User Guide.book
User’s Guide
Release 5
Copyright
© 1997-2000 by Engineering Animation, Inc. All rights reserved.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Engineering Animation, Inc. MAKES
NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL. Engineering Animation, Inc. shall not be
liable for errors contained herein or for any incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this
material. The information contained herein is the exclusive property of Engineering Animation, Inc. and/or its licensors
and should not be distributed, reproduced, or disclosed in whole or in part without the prior written consent of
Engineering Animation, Inc.
The document is for informational and instructional purposes. Engineering Animation, Inc. reserves the right to make
changes in specifications and other information contained in this publication without prior notice, and the reader
should, in all cases, consult Engineering Animation, Inc. to determine whether any changes have been made.
The terms and conditions governing the sale and licensing of Engineering Animation, Inc. products are set forth in the
written contracts between Engineering Animation, Inc. No representation or other affirmation of fact contained in this
publication shall be deemed to be a warranty or give rise to any liability of Engineering Animation, Inc. whatsoever.
Restricted rights legend: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013.
Trademarks
World Up, WorldToolKit, SENSE8, World2World and OpenVR are trademarks or registered trademarks of Engineering
Animation Inc.
BasicScript is a registered trademark of Summit Software Company.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Engineering Animation, Inc.
100 Shoreline, Suite 282
Mill Valley, CA 94941-3645
(415) 339-3200
(415) 339-3201 (fax)
iii
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Related Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Style Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Installation Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Contents of the WorldUp Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
Chapter 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
WorldUp Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
What’s New in Release 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Understanding Real-Time Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
The Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
The Scene Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
How the Pieces All Fit Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Starting and Stopping the Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
iv
Reviewing the Simulation Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Scene Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
Organizational Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
Working with Scene Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
How the Scene Graph is Traversed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
Chapter 5 Working with a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
What is a WorldUp Project? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
Creating, Loading, and Saving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
Importing An Existing WorldUp Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
Configuring Directory Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
Global Simulation Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
Rendering Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
The Universe Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
........................................
54
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
67
.........................
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
What are Workviews? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
The Project Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
Scene Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
Model Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
Behavior Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
Type Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
v
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation and Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
The Development Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
Moving Around the Simulation
.......................................
80
Manipulating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
Setting Multiple Viewports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Windows and Viewpoints
...........................................
95
Clipping Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
Viewports
97
.......................................................
Stereo Viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
Importing Models from Third Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105
Using the Model Workview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
106
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Translating and Rotating Movables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
Scaling Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
114
Adjusting a Geometry’s Pivot Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
116
Using Materials to Change Object’s Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
117
Textures
120
.......................................................
Chapter 13 Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Working with Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122
vi
Different Types of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122
Lights and Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
123
Performance Impact of Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
123
Chapter 14 The Behavior System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
The Behavior Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
128
Creating and Using Behaviors
......................................
130
Behavior Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
132
Importing and Exporting Script-Based Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
135
Chapter 15 Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Creating New Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
138
Using Existing Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
139
Moving Viewpoints and 3D Objects Along Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
140
Editing Path Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
142
Saving Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
143
Deleting Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
144
Paths and Sensors Use Motion Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
144
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
144
Motion Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
144
Chapter 16 Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Creating a Sound Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
149
Changing Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150
Finding Sounds for your Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150
Changing Sound Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150
Using Scripts to Play a Sound
150
......................................
Setting the Audio Listener Viewpoint
.................................
151
Troubleshooting Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
151
vii
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Working With the State of a Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
168
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Network Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
174
Shared Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
179
Sharegroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184
Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
189
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
191
Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
193
Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
194
Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
195
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196
Model Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Packaging the Project for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
200
Choosing a Player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
201
Embedding Your Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
202
Distributing Your Simulation over the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
204
Appendix A Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Appendix B WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Available Players and Plug-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
209
WorldUp Player Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
210
Viewing a Simulation Using a WorldUp Player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
210
Important Notes For Direct 3D Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
211
viii
Appendix C WorldUp User’s Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Participating in SIG-WTK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
213
Communicating with SIG-WTK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
214
WTK/WUP Electronic Archive Policy
.................................
214
SIG-WTK: Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
214
Appendix D WorldUp Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Appendix E Pre-Built Behavior Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Plug-in Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
222
Plug-in Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
225
Appendix F WorldUp File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Autodesk 3D Studio Mesh
.........................................
229
MultiGen OpenFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
230
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
231
CAD Loader (DirectModel or JT)
....................................
232
WorldToolKit Neutral File Format (NFF) and Binary NFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
233
Wavefront OBJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
233
Pro/Engineer RENDER SLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
233
Autodesk DXF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
233
Appendix G Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
ix
Preface
This User’s Guide is intended to teach you how to
use WorldUp to create 3D/VR simulations.
Note All reference material, such as function and
object property definitions, is documented in the online help.
About this Manual
The following is a brief description of each chapter
in this guide:
Chapter 1, Installing WorldUp, describes system
requirements, installation, and software license
configuration for starting and running WorldUp on
the Window NT/2000 and Windows 95/98
platforms. Refer to your platform specific
Installation Guide for installation instructions for
other platforms.
Chapter 2, Introduction, provides an overview of the
WorldUp product, new features and enhancements
in Version 5.0, how to get started in WorldUp, and
important contact information.
Chapter 3, Overview of WorldUp, introduces you to
WorldUp and some of the fundamental concepts that
you need to understand before building a WorldUp
simulation.
Chapter 4, Organizing Your Scene, provides an
overview of the Scene Graph and how your entire
3D scene is organized.
Chapter 5, Working with a Project, describes how to
create a new project (or simulation), open an
existing project, and save your project. Also
presents information on Directory paths.
x
About this Manual
Chapter 6, A Quick Tour, walks you through four
tutorials that acquaint you with the main
components of WorldUp and the process of creating
a WorldUp simulation. These tutorials are designed
to quickly get you started with your own
simulations.
Chapter 7, Using the Workviews, provides a
description of each Workview–Scene, Model,
Behavior, and Type–and the Project Workview as a
whole. Workviews, new with R5, provide a more
efficient workflow by simplifying the User Interface
using tabs for the task on which you are focused.
Chapter 8, Development Window – Navigation and
Manipulation, describes the various navigation and
manipulation tools available on the Development
Window toolbar and methods for viewing your
graphical objects and moving around your scene in
the Development Window.
Chapter 9, Objects and Properties, defines objects
and properties, and describes how to create, delete,
duplicate, and find objects.
Chapter 10, Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints,
describes the difference between windows,
viewpoints, and viewports. Also describes stereo
viewing, multi-channel systems, and interleaved
display devices.
Chapter 11, Adding 3D Objects, describes how to
work with primitive objects and import objects from
the Model Workview.
Chapter 12, Editing 3D Objects, describes how to
change the appearance of the objects in your scene.
Chapter 13, Lights, describes the effect of lights and
materials on a scene.
Chapter 14, The Behavior System, describes the
system where all the behavior creation and
scheduling is done. It describes how to create a new
Preface
behavior, schedule the behavior, add inputs to the
behavior, edit the behavior's properties, and finally
to export the behavior for reuse.
Chapter 15, Paths, describes the series of position
and orientation records that you can use to guide
Viewpoint or Movable objects. Also describes how
to dynamically create, record, edit, save, load, and
play back paths in a variety of ways.
Chapter 16, Sounds, describes how WorldUp can
play sounds from .WAV files. Scripts control when
and for how long a sounds plays.
Chapter 17, Using Input Devices, describes how to
interface your simulations with each input device
supported by WorldUp, such as the Spacetec
Spaceball.
Chapter 18, Multi-User Simulations, describes how
to use WorldUp to create multi-user simulations that
can be run with Sense8’s World2World server
product. If you have not purchased World2World,
you will not be able to take advantage of the features
described in this chapter.
Chapter 19, Tips and Tricks, provides tips on how to
optimize your simulations.
Chapter 20, Publishing Your Application, provides
instructions for packaging and distributing your
application within a number of industry standard
environments. You can choose from the Web,
ActiveX, Visual Basic, MacroMedia Director,
Matlab, MS Office, and Visual C++.
Appendix , Environment Variables, describes
environment variables that you can add to your
system to configure your computer for maximum
performance.
Appendix , WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins,
describes the available WorldUp players and plugins and describes how to install, distribute, and run
them.
Preface
Related Documentation
Appendix , WorldUp User’s Group, describes the
WorldUp User’s Group (SIG-WTK) and how you
can join.
Style Conventions
Appendix , WorldUp Shortcuts, lists various
shortcuts that you can use as you develop
simulations in WorldUp.
• Courier New font – represents text that
you are instructed to type as part of an example
or tutorial, or represents script code.
Appendix , Pre-Built Behavior Library, lists the
various pre-built behaviors WorldUp provides so
you can drag and drop them onto objects, rather than
write scripts to create them.
• SMALL CAPS – represents a key on your
keyboard, such as SHIFT or ENTER.
Appendix , WorldUp File Formats, describes which
formats for 3D models WorldUp supports for
importing graphical objects into your simulation.
Appendix , Glossary, defines many of the common
terms used throughout the User’s Guide and on-line
help, and within the WorldUp development
environment.
A detailed index follows the glossary.
Related Documentation
The following publications provide additional
information about the WorldUp product:
WorldUp Programmer’s Guide – This Guide, also
provided with WorldUp R5, provides C and C++
programmers with more detailed information of
WorldUp.
WorldUp Plug-In Author’s Guide – The Plug-in Kit,
provided if you purchase the Plug-In Kit option
from Sense8, allows you to quickly create custom
simulation objects that directly interface with the
WorldUp Object System using a high-level set of
object management routines.
WorldUp BasicScript Reference Manual – This
manual is your on-line help, and is also found in pdf
format on your WorldUp R5 CD. An optional
hardcopy is available from EAI/Sense8.
This manual uses the following conventions:
• Italics – represent emphasized words, chapter
titles in cross-references, or the first use of a new
term.
• “Quotation marks” – represent chapter section
names in cross-references.
xi
xii
Style Conventions
Preface
1
1
Installing WorldUp
This chapter describes how to install and run
WorldUp on the Microsoft Windows platform. If
you are installing on another platform, refer to your
platform specific Installation Guide for installation
instructions.
System Requirements
WorldUp requires the following minimum
configuration (recommendations are also given):
• A PC with a Pentium microprocessor or its
equivalent
• At least 16 MB of RAM (24 to 32 MB is
recommended for Windows NT)
• A hard drive with 200 MB of free space (typical
install)
• A monitor capable of 1024x768 graphics
resolution and 16-bit color (recommended)
• A mouse
• A CD-ROM drive (to install WorldUp)
• Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, or Windows
2000
An OpenGL Graphics accelerator card is strongly
recommended to speed performance.
2
Installation Instructions
You should have at least as much free system RAM
as you have dedicated texture memory on your
graphics accelerator card. Since OpenGL maintains
a copy of all texture maps loaded by your
application in virtual memory, you should maximize
your virtual memory allocation in Windows so that
it can be used to swap texture memory instead of
using the hard drive. Swapping to the hard drive will
slow your application’s performance; so the more
RAM you have, the better.
Optional Hardware
You can use WorldUp with just a mouse as an input
device or you may want to consider one or more of
the devices described below. WorldUp supports a
wide range of 2D, 3D, and 6D input sensors, both
desktop sensors and sensors worn on the body for
sensing position and orientation. In addition to these
sensors, WorldUp also supports a standard
Windows compatible sound card or system.
WorldUp supports the following types of devices
and sensors:
• Mouse (any 2 or 3 button mouse)
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp
• Spacetec IMC Spaceball 2003 and Spaceball
Model 3003 (NT 3.51, using only the pick
button)
• StereoGraphics CrystalEyes and CrystalEyes VR
LCD shutter glasses
• Thrustmaster Flight Control/Weapons Control
Systems and Formula T2 steering console
• VictorMaxx Technologies’ CyberMaxx2 HMD
• Virtual i-O i-glasses!
Optional Software
In addition to sensors, you may want to have the
following tools handy:
• A 3D modeling tool that generates Autocad
DXF, 3D Studio 3DS,Wavefront OBJ, or Virtual
Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format
files.
• A paint or image processing program capable of
generating 24 or 32-bit TARGA format images.
• Sound-capture and processing software or
hardware.
• Ascension Mouse
• Ascension Bird and Flock of Birds
Installation Instructions
• Fifth Dimension Technologies’ 5DT Glove
Follow these steps to install WorldUp on your hard
drive:
• Gameport Joystick
• General Reality CyberTrak (formerly known as
Precision Navigation WayFinder)
1 Exit any other applications before starting the
• Intersense Trackers
2 Insert the CD into your CD ROM drive.
• Logitech 3D Mouse
• Logitech Head Tracker
• Logitech Space Control Mouse (Magellan)
• Polhemus ISOTRAK, ISOTRAK II,
InsideTRAK, and FASTRAK
installation process.
The WorldUp installation process should start
automatically. If not, run setup.exe.
3 When the Setup program starts, click Next at the
Welcome Screen.
Contents of the WorldUp Installation
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp
4 At the Software License Agreement Screen, read
the Software License Agreement and click Yes to
accept the terms of the agreement and continue
with the installation. Choose No to discontinue
the installation.
5 At the Choose Destination Location screen,
choose the directory into which you want to
install WorldUp. Click Yes to accept the default
directory or choose Browse to select a different
directory.
The Setup program will now install the WorldUp
directories and files onto your hard drive and
then display the Select Groups screen.
6 The Select Groups screen allows you to select a
program group that will contain the WorldUp
program items. Click Next to accept the default
or type in a new program group name to store the
program items.
Program Group Item
7 At the Finish Installation screen, you can choose
to display the README.TXT file now by selecting
the check box or you can read it later. Click
Finish.
The WorldUp installation is complete. Before
running WorldUp for the first time, you will need to
obtain a WorldUp software license code from
SENSE8 by following the directions shown below.
Contents of the WorldUp
Installation
Once you have installed WorldUp, you will find that
the menu items in the following table have been
added to the program group in which you installed
WorldUp.
Description
WorldUp
The WorldUp application.
WorldUp OpenGL
Stand-Alone Player
The WorldUp Stand-Alone Player, OpenGL version, is used to view simulations built
using WorldUp.
WorldUp D3D
Stand-Alone Player
The WorldUp Stand-Alone Player, Direct3D version, is used to view simulations built
using WorldUp. You must install DirectX before you can run the Direct3D version of the
player. See Appendix B, WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins for DirectX installation
information.
WorldUp User’s Guide
An online version of the WorldUp Users’ Guide in Portable Document Format (PDF).
PDF files can be viewed using the Adobe Acrobat reader.
WorldUp Online Help
The WorldUp Online Help.
WorldUp License
Manager
The WorldUp License Manager is used to display your system-specific ID so that you
can obtain a WorldUp software license code that allows you to run WorldUp.
3
4
Contents of the WorldUp Installation
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp
In addition to the program group items, the
WorldUp installation adds a number of other files
and directories to the WorldUp install directory. The
items of special importance are listed in the table
below.
File/Directory
Description
readme.txt
Contains last minute changes and known issues concerning your WorldUp software.
\Behaviors
This directory contains the script version of some of the plug-in behaviors for specific use with the
script importer and Behavior Wizard.
\Docs
PDF versions of the User’s Guide, Programmer’s Guide, and BasicScript Reference Manual.
\Drivers
This directory contains device drivers that are either provided by third parties or are simply external
to WorldUp.
\Images
This directory contains an assortment of texture image files.
\Models
This directory contains an assortment of geometric model files.
\Plugins
This directory contains the standard plug-ins that ship with WorldUp:
WUPActionSet1.dll Set of behavior actions plug-in.
WUPTriggerSet1.dll Set of behavior triggers plug-in.
WUPInterx.dll Intersense driver plug-in.
WUPInterx.txt Readme for Intersense driver plug-in.
\Samples
This directory contains subdirectories of various sample simulations which illustrate WorldUp’s
capabilities. A description of each Samples subdirectory follows:
Samples\Basketball
Shows an interactive Basketball game demo.
Samples\Bond
Illustrates the use of path for motion control.
Samples\Clock
Displays clock time in a 3D environment.
Samples\Dragging
Illustrates dragging in the view plane, and the use of the navigation bar.
Samples\Gears
Illustrates collision detection, gear ratios, dragging, and the use of a navigation bar.
Samples\Grassfire
Complex demo illustrating flight dynamics using a flight dynamics plug-in module
Samples\MarsLander
Illustrates the Behavior System and the use of viewports.
Getting Started
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp
File/Directory
\Samples
continued
Description
Samples\MarsLander
Illustrates the Behavior System and the use of viewports.
Samples\MathEngine
Shows an interface to a WorldUp simulation with a third party library using external DLL calls from
script to achieve real-time physics.
Samples\Network
Three versions of a multi-user driving simulator that illustrate the networking features from basic
networking to dead-reckoning and chat modes. Requires World2World.
Samples\SQL\Stocks
Illustrates simple database connectivity by accessing a database and translating values into 3D
objects
Samples\SQL\ObjectView
Illustrates more advanced database connectivity by reading a list of objects from a database and
constructing a scene from those objects.
Samples\Van_Go
A simple driving simulator implemented with scripting.
\Tutorials
This directory contains the project files and the required contents for the Quick Tour chapter of the
User’s Guide.
\Players
This directory on the WorldUp CD will not be copied onto your system’s hard drive during WorldUp
installation. It contains a self-extracting file for each of the World Up Players ( including the ActiveX
Control). These self-extracting executables can be redistributed to other users so they can view
WorldUp simulations.
\FloatingLicense
Server
This directory on the WorldUp CD will not be copied onto your system’s hard drive during WorldUp
installation. This directory contains the setup file for the EAI/SENSE8 Products Floating License
Server For Windows NT. You should only install this program if you have specifically purchased a
floating license agreement.
Getting Started
To get started using WorldUp, you first need to
obtain your Software License Code.
Obtaining Your WorldUp Software
License Code
Before running WorldUp for the first time, you need
to obtain a unique system-specifc WorldUp
Software License Code.
Note If you have obtained a floating or site license,
follow the instructions in the documentation
provided with those types of licenses instead of the
directions shown below.
To obtain your system-specific license code
1 Start the WorldUp License Manager program
(license.exe) by clicking its icon in your
WorldUp program folder.
5
6
Getting Started
The WorldUp R5 License Manager dialog box
appears. The system-specific Host ID and the
default License Path fields are automatically
filled in.
Chapter 1 Installing WorldUp
type it into the Code field of the WorldUp R5
License Manager dialog box and write it down
here.
System-Specific License Code:
______________________________________
If you have any trouble obtaining your license
code, please send email to Technical Support at
support@sense8.com.
5 Click OK.
2 Write down your system-specific Host ID:
______________________________________
3 Choose one of these methods (listed in order of
quickest response time) to reach SENSE8:
• World Wide Web – Point your browser to http:/
/www.sense8.com/licensing/index.html and
select WorldUp Code Request. Fill in.the form
with your name, company name, the WorldUp
Product serial number found on your CD case,
the system-specific Host ID (from step 2) and
your email address, and submit the
information. Your WorldUp License Code
will be emailed to you.
• FAX – Send a FAX to SENSE8 at (415) 3393201. Use “Attention: WorldUp License
Codes” as the subject of your FAX and
include your name, company name, the
WorldUp CD’s jewel case serial number, and
the system-specific Host ID (from step 2).
Your system-specific license code(s) will be emailed or faxed to you
4 When you have received the system-specific
WorldUp Software License Code from SENSE8,
start the SENSE8 License Manager again and
Once you’ve entered the system-specific license
code into the SENSE8 Product License Information
window and clicked OK, the system-specific license
code will be saved in a WTKCODES file under a
designated path (the default path is the directory in
which WorldUp was installed), and the path to that
file will be placed into your system’s registry so
WorldUp can find it. You can now run WorldUp by
selecting it from your program folder. You do not
need to re-enter the system-specific license code
every time you start WorldUp, however you will
need it if you reinstall WorldUp. For that reason,
write down the system-specific license code in the
space provided above.
Starting WorldUp
To start WorldUp
1 Click the Start button.
2 Select Programs > WorldUp R5 > WorldUp.
7
2
Introduction
WorldUp is the next generation 3D content
authoring tool for real-time graphical simulations.
WorldUp helps you efficiently create or import 3D
scenes, make them interactive with easy-to-use drag
and drop assembly, and integrate them with the
industry standard tools you already use. WorldUp
combines several technologies into a tightly
integrated, object-oriented environment.
With WorldUp, you create visual simulations in
which graphical objects have real world properties
and behaviors. You can modify these properties and
behaviors while the simulation is running and see
immediate results.
WorldUp provides an easy-to-use graphical user
interface from which you create objects and
properties, and design your simulations. You may
also import 3D models from industry standard
modelers. To add behaviors to your objects, you can
author customer behaviors or change a property of
an existing behavior by writing scripts using the
BasicScript language, or use property change events
to trigger behaviors. And now, in WorldUp
Release 5 (R5), you can drag and drop pre-built
behaviors onto objects.
8
WorldUp Features
To navigate within a WorldUp simulation and
control its objects, you use input devices, such as a
mouse or Spaceball. You can view the simulation on
your computer monitor or in a stereo display device,
such as a head-mounted display.
When your simulation is complete, you can
distribute it to your end-users using a variety of
freely-distributable WorldUp players.
With WorldUp, you can develop a prototype in a
fraction of the time it takes to develop one using
traditional development libraries. Simulations that
once took weeks to build can now be built in hours.
What is 3D Content?
Chapter 2 Introduction
• Human interface controls include which mouse
button to use for acceleration and how to steer
left or right.
Together, all the parts create the 3D content of the
simulation. In WorldUp, all of the components of a
simulation are stored together in a project file that
contains the content and also references your model,
image, script, and sound files. This project file is the
.UP file you create, load, or run with WorldUp.
WorldUp Features
The WorldUp development environment contains
many features that are valuable when creating
virtual worlds, including:
WorldUp is a 3D content authoring tool. In a realtime 3D content application, the content can be
thought of as the sum of these parts:
• A graphical, interactive development
environment.
• objects
• An object-oriented application framework.
• organization and relationship
• Object hierarchy with dynamic property
inheritance.
• behavior
• systems management
• human interface controls
For example, if you use WorldUp to create a driving
simulator, this is how each part of the simulation
would fall into the categories shown above:
• The objects are the car, the wheels, multiple
sections of road, the sound of the car horn, the
viewpoint, and the window containing the
viewpoint.
• The organization and relationship is how the
wheels are attached to the car body.
• Built-in object types.
• The ability to modify and add object properties
and behaviors during a simulation.
• Support for a wide variety of input/output
devices, including devices supported in
WorldToolKit Release 9.
• Support for a variety of file formats.
• An interpreted scripting language (BasicScript)
syntactically equivalent to Visual Basic.
• A script debugger to help resolve errors in your
scripts.
• Run-time binding of C routines from scripts.
• The behavior is how the car rolls over the road
and how the wheels rotate when the car moves.
• The Scene Graph pane to visualize complex
databases.
• Systems management refers to which section of
road the simulation draws and when it is drawn.
• Data visualization through BasicScript SQL
functions.
Chapter 2 Introduction
What’s New in Release 5
• Full integration with SENSE8’s World2World
server product, allowing you to easily create
multi-user simulations (if you have purchased
World2World).
• High-performance 3D includes reflection
mapping, anti-aliasing, true transparency, and
support for multiple OpenGL rendering
viewports.
• Players for distributing your application.
• Integrated, multi-user, collaborative networking
support with World2World.
• Cross-platform portability (without
recompiling).
• Online Help.
What’s New in Release 5
WorldUp Release 5:
• Makes it easy to create richer 3D interactive
simulations and to integrate them into your
environment.
• Offers higher power, reusability, and extensibility
to developers familiar with C and C++.
• Provides learning paths to facilitate the shift from
novice to expert developer.
Easier to create and integrate richer 3D interactive
simulations into your environment.
• New drag and drop 3D simulation assembly for
simulation building without scripting (using prebuilt objects, behaviors, triggers, and materials).
• More efficient workflow with new Workviews
which simplify the user interface using tabs to
present the task on which you are focused.
• Better placing and viewing of objects by using
the new viewports which provide multiple views
of a scene.
• Revamped navigation system–includes
shadowing, grid placement, and drop lines to
facilitate scene assembly and offer rich feedback
during the development process.
• Extensive 3D file format and I/O device support
including a new VRML2 read/write and new
Multigen OpenFlight reader and new CAD
import-capable Direct Model (.jt) file reader
• New, more thorough documentation which now
includes a User's Guide and a Programmer's
Guide.
Higher power, reusability, and extensibility to
developers familiar with C and C++.
• Seamless web-enabled delivery and ActiveX
integration by offering official support for
simulation-building containers, such as
Mathworks MATLAB/Simulink, Microsoft's
Visual C++ 6, Macromedia's Director, Visual
Basic 6, Netscape, Internet Explorer, Excel,
Access, and MS Office.
• Offers an Optional Powerful Plug-in Kit for
integrating 3rd party APIs, legacy C code, or
extending pre-built behaviors and objects, device
support, special effects and OpenGL code.
• Reusable plug-ins for rapid simulation assembly.
Learning paths facilitate the shift from novice to
expert developer.
• A new Behavior Wizard for rapid and easier
script creation. The Behavior Wizard generates
boiler-plate code required to create behaviors
and triggers, and places the code into the
appropriate place in the simulation system.
• Sample scripts and plug-ins are also included to
facilitate learning.
9
10
Technical Support
Technical Support
If you have a question about WorldUp, first look for
the solution in this manual or in the online Help.
To start the online help in WorldUp
" Select WorldUp Contents from the Help menu.
If you cannot find the answer in the documentation
or online Help, you can generally save yourself time
and effort by reading the WorldUp support page on
the SENSE8 web site. It contains answers to
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about
WorldUp and may also contain links to download
the latest WorldUp patches. The web site also
contains a knowledge repository.
If you cannot find the answer to your question on the
SENSE8 web site, post your question on sigwtk@sense8.com, where the user-base is very
helpful and efficient in answering your questions.
If you cannot get the answer to your questions in any
of these areas, please contact SENSE8 Technical
Support using one of the following methods:
Technical Support on the Web
www.sense8.com/support/index.html
Technical Support by Email
support@sense8.com
Technical Support by Fax
(415) 339-3201
Technical Support by Telephone
(415) 339-3392
WorldUp License Request Web Site
www.sense8.com/support/index.html
WorldUp License Request by Fax
(415) 339-3201
Chapter 2 Introduction
11
3
Overview of
WorldUp
This chapter introduces you to the WorldUp
development environment and to some of the
fundamental concepts that you need to understand
before building a WorldUp simulation.
The WorldUp Window
When you first start WorldUp, the WorldUp
window opens with a new, blank project.
12
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
Menu Bar
Toolbar
Development
Window
Project
Workview
Status
Window
The WorldUp Window
Menu Bar
The WorldUp menu bar contains all of the
commands available to WorldUp. Many of these
commands can also be accessed from the toolbars or
by right-clicking when an item is selected.
Toolbar
The main toolbar provides quick access to a number
of the WorldUp commands. The Development
window and Workviews also contain task-specific
toolbars.
Project Workview
The Project Workview is the main interface to the
simulation you are building. The tasks you perform
in the Project Workview are divided into four tabbed
Workviews: Scene, Behavior, Type, and Models.
You access these Workviews by selecting the
desired tab. Each of the Workviews is described in
detail in Chapter 7, Using the Workviews.
Status Window
The Status window is used by WorldUp to display
informational status or error messages.
The Development Window
The Development window is where your scene is
rendered. For more information about this window,
see Chapter 8, Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
Understanding Real-Time
Simulations
Every aspect of the simulation takes place within a
universe. A universe is the finite volume of space in
which all graphical objects appear in a simulation.
Any location in space can be described by its x,y,z
coordinates relative to the origin. The origin is the
center of the universe, which is located at x,y,z
coordinates 0,0,0.
In a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system, the x
coordinate refers to the left-right location, the y
coordinate refers to the up-down location, and the z
coordinate refers to the near-far location. The
following illustration shows an object and the x, y,
and z axes using WorldUp’s orientation.
Understanding Real-Time Simulations
The following table shows the direction in which an
object moves relative to the coordinate axes,
depending on whether you use positive or negative
values for the coordinates.
Coordinate
Direction
+x
Right
-x
Left
+y
Down
-y
Up
+z
Forward
-z
Back
The movement of an object from one (x,y,z) location
to another is known as translation. The rotation of
an object is described in three ways:
• Pitch – the rotation of an object about its x axis.
• Yaw – the rotation of an object about its y axis.
• Roll – the rotation of an object about its z axis.
Coordinate Systems
The concept of a coordinate system is fundamental
to real-time 3D graphics and to WorldUp.
A coordinate system (sometimes called reference
frame or context) refers to the x, y, and z coordinate
axes used to describe position and orientation in
space.
The Scene Workview provides a way of assembling
objects hierarchically, so that the location of any
object is relative to the coordinate system of its
parent in the Scene Workview. Let’s say you have
an object called Road and an object called Car. If
you nest Car underneath Road in the Scene
13
14
The Building Blocks
Workview, then the translation property of Car
specifies the position of the car in the reference
frame of (or in relation to) the road.
Reference frames that are commonly referred to in
WorldUp are described below.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
The Building Blocks
This section describes the WorldUp building blocks,
the simulations components that you use to build a
real-time simulation. These building blocks include
objects, object types, properties, the scene graph,
and behaviors.
World
The World (or Global) reference frame is
independent of the objects in the universe, and is
fixed in space. The World coordinate system
originates at the center of the universe, defined as
x,y,z coordinates 0,0,0.
Local
The Local reference frame is specific to each Node
object (that is, any object that can appear in the
Scene Workview). For a geometry, it is the
reference frame in which the geometry was
modeled. Let’s say you have a geometry
representing an airplane that was modeled with the
z-axis coinciding with the length of the airplane. If
you rotate the airplane about its z-axis in its local
reference frame, for example, by using the Roll
function in a script, it will roll about its length,
regardless of the airplane’s orientation in space.
Parent
The reference frame of an object’s parent in the
Scene Workview.
Viewpoint
The coordinate system defined by the position and
orientation properties of a given Viewpoint object.
This reference frame can be useful, for example,
when positioning geometries (see "Controlling the
Scene Graph Dragging Options" on page 29 for
more information).
Object Types, Objects, and
Properties
Object types are displayed in a hierarchical structure
in the Type Workview. These types consist of
properties that describe the characteristics of an
object. You use object types as templates for
creating subtypes or objects, which then inherit all
of the properties from their type.
A subtype is any type that is the child of another
type. Since all types are ultimately derived from the
VBase object type, all types except VBase are also
considered subtypes. Thus, the two terms are often
used interchangeably.
WorldUp Object Types
Type
Description
Motion Link
Links a viewpoint or geometry to a Path
or sensor for motion control.
Node
The base type for all objects that
participate in the scene graph (see
Chapter 4).
Path
A collection of position and orientation
elements used to animate objects (see
Chapter 15).
Behavior
The base type for Triggers and Actions,
which handle events and modify
objects (see Chapter 14).
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
Type
The Building Blocks
Description
Script
A text file containing BasicScript
language code which controls a
simulation (see the WorldUp
Programmer’s Manual for more
information).
Sensor
The base type for all devices supported
by WorldUp (see Chapter 17).
Sound
A sound file that can be attached to
objects to achieve 3D spatialized sound
(see Chapter 16).
Universe
The global simulation object that stores
simulation level preferences (see
Chapter 5).
Viewpoint
A representation of the user’s
perspective used to calculate how
objects are drawn in the 3D world (see
Chapter 10).
Window
The frame in which the simulation is
rendered (see Chapter 10).
W2Wnetwork
The base networking component that
establishes and determines a
simulation’s connection with a
World2World server (see Chapter 18).
Block object type and its Property pane
The following figure shows the Block object type in
the Type Workview and its corresponding
properties in the Property pane. Any subtype or
object that is created from Block will include all of
Block’s properties.
WorldUp comes with several pre-defined types. In
the Type Workview, green spheres
represent
pre-defined types, and green spheres with a yellow
plus
represent user-defined types.
Properties can only be added to user-defined
subtypes. That is, you cannot add properties to
WorldUp default object types. This preserves the
integrity of the default types as building blocks for
all your simulations. Nor can you add properties
directly to objects. Thus, if you are creating an
object that requires a property that does not already
exist under the WorldUp object types, you need to
create a subtype and add the necessary properties.
15
16
The Scene Graph
Subtypes are also useful if you plan to create a
number of objects that require similar property
values. For example, let’s say you want to create a
variety of Block objects. They may vary in height
and color, but you want them all to have a depth of
3 and a width of 4. You could create a subtype of
Block and set its Depth property to 3 and its Width
property to 4. Whenever you need to create a new
block, create it from this subtype.
Graphical Objects
Objects that you can see in the Development
window are referred to as graphical objects. These
are objects that are created from subtypes of the
Geometry type in the Type Workview (the Block,
Cylinder, Cone, Imported, Sphere, and Text3d types
as shown in the figure below).
Other types of objects may be in your simulation,
such as Lights or Switchers, but they are not visible.
Graphical objects are one of the building blocks of a
simulation. A graphical object is a discrete, movable
object such as a wheel, and is composed of one or
more polygons, each of which contains three or
more vertices. Examples of graphical objects are
balls, vehicles, cylinders, wheels, houses, and
landscapes.
You can interact with graphical objects and they can
interact with each other. You can organize graphical
objects hierarchically, use sensor devices to affect
their motion or state, and write scripts to define their
behavior in the simulation.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
For information on Sensors, see Chapter 17, Using
Input Devices.
Graphical objects do not obey any default physical
laws. If you want a graphical object to fall when you
release it, you must assign a task to the object. You
do this by either using an existing script or by
writing your own script and then attaching it to your
object as a task.
For information on scripts, see the WorldUp
Programmer’s Guide.
The Scene Graph
Objects that are created from the Node type or any
of its subtypes are referred to as nodes. The Nodes
pane in the Scene Workview displays all the Node
types in WorldUp and their instances. The figure
below shows all of the WorldUp default subtypes
for the Node type.
The Scene Graph
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
The three categories of nodes are graphical,
attribute, and organizational. The table below
describes each category and the associated object
types.
Node Category
Graphical
Description
Object Types
Objects that you can
see in the
Development
window.
Block
Cylinder
Cone
Imported
RenderNode
Sphere
Text3d
Attribute
Objects that affect
the appearance of
graphical objects.
Fog
Light
MaterialNode
Organizational
Objects that affect
how WorldUp
traverses the scene
graph.
Group
Switcher
LevelOfDetail
The spatial organization and relationship of Node
objects to each other is controlled by your scene
graph. A scene graph is a hierarchical arrangement
of nodes, organized beneath a single Root node. In
WorldUp, you view and modify your scene graph
using the Scene Graph pane.
The order in which nodes appear in the Scene Graph
pane determines the order in which nodes are
processed and the order in which graphical nodes
are rendered. For each frame of the simulation,
WorldUp begins processing the nodes in a top-tobottom order (as displayed in the Scene Graph
pane).
The scene graph enhances performance of the
rendering stage (drawing the scene) because it
facilitates spatial culling of the scene. In other
words, WorldUp calculates which parts of the scene
(or scene graph) are visible from the current
viewpoint, and quickly rejects non-visible geometry
before drawing begins.
The structure of your scene graph determines the
parent/child relationships of the objects in the scene.
For example, if you nest Node B beneath Node A, B
becomes a child of A. A child always translates
(moves) and rotates with its parent.
Observe the following scene graph:
In this example, Door, Wheel-1, Wheel-2, Wheel-3,
and Wheel-4 are children of Car. If you move Car in
the Development window, its children move with it.
Light-1, positioned directly beneath Root-1,
illuminates all the graphical objects in the scene
since it is processed first. Spotlight-1, positioned
below Car and its children, illuminates Road,
Building-A, and Building-B, but does not illuminate
Car and its children since they have already been
rendered before Spotlight-1 takes effect.
Notice, however, that because Spotlight-1 is not a
child of Car, it does not move with Car. Attribute
nodes only affect nodes that are at the same
hierarchical level beneath it, or are nested within it.
So, if Spotlight-1 was a child of Car, it would not
17
18
The Scene Graph
illuminate the road or the buildings. To cause
Spotlight-1 to move with Car, you would add
behaviors, as described below.
Behaviors
Behaviors are activities applied to or demonstrated
by any WorldUp object within the simulation. This
activity is defined by the functions of one or more
Trigger and/or Action objects. Triggers and actions
are assembled together to form higher-level
behaviors. For example, a reflex behavior is
witnessed as the result of an event (tapping the knee
with a hammer) and a response (the calf flexing
upwards).
WorldUp ships with a basic library of Triggers and
Actions. In addition to these, you can author your
own behaviors, either in script using the Behavior
Wizard or in C/C++ using the WorldUp Plug-in Kit
(available as a separate module). You can also
download behaviors authored by other users from
the Sense8 Online Repository.
WorldUp also provides an intuitive drag-and-drop
Behavior System for assembling behaviors into
higher-level event networks that allow you to
control your simulation without programming.
For more informaton on behaviors, see Chapter 14,
The Behavior System.
Scripts
In WorldUp, a script is a text file containing code
written in the BasicScript language, which is
syntactically equivalent to Visual Basic. A script
contains one or more routines that define the
behavior to add to an object, such as making an
object rotate 10 degrees along its y-axis each frame
that the simulation is run.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
For information on scripts, see the WorldUp
Programmer’s Guide.
The routines that you use to write scripts for your
WorldUp simulations consist of BasicScript
routines and WorldUp routines. All routines are
documented in WorldUp’s online Help. On the Help
menu, select Script Reference for descriptions of
BasicScript routines, or select WorldUp Commands
and Functions for descriptions of routines supplied
by WorldUp.
With the right script, you can animate objects,
assign motion links, detect collisions between
objects, and do much more in your simulations.
The two kinds of scripts are Stand-Alone and Task.
Stand-Alone scripts are not attached to any
particular object and can be run independent of the
simulation. For example, you could write a StandAlone script that resets certain property values for
various objects. Task scripts are written to work
with a particular object in your simulation. Task
scripts run repeatedly each frame of the simulation.
Once you have written the script, you must attach it
to the appropriate object in order for it to work.
Events
A change to a property’s value is known as an event.
You can react to specific property events by
specifying an entry point in a script that is to be run
each time the event occurs, by routing the property’s
new value to other properties each time the event
occurs, or by routing the property change event to
fire a Trigger in the Behavior System using the
Property Change Trigger.
Note If you have purchased Sense8’s World2World
server product, sharing events is what allows
multiple users to see each others changes.
For information on how to work with events, see the
WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
How the Pieces All Fit Together
How the Pieces All Fit Together
Before you can develop and deploy a WorldUp
simulation, the following objects must exist in your
project:
• a Universe object, containing properties that
affect the entire simulation
• an application window, in which your simulation
displays at run-time
• a Development window, in which your
simulation displays during development
• a viewpoint that specifies how the end-user will
view the simulation (all Development windows
are associated with a viewpoint; this viewpoint
can differ for each window)
• a mouse sensor, to manipulate objects in the
simulation or to navigate your viewpoint (a
mouse is required for development; you can add
other sensors to use in addition to the mouse for
both development and run-time)
WorldUp Default Objects
With this foundation, you can then add additional
objects from the types previously described, and
from the remaining WorldUp pre-defined types
described below to form your simulation:
• a Root object, which acts as the parent of all
objects in the scene graph
• Node objects, which include the graphical
objects that display in the Development window
and the objects used to manipulate them.
The following objects are not required, but you
would rarely begin building a simulation without
them:
• Paths, to add movement along a recorded path to
specified objects.
• a motion link, which defines the link between the
sensor and the viewpoint
• a Light object, to illuminate your scene
In anticipation of these requirements, WorldUp
provides the following default objects every time
you create a new project.
• Behaviors, to add custom or pre-built behaviors
to your objects, such as causing a ball to bounce.
• Scripts, to add custom behaviors (which are not
already pre-built) to your objects.
• Sounds, to add sound to your simulation as it
runs.
• W2WConnection and W2WSharedGroup
objects, to create multi-user World2Worldcompliant simulations (only applicable if you
have purchased SENSE8’s World2World server
product). See Chapter 18, Multi-User
Simulations for more information.
19
20
Starting and Stopping the Simulation
For a complete reference of all WorldUp object
types and their properties, see the online Help.
Running Simulations
When you run your simulation, WorldUp goes
through the entire simulation loop each frame that
the simulation is run. The following illustration
shows what happens (and in what order) during a
single simulation loop.
Sensors Update
Paths Play/Record
Tasks Execute
Universe Tasks
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
• Tasks on the non-Node, non-Universe objects
(Windows, Viewpoints, etc.) will be executed
last.
Order of Tasks Within Nodes
Within nodes, children’s tasks will always be
executed before their parent’s, and siblings to the
right will be executed before siblings to the left.
In short, the order in which objects appear in the
scene graph is the reverse order in which their tasks
will be executed (execution will occur from the
bottom-up in the scene graph). Thus, the Root’s
tasks will always be the last tasks executed of all the
nodes’ tasks.
Note If a node is disabled (its Enabled property is
set to False), its tasks and the tasks of all of its
children will not run. For children under a Switcher
node, only those children indicated by the Active
Child property will execute. The tasks for all
children of LevelOfDetail nodes will be executed.
Node Tasks
(bottom to top, right to left)
All Other Object Tasks
Scene Rendered and Displayed
Single Simulation Loop
Every object has a list of tasks. These tasks will be
executed every frame just before rendering. The
following rules apply:
• The tasks on the Universe object will be executed
first.
• Tasks on Nodes will be executed next (see
"Order of Tasks Within Nodes" below for further
details).
Starting and Stopping the
Simulation
When you are ready to run your simulation, you can
run it in the development environment, or you can
run it as an application.
• Running in the development environment –
WorldUp displays the simulation in the window
that you have defined as your Development
window (see "Creating a Window" on page 97),
and allows you to continue to manipulate objects
as the simulation runs.
• Running as an application – WorldUp displays
the simulation in the window(s) that you have
defined as your application windows (see
"Creating a Window" on page 97). This is a true
representation of how the simulation will appear,
Reviewing the Simulation Performance
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
and how end-users will be allowed to interact
with the simulation when they run it with the
WorldUp Players.
Note You can adjust the size of your window as
the simulation runs, but be aware that the larger
the window, the slower the simulation will run.
Keep in mind that simulations run significantly
slower from the WorldUp Development window
(even when run as an application) than they do from
the WorldUp Players. Thus, as you develop your
simulations, it is a good idea to periodically run the
simulation from one of the WorldUp Players and
take note of the performance differences. For
information on running applications from a
WorldUp Player, see Appendix B, WorldUp Players
and Plug-Ins.
To run a simulation as an application
1 Click the Run in AppWindow
button on the
Note Closing a Development window does not stop
the simulation; it deletes the DevWindow object.
To run the simulation one frame at a time
1 Click the Step in DevWindow
button.
2 Repeat the Step command to view the simulation
frame-by-frame.
Reviewing the Simulation
Performance
Reviewing how your simulation uses resources can
help you determine how to improve the performance
of your simulation.
WorldUp’s Profiler (as shown below) provides a
variety of statistics about the performance of your
simulation, both while the simulation is running or
while it is stopped.
main toolbar.
If your simulation contains multiple application
windows, they will display in the same location
unless you have modified the Left Edge and Top
Edge properties for the windows.
To see each window, click in the title bar of the
application window that is currently in view and
drag it away to reveal the application window
underneath.
2 To stop the simulation, do one of the following:
• Close the application window(s).
• Click the Stop
button.
• On the Simulation menu, select Stop.
To run a simulation in the development environment
1 Click the Run in DevWindow
button.
2 To stop the simulation, click the Stop
button.
At the top of the Profiler, you can see the readings
for the simulation’s overall frame rate and
milliseconds per frame. The Frames Sampled box
indicates how many frames prior to the current
21
22
Reviewing the Simulation Performance
frame will be averaged to calculate all readings. The
statistics themselves are updated every frame of the
simulation.
For example, if the Frames Sampled value is set to 8
at frame 20 of the simulation, the statistics displayed
by the Profiler will be an average of the statistics
from frames 13 through 20. This can provide more
realistic results as performance fluctuates from
frame to frame.
However, be aware that increasing the Frames
Sampled value to too high a value can also provide
misleading results. Suppose something happens in
your simulation as it runs that results in a drop in
performance (for example, a RayIntersect function
may be called). If the Frames Sampled value is very
low, you will be able to see a noticeable increase in
the statistics as the RayIntersect function is called. If
the Frames Sampled value is very high, you will not
see that jump in the statistics as it will be averaged
out with frames where the RayIntersect function was
not being called.
The box in the middle of the Profiler indicates how
much of the system’s total resources are being used
by the simulation, and how much is attributed to
specific processes of the simulation loop.
The first line, Main Simulation Loop, indicates the
percentage of the system’s total resources that are
being used by the entire simulation. In the example,
this is approximately 90%. Thus, the other 10% of
the system’s resources are being used by other
applications, such as WorldUp and the operating
system.
The statistics for Rendering, Scripts, 3D Drawing,
and 2D Drawing reflect how much of the system’s
total resources are being used for those specific
processes of the simulation loop. When the
simulation is running, the Scripts line is further
broken down by individual scripts.
Chapter 3 Overview of WorldUp
The Key Functions section provides an alternative
breakdown of the Scripts statistics. This section
shows the amount of resources being used by some
of WorldUp’s more expensive functions. The
statistics shown for these functions have already
been factored into the statistics for Scripts.
The box at the bottom of the Profiler indicates the
number of polygons that are being rendered for each
application window and each Development window
in the simulation.
To access and work with the Profiler
" Select Profiler from the Simulation menu.
To freeze the statistics for the current frame
" Check the Freeze Stats box.
To set the Frames Sampled value
" Type a value in the Frames Sampled box, or click
the up and down arrows to the right of the value.
To see a breakdown of the resources being used for
individual scripts
" While the simulation is running, click the plus
icon to the left of the Scripts line.
23
4
Organizing Your
Scene
The Scene Graph
The scene graph is the graphical interface that
organizes all the objects of a scene and their
relationship to each other in a hierarchical tree
structure. It’s like a family tree where the root is on
the top and the branches and leaves extend toward
the bottom. A scene is the complete 3D description
of everything needed to render an image.
The scene graph is used to:
• establish relationships with objects, such as
parent/child
• establish groupings of objects, through Group,
Switcher, and LevelOfDetail nodes
• track and select objects
• maintain an overall sense of order
The scene graph hierarchically orders the elements
of the scene, known as nodes. A node can hold
Graphical objects, Light objects, Fog objects,
RenderNode objectss, Material objects, or structural
objects used to maintain the hierarchy of the scene
graph.
24
The Scene Graph
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
Nodes and Scene Graphs
Nodes can be categorized as follows:
Objects that are created from subtypes of the Node
type are referred to as nodes. You cannot create
objects or object types directly from the Node object
type. It exists to provide its subtypes with the
necessary properties and to maintain the coherency
of the Type Workview’s structure.
Node Category
Description
Object Types
Graphical
Objects that you can
see in the
Development
window.
Block
Cylinder
Cone
Imported
RenderNode
Sphere
Text3d
Attribute
Objects that affect
the appearance of
graphical objects.
Fog
Light
MaterialNode
Organizational
Objects that affect
how WorldUp
traverses the scene
graph.
Group
Switcher
LevelOfDetail
The Graphical object types are described in more
detail in Chapter 11, Adding 3D Objects. Lights are
described in Chapter 13, Lights. Organizational
nodes are described in "Organizational Nodes" on
page 25.
The direct subtypes of the Node object type are:
• Fog – Fog objects are used to obscure distant
objects in the simulation with the color of fog
you select. For best results, the Fog color should
match the window’s background color. Search on
Fog type in the online Help for descriptions of
the Fog properties.
Type Workview
• RenderNode- - RenderNode objects allow you to
create your own custom RenderNode type with
the optional Plug-in Kit from Sense8. The
RenderNode is a node in the scene graph that
calls back to a user-defined function in every
frame during traversal of the scene graph. The
user-defined function contains low-level drawing
commands you can execute, allowing you a
greater flexibility than is offered by the other
physical objects in the scene graph. The benefit
Organizational Nodes
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
of RenderNode existing in the scene graph is that
the node can accumulate the state of the scene
graph, including lighting and transformations.
For more details on RenderNode, see the
WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
• Movable – Movable objects can be selected,
moved, and rotated in the Development window.
For details on the Movable object type and its
subtypes, see Chapter 12, Editing 3D Objects.
• MaterialNode – Using MaterialNode is the most
flexible way to add material to an object.
MaterialNode allows materials to be created,
edited, and saved for reuse in the development
environment. For more information, see Chapter
12, Editing 3D Objects.
• Root – All WorldUp simulations contain a single
Root object, which acts as the starting point for
your scene graph. Since WorldUp provides you
with the necessary Root object (Root-1) by
default, you cannot create objects or object types
from the Root object type. The Root type exists
only to provide you with access to its properties.
Search on Root type in the online Help for
descriptions of the Root properties.
Organizational Nodes
The spatial organization and relationship of Node
objects to each other is controlled by your scene
graph. A scene graph is a hierarchical arrangement
of nodes, organized beneath a single Root node. In
WorldUp, you view and modify your scene graph
with the Scene Workview. Understanding the effect
of the hierarchical order of your nodes is crucial to
creating a successful simulation.
Groups
Objects that you create from the Group type or either
of its subtypes (LevelOfDetail and Switcher) are
non-graphical, Movable objects that act as
containers for other nodes. You specify which nodes
you want to be contained in the Group node by
making them children of the Group node in the
scene graph. See "Working with Scene Graphs" on
page 29. You can then use the Group node to
manipulate all of its child nodes at once.
Note Information on how to translate and rotate
Movable objects, such as Groups, is described in
Chapter 12, Editing 3D Objects.
The three object types from which you can create
Group nodes are:
• Group – Objects created directly from the Group
type exist simply to act as invisible containers for
other nodes in the scene, allowing you to
manipulate all of its children at once, such as
translating the children together.
• LevelOfDetail – LevelOfDetail nodes allow you
to specify which child node to render based on
its distance from the viewpoint.
• Switcher – Switcher nodes allow you to specify
whether one, all, or none of its children are
rendered at any one time.
Group Nodes
The Group object type contains no unique properties
in addition to those provided by the Movable object
type. Objects created directly from the Group type
exist simply to act as invisible containers for other
nodes in the scene graph.
25
26
Organizational Nodes
To create a Group node and define its children
1 In the Nodes pane of the Scene Workview, select
the Group object type and click the Instantiate
Selected Type
button.
2 In the Scene Graph pane, press the CTRL key and
click on each node that you want to make a child
of the Group node.
3 Drag the selection set onto the Group node.
The children of your Group node can now work
together as one object as well as independently as
separate objects.
LevelOfDetail Nodes
LevelOfDetail nodes are Group nodes that allow
you to improve rendering speed by displaying
simpler objects at a distance and switching to more
complex objects as your viewpoint approaches them
in the simulation. It does this by rendering only one
of its child nodes at a time. The node that is rendered
depends on the distance between the nodes and the
viewpoint.
For example, suppose you have a model of a tree
that is composed of 50 polygons. You could create
two more models that are less detailed: one that is
composed of 20 polygons, and one that is composed
of 5 polygons. Import these models into your
simulation and set them all to the same translation.
Make each model a child of a LevelOfDetail node
and set distance ranges so that the most detailed
model of the tree is rendered when your viewpoint is
very close to the object and the least detailed model
is rendered when the viewpoint is within the farthest
specified range from the object.
Note For tips on creating successful versions of
your model to represent each level, see "Model
Tricks" on page 197.
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
To create a LevelOfDetail node and define its
children
1 In the Nodes pane, select the LevelOfDetail
object type.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
Remember that non-imported Movable objects
are created at the center of the universe. Since
WorldUp will be determining which node to
render based on the distance between the
viewpoint and the LevelOfDetail node, you will
most likely want the LevelOfDetail node to be
translated to the same location as its children.
3 In the Scene Graph pane, click one of the nodes
that you want to be a child of the LevelOfDetail
node.
Note Typically, these nodes are all positioned at
the same global location.
4 In the Property pane, single-click the Translation
property to position the LevelOfDetail node at
the same location as the intended child node.
5 Right-click and select Copy to copy the
Translation value.
6 In the Scene Graph pane, select the
LevelOfDetail node.
7 In the Property pane, right-click on the
Translation property and select Paste to paste the
copied text.
8 Press ENTER.
9 In the Scene Graph pane, press the CTRL key
while selecting each node that you want to make
children of the LevelOfDetail node.
If you want the selected nodes to maintain
their global positions when you drag them in the
scene graph, select Scene Graph Dragging from
the Options menu and ensure that the Scene
Organizational Nodes
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
Graph Dragging option is set to Objects Preserve
Global Position. See "Controlling the Scene
Graph Dragging Options" on page 29.
10 Drag the selection set onto the LevelOfDetail
node.
11 Arrange the children of the LevelOfDetail node
in a descending order so that the node that you
want to be rendered when the viewpoint is
closest (typically your most complex geometry)
is the first child beneath the LevelOfDetail node,
and the node that you want to be rendered when
the viewpoint is farthest away (typically your
simplest geometry) is the last child.
Now you’re ready to set the ranges at which the
LevelOfDetail node will render each child.
To set ranges for the LevelOfDetail node
1 In the Scene Graph pane, click the LevelOfDetail
node.
2 In the Property pane, double-click the Ranges
property.
The Level Of Detail Ranges dialog box displays.
maximum number of units from the
LevelOfDetail node that the viewpoint must be in
order to render the associated node.
The range of the first entry is already set from 0
to infinity. You cannot modify the range of the
first entry. The beginning of the range will
always be set to 0, and the end of the range will
automatically be set to the beginning value that
you specify for the next range.
3 Select the second entry.
4 Drag the slider or type a value in the text box at
the top to represent the beginning of the next
range.
5 Repeat this procedure to set the beginning values
for any remaining entries.
6 If you intend to add more child objects to the
LevelOfDetail node later and want to specify its
range now, click the Add Placeholder button.
A new range entry appears. You can set the range
for this entry now, and it will not be used until
another child is added to the LevelOfDetail node.
7 Click OK when you are finished.
You can also specify ranges by selecting the
Ranges property, clicking on it again for the edit
box, typing in a value and pressing ENTER. For
example, a value of (20, 40) would set three ranges:
0 to 20 for the first child node, 20 to 40 for the
second child node, and 40 to infinity for the third
child node.
Switcher Nodes
Note WorldUp automatically creates a Range
entry for each child of the selected LevelOfDetail
node. Ranges represent the minimum and
Switcher nodes are Group nodes that allow you to
indicate whether WorldUp will display one, all, or
none of the Switcher node’s children at any given
time.
27
28
Organizational Nodes
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
Switcher nodes are useful for animation effects. For
example, suppose you want to create a clown face
that changes expression. You could create three
different clown models, one that is smiling, one that
is frowning, and one that is sad. Import these models
into the simulation and make them children of a
Switcher node. Write a script that will change the
Active Child property for the Switcher object to the
geometry that you want rendered as appropriate.
The Switch’s Active Child dialog box displays.
Switchers are also useful for swapping scene pieces,
such as different floors in a building. Since you can
see only one floor at a time, placing the different
floors under a single Switcher node provides an easy
way to manage the scene.
To create a Switcher node and define its children
1 In the Nodes pane of the Scene Workview, select
the Switcher object type.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Object
button.
3 In the Scene Graph pane, press the CTRL key and
click on each node that you want to make a child
of the Switcher node.
If you want the selected nodes to maintain
their global positions when you drag them in the
scene graph, select Scene Graph Dragging from
the Options menu and ensure that the Scene
Graph Dragging option is set to Objects Preserve
Global Position.
4 Drag the selection set onto the Switcher node.
To specify which Switcher children to render
1 In the Scene Graph pane, select the Switcher
node.
2 In the Property pane, double-click the Active
Child property.
3 Select one of the following settings and click
OK:
• No Child Active – None of the Switcher’s
child objects are rendered. This option
translates to a property value of -1.
• All Children Active – All of the Switcher’s
child objects are rendered. This option
translates to a property value of -3.
• One Child Active – Only one of the Switcher’s
child objects is rendered. If you click this
option, select which child object to make
active from the list box in the middle of the
dialog box. This option translates to a property
value of 0 for the first child, 1 for the second
child, 2 for the third, and so on.
You can also specify the Active Child by
selecting the Active Child property, typing the
appropriate integer (as described above), and
pressing ENTER.
To achieve the effect of animation, you could write
scripts that change the Active Child value as the
simulation runs. To see an example of this, open
Working with Scene Graphs
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
spinbox.up in the samples\switcher
subdirectory of the directory in which you installed
WorldUp.
The order in which nodes appear in the Scene
Workview determines the order in which nodes are
processed and the order in which graphical nodes
are rendered. For each frame of the simulation,
WorldUp begins processing the nodes in a top-tobottom order (as displayed in the Scene Workview).
The scene graph enhances performance of the
rendering stage (drawing the scene) because it
facilitates spatial culling of the scene. In other
words, WorldUp calculates which parts of the scene
(or scene graph) are visible from the current
viewpoint, and quickly rejects non-visible geometry
before drawing begins.
illuminate all the graphical objects in the scene since
it is processed first. Spotlight-1, positioned below
Car and its children, will illuminate Road, BuildingA, and Building-B, but it will not illuminate Car and
its children since they will have already been
rendered before Spotlight-1 takes effect.
Notice, however, that because Spotlight-1 is not a
child of Car, it will not move with Car. Attribute
nodes only affect nodes that are at the same
hierarchical level beneath it, or are nested within it.
So, if Spotlight-1 was a child of Car, it would not
illuminate the road or the buildings. To cause
Spotlight-1 to move with Car, you would add
behaviors. See Chapter 14, The Behavior System.
Working with Scene Graphs
The structure of your scene graph determines the
parent/child relationships of the objects in the scene.
For example, if you nest Node B beneath Node A, B
becomes a child of A. A child always translates
(moves) and rotates with its parent.
This section describes the following:
Observe the scene graph in the following figure.
• arranging nodes in the Scene Graph pane
• controlling the impact on a node’s position and
orientation when it is dragged in the Scene
Graph pane.
• instancing nodes.
• removing nodes from the scene graph.
Controlling the Scene Graph
Dragging Options
In this example, Door, Wheel-1, Wheel-2, Wheel-3,
and Wheel-4 are children of Car. If you move Car in
the Simulation window, its children will move with
it. Light-1, positioned directly beneath Root-1, will
You can rearrange nodes in a scene graph by
dragging and dropping them with your mouse.
When you drag a node onto a new parent, you can
control whether the node will maintain its global
translation and rotation, or whether its translation
and rotation will become relative to the parent
node’s reference frame.
For more information on reference frames, see
"Coordinate Systems" on page 13.
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30
Working with Scene Graphs
To change the scene graph dragging options
1 Select Scene Graph Dragging from the Options
menu.
The Dragging in Scene Graph dialog appears.
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
Using the drag-and-drop method, you can drop the
object at the right place in the scene graph. When
creating an object by clicking on the Instantiate
Selected Type
button, the newly created object
is added at the end of the scene graph. You can then
reposition the object in the scene graph later.
To reposition an object in the scene graph
1 Select the appropriate dragging option, as
described in "Controlling the Scene Graph
Dragging Options" on page 29.
2 Select one of the scene graph Dragging Options
buttons.
• Objects Preserve Global Position – The
Translation and Rotation property values for
the node object that is dragged are adjusted to
allow the object to maintain its global
position. The object will not change position
in the Development window.
• Objects Preserve Position Relative To Parent –
The Translation and Rotation property values
for the node object that is dragged remain
unchanged. Thus, if the parent object’s
reference frame is different than the global
reference frame, the object that you drag in the
Scene Graph pane will be repositioned in the
Development window.
3 Click OK.
Rearranging Nodes
In Scene Workview, you can create an object by
selecting a type in the Nodes pane and clicking on
the Instantiate Selected Type
button, or by
dragging and dropping the type into the Scene
Graph pane.
2 Click the object you want to reposition and drag.
The horizontal insertion indicator appears and
moves with the object while dragging.
Insertion Indicator
Note If you want to drage multiple nodes to the
same location, hold down the CTRL key and select
on each node that you want to drag.
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
3 While dragging, point the cursor over the node
under which you want to place the dragged
object.
In the figure above, this is the RearWheel Group
node. If a Group node already has some child
node, its subtree expands as you bring the cursor
over it.
4 Drop the object by releasing the mouse button
while the insertion mark stays shortened as
shown in above figure.
Working with Scene Graphs
below. Moving the cursor to the right while the
insertion mark is active shortens the length of
insertion mark.
Holding down the CTRL key while you drag a node,
duplicates the node. That is, a new object is created
for each duplicated node and its corresponding node
is positioned in the scene graph where you released
the mouse.
Note Duplicating nodes is not the same as
instancing nodes, as described in the next section.
Instancing Nodes
Instancing a node allows a node to appear multiple
times in the Scene Graph pane and Development
window without the performance impact of adding
additional objects to your simulation. That is, each
node instance references the same source object.
Thus, if you manipulate one node, all instances of
that node are manipulated in the same manner.
Note If you want to make the dragged object a
sibling of the Group node, then drop the object
while the insertion mark covers the whole pane
which is its normal length as shown in the figure
The only factor that differentiates node instances
from one another is the Translation value of the
parent for each instance. Creating instances of a
single node under parent nodes with different
translations is what causes the node to be rendered
multiple times in various locations.
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32
Working with Scene Graphs
To instance a node
1 In the Scene Graph pane, click the node that you
want to be the parent of the new instance you are
creating.
2 In the Editable tab of the Property pane, double-
click the Children property.
The Edit Children List dialog box displays.
The Children List box lists the nodes that already
exist as children of the selected node. The Node
Objects box lists all Node objects in the
simulation.
Note It is possible to have Node objects in the
Nodes pane with no corresponding nodes in the
Scene Graph pane. See "Removing Nodes from
the Scene Graph" on page 32.
3 In the Node Objects box, double-click the node
that you want to instance.
The node moves to the Children List.
4 Click Done.
A new instance of the object appears in both the
Scene Graph pane and the Development window,
but no new objects are created in the Type pane.
When you manipulate one node, all other
instances of that node are manipulated in the
same manner.
Note If the object from which you instanced the
node is a graphical object and you cannot see it in
the Development window, make sure that the
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
parent nodes of each instance are positioned at
different global locations. If they are not, the
instances are being rendered in the same location.
Removing Nodes from the Scene
Graph
Just as you can instance a node by making that node
a child of multiple parents (see "Instancing Nodes"
on page 31), you can also remove some or all
instances of a node by removing the appropriate
parent/child relationships.
When a node has no defined parents, that node no
longer exists in the scene graph, and thus is no
longer rendered anywhere in the Development
window. However, the corresponding Node object
remains in the Nodes pane.
To remove a node from the scene graph
1 In the Scene Graph pane, click the parent node of
the node you want to remove.
2 In the Property pane, double-click the Children
property.
The Edit Children List dialog box displays.
3 In the Children List box, click the node you want
to remove.
4 Click Remove, then click Done.
That instance of the node is removed from the
Scene Graph pane and is no longer rendered in
the Development window. If multiple instances
of the node exist and you do not want any
instance of the node to be rendered in the
Simulation window, repeat this procedure for
each parent of each instance of the node.
Note If you remove a node that has children, the
children will also be removed from the scene graph.
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
To remove a Node object from the Nodes pane
" Manually delete the object using the Delete
button.
How the Scene Graph is
Traversed
The order in which nodes are processed is referred
to as the traversal order. Since WorldUp uses a state
preserving architecture, it is very important to note
the way a scene graph is built in order to obtain the
desired results when the simulation runs. In general,
the scene graph is traversed from top to bottom and
left to right. When an attribute node is hit, the
contents of that node are placed onto the state (in
programming terms a stack). When a graphical node
is encountered during traversal, WorldUp looks at
the state and applies what is there to the graphical
node. When an organizational node is encountered,
WorldUp looks at the contents of the node and
decides how traversal should proceed based on the
contents of the organizational node.
State
Light Info
Scene Graph Traversal
For example, the figure above represents a simple
scene graph constructed in WorldUp and shows the
resulting simulation. Traversal begins at the Root
How the Scene Graph is Traversed
node (Root-1) with an empty state, and proceeds to
the Light node (Light-1). Upon encountering the
Light node, WorldUp recognizes this as an attribute
node and places its contents onto the state.
Traversal of the scene graph continues to the next
node (MyBlock). At this point, WorldUp recognizes
this node as a graphical node and takes what is
currently on the state and applies it to the graphical
node. In this way, the graphical node (MyBlock) is
lit by the information contained in the Light node
(Light-1) and rendered to the scene.
Traversal order continues back to the Root node, and
the state is wiped clean, and WorldUp is now
prepared for the next frame and a new traversal.
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34
How the Scene Graph is Traversed
Chapter 4 Organizing Your Scene
35
5
Working with a
Project
In WorldUp, simulations are stored in project files
that are saved as .UP files. When you first start
WorldUp, a default project is created that contains
the necessary components common to most
simulations, including a universe, a window, a
viewpoint, and a mouse. This chapter covers in
detail the various file types and components that
comprise a WorldUp project and how to manage
them.
What is a WorldUp Project?
A simulation is comprised of many different
components, such as models, textures, and sounds.
A project is a collection of objects that represent
these components. As such, there is typically a
correspondence for example between a Geometry
object in your simulation and the underlying
geometry file that it represents. This applies to all of
your simulation components except those which are
built into WorldUp, such as sensors and primitive
geometries (block, sphere, cone). These built-in
objects need no external file to define them.
The following table lists the most commonly used
WorldUp simulation objects and the file types they
typically represent.
36
Creating, Loading, and Saving Projects
WorldUp Objects and File Types
Object/Component
Typical File Types
Imported Geometry
.nff, .3ds, .wrl, .jt, .flt
Imported Geometry
Textures*
.tga, .jpg
Script
.ebs, .ebx
Sound
.wav
Behavior
.pup, .dll
Plugins (user defined types)
.dll
Dialogs (Script GUI
components)
.dlg
Path
.pth
* Since imported geometry files typically contain
their own references to texture files, these references
are not contained in the .UP file.
Your project file preserves how these components
are collected and assembled in your simulation and
what state they are in. It does so through a database
of Objects and Properties. See Chapter 9, Objects
and Properties for more information.
When you save your project, it stores this database
in an ASCII text file called an UP file (.UP). The UP
file does not contain all of your simulation
components, merely a description of their
arrangement and file references. When you load
your project, WorldUp reads this database of objects
and property values, which tells WorldUp which
additional files it needs to load and how to restore
your simulation arrangement and state. It is very
important that WorldUp is able to find all of the files
referenced by objects listed in the UP file.
Otherwise, the object cannot be re-created. Refer to
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
"Configuring Directory Paths" on page 39 for more
information on how to ensure WorldUp can locate
all referenced files.
Creating, Loading, and Saving
Projects
As mentioned above, WorldUp project files are
ASCII text files describing the simulation contents,
arrangement, and state. In addition to UP files,
WorldUp provides a Simulation Packager that will
package your UP file and all of your simulation’s
other files (models, textures, scripts, etc.) into a
single, compressed file called a ZUP file (.ZUP),
which is very useful when you want to redistribute
your project to another computer. An uncompressed
version of the ZUP file, the WUP file is also
supported by WorldUp R5 for backwards
compatibility with earlier versions of WorldUp. The
following table describes the possible project file
types.
WorldUp Project File Extensions
Project File
Extension
Description
.UP
An ASCII text file that contains all of
your simulation’s objects and their
properties.
.ZUP
A binary archive containing an .UP
file as well as all other simulation
files, including geometries scripts,
textures, etc., as well as any user
added files.
.WUP
Similar to a ZUP file, but not
compressed. This file format is no
longer used by WorldUp, but
supported for backward compatibility.
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
Importing An Existing WorldUp Project
Creating a New Project
existing one instead of the ZUP file you selected.
You should be careful to delete the file in the
WuCache directory if this is not the file you want
opened.
To create a new project
" Click the New Project
button.
A new, empty project appears in the Project
Workview.
Saving a Project
To save your Project file
Loading a Project
" Click the Save
button.
You can load UP, ZUP, or WUP files for editing.
To open a project file
1 Click the Open Project
Exporting a Project
button in the main
toolbar.
A File Open dialog box appears.
2 In the Files Of Type drop-down box at the
bottom, confirm the Simulations (*.Up,
*.ZUP, *.WUP) file filter is selected.
3 Navigate to the appropriate drive and directory
and double click the UP, ZUP, or WUP file you
want to open.
Alternatively, if the project that you want to open
was one of the last eight files opened in WorldUp, its
name appears in the list at the bottom of the File
menu. Select the file name to open it. You can also
open any project by dragging the project file into
WorldUp from any file browser, such as Windows
Explorer.
If you open a file of type ZUP or WUP, WorldUp first
unpacks all of the files contained in the archive into
a directory with the same name as the project in the
WuCache directory under your windows directory.
After unpacking these files, WorldUp then proceeds
to load the UP file from that directory. Since this
project is now unpacked in the WuCache directory,
the next time you load a ZUP or WUP file with the
same name, it will first look in that directory. If the
project already exists there, WorldUp loads the
In addition to saving your simulation, you can
choose to export your simulation as a compressed,
single archive that contains all project related files (a
ZUP file).
To export your file
" Select Export Project As>WorldUp Project from
the File menu.
For more information about exporting your project
as a ZUP file, refer to Chapter 20, Publishing Your
Application.
Importing An Existing WorldUp
Project
In WorldUp you can import objects and all elements
associated with those objects from one project into
another. You import an existing project using the
Resource Browser.
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38
Importing An Existing WorldUp Project
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
In the project’s scene graph, Lillypad is a child of
Frog. The Frog object may also have a script
attached to it which is called JumpScript.
Resource Browser
FROG.UP as it appears in the Resource Browser
When you open an UP file in the Resource Browser,
all elements of that project, such as scene graph
hierarchies, object types, and attached scripts,
display in a Resource Browser dialog box. When
you drag any project element from the Resource
Browser into the Project Workview, that element
retains and copies with it any other elements to
which it is related.
In another project, if you load FROG.UP into the
Resource Browser and drag only the Frog node into
the Scene Graph pane of the Scene Workview, the
current project inherits not only the Frog object, but
also the Lillypad object and the JumpScript object.
The Lillypad is automatically positioned as Frog’s
child in the scene graph, and the JumpScript object
is automatically added to Frog’s Task list.
For example, let’s say two graphical objects are in a
project (FROG.UP), which are called Frog and
Lillypad.
To import elements from a UP file:
1 On the main toolbar, click the Import Project
button.
The main view of the Resource Browser appears.
2 Click Add Resource.
The Open dialog box appears.
3 Navigate to the directory containing the UP file
that you want to import.
4 Double-click the file name.
FROG.UP as it appears in the Type Workview
Configuring Directory Paths
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
The elements of the imported project display in a
new view of the Resource Browser, categorized
under the roots in the following table.
Resource Root
Contains
Scene Graph
The hierarchical structure of all
nodes in the .UP file
Type Graph
All object types and the inheritance
structure in which they were
created
Motion Links
All MotionLink objects in the .UP
file
Scripts
All Script objects in the .UP file
Viewpoints
All Viewpoint objects in the .UP file
Windows
All Window objects in the .UP file
Sensors
All Sensor objects in the .UP file
Resource Options for UP files
When you open an UP file in the Resource Browser,
you can access the resource options by clicking the
Options button at the bottom of the Resource
Browser dialog box. The following table shows the
options that are available.
Resource Option
Description
Reload
Resource
WorldUp reloads the .UP file into
the Resource Browser.
Suppose you are running multiple
sessions of WorldUp. In one
session you have opened
FROG.UP. In the other session, the
Resource Browser contains a
resource for FROG.UP. As you
modify FROG.UP in the first
session, you can use the Reload
Resource command in the second
session to update any changes that
have been made.
Remove
Resource from
Project
Removes the .UP file from the
Resource Browser.
All unused resources are
automatically removed when you
close the project.
When you drag elements of an .UP
file from the Resource Browser into
your current project, they are
actually copied into the current
project, instead of the elements
referencing the UP resource.
Configuring Directory Paths
It is crucial that your project be able to find all files
referenced by objects in your simulation. Some
problems that may occur as a result of incomplete
path settings are:
• Models load without their textures
• Models fail to load
• Scripts fail to load
• Sounds fail to load
39
40
Configuring Directory Paths
Typically, WorldUp will displays a message in the
Status window while loading a project if it cannot
find a file that was referenced either by an object in
the UP file or by a model. Plug-ins and other DLLs,
however, may not always be so obvious.
In order for WorldUp to find the referenced files,
they must either exist in the same directory as the UP
file (one advantage to packaging your simulation as
a ZUP file since all of its contents are extracted into
a single directory), or the path names in which they
are located must exist in the Directory Paths To
Search list. Each search path can be stored as a
Project Path or a System Path.
System Paths vs. Project Paths
A System Path is a search path that is available for
any WorldUp project. That is, the path is added to
the Directory Paths To Search list for the entire
WorldUp system which is preserved in the system
registry.
A Project Path, on the other hand, is a search path
that is available only for a certain project (UP file).
That is, the path is added to the Directory Paths To
Search list for the given UP file only.
Depending on the location of the path, a Project Path
may be stored either as an absolute path or a relative
path. If the directory you want to add as a Project
Path is nested within the directory in which the
opened UP file is located, the path is stored as a
relative path. For example, if your UP file is located
in C:\DRIVESIM and you are adding the
C:\DRIVESIM\MODELS\TRUCKS path as a Project
Path, it is stored as:
models\trucks
If you convert that path to a System Path, it is stored
as the absolute path:
c:\drivesim\models\trucks
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
If you plan on redistributing your simulation onto
other machines, it is very important to store your
search paths with the project, and that these paths
are relative, since you do not necessarily know
where on the target machine your simulation will be
installed.
By storing nested Project Paths as relative paths, you
are given the freedom of moving your project
directories to another location without having to set
new search paths. In the relative path example
above, if you moved the DRIVESIM directory and its
subdirectories to the D drive, your project would still
be able to locate the files in the MODELS\TRUCKS
subdirectories since the path is always relative to the
UP file’s directory.
Note If the directory that you are adding as a Project
Path is not nested within the UP file’s directory, it is
stored as an absolute path.
To add a directory path to the search list
1 Select File Access Settings from the Options
menu.
The Settings dialog box appears.
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
2 Click the appropriate tab for the type of path
(such as Models) that you want to add.
3 Click Add.
The Open dialog box displays.
4 Select the directory path you want to add and
click OK.
A default storage mode is assigned to the path
and is reflected by both the selected radio button
(System Path or Project Path) and the icon
preceding the path
5 To change the storage mode, click the
appropriate radio button.
Note You can change the storage mode for any
path at any time.
To delete a directory path from the search list
1 Select File Access Settings from the Options
menu.
2 In the Settings dialog box, click the appropriate
tab for the type of path (such as Models) that you
want to delete.
3 Click the path you want to delete and click the
Delete button.
4 Click OK.
Global Simulation Settings
Certain settings can be considered global to your
simulation, which is to say they affect more than just
a single object. These settings typically affect the
way things are done, how things are drawn, etc.
These global settings affect your entire simulation,
such as ambient light, texture mip-mapping styles,
sound device used, etc. Since these global
simulation settings must persist within your project,
they are all stored in the project’s single Universe
Global Simulation Settings
object. To help you understand and configure your
global simulation settings, the remainder of this
section covers the Universe object’s properties.
Rendering Options
Rendering is the process of calculating and then
drawing images on a screen. WorldUp provides
several options related to rendering.
Turning Rendering On or Off
By default, rendering is turned on in WorldUp.
To toggle rendering on and off,
" Click the Rendering On/Off
button.
When you turn rendering off, the current image in
the Development window is no longer updated.
Thus, all navigational methods are disabled until
you turn rendering back on.
If you are developing a simulation that is graphicsintensive, you may find it useful to turn off
rendering at times when it is not important to see
rendering updates made in the Development
window. This will free up resources to improve
performance as you work in the Project Workview,
or as you work in another application while
WorldUp is still running.
Setting Rendering Parameters
You can change the way in which the simulation is
rendered by modifying the rendering parameters.
For example, you could render all geometries in the
simulation without textures to increase the frame
rate as you work.
To set rendering parameters
1 Click the Set Rendering Parameters
button.
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42
The Universe Object
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
The Rendering Parameters dialog box displays.
Displaying Rendering Performance
By default, the status bar at the bottom of the
WorldUp window displays the current frame rate for
the simulation when rendering is turned on. This is
the number of times per second that the screen
image is redrawn.
To hide or show the rendering performance
" On the View menu, check or uncheck Show
2 Set the desired options (described below) and
click OK.
Option
Wireframe
Frame Rate.
Note A number of factors can affect the frame rate
Description
Renders geometries as points and
lines, without texturing and shading.
This option allows for the fastest
rendering possible.
Shaded
Shades each polygon of a geometry
according to the intensity of light
striking the polygon and the Material
property value applied to the geometry.
Fully Textured
Renders geometries with their textures
fully shaded according to the intensity
of the light. This option is only available
when Shaded is turned on.
Texture
Perspective
Shows geometries with textures and
scales the textures when the viewpoint
changes. This option is only available
when Shaded is turned on.
Note: For some systems, textures are
always scaled to the viewpoint,
regardless of this WorldUp option.
Ambient Light
Level
A number between 0.0 and 1.0 that
adjusts the brightness of ambient light,
with 0.0 being total darkness and 1.0
being total brightness.
Note The simulation can be running or idle when
you change the rendering parameters.
of your simulation. Chapter 19, Tips and Tricks
explores some of these factors and provides
suggestions on how to improve your frame rate.
The Universe Object
Every WorldUp project has a single Universe
object. This object contains all of the properties that
effect your entire simulation.
The following table lists the properties associated
with the Universe object.
The Universe Object
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
Universe Object Properties
Property
Description
Valid Values
Ambient light
Sets the amount of ambient light in the
simulation. Ambient light is light that effects
all polygons equally.
0.0 to 1.0 – A setting of 0.0 effectively turns
the ambient light off. 1.0 is full intensity.
Anti-aliasing
Turns on off anti-aliasing. This only works for
specifically supported video hardware.
True or False
Audio Device
Sets the .dll used to communicate with your
sound card. By setting it to None you will
release the sound card so that other
programs may access it.
None – No audio device in this simulation.
Default – Use windows default sound device
(winmm). Winmm allows you to play only one
sound at a time.
DiamondWare – Use Diamond Ware sound
device. This allows you to play four sounds
at one time.
CRE – Use Crystal River Engineering sound
server.
Audio Listener
Sets the position from which a sound is
heard.
Any viewpoint in the simulation
Audio Rolloff
Sets the distance at which sound becomes
inaudible. As this value increases, sounds in
the universe become louder.
Any positive decimal value
FrameRate
Sets the number of frames per second (fps)
displayed during a running simulation.
This is calculated by WorldUp and is read
only.
Mipmap Mag Filter
Sets the the magnification filter style for
texture mapping.
Nearest
Linear
Mipmap Min Filter
Sets the minification filter stye for texture
mapping.
Nearest
Linear
NearestMipMapNearest
LinearMipMapNearest
NearestMipMapLinear
LinearMipMapLinear
NoAutoAlpha
Disables automatic use of black pixels as the
alpha channel.
True – Don’t set black as transparent
False – Set black to be transparent
Perspective Texture
Enables or disables perspective-correct
texturing.
True – Perspective-correct texturing enabled
False – Perspective-correct texturing
disabled
Sensitivity Percentage
Sets the mouse sensitivity as a % of the
universe diameter.
Any non-negative value
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The Universe Object
Property
Chapter 5 Working with a Project
Description
Valid Values
Shutdown script
Sets the filename of a script that you want to
run automatically when you stop a
simulation.
Any valid script. The script must contain a
main subroutine.
Startup script
Sets the filename of a script that you want to
run automatically when you load a project
(.up) file.
Any valid script. The script must contain a
main subroutine. This subroutine will be run
once when the project is loaded.
Tasks
Name(s) of the script(s) to be executed once
per frame during the simulation.
Any valid script. The script must contain a
task subroutine. The task will be run once
each frame of the simulation.
Texture Memory Used
Sets the amount of texture memory the
textures are using.
N/A
Textured
Enables or disables texture mapping in all
views.
True – Texture mapping enabled
False – Texture Mapping disabled (textures
are not drawn)
User script
Sets the name of the script to run whenever
you choose User Defined Script from the
Simulation menu or click the User Defined
Action button on the toolbar.
Any valid script with a main entry point
Wireframe
Indicates whether the universe is rendered
with wireframe parameters. When wireframe
rendering is True, WorldUp displays objects
as points and lines, removing all texturing
and shading.
True – Wireframe enabled
False – Wireframe disabled
45
6
A Quick Tour
This chapter contains four guided tours that are
intended to quickly familiarize you with many of the
procedures involved in creating a WorldUp
simulation.
Completed versions of each guided tour are located
in the Tutorials subdirectory of the directory in
which you installed WorldUp. You can use these
simulations as a reference, or as a starting point
should you decide to skip the previous tutorial.
46
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
In order to familiarize yourself with the WorldUp
development environment, we start by creating a
vehicle from basic primitives, such as a block and
cylinder. The figure below shows the completed
vehicle.
Completed Vehicle in the WorldUp Window
This tutorial will show you how to set up the
development windows, navigate the scene, and
position and manipulate objects using the new user
interface in WorldUp Release 5.
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Getting Started
WorldUp is already running.
You have now added four viewports to the
Development window, showing views from the
default viewpoint (viewpoint-1), top, front, and
right. The default viewpoint shows the perspective
view and the others orthographic views. At any time
only one viewport is active and this is the viewport
on which navigation operations are applied. The
active viewport is highlighted with a white border.
The window that is displayed when you start a
WorldUp session is known as the WorldUp
Development window.
Creating the body
To begin
1 Create a new directory in where you will save
your WorldUp simulations as you work.
2 Start WorldUp, or click File, New Universe if
3 If desired, enlarge the Development window.
Setting up the working environment
First let us arrange the working environment. In
WorldUp multiple viewports can be set up in
development window to view a scene from various
angles. Multiple viewports facilitates you to
position objects in 3D space correctly and
accurately.
To add more viewports
1 Click on Display Options
button on the
navigation toolbar of the Development window.
2 Click Configure Viewports.
We begin by creating the lower body of the vehicle
using a block. The WorldUp development
environment consists of main menu and main
toolbar on top, project window on left, development
window on right and status window at the bottom.
The project window consists of four various
Workviews; Scene Workview, Behavior Workview,
Type Workview and Model Workview. Workviews
are logically organized folders for doing various
tasks.
We’ll be focusing on Scene Workview in this
chapter. The Scene Workview contains the Nodes
pane showing types and instances on the left, the
Scene Graph pane showing the scene graph on the
right, and the Property pane on the bottom showing
properties of the selected node.
First, we must create a Vehicle group node where
we will put all the vehicles parts.
To create the Vehicle group
1 Select the Scene Workview tab, if not already
selected.
2 Select Group in the Nodes pane.
3 Drag and drop the Group node into the Scene
3 Select four viewports and click OK.
4 Click OK to close the Display Properties dialog.
Graph as a child of Root just below Light-1.
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Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
Note Light-1 must be the first child of the Root
node before all other nodes because lighting is
applied only on nodes below the Light-1 node.
4 Select anywhere on the Name row in the
Property pane.
5 Select the name Group-1.
You will see an edit box appear.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
2 Name the new Block UpperBody.
3 Apply Red-Dark material.
4 Set the Stretch property to (9, 3, 7).
To look at the vehicle closely in all views
1 Click in a viewport to make it active.
2 Click the Zoom All button.
6 Change Group- 1 to Vehicle.
3 Repeat this for each viewport.
Next, we create the lower body of the vehicle.
Now we need to place the upper body above the
lower body.
To create the lower body
1 Expand the Geometry node in the Nodes pane to
show its sub-types.
2 Select the Block sub-type.
3 Drag and drop the Block to the Scene Graph as a
child of the Vehicle group node.
This creates (instantiates) a node named Block-1
under Vehicle.
4 Select anywhere on the Name row in the
Property pane.
To move the upper body
1 Select UpperBody in the Scene Graph.
2 Change the Translation property of UpperBody
to (1.5, -7, 0).
You can also use one of the following methods to
move the upper body:
• Double click on Translation property and a
Translation tool pops up. Use slider bars to set
the X value to 1.5 and Y value to –7.
6 Change Block-1 to LowerBody.
• Click the Translate Object
button. While
UpperBody is selected in the Scene Graph, click
the Lock Selected
button. Then click and
drag the UpperBody to translate it. To move in Y
direction, use right mouse button.
7 Click on the Material property and select Red
Note Once the Lock Selected button is pressed, the
5 Select the name Block-1.
You will see an edit box appear.
material.
8 Edit the Stretch property to be (12, 4, 7).
9 Edit the Translation property to be (0, -3.5, 0)
This moves the block above ground level.
Now let’s create the upper body of the vehicle.
To create the upper body
1 Create a new Block as we did for the lower body.
object currently selected remains selected even if
you click on an empty space in Development
window.
To learn more about the Translate Object and other
tools in the Development window toolbar, see
Chapter 8, Development Window – Navigation and
Manipulation.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Saving the Model
You can save the vehicle you have created as a
project file (.UP) or export it to VRML.
To save your model as a project
" Save As from the File menu.
In this example, let us save the vehicle you have
created so far as VRML1.
To export your model as VRML
1 Select Export Project As > VRML 1.0 from the
File menu.
2 Name the model vehicle.wrl in the project
directory you created at the beginning of this
tutorial.
It is a good practice to save your work frequently to
avoid data loss or to revert back to a previously
saved model.
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
• Double click on the Rotation property of
FrontTire to get the rotation tool. Slide the
Pitch (X) slider bar to right to set it to 90
degrees. Click on "Snap to Every [15]
degrees" to rotate faster and in steps of 15
degrees. You can change this to 30, 45 or 90
degrees if you want to reduce the number of
steps to reach 90 degrees.
• Select the Object Rotate button, press X on the
toolbar to set the axis of rotation as X-axis.
Press Lock Selected to keep the selection
intact. Click on the cylinder and move the
mouse up or down to rotate the object until it
is placed horizontally.
Now creating the wheels and rear tire are easy.
Right click on FrontTire in the Scene Graph and
select duplicate. Name this new cylinder
FrontHubCap, set its Initial Radius to 1.0, height
to 7.3 and change its material to Gray.
8 Save your work as vehicle.wrl in VRML1.0
Working on the Wheels
Now that the body of the vehicle is in place, let’s
create the tires and wheels for the vehicle using
cylinders.
To create the front tire
1 Select the Cylinder sub-type from the Nodes
pane.
2 Drag and drop the Cylinder to the Scene Graph
as a child of the Vehicle group node.
3 Name the Cylinder FrontTire.
4 Change the Material property to MatteBlack.
5 Set the Radius property to 1.5.
by selecting File > Export Project As >
VRML1.0.
Grouping the Objects
Grouping of objects and assigning parent-child
relationships between objects are essential in
modeling and creating simulations. For example,
moving one node underneath another node creates a
parent-child relationship between those two objects.
When you move the parent object, the child object
moves with the parent.
For more details about Groups, see Chapter 4,
Organizing Your Scene.
6 Set the Height property to 7.2.
In our model, let’s group the wheel and tire as a
single group node.
7 Rotate the FrontTire on the X axis using one of
To group tire and wheel
the following two methods:
1 Select Group in the Nodes pane.
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Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
2 Drag and drop Group into the Scene Graph
below Vehicle.
4 Using the left mouse button, move FrontWheel
to the left.
3 Name this group node FrontWheel
5 Use right mouse button to move it Up.
4 Drag and drop FrontTire under the FrontWheel
group node to make it a child of FrontWheel.
5 Drag and drop FrontHubCap to FrontWheel in
the same manner as step 4.
Your scene graph should look similar to the
following figure.
Now that you have successfully created the front
wheel, let’s work on the rear wheel.
To create the rear wheel
You can also select both FrontTire and
FrontHubCap at the same time by holding down the
shift key when selecting and drag both to
FrontWheel in one step.
Now, let’s move FrontWheel to its correct position.
To move FrontWheel
1 Create a Group node as child of Vehicle.
2 Name the new Group node RearWheel.
3 Right-click on FrontTire and select the Duplicate
button.
4 Name the copy RearTire.
5 Drag and drop RearTire into the RearWheel
1 Select FrontWheel in the Scene Graph.
2 Set the Translation property to (-2, -1.5, 0).
group node we just created.
6 Duplicate FrontHubCap, and name it
RearHubCap.
To move front wheel using the tools
1 Click the Lock Selected
button while
FrontWheel is selected.
2 Select the Translate Object
button in toolbar.
3 Click on Constrain X to move it only in X
direction.
7 Group RearHubCap with RearTire under
RearWheel.
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
8 Just as we moved FrontWheel to its correct
location, move RearWheel to its final position
using the Object Translate tool or by setting the
Translation property to (5, -1.5, 0).
3 Translate RearSideWindow to (3.6, -7, 0.)
To create the front-rear window
1 Duplicate FrontSideWindow.
2 Name it FrontRearWindow.
3 Set the Stretch property to (9.1, 2.5, 6.5).
4 Translate the window to (1.5, -7, 0).
Your scene graph should look similar to the
following figure.
Note By duplicating and resizing FrontWheel and
RearWheel parts, an advanced user can create left
and right wheels for each.
9 Save your work as Vehicle.wrl.
Creating Windows
Next, let’s add windows to the vehicle.
To create the Front Side window
Creating Lights
1 Add a new Block to the Scene Graph and name it
You can create front lights using cylinders. Set a
relatively smaller Z value compared to X in the
Stretch property of the light to get an elliptical shape
as shown in fig.
FrontSideWindow.
2 Set the Material property to MatteBlack.
3 Set the Stretch property to (4, 2.5, 7.1).
4 Translate the window to (-0.75, -7, 0).
To create the left light
1 Add a Cylinder to Vehicle and name it LeftLight.
Now we can duplicate this object to create the rear
side window and the front-rear window.
2 Set the Stretch to (0.5, 0.5, 0.6)
To create the rear side window
3 Rotate it 90 degrees in Z.
1 Duplicate FrontSideWindow.
4 Set the Material to Gold.
2 Name it RearSideWindow.
5 Translate the LeftLight to (-6, -4.5, -2.5).
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Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
To create the right light
1 Duplicate LeftLight and name it RightLight.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
The final Scene Graph should look similar to the
following figure, though the nodes may not
necessarily be in the same order.
2 Translate it to (-6, -4.5, 2.5)
To create the front grill
1 Add a new block to the Scene Graph and name it
The completed model should look similar to the
following figure.
FrontGrill.
2 Set the Stretch property to (1, 1.8, 4).
3 Set the Material to MatteBlack.
4 Translate it to (-5.6, -3, 0).
5 Save your finished work as vehicle.wrl in VRML
1.0 by clicking on Export Project As> VRML1.0
from the File menu.
Congratulations! You have successfully finished
creating your first model in WorldUp. In this
Tutorial, you have learned to:
• Use the Scene Workview to add objects to the
Scene Graph.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
• Set up multiple viewports in the Development
window.
• Create models using primitives such as Block
and Cylinder.
• Use navigation and manipulation tools to view,
translate, and rotate objects.
• Use the Property pane to edit an object’s
properties.
• Group nodes and assign parent-child
relationships between objects.
• Save the model.
Tutorial 1: Creating a Model
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Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
In the previous Tutorial, we learned how to create a
model using basic primitives provided with
World Up. To create a detailed simulation you will
need to bring in already available models to the
WorldUp simulation environment. In this tutorial,
we will import some models, including the vehicle
you created in last lesson, to build a driving
simulation over a terrain.
Using Model Workview
By now you are familiar with the Scene Workview,
which displays the hierarchical structure of your
scene and its properties. It allows you to create new
objects from available types. The Model Workview
allows you to import and preview geometric models
and add them to your scene.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
For more details on the Model Workview, see
Chapter 7, Using the Workviews.
Importing Terrain
First, let’s import something to stand on. Before
importing a model, we create a Group node called
Terrain to group the related geometries together.
To create the Group node
1 Select the Scene Workview tab.
2 Drag and drop a Group node below Light-1 and
name it Terrain.
As we are going to create a high polygon scene let
us turn off shadows and grids.
To turn off shadows and grids
1 Click on Display Options
button.
2 Check the boxes next to Grid and Shadows to
toggle them off.
3 Click on Viewport Configuration and select
single viewport.
4 Click OK.
5 Click OK on Display Options dialog box to save
the changes.
To import the terrain model using Model Workview
1 Click on the Models tab to select the Model
Workview.
2 Click on Import New Model
button and
select terrain.nff from the Tutorials\Models
directory.
3 Click OK
4 Click on Add New Path to the Search Path.
5 Click OK in the Import Model Parameters dialog
The Model Workview
box.
Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
This will show the terrain model in the Preview
Window and its hierarchy in the Imported
Models pane. Other details about the model are
displayed next to the Preview Window.
You have successfully imported terrain into your
simulation. The following figure show the current
state of the scene graph.
6 Select Terrain.nff [0] in the Imported Models
pane.
7 Drag and drop it to the Scene Graph pane as a
child of the Terrain group node we just created.
This adds terrain model to the scene graph and
the model shows up in the Development window.
8 Click on Zoom All
button.
The terrain disappears from the development
window. This is because the window clips the
terrain. In order to fix this we need to set the far
(yon) clipping plane of the window to a high value.
To set the clipping plane
1 In the Project window, click on Type tab to select
Type Workview.
2 Under Window > DevWindow, select
Importing Walls
DevWindow-1.
Next, we will build walls around the terrain.
Make sure you expand the VBase node, if it's not
already expanded.
To build the walls
3 Look at its properties in the Property pane and
set the Yon Clipping to 50000.
You should see the terrain appear in
Development Window. Now we have expanded
the DevWindow view volume.
4 Repeat this for the Application Window also by
selecting Window > Window-1 and setting its
Yon Clipping value to 50000.
5 Save your project as Vehicle.up by selecting Save
As from the File menu.
1 Create a Group node in the Scene Workview as
you did before, and name it Walls.
2 From the Model Workview, click the Import New
Model
button.
3 Select wall.nff from the Tutorial directory and
click OK.
4 Click OK on the Texture warning as well.
5 Drag and Drop wall.nff from Imported Models
pane to Scene Graph as child of Walls.
6 Repeat Step 3 through 5 three more times to add
a total of four walls to the scene.
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Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
7 Go to Scene Workview and rename Block-1,
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
6 Set Wall-4’s translation value to (0, 0, -13000).
Block-2, Block-3 and Block-4 under Walls as
Wall-1, Wall-2, Wall-3 and Wall-4 respectively.
To place the walls correctly
1 Select Wall-1 and set its translation property to
(13000, 0, 0).
Or, use a manipulation tool to translate it. To do
this click on Object Translate
button and
constrain translation to left and right by clicking
on X. Lock Wall-1 selection by clicking on the
Lock Selected
button. Drag mouse to the left
to place the wall at the left end of terrain.
2 Select Wall-2 and set its translation to (-13000, 0,
0) Or use Object Translate to move it to the other
end of the terrain.
3 Select Wall-3 and rotate it 90 degrees in Y axis
using a method explained in previous section.
7 Select Save from the File menu to save your
Project.
You have now put a border around your territory.
Importing Vehicle
The last step is to bring in the vehicle created in the
pervious tutorial.
To import the vehicle
1 Using the Model Workview, import Vehicle.wrl
from the \Tutorials directory.
2 Add it to the Scene Graph.
3 Switch to the Scene Workview and while
keeping Vehicle node selected, click the Lock
Selected
button.
4 Apply a translation of (0, 0, 13000).
5 Select Wall-4 and rotate it 90 degrees in Y-axis
4 Click the Zoom to Selected
button to zoom
to vehicle.
5 Translate it up to around (0, -112, 0) to bring the
vehicle above the terrain.
Tutorial 2: Importing a Model
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Summary
In this tutorial you have learned how to:
• Use the Model Workview to import models
• Add imported models to your scene
• Work with large databases
• Adjust the Window/Viewport clipping plane to fit
the whole scene
• Save your project
6 Select Save from the File menu to save your
project.
You have now completed the scene building for
your simulation. The scene graph should look
similar to the following figure.
In next tutorial, you will add behaviors to your
simulation.
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Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
In this tutorial we will bring our simulation to life
through the application of behaviors. In WorldUp, a
behavior is generally defined as some activity that is
applied to or demonstrated by any WorldUp Object
within the Simulation. In our evolving tutorial
simulation, we’re going to add some classic
simulation activities, including interactivity using a
Sensor behavior, collision detection, and terrain
following.
Tutorial2_final.up in the WorldUp Window
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
To begin
" Open your WorldUp project file from the
previous tutorial.
You can also use the template file for this
tutorial, Tutorial2_final.up in the
\Tutorial directory. Either project should get
you started where Tutorial 2 left off.
The project should look something like the
following figure.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Lesson 1: Preparing your Geometry
Behaviors involve moving objects. When moving
objects, we typically think in directions (such as
forward, backward, and right) and orientations
(yaw, pitch and roll). 3D graphics conventions
typically map yaw as a rotation about the Y-axis,
pitch as a rotation about the X-axis, and roll as
rotation about the Z-axis. This convention thus
defines "forward" (the direction the "nose" of the
vehicle or viewpoint points) as the + Z-axis and
backward as the –Z-axis.
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Your Scene Graph should now look something
like the following figure.
In our project, we can see that our van’s idea of a
forward direction, however, is down it’s –X-axis:
3 Select your Vehicle Group and rotate +90
degrees about it’s Y-axis.
You can do this either interactively in the render
window with the Rotation controls or by double
clicking it’s rotation property and using the
Rotation dialog.
This is a typical situation, especially when
importing geometries for which you had no control
over how they were modeled. This is not, however,
a problem. This short lesson will show you how to
easily re-orient your model without modifying it at
all.
To orient your model
1 Create a new Group node and name it
VehicleAvatar.
2 Make your Vehicle group a child of
VehicleAvatar by dragging your Vehicle group
node onto the VehicleAvatar Group node.
4 From the Development window
toolbar, select Local from the
coordinate frame drop down box.
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Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Now take a moment to examine the axes drawn
in the render window, and their difference when
the Vehicle is selected versus when the Vehicle
Avatar is selected.
The Vehicle group shows the Van still pointing
down it’s –X axis. The VehicleAvatar group,
however, shows the van pointing down the
VehicleAvatar’s +Z axis. This is what we’ll need in
order to move it in the direction we consider
"forward."
In this lesson, we have learned how to adjust an
object’s orientation relative to another object’s
orientation. In essence, we are using the group node
we created as a sort of dummy helper that allows us
to change the van’s orientation "with respect to"
another object (the VehicleAvatar group). In the
next lesson, we’ll see why this becomes useful.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
3 Select the MouseDriver Action type and examine
it’s properties in the Property pane.
Note All types are represented by a
icon.
4 To get a feel for what’s particular to this
behavior, click on the Subtype tab on the
Property pane.
This displays those properties specific to the
selected type. For MouseDriver, this is
Controlling Window, Forward Axis, Speed
Feedback, and Steering Feedback.
5 Select and drag the MouseDriver onto the
Behavior Root task in the Task Scheduler.
The Behavior Input Definition dialog box
appears.
Lesson 2: Adding a Sensor
Behavior
Sensors, such as Joysticks, Mice, and Trackers, are
the window of interactivity between the user and the
simulation. WorldUp supports a vast array of
Sensors. For this lesson, we will focus on using a
Behavior that allows the user to control the van with
the Mouse.
To add a behavior
1 Select the Behavior Workview tab in the Project
Workview.
This is where you will be doing most if not all of
your behavior related work.
2 In the Behaviors pane, expand the PluginActions
and PluginTriggers types to examine the
standard set of behaviors that come with
WorldUp.
Take a moment to look over this dialog. You use this
dialog only to assign inputs to the selected Behavior.
There is, however, additional information to help
you with your decision. For more information on the
Behavior Input Definition dialog, see Chapter 14,
The Behavior System.
Our MouseDriver-1 Behavior needs to know exactly
what geometry to control with the mouse. For our
tutorial, we will be controlling the VehicleAvatar.
To add the VehicleAvatar to the MouseDriver’s
InputList 1
1 Select VehicleAvatar from the list of Movable
objects and click the
button.
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
2 Click OK.
In the Task Scheduler Pane, you should now see
MouseDriver-1 as a child of the Behavior Root.
3 Expand the MouseDriver-1 behavior by clicking
on the plus symbol to the left of it in the Task
Scheduler pane.
This reveals a 1 which represents the
MouseDriver’s Input List. To the right of the 1 is
{VehicleAvatar}, which is the actual contents of
the input list, and contains a reference to
VehicleAvatar, which we just added. Your
Behavior Graph should now look similar to the
following figure.
You have now successfully created a new
behavior which says "Every Frame, execute the
MouseDriver Behavior on the VehicleAvatar".
Good job.
But wait! Before we can test it, we must make sure
the MouseDriver needs no additional crucial
information to operate. To know this, we must
revisit the properties we examined in Step 2.
4 Making sure the MouseDriver-1 object (not the
type, and not the input list) is selected, click on
the Important tab on the Property pane.
The Important tab shows you just which
properties the behavior author felt were crucial to
getting the behavior up and running. For
MouseDriver, the only crucial property is the
Window object in which our behavior will be
active (Controlling Window).
5 Since we want it to run in the Development
window, double click on the Controlling Window
Property and select DevWindow-1 from the list
of Window objects.
We are now ready!
To test your MouseDriver behavior
1 Click the Run in DevWindow
button to run
your simulation in the Development Window.
2 Put your mouse in the Development window and
observe what happens.
Wow, bet you lost the VehicleAvatar, right? Well,
don’t worry, in Lesson 3 we’ll show you a quick
way to fix that. For now, stop your simulation and
find your van using the navigation and placement
techniques you learned in the previous tutorials.
(What? You didn’t do the previous tutorials?) Once
you’ve found it, you might want to put it back on the
terrain somewhere. An easy way to do this is to
select the VehicleAvatar node and set it’s translation
property to (0,0,0).
Behaviors can be dangerous to your scene
arrangement. Now is a good opportunity to save
your project.
Note If you loaded the template tutorial1-3.up at the
beginning of this tutorial, save your current project
with a different name. We suggest saving frequently
so you can always come back to your simulation
when it was in a "nice" state.
Lesson 2 Summary
The MouseDriver Lesson gave you a feel for how to
create and schedule a Behavior, as well as how to
identify crucial properties and how to edit them.
Most Behaviors you will encounter will have 1 or 2
crucial properties and a few additional properties.
Together these properties allow you to customize
the way a Behavior works.
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Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Lesson 3: Attaching the Viewpoint
Now that you know what you are doing, we’re going
to add few more behaviors to make your van move
more realistically, as well as prevent you from
losing it.
To prevent the van from just speeding off, we’re
going to attach our viewpoint to it. This will give us
the feeling that we’re actually in the van, instead of
getting left in the dust. To do this, we’ll add a Tether
Viewpoint behavior.
To add a Tether Viewpoint behavior
1 Begin by starting where we left off in Lesson 2.
2 With the Behavior Workview Active, locate the
TetherViewpoint type and select it.
3 Schedule it by dragging it onto the Behavior
Root just like you did with MouseDriver-1.
Again the Behavior Input Definition dialog pops
up.
4 Add the VehicleAvatar to the InputList 1 of the
Tether Viewpoint behavior, just like we did with
the MouseDriver Behavior.
Note the description for TetherViewpoint tells us
this will "tether" the viewpoint to the
VehicleAvatar (input1).
5 Click OK to accept.
In the Task Scheduler Pane, you should now see
TetherViewpoint-1 as a child of the Behavior
Root and below MouseDriver-1.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Again, you can confirm by expanding the
TetherViewpoint icon that the VehicleAvatar is
indeed on TetherViewpoint’s InputList 1.
Good Job! You have now successfully created a
TetherViewpoint behavior. Our simulation now
says, "Every frame, tether the viewpoint to the
VehicleAvatar and control the VehicleAvatar with
the mouse." But wait! Which viewpoint? As
mentioned in the introduction to this lesson, we
should check out this Behavior’s Important
properties. Of course, we know how to do this!
We did it with the MouseDriver.
6 As a refresher, make sure the TetherViewpoint
object is selected and then click on the Important
tab in the Property pane.
Aha! We see our question, "Which Viewpoint?"
is answered in the Property Pane. Filling in
TetherViewpoint’s "Viewpoint" property answers
it. That’s easy!
7 Double-click on the Viewpoint property and
select Viewpoint-1 from the pop-up list.
We’re ready to go!
8 Click the Run in DevWindow
button to run
your simulation in the Development Window.
That’s much better than getting left behind!
There is one small complaint, however. We’re
right in the middle of the van (we call this the
"view from the transaxel"). If this view is less
than pleasant for you, don’t sweat it. The
TetherViewpoint author has kindly provided an
Offset Property.
9 With your simulation running, try adjusting this
offset vector by double-clicking on it in the
Property pane and modifying the Y and Z values
Adjust the sensitivity slider to Slow on the
vector editor for this maneuver.
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Finally, note that the viewpoint seems to move a
little unevenly. This is because we are tethering
the viewpoint before updating the van with the
mouse, so we are receiving a one frame delay.
Your scene should look similar to the following
figure.
10 To fix this, move the MouseDriver-1 behavior so
that it gets executed before TetherViewpoint-1 by
dragging it onto the Root Behavior.
The rules of drag and drop are the same here as
in the Scene Graph as learned in the earlier
lessons.
11 Save your Project file if you haven’t done so
recently.
Lesson 3 Summary
Tethering the viewpoint is a classic behavior and a
requirement for many simulations. Chances are
you’ll be using this behavior over and over again in
different situations from Walkthroughs to Flyovers.
By attaching the viewpoint to the VehicleAvatar, we
made a sort of simple Avatar. For more information
on viewpoint control and Avatars in general, refer to
the Avatar User Manual.
Lesson 4: Adding Terrain Following
and Collision Detection
Our van is moving nicely now. There are, however
some key laws of physics we seem to be ignoring,
including gravity and rigid object permeability. In
this lesson, we’re going to get realistic about our
simulation and address these problems by
implementing terrain following and collision
detection with our handy Behavior library.
To begin
1 Begin by starting where we left off in Lesson 3.
2 Schedule a TerrainFollowLand behavior by
dragging it onto the Behavior Root as we did
with MouseDriver-1 and TetherViewpoint-1.
This brings up the Behavior Input Definition
Dialog.
Note the TerrainFollowLand description. These
descriptions are provided by the Behavior author,
and seek to help you make a decision regarding
what input we should use. In this case, as before,
the "input object" is our van, so add the
VehicleAvatar to the TerrainFollowLand’s input
1 list.
3 4. Click OK and confirm the VehicleAvatar is in
the input list as before.
4 Review TerrrainFollowLand’s Important
properties.
GroundObjectRoot specifies the ground. In our
case, it is the group node that contains all of our
terrain segments. (If you haven’t grouped all of
your terrain objects under a single group node,
now would be a good time.)
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Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
5 Specify this group node as the Ground by double
clicking the GroundRootObject property and
selecting your terrain (or whatever you named it)
group node from the list.
Great work.
6 Click the Run in DevWindow
button to test
your new terrain in the Development Window.
The TerrainFollowLand author saw fit to give
you some flexibility in deciding just how far
above the terrain you wish to follow.
7 Try increasing TerrainFollowLand’s
DistanceOffGround property (while the
simulation is still running).
Now that our van is happily obeying the laws of
physics, let’s handle the law of brick walls:
collision detection.
8 In the Behavior Workview, take a moment to
look at the CollideMovable Trigger, which is
located under the "Plugin Triggers" section.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
2 In the Behavior Input Definition dialog, notice
that this Trigger takes two inputs, unlike our
previous actions (just store that fact in the back
of your mind). This fact, combined with the
description ("Collide movable checks for
intersection between two user specified
geometries") confirms our suspicions that we’ll
need two inputs for this Trigger to work.
3 For CollideMovable’s Input 1, select the
VehicleAvatar.
4 For CollideMovable’s Input 2, select all four wall
objects.
Do not select the group node (if any) that they
may be under.
5 Click OK.
6 Look at CollideMovable’s inputs in the Task
Scheduler by expanding Collide Movable.
Note there are two inputs here, not just one.
7 Visually verify these are correct before
proceeding.
A Trigger is just like an action, except that it only
fires (that is to say, executes it’s children) if a
condition is satisfied. In this case,
CollideMovable fires if our van collides with a
wall. For this to happen, we can guess our
CollideMovable will need two inputs – One for
our van and one for the list walls. Let’s see how
this works.
To create a CollideMovable Trigger
1 Drag a CollideMovable trigger onto the Behavior
Root, just as we did with the other Behaviors.
8 Now, before testing our new collision detection,
check to see if it had any important properties.
9 Click the Run in DevWindow
button to test
your new collision in the Development Window.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
What happened!? Don’t worry. The
CollideMovable trigger isn’t broken. In fact, it’s
working perfectly fine. We just don’t know it
because we didn’t tell it what to do when the van
ran into the wall. To remedy this, let’s tell
CollideMovable-1 what to do when the van does
run into the wall.
10 Locate the BounceBack action from your list of
Behaviors.
Now, before creating this action, think! We want
our van to bounce backward only when we run
into the wall, not every frame. So, instead of
dragging this action onto the BehaviorRoot,
we’re going to drag it onto the CollideMovable-1
Trigger. Got it? (If not, there’s more
information to be had in the Behaviors section of
this manual). Okay, go ahead and do it.
11 Drag the BounceBack action onto the
CollideMovable-1 Trigger.
In the Behavior Inputs, we note by the
description that BounceBack is going to bounce
input 1 backward. For BounceBack’s input, take
a leap of faith with me here and check the radio
box that says "Parent Out 1." Why not just add
the van like we always do? Well, we could have,
but that would have been less daring. Instead,
what we said by checking "Parent Out 1" is, in
essence, "Mr. BounceBack-1, please use the
output coming from Mr CollideMovable-1."
For more information on this, see Chapter 14,
The Behavior System. A quick check on
BounceBack’s Important properties reveals there
are none, so let’s roll. If all systems are go, you
should be happily following the terrain and
running into walls like any good physical object.
Wait a minute, where’s the fun in that?
Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
Lesson 4 Summary
Like Viewpoint Tethering, Terrain Following and
Collision Detection are classic simulation building
blocks that you can use in a variety of settings. The
crucial difference to understand in this Lesson is that
Terrain Following is simply an action – that is to
say, the van follows the ground every frame.
Collision Detection also happens every frame –
which is to say the system checks for a collision
between the van and the walls every frame.
However, not every frame does a collision occur.
A trigger can thus be though of as an event detection
mechanism that, when detected, notifies others. In
this case, BounceBack gets notified, which is what
we want, since we only want to bounce back when
we collide. This "If this happens Then do this…"
logical structure is a cornerstone in any
programming system, and now that you see how it
works, you can quickly begin incorporating other
such "high level" interactions.
Behavior Tutorial Review
As we have seen, the idea of a behavior covers a
wide variety of activities. It can be useful to think of
behaviors in terms of Triggers (or events) and
Actions (or responses). Wiring these together forms
a behavior. Consider as an analogy the human
reflex. The Trigger is the event of the hammer on the
knee. The response is the kicking of the leg.
Together this event/response forms the reflex
behavior.
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Tutorial 3: Using Behaviors
The key to understanding Behaviors in WorldUp
lies in the Behavior Scheduler, which is the network
that tells you what happens when and to whom.
In our simple simulation, we scheduled behaviors
off of the "root" of the graph, which means they
were executed every frame. We also scheduled a
behavior that was executed only when an event
occurred (Bounce-Back-1). In addition to these
combinations, there are several other basic
combinations that allow you to achieve a wide
variety of logical situations, including if – then,
while –do, and begin - until. Chapter 14, The
Behavior System will help you understand these
concepts and more in greater detail, as well as show
you how you can author your own behaviors!
For now, take a look at the remaining set of
Triggers, and think about how these might be
combined with the actions to form higher level
behaviors. Start simply at first. For example, how
about adding a PlaySound action to
CollideMovable, so when the van hits the wall, it
makes a crash?
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
Tutorial 4: Paths – Your
Doorway to Animations
To adjust the wings
In this tutorial, we're going to introduce another way
to add interaction to your simulation: Paths. A path
is a list of position and orientation values that can be
applied to any WorldUp Movable or Viewpoint
object. See Chapter 15, Paths for more information.
2 Select the Object Translate
1 Select the body and zoom to it.
button at the top
of the DevWindow.
You can only adjust the center points of objects
in this mode.
3 Select the right wing by clicking on it.
In this lesson,you will start with an imported model,
adjust its center points, create simple and complex
animations, and experiment with interpolation
methods.
To begin
" Open the project file titled Tutorial4-1.up in the
\Tutorials directory.
4 Hold down the SHIFT key.
You will see a red square appear. This square
represents the object’s center point.
5 Drag this until it is over the center of the
Butterfly’s body.
6 Repeat for the left wing.
7 Save the Project.
Lesson 1: WingFlap Animation
To animate the wing
1 Select the body and click the Zoom All
button on the Development window toolbar.
2 Setup your viewports so that you can see what
you are doing from all sides.
Adjusting the center point of the left wing of the Butterfly
Adjusting the Wing Center Points
Your butterfly is already assembled in a hierarchy,
with the body as a parent of the left wing and the
right wing. The wings are attached to the body, but
their center points are still at the default position.
We need the wings to rotate about the body, so the
first thing we will do is to move their center points
to be in the center of the body. Then, when we rotate
the wings, they will rotate about the body, instead of
around the center or the wing itself.
Select the last choice in the Display Options
dialog box.
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Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
3 Bring up the Path Browser by clicking on the
Browser – Toggle Path
button on the
toolbar, or by selecting Path Browser from the
View Menu.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
the path, otherwise you end up with multiple
Path-1.PTH files, and may become confused as
to which is which.
6 Double-click on the Target column of your new
path to set a Record From Target.
4 Create a new path by clicking the New Button.
You will see the following dialog, asking
whether you want to create a new path, or an
interpolated path.
Since this is an animation of the right wing,
select that as your target, and Click the Add
Button. You will see that the Rwing shows up as
a Playback Target and as a Record From Target
for this path.
7 Click OK.
You should now see the Target set to Rwing in
the Path Browser. Your path has zero elements,
because it is still empty.
We are now ready! Lets record the first frame of our
animation right here, with the wings in the open
position.
8 Click the Record 1 Frame
button on the Path
Browser to record the first frame.
Note that the number of elements in the path is
now 1. Whee!
5 Select New path, and click OK.
The system will automatically name it Path-1 for
you, with a corresponding file name of Path1.PTH. No actual file exists until you explicitly
save your path. You should always rename it to
something that makes sense to you before saving
9 Right-click on the right wing in the Scene Graph
pane, and select Position Object.
10 Pick the Orientation tab, and move the roll slider
until the wing is in the fully-flapped position.
Try a Roll of -80.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
11 Click OK.
frame, we have increased the duration of our path
from two frames to six frames, so the butterfly
flaps 1/3 as fast.
12 Click the Record 1 Frame
button on the Path
Browser to record your second frame.
Note that the number of elements in the path is
now 2. This is a very simple path, so this is the
last frame. Our path is done.
13 Try playing the path by clicking the Rewind
button on the Path Browser, then clicking the
Run
button.
The path plays once and stops. To play it again
you will have to rewind it. Set the path to loop
and press play. Now the path will play
indefinitely, and you can get a good idea of what
your flapping animation will look like. It’s a little
too fast and jerky.
17 Click OK.
18 Set the playback Target of your new path to
Rwing to see it play back, similar to Step 6.
19 Click Add and then OK.
Now you can delete Path-1 since we don’t really
need it. We just created it to interpolate from. We
will be prompted to save Path-2 as an
independent, non-interpolated path now.
We can smooth it out and slow it down by
interpolating the path.
14 Click New on the Path Browser.
15 Select Path-1 from the pull-down menu in the
Create Path dialog box.
20 Click Yes.
21 Rename your path to RwingFlap.
To do this, go to the Type Workview, find the
Path Type and expand it, locate your path and
edit its Name property.
22 Now repeat these steps to flap the left wing,
except set the roll to +80 in the second element,
instead of –80.
When you are done, you should have two paths,
called RwingFlap and LwingFlap. You can play
them together, by holding down the CTRL to
select the names of both the paths, then clicking
Play. Pretty cool.
23 Save the project.
16 Type 5 into the Increase elements by box.
This inserts five elements between each of our
old elements, which will make the path smoother
and slower. Since one path element is played per
This prompts you to save your paths as well.
That’s a good idea, lets do it.
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Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
You have a flapping butterfly, congratulations.
Select the body and you can have fun making your
flapping butterfly fly around by dragging it with the
mouse.
Lesson 1 Summary
The wing flap path Lesson gave you a feel for how
to create and playback simple and interpolated
paths, and how to rename them.
Lesson 2 A Longer Animation
Now a butterfly flapping its wings is a wonderful
thing to behold, but even cooler would be to see it fly
around in that carefree way that butterflies have! We
will record a longer animation of the butterfly
flitting about the world. For this animation we rely
on the fact that the wings are children of the body.
We can animate the body and the wings will fly
around attached to it. Since this animation is more
complicated, I made a helper structure out of blocks
first, to help me get the orientation of the butterfly
right, so that it is always facing in the direction that
it is flying.
Import the world tutorial4-3.up, and note the blocks
that I have positioned for the path I am making. Each
block represents the position of the Butterfly for one
path element. The distance between the blocks
determines the relative speed of the butterfly. If you
wanted your butterfly to fly at a constant speed, you
would need to place your blocks exactly the same
distance apart. I used uneven spacing, so that at
times the butterfly is speeding up, and at times it is
flying slower. This makes the motion look more
realistic.
1 Create a new path (non-interpolated) and set the
Target to Body.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
In the scene graph, it is helpful to lock the body
as the selection using the Lock Selected
button, so you don't deselect it accidently.
2 Move the Body so that it is over the first block in
the Development window, Block-0.
3 Orient the Body to look towards Block-1.
4 Record one frame.
In the Property pane with the Important tab
selected, you can view the Translation and
Rotation property values for the frame you just
recorded.
The values don’t have to be exactly the values
shown in this Tutorial, but something close to
them means you're on the right track in creating
your animation.
You should have a Translation of (0.000000
0.000000 0.000000) and a Rotation of
(0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000).
5 Move the Body to Block-1 (using the Rotate
Object tool or the positioning dialog) and orient
it (using the Rotate Object tool or the positioning
dialog) to look towards Block-2.
Note Remember you can right-click and select
Position Object with your cursor on Body.
6 Record one frame.
You should have a Translation of (0.470277
0.000000 2.365093), and a Rotation of (0.125140 -0.270752 0.053865 0.952960)
7 Move the Body to Block-2, orient it to look
towards Block-3, and record one frame.
You should have a Translation of (4.834613 8.900558 8.266823), and a Rotation of (0.262064 -0.734272 0.144990 0.609216).
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
8 Move the Body to Block-3, orient it to look
You should have Translation of (-0.304579 1.260750 0.896567), and a Rotation of(0.082994 -0.631824 0.012978 0.770547).
towards Block-4, and record one frame.
You should have a Translation of (7.420220 12.141972 5.765294), and a Rotation of
(0.058921 -0.793465 -0.085788 0.599651).
9 Move the Body to Block-4, orient it to look
towards Block-5, and record one frame.
You should have a Translation of (20.523592 9.167504 3.858362), and a Rotation of
(0.023860 -0.960125 0.107181 -0.257103).
10 Move the Body to Block-5, orient it to look
towards Block-6, and record one frame.
You should have a Translation of (16.338177 12.147344 -5.011420), and a Rotation of
(0.038578 0.763583 -0.238163 0.598942).
11 Move the Body to Block-6, orient it to look
towards Block-7, and record one frame.
You should have Translation of (4.556245 16.004597 -9.549655), and a Rotation of (0.086254 -0.888132 -0.025451 -0.450703).
12 Move the Body to Block-7, orient it to look
towards Block-8, and record one frame.
You should have Translation of (2.516228 13.548829 -12.062134), and a Rotation of
(0.198164 0.361845 -0.143863 0.899501).
13 Move the Body to Block-8, orient it to look
towards Block-9, and record one frame.
You should have Translation of (-9.066780 8.501297 -2.413167), and a Rotation of
(0.253034 -0.616815 -0.319437 0.673404).
14 Move the Body to Block-9, orient it to look
towards Block-0, and record one frame.
15 Move the Body to Block-0, orient it to look
towards Block-1, and record one frame.
You should have Translation of (0.000000
0.000000 0.000000), and a Rotation of
(0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.000000). This is
the last frame.
16 Play back the path using the play option of your
choice and check how you like it.
If anything looks wrong, step through the
elements one by one using the Play1 button. If
you want to modify one of the elements, step to it
and select the edit Element button. You can then
reposition the body as you like and re-record the
frame.
Our rough path is recorded, now we will
interpolate it like we did with the flapping paths
in Lesson One. This time lets try all three of the
interpolation types to see how they are different.
17 Make a Linear interpolation, a Bezier
interpolation, and a B-Spline interpolation of
your path. Use the default value of 10 elements.
18 Rename your paths in the Type Workview, before
you forget what they are.
Name them to FlyAround Bezier, FlyAround
Linear, and FlyAround B-Spline, respectively.
Now, let’s compare the paths.
19 Select the body node.
20 Right-click and select Duplicate Tree to clone
the butterfly.
A Duplicate Attachments dialog box appears.
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Tutorial 4: Paths – Your Doorway to Animations
21 Click Create New Path in the dialog box and
click OK.
22 Repeat to make a third butterfly.
23 Open the Path Browser.
24 Assign each FlyAround path to a different
butterfly body, and start all of the butterflies
flapping.
25 Now select all of the FlyAround paths, and select
Play 1 to let you step through and see how they
are different.
Or, just click Play. Pick the one you like the best
to use in the Vehicle simulation.
26 Save the project and all of your paths.
Lesson 2 Summary
Making a complicated animation can be
challenging, and this example shows you a few
tricks to make it easier. We also learned how to find
and edit elements as desired. We learned about the
effects of different types of interpolation.
Chapter 6 A Quick Tour
73
7
Using the Workviews
This chapter provides a description of the overall
Project Workview and each individual Workview.
What are Workviews?
The new Workviews provide a more efficient work
flow by simplifying the user interface, using tabs, to
focus on the current task. The Project Workview
refers to the overall tabbed interface that brings
often-used features of WorldUp into your view.
The term view in this case should not be confused
with a visual view of the simulation, but is rather an
organizational/informational view of a certain
aspect of the project required to perform a particular
type of work in WorldUp.
The Project Workview
The Project Workview has a row of tabs along the
top that allow you to select a certain view of the
project. These tabbed views are the Scene, Model,
Behavior and Type Workviews.
The Project Workview displays a single Workview
at a time selected by the tab. Each Workview is a
collection of sub-windows that display information
necessary to accomplish a specific type of task in
WorldUp. These nested subregions are called panes
to differentiate them from windows. A window can
74
Scene Workview
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews
be moved independently, while a pane is fixed in a
position within a window, possibly resizable using a
splitter.
Scene Workview
The Scene Workview is the most commonly used
workview for creating new objects, editing their
properties, assembling the scene, and laying out the
scene graph. The Scene Workview consists of the
Nodes pane on the left, the Scene Graph pane on the
right, and the Property pane at the bottom.
Scene Graph
pane
Toolbar
Nodes
pane
Window
splitters
clicking on the Instantiate Selected Type
button
or by dragging and dropping the type from the
Nodes pane to the Scene Graph pane.
The supported Node types are geometries of type
Block, Cone, Cylinder, Imported, Sphere and
Text3D; Lights of type DirectedLight, SpotLight
and PointLight; Groups of type Group, Switcher,
and LevelOfDetail with other types such as Fog,
MaterialNode and RenderNode.
The Scene Graph pane displays the scene graph,
which shows how the objects are organized in your
scene. You can rearrange the objects in a scene
graph using the drag and drop method.
Note The following types are special in that they
cannot have children: Fog, MaterialNode, and
RenderNode. Also, the Geometry and Light types
are abstract which means they cannot be
instantiated. You use their derived types instead.
The Property pane is helpful for viewing and
changing the properties of an object. The Property
pane has four tabs:
All – Shows all the properties of the selected object.
The properties shown in Red are protected or readonly which means they cannot be changed.
Important – Shows the most specific and basic
properties of an object which are required to create
the object.
Property
pane
Subtype – Shows all the properties that exist in the
derived type that don’t exist in its parent.
Editable – As the name says, lists all the properties
which can be edited.
Scene Workview
The Nodes pane shows all the Node types, which are
the types that can be added to the scene graph, and
their instances. Here you can create new objects by
You can create custom subtypes of any of the Node
types in this Workview, adding properties as
necessary. You cannot add or delete properties for
the built-in types. You can delete properties that you
have added to your custom types.
Model Workview
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews
The Toolbar contains icons that represent
commonly used commands.
Create Subtype – Creates a subtype of the
selected type in the Nodes pane. You can
customize subtypes by adding new
properties.
Instantiate Selected Type – Creates a new
object based on selected object type in the
Nodes pane. Adds the new object under the
Type in the Nodes pane and to the end of
the scene graph in the Scene Graph pane.
You can also drag-and-drop a Type from
the Nodes pane to the Scene Graph pane.
Add Property – Adds a new property to the
selected subtype. The Add Type Property
dialog appears to enter the name, type and
initial value for the new property. New
properties can be added only to subtypes,
not to built-in types.
Collapse Selection – Collapses the
selected object’s tree.
Zoom to Selection – Zooms to the selected
object in the Development window.
Model Workview
The Model Workview is the center for importing
models into a WorldUp simulation.
Toolbar
Preview
pane
Window
splitter
Remove Property – Deletes properties of
selected subtype. Only properties added to
a subtype can be removed.
Delete Selected – Deletes the selected
object. You can delete multiple objects at
once by selecting the objects while holding
down the CTRL key. You can also use the
DELETE key to delete objects from the
scene graph.
Duplicate Selected – Copies the selected
object.
Duplicate Selected with Children – Copies
the selected object and all of its children.
Expand Selection – Expands the scene
graph tree to display selected object’s
children.
Imported
Models
pane
Scene
Graph
pane
Model Workview
The process of importing objects is first loading a
3D model in the Model Workview, previewing the
model, and then adding the model to the scene
graph. The loading process allows you to scale the
geometry, combine all the geometries, or make the
midpoint of an object its center.
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76
Behavior Workview
The Preview pane displays the loaded object and its
properties, such as number of polygons, dimension,
etc. To add a loaded object to the scene, you drag
and drop the whole object or parts of it to the desired
location in the scene graph.
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews
Task Scheduler
pane
Toolbar
For more details on how to import models, see
"Importing Models from Third Parties" on page 105.
The Toolbar contains icons that represent
commonly used commands.
Import New Model – Imports a new model
into the project.
Remove Model from Project and Memory
– Removes the selected model from the
project.
Reload Model – Reloads the selected
model if it has been modified without
having to reload the project.
Unreference Model – Deletes all objects
from the scene that refer to the selected
model. The model remains in the Model
Workview.
Behavior Workview
The Behavior Workview is where all behavior
creation and scheduling is done. The Behavior
Workview contains four panes which together allow
you to create a new behavior, schedule the behavior,
add inputs to the behavior, edit the behavior’s
properties, and finally export the behavior for reuse.
For more details on adding behaviors to your scene,
see Chapter 14, The Behavior System.
Behaviors
pane
Window
splitters
Scene
Graph
pane
Property
pane
Behavior Workview
The Behaviors pane lists all of the registered
Behavior types that you can create. The three key
types of behaviors are Group, Trigger, and Action.
The Task Scheduler pane shows the execution flow
of all scheduled behaviors, as well as each
behavior’s inputs. This allows you to both see the
execution order and to drag-and-drop objects onto
specific inputs.
The Scene Graph pane provides you with a source of
objects from which to drag onto a behavior’s inputs.
The Property pane allows you to quickly identify
and modify a behavior’s parameters. (Use the
Subtype tab for a quick view of properties specific
to a certain behavior.)
Type Workview
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews
The Toolbar contains icons that represent
commonly used commands. In addition to the
commands available in the Scene Workview, the
Behavior Workview contains the following icons:
Unschedule Behavior – Removes a
behavior from the Task Scheduler.
Toolbar
Type
pane
Edit Behavior Scripts – Opens the Script
Editor and displays the contents of the
selected script.
Edit Inputs – Allows you to edit the
behaviors inputs and outputs.
Behavior Wizard – Opens the Behavior
Wizard dialog box.
Window
splitter
Import Behavior – Imports a behavior
script.
Export Behavior – Exports the current
behavior for use later.
Property
pane
Type Workview
The Type Workview allows you to create custom
subtypes, viewing and changing type and object
properties. The Type Workview consists of a Type
pane and a Property pane.
Type Workview
The Type pane displays the complete set of
WorldUp types, including non-Node types such as
Windows, the Universe, Sensors, and MotionLinks.
The Property pane shows the properties of the
selected type or object in the Type pane.
The Toolbar contains icons that represent
commonly used commands. These commands are
explained in the Scene Workview as their functions
are exactly same in Type Workview.
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Type Workview
Chapter 7 Using the Workviews
79
8
Development
Window –
Navigation and
Manipulation
This chapter describes the various navigation and
manipulation methods available for viewing your
graphical objects and moving around your scene in
the Development Window. This chapter also
explains how to set up multiple viewports, change
views, and customize display options, such as
shadows and grids.
The Development Window
The Development window is where your scene is
rendered. This is the window you use to interact
with the 3D scene while authoring your simulation.
The Development window and its various parts are
shown in the following diagram.
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Toolbar
Active Viewport
Y-Pan Slider
Zoom Slider
Viewpoint Name
X-Pan Slider
The Development Window and Toolbar
The navigation and manipulation tools located on
the Development window toolbar are described in
detail in this chapter.
Moving Around the Simulation
This section discusses panning, rotating, and
zooming in the Development window.
Pan Viewpoint
Clicking and dragging in the Development window
with this tool selected translates (pans) the
viewpoint in a horizontal and vertical direction. The
amount of translation is in proportion to the
proximity to the viewpoint target.
The viewpoint target is a virtual point projected
along the z-axis of the viewpoint. When WorldUp is
first started, this viewpoint is centered at the
Moving Around the Simulation
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
universe origin. Panning, rotating, and zooming the
viewpoint changes the position of the viewpoint
target.
This tool can be used to quickly navigate among
readily visible elements in the universe. This tool is
disabled for orthographic views in order to keep the
orientation of the viewpoint intact.
Rotate Viewpoint
Clicking and dragging in the Development window
with this tool selected rotates the viewpoint about an
axis formed in the direction of the world y-axis
through the viewpoint target. Up and down dragging
results in a rotation about an axis formed in the
direction of the local x-axis of the viewpoint through
the viewpoint target. Think of this in terms of a pole
which has the viewpoint attached to one end and the
other end is fixed to a pivot.
If an object is selected, the viewpoint target is the
midpoint of that object. If no object is selected, the
viewpoint target is the midpoint of the Root node,
which is the bounding box center of all objects
combined in the scene graph. Vertical rotation is
limited to a 180 degree arc between looking straight
down and directly up along the world y-axis.
This selection is disabled for orthographic views in
order to keep the orientation of the viewpoint intact.
Zoom to Selected
Zoom to Selected adjusts the viewpoint by fitting
the window as close as possible to the bounding box
around the selected node.
This option is disabled when nothing is selected or
the object is a non-Movable. See Chapter 12,
Editing 3D Objects for more details.
Zoom All
Zoom All works exactly as Zoom to Selected except
the selection set is always the entire scene graph.
WorldUp adjusts the viewpoint by fitting the
window to the smallest sphere that could be drawn
around all the graphical objects in the simulation.
Thus, the distance from the viewpoint to your
objects depends on the height and width ratio of the
window.
Zoom
In addition to the methods already described in this
section, several controls allow you to zoom in on
your viewpoint.
Zoom to Target
Clicking on an object when using this tool results in
a smooth transition of the viewpoint to a new
position that is closer to the point of intersection of
the pointer and the target object. The amount of
zoom is about 70 percent of the original distance.
Zoom All creates an
imaginary sphere around all
of your graphical objects and
moves the viewpoint as close
to that sphere as the window
will allow.
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Manipulating Objects
Free Fly
Free Fly allows you to navigate around the scene as
if you are in a helicopter. Free Fly is a motion link
that is connected only to the default perspective
viewpoint.
This feature is disabled for orthographic views.
Manipulating Objects
Several tools are available for selecting, translating,
and rotating objects in your scene.
Translate Object
Translate Object translates the selected object in the
current reference frame. Holding down the left
mouse button and dragging translates in the x,z
plane passing through the center point of the
selection. If multiple objects are selected, the
translation plane is that of the first object traversed
in a normal scene graph traversal.
Dragging the mouse with the right button held down
results in a translation along the Y-axis in the
selected reference frame.
You can select a new object with this tool by
clicking on the object. Clicking while holding down
the CTRL key allows multiple selections.
The origin offset of an object can also be moved
using this tool. The origin offset defines the origin of
the coordinate axes about which an object rotates.
To move the origin offset of a selected object, hold
down the SHIFT key while dragging. A red rectangle
appears around the midpoint of the object and
further dragging applies to the translation of the
origin offset of the object.
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
Rotate Object
Rotate Object rotates the selected object in the
current reference frame. Holding down the left
mouse button while dragging up and down the node
rotates the object clockwise and counter-clockwise
about the selected rotation axis. This axis of rotation
is displayed in red.
Holding down the right mouse button in this mode
quickly selects another rotation axis in this order: x,
y, z, repeat. Selecting the corresponding Constraint
button produces the same results.
In this mode, new objects can be selected by
clicking on them. Clicking while holding down the
CTRL key allows multiple selections.
Constraints
Constraints allow you to define the axes in which to
translate and rotate objects. By clicking on the x, y,
or z button in translation mode, you lock translation
to that particular axis. When rotating objects, this
selects the axis to be rotated about. In rotate object
mode, right clicking changes the axis to rotate about.
An axis constraint button is disabled whenever it is
not possible to translate or rotate on that axis.
Frame of Reference
The Frame of Reference pull-down menu allows
you to select a reference frame (coordinate system)
about which objects are translated and rotated. Four
reference frames are available:
• World – Object manipulation is performed in the
universe’s reference frame.
• Parent – Object manipulation is performed
relative to the frame of the node’s parent. If the
parent is the Root node, this selection works
exactly the same as World.
Manipulating Objects
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
• Local – All manipulations are relative to the
selected node’s local frame.
• View – Object manipulation is performed in
relation to the viewpoint’s frame.
See "Coordinate Systems" on page 13 for more
details on reference frames.
Select Object
Select Object allows you to select different objects
in the scene, if Lock Selected is not enabled. To
select multiple objects, hold down the CTRL key.
Lock Selected
Lock Selected locks the current set of selected
objects. The selection set can include graphical and
non-graphical objects.
Changing Views
The Change View
button on the
toolbar displays a pull-down menu
allowing you to select a viewpoint for
the active viewport.
The
icon on the pull-down menu
indicates orthographic view and the
icon indicates perspective view.
To change your view
1 Click the Change View
button.
2 Select one of the views on the pull-down menu
for the active viewport.
Perspective mode is a three-dimensional view of the
universe. Orthographic mode is a two-dimensional
view of the universe. You may find orthographic
mode helpful for positioning objects.
Using the Window Sliders
The three slider controls on the left, right, and
bottom edges of the Development window allow
you to control the viewpoint’s current position along
each axis.
• Left slider (Y axis) – Drag to move your
viewpoint up or down.
• Right slider (Z axis) – Drag to move your
viewpoint forward or backward (zoom in or out
on the scene).
• Bottom slider (X axis) – Drag to move your
viewpoint left or right.
Setting Display Options
You can change the appearance of the panes in the
Development window using the display options.
To set the display options
1 Click the Display Options
button.
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Setting Multiple Viewports
The Display Options window appears.
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
Degrade to Wireframe during transition, when
checked, causes rendering to be performed in
wireframe mode. Transitions and object
manipulations, by default, degrade rendering to
wireframe mode for better visibility while in use. To
turn this off, uncheck the check-box.
Viewpoint Spin, when checked, keeps rotating the
viewpoint when dragged and left in viewpoint rotate
mode.
Configure Viewports allows you to select the number
of viewports to display in the Development window.
Setting Multiple Viewports
The Grid, Dropline, Axes and Shadows check-boxes
allow these features to be toggled on and off. The
adjacent colored buttons show the currently selected
colors for each feature.
The Grid is composed of major and minor lines. The
buttons next to Grid are for assigning the color for
major grid lines, minor grid line, and the world axis
line respectively. Clicking on any of these buttons
brings up a standard color selection dialog box
allowing you to select new colors.
Grid Size alters the dimensions of the grid in each
direction. Clicking on the padlock icon to the right
of the Grid Size text boxes allows you to lock one
value to the other so that the grid is always square.
Autosize Grid evaluates the dimensions of the
universe and creates a reasonable grid. The divisions
and units do not change.
Distance between major grid lines specifies the
distance in units between major grid lines.
Minor subdivisions per major line specifies the
number of minor subdividing lines between each
major grid line.
Viewports allow you to set up multiple panes in a
single Development window in which you render
different views of the scene. This feature helps you
to position and align objects in the scene. Each
viewport can be set up to have a custom perspective
view or built-in orthographic views of front, back,
right, left, top, and bottom.
Setting Multiple Viewports
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
When using multiple viewports, you select one
viewport at any given time on which all the
navigation happens. This viewport is called the
active viewport and is highlighted with a white
border.
Manipulation of an object affects that object in all
the viewports since rendering happens in all the
viewports. Navigating with a viewpoint only affects
the viewport to which it is attached. If the same
viewpoint is attached to more than one viewport, the
navigation changes the views of all those viewports.
A viewport can be set as the active viewport by
clicking anywhere in the pane.
Setting the Mouse Sensitivity
You can control the speed at which you navigate
through a simulation by specifying the percentage of
the universe’s total size that you want to cross with
each mouse click.
To set the mouse sensitivity
1 Click the Mouse Sensitivity
button.
The Set Mouse Sensitivity dialog box displays.
To configure multiple viewports
1 Click the Display Options
button.
2 Select Configure Viewports on the Display
2 Drag the slider or enter a specific number in the
Options window.
text box to set the desired percentage.
The Viewport Layout dialog box appears.
For example, if your current setting is 1, entering
10 enables you to navigate ten times faster than
your current speed. Each mouse click moves you
a distance equivalent to 10% of the size of the
universe.
3 Click OK.
3 Select the viewport layout you wish to use.
4 Click OK.
The selected viewport arrangement is created in the
Development window using standard viewpoints.
You can change the viewpoint in each viewport
using the Change View button as described in
"Changing Views" on page 83.
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Setting Multiple Viewports
Chapter 8 Development Window – Navigation
and Manipulation
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9
Objects and
Properties
This chapter defines objects and properties, and
describes how to create, delete, duplicate, and find
objects
Objects
Objects are one of the core building blocks upon
which your simulation is built. Graphical objects are
the objects that you can see in the Development
window. The objects in a scene/simulation are what
ultimately get drawn. Objects may be created or
imported.
Creating an Object
You create objects from types in the Type
Workview or the Nodes pane of the Scene
Workview. Types serve as templates that contain the
properties required to create a particular object.
Thus, when you create an object, it contains all of
the properties of the type from which it was created.
Note For some object types, tadditional methods are
available for creating an object. These are discussed
in the object type's related Workview chapter.
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Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
To create an object
Duplicating an Object
1 In the Type Workview or the Nodes pane of
You can copy an object by itself or with all of its
children attached.
Scene Workview, select the object type that
contains the properties you want your new object
to have.
Note If a pre-defined object type includes pre-
defined subtypes, in some cases you cannot create
objects from the parent type. For example, you
cannot create objects from Geometry, but you can
create objects from Block, Cylinder, Cone,
Sphere, and Text3d.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
This creates a new object of the selected type
with a default name. You can modify the object’s
name later using the Name property in the
Property pane.
For certain object types, WorldUp prompts you
for specific information at this point. For
example, creating a Sound object requires you to
select the filename for the .WAV file you want
the object to reference.
You can see your new objects in the Type
Workview, indented under the type from which
they were derived. If the objects that you created
were descendants of the Node object type, the
new objects also appear in the Nodes pane of the
Scene Workview.
To duplicate objects
1 In the Type Workview or Scene Workview, select
the object that you want to duplicate.
2 Click one of the following buttons:
•
Duplicate Selected – copies the selected
object only.
•
Duplicate Selected with Children – copies
the selected object, plus any child objects it
may have. For more information on the scene
graph and child objects, see page 23.
The duplicated object contains the same
properties and property values as the object from
which it was duplicated.
For information on modifying property values, see
page 91.
You can also duplicate objects from the Scene
Graph pane by holding down the CTRL key as you
drag nodes within the scene graph. The new objects
are automatically named based upon the names of
the objects from which they are duplicated. You can
later rename the duplicated objects.
Creating and Deleting Subtypes
Deleting an Object
To delete an object
1 In the Type Workview or Scene Workview, select
the object that you want to delete.
2 Press the Delete Selected
button.
You create subtypes from existing types. When you
create a subtype, it inherits all of the properties of
the type from which it was derived and becomes
subordinate to that type.
The two cases in which you create a subtype are as
follows:
• You have or are creating an object that will
requires a user-defined property.
Properties
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
You cannot add properties to pre-defined object
types, so you must create your own type to which
you can add the property. Once you have created
the type and added the necessary properties, you
can create new objects from that type and they
inherit those new properties, or you can drag
existing objects of the same type onto the userdefined type, and those objects now inherit the
new properties.
• You want to create multiple objects that require
the same value for certain pre-defined properties.
For instance, in your simulation you plan to
import several different models of cars, and you
will be attaching a script called RACE.EBS to
each car. You could create a subtype of Imported
called Race and set its Tasks property to
RaceScript. Any models that you drag onto this
type from the Resource Browser will inherit the
RaceScript value for the Tasks property.
To create an object type
You can see your new subtype in the Type
Workview or the Nodes pane of the Scene
Workview, indented under the type from which it
was derived.
To delete an object type
1 In the Type Workview or the Nodes pane of the
Scene Workview, select the user-defined type
that you want to delete.
2 Click the Delete Selected
button.
Finding an Object
You can locate an object in your project using the
Find Object command.
To find an object
1 Select Find Object from the Edit menu.
The Find Object dialog box displays.
2 In the Name box, type the exact name of the
1 In the Type Workview or the Nodes pane of the
Scene Workview, click the type that contains the
same basic properties you want your new
subtype to have.
object you are looking for and click OK.
WorldUp selects the specified object if it exists.
Note If a pre-defined object type includes pre-
Properties
defined subtypes, in some cases you cannot create
subtypes from the parent type. For example, you
cannot create subtypes from Geometry, but you
can create subtypes from Block, Cylinder, Cone,
Sphere, and Text3d.
You can add properties to user-defined object types
only. WorldUp provides several pre-defined
properties with each pre-defined object type, such as
Name for all object types and Background Color for
the Window object type.
2 Click the Create Subtype
button.
This creates a new subtype of the selected type
with a default name. You can modify the
subtype’s name later using the Name property in
the Property pane.
For a description of all WorldUp properties, click
WorldUp Contents from the Help menu and open
the Properties topic.
User-defined properties are not used by WorldUp
until they are referenced from scripts or used to
trigger reactions to events. Scripts can reference any
properties, pre-defined or user-defined. Likewise,
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Properties
you can use both pre-defined and user-defined
properties to trigger event reactions (though not all
pre-defined properties generate events).
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
2 In the Scene Workview toolbar, click the Add
Type Property
button.
The Add Type Property dialog box displays.
For more information on scripts and events, see the
WorldUp Programmer’s Manual.
When you select an object or object type, its
properties are displayed in the Property pane. If you
have multiple objects/types selected at once, the
Property pane displays a collective list of properties
for all the selected objects/types, but only displays a
value for a property if it is a property and value that
all the selected objects/types have in common.
An object’s properties can be created, changed, or
removed during run time. They can also be inherited
from their parent type during run time, hence
WorldUp supports dynamic inheritance. When the
simulation is running, the changes you make to an
object’s properties take effect immediately.
Likewise, any property changes that are made by
scripts and behaviors are reflected in the Property
pane, if you have enabled the Update Properties
From Script option (see "Automatically Updating
Properties" on page 92).
Adding a Property
You can add properties to user-defined object types
only.
3 Enter a unique name for the new property in the
Property Name field.
You can see a list of all of the existing property
names for the selected type by clicking the dropdown list.
4 In the Property Type section, click a data type for
the property.
To choose an object type as the data type, click
Object, then click on an existing object type from
the drop-down list.
For a description of each data type, search for
Data Types in the online Help.
To add a property
1 In the Nodes pane of the Scene Workview, click
the user-defined type to which you want to add
the property.
Note You cannot add properties to pre-defined
object types (that is, the WorldUp default object
types). You can only add properties to userdefined object types. See page 88 for instructions
on how to create an object type.
5 Type a value in the Initial Value box.
6 This is the value that will initially be assigned to
the property. You can later modify this value (see
"Modifying a Property Value" on page 91).
Note You can leave the Initial Value box empty
and the default value will be used. This value is
dependent on the data type. For example, the
default value for Boolean is False and the default
value for an Orientation is 0, 0, 0, 1.
Properties
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
7 Click Add.
8 If desired, continue adding properties to the
selected type in this manner.
9 When you are finished, click Done to close the
Add Type Property dialog box.
The properties you created now appear in the
Property pane for the selected object type, and for
any subtypes or objects nested within that type. You
can see a list of the user-defined properties for the
selected type or object by clicking the Subtype tab of
the Property pane.
• Subtype – Lists only the properties of the
subtype which are not present in the parent
type.
• Editable – Lists only properties whose values
can be edited at any time.
3 Select the property whose value you want to
modify by clicking somewhere within the
property row.
4 To modify the value of any editable property,
Removing a Property
click on the selected property in the Value
column.
To remove a property
1 In the Type pane, click the object type whose
property you want to remove.
2 In the Property pane, select the property you
want to remove by clicking somewhere within
the property row.
3 Click the Delete Type Property
• Important – Lists the most specific and basic
properties of an object which are used to
create the object, such as Filename for Sound
objects or Height for Block objects.
button.
Modifying a Property Value
You can modify the value of any property that
appears in black text in the Property pane. Properties
that appear in red text are read-only.
To modify a property value
1 In the Type pane, click the object or object type
whose properties you want to modify.
2 In the Property pane, click the tab that contains
the properties you want to change.
• All – Lists all properties of the selected object
or object type.
In most cases, this brings up an edit box in which
you can type in the value.
5 When finished typing, press ENTER.
The new value replaces the old one in the
Property Value column of the selected row.
Many property data types allow for alternative
methods of modifying property values that you may
find more convenient. The following table describes
these methods for each data type.
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Properties
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
Data Type
To modify the property value...
Boolean
Double click on the Name column of the property to toggle between True and False.
List
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display the Edit List dialog box. In the
Objects box, click an object, then click Add to add it to the property’s list. To remove an object
from the list, click the object in the List box, then click Remove. To change the order of the
objects in the list, use the Up and Down buttons. Click Done when you are finished.
Vect3D or Orientation
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display a dialog with controls to help you
select new values.
Filename
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display the Open dialog box. Navigate to
select the name of the file that contains the information you need and click Open.
Object
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display a list of all objects that are
descendants of the type specified as the data type. Click the desired object, then click OK.
Material
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display the Choose Material dialog box.
Click the desired color, then click OK.
LOD Ranges
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display the Level Of Detail Ranges dialog
box. See "LevelOfDetail Nodes" on page 26 for instructions on using this dialog box.
RGB
Double-click on the Name column of the property to display the Color dialog box where you can
choose a new color.
Integer, Single,
String, or Vect2d
Double-click on the Name column of the property to open an edit box in which you can type in
a new value and then press ENTER.
Automatically Updating Properties
Editing Properties In-Place
Property changes made by scripts and behaviors can
be updated in the Property pane automatically.
Many properties can be edited directly in the
Property pane. Read-only properties are displayed in
Red and cannot be edited.
To automatically update changes made from scripts
1 On the Options menu, select File Access
To edit properties in-place
Settings.
1 Double-click on the Name of a property.
The Settings dialog box appears.
2 To edit the text value in-place, do a slow double-
2 Select the option called Update Property
Changes From Script and click OK.
click in the Value column.
This is the same type of click you use to rename
a file on your desktop or in an Explorer window.
If the property cannot be edited in-place, its edit
dialog appears.
Properties
Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
3 Type in the new value and press ENTER.
You can also copy the value by pressing CTRL-C.
Then you can paste the value by pressing CTRL-V
into any other property that is of the same type
(provided that it is not read-only).
Property Types and How They Can Be Edited
Property Type
Edit In-place
Edit Dialog
Special Cases
Integer
YES
Active Child and Serial Baud Rate Properties have edit
dialog boxes.
Boolean
YES
Double-clicking toggles value.
String
YES
Serial Port has an edit dialog box.
Double
YES
Long
YES
Float
YES
Vect 2D
YES
Vect 3D
YES
YES
Quaternion
YES
Filename
YES
Material
YES
Resource Entry
YES
RGB
YES
List
YES
Object
YES
LOD Ranges
YES
Constraints
YES
Event
YES
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Chapter 9 Objects and Properties
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10
Windows, Viewports,
and Viewpoints
This chapter discusses windows, viewports,
viewpoints, and their relationships.
Windows and Viewpoints
Each window has a viewpoint associated with it.
The viewpoint defines the position and orientation
from which the graphical universe is projected to the
computer screen and rendered within a window. The
viewpoint represents the point of view of the
observer. As you navigate through a simulation, you
are constantly changing the viewpoint.
The two types of windows are:
• Application window – The window in which the
simulation displays when you run the simulation
as an application within WorldUp, or when your
end-users run the simulation using one of the
WorldUp players. You can add navigation control
panels to application windows, providing a
graphical interface from which the end-user can
navigate through your simulation.
• Development window – The window in the
development environment where you can
navigate and manipulate the scene as you
develop the simulation. For more information on
the Development window, see Chapter 8,
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Clipping Planes
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
Development Window – Navigation and
Manipulation. You can set up multiple viewports
for the Development window using the Viewport
Configuration dialog box. For more information,
see "Setting Multiple Viewports" on page 84.
You can use a sensor (such as a mouse) or a recorded
path to control a viewpoint. As you move the sensor
or play the path, the viewpoint moves automatically
enabling you to navigate within a graphical
simulation. Using sensors or paths to navigate gives
you control over what you see and when you see it.
Each window and viewpoint that you create has a
corresponding object in the Type Workview.
Viewpoints are created from the Viewpoint object
type, Application windows are created from the
Window object type, and Development windows are
created from the DevWindow object type (which is
a subtype of Window). By default, WorldUp
provides you with one viewpoint (Viewpoint-1),
one application window (Window-1), and one
development window (DevWindow-1).
Clipping Planes
For any window, it is important to be aware of the
clipping planes that are specified for that window.
The Hither Clipping Plane indicates the physical
range in front of the viewpoint, before which objects
are not rendered in that window. The Yon Clipping
Plane indicates the physical range in front of the
viewpoint, beyond which objects are not rendered in
that window. That is, objects are rendered only in
the area between the Hither Clipping Plane and the
Yon Clipping Plane.
Clipping planes are controlled by the Hither
Clipping and Yon Clipping properties on all
Window and DevWindow objects. Search the online
Help for more information on these properties.
View Volumes
Creating Viewpoints
In WorldUp, you can create a viewpoint, link the
Viewpoint object to the sensor or path that you want
to use to navigate the viewpoint, and then associate
the Viewpoint object with a window.
To create a viewpoint
1 Select the Viewpoint object type in the Type
Workview.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
3 On the Object menu, select Edit MotionLink
Sources.
The Motion Link Sources dialog box displays.
4 In the Potential Link Sources box, double-click
the sensor or path to which you want to link the
viewpoint.
Viewports
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
The selected object moves to the Linked Sources
box.
5 Click Done.
This creates a motion link between the selected
source and the viewpoint so that you can use the
source to navigate within any window that uses
this viewpoint.
For more information on motion links, see
"Motion Links" on page 144.
In the Type Workview under the MotionLink
object type, a new object has been created for the
link that you just specified. The Source property
for the MotionLink object is set to the name of
the sensor or path that you specified and the
Target property is set to the viewpoint from
which you accessed the Motion Link Sources
dialog box.
6 In the Type Workview, select the object
representing the Application window (under the
Window object type) or the Development
window (under the DevWindow object type) that
you want to associate with the viewpoint.
7 In the Editable tab of the Property pane, double-
click the Viewpoint property.
In the associated window, you can now modify the
viewpoint’s position and orientation using the
sensor or path that you linked to it.
If your motion link’s source is a sensor, use the
navigation techniques described on "Changing
Views" on page 83. If your motion link’s source is a
path, see "Recording Paths" on page 141 for
instructions on playing paths.
Creating a Window
You create a window by creating an object from the
Window object type.
To create a window
1 Click the Window object type in the Type
Workview.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The Select Viewpoint dialog box displays.
3 Click the Viewpoint object that you want to
associate with the window, and then click OK.
Note Although you can create multiple
Development windows, this practice is discouraged.
Instead, use multiple viewports in a single
Development window.
The Select Viewpoint dialog box appears.
Viewports
8 Click the Viewpoint object that you want to
associate with the window, and then click OK.
Every WorldUp window object contains, by default,
a single viewport which covers the entire area of the
window and in which the scene is rendered. This
viewport is referred to as the Window object’s
default viewport. For each Window object you
create in your simulation, WorldUp automatically
manages the creation, naming, and deletion of this
default viewport.
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Viewports
Viewport Hierarchy
In order to better understand the relationship
between windows and viewports, it’s often helpful
to think of the window as a frame and the viewport
as a pane upon which the scene is actually drawn.
The window frame (also known as a viewport’s base
window) can hold many viewports. Likewise, each
viewport pane must have a frame to hold it. Unlike
traditional window panes, however, viewport panes
can be overlapped. In addition, each viewport has
it’s own viewpoint. This flexibility gives you the
power to combine different rendering surfaces for
unique situations.
Window - Viewport Relationship
For convenience and backward compatibility, all
WorldUp windows come with one default viewport
pane whose properties are accessed through it’s base
window. Additional viewports can be added to any
WorldUp window (up to a maximum of eight).
Since a viewport has it’s own viewpoint, this allows
you the flexibility of having multiple views of one or
more scenes rendered inside a single WorldUp
window.
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
There are two performance advantages to creating
and using multiple viewports in a single window
instead of creating and using multiple windows. The
first advantage is that performance is improved
when using multiple viewports in a WorldUp
window instead of using multiple (single viewport)
WorldUp windows. The reason for this is that the
rendering buffers are cleared and swapped only once
for the single window, rather than having to clear
and swap for several windows. The second
advantage is that the rendering of each viewport is
frame synchronized, that is all viewports are
rendered on the screen at the same time in a given
frame. In contrast, using multiple windows means
that WorldUp must process and render the geometry
associated with the first WorldUp window before it
can process and render the geometry associated with
succeeding WorldUp windows. If your application’s
frame rate is low, there will be a discernible time lag
between the updates of each window within one
frame.
In addition to performance advantages, the
previously mentioned configuration flexibility
allows you to create unique solutions to rendering
challenges as well as special effects. For example,
you can create a rear-view mirror effect by using
multiple viewports in a window. Simply add an
additional viewport pane to your existing window.
Center its position where you would like the rear
view mirror to be. Now assign it a unique viewpoint
that is looking in the opposite direction of the base
window’s viewpoint.
Creating Viewports
You create a viewport by creating an object from the
Viewport object type and associating it with a
window and viewpoint.
Viewports
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
To create and configure viewports for the
Development window, see "Setting Multiple
Viewports" on page 84.
screen coordinates, the default viewport's position is
0,0 since it is relative to the top left corner of the
window.
To create a viewport
A window object has Client Width and Client
Height properties, which represent the size of the
window without the borders. As an example, a
typical default viewport has the same size as it’s
base window’s Client size properties.
1 Click the Viewport object type in the Type
Workview.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
3 Click the Window object that you want to
associate with the viewport, and then click OK.
4 Click the Viewpoint object that you want to
associate with the viewport, and then click OK.
Sizing Viewports
To change a viewport’s size and position, it is
important to understand how viewports are
embedded into base windows.
Window Size Properties
As with windows, the position of a viewport is
specified by the position of its top left corner. The
viewport's position is, however, relative to the
window, and is represented as x and y offsets from
the top left corner of the base window’s client area.
The client area represents the drawing area of the
window and does not include the window’s borders.
For example, if a window is positioned at 50,50 in
Finally, it is important to note that when a window
is resized (either by changing it’s properties, or by
dragging its frame), all viewports belonging to that
window will be scaled accordingly. The default
viewport remains the exact size of the client area,
while any additional viewports preserve their
relative position within the window. You should
keep this in mind when sizing your viewports.
The following table gives properties that are specific
to viewport size and dimension.
Property
Description
Acceptable
Values
Viewport
Height
Height of the viewport
(pixels)
Unsigned
Integer
Viewport
Width
Width of the Viewport
(pixels)
Unsigned
Integer
Viewport
XOffset
Location of left side of
viewport relative to base
window’s client area
(pixels)
Integer
Viewport
Yoffset
Location of top side of
viewport relative to base
window client area
(pixels)
Integer
Since the Viewport object type is a subtype of the
Window type, it inherits all of the window
properties. These properties all apply in the same
manner as they do to a window, with the following
exceptions:
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Stereo Viewing
• Background Color – All viewports share the
same background color as their base window.
• Draw Task (Draw Task 3D) – Each viewport can
have its own draw routine. The default
viewport’s draw routine, however, is associated
with the window object’s draw task, not the
default viewport’s draw task.
• Base Window – All viewports have a base
window, which is the window object they are
embedded in. This property is read-only, since
you cannot change a viewport’s base window
once it is created.
Finally, be aware that the addition of viewports
emphasizes the need for explicit window size
control. The three window sizes for any given
rendering window are client (which is a read-only
property since it is computed), window, and
viewport. Since viewports are a separate rendering
space as defined above, they naturally have differing
parameters for size since they do not include the
MFC window border. Taking the time to understand
the different size properties – Window, Client, and
Viewport – can greatly reduce the chance of errors
arising from sizing confusion.
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
Stereo Viewing
WorldUp supports numerous methods for achieving
stereoscopic display of your simulation. Before
creating a stereoscopic display, consider the specific
needs of your simulation, such as whether it will be
projected or in an HMD.
Innumerable hardware devices display some form of
stereoscopic output, each having advantages and
disadvantages. You should discuss these advantages
and disadvantages within the context of your
simulation environment with the hardware vendor
before purchasing your hardware. You should also
check www.sense8.com/support for an up-to-date
list of WorldUp supported devices.
The three most common methods of achieving
stereo displays that WorldUp supports are:
• Dual channel – Also referred to as separate
channel or multi-channel, this form of stereo
uses two separate video signals and is typically
used with HMDs.
• Line Interleaved – Also referred to as interlaced
or passive stereo, this form uses polarized glasses
to isolate left and right eye scan lines.
• Quad Buffered – Also referred to as field
sequential or Crystal Eyes, this form uses
shuttering glasses to sequentially produce
alternating left and right eye images at a rate
higher than the human brain is able to
distinguish.
Stereo Viewing
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
Dual Channel Stereo
WorldUp’s support for dual channel stereo employs
viewports. Users create a dual channel stereo
window by setting the DualChannelStereo property
of the Window type to True and instantiating a
Window object of that type (similar to other stereo
window creation methods). Upon instantiation,
WorldUp creates a Window-1 object of size 1280 x
480 (assumes the common 640 x 480 resolution of
most HMDs), a default viewport for the Window-1
object, and a secondary viewport for the Window-1
object.
The default viewport is considered the left eye and
assumes a dimension of 640 x 480. The secondary
viewport is considered the right eye and assumes a
640 x 480 resolution as well. The right eye is also
positioned in the right half of the base window.
The borderless parameter must be set to the desired
value on the Window type before you create it.
Other stereo parameters, such as asymmetric view
volume, parallax, convergence, and convergence
distance, can be modified either before or after
instantiation.
For more information on the View Volume, refer to
the figure on page 96. For information on parallax,
convergence, and convergence distance, refer to the
figure below. For more information on the
properties of windows, viewpoints, and viewports,
refer to the online Help.
Stereo Parameters
Line Interleaved Stereo
Line interleaved stereo has two modes: software
interlaced and hardware interlaced. WorldUp
supports both approaches. Both of these approaches
draw interleaved left eye/right eye scan lines within
a window. All the even lines are left eye and all the
odd are right eye (or vice versa). This method of
stereo is typically used in conjunction with polarized
glasses. One significant drawback to this approach
is that your vertical resolution is cut in half.
To use software interlaced mode with WorldUp, you
should ensure your video board supports stencil
planes and is configured to use them. Once you have
configured your video board, you create an
interleaved window by setting the Interleaved
property of the Window type to True.
Hardware interlaced mode does not require the use
of stencil planes, but does require special hardware
support. This is an uncommon form of stereo and is
typically only supported by Intergraph video boards.
To create a hardware interlaced window, set both the
Interleaved and Stereo properties of the Window
type to True and instantiate it.
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Stereo Viewing
Quad Buffered
By far the most popular, quad buffered stereo
employs shuttering glasses to present alternating left
eye/right eye images. Quad buffered stereo typically
requires the following video hardware support:
• A video card with stereo support. This means it
is able to generate high enough signal generation
frequency, typically from 90–120 hertz, and has
a VESA standard 3-pin mini DIN connector on
the graphics board to synchronize the signal with
the shutter glasses (although there are exceptions
to this DIN port for synchronization).
• A monitor capable of refreshing at this
frequency.
• Shutter glasses with an interface to allow for
synchronization with the video board. Crystal
Eyes form StereoGraphics is the standard.
To create a quad buffered stereo window, you first
need to prepare your system according to the board
manufacturer’s instructions for quad buffered
stereo. This is typically found in the display settings
for your video board.
Once your board is set to the correct frequencies and
supported resolutions, set the Stereo property of the
Window type to True and instantiate the window. If
your window displays contain two completely
separate images, one on top an one below, this
indicates WorldUp was unable to detect hardware
supported for quad buffered stereo. Don’t forget to
set your viewpoint’s Parallax property.
Troubleshooting Stereo Problems
Most stereo problems result from configuration
errors or unsupported modes in hardware. The first
step is to confirm that your video settings for stereo
are set up correctly according to the board
manufacturer's specifications. If you are still
Chapter 10 Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints
experiencing difficulty, contact a Sense8 Technical
Support Representative, who can check your video
configuration against a list of known compatible
video boards.
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11
Adding 3D Objects
This chapter describes how to create geometric
shapes and how to import models into your project
using the Model Workview.
Geometries
Objects that you create from subtypes of the
Geometry type are graphical objects. That is, they
are objects that are visible in the Development
window. You cannot create objects or object types
directly from the Geometry object type. It exists to
provide its subtypes with the necessary properties
and to maintain the coherency of the Type pane’s
structure.
The direct subtypes of the Geometry object type are:
• Block – Block objects contain Height, Depth, and
Width properties, allowing you to create
geometries with a rectangular shape.
• Cone – Cone objects contain Initial Radius and
Height properties, allowing you to create
geometries with a conical shape.
• Cylinder – Cylinder objects contain Initial
Radius and Height properties, allowing you to
create geometries with a cylindrical shape.
• Imported – Imported objects contain a Filename
property, allowing you to reference geometries
that were created with a modeling program.
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Geometries
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects
• Sphere – Sphere objects contain an Initial Radius
property, allowing you to create geometries with
a spherical shape.
• Text3d – Text3d objects contain Font File and
Text String properties, allowing you to add 3D
text to your simulation. Color and texture
information are contained in the 3D font file that
you specify.
For information on creating your own 3D font,
see page 195.
Creating Primitives
Primitives are three-dimensional basic geometric
forms stored as a collection of polygons. WorldUp
supplies four object types from which you can create
primitives: Block, Cone, Cylinder, and Sphere. You
can edit or combine primitives with other objects to
make more complex objects.
To create a block, cone, cylinder, or sphere
1 In the Nodes pane of the Scene Workview, select
the Block, Cone, Cylinder, or Sphere object type
located under Geometry.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The new object appears in both the Nodes pane
and the Scene Graph pane.
If you cannot see the new object in the
Development window, see "Viewing Graphical
Objects" on page 193 for possible solutions.
By default, all graphical objects are
positioned at the center of the universe upon
creation. If you created multiple graphical
objects, only the largest object is visible until you
translate some of the smaller objects to a new
location or move the viewpoint inside of the
largest object.
3 In the Scene Graph pane, select the new object.
4 Select the Important tab on the Property pane to
modify the dimensions, material (color), and
number of polygons for the primitive, .
For information on modifying property values,
see "Modifying a Property Value" on page 91.
5 Modify the Important properties to achieve the
results that you want.
For a description of the properties that are
specific to each primitive, search on Block
(Geometry Subtype), Cone (Geometry Subtype),
Cylinder (Geometry Subtype), or Sphere
(Geometry Subtype) in the online Help.
Creating 3D Text
You can create three-dimensional text using the
Scene Workview.
To create 3D text
1 In the Nodes pane, click the Text3d object type,
located under Geometry.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The new object appears in both the Nodes pane
and the Scene Graph pane.
Note The Font File property for the Text3d object
type indicates the name of the font file that will be
used to create the object. If the directory path in
which this file is located does not exist in
WorldUp’s search list, the object will not be
created and an error message will display in the
status window.
For instructions on how to add directory paths to
the search list, see "Configuring Directory Paths"
on page 39. (The default value for the Font File
property is RCFONT3D.NFF, which is located in
the Models directory of the directory in which
Importing Models from Third Parties
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects
you installed WorldUp. By default, this Models
directory should already be on your search list
unless you manually removed it.)
If you cannot see the new object in the
Development window, see "Viewing Graphical
Objects" on page 193 for possible solutions.
3 In the Scene Graph pane, click the new object.
4 In the Property pane, click the Important tab.
The Import Model Parameters dialog box
displays.
5 Make any necessary modifications to the import
model parameters, which are described in the
following table:
Scale for
Stretch and
Position
This is the amount by which a
geometry is stretched and
positioned. This value applies to all
geometries in the model file. This
option is useful for scaling multiobject models that you intend to
import as multiple objects, since
each object will maintain its spatial
relationship to the model as a whole.
For single-object models or multiobject models that have been
combined into a single node,
modifying this setting is no different
than modifying the object’s Stretch
property.
Combine All
Geometry into
Single Node
This option affects multi-object
models. When this option is
checked, the objects that make up a
model are merged into a single
object. In the Model Workview, the
model will contain a single entry,
called <All Geometry>. When this
option is unchecked, each object in
a multi-object file remains distinct.
In the Model Workview, the model
will contain a separate entry for each
object, using the names specified in
the model file for each object.
Treat Geometry
Midpoint as
Object Center
Point
In a 3D Studio file, there is one
origin and a geometry is constructed
relative to that. In WorldUp, each
geometry has its own origin, and the
geometry has a position in space.
With this option enabled, 3DS
objects are given a reasonable
origin and the correct position in
space.
5 Select the Text String property and slowly click
on it again to get the text edit box.
6 Type the text that you want the object to display
in the Development window.
By default, the Text String is “Sample String!”
For a description of the remaining properties that are
specific to Text3d objects, search on “Text3d
(Geometry Subtype)” in the on-line help.
Note You can create your own 3D font and point to
that font using the Filename property. See "Fonts"
on page 195 for more information.
Importing Models from Third
Parties
You can import models into your project that were
created using a third party modeling program.
To import a model to WorldUp
1 In the project window, select the Model
Workview
2 Click Import New Model.
The Open dialog box displays.
3 Navigate to the directory containing the file that
you want to import.
4 Double-click the file name.
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Using the Model Workview
6 When you are finished setting the import model
parameters, click OK.
The newly loaded model is added to the Imported
Models pane and displayed in the Preview pane. Its
properties are shown to the right of the Preview
pane. In the Imported Models pane, all of the
geometries available in the file are displayed under
the Root node which has a name the same as the file
name. Geometries that appear in the Imported
Models pane are also known as model entries.
In WorldUp, all Imported objects contain Filename
and Entry properties, indicating the name of the
model file and the specific entry within that model
file that the object references.
To add an object from an Imported Model to your
scene
1 In the Imported Models pane of Model
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects
2 Drag and drop the object to the desired location
in the Scene Graph pane.
If you cannot see new objects in the Development
window, see "Viewing Graphical Objects" on page
193 for possible solutions.
Using the Model Workview
This section describes various tools available in
Model Workview for importing, previewing,
editing, and adding models to your scene.
Previewing Geometries
When an object is selected in the Imported Models
pane, the Preview pane shows the object and all of
its children.
Workview, expand the file name you want the
object to import from.
2 Click on the object you want to add to your
scene.
The object is displayed in Preview pane with its
properties on the right.
3 Drag and drop the object to the desired location
in Scene Graph pane.
You can rearrange the scene graph later if you
didn’t drop the object in the right place.
If you cannot see the new object in the Development
window, see "Viewing Graphical Objects" on page
193 for possible solutions.
To add all available objects from a loaded model to
your scene
1 In the Imported Models pane, click on the file
name of the model you want to add to the scene.
A Car Model Loaded in Model Work view
The Preview title shows the model’s file name that
is selected in the Imported Models pane which is the
root of all objects contained in the file. If a model
entry is selected in the tree, the title displays the
name of that object.
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects
Using the Model Workview
To the right of the preview, the properties relevant to
the object are displayed. First is Polygons which
shows the combined polygon count of the object and
its children. Dimensions shows the combined size
of the object and its children in x, y, and z directions.
References represents the number of times the
object is used in the scene graph. The number of
references of a model or model entry is also shown
in parenthesis after the model or model entry name
in the Imported Models pane.
You can make an object double-sided or singlesided by checking the Double Sided check box. The
first feature is useful if a geometry is imported
single-sided and you want to see the geometry from
both sides as shown in the figure below. You would
want to make a geometry single sided if the
geometry is not going to be viewed from the other
side. Making a geometry single-sided increases the
performance during rendering.
Making a Geometry Visible from Both Sides
The color in the Preview window can be customized
by clicking on the Preview Window Color button
and selecting a color of your choice from the color
dialog. If the model has a dark color, you might
want to set the window color to a lighter one.
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Using the Model Workview
Chapter 11 Adding 3D Objects
To unreference a model
" Click the Unreference Model
button in the
toolbar of the Model Workview.
You can also call Unreference Model by rightclicking on Model Filename in the Imported Models
pane. Unreference Model deletes all objects from
the scene that refer to the selected model. The
model remains in the Model Workview.
To remove a model from the Model Workview
1 In the Model Workview, select the model you
want to remove.
2 Click on the Remove Model from Project and
Customize the Preview Window Color
The model can be viewed from different angles by
clicking and dragging with the mouse in the Preview
window
Memory
button in the toolbar.
You also can right-click on a model and select
Remove Model.
Note All unused imported models are automatically
removed when you close the project.
Reloading a Model
You can reload a model already loaded into the
Model Workview or added to the scene.
To reload a model
1 Select the model in the Imported Models pane.
2 Click the Reload Model
button.
This option allows you to modify the model file in a
modeling program and see the changes in WorldUp
without reloading the universe. This option can also
be available by right-clicking on a model in the
Imported Models pane.
Re-using Imported Geometries
When you re-use an imported geometry, you allow
multiple objects to share the same model entry.
Thus, if you scale, adjust the pivot point, or optimize
an imported geometry, you are modifying the model
entry itself, and those settings will also be reflected
in any object that shares that model entry. Any other
modifications that you make to the object, such as
translation and rotation, do not affect the model
entry and remain independent.
To re-use an imported model
" Drag the object from the Imported Models pane
Removing Imported Models
Before you can remove a model from the Model
Workview, any references to the selected model or
model entry must be removed.
into the Scene Graph pane.
You can repeat this procedure to reuse the model as
many times as you want.
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12
Editing 3D Objects
WorldUp provides various ways of changing the
appearance of an object. These tools allow you to
translate, rotate, and scale objects and change their
Material properties. The objects that can be
translated and rotated are known as Movables.
These are the objects whose type is derived from the
Movable object type. They are Geometry, Group,
and Light as shown below in the Type Workview.
Movable Objects as Displayed in the Type Workview
You cannot create objects or object types directly
from the Movable object type. It exists to provide its
subtypes with the necessary properties and to
maintain the coherency of the Nodes pane structure.
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Translating and Rotating Movables
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
The direct subtypes of the Movable object type are:
• Non-graphical objects (Lights or Groups)
• Geometry – A Geometry object (also called a
graphical object) is an object that you can see in
the Development window. See "Geometries" on
page 103 for a detailed description of
Geometries.
To translate or rotate graphical objects
• Group – A Group object acts as a container to
allow you to manipulate multiple nodes at once.
See "Groups" on page 25 for a detailed
description of Groups.
• Light – Light objects add various lighting effects
to your geometries. See Chapter 13, Lights for a
detailed description of Lights.
Translating and Rotating
Movables
The three ways that you can translate (move) and
rotate Movable objects are:
1 Select the Translate Object
Object
toolbar.
or the Rotate
button in Development window
For more information on various Development
window toolbar buttons, see Chapter 8,
Development Window – Navigation and
Manipulation.
2 Select the object in the Development window
and drag the mouse to translate/rotate the object.
If you have trouble dragging a particular object,
see "Locking a Selected Object" on page 111 for
help.
Note You must click on the object itself. If you
click outside the object’s bounding box, or on an
empty area within the object’s bounding box, the
object will become deselected.
• drag the object with the mouse in the
Development window
3 Release the mouse button to stop translating/
• use the Property pane to modify the object’s
Translation and Rotation properties
Note You can revert to the object’s original position
by selecting Undo Last Move on the Edit menu
immediately after translating or rotating the object.
• use the Position Object dialog box
These methods are described in the following
sections. The last two methods can also be used to
scale graphical objects.
Dragging Objects in the
Development Window
Because Lights and Groups cannot be seen in the
Development window, you use different methods
for dragging each of the following types of Movable
objects:
• Graphical objects (Geometries)
rotating the object.
To drag Lights and Groups
1 Select the Translate Object
Object
toolbar.
or the Rotate
button in Development window
2 In the Scene Graph pane, click the Light and/or
Group objects that you want to translate/rotate.
Since the selected objects cannot be seen in the
Development window, you need to lock on to the
object to provide a visual target that you can
drag.
Translating and Rotating Movables
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
3 If it is not already depressed, click the Lock
Selected
toolbar.
button on the Development window
4 To translate/rotate the selected object, click the
left mouse button in Development Window and
drag.
5 Release the mouse button to stop translation/
rotation.
Since the translation/rotation value of a child object
is always in relation to its parent’s coordinate frame,
child objects move in the Development window to
maintain their positions within the changing
coordinate frame. The translation/rotation values for
child objects remain unchanged.
Note You can revert to the object’s original position
by selecting Undo Last Move from the Edit menu
immediately after translating or rotating the object.
Locking a Selected Object
You can lock the view and the selection to a
particular Movable object in the Development
window. This option is necessary if you want to drag
non-graphical objects. Also, this feature is useful
when you want to modify a graphical object in your
simulation that is hard to grab (for example, it may
be very thin, or obstructed by another graphical
object).
To lock a Movable object
1 Select the object in the Development Window or,
if the object is non-graphical. in the Scene Graph
pane of the Scene Workview.
2 Click on the Lock
button in the Development
window toolbar.
When an object is locked, no other object can be
selected or dragged in the Development window.
Note You can select a new object in Scene Graph
pane even if Lock button is depressed.
Translating and Rotating Using the
Property Pane
This section describes how to modify the
Translation and Rotation property values for an
object from the Property pane.
Translating Movables from the Property
Pane
You can translate Movable objects from the
Property pane by modifying the Translation
property value for the object.
The Translation property has a Vect3d data type.
You can enter specific coordinates in the Property
pane’s text box, or you can use the Translation
dialog box to visually place the objects.
For more information on WorldUp data types, see
the WorldUp Programmer's Guide.
To enter specific coordinates for the Translation
property
1 Select the Movable object that you want to move.
2 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
3 Slowly double-click in the Value column of the
Translation property.
4 Enter the coordinates (x, y, z) for the new
location.
5 Press ENTER.
The selected objects move to the new location in
relation to their parents’ coordinate systems. Any
selected objects that have the same parent will
move to the same global location.
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Translating and Rotating Movables
To use the Translation dialog box
1 Select the Movable object that you want to move.
Note Select only one object. You cannot access
the Translation dialog box with multiple objects
selected.
2 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
3 Double-click the Translation property.
The Translation dialog box displays.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
However, unlike the Vect3d data type used with the
Translation property, you are not expected to
calculate an intelligent value to use for the
Orientation value. Instead, WorldUp provides the
Rotation dialog box, which uses Euler angles rather
than quaternions.
Euler angles provide an easy way to achieve the
rotation that you want, but they are inefficient since
there are multiple ways to achieve that rotation. For
example, (0, 180, 0) and (0, -180, 0) result in the
same position. When you use the Rotation dialog
box, WorldUp converts the angles that you set into
a quaternion and the Rotation property is updated
with the converted value.
To use the Rotation dialog box
1 Select the Movable object that you want to
4 Drag the X, Y, and Z sliders as appropriate to
position the object.
You can see the object move in the Development
window as you drag the sliders.
5 To adjust the speed at which the object moves,
drag the slider at the bottom toward Slow or Fast.
6 When you are finished, click Set to apply the
rotate.
Note Select only one object. You cannot access
the Rotation dialog box with multiple objects
selected.
2 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
3 Double-click the Rotation property.
The Rotation dialog box displays.
new value and close the dialog box.
Rotating Movables from the Property Pane
You can rotate Movable objects from the Property
pane by modifying the Rotation property value for
the object.
The Rotation property has an Orientation data type,
which is a quaternion. This data type is used for
accuracy and efficiency since, unlike Euler angles,
there is only one way to achieve a result with a
quaternion.
For more information on WorldUp data types, see
the WorldUp Programmer's Guide.
4 Drag the X, Y, and Z sliders as appropriate to
position the object where you want it.
You can see the object rotate in the Development
window as you drag the sliders.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
Alternatively, you can click inside the sphere at
the right of the Rotation dialog box and drag the
red arrow to achieve the desired rotation. (Use
the right mouse button to adjust the viewpoint of
the sphere.)
Translating and Rotating Movables
The Position Object dialog box displays.
5 To cause the rotation of an object to snap at a
specified interval, check the Snap To Every box
at the bottom of the dialog box and type the
number of degrees to which you want the object
to snap.
6 When you are finished, click Set to apply the
new value and close the dialog box.
The Euler angles that you specified are converted
to a quaternion and the Rotation Property value
is updated.
Translating and Rotating Using the
Position Object Dialog Box
The Position Object dialog box provides a
convenient way to rotate, translate, and scale objects
all from one dialog box. All Movable objects can be
translated and rotated, but only graphical objects can
be scaled. For information on scaling geometries,
see "Scaling Geometries" on page 114.
To translate Movables from the Position Object
dialog box
1 In the Scene Graph pane of the Scene Workview,
select the Movable object that you want to move.
Note Select only one object. You cannot translate
multiple objects at once from the Position Object
dialog box.
2 Right-click and select Position Object.
3 Click the Location tab.
4 At the top of the tab, click the coordinate system
in which you want to move the object.
• Parent Context – The coordinate system of the
object’s parent in the scene graph.
• Global Coordinates – The world coordinate
system.
For more information on coordinate systems, see
"Coordinate Systems" on page 13.
5 Type specific coordinates for each axis, or use
the Fine and Course sliders to move the object.
• Fine – Increments the value up or down by
moving the slider to the left or right of the
center. When you release the mouse, the slider
handle returns to the center.
• Course – Moves an object a certain percentage
of the universe’s current length in that axis.
For example, if you click at the right-most
edge of the slider for the x-axis, the selected
object moves to the farthest point possible
along the positive direction of the x-axis in the
current extents of the universe.
6 To adjust the speed at which the object moves,
drag the slider at the right toward Slow or Fast.
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Scaling Geometries
7 When you are finished, click Close.
To rotate Movables from the Position Object dialog
box
1 In the Scene Graph pane of the Scene Workview,
select the Movable object that you want to rotate.
Note Select only one object. You cannot rotate
multiple objects at once from the Position Object
dialog box.
2 Right-click and select Position Object.
3 The Position Object dialog box displays.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
6 Rotate the object using one of the following
methods:
• Type specific Euler angles for each axis. Pitch
refers to the x-axis, Yaw refers to the y-axis,
and Roll refers to the z-axis.
• Drag the Pitch, Yaw, and Roll sliders as
appropriate to position the object.
• Click inside either sphere at the top-right of
the Position Object dialog box and drag the
red arrow to achieve the desired rotation. Use
the right mouse button to adjust the viewpoint
of the sphere.
7 To cause the rotation of an object to snap at a
specified interval, check the Snap box and use
the up and down arrows to specify the number of
degrees to which you want the object to snap.
8 When you are finished, click Close.
The Euler angles that you specified are converted
to a quaternion and the Rotation property value is
updated.
4 To rotate a Movable object, click the Orientation
tab.
5 Click the coordinate system in which you want to
rotate the object.
• Parent Context – the coordinate system of the
object’s parent in the scene graph.
• Global Orientation – the world coordinate
system.
For more information on coordinate systems, see
"Coordinate Systems" on page 13.
Scaling Geometries
Scaling a geometry involves specifying along which
axis you want to scale the object and by what factor.
For example, suppose you have a cube with a height,
depth, and width of 3. If you stretch the cube by a
factor of 2 along the x-axis, and 1 along the y and zaxes, the cube is now rendered 6 units in width, and
3 units in height and depth. However, the Height,
Depth, and Width property values all remain set to
3. The scale factors are stored in the object’s Stretch
property.
Note If you scale a geometry that is also being used
elsewhere, all other objects that also reference that
resource entry will be scaled in the same manner.
Scaling Geometries
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
The two ways that you can scale geometries are:
• use the Property pane to modify the object’s
Stretch property
• use the Position Object dialog box
Note Information on translating and rotating
geometries is described in "Translating and Rotating
Movables" on page 110, since all Movable objects
can be translated and rotated, but only geometries
can be scaled.
Scaling Geometries from the
Property Pane
You can scale graphical objects from the Property
pane by modifying the Stretch property value for the
object. Objects are scaled within their local
coordinate frame only.
4 Click the Stretch property again to open the text
edit box and enter the scale factors for each axis
(x, y, z).
5 Press ENTER.
The selected objects stretch accordingly in the
Development window.
To use the Stretch dialog box
1 Select the Geometry object that you want to
stretch.
Note Select only one object. You cannot access
the Stretch dialog box with multiple objects
selected.
2 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
3 Double-click the Stretch property.
The Stretch dialog box displays.
The Stretch property has a Vect3d data type. You
can enter specific scale factors in the Property
pane’s text box, or you can use the Stretch dialog
box to visually scale the objects.
For more information on WorldUp data types, see
the WorldUp Programmer's Guide.
Note Visually scaling the objects using the Stretch
dialog box is most useful if you do not know the
exact factor by which you want to scale the object,
and it is not important that the object be scaled
uniformly along each axis.
4 Drag the X, Y, and Z sliders as appropriate to
stretch the object along any axis.
You can see the object stretch in the
Development window as you drag the sliders.
To enter specific scale factors for the Stretch
property
5 To adjust the speed at which the object moves,
1 Select the Geometry object that you want to
6 When you are finished, click Set to apply the
scale.
2 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
3 Single-click the Stretch property.
drag the slider at the bottom toward Slow or Fast.
new value and close the dialog box.
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Adjusting a Geometry’s Pivot Point
Scaling Geometries from the
Position Object Dialog Box
You can also scale geometries using the Position
Object dialog box.
To scale geometries from the Position Object dialog
box
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
5 If you have checked the Scale Uniformly box,
drag on any one of the axis sliders and all three
move together. Or, type a specific scale factor in
one of the three text boxes and the other two
values automatically adjust at the correct ratio.
6 If you have unchecked the Scale Uniformly box,
the Geometry object that you want to scale.
drag the slider or type a specific scale factor for
the axis along which you want to scale the
object.
Note Select only one object. You cannot scale
Note Objects are scaled within their local
multiple objects at once from the Position Object
dialog box.
coordinate frame only. You might want to lock
the object (click the Lock button
on the
Development window) to display the axes for the
object and see how the reference frame is
oriented.
1 In Scene Graph pane of Scene Workview, select
2 Right-click and select Position Object.
For information on using the Position Object
dialog box to translate and rotate Movable
objects, see "Translating and Rotating Using the
Position Object Dialog Box" on page 113.
The Position Object dialog box displays.
Adjusting a Geometry’s Pivot
Point
A pivot point, also known as an origin point, is the
point around which an object rotates or from which
it stretches. By default, the pivot point of a graphical
object created in WorldUp is located at the center of
the object. However, you can change the location of
a pivot point.
3 To scale a geometry, click the Scale tab.
4 If you want to scale the object by the same factor
along each axis, check the Scale Uniformly box.
The location of an object’s pivot point (or, its
distance from the geometry’s center) is stored in the
object’s Origin Offset property. The Origin Offset
property is always in reference to the object’s local
coordinate frame. Thus, a value of 0, 0, 0 always
places the pivot point at the center of the object.
You can move an object’s pivot point by dragging it
in the Development window, or by modifying the
Origin Offset property from the Property pane.
Using Materials to Change Object’s Appearance
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
To move an object’s pivot point from the Property
pane
1 Select the Geometry object whose pivot point
you want to move.
2 Click the Lock Selected
light, or both. This light is manifested as color.
When designing a geometry, two kinds of color are
considered:
• The colors used in the geometry itself.
button if it is not
already depressed.
3 In the Property pane, click the Editable tab.
4 To modify the Origin Offset value, do one of the
following:
• Double click slowly to open the text edit box,
type a new value, and press ENTER.
• If only one object is currently selected,
double-click the Origin Offset property. From
the Origin Offset dialog box, drag the X, Y,
and Z sliders to position the pivot point and
click Set.
To drag an object’s pivot point in the Development
window
1 Select the Geometry objects whose pivot points
you want to move.
2 In the Development window, click the Lock
button if it is not already selected.
3 Press and hold the SHIFT key and drag with left
mouse button to move the pivot point.
To see the effect of the pivot point’s new location,
rotate the object as described on "Dragging Objects
in the Development Window" on page 110.
Using Materials to Change
Object’s Appearance
A material is a combination of light and color
attributes that you use to define the appearance of a
geometry. Geometries either emit light, reflect
• The colors of the light playing on the geometry.
A realistic image of a geometry includes many
colors – and potentially many ways of reflecting
light. You use a separate material to specify each of
these differences in appearance.
Each material has the following properties:
Diffuse – The color reflected from the material in
direct light.
Ambient – The color reflected from the material in
shadow.
Specular – The color reflected from the highlights of
the geometry. The Specular material property is
what makes a geometry appear to be shiny with
highlights appearing on its surface. Usually, the
specular highlight is white, which means that it
reflects the color of the specular light (which is also
usually white).
Emissive – The color produced (not reflected) by the
material even when there is no light. A geometry
with this property can be seen even when no lights
are contained in the scene. However, the Emissive
light does not illuminate other geometries in the
area. This material property is used less often than
the others.
Shininess – The narrowness of focus of specular
highlights. This has no meaning if the specular color
is black. (Lighting of geometries rendered with
material properties is an additive process; a black
specular highlight doesn’t darken the geometry, it
simply doesn’t contribute to a light highlight on the
geometry.) The lower the Shininess value, the more
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Using Materials to Change Object’s Appearance
spread out the highlight; the higher the Shininess
value, the sharper the highlight. A high value for
Shininess makes an object look shiny.
Translucency (Opacity) – The extent to which the
color value of a pixel is combined with the color
value behind it, giving the effect of a transparent
surface.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
• Material Editor – Allows material properties to
be previewed and modified.
• Material Library – Allows you to organize, save
out, and re-use materials.
Preview
Window
In WorldUp the two ways you can add materials to
an object are by using the Material Node or by using
the Material Table.
Active Material
Property Color
Applying Material Using the
Material Node
Material Property
Swatches
Using the Material node is the most flexible method
for adding materials in WorldUp. By this method,
materials can be created and edited. They can also
be saved for re-use in the development environment.
Material properties of all types of objects, including
imported models, can be changed using material
nodes.
To apply material to object using Material Node
1 Drag and drop a Material type onto the Scene
Graph pane above the object(s) to which you
want to apply the materials.
2 Set the UseMaterialNode property of the
object(s) to TRUE.
This allows the object to use the Material
properties of its parent Material type instead of
the default Material Table.
3 Right-click on the Material object you just added
to the Scene Graph pane to launch the Material
Editor.
Active Material
Property
Material Editor
The current Material properties applied to a lit
sphere are displayed in the Preview window. This
allows you to see the changes in Material properties
as you edit them. The checker-board background is
useful when applying transparency to see the effect.
To set the color values of the Diffuse, Specular,
Ambient, or Emissive properties
1 Single click on the desired material property
swatch.
2 Enter color values for Red, Green, and Blue
The Material Editor allows you to modify or
organize materials and has two parts:
directly or use the sliders to select the right
value.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
You can toggle between RGB and HSL to enter
values in RGB or HSL format.
3 Change theOpacity or Shininess properties using
sliders or by entering the values directly.
4 Click Apply to see how the updated material
looks when applied on the objects.
5 Click OK.
Using the Material Library, you can apply already
available materials to your objects.
Using Materials to Change Object’s Appearance
You can also rename a material in the library by
double-clicking on it with a pause.
To save the changes you made
1 Close the Material Library by clicking on the
Material Library button in the Material Editor.
You are asked to save the changes.
2 Click OK.
To use the Material Library
The library is saved as wupMaterialLibrary.mat in
your application directory. The file must be writable
in order to save the changes.
1 Click the Material Library button on the Material
To delete a material from the library
Editor.
The Material Library dialog box appears.
1 Select a material in the Material Library dialog
box.
2 Click the Delete Material From Library button.
3 Save the changes when prompted while closing
the Material Library dialog box.
Applying Material Using the
Material Table
The tree shows current materials used in
WorldUp and materials currently stored in the
library.
2 Double-click on a material item to use that as
your material and display it in the Preview
window.
You can also add and save the material you just
created to use later.
To add your material to the library
1 Click the Add Material to Library button.
2 Enter a name for the material.
Using the Material Table is the easiest way to add
material to an object in WorldUp. Material can only
be selected from a given set of materials in the
Material Table. Material properties of imported
models can not be changed this way.
To apply material to an object this way
1 Select the object in the Scene Graph pane.
2 Select its Material property in the Property pane.
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120
Textures
The Choose Material dialog box appears.
3 Select a material from the list and click OK.
Textures
WorldUp preserves texturing of an object as a
textured object is imported into WorldUp.
However, you must make sure that the path where
the texture is stored is added to the path settings.
Textures to WorldUp objects must be applied
programmatically, either through WorldUp's
scripting language or using the WorldUp Plug-in
Kit. Refer to the SetTexture command in the
WorldUp Programmer’s Guide and the WorldUp
Plug-in Author's Guide.
Chapter 12 Editing 3D Objects
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13
Lights
To understand the effect of lights in WorldUp, you
must first understand the concept of materials.
The Effect of Light on Materials
A material is a combination of light and color
attributes that you use to define the appearance of a
geometry or collection of geometries. You can use
the default materials supplied with WorldUp, or you
can use a modeling application to create, edit, and
save customized material information.
Geometries either emit light, reflect light, or both.
This light is manifested as color. When designing a
geometry, you need to consider two kinds of color:
• The colors used in the geometry itself.
• The colors of the light playing on the geometry.
A realistic image of a geometry includes many
colors – and potentially many ways of reflecting
light. You use a separate material to specify each of
these differences in appearance.
Each material has the following properties:
• Diffuse – The color reflected from the material in
direct light.
• Ambient – The color reflected from the material
in shadow.
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Working with Lights
• Specular – The color reflected from the
highlights of the geometry. The specular material
property is what makes a geometry appear to be
“shiny” with highlights appearing on its surface.
Usually, the specular highlight is white, which
means that it reflects the color of the specular
light (which is also usually white).
• Emissive – The color produced (not reflected) by
the material even when there is no light. A
geometry with this property can be seen even
when there are no lights in the scene, however,
the emissive light does not illuminate other
geometry in the area. This material property is
used less often than the others.
• Shininess – The narrowness of focus of specular
highlights. This has no meaning if the specular
color is black (lighting of geometry rendered
with material properties is an “additive” process;
a black specular highlight will not darken the
geometry; it simply won't contribute to a light
highlight on the geometry). The lower the
shininess value, the more “spread out” the
highlight; the higher the shininess value, the
sharper the highlight. A high value for shininess
makes an object look shiny.
• Translucency(Opacity) – The extent to which the
color value of a pixel is combined with the color
value behind it, giving the affect of a transparent
surface.
Without light, material properties that are dependent
on light, such as Diffuse and Shininess, are ignored
when the object is rendered.
Working with Lights
In WorldUp, you can manipulate the lighting of
graphical objects in a scene to create many different
kinds of effects. Lights can illuminate and enhance
the visibility of objects in the universe. Light in a
Chapter 13 Lights
scene can come from several light sources that can
be individually turned on and off. Some light comes
from a particular direction or position, and some
light is a combination of many light sources.
WorldUp can render up to eight lights at a time at
any branch of the scene graph. Each light affects
only its child nodes and nodes that are at the same
hierarchical level and below it in the scene graph. Be
sure to design a scene so that none of its objects are
lit by more than eight lights.
Different Types of Light
WorldUp uses four types of light – one that exists as
a property of the universe (Ambient), and three that
exist as objects that you can add to your simulation
(Directed, Point, and Spot).
Ambient Light
Ambient light is background light that illuminates
all graphical objects equally, regardless of their
position or orientation. It comes from no particular
source. By default, ambient light is always present
in a WorldUp application, even when your
simulation contains no light.
To set the level of ambient light
1 Click the Select Render Style
button.
The Universe Rendering Style dialog box
displays.
Chapter 13 Lights
Lights and Sensors
2 Drag the slider for Ambient Light Level, or type
2 If necessary, select the new object and drag it to
a value between 0.0 and 1.0 in the text box, with
0.0 being total darkness and 1.0 being total
brightness.
the correct location in the scene graph so that it
illuminates only the appropriate objects.
3 Click OK.
Note You can also set the ambient light level by
modifying the Ambient Light property value for the
Universe object.
3 Once the object is created, you may want to
modify the object’s properties to control factors
such as the light’s name, color, and location.
Note Information on how to translate and rotate
Movable objects, such as Groups, is described in
"Translating and Rotating Movables" on page 110.
Directed, Point, and Spot Light
A directed light is a light that is located far away but
comes from a single direction. Changing the
distance between a directed light and an object has
no effect because the light is so far away that its rays
become parallel by the time they reach the object.
Use directed light to give the effect of daylight,
making all objects equally visible. By default,
WorldUp provides a Directed Light object (Light-1)
with each new universe.
A point light is a light that comes from a specific
position, traveling outward radially in all directions
from that position. A light bulb is an example of a
point light source. Use point light to make one area
appear more illuminated than another.
A spot light is a beam of light that illuminates only
a small area. Unlike point light, which radiates
outward in all directions, spot light produces a cone
of illumination. An automobile headlight is an
example of a spot light source. Use spot light to
center attention on a specific object by displaying
the object within a cone of light.
To create a directed, point, or spot light
1 In the Nodes pane, select the DirectedLight,
PointLight, or SpotLight subtype under the Light
node, and drag the object to the desired location
in the Scene Graph pane.
Lights and Sensors
You can link Sensor objects to lights, or any other
Movable object. When you use a Sensor object to
control a light, input from the device causes the light
to move or be redirected.
For information on linking a Movable object to a
sensor, see "Motion Links" on page 144.
Performance Impact of Lights
Since WorldUp needs to perform calculations to
determine how much light each Geometry receives
from each light source, increasing the number of
active lights can adversely affect performance.
In general, spot lights are the most computationally
expensive, followed by point lights, and then
directed lights. For any simulation you must decide
the balance between the simulation’s visual quality
and it’s performance. These two issues typically
have an inverse relationship, and it is up to the
developer to decide when image quality must be
sacrificed to sustain interactive frame rates.
In this section we introduced some of the features
WorldUp offers you to improve the realism of your
scene. These elements often come at a performance
cost. Some, however, cost more than others (often
depending on your particular simulation), so we also
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Performance Impact of Lights
discussed ways of optimizing performance without
completely compromising your simulation’s
aesthetics.
Lighting is essential for any simulation as a requisite
visual cue for resolving depth, shape, and object
relationship. Lights should also be used carefully,
however, since each light adds significant
computational overhead with respect to shading
your scene. It is recommended you keep the number
of lights in your scene at or below four, depending
on your hardware. The maximum number of lights
you may have in your scene is eight.
For rendering performance, you should always
disable light nodes if they are not in use. Setting
their intensity to 0 will not speed performance.
WorldUp provides you with four types of lights:
Ambient, Directed, Point, and Spot. Each behave as
their name implies. Ambient is the exception,
however, as it is a global illumination
approximation and as such is controlled as a
property of your Universe object. The remaining
three are node types in the Type pane.
Note Remember light nodes are attribute nodes. As
such, they only illuminate objects that are visited
after and below them during scene graph traversal
and exist at their hierarchical level and below. For
an example, see "Organizational Nodes" on page 25.
Chapter 13 Lights
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14
The Behavior System
The WorldUp Behavior System is new to Release 5.
It represents the third tier in our 3-tier simulation
building model as shown in the figure below.
R5 API Triangle
The purpose of the Behavior System is to provide a
truly visual programming paradigm that allows you
to rapidly assemble 3D simulations without
programming. In addition, the system gradualizes
the script learning curve by providing a natural
evolution into scripting once your need to customize
behaviors increases and your simulation’s
complexity requires a custom fit. Finally, it serves as
a mechanism for producing reusable behavior
components that you can build, re-use in other
simulations, and share with other users.
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Chapter 14 The Behavior System
In short, the core purpose of the R5 Behavior
System is threefold:
• Provide a mechanism for visually assembling
simulations rather than programming them.
• Provide a natural learning pathway for increasing
simulation complexity
• Provide a redistribution mechanism so that users
can both provide and benefit from other pre-built
behaviors.
Using the Behavior System enables you to:
• Reduce the time spent scripting
The Behavior Pane
• Decrease time to prototype
• Build reusable components
• Achieve a modular design for your simulation
• Manage your application’s scalability
In essence, the Behavior System provides for
visible, efficient, modular, event based design
framework for structuring your applications from
scratch to ensure scalability as your simulation
becomes more complex.
You use the Behavior Workview to interact with the
Behavior System in WorldUp, which contains the
following core Behavior System components.
The Behaviors Pane
The Behaviors pane is similar to the Type and Nodes
panes in the Scene and Type Workviews. The
Behavior pane contains a listing of the actual entities
(Triggers, Actions, and Grouping nodes) that
populate the Behavior System. The Behavior pane
displays all of the loaded Behavior types, and groups
them based upon their source, including those
created by plug-ins and those created by BasicScript
(either created by you or imported into your
simulation).
Refer to "The Behavior Object" on page 128 for
more information about the structure of these
entities.
You use the Behaviors pane to create instances of a
particular Behavior type and schedule it in one step
by dragging the desired type into the Task
Scheduler.
The Task Scheduler
The Task Scheduler shows the execution flow of all
scheduled behaviors, as well as each behavior’s
InputLists and the Inputs they contain. This allows
you to both see the execution order of your
behaviors as well as drag and drop scene graph
objects (Movables) onto specific inputs. In addition,
it allows you to change the execution order of your
behaviors by dragging them internally within the
Task Scheduler.
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Chapter 14 The Behavior System
Pre-built Behaviors
WorldUp R5 ships with a basic library of Triggers
and Actions most commonly found in interactive
simulations. These plug-in behaviors are defined in
the TriggerSet1.dll and ActionSet1.dll in your
WorldUp R5 plug-ins directory. When WorldUp
launches, it detects the presence of these DLLs and
registers them with the WorldUp Object System. In
the Behavior Workview, these plug-in triggers and
actions appear under the PluginTrigger and
PluginAction types.
The Task Scheduler
Refer to "Creating and Scheduling Behaviors" on
page 130 for more information.
The Behavior Wizard
The Behavior Wizard is the interface that enables
you to author your own script-based Triggers and
Actions. The Behavior Wizard is a series of dialogs
that step you through the process of creating a new
Behavior type. You access the Behavior Wizard by
clicking on the Behavior Wizard button on the
Behavior Workview toolbar.
The Behavior WIzard Button
Upon completing the set of dialogs, the wizard
generates a new Behavior type as well as a script
template you can then modify to define your new
Behavior’s type’s actual behavior. Refer to
"Behavior Authoring" on page 132 for more
information.
Pre-built Behaviors
A complete description of these pre-built behaviors,
how each works, and their parameters can be found
in Appendix E, Pre-Built Behavior Library.
128
The Behavior Object
For more information about how you can author
your own Behavior plug-ins, refer to the WorldUp
Plug-in Author’s Guide that ships with the WorldUp
Plug-in Kit (available as a separate module).
The Behavior Object
Strictly speaking, a behavior is some activity that is
applied to or demonstrated by any WorldUp Object
within the Simulation. This activity is defined by the
functions of one or more Trigger and/or Action
objects.
Behavior Anatomy
A Behavior is a function that operates on WorldUp
objects (nodes, sensors, etc.). It has inputs that act as
parameters to the function, and outputs that act as
the return value(s) of the function. A Behavior
typically reads the input in its Input Slot, makes
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
decisions with that input, writes it’s outputs to it’s
output slots, and fires. These inputs are known as
"primary inputs." For each primary input, a behavior
has an input slot, an input list, an input description,
and a source indicator telling where the behavior is
going to get its input from. A behavior can get its
input from two sources: either explicitly from its
input list or implicitly from the outputs of the
behavior above it (its parent).
The two significant differences between triggers and
actions are:
• Number of Inputs – A trigger can have 0, 1, or 2
inputs, each of which can be of any WorldUp
Object type. An Action has only one input and
one output, and it is a Movable.
• Firing – A trigger typically has a decision
function, which is defined by the user and
determines whether or not it fires. An action
always fires.
A Trigger’s interface consists of primary inputs, primary outputs, and
callbacks.
A primary input is a set containing an input slot, an input list, a flag
indicating the input’s source, and an input description.
A primary output is an output slot containing the Trigger’s current output.
A callback is a function associated with a Trigger that is called in association
with a specific WorldUp event, such as Property change or OnCreate.
Trigger Anatomy
An Action’s interface consists of a single primary input and a single
primary output. This is a Movable object. The Movable specified in the
input slot is the same Movable the Action will pass to the output slot.
Action Anatomy
The Behavior Object
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
As an example of inputs and
outputs, consider a
MousePick trigger. This
trigger takes two inputs –
Input1 is of type Mouse and
represents the Mouse object
from which you wish to retrieve the screen position.
Input2 is of type Movable and represents the list of
Movables you consider pickable (for example, in a
room, the furniture may be pickable while the walls
are not). This trigger has one output – the object that
was picked. When the mouse button is pressed, this
trigger gets the screen position from the Mouse
object in the Input1 slot, and checks to see if it is
over any of the objects in Input2.
the object we clicked on." In this example, our
action zoom viewpoint to a selected object would
need to know what to zoom to. We need to pass the
selected object from the event When the Mouse
clicks on an object to the Zoom To action so that
Zoom To knows which object in fact to zoom to. In
this case, we have wired the Zoom To action’s input
to the MousePick trigger’s output and made its
execution conditional on something being picked.
Assembling Behaviors
It is possible to think of a behavior as an observable
activity that emerges from a collection of individual
events and responses. For example, a reflex
behavior is witnessed as the result of an event
(tapping the knee with a hammer) and a response
(the calf flexing upwards). WorldUp’s Behavior
System is designed for this exact purpose of hooking
up events to actions to achieve a desired behavior. In
essence, from a design perspective, a behavior is a
dependency network of triggers and actions such
that when one trigger fires, it executes all of its
children (dependencies). In this manner, a behavior
chain can be assembled out of low level triggers
(such as, Collide Movable) and actions (such as,
Rotate Leg) to achieve a higher-level behavior, such
as flexing the calf when a hammer collides with a
knee.
Hooking a trigger up to another trigger or action
involves wiring a trigger’s outputs to another
trigger/action’s inputs. For example, suppose we
wish to implement a behavior that says "When the
mouse clicks on an object, zoom the viewpoint to
MousePick Example
In the MousePick example above, we have a
MousePick trigger with two inputs. Input 1 is the
Mouse from which to retrieve the 2D screen
coordinate we will need for our picking. Input 2 is a
list of geometries we consider pickable. For
example, we may have a room in which we want to
be able to pick the furniture but not the walls. In this
example, the pickables are chair and phone.
When the user picks chair, our MousePick trigger
writes chair to its Output1 slot and fires. Firing
causes two things to happen. First, it causes chair to
be passed to our ZoomTo behavior. Second, it
causes ZoomTo to be executed. ZoomTo has only
one input, namely the target to which we will be
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Creating and Using Behaviors
zooming. ZoomTo receives chair in its Input1 slot,
as well as the fire notification for MousePick, and
proceeds to zoom the viewpoint to the chair.
In this example, MousePick inputs are explicitly
defined by the user in the trigger’s input lists, while
ZoomTo uses input implicitly passed from its parent
trigger. The source for a behavior’s inputs can be
one or the other and is defined by the primary input,
which is set by you in the Input Definition dialog
box.
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
To create and schedule a behavior
1 Select the type of Behavior you want to create
and drag it into the Task Scheduler pane.
2 Drop it onto the object you wish to be its parent.
A parent in the Behavior System determines if the
behavior you created gets executed every frame
(parent is the Behavior Root) or if its execution is
conditional upon another behavior, as discussed in
the On Mouse Pick Zoom To behavior example in
the preceding section.
Creating and Using Behaviors
The Behavior System employs a drag-and-drop
environment that allows you to easily assemble
conditional action chains out of Trigger and Action
primitives to build high-level behaviors that control
simulation events and objects. The Behavior
Workview is used for all of your behavior
management work, including:
• Creating and scheduling behaviors
• Editing behavior inputs and parameters
• Authoring new behaviors
• Importing and exporting script-based behaviors
This section discusses how to create and schedule a
behavior and how to edit its inputs and parameters.
The following section details behavior authoring
with the Behavior Wizard as well as importing and
exporting script-based behaviors you or someone
else has authored.
Creating and Scheduling Behaviors
Creating a behavior involves instantiating an object
of a particular Behavior type and scheduling it in the
Behavior Workview’s Task Scheduler. In WorldUp,
this is a one step process,
Dragging a behavior onto the Behavior Root object
inserts the behavior as a child of the Behavior Root,
placing it at the root level of the Task Scheduler. All
root-level behaviors are executed every frame.
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
Creating and Using Behaviors
Editing Behavior Inputs
When you drop a behavior into the Task Scheduler,
you are prompted to supply the inputs for the
specified Behavior. This is indicated by the
Behavior Input Definition dialog box.
Dragging a behavior onto another behavior inserts
the new behavior as a child of the behavior onto
which it was dropped. This schedules the new
behavior to be executed when its parent behavior
fires. In the example, when MousePick fires,
ZoomViewToObject executes.
The order of execution can be critical in an
application. For example, you should typically
move your object before checking for collisions.
Doing so afterward may find your object halfway
inside another.
To change a behavior’s order of execution
" Drag it internally in the Task Scheduler.
Note The same dragging conventions apply here as
they do in the Scene Graph pane. Once you have
dropped your behavior onto it’s new parent, you will
again be prompted to edit your behavior’s inputs.
The input boxes on the right sight of the dialog allow
you to indicate to WorldUp whether your behavior
will be acting upon a list of objects explicitly
specified by you (Explicit List) or acting upon an
output supplied by it’s parent behavior (Parent Out).
Typically, behavior convention suggests that the
first input to a behavior (input 1) is the primary input
the behavior acts upon. For simple actions such as
spin or move, the object to act upon can be very
clear. The second input is typically referred to as the
object(s) the behavior acts with. Many actions, have
no second input. Most triggers, however, do have
second inputs. For example, MousePick takes as
Input 1 the Mouse object it is going to get its screen
position from, and Input2 as the list of objects it will
check for intersection with.
The convention for behavior authors is to apply the
Cartesian product to the two sets of inputs, such that
if MousePick had multiple mice in Input 1, for
example Mouse-1 and Mouse-2, the execution
would be:
If Mouse-1 picked chair-1 Then Fire
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132
Behavior Authoring
If Mouse-1 picked chair-2 Then Fire
If Mouse-2 picked chair-1 Then Fire
If Mouse-2 picked chair-2 Then Fire
Note This is only a convention. You are free to use
the inputs in whichever manner you choose. The
only rule WorldUp applies is that it will execute a
given behavior for each object in that behavior’s
Input1. This also means that a behavior with no
inputs will not be executed.
In addition to using the Behavior Input Definition
dialog box, a simpler way of adding inputs to a
Behavior is by simply dragging them from the Scene
Graph pane onto the input number of the Behavior
you wish to add it to. It is not enough to simply drag
it onto a behavior, since it is not clear which
InputList you wish to add it to.
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
your programming background and preferred
programming environment (C versus BasicScript)
and the requirements of the behavior (licensing,
performance, eedistributability, OpenGL, etc.).
This section covers the BasicScript tools for
authoring behaviors, as well as importing and
exporting behaviors. For more information on using
the WorldUp Plug-in Kit to author behaviors, refer
to the WorldUp Plug-in Author’s Guide.
Using the Behavior Wizard
A behavior script consists of a Behavior type and a
BasicScript callback function. All script-based
behaviors are authored through the Behavior Wizard
interface. This interface automatically creates the
type and the script for you, as well as provides you
with a code skeleton that you can use to begin
authoring your behavior. If you are subtyping an
existing behavior script, the Behavior Wizard will
insert that the base type’s code as the skeleton base
(if the code is not protected).
To create a new behavior script using the Behavior
Wizard
1 Select the Behavior type you wish to subtype in
the Behaviors Workview.
Behavior Authoring
Authoring behaviors is a significantly different
process than using behaviors. Your goal as a
behavior author is to create a perfectly encapsulated
set of functionality that exposes itself through a set
of parameters that can then be modified
interactively. WorldUp provides two mechanisms
for authoring behaviors: the Behavior Wizard and
the Plug-in Kit. The tool you choose will depend on
If you select an existing script-based action or
trigger, the Behavior Wizard assumes you wish
to subtype the selected behavior. Otherwise, it
creates a new behavior from scratch.
2 Click the Behavior Wizard
button.
The Behavior Wizard is a series of dialogs aimed
at simplifying the creation of a new Behavior
type. Upon completing the set of dialogs, the
Behavior Wizard generates a new Behavior type
as well as a script template that you can then
Behavior Authoring
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
modify to either define your new Behavior’s
type’s actual behavior, or customize an existing
behavior.
3 Name and describe your new behavior.
The first step in the Behavior Wizard is to
indicate to WorldUp whether you are creating an
Action or a Trigger. If you are subtyping an
existing script-based behavior, this will already
be checked.
Define the number and types of your inputs and outputs
If you are creating an action, this will
automatically be set to 1 input of type Movable
and 1 output of type Movable. This is according
to the definition of an action as covered in
"Behavior Anatomy" on page 128.
If you are creating a new trigger, you have a
choice of the number of inputs and outputs and
their types.
Name and Describe your Behavior
4 Define your behaviors Inputs and Outputs.
The second step asks you to define the number of
inputs and their types.
If you are subtyping an existing script-based
trigger, these will be filled in based on the parent
types inputs and outputs. Since the ensuing script
depends on these, it is advised you not change
them unless you plan on changing the script as
well.
5 Finish, confirm, and create.
Finally, WorldUp attempts to create the script
type and a new script file. Assuming you have
provided a unique name for your new type, and
WorldUp has proper disk access, a final
confirmation dialog appears.
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Behavior Authoring
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
For example, here is a Behavior Wizard generated
trigger Script Handler:
sub task(mytrigger as CollideMovable)
dim flag as boolean
'READ INPUTS
dim ActUpon as Movable
set ActUpon = mytrigger.in1
dim ActWithList as List
set ActWithList =
mytrigger.InputList2
dim ActWith as Movable
set ActWith = CastToMovable
(ActWithList.GetFirstObject())
Finish, confirm, and create your script
Clicking Finish adds this type to your list of scriptbased triggers (or actions, depending on what you
chose to subtype). It also opens the new script file
ready for editing.
This script and type are now part of your project and
will automatically be loaded the next time you open
your project. Therefore, it is crucial you keep your
new script in one of the locations specified by your
Scripts directory path settings.
Customizing Your New Script
The behavior script generated by the Behavior
Wizard is referred to as a Script Handler or callback
function. This is the routine that gets called every
frame for each object in the behavior’s InputList1.
behavior Script Handlers typically have the
following structure:
Subroutine Begin (Trigger)
Read Trigger’s Inputs
Process Data
Write Trigger’s Outputs
Fire Trigger (or stop trigger)
Subroutine End
'TODO: Insert decision processing
code here.
While ActWith is not nothing
success =
ActUpon.IntersectsMovable(ActWith
)
if success then
'WRITE OUTPUTS
set mytrigger.out1 = ActUpon
set mytrigger.out2 = ActWith
'FIRE TRIGGER
flag = mytrigger.Fire()
End If
Set ActWith =
ActWithList.GetNextObject()
Wend
end sub
A behavior’s Script Handler can now be treated like
any other script, with the exception that the
parameter type passed into the script must be the
same as the behavior’s actual name.
To edit the script
1 Select the behavior in the Behavior Workview.
2 Click the Edit Script
button.
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
Some additional conventions to remember when
working with script-based behaviors:
• If the trigger is a two-input trigger, InputList2 is
assumed to be handled by the trigger author.
Importing and Exporting Script-Based Behaviors
To export a script-based behavior
1 Select the Behavior type you wish to export in
the Behaviors Workview.
2 Click the Export Behavior
button.
The benefit of this approach is that the Task
Scheduler does not automatically define the
relationship between Inpulist1 and Inputlist2 (for
each; for each). You can define it how you please.
For example, if you wanted to only fire for the
first object collided with, you could easily define
this relationship by rearranging the loop.
set ActWith =
CollidableList.GetFirstObject()
success = False
While not Success
success =
ActUpon.IntersectsMovable(TargetMov
able)
if success then mytrigger.Fire()
set TargetMovable =
CollidableList.GetNextObject()
Wend
• By convention, the script file created bears the
same name as the behavior type created. The
system also associates the script with the
behavior type, acting essentially as a callback for
that behavior type. As such, it is very important
that a script-based behavior’s callback script be
locatable by the system during project loading.
You should never rename a behavior’s script file.
Importing and Exporting ScriptBased Behaviors
Behavior’s authored with the WorldUp Plug-in Kit
are automatically detected and loaded when
WorldUp starts or a simulation is loaded. With
scripted behaviors, you must import and export
them explicitly.
Exporting an Encrypted Behavior Script
This exports your behavior into a behavior file
(.pup). This file is a collection of your selected
behavior types and their callback scripts, along with
any additional files you wish to add. These files are
combined together into a single PUP file during
export, at which time you can also decide whether or
not to encrypt the scripts for redistribution without
giving away the source code.
To import a script-based behavior into your project
1 Select the Import Behavior
button on the
Behavior Workview.
2 Select available any PUP file.
This brings the types and scripts into your project in
a subdirectory of the same name as the PUP file.
This behavior is now part of your project and will be
saved with it. It is no longer necessary to keep the
PUP file.
Note If the subdirectory contains additional files,
such as sounds, textures, or models, you need to add
these to your search path.
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Importing and Exporting Script-Based Behaviors
Chapter 14 The Behavior System
137
15
Paths
Paths are a series of position and orientation records
that you can use to guide Viewpoint or Movable
objects. In the case of Movable objects, the position
and orientation information in the path affects the
object in its parent's reference frame. You can
dynamically create, record, edit, save, load, and play
back paths in a variety of ways. You can also use
interpolation to smooth a roughly defined path.
As shown in the figure below, paths are made up of
a set of discrete elements, where each element stores
a specific position and orientation.
First Element
Last Element
A path Around an Object
These elements are stored in .PTH files which are
referenced by WorldUp Path objects. You record
elements by specifying the Viewpoint or Movable
object whose position and orientation you want to
record and then manipulating that object’s position
and orientation as you record. You can record
continuously or one element at a time, adjusting the
138
Creating New Paths
Viewpoint or Movable object’s position as you go.
A path’s playback is not limited to the object from
which it was recorded. Any Viewpoint or Movable
object can play any recorded path. So, for example,
you could record a path from a viewpoint, then have
a graphical object follow that path.
Paths are useful for a variety of applications. For
example, if you are creating a demonstration
program, you can record an optimal path through the
virtual environment before the actual
demonstration. Viewpoint paths are useful for any
application in which it may be important for the user
to see certain aspects of the virtual world. You can
also use viewpoint paths whenever an application
requires that a viewpoint be moved from one
location to another and you wish to provide a
smooth transition.
Similarly, you may have many uses for having
Movable objects follow paths. Consider a simple
case in which you want to have a door swing open
and shut. You could attach a sensor, such as a
Spaceball, to the door, and while twisting the
Spaceball to open the door, record the door’s path.
Through scripts, you could then indicate when the
path is to be played, for example, each time the user
clicks the Door object. By setting the path’s
playback mode to Oscillate, the path will play to the
end, then reverse direction, causing the door to
close.
Many of the properties of a Path object can be
controlled through the Path Browser. For
information on additional Path properties, such as
Speed, search on Path Type in the online Help.
Chapter 15 Paths
Creating New Paths
You can either create a new, empty path which
contains no elements, or you can create a new,
interpolated path which contains elements that are
interpolated from elements of an existing path.
Creating a New Empty Path
This section explains how to create a new path
containing no elements.
To create a new, empty path
1 Click the Browser - Toggle Path
The Path Browser displays.
2 In the Path Browser, click New.
button.
Using Existing Paths
Chapter 15 Paths
4 In the Path text box, select the existing path
The Create Path dialog box displays.
(which contains two or more elements) from
which you want to interpolate the new path.
The selected path will be unaffected by the
interpolation.
5 In the Increase Elements By box, type the
number of interpolated elements that you want to
insert between each element of the original path.
6 Click the desired interpolation method, as
described below:
3 Accept the default option, New Path and click
OK.
A new Path object appears in the Type Workview
and a new path is added to the Path Browser.
Note You can also create Path objects for empty
paths from the Type Workview as described in
"Creating an Object" on page 87.
Creating a New Interpolated Path
This section explains how to create a new path
containing elements interpolated from an existing
path. Your project must already contain one or more
recorded paths before this procedure becomes
available.
• Linear – a straight line path between
elements.
• B-Spline – a curve which is the smoothest of
all the options, but which does not in general
pass through the elements of the original path.
• Bezier – a smooth curve which passes through
the elements of the original path.
Note The orientations of the elements are also
interpolated, however the method used to
interpolate orientations is always linear,
independent of the method chosen to interpolate
positions.
7 Click OK.
A new Path object appears in the Type Workview
and a new path is added to the Path Browser.
To create a new, interpolated path
1 Click the Browser - Toggle Path
button.
The Path Browser displays.
2 In the Path Browser, click New.
The Create Path dialog box displays.
3 Click Interpolation from Existing Path.
Using Existing Paths
In the Path Browser, you can load an existing .PTH
file and a Path object is created that references that
file.
To load an existing path
1 Click the Browser - Toggle Path
The Path Browser displays.
button.
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140
Moving Viewpoints and 3D Objects Along Paths
2 In the Path Browser, click Load.
3 In the Open dialog box, locate and open the PTH
file that you want to load.
A Path object is created in the Type Workview
and the loaded path is added to the Path Browser.
Note When you load a path, you are only loading
the information contained in the PTH file.
Information that is stored in the Path object for
which the PTH file was originally created, such as
the targets for the path (see below), is not loaded.
You can also load paths by dragging a PTH file
from any file browser directly into the Development
window.
Moving Viewpoints and 3D
Objects Along Paths
Chapter 15 Paths
2 In the Potential Targets box, select a Viewpoint
or Movable object that will follow the path when
the path is played.
3 Click Add to add the selected object to the list of
Playback Targets.
You can play a path on multiple objects. So, if
necessary, repeat this procedure to add all of the
desired objects to the Playback Targets list.
4 To remove an object from the Playback Targets
list, select the object in the Playback Targets list
and click Remove.
5 In the Record From Target box, select the
Viewpoint or Movable object whose position and
orientation you want to record to create the
path’s elements.
The only objects available are those that you
have specified as Playback targets. Thus, for
example, if you want to record from Viewpoint1, but you only want to play the path on Block-1,
you will have to add Viewpoint-1 as a Playback
target in order to be able to record from it, and
then later remove Viewpoint-1 when you are
ready to play the path.
Before you can record or play a path, you must
specify the Viewpoint or Movable object from
which you want to record the path (known as the
Record From target), and the Viewpoint and/or
Movable objects to which you want to play the
recorded path (known as the Playback targets).
These associations are known as motion links.
6 Click Done to close the Path Targets dialog box.
The instructions below describe how to link paths to
target objects within the Path Browser. You can also
create motion links for paths from the Motion Link
Sources and Motion Link Targets dialog boxes, as
described in "Motion Links" on page 144.
For each object that you specify as a target of a path,
WorldUp automatically creates a corresponding
MotionLink object. When you remove a target, the
corresponding MotionLink object is automatically
deleted.
To specify Playback and Record from targets
For more information on MotionLink objects, see
"Motion Links" on page 144.
1 In the Path Browser, double-click the path whose
targets you want to set, or single click the path
and click the Modify Target(s) button.
The Path Targets dialog box displays.
Chapter 15 Paths
Moving Viewpoints and 3D Objects Along Paths
Recording Paths
• Overwrite Element – The recorded element
will replace the current element.
Once you have specified a Record From target for
your path, you can record elements. You can record
elements continuously or one element at a time.
To record paths continuously
1 Ensure that you have specified a Record From
target as described on page 140.
2 In the Path Browser, select the path that you want
to record.
Note You can record multiple paths at once. To
select multiple paths, press the CTRL key while
you click each path.
3 Click the Record
button.
• Append Element – The recorded element will
be appended at the end of the path.
4 If you have chosen the Insert Element or
Overwrite Element record option, drag the slider
below the Recording and Playback buttons so
that the path is positioned at the location where
you want to record the element.
As you drag the slider, the Element column of
the Path Browser indicates the current position of
the path.
5 In the Development window, set the desired
position and orientation of the object that you
have designated as the Record From target.
4 In the Development window, manipulate the
Viewpoint or Movable object that you specified
as the Record From target for the selected path.
5 Click the Stop
button to stop recording.
For information on how to edit recorded elements,
see "Editing Path Elements" on page 142.
To record a single element for the path
1 Ensure that you have specified a Record From
target as described on page 140.
2 In the Path Browser, select the path for which
you want to record an element.
Note You can record multiple paths at once. To
select multiple paths, press the CTRL key while
you click each path.
3 In the Record Options section of the Path
Browser, select one of the options as described
below:
• Insert Element – The recorded element will be
inserted just before the current element.
6 Click the Record One Frame
button.
7 Continue manipulating the Record From object
and recording elements to achieve the desired
path.
Note Keep in mind that when creating paths by
recording single elements, it is often useful to record
rough paths, composed of just a few elements, and
then interpolate a smoother path from the one you
recorded. See "Creating a New Interpolated Path"
on page 139 for instructions.
For information on how to edit recorded elements,
see "Editing Path Elements" on page 142.
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Editing Path Elements
Chapter 15 Paths
Playing Paths
7 To play one frame (one element) of the path,
You can play paths from the Path Browser as you
develop your application, or you can play paths from
scripts.
Each Path object has a Forward property in the
Property pane. The default value is True, meaning
that the path will begin playing in the forward
direction. The discussion below assumes that this
property is set to True.
To play paths from the Path Browser
1 Ensure that you have specified at least one
Playback target, as described on page 140, for
each path that you want to play.
2 In the Path Browser, select the path that you want
click the Forward1
or Back1
button,
depending on which direction you want the path
to play.
To play paths from scripts
" Call the Play or Play1 WorldUp function.
Keep in mind that each Play Option in the Path
Browser has a corresponding property in the
Property pane for all Path objects. You can set these
properties from scripts.
For information on writing scripts, see the WorldUp
Programmer’s Guide. For information on the Play
and Play1 functions, search on Play or Play1 in the
online Help.
to play.
Note You can play multiple paths at once. To
Editing Path Elements
select multiple paths, press the CTRL key while
you click each path.
From the Path Browser, you can modify or delete
any element in your path.
3 In the Play Options section of the Path Browser,
select one of the options as described below:
To modify the translation and rotation of path
elements
• Single – The path will play to the end and then
stop.
1 In the Path Browser, select the path containing
• Loop – The path will play to the end and then
repeat at the beginning.
2 Use the slider to position the path at the desired
• Oscillate – The path will play to the end and
then reverse direction when the final element
is played.
3 Click the Edit Element button.
4 If the path is currently positioned at the final
element, click the Rewind
5 Click the Play
button.
button.
6 Let the path play to the end (if you chose the
Single playing option), or click the Stop
button to interrupt the play.
the elements you want to modify.
element.
Saving Paths
Chapter 15 Paths
The Edit Element(s) for Path-1 dialog box
displays the translation and rotation values of the
current element.
The number of the element that currently has
focus is listed at the top of the dialog box.
5 In the Delete Options section, click one of the
following options:
• Current Element – Deletes the current element
only.
• From ... To ... – Deletes the specified range of
elements. Type the numbers of the first and
last elements of the range you want to delete.
• All Elements – Deletes all elements in the
path.
4 To focus on another element, click the Previous
or Next buttons to move through the path.
The number of the element that currently has
focus is listed at the top of the dialog box.
5 To modify the element’s translation, type new
values in the X, Y, and Z boxes under
Translation.
6 To modify the element’s rotation, type new
values in the Pitch, Yaw, and Roll boxes under
Rotation.
7 Click OK to apply the changes.
To delete elements from a path
1 In the Path Browser, select the path containing
the elements you want to delete.
2 Use the slider to position the path at the desired
element.
Note This is not necessary if you intend to delete
all elements.
3 Click the Edit Element button.
The Edit Element(s) dialog box displays.
4 To focus on another element, click the Previous
or Next buttons to move through the path.
6 Click OK to delete the specified element(s).
Saving Paths
If you do not save your recorded paths, then no PTH
files are created for them. Thus, while the Path
object remains, all recorded elements are lost once
the project is closed.
Note It is not necessary to save an interpolated path
if the path from which it was interpolated has been
saved. Each time you reopen the project, the
interpolated path is recreated.
To save paths
1 In the Path Browser, select the path that you want
to save.
2 Click Save.
3 In the Save As dialog box, select the directory in
which the current UP file is located and specify a
name for the PTH file.
Note If your PTH files are located in any directory
other than the UP file’s directory, the project will not
be able to locate the PTH files when the project is
opened again.
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Deleting Paths
Chapter 15 Paths
Deleting Paths
Sensors
To delete a path
Sensors are devices, such as a mouse or a Spaceball,
that can be used to manipulate Movable objects
(such as geometries) or change your viewpoint in
the universe.
1 In the Path Browser, click the path that you want
to delete.
Note You can delete multiple paths at once. To
select multiple paths, press the CTRL key while
you click each path.
2 Click Delete.
The Path object is deleted, along with any
MotionLink objects for which the deleted path
was the source.
In the Type Workview, the Sensor object type
contains subtypes for each sensor that WorldUp
supports.
To use a sensor, you must attach the hardware to
your computer, create a Sensor object under the
appropriate Sensor type, and create motion links
between the sensor and the Viewpoint and/or
Movable objects in the universe.
Note You can also delete paths from the Type
Workview, as described in "Deleting an Object" on
page 88.
Paths and Sensors Use Motion
Links
Understanding Motion Links can be very helpful
when using paths. When you specify Record From
and Playback Targets in the Modify Targets dialog
box, WorldUp creates the underlying MotionLink
objects used in your simulation in the Type
Workview.
You can control any valid Motion Link Target with
any valid Motion Link Source. Valid Motion Link
Sources are Paths, Sensors, and Movables.
Note It is actually feasible, though not
recommended, to specify any WorldUp object as the
source, since the property is of type VBase.
However, objects would need to have Rotation and
Translation properties to have any effect on the
Target.
Valid Motion Link Targets are Movables and
Viewpoints.
By default, WorldUp provides each new universe
with a Mouse object (The Mouse). It also provides a
default Viewpoint (Viewpoint-1) and MotionLink
(MotionLink-1), which links The Mouse to
Viewpoint-1. This allows you to instantly begin
navigating the viewpoint of the default
Development window (DevWindow-1) with the
mouse. If you are using a type of sensor other than a
mouse, you’ll need to create your own Sensor object
and MotionLink object.
When you delete a Sensor object, all MotionLink
objects for which the deleted Sensor object was the
source are also deleted.
For information on how to configure specific
sensors, see Chapter 17, Using Input Devices. For
information on how to use motion links to link your
sensor to Viewpoint and Movable objects, see the
Motion Links section below.
Motion Links
Sensors and paths allow you to interact with a virtual
world by providing you with control over the motion
of Viewpoint and Movable objects. To associate a
Motion Links
Chapter 15 Paths
sensor or path with an entity in a world, use motion
links. A motion link connects a source of position
and orientation information (a Sensor or Path object)
with a target (a Viewpoint or Movable object) that
moves to correspond with that changing set of
information.
only. You will have to specify the Record From
target from the Path Browser as described on page
140.
Through properties of MotionLink objects, you can
specify such attributes as whether the motion link
will be enabled during development, while the
simulation is running, neither, or both. Also, you can
specify in which reference frame the source object is
to manipulate the target object. For a description of
properties specific to MotionLink objects, search on
MotionLink Type in the online Help.
To assign a source to a target object
Assigning Motion Link Targets
To assign a target to a source object
1 In the Type Workview, select the Sensor or Path
object that you want to be the source of a new
motion link.
2 Select Edit Motion Link Targets from the Objects
menu, or right-mouse click the object in the Type
Workview and select Edit Motion Link Targets.
The Motion Link Targets dialog box appears.
3 In the Potential Link Targets box, click the
Viewpoint or Movable object that you want to be
the target of the motion link and click Add.
4 Repeat this procedure, if necessary, to link
Assigning Motion Link Sources
1 In the Type Workview, select the Viewpoint or
Movable object that you want to be the target of a
new motion link.
2 Select Edit Motion Link Sources from the
Objects menu, or right-mouse click the object in
the Type Workview and select Edit Motion Link
Sources.
The Motion Link Sources dialog box appears.
3 In the Potential Link Sources box, click the
Sensor or Path object that you want to be the
source of the motion link and click Add.
4 Repeat this procedure, if necessary, to link
additional source objects to the target.
A MotionLink object is created in the Type
Workview for each source that you add.
5 Click Done when you are finished.
Note If you select a Path object as a source, be
aware that the target object will be a Playback target
only. You will have to specify the Record From
target from the Path Browser, as described on page
140.
additional target objects to the source.
A MotionLink object is created in the Type
Workview for each target that you add.
5 Click Done when you are finished.
Note If the source of the motion links you are
creating is a path, be aware that the targets you
specify from this dialog box will be Playback targets
Removing Motion Links
You can remove motion links by deleting the
appropriate MotionLink object from the Type
Workview, or by removing targets or sources.
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Motion Links
Chapter 15 Paths
To remove sources or targets
5 Click Done when you are finished.
1 In the Type Workview, click the object that is
To delete MotionLink objects directly
either the source or target of the motion link you
want to delete.
2 Select Edit Motion Link Sources or Edit Motion
Link Targets from the Objects menu, depending
on which type of object you have selected.
You can also right-mouse click the object in the
Type Workview and click the corresponding
option.
The Motion Link Sources or Motion Link
Targets dialog box displays.
3 In the Linked Sources or Linked Targets box,
select the object you want to remove and click
Remove.
4 Repeat this procedure, if necessary, to delete
additional objects.
For each object that you remove, the
corresponding MotionLink object is deleted from
the Type Workview.
MotionLink
Property
1 In the Type Workview, expand the MotionLink
object type to see its existing objects.
2 To determine which MotionLink object you want
to delete, check the current values of the Source
and Target properties for the object.
3 Click the Delete Selected
button on the Type
Workview.
Motion Link Properties
A MotionLink takes a source of position and
orientation information (a sensor or path object) and
applies it to a target (a viewpoint or movable object).
WorldUp creates a default viewpoint (Viewpoint-1)
and a default Mouse object (The Mouse), and
connects these two objects with a default Motion
Link (MotionLink-1). If the motion link is enabled
(its Enabled property is set to True) then WorldUp
automatically updates the target of the motion link
with the sources input.
Definition
Acceptable Value(s)
Application
Active
Indicates whether the link will be active
when the application runs.
True – The MotionLink is applied at runtime
False – The MotionLink is not applied at runtime
Development
Active
Indicates whether the link will be active
when you are developing the application.
True – The MotionLink is applied while developing
False – The MotionLink is not applied while developing
Enabled
If set True, then the target of the MotionLink
is updated with source input.
True – Update source
False – DO NOT update source
Name
The name of the MotionLink in the
simulation.
Any string value
Motion Links
Chapter 15 Paths
MotionLink
Property
Definition
Acceptable Value(s)
Reference
Frame
This is the reference frame in which the
target of the MotionLink will operate.
Local – Target operates in its local reference frame.
World – Target operates in the world reference frame
Parent – Target operates in its parent's reference frame
Viewpoint – Target operates in the viewpoint reference
frame
Source
The source object of the MotionLink can be
either a Sensor object such as the mouse
or a Path object.
Any valid device or path object
Target
The target of the MotionLink can be a
Viewpoint or Movable object.
Any valid viewpoint or movable object
Tasks
Name(s) of the script(s) to be executed
once per frame during the simulation.
Any valid script. The script must contain a task
subroutine. The task will be run once each frame of the
simulation.
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Motion Links
Chapter 15 Paths
149
16
Sounds
WorldUp can play sounds from WAV files. You can
use scripts to control how and when a sound plays.
To play sounds, the machines on which you plan to
develop or deploy your simulation must have the
following:
• A sound card
• An operating system configured to use the sound
card
• A pair of speakers attached to the sound output
ports
Be sure to set your sound path (using the File Access
Settings on the Options menu) and put the sounds
you use in your simulation in the sound folder. See
"Configuring Directory Paths" on page 39.
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Creating a Sound Object
Chapter 16 Sounds
Creating a Sound Object
Changing Sounds
You can create a Sound object using drag-and-drop
or from the Type Workview.
To specify another sound file
To create a Sound object using drag-and-drop
"
Drag a wave file (.WAV) from your file browser
onto WorldUp.
A new Sound object is created and is named to
match the filename of the sound that you dragged.
To create a Sound object in the Type Workview
1 In the Type Workview, select the Sound object
type.
you wish to replace.
2 In the Property pane, select the Editable tab.
3 Set its Playing property to True, if not set
already.
4 Double-click the Filename property.
The File Open dialog box appears.
5 Navigate to the sound file you want WorldUp to
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The File Open dialog box appears.
3 Navigate to the sound file you want WorldUp to
play and click Open.
Once the sound object is created, you can test your
sound.
To play your sound
1 Select the Sound object.
2 Set its Playing property to True.
3 Click the Run in DevWindow
Run in AppWindow
1 In the Type Workview, select the Sound object
button.
button or the
play and click Open.
6 Click theRun in DevWindow
Run in AppWindow
sound.
button or the
button to hear your new
Chapter 16 Sounds
Finding Sounds for your Application
A number of good sound editors are available for
free over the Internet. Most of the sample sounds for
WorldUp were created with a microphone, office
supplies, and a simple sound editor for cutting and
pasting sound samples.
You can also find sound libraries on CDs at any
large computer software store.
Finding Sounds for your Application
Changing Sound Properties
You may want to modify the Sound object’s
properties and/or the Audio properties of the
Universe object to control factors such as which
sound device to use or whether the sound plays
continuously.
Search on Sound Type in the online Help for a
description of the unique properties for the Sound
object type. Search on Universe Type for a
description of the various Audio properties of the
Universe object.
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Using Scripts to Play a Sound
Using Scripts to Play a Sound
If a Sound object’s Playing property is set to True,
the sound automatically plays when you run the
simulation. To allow the sound to play continuously,
the Repeat property must also be set to True. If you
want to play the sound under certain conditions
only, write a script using WorldUp’s Play command
and attach that script to your Sound object.
See the WorldUp Programmer’s Guide for
information on how to write and attach a script to an
object.
Chapter 16 Sounds
Setting the Audio Listener
Viewpoint
The Universe object contains a pre-defined property
called Audio: Listener. This property indicates
which viewpoint represents the listener. In other
words, it represents where the ears of the viewer are
positioned in the universe.
By default, the Audio: Listener property is set to
Viewpoint-1.
If you set the application window to use another
viewpoint, you also need to set the Audio: Listener
property to that viewpoint, so sounds can be
spatialized correctly.
Chapter 16 Sounds
Troubleshooting Sounds
This secton provides some troubleshooting steps to
take if you are having trouble with your sounds.
Sounds won’t play
The following is a list of reasons why sounds might
not play:
• Does your sound system work?
Make sure that your sound system is properly set
up. Use the sound player that comes with your
operating system to try to play a sound. If the
sound doesn’t play, it could be that your sound
drivers are not installed properly, your sound
card is not working, or your system volume is
simply turned all the way down. Check your
system’s sound settings.
• Does the sound have its Playing property set to
True?
To play a sound, the Sound object’s Playing
property must be set to True. You can set this
directly in Property pane of the Type Workview
or by calling the script method Play. (The
command would be snd.Play, where snd is a
variable pointing to a sound.)
Troubleshooting Sounds
The Audio: Rolloff property of the Universe
object determines how fast the sounds in space
fall off. If the number is too low for the size of
your universe, sounds might be falling off too
quickly.
Sounds are not spatialized correctly
• Is the Attached To property set to the correct
object?
Make sure the Sound object’s Attached To
property is set to a valid object which is still in
your scene.
• Is Audio: Listener set correctly?
The Audio: Listener property of the Universe
object should be pointing to the correct
viewpoint (whichever viewpoint is used in the
main application window).
• What isAudio: Rolloff set to?
The Audio: Rolloff property of the Universe
object determines how fast the sounds in space
fall off. If the number is too high for the size of
your universe, you might not, in the area in
which you move in your universe, be able to tell
the difference in roll-off. Try decreasing this
number and see if the results are better.
• Is something hogging the sound device?
Another application might be running that’s
holding on to the sound device, not letting
WorldUp play its sounds. Close the other
application and try again.
• Is Audio: Listener set correctly?
The Audio: Listener property of the Universe
object should be pointing to the correct
viewpoint (whichever viewpoint is used in the
main application window).
• What isAudio: Rolloff set to?
My sound is playing too fast or too slow
If you are using the DiamondWare sound system
(this is the default for WorldUp on the Windows
platform – check the Audio Device property on the
Universe object), sounds must be recorded at a
frequency of 22 K. Any sound editor will allow you
to resample a sound file.
Make sure the sound’s Pitch property is set to 1.0.
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Troubleshooting Sounds
Chapter 16 Sounds
153
17
Using Input Devices
Sensor objects in WorldUp generate position,
orientation, and other kinds of data by reading input
information that originates in the real world. You
can use the input to control motion and other
behavioral aspects of objects in the simulation.
Sensors permit the user of a WorldUp simulation to
be directly coupled to the Viewpoint objects and
Movable objects in the universe. By linking a
specific Sensor object to a viewpoint, you can use
that sensor to navigate. By linking a specific Sensor
object to a Movable object, you can use that sensor
to control the specified object.
WorldUp provides Sensor properties that allow you
to access and, in some cases, modify the state of a
sensor. For example, you can retrieve the current
translational and rotational value for a sensor,
control the scale factors of the translation and
rotation records, and retrieve miscellaneous data,
such as button press events.
Many of the 3D and 6D (position/orientation)
sensors that are available are supported by
WorldUp. There are two principal classes of such
sensors: desk-based sensors and sensors that are
worn on the body. While most desk-based sensors
generate relative inputs, that is, changes in position
and orientation, devices worn on the body typically
generate absolute records, that is, values that
correspond to their specific spatial location.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Desk-based sensors are conventional devices, such
as a mouse, a joystick, or an isometric ball. The
Logitech Space Control Mouse (Magellan) and
Spacetec IMC’s Spaceball are isometric balls that
respond to forces and torques applied by the user.
Using such devices, users can directly manipulate,
displace or rotate a 3D object – the object acts like it
is directly connected to the sensor. Isometric ball
sensors are also useful for moving the viewpoint; the
applied displacements and rotational forces move
and rotate the viewpoint. In this mode of operation,
with an isometric ball sensor attached to the
viewpoint, the sensor operates like a fly-by-wire
helicopter.
Sensors worn on the body (sensors that generate
absolute records) include electromagnetic 6D
trackers such as the Polhemus FASTRAK and
Ascension Bird. You can use this type of sensor for
viewpoint tracking when it is attached to a headmounted display. Some devices, like the Virtual i-O
i-glasses! and the StereoGraphics CrystalEyes VR,
provide left and right video displays combined with
head-tracking capability. In addition to
electromagnetic devices, a variety of ultrasonic
ranging/triangulation devices and optical devices
exist for absolute position and orientation tracking.
One example is the ultrasonic Logitech 3D Mouse
and Head Tracker.
Regardless of their underlying hardware
technology, WorldUp Sensor objects are treated
similarly and can be used interchangeably in an
application. Once a sensor object is created, it is
automatically maintained by the simulation
manager, so you do not have to deal directly with
considerations such as whether the sensor is
returning relative or absolute records, or whether it
is polled or streaming its data.
WorldUp provides drivers for the devices listed
below, making them easy to connect to your
computer and use in your applications.
Sensor
See page
Any Standard Mouse (two or three buttons)
157
Ascension Mouse
157
Ascension Bird
158
Fifth Dimension Technologies’ 5DT Glove
158
Gameport Joystick
158
Logitech 3D Mouse (Red Baron)
159
Logitech Head Tracker
159
Logitech Space Control Mouse (Magellan)
160
Polhemus FASTRAK
160
Polhemus InsideTRAK
161
Polhemus ISOTRAK
161
Polhemus ISOTRAK II
161
Precision Navigation Wayfinder-VR
162
Spacetec IMC Spaceball – Model 2003 and
Model 3003 (using only the pick button)
162
StereoGraphics CrystalEyes and
CrystalEyes VR LCD Shutter Glasses
162
ThrustMaster Formula T2 Steering Console
162
ThrustMaster Serial Joystick (Mark II Flight
Control/Weapons Control Systems)
166
VictorMaxx Technologies’ CyberMaxx2
HMD
167
Virtual i-O i-glasses! – monoscopic and
stereo (Intergraph only) with head tracking
167
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
For the most up-to-date information about sensors
supported by WorldUp, contact SENSE8 Technical
Support, or check our Sensor Setup web page at:
http://www.sense8.com/sensorsetup/index.html
This web page shows what devices are supported
and how to set up the devices correctly. See
"Technical Support" on page 10 for contact
information.
In addition to support for the devices shown above,
WorldUp provides functions for easily obtaining
input from the keyboard (search on GetKey() in the
online Help).
Creating Sensor Objects
To use sensors in your WorldUp simulation, you
must attach the sensor hardware to your computer,
configure the sensor, create a Sensor object in
WorldUp from the appropriate Sensor object type,
and then link that Sensor object to the appropriate
Viewpoint object or Movable object.
To create a sensor object
1 Attach the sensor hardware to your computer.
2 Configure the sensor to run on your computer
(set the DIP switches, display settings, etc.).
"Working With a Specific Sensor" on page 156
describes each sensor and any special
configuration instructions.
3 In the Nodes pane, click the Sensor subtype from
which you want to create your Sensor object.
There is a separate type for each supported
sensor.
"Working With a Specific Sensor" on page 156
describes each supported sensor and indicates
which WorldUp object type to use for that sensor.
4 In the Property pane, set the available properties
as appropriate.
For a complete reference of all WorldUp
properties, search on “Property Reference” in the
online Help.
• Serial Baud Rate – This property is applicable
to serial sensors only. The baud rate will be set
to the default value that WorldUp uses. The
configuration procedures described in
"Working With a Specific Sensor" on page
156 assume the default baud rate. So, if you
want to use a different baud rate you need to
change the configuration accordingly.
• Serial Port – This property is applicable to
serial sensors only. The default value is COM1
(that is, serial port 1). If you did not attach the
sensor to serial port 1, change this property
value as appropriate (COM2 for serial port 2,
COM3 for serial port 3, and COM4 for serial
port 4).
• Unit – This property is applicable only to
those sensors that can have multiple receivers.
These are InsideTRAK, Ascension Mouse,
Bird, FASTRAK, and ISOTRAK II. The
default value is 1, indicating that this object
will represent the first receiver for the sensor.
Change this value only if you are creating an
additional receiver.
5 In the Nodes pane, create your Sensor object by
dragging it to the Scene Graph pane.
6 Link the sensor to a Viewpoint or Movable object
by creating a motion link (see "Motion Links" on
page 144 for instructions).
Note You can link multiple Sensor objects to a
particular Viewpoint or Movable object.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
7 If desired, create additional receivers for the
sensor (only available for InsideTRAK,
Ascension Mouse, Bird, FASTRAK, and
ISOTRAK II). To do so, increment the Unit
property value (for example, set it to 2 to create
the second receiver, 3 to create the third receiver,
and so on). Then, create a new object for that
receiver. Repeat this process to create the number
of receivers that you want.
Note You can delete a Sensor object just like any
other object (see "Deleting an Object" on page 88).
When you delete a Sensor object, any motion link
that references the deleted Sensor object will
automatically be deleted.
Sensor Lag and Frame-Rate
WorldUp is designed so you can interact with
computer-generated graphics flexibly and in realtime. Sensor objects provide a means of
accomplishing this by directly coupling the user of
an application to the geometry in the virtual world.
The effectiveness of this interaction depends on
several factors:
• Sensor lag – The time from when the sensor’s
state in the real world changes to when the sensor
generates a record corresponding to that state;
inversely proportional to sensor speed.
• Sensor accuracy – The range of values that a
sensor may return when in a given state. This is
usually specified as something such as ±0.1
inches within a range of 8 feet.
• Frame-rate – The number of frames per second
that the system displays.
Note Even if your application runs with a high
frame-rate, if the sensor lag is very large, then the
user’s impression of being able to interact in the
virtual world may suffer. For very precise
manipulations within the virtual world, the shorter
the lag time, the better the user control.
Working With a Specific Sensor
This section describes each sensor supported by
WorldUp, including any special configuration
settings (such as, DIP switch settings, display
settings, etc.) and a list of defined constants for any
sensors that have buttons or switches. You can use
these defined constants in scripts to refer to the
sensor’s buttons/switches.
Note Not all sensors have special configuration
settings. The configuration procedures described
may not be the only way to hook up a particular
sensor.
For more detailed information on hooking up a
particular sensor to your computer, refer to the
sensor manufacturer’s documentation or consult
Sense8’s web site at:
http://www.sense8.com/sensorsetup/index.html
Note When DIP switch settings are shown, the
value 1 refers to ON, the value 0 refers to OFF.
Sensors may vary as to whether ON is the up or
down position for the DIP switch. The only
exception to this is the InsideTRAK in which 1
refers to OFF whereas 0 refers to ON. Also, for
serial sensors, the DIP switches corresponding to the
baud rate are set to the value that WorldUp uses as
default. So if you want to use a different baud rate,
refer to the documentation for that sensor to change
the DIP switch settings to the desired baud rate.
In the Type Workview, the Sensor object type
contains subtypes for each sensor that WorldUp
supports. Stand-alone sensors are located directly
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
within the Sensor type. Serial sensors (sensors that
need to be plugged into the serial port) are located
within the Serial Sensor subtype.
Mouse
The Mouse object type represents a standard mouse
input device. By default, WorldUp provides you
with a Mouse object named The Mouse. This object
exists so you can use your mouse to navigate
through worlds and select and move objects while
creating a simulation.
Sample Script Using Defined Constants
Sub Task ( m as Mouse
If m.MiscData and RIGHTHELD then
message "The right mouse button is _
depressed"
ElseIf m.MiscData and MIDDLEHELD then
message "The middle mouse button is _
depressed"
ElseIf m.MiscData and LEFTHELD then
message "the left mouse button is _
depressed"
End If
End Sub
Note You can have only one Mouse object. Since
Note The constants for the Mouse middle button are
WorldUp creates a Mouse object automatically
when it starts, you cannot create additional Mouse
objects.
used only on three-button mice.
Defined Constants
The Ascension Mouse object type represents an
Ascension Technology Corporation mouse, a six
degree-of-freedom sensor that not only measures
absolute position and orientation by using an
electromagnetic field tracking system, but also has
three user-programmable buttons like a standard
mouse input device.
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button moves from up to down.
• LEFTDOWN
• MIDDLEDOWN
• RIGHTDOWN
Ascension Mouse
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button is held down.
Defined Constants
• LEFTHELD
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button moves from up to down.
• MIDDLEHELD
• ASCMOUSE_LEFTDOWN
• RIGHTHELD
• ASCMOUSE_MIDDLEDOWN
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button moves from down to up.
• ASCMOUSE_RIGHTDOWN
• LEFTUP
These can be used in scripts to access button press
events as shown in the example for Mouse defined
constant.
• MIDDLEUP
• RIGHTHUP
These can be used in scripts to access button press
events as shown in the following example.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Ascension Bird
The Bird object type represents an Ascension
Technology Corporation Bird, a six degree-offreedom sensor that measures absolute position and
orientation by using an electromagnetic field
tracking system. Multiple bird units, known as Flock
of Birds, are also supported.
Configuring the Bird
" To configure one Bird, set the DIP switches as
shown below.
Multiple Birds can be daisy-chained to make the
Flock of Birds. See the Ascension Bird User’s Guide
for setup guidelines.
Note A flock can have up to 20 Bird units.
5DT Glove
The Glove5DT object type represents a Fifth
Dimension Technologies’ 5DT Glove, a data glove
that measures finger flexure and the orientation
(±128 degrees of pitch and roll with 0 being straight
up) of a user’s hand.
Dip Switch 1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Dip Switch 8
The DIP switch settings reference the following
settings:
Gameport Joystick
The Gameport Joystick object type supports
standard Gameport (analog) joysticks.
• Baud rate set to 19200 (switches 1, 2, and 3)
Installing the Joystick Driver for NT
• Unit address set to 1 (switches 4, 5, 6 and 7)
You must have the Windows NT system driver for
the gameport joystick installed to use the joystick
with WorldUp. If you have not previously installed
the driver or are unsure, follow the steps below:
Note The Bird must be set as unit 1, not 0.
• Mode set to fly (Switch 8)
" To configure two Birds, set the DIP switches as
shown below.
To add the driver to your system
1 Insert the Windows NT 4.0 CD into your drive.
Unit 1
2 Open the Control Panel.
Dip Switch 1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Dip Switch 8
3 Select Multimedia.
4 Select Devices.
5 Select Add.
Unit 2
Dip Switch 1
1
6. Choose Unlisted or updated driver‚ and press OK.
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Dip Switch 8
7. Type in d:\drvlib\multimed\joystick\x86‚
where d is the letter of your CD-ROM drive.
8. Restart system when prompted.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Calibrating the Gameport Joystick
WorldUp uses the standard Windows NT joystick
control panel to calibrate the gameport joystick.
You must calibrate before you use a joystick for the
first time, and any time your joystick is not behaving
correctly.
current values, until the button is released. In this
manner, the button can be used as a “clutch” or
“ratchet” to be able to traverse large distances or
angles by depressing the button while returning the
sensor to within range of the ultrasonic speakers.
To calibrate your joystick
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button is held down.
1. Open the Control Panel.
• LOGI_LEFTHELD
2. Select joystick.
• LOGI_MIDDLEHELD
3. Select the attributes that reflect your joystick.
4. Choose Calibrate and follow directions.
5. Choose Test‚to verify your calibration.
Note Currently you can have only one joystick
attached to your system. It must be on Port 1. (This
is a limitation of the current Windows NT joystick
driver).
Logitech 3D Mouse (Red Baron)
The Logitech 3D Mouse object type represents a
Logitech, Inc. 3D Mouse, a desk-based sensor that
measures absolute position and orientation by using
three microphones to triangulate on three ultrasonic
speakers. The speakers are mounted in a large
triangle, and the microphones are in a smaller
triangle, which is attached to the end of the mouse.
Note The Logitech 3D Mouse is also known as the
Red Baron.
Defined Constants
The 3D Mouse has three buttons (left, middle, and
right), similar to a normal Mouse. In addition, it has
a button on the side of the mouse body called the
suspend button, so named because it is used to
suspend motion. When depressed, position and
orientation records for the sensor are frozen at their
• LOGI_RIGHTHELD
• LOGI_SUSPEND
The following constant can be used to detect when
the 3D Mouse is currently off the desktop. Note that
this constant makes sense only if the 3D Mouse was
on the desk at initialization.
• LOGI_FLYINGHELD
These can be used in scripts to access sensor data as
shown in the example for Mouse defined constants
on page 157.
Logitech Head Tracker
The Logitech Tracker object type represents a
Logitech, Inc. Head Tracker, a head tracker sensor
that measures absolute position and orientation by
using three microphones to triangulate on three
ultrasonic speakers. The speakers are mounted in a
large triangle, and the microphones are in a smaller
triangle, which is attached to the top of headmounted displays for use as a head tracker.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Logitech Space Contol Mouse
(Magellan)
The Magellan object type represents a Logitech, Inc.
Space Control Mouse, a six degree-of-freedom
table-top sensor that measures relative position and
orientation by mapping the force and torque inputs
applied to it.
an electromagnetic field tracking system. It can
support multiple receivers (up to four) and has a
much smaller sensor lag.
Configuring the FASTRAK
Note You must use a NULL MODEM cable to
attach the FASTRAK to a PC.
To configure one receiver
Defined Constants
There are nine user-programmable buttons on the
Space Control Mouse. All of these are positioned on
the top edge of the Space Control Mouse frame. The
button marked with an asterisk (*) is called the pick
button (to maintain compatibility with the
Spaceball).
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button is held down.
• Set the DIP switches as shown below.
Back
Dip Switch 1
Dip Switch 8
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
Front
Dip Switch 1
0
1
1
1
Dip Switch 4
• MAG_BTN1DOWN
• MAG_BTN2DOWN
• MAG_BTN3DOWN
• MAG_BTN4DOWN
The back DIP switch settings reference the
following settings:
• Baud rate set to 19200 (switches 1, 2, and 3)
• MAG_BTN5DOWN
• No hardware handshaking functionality (switch
4)
• MAG_BTN6DOWN
• Character width set to 8 bits (switch 5)
• MAG_BTN7DOWN
• No parity (switches 6 and 7)
• MAG_BTN8DOWN
• RS-232 serial operation (switch 8)
• MAG_BTNADOWN
The front DIP Switch settings indicate how many
receivers the FASTRAK currently has. The above
setting indicates the FASTRAK has one receiver.
These can be used in scripts to access button press
events as shown in the example for Mouse defined
constants on page 157.
Note When a receiver is being used, its
corresponding DIP switch is set to OFF.
Polhemus FASTRAK
To configure two receivers
The Fastrak object type represents a Polhemus
FASTRAK, a six degree-of-freedom sensor that
measures absolute position and orientation by using
• The DIP Switch settings in the back of the unit
are the same as shown above for one receiver. Set
the front DIP Switch settings as follows:
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Front
3 Configure the NT Registry for use with the
Polhemus InsideTRAK using the steps below. ( )
Dip Switch 1
0
0
1
1
Dip Switch 4
Note The FASTRAK can have up to four receivers.
4 Double-click the file
\WINNT35\SYSTEM32\REGEDT32.EXE
(\WINNT\SYSTEM32\REGEDT32.EXE for NT 4.0
systems).
Note Do not use \WINNT35\REGEDIT.EXE
Polhemus InsideTRAK
The InsideTrak object type represents a Polhemus
InsideTRAK, a six degree-of-freedom sensor that
measures absolute position and orientation by using
an electromagnetic field tracking system. It is
similar to the Polhemus ISOTRAKII, but is only
available on Intel-based workstations with ISA bus
slots.
To configure the InsideTRAK
5 Click the "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE on
Local Machine" registry window.
6 Navigate through the Registry hierarchy to the
Services key: SYSTEM > CurrentControlSet >
Services.
7 Click the Services key, then on the Edit menu,
1 Set the jumper switches to address 0x280 as
shown below. The default setting is 0x300 but
this is commonly used by network cards.
click Add Key.
8 In the Add Key dialog box, type Itraknt in the
Key Name box and press ENTER.
9 Under Services, click the new Itraknt key.
Jumper 1 (J1)
0
(\WINNT\REGEDIT.EXE for NT 4.0 systems)
for this configuration.
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
Jumper 8 (J8)
Note For the InsideTRAK, value 0 is ON and
value 1 is OFF.
2 Copy the ITRAKNT.SYS file (the actual port
driver for Windows NT) from the
\WORLDUP\DRIVERS directory to your
\WINNT35\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS directory
(\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS for NT 4.0
systems).
Note The remaining steps tell you how to configure
the NT Registry for use with the Polhemus
InsideTRAK. If you have WorldToolKit on your
computer, you can skip the remaining steps since the
WTK installation does this automatically.
10 On the Edit menu, click Add Value.
11 In the Add Value dialog box, type Type in the
Value Name box and set the Data Type to
REG_DWORD. Press ENTER.
12 In the DWORD Editor dialog box, type 1 in the
Data box and press ENTER.
Note The Registry will show this value as 0x1.
This is normal.
13 Continue using the Add Value command on the
Edit menu to add the following values to the
Itraknt key:
Value Name
Start
Settings
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 2
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Value Name
Settings
Configuring the ISOTRAK and ISOTRAK II
Note You must use a NULL MODEM cable to
Group
Data Type: REG_SZ
String: Extended Base
ErrorControl
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 1
(no spaces)
attach the ISOTRAK or the ISOTRAKII to a PC.
" Set the DIP switches as shown below.
Dip Switch 1
1
1
0
1
0
14 On the Edit menu, click Add Key.
15 In the Add Key dialog box, type Parameters in
the Key Name box and press ENTER.
0
0
0
Dip Switch 8
The DIP Switch settings reference the following
settings:
16 Under Itraknt, click the new Parameters key.
• Baud rate set to 9600 (switches 1, 2, and 3)
17 On the Edit menu, click Add Value and add the
• Internal Sync Mode (switch 4)
following values to the Parameters key:
Value Name
Settings
IoPortAddress
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 280
(no spaces)
IoPortCount
(no spaces)
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 4
18 Click Exit to end the session.
Note The InsideTRAK does not use interrupts, so
the interrupt jumper should be set to disable
interrupts.
Polhemus ISOTRAK/ISOTRAK II
The Isotrak object type represents a Polhemus
ISOTRAK, a six degree-of-freedom sensor that
measures absolute position and orientation by using
an electromagnetic field tracking system.
The IsotrakII object type represents a Polhemus
ISOTRAK II, a two-receiver six degree-of-freedom
sensor that measures absolute position and
orientation by using an electromagnetic field
tracking system.
• Sync Generator OFF (switches 5 and 6)
Switches 7 and 8 are don’t care.
Precision Navigation Wayfinder-VR
The CyberTrack object type represents a Precision
Navigation Wayfinder-VR, a head tracker that
measures absolute orientation using inertial and
compass technologies. This tracker provides 360
degrees of yaw rotation, and about +/- 45 degrees of
pitch and roll rotation.
Spacetec IMC Spaceball
The Spaceball object type represents a Spacetec
IMC Spaceball, a six degree of freedom table-top
sensor that measures relative position and
orientation by mapping the force and torque inputs
applied to it.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Defined Constants
Note If you are using the Spacetec Spaceball Model
There are nine user-programmable buttons on the
Spaceball. Eight of these are positioned on the top
edge of the Spaceball frame. One other button,
called the pick button, is mounted on the forward
face of the ball itself.
3003, be aware that the WorldUp driver has not been
rewritten for the Model 3003. The 2003 driver
works for both units, with a couple of differences.
The ball controls translation and rotation in 6
degrees in real time for both models, but the 3003
only has one button (whereas the 2003 has 8 plus a
pick button) that WorldUp supports. The button on
the right side of the 3003 acts as the pick button.
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button moves from up to down.
• SBALL_BTN1DOWN
• SBALL_BTN2DOWN
• SBALL_BTN3DOWN
• SBALL_BTN4DOWN
StereoGraphics CrystalEyes and
CrystalEyes VR LCD Shutter
Glasses
• SBALL_BTN7DOWN
The CrystalEyes VR object type represents a
StereoGraphics, Inc. CrystalEyes VR stereo display
and head tracker system that measures absolute
position and orientation.
• SBALL_BTN8DOWN
To configure the CrystalEyes VR
• SBALL_PICKDOWN
1 Setup the Emitter (EPC) unit. Attach it between
• SBALL_BTN5DOWN
• SBALL_BTN6DOWN
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the button is held down.
• SBALL_BTN1HELD
• SBALL_BTN2HELD
• SBALL_BTN3HELD
• SBALL_BTN4HELD
• SBALL_BTN5HELD
the video out connector on your video card and
your monitor using VGA cables.
2 If head tracking is required, connect the
CrystalEyesVR to the Logitech unit and plug the
serial cable from the Logitech unit into the serial
port of your computer.
3 The next step depends on whether you want to
configure the CrystalEyes VR for stereo or mono
operation.
• SBALL_BTN6HELD
• SBALL_BTN7HELD
• SBALL_BTN8HELD
• SBALL_PICKHELD
These can be used in scripts to access button press
events as shown in the example for Mouse defined
constants on page 157.
For stereo operation with an Intergraph GLZ
graphics accelerator board, do the following:
• In Control Panel, set your screen display to
stereo. This will reset your graphics card to
output 120 Hz. You can set the resolution to
whatever you desire, but be sure that your
monitor can handle the 120 Hz at that
resolution. To be safe, try it first at 640 x 480
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
(a 21" Intergraph can be set to 1024 x 768 @
120 Hz) and increase the resolution as your
monitor allows. Check with your monitor’s
specifications before you try. You will need to
reboot your computer if you are running
Windows NT 3.51. Windows NT 4.0 will reset
your resolution, but the Intergraph driver must
have a reboot to change to stereo mode.
For mono operation with non-GLZ graphics
accelerator boards (ie: Stealth, Millenia, Mach,
etc.), do the following:
• In Control Panel, set the display resolution to
640 x 480 @ 60 Hz. You will need to reboot if
you are running Windows NT 3.51. Windows
NT 4.0 will reset your resolution immediately
if your video board supports it.
4 The emitter unit should be switched into either
the high or low position (which controls signal
range - usually set it to high).
ThrustMaster Formula T2 Steering
Console
The FormulaT2 object type represents a
Thrustmaster Technologies, Inc. Formula T2, a
steering console that provides a natural driving
experience around your virtual world.
To configuring the Formula T2
To configure the Formula T2, you must make the
port driver available to your system, configure the
NT Registry, and then calibrate the Formula T2.
To make the port driver available to your system:
" Copy the FORMULA.SYS file (the actual port
driver for Windows NT) from the
\WORLDUP\DRIVERS directory to your
\WINNT35\SYSTEM32DRIVERS directory.
To configure the NT Registry:
Note If you have WorldToolKit on your computer,
in "Windows, Viewports, and Viewpoints" on
page 95).
you can skip this section since the WTK installation
does this automatically. Otherwise follow the
instructions below.
Note Be sure to assign the correct Viewpoint
1 Double-click the file
5 In WorldUp, create a new Window (as described
object to the window.
6 Set the Width and Height properties for the
Window object as appropriate (usually the same
resolution as the screen.)
7 Set the Stereo property to True.
8 Set the Interleaved property as appropriate:
• True – for GLZ boards.
• False – for non-GLZ boards.
9 For stereo operaton, run the simulation and
adjust the Parallax property of the Viewpoint
object that is being used by the window to
achieve maximum stereo effect (a parallax of 0.7
often works well).
\WINNT35\SYSTEM32\REGEDT32.EXE.
Note Do not use \WINNT35\REGEDIT.EXE for
this configuration.
2 Click the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE on Local
Machine registry window.
3 Navigate through the Registry hierarchy to the
Services key: SYSTEM > CurrentControlSet >
Services.
4 Click the Services key, then on the Edit menu,
click Add Key.
5 In the Add Key dialog box, type Formula in the
Key Name box and press ENTER.
6 Under Services, click the new Formula key.
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
7 On the Edit menu, select Add Value.
8 In the Add Value dialog box, type Type in the
Value Name box and set the Data Type to
REG_DWORD. Press ENTER.
9 In the DWORD Editor dialog box, type 1 in the
Data box and press ENTER.
Note The Registry will show this value as 0x1.
This is normal.
10 Continue using the Add Value command on the
Edit menu to add the following values to the
Formula key:
Value Name
Settings
Start
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 2
Group
Data Type: REG_SZ
String: Extended Base
ErrorControl
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 1
(no spaces)
15 Windows NT Registry input is now complete.
On the Registry menu, click Exit to end the
session.
To calibrate the Formula T2
At initialization, WorldUp searches the current
directory for the formula calibration file named
FORMULA.CAL. You can copy the default
calibration file from the
\WORLDUP\DRIVERS\directory to the correct
directory, or you can create a new calibration file.
To do this:
• Run T2CAL.EXE from the
\WORLDUP\DRIVERS directory, which will
generate the calibration file – FORMULA.CAL.
This should be put in the same directory as the
WorldUp executable. The following text reflects
both the sample calibration file that ships with
WorldUp (located in the \WORLDUP\DRIVERS
directory) and the default values used by
WorldUp:
11 24 4 20 21 4
11 On the Edit menu, select Add Key.
12 In the Add Key dialog box, type Parameters in
the Key Name box and press ENTER.
The six entries specify integer values for wheel
center, wheel range, wheel drift, pedal center,
pedal range, and pedal drift. If the calibration file
is not found, the default values are used.
13 Under Formula, click the new Parameters key.
Defined Constants
14 On the Edit menu, click Add Value and add the
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the two buttons move from up to
down.
following values to the Parameters key:
Value Name
Settings
• FORMULA_BUTTON1
IoPortAddress
(no spaces)
IoPortCount
(no spaces)
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 201
Data Type: REG_DWORD
Data: 1
• FORMULA_BUTTON2
The following constants define the event generated
each frame that the shift knob is moved up or down.
• FORMULA_SHIFTUP
• FORMULA_SHIFTDN
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
These can be used in scripts to access sensor data as
shown in the example for Mouse defined constants
on page 157.
ThrustMaster Serial Joystick
Note Since the joystick is calibrated upon
creation of the Serial Joystick object, the object
that you created in Step 1was actually calibrated
using the values of the last calibration file
created, or the WorldUp default values. You must
create a new Serial Joystick object to use the new
calibration file.
The Serial Joystick object type represents a
Thrustmaster Technologies, Inc. Serial Joystick
(Mark II Flight Control/Weapons Control system)
that measures relative position and orientation.
4 In the Type pane, click the Serial Joystick object
Configuring the Serial Joystick
5 Create a new Serial Joystick object as described
At initialization WorldUp searches the current
directory for the joystick calibration file named
JOYSTICK.CAL. The following text reflects both
the sample calibration file that ships with WorldUp
(located in the \WORLDUP\DRIVERS directory)
and the default values used by WorldUp:
0.0 255.0 0.0 255.0 128.0 128.0
The six entries specify floating point values for
minimum X, maximum X, minimum Y, maximum
Y, center X and center Y, respectively. If the
calibration file is not found, the default values are
used. You can copy the default calibration file from
the \WORLDUP\DRIVERS directory to the correct
directory, however it is better to create a new
calibration file since the calibration values might
differ for individual joysticks.
To calibrate the joystick
1 Create the Serial Joystick object as described in
"Creating Sensor Objects" on page 155.
2 With the Serial Joystick object selected, on the
that you created in Step 1 and click the Delete
Selected
button.
on "Creating an Object" on page 87.
This object is calibrated using the new
calibration file.
Note You can continue to use this same calibration
file for any sensor object corresponding to the same
joystick device. You only need to recreate the
calibration file if you are creating a sensor object
corresponding to a different joystick device.
Defined Constants
The ThrustMaster Mark II Flight Control System
supports three momentary buttons in addition to the
trigger and a hat switch. The Mark II Weapons
Control System adds an additional six momentary
switches as well as a three-position rocker switch.
• SERJOY_TRIGGERDOWN
• SERJOY_TOPDOWN
• SERJOY_SIDEDOWN
• SERJOY_BOTTOMDOWN
Object menu click Calibrate Joystick (you must
have rendering on to do this).
• SERJOY_HATRIGHT
The Calibrate Serial Joystick dialog box
displays.
• SERJOY_HATDOWN
3 Follow the instructions provided.
• SERJOY_HATLEFT
• SERJOY_HATUP
• SERJOY_WCS1
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Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
• SERJOY_WCS2
• SERJOY_WCS3
• SERJOY_WCS4
• SERJOY_WCS5
• SERJOY_WCS6
• SERJOY_WCS7
• SERJOY_WCSUP
• SERJOY_WCSDOWN
These can be used in scripts to access sensor data as
shown in the example for Mouse defined constants
on page 157.
• In Control Panel, set the Intergraph driver for
640 x 480 @ 60Hz and true color (if your
computer supports it). You will need to reboot
if you are running Windows NT 3.51. Adjust
the CyberMaxx2 video switch (on the right
front side of the unit) to F1 for best results.
4 For mono operation with non-GLZ graphics
accelerator boards (ie: Stealth, Millenia, Mach,
etc.), do the following:
• In Control Panel, set the display resolution to
640 x 480 @ 60 Hz and true color. (Reboot if
you are running Windows NT 3.51).
5 In WorldUp, create a new Window (as described
in "Creating a Window" on page 97).
VictorMAxx Technologies’
CyberMAxx2 HMD
The CyberMaxx2 object type represents a
VictorMaxx Technologies’ CyberMaxx2 HMD, a
head tracker that measures absolute orientation
using inertial and compass technologies. This
tracker provides 360 degrees of yaw rotation, and
about +/- 60 degrees of pitch and roll rotation.
To configure the CyberMaxx2
1 Run the VGA signal through the daisy chain
cable supplied with the CyberMaxx2.
2 Plug in the serial cable from the CyberMaxx2
into the serial port of your computer, if head
tracking is desired.
The next step depends on whether you want to
configure the CyberMaxx2 for stereo or mono
operation.
3 For stereo operation with an Intergraph GLZ
graphics accelerator board, do the following:
Note Be sure to assign the correct Viewpoint
object to the window.
6 Set the Width and Height properties for the
Window object as appropriate (usually the same
resolution as the screen, for example 640 x 480).
7 Set the Stereo property as appropriate:
• True – for stereo operation on GLZ boards.
• False – for mono operation on non-GLZ
boards.
Note Stereo mode on non-GLZ boards is used for
the CrystalEyesVR, and not the CyberMaxx2.
8 For stereo operaton, run the simulation and
adjust the Parallax property of the Viewpoint
object that is being used by the window to
achieve maximum stereo effect (a parallax of 0.5
often works well).
Virtual i-O i-glasses!
The IGlasses object type represents a Virtual i-O
Corporation i-glasses!, a monoscopic and stereo
head tracker that measures absolute orientation
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Working With the State of a Sensor
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
using inertial and compass technologies. This
tracker provides 360 degrees of yaw rotation, and
about +/- 60 degrees of pitch and roll rotation.
• True – for stereo operation on GLZ boards.
To configure i-Glasses!
Note Stereo mode on non-GLZ boards is used for
the CrystalEyesVR, and not the i-Glasses!.
1 Attach the VGA breakout box between the video
out connector on your video card and your
monitor using VGA cables.
2 Plug in the serial cable from the breakout box
into the serial port of your computer if head
tracking is desired.
The next step depends on whether you want to
configure the i-Glasses! for stereo or mono
operation.
3 For stereo operation with an Intergraph GLZ
graphics accelerator board, do the following:
• In the Control Panel, set the Intergraph driver
for 640 x 480 @ 60 Hz and true color (if your
computer supports it). You will need to reboot
if you are running Windows NT 3.51. Adjust
the Virtual I/O switch (on the right front side
of the IGlasses) to 3D2.
4 For mono operation with non-GLZ graphics
accelerator boards (ie: Stealth, Millenia, Mach,
etc.), do the following:
• In the Control Panel, set the Intergraph driver
for 640 x 480 @ 60 Hz and true color. (Reboot
if you are running Windows NT 3.51).
5 In WorldUp, create a new Window (as described
in "Creating a Window" on page 97).
Note Be sure to assign the correct Viewpoint
object to the window.
6 Set the Width and Height properties for the
Window object as appropriate (usually the same
resolution as the screen, for example 640 x 480).
7 Set the Stereo property as appropriate:
• False – for mono operation on non-GLZ
boards.
8 For stereo operaton, run the simulation and
adjust the Parallax property of the Viewpoint
object that is being used by the window to
achieve maximum stereo effect (a parallax of 0.5
often works well).
Note To get stereo with the Virtual I/O i-Glasses!,
you need a hardware accelerator that can do lineinterleaved stereo full screen (that is, not in a
window) over a single channel at 640 x 480 @
60 Hz. Currently, the Intergraph GLZ boardset
drivers do this. Most PC video cards are not capable
of outputting line-interleaved stereo. Hence, the
Virtual I/O i-Glasses! will be in monoscopic mode
under most circumstances.
Working With the State of a
Sensor
This section describes the common Sensor
properties that define a sensor’s state. These
properties allow you to access or modify (writable
properties only) the current state of a sensor. A
sample of how to work with these properties from
scripts is provided at the end of this section.
Note For information on properties that are specific
to a particular sensor, search on the name of the
object type from which you created the sensor in the
online Help.
Working With the State of a Sensor
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
Sensor Properties
Not all Sensor properties are applicable to all
sensors. For example, you cannot set the rotational
speed of absolute position and orientation sensors,
such as the FASTRAK or Bird. Thus, these sensors
do not have the Angular Rate property.
Sensor
FormulaT2
Angular Rate
(page 170)
X
Misc Data
(page 170)
X
The following table lists the Sensor properties
applicable to each sensor. A detailed description of
each property follows the table.
Rotation
(page 170)
Sensitivity
(page 170)
Translation
(page 170)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bird
X
X
X
CrystalEyesVR
X
X
X
CyberMaxx2
X
CyberTrack
X
Fastrak
X
X
X
InsideTrak
Mouse
X
Ascension Mouse
Glove5DT
Gameport Joystick
Pitch/Roll
X
X
X
X
IGlasses
X
Isotrak
X
X
X
IsotrakII
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Logitech 3D Mouse
X
Logitech Tracker
Magellan
X
X
X
X
X
Serial Joystick
X
X
X
X
X
Spaceball
X
X
X
X
X
169
170
Working With the State of a Sensor
Angular Rate
This property is used to get or set the scale factor for
a sensor’s rotation records. The angular rate is the
maximum rotation (in radians) around any axis that
a sensor returns in any pass through the simulation
loop. For example, suppose you have a Spaceball
attached to a viewpoint. The Spaceball’s angular
rate determines the maximum rotation around any
axis that your viewpoint rotates when you apply
torque on the ball.
Not all sensors supported in WorldUp have their
rotational records scaled in this manner. You cannot
set the rotational speed of absolute position and
orientation sensors, such as the FASTRAK or Bird.
The default angular rate for all sensors is 0.087266
radians, or 5 degrees. It may be convenient to
specify the angular rate in terms of the defined
constant PI (for example, 45 degrees = PI/4).
Misc Data
This property is used to get an integer value in which
miscellaneous data pertaining to the sensor, like
button press events, are stored. This value, together
with the defined constants, can be used in scripts to
access sensor data (see the example for Mouse
defined constants on page 157).
Rotation
This property is used to get the rotational value of
the current rotation record. The rotational value is
the combined effect of the Pitch (x-rotation), Roll (zrotation), and Yaw (y-rotation). The rotation record
is affected by the sensor’s angular rate value (see
Angular Rate above).
Sensitivity
This property is used to get or set the scale factor for
a sensor’s translation records. The sensitivity is the
maximum magnitude of the translational input from
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
the sensor along each axis (in the same distance
units as the 3D geometry making up the virtual
world) in any pass through the simulation loop. For
example, suppose you have a Spaceball attached to
a viewpoint. The Spaceball’s sensitivity determines
the maximum distance along each axis that your
viewpoint moves when you push on the ball.
Not all sensors supported in WorldUp have their
translational records scaled in this way. Thus, you
cannot set the translational speed of some sensors,
such as the CyberMaxx2 or IGlasses. Some of the
sensors that are scaled in this way are the Spaceball,
Magellan, and the Mouse. The default sensitivity
value for all sensors is 1.0. Attempts to set a sensor’s
sensitivity to a negative value are rejected, with no
change to the current sensitivity. See the example at
the end of this section.
Translation
This property is used to get the translational value of
the current translation record. The translation record
is affected by the sensor’s sensitivity value (see
"Sensitivity").
Sample Script
The following example lets you access and change
some of the properties affecting the state of the
Spaceball sensor.
Note Some of the properties previously described
are read-only. You can retrieve the values of readonly properties, but you cannot modify them.
Sub Task ( s as Spaceball )
Dim key as String
key = GetKey()
If key <> "" Then
Select Case key
Case "up"
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
s.AngularRate =
s.AngularRate*1.1
Case "down"
s.AngularRate =
s.AngularRate*0.9
Case "right"
s.Sensitivity =
s.Sensitivity*1.1
Case "left"
s.Sensitivity =
s.Sensitivity*0.9
Case "t"
Dim trans as Vect3d
s.GetTranslation trans
Message "Current Translation"
Vect3dPrint trans
Case "r"
Dim rot as Orientation
s.GetRotation rot
Message "Current Rotation"
OriPrint rot
End Select
End If
End Sub
Working With the State of a Sensor
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Working With the State of a Sensor
Chapter 17 Using Input Devices
173
18
Multi-User
Simulations
The high-level networking functionality provided in
WorldUp Release 5, provides you with the ability to
easily develop multi-user 3D/VR networked
applications for use over LANs or the Internet. The
high level networking capabilities are designed to
operate in conjunction with SENSE8’s World2World
server product.
If you have not purchased the World2World server
product, you will not be able to take advantage of the
high level networking capabilities described in this
chapter to build multi-user simulations. See below
for a brief description of World2World or contact
SENSE8 for detailed information about the
World2World product.
To allow multiple users to run and participate in the
same simulation, each user (client) needs to be able
to receive certain updates (changes in property
values) made by the other participants. For example,
suppose there is a graphical object in your
simulation that you want each user to be able to
manipulate. If one user drags the object to a new
location, you will want the other users to also see
that movement.
To achieve this, the affected property must be shared
by both the client that is modifying the value and the
clients that want to receive the new value. Each
174
Network Connections
change made to the value of a property is known as
an event. When a property is shared, the events that
are internally generated for each property value
change are what allow the updated information to be
automatically sent over the network to any other
clients that have also shared that property. If desired,
you can trigger reactions to occur in response to an
event.
The mechanism by which property value changes
are transmitted to all clients who are sharing the
property is the World2World server product. The
World2World server product consists of a Server
Manager, Simulation Servers, and an optional
Firewall Proxy. A multi-user client application
connects to the Server Manager, which determines
whether the client has the appropriate log-in
authority and directs the client to the appropriate
Simulation Server, based on the simulation that the
client is running. The Simulation Server stores and
organizes simulation data and distributes data
updates as appropriate to other users of the multiuser application connected to the same Simulation
Server.
In WorldUp, you specify how the simulation is to
connect to the World2World servers, which object
properties are to be shared, and how that shared data
will be stored and organized on a World2World
Simulation Server. By limiting network data
transfer to only properties that have been shared,
WorldUp and World2World help to reduce
bandwidth usage.
WorldUp simulations can connect to multiple
World2World Simulation Servers. Each connection
made by WorldUp to a World2World Simulation
Server is represented by a W2WConnection object.
Each W2WConnection object is associated with one
or more W2WSharedGroup objects, which are used
to group together a set of shared properties. By
default, when you create a W2WConnection object,
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
a W2WSharedGroup object is automatically created
(called <connection name>Root), and is
associated with the connection. You can create
additional sharegroups in a hierarchical
arrangement under the default Root sharegroup.
Note For more information on the server-side
components of World2World, including how to
install, configure, and start the World2World
servers, see the World2World User’s Guide. This
chapter discusses the client-side aspects of
developing a multi-user World2World-compliant
simulation.
Network Connections
When a client starts a World2World-compliant
simulation, the simulation will connect to a server
where the application’s data is to be shared. This
process begins with a login call to a World2World
Server Manager at a specified port, which
determines what simulation this client will be
entering. The Server Manager then proceeds to
direct the client to the Simulation Server that has
been designated to host that particular simulation.
Once connected to the Simulation Server, the client
can begin creating sharegroups (see "Sharegroups"
on page 184) and sharing properties (see "Shared
Properties" on page 179).
To better understand how this process works, see the
example provided in the World2World User’s
Guide, Chapter 4, “Starting and Ending
World2World.” As the developer of the simulation,
you only need to worry about the host name of the
machine on which the Server Manager is located
and determining a unique, unused port on that
machine that you can associate with your
simulation. The system administrator will take care
of configuring the World2World servers to ensure
that the clients of your simulation are connected to
the appropriate Simulation Server.
Network Connections
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
In WorldUp, connections are represented by the
W2WConnection object type, located under
W2WNetwork. Each W2WConnection object
represents a unique connection to a specific port on
the Server Manager.
which users are connected to the same host name
and port, specified by the W2WConnection object).
You can also view this list in the Network
Connection dialog box (see page 177).
As you develop your multi-user simulation you must
enable networking for WorldUp before connections
can be activated. Once networking is enabled, any
W2WConnection objects whose Connect property
is set to True will attempt to connect to their
specified machines and ports.
object type. This type exists only to contain the
objects that are automatically created upon
receiving notification from the Simulation Server
that a new user has been added to the simulation.
If you are running the multi-user simulation from a
WorldUp Player, networking is always enabled, and
any W2WConnection objects whose Connect
property is set to True will immediately attempt to
connect to their specified machines and ports.
Connected Users
Once a client has connected to a Simulation Server,
it will be assigned a user name and Id. If the
UserName property for the W2WConnection object
is blank, the computer’s system-defined name will
be used.
If system-defined names are undesirable, you can
assign alternative names through the UserName
property. Typically, you will set the UserName
property through scripts. For example, you could
start the simulation with the connection disabled
(Enabled property is False), and prompt the user to
type their name. You could then set the UserName
property equal to the value entered by the user, and
then enable the connection.
When a connection is active (see page 177), a
W2WUser object is created for each user that is
currently connected to any of the simulation’s active
connections. The Users property on a
W2WConnection object lists which of those users
are connected to that specific connection (that is,
Note You cannot create objects from the W2WUser
Update Rates
Connections have an update rate, which determines
the maximum updates per second for the
connection. This is the maximum number of times
per second that the client will send data packets to
the Simulation Server and the maximum number of
times per second that the Simulation Server will
send packets to the client. The lower the update rate,
the lower the packet traffic over the network.
For example, suppose that changes to a particular
property in the simulation are being queued every
half second and the connection’s update rate is once
per second. Since the property changes are being
queued more frequently than the connection sends
them to the Simulation Server, the connection can
compare the updates waiting in the queue and only
forward the most recent update for each shared
property.
Note See "Update Frequencies" on page 179 for
information on how to set the update frequency for
each shared property. It is important to consider
these settings when choosing your connection’s
update rate.
For modems, or other low-bandwidth mediums, the
connection’s update rate should be as low as
possible. The default behavior is for the connection
to match the client frame-rate (the UpdateRate
property is set to 0).
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176
Network Connections
Reducing the connection’s update rate may require
you to use dead-reckoning techniques to smooth the
data updates on receiving clients. An example of
dead reckoning is provided in the
Samples\Network\Van_go (intermediate) directory
which is in the directory where you installed
WorldUp.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
To create a new connection
1 On the Type Workview, select W2WConnection
object located under W2WNetwork.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The Network Connection dialog box displays
where you can set the connection’s parameters
and view statistics about the connection.
User Added and User Removed
Events
Any time a user connects to or disconnects from a
connection, the Simulation Server is responsible for
sending notification of this change to any other
client that is connected to that connection.
When a client is notified of the addition of a user, a
corresponding W2WUser object is created on the
client’s machine which generates a User Added
event. If a response has been specified for that event,
it will be triggered. For example, you might want to
execute a script that creates a graphical object
representing the new user.
Likewise, when a client is notified of the removal of
a user, the corresponding W2WUser object is
deleted from the client’s machine, which generates a
User Removed event. If a response has been
specified for that event, it will be triggered.
For more information on events, see the WorldUp
Programmer’s Guide.
Working With Connections
You can add, edit, and delete connections from the
Type Workview or from the Network Browser.
Once you have created a W2WConnection object
and supplied the necessary parameters, you can
activate the connection, which connects it to the
World2World servers.
3 Set the desired parameters for the connection as
described in "Network Connection Dialog Box"
on page 177 and click OK.
Note If you are not sure how you want to set these
parameters at this time, specify a name for the
connection and set the remaining parameters
later. While you will not be able to connect to the
World2World servers without a specified host
and port, having a W2WConnection object will
allow you to begin creating sharegroups and
sharing properties under that connection.
The new connection is added to the Network
Browser, along with a default root sharegroup.
Corresponding W2WConnection and
W2WSharedGroup objects are also added to the
Type Workview.
For more information on sharegroups, see
"Sharegroups" on page 184.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Network Connections
To edit or view statistics about a connection
Network Connection Dialog Box
" Select Network Browser from the Networking
As previously described, the Network Connection
dialog box allows you to set a connection’s
parameters and view statistics about the connection.
All of the information contained in the Network
Connection dialog box is also reflected in the
various properties of the W2WConnection object
type.
menu.
The Network Connection dialog box displays
from which you can modify any of the
connection’s parameters, and view the
connection’s statistics. Each component of the
Network Connection dialog box is described in
detail in the table on page 178.
To delete a connection
1 In the Type Workview, click the desired
W2WConnection object located under
W2WNetwork.
2 Click the Delete Selected
button.
To activate a connection
1 Start the Server Manager and Simulation Server
as described in the World2World User’s Guide.
2 Select the W2WConnection object in the Type
Workview and set its Enabled property to True to
ensure that the connection you want to activate is
enabled.
3 In WorldUp, turn on networking mode in one of
the following ways:
• On the Networking menu, select Enable
Networking.
• In the Network Browser, check the option
called Networking Enabled.
WorldUp attempts to connect all enabled
connections in the simulation to the World2World
servers.
To access the Network Connection dialog box,
follow the steps for creating or editing connections
in "Working With Connections" on page 176).
The following table describes each component of
the Network Connection dialog box.
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Network Connections
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Network Connection Dialog Box Components
Dialog Component
Description
Name
The name of the connection.
Host
Host name or IP address of the machine to which you want to connect. This is the machine that
you or your system administrator has designated as the host for the Server Manager.
Port
The number of the specific port on the host machine to which you want to connect. This is the port
number that you or your system administrator has associated with this particular simulation.
Note: When choosing a port number, keep in mind that ports 0 to 1024 are generally used by your
operating system. You will probably want to specify a number between 1025 and 32,000. Check
with your system administrator to determine whether certain ports are available.
Enable Connection
Indicates whether WorldUp will attempt to make a connection when Networking mode is enabled.
The steps on activating a connection (page 177) describe how to enable Networking mode.
Match Local
Frame Rate
Sets the connection’s update frequency to the local machine’s frame rate. See page 175 to
understand update rates for connections.
Updates Per Sec
Allows you to specify the frequency (in seconds) for data value updates to be sent over the
connection. See page 175 to understand update rates for connections.
User Added Event
Clicking the User Added Event button displays the Event Settings dialog box from which you can
specify a response to occur each time a user is added to the connection. If you run a script as a
response, WorldUp automatically inserts code after the entry point which determines whether the
added user is the local user, as you will likely want to make use of this information. For information
on how to specify event responses, see the WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
User Removed
Event
Clicking the User Removed Event button displays the Event Settings dialog box from which you
can specify a response to occur each time a user is removed from the connection. If you run a
script as a response, WorldUp automatically inserts code after the entry point which determines
whether the removed user is the local user, as you will likely want to make use of this information.
For information on how to specify event responses, see the WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
Users Connected
When the connection has a status of Connected, this box lists all users who are also currently
connected to that connection.
Local User
Displays the local client’s name for this connection.
Share Group Root
The name of the root sharegroup for the connection.
Latency
Amount of time it takes for packets to be transmitted to or from a World2World Simulation Server.
Clock Difference
The time, in seconds, that the local and World2World Simulation Server clocks differ.
Status
The current status for the connection. See page 189 for a list of possible status messages and
their meanings.
Shared Properties
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Shared Properties
As described in the introduction, when a client
shares a property, the events that are internally
generated each time that a client makes changes to
the property’s value cause those updates to be sent
to the World2World Simulation Server. Once the
update has been made on the Simulation Server, the
Simulation Server sends the property update to all
the other clients who are also sharing that property.
For more information about sharegroups, see
"Sharegroups" on page 184.
Properties are shared under specific sharegroups.
Each Simulation Server can have a hierarchical
arrangement of sharegroups that are used to
organize the properties stored on a Simulation
Server. A single property can be shared under
multiple sharegroups, though each Simulation
Server will only retain a single copy of the shared
property value.
When you share a property, internally a
W2WSharedProperty object is created. The
W2WSharedProperty object type is a hidden object
type. That is, neither the type nor its objects appear
in the Type Workview. However, through scripts,
you can access and modify W2WSharedProperty
objects just like any other object.
Locked Properties
Shared properties can be locked by a client, causing
the Simulation Server to prohibit any other user
from removing the property from its sharegroup or
from modifying the property’s value until the client
(which holds the lock) releases the lock.
Only one client can have a lock on a particular
property at any given time. However, any number of
users can have active requests for a lock at the same
time. When the client that currently owns the lock
releases the lock, the lock will be passed on to one
of the clients in the request queue.
Be aware that properties are also affected by locks
on sharegroups in that a sharegroup lock trickles
down to the sharegroup’s properties (as well as its
child sharegroups and their properties). See "Locked
Sharegroups" on page 185 for information on locked
sharegroups.
Persistent Properties
Shared properties can be flagged as being persistent.
By making a shared property persistent, you ensure
that the property will not be removed from the
Simulation Server even if all of the clients who are
sharing the property have disconnected from the
Simulation Server. If a property is not persistent, the
property will be automatically removed from the
Simulation Server when there are no remaining
clients who are sharing that property.
Note that a shared property will be persistent if at
least one client who has asked to share the property
has specified that the property is to be persistent.
Update Frequencies
Shared properties have an update frequency,
specified in seconds, which determines how often
property value updates are queued up to be sent over
the network. It is the connection’s update rate (see
"Update Rates" on page 175) that controls how often
the queued updates are actually sent across the
network.
For details about this command, search on
SendUpdate in the online Help.
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Shared Properties
The default for shared properties is to queue updates
each time the property value changes. You can
override this default and set the update frequency to
queue updates at a set time interval, specified in
seconds. For example, a value of 2 would send an
update every two seconds. You can also set the
update frequency to send no automatic updates. In
this case, you would have to use scripts to call the
SendUpdate command to manually update the
property at the appropriate times.
Note that it is pointless (and inefficient) to queue
property updates faster than they are actually being
sent across the network. In fact, if you want to
reduce network traffic, and you have shared
properties whose update frequency is not critical to
your simulation, you can queue property updates
less often than they are being sent across the
network, so that property updates aren’t made more
often than is really necessary. Take these factors into
consideration when setting your properties’ update
frequencies and your connections’ update rates.
Be aware that reducing the number of times that an
update is sent across the network may require you to
employ dead reckoning techniques to smooth the
data updates on receiving clients. An example of
dead reckoning is provided in the
Samples\Network\Van_go (intermediate) directory
of the directory in which you installed WorldUp.
Working With Shared Properties
Before you can share a property, you must have at
least one W2WConnection object in your universe.
See page 176 for instructions. Note that you can
share properties on objects only, not object types.
To share a property
1 Select Toggle Event Icons from the Networking
menu to see the event icons in the Property pane.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
These icons give you instant feedback on which
properties are shareable, as well as which are
currently being shared.
2 In the Connection pull-down box, select the
connection for which you want to share a
property.
The Network Browser contains a data tree
representing the connection’s sharegroup
hierarchy and the location of each existing
shared property. The data tree also includes an
insertion indicator, indicating which sharegroup
will be used to contain new shared properties.
Insertion Indicator
In the example above, any new shared properties
would be contained directly within the
ConnectionRoot sharegroup. You can position
the insertion indicator under any sharegroup.
3 Click the insertion indicator and drag it under the
sharegroup that you want to contain the property
you are about to share.
4 In the Type Workview or Scene Graph pane,
select the object that contains the property you
want to share.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Note You cannot share properties on object
types. Be sure to select a specific object.
5 In the Property pane, right-click on the property
Shared Properties
The Shared Property dialog box displays where
you can set the shared property’s parameters and
view statistics about the shared property.
you want to share.
If the property is sharable, you can select the
Event Settings option.
The Event Settings dialog box displays.
Notice that the Connection and Sharegroup
values are set to the connection and sharegroup
that you specified in the Network Browser.
7 Set the desired parameters for the shared
If the Event icon is grey, no events are generated
for this property and you cannot access the Event
Settings dialog box. For more information on
events, see the WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
property as described on "The Shared Property
Dialog Box" on page 183 and click OK.
You can also right-mouse click on the
property in the Property pane and click Share
Property to bypass the Event Settings dialog box.
Note Internally, a W2WSharedProperty object is
6 Check the option at the top called Share Property
On Network.
If this option is not available, your project does
not contain a W2WConnection object. See page
176 for instructions on creating one.
The shared property is added to the connection’s
data tree in the Network Browser.
created. W2WSharedProperty is a hidden object
type. These objects do not display in the Type
Workview, but you can manipulate them via scripts
using WorldUp’s functions and commands.
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Shared Properties
To edit a shared property
1 Open the Shared Property dialog box for an
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Note You cannot move or copy a shared property to
another connection.
existing shared property by doing one of the
following:
To unshare a property from the Event Settings dialog
box
• On the Networking menu, select Network
Browser. Select the desired connection. In the
connection’s data tree, double-click the shared
property you want to edit.
1 In the Type Workview or Scene Workview, select
• In the Type Workview or Scene Workview,
select the object that contains the shared
property you want to edit. In the Property
pane, right-click the desired shared property.
(The Event icon for a shared property has a
lightning bolt over it.) In the Event Settings
dialog box, click the check box next to the
Share Property On Network option.
you want to unshare and select Event Settings.
(The Event icon for a shared property has a
lightning bolt over it.)
The Shared Property dialog box displays from
which you can edit the shared property’s
parameters and view statistics about the shared
property.
2 Set the desired parameters for the shared
property as described on page 183 and click OK.
the object that contains the shared property you
want to edit.
2 In the Property pane, right-click on the property
3 In the Event Settings dialog box, uncheck the
Share Property On Network option.
You can also right-click on the property in the
Property pane and select Unshare Property to
bypass the Event Settings dialog box.
The property becomes unshared and all instances
of that property are removed from the
connection’s data tree in the Network Browser.
To remove or unshare a property from the Network
Browser
To move or copy a shared property to another
sharegroup
1 On the Networking menu, select Network
1 On the Networking menu, select Network
2 In the Network Browser, select the connection
Browser.
2 Select the desired connection.
3 To move a shared property, in the connection’s
data tree, click the property and drag it onto the
desired sharegroup.
4 To copy a shared property, press and hold the
CTRL key while you drag the shared property
onto the desired sharegroup.
The property is now shared under both
sharegroups.
Browser.
that contains the property you want to unshare.
3 In the connection’s data tree, click the property
and click Delete.
If the property you deleted was the only instance
of that property in the connection’s data tree, the
property becomes unshared. If there are other
instances, you must delete them all in order to
unshare the property.
Shared Properties
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
The Shared Property Dialog Box
As previously described, the Shared Property dialog
box allows you to set a shared property’s parameters
and view statistics about the shared property.
Although W2WSharedProperty is a hidden object
type, you can still access its properties through
scripts. Search on W2WSharedProperty Type in the
online Help.
To access the Shared Property dialog box, follow the
steps for sharing properties (see page 180) or editing
shared properties (see page 182).
The following table describes each component of
the Shared Property dialog box.
Dialog Component
Description
Object
The name of the object that contains the selected property.
Property
The name of the selected property.
Connection
The name of the connection for which this property will be shared. The connection that is
indicated is the connection that was last selected in the Network Browser. So, if your
universe contains multiple connections, ensure that the appropriate connection has focus in
the Network Browser before sharing properties.
Note: You cannot change this setting. To share a property under another connection, you
must unshare the property, select the appropriate connection in the Network Browser, then
share the property again. Also, you cannot share properties under multiple connections.
Share Group(s)
Lists the sharegroups under which the property is and/or will be shared. For information on
how to share a property under multiple sharegroups, see page 182. The sharegroup under
which the new share will be made is determined by the location of the insertion indicator in
the Network Browser. See page 180 for details.
Update Frequency – The options in this section of the dialog box determine the frequency at which property change
updates will be queued to be sent over the network. For more information on update frequencies for shared properties,
see page 179.
Update Whenever
Changed
Indicates that a property change update will be queued every time the property is changed.
Updates Every
Indicates that a property change update will be queued at the indicated time interval,
specified in seconds. For example, a value of 2 would send an update every two seconds.
No Automatic Updates
Indicates that property change updates will not be queued for the property and must
therefore be sent manually with calls to SendUpdate. (Search on “SendUpdate” in the
online help for information on this WorldUp function.)
Settings – The options in this section of the dialog box allow you to specify how the shared property will be treated.
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Sharegroups
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Dialog Component
Description
Request Lock
Requests a property lock for the local client so that other clients cannot modify this property.
If the property has already been locked by another client, the name of the user who
currently has the lock displays in the Locked By box. When that user releases the lock, the
lock will be given to one of the clients in the request queue.
For more information on shared property locks, see page 179.
Persistent
Flags the property as being persistent, ensuring that the property will not be removed from
the Simulation Server. For more information on persistent properties, see page 179.
Status
The current status for the shared property. See page 189 for a list of possible status
messages and their meanings.
Sharegroups
Sharegroups are container objects that are used to
group one or more shared properties together on a
World2World Simulation Server. Sharegroups can
also contain child sharegroups. That is, they can
have a parent/child relationship with other
sharegroups so that a hierarchical arrangement of
sharegroups can be created on a Simulation Server.
Each connection has, by default, a root sharegroup.
All other sharegroups created on that connection
will be direct descendants (children) or indirect
descendants of the root sharegroup. Sharegroups
that are siblings (that is, they are children of a
common parent sharegroup) must be uniquely
named.
In the sample sharegroup data tree below, the Root,
House1, and House2 sharegroups are placeholders.
They contain no properties and exist only to add
structure to the data tree.
Root
House1
Kitchen
Bedroom
House2
Master Bedroom
Master Bath
Sample Sharegroup Data Tree
Bedroom
Outside
Sharegroups
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Locked Sharegroups
Sharegroups can be locked by a client, causing the
Simulation Server to prohibit all other users from
adding, moving, or removing properties or child
sharegroups within the locked sharegroup’s subtree,
or from modifying the values of any properties
contained within the locked sharegroup’s subtree
until the lock is released. That is, the lock on a
sharegroup is recursive, affecting not only the
properties located directly within the sharegroup,
but also any of its child sharegroups and their
properties. Locks are granted on a first-come, firstserved basis.
In the preceding example, if a client placed a lock on
the House1 sharegroup, its Kitchen and Bedroom
child sharegroups, and all the properties contained
within them would also be locked.
Registered Interest
While the Simulation Server keeps track of the data
tree for all sharegroups and their properties, clients
will only stay up-to-date with the sub-trees of
sharegroups in which they have registered interest.
Any time a property or sharegroup is added or
removed from a sharegroup in the connection’s data
tree, the Simulation Server is responsible for
sending notification of these changes to any client
that is interested in that sharegroup.
In the sample data tree on page 184, suppose a client
registers interest in only the MasterBedroom
sharegroup. Upon registering interest, the client will
immediately receive notification of the current
children (sub-sharegroups) and properties of
MasterBedroom.
Master Bedroom
Master Bath
Unlike locks, registered interest is not recursive. So,
the client does not receive notification of the
properties of MasterBath. To receive notification of
the properties of MasterBath, the client would have
to also register interest in MasterBath.
Master Bedroom
Master Bath
If any other client participating in the multi-user
simulation adds or removes any sharegroups or
properties to or from MasterBedroom or
MasterBath, this client will be notified of the change
so that it can stay up-to-date.
So, what happens when a client receives notification
of an added sharegroup or shared property?
When a client is notified of the addition of a
sharegroup, a corresponding W2WSharedGroup
object is created on the client’s machine, which
generates a GroupAdded event. If a response has
been specified for that event, it will be triggered.
For shared properties, it’s a little more complicated.
When a client is notified of the addition of a shared
property, a corresponding W2WSharedProperty
object is created (internally) on the client’s machine,
which generates a PropertyAdded event. If a
response has been specified for that event, it will be
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Sharegroups
triggered. What happens next depends on whether
the object and property being shared already exist in
the client’s simulation.
For example, if a client is notified that a property
called Rotation of an object called Door was shared,
and the Door object with a Rotation property already
exists in the client’s application, that property will
be automatically shared.
If the Door object does not exist (or does not contain
a Rotation property), and the PropertyAdded event
does not trigger the execution of a script that creates
the missing Door object and Rotation property, the
W2WSharedProperty object that was internally
created is deleted. If the PropertyAdded event does
trigger the execution of a script that creates the Door
object and Rotation property, the newly-created
property will be automatically shared.
Note that registering and unregistering interest does
not affect the distribution of shared property
updates. Suppose a client registers interest in the
MasterBedroom sharegroup, and (under the
MasterBedroom sharegroup) shares the Rotation
property of the Door object. If the client then
unregisters interest in MasterBedroom, the client
will still receive updates made to the Rotation
property of Door, but will not be notified if another
client removes or adds a property or sharegroup to
MasterBedroom.
Persistent Sharegroups
Sharegroups, like properties, can be flagged as being
persistent. By making a sharegroup persistent, you
can ensure that the sharegroup and its properties will
not be removed from the Simulation Server, even if
all of the clients who are interested in the sharegroup
or who are sharing one or more of the sharegroup’s
properties have disconnected from the Simulation
Server. Making a sharegroup persistent has the same
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
effect as making each of the sharegroup’s properties
persistent. Note, however, that making a sharegroup
persistent does not affect the actual Persistent setting
on each property.
A sharegroup will be persistent if at least one client
has specified that the sharegroup is to be persistent.
When a persistent property or persistent sharegroup
is hierarchically below a non-persistent sharegroup
in the Simulation Server’s data tree, the sharegroups
that are ancestors of the persistent property or
sharegroup are, for all intents and purposes, also
persistent. The sharegroups from the root
sharegroup down to the parent sharegroup of the
persistent property (or sharegroup) must be retained
on the Simulation Server to maintain the structural
integrity of the sharegroups and properties stored
within the Simulation Server.
Working With Sharegroups
To create a sharegroup from the Network Browser
1 On the Networking menu, select Network
Browser.
2 In the drop-down box at the top, select the
connection to which you want to add the
sharegroup.
In the middle of the Network Browser is a data
tree representing the connection’s sharegroup
hierarchy and the location of each existing
sharegroup and shared property. The data tree
also includes an insertion indicator, which
indicates under which sharegroup the new
sharegroup will be added.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Sharegroups
5 Set the desired parameters for the sharegroup as
described in "The Shared Group Dialog Box" on
page 188 and click OK.
Insertion Indicator
In the example above, any added sharegroups
would be contained directly within the
ConnectionRoot sharegroup. You can position
the insertion indicator under any sharegroup.
3 In the Network Browser, click the insertion
indicator and drag it under the sharegroup that
you want to contain your new sharegroups.
4 Click the Add Sharegroup button.
The Shared Group dialog box displays from
which you can set the sharegroup’s parameters
and view statistics about the sharegroup.
A W2WSharedGroup object is created and added to
the connection’s data tree under the sharegroup
where the insertion indicator was last positioned.
page 188 describes how you can reposition the
sharegroup in the data tree.
To create a sharegroup from the Type Workview
1 In the Type Workview, select W2WSharedGroup
object located under W2WNetwork.
2 Click the Instantiate Selected Type
button.
The Shared Group dialog box displays from
which you can set the sharegroup’s parameters
and view statistics about the sharegroup.
3 Set the desired parameters for the sharegroup as
described in "The Shared Group Dialog Box" on
page 188 and click OK.
A W2WSharedGroup object is created and added
to the connection’s data tree under the
sharegroup where the insertion indicator was last
positioned.
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Sharegroups
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
To edit a sharegroup
To delete a sharegroup
1 Do one of the following to access the Shared
" Do one of the following:
Group dialog box:
• In the Network Browser, select the connection
containing the sharegroup you want to edit,
and double-click the sharegroup in the
connection’s data tree.
• In the Type Workview, double-click the
desired W2WSharedGroup object.
The Shared Group dialog box displays from
which you can edit the sharegroup’s parameters
and view statistics about the sharegroup.
2 Set the desired parameters for the sharegroup as
described on page 188 and click OK.
To move a sharegroup
1 In the Network Browser, select the connection
containing the sharegroup you want to move.
2 Click the sharegroup and drag it onto the
sharegroup under which you want to position the
selected sharegroup.
• In the Network Browser, select the desired
connection from the drop-down box at the top.
In the connection’s data tree, click the
sharegroup you want to delete and click
Delete.
• In the Type Workview, select the desired
W2WSharedGroup object located under
W2WNetwork.
• Click the Delete Selected
button.
The Shared Group Dialog Box
As previously described, the Shared Group dialog
box allows you to set a sharegroup’s parameters and
view statistics about the sharegroup. All of the
information contained in the Shared Group dialog
box is also reflected in the various properties of the
W2WSharedGroup object type.
The following table describes each component of
the Shared Group dialog box.
Shared Group Dialog Box Components
Component
Description
Name
The name that you want to assign to the sharegroup.
Enabled
Indicates whether this sharegroup will be added to the data on the Simulation Server when the
connection is active.
Persistent
Flags the sharegroup as being persistent, ensuring that the sharegroup (and its ancestors) are not
removed from the Simulation Server. For more information on persistent properties, see page 179.
Request Lock
Requests a sharegroup lock for the local client so that other clients cannot add, move, or remove
properties or child sharegroup’s within the locked sharegroup’s subtree, or modify the values of any
properties contained within the locked sharegroup’s subtree. If the sharegroup has already been
locked by another client, the name of the user who currently has the lock displays in the Locked By
box. When that user releases the lock, the lock will be given to one of the clients in the request
queue. For more information on sharegroup locks, see page 185.
Status Messages
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
Component
Description
Interested In
Changes
Allows you to register interest in the sharegroup. See page 185 to understand the effect of
registering interest in sharegroups.
Property Added
Clicking the Property Added Event button displays the Event Settings dialog box from which you
can specify a response to occur each time a W2WSharedProperty object is added to the
sharegroup (see page 185 to better understand how this works).
If you run a script as a reponse, WorldUp automatically inserts code after the entry point which
determines whether the added property (and the object that contains the property) already exist in
the client’s application, as you will likely want to make use of this information.
For information on how to specify event responses, see the WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
Group Added
Clicking the Group Added Event button displays the Event Settings dialog box from which you can
specify a response to occur each time a W2WSharedGroup object is added to the sharegroup (see
page 185 to better understand how this works).
For information on how to specify event responses, see WorldUp Programmer’s Guide.
Status
The current status for the sharegroup. See below for a list of possible status messages and their
meanings.
Status Messages
Status messages are available for all connections,
sharegroups, and shared properties.
You can access status messages as follows:
• For connections – open the Network Connection
dialog box (see page 177), or from the Property
pane access the Status property value for the
desired W2WConnection object.
• For sharegroups – open the Shared Group dialog
box (see page 177), or from the Property pane
access the Status property value for the desired
W2WSharedGroup object.
• For shared properties – open the Shared Property
dialog box (see page 177), or through scripts
access the Status property value for the desired
W2WSharedProperty object.
(W2WSharedProperty is a hidden object type, so
you cannot access its properties from the
Property pane.)
The rest of this section explains the various status
messages that you may receive.
Not Connected
The object is not connected and is not trying to
connect to the World2World servers. This could
indicate one of the following:
• WorldUp is not in Networking mode (see page
177).
• For connections or sharegroups, the object’s
Enabled property is set to False.
• For sharegroups or shared properties, the
object is not connected to a valid networking
tree. In other words, the specified parent of the
sharegroup or shared property is not a valid
sharegroup for the connection.
• For sharegroups or shared properties, a parent
object failed to connect.
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Status Messages
Attempting To Connect
The object is trying to connect to the
World2World servers.
Connected
The object is successfully connected to and
communicating with the World2World servers.
Failed To Connect
The connection was attempted but was
unsuccessful.
Object Uncreated
The object has not yet been constructed, or is in
the process of being constructed.
Conflict Encounter
Two distinct objects with the same name have
been registered for the same job.
For Shared Properties Only
Property’s Object Does Not Exist
The W2WSharedProperty object refers to an
object that never or no longer exists.
Duplicate Share For Property
Multiple W2WSharedProperty objects exist for
the same property.
Chapter 18 Multi-User Simulations
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19
Tips and Tricks
This chapter provides performance hints, tips, and
tricks, and responses to frequently asked questions.
Performance
When WorldUp is running, all my other applications
are extremely sluggish.
WorldUp is designed to cheat every other
application of processor time so that it can both run
quickly and support its complex interface. When
you want to use another application, you may find it
necessary to turn rendering off before you switch to
your other application. This forces WorldUp to
release its stranglehold on the processor.
My simulation needs to run faster.
Use the Profiler (see "Running Simulations" on page
20) to track down what part of your simulation is
taking the most time. Leave the Profiler open while
moving to different locations or stages of your
simulation, and note any changes in the performance
profile. It may take you a while to understand the
profiler information; give yourself some time to
become familiar and comfortable with the statistics
reported by the Profiler. The questions below
address what you might be able to do in response to
specific problems.
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Performance
RayIntersect is taking all of my simulation time.
If used pervasively in your simulation, RayIntersect
can begin to take quite a bit of time from your
simulation. If you can give RayIntersect less nodes
to search through, it will be faster. RayIntersect
takes a starting node as an input parameter. If you
pass in Root, it may have to search through far more
than if you gave it a more targeted node, depending
on your simulation. It’s usually better to call it once
for a lot of nodes, than many times on specific
nodes.
Breaking down your scene such that the scene graph
node hierarchy corresponds to the spatial layout of
the scene will help RayItersect’s performance
considerably. This will give RayIntersect more
information about the scene, and so it can be more
efficient.
Collision detection is taking all of my simulation time.
There are many ways to minimize the number of
collision detection calls being made. Do anything
you can to isolate the objects you’re interested in.
You may want to iterate through all of the objects of
a particular type and call IntersectMovable on each.
This might succeed in just colliding against the
objects you’re interested in, but if you have a scene
graph that incorporates smart spatial divisions, you
might have more success by starting at a node and,
if there’s a collision, recursively iterating through
the node’s children and testing against each of them,
until you’ve collided with a node you’re interested
in.
Creating objects from scripts is taking forever.
Creating objects from scripts is actually a
reasonably fast operation. The slowness you’re
seeing is probably due to the fact that when an object
is created in the development environment,
WorldUp has to update the Workviews. This is
slow. When the simulation is run through the
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
WorldUp Players, you won’t see this performance
hit. If this drop in performance is bothering you, you
can disable the Update Property Changes From
Scripts option in WorldUp (see "Automatically
Updating Properties" on page 92 for instructions).
Rendering is taking a long time.
In general, rendering is simply a very expensive
process. If you don’t have a graphics accelerator
card, textures will cost dearly. If you have a good
graphics accelerator card, textures may be no slower
than non-textured surfaces; on these machines using
low polygon, highly textured objects is a better trade
off. There are more issues for creating efficient realtime 3D worlds than we have a forum to address in
this manual. An obvious point is that the less
polygons being rendered at once, the better. Use the
Profiler to monitor how many polygons you’re
rendering.
Here are some general tips:
• To increase rendering speed in the Development
window, turn off helper features, such as
shadows, grids, and drop lines. You can do this
by selecting the Display Options
button from
the Development window toolbar.
• If a geometry is not going to be changing shape
or appearance during the simulation, optimize it,
using the Optimize property. It is best to do this
when you’re finished with your simulation, and
not planning anymore scene alterations.
• One of the biggest performance problems is
rendering parts of the scene that are obscured by
closer objects. Try to minimize this type of
useless rendering. For example, if you’re in a
room with all of the doors closed, you may not
be able to see the rest of the house, but it may be
being rendered. Try to disable areas that you
can’t see by using the Enabled property (note
that if a parent node is disabled, all of its children
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
will also not be rendered). Also, you can
decrease the value of the window’s Yon Clipping
property. This value represents the distance from
the viewpoint at which objects will no longer be
rendered.
• LevelOfDetail nodes are critical for making large
simulations run reasonably. By creating
geometries with several different versions of
decreasing levels of complexity, LevelOfDetail
nodes can manage swapping in less detailed
versions when the object is far away.
For more information on LevelOfDetail nodes,
see "LevelOfDetail Nodes" on page 26.
• Using multiple lights can significantly hurt
performance. If you need multiple lights, arrange
them in the scene graph so they only affect the
nodes that they absolutely need to.
How can I make my models more efficient?
Unless necessary for the simulation, models should
be single-sided. That is, their polygons should only
be visible from one side, the outside. Unnecessary
use of doubled-sided polygons can skyrocket the
cost of rendering a geometry.
Obviously, the fewer polygons, the better. Most
professional modelers now have good optimizers.
Make sure you use one of these optimizers, as many
techniques used in modern modeling tools are very
polygon intensive.
Rendering
Viewing Graphical Objects
If you don’t see any objects in the Development
window check the following:
• Is rendering turned on?
Rendering
If the Rendering On button is not pressed down,
click it to toggle rendering on. Or, on the Options
menu, click Rendering On if there is not already
a check mark next to it.
• Does your simulation contain any graphical
objects?
In the Nodes pane of the Scene Workview, check
to see that you have at least one object beneath
one of the Geometry subtypes (Block, Cylinder,
Imported, Sphere, or Text3d). If there are no
graphical objects, create some as described in
"Adding 3D Objects" on page 83.
• Are the graphical objects simply out of the
window’s current view, or is the viewpoint inside
of your objects?
Click the Zoom All
button or use other
navigation techniques described in Chapter 8,
Development Window – Navigation and
Manipulation, to adjust your viewpoint so that
you can see all of your graphical objects. Or,
translate (move) the graphical objects away from
the viewpoint using the methods described in
"Manipulating Objects" on page 82.
Note All Movable objects (except imported
geometries) that you create are initially
positioned at the center of the universe (0,0,0).
• Is the graphical object that you want to see inside
of another graphical object?
Translate (move) one of the graphical objects
using the methods described in "Translating and
Rotating Movables" on page 110. Or, move the
viewpoint inside of the graphical object that is
obstructing the view using the navigation
techniques described in "Manipulating Objects"
on page 82.
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Sounds
• If it’s a small object that is close to the
viewpoint, it could be that the value of your
window’s Hither Clipping property is too high
and is excluding the object from rendering.
• If the object is large or far away, it could be that
the value of your window’s Yon Clipping
property is too low and is excluding the object
from rendering.
Note Remember you have at least two windows:
an Application window (Window-1) and a
Development window (DevWindow-1). If you
change the Hither Clipping or Yon Clipping
values, be sure to make those changes to all
appropriate windows.
• The Enabled property of the object or of one of
the object’s parents could be False.
• If it’s an Imported object, there might be an
invalid file name/entry name combination that
doesn’t point to a valid entry in a valid file.
Select the Filename or Entry property in the
Property pane, highlight the value in the Property
text box, and press ENTER. This will trick the
editor into thinking you just changed the
property, and will try to reload the object. Check
the Status window for an error message.
My rendering is wrong. My geometries get flashing,
jaggy strips or bites cut out of them through which I
can see objects or surfaces behind them.
It could be that the distance between your hither
clipping plane and yon clipping plane are too far
apart. The greater the difference between the values
of your window’s Hither Clipping and Yon Clipping
properties, the less ability the renderer will have to
distinguish which object is above the other. Try
making these two planes closer together. Either that
or move the objects farther apart.
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
It could be that you have two surfaces that are
actually co-planar, that is, they sit exactly on top of
each other. If this is true, the renderer will never be
able to decide which surface is on top, and you will
get the stripped effect. You will have to move the
surfaces away from each other, far enough for the
renderer to tell them apart.
My rendering is wrong. My textures, when viewed at
an angle, get warped and distorted.
You probably have Texture Perspective turned off.
If you don’t have a graphics accelerator card,
disabling this option can increase your performance
significantly, if you’re willing to suffer the warping
textures. You can change this option in the
Rendering Style dialog box (see "Setting Rendering
Parameters" on page 41 for instructions).
Sounds
Sounds won’t play.
There are a variety of reasons why sounds might not
play:
• Does your sound system work?
Make sure that your sound system is properly set
up. Use the sound player that comes with your
operating system to try and play a sound. If not,
it could be that your sound drivers are not
installed or are corrupted, or your sound card is
not working, or your system volume is simply
turned all the way down. Check your system’s
sound settings.
• Does the sound have its Playing property set to
True?
To play a sound, the Sound object’s Playing
property must be set to True. You can set this
directly through the Property pane, or by calling
Fonts
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
the script method Play. (The command would be
snd.Play, where snd is a variable pointing to
a sound.)
• Is something hogging the sound device?
Another application might be running that’s
holding on to the sound device, not letting
WorldUp play its sounds. Close that application.
• Is Audio: Listener set correctly?
The Audio: Listener property of the Universe
object should be pointing to the correct
viewpoint (whichever viewpoint is used in the
main application window).
• What is Audio: Rolloff set to?
The Audio: Rolloff property of the Universe
object determines how fast the sounds in space
fall off. If the number is too low for the size of
your universe, sounds might be falling off too
quickly.
Sounds are not spatialized correctly.
• Is the Attached To property set to the correct
object?
Make sure the Sound object’s Attached To
property is set to a valid object, which is still in
your scene.
• Is Audio: Listener set correctly?
The Audio: Listener property of the Universe
object should be pointing to the correct
viewpoint (whichever viewpoint is used in the
main application window).
• What is Audio: Rolloff set to?
The Audio: Rolloff property of the Universe
object determines how fast the sounds in space
fall off. If the number is too high for the size of
your universe, you might not, in the area in
which you move in your universe, be able to tell
the difference in roll-off. Try decreasing this
number and see if the results are better.
My sounds is playing too fast or too slow.
If you are using the DiamondWare sound system
(this is the default for WorldUp on the Windows
platform – check the Audio Device property on the
Universe object), sounds must be recorded at a
frequency of 22 K. Any sound editor will allow you
to resample a sound file.
Make sure the sound’s Pitch property is set to 1.0.
Fonts
How do I create a 3D font?
A 3D font file can be of any supported 3D model
type. You can create a new 3D font file by making a
model of each character and/or symbol you want.
Then you must name each of these objects with the
char prefix followed with that character/symbol's
ASCII value. For example, the letter a would be
named char97 and A would be char65.
How do I change 2D fonts and their size?
First, you need to find out which fonts are installed
on your machine. In Windows, you can do this by
going to the Control Panel and choosing Fonts. This
will display all the fonts currently installed. Now,
create a file named FONT.WTK and put the name of
the font you want followed by the size. This
FONT.WTK file must be in the directory of the
WorldUp executable you are running. If you are
running a plug-in, the FONT.WTK file must be in
your plug-in directory. The only problem here is, in
order for someone else to view your font, they must
also have the FONT.WTK in their executables
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Miscellaneous
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
directory and they must have that font installed on
their computer. Your best bet is to just go with the
default font of WorldUp.
Miscellaneous
I change the Properties of an object, but the
simulation doesn’t change!
or
All the properties of the Universe are displayed in red
text (implying read-only), how do I change them?
Make sure you are editing the object itself and not
the object type. Changing the property values of the
type will affect only newly created objects of that
type, but not existing objects. For the Universe type,
all of the properties have been made read-only.
Since you can’t create a Universe object (you can
only have one universe, and it is created for you),
there is no purpose in changing the type’s properties.
My LevelOfDetail node isn’t switching at the right
time, or isn’t switching at all.
1 Select the LevelOfDetail node and see where the
axes are.
2 If you don’t see any axes, click the Zoom To
Selected
button in the Development window.
The axes represent the LevelOfDetail’s center. This
is where the distance from the LevelOfDetail is
measured from. Move the LevelOfDetail node to
where you want the center to be and make the
translation of the LevelOfDetail children 0,0,0, or
whatever offset you want from this center.
When I rotate my object, it doesn't rotate around the
center I want.
If you’re rotating a geometry, you need to adjust the
Origin Offset property. (See "Adjusting a
Geometry’s Pivot Point" on page 116 for
instructions on how to do this in the Development
window.)
If you’re rotating a group, remember that the objects
contained within that group will rotate around the
Group node’s pivot point, not their own. You will
either need to move the Group node’s pivot point as
described above, or else move the entire location of
the Group node, and then move the children back
where you want them. A frequent mistake with
Group nodes is to neglect to translate its children to
the group’s center (if that’s what you want). An easy
way to do this for groups with only one immediate
child is to select the child object, copy its translation
(right click on the Translation property and select
Copy), then select the group, paste the translation in
(by right clicking on the property and selecting
Paste), and then go back to the child object and type
0,0,0 in for the translation).
This dumb bar appears when I load my world in a
plug-in.
That is the navigation bar. By default, it is on in the
plug-ins. To turn it off, put the following command
in your Startup script:
NavBarOptions 0
I output my universe as a VRML file and it is upside
down in my viewer. How do I fix this?
This is not actually a bug. It is just that WorldUp has
its coordinate axis with the Y reversed from the
VRML specifications. Rotate your viewpoint 180˚
in the Y (yaw) and save it out as a VRML file again.
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
How do I implement database connectivity?
You can implement database connectivity via
BasicScript’s SQL functions. The two SQL samples
provided with WorldUp are located in the
Samples\SQL subdirectory of the directory in which
you installed WorldUp. For details on BasicScript’s
SQL functions, search on SQL in the online Help.
Model Tricks
How do I create versions of a model, varying in
detail, to successfully work with LevelOfDetail
nodes?
In creating different levels of detail, the process is to
usually start with your most complex or highest
level of detail geometry and to create copies of it
with fewer and fewer polygons. The trick is to keep
enough (and the right) polygons such that the
general topology, color, and texture is maintained in
the process and the switch from one geometry to
another is visually seamless. With some simple
geometric shapes (such as spheres, cones, cylinders)
this is a trivial effort requiring you to generate
multiple versions of the object.
For information on LevelOfDetail nodes, see
"LevelOfDetail Nodes" on page 26.
The more typical problem, however, is where you
attempt to create three or four versions of a house,
car, or terrain. Various tools and techniques are
available that can help you in this process, such as
the following:
• Automatic mesh simplifiers – Several companies
offer tools that will take a meshed surface and
create reduced versions while maintaining
topology and textures. They usually only work
with meshed surfaces, which isn’t always the
case with many models.
Model Tricks
• Image processing program (texture replacement)
– At a suitable distance, a single texture or
several crossed textures can replace a highly
complex object. You can use WorldUp to render
the complex object, save the image out to a file,
and then use an image processing program to
create a suitable texture that is then mapped onto
several polygons crossed like an "X".
• Modeling programs – Most modelers allow you
to manually reduce polygon count. A rare few,
like Multigen, have some tools to help create
LevelOfDetail nodes. In general, it takes
experience to learn how to simplify enough – but
not too much – to create proper LevelOfDetail
nodes.
How can I create radiosity-preprocessed models?
As with Gouraud shading, use of vertex colors can
be used to increase the visual realism of your virtual
scene.
For example, vertex color support enables you to
render models that have been radiositypreprocessed. A radiosity-preprocessed model
stores lighting information such as shadows and
reflections as vertex colors – this lighting doesn’t
then have to be computed at run-time. The result is
complex lighting with real-time performance.
A radiosity preprocessor is a program that takes as
input a model and a light source specification and
generates a new model with lighting information
(such as for shadows or reflections) built into it. This
involves meshing the original model to contain more
detailed color information. This color information is
stored at the vertices of the mesh, and WorldUp (or
the hardware that WorldUp is running on)
interpolates between these vertex color values to
produce a smooth effect.
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Model Tricks
For a better understanding, take a look at any of the
several radiosity rendered models on the WorldUp
CD in the \models\radiosity directory.
In addition to storing lighting information, vertex
colors can also represent other values such as the
temperature or pressure throughout an object.
Vertex colors can be set for geometries in the
following ways:
• In an NFF file. Search on NFF File Format in the
online Help for instructions.
• Using a radiosity preprocessing program.
ATMA’s program called Real Light is a radiosity
preprocessor that reads and writes NFF files.
Chapter 19 Tips and Tricks
199
20
Publishing Your
Application
Once you have finished building your application,
you need to determine how you will distribute it to
other users. WorldUp provides you with three
options:
• As a stand-alone application/simulation
• As an ActiveX control that can be embedded in
another application
• As an internet plug-in
Whichever you choose, you need to ensure that the
target system gets the project file (.UP) as well as all
of the models, scripts, images, behaviors, DLLs,
sounds, and whatever else is included in your
simulation. You can do this yourself, or you can
export your simulation using WorldUp’s Simulation
Packager, which packages all the components into a
single file, encrypts your scripts, and compresses the
whole package into a single ZUP file.
In addition to your simulation files, you need to
consider whether the correct player is installed on
the target computer. You should also consider
whether you want to distribute source script files
(.EBS) or encrypted script files (.EBX).
This chapter covers WorldUp’s role in these key
distribution choices.
200
Packaging the Project for Distribution
Packaging the Project for
Distribution
The simplest mechanism for distributing your
application is through WorldUp’s Simulation
Packager, which collects all the files WorldUp
determines are necessary to your simulation.
To export your simulation as a WorldUp package file
1 Select Export Package As > WorldUp Package
from the File menu.
The Package Project For Export dialog box
appears.
The Package Project for Export dialog box gives
you the opportunity to:
• Add/Remove any additional files to the package.
• Encrypt your BasicScript script files to protect
your source code from being copied.
• Compress the entire package.
The packager then places all the files into a single
ZUP file with the same name as your project in the
simulation directory. A ZUP file can be opened by
either WorldUp or any of the WorldUp Players.
When you open a ZUP file, WorldUp expands all the
files contained in the ZUP file into a WuCache
directory (this directory is in your Windows
directory), and then proceeds to load the project file.
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
The following gives some important notes about
ZUP files:
• In many situations, a file your simulation
depends on is not automatically detected by
WorldUp, including geometry files that get
instantiated dynamically, external DLLs called
from script, etc. You need to add these files
manually using the Add Files button on the
Package Project For Export dialog box.
• WorldUp only adds model files for currently
instantiated objects. If you will be instantiating
other models during your simulation, you need to
manually add these models and their textures.
• When you open a ZUP file, WorldUp checks the
WuCache directory to see if this file already
exists. If it does, WorldUp opens the already
expanded version; otherwise WorldUp expands
the ZUP file into the WuCache directory. The
danger occurs if you were then to create a new
ZUP file of the same name. When you attempted
to open the new file, WorldUp would open the
existing expanded ZUP file, and you would not
see any changes. To be safe, you should first
clear the WuCache directory of the previous
project files.
• As you’ve discovered from using WorldUp, it is
extremely important that WorldUp know where
models, textures, scripts, and sounds are located.
WorldUp does this using directory paths, which
you control in the Universe Settings dialog box.
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
Choosing a Player
Explorer, or Macromedia Director. Exposes an
interface allowing communication between
control and container.
Which one you choose depends upon your project’s
requirements. In addition, all players come in both
an OpenGL and a Direct3D version. Before
choosing your player, consider the following issues.
Is my simulation an immersive or desktop
application?
Setting Project Paths within WorldUp
When planning to export a project manually, you
should add the requisite directories to the Project
path so that when your simulation is opened in one
of the players, the UP file itself knows where to look
for these files. By default, WorldUp looks in the
same directory as the UP file, which is why ZUP files
work, since it expands all files into one directory. If
you are creating your own distribution mechanism,
however, you will find this invaluable.
Choosing a Player
Three different WorldUp players can be used to
distribute your simulation:
• Stand-alone Player – A stand-alone executable
that loads and runs simulation files.
• Internet Plug-in – A DLL that loads and runs
simulations inside of Netscape Navigator or
Internet Explorer.
• ActiveX Control – An OCX that can embed
your simulation inside of ActiveX Control
Containers, such as Visual Basic, Internet
If you are creating an immersive simulation, you
want to create borderless windows for your
application, and run it in the stand-alone player. This
way, no user interface interference occurs with your
simulation. If however, you are running your
simulation as a desktop application, you may
consider running it with a traditional interface,
which means integrating it into a Visual C++ or
Visual Basic application using the ActiveX Control.
Will my simulation run with other applications?
If the simulation works with other applications,
consider embedding the simulation in another
application.
Will my simulation be running in a Web Browser?
If your simulation is an Internet application, you can
use the Internet plug-in or the ActiveX control. The
ActiveX control only works in Internet Explorer,
however it’s ActiveX interface wields much more
flexibility than the standard Netscape plug-in.
Will my simulation run on a desktop or a laptop?
Typically, laptop computers have little hardware
acceleration. In this case, it’s often better to run your
simulation under Direct3D for performance reasons.
Am I using any graphics API specific calls?
If you are using Viewport or RenderNode objects in
your simulation, you need to use the OpenGL player
since these are not supported under Direct3D.
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Embedding Your Simulation
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
Embedding Your Simulation
WorldUp provides you with the ability to distribute
your simulation as a stand-alone application or
embedded as an ActiveX control. The ActiveX
control is a powerful mechanism for embedding a
3D interface into a larger application where it is not
always appropriate to have 3D control the entire
interface, or for where traditional 2D control and/or
additional multimedia elements are more
appropriate for a greater view.
Real Estate Example
The example in the figure above is of such an
application, where browsing the Real Estate market
requires both the visual-spatial perception of a 3D
world combined with more traditional 2D media
components and controls. Using the WorldUp
ActiveX control, you can quickly drop your
simulation into any container-aware application.
embed this control in any OLE-aware container
application, including the Microsoft Office, Internet
Explorer, and a multitude of others, including any
container application you create using Visual C++
or Visual Basic. For more information on how to
embed ActiveX controls within these containers,
refer to your container application’s documentation.
To use the ActiveX Control, you must either install
it from the CD, or else from our web site
(www.sense8.com). When you install it, WorldUp
registers the control with your system. You can now
You don’t need to make any specific modifications
to a WorldUp simulation to run it in the WorldUp
ActiveX control. You do, however, need to make
entry points and routines if you wish to
Embedding Your Simulation
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
communicate between your control and your
container. Like any other ActiveX control, the
WorldUp control provides you with a standard set of
methods and properties, which you can use to
interface with your simulation. The table below lists
the properties, methods, and events the WorldUp
ActiveX control exposes.
WorldUp ActiveX Control Interface
Properties
Data Type
Description
Filename
BSTR
Specifies current UP file. Changing this value loads a new UP file
WindowObject
BSTR
Specifies which window object in your simulation will be used
Running
BOOL
Specifies whether the system simulation is running or not
ScriptsRunning
BOOL
Specifies whether the scripts in your simulation runs every frame
WantCallBack
BOOL
When set to TRUE, this sends a "Callback" event to the container
every frame. It also sends a "LoadingProgress" event to the
container while a simulation is loading.
Methods
Returns
RunScript(BSTR Script)
Boolean
Runs a script in the simulation. The script must have a "main"
entry point.
RunSubroutine(BSTR Script,
BSTR SubRoutine,
VARIANT arg1, VARIANT
arg2)
Boolean
Calls the SubRoutine within a Script object, passing (optional)
two arguments to the subroutine as type Variant.
Step(short number)
Boolean
If simulation is stopped, processes one frame of the simulation.
GetObject(BSTR ObjecName)
WUPOBJECT*
Gets a WorldUp object and returns it inside a wup object wrapper
(WUPOBJECT).
Events
Returns
CallBack()
Void
If the WantCallBack property is set to TRUE, this event will be
called every frame
ScriptEvent(VARIANT arg1,
VARIANT arg2)
Void
This event is triggered by the BasicScript call SendToContainer
(See online Help under SendToContainer for more information).
LoadingComplete(BSTR Name)
Void
This event is called when the up file has finished loading. Places
the file’s name into FileName.
LoadingProgress(float
Progress)
Void
If WantCallBack is True, this event will be called several times
during file load. The Progress variable will contain a normalized
indicator of file load progress.
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Distributing Your Simulation over the Internet
Note In the table above, BSTR is simply a standard
variable type representing a 32-bit character pointer.
BOOL is a Boolean variable type. The new type
definitions are simply provided for compatibility
when communicating across various environments.
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
The WUPOBJECT type is a special wrapper that
contains a WorldUp object. The following table lists
the interface to the WUPOBJECT class.
WUPOBJECT Class Interface
Properties
SzObjectName
Data Type
BSTR
Methods
Description
Name of the WorldUp object.
Returns
SetProperty(BSTR PropertyName,
VARIANT Value)
Boolean
Set the specified object property to the specified value.
GetProperty(BSTR PropertyName)
VARIANT
Get the property specified
Destroy()
Void
Delete the object
GetType()
BSTR
Get the type of the object (returns a string).
Duplicate
IDispatch*
Duplicate the object
IsDerivedFrom(BSTR szTypeName)
Boolean
True if the object is of the specified type.
Before leaving this section, let’s take a quick look at
a simple example of how this works. In the
following code sample, we use a Visual Basic
container from which to examine the position of an
object in our simulation at every frame:
sub WUP1_Callback( )
dim myobject as WUPOBJECT
set myobject = WUP1.GetObject(
"Avatar" )
dim position as Single
position = myobject.GetProperty(
"Translation")
end sub
Refer to a Visual Basic manual for more in-depth
coverage of container applications and how to
interface with ActiveX controls from Visual Basic.
Distributing Your Simulation
over the Internet
To distribute your simulation over the Internet in a
browser, you can use either the Internet Plug-in or
the ActiveX control. The Internet Plug-in works
with both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
However, it offers little flexibility for interfacing
between the browser and the simulation. In addition,
the user must first install the Internet Plug-in on their
machine before they can view WorldUp simulation
files.
A much more robust way of handling Internet
distribution and viewing is using the signed
WorldUp ActiveX Control CAB file. Using
ActiveX technology, a new user can encounter
WorldUp content on a web site and with one click
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
download, install, and view your simulation,
without requiring the user to leave the web site or
reboot their system.
As a developer you can also redistribute our
ActiveX Control on your own web page with your
WorldUp content. To do this, simply embed the
ActiveX control CAB file (located on your
WorldUp R5 CD) into your HTML file using the
object tag
<object
classid="CLSID:A94D0C23-BE25-11CFA0B7-00A024281615"
align="center"
border="0"
width="256"
height="256"
codebase="http://www.mywebsite.com/
wupcabllocation/
wupogl.cab#version=5,0,0,0"
id=wup
</object>
If the ActiveX control is not already registered on
the user’s machine, this will prompt them to
download and register the WorldUp ActiveX
control. Before distributing the ActiveX control,
you should contact us to confirm the version you
have is the most current version.
Once the control has been registered on the target
machine, Internet Explorer will be able to display
WorldUp simulation files. To do this, simply set the
Filename property of the WorldUp ActiveX control
embedded on the page with the name of a simulation
file. For example:
wup.Filename = "http://
www.mywebsite.com/wupcontent/
mysimulation.zup"
Distributing Your Simulation over the Internet
Distribution Checklist
Finally, as a review, before distributing your
application confirm the following:
• Does the target machine have a WorldUp player
installed on it?
• Do the player and graphics hardware agree (D3D
or OGL on Windows platforms)?
• Are you using any OpenGL or Direct3D specific
calls in your simulation/plug-ins that require the
use of a specific player?
• Are you distributing your simulation as an UP or
ZUP file?
• If you are distributing as an UP file, have you set
the project paths correctly?
• If you are distributing your simulation as a ZUP
file, does the target computer have a previous
version of your simulation already expanded on
it in its WuCache directory?
• Have you included all DLLs, sounds, scripts,
models, and images in your UP or WUP file,
including those not instantiated during
packaging?
• If you need protection, have you encrypted your
BasicScript files?
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Distributing Your Simulation over the Internet
Chapter 20 Publishing Your Application
207
A
Environment
Variables
You may want to configure your computer for
maximum performance. Environment variables
allow you to optimize the way your operating
system interacts with your hardware and the
WorldUp software.
To add environment variables, do one of the
following, depending on your platform:
• For Windows NT 4.0 – Choose Settings from the
Start menu, then select System and click the
Environment tab.
• For Windows NT 3.51 – Choose Control Panel
from the Main Program group, then select
System.
• For Windows 95 – Use the set command in either
your autoexec.bat file or another batch file.
Warning Do not change your environment variables
unless you are quite certain of the consequences.
WTKZBUFFERSIZE
WorldUp performs its calculations assuming that a
Z-buffer of depth 24 exists. Some graphic
accelerators only support 16-bit (or less) Z-buffers.
If you don’t set this value correctly, the hardware
graphics accelerator won’t work and you’ll wind up
using the default software OpenGL implementation,
208
Chapter
causing a significant drop in performance. You can
avoid this by setting WTKZBUFFERSIZE to the
depth of the actual hardware Z-buffer. For example:
• Variable WTKSQRTEX
• Value 1
The default is off (zero).
• Variable WTKZBUFFERSIZE
• Value 16
WTKALPHATEST
Causes pixels, whose final computed transparency
value (after factoring in the polygon’s material
opacity and texture alpha values) is below this value
(0-255), to not be written to the framebuffer. This
will ensure that all pixels whose transparency value
is below a specified threshold value to be treated as
completely transparent. This can be useful when you
want to have a cookie-cutter effect with your
textures. For example:
• Variable WTKALPHATEST
• Value 24
The default is 0 on Windows platforms.
WTKMAXTEXSIZE
Texture images will be shrunk, if necessary, so that
the image width and height in pixels will not exceed
this value. By setting this environment variable to an
appropriate value you can help ensure that your
application does not exceed your hardware texture
memory limits. For example:
• Variable WTKMAXTEXSIZE
• Value 256
The default is 1024 (this is also the maximum).
WTKSQRTEX
Texture images will be shrunk, if necessary, so that
the texture's width and height are equal. The
possible values are 0 (zero) and 1 (one), where 0 =
off. For example:
WTKPROXY
HTTP proxy server (hostname:port). Used when
reading VRML files, for example, URLs contained
in anchor and/or inline nodes are relative to the
proxy server specified here.
• Variable WTKPROXY
• Value BATMOBILE:8080
WTKMULTISAMPLE
Specifies the anti-aliasing sampling rate (must be a
power of 2). A higher sampling rate will result in a
better quality image but will take more processing
time. The default is 0. This variable is used in
conjunction with the Anti-aliasing property of the
Universe object in your simulation.
Note This applies only to supported hardware.
Contact Technical Support for a current list of
supported video hardware.
209
B
WorldUp Players
and Plug-Ins
Several players and plug-ins are available for
WorldUp that allow you to freely distribute your
simulations for non-commercial use. If you wish to
distribute your simulations for commercial use,
commercial versions of the WorldUp players are
also available. These players and plug-ins allow an
end-user to view your simulations without having
WorldUp installed on their computer. There are two
versions of each player, one for OpenGL and one for
Direct3D.
This appendix gives a description of the available
WorldUp players and plug-ins and describes how to
install, distribute, and run them.
Available Players and Plug-Ins
The following WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins are
available:
• WorldUp Stand-Alone Player
The basic stand-alone player that requires no
additional software is ideal for re-distributing
your WorldUp simulations for non-commercial
use. This player (both the OpenGL and Direct3D
versions) is automatically installed on your
system by the WorldUp installation program.
210
WorldUp Player Installation
• WorldUp Internet Plug-In Player
An internet plug-in player that allows WorldUp
simulations to be viewed through browsers like
Netscape and Internet Explorer. You can freely
distribute the WorldUp Internet plug-in players
for non-commercial use. (Currently only
available for the Windows platforms.)
• WorldUp Embeddable Player
An ActiveX plug-in that allows you to embed
WorldUp simulations in Visual Basic, Visual
C++, Access, and other OCX aware applications.
You can freely distribute the Embeddable plug-in
player for non-commercial use. (Currently only
available for the Windows platforms.)
• WorldUp Stand-Alone Commercial Player
The basic stand-alone player that requires no
additional software is used to re-distribute your
WorldUp simulations for commercial use. (Note
that the WorldUp CD does not contain the
commercial versions of the players. Please
contact Sense8 for information on obtaining the
commercial player(s).)
Chapter B WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins
Viewing a Simulation Using a
WorldUp Player
You can start the player to view simulations by
using the program group item that was created when
you installed WorldUp (or the WorldUp Player).
On Windows platforms
1 In the WorldUp program group, select WorldUp
Player (either OpenGL or Direct3D).
2 From the File Open dialog box, select a
simulation file (any file with an .UP, .WUP, or
.ZUP extension).
3 The WorldUp simulation is displayed in a
window on your screen.
Note Your universe must contain an application
window in order for the simulation to run in a
player. For information on application windows,
see Chapter 10, Windows, Viewports, and
Viewpoints.
4 To close the simulation, click the Close button in
the upper right corner of the window.
Note If the application window is set to
WorldUp Player Installation
The WorldUp CD contains a directory named
Players which contains six self-extracting files.
Each self-extracting file represents one of the
players described above and can be distributed to
end-users. To install one of the players, simply run
the corresponding file, and the desired player will be
installed on the system. Users who wish to use the
Direct3D version of the players must also install
DirectX on their system.
borderless for this simulation, the control-menu
box will not be visible. Choose End Task from the
Windows Task List to end the simulation.
You can also start the player from the a file browser
in Windows by double-clicking the
WUPlayOGL.exe or WUPlayD3D.exe file. Or, by
using the command line option with an argument,
you can specify the player to be run, as well as the
UP file you want loaded into the player.
Chapter B WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins
Important Notes For Direct 3D
Users
Direct3D users should be aware that currently the
Direct3D version of the WorldUp Players do not
support:
• Viewports
• Render Nodes
If you have any of these objects in your simulation,
they will not be visible in the Direct 3D players. You
should take this into consideration when developing
and distributing your simulation.
Important Notes For Direct 3D Users
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Important Notes For Direct 3D Users
Chapter B WorldUp Players and Plug-Ins
213
C
WorldUp User’s
Group
A WorldToolKit/WorldUp user group has been
organized by WorldToolKit/WorldUp customers
with assistance from SENSE8. SIG-WTK provides a
world-wide electronic forum for the discussion of
WorldToolKit, WorldUp and World2World related
issus as well as an anonymous ftp site for uploading
and downloading WTK/WUP related data.
Participating in SIG-WTK
The following material comes from the original
SIG-WTK chairman, Terry Fong. (Note that SIGWTK was originally formed for WorldToolKit
users, but has since expanded to include WorldUp
users.)
Greetings, fellow WTK user!
I would like to cordially invite you to participate in
SIG-WTK, the WorldToolKit Users' Group. This
group provides a contact point for users of EAI/
SENSE8 Product Group’s WorldToolKit to discuss
and exchange information on a variety of topics.
Among these are:
• 3D objects: modeling, importing/exporting to
WTK NFF, sharing.
214
Communicating with SIG-WTK
Chapter
• Sensor drivers: development, reducing lag and
latency.
• All connections and file transfers (in and out)
will be logged.
• Managing user interaction.
• Access to the site will be subject to the approval
of the EAI/SENSE8 Group, and restriction may
be enforced at any time.
• Efficient development of virtual environments
with WTK.
• Distribution and sharing of virtual environments.
• Improving simulation performance (e.g., frame
rate, quality).
• Platform-specific issues (e.g., GL queues on SGI
machines).
• Abuse of the site, including the import or export
of non public-domain data, will result in access
denial.
The EAI/SENSE8 Group software developers for
WTK/WUP recognize these things about this
archive:
• Advocating WTK improvements/changes to
SENSE8.
• It is likely to encourage and facilitate the use of
WTK/WUP by users within and outside of the
U.S.
Communicating with SIG-WTK
• It provides unrestricted access to public domain
data which is usable by WTK/WUP and may
offer added value or benefit to WTK/WUP
application developers.
To subscribe or unsubscribe, go to:
http://www.sense8.com/support/
forum.html
To send a message to all SIG-WTK members, please
address it to:
sig-wtk@sense8.com
WTK/WUP Electronic Archive
Policy
The purpose of this site is to facilitate the collection
and dissemination of public-domain data for use
with WTK/WUP. This archive will not contain any
data which is copyrighted, classified, or
commercially sensitive to U.S. organizations.
The site is subject to all pertinent laws and
regulations of the U.S. government. Regulation of
the site will be performed with the following
stipulations:
Usage
• This site is intended for SIG-WTK related items
only. Please do not use this site for other
purposes.
• To contribute, please write the files to the ftp/
sig-wtk/incoming directory.
• After review, approved submissions will be
moved to the appropriate directories.
SIG-WTK: Web Site
The SIG-WTK support web site features:
• An easy way to subscribe/unsubscribe to the
forum at:
http://www.sense8.com/support/
forum.html
Chapter
• An online searchable support knowledge base for
your support questions at: http://
www.sense8.com/support/support.html
• Will soon contain an online 3D content and
support repository. This will be announced to the
SIG-WTK shortly. It's location will also be on
our web pages.
SIG-WTK: Web Site
215
216
SIG-WTK: Web Site
Chapter
217
D
WorldUp Shortcuts
General
F1
Help
F4
Toggle Rendering
F5
Run
F6
Step Simulation
F7
Stop (only applies when you are running the simulation in the development environment, or you when
you are running the simulation as an application but the Development window has the focus.)
Ctrl + N
New Script
Ctrl + O
Open a Script or a Project
Ctrl + Z
Undo last object movement
Delete
Delete the currently selected objects
Development Window
Ctrl + A
Zoom All
Ctrl + M
Zoom To Selected Node
Ctrl + F
Change Modes to Select Mode
Ctrl + ↑
Change active viewpoint direction to Front view
Ctrl + ↓
Change active viewpoint direction to Back view
Ctrl + →
Change active viewpoint direction to Left view
Ctrl + ←
Change active viewpoint direction to Right view
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Chapter
Ctrl + Page
Up
Change active viewpoint direction to Top view
Ctrl + Page
Down
Change active viewpoint direction to Bottom view
Script Editor
Ctrl-S
Save and Compile Script
Ctrl-F
Find Text
Ctrl-G
Go To Line
Ctrl-C
Copy
Ctrl-X
Cut
Ctrl-V
Paste
F8
Step Over Line of Script (only when debugging)
F9
Step Into Line of Script (only when debugging)
When Clicking in Scene and Type Workviews
Ctrl
Select or deselect targeted item without deselecting others.
Right-Mouse Clicking On Objects and Properties
In the Type Workview and Scene Workview, right-mouse clicking on an object displays a pop-up menu of
commands that are applicable to that type of object. In the Property pane, right-mouse clicking on properties
displays a pop-up menu for the following commands:
Event Settings
Displays the Event Settings dialog box
Share Property
Displays the Shared Property dialog box (only displays if your universe contains a W2WConnection
object)
Copy
Copies the current value of the selected property
Paste
Pastes the copied property value
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Chapter
Cutting and Pasting Properties in the Property Pane
Please note that this does not actually use the clipboard, so your property value will not be available for use
elsewhere, nor can you paste in text from a file, for example.
Ctrl + C
With a property selected: Copies the current value of the selected property
Ctrl + V
With a property selected: Pastes the copied property value into the currently selected property. The
properties must be of the same type, or the paste will be ignored. You can only paste values for the
following types: Integer, Float, Bool, Vect3D, Vect2D and String.
When Dragging Shared Properties in Network Browser
Ctrl
Duplicates the shared property so that is shared under both the sharegroup from which it is
dragged and the sharegroup on which it is dropped
220
Chapter
221
E
Pre-Built Behavior
Library
WorldUp ships with a library of pre-built behaviors for you to use in your
simulations. These pre-built behaviors were built using the WorldUp Plug-in Kit,
and are contained in the ActionSet and TriggerSet DLLs in your .\plugins
directory. When WorldUp opens, it automatically detects and loads these DLLs,
which register the behavior types with WorldUp as shown in the figure to the right.
Several of these behaviors are also available for import as script-based behaviors.
These can be subtyped, and their code examined to better understand how a
concept is implemented in script, script syntax, or for the purpose of
customization. Those that have been ported are available in your .\Behaviors
directory. To import them, simply select the desired .PUP file after selecting the
Import Behavior
button on the Behavior WorkView.
This appendix gives a brief description of each Trigger and Action in the pre-built
Behavior Library, along with a description of each object’s inputs and parameters
as a reference for both using and creating your own behaviors.
Most behaviors have important properties that you can visually identify with the
Important tab on the Property pane. With respect to behaviors, important
properties are typically those properties the behavior author felt must be filled in
to get the behavior up and running properly.
222
Plug-in Triggers
Chapter
Plug-in Triggers
COLLIDE POLYGON 1:2
Collide Polygon performs a ray intersect using the input Movable's user-defined cardinal axes as ray direction
and the input Movable’s global center as ray origin.
Input1
Movable
Source object from which a ray will be cast to determine intersection.
Output1
Movable
Input1.
Output2
Movable
Object containing the polygon the ray intersected.
Search Node
Node
Node to search under in scene graph (default = Root)
Ray Axis
Vect3D
Local axis of Input 1 vector along which to cast ray (default = Z Axis)
Distance Threshold
Float
Distance to poly threshold. Distances below this threshold fire
trigger.
Polygon Hit
Integer
ID of polygon intersected by ray.
Distance
Float
Calculated distance to poly intersected.
VIEW INTERSECT 1:2
Collide polygon performs a ray intersect using the input movable's user-defined cardinal axes as ray direction
and the input Movable's global center as ray origin.
Input1
Viewpoint
Viewpoint from which ray will be cast
Output1
Viewpoint
Input1
Output2
Movable
Object containing the polygon the ray intersected.
Search Node
Node
Node to search under in scene graph (default = Root).
Distance Threshold
Float
Distance to poly threshold. Distances below this threshold fire trigger
Polygon Hit
Integer
ID of polygon intersected by ray.
Distance
Calculated distance to poly intersected.
Plug-in Triggers
Chapter
COLLIDE MOVABLE 2:2
Collide Movable checks for intersection between two user-specified geometries.
Input1
Movable
Subject Movable
Input2
Movable
Target Movable(s) to check for collision with
Output1
Movable
Input1
Output2
Movable
First Movable in target list (input2) that subject Movable collided with
Ignore Subject
Children
Boolean
Check Subject’s subtree?
Ignore Target Children
Boolean
Check Target’s subtree?
COLLIDE UNIVERSE 1:2
Collide Universe checks for intersection between the object it is attached to and the scene graph. If it collides
(or is in collision with) something, it sets the Movable Hit property to the object collided with and fires.
Input1
Movable
Subject Movable
Output1
Movable
Input1
Output2
Movable
Movable in universe subject movable (input1) collided with
MOUSE BUTTON 1:0
Get Mouse event. If event satisfies user-specified event of nine possible button conditions (LEFTDOWN,
LEFTHELD, LEFTUP, MIDDLEDOWN, MIDDLEHELD, MIDDLEUP, RIGHTDOWN, RIGHTHELD, RIGHTUP), get the
2D position of the mouse at event time and, if mouse is over geometry, set the triggers' "geometry picked"
and "3d point picked". Finally, fire the Trigger.
Input1
Mouse
Mouse Object we'll be getting button events from.
Mouse Event
ENUM
LEFT, MIDDLE, RIGHT + DOWN, HELD, DOWN (i.e. LEFTDOWN)
3D Point Picked
Vect3d
Point (if any) on 3D geometry under mouse’ coordinates
2D Coordinates
Vect2d
2d screen coordinates of mouse cursor.
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Plug-in Triggers
Chapter
MOUSE PICK 2:1
Fires if the geometry the mouse is over when the button is pressed is in the list of pickables.
Input1
Mouse
Mouse Object we’ll be getting events from
Input2
Movable
List of pickable objects
Output1
Movable
Movable picked (if in list of pickables specified in inputlist2)
Mouse Event
ENUM
LEFT, MIDDLE, RIGHT + DOWN, HELD, DOWN (i.e. LEFTDOWN)
Geometry Picked
Geometry
WUP Geometry object picked
3D Point Picked
Vect3d
Point (if any) on 3D geometry under mouse coordinates
2D Coordinates
Vect2d
2D screen coordinates of mouse cursor.
KEYPRESS 1:0
Get the keyboard event and store it in Last Key Pressed.
Input1
Window
Window Object to retrieve keypresses from
Filter Key
String
Keypress condition trigger must match in order to fire. If left empty,
any key will fire
Current Key Pressed
String
Current key pressed
Last Key Pressed
String
Last key pressed
TIMER 1:0
Timer fires every rate seconds.
Input1
VBase
WUP Object to which the Timer is attached.
Rate
Float
Time (in seconds) between firings.
Reference Time
Float
Internal – used by the timer.
Plug-in Actions
Chapter
PROXIMITY DETECTOR 2:2
Proximity Detector checks for proximity between a subject Movable and a list of target Movables. Proximity
is measured as the distance between geometry midpoints. If a target is a Group node, it is the computed center
of the Group node, including its children. This trigger fires for each object in list of targets the subject is in
proximity with.
Input1
Movable
Subject Movable
Input2
Movable
Target Movable to check for proximity with.
Output1
Movable
Input1.
Output2
Movable
Target Movable within proximity.
Distance Threshold
Movable
Distance between midpoints below which trigger fires
PROPERTY CHANGE 1:1
Property Change monitors a particular property common to a list of inputs and fires when that property
changes, passing along the object whose property changed.
Input1
Vbase
Object(s) whose property will be monitored
Output1
Vbase
Input1
Property Name
String
Property name to register with the event system.
Always Active
Boolean
If False, fires only when simulation is running
Plug-in Actions
SPIN
Spins an object about a user-defined axis and rate in degrees per frame.
SpinAxis
ENUM
Cardinal axis about which to rotate the object (X, Y, or Z)
ReferenceFrame
ENUM
Coordinate frame in which to rotate the object (local, parent, or
global)
PerSecond
Boolean
If true, rotates in Speed/second. Otherwise, it’s Speed/frame
Speed
Float
Number of degrees per frame (or second) to rotate
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Plug-in Actions
Chapter
MOVE
Moves an object by the amount specified in the translation property.
Translation
Vect3d
Direction and magnitude to move the object
Reference Frame
ENUM
Frame in which to translate the object (local, parent, or global)
APPLY VELOCITY
Takes the input Movable’s Velocity property and applies it to the Movable in a time-based manner.
Reference Frame
ENUM
Frame in which to translate the object (local, parent, or global)
ZOOM VIEW TO OBJECT
Zooms the viewpoint specified by the "Viewpoint" property to the movable in Input1.
Speed
float
rate (in units per frame) at which to zoom to the input1
Distance Threshold
float
Distance from center of input1target at which to stop zooming
Viewpoint
Viewpoint
Viewpoint that will be doing the zooming
TERRAIN FOLLOWING LAND
TerrainFollow causes the input Movable(s) to follow a certain height above a list of user-specified terrain
geometries. Orientation of the target is updated to remain in alignment with the ground geometry’s surface
normal.
DistanceOffGround
float
Distance from center of input to center of ground terrain geometry
GroundObjectRoot
Node
Group node containing one or more terrain geometries
PLAY SOUND
Plays a WorldUp Sound object. This behavior uses the Sound object’s properties to determine play
characteristics (pitch, repeating, etc.).
Sound
Sound
Any WorldUp sound object currently loaded in the project
Plug-in Actions
Chapter
FOLLOW OBJECT
FollowObject causes the input Movable(s) to follow the specified Target.
Speed
Float
Rate at which to update follow location
Follow Distance
Float
target distance input (follower) should strive to achieve behind
"Target"
Target
Movable
Object to follow
MOUSE DRIVER
Control a Movable's position with the Mouse cursor.
Speed Feedback
Sound
Sound object whose pitch is modulated by the object's speed
Steering Feedback
Movable
Object whose rotation is modulated by the turn angle
Controlling Window
Window
Window that should be checked for mouse messages
Forward Axis
ENUM
Cartesian axis on the input movable this behavior should consider to
be "forward"
TETHER VIEWPOINT
Tether Viewpoint tethers (or attaches) a viewpoint to a Movable. Offset allows you to control the position of
the viewpoint relative to the Movable's center. If you apply an offset, the viewpoint’s direction will be set to
look at the center of the Movable it is tethered to.
Viewpoint
Viewpoint
The viewpoint to tether.
Offset
Vect3d
Vector displacement of viewpoint center relative to movable's center
BOUNCE BACK
Bounce Back reverses a movable along it's z-axis.
TOGGLER
Toggler is a helper behavior that adds it’s input Movable to another behavior’s input list. If the input is already
in the other behavior’s input list, Toggler removes it. This has the effect of toggling a behavior on a certain
object by adding/removing the object from the input list of a specified behavior.
Target Action
Action
The Action whose input list we wish to add the Active Movable to.
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Plug-in Actions
Chapter
CONSTRAIN ROTATION
Constrain Rotation constrains a Movable’s rotation abilities to the user-specified angle sweep in the userspecified coordinate system.
Positive Sweep
Float
Positive angle sweep (in degrees) the object can rotate in
Negative Sweep
Float
Negative angle sweep (in degrees) the object can rotate in
Relative To
Movable
Optional parent object whose coordinate frame should be used to
calculate ± sweep (for example, a door’s frame).
PLAY PATH
Sets an input Movable position and orientation to a position specified by an element in a Path object. Note
this does not change the Path object playing status. It simply uses the Path object's array of element positions.
PathObject
Path
Any currently loaded path object.
MyElement
Integer
Behavior instance specific element number to play.
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F
WorldUp File
Formats
WorldUp supports the following 3D geometry file
formats.
.3DS
Autodesk 3D Studio mesh format
.FLT
MultiGen OpenFlight format
.WRL
Virtual Reality Modeling Language 1.0 and 2.0
.JT
DirectModel (JT) CAD Loader
.NFF
WorldToolKit Neutral File Format
.OBJ
Wavefront OBJ format
.SLP
Pro/Engineer RENDER SLP format
.DXF
Autodesk DXF format
Descriptions for each supported file format are
given below.
Autodesk 3D Studio Mesh
WorldUp supports the Autodesk 3DStudio format
for Releases 3 and 4. WorldUp reads polygonal
information from a 3DS file including color and
texture information. WorldUp uses the ambient
color material value as the color for each polygon,
and supports 3DS texture uv values to allow correct
reproduction of the 3D Studio texture application
MultiGen OpenFlight
230
methods. Smoothing groups are supported for
Gouraud shading. A 3DS file can contain multiple
geometries. The reader does not yet support the
following:
Chapter
Note A MultiGen animation record is translated to
• Face mapping of textures, Box Mapping of
textures
a WorldUp switch node. Each frame of the
animation sequence is a child object of the switch.
The first frame is the default active child. Translated
MultiGen switch nodes do not maintain a list of
masks. The default active node under the resulting
WorldUp switch node will be the first child of the
switch node.
• Mirror objects
Unsupported records
• Masks
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Points, Lines, Splines, Curves
WorldUp does not currently support the
3DStudioMAX file format; however,
3DStudioMAX supplies an exporting tool that
allows you to save your files in the *.3ds file format
that WorldUp can use.
MultiGen OpenFlight
WorldUp R5 now supports the latest WorldToolKit
Multigen FLT reader which supports MultiGen files
greater than V14.2 through V15.5. This is shipped as
a separate product. The FLT reader supports
textures and transforms with other records as shown
below.
Supported records
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Material Palette
Texture Palette
Object
Group
Group with animation 1
Light source records (Infinite, Point, Spot)
Level of Detail
Subfaces
Switch 2
External Reference
• Instance
Header
Eye point
Light point
Binary Space Partition
Curve
DOF
Sound
Text
Road
Path
Note
1 Any WorldUp simulation using the FLT reader
must also distribute all of the MultiGen API
DLLs.
2 Primary colors are applied to polygons only if
there is no material applied to the polygon.
Secondary colors are unsupported.
3 Material properties are always blended with
textures.
4 If a texture specified in the MultiGen file is
missing, a texture representing a red X on a
white field will be applied in its place. The user
can change this texture by replacing the existing
NOTEX.TGA image located in the WorldUp/
images directory with one of their own creation.
Chapter
5 A separate material table is created for the
MultiGen file and each external reference.
6 The name of the table is the name of the file with
an MT appended to the front and missing the .flt
suffix. For example, the externally referenced file
TEST.FLT will have a corresponding material
table called MTtest.
7 Material table indices in WorldUp will be one
greater than the same entry in the MultiGen
material palette. This is to allow the addition of a
default material at index 0 for those polygons
without a material or color.
8 If your geometry is not visible in a shaded
rendering mode, you may have a 100%
transparent material applied to it. Check the
material table entries in your modeler.
Virtual Reality Modeling
Language (VRML)
WorldUp can read and write VRML 1.0 and VRML
2.0 (.wrl) files.
VRML 1.0
WorldUp supports most of the VRML 1.0
specification. The VRML 1.0 limitations of
WorldUp include:
• No support for AsciiText, FontStyle,
IndexedLineSet, and PointSet nodes.
• The crease angle field within ShapeHints nodes
is ignored.
• WorldUp ignores scaling factors (if any) within a
Transform node’s transformation.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
• WorldUp can read and process geometric
primitives (such as cone, cube, cylinder, and
sphere), but they are internally decomposed into
polygons (i.e., they are not internally retained as
cone, cube, cylinder and sphere primitives).
• WorldUp uses its own convention to apply
textures to faces without texture coordinates
• WorldUp support for instancing (USE/DEF
scheme) does not include all node types. The
Coordinate3, Material, and Normal node types
cannot be instanced unless they are in the same
scope (for example, there is no separator that
differentiates the state of one instance from that
of the other).
VRML 2.0/97
WordUp supports basic geometry within the VRML
2.0/97 specifiication. It is not intended to support
any behavior or other advanced node types (such as
sound). The following gives a list of the limitations
for VRML 2.0/97.
• Limitations of Supported Common Node Types:
ImageTexture – Remaining issue between
texture blend and texture decal. Use Texture
blend.
IndexedFaceSet – If a colorIndex is specified this
will override the use of textures. Polygon are
limited to 256 vertices. In addition each vertex
may be shared by a maximum of 64 polygons.
Lights (DirectionalLight, PointLight, SpotLight)
– Point lights and spot lights work best, however
directional lights are supported, though the
desired lighting effect maybe slightly off.
Material – Do not specifiy (export) a material
color if you want the geometry to be textured.
Textured and colored geometry is not currently
supported.
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232
CAD Loader (DirectModel or JT)
PROTO – Be careful using this type, it is not
currently fully supported.
TextureCoordinate – Do not specifiy a material
color if you want texture coordinates to work
correctly.
USE/DEF – Do not create recursive DEFs. That
is:
DEF Mytype {
USE Mytype
…
}
Viewpoint – This works, but currently sets the
active viewpoint each time this node type is
encountered. Hence a file with 10 viewpoints
will cause the importer to change the active
viewpoint ten times
• Unsupported Node Types:
If any of these appear in the file most will be
discarded as expected.
Chapter
Sensors (CylinderSensor, PlaneSensor,
ProximitySensor, SphereSensor, TimeSensor,
TouchSensor, VisibilitySensor) - Discarded
Sound - Discarded
Text - Discarded
WorldInfo - Discarded
Exporting a File as VRML1.0
If you are planning to export your scene graph in the
VRML format, you will need to ensure that all of
your textures are stored as JPEG files. This is
because web browsers do not support *.rgb or *.tga
files. They require JPEG or GIF IMAGE files (GIF
images are currently unsupported by WorldUp).
CAD Loader (DirectModel or
JT)
Background - Discarded
WorldUp now has CAD loader solution which can
load DirectModel (.jt) files. This is shipped as a
separate product.
Billboard - Treated as group node.
Notes on CAD Loader
Collision - Treated as group node.
• Geometry Reconstruction - At the geometry level
in the JT file format, vertex information is
organized in triangle strips for rendering
performance. Thus, the associated geometry
cannot be efficiently edited at the vertex level
(for example, vertices are not shared across strips
so you cannot move one vertex without creating
a hole in the model's mesh). WorldToolKit’s
jt2wt file loader actually processes these vertices
and reconstructs polygons out of them.
Duplicated vertices are collapsed into one shared
vertex, so the resulting database is efficient.
Audio Clip - Discarded
ExternPrototype - Discarded
FontStyle - Discarded
IndexedLineSet - Discarded
Interpolator - Discarded
NavigationInfo - Discarded
PointSet - Causes WTK to crash in one case. DO
NOT USE!
Routes - Discarded
Script - Discarded
• No support for textures.
Chapter
WorldToolKit Neutral File
Format (NFF) and Binary NFF
The NFF format is an efficient and readable
representation of 3D geometry. It is also useful as an
intermediary format between WorldUp and formats
not otherwise supported. An NFF or binary NFF file
can contain multiple geometries.
Wavefront OBJ
The Wavefront modeling tool generates this format.
WorldUp imports the 3D polygonal geometry and
curved surfaces that have been polygonalized.
Vertex normals and texture vertices are supported
for Gouraud shading and texture draping. WorldUp
reads map files and material files, but the only
supported properties are diffuse color (Kd) and
diffuse texture (map_Kd). An OBJ file describes a
single geometry.
Pro/Engineer RENDER SLP
WorldUp reads the facets in an SLP file as colored
polygons with vertex normals for smooth shading. A
SLP file contains only one geometry.
Autodesk DXF
Many CAD packages such as AutoCAD and other
3D modeling programs generate this common
format.
You can load in many other geometry files into
WorldUp using third-party geometry conversion
programs capable of writing formats that WorldUp
can read. A program, such as PolyTrans, reads and
writes most popular 3D file formats.
WorldToolKit Neutral File Format (NFF) and
Binary NFF
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Autodesk DXF
Chapter
235
G
Glossary
3D Sound
Spatialized sound that appears to the end-user to have a distinct location in the
simulation.
3DS
The native file format of Autodesk’s 3D Studio. You can use this binary file format to
represent 3D geometry, lighting, and animation.
6D Sensor
Sensors that have six degrees of freedom of movement. That is, they can control
movement in the X, Y, and Z direction, i.e. can control pitch, yaw, and roll.
Absolute Record
Sensor values that correspond to a specific absolute spatial location (i.e. the position
and orientation of the sensor). See also Relative Record.
Active Moveable
The movable currently occupying a behavior "input X" slot.
Active X Control
A powerful mechanism for embedding a 3D interface into a larger application where it
is not always appropriate to have 3D control the entire interface, or for where
traditional 2D control and/or additional multimedia elements are more appropriate for
a greater view. With this, you can embed your simulation inside of ActiveX Control
Containers, such as Visual Basic, Internet Explorer, or Macromedia Director.
Exposes an interface that allows communication between control and container.
Ambient Color
The material property that represents the color reflected from a material in shadow.
Ambient Light
Background light that illuminates all graphical objects equally, regardless of their
position or orientation. By default, ambient light is always present in a WorldUp
application.
Ancestor Node
Any node whose sub-tree contains a node (N), is considered to be an ancestor of
that node (N).
Anti-Aliasing
The process of reducing aliasing, or jaggies, in creating an image.
Application windows
The windows in which the simulation displays when you run the simulation as an
application within WorldUp, or when your end-users run the simulation using one of
the WorldUp players. Application windows are created from the Window object type.
Attenuation
The degree to which a point or spot light’s intensity decreases with increasing
distance from the position of the light.
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Chapter
Axis
An axis represents a reference line of a coordinate system along which a geometry is
translated, or around which a geometry is scaled or rotated. There are three axes (X,
Y, and Z) representing width, height, and depth.
Back Face
The back face of a polygon is the side facing away from the direction of the polygon
normal (or if the polygon does not have a polygon normal, the back face is the side
from which the polygon’s vertices appear in clockwise order).
Back Face Rejection
The elimination of a single-sided polygon (that is, a polygon that can only be viewed
from one side) from the rendering process. In the back face rejection process, those
polygons whose normals face away from the viewpoint (or whose vertices appear in
clockwise order) are not rendered.
Base Window
All viewports must have a base window which acts as frame to hold a set of
viewports. A Base window can contain up to 8 viewports.
BasicScript
A scripting language which is syntactically identical to Microsoft’s Visual Basic.
BasicScript Encryption
A binary version of a script file which can be generated by WorldUp so that the
contents of your scripts can remain hidden even when you distribute your simulation
by deploying your .WUP or .UP file. Encrypted BasicScript files have an .EBC
extension, while BasicScript ascii files have an .EBS extension.
Baud Rate
Data transmission speed in bits per second.
Behavior State
A Behavior has 3 defined states:
• READY (0) Behavior is ready to fire (could be disabled though through its Enabled
property)
• FIRING (1) A Behavior is currently in it's or one of it's children's callbacks.
• SPENT (2) Behavior has fired, and as a result of its Repeating property set to false,
is not ready to fire again. This typically occurs in "one shot" behaviors.
Behavior System
• Provides a mechanism for visually assembling simulations rather than programming
them.
• Provides a natural learning pathway for increasing simulation complexity
• Provides a redistribution mechanism so that users can both provide and benefit
from other pre-built behaviors.
Behavior Wizard
The interface that enables you to author your own script based Triggers and Actions.
A series of dialogs the steps you through the process of creating a new Behavior
type.
Behavior Workview
The Workview where all Behavior creation and scheduling is done. This Workview is
comprised of four panes which together allow you to create a new behavior, schedule
the behavior, add inputs to the behavior, edit the behavior’s properties, and finally
export the behavior for re-use.
BFF
The binary version of SENSE8’s neutral file format used for representing 3D
geometry. See NFF.
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Chapter
Bothsides
(of a polygon)
Polygons have front and back sides (or faces). The side facing in the direction of the
polygon normal (or if there is no polygon normal, the side from which the vertices
appear in counter-clockwise order) is considered to be the front facing side. You can
choose to display just the front side of a polygon or bothsides of a polygon. If a
polygon is bothsided, it can be viewed from either side.
Bounding Box
Also known as Extents Box (smallest box that surrounds an object). The term
bounding box sometimes refers to the fact that extents boxes can be made visible in
the scene.
Breakpoint
A user-specified line in a script at which WorldUp will stop running the script. You set
breakpoints to help debug your script. For example, if you set breakpoints on lines 4
and 7 of the script and the script runs correctly up to the first break point, but fails
before the second breakpoint, the failure is somewhere between lines 5 and 7.
Callback
A Behavior's actual subroutine ( C or BasicScript ) that represents the Behaviors
actual function.
Casting
Mechanism in BasicScript by which objects can be assigned to variables whose type
is not identical to the object’s type. To use casting, the object’s type must be a
subtype or supertype of the variable’s type.
Centroid
The centermost position of a three-dimensional object.
Child Node
A scene graph node that is a direct descendent of another (parent) node. A child
node can inherit state information from its ancestor nodes.
Collision Detection
Intersection testing of objects at either the bounding box level or at the polygon level.
Concave Polygons
Any polygon that has at least one interior angle greater than 180 degrees.
Coordinate System
A positional system, containing X, Y, and Z components, by which three-dimensional
entities can be described. See Local Coordinate System, Parent Coordinate System,
and World Coordinate System.
Coplanar Polygon
Polygon surfaces that overlap and lie in the same plane.
Culling
See Hierarchical Culling.
Cylindrical Mapping
A technique for applying texture mapping coordinates so that the image appears to
be wrapped around the object in a tube-like fashion. The application of a label to a
can or bottle is an example of cylindrical mapping.
Data Point Entry Mode
The mouse, when used with the WorldUp Modeler, is in one of two modes at any one
time: viewpoint manipulation mode or data point entry. Data point entry mode allows
you to create, edit, and select the components of your model.
Descendant Node
Any node that is contained in the sub-tree of another node is considered to be a
descendant of that node.
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Chapter
Development windows
The application window in the application editor, where you can manipulate your
Node objects as you develop the simulation. Development windows are created from
the DevWindow subtype, located under the Window type.
Diffuse Color
The material property that represents the color reflected from a material in direct
light.
Diffuse Light
Positional or directional light that illuminates polygons as a function of the angle
between the light direction and the polygon (or vertex) normal.
Direct Model (.jt files)
A cross-platform large CAD model rendering toolkit
Directed Light
A light source that has direction but no (finite) position. A directed light can be used to
emulate the effects of sunlight.
Distributed Simulation
A simulation that is shared between multiple users across the network.
DLL
A Dynamic Link Library is a software library which dynamically links to an application
at runtime.
DOF
Degrees of freedom. See 6D Sensor.
Downstream
A descendant to a Behavior's is said to be downstream.
DXF
Drawing Interchange Format. This file format was developed by Autodesk, Inc. as a
way to transfer geometric data from one design application to another.
Emissive
A material property that represents the color produced (not reflected) by the material
even when there is no light. A geometry with this property can be seen even when
there are no lights in the scene, however, the emissive light does not illuminate other
geometry in the area. This material property is used less often than the others
Encrypted BasicScript Files
See BasicScript Encryption.
Euler
A mathematical representation of a position and orientation in three-dimensional
space.
Extents Box
The extents box is the smallest box that fits around an object. See also Midpoint and
Radius.
Extrusion
The 3D outline or object created by taking a 2D contour and extending it into three
dimensions.
Facet Mapping
A technique for applying texture mapping coordinates so that the image appears on
each polygon of a object. For example, if facet mapping is applied to a cube, each
facet of the cube would look the same.
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Chapter
Flip Normals
A polygon has a front side and a back side (face). The side of the polygon facing in
the direction of the polygon normal is the front face. The side of the polygon facing
away from the direction of the polygon normal is the back face. (See Backface for
information regarding polygons which do not have polygon normals.) The Flip
Normals command in the Modeler swaps a polygon’s front and back faces.
FLT
MultiGen/ModelGen Flight file format used to represent geometric objects. FLT files
can contain multiple geometric objects and may contain textures and LODs.
Fog Node
A scene graph node used to simulate fog, smoke, etc.
Frame
An individual rendering loop during which each active window is redrawn after
updating sensor input, path information, and running scripts associated with
simulation objects. See also Simulation Loop.
Frame of Reference
Allows you to select a reference frame (coordinate system) about which objects are
translated and rotated. Four reference frames are available. World, Parent, Local and
View. World: Object manipulation is performed in the universe’s reference frame.
Parent: Manipulation is performed relative to the frame of the node’s parents. Local:
Manipulation is performed relative to the selected node’s local frame. View:
Manipulation is performed relative to the viewpoint’s frame.
Frame Rate
The number of times per second that WorldUp completes the simulation loop, i.e.
renders a frame.
Front Face
The side of the polygon in the direction of the polygon normal. The front face of a
polygon which does not have a polygon normal, is the side from which the polygon’s
vertices appear in counter-clockwise order.
Geometry Node
A scene graph node, such as block, sphere, cylinder, text3d, or imported, which is
used to model physical objects contained in the scene.
Gouraud Shading
A technique used for shading a 3D graphical object composed of polygons, by
interpolating light intensities at the vertices of each polygon’s face, rendering a
smooth surface.
Graphical objects
Objects created from the Geometry object type or one of its subtypes (Block,
Cylinder, Imported, Sphere, and Text3d).
Graphics Pipeline
Many high performance systems utilize specialized graphics hardware (aka graphics
pipeline) to substantially increase the system’s ability to process and render
geometric objects composed of polygons.
Group Node
A scene graph node that has children and is used to organize components of the
scene graph in a logical manner.
GUI
Acronym for graphical user interface. Also called user interface (UI).
Head Mounted Display
A display device that is worn on the head, which sometimes permits position and
orientation tracking.
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Chapter
Heads Up Display
The static portion of an image rendered on a display device.
Hierarchical Culling
WorldUp’s automatic process of quickly and efficiently eliminating objects that are not
visible from the viewpoint so that they are not unnecessarily processed during the
rendering process.
Hierarchy
Used in the context of scene graphs, hierarchy refers to how the nodes in a scene
graph are organized and the relationship of one node to another. Used in the context
of the Type Workview, hierarchy refers to how object types are sub-classed from other
types.
Hither Clipping Plane
The physical range in front of the viewpoint, before which objects are not rendered in
that window. That is, objects that appear between the viewpoint and the hither
clipping plane are not rendered. Objects are rendered only in the area between the
hither clipping plane and the yon clipping plane. Hither Clipping is a Window property.
HLS
HLS stands for hue/luminance/saturation.
Input Slot
The slot that hold a Behavior's "Active" input, which is the object the Behavior is
currently acting upon.
InputList
A list of WUPObjects set by the behavior user to define the list of objects that a
behavior will act upon. The Task Scheduler uses this list to fill slot "in1" as such,
"InputListX" and "inx" will always have the same type. This list is accessed either
through the IDE, or with the behavior functions AddToInputList(int, Movable) and
RemoveFromInputList(int, Movable)
Instance
WorldUp’s scene graph hierarchy allows geometry nodes to be referenced multiple
times within a scene graph. Since it is sometimes necessary to identify a particular
occurrence of a node to distinguish it from other occurrences, each occurrence is
called an instance.
Interpolation
The method of determining a new value using two or more existing values. WorldUp
uses interpolation when new paths are created from previously defined paths.
Intersection Testing
See Collision Detection.
Iterators
Iterators are script variables used to cycle through objects of a given type. Search on
“GetFirst” and “GetNext” in the online help.
Leaf Node
A scene graph node that has no descendants.
Level of Detail (LOD) Node
A scene graph node used to automatically select between different representations
(levels of detail) of an object based upon the distance between the object and the
viewpoint position.
Light Node
A scene graph node used to specify a light (point, directed, or spot).
Material
A material is used to define the appearance of graphical objects and consists of the
following material properties: ambient color, diffuse color, specular color, shininess,
emissive, and translucency.
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Material Table
Used to store the material properties of any number of materials. Each geometric
object references a number of materials from the material table that is associated
with that object.
MaterialNode
Is the most flexible way to add material to an object. The MaterialNode allows
materials to be created, edited and saved out for reusing in the Development
Environment.
Matrix
A 3x3 or 4x4 array of floating point numbers which is a mathematical entity that can
be used to represent position and orientation in 2D/3D space.
Mesh
A group of polygons that share vertices and define a complex surface, such as a
curved hood on a car. In the Modeler, meshes can be selected as a unit by using
Select by Connected.
Midpoint
The center of a node’s extents box. See also Extents Box and Radius.
Model Workview
The import central for importing models into WorldUp simulation.
Motion Link
Used to connect a source of position and orientation information (a path or sensor)
with a target that moves to correspond with that changing set of information. A target
can be any Viewpoint or Movable object.
Movable Node
A scene graph node that represents self-contained entities like geometries or lights
that can be easily moved around in the scene.
NFF
Neutral File Format, SENSE8’s neutral ASCII file format used for representing 3D
geometry.
Node
The fundamental element or building block used to construct a scene graph. A node
is simply an element of content (like a geometry or light), state (fog), or a grouping/
procedural element (group, switcher or lod) used to maintain scene hierarchy.
Node-locked License
A WorldUp software license designed to be used on a stand-alone computer.
Normal
A direction vector used for shading and rendering. Normals can be applied at both
the vertex and polygon level. A polygon normal is perpendicular to the polygon
surface and extends outward from the visible side of the polygon. A vertex normal
represents the direction that is perpendicular to the tangent vector at the vertex
position of the polygon.
Normalized
A normalized vector is a vector whose magnitude is 1.0.
OBJ
Wavefront/Alias file format used for representing 3D geometry.
Objects
Are one of the core building blocks upon which your simulation is built. Graphical
objects are the objects that you can see in the Application window. The objects in a
scene/simulation are what ultimately gets drawn.
Object Types
The classes of objects that can be instantiated or sub-typed. Each object type has a
number of properties which describe the characteristics of the object type.
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Opacity
See Translucency.
Optimization
A technique used to optimally organize the contents of an imported geometry node
so that it can be rendered in the shortest amount of time. Once an imported
geometry node’s optimized flag is set, you will not be able to make edits to the
imported geometry, unless you unset the optimized flag.
Orphaned Nodes
Nodes that are not contained in the Scene Workview but are in the Type Workview
are considered to be orphaned nodes. This can occur if nodes are removed from the
Scene Workview.
Orthogonal Viewing
A 2D view of the universe (helpful for fine tuning object positioning.)
Orthographic Projection
Orthographic projection is a window property that can be set if you want plan views or
anytime a perspective distortion is not desired; parallel lines remain parallel
regardless of viewpoint position. Translations in the X and Y directions work as
before, but translations along the Z-axis do not affect the scene. If this window
property is not set, the view seen will be a 3D perspective projection. See
Perspective Projection.
Output Slot
The slot that holds a Behavior's "Active " output, which is the object the Behavior has
most recently written.
Parallax
A property of the Viewpoint object type which represents the distance between the
left eye and the right eye position when using a stereo viewing device.
Parent coordinate system
The coordinate system of the parent object in the scene graph.
Parent Node
A node’s direct ancestor in the scene graph.
Path
Stores a series of position and orientation records in absolute world coordinates. A
path can be used to pre-program a flight path through a scene, or to pre-define the
motion of an object within the scene.
Path Element
A single position and orientation record. A sequence of path elements defines a path.
Perspective Projection
Perspective projection is a window projection type that is used to display objects in
three dimensions (height, width, and depth). By default, a window’s orthographic
property is FALSE, and hence a perspective projection will be used in each
simulation. See Orthographic Projection.
Perspective Viewing
A 3D view of the universe.
Picking
The ability to select the front-most rendered polygon (i.e. object) in a window.
Pitch
The orientation of an object about the X axis.
Pivot Point
The point around which vertices rotate and are scaled. The default pivot point is at
the center of the object or set of selected vertices.
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Pixel
A contraction of “picture element,” it refers to one point in a graphics image on a
computer display. A standard VGA display might have 640 x 480 pixels. The number
of bits per pixel determines how many colors can be represented on the image. VGA
displays typically have eight bits per pixel. “Truecolor” displays typically use 24 bits
per pixel.
Planar Mapping
A technique for applying texture mapping coordinates so that the image appears to
be projected through an object.
Planar Polygon
Polygons whose vertices are all positioned within the allowable distance (0.004))
from the plane passing through the vertices.
Plug-In SDK
is a set of high level C functions simulation authors can use to extend the functionality
of WorldUp.
Plug-Ins
Are created with R5’s optional Pug-in Kit. Plug-ins are custom simulation objects that
directly interface with the WorldUp Object System using a high level set of object
management routines. Plug-ins can be made re-usable.
Point Light
An omni-directional source of lighting capable of being positioned by the user. A light
bulb is an example of a point light source.
Polygon
A polygon is a planar surface defined by a set of three or more vertices. It is the basic
building block of geometries. Polygon properties include material, texture, bothsides,
and smooth.
Polygon Normal
See Normal.
Port
A logical channel in a communications system. See also Serial Port.
Portability
The ability to move a simulation built using WorldUp from one hardware platform to
another platform without having to recompile or make extensive changes to the
simulation.
Position
The current X, Y, and Z coordinates of an object.
Pre-Built Behaviors
A basic library of Triggers and Actions most commonly found in interactive
simulations.
Predecessor Node
Any node in a scene graph that can directly affect how a specific node (N) is
processed is considered to be a predecessor of that node (N), even though that node
is not an ancestor node.
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Primary Input
A WUPObject that is acknowledged as a primary, required, input to a behavior's
callback function. The Behavior author defines 0, 1 or 2 inputs. The 1st input ("in1") is
assumed by the Task Scheduler to be the current WUPObject that the Behavior will
act upon. The Task Scheduler fills in this property based on either the Behavior's
parent's out1 property or from the user-defined list of WUPObjects ("InputListX").
Primary inputs implemented as a special property set that includes the properties
"inX", "InputListX", and "UsesParentX." "InputListX" and "InX" are of the same type,
and are defined by the Behavior Author. These properties are not manipulated
directly, but indirectly via the GUI.
Primary Output
A WUPObject that is acknowledged as a primary, required, output parameter of a
behavior's callback function. The Behavior Author defines 0, 1 or 2 outputs. Primary
Outputs are defined by the Behavior Author and are added during Subtyping.
Primary Outputs are implemented as "out1" and "out2". They are read-only.
Primitive (Geometric)
A three-dimensional basic geometric form (such as a block, sphere, or cylinder)
stored as a collection of polygons.
Project Workview
The overall tabbed interface that brings often used features of worldup into the user’s
view. The project Workview has a certain row of tabs along the top of it that select a
certain ‘view of the project’. These tabbed views are the scene, model, behavior and
type Workviews.
Projection Modes
Defines how the scene is projected onto the display device. See Orthographic
Projection and Perspective Projection.
Propagation of state
When processing the scene graph tree, the lighting and positional state created by
each geometric or light movable accumulates (propagates) as the remainder of the
scene graph is processed.
Property
Object types and instances of objects have a set of properties which defines the
object’s characteristics. The actual property values assigned to an object’s properties
is what distinguishes two objects of the same type. Each property is typed, that is it
can be an integer, float, or any other WorldUp supported type.
Property Pane
The pane helpful in viewing and changing the properties of an object. The property
pane has four tabs; All, Important, Subtype and Editable. "All" tab shows all the
properties of the selected object. "Important" tab just shows the most specific and
basic properties of an object which are required to create the object. "Subtype"
shows all the properties that exist in the derived type that doesn’t exist in its parent.
"Editable", as the name says, lists all the properties, which can be edited. In "All" tab
the properties shown in Red color are protected or read-only which can not be
changed.
Quads
Four-sided polygons.
Quaternion
A mathematical representation of an orientation.
Radius
The distance from the midpoint of a node’s extents box to a corner of the box. This is
the same as the length of the extents vector. See also Extents Box and Midpoint.
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Ray Casting
A ray is a vector representing a direction. Ray casting is the process of calculating a
ray that emanates from a position (for example, a viewpoint) and which then passes
through a specified point. Ray casting can be used for terrain following or intersection
testing.
Real-time Simulation
A 3D application (such as a WorldUp simulation) that responds to input and displays
the corresponding change (almost) instantly. When measured in frames per second,
real-time usually means at least 10 fps.
Reflection Mapping
Cues to the viewer that determine the spatial relationships between objects. The way
visible surfaces are reflected, takes into account light sources, surface
characteristics, and the positions and orientations of the surfaces and sources.
Relative Record
Sensor values that correspond to a sensor’s change in spatial location (position and
orientation) since the last time through the simulation loop. See also Absolute
Record.
Rendering
Generation of a graphical image from mathematical models of three-dimensional
objects, i.e. a scene.
Rendering Settings
The Project’s Rendering Settings for displaying geometries in a simulation. Types of
rendering include wireframe, shaded, textured, and textured with perspective
correction.
RenderNode
Allows you to create your own custom RenderNode type with the optional Plug-in Kit
from Sense8. The RenderNode is a node in the Scene Graph that calls back to a user
defined function in every frame during traversal of the Scene Graph. The userdefined function contains low-level drawing commands the user can execute,
allowing the user a greater flexibility than is offered by the other physical objects in
the Scene Graph. The benefit of RenderNode existing in the Scene Graph is that the
node can accumulate the state of the Scene Graph, including lighting and
transformations.
Resources
A resource is a file that contains objects, types, or geometry entries that can be
extracted and used in the current simulation. Any geometry file of one of the
supported file formats, or any universe (.UP) file can be opened as a resource.
RGB
RGB stands for the red, green, and blue components of a color specification. Valid
values for color components range from 0 to 255. An RGB triple of (255, 0, 0)
represents the color red while an RGB triple of (255, 255, 0) is yellow.
Right-hand Rule
The WorldUp coordinate system obeys the right-hand rule. The default coordinate
system has the X axis pointing to the right, the Y axis pointing down, and the Z axis
pointing straight ahead.
Roll
The orientation of an object about the Z axis.
Root Node
A scene graph node that is the top most node in any scene graph. A scene graph has
only one root node. All other nodes in the scene graph are descendants of the root
node.
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Rotation
The turning of an object so that it has a different orientation.
Scene
The virtual world being displayed.
Scene Graph
The spatial organization and relationship of Node objects to each other is controlled
by your scene graph. A scene graph is a hierarchical arrangement of nodes,
organized beneath a single Root node. In WorldUp, you view and modify your scene
graph with the Scene Workview.
The order in which nodes appear in the Scene Graph pane determines the order in
which nodes are processed and the order in which graphical nodes are rendered.
Scene Workview
The most commonly used Workview for creating new objects, editing their properties,
scene assembly and scene graph layout. The Scene Workview consists of Nodes
pane on the left, Scene Graph pane on the right and Property pane at the bottom.
Script
A script is a collection of one or more functions written in BasicScript that exist in a
script file to add behavior to your objects (such as animating objects, detecting
collisions between objects, etc.). Script files have an .EBS extension. WorldUp uses
two kinds of scripts: Stand-Alone and Task.
Script-Based Behavior
A BasicScript Behavior. All BasicScript Behavior's are comprised of 3 parts:
1. A Script Behavior Object
2. A Script Handler Object
3. A Script File
Script Handler
The WUP Script Object associated with a WUP BasicScript Behavior
Selection Sets
Selection sets are temporary (per modeling session) collections of vertices or
polygons of a geometry assigned to one of three letter buttons (A, B, or C) in the
Select Menu (or toolbar) of the Modeler. Selection sets allow you to manipulate and
assign commands to groups of elements within a geometry. For example, by making
all of an object’s polygons part of a selection set, you can copy them all at once.
Sensor
A device that responds to physical movement and that transmits the resulting position
and (possibly) orientation information.
Sensor Sensitivity
The scale factor associated with a sensor’s translational record, i.e. the maximum
magnitude of translational input along any axis in any pass through the simulation
loop.
Serial Port
A connector on a computer where you can attach a serial line connected to
peripherals that communicate using a serial protocol.
Shading
The process of rendering polygons, especially when using lighting effects. See
Gouraud Shading.
Shaded Texture
When you enable the texture shading feature, texture colors are affected by lights in
the scene. If colored lights are used, the color of texture elements is also affected.
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Shininess
A material property that controls the narrowness of focus of specular highlights. This
has no meaning if the specular color is black (lighting of geometry rendered with
material properties is an “additive” process; a black specular highlight will not darken
the geometry; it simply won't contribute to a light highlight on the geometry). The
lower the shininess value, the more “spread out” the highlight; the higher the
shininess value, the sharper the highlight. A high value for shininess makes an object
look shiny.
Shutdown Script
The script that is run each time you close a universe (.UP). ). The Shutdown script for
a universe is indicated by the Shutdown Script property.
Sibling Node
Children of the same parent node are siblings.
Simulations
The 3D/VR applications that you can build using WorldUp.
Simulation Loop
When a WorldUp simulation is running, the simulation loop is repeatedly executed.
WorldUp reads input sensors, updates objects with sensor input, executes object
tasks and scripts, steps any paths, and renders a new view of your scene into the
simulation window(s) during each pass through the simulation loop. Each pass
through the simulation loop is called a frame.
Six Degrees of Freedom
See 6D Sensor.
SLP
Pro/Engineer file format used for representing 3D geometry.
Spanning
If true, it indicates a Behavior/Action spans multiple frames versus steady state.
Zoom to is an example of a behavior that spans.
Spatialized Sound
See 3D Sound.
Specular Color
A material property that represents the color reflected from the highlights of the
geometry. The specular material property is what makes a geometry appear to be
“shiny” with highlights appearing on its surface. Usually, the specular highlight is
white, which means that it reflects the color of the specular light (which is also usually
white).
Spherical Mapping
A technique for applying texture mapping coordinates so that the image appears to
be wrapped around the object in a spherical fashion. A good example of spherical
mapping would be a world globe.
Spot Light
A light source that illuminates a small area, within a cone of a specified angle. An
automobile headlight is an example of a spot light source.
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Stand-Alone Script
A Stand-Alone script contains a Main subroutine.
Scripts can contain any number of routines, but only scripts that contain a Main
subroutine are Stand-Alone scripts. A script can only have one Main subroutine (In
fact, a script cannot contain more than one routine with the same name).
You can run any Stand-Alone script independent of the simulation (that is, the script
does not have to be attached to an object). Additionally, in WorldUp, you can
designate particular Stand-Alone scripts to be your Startup, Shutdown, and User
scripts.
Stand-Alone scripts are also used to define the action for Navigation Bar buttons.
Startup Script
The script that is run each time you load a project (.UP). The Startup script for a
universe is indicated by the Startup Script property. Startup scripts are useful for
loading .DLL files.
State
Refers to the accumulated lighting and positional state that results during the
processing of a scene graph. The scene graph state affects how and where geometry
is rendered at any particular point in the scene graph.
Stereoscopic Viewing
The visual effect achieved when part of your scene appears to be in front of your
display screen, and part of the scene appears to be behind your display screen,
giving the illusion that the image is a 3 dimensional image.
Subfaces
ModelGen and MultiGen permit “subfaces,” polygons that generally are oriented in
the same plane as another polygon, but that are intended to appear as if they are on
top of the other polygon. When polygons with subfaces are translated literally into the
WorldUp viewing format, Z-buffer roundoff becomes pronounced, resulting in
flickering between the coplanar faces as the object is rendered. When WorldUp
encounters subfaces in an OpenFlight file, it translates them by a constant amount in
the direction of the parent polygon’s normal vector.
Sub-tree
A node and all its descendants in the scene graph is called a sub-tree of the overall
scene graph tree.
Sub-type
Lists only the properties of the subtype which are not present in the parent type.
When you create a subtype, it inherits all of the properties of the type from which it
was derived and becomes subordinate to that type.
Switcher Node
A scene graph node that allows the user to control which of its children to process.
Task Scheduler
This graph on the Behavior Workview shows the execution flow of all scheduled
behaviors, as well as each behaviors inputs. This allows the user to both see the
execution order and to drag and drop objects onto specific inputs.
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Task Script
A Task script contains a Task subroutine. The task subroutine must take one
parameter of the appropriate type.
Similar to Stand-Alone scripts, a Task script can contain any number of other
routines, but must have one and only one Task subroutine.
Each object in your simulation has a task list. You implement the behavior in a Task
script by adding that script to the task list of one or more objects, and then running
the simulation. When you run the simulation, Task scripts are executed every frame
for every object to which the Task script is attached.
Tessellation
Refers to the manner in which the surface of a geometric object is modeled via
polygons. Finer tessellations usually require the use of more polygons than a rough
tessellation. For example, a cone that was tessellated using 100 polygons would,
when rendered, appear much superior to a cone that was tessellated using only 10
polygons, since the 10 polygon tessellated cone would appear very faceted.
Texels
A contraction of “Texture element”, it refers to the individual texture elements of a
texture image.
Text Fields
A text field user interface object is a simple object that allows a user to enter text
using the keyboard. Text field objects are normally used as a single line data entry
field. It gives the user text editing capabilities and also provides the point and click
functionality expected of GUI applications.
Texture
A bitmap image usually created for the purpose of applying complex images to
simple polygons to increase the visual quality of the simulation and to also improve
the performance of the simulation.
Texture Draping
The process of applying a texture bitmap image stored in a file to a polygon or an
entire geometry.
Texture Mapping
The process of applying a digitized image onto a polygon or structure composed of
polygons.
Texture Tiling
Mechanism by which a texture image can be applied to a polygon in a manner such
that the image is repeated a number of times horizontally across the polygon and/or
vertically across the polygon, producing a ‘tiling’ effect.
Texture uv Coordinates
WorldUp allows you to specify how the texture is mapped onto a polygon, by allowing
you to specify texture (uv) coordinates in polygon definitions.
The Universe
The container object for all global properties used by WorldUp.
TPS
Triangles per second. A commonly used statistic used to compare performance
characteristics of graphics hardware.
Transformation Matrix
See Matrix.
Translation
A change in an object’s position.
Translucency
A material property that represents the extent to which the color value of a pixel is
combined with the color value behind it, giving the affect of a transparent surface.
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Traversal Order
The order in which nodes in a scene graph are processed while the simulation is
running. WorldUp starts at the root node and processes the scene graph tree from
top to bottom and left to right.
Type Workview
Type Workview is used for creating custom subtypes, viewing and changing type and
object properties. The Type Workview consists of a Type Graph pane and a Property
pane below it. The Type graph pane displays the complete set of worldup Types,
including non-Node types such as Windows, the Universe, Sensors and MotionLinks.
Unit
An arbitrary measurement that you use to represent distance (inches, feet,
centimeters, meters, etc.).
Universal Resource Locator
(URL)
String properties used in VRML files to specify a file location and file name that
contains data to be imported.
Universe or UP Files
A .UP file is a WorldUp universe file which is used to save your simulation. An .UP
file, as opposed to an .WUP file, does not incorporate script, model, image, and
sound file data into the .UP file. Instead a .UP file references other files which contain
this information.
Upstream
An ancestor to a Behavior is said to be upstream.
User Script
The script that is run each time you click the User-Defined Action button. User scripts
are useful for performing routine actions like resetting objects to their initial positions.
The User script for a project is indicated by the User Script property.
Vertex
A single point in three-dimensional space, which defines a corner of a polygon. A
sequence of vertices defines a polygon. Vertex properties include position, normal,
and texture UV coordinates.
Vertex Normals
A direction vector used for shading and rendering. You can generate vertex normals
with a modeling program. When WorldUp reads a vertex with a normal associated
with it, it automatically renders the associated polygon as Gouraud-shaded. See also
Normals.
Viewpoint
Defines the position and orientation from which the graphical universe is projected to
the computer screen and rendered within a window. Each window has a viewpoint
associated with it. The viewpoint represents the point of view of the observer.
Viewports
Viewports represent the actual drawing area of a window. All WorldUp windows have
a default viewport assigned to them. This viewport is given the same dimensions as
the client area of the window, but can be changed by the user.
VRML
An acronym for Virtual Reality Modeling Language. A specification for the design and
implementation of a platform-independent language for virtual reality scene
description.
Wireframe
A rendering setting in which textures, materials, and shading is not visible because
only the outlines of polygons will be rendered, i.e. polygons will not be solid-filled.
Rendering using the wireframe style typically achieves the highest frame rate of any
of the rendering settings.
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Workview
Provides a more efficient workflow by simplifying the User Interface, using tabs, for
the task on which one is focused.
World Coordinate System
The World Coordinate System (WCS) originates at the center of the universe, defined
as XYZ coordinates 0,0,0.
WorldToolKit
Sense8 Corporation also produces WorldToolKit, which is a C/C++ library used by
programmers to build real-time 3D virtual reality applications. WorldUp is built on top
of WorldToolKit.
WorldUp Player
The WorldUp players allow end-users to run your simulations without having to install
WorldUp on their machines. There are both commercial and non-commercial players
available. The non-commercial players are freely-distributable.
WRL
The VRML file format used for representing hierarchical 3D geometry and other data.
WUP Files
A .WUP file is a WorldUp project file that contains all the information required to run
your simulation. A .WUP file, as opposed to an .UP file, does not reference any other
files and is therefore suitable for distribution over the Internet so that others can run
the simulation you built and exported as a .WUP file.
Yaw
The orientation of an object about the Y axis.
Yon Clipping Plane
The physical range in front of the viewpoint, beyond which objects are not rendered in
that window. That is, objects appearing beyond the yon clipping plane are not
rendered. Objects are rendered only in the area between the hither clipping plane
and the yon clipping plane. See Hither Clipping Plane.
Z-buffer
A software or hardware buffer that stores Z coordinate information when rendering
3D scenes.
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253
Numerics
2D drawing
performance statistics, 22
3D content
overview, 8
3D drawing
performance statistics, 22
3D Mouse
defined constants, 159
suspend button, 159
3D text
creating, 104
font files, 104
objects, 104
A
Absolute
search paths, 40
sensor records, 153
Activating connections, 177
Active Child property, 28
Add Type Property dialog box, 90
Adding
properties, 90
search paths, 40
All tab (Property pane), 91
Ambient light, 122
Angular Rate property, 170
Animation
using Switcher nodes, 27
Application windows
definition, 95
running simulations in, 21
Applications
running simulations as, 20
Ascension Bird
configuration, 158
Ascension Mouse
defined constants, 157
ASCMOUSE_LEFTDOWN, 157
ASCMOUSE_MIDDLEDOWN, 157
ASCMOUSE_RIGHTDOWN, 157
Attempting To Connect status message, 190
B
Behavior object, 128
Behavior Wizard, 127, 132
Behaviors
anatomy, 128
assembling, 129
importing and exporting, 135
overview, 18
pre-built, 127
scripts, 18
Behaviors pane, 126
Bezier interpolation method (paths), 139
Blocks
Block object type, 103
creating in the Development window, 104
Booleans
modifying in Property pane, 92
B-Spline interpolation method (paths), 139
C
Choose Material dialog box, 92
Clipping planes, 96
and windows, 96
Collision detection
performance tip, 192
Cones
Cone object type, 103
Conflict Encounter
status message, 190
Connected status message, 190
Connections
activating, 177
clock difference, 178
connected users, 175, 178
creating, 176
deleting, 177
editing, 177
introduction, 174
latency, 178
parameters, 178
responding to addition/removal of users, 176, 178
statistics, viewing, 177
status messages, 189
understanding, 174
update rates, 175
254
Constraints, 82
Contents of the WorldUp Installation, 3
Coordinate systems
and motion links, 145
Local, 14
overview, 13
Parent, 14
scene graph dragging options, 29
Viewpoint, 14
World, 14
Copying
objects, 88
shared properties, 182
Course slider (Position Object dialog box), 113
Create Object dialog box, 88
Create Path dialog box, 139
Create Subtype dialog box, 89
Creating
3D fonts, 195
3D text, 104
blocks, 104
connections, for multi-user simulations, 176
cylinders, 104
geometries (Development window), 103
groups, 25
LevelOfDetail nodes, 26
node instances, 31
object types, 89
objects, 88
objects, performance tip, 192
projects, new, 37
properties, 90
sensors, 155
shared properties, for multi-user simulations, 180
sharegroups, for multi-user simulations, 186
spheres, 104
Switcher nodes, 28
viewpoints, 96
Creating Viewports, 98
Cropped objects
controlling clipping planes, 96
CrystalEyes
configuration, 163
Culling
automatic, 96
hierarchical, 17
CyberMaxx2
configuration, 167
Cylinders
creating in the Development window, 104
Cylinder object type, 103
D
Database connectivity, 197
Dead reckoning, 176
Default
objects, 19
sensor sensitivity, 170
Defined constants
3D Mouse, 159
Ascension Mouse, 157
Formula T2, 165
Mouse, 157
sample script, 157
Serial Joystick, 166
Space Control Mouse, 160
Spaceball, 163
Deleting
connections, 177
motion links, 145
node instances, 32
nodes, from scene graph only, 32
object types, 89
objects, 88
path elements, 143
paths, 144
properties, 91
search paths, 41
sharegroups, 188
Development environment
running simulations in, 20
Development window
dragging objects, 110
lock mode, 111
sliders, 83
Development windows
definition, 95
running simulations in, 21
DIP switch settings, 156
Direct 3D, 211
255
Directed light, 123
Directories
installed, 4
Display Options, 83
Display Options dialog box, 84
Distances
swapping nodes at certain distances, 26
Dragging
graphical objects, 110
lights and groups, 110
Movable objects, 110
options (scene graph), 29
Duplicate Share For Property status message, 190
Duplicating objects, 88
Dynamic inheritance, 90
E
Edit Children List dialog box, 32
Edit List dialog box, 92
Edit MLink Sources command, 145
Edit MLink Targets command, 145
Editable tab (Property pane), 91
Editing
connections, 177
path elements, 142
property values, 91
shared properties, 182
sharegroups, 188
Electromagnetic sensors
overview, 154
Euler angles, 112
Event Settings dialog box, 182
Events, 89
Group Added, 185, 189
overview, 18
Property Added, 185, 189
User Added, 176, 178
User Removed, 176, 178
Export Behavior, 135
Exporting
behaviors, 135
F
Failed To Connect status message, 190
FASTRAK
configuration, 160
Filenames
modifying in Property pane, 92
files
PUP, 135
Find Object dialog box, 89
Finding
objects, 89
Fine slider (Position Object dialog box), 113
Firewall Proxy
introduction, 174
Fog, 24
Fonts
changing font and font size (2D), 195
creating 3D fonts, 195
Formula T2
configuration, 164
defined constants, 165
FORMULA_BUTTON1, 165
FORMULA_BUTTON2, 165
FORMULA_SHIFTDN, 165
FORMULA_SHIFTUP, 165
Frame of Reference, 82
Frame rate
displaying rendering performance, 42
Profiler statistics, 21
sensors, 155
Free Fly, 82
Functions
performance statistics, 22
G
Gameport Joystick, 158
Geometries
adjusting pivot points, 116
Geometry object type, 103
scaling, 114
GetGlobalLocation
performance statistics, 22
Global simulation settings, 41
Glossary, 235
Graphical objects, 103
cropping, controlling, 96
dragging in Development window, 110
instancing, 31
256
overview, 16
snapping, 113, 114
Graphics accelerator cards, 1
Group Added events, 185, 189
Groups
dragging, 110
Group nodes, 25
LevelOfDetail nodes, 26, 197
overview, 25
Switcher nodes, 27
H
Hiding/showing
Development window sliders, 83
rendering performance, 42
Hierarchical culling, 17
Hierarchies, 16
scene graphs, 24
sharegroups, 184
Hither clipping
and windows, 96
I
Icons
objects and object types, 15
search paths, 41
i-Glasses!
configuration, 168
Import Behavior, 135
Important tab (Property pane), 91
Imported object type, 103
Importing
behaviors, 135
Insertion indicator
in the Network Browser, 180, 186
InsideTRAK
configuration, 161
Installation
installed programs and files, 3
instructions, 2
system requirements, 1
WorldUp Players, 210
Instancing nodes, 31
Integers
modifying in Property pane, 92
IntersectMovable
performance statistics, 22
IntersectUniverse
performance statistics, 22
Introduction
3D content, 8
behaviors, 18
coordinate systems, 13
events, 18
graphical objects, 16
scene graphs, 16
scripts, 18
World Up features, 8
ISOTRAK/ISOTRAK II
configuration, 162
L
LEFTDOWN, 157
LEFTHELD, 157
LEFTUP, 157
Level Of Detail Ranges dialog box, 27, 92
LevelOfDetail nodes, 26, 197
creating, 26
problems with, 196
setting ranges for, 27
License codes, 5
License Manager, 3
Lights
and sensors, 123
and vertex colors, 197
directed, 123
dragging, 110
maximum number, 122
point, definition, 123
Rendering Parameters dialog box, 41
spot, definition, 123
Linear interpolation method (paths), 139
Linking (motion links)
sources to targets, 145
targets to sources, 145
Lists
modifying in Property pane, 92
Local coordinate system, 14
Locating
objects with the Find command, 89
257
Lock Selected, 83
Locked properties (multi-user simulations), 179, 184
Locked sharegroups (multi-user simulations), 185, 188
Locking
view/selection to an object, 111
LOD Ranges
modifying in Property pane, 92
LOGI_FLYINGHELD, 159
LOGI_LEFTHELD, 159
LOGI_MIDDLEHELD, 159
LOGI_RIGHTHELD, 159
LOGI_SUSPEND, 159
Loop play option (paths), 142
M
MAG_BTN1DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN2DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN3DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN4DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN5DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN6DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN7DOWN, 160
MAG_BTN8DOWN, 160
MAG_BTNADOWN, 160
Materials
applying in the Development window, 104
as affected by light, 121
selecting in Property pane, 92
vertex colors, 197
Maximum
number of lights, 122
Memory requirements, 2
MIDDLEDOWN, 157
MIDDLEHELD, 157
MIDDLEUP, 157
Misc Data property, 170
Models
creating levels of detail, 197
efficient, 193
radiosity-preprocessed, 197
tricks, 197
using in simulations, 103
Motion Link Sources dialog box, 96, 145
Motion Link Targets dialog box, 145
Motion links
and reference frames, 145
assigning sources, 145
assigning targets, 145
creating from the Path Browser, 140
removing, 145
Mouse
defined constants, 157
Mouse sensitivity, 85
Movables
and sensors, 144
dragging, 110
linking to paths, 140
translating and rotating, 110
Movement
through sensors, 144
Moving
sharegroups in data tree, 188
Moving objects, 110
by dragging, 110
from the Position Object dialog box, 113
from the Property pane, 111
Multi-user simulations
connections, 174
shared properties, 179
sharegroups, 184
N
Navigating
changing views, 83
Development window sliders, 83
mouse speed, 85
Navigation control panels, 95
removing from plug-in players, 196
Network Browser
creating connections, 176
creating sharegroups, 186
deleting sharegroups, 188
editing sharegroups, 188
moving sharegroups in data tree, 188
moving/copying properties in data tree, 182
removing shared properties, 182
Network Connection dialog box, 177
Networking mode, 177
.NFF format, 198
Nodes
258
definition, 16
grouping, 25
instancing, 31
overview, 24
removing from scene graph, 32
swapping nodes at certain distances, 26
using Switchers to ignore/render certain objects, 27
Not Connected status message, 189
O
object
behavior, 128
Object (data type)
modifying in Property pane, 92
Object types, 14
Block, 103
Cone, 103
creating, 89
Cylinder, 103
deleting, 89
DirectedLight, 123
Fog, 24
Geometry, 103
Group, 25
icons, 15
Imported, 103
LevelOfDetail, 26
Node, 24
PointLight, 123
Root, 25
Sensor, 144
Sphere, 104
SpotLight, 123
Switcher, 27
Text3d, 104
W2WConnection, 175
W2WSharedGroup, 184
W2WSharedProperty, 179
W2WUser, 175
when to create, 88
Object Uncreated status message, 190
Objects, 14
creating, 88
cropping, controlling, 96
default, 19
deleting, 88
dragging in Development window, 110
duplicating, 88
finding, 89
instancing, 31
locking view and selection, 111
MotionLink-1, 144
pre-defined, 15
Root-1, 25
The Mouse, 144
translating and rotating, 110
VBase, 14
Viewpoint-1, 144
Optical devices, 154
Optional Hardware, 2
Optional Software, 2
Orientation
modifying in Property pane, 92
rotating Movables, 110
understanding coordinate systems, 13
Origin offset, 82
Origin points
moving, 116
Orthographic view, 83
Oscillate play option (paths), 142
P
Pan Viewpoint, 80
Parent coordinate system, 14
Path Browser
creating new, empty paths, 138
editing path elements, 142
interpolating paths, 139
playing paths, 142
specifying Playback and Record From targets, 140
Path Targets dialog box, 140
Paths
deleting, 144
editing elements, 142
interpolation methods, 139
linking to an object, 140
play options, 142
playing, 142
playing from scripts, 142
saving, 143
259
update order in simulation loop, 20
Performance
graphics accelerator cards, 1
instancing nodes, 31
maximizing virtual memory, 2
radiosity-preprocessed models, 197
rendering, 42
swapping less-detailed objects at certain distances, 26
tips, 191
turning off rendering, 41
Persistent properties (multi-user simulations), 179, 184
Persistent sharegroups (multi-user simulations), 186, 188
Perspective view, 83
PickGeometry
performance statistics, 22
Pitch
definition, 13
Pivot points
moving, in Development window, 116
Play options (paths), 142
Playback targets (paths), 140
Playing
paths from scripts, 142
paths from the Path Browser, 142
sounds from scripts, 150
Point light, 123
Polygons
rendered per application window, 22
rendered per development window, 22
setting number per object, 104
using LevelOfDetail nodes to swap in less-detailed
objects, 26
Position Object dialog box, 113
scaling geometries, 116
Pre-built Behaviors, 127
Primitives
creating, 104
Processing order
in simulation loop, 20
scene graphs, 16
Profiler, 21
Project paths, 40
Projects
creating, 37
Properties, 14
adding, 90
modifying values, 91
problems with modifying, 196
read-only, 91
reflecting a sensor’s state, 169
removing, 91
shared, 179
Property Added events, 185, 189
Property pane
adding properties, 90
modifying values, 91
removing properties, 91
rotating objects, 112
tab descriptions, 91
translating objects, 111
Property’s Object Does Not Exist status message, 190
PUP file, 135
Q
quaternions, 112
R
Radiosity pre-processed models, 197
Ranges
setting for LevelOfDetail nodes, 27
RayIntersect
performance statistics, 22
performance tip, 192
RCFONT3D.NFF, 104
Real-time simulations, 13
Record From targets (paths), 140
Registered interest, in sharegroups, 185, 189
Relative search paths, 40
Rendering
order in simulation loop, 20
parameters, 41
performance, 22, 42
performance tip, 192
problems with, 193
turning on/off, 41
Resource Browser, 37
RGB
modifying in Property pane, 92
RIGHTDOWN, 157
RIGHTHELD, 157
260
RIGHTHUP, 157
Roll
definition, 13
Root, 25
Rotate Object, 82
Rotate Viewpoint, 81
Rotating objects, 110
by dragging, 110
from the Position Object dialog box, 113
from the Property pane, 111
moving a geometry’s pivot point, 116
Rotation
definition, 13
Rotation dialog box, 112
Rotation property, for sensors, 170
Routines
performance statistics, 22
Run in AppWindow, 21
Run in DevWindow, 21
Running simulations
from the Development window, 20
from the WorldUp Players, 210
S
Saving
paths, 143
SBALL_BTN1DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN1HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN2DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN2HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN3DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN3HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN4DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN4HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN5DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN5HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN6DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN6HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN7DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN7HELD, 163
SBALL_BTN8DOWN, 163
SBALL_BTN8HELD, 163
SBALL_PICKDOWN, 163
SBALL_PICKHELD, 163
Scale
and clipping planes, 96
Scaling
geometries, 114
Scene Graph Browser
dragging options, 29
parent axis, 29
Scene Graph pane
deleting objects, 88
duplicating objects, 88
finding objects, 89
Scene graphs
grouping nodes, 25
instancing nodes, 31
overview, 16, 24
removing node instances, 32
root node, 25
working with, 29
Script Handler, 134
Scripts
overview, 18
performance statistics, 22
Search paths
adding, 40
deleting, 41
icons, 41
Select Object, 83
Select Render Style, 122
Sensitivity property, 170
Sensitivity value
default, 170
Sensors, 144
absolute sensor records, 153
and lights, 123
angular rate, 170
creating, 155
DIP switch settings, 156
frame-rate, 155
lag, 155
miscellaneous data, 170
rotation, 170
sensitivity, 170
Serial Baud Rate, 155
Serial Port, 155
translation, 170
Unit, 155
261
update order in simulation loop, 20
working with specific types, 156
Serial Baud Rate property, 155
Serial Joystick
configuration, 166
defined constants, 166
Serial Port property, 155
SERJOY_BOTTOMDOWN, 166
SERJOY_HATDOWN, 166
SERJOY_HATLEFT, 166
SERJOY_HATRIGHT, 166
SERJOY_HATUP, 166
SERJOY_SIDEDOWN, 166
SERJOY_TOPDOWN, 166
SERJOY_TRIGGERDOWN, 166
SERJOY_WCS1, 166
SERJOY_WCS2, 167
SERJOY_WCS3, 167
SERJOY_WCS4, 167
SERJOY_WCS5, 167
SERJOY_WCS6, 167
SERJOY_WCS7, 167
SERJOY_WCSDOWN, 167
SERJOY_WCSUP, 167
Server Manager
connection process, 174
introduction, 174
Set Mouse Sensitivity dialog box, 85
SetGlobalLocation
performance statistics, 22
Settings dialog box
search paths, 40
Shaded rendering, 41
Shared Group dialog box, 188
Shared properties
creating, 180
editing, 182
introduction, 173
locked, 179, 184
moving/copying to another sharegroup, 182
parameters, 183
persistent, 179, 184
removing from Network Browser, 182
statistics, viewing, 182
status messages, 189
understanding, 179
unsharing, 182
update frequencies, 179
Shared Property dialog box, 181, 183
Sharegroups
creating, 186
deleting, 188
editing, 188
introduction, 174
locked, 185, 188
moving in data tree, 188
persistent, 186, 188
registered interest, 185, 189
responding to addition of sharegroups/
properties, 185, 189
statistics, viewing, 188
status messages, 189
understanding, 184
Simulation
real-time, 13
Simulation Servers
connection process, 174
introduction, 174
Simulations
global settings, 41
running (from the Development window), 20
simulation loop (processing order), 20
Single play option (paths), 142
Singles
modifying in Property pane, 92
Sizing Viewports, 99
Snapping objects, 113, 114
Sounds
playing from scripts, 150
problems with, 194
Sources (motion links)
assigning, 145
Space Control Mouse
defined constants, 160
pick button, 160
Spaceball
defined constants, 163
Spheres
creating in the Development window, 104
Sphere object type, 104
262
Spot light, 123
SQL, 197
Starting WorldUp, 6
Statistics
connection, 177
shared properties, 182
sharegroups, 188
Status messages
for connections, sharegroups, and shared
properties, 189
Strings
modifying in Property pane, 92
Subtype, 14
Subtype tab (Property pane), 91
Switch’s Active Child dialog box, 28
Switcher nodes, 27
creating, 28
specifying which children to render, 28
System paths, 40
System requirements, 1
T
Targets (motion links)
assigning, 145
Task Scheduler, 126
Task scripts
execution order in simulation loop, 20
Terms, definitions, 235
Text3d object type, 104
Textures
improving performance, 208
perspective, 41
rendering, 41
Translate Object, 82
Translating objects, 110
by dragging, 110
from the Position Object dialog box, 113
from the Property pane, 111
Translation
definition, 13
Translation dialog box, 112
Translation property, for sensors, 170
Transparency
related to performance, 208
traversal order, 33
Type Workview
creating objects, 88
deleting objects, 88
duplicating objects, 88
finding objects, 89
Types, 14
U
Ultrasonic sensor
overview, 154
Unit property, 155
Universe
overview, 13
Universe Rendering Style dialog box, 122
Unsharing shared properties, 182
Update frequencies, shared properties
setting, 183
understanding, 179
Update rates, connections
setting, 178
understanding, 175
User Added events, 176, 178
User Removed Events, 176, 178
V
VBase object, 14
Vect2ds
modifying in Property pane, 92
Vect3d data type
and orientations, 112
modifying in Property pane, 92
Vertex colors, 197
View
orthographic, 83
perspective, 83
Viewpoint coordinate system, 14
Viewpoints
and LevelOfDetail nodes, 26
and sensors, 144
creating, 96
linking to paths, 140
Viewports
creating, 98
Views
changing direction, 83
263
VRML
fixing an upside-down model, 196
WTKPROXY environment variable, 208
W
Windows
affect of size on performance, 21
Application, 95
clipping planes, 96
Development, 95
Wireframe rendering, 41
World coordinate system, 14
WorldUp
Embeddable Player, 210
Internet Plug-In Player, 210
License Manager, 3
Stand-Alone Commercial Player, 210
Stand-Alone Player, 209
starting, 6
WorldUp Players
Installation, 210
removing the navigation bar, 196
running simulations from, 210
WTKALPHATEST, 208
WTKMAXTEXSIZE, 208
WTKMULTISAMPLE, 208
WTKPROXY, 208
WTKSQRTEX, 208
WTKZBUFFERSIZE, 207
Y
Yaw
definition, 13
Yon clipping
and windows, 96
Z
Z-buffer
related to performance, 207
Zoom All, 81
Zoom to Selected, 81
Zoom to Target, 81
264
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