick-release, the drop-out safety tabs and the thru axle, if available, are correctly seated. For more information see chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

If you have rim brakes, make sure you hook the brake cable back up immediately!

The brake of a road racing bicycle needs to be retightened!

Mount the hydraulic rim brakes and close its quick-release immediately after fixing the wheel! Make sure the brake pads touch the rim and not the tyre or the spokes.

If you have disc brakes, check before mounting the wheel whether the brake pads rest snugly in their seats in the brake calliper body. The gaps between the brake pads and the wheel should be parallel and the wear indicators in their correct position. Make sure you guide the rotor between the brake pads carefully.

a

66 b c d a b c d

67

Remove the burrs from the valve hole of an aluminium rim or countersink it with a big drill, a triangular scraper or a round file. If you have carbon rims, be careful when removing the burrs from the hole edge with a round file. Insert the file only from the outside to the inside and not vice versa, otherwise the fibres of the synthetic matrix might fray out. Seal the area with instant glue subsequently. This pretreatment will lead to an improved valve fitting to the rim. If time allows, you can leave the unglued tyre inflated on the rim for a few days to make the final mounting easier.

Clean the base of the rim from any grease or oil using a rag soaked in spirit or benzine. Wait for the solvent to evaporate completely before you start to glue the tyre onto the rim. Gluing the tyre is easiest with the wheel clamped in a truing stand (a) or mounted on an old fork clamped in a vice.

With liquid tyre glue you will need several layers to create a good adhesive bed. Spread the tyre glue evenly and as thinly as possible around almost the entire circumference of the rim. Leave a section of five to ten centimetres without glue at a place opposite the valve to make it easier to remove the tyre again at a later time. With a little practice you will be able to apply the glue straight from the tube

(b)

. If this does not work at first you might find it easier to use a stiff brush. If you are using tyre glue from a can you will need a brush in any case.

Allow the tyre glue to dry until a finger test will proof that it is tacky-dry. This can take up to a few hours. In the same way add another two thin films of glue and let them dry. Leave the wheel as it is until at least the next day.

Before mounting the tyre also apply a film of glue to the base tape. To complete the adhesive bed add one last film of glue.

Let the topmost coat flash off for a short moment, but not dry, and place the wheel on the ground with the valve hole facing upwards. Inflate the tyre until it starts to round and then stick the valve through the valve hole of the rim

(c) and press it firmly against the rim. Make sure the sides of the tyre do not touch the adhesive bed, as your tyre will otherwise look smudgy right away.

If you have taken care to leave the section opposite the valve hole free of glue, you need not be concerned about glue smearing on the ground or dirt getting into the glue when you place the wheel on the ground.

Take hold of the tyre right and left of the valve with both hands, pull it vigorously downward and work it bit by bit into the base of the rim (d) until you have about 20 centimetres left to go.

Starting from the top again on either side of the valve pull the tyre down with your hands, letting them gradually slip down to the yet unmounted section. Keeping the tyre taut by holding your fingers against the rim and your thumbs on the tyre, brace the wheel against your hips. Heave the tyre into the base of the rim (a) with your two thumbs.

When the tyre is seated in the base the next job is to centre it, as it will rarely run true right away. Clamp the wheel in the mounting stand again and spin it

(b) . If the tread does not run accurately in the centre or if there is any lateral swerving of the tubular, lift it in that area, twist it a little and place it down again.

When the tyre runs smoothly in the centre take the wheel off the mounting stand and inflate the tyre to approximately half its nominal pressure. Lean your hands on the ends of the axle and quick-release skewers and roll the wheel a few metres on the ground (c) . As you roll the wheel, vary between pressing it vertically downward and at a slant to one and to the other side.

If the tyre still runs true during the final check, inflate it to its maximum pressure and wait 8 hours at least or even better a whole day, before setting off for the first time.

7.5.9 Wheel Mounting

Mounting the wheel is done in the reverse order of dismounting. Make sure the wheel is correctly seated in the drop-outs (d) and accurately centred between the fork legs or the seat and chain stays.

Make sure the quick-release, the drop-out safety tabs and the thru axle, if available, are correctly seated. For more information see chapter “How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles”.

If you have rim brakes, make sure you hook the brake cable back up immediately!

The brake of a road racing bicycle needs to be retightened!

Mount the hydraulic rim brakes and close its quick-release immediately after fixing the wheel! Make sure the brake pads touch the rim and not the tyre or the spokes.

If you have disc brakes, check before mounting the wheel whether the brake pads rest snugly in their seats in the brake calliper body. The gaps between the brake pads and the wheel should be parallel and the wear indicators in their correct position. Make sure you guide the rotor between the brake pads carefully.

a

66 b c d a b c d

67

After mounting the wheel and tightening the quick-release pull the brake lever (a) and spin the wheel. The rotor should not drag on the brake caliper or on the brake pads.

Before riding again check that you have not let any grease or other lubricants get on the brake surfaces

(b)

or rotor while mounting the wheel.

Check whether the brake pads hit the rotors or braking surfaces of the rims. Make sure the wheel is properly seated and firmly fixed in the drop-outs. Always do a brake test as described in chapter “Before Every Ride“!

7.6 Special Features of Carbon Wheels

As carbon wheels (c) are made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic they come with particular aerodynamic properties and low weight (d) .

Make sure the maximum overall weight of rider, baggage (rucksack) and bicycle does not exceed 100 kg. Carbon wheels are generally not approved for trailer towing!

Check the condition of the brakes and make sure you only ride with brake pads that are suitable for carbon rims!

Due to the particular behaviour of carbon wheels in wet conditions, we strongly recommend the usage of conventional aluminium rims for riding in the rain or if there is a risk of rain.

In the wet braking on carbon rims is less effective; i.e. the braking power is severely reduced. Risk of an accident!

What to Bear in Mind When Braking With Carbon Wheels

As the braking surfaces are made of carbon, there are some things to keep in mind. Only use brake pads that are suitable for carbon wheels, e.g. from

Shimano, Campagnolo or the wheel manufacturer, as they are designed to suit such type of rims. Carbon brake pads usually wear down faster than conventional brake pads. Keep in mind that the braking response of the rims needs getting used to, in particular in wet conditions.

Therefore, test your brakes in a place free of traffic until you have full control of your bicycle

(a)

.

The brake surfaces of the carbon rims are sensitive to heat. Therefore, when you are riding in the mountains, avoid any drag braking. Riding downhill e.g. with a permanently activated rear wheel brake may heat up the material and result in a deformation. The rim may sustain damage and the tyre may burst or come off, thus causing an accident. Always use both brakes simultaneously and release them intermittently to allow the material to cool off.

Check the condition of the brake pads at short intervals, as they wear down faster than with aluminium rims

(b)

.

Keep the particularities of braking in mind, in particular when riding in the mountains and in the wet!

a

68 b c d a b

69

After mounting the wheel and tightening the quick-release pull the brake lever (a) and spin the wheel. The rotor should not drag on the brake caliper or on the brake pads.

Before riding again check that you have not let any grease or other lubricants get on the brake surfaces

(b)

or rotor while mounting the wheel.

Check whether the brake pads hit the rotors or braking surfaces of the rims. Make sure the wheel is properly seated and firmly fixed in the drop-outs. Always do a brake test as described in chapter “Before Every Ride“!

7.6 Special Features of Carbon Wheels

As carbon wheels (c) are made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic they come with particular aerodynamic properties and low weight (d) .

Make sure the maximum overall weight of rider, baggage (rucksack) and bicycle does not exceed 100 kg. Carbon wheels are generally not approved for trailer towing!

Check the condition of the brakes and make sure you only ride with brake pads that are suitable for carbon rims!

Due to the particular behaviour of carbon wheels in wet conditions, we strongly recommend the usage of conventional aluminium rims for riding in the rain or if there is a risk of rain.

In the wet braking on carbon rims is less effective; i.e. the braking power is severely reduced. Risk of an accident!

What to Bear in Mind When Braking With Carbon Wheels

As the braking surfaces are made of carbon, there are some things to keep in mind. Only use brake pads that are suitable for carbon wheels, e.g. from

Shimano, Campagnolo or the wheel manufacturer, as they are designed to suit such type of rims. Carbon brake pads usually wear down faster than conventional brake pads. Keep in mind that the braking response of the rims needs getting used to, in particular in wet conditions.

Therefore, test your brakes in a place free of traffic until you have full control of your bicycle

(a)

.

The brake surfaces of the carbon rims are sensitive to heat. Therefore, when you are riding in the mountains, avoid any drag braking. Riding downhill e.g. with a permanently activated rear wheel brake may heat up the material and result in a deformation. The rim may sustain damage and the tyre may burst or come off, thus causing an accident. Always use both brakes simultaneously and release them intermittently to allow the material to cool off.

Check the condition of the brake pads at short intervals, as they wear down faster than with aluminium rims

(b)

.

Keep the particularities of braking in mind, in particular when riding in the mountains and in the wet!

a

68 b c d a b

69

8 Headset

The headset (a) connects the fork to the frame, but allows it to move freely. It must turn with virtually no resistance, if the bicycle is to run straight, stabilising itself as it travels. Shocks caused by uneven road surfaces expose the headset to considerable levels of stress. In this way it can become loose and go out of correct adjustment.

Riding the bicycle with a loose headset increases the stress on fork and bearings. The fork can break and throw you off your bicycle!!

8.1 Checking the Headset

Check the headset for play by placing your fingers around the upper headset cup

(b)

.

Bring your weight to bear on the saddle, pull the front brakes with your other hand and push the bicycle firmly back and forth with the wheel remaining on the ground. If the bearing has play, you will feel the upper headset cup moving relative to the upper bearing cap - visible as a small gap between the cup and the cap.

To check whether the bearing runs smoothly, lift the frame up until the front wheel no longer touches the ground. The handlebars should turn from far left to far right without feeling roughness or tightness at any point. Turning the bars should require only a little tap on the grips (c) .

Adjusting the headset requires a certain amount of experience and should therefore be left to your local bicycle dealer.

If you want to adjust conventional headsets you will need special tools. If you nevertheless want to try adjusting it yourself, please read the operating instructions of the manufacturer carefully before you do!

Check the secure seat of the stem after having adjusted the bearings, by holding the front wheel between your knees and trying to twist the handlebars relative to the front wheel

(d)

. Otherwise, a loose stem can throw you off your bicycle.

8.2 Readjusting a Conventional Headset

The adjustment tolerance between there being play in the bearings and them being set too tight is very small. The bearings are susceptible to damage. If you want to try it nevertheless, you need two large and flat open-end wrenches (a) .

Release the threaded top nut and tighten the upper threaded bearing cap a little clockwise. Retighten the top nut.

A too tight adjustment may damage the headset and impair the performance of the bicycle.

8.3 Readjusting an Aheadset

®

(*Aheadset

®

is a registered trade mark for threadless systems of DiaCompe)

The distinct feature of this system is that the stem does not sit within the fork steerer tube, but rather slips over the fork steerer tube, which in this case is threadless (b) . The stem is thus an important part of the headset bearing. Its clamping force secures the bearing in the correct running position. Instead of special tools you need in most cases only one or two Allen keys as well as a torque wrench to adjust the Aheadset

®

. Release the clamping bolt(s) located on the side of the stem by one to two complete turns. Using an Allen key, gently tighten the countersunk adjusting bolt on top a little, e.g. by a quarter turn (c) .

Do not overtighten the upper bolt, it only serves the purpose of adjusting the bearing play, not of securing the stem!

Re-align the stem with the frame so that the handlebars are not slanted when the wheel points straight ahead. Make sure the front wheel is in line with the top tube and the stem. Tighten the clamping bolts of the stem (d) .

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening

Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers. a

70 b c d a b c d

71

8 Headset

The headset (a) connects the fork to the frame, but allows it to move freely. It must turn with virtually no resistance, if the bicycle is to run straight, stabilising itself as it travels. Shocks caused by uneven road surfaces expose the headset to considerable levels of stress. In this way it can become loose and go out of correct adjustment.

Riding the bicycle with a loose headset increases the stress on fork and bearings. The fork can break and throw you off your bicycle!!

8.1 Checking the Headset

Check the headset for play by placing your fingers around the upper headset cup

(b)

.

Bring your weight to bear on the saddle, pull the front brakes with your other hand and push the bicycle firmly back and forth with the wheel remaining on the ground. If the bearing has play, you will feel the upper headset cup moving relative to the upper bearing cap - visible as a small gap between the cup and the cap.

To check whether the bearing runs smoothly, lift the frame up until the front wheel no longer touches the ground. The handlebars should turn from far left to far right without feeling roughness or tightness at any point. Turning the bars should require only a little tap on the grips (c) .

Adjusting the headset requires a certain amount of experience and should therefore be left to your local bicycle dealer.

If you want to adjust conventional headsets you will need special tools. If you nevertheless want to try adjusting it yourself, please read the operating instructions of the manufacturer carefully before you do!

Check the secure seat of the stem after having adjusted the bearings, by holding the front wheel between your knees and trying to twist the handlebars relative to the front wheel

(d)

. Otherwise, a loose stem can throw you off your bicycle.

8.2 Readjusting a Conventional Headset

The adjustment tolerance between there being play in the bearings and them being set too tight is very small. The bearings are susceptible to damage. If you want to try it nevertheless, you need two large and flat open-end wrenches (a) .

Release the threaded top nut and tighten the upper threaded bearing cap a little clockwise. Retighten the top nut.

A too tight adjustment may damage the headset and impair the performance of the bicycle.

8.3 Readjusting an Aheadset

®

(*Aheadset

®

is a registered trade mark for threadless systems of DiaCompe)

The distinct feature of this system is that the stem does not sit within the fork steerer tube, but rather slips over the fork steerer tube, which in this case is threadless (b) . The stem is thus an important part of the headset bearing. Its clamping force secures the bearing in the correct running position. Instead of special tools you need in most cases only one or two Allen keys as well as a torque wrench to adjust the Aheadset

®

. Release the clamping bolt(s) located on the side of the stem by one to two complete turns. Using an Allen key, gently tighten the countersunk adjusting bolt on top a little, e.g. by a quarter turn (c) .

Do not overtighten the upper bolt, it only serves the purpose of adjusting the bearing play, not of securing the stem!

Re-align the stem with the frame so that the handlebars are not slanted when the wheel points straight ahead. Make sure the front wheel is in line with the top tube and the stem. Tighten the clamping bolts of the stem (d) .

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening

Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers. a

70 b c d a b c d

71

Bear in mind that by overtightening the bolts, the stem can crush the steerer tube.

Check the headset for play as described above (a) . Take care not to overtighten the bearings, as this could easily damage them.

If you do not succeed in adjusting the bearing, this can have several reasons. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Check the secure seat of the stem by taking the front wheel between your legs and trying to turn the handlebars and stem relative to the wheel

(b)

. A loose stem can throw you off your bicycle.

a

72 b

9 Suspension

9.1 Glossary

Spring rate or hardness:

The force required to compress the spring a given distance.

A higher rate indicates a higher force requirement per unit of length. With air springs a higher rate means a higher pressure (a) .

Initial spring tension:

The initial spring tension of coil springs and elastomers can be set within a certain range. This makes the suspension respond only when exposed to a higher load. The spring rate remains, however, unchanged. Heavier riders cannot compensate a too soft spring rate with a higher initial tension.

Rebound damping:

The damping which controls the rate at which the fork extends after being compressed (b+c) .

Compression damping:

The damping which controls the rate at which the fork compresses (c) .

Sag:

The distance by which the rear shock or fork compresses (should compress) when the rider assumes his normal riding position while the bicycle is stationary.

Lockout (c+d) :

Device blocking the fork or the damper from absorbing shocks thus ensuring a smooth riding on tarred roads without vibrations. A lockout must not be activated when riding off-road or downhill.

platform damping:

Increases compression damping and helps eliminate bob. Compared to the lockout mechanism the suspension is not inactivated entirely.

a b c d

73

Bear in mind that by overtightening the bolts, the stem can crush the steerer tube.

Check the headset for play as described above (a) . Take care not to overtighten the bearings, as this could easily damage them.

If you do not succeed in adjusting the bearing, this can have several reasons. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Check the secure seat of the stem by taking the front wheel between your legs and trying to turn the handlebars and stem relative to the wheel

(b)

. A loose stem can throw you off your bicycle.

a

72 b

9 Suspension

9.1 Glossary

Spring rate or hardness:

The force required to compress the spring a given distance.

A higher rate indicates a higher force requirement per unit of length. With air springs a higher rate means a higher pressure (a) .

Initial spring tension:

The initial spring tension of coil springs and elastomers can be set within a certain range. This makes the suspension respond only when exposed to a higher load. The spring rate remains, however, unchanged. Heavier riders cannot compensate a too soft spring rate with a higher initial tension.

Rebound damping:

The damping which controls the rate at which the fork extends after being compressed (b+c) .

Compression damping:

The damping which controls the rate at which the fork compresses (c) .

Sag:

The distance by which the rear shock or fork compresses (should compress) when the rider assumes his normal riding position while the bicycle is stationary.

Lockout (c+d) :

Device blocking the fork or the damper from absorbing shocks thus ensuring a smooth riding on tarred roads without vibrations. A lockout must not be activated when riding off-road or downhill.

platform damping:

Increases compression damping and helps eliminate bob. Compared to the lockout mechanism the suspension is not inactivated entirely.

a b c d

73

9.2 Suspension Forks

9.2.1 Adjusting the Spring Rate

Most mountain bikes as well as some hybrid bicycles are equipped with suspension forks

(a)

. This feature gives you better control of your bicycle when riding cross-country or on rough road surfaces. It noticeably reduces the strain on you and your bicycle caused by the mechanical shocks from the terrain.

Suspension forks differ in their spring elements and in the way the damping is realised. Suspension is provided by coil springs, special types of plastic known as elastomers or sealed air compartments or combinations of these options. The damping is usually done by oil or by the self-damping properties of the elastomers.

For more information see the suspension glossary heading this chapter.

In order to work optimally, the fork has to be adjusted to the weight of the rider and the intended purpose. Be sure to have this adjustment carried out by your bicycle dealer before delivery. With an air sprung suspension fork you have to inflate it before your first ride. The fork adjustment depends on the rider’s weight and the sitting posture.

Please bear in mind that the suspension fork should sag a little under the rider’s weight. When the front wheel passes through a depression in the ground, the spring extends and the suspension fork will smooth out the uneven surface. If the selected air pressure or initial spring tension is too high, this effect is lost because the wheel will already be fully extended. This means the loss of an important feature affecting both safety and comfort.

Cross-country and marathon racers usually run less sag than downhillers or more comfort loving freeriders. For cross-country and marathon riding the rear shock should yield by about 10-25 % of its total travel, for enduro and freeriding by about 20-40 %.

Put a cable tie (b) onto the stanchion tube so that you can still slide it easily along the tube’s exposed section.

To measure the maximum shock travel release all the air pressure from the suspension fork. Then inflate the fork to the recommended air pressure and measure the distance between the cable tie and the upper edge of the lower leg.

The initial tension of most forks with coil springs or elastomer fillings can be altered to a limited degree by adjusting the preload knob located on the fork crown connecting the stanchion tubes. In the event there is no adjusting device, the coil spring or elastomer filling need to be replaced.

In the case of oil/air forks, the spring rate is adjusted by the air pressure in the fork ((c) p. 74) . The pressure must be checked at regular intervals with a special shock pump which is normally made available by the fork manufacturer. Please follow the recommendations of the manufacturer.

Ride your bicycle on different kinds of surface and check afterwards the travel of the cable tie

((d) p. 74)

. The difference is the rear shock’s travel you have used. If the cable tie has moved a few millimetres only, your fork is too firm. Reduce the air pressure of air sprung forks or the initial spring tension of coil springs. If your rear shock is still too firm, have the springs replaced.

If the cable tie has moved along the entire travel range (a) or if you can hear the fork hit the end of its travel, the spring is too soft. In this case the initial spring tension/pressure must be increased (b) . If the adjustment range of the coil springs is too small, have the springs replaced by your bicycle dealer.

Check the pressure of air sprung forks at regular intervals and follow the recommendations of the manufacturer. If the available setting options do not cover your needs, you will need to replace the springs or dampers. Many manufacturers have tuning and retrofitting kits on offer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Fork manufacturers include instructions with their deliveries.

Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your suspension fork.

The suspension fork should be set up and adjusted in such a way that it does not reach the end of its travel (known as bottom out). A spring rate which is too soft (or too low an air pressure) can usually be heard or felt as a “clunk” type noise. This noise is caused by the sudden complete compression of the suspension fork as it reaches bottom out. If the suspension fork frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time, and so will the frame.

Suspension forks

(c)

are designed in a way to absorb shocks.

If the fork is too rigid and jammed, the terrain induced shocks pass directly into the frame without any damping. The frame is normally not designed to withstand such undamped stresses.

If your bicycle is equipped with a suspension fork including lockout

(d)

, you should keep in mind not to activate the lockout function when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (tarred roads, smooth tracks).

a

74 b c d a b c d

75

9.2 Suspension Forks

9.2.1 Adjusting the Spring Rate

Most mountain bikes as well as some hybrid bicycles are equipped with suspension forks

(a)

. This feature gives you better control of your bicycle when riding cross-country or on rough road surfaces. It noticeably reduces the strain on you and your bicycle caused by the mechanical shocks from the terrain.

Suspension forks differ in their spring elements and in the way the damping is realised. Suspension is provided by coil springs, special types of plastic known as elastomers or sealed air compartments or combinations of these options. The damping is usually done by oil or by the self-damping properties of the elastomers.

For more information see the suspension glossary heading this chapter.

In order to work optimally, the fork has to be adjusted to the weight of the rider and the intended purpose. Be sure to have this adjustment carried out by your bicycle dealer before delivery. With an air sprung suspension fork you have to inflate it before your first ride. The fork adjustment depends on the rider’s weight and the sitting posture.

Please bear in mind that the suspension fork should sag a little under the rider’s weight. When the front wheel passes through a depression in the ground, the spring extends and the suspension fork will smooth out the uneven surface. If the selected air pressure or initial spring tension is too high, this effect is lost because the wheel will already be fully extended. This means the loss of an important feature affecting both safety and comfort.

Cross-country and marathon racers usually run less sag than downhillers or more comfort loving freeriders. For cross-country and marathon riding the rear shock should yield by about 10-25 % of its total travel, for enduro and freeriding by about 20-40 %.

Put a cable tie (b) onto the stanchion tube so that you can still slide it easily along the tube’s exposed section.

To measure the maximum shock travel release all the air pressure from the suspension fork. Then inflate the fork to the recommended air pressure and measure the distance between the cable tie and the upper edge of the lower leg.

The initial tension of most forks with coil springs or elastomer fillings can be altered to a limited degree by adjusting the preload knob located on the fork crown connecting the stanchion tubes. In the event there is no adjusting device, the coil spring or elastomer filling need to be replaced.

In the case of oil/air forks, the spring rate is adjusted by the air pressure in the fork ((c) p. 74) . The pressure must be checked at regular intervals with a special shock pump which is normally made available by the fork manufacturer. Please follow the recommendations of the manufacturer.

Ride your bicycle on different kinds of surface and check afterwards the travel of the cable tie

((d) p. 74)

. The difference is the rear shock’s travel you have used. If the cable tie has moved a few millimetres only, your fork is too firm. Reduce the air pressure of air sprung forks or the initial spring tension of coil springs. If your rear shock is still too firm, have the springs replaced.

If the cable tie has moved along the entire travel range (a) or if you can hear the fork hit the end of its travel, the spring is too soft. In this case the initial spring tension/pressure must be increased (b) . If the adjustment range of the coil springs is too small, have the springs replaced by your bicycle dealer.

Check the pressure of air sprung forks at regular intervals and follow the recommendations of the manufacturer. If the available setting options do not cover your needs, you will need to replace the springs or dampers. Many manufacturers have tuning and retrofitting kits on offer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Fork manufacturers include instructions with their deliveries.

Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your suspension fork.

The suspension fork should be set up and adjusted in such a way that it does not reach the end of its travel (known as bottom out). A spring rate which is too soft (or too low an air pressure) can usually be heard or felt as a “clunk” type noise. This noise is caused by the sudden complete compression of the suspension fork as it reaches bottom out. If the suspension fork frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time, and so will the frame.

Suspension forks

(c)

are designed in a way to absorb shocks.

If the fork is too rigid and jammed, the terrain induced shocks pass directly into the frame without any damping. The frame is normally not designed to withstand such undamped stresses.

If your bicycle is equipped with a suspension fork including lockout

(d)

, you should keep in mind not to activate the lockout function when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (tarred roads, smooth tracks).

a

74 b c d a b c d

75

9.2.2 Adjusting the Damping Control

The damping is adjusted by valves inside. These valves are designed to modify the flow rate of the oil and hence the speed with which the fork legs move in and out. In this way it is possible to optimise the bicycle’s reaction to obstacles. Furthermore, any oscillatory movement while pedalling can be reduced. For long uphill rides involving hard pedalling out of the saddle it is advisable to activate the lockout mechanism. On the other hand, for downhill rides on uneven ground it may be better to open the damping system more or less completely.

Suspension forks with adjustable damping are fitted with an adjusting knob that is (mainly) red to slow down or accelerate the rebound movement (a) .

The second knob, if available, is to adjust the speed of the compression movement (b) .

The adjusting process changes the flow rate of the oil contained within the suspension fork as it passes through valves and chambers internally.

Some models provide for separate adjustment of compression and rebound damping. Experience has shown that it is best to begin with the compression stage entirely open and to first adjust the rebound stage.

Adjusting the suspension fork is a delicate job, as even a small change on the adjuster can have a big effect. Try approaching the exact setting you need in increments no larger than a quarter turn from the “Open”-position.

Rebound is considered satisfactory when the suspension fork cycles once after descending from a high kerb. If you turn the knob too far, the oil inside will flow very slowly and the rebound will be at maximum. This will result in a sluggish rebound movement, and the suspension fork will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts.

Turning the adjusting knob in the other direction reduces rebound, making the suspension fork rebound faster.

Once this is done, adjust the compression stage. This is to control the rate at which the suspension fork compresses. Adjusting the compression adjuster towards the closed or maximum position will give you a firmer, less active ride. Take your bicycle for a test ride on different kinds of surface (c) .

If the suspension fork hits the end of its travel (bottom out) several times, you will need to change its spring rate (d) .

If the damping does not suit your needs, inspite of your adjusting, or if in the case of coil spring elements you need more than three to four turns for the initial spring tension, you may need to replace the suspension elements. The replacement is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Do not actuate the lockout function (of the suspension fork) when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (roads, smooth tracks)

((a) p. 77)

.

Do not turn any screws on your suspension fork in the vague hope of adjusting it somehow. You could release the fastening mechanism, thus causing an accident. All manufacturers normally mark adjustment devices with a scale or “+” and “-“ signs

(b)

.

Suspension fork manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

A too strong damping of the fork can result in a sluggish rebound movement with a suspension fork that will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts. Risk of an accident! Do not ride your bicycle, if the suspension fork bottoms out. This could damage the suspension fork itself as well as the frame.

When mounting a new front tyre, make sure there is enough clearance between tyre and fork crown as the fork compresses entirely. The front wheel might get jammed. Risk of an accident!

9.2.3 Adjusting the Travel

The travel of some suspension fork models allow travel adjustment. Some models reducing the travel, make for an easier uphill riding. A reduced travel may result in a modified spring characteristic of the fork making the fork either softer or firmer. This can reduce the comfort of suspension.

With other models, changing the travel does not result in a modified spring characteristic. The suspension fork provides an identic comfort of suspension with an however clearly reduced travel.

Do not ride with a reduced travel over rough terrain or downhill!

For more information on adjusting the travel, please read the enclosed instructions of the suspension fork manufacturer!

9.2.4 Maintenance

Suspension forks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all suspension fork manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your fork thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

The following routines are essential for rear shock maintenance:

Make sure the sliding surfaces of the stanchion tubes are absolutely clean.

Clean the fork with water and a soft sponge after every ride (c) . After washing your bicycle, spray the stanchion tubes of the suspension fork with a little grease spray (d) or apply a very thin film of hydraulic oil. a

76 b c d a b c d

77

9.2.2 Adjusting the Damping Control

The damping is adjusted by valves inside. These valves are designed to modify the flow rate of the oil and hence the speed with which the fork legs move in and out. In this way it is possible to optimise the bicycle’s reaction to obstacles. Furthermore, any oscillatory movement while pedalling can be reduced. For long uphill rides involving hard pedalling out of the saddle it is advisable to activate the lockout mechanism. On the other hand, for downhill rides on uneven ground it may be better to open the damping system more or less completely.

Suspension forks with adjustable damping are fitted with an adjusting knob that is (mainly) red to slow down or accelerate the rebound movement (a) .

The second knob, if available, is to adjust the speed of the compression movement (b) .

The adjusting process changes the flow rate of the oil contained within the suspension fork as it passes through valves and chambers internally.

Some models provide for separate adjustment of compression and rebound damping. Experience has shown that it is best to begin with the compression stage entirely open and to first adjust the rebound stage.

Adjusting the suspension fork is a delicate job, as even a small change on the adjuster can have a big effect. Try approaching the exact setting you need in increments no larger than a quarter turn from the “Open”-position.

Rebound is considered satisfactory when the suspension fork cycles once after descending from a high kerb. If you turn the knob too far, the oil inside will flow very slowly and the rebound will be at maximum. This will result in a sluggish rebound movement, and the suspension fork will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts.

Turning the adjusting knob in the other direction reduces rebound, making the suspension fork rebound faster.

Once this is done, adjust the compression stage. This is to control the rate at which the suspension fork compresses. Adjusting the compression adjuster towards the closed or maximum position will give you a firmer, less active ride. Take your bicycle for a test ride on different kinds of surface (c) .

If the suspension fork hits the end of its travel (bottom out) several times, you will need to change its spring rate (d) .

If the damping does not suit your needs, inspite of your adjusting, or if in the case of coil spring elements you need more than three to four turns for the initial spring tension, you may need to replace the suspension elements. The replacement is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Do not actuate the lockout function (of the suspension fork) when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (roads, smooth tracks)

((a) p. 77)

.

Do not turn any screws on your suspension fork in the vague hope of adjusting it somehow. You could release the fastening mechanism, thus causing an accident. All manufacturers normally mark adjustment devices with a scale or “+” and “-“ signs

(b)

.

Suspension fork manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

A too strong damping of the fork can result in a sluggish rebound movement with a suspension fork that will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts. Risk of an accident! Do not ride your bicycle, if the suspension fork bottoms out. This could damage the suspension fork itself as well as the frame.

When mounting a new front tyre, make sure there is enough clearance between tyre and fork crown as the fork compresses entirely. The front wheel might get jammed. Risk of an accident!

9.2.3 Adjusting the Travel

The travel of some suspension fork models allow travel adjustment. Some models reducing the travel, make for an easier uphill riding. A reduced travel may result in a modified spring characteristic of the fork making the fork either softer or firmer. This can reduce the comfort of suspension.

With other models, changing the travel does not result in a modified spring characteristic. The suspension fork provides an identic comfort of suspension with an however clearly reduced travel.

Do not ride with a reduced travel over rough terrain or downhill!

For more information on adjusting the travel, please read the enclosed instructions of the suspension fork manufacturer!

9.2.4 Maintenance

Suspension forks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all suspension fork manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your fork thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

The following routines are essential for rear shock maintenance:

Make sure the sliding surfaces of the stanchion tubes are absolutely clean.

Clean the fork with water and a soft sponge after every ride (c) . After washing your bicycle, spray the stanchion tubes of the suspension fork with a little grease spray (d) or apply a very thin film of hydraulic oil. a

76 b c d a b c d

77

Do not use a steam jet or aggressive cleaning agents! Ask your bicycle dealer for an appropriate lubricant.

If your fork has an elastomer filling, you should regularly clean (a) and lubricate the synthetic springs with a non-corrosive resin-free grease. Some fork manufacturers provide special greases for fork maintenance. Be sure to follow the recommendations of the manufacturers. Forks with air springs have to be checked regularly for air pressure, as the air escapes over time (b) .

Suspension forks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all suspension fork manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your fork thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

Suspension forks are constantly being sprayed with water and dirt from the front wheel. Clean them with lots of water after every ride.

Suspension elements are of sophisticated design. The maintenance routines and above all the disassembly of the suspension elements are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer.

Be sure to have your suspension fork checked by a service centre of the fork manufacturer once a year at least.

9.3 Rear Shock

Full-suspension bicycles are equipped not only with a suspension fork but also with movable rear stays which are sprung and damped by a shock absorber (c) . This feature gives you better control of your bicycle when riding cross-country or on rough road surfaces. It noticeably reduces the strain on you and your bicycle caused by the mechanical shocks from the terrain.

With rear shocks this normally works with an air spring element or, less frequently, with coil springs. Damping is usually controlled by the use of oil.

Depending on the system the rear shock has one or more bearing axles with at least two bearings each.

For more information see the suspension glossary heading this chapter.

9.3.1 Adjusting the Seating position

Full-suspension bicycles sag a little when you sit on the saddle. This causes the saddle to tilt a little backwards, an effect which can be compensated by adjusting the position of the saddle. If you have trouble sitting, try lowering the nose of the saddle a little compared to your usual position.

Full-suspension bicycles have a greater ground clearance than bicycles without rear suspension. With a properly adjusted saddle height you will not be able to reach the floor with your feet.

Set the saddle a little lower to begin with

(d)

and practise getting on and off the saddle.

9.3.2 Adjusting the Spring Rate

In order to work optimally, the rear shock has to be adjusted to the weight of the rider and its intended purpose. Be sure to have this adjustment carried out by your bicycle dealer before delivery.

With an air spring element you have to inflate the rear shock before your first ride (a) . The rear shock adjustment depends on the rider’s weight and the sitting posture.

Please bear in mind that the rear swing arm of the rear shock should sag a little under the rider’s weight. When the rear wheel passes through a depression in the ground the spring can then extend and the suspension mechanism will smooth out the uneven surface. If the selected air pressure is too high, this effect is lost because the wheel will already be fully extended. This means the loss of an important feature affecting both safety and comfort.

To aid measurement you can use the rubber o-ring often available on the shock’s shaft, which slides further down the shaft as the rider gets on the bicycle or slip a cable tie onto the thinner tube of the rear shock so that it can still shift easily along the tube.

Cross-country and marathon racers usually run less sag than downhillers or more comfort loving freeriders. For cross-country and marathon riding the rear shock should yield by about 10-25 % of its total travel (b) , for enduro and freeriding by about 20-40 % (c) .

To measure the maximum shock travel release all the air pressure from the rear shock. Compress the rear shock completely. Then inflate the shock absorber to the recommended air pressure and measure the distance between the rubber o-ring/cable tie and the upper edge of the shock body (d) .

In the case of oil/air sprung rear shocks, the spring rate is adjusted by the air pressure in the damper. The pressure must be checked at regular intervals with a special shock pump which is normally made available by the rear shock manufacturer. Please follow the recommendations of the manufacturer.

Ride your bicycle on different kinds of surface and check afterwards the travel of the rubber o-ring/cable tie. The difference is the rear shock’s travel you have used. If the rubber o-ring/cable tie has moved a few millimetres only, your rear shock is too firm. Reduce the air pressure of air sprung rear shocks or the initial spring tension of coil springs. If your rear shock is still too firm, have the springs replaced.

a

78 b c d a b c d

79

Do not use a steam jet or aggressive cleaning agents! Ask your bicycle dealer for an appropriate lubricant.

If your fork has an elastomer filling, you should regularly clean (a) and lubricate the synthetic springs with a non-corrosive resin-free grease. Some fork manufacturers provide special greases for fork maintenance. Be sure to follow the recommendations of the manufacturers. Forks with air springs have to be checked regularly for air pressure, as the air escapes over time (b) .

Suspension forks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all suspension fork manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your fork thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

Suspension forks are constantly being sprayed with water and dirt from the front wheel. Clean them with lots of water after every ride.

Suspension elements are of sophisticated design. The maintenance routines and above all the disassembly of the suspension elements are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer.

Be sure to have your suspension fork checked by a service centre of the fork manufacturer once a year at least.

9.3 Rear Shock

Full-suspension bicycles are equipped not only with a suspension fork but also with movable rear stays which are sprung and damped by a shock absorber (c) . This feature gives you better control of your bicycle when riding cross-country or on rough road surfaces. It noticeably reduces the strain on you and your bicycle caused by the mechanical shocks from the terrain.

With rear shocks this normally works with an air spring element or, less frequently, with coil springs. Damping is usually controlled by the use of oil.

Depending on the system the rear shock has one or more bearing axles with at least two bearings each.

For more information see the suspension glossary heading this chapter.

9.3.1 Adjusting the Seating position

Full-suspension bicycles sag a little when you sit on the saddle. This causes the saddle to tilt a little backwards, an effect which can be compensated by adjusting the position of the saddle. If you have trouble sitting, try lowering the nose of the saddle a little compared to your usual position.

Full-suspension bicycles have a greater ground clearance than bicycles without rear suspension. With a properly adjusted saddle height you will not be able to reach the floor with your feet.

Set the saddle a little lower to begin with

(d)

and practise getting on and off the saddle.

9.3.2 Adjusting the Spring Rate

In order to work optimally, the rear shock has to be adjusted to the weight of the rider and its intended purpose. Be sure to have this adjustment carried out by your bicycle dealer before delivery.

With an air spring element you have to inflate the rear shock before your first ride (a) . The rear shock adjustment depends on the rider’s weight and the sitting posture.

Please bear in mind that the rear swing arm of the rear shock should sag a little under the rider’s weight. When the rear wheel passes through a depression in the ground the spring can then extend and the suspension mechanism will smooth out the uneven surface. If the selected air pressure is too high, this effect is lost because the wheel will already be fully extended. This means the loss of an important feature affecting both safety and comfort.

To aid measurement you can use the rubber o-ring often available on the shock’s shaft, which slides further down the shaft as the rider gets on the bicycle or slip a cable tie onto the thinner tube of the rear shock so that it can still shift easily along the tube.

Cross-country and marathon racers usually run less sag than downhillers or more comfort loving freeriders. For cross-country and marathon riding the rear shock should yield by about 10-25 % of its total travel (b) , for enduro and freeriding by about 20-40 % (c) .

To measure the maximum shock travel release all the air pressure from the rear shock. Compress the rear shock completely. Then inflate the shock absorber to the recommended air pressure and measure the distance between the rubber o-ring/cable tie and the upper edge of the shock body (d) .

In the case of oil/air sprung rear shocks, the spring rate is adjusted by the air pressure in the damper. The pressure must be checked at regular intervals with a special shock pump which is normally made available by the rear shock manufacturer. Please follow the recommendations of the manufacturer.

Ride your bicycle on different kinds of surface and check afterwards the travel of the rubber o-ring/cable tie. The difference is the rear shock’s travel you have used. If the rubber o-ring/cable tie has moved a few millimetres only, your rear shock is too firm. Reduce the air pressure of air sprung rear shocks or the initial spring tension of coil springs. If your rear shock is still too firm, have the springs replaced.

a

78 b c d a b c d

79

If the rubber o-ring/cable tie has moved along the entire travel range or if you can hear the rear shock hit the end of its travel, the spring is too soft. In this case the initial spring tension/pressure must be increased. If the adjustment range is too small, have the springs replaced by your bicycle dealer. The rear shock should not reach the end of its travel (bottom out), which can usully be heard clearly. If the rear shock frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time.

Check the pressure at regular intervals and follow the recommendations of the manufacturer. If the available setting options do not cover your needs, you will need to replace the springs or dampers. Many manufacturers have tuning and retrofitting kits on offer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Almost all manufacturers deliver their dampers/rear shocks with instructions. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

The rear shock should be set up and adjusted in such a way that it does not reach the end of its travel (known as bottom out). A spring rate which is too soft (or too low an air pressure) can usually be heard or felt as a “clunk” type noise. This noise is caused by the sudden complete compression of the rear shock as it reaches bottom out. If the rear shock frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time, and so will the frame.

Rear shocks are mounted on full-suspension frames

(a)

in a way that they absorb shocks from the terrain. If the damper is too rigid and jammed, the terrain induced shocks pass directly into the frame without any damping. The frame is normally not designed to withstand such undamped stresses. If your bicycle is equipped with a rear shock including lockout

(b)

, you must therefore keep in mind not to activate the lockout function when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (tarred roads, smooth tracks).

9.3.3 Adjusting the Damping Control

The damping is adjusted by valves inside. These valves are designed to modify the flow rate of the oil and hence the speed with which the rear swing arm moves in and out. In this way it is possible to optimise the bicycle’s reaction to obstacles. Furthermore, any oscillatory movement of the rear frame while pedalling can be reduced. For long uphill rides involving hard pedalling in sitting it is advisable to eliminate the damping. For this purpose some rear shock models are fitted with a lockout device. For downhill rides on uneven ground the lockout mechanism must not be activated.

Rear shocks with adjustable damping are fitted with an adjusting knob that is (mainly) red to slow down or accelerate the rebound movement (c+d) .

The second knob, if available, is to adjust the speed of the compression movement.

The adjusting process changes the flow rate of the oil contained within the suspension fork as it passes through valves and chambers internally.

Some models provide for separate adjustment of compression and rebound damping. Experience has shown that it is best to begin with the compression stage entirely open and to first adjust the rebound stage.

Adjusting the suspension fork is a delicate job, as even a small change on the adjuster can have a big effect. Try approaching the exact setting you need in increments no larger than a quarter turn from the “Open”-position.

Rebound is considered satisfactory when the rear frame cycles once after descending from a high kerb. If you turn the knob too far, the oil inside will flow very slowly and the rebound will be at maximum. This will result in a sluggish rebound movement, and the rear shock will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts.

Turning the adjusting knob in the other direction reduces rebound, making the rear shock rebound faster. Once this is done, adjust the compression stage. This is to control the rate at which the rear shock compresses. Adjusting the compression adjuster towards the closed or maximum position will give you a firmer, less active ride. Take your mountain bike for a test ride on different kinds of surface (a) .

If the rear shock hits the end of its travel (bottom out) several times, you will need to change its spring rate, i.e. to increase the pressure (b) . Make sure not to exceed the maximum pressure indicated on the rear shock.

If the damping does not suit your needs, inspite of your adjusting, or if in the case of coil spring elements you need more than three to four turns for the initial spring tension, you may need to replace the suspension elements. The replacement is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Do not actuate the lockout function

(c)

(of the rear shock) when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (roads, smooth tracks).

Do not turn any screws on your rear shock in the vague hope of adjusting it somehow. You could release the fastening mechanism, thus causing an accident. All manufacturers normally mark adjustment devices with a scale or “+” and “-“ signs.

Rear shock manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries

(d)

. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

A too strong damping can result in a sluggish rebound movement with a rear shock that will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts. Risk of an accident!

Do not ride your bicycle, if the rear shock reaches bottom out.

This could damage the rear shock itself as well as the frame.

a

80 b c d a b c d

81

If the rubber o-ring/cable tie has moved along the entire travel range or if you can hear the rear shock hit the end of its travel, the spring is too soft. In this case the initial spring tension/pressure must be increased. If the adjustment range is too small, have the springs replaced by your bicycle dealer. The rear shock should not reach the end of its travel (bottom out), which can usully be heard clearly. If the rear shock frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time.

Check the pressure at regular intervals and follow the recommendations of the manufacturer. If the available setting options do not cover your needs, you will need to replace the springs or dampers. Many manufacturers have tuning and retrofitting kits on offer. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer! When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Almost all manufacturers deliver their dampers/rear shocks with instructions. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

The rear shock should be set up and adjusted in such a way that it does not reach the end of its travel (known as bottom out). A spring rate which is too soft (or too low an air pressure) can usually be heard or felt as a “clunk” type noise. This noise is caused by the sudden complete compression of the rear shock as it reaches bottom out. If the rear shock frequently reaches bottom out, it will become damaged over time, and so will the frame.

Rear shocks are mounted on full-suspension frames

(a)

in a way that they absorb shocks from the terrain. If the damper is too rigid and jammed, the terrain induced shocks pass directly into the frame without any damping. The frame is normally not designed to withstand such undamped stresses. If your bicycle is equipped with a rear shock including lockout

(b)

, you must therefore keep in mind not to activate the lockout function when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (tarred roads, smooth tracks).

9.3.3 Adjusting the Damping Control

The damping is adjusted by valves inside. These valves are designed to modify the flow rate of the oil and hence the speed with which the rear swing arm moves in and out. In this way it is possible to optimise the bicycle’s reaction to obstacles. Furthermore, any oscillatory movement of the rear frame while pedalling can be reduced. For long uphill rides involving hard pedalling in sitting it is advisable to eliminate the damping. For this purpose some rear shock models are fitted with a lockout device. For downhill rides on uneven ground the lockout mechanism must not be activated.

Rear shocks with adjustable damping are fitted with an adjusting knob that is (mainly) red to slow down or accelerate the rebound movement (c+d) .

The second knob, if available, is to adjust the speed of the compression movement.

The adjusting process changes the flow rate of the oil contained within the suspension fork as it passes through valves and chambers internally.

Some models provide for separate adjustment of compression and rebound damping. Experience has shown that it is best to begin with the compression stage entirely open and to first adjust the rebound stage.

Adjusting the suspension fork is a delicate job, as even a small change on the adjuster can have a big effect. Try approaching the exact setting you need in increments no larger than a quarter turn from the “Open”-position.

Rebound is considered satisfactory when the rear frame cycles once after descending from a high kerb. If you turn the knob too far, the oil inside will flow very slowly and the rebound will be at maximum. This will result in a sluggish rebound movement, and the rear shock will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts.

Turning the adjusting knob in the other direction reduces rebound, making the rear shock rebound faster. Once this is done, adjust the compression stage. This is to control the rate at which the rear shock compresses. Adjusting the compression adjuster towards the closed or maximum position will give you a firmer, less active ride. Take your mountain bike for a test ride on different kinds of surface (a) .

If the rear shock hits the end of its travel (bottom out) several times, you will need to change its spring rate, i.e. to increase the pressure (b) . Make sure not to exceed the maximum pressure indicated on the rear shock.

If the damping does not suit your needs, inspite of your adjusting, or if in the case of coil spring elements you need more than three to four turns for the initial spring tension, you may need to replace the suspension elements. The replacement is a job best left to your bicycle dealer.

Do not actuate the lockout function

(c)

(of the rear shock) when riding over rough terrain, but only when riding over smooth terrain (roads, smooth tracks).

Do not turn any screws on your rear shock in the vague hope of adjusting it somehow. You could release the fastening mechanism, thus causing an accident. All manufacturers normally mark adjustment devices with a scale or “+” and “-“ signs.

Rear shock manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries

(d)

. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

A too strong damping can result in a sluggish rebound movement with a rear shock that will not recover when exposed to a quick series of impacts. Risk of an accident!

Do not ride your bicycle, if the rear shock reaches bottom out.

This could damage the rear shock itself as well as the frame.

a

80 b c d a b c d

81

9.3.4 Maintenance

Rear shocks and rear frames are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all rear shock manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your rear shock thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

The following routines are essential for rear shock maintenance:

Rear shocks with air springs have to be checked regularly for air pressure, as the air escapes over time. Make sure the sliding surface of the piston rod is absolutely clean. Clean the rear shock and rear frame, in particular the bearings, with water and a soft sponge after every ride (a) . After washing your bicycle, spray the piston rod of the rear shock and the bearing areas with a little grease spray (b+c) or apply a very thin film of hydraulic oil.

Do not use a steam jet or aggressive cleaning agents! Ask your bicycle dealer for an appropriate lubricant.

Regularly check the rear swing arm for side-to-side play and the bearing of the rear shock for vertical play.

To check the rear swing arm for play, lift the mountain bike by the saddle and try to move the rear wheel from side to side. If necessary, ask a helper to keep the front part of the frame still while you do this.

To check the rear shock for play place the rear wheel gently on the ground and lift it again a little (d) . Check for any rattling. If you find any play, ask your bicycle dealer to eliminate it without delay.

Rear shocks are constantly being sprayed with water and dirt from the rear wheel. Clean them with lots of water after every ride.

Suspension rear frames and rear shocks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care.

This has led almost all rear shock manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your rear shock thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

Suspension elements are of sophisticated design. The maintenance routines and above all the disassembly of the suspension elements are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer. Be sure to have your rear shock checked by a service centre of the rear shock manufacturer once a year at least.

9.4 Suspension Seat posts

Suspension seat posts (a) enhance the cyclist’s comfort when riding on uneven ground. They can be used on roads and field tracks as well as offroad. They are, however, not suitable for all mountain, enduro, dirt, downhill riding or freeriding.

9.4.1 Adjustment

Suspension seat posts are usually designed for a cyclist of average weight, i.e. 75 kilograms. Their shock-absorbing properties can be altered either by adjusting the initial spring tension and/or by exchanging the springs.

Seat post manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries

(b)

. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

9.4.2 Check and Maintenance

To check the seat post for side-to-side play, take hold of the saddle at both ends and try to move it from side to side (c+d) .

If you notice any play, have it reduced by your bicycle dealer.

Have the seat post checked once a year by your bicycle dealer.

a

82 b c d a b c d

83

9.3.4 Maintenance

Rear shocks and rear frames are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care. This has led almost all rear shock manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your rear shock thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

The following routines are essential for rear shock maintenance:

Rear shocks with air springs have to be checked regularly for air pressure, as the air escapes over time. Make sure the sliding surface of the piston rod is absolutely clean. Clean the rear shock and rear frame, in particular the bearings, with water and a soft sponge after every ride (a) . After washing your bicycle, spray the piston rod of the rear shock and the bearing areas with a little grease spray (b+c) or apply a very thin film of hydraulic oil.

Do not use a steam jet or aggressive cleaning agents! Ask your bicycle dealer for an appropriate lubricant.

Regularly check the rear swing arm for side-to-side play and the bearing of the rear shock for vertical play.

To check the rear swing arm for play, lift the mountain bike by the saddle and try to move the rear wheel from side to side. If necessary, ask a helper to keep the front part of the frame still while you do this.

To check the rear shock for play place the rear wheel gently on the ground and lift it again a little (d) . Check for any rattling. If you find any play, ask your bicycle dealer to eliminate it without delay.

Rear shocks are constantly being sprayed with water and dirt from the rear wheel. Clean them with lots of water after every ride.

Suspension rear frames and rear shocks are components of sophisticated design that require regular maintenance and care.

This has led almost all rear shock manufacturers to establish service centres where you can have your rear shock thoroughly checked and overhauled at regular intervals according to use, e.g. once a year. Be sure to have all bolted connections checked at regular intervals by your bicycle dealer.

Suspension elements are of sophisticated design. The maintenance routines and above all the disassembly of the suspension elements are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer. Be sure to have your rear shock checked by a service centre of the rear shock manufacturer once a year at least.

9.4 Suspension Seat posts

Suspension seat posts (a) enhance the cyclist’s comfort when riding on uneven ground. They can be used on roads and field tracks as well as offroad. They are, however, not suitable for all mountain, enduro, dirt, downhill riding or freeriding.

9.4.1 Adjustment

Suspension seat posts are usually designed for a cyclist of average weight, i.e. 75 kilograms. Their shock-absorbing properties can be altered either by adjusting the initial spring tension and/or by exchanging the springs.

Seat post manufacturers normally include instructions with their deliveries

(b)

. Read them carefully before changing any settings or doing any maintenance work on your rear shock.

9.4.2 Check and Maintenance

To check the seat post for side-to-side play, take hold of the saddle at both ends and try to move it from side to side (c+d) .

If you notice any play, have it reduced by your bicycle dealer.

Have the seat post checked once a year by your bicycle dealer.

a

82 b c d a b c d

83

10 Carbon – Important Information

Special characteristics of carbon components made of carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (a) , also referred to as carbon or CRP, need to be taken into account.

Carbon is an extremely strong material which combines high resistance with low weight. After overstress, however, carbon parts, unlike metal parts, do not necessarily show durable or visible deformation even though some of its fibres may be damaged.

This makes it very dangerous to continue using the part after an impact or undue stress, as it may fail without previous warning thereby causing an accident with unforeseeable consequences. We therefore recommend that you have the carbon part, or to be certain, the entire bicycle checked by your bicycle dealer after every incident, such as e.g. a crash. They may contact our after-sales department in order to make sure you can have absolute confidence in your bicycle.

For safety reasons, damaged parts made of carbon (b) must never be aligned or repaired. Replace a damaged part without delay! Prevent further use by taking appropriate measures, i.e. saw the component into pieces.

Parts made of carbon should under no circumstances be exposed to excessive heat. Therefore, never have a carbon component enamelled or powdercoated. The temperatures required for doing so could destroy it. Do not leave carbon fibre parts near a source of heat or in your car during hot or sunny weather.

Carbon parts have, like all lightweight bicycle parts, a limited service life. For this reason, change stem and handlebars at regular intervals (e.g. every 3 years), even if they have not experienced any undue stress, such as e.g. an accident.

Most clamps of bicycle carrier systems are potential sources of damage to large-diameter frame tubes

(c)

! As a result thereof carbon frames can fail during use without previous warning.

Suitable, special-purpose models are, however, available in the car accessory trade. Inform yourself there or ask your bicycle dealer for advice.

When you intend to transport your bicycle in the boot of your car, be sure to protect the bicycle or the carbon frame and parts. Blankets, foam tubes or the like are a suitable padding to protect the sensitive material from damage.

Do not clamp a carbon frame or seat post in the holding jaws of a workstand! The parts may sustain damage. Mount a sturdy

(aluminium) seat post instead and use it to clamp the frame

((d) p. 84)

, or chose a work stand that holds the frame at three points inside the frame triangle

(a)

or that clamps the fork and bottom bracket shell.

Always park your bicycle carefully and make sure it does not topple over.

Carbon frames and parts may already sustain damage by simply toppling over.

If carbon parts on your bicycle produce any creaking or cracking noises or show any external sign of damage, such as gouges, cracks

(b)

, dents, discolourations etc., do not use the bicycle any longer. Please contact your bicycle dealer immediately; he will check the part thoroughly!

Make sure all carbon clamping areas are absolutely free of grease and other lubricants. Grease would penetrate the surface of the carbon material, reducing the coefficient of friction, a reliable clamping within the prescribed torques being hence no longer provided. Once greased, carbon parts may never again ensure reliable clamping. Use special XLC carbon assembly paste instead

(c)

.

Protect the exposed areas of your carbon frame (e.g. the underside of the down tube) against rubbing cables or stone chips with special pads your bicycle dealer keeps for sale

(d)

.

Do not combine carbon handlebars with clip-on bars, aero bars or bar ends, unless they have been specifically approved! Risk of breakage!

a

84 b c d a b c d

85

10 Carbon – Important Information

Special characteristics of carbon components made of carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (a) , also referred to as carbon or CRP, need to be taken into account.

Carbon is an extremely strong material which combines high resistance with low weight. After overstress, however, carbon parts, unlike metal parts, do not necessarily show durable or visible deformation even though some of its fibres may be damaged.

This makes it very dangerous to continue using the part after an impact or undue stress, as it may fail without previous warning thereby causing an accident with unforeseeable consequences. We therefore recommend that you have the carbon part, or to be certain, the entire bicycle checked by your bicycle dealer after every incident, such as e.g. a crash. They may contact our after-sales department in order to make sure you can have absolute confidence in your bicycle.

For safety reasons, damaged parts made of carbon (b) must never be aligned or repaired. Replace a damaged part without delay! Prevent further use by taking appropriate measures, i.e. saw the component into pieces.

Parts made of carbon should under no circumstances be exposed to excessive heat. Therefore, never have a carbon component enamelled or powdercoated. The temperatures required for doing so could destroy it. Do not leave carbon fibre parts near a source of heat or in your car during hot or sunny weather.

Carbon parts have, like all lightweight bicycle parts, a limited service life. For this reason, change stem and handlebars at regular intervals (e.g. every 3 years), even if they have not experienced any undue stress, such as e.g. an accident.

Most clamps of bicycle carrier systems are potential sources of damage to large-diameter frame tubes

(c)

! As a result thereof carbon frames can fail during use without previous warning.

Suitable, special-purpose models are, however, available in the car accessory trade. Inform yourself there or ask your bicycle dealer for advice.

When you intend to transport your bicycle in the boot of your car, be sure to protect the bicycle or the carbon frame and parts. Blankets, foam tubes or the like are a suitable padding to protect the sensitive material from damage.

Do not clamp a carbon frame or seat post in the holding jaws of a workstand! The parts may sustain damage. Mount a sturdy

(aluminium) seat post instead and use it to clamp the frame

((d) p. 84)

, or chose a work stand that holds the frame at three points inside the frame triangle

(a)

or that clamps the fork and bottom bracket shell.

Always park your bicycle carefully and make sure it does not topple over.

Carbon frames and parts may already sustain damage by simply toppling over.

If carbon parts on your bicycle produce any creaking or cracking noises or show any external sign of damage, such as gouges, cracks

(b)

, dents, discolourations etc., do not use the bicycle any longer. Please contact your bicycle dealer immediately; he will check the part thoroughly!

Make sure all carbon clamping areas are absolutely free of grease and other lubricants. Grease would penetrate the surface of the carbon material, reducing the coefficient of friction, a reliable clamping within the prescribed torques being hence no longer provided. Once greased, carbon parts may never again ensure reliable clamping. Use special XLC carbon assembly paste instead

(c)

.

Protect the exposed areas of your carbon frame (e.g. the underside of the down tube) against rubbing cables or stone chips with special pads your bicycle dealer keeps for sale

(d)

.

Do not combine carbon handlebars with clip-on bars, aero bars or bar ends, unless they have been specifically approved! Risk of breakage!

a

84 b c d a b c d

85

11 Dirt-, Freeride-, Downhill-Bikes

– Special Features

Not all mountain bikes that look like a dirt, freeride or downhill bike are actually sports equipment! Mountain bikes of the dirt line (DRT) are not suitable for hard use!

Dirt biking, freeriding, fourcross, dual slalom and downhill riding are among the most challenging sports that you can perform. Jumps, riding the stairs, downhill races and sharp bends in difficult or extremely rough terrain etc. are an undue stress for rider and material and require a highly durable bicycle with full-suspension. A cross-country, touring or marathon mountain bike would fail under such undue stress and cause a serious accident. Ask your bicycle dealer for a bicycle that is suitable for the type of sport you intend to perform.

Dirt, fourcross, dual slalom, downhill and freeride bicycles are true-bred sports bicycles

(a+b)

. For your own safety, do not overestimate your cycling skills. Please note that though looking easy the tricks of a professional

(c)

are hazardous to your life and limb. Always protect yourself with appropriate and suitable clothing

(d)

.

Even though the above-mentioned specialized types of bicycles are built for sport cycling and hard use, their resistance to stress is limited.

In particular the following actions may cause an undue stress for the material and result in a failure:

· Incorrect jumps on sharp edges, jumps with a landing on the front wheel, too short jumps or tricks that are not completed before the landing

· Landing on the counter slope or between two slopes; on flat terrain jumps with rotation crossways to the track or with hands not on the handlebars/feet off the pedals

Be sure to also avoid the following, as this would put too much stress on the material resulting in premature wear or failure:

· Undue stress for the chain by riding with too low chain tension

· Inappropriate grinding (sliding on chain or chainring)

· Undue stress for the wheels by riding with too low air pressure

· Undue stress for the frame and bicycle parts by riding with a too soft suspension or sliding on frame and drop-outs

Due to the specific intended use, some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

11.1 Adjusting the Correct Saddle Height

Dirt, freeride, dual slalom and downhill bicycles etc. require different saddle adjustments, according to the specific use. The seating position cannot be compared to that on other bicycles; it is maximum control and movability that counts when riding one of the aforementioned bicycles.

When you set off for a long cycling tour, the saddle should be set to a height which gives maximum pedalling comfort and efficiency. When pedalling, the ball of your foot should be positioned above the centre of the pedal spindles

(a) . With your feet in this position you should not be able to stretch your legs completely straight at the lowest point, otherwise your pedalling will become awkward.

You can check the height of your saddle in the following, simple way. This is best done wearing flat-soled shoes. Sit on the saddle and put one of your heels on the pedal at its lowest point

(b)

. In this position your leg should be fully stretched and your hips should remain horizontal.

For dirt biking, freeriding, downhill racing etc. the saddle is set to a very low height (c) with a rearward tilt (d) . Ask your trainer, a competent person in your club or your bicycle dealer for the correct seating position.

A lower saddle is advisable in particular for steep downhill riding by mountain bike. However, prolonged riding with a low saddle may cause knee trouble.

For detailed instructions regarding saddle adjustment see chapter “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

After only one season these types of mountain bike may be so worn that essential and/or supporting parts will already need replacing. Have bicycles of this type thoroughly checked by your bicycle dealer at least every 3 to 4 months.

a

86 b c d a b c d

87

11 Dirt-, Freeride-, Downhill-Bikes

– Special Features

Not all mountain bikes that look like a dirt, freeride or downhill bike are actually sports equipment! Mountain bikes of the dirt line (DRT) are not suitable for hard use!

Dirt biking, freeriding, fourcross, dual slalom and downhill riding are among the most challenging sports that you can perform. Jumps, riding the stairs, downhill races and sharp bends in difficult or extremely rough terrain etc. are an undue stress for rider and material and require a highly durable bicycle with full-suspension. A cross-country, touring or marathon mountain bike would fail under such undue stress and cause a serious accident. Ask your bicycle dealer for a bicycle that is suitable for the type of sport you intend to perform.

Dirt, fourcross, dual slalom, downhill and freeride bicycles are true-bred sports bicycles

(a+b)

. For your own safety, do not overestimate your cycling skills. Please note that though looking easy the tricks of a professional

(c)

are hazardous to your life and limb. Always protect yourself with appropriate and suitable clothing

(d)

.

Even though the above-mentioned specialized types of bicycles are built for sport cycling and hard use, their resistance to stress is limited.

In particular the following actions may cause an undue stress for the material and result in a failure:

· Incorrect jumps on sharp edges, jumps with a landing on the front wheel, too short jumps or tricks that are not completed before the landing

· Landing on the counter slope or between two slopes; on flat terrain jumps with rotation crossways to the track or with hands not on the handlebars/feet off the pedals

Be sure to also avoid the following, as this would put too much stress on the material resulting in premature wear or failure:

· Undue stress for the chain by riding with too low chain tension

· Inappropriate grinding (sliding on chain or chainring)

· Undue stress for the wheels by riding with too low air pressure

· Undue stress for the frame and bicycle parts by riding with a too soft suspension or sliding on frame and drop-outs

Due to the specific intended use, some dirt bikes are fitted with only one brake.

11.1 Adjusting the Correct Saddle Height

Dirt, freeride, dual slalom and downhill bicycles etc. require different saddle adjustments, according to the specific use. The seating position cannot be compared to that on other bicycles; it is maximum control and movability that counts when riding one of the aforementioned bicycles.

When you set off for a long cycling tour, the saddle should be set to a height which gives maximum pedalling comfort and efficiency. When pedalling, the ball of your foot should be positioned above the centre of the pedal spindles

(a) . With your feet in this position you should not be able to stretch your legs completely straight at the lowest point, otherwise your pedalling will become awkward.

You can check the height of your saddle in the following, simple way. This is best done wearing flat-soled shoes. Sit on the saddle and put one of your heels on the pedal at its lowest point

(b)

. In this position your leg should be fully stretched and your hips should remain horizontal.

For dirt biking, freeriding, downhill racing etc. the saddle is set to a very low height (c) with a rearward tilt (d) . Ask your trainer, a competent person in your club or your bicycle dealer for the correct seating position.

A lower saddle is advisable in particular for steep downhill riding by mountain bike. However, prolonged riding with a low saddle may cause knee trouble.

For detailed instructions regarding saddle adjustment see chapter “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

After only one season these types of mountain bike may be so worn that essential and/or supporting parts will already need replacing. Have bicycles of this type thoroughly checked by your bicycle dealer at least every 3 to 4 months.

a

86 b c d a b c d

87

12 Lighting

Anyone cycling on public roads is required by law to have a properly working set of lights (a) , see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public

Roads”. It is important to be familiar with the design of the lighting so that you can repair it yourself in the event of a failure.

The dynamo (generator) produces the current required for operating the light bulbs. It has two cables attached to it, one running to the front light and the other to the rear light and back.

12.1 Bottle Dynamo

Please mount the bottle dynamo (b) with its drive shaft vertical to the wheel axle and with its roller in full contact with the tyre. The bottle dynamo can be mounted to the front or rear wheel. The dynamo is engaged with a lever or a push button. When engaged it is tilted with its roller against the sidewall of the tyre. To disengage the dynamo it is tilted back in its initial position where it locks in place.

Engage the bottle dynamo only while stationary and make sure it keeps clear of the spokes! Caution: In wet conditions the dynamo may be less effective.

12.2 Hub Dynamo

Hub dynamos

(c) are built into the hub of the front wheel. They are virtually non-wearing and extremely effective. Some models are switched on electronically, some others mechanically. Hub dynamos are either engaged by a lever at the handlebars or directly at the front lamp. Other models offer the comfort of being switched on and off automatically by means of a sensor.

In case you need more information on your lighting, contact your bicycle dealer.

12.3 Troubleshooting

After punctures the second most common malfunction is lighting failure.

First inspect the front and rear light bulbs. Check whether the filaments are intact. Bulbs with a black tint are a sure indication of a defect.

On road racing bicycles fitted with battery-powered lighting

(d)

a failure is usually due to flat batteries. Therefore, check the charge state of the batteries at regular intervals or take replacements with you.

Check the contacts and the sockets in the lamp housings of the front and rear lights (a+b) . White or greenish stains are a sign of corrosion. Remove the corrosion layer with a screwdriver, emery cloth or the like until the contact surfaces are shiny again.

If your bicycle is fitted with a dynamo lighting, inspect the cables along their entire length and check them for defects. Check all contact points. Pin and socket connectors tend to corrode if exposed to salt and rain. Take the connectors apart and stick them together again.

If you still cannot find the cause of the trouble, try supplying the current using a battery (4.5 volt battery). If the lamps light up, the dynamo itself might be the cause of the trouble.

If the lamps do not light up, move the battery closer to the lamps step by step looking out for the moment when a current starts to flow. If that still does not help, contact your bicycle dealer.

An incomplete or inoperative set of lights is not only against the law, it is also a hazard to your life. Cyclists riding in the dark without a light are liable to be overlooked and at risk of getting involved in serious accidents!

a

88 b c d a b

89

12 Lighting

Anyone cycling on public roads is required by law to have a properly working set of lights (a) , see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on public

Roads”. It is important to be familiar with the design of the lighting so that you can repair it yourself in the event of a failure.

The dynamo (generator) produces the current required for operating the light bulbs. It has two cables attached to it, one running to the front light and the other to the rear light and back.

12.1 Bottle Dynamo

Please mount the bottle dynamo (b) with its drive shaft vertical to the wheel axle and with its roller in full contact with the tyre. The bottle dynamo can be mounted to the front or rear wheel. The dynamo is engaged with a lever or a push button. When engaged it is tilted with its roller against the sidewall of the tyre. To disengage the dynamo it is tilted back in its initial position where it locks in place.

Engage the bottle dynamo only while stationary and make sure it keeps clear of the spokes! Caution: In wet conditions the dynamo may be less effective.

12.2 Hub Dynamo

Hub dynamos

(c) are built into the hub of the front wheel. They are virtually non-wearing and extremely effective. Some models are switched on electronically, some others mechanically. Hub dynamos are either engaged by a lever at the handlebars or directly at the front lamp. Other models offer the comfort of being switched on and off automatically by means of a sensor.

In case you need more information on your lighting, contact your bicycle dealer.

12.3 Troubleshooting

After punctures the second most common malfunction is lighting failure.

First inspect the front and rear light bulbs. Check whether the filaments are intact. Bulbs with a black tint are a sure indication of a defect.

On road racing bicycles fitted with battery-powered lighting

(d)

a failure is usually due to flat batteries. Therefore, check the charge state of the batteries at regular intervals or take replacements with you.

Check the contacts and the sockets in the lamp housings of the front and rear lights (a+b) . White or greenish stains are a sign of corrosion. Remove the corrosion layer with a screwdriver, emery cloth or the like until the contact surfaces are shiny again.

If your bicycle is fitted with a dynamo lighting, inspect the cables along their entire length and check them for defects. Check all contact points. Pin and socket connectors tend to corrode if exposed to salt and rain. Take the connectors apart and stick them together again.

If you still cannot find the cause of the trouble, try supplying the current using a battery (4.5 volt battery). If the lamps light up, the dynamo itself might be the cause of the trouble.

If the lamps do not light up, move the battery closer to the lamps step by step looking out for the moment when a current starts to flow. If that still does not help, contact your bicycle dealer.

An incomplete or inoperative set of lights is not only against the law, it is also a hazard to your life. Cyclists riding in the dark without a light are liable to be overlooked and at risk of getting involved in serious accidents!

a

88 b c d a b

89

13 Kids’ Bicycles

13.1 useful Information for parents

Children are among the most vulnerable road user groups, not only because of their lack of experience and practice, but also for the simple reason that they are smaller and may therefore have difficulties overseeing things and be easily overlooked.

If you want your child to use his/her bicycle on the road, you should be willing to invest time in road safety instruction and help him/her improve his/her riding skills. Children are not as observant as adults, and you should therefore get into the routine of checking the bicycle and performing adjustments and maintenance as necessary. If you should have any questions, your local bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you.

Bear in mind that it is your responsibility to supervise your child on his/her first rides.

Inform yourself about the traffic rules in your country. They vary from country to country. For example, in Germany, children must use the pavement (a) until they are eight years old and they are permitted to do so until the age of ten!

It is essential that your child has good control of his/her bicycle (b+c) before riding on public roads. As a first step in this direction we recommend giving your child a scooter or a pedalless bicycle so that they can train their sense of balance.

This being accomplished you will need to make your child familiar with the functioning of the brakes and gears before you let him or her sit on the bike.

Find a place away from the road, ideally a backyard or park, where you can practise braking and shifting gears with your child under your supervision.

Once your child has progressed to a point where they can ride in traffic, teach them how to cross kerbs and railway tracks, i.e. to cross these obstacles, if possible, at right angle. Your child should also learn to look ahead and back for any danger before taking this kind of obstacle.

Set a good example by using cycle lanes wherever possible. It is also advisable to let your child take part in road safety lessons offered at schools or by local clubs and associations.

Make sure the child always wears a properly fitting cycling helmet

(d)

and well visible, i.e. bright, clothing. It is also advisable to wear reflector stripes to increase visibility.

13.2 Adjustment

Adjusting the bicycle to the bodily proportions of a child is even more important than in the case of an adult. In determining the height of the saddle you will need to find a compromise that allows the child to reach the ground with both feet when sitting on the saddle while at the same time giving them enough space for pedalling

(a)

.

Set the saddle to a height where the child’s leg is fully stretched when the heel rests on the pedal at its lowest point.

As a second test, make sure the child’s knee is slightly bent (b) when the ball of the foot rests on the pedal in this position. During both tests the child’s pelvis should rest horizontally on the saddle (when viewed from behind the seated rider). As a final check, see whether the child can still reach the ground with both feet at the same time when sitting on the saddle. If this is not the case, lower the saddle a little. For more information on how to adjust the height of the saddle see chapter ”Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

Children and adolescents need to have the height of their saddle checked at least every 3 months!

Another condition that can impair the child’s riding comfort, is when the handlebars are too far away from the saddle. For this reason, the saddle has been designed to allow fore-to-aft adjustment. Using a spanner or an Allen key, unscrew the bolt or nut of the saddle clamp at the top of the seat post by one to two turns.

Do not unscrew the nut all the way, otherwise the whole mechanism may come apart. Push the saddle into the desired position and tighten the bolt or nut again. Make sure the saddle is horizontal and the ratchet mechanism in the saddle clamp engages when you tighten the bolt or nut. Try to tilt the saddle a little to determine whether the mechanism has engaged correctly.

If this is the case, screw the nut tight.

If your saddle has another clamping system, read chapter “Adjusting the

Fore-To-Aft position and Tilt of the Saddle”.

Make a final check on how securely the saddle is fastened by firmly trying to tilt it.

Now recheck whether the child can easily reach the brake levers (c) .

If he or she cannot, adjust the brake lever (d) as described in chapters “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider” and “Brake System”.

It is important to tell the child when they practise braking that they should ride more slowly in wet conditions because the road becomes slippery and the brakes can be less effective.

a

90 b c d a b c d

91

13 Kids’ Bicycles

13.1 useful Information for parents

Children are among the most vulnerable road user groups, not only because of their lack of experience and practice, but also for the simple reason that they are smaller and may therefore have difficulties overseeing things and be easily overlooked.

If you want your child to use his/her bicycle on the road, you should be willing to invest time in road safety instruction and help him/her improve his/her riding skills. Children are not as observant as adults, and you should therefore get into the routine of checking the bicycle and performing adjustments and maintenance as necessary. If you should have any questions, your local bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you.

Bear in mind that it is your responsibility to supervise your child on his/her first rides.

Inform yourself about the traffic rules in your country. They vary from country to country. For example, in Germany, children must use the pavement (a) until they are eight years old and they are permitted to do so until the age of ten!

It is essential that your child has good control of his/her bicycle (b+c) before riding on public roads. As a first step in this direction we recommend giving your child a scooter or a pedalless bicycle so that they can train their sense of balance.

This being accomplished you will need to make your child familiar with the functioning of the brakes and gears before you let him or her sit on the bike.

Find a place away from the road, ideally a backyard or park, where you can practise braking and shifting gears with your child under your supervision.

Once your child has progressed to a point where they can ride in traffic, teach them how to cross kerbs and railway tracks, i.e. to cross these obstacles, if possible, at right angle. Your child should also learn to look ahead and back for any danger before taking this kind of obstacle.

Set a good example by using cycle lanes wherever possible. It is also advisable to let your child take part in road safety lessons offered at schools or by local clubs and associations.

Make sure the child always wears a properly fitting cycling helmet

(d)

and well visible, i.e. bright, clothing. It is also advisable to wear reflector stripes to increase visibility.

13.2 Adjustment

Adjusting the bicycle to the bodily proportions of a child is even more important than in the case of an adult. In determining the height of the saddle you will need to find a compromise that allows the child to reach the ground with both feet when sitting on the saddle while at the same time giving them enough space for pedalling

(a)

.

Set the saddle to a height where the child’s leg is fully stretched when the heel rests on the pedal at its lowest point.

As a second test, make sure the child’s knee is slightly bent (b) when the ball of the foot rests on the pedal in this position. During both tests the child’s pelvis should rest horizontally on the saddle (when viewed from behind the seated rider). As a final check, see whether the child can still reach the ground with both feet at the same time when sitting on the saddle. If this is not the case, lower the saddle a little. For more information on how to adjust the height of the saddle see chapter ”Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider”.

Children and adolescents need to have the height of their saddle checked at least every 3 months!

Another condition that can impair the child’s riding comfort, is when the handlebars are too far away from the saddle. For this reason, the saddle has been designed to allow fore-to-aft adjustment. Using a spanner or an Allen key, unscrew the bolt or nut of the saddle clamp at the top of the seat post by one to two turns.

Do not unscrew the nut all the way, otherwise the whole mechanism may come apart. Push the saddle into the desired position and tighten the bolt or nut again. Make sure the saddle is horizontal and the ratchet mechanism in the saddle clamp engages when you tighten the bolt or nut. Try to tilt the saddle a little to determine whether the mechanism has engaged correctly.

If this is the case, screw the nut tight.

If your saddle has another clamping system, read chapter “Adjusting the

Fore-To-Aft position and Tilt of the Saddle”.

Make a final check on how securely the saddle is fastened by firmly trying to tilt it.

Now recheck whether the child can easily reach the brake levers (c) .

If he or she cannot, adjust the brake lever (d) as described in chapters “Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider” and “Brake System”.

It is important to tell the child when they practise braking that they should ride more slowly in wet conditions because the road becomes slippery and the brakes can be less effective.

a

90 b c d a b c d

91

Get into the habit of doing the checks as described in chapter “Before

Every Ride“ together with your child (a) . In this way, the child will learn to handle the bicycle properly and you will be able to detect any defects that have developed during use. Encourage your child to tell you, if anything should not be working properly on their bicycle. Rectify the fault immediately or take the bicycle to your bicycle dealer for repair, if you are in any doubt.

Children can be vain. Make sure you buy a tested cycling helmet

(b)

that the child feels happy with. Take your child with you to make sure you buy one which is comfortable and fits correctly.

This will increase the chances that the helmet is actually worn, which might one day be a life-saver! Make sure the helmet is always fastened!

Take care your child is wearing the helmet while cycling only.

For example, wearing the helmet at a park or playground can be hazardous; the helmet may get caught on features or obstacles.

a

92 b

14 Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider

Your body measurements are decisive for the frame size of your bicycle.

Make particularly sure there is enough space between your crotch and the top tube so that you do not hurt yourself, if you have to get off your bicycle quickly (a) .

If you have a very small frame, there may be a danger of your foot colliding with the front wheel. Therefore, make sure your cleats are properly adjusted.

By choosing a specific type of bicycle you roughly determine the posture you will be riding in (b) . However, some components are designed in a way that you can adjust them to your proportions to a certain degree, such as seat post, stem and brake levers. Contact your bicycle dealer. He will see to your wishes the next time you leave your bicycle at the workshop, e.g. for the first inspection.

After any adjustment/assembly work, be sure to make a short functional check as described in chapter “Before Every Ride” and do a test ride in an area away from traffic. This will allow you to safely check whether everything is in good order.

All tasks described in the following require the know-how of a mechanic and appropriate tools. Increase the tightening torque bit by bit, checking the fit of the component in between. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/ or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.1 Adjusting the Saddle to the Correct Height

The correct saddle height for almost all bicycle types is the height which gives maximum pedalling comfort and efficiency. When pedalling, the ball of your foot should be positioned above the centre of the pedal spindles (c) . With your feet in this position you should not be able to stretch your legs completely straight at the lowest point, otherwise your pedalling will become awkward.

Check the height of your saddle with flat-soled shoes. This is best done with suitable cycling shoes. Sit on the saddle and put your heel on the pedal at its lowest point (d) . Your leg should be fully stretched and your hips should remain horizontal.

To adjust the saddle height loosen the quick-release lever (see chapter

“How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles“) or the binder bolt of the seat post clamp at the top of the seat tube. The latter requires appropriate tools, e.g. an Allen key, with which you turn the bolt two to three turns anticlockwise. Now you can adjust the seat post.

a b c d

93

Get into the habit of doing the checks as described in chapter “Before

Every Ride“ together with your child (a) . In this way, the child will learn to handle the bicycle properly and you will be able to detect any defects that have developed during use. Encourage your child to tell you, if anything should not be working properly on their bicycle. Rectify the fault immediately or take the bicycle to your bicycle dealer for repair, if you are in any doubt.

Children can be vain. Make sure you buy a tested cycling helmet

(b)

that the child feels happy with. Take your child with you to make sure you buy one which is comfortable and fits correctly.

This will increase the chances that the helmet is actually worn, which might one day be a life-saver! Make sure the helmet is always fastened!

Take care your child is wearing the helmet while cycling only.

For example, wearing the helmet at a park or playground can be hazardous; the helmet may get caught on features or obstacles.

a

92 b

14 Adjusting the Bicycle to the Rider

Your body measurements are decisive for the frame size of your bicycle.

Make particularly sure there is enough space between your crotch and the top tube so that you do not hurt yourself, if you have to get off your bicycle quickly (a) .

If you have a very small frame, there may be a danger of your foot colliding with the front wheel. Therefore, make sure your cleats are properly adjusted.

By choosing a specific type of bicycle you roughly determine the posture you will be riding in (b) . However, some components are designed in a way that you can adjust them to your proportions to a certain degree, such as seat post, stem and brake levers. Contact your bicycle dealer. He will see to your wishes the next time you leave your bicycle at the workshop, e.g. for the first inspection.

After any adjustment/assembly work, be sure to make a short functional check as described in chapter “Before Every Ride” and do a test ride in an area away from traffic. This will allow you to safely check whether everything is in good order.

All tasks described in the following require the know-how of a mechanic and appropriate tools. Increase the tightening torque bit by bit, checking the fit of the component in between. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/ or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.1 Adjusting the Saddle to the Correct Height

The correct saddle height for almost all bicycle types is the height which gives maximum pedalling comfort and efficiency. When pedalling, the ball of your foot should be positioned above the centre of the pedal spindles (c) . With your feet in this position you should not be able to stretch your legs completely straight at the lowest point, otherwise your pedalling will become awkward.

Check the height of your saddle with flat-soled shoes. This is best done with suitable cycling shoes. Sit on the saddle and put your heel on the pedal at its lowest point (d) . Your leg should be fully stretched and your hips should remain horizontal.

To adjust the saddle height loosen the quick-release lever (see chapter

“How to use Quick-Releases and Thru Axles“) or the binder bolt of the seat post clamp at the top of the seat tube. The latter requires appropriate tools, e.g. an Allen key, with which you turn the bolt two to three turns anticlockwise. Now you can adjust the seat post.

a b c d

93

Be sure not to pull out the seat post too far – the mark on the seat post

(max., min., stop or the like) should always remain within the seat tube (a)

– and to grease the surface of an aluminium or titanium seat post that is inserted into a seat tube made of aluminium, titanium or steel. Do not grease carbon seat posts and/or carbon seat tubes in the clamping area! Use special XLC assembly paste instead (b) .

Do not use brute force, if the seat post does not move easily inside the seat tube or if it cannot be tightened sufficiently, ask your bicycle dealer for advice!

The minimum insertion depths marked on seat post and frame may differ. Be sure to insert the seat post to the deepest insertion depth.

Align the saddle with the frame by using the saddle nose and the bottom bracket or top tube as a reference point.

Clamp the seat post tight again by closing the quick-release (c) , as described in chapter “How to use Quick Releases and Thru Axles” or by turning the seat post binder bolts clockwise in half turns. You should not need much strength in your hands to clamp the seat post sufficiently tight.

Otherwise the seat post does not match the frame.

Verify in between that the seat clamp is sufficiently tight by taking hold of the saddle at both ends and then trying to rotate the seat post inside the seat tube (d) . If it does rotate, gently retighten the clamping bolt by half a turn and do the check again.

Never apply grease or oil into a seat tube of a frame made of carbon, unless an aluminium sleeve is inside the frame. If you mount a carbon seat post, do not put any grease on it, even if the frame is made of metal. Once greased, carbon parts may never again ensure reliable clamping.

Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer!

Do not overtighten the binder bolt of the seat post clamp. Otherwise the seat post or the frame can be damaged. Risk of an accident!

Does the leg stretch test now produce the right result? Check by moving your foot and pedal to the lowest point. When the ball of your foot is exactly above the pedal centre in the ideal pedalling position, your knee should be slightly bent. If it is, you have adjusted the saddle height correctly. Check whether you can touch the ground safely while sitting on the saddle by stretching your feet to the floor. If you cannot, you should lower the saddle a little, at least to begin with.

Never ride your bicycle with the seat post drawn out beyond the limit, maximum, or stop mark! The seat post might break or cause severe damage to the frame. If your bicycle has a long seat tube continuing beyond the top tube, the seat post should at least reach below the level of the top tube and the tip of the rear stays!

If sitting on the saddle causes you trouble, e.g. because it numbs your crotch, this may be due to the saddle. Your bicycle dealer has a very wide range of saddles available and can offer advice on position

(a)

.

With full-suspension mountain bikes the seat post should not project from the seat tube at lowest saddle height, as otherwise the rear shock arm may collide with the seat post during compression.

14.1.1 What to Bear in Mind with Integrated Seat posts

Integrated seat posts have to be shortened to adjust them to the individual needs of the cyclist. The seat post clamping itself provides only limited vertical adjustment.

Shortening the seat post is a very delicate job, best left to your bicycle dealer! An improperly shortened seat post may result in damage to the seat post! Risk of an accident!

In case you nevertheless want to shorten the integrated seat post by yourself, you need special tools!

Determine the desired saddle height (b) . Keep in mind that another saddle or pedal model may have a significant influence on the length of the seat tube!

Please note that shortening the seat post is an irreversible adjustment. Therefore, ask your bicycle dealer to do this job.

Use a marker pen to indicate the length you want to shorten. Slide an appropriate saw capture on the seat tube until the line of the marker is visible in the saw capture slot.

Use a saw with a metal cut saw blade. To avoid any damage to the carbon tube, be sure to use a 24 teeth per inch saw blade.

Saw the tube, remove the saw capture and deburr the cutting edges with sandpaper.

Mount the saddle clamp and slide it as deep as possible (c) . Finish by fixing the saddle with a torque wrench according to the indications on the component and/or in the enclosed manual. The usage of XLC-mounting paste (d) will help you to avoid overtightening.

a

94 b c d a b c d

95

Be sure not to pull out the seat post too far – the mark on the seat post

(max., min., stop or the like) should always remain within the seat tube (a)

– and to grease the surface of an aluminium or titanium seat post that is inserted into a seat tube made of aluminium, titanium or steel. Do not grease carbon seat posts and/or carbon seat tubes in the clamping area! Use special XLC assembly paste instead (b) .

Do not use brute force, if the seat post does not move easily inside the seat tube or if it cannot be tightened sufficiently, ask your bicycle dealer for advice!

The minimum insertion depths marked on seat post and frame may differ. Be sure to insert the seat post to the deepest insertion depth.

Align the saddle with the frame by using the saddle nose and the bottom bracket or top tube as a reference point.

Clamp the seat post tight again by closing the quick-release (c) , as described in chapter “How to use Quick Releases and Thru Axles” or by turning the seat post binder bolts clockwise in half turns. You should not need much strength in your hands to clamp the seat post sufficiently tight.

Otherwise the seat post does not match the frame.

Verify in between that the seat clamp is sufficiently tight by taking hold of the saddle at both ends and then trying to rotate the seat post inside the seat tube (d) . If it does rotate, gently retighten the clamping bolt by half a turn and do the check again.

Never apply grease or oil into a seat tube of a frame made of carbon, unless an aluminium sleeve is inside the frame. If you mount a carbon seat post, do not put any grease on it, even if the frame is made of metal. Once greased, carbon parts may never again ensure reliable clamping.

Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer!

Do not overtighten the binder bolt of the seat post clamp. Otherwise the seat post or the frame can be damaged. Risk of an accident!

Does the leg stretch test now produce the right result? Check by moving your foot and pedal to the lowest point. When the ball of your foot is exactly above the pedal centre in the ideal pedalling position, your knee should be slightly bent. If it is, you have adjusted the saddle height correctly. Check whether you can touch the ground safely while sitting on the saddle by stretching your feet to the floor. If you cannot, you should lower the saddle a little, at least to begin with.

Never ride your bicycle with the seat post drawn out beyond the limit, maximum, or stop mark! The seat post might break or cause severe damage to the frame. If your bicycle has a long seat tube continuing beyond the top tube, the seat post should at least reach below the level of the top tube and the tip of the rear stays!

If sitting on the saddle causes you trouble, e.g. because it numbs your crotch, this may be due to the saddle. Your bicycle dealer has a very wide range of saddles available and can offer advice on position

(a)

.

With full-suspension mountain bikes the seat post should not project from the seat tube at lowest saddle height, as otherwise the rear shock arm may collide with the seat post during compression.

14.1.1 What to Bear in Mind with Integrated Seat posts

Integrated seat posts have to be shortened to adjust them to the individual needs of the cyclist. The seat post clamping itself provides only limited vertical adjustment.

Shortening the seat post is a very delicate job, best left to your bicycle dealer! An improperly shortened seat post may result in damage to the seat post! Risk of an accident!

In case you nevertheless want to shorten the integrated seat post by yourself, you need special tools!

Determine the desired saddle height (b) . Keep in mind that another saddle or pedal model may have a significant influence on the length of the seat tube!

Please note that shortening the seat post is an irreversible adjustment. Therefore, ask your bicycle dealer to do this job.

Use a marker pen to indicate the length you want to shorten. Slide an appropriate saw capture on the seat tube until the line of the marker is visible in the saw capture slot.

Use a saw with a metal cut saw blade. To avoid any damage to the carbon tube, be sure to use a 24 teeth per inch saw blade.

Saw the tube, remove the saw capture and deburr the cutting edges with sandpaper.

Mount the saddle clamp and slide it as deep as possible (c) . Finish by fixing the saddle with a torque wrench according to the indications on the component and/or in the enclosed manual. The usage of XLC-mounting paste (d) will help you to avoid overtightening.

a

94 b c d a b c d

95

14.2 Adjusting the Height of the Handlebars

The height of the handlebars determines how much your upper body will be inclined forward. Lowering the handlebars gives you a streamlined position and brings more weight to bear on the front wheel. However, it also entails an extremely forward leaning posture which is tiring and less comfortable, because it increases the strain on your wrists, arms, back, upper body and neck.

There are three different systems that allow vertical adjustment of the handlebars, i.e. conventional, adjustable and Aheadset

®

-stem. These systems require special knowledge. In this regard, the descriptions hereafter may be incomplete. If you have the slightest doubt, ask your bicycle dealer for help.

The stem is one of the load bearing parts of your bicycle.

Changes to it can impair your safety. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Stems come in varying lengths as well as shaft and binder tube diameters

(a)

. If you opt for a stem of inappropriate sizing, handlebars and stem may break and result in an accident. When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts.

Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Make sure the handlebar-stem-combination is approved by the handlebar and/or stem manufacturer.

Check whether the handlebar clamping surface of the stem is free of sharp edges

(b)

. Ask your bicycle dealer for professional advice.

The bolted connections of stem and handlebars have to be tightened to the prescribed tightening torques

(c)

. If you disregard the prescribed values, handlebars or stem may come loose or break. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.2.1 Adjustable Stems

There are various solutions for adjusting the tilt of the front part of adjustable stems

(d)

:

Some designs use bolts on the sides of the joint, others have bolts coming from above or below, and some versions are equipped with additional locking mechanisms or adjusting bolts.

Ask your bicycle dealer to explain you both function and adjustment of your stem or let him do that work.

Release the side clamping bolt at the joint (a) by two to three turns at the most, i.e. without unscrewing it all the way. If you still cannot move the stem, it is being held in place by a ratchet or integrated locking mechanism. If the stem is fitted with a locking mechanism, release the holding bolt located on the top or bottom side (b) of the stem a little. In the case of a ratchet mechanism you will find the bolt on the side.

Adjust the stem according to your needs.

Gently retighten the bolt of the locking mechanism, until it engages. Bolts located on the side only have to be tightened gently. If there are no side bolts, you have to tighten the bolt of the locking mechanism. If the stem of your bike has a ratchet mechanism, make sure its surfaces engage snugly as you tighten the side bolt. Retighten the bolt on the side of the joint, if necessary.

Any bolts located on the top or bottom side of the stem have to be released as far as necessary to disengage the ratchet mechanism and to move the front part. It is usually not necessary to remove the bolts completely.

Retighten the bolts after setting the stem to the desired height.

Changing the position of the stem alters the position of handlebars, brake and shift levers. Readjust them as described in chapter “Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and Brake

Levers….“.

14.2.2 Conventional Stems

Handlebars with conventional stems allow limited vertical adjustment. This is done by moving the stem up or down inside the fork steerer tube.

Release the expander bolt by two to three complete turns

(c)

. The stem should now turn freely inside the fork. If it does not, release the bolt by tapping it gently with a rubber hammer.

With Allen bolts, you need to stick the Allen key into its head first, as it is normally countersunk and therefore impossible to be hit directly. Then gently tap the key with the rubber hammer (d) .

Never try to unscrew the top race when you only want to adjust the stem, as you will otherwise alter the bearing play.

a

96 b c d a b c d

97

14.2 Adjusting the Height of the Handlebars

The height of the handlebars determines how much your upper body will be inclined forward. Lowering the handlebars gives you a streamlined position and brings more weight to bear on the front wheel. However, it also entails an extremely forward leaning posture which is tiring and less comfortable, because it increases the strain on your wrists, arms, back, upper body and neck.

There are three different systems that allow vertical adjustment of the handlebars, i.e. conventional, adjustable and Aheadset

®

-stem. These systems require special knowledge. In this regard, the descriptions hereafter may be incomplete. If you have the slightest doubt, ask your bicycle dealer for help.

The stem is one of the load bearing parts of your bicycle.

Changes to it can impair your safety. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Stems come in varying lengths as well as shaft and binder tube diameters

(a)

. If you opt for a stem of inappropriate sizing, handlebars and stem may break and result in an accident. When replacing any parts be sure to only use parts that bear the appropriate mark and, to be on the safe side, original spare parts.

Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you!

Make sure the handlebar-stem-combination is approved by the handlebar and/or stem manufacturer.

Check whether the handlebar clamping surface of the stem is free of sharp edges

(b)

. Ask your bicycle dealer for professional advice.

The bolted connections of stem and handlebars have to be tightened to the prescribed tightening torques

(c)

. If you disregard the prescribed values, handlebars or stem may come loose or break. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.2.1 Adjustable Stems

There are various solutions for adjusting the tilt of the front part of adjustable stems

(d)

:

Some designs use bolts on the sides of the joint, others have bolts coming from above or below, and some versions are equipped with additional locking mechanisms or adjusting bolts.

Ask your bicycle dealer to explain you both function and adjustment of your stem or let him do that work.

Release the side clamping bolt at the joint (a) by two to three turns at the most, i.e. without unscrewing it all the way. If you still cannot move the stem, it is being held in place by a ratchet or integrated locking mechanism. If the stem is fitted with a locking mechanism, release the holding bolt located on the top or bottom side (b) of the stem a little. In the case of a ratchet mechanism you will find the bolt on the side.

Adjust the stem according to your needs.

Gently retighten the bolt of the locking mechanism, until it engages. Bolts located on the side only have to be tightened gently. If there are no side bolts, you have to tighten the bolt of the locking mechanism. If the stem of your bike has a ratchet mechanism, make sure its surfaces engage snugly as you tighten the side bolt. Retighten the bolt on the side of the joint, if necessary.

Any bolts located on the top or bottom side of the stem have to be released as far as necessary to disengage the ratchet mechanism and to move the front part. It is usually not necessary to remove the bolts completely.

Retighten the bolts after setting the stem to the desired height.

Changing the position of the stem alters the position of handlebars, brake and shift levers. Readjust them as described in chapter “Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and Brake

Levers….“.

14.2.2 Conventional Stems

Handlebars with conventional stems allow limited vertical adjustment. This is done by moving the stem up or down inside the fork steerer tube.

Release the expander bolt by two to three complete turns

(c)

. The stem should now turn freely inside the fork. If it does not, release the bolt by tapping it gently with a rubber hammer.

With Allen bolts, you need to stick the Allen key into its head first, as it is normally countersunk and therefore impossible to be hit directly. Then gently tap the key with the rubber hammer (d) .

Never try to unscrew the top race when you only want to adjust the stem, as you will otherwise alter the bearing play.

a

96 b c d a b c d

97

Now you can move the handlebar/stem unit up and down as a whole. Be sure not to pull out the stem too far. The mark on the stem (max., min., max., stop, limit or the like) should always remain within the tube (a) . Setting the stem to a lower position can only add to your safety!

Straighten the handlebars so that they are symmetrical with respect to the front wheel

(b)

.

Retighten the expander bolt with a torque wrench. Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer!

Make sure the stem is firmly fixed by taking the front wheel between your legs and trying to turn the handlebars and stem relative to the wheel (c) . If there is movement, please increase the tightening torque.

If the handlebars are still too high or too low, you can replace the stem. This can be quite a big job, as it may mean taking off and remounting all the fittings on the handlebars. Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the various stem types available. Let the bicycle dealer advise you about the different types of stems and have the stem mounted in the shop.

Never ride a bicycle with a stem drawn out beyond the mark for the maximum permissible height! Check all bolted connections and do a brake test before you set off!

Stems come in most different lengths and shaft and binder tube diameters. If you opt for a stem of inappropriate sizing, handlebars and stem may break and result in an accident.

14.2.3 Stems for Threadless Systems, the Aheadset

®

-System

(*Aheadset

® is a registered trade mark of Dia-Compe)

On bicycles with Aheadset

®

the stem also serves to adjust the initial headset bearing pressure. If you change the position of the stem you have to readjust the bearings (see chapter “Headset”). The vertical setting range is determined by the intermediate rings, also referred to as spacers (d) . In the case of flip-flop stem models the stem can be mounted the other way round to achieve a different handlebar height.

This adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer!

14.2.4 Adjusting Adjustable Handlebar Systems (A.H.S.)

Check whether the clamping area (a) of the A.H.S. is accurately centred in the handlebar clamp of the stem.

Adjust the A.H.S. tilt to your personal needs.

Tighten the handlebar clamping bolt(s) at the stem to the tightening torques prescribed by the stem manufacturer

(b)

.

Bring the A.H.S. grips into a position that matches your personal needs. To do so release the clamping bolts at the joint.

After you have found the ideal position for you, retighten the clamping bolts

(c) to a tightening torque of 5.5 Nm.

Adjust the shift/brake levers and grips on the handlebars to your wishes.

Slide the expander cones of the bar ends onto the outer ends of the A.H.S.

Make sure the clamping surfaces are always clean and free of grease!

Position the bar ends to your personal needs.

Tighten the clamping bolts of the bar ends to a tightening torque of 23 Nm.

Do not forget to insert the according plugs into the ends of the A.H.S. (d) .

a

98 b c d a b c d

99

Now you can move the handlebar/stem unit up and down as a whole. Be sure not to pull out the stem too far. The mark on the stem (max., min., max., stop, limit or the like) should always remain within the tube (a) . Setting the stem to a lower position can only add to your safety!

Straighten the handlebars so that they are symmetrical with respect to the front wheel

(b)

.

Retighten the expander bolt with a torque wrench. Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer!

Make sure the stem is firmly fixed by taking the front wheel between your legs and trying to turn the handlebars and stem relative to the wheel (c) . If there is movement, please increase the tightening torque.

If the handlebars are still too high or too low, you can replace the stem. This can be quite a big job, as it may mean taking off and remounting all the fittings on the handlebars. Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the various stem types available. Let the bicycle dealer advise you about the different types of stems and have the stem mounted in the shop.

Never ride a bicycle with a stem drawn out beyond the mark for the maximum permissible height! Check all bolted connections and do a brake test before you set off!

Stems come in most different lengths and shaft and binder tube diameters. If you opt for a stem of inappropriate sizing, handlebars and stem may break and result in an accident.

14.2.3 Stems for Threadless Systems, the Aheadset

®

-System

(*Aheadset

® is a registered trade mark of Dia-Compe)

On bicycles with Aheadset

®

the stem also serves to adjust the initial headset bearing pressure. If you change the position of the stem you have to readjust the bearings (see chapter “Headset”). The vertical setting range is determined by the intermediate rings, also referred to as spacers (d) . In the case of flip-flop stem models the stem can be mounted the other way round to achieve a different handlebar height.

This adjustment is a job best left to your bicycle dealer!

14.2.4 Adjusting Adjustable Handlebar Systems (A.H.S.)

Check whether the clamping area (a) of the A.H.S. is accurately centred in the handlebar clamp of the stem.

Adjust the A.H.S. tilt to your personal needs.

Tighten the handlebar clamping bolt(s) at the stem to the tightening torques prescribed by the stem manufacturer

(b)

.

Bring the A.H.S. grips into a position that matches your personal needs. To do so release the clamping bolts at the joint.

After you have found the ideal position for you, retighten the clamping bolts

(c) to a tightening torque of 5.5 Nm.

Adjust the shift/brake levers and grips on the handlebars to your wishes.

Slide the expander cones of the bar ends onto the outer ends of the A.H.S.

Make sure the clamping surfaces are always clean and free of grease!

Position the bar ends to your personal needs.

Tighten the clamping bolts of the bar ends to a tightening torque of 23 Nm.

Do not forget to insert the according plugs into the ends of the A.H.S. (d) .

a

98 b c d a b c d

99

14.3 Correcting the Fore-to-Aft position and

Tilt of the Saddle

The inclination of your upper body, and hence your riding comfort and pedalling power, are also influenced by the distance between the grips of the handlebars and the saddle (a) . This distance can be altered slightly by changing the position of the saddle rails in the seat post clamp. However, this also influences your pedalling. Whether the saddle is positioned more to the front or to the back of the bicycle will alter how rearward the pedalling position of your legs is.

You need to have the saddle horizontal in order to pedal in a relaxed manner. If it is tilted, you will constantly have to lean against the handlebars to prevent yourself from slipping off the saddle.

The setting range of the saddle is very small. Replacing the stem allows you to make far bigger adjustments to the rider’s fore-to-aft position, as stems come in different lengths

(b)

. In doing so you may achieve differences of more than ten centimetres. In this case you usually would have to adjust the length of the cables – a job best left to your bicycle dealer!

Note that the bolted connections of the seat post have to be tightened to the prescribed tightening torques. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended

Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Make sure the saddle is not clamped in the curved sections of the saddle rails

(c)

.

14.3.1 Adjusting Saddle position and Tilt

With patent seat posts (d) a single bolt fixes the clamping mechanism, which controls both the tilt and the horizontal position of the saddle. Some seat posts have two bolts for a finer adjustment of the tilt.

Release one or both bolts at the top of the seat post. Turn the bolt(s) two to three turns anticlockwise at the most, otherwise the whole assembly can come apart.

Move the saddle forward or backward by sliding its rails in the loosened seat post clamp. You may have to give the saddle a light tap to move it. Please observe the markings on the saddle rail.

Make sure the seat of the saddle remains horizontal (a) as you retighten the bolt(s). The bicycle should stand on level ground while you adjust the saddle.

Retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench according to the instructions of the manufacturer. After fastening the saddle, check whether it resists tilting by bringing your weight to bear on it once with your hands at either end of the saddle

(b)

.

Check the bolts by using a torque wrench once a month according to the values indiated in the enclosed manuals or directly on the components.

14.4 Adjusting the Brake Levers and the

Handlebars

14.4.1 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Road Racing

Bicycles

Riders with small hands should check the lever position at the point the brake pads have first contact with the rim. This distance should be adjusted by the bicycle dealer to the length of the rider’s fingers directly when buying the bicycle. The models of some manufacturers allow an adjustment directly at the brake lever. The adjustment of other models is performed by clamping the cables at the brake itself. The knurled knob or nut (c) you will find there is only to readjust the brake, if the brake pads wear out.

Be sure to check whether there is still enough slack for the brake levers to move a little before the brake pads hit the rim (d) . Check the point, front and rear, at which the brake pads touch the rims. If this point is reached after the lever has only travelled a short distance, you will have to readjust the brakes

(see chapter “The Brake System“). Otherwise the brakes could rub on the rim, e.g. when you ride out of the saddle.

Make sure you cannot pull the brake levers all the way to the handlebars. Your maximum brake force should be reached short of this point!

a

100 b c d a b c d

101

14.3 Correcting the Fore-to-Aft position and

Tilt of the Saddle

The inclination of your upper body, and hence your riding comfort and pedalling power, are also influenced by the distance between the grips of the handlebars and the saddle (a) . This distance can be altered slightly by changing the position of the saddle rails in the seat post clamp. However, this also influences your pedalling. Whether the saddle is positioned more to the front or to the back of the bicycle will alter how rearward the pedalling position of your legs is.

You need to have the saddle horizontal in order to pedal in a relaxed manner. If it is tilted, you will constantly have to lean against the handlebars to prevent yourself from slipping off the saddle.

The setting range of the saddle is very small. Replacing the stem allows you to make far bigger adjustments to the rider’s fore-to-aft position, as stems come in different lengths

(b)

. In doing so you may achieve differences of more than ten centimetres. In this case you usually would have to adjust the length of the cables – a job best left to your bicycle dealer!

Note that the bolted connections of the seat post have to be tightened to the prescribed tightening torques. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended

Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Make sure the saddle is not clamped in the curved sections of the saddle rails

(c)

.

14.3.1 Adjusting Saddle position and Tilt

With patent seat posts (d) a single bolt fixes the clamping mechanism, which controls both the tilt and the horizontal position of the saddle. Some seat posts have two bolts for a finer adjustment of the tilt.

Release one or both bolts at the top of the seat post. Turn the bolt(s) two to three turns anticlockwise at the most, otherwise the whole assembly can come apart.

Move the saddle forward or backward by sliding its rails in the loosened seat post clamp. You may have to give the saddle a light tap to move it. Please observe the markings on the saddle rail.

Make sure the seat of the saddle remains horizontal (a) as you retighten the bolt(s). The bicycle should stand on level ground while you adjust the saddle.

Retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench according to the instructions of the manufacturer. After fastening the saddle, check whether it resists tilting by bringing your weight to bear on it once with your hands at either end of the saddle

(b)

.

Check the bolts by using a torque wrench once a month according to the values indiated in the enclosed manuals or directly on the components.

14.4 Adjusting the Brake Levers and the

Handlebars

14.4.1 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Road Racing

Bicycles

Riders with small hands should check the lever position at the point the brake pads have first contact with the rim. This distance should be adjusted by the bicycle dealer to the length of the rider’s fingers directly when buying the bicycle. The models of some manufacturers allow an adjustment directly at the brake lever. The adjustment of other models is performed by clamping the cables at the brake itself. The knurled knob or nut (c) you will find there is only to readjust the brake, if the brake pads wear out.

Be sure to check whether there is still enough slack for the brake levers to move a little before the brake pads hit the rim (d) . Check the point, front and rear, at which the brake pads touch the rims. If this point is reached after the lever has only travelled a short distance, you will have to readjust the brakes

(see chapter “The Brake System“). Otherwise the brakes could rub on the rim, e.g. when you ride out of the saddle.

Make sure you cannot pull the brake levers all the way to the handlebars. Your maximum brake force should be reached short of this point!

a

100 b c d a b c d

101

Shimano offers Dual Control levers which match small hands.

If you have problems reaching the brake lever, ask your bicycle dealer.

What to Bear in Mind with Time Trial Handlebars on Triathlon and Time

Trial Bicycles

In triathlons and time trials (training and competition), where a particularly aerodynamic seating position is important, so called aero handlebars are used. With these aero models the shift levers are often positioned at the handlebar ends and the brake levers at the ends of the basic bullhorn handlebars (a) . When you ride with your back in a horizontal position and hands on the aero bars, the brake levers are out of reach and the reaction time is extended which makes your stopping distance longer. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and with this fact in mind.

Within certain limits, the position of the handlebars can be adjusted according to your personal wishes. That is to say the straight part of the aero handlebars should point slightly downward or upwards, and the basic handlebars should be parallel to the lane or point slightly upwards.

Make sure your forearms are always comfortably rested, i.e. the elbows should be off the armrests a little towards the rear (b) .

Note that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, while riding with the hands on the upper part of the handlebars or with an aerodynamic seating position. The brake levers are not always within easy reach.

14.4.2 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars and Brake Levers on

Road Racing Bicycles

In road racing bicycles, the straight extension below the drops should be parallel to the ground or slant slightly downwards, towards the rear

(c)

.

The tips of the brake levers should coincide with an imaginary straight line extending forward from the bar ends. Shifting the brake levers is a job best left to your bicycle dealer, as it involves retaping the handlebars afterwards.

To adjust the tilt of the handlebars, release the Allen bolt(s) on the underside or front of the stem

(d)

.

Turn the handlebars to the desired position.

Make sure the handlebars are accurately centred in the stem.

Now carefully retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench. Make sure the adjacent clamping slots are parallel and the upper and lower slots are even.

Try rotating the handlebars once clamped in the stem (a) and tighten the bolt a little more, if necessary.

Never exceed the recommended torque.

Note that the bolted connections of the stem, the handlebars and add-on parts have to be tightened to the specified torques.

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/ or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.4.3 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Trekking, City,

BMX, Kids’ and Mountain Bikes

With most brake systems the distance between the brake levers and the handlebar grips is adjustable. This gives riders with small hands the convenience of bringing the brake levers closer to the handlebars. The length of the rider’s fingers also determines how the lever position for first brake contact should be set.

Determine the point, front and rear, at which the brake pads touch the rims or, with disc brakes, makes contact with the rotor. If this point is reached after the lever has only travelled a short distance, you will have to readjust the brakes when altering the reach distance (see chapter “Brake System“ and the operating instructions of the brake manufacturer). Otherwise the brake pads might drag on the rims.

On most bicycles there is a small headless screw near the point where the brake cable of a cable brake enters the brake lever mount or at the lever itself. Turn the screw clockwise and watch how the lever adjusts as you do so

(b)

.

If you have disc brakes, follow the instructions of the brake manufacturer.

Hydraulic brakes are also fitted with adjusting devices at the brake lever.

There are different types of systems, ask your bicycle dealer for help (c) .

When you have set the levers to the desired reach distance be sure to check whether there is still enough slack for the brake levers to move a little before the brake pads hit the rims or make contact with the rotors (see chapter

“Brake System“) (d) .

Make sure you cannot pull the brake levers all the way to the handlebars. Your maximum brake force should be reached short of this point!

Read the additional instructions of the brake manufacturer.

a

102 b c d a b c d

103

Shimano offers Dual Control levers which match small hands.

If you have problems reaching the brake lever, ask your bicycle dealer.

What to Bear in Mind with Time Trial Handlebars on Triathlon and Time

Trial Bicycles

In triathlons and time trials (training and competition), where a particularly aerodynamic seating position is important, so called aero handlebars are used. With these aero models the shift levers are often positioned at the handlebar ends and the brake levers at the ends of the basic bullhorn handlebars (a) . When you ride with your back in a horizontal position and hands on the aero bars, the brake levers are out of reach and the reaction time is extended which makes your stopping distance longer. For this reason it is very important for you to ride with caution and with this fact in mind.

Within certain limits, the position of the handlebars can be adjusted according to your personal wishes. That is to say the straight part of the aero handlebars should point slightly downward or upwards, and the basic handlebars should be parallel to the lane or point slightly upwards.

Make sure your forearms are always comfortably rested, i.e. the elbows should be off the armrests a little towards the rear (b) .

Note that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, while riding with the hands on the upper part of the handlebars or with an aerodynamic seating position. The brake levers are not always within easy reach.

14.4.2 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars and Brake Levers on

Road Racing Bicycles

In road racing bicycles, the straight extension below the drops should be parallel to the ground or slant slightly downwards, towards the rear

(c)

.

The tips of the brake levers should coincide with an imaginary straight line extending forward from the bar ends. Shifting the brake levers is a job best left to your bicycle dealer, as it involves retaping the handlebars afterwards.

To adjust the tilt of the handlebars, release the Allen bolt(s) on the underside or front of the stem

(d)

.

Turn the handlebars to the desired position.

Make sure the handlebars are accurately centred in the stem.

Now carefully retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench. Make sure the adjacent clamping slots are parallel and the upper and lower slots are even.

Try rotating the handlebars once clamped in the stem (a) and tighten the bolt a little more, if necessary.

Never exceed the recommended torque.

Note that the bolted connections of the stem, the handlebars and add-on parts have to be tightened to the specified torques.

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/ or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

14.4.3 Adjusting the Brake Lever Reach of Trekking, City,

BMX, Kids’ and Mountain Bikes

With most brake systems the distance between the brake levers and the handlebar grips is adjustable. This gives riders with small hands the convenience of bringing the brake levers closer to the handlebars. The length of the rider’s fingers also determines how the lever position for first brake contact should be set.

Determine the point, front and rear, at which the brake pads touch the rims or, with disc brakes, makes contact with the rotor. If this point is reached after the lever has only travelled a short distance, you will have to readjust the brakes when altering the reach distance (see chapter “Brake System“ and the operating instructions of the brake manufacturer). Otherwise the brake pads might drag on the rims.

On most bicycles there is a small headless screw near the point where the brake cable of a cable brake enters the brake lever mount or at the lever itself. Turn the screw clockwise and watch how the lever adjusts as you do so

(b)

.

If you have disc brakes, follow the instructions of the brake manufacturer.

Hydraulic brakes are also fitted with adjusting devices at the brake lever.

There are different types of systems, ask your bicycle dealer for help (c) .

When you have set the levers to the desired reach distance be sure to check whether there is still enough slack for the brake levers to move a little before the brake pads hit the rims or make contact with the rotors (see chapter

“Brake System“) (d) .

Make sure you cannot pull the brake levers all the way to the handlebars. Your maximum brake force should be reached short of this point!

Read the additional instructions of the brake manufacturer.

a

102 b c d a b c d

103

14.4.4 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and

Brake Levers of Trekking, City, BMX, Kids’ and

Mountain Bikes

Handlebar ends are usually slightly bent. Set the handlebars to a position in which your wrists are relaxed and not turned too much outwards

(a)

.

To adjust the angle of the handlebars, release the Allen bolt(s) on the underside or front side of the stem. Turn the handlebars to the desired position. Make sure the handlebars are accurately centred in the stem. Carefully retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench (b) . Try rotating the handlebars once clamped in the stem and tighten the bolt a little more, if necessary.

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening

Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

After adjusting the handlebar you need to adjust the brake and shift levers.

Release the Allen bolt at either grip binder. Turn the levers relative to the handlebars. Sit in the saddle and place your fingers on the brake levers.

Check whether the back of your hand forms a straight line with the line of your forearm. Retighten the grips with a torque wrench (c) and do a twist test!

Note that the bolted connections of the stem, handlebars, bar ends, and brakes have to be tightened to their specified torques. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Bar ends and multi position handlebars give you additional ways of gripping.

They are usually fixed in a position that gives the rider a comfortable grip when pedalling out of the saddle, i.e. almost parallel to the ground or tilted slightly upwards (by about 25°) (d) .

Release the bolts, which are usually located on the bottomside of the bar ends, by one to two complete turns.

Turn the bar ends to the desired position making sure the angle is the same on both sides.

Retighten the bolts to the required torque.

Check whether the bar ends are firmly fixed by trying to twist them out of position.

Note that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, while riding with your hands on bar ends

(a)

or on a multi position handlebar

(b)

. The brake levers are not always within easy reach.

Never fix bar ends in a vertical position or with their ends pointing towards the rear as this would increase the risk of injury in the event of an accident.

a

104 b c d a b

105

14.4.4 Adjusting the Tilt of Handlebars, Bar Ends and

Brake Levers of Trekking, City, BMX, Kids’ and

Mountain Bikes

Handlebar ends are usually slightly bent. Set the handlebars to a position in which your wrists are relaxed and not turned too much outwards

(a)

.

To adjust the angle of the handlebars, release the Allen bolt(s) on the underside or front side of the stem. Turn the handlebars to the desired position. Make sure the handlebars are accurately centred in the stem. Carefully retighten the bolt(s) with a torque wrench (b) . Try rotating the handlebars once clamped in the stem and tighten the bolt a little more, if necessary.

Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque!

You will find the prescribed values in chapter “Recommended Tightening

Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

After adjusting the handlebar you need to adjust the brake and shift levers.

Release the Allen bolt at either grip binder. Turn the levers relative to the handlebars. Sit in the saddle and place your fingers on the brake levers.

Check whether the back of your hand forms a straight line with the line of your forearm. Retighten the grips with a torque wrench (c) and do a twist test!

Note that the bolted connections of the stem, handlebars, bar ends, and brakes have to be tightened to their specified torques. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in chapter

“Recommended Tightening Torques”, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Bar ends and multi position handlebars give you additional ways of gripping.

They are usually fixed in a position that gives the rider a comfortable grip when pedalling out of the saddle, i.e. almost parallel to the ground or tilted slightly upwards (by about 25°) (d) .

Release the bolts, which are usually located on the bottomside of the bar ends, by one to two complete turns.

Turn the bar ends to the desired position making sure the angle is the same on both sides.

Retighten the bolts to the required torque.

Check whether the bar ends are firmly fixed by trying to twist them out of position.

Note that the distance you need to stop your bicycle increases, while riding with your hands on bar ends

(a)

or on a multi position handlebar

(b)

. The brake levers are not always within easy reach.

Never fix bar ends in a vertical position or with their ends pointing towards the rear as this would increase the risk of injury in the event of an accident.

a

104 b c d a b

105

15 All About Bicycles

15.1 Transporting Baggage

There are various ways of carrying baggage on a bicycle. Your choice will primarily depend on the weight and volume of the baggage and on the bicycle you want to use. Using a bicycle rucksack

(a)

is a convenient way of transporting baggage on a bicycle. You can also use pannier racks or handlebar bags, but some bicycle models do not allow the mounting of these accessories. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

There are, however, many ways of fastening baggage directly to a bicycle:

The load capacity of pannier racks is classified according to DIN in three weight levels: 10, 18 and 25 kg. The load capacity is marked on the pannier rack. Please mind the bicycle’s overall maximum load when transporting baggage. If you fit your bicycle with a pannier rack, make sure it complies with the DIN EN 14872 standard.

It is advisable to carry baggage in stable pannier bags (b) with a very low centre of gravity (c) .

When buying pannier bags, make sure they are watertight so that your belongings are protected.

Some cross and mountain bikes without a rear shock can be fitted with a pannier rack (d) . Ask your bicycle dealer for the fixing points and suitable pannier racks.

Another possibility of transporting baggage are handlebar bags. They often have quick release fasteners for quick mounting and removal. Handlebar bags are particularly suitable for valuables and photo equipment.

Lowrider bags fitted at the front of the bicycle are mounted to the fork by means of special holders. They are a useful add-on for long tours. They are well suited for heavy items, as they hardly affect the rider’s control of the bicycle. Today, there are lowrider bags on the market that are even suitable for being mounted to suspension forks. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

We do, however, advise against fastening any baggage to suspension forks.

Make sure the weight of your baggage is favourably distributed when loading your bicycle. Heavy items should be carried as close to the ground as possible. Handlebar bags and bags mounted to the top of the pannier rack are only suited for light objects.

Do not overload your bicycle (see chapter “Intended Use”) and observe the maximum load capacity marked on or impressed in your pannier rack.

Adjust the suspension fork and the tyre pressure to the additional load.

Baggage generally changes the riding characteristics of your bicycle and increases your stopping distance! Therefore, practise riding a loaded bicycle in a place clear of traffic

(a+b)

.

15.1.1 Transporting Baggage with Full-Suspension Frames

Seat post supported pannier racks must not be loaded with heavy loads.

Keep in mind that when riding over a bumpy, uneven road the weight substantially increases (sprung mass). This has a significant influence on the suspension performance. Furthermore, overloading bears the risk of frame breakage! Therefore, do not load your bicycle with more than 8 kg!

With rear frame supported pannier racks the unsprung mass load increases and the response of the suspension system becomes more sluggish.

For this reason we strongly advise against mounting pannier racks to fullsuspension frames.

15.2 Taking Children with You

The only possible and legal way of transporting children by bicycle is in special child carriers or trailers (c+d) . For more information in this regard, see chapter “Intended use”.

15.2.1 Child Carriers

The child carrier ((a) p. 108) is fastened to the frame of the bicycle. The fastenings are usually designed for intermittent use. The child carrier can thus be fastened to any bicycle that is equipped with the necessary fittings.

Only use pannier racks for mounting child carriers that have suitable fixing points. Do not overload your pannier rack and be sure to observe the permissible maximum load capacity marked on the rack. Never exceed the indicated permissible overall load of the bicycle.

Do not mount a child carrier directly to the handlebars! Seat post supported pannier racks are not approved for child carrier mounting. Risk of breakage! Full-suspension bicycles do not allow child carrier mounting.

a

106 b c d a b c d

107

15 All About Bicycles

15.1 Transporting Baggage

There are various ways of carrying baggage on a bicycle. Your choice will primarily depend on the weight and volume of the baggage and on the bicycle you want to use. Using a bicycle rucksack

(a)

is a convenient way of transporting baggage on a bicycle. You can also use pannier racks or handlebar bags, but some bicycle models do not allow the mounting of these accessories. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

There are, however, many ways of fastening baggage directly to a bicycle:

The load capacity of pannier racks is classified according to DIN in three weight levels: 10, 18 and 25 kg. The load capacity is marked on the pannier rack. Please mind the bicycle’s overall maximum load when transporting baggage. If you fit your bicycle with a pannier rack, make sure it complies with the DIN EN 14872 standard.

It is advisable to carry baggage in stable pannier bags (b) with a very low centre of gravity (c) .

When buying pannier bags, make sure they are watertight so that your belongings are protected.

Some cross and mountain bikes without a rear shock can be fitted with a pannier rack (d) . Ask your bicycle dealer for the fixing points and suitable pannier racks.

Another possibility of transporting baggage are handlebar bags. They often have quick release fasteners for quick mounting and removal. Handlebar bags are particularly suitable for valuables and photo equipment.

Lowrider bags fitted at the front of the bicycle are mounted to the fork by means of special holders. They are a useful add-on for long tours. They are well suited for heavy items, as they hardly affect the rider’s control of the bicycle. Today, there are lowrider bags on the market that are even suitable for being mounted to suspension forks. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

We do, however, advise against fastening any baggage to suspension forks.

Make sure the weight of your baggage is favourably distributed when loading your bicycle. Heavy items should be carried as close to the ground as possible. Handlebar bags and bags mounted to the top of the pannier rack are only suited for light objects.

Do not overload your bicycle (see chapter “Intended Use”) and observe the maximum load capacity marked on or impressed in your pannier rack.

Adjust the suspension fork and the tyre pressure to the additional load.

Baggage generally changes the riding characteristics of your bicycle and increases your stopping distance! Therefore, practise riding a loaded bicycle in a place clear of traffic

(a+b)

.

15.1.1 Transporting Baggage with Full-Suspension Frames

Seat post supported pannier racks must not be loaded with heavy loads.

Keep in mind that when riding over a bumpy, uneven road the weight substantially increases (sprung mass). This has a significant influence on the suspension performance. Furthermore, overloading bears the risk of frame breakage! Therefore, do not load your bicycle with more than 8 kg!

With rear frame supported pannier racks the unsprung mass load increases and the response of the suspension system becomes more sluggish.

For this reason we strongly advise against mounting pannier racks to fullsuspension frames.

15.2 Taking Children with You

The only possible and legal way of transporting children by bicycle is in special child carriers or trailers (c+d) . For more information in this regard, see chapter “Intended use”.

15.2.1 Child Carriers

The child carrier ((a) p. 108) is fastened to the frame of the bicycle. The fastenings are usually designed for intermittent use. The child carrier can thus be fastened to any bicycle that is equipped with the necessary fittings.

Only use pannier racks for mounting child carriers that have suitable fixing points. Do not overload your pannier rack and be sure to observe the permissible maximum load capacity marked on the rack. Never exceed the indicated permissible overall load of the bicycle.

Do not mount a child carrier directly to the handlebars! Seat post supported pannier racks are not approved for child carrier mounting. Risk of breakage! Full-suspension bicycles do not allow child carrier mounting.

a

106 b c d a b c d

107

Road racing bicycles, fitness and mountain bikes are not suitable for mounting a child carrier with special fittings. For more information on other bicycle types, see chapter “Intended Use”.

Make it a rule to take your child out of the carrier when parking the bicycle. Risk of toppling over!

Cover the springs of your saddle so that the child cannot get his or her fingers pinched between them.

Make sure the child you are taking with you wears a helmet!

It is recommendable to only buy a DIN or GS tested child carrier. Be sure to fasten the child’s seat belt before you set off and make sure the feet are properly seated in the shields (b) .

Child carriers have a strong influence on the bicycle’s riding characteristics.

The weight of both carrier and child will make the bicycle somewhat topheavy and tend to give you a wobbly ride. Practise getting on and riding your bicycle with a child on it!

A critical moment is when you have just placed the child in the carrier because this is when the danger of the bicycle toppling over is greatest. A good way to obviate this danger is to use a twin leg kickstand to keep the bicycle stable in standing.

Children must be transported in special child carriers only that provide sufficient protection for their feet. In Germany e.g. children are allowed to be taken by child carrier until the age of 7, the rider taking the child must be no younger than 16 years.

Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country!

There are some cross and mountain bikes that are not suitable for mounting a child carrier with special fittings. For more information, see chapter “Intended Use” or ask your bicycle dealer.

15.2.2 Child Trailers

With special child trailers (c+d) that are towed behind a bicycle you can transport one or two children. Children can play in the trailer without the danger of toys falling out. Some models provide the option of mounting a sunshade or rain shield.

Before hitching a trailer to your bicycle have a look at chapter

“Intended Use” or contact your bicycle dealer. Note down the trailer type you opt for so that they can provide you with the information you need.

Trailers affect the braking behaviour of your bicycle and occupy far more width than the bicycle would alone. First, practise drawing the trailer without passengers (a) . Mount a long pole with coloured pennant to your bicycle to increase visibility. It should be fitted with all the reflectors that are prescribed for riding on public roads, just like your bicycle. If you use it in the dark, illuminate the rear end of the trailer with a battery/accumulator-operated lamp (b) .

Please inform yourself about the regulations concering lighting in the country where you are using the trailer.

Always secure the little passenger(s)

(c)

with the seat belt, as erratic movements inside the trailer can make it topple over.

Make sure the child you are taking with you wears a helmet

(d)

.

A trailer is an insufficient protection in the event of an accident!

Please note that your stopping distance increases due to the additional load of the child.

Make sure your bicycle is approved for trailer towing before mounting one. Trailer towing requires hydraulic brakes! (See chapter “Intended Use“).

15.2.3 Kids’ Tandem Bicycles / Trailer Systems

There are different systems on the market that allow a kid’s bicycle to be attached to an adult bicycle to cycle together with your child on public roads.

Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the different types of kids‘ tandem bicycles.

Some of them are attached to the seat tube of the towing bicycle. This single point attachment may be a little unstable.

Systems attaching the complete kid’s bicycle to the adult bicycle provide more stability.

Trailer systems have a strong influence on the bicycle’s riding characteristics. The weight of both the attached bicycle and the child will make the bicycle somewhat top-heavy. It may tend to wobble. Practise getting on and off your bicycle as well as cycling. Keep in mind, in particular when turning, that your bicycle including trailer system is much longer.

a

108 b c d a b c d

109

Road racing bicycles, fitness and mountain bikes are not suitable for mounting a child carrier with special fittings. For more information on other bicycle types, see chapter “Intended Use”.

Make it a rule to take your child out of the carrier when parking the bicycle. Risk of toppling over!

Cover the springs of your saddle so that the child cannot get his or her fingers pinched between them.

Make sure the child you are taking with you wears a helmet!

It is recommendable to only buy a DIN or GS tested child carrier. Be sure to fasten the child’s seat belt before you set off and make sure the feet are properly seated in the shields (b) .

Child carriers have a strong influence on the bicycle’s riding characteristics.

The weight of both carrier and child will make the bicycle somewhat topheavy and tend to give you a wobbly ride. Practise getting on and riding your bicycle with a child on it!

A critical moment is when you have just placed the child in the carrier because this is when the danger of the bicycle toppling over is greatest. A good way to obviate this danger is to use a twin leg kickstand to keep the bicycle stable in standing.

Children must be transported in special child carriers only that provide sufficient protection for their feet. In Germany e.g. children are allowed to be taken by child carrier until the age of 7, the rider taking the child must be no younger than 16 years.

Please read up on the applicable regulations in your country!

There are some cross and mountain bikes that are not suitable for mounting a child carrier with special fittings. For more information, see chapter “Intended Use” or ask your bicycle dealer.

15.2.2 Child Trailers

With special child trailers (c+d) that are towed behind a bicycle you can transport one or two children. Children can play in the trailer without the danger of toys falling out. Some models provide the option of mounting a sunshade or rain shield.

Before hitching a trailer to your bicycle have a look at chapter

“Intended Use” or contact your bicycle dealer. Note down the trailer type you opt for so that they can provide you with the information you need.

Trailers affect the braking behaviour of your bicycle and occupy far more width than the bicycle would alone. First, practise drawing the trailer without passengers (a) . Mount a long pole with coloured pennant to your bicycle to increase visibility. It should be fitted with all the reflectors that are prescribed for riding on public roads, just like your bicycle. If you use it in the dark, illuminate the rear end of the trailer with a battery/accumulator-operated lamp (b) .

Please inform yourself about the regulations concering lighting in the country where you are using the trailer.

Always secure the little passenger(s)

(c)

with the seat belt, as erratic movements inside the trailer can make it topple over.

Make sure the child you are taking with you wears a helmet

(d)

.

A trailer is an insufficient protection in the event of an accident!

Please note that your stopping distance increases due to the additional load of the child.

Make sure your bicycle is approved for trailer towing before mounting one. Trailer towing requires hydraulic brakes! (See chapter “Intended Use“).

15.2.3 Kids’ Tandem Bicycles / Trailer Systems

There are different systems on the market that allow a kid’s bicycle to be attached to an adult bicycle to cycle together with your child on public roads.

Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the different types of kids‘ tandem bicycles.

Some of them are attached to the seat tube of the towing bicycle. This single point attachment may be a little unstable.

Systems attaching the complete kid’s bicycle to the adult bicycle provide more stability.

Trailer systems have a strong influence on the bicycle’s riding characteristics. The weight of both the attached bicycle and the child will make the bicycle somewhat top-heavy. It may tend to wobble. Practise getting on and off your bicycle as well as cycling. Keep in mind, in particular when turning, that your bicycle including trailer system is much longer.

a

108 b c d a b c d

109

These trailer systems also affect the braking behaviour of your bicycle.

Therefore, before riding with a kids‘ bicycle tandem on public roads, practise riding and brake behaviour without passengers in an area free of traffic.

It is also important for you to practise with your child how to behave on an attached bicycle during the cycle. Make sure your child wears a helmet

(a)

even when riding on a tandem bicycle!

Set a good example by wearing a helmet, as well.

Only buy tested trailer systems (e.g. DIN/GS tested systems) and have them properly mounted. The manuals of the manufacturers that you have obtained together with the trailer system provide detailed information in this regard.

When riding in the dark the kid’s bicycle attached should be fitted with the prescribed lighting, i.e. the latter should be marked with a wavy line and the letter “K”

(b)

. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on Public Roads“.

15.3 Taking the Bicycle by Car

The most convenient way to safely transport your bicycle is to put it into the boot of your car (c) . There the bike is protected from dirt and any dynamic influences during the transport. Take care to protect the boot of the car.

If necessary, line the boot before stowing the bike. Interior fixing systems intended to secure the bicycle in the boot can be particularly helpful.

Always secure the bicycle or bicycle components when putting it/them into the interior of your car. Parts shifting around can impair your safety.

If transporting the bicycle inside the boot is impossible, nearly every car accessory dealer and car company offers carrier systems (d) which allow bicycle transport without disassembly. The usual design involves rails fixed to the roof of the car onto which the bicycles are fixed with clamps gripping the down tubes.

Make sure to remove all parts of your bicycle (tools, pannier bags, child carriers etc.) which might come loose during transport and cause an accident!

Most clamps are potential sources of damage to large-diameter frame tubes

(a)

that are not designed to be fixed in such clamps!

This can result in irreparable damage to the frame. High-end, very thinwalled aluminium or carbon frames are particularly susceptible to such kind of damage. Due to the material properties of carbon, you may not see a severe damage at first sight. This can result in an unforeseeable severe accident at a later date.

Suitable, special-purpose models are, however, available in the car accessory trade.

Rear carriers (b) are becoming more and more popular. Their big advantage over roof carriers is that you do not have to lift up the bicycles so high to attach them. Make sure the fastenings do not create any damage to the fork or frame. Risk of breakage!

Do not buy a carrier on which the bicycle has to be mounted upside down, i.e. with the handlebars and saddle fixed face down to the carrier. This way of fastening the bicycle exposes handlebars, stem, saddle and seat post to extreme stress during transport. Do not opt for a carrier system with crank arm fit.

Risk of breakage!

Please make sure the lights and the number plate of your car are not hidden from view. For some carriers, a second exterior rear view mirror is required by the road traffic regulations.

Whatever system you opt for, make sure it complies with the relevant safety standards of your country!

Read the instructions of your bicycle carrier and observe the maximum load capacity and recommended or prescribed driving speed.

Check whether your bicycle is properly fastened before and at regular intervals during the ride. A bicycle that detaches from the roof carrier may endanger other road users.

Bear in mind that your car has a greater overall height with the bicycle on it. Measure the overall height and place a sign stating the height somewhere in the cockpit or on the steering wheel so that it can be easily seen.

Never transport bicycles with hydraulic brakes upside down.

This could let air enter the brake system and result in brake failure.

If your bicycle has disc brakes, be sure to mount the safety locks before transporting the bicycle with the wheels dismounted.

a

110 b c d a b

111

These trailer systems also affect the braking behaviour of your bicycle.

Therefore, before riding with a kids‘ bicycle tandem on public roads, practise riding and brake behaviour without passengers in an area free of traffic.

It is also important for you to practise with your child how to behave on an attached bicycle during the cycle. Make sure your child wears a helmet

(a)

even when riding on a tandem bicycle!

Set a good example by wearing a helmet, as well.

Only buy tested trailer systems (e.g. DIN/GS tested systems) and have them properly mounted. The manuals of the manufacturers that you have obtained together with the trailer system provide detailed information in this regard.

When riding in the dark the kid’s bicycle attached should be fitted with the prescribed lighting, i.e. the latter should be marked with a wavy line and the letter “K”

(b)

. For more information see chapter “Legal Requirements for Riding on Public Roads“.

15.3 Taking the Bicycle by Car

The most convenient way to safely transport your bicycle is to put it into the boot of your car (c) . There the bike is protected from dirt and any dynamic influences during the transport. Take care to protect the boot of the car.

If necessary, line the boot before stowing the bike. Interior fixing systems intended to secure the bicycle in the boot can be particularly helpful.

Always secure the bicycle or bicycle components when putting it/them into the interior of your car. Parts shifting around can impair your safety.

If transporting the bicycle inside the boot is impossible, nearly every car accessory dealer and car company offers carrier systems (d) which allow bicycle transport without disassembly. The usual design involves rails fixed to the roof of the car onto which the bicycles are fixed with clamps gripping the down tubes.

Make sure to remove all parts of your bicycle (tools, pannier bags, child carriers etc.) which might come loose during transport and cause an accident!

Most clamps are potential sources of damage to large-diameter frame tubes

(a)

that are not designed to be fixed in such clamps!

This can result in irreparable damage to the frame. High-end, very thinwalled aluminium or carbon frames are particularly susceptible to such kind of damage. Due to the material properties of carbon, you may not see a severe damage at first sight. This can result in an unforeseeable severe accident at a later date.

Suitable, special-purpose models are, however, available in the car accessory trade.

Rear carriers (b) are becoming more and more popular. Their big advantage over roof carriers is that you do not have to lift up the bicycles so high to attach them. Make sure the fastenings do not create any damage to the fork or frame. Risk of breakage!

Do not buy a carrier on which the bicycle has to be mounted upside down, i.e. with the handlebars and saddle fixed face down to the carrier. This way of fastening the bicycle exposes handlebars, stem, saddle and seat post to extreme stress during transport. Do not opt for a carrier system with crank arm fit.

Risk of breakage!

Please make sure the lights and the number plate of your car are not hidden from view. For some carriers, a second exterior rear view mirror is required by the road traffic regulations.

Whatever system you opt for, make sure it complies with the relevant safety standards of your country!

Read the instructions of your bicycle carrier and observe the maximum load capacity and recommended or prescribed driving speed.

Check whether your bicycle is properly fastened before and at regular intervals during the ride. A bicycle that detaches from the roof carrier may endanger other road users.

Bear in mind that your car has a greater overall height with the bicycle on it. Measure the overall height and place a sign stating the height somewhere in the cockpit or on the steering wheel so that it can be easily seen.

Never transport bicycles with hydraulic brakes upside down.

This could let air enter the brake system and result in brake failure.

If your bicycle has disc brakes, be sure to mount the safety locks before transporting the bicycle with the wheels dismounted.

a

110 b c d a b

111

15.4 Taking the Bicycle by plane

If you want to take your bicycle with you when you go on a trip by plane, pack it in an appropriate bicycle suitcase (a) or in a bicycle cardboard box

(b) that you can obtain from your bicycle dealer. Special bicycle bags often do not provide sufficient protection.

Pack the wheels in special wheel bags to protect them inside the suitcase or cardboard box. Do not forget to take the necessary tools, a torque wrench, bits and this manual with you to be able to assemble the bicycle and to get it ready for use at your destination.

When you remove the wheels from a bicycle with disc brakes, be sure to place pad spacers between the brake shoes. Otherwise they can come out unintentionally and you will have difficulties in bringing them back into position. Your bicycle dealer has a variety of brake pad spacers. Pull the brake levers and fix them with a tape to the handlebars. This will keep the system free of air.

15.5 Accessories

In purchasing this high quality bicycle you laid the foundation for many years and miles of enjoyable cycling. Whatever you are planning to do with your bicycle, be sure to have proper equipment and to keep a few tips in mind.

Your bicycle dealer has a variety of useful accessories on offer enhancing both your safety and convenience.

Improper accessories may change the qualities of your bicycle and even cause an accident. Therefore, before fitting any accessories do contact your bicycle dealer and observe the instructions regarding the intended use of your bicycle.

15.5.1 Additional Fittings

Your bicycle can be fitted with various kinds of accessories (c+d) . Make sure to observe the requirements according to the DIN EN standards and the traffic regulations in your country. Any retrofitted part must be compatible with your bicycle. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Mounting incompatible parts can result in an accident!

Before buying any additional bells, horns or lighting accessories, inform yourself thoroughly whether they are permitted and tested and accordingly approved for use on public roads.

Make sure additional battery/accumulator-operated lamps are marked with the wavy line and the letter “K”.

Retrofitted accessories, such as mudguards

(a)

, disc or drum brakes, pannier racks etc. can impair the functioning of your bicycle. Ask your bicycle dealer for advice before mounting any kind of accessories to your bicycle.

15.5.2 Trailers

The overall load bearing capacity of bicycle trailers for freight transport must not exceed 40 kg including freight. There are two types of trailer coupling:

There are trailers that are mounted close to the rear axle, whereas others are attached between saddle and pannier rack. The decision as to the type of coupling mainly depends on the design of your bicycle. Suspension bicycle are not designed for trailer towing!

Be sure to observe the operating instructions of the trailer manufacturer.

Bicycle trailers must comply with the requirements of the road traffic regulations.

Practise moving off, braking, turning and cycling down slopes, as a trailer affects the performance of a bicycle.

15.5.3 Bar Ends

Straight handlebars can be fitted with bar ends (b) . Some thin-walled handlebars or carbon handlebars need additional plug ends or other specific parts to prevent a crushing or bursting of the handlebars. Have these parts fitted by your bicycle dealer!

15.5.4 Cycle Computers

There are cycle computers that show your current and average speed, your daily and annual mileage as well as the duration of the present ride. Real de luxe models also give the highest speed achieved, differences in elevation, your cadence or (with a special breast belt) your heart rate (c) .

15.5.5 Baskets

Baskets (d) for handlebar or stem mounting are suited for the transport of low-weight items only. Never load the basket with more than 5 kg.

In case you mount a basket to the handlebars, make sure front lamp and reflector remain free and steering is not affected. In general, we advise against mounting a basket to the handlebars, as a negative impact on the performance of the bicycle cannot be excluded.

Make sure the mounting devices do not damage the handlebars or the stem. Risk of breakage! Do not bend brake and Bowden cables.

a

112 b c d a b c d

113

15.4 Taking the Bicycle by plane

If you want to take your bicycle with you when you go on a trip by plane, pack it in an appropriate bicycle suitcase (a) or in a bicycle cardboard box

(b) that you can obtain from your bicycle dealer. Special bicycle bags often do not provide sufficient protection.

Pack the wheels in special wheel bags to protect them inside the suitcase or cardboard box. Do not forget to take the necessary tools, a torque wrench, bits and this manual with you to be able to assemble the bicycle and to get it ready for use at your destination.

When you remove the wheels from a bicycle with disc brakes, be sure to place pad spacers between the brake shoes. Otherwise they can come out unintentionally and you will have difficulties in bringing them back into position. Your bicycle dealer has a variety of brake pad spacers. Pull the brake levers and fix them with a tape to the handlebars. This will keep the system free of air.

15.5 Accessories

In purchasing this high quality bicycle you laid the foundation for many years and miles of enjoyable cycling. Whatever you are planning to do with your bicycle, be sure to have proper equipment and to keep a few tips in mind.

Your bicycle dealer has a variety of useful accessories on offer enhancing both your safety and convenience.

Improper accessories may change the qualities of your bicycle and even cause an accident. Therefore, before fitting any accessories do contact your bicycle dealer and observe the instructions regarding the intended use of your bicycle.

15.5.1 Additional Fittings

Your bicycle can be fitted with various kinds of accessories (c+d) . Make sure to observe the requirements according to the DIN EN standards and the traffic regulations in your country. Any retrofitted part must be compatible with your bicycle. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Mounting incompatible parts can result in an accident!

Before buying any additional bells, horns or lighting accessories, inform yourself thoroughly whether they are permitted and tested and accordingly approved for use on public roads.

Make sure additional battery/accumulator-operated lamps are marked with the wavy line and the letter “K”.

Retrofitted accessories, such as mudguards

(a)

, disc or drum brakes, pannier racks etc. can impair the functioning of your bicycle. Ask your bicycle dealer for advice before mounting any kind of accessories to your bicycle.

15.5.2 Trailers

The overall load bearing capacity of bicycle trailers for freight transport must not exceed 40 kg including freight. There are two types of trailer coupling:

There are trailers that are mounted close to the rear axle, whereas others are attached between saddle and pannier rack. The decision as to the type of coupling mainly depends on the design of your bicycle. Suspension bicycle are not designed for trailer towing!

Be sure to observe the operating instructions of the trailer manufacturer.

Bicycle trailers must comply with the requirements of the road traffic regulations.

Practise moving off, braking, turning and cycling down slopes, as a trailer affects the performance of a bicycle.

15.5.3 Bar Ends

Straight handlebars can be fitted with bar ends (b) . Some thin-walled handlebars or carbon handlebars need additional plug ends or other specific parts to prevent a crushing or bursting of the handlebars. Have these parts fitted by your bicycle dealer!

15.5.4 Cycle Computers

There are cycle computers that show your current and average speed, your daily and annual mileage as well as the duration of the present ride. Real de luxe models also give the highest speed achieved, differences in elevation, your cadence or (with a special breast belt) your heart rate (c) .

15.5.5 Baskets

Baskets (d) for handlebar or stem mounting are suited for the transport of low-weight items only. Never load the basket with more than 5 kg.

In case you mount a basket to the handlebars, make sure front lamp and reflector remain free and steering is not affected. In general, we advise against mounting a basket to the handlebars, as a negative impact on the performance of the bicycle cannot be excluded.

Make sure the mounting devices do not damage the handlebars or the stem. Risk of breakage! Do not bend brake and Bowden cables.

a

112 b c d a b c d

113

15.5.6 puncture Kit

(a)

The most important accessories for a successful bicycle ride are a tyre pump and a small tool kit. The tool kit should include two plastic tyre levers, the most commonly used Allen keys, a spare tube, a tyre repair kit, your mobile phone and a little cash. In this way you will be well prepared in the event of a puncture or some other mishap.

15.5.7 Kickstand

(b)

Bicycle kickstands are to prevent the bicycle from falling over when parked.

The kickstand you opt for should match your needs.

A centre kickstand is crucial for bicycles fitted with a child carrier because they prevent the bicycle from toppling over even when loaded. The rider has both hands free to lift the child into and out of the carrier seat without unbalancing the bicycle.

Never leave children alone and unsupervised in a parked bicycle, it may topple over!

Twin leg kickstands folding up to one side have become more and more popular on touring bicycles. They keep the bicycle stable, even with heavy baggage.

Side kickstands mounted to the bottom of the frame, behind the bottom bracket or to the rear stay or wheel axle keep the bicycle in a slightly inclined position. A rubber foot attached to the side kickstand provides added support on soft surfaces.

If your bicycle is fitted with a telescopic kickstand, you can adjust its length without tools by simply turning the adjustment wheel. The proper length of the kickstand is the distance from the pivotal point of the kickstand to the ground with the bicycle in upright position. Other adjustable side kickstands are fitted with a visible clamping bolt. The adjustment of this type of kickstand requires a wrench or an Allen key.

Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you finding an appropriate kickstand! Have the kickstand mounted by your bicycle dealer.

15.5.8 Mirrors

Only fit your bicycle with a tested and approved bicycle mirror.

15.5.9 Mudguards

(a+b)

If you want to fit your bicycle with mudguards, ask your bicycle dealer for advice. There are removable mudguards, also referred to as clip-on mudguards, as well as firmly attached models that provide more protection.

Retro-fittable mudguards designed to be firmly attached are normally made of plastic and mounted in the correct position by means of additionally fitted stays. The accurate length of the stay is achieved when the bottom edge of the mudguard runs parallel to the tyre.

For safety reasons pop off front stays are a must. They are to prevent the front wheel from getting jammed due to impurities clinging to the tyre. In such an event the front stay pops off, thus avoiding a possible accident. The plug-in connection allows an easy re-fixing.

Be sure to replace damaged mudguards!

15.5.10 Bicycle Locks

Best anti-theft protection is provided by stable cable and D-locks (c+d) .

With a D-lock you can lock e.g. the bicycle frame to a lamppost, whereas a cable lock means additional protection for the wheels. The D-lock is mounted to the frame by means of a bracket, a convenient way of taking it with you. Cable locks can be fixed under the saddle around the tube, if your bicycle is not fitted with a frame mounting. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to advise you about the various security categories of bicycle locks.

Always fix the lock securely to the bicycle and do not let it hang down the handlebars.

a

114 b a b c d

115

15.5.6 puncture Kit

(a)

The most important accessories for a successful bicycle ride are a tyre pump and a small tool kit. The tool kit should include two plastic tyre levers, the most commonly used Allen keys, a spare tube, a tyre repair kit, your mobile phone and a little cash. In this way you will be well prepared in the event of a puncture or some other mishap.

15.5.7 Kickstand

(b)

Bicycle kickstands are to prevent the bicycle from falling over when parked.

The kickstand you opt for should match your needs.

A centre kickstand is crucial for bicycles fitted with a child carrier because they prevent the bicycle from toppling over even when loaded. The rider has both hands free to lift the child into and out of the carrier seat without unbalancing the bicycle.

Never leave children alone and unsupervised in a parked bicycle, it may topple over!

Twin leg kickstands folding up to one side have become more and more popular on touring bicycles. They keep the bicycle stable, even with heavy baggage.

Side kickstands mounted to the bottom of the frame, behind the bottom bracket or to the rear stay or wheel axle keep the bicycle in a slightly inclined position. A rubber foot attached to the side kickstand provides added support on soft surfaces.

If your bicycle is fitted with a telescopic kickstand, you can adjust its length without tools by simply turning the adjustment wheel. The proper length of the kickstand is the distance from the pivotal point of the kickstand to the ground with the bicycle in upright position. Other adjustable side kickstands are fitted with a visible clamping bolt. The adjustment of this type of kickstand requires a wrench or an Allen key.

Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you finding an appropriate kickstand! Have the kickstand mounted by your bicycle dealer.

15.5.8 Mirrors

Only fit your bicycle with a tested and approved bicycle mirror.

15.5.9 Mudguards

(a+b)

If you want to fit your bicycle with mudguards, ask your bicycle dealer for advice. There are removable mudguards, also referred to as clip-on mudguards, as well as firmly attached models that provide more protection.

Retro-fittable mudguards designed to be firmly attached are normally made of plastic and mounted in the correct position by means of additionally fitted stays. The accurate length of the stay is achieved when the bottom edge of the mudguard runs parallel to the tyre.

For safety reasons pop off front stays are a must. They are to prevent the front wheel from getting jammed due to impurities clinging to the tyre. In such an event the front stay pops off, thus avoiding a possible accident. The plug-in connection allows an easy re-fixing.

Be sure to replace damaged mudguards!

15.5.10 Bicycle Locks

Best anti-theft protection is provided by stable cable and D-locks (c+d) .

With a D-lock you can lock e.g. the bicycle frame to a lamppost, whereas a cable lock means additional protection for the wheels. The D-lock is mounted to the frame by means of a bracket, a convenient way of taking it with you. Cable locks can be fixed under the saddle around the tube, if your bicycle is not fitted with a frame mounting. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to advise you about the various security categories of bicycle locks.

Always fix the lock securely to the bicycle and do not let it hang down the handlebars.

a

114 b a b c d

115

15.6 proper Cycling Equipment

15.6.1 Cycling Helmets

Cycling helmets are a must when riding a bicycle. Your bicycle dealer has a variety of styles and sizes (a) .

Take your time when buying a helmet and keep on the one you prefer for a while before making your final choice. A good helmet should fit snug without pinching.

Pay attention to testing symbols indicating the helmet passed the tests required by the DIN EN 1078 standards.

Be sure to only wear a bicycle helmet during cycling. Observe the manufacturer’s instructions.

Never ride without a helmet! But remember that even the safest helmet is useless unless it fits properly and is correctly adjusted and fastened

(b)

.

Always wear an integral helmet and protectors whenever you set off on a dirt, downhill or freeride bike.

15.6.2 proper Cycling Clothing

Cycling pants are a must for those who appreciate sitting comfortably in their saddle. These tight pants have a special padding in the bottom. They are free of folds, seams and pressure that seams cause. As cycling is certain to make you sweat, it is advisable to wear jerseys made of synthetic material. These kinds of fibres do not absorb any moisture, but transport the sweat away from your skin to the surface of the fabric, thus avoiding feeling chilly due to cold headwinds. Be sure to take appropriate waterproof clothing with you when you set off on a long cycling tour. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you finding the appropriate clothing.

Never ride with wide-cut trousers or skirts that might get caught in the spokes, chain or chainrings. To avoid any such mishap, use suitable clips or straps, if necessary

(c)

.

For increased visibility to other road users be sure to wear bright-coloured clothing.

5.6.3 Cycling Glasses

Apart from a cycling helmet and suitable clothing, cycling glasses are absolutely essential when you set off on your bicycle ((d) p. 116) .

They do not only protect your eyes from the sun and the wind, but also keep out flies that may impede your vision when they fly into your eyes. Risk of accident!

Good cycling glasses (a) should fit tightly to your face not allowing any wind to affect your eyes. Cycling glasses come in a wide range of models, such as e.g. glasses with clear lenses and without UV protection for cycling in the dawn and at night or glasses with maximum UV protection for cycling under extreme sunlight conditions.

Your bicycle dealer has a wide range of cycling glasses available and will be pleased to advise you!

15.6.4 Shoes and pedals

Cycling shoes should be made of solid material (b) to provide firm support for your feet. In addition, they should have a stiff sole so that the pedal cannot press through. The sole should not be too wide in the area of the heels, as the rear stays or the crank will otherwise get in the way of your pedalling.

This will prevent your feet from assuming a natural position when pedalling and may cause knee pain in the long run.

Special cycling shoes are obligatory if your hybrid, mountain or road racing bike is equipped with clipless pedals (c) . With these shoes small cleats are fixed to the sole (d) . They give you a firm connection between shoe and pedal and allow an acceptable walking position.

The main advantage is that these cycling shoes and clipless pedals prevent your feet from slipping off when pedalling fast or when riding over rough ground. They enable you not only to push but also to pull the pedals. This makes your pedalling more fluid and increases the power transmission compared to normal pedals. With clipless pedals you can get off the pedal very quickly. Just turn your heel to the outside. Practise the engagement and release of clipless pedals so that you will be prepared to face any difficult situation.

Read the operating instructions of the pedal manufacturers. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

The usual way to engage with the pedal is to turn it from the lowest position of the crank to the horizontal using the tip of the cleat and push down on the back of it. Normally, the shoe engages with the pedal with a click which you will hear and feel clearly. Cleats come in different shapes, with varying release angles and tensions. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

a

116 b c d a b c d

117

15.6 proper Cycling Equipment

15.6.1 Cycling Helmets

Cycling helmets are a must when riding a bicycle. Your bicycle dealer has a variety of styles and sizes (a) .

Take your time when buying a helmet and keep on the one you prefer for a while before making your final choice. A good helmet should fit snug without pinching.

Pay attention to testing symbols indicating the helmet passed the tests required by the DIN EN 1078 standards.

Be sure to only wear a bicycle helmet during cycling. Observe the manufacturer’s instructions.

Never ride without a helmet! But remember that even the safest helmet is useless unless it fits properly and is correctly adjusted and fastened

(b)

.

Always wear an integral helmet and protectors whenever you set off on a dirt, downhill or freeride bike.

15.6.2 proper Cycling Clothing

Cycling pants are a must for those who appreciate sitting comfortably in their saddle. These tight pants have a special padding in the bottom. They are free of folds, seams and pressure that seams cause. As cycling is certain to make you sweat, it is advisable to wear jerseys made of synthetic material. These kinds of fibres do not absorb any moisture, but transport the sweat away from your skin to the surface of the fabric, thus avoiding feeling chilly due to cold headwinds. Be sure to take appropriate waterproof clothing with you when you set off on a long cycling tour. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you finding the appropriate clothing.

Never ride with wide-cut trousers or skirts that might get caught in the spokes, chain or chainrings. To avoid any such mishap, use suitable clips or straps, if necessary

(c)

.

For increased visibility to other road users be sure to wear bright-coloured clothing.

5.6.3 Cycling Glasses

Apart from a cycling helmet and suitable clothing, cycling glasses are absolutely essential when you set off on your bicycle ((d) p. 116) .

They do not only protect your eyes from the sun and the wind, but also keep out flies that may impede your vision when they fly into your eyes. Risk of accident!

Good cycling glasses (a) should fit tightly to your face not allowing any wind to affect your eyes. Cycling glasses come in a wide range of models, such as e.g. glasses with clear lenses and without UV protection for cycling in the dawn and at night or glasses with maximum UV protection for cycling under extreme sunlight conditions.

Your bicycle dealer has a wide range of cycling glasses available and will be pleased to advise you!

15.6.4 Shoes and pedals

Cycling shoes should be made of solid material (b) to provide firm support for your feet. In addition, they should have a stiff sole so that the pedal cannot press through. The sole should not be too wide in the area of the heels, as the rear stays or the crank will otherwise get in the way of your pedalling.

This will prevent your feet from assuming a natural position when pedalling and may cause knee pain in the long run.

Special cycling shoes are obligatory if your hybrid, mountain or road racing bike is equipped with clipless pedals (c) . With these shoes small cleats are fixed to the sole (d) . They give you a firm connection between shoe and pedal and allow an acceptable walking position.

The main advantage is that these cycling shoes and clipless pedals prevent your feet from slipping off when pedalling fast or when riding over rough ground. They enable you not only to push but also to pull the pedals. This makes your pedalling more fluid and increases the power transmission compared to normal pedals. With clipless pedals you can get off the pedal very quickly. Just turn your heel to the outside. Practise the engagement and release of clipless pedals so that you will be prepared to face any difficult situation.

Read the operating instructions of the pedal manufacturers. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

The usual way to engage with the pedal is to turn it from the lowest position of the crank to the horizontal using the tip of the cleat and push down on the back of it. Normally, the shoe engages with the pedal with a click which you will hear and feel clearly. Cleats come in different shapes, with varying release angles and tensions. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

a

116 b c d a b c d

117

Make sure pedals and shoe soles are always clear of mud and other impurities and grease the lock-in mechanism with lubricant at regular intervals.

Taking up the pedals, engaging and disengaging the shoes should first be practised while stationary. Later you can refine your technique in a place free of traffic.

The cleat should be positioned so that the ball of your feet rests over the pedal spindle (a) . Your feet should assume a natural position when pedalling. For most people this means that the heels will point a little inward. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you adjusting and mounting the pedal best meeting your demands!

Make sure the fastening bolts of the cleats are properly tightened, as you will find it almost impossible to disengage your shoe from the pedal, if the cleat is loose. Risk of an accident!

The release force of clipless pedals is adjusted by means of an Allen key

(b)

.

If there are any creaking or squeaking noises occurring, some grease will solve the problem in most cases. These noises as well as lateral play of the shoe on the pedal can, however, be also signs of wear. Check the cleats at regular intervals.

Only use clipless pedals allowing you to engage and disengage smoothly

(c)

. A defective pedal or a badly worn cleat can make the shoe disengage from the pedal. Or unclipping the shoe from the pedal is sometimes very difficult or even impossible. In both cases, there is the danger of an accident!

Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the various models of cycling shoes available. Cycling shoes come in various styles for specific uses.

Some mountain bike pedals, also referred to as platform pedals, are designed for maximum grip of the shoes when dirtbiking and freeriding

(d)

. For this reason they have sharp edges and/ or bolted pins. As they enhance the risk of injuries during riding, you should wear protective clothing, e.g. knee and shin guards.

16 General Notes on Care and

Inspection

Your bicycle dealer will have assembled and adjusted your bicycle ready for use when you come to collect it. Nevertheless, your bicycle needs regular servicing. Have your local bicycle dealer do the scheduled maintenance work. This is the only way to ensure that all components function safely and reliably for many miles.

The bicycle will be due for its first maintenance after 100 to 300 kilometres

(60 to 180 miles), 5 to 15 hours of initial use or four to six weeks. The bedding in phase typically involves spokes slightly losing tension, cables stretching, gears becoming out of adjustment and bearings settling, so there is every reason to have your dealer service the bicycle at this stage. This bedding and settling in process is unavoidable. Therefore, remember to make an appointment with your bicycle dealer for the first inspection of your new bicycle. The first inspection is very important for both functioning and durability of your bicycle.

For your own safety, bring your bicycle to your dealer for its first inspection after 100 to 300 kilometres (60 to 180 miles), 5 to 15 hours of initial use or four to six weeks, at the very latest however after three months.

It is advisable to have your bicycle serviced regularly by your bicycle dealer after the bedding in phase. If your bicycle does harder service, because you ride a great deal on poor road surfaces or cross-country, it will require correspondingly shorter maintenance periods. The off-season during the winter months is a very good time to take your bicycle to your bicycle dealer for the annual inspection, as they will have plenty of time for servicing.

Servicing and repairs are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer. If you have your bicycle serviced by anyone else than an expert, you run the risk that parts of your bicycle will fail. This may lead to an accident! When working on your bicycle restrict yourself to jobs for which you are equipped e.g. with a torque wrench

(a)

and have the necessary knowledge.

If a component needs to be replaced, make it a rule to only use original spare parts

(b)

.

a

118 b c d a b

119

Make sure pedals and shoe soles are always clear of mud and other impurities and grease the lock-in mechanism with lubricant at regular intervals.

Taking up the pedals, engaging and disengaging the shoes should first be practised while stationary. Later you can refine your technique in a place free of traffic.

The cleat should be positioned so that the ball of your feet rests over the pedal spindle (a) . Your feet should assume a natural position when pedalling. For most people this means that the heels will point a little inward. Your bicycle dealer will be pleased to help you adjusting and mounting the pedal best meeting your demands!

Make sure the fastening bolts of the cleats are properly tightened, as you will find it almost impossible to disengage your shoe from the pedal, if the cleat is loose. Risk of an accident!

The release force of clipless pedals is adjusted by means of an Allen key

(b)

.

If there are any creaking or squeaking noises occurring, some grease will solve the problem in most cases. These noises as well as lateral play of the shoe on the pedal can, however, be also signs of wear. Check the cleats at regular intervals.

Only use clipless pedals allowing you to engage and disengage smoothly

(c)

. A defective pedal or a badly worn cleat can make the shoe disengage from the pedal. Or unclipping the shoe from the pedal is sometimes very difficult or even impossible. In both cases, there is the danger of an accident!

Inform yourself at your bicycle dealer about the various models of cycling shoes available. Cycling shoes come in various styles for specific uses.

Some mountain bike pedals, also referred to as platform pedals, are designed for maximum grip of the shoes when dirtbiking and freeriding

(d)

. For this reason they have sharp edges and/ or bolted pins. As they enhance the risk of injuries during riding, you should wear protective clothing, e.g. knee and shin guards.

16 General Notes on Care and

Inspection

Your bicycle dealer will have assembled and adjusted your bicycle ready for use when you come to collect it. Nevertheless, your bicycle needs regular servicing. Have your local bicycle dealer do the scheduled maintenance work. This is the only way to ensure that all components function safely and reliably for many miles.

The bicycle will be due for its first maintenance after 100 to 300 kilometres

(60 to 180 miles), 5 to 15 hours of initial use or four to six weeks. The bedding in phase typically involves spokes slightly losing tension, cables stretching, gears becoming out of adjustment and bearings settling, so there is every reason to have your dealer service the bicycle at this stage. This bedding and settling in process is unavoidable. Therefore, remember to make an appointment with your bicycle dealer for the first inspection of your new bicycle. The first inspection is very important for both functioning and durability of your bicycle.

For your own safety, bring your bicycle to your dealer for its first inspection after 100 to 300 kilometres (60 to 180 miles), 5 to 15 hours of initial use or four to six weeks, at the very latest however after three months.

It is advisable to have your bicycle serviced regularly by your bicycle dealer after the bedding in phase. If your bicycle does harder service, because you ride a great deal on poor road surfaces or cross-country, it will require correspondingly shorter maintenance periods. The off-season during the winter months is a very good time to take your bicycle to your bicycle dealer for the annual inspection, as they will have plenty of time for servicing.

Servicing and repairs are jobs best left to your bicycle dealer. If you have your bicycle serviced by anyone else than an expert, you run the risk that parts of your bicycle will fail. This may lead to an accident! When working on your bicycle restrict yourself to jobs for which you are equipped e.g. with a torque wrench

(a)

and have the necessary knowledge.

If a component needs to be replaced, make it a rule to only use original spare parts

(b)

.

a

118 b c d a b

119

16.1 Cleaning and Caring for the Bicycle

Dried sweat, dirt and salt from riding during the winter months can harm your bicycle. You should therefore make it a habit of cleaning all its components at regular intervals.

Avoid cleaning your bicycle with a pressure water washer. The high-pressure water ejected in a narrowly focused jet may pass through seals and penetrate bearings. This leads to the dilution of lubricants and consequently to greater friction. This destroys and impairs the functioning of the bearing races in the long term. Pressurized water also tends to abrade frame stickers.

A much more gentle way of cleaning your bicycle is with a low pressure water jet or a bucket of water and a sponge (a) or large brush. Cleaning your bicycle by hand has another positive side-effect: you may discover defects in the paint

(b) or worn or defective components at an early stage.

Do not clean your bicycle with a high-pressure water or steam jet and if you do, be sure to keep it at a distance.

While cleaning, watch out for cracks, scratches, dents as well as bent or discoloured material. Have defective components replaced immediately and touch up paint defects. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Inspect the chain after you have finished cleaning and oil it, if necessary (c)

(see chapter “Chain”). Apply a coat of standard hard wax (d) on painted, metal and carbon surfaces (except from brake sufaces). Polish the waxed surfaces after drying to give them a nice shine.

Keep cleaning agents and chain oil clear of the brake pads, rotors and rim sides (braking surfaces). This could impair the functioning of the brake (see chapter „Brake System“)! Never grease or lubricate the clamping areas of a frame made of carbon, e.g. handlebars, stem, seat post and seat tube.

Only use petroleum based solvents for cleaning tough oil or grease stains from paint and carbon surfaces. Never use degreasing agents containing acetone, methyl chloride etc., or solvent-containing, non-neutral or chemical cleaning agents that could attack the surface!

16.2 Sheltering and Storing the Bicycle

If you regularly service your bicycle during the year, you will not need to take any special precautions when storing it for a short time, apart from securing it against theft. It is advisable to store the bicycle in a dry and airy place.

There are some things to bear in mind, when putting the bicycle away for the winter months: Inflated inner tubes tend to gradually lose air when the bicycle is not used for a long time. If the bicycle is left standing on flat tyres for an extended period, this can cause damage to the structure of the tyres.

It is therefore better to hang the wheels or the entire bicycle (a) or to check the tyre pressure regularly (b) .

Clean the bicycle (c) and protect it against corrosion. Your bicycle dealer offers a variety of care products, such as spray wax (d) etc. Take off the seat post and allow for any moisture that may have entered to dry away. Spray a little finely atomized oil into the seat tube (except for carbon clamping areas!). Switch the gear to the smallest chainring and the smallest sprocket.

This relaxes the cables and springs as much as possible.

There is usually minimal waiting time for repairs and servicing at bicycle dealers during the winter months. What is more, many dealers offer annual checks at a special price. Use the off-season to take your bicycle to your dealer for inspection!

If your bicycle has carbon rims, do not hang it on the rims! Risk of breakage!

a

120 b c d a b c d

121

16.1 Cleaning and Caring for the Bicycle

Dried sweat, dirt and salt from riding during the winter months can harm your bicycle. You should therefore make it a habit of cleaning all its components at regular intervals.

Avoid cleaning your bicycle with a pressure water washer. The high-pressure water ejected in a narrowly focused jet may pass through seals and penetrate bearings. This leads to the dilution of lubricants and consequently to greater friction. This destroys and impairs the functioning of the bearing races in the long term. Pressurized water also tends to abrade frame stickers.

A much more gentle way of cleaning your bicycle is with a low pressure water jet or a bucket of water and a sponge (a) or large brush. Cleaning your bicycle by hand has another positive side-effect: you may discover defects in the paint

(b) or worn or defective components at an early stage.

Do not clean your bicycle with a high-pressure water or steam jet and if you do, be sure to keep it at a distance.

While cleaning, watch out for cracks, scratches, dents as well as bent or discoloured material. Have defective components replaced immediately and touch up paint defects. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Inspect the chain after you have finished cleaning and oil it, if necessary (c)

(see chapter “Chain”). Apply a coat of standard hard wax (d) on painted, metal and carbon surfaces (except from brake sufaces). Polish the waxed surfaces after drying to give them a nice shine.

Keep cleaning agents and chain oil clear of the brake pads, rotors and rim sides (braking surfaces). This could impair the functioning of the brake (see chapter „Brake System“)! Never grease or lubricate the clamping areas of a frame made of carbon, e.g. handlebars, stem, seat post and seat tube.

Only use petroleum based solvents for cleaning tough oil or grease stains from paint and carbon surfaces. Never use degreasing agents containing acetone, methyl chloride etc., or solvent-containing, non-neutral or chemical cleaning agents that could attack the surface!

16.2 Sheltering and Storing the Bicycle

If you regularly service your bicycle during the year, you will not need to take any special precautions when storing it for a short time, apart from securing it against theft. It is advisable to store the bicycle in a dry and airy place.

There are some things to bear in mind, when putting the bicycle away for the winter months: Inflated inner tubes tend to gradually lose air when the bicycle is not used for a long time. If the bicycle is left standing on flat tyres for an extended period, this can cause damage to the structure of the tyres.

It is therefore better to hang the wheels or the entire bicycle (a) or to check the tyre pressure regularly (b) .

Clean the bicycle (c) and protect it against corrosion. Your bicycle dealer offers a variety of care products, such as spray wax (d) etc. Take off the seat post and allow for any moisture that may have entered to dry away. Spray a little finely atomized oil into the seat tube (except for carbon clamping areas!). Switch the gear to the smallest chainring and the smallest sprocket.

This relaxes the cables and springs as much as possible.

There is usually minimal waiting time for repairs and servicing at bicycle dealers during the winter months. What is more, many dealers offer annual checks at a special price. Use the off-season to take your bicycle to your dealer for inspection!

If your bicycle has carbon rims, do not hang it on the rims! Risk of breakage!

a

120 b c d a b c d

121

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

Component

Lighting

Tyres

Tyres

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes, (rim-), brake pads

Brake cables

Brakes (disc-)

Suspension fork

Suspension fork

Suspension seat post

Suspension seat post

Rims with rim brakes

Bottom bracket

Bottom bracket

Chain

Chain

Crankset

Painted / anodised surfaces

Wheels / spokes

122

What to do

Check

Check pressure

Check tread and side walls

Check lever travel, wear of brake pads, position of pads relative to rim

Test brakes in stationary

Clean

Visual inspection

Replace liquid (Dot-liquids)

Check and retighten bolts, if necessary

Change oil or grease elastomers

Service

Check for play

Check thickness, replace if necessary

Check for play

Regrease (shell)

Check and grease, if necessary

Check and replace, if necessary

Check and retighten, if necessary

Impregnate

Check for trueness and tension

Before every ride Monthly Annually

At the latest after second set of brake pads is worn down

After 800 km (500 miles)

At least every 6 months

Component

Handlebars

(aluminium and carbon)

Headset

Headset

Metal surfaces

Hubs

Hubs

Pedals

Pedals (clipless)

Seat post / stem

Front / rear derailleur

Quick-release

Bolts and nuts

Spokes

Valves

Stem / seat post

Cables gears / brakes

What to do

Replace

Check for play

Regrease

Impregnate

Check for play

Regrease

Check for play

Clean and grease locking mechanism

Check clamping bolts

Clean and grease

Check seat

Check and retighten, if necessary

Check tension

Check seat

Dismount and regrease (no grease on carbon!)

Dismount and regrease

Before every ride

At the latest after 5 years

Monthly

At least every 6 months

Annually

You should be able to do the jobs marked bright orange yourself, provided you have a certain degree of manual skill, a little experience and suitable tools; this includes, e.g. a torque wrench. If you come across any defects, take appropriate measures without delay. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Jobs marked dark orange are best left to your bicycle dealer.

123

17 Service and Maintenance Schedule

Component

Lighting

Tyres

Tyres

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes (rim-)

Brakes, (rim-), brake pads

Brake cables

Brakes (disc-)

Suspension fork

Suspension fork

Suspension seat post

Suspension seat post

Rims with rim brakes

Bottom bracket

Bottom bracket

Chain

Chain

Crankset

Painted / anodised surfaces

Wheels / spokes

122

What to do

Check

Check pressure

Check tread and side walls

Check lever travel, wear of brake pads, position of pads relative to rim

Test brakes in stationary

Clean

Visual inspection

Replace liquid (Dot-liquids)

Check and retighten bolts, if necessary

Change oil or grease elastomers

Service

Check for play

Check thickness, replace if necessary

Check for play

Regrease (shell)

Check and grease, if necessary

Check and replace, if necessary

Check and retighten, if necessary

Impregnate

Check for trueness and tension

Before every ride Monthly Annually

At the latest after second set of brake pads is worn down

After 800 km (500 miles)

At least every 6 months

Component

Handlebars

(aluminium and carbon)

Headset

Headset

Metal surfaces

Hubs

Hubs

Pedals

Pedals (clipless)

Seat post / stem

Front / rear derailleur

Quick-release

Bolts and nuts

Spokes

Valves

Stem / seat post

Cables gears / brakes

What to do

Replace

Check for play

Regrease

Impregnate

Check for play

Regrease

Check for play

Clean and grease locking mechanism

Check clamping bolts

Clean and grease

Check seat

Check and retighten, if necessary

Check tension

Check seat

Dismount and regrease (no grease on carbon!)

Dismount and regrease

Before every ride

At the latest after 5 years

Monthly

At least every 6 months

Annually

You should be able to do the jobs marked bright orange yourself, provided you have a certain degree of manual skill, a little experience and suitable tools; this includes, e.g. a torque wrench. If you come across any defects, take appropriate measures without delay. If you are in doubt or if you have any questions, please contact your bicycle dealer!

Jobs marked dark orange are best left to your bicycle dealer.

123

18 Recommended Tightening Torques

All bolted connections of the bicycle components have to be tightened carefully and checked regularly to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the bicycle.

This is best done with a torque wrench that disengages at the desired tightening torque or a click-type torque wrench.

Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer! Where no maximum tightening torque is given start with 2 Nm. Observe the prescribed limit values. Follow the attached instructions of the component manufacturers.

Some components have the maximum permissible tightening torque printed on them. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in the present chapter, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Assembly

Rear derailleur

Front derailleur

Shift lever

STI brake-shift lever

Brake lever

Hubs

Crankset / bottom bracket

Pedals

Component

Fastening bolt

Cable fastening

Pulleys

Front derailleur mount

Cable fastening

Fastening bolt

Fastening bolt

Fastening bolt

Freewheel body

Fastening bolts of squared bottom brackets

Fastening bolts octalink

Bottom bracket square-head

Bottom bracket Hollowtech 2 / Truvativ GXP

Star-shaped nut Hollowtech 2 bottom bracket

Allen bolts left crank arm Hollowtech 2

Fastening bolt left crank arm Truvativ

Chainring bolts

Torque Nm

8 - 10

4 - 6

3 - 4

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

35 - 39

35 - 45

35 - 50

50 - 70

30 - 50

0.4 - 0.7

10 - 15

48 - 54

8 - 11

30 - 40

124

Assembly

Stems

Saddle clamping

V-brakes

Component

M5 bolts

M6 bolts

Stem for threaded forks

M4 bolts

M5 bolts

M6 bolts

Fastening bolt on cantilever boss

Fastening brake cable

Brake shoes

Clamping of swing arm bearing

Damper bolts

Drop-outs

Bolts, in general (e.g. pannier rack mounting, bottle cage, etc.) including carbon frames

Wheel

Standard

M3 Allen bolts

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

Wheel nuts (front wheel)

Wheel nuts (rear wheel)

Disc Brakes

Component

Brake calliper

Rotor fixing

Brake calliper adapter

Brake lever

Brake lever, in general

6

4

Magura

Torque Nm

Shimano

Torque Nm

6 - 8

2 - 4

Tektro

Torque Nm

8

5

8 - 10

4 - 7

Hayes

Torque Nm

12

5

5 - 7

5 - 6

8

7 - 11

2 - 3

2.7

5.5

9.5

23

46

20 - 25

25 - 30

Torque Nm

5.5 - 8

9.3 - 13.5

15

3 - 4

5.5 - 8

9.5 - 13.5

5 - 7

6 - 8

Avid

Torque Nm

8 - 10

6

3 - 4.5

125

18 Recommended Tightening Torques

All bolted connections of the bicycle components have to be tightened carefully and checked regularly to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the bicycle.

This is best done with a torque wrench that disengages at the desired tightening torque or a click-type torque wrench.

Tighten carefully by approaching the prescribed maximum torque in small steps (0.5 Nm increments) whilst constantly checking the proper fit of the component. Never exceed the maximum tightening torque indicated by the manufacturer! Where no maximum tightening torque is given start with 2 Nm. Observe the prescribed limit values. Follow the attached instructions of the component manufacturers.

Some components have the maximum permissible tightening torque printed on them. Use a torque wrench and never exceed the maximum tightening torque! You will find the prescribed values in the present chapter, directly on the components and/or in the manuals of the component manufacturers.

Assembly

Rear derailleur

Front derailleur

Shift lever

STI brake-shift lever

Brake lever

Hubs

Crankset / bottom bracket

Pedals

Component

Fastening bolt

Cable fastening

Pulleys

Front derailleur mount

Cable fastening

Fastening bolt

Fastening bolt

Fastening bolt

Freewheel body

Fastening bolts of squared bottom brackets

Fastening bolts octalink

Bottom bracket square-head

Bottom bracket Hollowtech 2 / Truvativ GXP

Star-shaped nut Hollowtech 2 bottom bracket

Allen bolts left crank arm Hollowtech 2

Fastening bolt left crank arm Truvativ

Chainring bolts

Torque Nm

8 - 10

4 - 6

3 - 4

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

5 - 7

35 - 39

35 - 45

35 - 50

50 - 70

30 - 50

0.4 - 0.7

10 - 15

48 - 54

8 - 11

30 - 40

124

Assembly

Stems

Saddle clamping

V-brakes

Component

M5 bolts

M6 bolts

Stem for threaded forks

M4 bolts

M5 bolts

M6 bolts

Fastening bolt on cantilever boss

Fastening brake cable

Brake shoes

Clamping of swing arm bearing

Damper bolts

Drop-outs

Bolts, in general (e.g. pannier rack mounting, bottle cage, etc.) including carbon frames

Wheel

Standard

M3 Allen bolts

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

Wheel nuts (front wheel)

Wheel nuts (rear wheel)

Disc Brakes

Component

Brake calliper

Rotor fixing

Brake calliper adapter

Brake lever

Brake lever, in general

6

4

Magura

Torque Nm

Shimano

Torque Nm

6 - 8

2 - 4

Tektro

Torque Nm

8

5

8 - 10

4 - 7

Hayes

Torque Nm

12

5

5 - 7

5 - 6

8

7 - 11

2 - 3

2.7

5.5

9.5

23

46

20 - 25

25 - 30

Torque Nm

5.5 - 8

9.3 - 13.5

15

3 - 4

5.5 - 8

9.5 - 13.5

5 - 7

6 - 8

Avid

Torque Nm

8 - 10

6

3 - 4.5

125

19 Warranty and Guarantee

19.1 Warranty

Your Rights as purchaser

With your decision to buy a bicycle of the WINORA-STAIGER group, you have become the owner of a high-end quality product. In accordance with the European warranty law, modified as of January 1, 2002, defects of quality are warranted by your bicycle dealer for a period of 2 years. The period runs from the delivery of the bicycle by your bicycle dealer. To be able to present documents verifying the date of purchase and delivery, please keep the transfer protocol (at the end of this manual) signed by both parties as well as the receipts, such as invoice and cash slip, in a safe place for at least two years. Please contact your bicycle dealer in the event of defects.

In addition to the generally warranted period of two years, a reversal in the burden of proof is applicable for a period of six months as of delivery of the product. That means the legislator established the refutable presumption that a defect occurring within six months as of delivery of the bicycle has already been existent at the moment of delivery.

In the event a defect occurs it therefore rests with the seller to prove that the defect was not existent at the moment of delivery and is not due to improper use, misuse or functional wear. After this period it is up to you to submit evidence.

This new warranty law is only valid in the countries where the law has been ratified according to the renewed European regulations, e.g. in Germany. Please inform yourself about the situation in your country!

This warranty does not provide coverage for:

Damage caused by improper use and force majeure (for more information on intended use see chapter “Intended use”).

- All bicycle parts that are subject to wear due to their function, except for manufacturing faults or material defects (see list of potential wearing parts further below.)

- Damage occurring as a result of inappropriate or improper care and inappropriately performed repairs, reassembly or replacement of bicycle components. You will find detailed care instructions in the present manual.

- Accidental damage or any other unusual impacts coming from outside, except they are due to faulty information or manufacturing faults.

- Repairs performed by using second hand components or damage occurring as a result thereof.

- Damage occurring as a result of the fact that a product was used for competitive purposes, though it is not explicitly approved for competitive use. For more information on the intended use of the bicycle read chapter “Intended use“.

- Retrofitted add-ons not included in the scope of delivery at the moment of delivery or damage occurring as a result of inappropriate fitting of these add-on parts.

Please also observe the permissible load specifications and restrictions on use (child carrier etc.) specified in chapter “Intended use”. Be sure to follow the assembly instructions of the manufacturers (especially torque specifcations for bolts) as well as the prescribed maintenance schedule.

Please observe the checks and routines listed in this manual or in any other manual enclosed with this delivery (see chapter “Service and Maintenance

Schedule”) as well as any instructions as to the replacement of safety-relevant components, such as handlebars, brakes etc.

126

Warranty claims are justified:

- In the event of manufacturing faults, material defects or faulty information.

- In the event the claimed damage or defect has already been existent at the moment of delivery to the customer.

- In the event the wear or modification of the product is not due to nature or function (see list of potential wearing parts of the bicycle on the following pages).

- In the event the damage or defect did not occur as a result of the fact that the bicycle was not used according to its intended use.

See chapter “Intended use“.

Be sure to have your bicycle serviced according to the schedule given in chapter ”Service Schedule”. Read thoroughly through chapters “Notes on Care and Inspection“ and ”Service and

Maintenance Schedule”. Regular servicing ensures your safety and cycling joy. On this occasion an expert will anticipate and remedy possible forthcoming defects.

Keep in mind that retrofitted accessories can impair the functioning of your bicycle. Ask your bicycle dealer for advice before mounting any kind of accessories on your bicycle.

19.2 Wearing parts please note:

Your bicycle is a technical product that is in need of regular inspection, care and maintenance. Many parts of your bicycle are subject to wear due to their function and in need of being maintained with more attention. Be sure to thoroughly read through the list of wearing parts including definition further below:

Bicycle Wearing parts List:

01. Tyres

02. Rims in connection with rim brakes

03. Brake pads

04. Chains and drive belts

05. Chainrings, sprockets, bottom brackets and pulleys

06. Lamps of light set

07. Handlebar tapes/grips

08. Hydraulic oils and lubricants

09. Bowden and brake cables/housings

10. Paint

11. Seals of suspension elements

12. Saddle coverings

01. Tyres

The bicycle tyre equipment is inherently subject to wear. It depends on how the bicycle is used and to a considerable degree on the rider himself. Hard braking resulting in a blocked tyre will reduce the service life of the tyre.

Furthermore, the air pressure should be checked at regular intervals and inflated, if necessary, to the pressure specified by the tyre manufacturer. Excessive sun exposure, fuel, oils etc. may harm the tyre equipment, as well.

127

19 Warranty and Guarantee

19.1 Warranty

Your Rights as purchaser

With your decision to buy a bicycle of the WINORA-STAIGER group, you have become the owner of a high-end quality product. In accordance with the European warranty law, modified as of January 1, 2002, defects of quality are warranted by your bicycle dealer for a period of 2 years. The period runs from the delivery of the bicycle by your bicycle dealer. To be able to present documents verifying the date of purchase and delivery, please keep the transfer protocol (at the end of this manual) signed by both parties as well as the receipts, such as invoice and cash slip, in a safe place for at least two years. Please contact your bicycle dealer in the event of defects.

In addition to the generally warranted period of two years, a reversal in the burden of proof is applicable for a period of six months as of delivery of the product. That means the legislator established the refutable presumption that a defect occurring within six months as of delivery of the bicycle has already been existent at the moment of delivery.

In the event a defect occurs it therefore rests with the seller to prove that the defect was not existent at the moment of delivery and is not due to improper use, misuse or functional wear. After this period it is up to you to submit evidence.

This new warranty law is only valid in the countries where the law has been ratified according to the renewed European regulations, e.g. in Germany. Please inform yourself about the situation in your country!

This warranty does not provide coverage for:

Damage caused by improper use and force majeure (for more information on intended use see chapter “Intended use”).

- All bicycle parts that are subject to wear due to their function, except for manufacturing faults or material defects (see list of potential wearing parts further below.)

- Damage occurring as a result of inappropriate or improper care and inappropriately performed repairs, reassembly or replacement of bicycle components. You will find detailed care instructions in the present manual.

- Accidental damage or any other unusual impacts coming from outside, except they are due to faulty information or manufacturing faults.

- Repairs performed by using second hand components or damage occurring as a result thereof.

- Damage occurring as a result of the fact that a product was used for competitive purposes, though it is not explicitly approved for competitive use. For more information on the intended use of the bicycle read chapter “Intended use“.

- Retrofitted add-ons not included in the scope of delivery at the moment of delivery or damage occurring as a result of inappropriate fitting of these add-on parts.

Please also observe the permissible load specifications and restrictions on use (child carrier etc.) specified in chapter “Intended use”. Be sure to follow the assembly instructions of the manufacturers (especially torque specifcations for bolts) as well as the prescribed maintenance schedule.

Please observe the checks and routines listed in this manual or in any other manual enclosed with this delivery (see chapter “Service and Maintenance

Schedule”) as well as any instructions as to the replacement of safety-relevant components, such as handlebars, brakes etc.

126

Warranty claims are justified:

- In the event of manufacturing faults, material defects or faulty information.

- In the event the claimed damage or defect has already been existent at the moment of delivery to the customer.

- In the event the wear or modification of the product is not due to nature or function (see list of potential wearing parts of the bicycle on the following pages).

- In the event the damage or defect did not occur as a result of the fact that the bicycle was not used according to its intended use.

See chapter “Intended use“.

Be sure to have your bicycle serviced according to the schedule given in chapter ”Service Schedule”. Read thoroughly through chapters “Notes on Care and Inspection“ and ”Service and

Maintenance Schedule”. Regular servicing ensures your safety and cycling joy. On this occasion an expert will anticipate and remedy possible forthcoming defects.

Keep in mind that retrofitted accessories can impair the functioning of your bicycle. Ask your bicycle dealer for advice before mounting any kind of accessories on your bicycle.

19.2 Wearing parts please note:

Your bicycle is a technical product that is in need of regular inspection, care and maintenance. Many parts of your bicycle are subject to wear due to their function and in need of being maintained with more attention. Be sure to thoroughly read through the list of wearing parts including definition further below:

Bicycle Wearing parts List:

01. Tyres

02. Rims in connection with rim brakes

03. Brake pads

04. Chains and drive belts

05. Chainrings, sprockets, bottom brackets and pulleys

06. Lamps of light set

07. Handlebar tapes/grips

08. Hydraulic oils and lubricants

09. Bowden and brake cables/housings

10. Paint

11. Seals of suspension elements

12. Saddle coverings

01. Tyres

The bicycle tyre equipment is inherently subject to wear. It depends on how the bicycle is used and to a considerable degree on the rider himself. Hard braking resulting in a blocked tyre will reduce the service life of the tyre.

Furthermore, the air pressure should be checked at regular intervals and inflated, if necessary, to the pressure specified by the tyre manufacturer. Excessive sun exposure, fuel, oils etc. may harm the tyre equipment, as well.

127

02. Rims in connection with rim brakes

Due to the coaction of rim brake and rim, not only the brake pad is subject to wear due to its function, but also the rim. For this reason the rim should be checked for wearing at regular intervals. The occurrence of fine cracks or the deformation of the rim edges as a result of an increased air pressure are signs of advanced wearing. Rims with wear indicators will tell you whether the rim is worn down or not. See chapter “Brake System“.

03. Brake pads

Pads of rim, drum and disc brakes are inherently subject to wear. It depends on how the bicycle is used. Cycling over hilly terrain or sport cycling may involve a replacement of the brake pads at shorter intervals. Regularly check the wearing of the pads and have them replaced by your bicycle dealer.

04. Chains and drive belts

The bicycle chain is inherently subject to wear. The rate of wear will depend on care and maintenance and the way you use your bicycle (extent of use, riding in the rain, dirt, salt etc.). Regular cleaning and oiling may lengthen its service life. If it has reached its limit of wear, however, it must be replaced.

Cycling with a worn down chain may damage further parts of the drive. See chapter “Chain“.

05. Chainrings, sprockets, bottom brackets and pulleys

The sprockets, chainrings, bottom brackets and jockey wheels of bicycles with derailleur gears are subject to wear due to their function. Regular cleaning and lubrication may lengthen the service life. If they have reached their limit of wear, however, they must be replaced. The rate of wear will depend on care, maintenance and the way you use your bicycle (extent of use, riding in the rain, dirt, salt etc.).

06. Lamps of light set

Light bulbs and other lamps are inherently subject to wear. For this reason they may be in need of replacement. Always take replacement bulbs on a cycling tour to be able to carry out the replacement.

07. Handlebar tapes/grips

Handlebar tapes and grips are subject to wear due to their function. For this reason a replacement at regular intervals may be necessary. Make sure the grips are tight on the handlebars.

08. Hydraulic oils and lubricants

Hydraulic oils and lubricants become ineffective over time.

All points of lubrication should be cleaned and relubricated at regular intervals. Old lubricants that are not removed and re-applied lead to an increased wearing of the add-on parts and bearings concerned.

09. Bowden and brake cables

All Bowden cables must be serviced at regular intervals and replaced, if necessary. This becomes particularly acute, when the bicycle is often left in the open and exposed to weather influences.

10. paint

The paint is in need of regular care. Regularly check all painted surfaces for damage and touch up paint defects immediately. If necessary, protect the paint from rubbing cables as well as the chain stay by means of adhesive, transparent straps. This will preserve the finish of your bicycle.

128

19.3 Guarantee of WINORA-STAIGER GmbH

In addition to the warranty WINORA-STAIGER GmbH provide an additional guarantee in terms of quality, durability and sound condition for the frames.

In the event of a claim, your direct contact is your bicycle dealer, who will be pleased to answer your inquiries.

The frames are warranted from the date of purchase to the initial buyer for all bicycles as of model year 2009

- 5 years for aluminium frames

- 5 years for carbon frames

- 5 years for full-suspension frames (except: bearings and rear shocks)

The WINORA-STAIGER GmbH guarantee is nontransferable. It only applies to the initial buyer and upon presentation of the receipt and a copy of the completely filled in delivery protocol. The guarantee does not cover labour and transport costs, nor does it cover follow up costs resulting from defects.

It does not cover damage resulting from wear, neglect (insufficient care and maintenance), accidents, overstress caused by overloading, incorrect assembly (non-observance of manufacturer’s assembly instructions) or improper treatment or damage resulting from changes to the bicycle (e.g. mounting or alteration of additional components). For damage resulting from jumps or any other undue stress as well as from noncompliance with recommendations in this manual or your bicycle dealer’s advise there shall be no claim under guarantee. For more information on the intended use, please read the respective chapter of the present manual.

Further claims against us, in particular claims to reduction or for damages, shall remain unconsidered by this guarantee. Performance of any service within this guarantee by WINORA-STAIGER GmbH shall not extend or restart the guarantee period.

In the event of unjustified return deliveries we reserve ourselves the right to invoice a flat-rate fee for the expenses incurred to us.

WINORA GROUP

Winora-Staiger GmbH

97404 Schweinfurt

Phone: +49 (0) 9721 / 65 01-0

Mail: [email protected]

129

02. Rims in connection with rim brakes

Due to the coaction of rim brake and rim, not only the brake pad is subject to wear due to its function, but also the rim. For this reason the rim should be checked for wearing at regular intervals. The occurrence of fine cracks or the deformation of the rim edges as a result of an increased air pressure are signs of advanced wearing. Rims with wear indicators will tell you whether the rim is worn down or not. See chapter “Brake System“.

03. Brake pads

Pads of rim, drum and disc brakes are inherently subject to wear. It depends on how the bicycle is used. Cycling over hilly terrain or sport cycling may involve a replacement of the brake pads at shorter intervals. Regularly check the wearing of the pads and have them replaced by your bicycle dealer.

04. Chains and drive belts

The bicycle chain is inherently subject to wear. The rate of wear will depend on care and maintenance and the way you use your bicycle (extent of use, riding in the rain, dirt, salt etc.). Regular cleaning and oiling may lengthen its service life. If it has reached its limit of wear, however, it must be replaced.

Cycling with a worn down chain may damage further parts of the drive. See chapter “Chain“.

05. Chainrings, sprockets, bottom brackets and pulleys

The sprockets, chainrings, bottom brackets and jockey wheels of bicycles with derailleur gears are subject to wear due to their function. Regular cleaning and lubrication may lengthen the service life. If they have reached their limit of wear, however, they must be replaced. The rate of wear will depend on care, maintenance and the way you use your bicycle (extent of use, riding in the rain, dirt, salt etc.).

06. Lamps of light set

Light bulbs and other lamps are inherently subject to wear. For this reason they may be in need of replacement. Always take replacement bulbs on a cycling tour to be able to carry out the replacement.

07. Handlebar tapes/grips

Handlebar tapes and grips are subject to wear due to their function. For this reason a replacement at regular intervals may be necessary. Make sure the grips are tight on the handlebars.

08. Hydraulic oils and lubricants

Hydraulic oils and lubricants become ineffective over time.

All points of lubrication should be cleaned and relubricated at regular intervals. Old lubricants that are not removed and re-applied lead to an increased wearing of the add-on parts and bearings concerned.

09. Bowden and brake cables

All Bowden cables must be serviced at regular intervals and replaced, if necessary. This becomes particularly acute, when the bicycle is often left in the open and exposed to weather influences.

10. paint

The paint is in need of regular care. Regularly check all painted surfaces for damage and touch up paint defects immediately. If necessary, protect the paint from rubbing cables as well as the chain stay by means of adhesive, transparent straps. This will preserve the finish of your bicycle.

19.3 Guarantee of WINORA-STAIGER GmbH

In addition to the warranty WINORA-STAIGER GmbH provide an additional guarantee in terms of quality, durability and sound condition for the frames.

In the event of a claim, your direct contact is your bicycle dealer, who will be pleased to answer your inquiries.

The frames are warranted from the date of purchase to the initial buyer for all bicycles as of model year 2009

- 5 years for aluminium frames

- 5 years for carbon frames

- 5 years for full-suspension frames (except: bearings and rear shocks)

The WINORA-STAIGER GmbH guarantee is nontransferable. It only applies to the initial buyer and upon presentation of the receipt and a copy of the completely filled in delivery protocol. The guarantee does not cover labour and transport costs, nor does it cover follow up costs resulting from defects.

It does not cover damage resulting from wear, neglect (insufficient care and maintenance), accidents, overstress caused by overloading, incorrect assembly (non-observance of manufacturer’s assembly instructions) or improper treatment or damage resulting from changes to the bicycle (e.g. mounting or alteration of additional components). For damage resulting from jumps or any other undue stress as well as from noncompliance with recommendations in this manual or your bicycle dealer’s advise there shall be no claim under guarantee. For more information on the intended use, please read the respective chapter of the present manual.

Further claims against us, in particular claims to reduction or for damages, shall remain unconsidered by this guarantee. Performance of any service within this guarantee by WINORA-STAIGER GmbH shall not extend or restart the guarantee period.

In the event of unjustified return deliveries we reserve ourselves the right to invoice a flat-rate fee for the expenses incurred to us.

WINORA GROUP

Winora-Staiger GmbH

97404 Schweinfurt

Phone: +49 (0) 9721 / 65 01-0

Mail: [email protected]

128 129

20 Service Schedule (to be stamped)

1st Service

After 300 kilometres (180 miles) or 15 hours of use or three months after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

2nd Service

After 2000 kilometres (1200 miles) or 100 hours of use or one year after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

3rd Service

After 4000 kilometres (2400 miles) or 200 hours of use or two years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

4th Service

After 6000 kilometres (3700 miles) or 300 hours of use or three years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

5th Service

After 8000 kilometres (4900 miles) or 400 hours of use or four years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

6th Service

After 10000 kilometres (6200 miles) or 500 hours of use or five years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

130 131

20 Service Schedule (to be stamped)

1st Service

After 300 kilometres (180 miles) or 15 hours of use or three months after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

2nd Service

After 2000 kilometres (1200 miles) or 100 hours of use or one year after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

3rd Service

After 4000 kilometres (2400 miles) or 200 hours of use or two years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

4th Service

After 6000 kilometres (3700 miles) or 300 hours of use or three years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stamp and signature of the dealer:

5th Service

After 8000 kilometres (4900 miles) or 400 hours of use or four years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Stamp and signature of the dealer:

6th Service

After 10000 kilometres (6200 miles) or 500 hours of use or five years after date of purchase

Order no.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replaced or repaired parts:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Stamp and signature of the dealer:

130 131

Handover Report

Customer, Last name, First name

Street

ZIP code

Phone

Manufacturer

Town

Delivery date (DD/MM/YYYY)

Model

Type/Category Frame no./Frame size

Confirmation

I have thoroughly checked the product listed above. The item that was delivered was complete and without any visible damage. I have received the instructions for use with the care and maintenance information, and I was also instructed verbally. I am fully aware that obligations of the seller with regard to warranty only apply to defects in the product. There is no warranty for damage due to wear and tear arising from the use of the product, especially if that damage is to be regarded as “normal in use.” Explanations on typical damage due to wear and tear are given in the corresponding chapters of the Winora Group operating instructions.

Date/Signature of the buyer Comments:

Handover Report

Customer, Last name, First name

Street

ZIP code

Phone

Manufacturer

Town

Delivery date (DD/MM/YYYY)

Model

Type/Category Frame no./Frame size

Confirmation

I have thoroughly checked the product listed above. The item that was delivered was complete and without any visible damage. I have received the instructions for use with the care and maintenance information, and I was also instructed verbally. I am fully aware that obligations of the seller with regard to warranty only apply to defects in the product. There is no warranty for damage due to wear and tear arising from the use of the product, especially if that damage is to be regarded as “normal in use.” Explanations on typical damage due to wear and tear are given in the corresponding chapters of the Winora Group operating instructions.

Date/Signature of the buyer Comments:

Notes

132

WINORA GROUP | Winora-Staiger GmbH | Max-Planck-Straße 6 | 97526 Sennfeld (Germany)

+49 (0) 9721 6501-0 | +49 (0) 9721 6501-45 | [email protected] | www.winora-group.de

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