MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger User's Guide

MPLAB ICD 2 In-Circuit Debugger User's Guide
ICD2PDF.book Page i Friday, November 9, 2007 3:21 PM
MPLAB® ICD 2
In-Circuit Debugger
User’s Guide
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS51331C
ICD2PDF.book Page ii Friday, November 9, 2007 3:21 PM
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data
Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its
kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal
conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection
feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in
a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets.
Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of
their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of
their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as
“unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously
improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code
protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow
unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue
for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided
only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure
that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO
REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE,
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising
from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety
applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold
harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such
use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property
rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo,
microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, rfPIC and SmartShunt are
registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
AmpLab, FilterLab, Linear Active Thermistor, Migratable Memory, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL,
SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net,
dsPICworks, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK,
PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate,
PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel, Total Endurance, UNI/O,
WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and
other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies.
© 2007, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
DS51331C-page ii
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Table of Contents
Preface ..................................................................... 1
Part 1 –Operation
Chapter 1. MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
1.1 Introduction ........................................................ 13
1.2 What is MPLAB ICD 2? ...................................... 13
1.3 How MPLAB ICD 2 Helps You ........................... 14
1.4 How MPLAB ICD 2 Works ................................. 14
1.5 Resources Used By MPLAB ICD 2 .................... 24
Chapter 2. Getting Started
2.1 Introduction ........................................................ 25
2.2 MPLAB ICD 2 System Components .................. 26
2.3 Installing and Configuring MPLAB IDE for
MPLAB ICD 2 ................................................... 27
2.4 Applying Power .................................................. 30
2.5 Connection Options ........................................... 32
2.6 Setting Up the Environment ............................... 32
2.7 MPLAB ICD 2 Development Process ................ 34
Chapter 3. MPLAB ICD 2 Tutorial
3.1 Introduction ........................................................ 41
3.2 Setting Up The Environment .............................. 42
3.3 Running the Project Wizard ............................... 44
3.4 Viewing the Project ............................................ 47
3.5 Creating a Hex File ............................................ 48
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
3.6 Setting Debug Options ....................................... 49
3.7 Setting Up the Demo Board ............................... 51
3.8 Loading Program Code For Debugging ............. 51
3.9 Running TUT452 ............................................... 52
3.10 Debugging TUT452 ......................................... 53
3.11 Programming the Application ........................... 58
3.12 TUT452 Main Routine and Source Code ......... 59
Chapter 4. Additional Topics
4.1 Introduction ........................................................ 63
4.2 Upgrading the MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware
(Operating System) ........................................... 63
4.3 Creating/Loading a Hex File .............................. 64
4.4 Special Linker Script Files ................................. 65
4.5 ROMless Device Considerations ....................... 65
4.6 ICD/ICE Devices ................................................ 68
Chapter 5. ICD Function Summary
5.1 Introduction ........................................................ 69
5.2 Debugging Functions ......................................... 69
5.3 Programming Functions ..................................... 73
5.4 Settings Dialog ................................................... 75
5.5 Setup Wizard ..................................................... 81
5.6 Advanced Breakpoints Dialog ............................ 84
Part 2 –Troubleshooting
Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Tips
6.1 Introduction ........................................................ 97
6.2 Link: PC to MPLAB ICD 2 Communications ...... 98
6.3 Link: MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware ............................ 99
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6.4 Link: MPLAB ICD 2 to Target
PIC MCU Device ............................................... 99
6.5 Link: Target Power ........................................... 100
6.6 Link: Target Oscillator ...................................... 101
6.7 Link: Application Code ..................................... 102
6.8 Link: Debug Executive ..................................... 102
6.9 Link: In-Circuit Debug Registers ...................... 103
6.10 Link: In-Circuit Debug Resources .................. 103
Chapter 7. Self Test
7.1 Introduction ...................................................... 105
7.2 Target VDD ....................................................... 105
7.3 Module VPP ...................................................... 106
7.4 MCLR = GND ................................................... 106
7.5 MCLR = VDD .................................................... 107
7.6 MCLR = VPP .................................................... 107
7.7 Failed Self Test Error – VPP/VDD High/Low ..... 108
Chapter 8. General Troubleshooting
8.1 Introduction ...................................................... 109
8.2 Frequently Asked Questions ............................ 109
8.3 Common Communication Problems ................ 117
8.4 Common Problems .......................................... 122
8.5 Error and Warning Messages .......................... 125
8.6 Limitations ........................................................ 125
Appendix A. Hardware Specifications
A.1 Introduction ...................................................... 127
A.2 MPLAB ICD 2 Module ..................................... 127
A.3 Modular Cable and Connector ......................... 128
A.4 Power Supply .................................................. 131
Index ..................................................................... 133
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Preface
NOTICE TO CUSTOMERS
All documentation becomes dated, and this manual is
no exception. Microchip tools and documentation are
constantly evolving to meet customer needs, so some
actual dialogs and/or tool descriptions may differ from
those in this document. Please refer to our web site
(www.microchip.com) to obtain the latest
documentation available.
Documents are identified with a “DS” number. This
number is located on the bottom of each page, in front
of the page number. The numbering convention for the
DS number is “DSXXXXXA”, where “XXXXX” is the
document number and “A” is the revision level of the
document.
For the most up-to-date information on development
tools, see the MPLAB® IDE on-line help. Select the Help
menu, and then Topics to open a list of available on-line
help files.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
INTRODUCTION
The support information discussed here can help you when using
the MPLAB ICD 2 in-circuit debugger.
Topics covered in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Document Layout
Conventions Used in this Guide
Warranty Registration
Reference Documents
The Microchip Web Site
Development Systems Customer Change Notification
Service
• Customer Support
DS51331C-page 2
© 2007 Microchip Technology
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Preface
DOCUMENT LAYOUT
This document describes how to use the MPLAB ICD 2 as a development tool to emulate and debug firmware on a target board. The
manual layout is as follows:
• Part 1 – Operation
- Chapter 1. MPLAB ICD 2 Overview – explains the
MPLAB ICD 2, how it helps you and how it works.
- Chapter 2. Getting Started – describes the system components, provides installation and configuration instructions, explains how to set up the environment and
discusses the development process.
- Chapter 3. MPLAB ICD 2 Tutorial – provides a tutorial
using the Project Wizard.
- Chapter 4. Additional Topics – discusses upgrading
firmware, using hex files and linker scripts, and provides
information on ROMless devices and ICD/ICE devices.
- Chapter 5. ICD Function Summary – describes all the
ICD menus, toolbars and dialogs.
• Part 2 – Troubleshooting
- Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Tips – describes the chain
of functionality.
- Chapter 7. Self-Test – discusses the various self-test
features.
- Chapter 8. General Troubleshooting – provides
answers to frequently asked questions, discusses common problems, and provides error and warning
messages.
• Appendix A. Hardware Specifications – contains information on the MPLAB ICD 2 module, the cable and connector,
and power supply.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS GUIDE
This manual uses the following documentation conventions:
DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS
Description
Arial font:
Italic characters
Represents
Examples
MPLAB® IDE User’s
Guide
...is the only
compiler...
the Output window
the Settings dialog
select Enable
Programmer
“Save project before
build”
File>Save
Referenced books
Emphasized text
Initial caps
A window
A dialog
A menu selection
Quotes
A field name in a
window or dialog
A menu path
Underlined, italic text
with right angle
bracket
Bold characters
N‘Rnnnn
Text in angle brackets
<>
DS51331C-page 4
A dialog button
A tab
A number in verilog
format, where N is the
total number of digits,
R is the radix and n is
a digit.
A key on the keyboard
Click OK
Click the Power tab
4‘b0010, 2‘hF1
Press <Enter>, <F1>
© 2007 Microchip Technology
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Preface
DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS (CONTINUED)
Description
Courier New font:
Plain Courier New
Italic Courier New
Square brackets [ ]
Curly brackets and
pipe character: { | }
Ellipses...
Represents
Examples
Sample source code
Filenames
File paths
Keywords
#define START
autoexec.bat
c:\mcc18\h
_asm, _endasm,
static
Command-line options -Opa+, -OpaBit values
0, 1
Constants
0xFF, ‘A’
A variable argument
file.o, where file
can be any valid filename
Optional arguments
mcc18 [options]
file [options]
Choice of mutually
errorlevel {0|1}
exclusive arguments;
an OR selection
Replaces repeated
var_name [,
text
var_name...]
Represents code
void main (void)
supplied by user
{ ...
}
WARRANTY REGISTRATION
Please complete the enclosed Warranty Registration Card and
mail it promptly. Sending in the Warranty Registration Card entitles
users to receive new product updates. Interim software releases
are available at the Microchip web site.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
This document describes how to use MPLAB ICD 2. Other useful
documents are listed below.
MPLAB® ICD 2 Design Advisory (DS51566)
Please read this first! Contains important information about using
the MPLAB ICD 2 with your target design.
Readme for MPLAB ICD 2
For the latest information on using MPLAB ICD 2, read the
Readme for MPLAB ICD 2.txt file (an ASCII text file) in the MPLAB
IDE directory. The README file contains update information and
known issues that may not be included in this on-line help file.
Using MPLAB® ICD 2 (DS51265)
A poster showing the various ways you can set up MPLAB ICD 2
hardware.
Header Board Specification (DS51292)
A small booklet describing how to install and use MPLAB ICD 2
headers. Headers are used to better debug selected devices
using special -ICD/ICE device versions, without the loss of pins or
resources.
Universal Programming Module Instruction Sheet (DS51280)
A sheet describing how to use the UPM.
DS51331C-page 6
© 2007 Microchip Technology
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Preface
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
Microchip provides online support via our web site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means to make
files and information easily available to customers. Accessible by
using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the
following information:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes
and sample programs, design resources, user’s guides and
hardware support documents, latest software releases and
archived software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQs), technical support requests, online discussion groups,
Microchip consultant program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering
guides, latest Microchip press releases, listing of seminars
and events, listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors
and factory representatives
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS CUSTOMER CHANGE
NOTIFICATION SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers
current on Microchip products. Subscribers will receive e-mail
notification whenever there are changes, updates, revisions or
errata related to a specified product family or development tool of
interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com,
click on Customer Change Notification and follow the registration
instructions.
The Development Systems product group categories are:
• Compilers – The latest information on Microchip C compilers
and other language tools. These include the MPLAB C18 and
MPLAB C30 C compilers; MPASM™ and MPLAB ASM30
assemblers; MPLINK™ and MPLAB LINK30 object linkers;
and MPLIB™ and MPLAB LIB30 object librarians.
• Emulators – The latest information on Microchip in-circuit
emulators.This includes the MPLAB ICE 2000 and MPLAB
ICE 4000.
• In-Circuit Debuggers – The latest information on the
Microchip in-circuit debugger, MPLAB ICD 2.
• MPLAB IDE – The latest information on Microchip MPLAB
IDE, the Windows® Integrated Development Environment for
development systems tools. This list is focused on the
MPLAB IDE, MPLAB SIM simulator, MPLAB IDE Project
Manager and general editing and debugging features.
• Programmers – The latest information on Microchip programmers. These include the MPLAB PM3 and PRO MATE®
II device programmers and the PICSTART® Plus and
PICkit™ 1 development programmers.
DS51331C-page 8
© 2007 Microchip Technology
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Preface
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through
several channels:
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field
application engineer (FAE) for support. Local sales offices are also
available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations
is included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site at:
http://support.microchip.com
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51331C-page 10
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Part 1 – Operation
Chapter 1. MPLAB ICD 2 Overview........................................ 13
Chapter 2. Getting Started...................................................... 25
Chapter 3. MPLAB ICD 2 Tutorial........................................... 41
Chapter 4. Additional Topics.................................................. 63
Chapter 5. ICD Function Summary ........................................ 69
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
NOTES:
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 1. MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
1.1
INTRODUCTION
An overview of the MPLAB ICD 2 development tool is given here.
MPLAB ICD 2 is defined and its operation explained. Additionally,
device resources used during debugging are listed.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
What is MPLAB ICD 2?
How MPLAB ICD 2 Helps You
How MPLAB ICD 2 Works
Resources Used By MPLAB ICD 2
1.2
WHAT IS MPLAB ICD 2?
The MPLAB ICD 2 is a low-cost in-circuit debugger (ICD) and
in-circuit serial programmer.
MPLAB ICD 2 is intended to be used as an evaluation, debugging
and programming aid in a laboratory environment.
The MPLAB ICD 2 offers these features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Real-time and single-step code execution
Breakpoints, Register and Variable Watch/Modify
In-circuit debugging
Target VDD monitor
Diagnostic LEDs
MPLAB IDE user interface
RS-232 serial or USB interface to a host PC
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
1.3
HOW MPLAB ICD 2 HELPS YOU
The MPLAB ICD 2 allows you to:
• Debug your source code in your own application
• Debug your hardware in real-time
• Program a supported device using Microchip's ICSP™
protocol
1.4
HOW MPLAB ICD 2 WORKS
A simplified description of how MPLAB ICD 2 works is provided
here. It is intended to provide enough information so a target board
can be designed that is compatible with MPLAB ICD 2 for both
programming and debugging operations. The basic theory of programming and in-circuit debugging is described so that problems,
if encountered, are quickly resolved.
This section provides an overview of MPLAB ICD 2, followed by a
description of MPLAB ICD 2 programming and debugging modes.
The following topics are covered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ICD vs. ICE
Modular Interface Connections
Circuits That Will Prevent MPLAB ICD 2 From Functioning
Debug Mode
Requirements For Debug Mode
Debug Reserved Resources
Programmer Mode
1.4.1
ICD vs. ICE
The in-circuit debugger (ICD) is a cost-efficient alternative to an
in-circuit emulator (ICE). It can do many things that were
previously done only with more expensive hardware, but the cost
benefits come with a trade-off of some of the conveniences of an
in-circuit emulator. If users are willing to design their application to
be ICD compatible, they can enjoy the benefits of a low-cost
hardware debugger.
DS51331C-page 14
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MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
As opposed to an ICE, some of the requirements of the in-circuit
debugger are:
• The in-circuit debugger requires exclusive use of some
hardware and software resources of the target.
• The target PIC® MCU must have a functioning clock and be
running.
• The ICD can debug only when all the links in the system are
fully functional.
An emulator provides memory and a clock, and can run code –
even without being connected to the target application board.
During the development and debugging cycle, an ICE provides the
most power to get the system fully functional, whereas an ICD may
not be able to debug at all if the application does not run. On the
other hand, an in-circuit debug connector can be placed on the
application board and connected to an ICD even after the system
has been produced, allowing easy testing, debugging and reprogramming of the application. Even though an ICD has some drawbacks in comparison to an ICE, in this situation it has some distinct
advantages:
• A connection to the application after it has been produced
does not require extraction of the microcontroller in order to
insert an ICE probe.
• The ICD can reprogram the firmware in the target application
without any other connections or equipment.
Note:
An ICE uses custom hardware to emulate the target
microcontroller. An ICD uses hardware on the target
microcontroller to do some of the functions of an ICE.
An ICD also employs software running on the target to
do ICE-like functions and, as a result, relies upon the
target microcontroller for some memory space, CPU
control, stack storage and I/O pins for communication.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
1.4.2
Modular Interface Connections
MPLAB ICD 2 is connected to the target PIC MCU with the modular interface cable, which is a six conductor cable. The pin numbering for the MPLAB ICD 2 connector is shown from the bottom
of the target PC board in Figure 1-1.
Note:
The ICD cable has mirror imaged connections on each
end, and connections on the MPLAB ICD 2 module
are the opposite of connections shown here.
FIGURE 1-1:
PIN NUMBERING FOR MODULAR
CONNECTOR
MPLAB® ICD 2
Connector
VDD
PGD
2 4 6
PGC
1 3 5
VPP/MCLR
VSS
Target
PC Board
Bottom Side
Figure 1-2 shows the interconnections of the MPLAB ICD 2 to the
modular connector on the target board. There are six pins on the
ICD connector, but only five are used. The diagram also shows the
wiring from the connector to the PIC MCU device on the target PC
board. A pull-up resistor (usually around 10k Ohm) is recommended to be connected from the VPP/MCLR line to VDD so that
the line may be strobed low to reset the PIC MCU.
DS51331C-page 16
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MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
FIGURE 1-2:
MPLAB® ICD 2 CONNECTIONS TO
TARGET BOARD
User Reset
2
1K - 10K
1
5
4
3
MPLAB® ICD 2 Interface
Connector
Application
PC Board
VDD
PICXXXX
VPP/MCLR
PGC
PGD
VSS
AVDD
AVSS
Although pin 2 (VDD) can supply a limited amount of power to the
target application under certain conditions, for the purposes of
these descriptions, pins 2 and 3 (VSS) are omitted. They are
shown on the diagram for completeness, but in the following
descriptions only three lines are active and relevant to core
MPLAB ICD 2 operation: VPP/MCLR, PGC and PGD.
Note:
In the following discussions, VDD is ignored. But be
aware that the target VDD is also used to power the
output drivers in MPLAB ICD 2. This allows level translation for target low-voltage operation. If MPLAB ICD 2
does not have voltage on its VDD line (pin 2 of the ICD
connector), either from power being supplied to the
target by MPLAB ICD 2 or from a separate target
power supply, it will not operate.
Not all PIC MCUs have the AVDD and AVSS lines, but if they are
present on the target PIC MCU, all must be connected in order for
MPLAB ICD 2 to operate.
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
The interconnection is very simple, any problems experienced are
often caused by other connections or components on these critical
lines that interfere with the operation of MPLAB ICD 2, as
discussed in Section 1.4.3 “Circuits That Will Prevent MPLAB
ICD 2 From Functioning”.
1.4.3
Circuits That Will Prevent MPLAB ICD 2 From
Functioning
Figure 1-3 shows the active MPLAB ICD 2 lines with some
components that will prevent MPLAB ICD 2 from functioning:
FIGURE 1-3:
IMPROPER CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
1
VPP/MCLR
No!
No!
5
No!
PGC
4
PGD
No!
Specifically, these guidelines must be followed:
• No pull-ups on PGC/PGD – they will divide the voltage levels,
since these lines have 4.7KΩ pull-down resistors in MPLAB
ICD 2.
• No capacitors on PGC/PGD – they will prevent fast
transitions on data and clock lines during programming and
debug communications.
• No capacitors on MCLR – they will prevent fast transitions of
VPP. A simple pull-up resistor is generally sufficient.
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MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
• No diodes on PGC/PGD – they will prevent bidirectional
communication between MPLAB ICD 2 and the target PIC
MCU.
1.4.4
Debug Mode
There are two steps to using MPLAB ICD 2 as a debugger. The
first requires that an application be programmed into the target
PIC MCU. The second uses the internal in-circuit debug hardware
of the target Flash PIC MCU to run and test the application program. These two steps are directly related to the MPLAB IDE
operations:
1. Programming the code into the target.
2. Using the debugger to set breakpoints and run.
If the target PIC MCU cannot be programmed correctly, MPLAB
ICD 2 will not be able to debug.
Figure 1-4 shows the basic interconnections required for
programming. Note that this is the same as Figure 1-2, but for the
sake of clarity, the VDD and VSS lines from MPLAB ICD 2 are not
shown.
FIGURE 1-4:
+5V
PROPER CONNECTIONS FOR
PROGRAMMING
VDD
Programming
Voltage
MPLAB® ICD 2
Internal Circuits
4.7KΩ
1
5
4
VPP/MCLR
PGC
PGD
4.7KΩ
VSS
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
A simplified diagram of some of the internal interface circuitry of
the MPLAB ICD 2 is shown. For programming, no clock is needed
on the target PIC MCU, but power must be supplied. When programming, MPLAB ICD 2 puts programming levels on VPP, sends
clock pulses on PGC and serial data via PGD. To verify that the
part has been programmed correctly, clocks are sent to PGC and
data is read back from PGD. This conforms to the ICSP protocol
of the PIC MCU under development.
1.4.5
Requirements For Debug Mode
To debug (set breakpoints, see registers, etc.) with the MPLAB
ICD 2 there are critical elements that must be working correctly:
• MPLAB ICD 2 must be connected to a PC. It must be
powered by an external power supply or the PC via the USB
cable, and it must be communicating with MPLAB IDE
software via the RS-232 or USB cable. See the on-line help
for details.
• The MPLAB ICD 2 must be connected as shown to the VPP,
PGC and PGD pins of the target PIC MCU with the modular
interface cable (or equivalent). VSS and VDD are also
required to be connected between the MPLAB ICD 2 and
target PIC MCU.
• The target PIC MCU must have power and a functional, running oscillator. If the target PIC MCU does not run – for whatever reason – MPLAB ICD 2 cannot debug.
• The target PIC MCU must have its configuration words
programmed correctly:
- The oscillator Configuration bits should correspond to
RC, XT, etc., depending upon the target design.
- The target PIC MCU must not have the Watchdog Timer
enabled.
- The target must not have code protection enabled.
- The target must not have table read protection enabled.
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MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
Once the above conditions are met, you may proceed to the
following:
• Sequence of Operations Leading to Debug Mode
• Debug Mode Details
1.4.5.1
SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS LEADING TO
DEBUG MODE
Given that the Requirements For Debug Mode are met, these
actions can be performed when MPLAB ICD 2 is set as the current
debugger (Debugger>Select Tool):
• When Debugger>Program is selected, the application code is
programmed into the PIC MCU’s memory via the ICSP
protocol as described above.
• A small “debug executive” program is loaded into the high
area of program memory of the target PIC MCU. Since the
debug executive must reside in program memory, the application program must not use this reserved space. The debug
executive typically needs about 0x120 words of program
memory.
• Special “in-circuit debug” registers in the target PIC MCU are
enabled. These allow the debug executive to be activated by
the MPLAB ICD 2.
• The target PIC MCU is held in reset by keeping the
VPP/MCLR line low.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
1.4.5.2
DEBUG MODE DETAILS
Figure 1-5 illustrates the MPLAB ICD 2 ready for debugging.
MPLAB® ICD 2 READY FOR DEBUGGING
FIGURE 1-5:
Internal
Debug
Registers
VDD
+12V
+5V
1
MPLAB® ICD 2
Internal Circuits
4.7 KΩ
4.7 KΩ
VPP/MCLR
Debug
Executive
PGC
5
Program
Memory
4
Target
must
be
Running
for Debug
Executive
to Function
Area
Reserved
for Debug
Executive
PGD
Hardware
Stack Shared
by Debug Exec
About 0x50
Bytes Used by
Debug Exec
File
Registers
Typically, in order to find out if an application program will run
correctly, a breakpoint is set early in the program code. When a
breakpoint is set from the user interface of the MPLAB IDE, the
address of the breakpoint is stored into the special internal debug
registers of the target PIC MCU. Commands on PGC and PGD
communicate directly to these registers to set the breakpoint
address.
Next, the Debugger>Run function or the Run icon (forward arrow)
is usually pressed from MPLAB IDE. MPLAB ICD 2 will raise the
VPP/MCLR line to allow the target to run, the target will start from
address zero and execute until the program counter reaches the
breakpoint address previously stored in the internal debug
registers.
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MPLAB ICD 2 Overview
After the instruction at the breakpoint address is executed, the
in-circuit debug mechanism of the target PIC MCU “fires” and
transfers the PIC MCU’s program counter to the debug executive
(much like an interrupt) and the user’s application is effectively
halted. MPLAB ICD 2 communicates with the debug executive via
PGC and PGD, gets the breakpoint status information and sends
it back to the MPLAB IDE. The MPLAB IDE then sends a series of
queries to MPLAB ICD 2 to get information about the target PIC
MCU, such as file register contents and the state of the CPU.
These queries are ultimately performed by the debug executive.
The debug executive runs just like an application in program
memory. It uses some locations on the hardware stack (usually
just one or two) and, typically, about fourteen file registers for its
temporary variables. If the PIC MCU does not run, for whatever
reason, such as no oscillator, a faulty power supply connection,
shorts on the target board, etc., then the debug executive cannot
communicate to MPLAB ICD 2 and MPLAB IDE will issue an error
message.
Another way to get a breakpoint is to press the MPLAB IDE’s Halt
button (the “pause” symbol to the right of the Run arrow). This toggles the PGC and PGD lines in such a way that the in-circuit debug
mechanism of the target PIC MCU switches the program counter
from the user’s code in program memory to the debug executive.
Again, the target application program is effectively halted, and
MPLAB IDE uses MPLAB ICD 2 communications with the debug
executive to interrogate the state of the target PIC MCU.
1.4.6
Debug Reserved Resources
When developing with MPLAB ICD 2, you must be aware of the
device resources reserved for debugging. See
Section 1.5 “Resources Used By MPLAB ICD 2” for a list of
reserved resources by device type.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
1.4.7
Programmer Mode
When using the Programmer>Program selection to program a
device, the in-circuit debug registers should be disabled in the
MPLAB IDE so the MPLAB ICD 2 will program only the target
application code and the Configuration bits (and EEPROM data, if
available and selected) into the target PIC MCU. The debug executive will not be loaded. In this mode the MPLAB ICD 2 can only
toggle the MCLR line to reset and start the target. A breakpoint
cannot be set, and register contents cannot be seen or altered.
The MPLAB ICD 2 programs the target using ICSP. No clock is
required while programming, and all modes of the processor can
be programmed, including code-protect, Watchdog Timer enabled
and table read protect.
Note:
1.5
A header board is required to debug smaller pin count
parts with the MPLAB ICD 2. These parts can be programmed without the header by connecting the VPP,
PGC and PGD lines as described previously.
RESOURCES USED BY MPLAB ICD 2
Refer the MPLAB ICD 2 on-line help for up-to-date information on
reserved resources.
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 2. Getting Started
2.1
INTRODUCTION
The use of MPLAB ICD 2 with MPLAB IDE software and an explanation of power options and recommended power-up sequences
are discussed here. Following this is a step-by-step tutorial using
MPLAB ICD 2. Before continuing on to the tutorial, be sure that the
software and hardware is configured according to the instructions
given here.
In addition, please refer to the “MPLAB ICD 2 Design Advisory”
(DS51566) for hardware configuration issues.
Topics covered in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
MPLAB ICD 2 System Components
Installing and Configuring MPLAB IDE for MPLAB ICD 2
Applying Power
Connection Options
Setting Up the Environment
MPLAB ICD 2 Development Process
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
2.2
MPLAB ICD 2 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
In addition to the MPLAB ICD 2 module, the following components
are required:
• MPLAB IDE software (version 6.20 or later) – Installed on the
PC to control MPLAB ICD 2.
• RS-232 or USB cable – To connect the MPLAB ICD 2 module
to a COM or USB port on the PC.
Note:
Do not connect the USB cable until installation of the
MPLAB IDE software and instructions for configuring
the USB driver have been completed.
• Modular interface cable – To connect the MPLAB ICD 2
module to a header board, demo board or the target
application.
Note:
Although the serial or USB communications from
MPLAB IDE to the MPLAB ICD 2 can be set up
without a target connection, MPLAB ICD 2 will not
function as a debugger without being connected to a
target.
• Header board (optional) – If an ICD device is used, a header
board will be required to connect the device with on-board
debug capabilities to the modular interface (and the MPLAB
ICD 2). The header may then be plugged into a demo board
or the target application. See Section 4.6 “ICD/ICE
Devices”.
• Demo board or target application – To connect the device
with on-board debug capabilities to the modular interface
(and the MPLAB ICD 2).
• Power adapter(s) – To power MPLAB ICD 2 and the target
application.
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Getting Started
2.3
INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING MPLAB
IDE FOR MPLAB ICD 2
Note:
When using the USB cable, do not connect it before
installing MPLAB IDE software.
To install the MPLAB IDE software, first acquire the latest MPLAB
IDE installation executable (MPxxxxx.exe, where xxxxx
represents the version of MPLAB IDE) from either the Microchip
web site (www.microchip.com) or the MPLAB IDE CD-ROM
(DS51123).
•
•
•
•
•
Setting Up Communications
Starting MPLAB IDE
Select the Device
Set MPLAB ICD 2 as the Debug Tool
Configure the Interface
2.3.1
Setting Up Communications
MPLAB ICD 2 can communicate with the PC serially or using USB.
Note:
2.3.1.1
Do not connect both RS-232 and USB cables to
MPLAB ICD 2.
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
If using the RS-232 cable, connect it to the MPLAB ICD 2 and the
PC. The Flow Control and FIFO settings must be set properly for
a serial communications port on a PC with a Windows operating
system. See Section 8.3.1.3 “Changing Serial Port Settings”
for instructions.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
2.3.1.2
USB COMMUNICATIONS
Instructions are supplied with MPLAB IDE to install the USB drivers. These instructions will pop up during MPLAB IDE installation.
If you accidentally close these instructions, they may be found at:
MPLAB IDE installation directory\ICD2\Drivers\Ddicd2nn.htm
where nn represents the version of Windows OS. If the instructions support more than one version, no OS version (nn) will be
specified.
Note:
2.3.2
If you change USB ports/hubs, you will need to
reinstall the drivers.
Starting MPLAB IDE
After installing the MPLAB IDE software, invoke it by using any of
these methods:
• Select Start>Programs>Microchip>MPLAB IDE
vx.xx>MPLAB IDE, where vx.xx is the version number.
• Double click the MPLAB IDE desktop icon.
• Execute the file mplab.exe in the \core subdirectory of the
MPLAB IDE installation directory. For more information on
using the MPLAB IDE software, see:
- “MPLAB® IDE User’s Guide” (DS51519) –
Comprehensive guide for using MPLAB IDE.
- “MPLAB® IDE Quick Start Guide” (DS51281) – Chapters
1 and 2 of the user’s guide.
- The on-line help for MPLAB IDE – The most up-to-date
information on MPLAB IDE.
- The file Readme for MPLAB IDE.txt – Last-minute
information on each release. Included in the MPLAB IDE
installation directory.
- Also see the file Readme for MPLAB ICD 2.txt for
the most current information about MPLAB ICD 2.
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Getting Started
After starting MPLAB IDE, it will need to be configured for MPLAB
ICD 2 use:
1. Select a device supported by MPLAB ICD 2.
2. Set MPLAB ICD 2 as the current debugger.
3. Configure the MPLAB ICD 2 RS-232 or USB interface.
2.3.3
Select the Device
Use the Device Selection dialog (Configure>Select Device) to
select the device to be debugged with the MPLAB ICD 2. Devices
fully supported by MPLAB ICD 2 will have a “green light” icon next
to MPLAB ICD 2 under Microchip Tool Support. Devices with preliminary support will have a yellow light” icon. Devices not currently
supported will have a “red light” icon.
2.3.4
Set MPLAB ICD 2 as the Debug Tool
Select Debugger>Select Tool>MPLAB ICD 2 to choose MPLAB
ICD 2 as the debug tool. The Debugger menu and MPLAB IDE
toolbar will change to display debug options once the tool is
selected. Also, the Output window will open and messages
concerning ICD status and communications will be displayed on
the MPLAB ICD 2 tab.
Note:
2.3.5
MPLAB ICD 2 may be selected as either a debug tool
(Debugger Menu) or a programmer (Programmer
menu). Do not select both.
Configure the Interface
Go to the Debugger>Settings, Communications tab to select the
USB interface or the correct COM port for RS-232
communications.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
2.4
APPLYING POWER
There are a number of configurations for powering MPLAB ICD 2
and the target. The following are configuration essentials:
• When using the USB connection, MPLAB ICD 2 can be
powered from the PC but a power supply must be connected
to the target.
• When using the RS-232 connection to the PC, MPLAB ICD 2
must have a power supply connected to it.
• When MPLAB ICD 2 has its own power supply, it can provide
a limited amount of current, up to 200 mA, at five volts to a
small target board.
• MPLAB ICD 2 cannot be powered from the target board.
• Power should be applied to MPLAB ICD 2 before applying
power to the target.
There are two power-up sequences for the ICD:
• Power Sequence When MPLAB ICD 2 is Providing Power to
the Target
• Power Sequence When Target Has a Separate Power Supply
2.4.1
Power Sequence When MPLAB ICD 2 is
Providing Power to the Target
Use this sequence to power the target board from MPLAB ICD 2.
This configuration allows up to 200 mA of current at 5 volts only.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply power to MPLAB ICD 2. DO NOT power the target.
Start MPLAB IDE.
Under the Debugger menu of MPLAB IDE, select Connect.
After establishing communications with the MPLAB ICD 2,
select Debugger>Settings.
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Getting Started
5. In the Settings dialog, click the Power tab and ensure that
the check box for “Power target circuit from MPLAB ICD 2”
is checked. Click OK.
Note:
2.4.2
If any of the self-tests on the Status tab of the
Settings dialog do not pass, it may not be possible to
erase and program chips. See Section 7.7 “Failed
Self-Test Error – Vpp/Vdd High/Low” for more
information.
Power Sequence When Target Has a Separate
Power Supply
Use this sequence to power the target board from its own power
supply. For this configuration, the target power can be 2-5 volts at
higher currents than can be provided by the MPLAB ICD 2
(>200 mA). Check the PIC MCU data sheet to verify the
operational voltage range for the device being used.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply power to MPLAB ICD 2. DO NOT power the target.
Start MPLAB IDE.
Under the Debugger menu of MPLAB IDE, select Connect.
After establishing communications with the MPLAB ICD 2,
select Debugger>Settings.
5. In the Settings dialog, click the Power tab and ensure that
the check box for “Power target circuit from MPLAB ICD 2”
is NOT checked. Click OK.
6. Power the target system and then select
Debugger>Connect.
Note:
If any of the self tests on the Status tab of the
Settings dialog do not pass, it may not be possible to
erase and program chips. See Section 7.7 “Failed
Self-Test Error – Vpp/Vdd High/Low” for more
information.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
2.5
CONNECTION OPTIONS
Once you have initially connected with the MPLAB ICD 2, you may
continue to manually connect each time you select the ICD as a
debugger (by using Debugger>Connect) or you may set the ICD
to connect automatically (by checking “Automatically connect at
start-up” on the Status tab of Debugger>Settings.)
On connection, for dsPIC® DSC devices, silicon version information will be displayed in the Output window.
2.6
SETTING UP THE ENVIRONMENT
This section provides a quick summary on MPLAB ICD 2
operation.
• Setting Debugging and Programming Options
• Creating and Building a Project
2.6.1
Setting Debugging and Programming Options
The easiest way to set up the MPLAB ICD 2 for operation is to use
the MPLAB ICD 2 Setup Wizard (Debugger>MPLAB ICD 2 Setup
Wizard.) Additionally, these dialogs allow you to set or reset
debugging and programming options:
• Configuration Bits dialog (Configure>Configuration Bits) –
Select the Configuration bits on the PIC microcontroller. For
complete details about these options, see the Special
Features – Configuration Bits section of the data sheet for the
device being programmed.
Note:
Configuration bits can be specified in the source
code instead of setting them in this dialog. When
doing this, every time the project is rebuilt, the Configuration bits will get reset to the values specified in
the source code.
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Getting Started
• ICD Settings dialog (Debugger>Settings or
Programmer>Settings) – Set up communications, power, programming and warning message output, as well as view
status, limitations, and version information.
You have previously used the Communications and Power
tabs when setting up the MPLAB ICD 2 hardware. The following tabs are useful for completing the ICD setup. For detailed
information on these and the other tabs on the Settings
dialog, see Section 5.4 “Settings Dialog”.
- Program tab – Set up programming options (Select
Memories, Program and External Memory Ranges, ID,
and Program Options, Erase All). If programming the ID
bits is desired, set the value to be programmed in the
Configure>ID Memory dialog.
- Warning tab – Determine which warning messages will
be displayed. Can be useful to select messages if they
are to be outputted to a file (see Status tab.)
- Status tab – In addition to auto-connect on startup and
self-test control, output messages may be selected to be
logged to a file. These messages may assist users or, if
necessary, Microchip technical support in finding errors.
2.6.2
Creating and Building a Project
The easiest way to create a new project is to select
Project>Project Wizard. With the help of the Project Wizard, a new
project and the language tools for building that project can be
created. The wizard will guide you through the process of adding
source files, libraries, linker scripts, etc. to the various “nodes” on
the project window. See MPLAB IDE documentation for detailed
steps on using this wizard.
After the project is created, choose Project>Build All to build the
application. This will create object code for the application that can
be programmed into the target with MPLAB ICD 2.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
2.7
MPLAB ICD 2 DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
The development process with MPLAB ICD 2 consists of these
steps:
1. Programming the Target Processor for Debugging.
2. Debugging The Application.
3. Modifying Target Application Code and Rebuilding the Hex
File.
4. Finishing the Application: Using MPLAB ICD 2 as a Programmer.
5. Additional Programming Options.
2.7.1
Programming the Target Processor for
Debugging
To program the application project’s code into the MPLAB ICD 2
for debugging, follow these steps:
1. Select Debugger>Settings and then click the Program tab
to set the programming options for your application.
2. Select Configure>Configuration Bits and set the oscillator
and other Configuration bit settings appropriate to the
target.
3. Select Debugger>Program to download your code and
debug executive to the device in the application or demo
board that is connected to the MPLAB ICD 2. Download
time will depend on the memory used (i.e., program
memory, EEPROM), size of program, and voltage.
2.7.2
Debugging The Application
To debug your code, you must execute (run) it.
•
•
•
•
Real-Time Execution
Breakpoints
Step Mode Execution
Writing Data EEPROM
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Getting Started
2.7.2.1
REAL-TIME EXECUTION
Real-time execution occurs when the device in the
demo/application board is put in MPLAB IDE's Run mode.
When the MPLAB ICD 2 is run in real time, instructions execute
just as the processor would without the debugger. While in the Run
mode, register displays on the screen will not update.
To execute the code in real-time:
1. Open the source file (double click on the file name in the
Project Window or use File>Open) or program memory
window (View>Program Memory) for viewing.
2. Select Debugger>Run (or click the toolbar Run button).
The processor will run until a breakpoint is reached or until the
processor is halted by selecting Debugger>Halt (or clicking the
toolbar Halt button).
2.7.2.2
BREAKPOINTS
Breakpoints allow you to specify conditional program halts so that
you may observe memory, register or variable values after a runtime execution. You may set breakpoints in either the file (editor)
window, the program memory window or the disassembly window.
You may set a breakpoint using either:
• Right mouse button menu – click on the line in code at which
you wish to set a breakpoint and select Set Breakpoint.
• Breakpoint dialog – open the dialog and enter a breakpoint at
a specific address
Note:
For most devices, only one breakpoint will be set
(active) at a time, although you may specify more
than one breakpoint in the breakpoint dialog (i.e., one
breakpoint will be active and the others will be
inactive).
Breakpoints are a function of the MPLAB IDE and discussed in
more detail in documentation for that tool.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Advanced breakpoints are a function of the MPLAB ICD 2. For
more information, see Section 5.6 “Advanced Breakpoints
Dialog”.
2.7.2.3
STEP MODE EXECUTION
Step mode execution can be accessed after the processor is
halted.
Step Mode Execution occurs when you single step the processor
or execute Debugger>Step Into. Step mode execution allows you
to step through the code one instruction at a time, to watch the program flow, and to see the register contents at each instruction (as
set in the dialog box).
Note:
2.7.2.4
While single stepping, the MPLAB ICD 2 may not
respond to interrupts. See limitations for your device
to determine if it supports stepping into interrupts.
WRITING DATA EEPROM
If data EEPROM is written during program execution, the
EEPROM window of MPLAB IDE will not reflect the changes. You
will need to perform a READ of EEPROM memory in order to
update the values in the window.
If some register or memory values do not seem correct in other
windows, remember that MPLAB ICD 2 has reserved resources.
2.7.3
Modifying Target Application Code and
Rebuilding the Hex File
To modify the code and rebuild the hex file:
1. Open the source file (double click on the file name in the
Project Window or use File>Open).
2. Make the necessary changes to debug the code.
3. Rebuild the hex file using Project>Build All.
4. Select Debugger>Program to program the device with the
updated hex file.
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Getting Started
2.7.4
Finishing the Application: Using MPLAB ICD 2
as a Programmer
Once the code has been debugged and the application is running
as designed, the device can be programmed without the debugger
enabled. The device resources reserved for ICD operation then
will be free for other use.
Note:
MPLAB ICD 2 may be selected as either a debug tool
or a programmer. Do not select both.
To change MPLAB ICD 2 mode from debug to program:
1. Set the Debugger to “None” from the Debugger>Select Tool
menu.
2. Select Programmer>Select Programmer>MPLAB ICD 2 to
choose MPLAB ICD 2 as a programmer. The Programmer
menu and MPLAB IDE toolbar will change to display programmer options once the tool is selected. Also, the Output
window will open and messages concerning ICD status and
communications will be displayed on the MPLAB ICD 2 tab.
The project should rebuild now so that all debugging modes will be
disabled and the Configuration bits as defined in the source code
will be programmed into the target.
To program the application project’s code into the device, follow
these steps:
Note:
If you are using the Universal Programming Module
(UPM), MPLAB ICD 2 must be powered with a power
supply to be used as a programmer. Also, the option
“Power target circuit from MPLAB ICD 2” on the Power
tab of Programmer>Settings must be checked.
1. Select Programmer>Settings and then click the Program
tab to set the programming options for your application.
2. Configuration bits will be set as defined in the source files.
To set manually, select Configure>Configuration Bits and
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
set the oscillator and other Configuration bit settings
appropriate to the target.
3. If desired, set the ID bits by selecting Configure>ID Memory.
4. Select Programmer>Blank Check to check that the device is
blank/has been erased and is ready to program.
5. Select Programmer>Program to download your code to the
device in the application or demo board that is connected to
the MPLAB ICD 2. Download time will depend on the memory used (i.e., program memory, EEPROM), size of program
and voltage.
2.7.5
Additional Programming Options
As a programmer, MPLAB ICD 2 has several other programmer
functions besides simply programming the target device.
2.7.5.1
VERIFYING THE PROGRAMMING
Select Verify from the Programmer menu or toolbar to verify that
the device was programmed correctly based on the hex code in
MPLAB IDE memory and the settings on the Program tab of the
Settings dialog.
2.7.5.2
READING A DEVICE
Select Read from the Programmer menu or toolbar to read the
device memory, based on the settings on the Program tab of the
Settings dialog, into MPLAB IDE memory.
Memory read from a device into MPLAB IDE memory may then be
saved to a file (File>Export). The type of file saved will depend on
the type of memory read.
If you attempt to read a code-protected device, you will get a warning indicating that the device is code-protected and that the program memory may be invalid. If this happens, obtain the original
hex code from a file or a non-protected device.
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Getting Started
2.7.5.3
ERASE/BLANK CHECK A DEVICE
From the Programmer menu or toolbar, select the following items
to erase and then blank check a device:
• Erase Device – Select Erase to erase the device memory.
Note:
Internal oscillator and bandgap calibration bits are
always preserved by MPLAB ICD 2 for the erase
cycle. Only during programming may their values be
changed.
• Blank Check – Select Blank Check to verify that the device is
erased/blank.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
NOTES:
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 3. MPLAB ICD 2 Tutorial
3.1
INTRODUCTION
This tutorial walks you through the process of developing a simple
project using the sample program, TUT452.asm, found in the
directory C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPASM
Suite\Example. This program is an implementation of the
PIC18F452 analog-to-digital (A/D) converter using the PICDEM™
2 Plus Demo Board (DM163022). The program configures the A/D
module to convert input from A/D channel 0 (connected to the
potentiometer on the demo board) and display the results on the
four PORTB LEDs (RB3:RB0).
Topics covered in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Setting Up The Environment
Running the Project Wizard
Viewing the Project
Creating a Hex File
Setting Debug Options
Setting Up the Demo Board
Loading Program Code For Debugging
Running TUT452
Debugging TUT452
Programming the Application
TUT452 Main Routine and Source Code
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3.2
SETTING UP THE ENVIRONMENT
Before beginning this tutorial, follow the steps in Chapter 2.
“Getting Started” to set up the hardware and MPLAB IDE software. Some of the initial settings covered in this tutorial may
already be in place as a result of the previous set up.
Once launched, the MPLAB IDE desktop should appear .
FIGURE 3-1:
3.2.1
MPLAB® IDE
Selecting the Device and Development Mode
To select the device for this tutorial:
1. Select Configure>Select Device.
2. In the Device Selection dialog, choose PIC18F452 from the
Device list box. The “light” icon next to MPLAB ICD 2 in the
Microchip Tool Support section should be green.
3. Click OK.
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To select MPLAB ICD 2 as a debugger:
1. Select Debugger>Select Tool>MPLAB ICD 2. The
Debugger menu will then show the other debug options
available. Also, the Output window will open to display
connection information.
Note:
If MPLAB IDE attempts to connect on start up to the
MPLAB ICD 2 but fails because a USB port or a COM
port other than COM1 is being used, allow the
connection to fail. The communications port will be
setup in the next step.
2. Select Debugger>MPLAB ICD 2 Setup Wizard to set up ICD
operation:
a) Select a port – COM or USB
b) Select target power supply
c) Enable auto-connection feature
d) Enable automatic OS download feature
e) For ROMless devices, set up external memory
3. Select Debugger>Connect to connect to the MPLAB ICD 2.
3.2.2
Updating MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware (Operating
System)
Depending on the version of MPLAB IDE or the device selected,
a message may appear indicating that the firmware needs to be
updated. MPLAB IDE will automatically install new firmware.
The update dialog may look like this:
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FIGURE 3-2:
UPDATING MPLAB® ICD 2 FIRMWARE
DIALOG
Also, since different MPLAB ICD 2 firmware is used for different
families of devices, this dialog may appear when switching to a
different device.
The firmware can be manually changed by following the steps in
Section 4.2 “Upgrading the MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware
(Operating System)”.
3.3
RUNNING THE PROJECT WIZARD
The MPASM assembler will be used in this project.
1. To set up the first project, select Project>Project Wizard.
2. Proceed to the second dialog of the wizard. The PIC18F452
should be selected.
3. Proceed to the next dialog of the wizard to set up MPASM
assembler as the language tool. In the “Active Toolsuite”
pull-down, select “Microchip MPASM Toolsuite.” Make sure
that the tools are set to the proper executables, by default
located in the directory C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPASM Suite. MPASM assembler should be pointing to mpasmwin.exe, MPLINK linker should be pointing to
mplink.exe, and MPLIB librarian should be pointing to
mplib.exe.
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FIGURE 3-3:
WIZARD TOOLSUITE DIALOG
4. Proceed to the next dialog of the wizard to give a name and
location to your project. You may Browse to find a location.
5. Proceed to the next dialog of the wizard where project files
can be added. Files can also be added later if something is
missed.
For this example, go to C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPASM Suite\Example\TUT452.ASM.
Click on TUT452.ASM to highlight it, then Click on ADD>>
to add it to the right pane. Then click in the checkbox next to
the file in this pane to copy it into the project directory.
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FIGURE 3-4:
WIZARD ADD FILES
6. The second file needed for this project is the linker script.
Click on the C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPASM
Suite\LKR folder to expand it, and then scroll down to
select the file 18F452i.lkr. Make sure that the file name
has an “i.”
Press ADD>> to move the linker script to the list on the right.
You will not be copying this file into the project directory.
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FIGURE 3-5:
WIZARD ADD FILES – LINKER SCRIPT
7. Proceed to the Summary screen. If you have made any
errors, click <Back to return to a previous wizard dialog. If
everything is correct, click Finish.
3.4
VIEWING THE PROJECT
After exiting the wizard, the MPLAB IDE desktop will again be
visible. Close all other windows on the desktop to see the Project
window.
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FIGURE 3-6:
PROJECT WINDOW
Additional files can be added to the project using the project window. Right click on any line in the project window tree to pop up a
menu with additional options for adding and removing files.
3.5
CREATING A HEX FILE
To create a hex file for debugging, select Project>Build All or right
click on the project name in the project window and select “Build
All” from the popup menu. MPASM assembler always makes a
.hex file with the same name as the source .asm file.
FIGURE 3-7:
DS51331C-page 48
OUTPUT WINDOW
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3.6
SETTING DEBUG OPTIONS
Before you begin debugging your code, you will need to set up or
check the default settings of several items.
3.6.1
Configuration Bits
To set Configuration bits to be programmed into the device, select
Configure>Configuration Bits. By clicking on the text in the
“Settings” column, these can be changed. In this dialog, the
following Configuration bits should be set for this tutorial:
• Oscillator – EC-OS2 as RA6 (this is for PICDEM 2 Plus, if
using another target, change to match)
• OSC Switch Enable – Disabled
• Power-Up Timer – Enabled
• Brown-Out Detect – Disabled
• Watchdog Timer – Disabled
• CCP2 MUX – RC1
• Stack Overflow Reset – Disabled
• Low Voltage Programming – Disabled
• All other Configuration bits should be disabled.
3.6.2
Programming Options
To set program options for this tutorial, select Debugger>Settings
and click on the Program tab.
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FIGURE 3-8:
MPLAB® ICD 2 SETTINGS DIALOG,
PROGRAM TAB
• The “Memories” section should have “Program” checked, and
“EEPROM” and “ID” unchecked. When using MPLAB ICD 2
as a debugger, Configuration bits will always be programmed
and the “Configuration” box will be checked and grayed out.
• For the PIC18FXX2 devices, all memory will be erased each
time the chip is programmed. Therefore, in the “Program
Options” section, “Erase all before Program” will have no
effect.
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• The “Program Memory” addresses (“Start” and “End”
address) set the range of program memory that will be read,
programmed or verified. Click Full Range to set the address
range to the maximum program memory available based on
the device selected. The end of program memory is adjusted
to leave room for the MPLAB ICD 2 debug executive. Programs cannot extend beyond this upper limit while using
MPLAB ICD 2 as a debugger.
For additional information on all the options on the Program tab,
see Section 5.4.5 “Program Tab”.
3.7
SETTING UP THE DEMO BOARD
Before beginning to debug, make sure the PICDEM 2 Plus Demo
Board is set up as follows:
• EC OSC option has been selected by removing jumper J7
• LEDs have been enabled using jumper J6
• Power is supplied
3.8
LOADING PROGRAM CODE FOR
DEBUGGING
Select Debugger>Program to program TUT452.hex into the
PIC18F452 in the PICDEM 2 Plus demo board.
Note:
The debug executive code is automatically
programmed in upper program memory for MPLAB
ICD 2 debug functions. Debug code must be
programmed into the target PIC MCU to use the
in-circuit debugging capabilities of the MPLAB ICD 2.
Programming may take a couple of minutes. During programming,
the MPLAB ICD 2 tab of the Output dialog shows the current
phase of operation. When programming is complete, the dialog
should look similar to Figure 3-9.
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FIGURE 3-9:
3.9
OUTPUT WINDOW – MPLAB® ICD 2 TAB
RUNNING TUT452
MPLAB ICD 2 executes in Real-Time or in Step mode.
• Real time execution occurs when the PIC18F452 in the
PICDEM 2 Plus demo board is put in the MPLAB IDE’s Run
mode.
• Step mode execution can be accessed after the processor is
halted.
These toolbar buttons can be used for quick access to commonly
used debug operations.
Debugger
Menu
Toolbar
Buttons
Run
Halt
Animate
Step Into
Step Over
Step Out
Reset
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Begin in Real-Time mode:
1. Open the TUT452.asm file (double click on the file name in
the Project Window or use File>Open).
2. Select Debugger>Run (or click the Run toolbar button).
3. On the demo board, turn the arrow on the potentiometer
(RA0). Observe the LEDs. If the program were working
correctly, the user would see a binary representation of the
voltage value across the potentiometer. However, there is a
bug in the TUT452 program. Section 3.10 “Debugging
TUT452” will detail debugging the code and correcting it.
4. Select Debugger>Halt (or click the Halt toolbar button) to
stop the program execution.
5. Select Debugger>Reset to reset the program.
3.10
DEBUGGING TUT452
Any of the following can prevent the TUT452 program from
working.
• The A/D converter value is not being properly written to
PORTB (LEDs).
• The A/D converter is not on or has not been set to convert.
• A typing error in the source code is causing the program to
function improperly.
To explore the first possibility, set a breakpoint at the line of the file
that writes the value of A/D result to PORTB.
1. Highlight or place the cursor on the following line of code
from TUT452.asm:
movwf PORTB ;Write A/D result to PORTB
2. Right click to display a shortcut menu.
3. Select Set Breakpoint from the shortcut menu. This line is
now marked as a breakpoint (B in red stop sign) as shown
in Figure 3-10.
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FIGURE 3-10:
SET BREAKPOINT
4. Select Debugger>Run (or click the Run toolbar button) to
run the program once again in Real-Time mode.
A breakpoint stops a program’s execution when the program executes the line marked as a breakpoint. However,
the sample program is not halting.
5. Select Debugger>Halt (or click the Halt button on the
toolbar) to halt the program now.
In the source code window, the sample program will have
halted on one of the two lines in the Wait routine as shown
in Figure 3-11 (at the arrow).
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FIGURE 3-11:
PROGRAM HALTED
Based on the halt location and the fact that the program
never reaches the breakpoint, it can be concluded that the
problem is in the A/D conversion. The A/D flag for conversion complete is not being set. A/D conversion initialization
and setup occurs at the beginning of the program.
6. To reset the program, select Debugger>Reset. The first
instruction should be indicated with a green arrow.
7. Open a new Watch window to watch the A/D register value
change as the program executes. Select View>Watch. The
Watch dialog opens with the Watch_1 tab selected. Select
“ADCON0” from the list next to Add SFR, and then click the
button. ADCON0 is added to the Watch window. Repeat for
ADCON1. The selected symbols should now be visible in
the Watch window as shown in Figure 3-12.
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FIGURE 3-12:
WATCH WINDOW
8. In the TUT452.asm source code, set a breakpoint at the
first instruction after Start. Highlight or place the cursor in the
following line of code from TUT452.asm:
clrf PORTB ;Clear PORTB
Right click to display a shortcut menu. Select Set Breakpoint
from the shortcut menu. This line will now be marked as a
breakpoint.
9. Select Debugger>Run (or click the Run toolbar button) to
run the program in Real-Time mode.
This time the program will stop after it executes the breakpoint line of code and the instruction after the breakpoint will
be indicated as shown in Figure 3-13.
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FIGURE 3-13:
PROGRAM HALTED AFTER BREAK
10. Single step five times, select Debugger>Step (or click the
Step toolbar button) to single step through the program. The
following line of code should be indicated when finished:
movlw B'11000111'
;TMR0 prescaler, 1:256
11. Examine the values of the registers ADCON0 and ADCON1
in the Watch window. Notice that ADCON0 has a value of 40
HEX. This corresponds to the binary value designated in the
program, but is this value correct?
A review of the PIC18F452 Data Sheet (DS39564) section
on A/D, indicates that the last bit should be a one, not a zero,
to turn the A/D module on.
To fix this bug, change:
movlw B'01000000';Fosc/8, A/D enabled
to:
movlw B'01000001';Fosc/8, A/D enabled
12. Select File>Save to save the changes.
13. Select Project>Build All to rebuild the project. A message
will indicate that the program has been rebuilt. The MPLAB
ICD 2 must be reprogrammed for the changes to take effect.
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14. Select Debugger>Program to reprogram the MPLAB ICD 2
with the changes. When the MPLAB ICD 2 dialog indicates
‘...Programming succeeded’, the program is ready to run
again.
15. Right click on the line of code that previously had the
breakpoint (now indicated by a red stop sign outline). Select
Remove Breakpoint.
16. Select Debugger>Run (or click the Run toolbar button) to
run the program in Real-Time mode. Turn the potentiometer
(RA0) to change the value displayed on the LEDs.
The source code in this tutorial contained only one bug. However,
real code may have more. Using the MPLAB ICD 2 and MPLAB
IDE debugging functions, users can successfully find and fix the
problems in their code.
3.11
PROGRAMMING THE APPLICATION
When the program is successfully debugged and running, usually
the next step is to program the PIC MCU for stand alone operation
in the finished design. When doing this, the resources reserved by
the ICD are released for use by the application.
To program the application follow these steps:
1. Disable MPLAB ICD 2 as a debug tool by selecting
Debugger>Select Tool>None.
2. Select MPLAB ICD 2 as the programmer in
Programmer>Select Tool menu.
3. Optional: Set up the ID in Configure>ID Memory (see
Figure 3-14).
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FIGURE 3-14:
USER ID MEMORY DIALOG
4. Set up the parameters for programming on the
Programmer>Settings Program tab.
5. Select Programmer>Program.
Now MPLAB ICD 2 can reset and run the target (MPLAB ICD 2
can also be disconnected from the target; after selecting the Reset
button, the application will run).
3.12
TUT452 MAIN ROUTINE AND SOURCE
CODE
The main routine of TUT452.asm (Figure 3-14) begins by
configuring PORTB, the A/D module and Timer0. It then waits for
a Timer0 overflow to start the A/D conversion of the value from the
potentiometer. When the conversion is complete, the value is
displayed on the LEDs, and the program loops back to wait for
another Timer0 overflow to start another A/D conversion.
For more information on A/D module operation and a list of related
application notes, refer to the “PIC® 18C MCU Family Reference
Manual” (DS39500).
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FIGURE 3-15:
TUT452 MAIN ROUTINE FLOW
START
Configure PORTB
as All Outputs
Configure A/D
left justify, FOSC/8 clock
1 analog channel
Configure Timer0
Prescaler assigned to Timer0
1:256 prescale
No
Timer0 Overflow?
Yes
Start A/D Conversion
No
Conversion
Complete?
Yes
Write A/D Result to PORTB
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;****************************************
;*
TUT452.ASM
*
;****************************************
list p=18f452
include "p18f452.inc"
Reset_Vector
Start
;Put a GOTO at
code
0x0
goto
Start
;reset address
code
0x0002A
;Start app beyond
clrf
PORTB
;Clear PORTB
clrf
TRISB
;PORTB all outputs,
;vector area
;display 4 MSB's of
A/D
;result on LEDs
movlw
B'01000000'
;Fosc/8,
;A/D enabled
movwf
ADCON0
movlw
B'00001110'
;Left justify,
movwf
ADCON1
;VDD and VSS ref’s
movlw
B'11000111'
;TMR0 prescaler,1:256
movwf
T0CON
btfss
INTCON,TMR0IF
;1 analog channel
Main
;Wait for Timer0
;to timeout
goto
Main
bcf
INTCON,TMR0IF
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bsf
ADCON0,GO
;Start A/D
;conversion
Wait
btfss
PIR1,ADIF
;Wait for conversion
goto
Wait
;to complete
swapf
ADRESH,W
;Swap A/D result nibbles
andlw
0x0f
;Mask off lower 4 bits
movwf
PORTB
;Write A/D result
clrf
PORTB
;to PORTB
WaitPush
;Pause while switch
btfss
PORTA,4
goto
WaitPush
movwf
PORTB
goto
Main
;is pressed
;Do it again
end
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 4. Additional Topics
4.1
INTRODUCTION
As you work with MPLAB ICD 2 to develop your application, these
are some additional topics that you may find useful.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
Upgrading the MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware (Operating System)
Creating/Loading a Hex File
Special Linker Script Files
ROMless Device Considerations
ICD/ICE Devices
4.2
UPGRADING THE MPLAB ICD 2 FIRMWARE
(OPERATING SYSTEM)
By default, MPLAB IDE will automatically download the correct
and most up-to-date operating system for your selected device to
the MPLAB ICD 2. This feature is selected from the Settings dialog, Status tab, by checking the checkbox “Automatically download firmware if needed”. If you have unchecked this checkbox,
you may manually download the operating system (not
recommended) as follows:
1. Select Debugger>Download ICD2 Operating System or
Programmer>Download ICD2 Operating System. The
Select ICD Firmware File dialog will open.
2. Select the firmware file to download from the list or browse
for it. The file will be of the form icdxxxxxx.hex, where
xxxxxx is the version number. See the readme file for
information on which file supports which devices.
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3. Click Open. MPLAB IDE will download the new operating
system to the MPLAB ICD 2.
Note:
4.3
If the wrong firmware is selected, MPLAB ICD 2 will
experience unknown errors.
CREATING/LOADING A HEX FILE
Once the hex file is created/imported, you can use MPLAB ICD 2
to debug and/or program your code.
4.3.1
Creating a Hex File
If you need to create your hex code, MPLAB IDE offers a complete
development environment.
To create a hex file in MPLAB IDE:
• Set up a project and related workspace to develop your application. For information on using projects and workspaces,
please see MPLAB IDE Help.
• Use MPLAB Editor to create or import source code.
• Use language tools specified under the Project menu to
assemble/compile your source code into hex code.
4.3.2
Loading a Hex File
If you already have a hex code file that you would like to program
into your device, (i.e., you have used a tool other than the MPLAB
IDE to generate your hex code), you may load the hex code to
MPLAB IDE.
To load a hex file into MPLAB IDE:
• Use the File>Import command.
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Additional Topics
4.3.3
Hex File Requirements
Whatever tool you use to develop your hex code, please keep in
mind the following:
• Your code should be limited depending on the device
because a portion of program memory on the device is
reserved.
• The start of EEPROM data memory needs to be specified.
For most PIC MCU’s, the start should be at 0x2100 (org
H‘2100’). For PIC18FXXXX devices, the start should be at
0xF00000 (org H‘F00000’). Please check the programming
specification for your selected device to determine the correct
address.
4.4
SPECIAL LINKER SCRIPT FILES
MPLAB IDE provides separate linker script files that reserve the
resources used by the MPLAB ICD 2. There is a separate linker
file for each supported device. The filenames contain the name of
the device, followed by an “i”.
Examples:
• 18F452i.lkr – for the PIC18F452 device
• 18F4580i_e.lkr – for the PIC18F4580 device with
extended memory
Customers that are using the MPLAB ICD 2 should use the linker
file supplied for the device they are programming, instead of the
standard linker files.
4.5
ROMLESS DEVICE CONSIDERATIONS
Working with ROMless (no on-chip program memory) devices is
different from working with regular devices. You must create the
routines that read/write memory. For more information, see:
• Implementing the External Memory Interface on
PIC18C601/801 Application Note (AN778)
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4.5.1
PICDEM 18R
There is a Microchip demonstration board, PICDEM 18R, available for development using ROMless devices. Even if you do not
purchase the demo board kit (DM163006), you can download the
software and documentation for free from the Microchip website
and use it to help you develop your own code:
• PICDEM 18R Demonstration Board User’s Guide (DS39565)
• PICDEM 18R Schematics
• PICDEM 18R Software
MPLAB IDE contains files that may be used with MPLAB ICD 2
and PICDEM 18R in the \ICD2 subdirectory when mapping
External Memory for ROMless devices.
4.5.2
Additional Reference Documents
• PIC18C601/801 Data Sheet (DS39541)
• PIC18CXXX OTP In-Circuit Serial Programming (DS39028)
• PIC18XXXX MCU Family Product Overview (DS30327)
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Additional Topics
4.5.3
External Memory
This section only applies to ROMless (PIC18C601/801) devices.
File
Click the Browse button to select the location of the
WriteProgramWord and EraseProgramMemory files.
See PICDEM 18R Files.
You must use a different memory routine file for the
8-bit bus width and the 16-bit bus width devices. The
memory routine files must match the following
naming conventions:
<Memory Type><Bus Width>.<extension>
where <Memory Type><Bus Width> does not
exceed 8 characters.
Valid 16-bit filename examples:
29F16016.hex
SRAM16.hex
Valid 8-bit filename examples:
29F16008.hex
SRAM08.hex
See the \ICD801\Source folder for information
on writing your custom routines. These code routines
will be used to program memory. They must be relocatable and comply with the format used in the
included source files.
Use Default Pro- Select this option to use the default memory routines
gram Routines
provided with MPLAB IDE instead of providing your
own memory routines.
See PICDEM 18R Files.
4.5.4
PICDEM 18R Files
There is a folder called \ICD2 that was copied into the MPLAB
IDE installation directory. This folder has two files which can be
used with the PICDEM 18R demo board (DM163006):
• SRAM16.HEX – allows program download to the static RAM
• 29F16016.HEX – allows program download to the Flash
memory
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When using PICDEM 18R, you must use one of the above files in
the “Location of WriteProgramWord and EraseProgramMemory”
dialog on the MPLAB ICD 2 Advanced Dialog. Also, you must
remember to do an erase before programming as this is not done
automatically.
For your own design, which probably has different programming
algorithms for the memory on your target, you must substitute your
own memory read/write routine in order for the MPLAB ICD 2 to
download code. See the PICDEM 18R documentation for information on writing your custom routines. These code routines will be
used to program your memory and care must be taken to ensure
they are relocatable and comply with the format used in the
included source files.
4.6
ICD/ICE DEVICES
Special ICD versions of some devices (Device-ICD) are available
to provide the clock, data and MCLR functions required for incircuit debugging on dedicated pins. Therefore, the ICD version
necessarily has a larger pin count than the original device.
However, no pins are lost to in-circuit debug operation.
Also, some devices have ICE versions (Device-ICE) for use with
an emulator. However, these device may be used with MPLAB
ICD 2 to provide the functionality of an ICD device.
Currently, the following debug configurations are available:
• Device has no built-in debug circuitry. Therefore, Device-ICD
must be used for development.
• Device has built-in debug circuitry for development. No
Device-ICD/ICE available.
• Device has built-in debug circuitry for development. DeviceICD/ICE available, with built-in debug circuitry plus additional
pins/memory for development.
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 5. ICD Function Summary
5.1
INTRODUCTION
When you select MPLAB ICD 2 from the Debugger menu,
debugging functions will be added to MPLAB IDE.
When you select MPLAB ICD 2 from the Programmer menu,
programming functions will be added to MPLAB IDE.
The functions made available are summarized here.
MPLAB ICD 2 functions are added to MPLAB IDE as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Debugging Functions
Programming Functions
Settings Dialog
Setup Wizard
Advanced Breakpoints Dialog
5.2
DEBUGGING FUNCTIONS
When you select MPLAB ICD 2 from the Debugger menu, debug
items will be added to the following MPLAB IDE functions:
• Debugger Menu
• Toolbars
• Right Mouse Button Menus
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
5.2.1
Debugger Menu
Run F9
Execute program code until a breakpoint is encountered or until
Halt is selected.
Execution starts at the current program counter (as displayed in
the status bar). The current program counter location is also represented as a pointer in the Program Memory window. While the
program is running, several other functions are disabled.
Animate
Animate causes the debugger to actually execute single steps
while running, updating the values of the registers as it runs.
Animate runs slower than the Run function, but allows you to view
changing register values in the Special Function Register window
or in the Watch window.
To Halt Animate, use the menu option Debugger>Halt instead of
the toolbar Halt or F5.
Halt F5
Halt (stop) the execution of program code. When you click Halt,
status information is updated.
Step Into F7
Single step through program code.
For assembly code, this command executes one instruction (single or multiple cycle instructions) and then halts. After execution of
one instruction, all the windows are updated.
For C code, this command executes one line of C code, which may
mean the execution of one or more assembly instruction, and then
halts. After execution, all the windows are updated.
Note:
Do not step into a SLEEP instruction.
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ICD Function Summary
Step Over F8
Not available on MPLAB ICD 2. Performs the same as Step Into.
Step Out
Not available on MPLAB ICD 2.
Reset F6
Issue a Reset sequence to the target processor. This issues a
MCLR to reset the Program Counter to the Reset vector. If the processor is running it will continue running from the Reset vector
address.
Breakpoints F2
Open the Breakpoint dialog. Set multiple breakpoints in this
dialog; however, only one breakpoint is enabled at a time.
Note:
You may also right click on a line of code to set a
breakpoint.
Advanced Breakpoints
Open the Advanced Breakpoint dialog. Setup advanced
breakpoint features for devices that support this ICD feature.
MPLAB ICD 2 Setup Wizard
Launch the wizard to help you set up the MPLAB ICD 2.
Program
Download the debug executive module (if selected in Program
tab) and your code to the target device.
Read
Read target memory. Information uploaded to MPLAB IDE.
Read EEPROM
Read device EEPROM data and then reset.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Abort Operation
Abort any programming operation (e.g., program, read, etc.)
Terminating an operation will leave the device in an unknown state.
Connect
Establish communications between the MPLAB ICD 2 and PC.
Download ICD2 Operating System
Download MPLAB ICD 2 operating system.
Settings
Opens the MPLAB ICD 2 Settings dialog. Set up communication,
output file, power and program options. Also, find out information
about the current system configuration and device limitations.
5.2.2
Toolbars
When the MPLAB ICD 2 is selected as a debugger, these toolbars
are displayed in MPLAB IDE:
• Standard debug toolbar (Run, Halt, Step Into, Step Over,
Reset). See MPLAB IDE Help for more information.
• MPLAB ICD 2 debug toolbar (Program Target Device, Read
Target Device, Read device EEPROM, Reset and Connect to
ICD).
5.2.3
Right Mouse Button Menus
The following will appear on the right mouse menus in code
displays, such as program memory and source code files:
Set/Remove Breakpoint
Set or remove a breakpoint at the currently selected line.
Enable/Disable Breakpoint
Enable or disable a breakpoint at the currently selected line.
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ICD Function Summary
Breakpoints
Remove, enable or disable all breakpoints.
Run To Cursor
Run the program to the current cursor location. Formerly Run to
Here.
Set PC at Cursor
Set the Program Counter (PC) to the cursor location.
5.3
PROGRAMMING FUNCTIONS
When you select MPLAB ICD 2 from the Programmer menu, program items will be added to the following MPLAB IDE functions:
• Programmer Menu
• Toolbar
5.3.1
Programmer Menu
MPLAB ICD 2 Setup Wizard
Launch the ICD setup wizard.
Program
Program specified memory areas: program memory,
Configuration bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
Read
Read specified memory areas: program memory, Configuration
bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
Verify
Verify programming of specified memory areas: program memory,
Configuration bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
Erase Part
Erase all data on the PIC MCU device including memory, ID and
Configuration bits.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Blank Check
Check to see that all device memory is erased/blank.
Release from Reset
Set MCLR to VDD.
Hold in Reset
Set MCLR to ground (zero.)
Abort Operation
Abort any programming operation (e.g., program, read, etc.)
Terminating an operation will leave the device in an unknown
state.
Connect
Establish communications between the MPLAB ICD 2 and PC.
Download ICD2 Operating System
Download MPLAB ICD 2 operating system.
Settings
Opens the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog. Set up communication, output file, power and program options. Also, find out information about the current system configuration and device
limitations.
5.3.2
Toolbar
Program target device
Program specified memory areas: program memory,
Configuration bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
Read target device
Read specified memory areas: program memory, Configuration
bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
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ICD Function Summary
Verify target device memory
Verify programming of specified memory areas: program memory,
Configuration bits, ID locations and/or EEPROM data.
Erase target device
Erase all data on the PIC MCU device including memory, ID, and
Configuration bits.
Verify target device is erased
Check to see that all device memory is erased/blank.
Reset and Connect to ICD
Establish communications between the MPLAB ICD 2 and PC.
5.4
SETTINGS DIALOG
Select either Debugger>Settings or Programmer>Settings to
open the Settings dialog and set up the MPLAB ICD 2.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Status Tab
Communication Tab
Limitations Tab
Power Tab
Program Tab
Versions Tab
Warnings Tab
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
5.4.1
Status Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to set
connection and message options.
Connect Status
Connect Status
Shows the current connection status.
Automatically Connect at Enable/disable auto-connect on startup
Startup
between MPLAB® IDE and MPLAB ICD 2.
Automatically download
firmware if needed
If checked, the correct firmware for the
selected device will automatically be downloaded to the MPLAB ICD 2. If unchecked,
you will be prompted before firmware is
downloaded.
Messages
Output to Debug File
Enable/disable the outputting of messages
to a file.
Self-Test
Run Self-Test
Execute a self-test on the MPLAB ICD 2.
Self-Test Results
The results of the self-test are displayed in
Target VDD, Module VPP, MCLR Gnd,
MCLR VDD, and MCLR VPP.
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ICD Function Summary
5.4.2
Communication Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to set
how the MPLAB ICD 2 and the PC communicate.
COM Port
Select the COM port (COM1, COM2, COM3 or
COM4) for serial communications or USB for
universal serial bus communications. Default:
COM1
Baud Rate
The initial COM port baud rate for MPLAB® ICD 2
communications is 19200. After communications
have been established, you may wish to select the
57600 option for improved performance. If you have
increased communication errors at this speed,
change back to the default. Default: 19200
5.4.3
Limitations Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to
view MPLAB ICD 2 limitations for your selected device. Brief limitations are shown in the text box under the device. For more
detailed limitations, click Details.
5.4.4
Power Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to
view MPLAB ICD 2 and target power parameters and set the
MPLAB ICD 2 to power the target.
View values for Target VDD, Target VPP and MPLAB ICD 2 VPP. If
you know the values have changed since you opened the dialog,
you may click Update to see these values update immediately or
wait for one of the conditions specified on the dialog.
Click in the checkbox to enable/disable “Power target circuit from
MPLAB ICD 2 (5V VDD)”.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
5.4.5
Program Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to set
up debug/programming options.
• Allow ICD 2 to select memories and ranges – MPLAB ICD 2
uses your selected device and default settings to determine
what to program.
• Manually select memories and ranges – you select the type
and range of memory to program.
TABLE 5-1:
MANUAL SELECTION OPTIONS
Memories
Program
Check to program Program Memory into target.
Configuration
Check to program Configuration Bits into target.
Note: This memory is always programmed
when in Debug mode.
EEPROM
Check to erase and then program EEPROM
memory on target. Uncheck to erase EEPROM
memory on target.
ID
Check to program ID Memory into target.
External
Check to program External Memory into target.
Note: To select External, your device must
support external memory and you must have
enabled “Use External Memory” in the External
Memory Settings dialog (Configure>External
Memory).
Program Options
Freeze on Halt
Set/clear all peripherals to freeze on halt.
Erase all before
Program
Check to erase all memory before programming
begins.
Unless programming new or already erased
devices, it is important to have this box checked.
If not checked, the device is not erased and program code will be merged with the code already
in the device.
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ICD Function Summary
TABLE 5-1:
MANUAL SELECTION OPTIONS (CONT.)
Preserve EEPROM
on Program
Check to keep EEPROM memory on target from
being overwritten on programming. Target
EEPROM memory values are read into
MPLAB® IDE, erased from the target and then
written back to the target.
Uncheck to use EEPROM checkbox
functionality under Memories.
Program Memory
Start, End
The starting and ending hex address range in
program memory for programming, reading, or
verification.
If you receive a programming error due to an
incorrect End address, perform a reconnect,
correct the End address and program again.
Note: The address range does not apply to the
Erase function. The Erase function will erase all
data on the device.
Full Range
Enter the full range of device program memory
in hex.
External Memory
Start, End
The starting and ending hex address range in
program memory for programming, reading, or
verification.
Note: To select External, your device must support external memory and you must have
enabled “Use External Memory” in the External
Memory Settings dialog (Configure>External
Memory).
If you receive a programming error due to an
incorrect End address, perform a reconnect,
correct the End address and program again.
Note: The address range does not apply to the
Erase function. The Erase function will erase all
data on the device.
Full Range
Enter the full range of device program memory
in hex.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
TABLE 5-2:
BOOTLOADER OPTIONS
Enter your own bootloader or Browse for the file in User Memory
Routines.
TABLE 5-3:
AUTOMATIC OPTIONS
Program after successful If the project builds successfully (no errors),
build
automatically program the device.
Run after successful
program
Note:
5.4.6
If the device programs successfully (no
errors), run the program.
If you are using the MPLAB ICD 2, you must check the
“Automatically Program after successful build” in the
MPLAB ICD 2 settings dialog on the Program tab. Do
not check “Automatically Run after successful
program.”
Versions Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to
view the version numbers for MPLAB ICD 2 elements.
MPLAB® ICD 2 Version
PC software DLL version
Firmware
MPLAB ICD 2 operating system
Firmware Type
Device type for firmware
Firmware Version
MPLAB ICD 2 operating system version
Bootloader Version
MPLAB ICD 2 bootloader version
Debug Exec Version
Debug executive module version
5.4.7
Warnings Tab
This tab of the MPLAB ICD 2 Programmer dialog allows you to
select which MPLAB ICD 2 warning messages you wish to display
in the Output window. This is useful for disabling warnings that you
know you will ignore and do not want to view.
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ICD Function Summary
Click in the checkbox next to a warning in the list to enable/disable
the warning. Checked is enabled; unchecked is disabled.
5.5
SETUP WIZARD
A setup wizard is available from Debugger>MPLAB ICD 2 Setup
Wizard to help walk you through setting up your MPLAB ICD 2.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Setup Wizard – Welcome
Setup Wizard – Select a Port
Setup Wizard – Select Target Power
Setup Wizard – Enable Auto Connect
Setup Wizard – Enable Automatic OS Download
Setup Wizard – External Memory
Setup Wizard – Summary
5.5.1
Setup Wizard – Welcome
When you first select MPLAB ICD 2 as a debugger or programmer,
the MPLAB ICD 2 Setup Wizard will open.
Follow the dialogs in the MPLAB ICD 2 Wizard to set up MPLAB
ICD 2 for use with MPLAB IDE.
Click Next to continue.
5.5.2
Setup Wizard – Select a Port
Step 1: Select a communications method – Select a
communications port to which you will attach the MPLAB ICD 2.
• COM Port – Select either a serial port (COM1-COM4) or a
USB port (USB).
• Baud Rate – For a serial port, select 19200 or 57600.
Note:
You may wish to try the higher baud rate to see if you
can communicate at this speed. If you experience
errors, return to the lower baud rate.
Click Next to continue.
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5.5.3
Setup Wizard – Select Target Power
Step 2: Select target power source – Choose from where the
target board will get its power.
• Target has own power supply – The target board will use its
own power supply.
• Power target from the MPLAB ICD 2 – You may use the
MPLAB ICD 2 to power the target board as long as:
- MPLAB ICD 2 has a power supply (the USB cannot provide enough power for both the MPLAB ICD 2 and a
target board.)
- Target board power requirements are within what the
MPLAB ICD 2 provide.
Click Next to continue.
5.5.4
Setup Wizard – Enable Auto Connect
Step 3: Enable auto-connection – Set up MPLAB IDE to
automatically connect to MPLAB ICD 2 on project start-up.
• MPLAB IDE automatically connects to MPLAB ICD 2 –
Check to connect on project start-up. Uncheck to connect
manually, i.e., using Debugger>Connect.
CAUTION
If there is a device other than the MPLAB ICD 2 on the port when
you auto-connect, damage to that device may result.
Click Next to continue.
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ICD Function Summary
5.5.5
Setup Wizard – Enable Automatic OS
Download
Step 4: Enable autodownload of operating systems –
Automatically download the correct OS for the selected device.
Note:
There are different operating systems for different
devices.
• Required operating system automatically downloaded to
MPLAB ICD 2 – Check to automatically download the correct
OS for your selected device. The OS will be downloaded
when MPLAB IDE detects that the current MPLAB ICD 2
operating system is not correct for the selected device or
there is a newer version of this operating system.
Uncheck to be prompted to download the OS. If you choose
not to download the OS, it may be downloaded manually later
using Debugger>Download ICD Operating System.
Note:
Downloading an incorrect operating system will
cause unknown errors. It is recommended that you
allow MPLAB IDE to automatically download the OS.
Click Next to continue.
5.5.6
Note:
Setup Wizard – External Memory
This page will only appear if you have selected a
ROMless device (PIC18C601/801.)
Step 5: Specify amount of external memory – Specify the amount
of external memory you will use for your ROMless device.
The Start Address is always zero (0). Enter an End Address value
in decimal or hex (use 0x before number.)
Click Next to continue.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
5.5.7
Setup Wizard – Summary
Check the summarized information. If anything is incorrect, use
Back to return to the dialog you need and change the information.
Click Finish when you are satisfied with the MPLAB ICD 2 setup.
5.6
ADVANCED BREAKPOINTS DIALOG
In addition to the basic breakpoints that you may set (right-mouse
menu and standard Breakpoint dialog), MPLAB ICD 2 has an
Advanced Breakpoints dialog (Debugger>Advanced
Breakpoints.)
The options on the Advanced Breakpoint Dialog are dependent on
your selected device.
• PIC18F Devices – Regular PIC18F MCU devices.
• Extended PIC18F Devices V1 – Version 1 extended PIC18F
devices have an extended instruction set (available for
MPLAB C18 C compiler use) that may be enabled through a
Configuration bit (XINST).
• Extended PIC18F Devices V2 – Version 2 extended PIC18F
devices have the version 1 extended instruction set, as well
as additional Breakpoint capabilities.
• dsPIC30F Devices – dsPIC30F DSC devices.
• dsPIC33F/PIC24 Devices – dsPIC33F DSC and PIC24 MCU
devices.
5.6.1
PIC18F Devices
The Advanced Breakpoints Dialog for PIC18F devices contains
the following options.
Breakpoint is in Program Memory
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in program
memory. Then, enter the “Program Memory Address” as the
location of the breakpoint.
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ICD Function Summary
Breakpoint is in File Registers
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in data
memory (file registers). Then:
• Read Access/Write Access – Specify file register access.
• File Register Address – Enter location of breakpoint.
• File Register Value – If “File Register Must be Equal to Following Value”, check the checkbox and then enter “File
Register Value”.
Additional Breakpoint Setup
In addition to breakpoint memory setup, you may select the
following:
• Break on Stack Over/Underflow – Break on stack overflow or
underflow.
• Pass Count – For the breakpoint set above, break for the
entered pass count value (0-255).
5.6.2
Extended PIC18F Devices V1
The Advanced Breakpoints Dialog for Extended PIC18F devices
(version 1) contains the following options.
Breakpoint Number
These devices support up to three breakpoints. Enter a number
and then set up that breakpoint below. Change the number to set
up another breakpoint.
Breakpoint is in Program Memory
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in program
memory. Then, enter the “Program Memory Address” as the
location of the breakpoint.
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Breakpoint is in File Registers
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in data
memory (file registers). Then:
• Read Access/Write Access – Specify file register access.
• File Register Address – Enter location of breakpoint.
• File Register Value – If “File Register Must be Equal to Following Value”, check the checkbox and then enter “File
Register Value”.
Additional Breakpoint Setup
In addition to breakpoint memory setup, you may select the
following:
• Break on Stack Over/Underflow – Break on stack overflow or
underflow.
• Pass Count – For the breakpoint set above, break for the
entered pass count value (0-255).
5.6.3
Extended PIC18F Devices V2
The Advanced Breakpoints Dialog for Extended PIC18F devices
(version 2) contains the following options.
5.6.3.1
BREAKPOINT PARAMETERS
These options apply to the breakpoint specified in “Breakpoint #”.
Breakpoint Number
These devices support up to three breakpoints. Enter a number
and then set up that breakpoint below. Change the number to set
up another breakpoint.
Breakpoint is in Program Memory
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in program
memory. Then, enter the “Program Memory Address” as the
location of the breakpoint.
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ICD Function Summary
Breakpoint is in File Registers
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will be located in data
memory (file registers). Then:
• Read Access/Write Access – Specify file register access.
• File Register Address – Enter location of breakpoint.
• File Register Value – If “File Register Must be Equal to Following Value”, check the checkbox and then enter “File
Register Value”.
Data Sample
Check this checkbox if the breakpoint will signify the start of data
sampling. Then:
• File Register Address – Enter location of breakpoint.
Data samples will appear in the Output window under the ICD2
Data Sample tab. To have this information scroll, select “Scroll
Data Sample Output” under Section 5.6.3.2 “Emulator
Features”.
Additional Breakpoint Setup
In addition to the above breakpoint setup, you may select the
following at the bottom of the dialog:
• Pass Count – For the breakpoint set above, break for the
entered pass count value (0-255).
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
5.6.3.2
EMULATOR FEATURES
The following features apply independent of the breakpoint setup
above.
Event Breakpoints
For all breakpoints:
• Break on Stack Over/Underflow – Break on stack overflow or
underflow. (Future feature)
• Break on Watchdog Timer – Break on a WDT time-out.
(Future feature)
• Break on SLEEP – Break on a SLEEP instruction. The SLEEP
instruction will NOT be executed. Running or stepping from
this point will execute the instruction after SLEEP.
Enable Stopwatch
Check to coordinate breakpoints with Stopwatch operation.
• Halt on Start Condition (Breakpoint 2)
- If checked, halt program (breakpoint 2 enabled) and
program/Stopwatch go on Run.
- If unchecked, program continues to run (breakpoint 2
disabled) and Stopwatch is started.
• Halt on Stop Condition (Breakpoint 3)
- If checked, halt program (breakpoint 3 enabled) and
Stopwatch.
- If unchecked, program continues to run (breakpoint 3
disabled), but Stopwatch halted.
• Reset Stopwatch on Run – Any time you run the program,
reset the stopwatch to zero.
Scroll Data Sample Output
Check to scroll data sample information in the Output window, if
selected under Section 5.6.3.1 “Breakpoint Parameters”.
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ICD Function Summary
5.6.4
dsPIC30F Devices
The Advanced Breakpoints Dialog for dsPIC30F DSC devices
contains the following options.
Breakpoint Combinations
This section is grayed out unless there are two breakpoints. The
options are:
• Both breakpoints must occur at the same time to cause a
break.
• Breakpoint 0/1 does not break until after breakpoint 1/0
occurs – Click Swap BPs to change the order.
Breakpoints
Breakpoint #
Select a breakpoint to set up, either 0 or 1.
Breakpoint Type Select the type of breakpoint. Options below will
change depending on the selection made here.
Disabled – Breakpoint disabled (default). Other
options grayed out.
Other Selections – See tables below.
TABLE 5-4:
PROGRAM MEMORY
Breakpoint Type
Program Memory Execution
TBLWT Program Memory
TBLRD Program Memory
PSV Read
Program Memory
Address
Enter the Program Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
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TABLE 5-5:
DATA MEMORY – BYTE OR WORD
Breakpoint Type
X Bus Write Specific Byte
X Bus Read Specific Byte
Y Bus Read Specific Word
X Bus Write Specific Word
X Bus Read Specific Word
Data Memory
Address
Enter the Data Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Data Value
Specify a value that the Byte or Word must be
equal to before breaking.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
TABLE 5-6:
DATA MEMORY
Breakpoint Type
Y Bus Read
X Bus Write
X Bus Read
Data Memory
Address
Enter the Data Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
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ICD Function Summary
5.6.5
dsPIC33F/PIC24 Devices
The Advanced Breakpoints Dialog for dsPIC33F DSC and PIC24
MCU devices contains the following options.
• Breakpoints Tab
• Breakpoint Combinations Tab
• Emulator Features Tab
5.6.5.1
BREAKPOINTS TAB
Breakpoints
Breakpoint #
Select a breakpoint to set up, either 0 or 1.
Breakpoint Type Select the type of breakpoint. Options below will
change depending on the selection made here.
Disabled – Breakpoint disabled (default). Other
options grayed out.
Other Selections – See tables below.
TABLE 5-7:
PROGRAM MEMORY
Breakpoint Type
Program Memory Execution
TBLWT Program Memory
TBLRD Program Memory
PSV Read
Program Memory
Address
Enter the Program Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
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TABLE 5-8:
DATA MEMORY – BYTE OR WORD
Breakpoint Type
X Bus Write Specific Byte
X Bus Read Specific Byte
Y Bus Read Specific Word
X Bus Write Specific Word
X Bus Read Specific Word
Data Memory
Address
Enter the Data Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Data Value
Specify a value that the Byte or Word must be
equal to before breaking.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
TABLE 5-9:
DATA MEMORY
Breakpoint Type
Y Bus Read
X Bus Write
X Bus Read
Data Memory
Address
Enter the Data Memory Address of the
breakpoint.
Pass Count Type
Enter the pass count type, if desired.
Pass counting disabled – default.
Event must occur pass count times.
Break occurs pass count instructions after event.
Pass Count
Enter a pass count value, a number between 0
and 255.
Enable Data Sample Check to enable data sampling. View data in
Output window, ICD2 Data Sample tab.
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ICD Function Summary
5.6.5.2
BREAKPOINT COMBINATIONS TAB
Breakpoint(s) must previously have been set up in
Section 5.6.5.1 “Breakpoints Tab” for options to be available
here.
ANDED Breakpoints
Check the checkbox next to each breakpoint to AND together.
Breakpoint Sequencing
Select a breakpoint sequence.
Swap Breakpoints
Choose one breakpoint to swap with another.
5.6.5.3
EMULATOR FEATURES TAB
The following features apply independent of the breakpoint setup
above.
Event Breakpoints
For all breakpoints:
• Break on Watchdog Timer – Break on a WDT time-out.
• Break on SLEEP – Break on a SLEEP instruction. The SLEEP
instruction will NOT be executed. Running or stepping from
this point will execute the instruction after SLEEP.
Enable Stopwatch
Check to coordinate breakpoints with Stopwatch operation.
• Halt on Start Condition (Breakpoint 1)
- If checked, halt program (breakpoint 1 enabled) and
program/Stopwatch go on Run.
- If unchecked, program continues to run (breakpoint 1
disabled) and Stopwatch is started.
• Halt on Stop Condition (Breakpoint 0)
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
- If checked, halt program (breakpoint 0 enabled) and
Stopwatch.
- If unchecked, program continues to run (breakpoint 0 disabled), but Stopwatch halted.
• Reset Stopwatch on Run – Any time you run the program,
reset the stopwatch to zero.
Data Sample Scroll Output
Check to scroll data sample information in the Output window, if
selected under Section 5.6.5.1 “Breakpoints Tab”.
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MPLAB ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Part 2 – Troubleshooting
Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Tips ........................................... 97
Chapter 7. Self-Test ............................................................... 105
Chapter 8. General Troubleshooting ................................... 109
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NOTES:
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 6. Troubleshooting Tips
6.1
INTRODUCTION
Since many things in MPLAB IDE, MPLAB ICD 2 and the PIC
MCU target application circuit can affect the operation of MPLAB
ICD 2, it is important to understand the operation of each link in the
chain of ICD functionality.
Figure 6-1 is a diagram showing the various links. Each link must
be functional for MPLAB ICD 2 to program and debug. This
section discusses these links to help find and fix problems if they
occur.
FIGURE 6-1:
PC to
MPLAB ICD 2
Communication
CHAIN OF MPLAB® ICD 2
FUNCTIONALITY
MPLAB ICD 2
Firmware
MPLAB ICD 2
to Target
PICmicro MCU
Target
Power
Target
OSC
In-Circuit
Debug Resources
In-Circuit
Debug Registers
© 2007 Microchip Technology Inc.
Debug
Executive
Application
Code
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Functional links are covered as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Link: PC to MPLAB ICD 2 Communications
Link: MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware
Link: MPLAB ICD 2 to Target PIC MCU Device
Link: Target Power
Link: Target Oscillator
Link: Application Code
Link: Debug Executive
Link: In-Circuit Debug Registers
Link: In-Circuit Debug Resources
6.2
LINK: PC TO MPLAB ICD 2
COMMUNICATIONS
This link is the foundation for all subsequent links. If it doesn't
work, MPLAB IDE will issue communications errors. Make sure
that the MPLAB USB drivers are installed according to the instructions. Look at the Windows hardware manager dialog under the
USB section to see that the MPLAB ICD 2 driver is properly
installed on the PC. If using RS-232, make sure that the FIFO buffers are turned off and flow control is set for hardware in the COMM
driver dialog. If the MPLAB ICD 2 USB driver is not visible in the
USB section of the Hardware Manager, go to the ICD2/Drivers
subdirectory of the MPLAB IDE installation directory. Open the
.htm files with a web browser to view details on driver installation
for the appropriate operating system. See Section 2.3.1 “Setting
Up Communications” for more information.
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Troubleshooting Tips
6.3
LINK: MPLAB ICD 2 FIRMWARE
Be sure that the latest version of firmware is loaded in the MPLAB
ICD 2. Updated firmware can be downloaded with the MPLAB IDE
software. (See Section 4.2 “Upgrading the MPLAB ICD 2 Firmware (Operating System)” for automatically downloading firmware.) The latest production software should always be
downloaded from the Microchip web site, www.microchip.com.
The version of firmware will determine which target PIC MCUs are
supported. See the README file for the latest information on the
firmware and on MPLAB ICD 2.
6.4
LINK: MPLAB ICD 2 TO TARGET PIC MCU
DEVICE
Verify that all lines are connected and that no other signals or
components are interfering with ICD signals on VPP, PGC and
PGD. If MPLAB ICD 2’s VDD and VSS lines are not connected to
the target power and ground, it will not work. MPLAB ICD 2 can
provide VDD to the target (<200mA, 5 volts only) and to these
output buffers when providing power to the target circuit (selected
by the Debugger>Settings dialog Power tab, “Power target circuit
from MPLAB ICD 2”). Otherwise, the target’s VDD will be used.
VDD is sensed by MPLAB ICD 2 to check that voltage levels are
correct. Powering from the target VDD allows level translation for
target low-voltage operation. A simplified circuit for the internal
buffer circuits of MPLAB ICD 2 is shown in Figure 6-2.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
FIGURE 6-2:
MPLAB® ICD 2 INTERNAL BUFFER
CIRCUITS
tVDD
tVDD
tVDD
Target VDD
(to pin 2 of
the ICD
Connector)
4.7 KΩ
To PGC
tVDD
tVDD
4.7 KΩ
To PGD
If MPLAB ICD 2 does not have voltage on its VDD line (pin 2 of the
ICD connector) it will not operate. Using a scope, communications
on PGC and PGD with a full target VDD to VSS peak-to-peak
waveform should be seen. VPP should show +12, +5, and 0V
levels depending upon the operation being performed. Signals
should be seen on those lines only after performing an MPLAB
ICD 2 function from the MPLAB user interface. Otherwise, all
these lines should be idle and noise free.
6.5
LINK: TARGET POWER
MPLAB ICD 2 can work within a range of about 2V to 5.5V on the
target PIC MCU’s VDD. The application must be powered by its own
power supply. Remember, that the PGC and PGD I/O drivers in
MPLAB ICD 2 are powered from the target VDD (see Figure 6-2).
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Troubleshooting Tips
6.6
LINK: TARGET OSCILLATOR
When programming a device, it will program without a running
oscillator, but the debug function will not work unless the target
oscillator is functioning. Unlike an in-circuit emulator, while
debugging, MPLAB ICD 2 requires that the target PIC MCU is
running.
Testing may be necessary to make sure that the target system is
executing instructions properly. For instance, a small program
could be written to flash an LED and then programmed into the
target PIC MCU with MPLAB ICD 2 debug disabled. Disconnect
the ICD and reset the target. If the LED does not flash, check the
circuitry to find out why it’s not operating. If MPLAB ICD 2 is connected after programming the target with debug disabled, MPLAB
can still toggle the Reset. If it runs stand-alone but not with ICD
connected (after selecting Debugger>Run in the MPLAB IDE),
then the interconnections may be suspicious. Use a scope to look
at PGC, PGD and VPP. Make sure that the oscillator starts up
quickly. If it takes too long to get the target oscillator started, then
MPLAB ICD 2 can time out and give errors.
Make sure that the correct Oscillator mode is selected (look at
Configure>Configuration Bits). The Oscillator mode will depend
upon the oscillator selected. Try HS mode for a crystal, and RC
mode for an external resistor/capacitor oscillator. These settings
may need to be changed for the final design, but they are some of
the easiest modes to start with. Oscillator operation can be
checked on OSC2 after Configuration bits are set at programming
time and power is applied in debug or normal mode.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
6.7
LINK: APPLICATION CODE
Verify that MPLAB ICD 2 is programming properly by either
running an LED blink test similar to that described in Link: Target
Oscillator or by programming code into the target device. MPLAB
ICD 2 will execute a verify function after programming to confirm
that the data in the target PIC MCU matches MPLAB ICD 2’s
program memory. Programmer>Verify can also be selected
manually to compare the target PIC MCU’s memory with the
MPLAB IDE image. If the target PIC MCU has AVDD and AVSS,
ensure that they are connected properly. These lines should be
connected to power (VDD) and ground (VSS) respectively. Consult
the device data sheet for details. MPLAB ICD 2 will not operate if
any of these are available and not connected. Make sure that Low
Voltage Programming is disabled (Configure>Configuration Bits).
6.8
LINK: DEBUG EXECUTIVE
When using the Debugger>Program function from MPLAB IDE,
the debug executive will be downloaded and the in-circuit debug
registers in the target PIC MCU will be enabled. Programming
should always be done from the Debug menu, not the
Programmer menu when debugging. When programming from the
Programmer menu (after turning MPLAB ICD 2 off as a debugger),
the debug executive will not be downloaded and the in-circuit
debug registers will be disabled.
By looking at the Configure>Configuration Bits menu selection, it
can be determined whether MPLAB is going to download the
debug executive. If the bits labeled “Background Debug” are
enabled, then the debug executive will be downloaded when the
device is programmed.
6.9
LINK: IN-CIRCUIT DEBUG REGISTERS
Make sure that debug is enabled on the MPLAB ICD 2 dialog in
MPLAB IDE before programming a device. By looking at the
Configure> Configuration Bits dialog, it can be verified that the
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Troubleshooting Tips
in-circuit debug registers are enabled. The line labeled “Background Debug” should say “Enabled.” Programming should be
done from the Debug menu, not the Programmer Menu.
6.10
LINK: IN-CIRCUIT DEBUG RESOURCES
Look at the specific registers used for a device in the on-line help.
The file registers or program memory areas reserved by MPLAB
ICD 2 can not be used. If using the xxxxxi.lkr linker script
(name ends in “i”), then, unless the script has been modified,
these resources will be marked reserved and will not be available
to the application. If the linker is not being used, use CBLOCK or
EQUs for variable storage in the code, make sure that registers
required by MPLAB ICD 2 are not used. The in-circuit debugger
will not work if “code protect” or “table read protect” is enabled, if
the Watchdog Timer is running or if the oscillator is not set to the
correct mode by the Configuration bits. If using fast interrupts or
the CALL FAST instruction, MPLAB ICD 2 uses the shadow stack
and users will not be able to exit properly from the fast interrupt
routine or CALL FAST function.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
NOTES:
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 7. Self-Test
7.1
INTRODUCTION
The Run Self Test button (Settings dialog, Status tab) is helpful
in determining problems with the MPLAB ICD 2 module or target
connection.
Self-Test features covered are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Target VDD
Module VPP
MCLR = GND
MCLR = VDD
MCLR = VPP
Failed Self-Test Error – VPP/VDD High/Low
7.2
TARGET VDD
Tests the VDD provided from the MPLAB ICD 2 (5 volts only) if
“Power target circuit from MPLAB ICD 2” is selected.
Pass/Fail codes:
0/0 = Pass
VDD is within specified limits
01 = Min error
VDD is below specified limits
80 = Max error
VDD is above specified limits
An error can indicate:
• Target voltage/current mismatch from provided
voltage/current
• MPLAB ICD 2 pod hardware problems
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
7.3
MODULE VPP
Tests the programming voltage (VPP) provided from the MPLAB
ICD 2 to the target VPP/MCLR pin during a programming cycle
Pass/Fail codes:
00 = Pass
VPP is within specified limits
01 = Min error
VPP is below specified limits
80 = Max error
VPP is above specified limits
An error can indicate:
• The target VPP/MCLR pin is not correctly wired
7.4
MCLR = GND
Test the ability of the MPLAB ICD 2 to provide a ground level to the
target VPP/MCLR pin for target reset
Pass/Fail codes:
00 = Pass
Ground can be provided to target VPP/MCLR pin
80 = Max error
Ground level too high for target VPP/MCLR pin
An error can indicate:
• The target VPP/MCLR pin is not correctly wired
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Self-Test
7.5
MCLR = VDD
Test the ability of the MPLAB ICD 2 to provide VDD to the target
VPP/MCLR pin during normal operation (such as Run).
Pass/Fail codes:
00 = Pass
VDD can be provided to target VPP/MCLR pin
01 = Min error
VDD too low for target VPP/MCLR pin
80 = Max error
VDD too high for target VPP/MCLR pin
An error can indicate:
• Target voltage/current mismatch from provided
voltage/current
• MPLAB ICD 2 pod hardware problems
7.6
MCLR = VPP
Test the ability of the MPLAB ICD 2 to provide VPP to the target
VPP/MCLR pin during programming operations.
Pass/Fail codes:
00 = Pass
VPP can be provided to target VPP/MCLR pin
01 = Min error
VPP too low for target VPP/MCLR pin
80 = Max error
VPP too high for target VPP/MCLR pin
An error can indicate:
• The target VPP/MCLR pin is not correctly wired
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
7.7
FAILED SELF-TEST ERROR – VPP/VDD
HIGH/LOW
Symptom:
When connecting to the MPLAB ICD2 in MPLAB IDE or running a
self-test (Debugger/Programmer>Settings>Status>Self Test),
MPLAB IDE may report a self-test error in the Output window.
Cause:
This could be due to the firmware routines used to determine
minimum and maximum voltages (a less than compare is used in
one place while a less-than or equal-to is used in another).
Solution:
Check the actual voltages measured by the ICD. This can be
found at Programmer/Debugger>Settings>Power. The Update
button will cause these voltages to be remeasured and displayed.
As long as the voltages displayed are within tolerance for the
target device, the MPLAB ICD 2 unit can still be used for
programming and debugging operations.
The firmware will be changed for better support of self-test
functions.
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 8. General Troubleshooting
8.1
INTRODUCTION
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and common problems are
documented here to help you as you use the MPLAB ICD 2. Also,
messages generated by the ICD and its tool limitations are
referenced.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
Frequently Asked Questions
Common Communication Problems
Common Problems
Error and Warning Messages
Limitations
8.2
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Questions are listed in the order of most-to-least frequently asked.
8.2.1
Why does my system fail to program or
verify?
Check the PGC, PGD and VPP connections and voltages as
described in Chapter 2.‘Getting Started”. Make sure the target
PIC MCU has power applied. If the target PIC MCU has AVSS and
AVDD pins, verify that these are all connected properly.
8.2.2
Why do I need the ICD header adapters?
The low pin count parts that are supported by MPLAB ICD 2 could
not be used very effectively if in-circuit debug pins are reserved –
imagine losing three out of six I/O lines on an eight-pin part! For
this reason, special bond-out PIC MCUs have been manufactured
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
that can emulate these low pin count parts with an adapter, and
which will allow the use of all pins in the target application. The
bond-out PIC MCU has the in-circuit communications pins to interface to MPLAB ICD 2.
The advantage of this is that the low pin parts can be used in
development with MPLAB ICD 2. The disadvantage is that these
parts cannot simply have an MPLAB ICD 2 connector on the target
application for in-circuit debugging. These bond-out PIC MCUs
are similar to emulator chips. They can support more than one
device. Jumpers are available on the header boards to configure
the chip to match the device under development. These low pin
count devices can be programmed with MPLAB ICD 2 using the
Universal Programmer Adapter or by putting an MPLAB ICD 2
connector on the target application to connect VPP, PGC and PGD
on these parts.
8.2.3
I can't connect to MPLAB ICD 2. What do I do
now?
Is the MPLAB ICD 2 power light on? The LED should shine
brightly. If it is dim, only USB may be connected and the user may
need to connect the power supply. The RS-232 connection from
the PC cannot supply power to MPLAB ICD 2, but a USB
connection can. Note that some USB hubs cannot supply power.
Check the on-line help for current troubleshooting hints. Are the
USB drivers installed properly? The MPLAB ICD 2 USB driver
should be visible in the Windows Device Manager dialog (see
Figure 8-1). Some USB hubs cannot supply power to the attached
USB devices. A power supply will need to be connected to MPLAB
ICD 2 with these hubs.
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General Troubleshooting
FIGURE 8-1:
8.2.4
SYSTEM PROPERTIES DIALOG
MPLAB ICD 2 responds with “Target not in
debug mode error.” What does this mean?
Usually this means that MPLAB ICD 2 cannot communicate with
the debug executive. The debug executive can only be
downloaded by programming the target PIC MCU with the user’s
application from the Debugger>Program menu selection. There
are other reasons that the debug executive might not be able to
communicate, such as target clock or power supply problems.
Check the Configuration bits to see that the “Background Debug”
is enabled. Look at Configure>Configuration Bits to make sure
that the Watchdog TImer is disabled, code protection is turned off
and that the oscillator setting is correct.
8.2.5
Can MPLAB ICD 2 operate with a target device
running at low voltage?
Yes. As long as the target PIC MCU supports low-voltage operation, it can run down to about 2 volts VDD. There are level
converters in the input/output buffers of the MPLAB ICD 2. These
are powered from the VDD of the target device. Also, MPLAB
ICD 2 will sense the operating voltage of the target and correctly
adjust its functionality to deal with this operation, i.e., using the
correct Flash erase algorithms. VDD needs to be selected “From
Target” in the MPLAB ICD 2 “Settings” dialog, and have a power
supply on the target for low-voltage operation.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
8.2.6
Does MPLAB ICD 2 support Low Voltage
Programming (LVP)?
No. But this does not mean that it will not work correctly when running at low-voltage VDD on the target. It just means that the
programming voltages applied to VPP will always be +12V.
8.2.7
Why do I have problems when configuring the
PLL Oscillator? MPLAB ICD 2 gets “hung up.”
This is a requirement of the actual PIC MCU. After programming
the Configuration bits for the PLL Oscillator, power needs to be
removed then reapplied to the target. If this is not done, the target
PIC MCU will not have a clock. With no clock, Debug mode will not
function. Also, if power is not removed and reconnected when
switching to PLL mode, the device may run, but without the PLL
multiplier.
8.2.8
When I try to install, why are the drivers not
found, even though I can see them in the
driver folders, and I point the driver wizard to
the correct folder?
This problem can be solved by exiting from the driver install
wizard, and going to the Control Panel “Add New Hardware”
selection. After the system searches for new hardware, choose,
“No, the device isn’t in the list.” Then choose “No, I want to select
the hardware from a list.” Then choose “Universal Serial Bus
Controller,” and when the Have Disk... button appears, go to the
driver folder (MPLAB IDE\ICD2\Drivers) and select the proper
driver.
8.2.9
Can I use code protection with MPLAB ICD 2?
No. Code protection, especially table read protection on any area
in program memory will prevent MPLAB ICD 2 from functioning.
Do not use any code protection or table read protection configura-
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General Troubleshooting
tion settings when debugging with MPLAB ICD 2. Code protection
can be enabled when programming a part for testing without
MPLAB ICD 2.
8.2.10
How does MPLAB ICD 2 deal with Calibration
Data?
It is automatically handled. Any values that are in program memory that are used by the PIC MCU for calibration data will be read
and preserved by MPLAB ICD 2 when erasing, programming and
debugging. No action is required to protect this data.
8.2.11
Why am I getting erratic values from my
EEData area?
MPLAB ICD 2 can read the EEData areas directly, without going
through the EECON register’s required TABLRD sequence of
instructions. The buffers that MPLAB uses can sometimes
interfere with the user’s code. Avoid going back and forth from
program reads of data to MPLAB ICD 2 reads of the EEData area
when single stepping code.
8.2.12
Why does my program keep resetting?
Check the Configuration bits settings (Configure>Configuration
Bits) for your selected device. Some reset functions (such as
Watchdog Timer Reset) are enabled by default.
8.2.13
Why is “Erase All Before Programming”
grayed out?
In some of the newer Flash parts, the programming algorithm
requires that non-contiguous areas of program memory are
programmed in banks. For these parts, all memory must be
erased before programming.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
8.2.14
Can my program read and write from Port B or
GPIO without interfering with MPLAB ICD 2?
Yes. When the in-circuit debug facilities are enabled, PGC and
PGD are always used by MPLAB ICD 2, and user code that reads
or writes from PORT B will not interfere. Note that the values read
from PGC and PGD are not necessarily valid, and writes to these
two pins will be ignored. In addition, if interrupts are enabled for
changes on Port B, signals on PGC and PGD will not cause an
interrupt.
8.2.15
Why are the timers behaving erratically when
single-stepping?
This is one of the drawbacks of using the in-circuit debugger.
Since code is actually running in the debug executive, timers can
continue to run during the operation of the debug executive, even
when the user’s application program is “halted.”
8.2.16
Why am I getting warnings and errors when
using the PIC12F629/675 or PIC16F630/676?
The GP1/RA1 pins on these parts cannot be pulled high while
using MPLAB ICD 2. Refer to the header board specification for
more information on using MPLAB ICD 2 for these parts
(DS51292).
8.2.17
What would make the power and busy LED
blink on and off?
This may indicate that the target MPLAB ICD 2 connector is wired
backwards (opposite from the wiring diagram). The blinking
indicates that the MPLAB ICD 2 is shutting down due to high
current. The following tests indicate that the target is connected
backwards:
• Look for blinking Power and Busy LEDs (power may go out
altogether).
• Execute a “Self-Test” and look for a min. error on
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General Troubleshooting
“MCLR=VPP” (all other tests will probably pass).
• Use the default address range for the target controller and
execute a “Program” cycle. A voltage level on pin 1 (VPP) of
7-8 volts is too low.
If the target was wired backwards, protection circuitry in the
MPLAB ICD 2 will prevent damage to the module. Normal
operation should be seen when the target is wired correctly.
The Error LED flashing indicates an over-voltage condition on
either the clock or data line on the ICSP interface. This circuitry is
in place to protect the buffers on the MPLAB ICD 2 from being
damaged. When a high voltage is detected greater than 6.5V a
clamping circuit brings the clock and data line low. Once this error
occurs, MPLAB will need to be reinitialized and the fault removed
for operation to resume normally.
8.2.18
What does the MPLAB ICD 2 “Self-Test” do?
The MPLAB ICD 2 Self-Test is helpful in determining problems
with the MPLAB ICD 2 module or target connection. For more
details, see Chapter 7.‘Self-Test”.
8.2.19
Why are the W, STATUS and BSR registers
getting changed when using high priority
interrupts with the RETFIE instruction?
The shadow registers, which are used for high priority interrupts
and CALL FAST are used by MPLAB ICD 2. These are reserved
resources for MPLAB ICD 2 operation. A problem will be
encountered if a breakpoint is set inside a CALL FAST subroutine
or inside the service routine for a high priority interrupt that uses
the shadow registers with the RETURN FAST or RETFIE
instruction.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
8.2.20
When setting a breakpoint at the first location
in my program, why does it stop at address
0001 rather than 0000?
MPLAB ICD 2 stops at the instruction after the breakpoint. This
means that a breakpoint at address 0000 will be executed, then
the program counter will be pointing at address 0001 when it gets
a breakpoint. If a user needs to stop at the first instruction in their
code, they must put a NOP at address 0000.
8.2.21
Why is my calibration memory displayed as
the erase value?
MPLAB IDE is displaying the default memory value. A device read
must be performed with MPLAB ICD 2 to display the actual value
on the device.
8.2.22
When single stepping through the code, my
timer times out, but why does my timer
interrupt routine not execute?
When single stepping, the in-circuit debugger will not allow the
PIC MCU to respond to interrupts. If it did, and users had external
interrupts, then single stepping would almost always end up in
interrupt routines. To debug an interrupt, set a breakpoint inside
the Interrupt Service Routine and Run to get a breakpoint after the
interrupt.
8.2.23
How do I program a ROMless (PIC18C601/801)
device?
For these devices, you must create the routines that read/write
memory. See Section 4.5 “ROMless Device Considerations”
for details.
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General Troubleshooting
8.2.24
Why can’t I step through a return for my
dsPIC30F device?
Make sure that you have:
• checked the option to build for ICD, i.e., go to Project>Build
Options>Project, MPLAB LINK30 tab, and check “Link for
ICD2”.
• initialized the software stack, i.e., use the startup module
libpic30.a (for MPLAB C30) or crt0.o (for MPLAB
ASM30) or consult a template to write your own SP and
SPLIM initialization code.
Then you should able to step through a return (from a function,
etc.)
8.3
COMMON COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS
The following are a list of common problems with MPLAB ICD 2
communications, both USB and serial.
8.3.1
Communications cannot be established with
MPLAB ICD 2
First, click Debugger>Connect. If you cannot establish communications with MPLAB ICD 2, follow the steps below. If communications still cannot be established, contact Microchip Engineering
Support.
8.3.1.1
IN GENERAL
1. Check that the RS-232 or USB cable is connected securely
to the MPLAB ICD 2 and the host computer.
2. Check that the modular cable is connected securely to the
demo board/target application and the MPLAB ICD 2
module.
3. Make sure there is power to the demo board/target application. Check VDD Source in the MPLAB ICD 2 Settings
dialog, Power tab.
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4. Check that the device is plugged into the demo board/target
application correctly; e.g., all pins are plugged into the
socket and the device is correctly oriented.
8.3.1.2
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
1. Make sure the power supply is connected and the Power
LED on the MPLAB ICD 2 module is on.
2. There may be a driver-hardware incompatibility; try changing Flow Control to Hardware and/or turning off the FIFO
for the serial port.
For specific instructions, see Section 8.3.1.3 “Changing
Serial Port Settings”.
3. Check the settings on the MPLAB ICD 2 Setting dialog,
Communication tab. Make sure you selected the correct
COM port and baud rate for your application.
Note:
If you are having problems at a COM port baud rate
speed of 57600, switch back to the initial speed of
19200.
4. Try connecting the MPLAB ICD 2 module to a different port.
When first connecting to the MPLAB ICD 2, the default COM
port is COM1. If you are using the MPLAB ICD 2 on another
COM port, select Debugger>Settings and then click the
Communications tab. Set your COM port and baud rate
here.
5. Make sure that a COM port is properly set up exclusively for
use by the debugger. Check the resources to ensure they
are operating properly and that there are no conflicts with
other devices. This commonly happens when you have a
modem or other serial device that is improperly configured.
Consult your Windows manual or other reference literature.
You can try removing, reconfiguring, or disabling the conflicting device, but only do so if you are familiar with those
procedures.
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General Troubleshooting
6. If you have a COM port but MPLAB IDE will not let you
select it (the option is grayed out) you may be able to assign
the port manually by editing the mplab.ini file. Typically,
this occurs if you have a gap in your COM port list (i.e., you
have a COM1, COM2, and a COM4, but no COM3). In this
case you may be able to fix it by opening mplab.ini (use
Find to locate this file) and editing the section called [MPLAB
ICD 2] so that the setting CommPort=1 is set to the port
you want selected. This is just a work-around to a deeper
problem in which Windows is incorrectly reporting port
availability through the 16-bit driver.
8.3.1.3
CHANGING SERIAL PORT SETTINGS
Complete the following steps to change the Flow Control and FIFO
settings for a serial communications port on a PC running the
Windows operating system.
Windows 98/ME
1. On your PC, select Start>Settings>Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel, double click the System Icon.
3. In the Systems Properties dialog, click the Device Manager
tab.
4. If necessary, expand the Ports selection by clicking the “+”
sign next to it.
5. Double click the I/O port to which the MPLAB ICD 2 is
connected.
6. In the Flow Control field, select Hardware.
7. Click the Advanced button, deselect the “Use FIFO” box,
and click OK.
8. Reboot the PC to implement the change.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Windows NT
Note:
You may need administrator privileges on your
computer to change these settings.
1. On your PC, select Start>Settings>Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel, double click the Ports Icon.
3. Double click the I/O port to which the MPLAB ICD 2 is
connected.
4. Select the Port Settings tab.
5. In the Flow Control field, select Hardware.
6. Click the Advanced button, deselect the “Use FIFO” box,
and click OK.
7. Reboot the PC to implement the change.
Windows 2000/XP
Note:
You may need administrator privileges on your
computer to change these settings.
1. On your PC, select Start>Settings>Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel, double click the System Icon.
3. In the Systems Properties dialog, click the Hardware tab
and click the Device Manager button.
4. Double click “Ports (COM & LPT)” to expand the Ports
selection.
5. Double click the I/O port to which the MPLAB ICD 2 is
connected.
6. Select the Port Settings tab.
7. In the Flow Control field, select Hardware.
8. Click the Advanced button, deselect the “Use FIFO” box,
and click OK.
9. Reboot the PC to implement the change.
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General Troubleshooting
8.3.1.4
USB COMMUNICATIONS
CAUTION
If the Windows OS picked a USB driver, MPLAB ICD 2 will not
work. Follow the instructions in ICD2\Drivers\clnicd2.htm of the
MPLAB IDE installation directory to remove the Windows drivers
and replace them with the correct USB drivers.
1. If MPLAB ICD 2 is powering a target application, make sure
a power supply is connected and the Power LED on the
MPLAB ICD 2 module is on.
2. Make sure you have used the MPLAB IDE supplied USB
driver for MPLAB ICD 2.
8.3.2
Connection failure occurs when using a COM
port 2, 3 or 4
When first connecting to the MPLAB ICD 2, the default COM port
is COM1. If you are using the MPLAB ICD 2 on another COM port,
select Debugger>Settings and then click the Communications
tab. Set your COM port and baud rate here.
8.3.3
MPLAB ICD 2 Connects But Target Operations
Fail
This can indicate that the VDD setting is incorrect.
The MPLAB ICD 2 can provide VDD to the target (5 volts only).
This is set in the MPLAB ICD 2 Debugger Settings dialog, Power
tab. If “Power target circuit from MPLAB ICD 2” is selected, the
MPLAB ICD 2 will provide VDD to the target (the target does not
need to be powered). However, if the target needs a voltage other
than 5V or more than 200mA of current, then the target cannot be
powered by MPLAB ICD 2 and will require its own power source.
When you click the Reset button in Debug mode to reset the program, it will go to zero and halt. The Reset command will not rerun
the program when the MPLAB ICD 2 is in Debug mode.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
8.3.4
Command to program/erase target memory
failed
Make sure that you have selected the appropriate Bus Width and
Oscillator settings for the device you are programming.
8.3.5
Programming error occurs when
programming a range of memory on
PIC18C601/801
For the PIC18C601/801, you need to align the End Address + 1 so
it can be divided by 8. For example, 0x7FF or 0x1FFF7. If you
receive a programming error due to an incorrect End Address, you
need to perform a reconnect, correct the End Address and select
Program again.
8.4
COMMON PROBLEMS
The following are a list of common problems you may encounter.
8.4.1
Debug Mode Not Working
1. Make sure you have selected all of the areas of the device
that you want to program. Select Debugger>Settings and
click on the Program tab. Select Memories as desired.
2. If you are using the Start/End Address fields in the Memory
Addresses section of the MPLAB ICD 2 Settings dialog
(Debugger>Settings, Program tab), ensure that the Start
Address is set to the beginning of an 8-byte block and the
End Address is set to the end of an 8-byte block. For
example, a Start Address of 0x10 and an End Address of
0x1F.
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General Troubleshooting
8.4.2
Can't uncheck programming of Configuration
bits in Debug mode
For MPLAB ICD 2 to function in Debug mode, the ICD must
ensure that the Background Debug Configuration bit is programmed on the target. Therefore, configuration memory is
always programmed when in Debug mode.
8.4.3
When single stepping, the program runs too
slowly
Upload of Data Issue
Data is uploaded from the MPLAB ICD 2 depending on the amount
of data displayed in the IDE, i.e., the size and amount of open
debug windows.
• If your program is running slow, consider closing some windows or using Watch windows to view specific registers.
• If not all register data is being updated, you probably do not
have all the registers visible when you run/step. That is, if you
step, then scroll to find a register, it will not have the updated
data from the step execution.
8.4.4
Single Stepping Slow when Programmer
Enabled
If you have a programmer enabled when using MPLAB ICD 2 to
debug a part with EEData, your stepping through code will be very
slow. Disable the programmer to speed up stepping time.
The slowdown occurs because the programmer must attach to the
entire range of EEData so it can be programmed. The debugger,
seeing that something is attached to the EEData (whether a programmer or EEData Display) will read back the entire range after
each step in case the data was modified while running.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
8.4.5
When single stepping, the program runs too
quickly OR some registers are not updated
This is an upload of data issue. See Section 8.4.3 “When single
stepping, the program runs too slowly”.
8.4.6
When halting, single stepping, or stopping on
a breakpoint, MPLAB IDE seems to lock up
Your program may not have locked up, but may be running very
slowly. This is an upload of data issue. See Section 8.4.3 “When
single stepping, the program runs too slowly”.
Also, if you are using PIC16F87X device, the first program memory location (address 0x0000) must be a NOP instruction or you will
not be able to single step past location zero.
8.4.7
The following I/O pins are not functioning
correctly: RB6 or RB7
These pins are reserved for debugging.
8.4.8
One or more of my memory addresses
(Program or GPR) is not correct
Several GPR's and Program Memory locations are reserved for
debugging.
8.4.9
EEPROM window does not reflect changes
In order to see the changes in the window, you must do a read of
the memory.
8.4.10
Stack window does not reflect changes/is
blank
This is a tool limitation. See Chapter 11.‘Limitations”.
8.4.11
Program keeps resetting
See Section 8.2.12 “Why does my program keep resetting?”.
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General Troubleshooting
8.4.12
Execute Reset or MCLR command, program
does not rerun
When you select Debugger>Reset to reset the program, it will go
to zero and halt. The Reset command will not rerun the program
when the MPLAB ICD 2 is in Debug mode.
8.4.13
File Register window does not display
Top-of-Stack Registers
The three Top-of-Stack registers (TOSU, TOSH, and TOSL) are
not displayed in the File Registers window when using the MPLAB
ICD 2.
8.4.14
Power and busy LED blink on and off
See Section 8.2.17 “What would make the power and busy
LED blink on and off?”.
8.5
ERROR AND WARNING MESSAGES
MPLAB ICD 2 generates several error and warning messages.
Details on the meanings of most messages may be found in online help for MPLAB ICD 2.
Warning messages may be selected to display or not display using
the Warnings tab of the Settings dialog.
All messages may be output to a file for debugging by selecting
the “Output to Debug File” checkbox on the Status tab of the
Settings dialog.
8.6
LIMITATIONS
MPLAB ICD 2 has limitations for both its debugger and programmer modes. These, and additional device-specific limitations, may
be found in on-line help for MPLAB ICD 2.
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Appendix A. Hardware Specifications
A.1
INTRODUCTION
Hardware specifications for MPLAB ICD 2 system components
are listed here.
In addition, please refer to the “MPLAB ICD 2 Design Advisory”
(DS51566) for hardware configuration issues.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• MPLAB ICD 2 Module
• Modular Cable and Connector
• Power Supply
A.2
MPLAB ICD 2 MODULE
The MPLAB ICD 2 module contains all debugging, programming
and control logic. It is connected to either a PC's serial port via a
9-pin serial cable or a USB port via a USB cable and to the
PICDEM 2 Plus demo board or target application using a 6-wire
modular cable.
The module contains the firmware to provide serial communications to the PC, to drive the MPLAB ICD 2 communications to the
target application or demo board and to program a supported
PIC MCU device using ICSP, all from the MPLAB IDE. The module
can provide power to the demo board/target application. VDD
source is selected in the MPLAB ICD 2 Settings dialog, Power tab.
If the target application draws over 200 mA, an additional power
adapter must be connected to the demo board or target application. The target application also provides power to the module only
for the purpose of logic level conversion.
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
The MPLAB ICD 2 interface cable must be plugged into a modular
connector on the application circuit with the appropriate connections to the PIC MCU device. The interface cable carries the
signals necessary to allow in-circuit debugging of the target
application
A.3
MODULAR CABLE AND CONNECTOR
A modular cable connects the MPLAB ICD 2 and the target application. The specifications for this cable and its connectors are
listed below.
A.3.1
Modular Connector Specification
• Manufacturer, Part Number – AMP Incorporated, 555165-1
• Distributor, Part Number – Digikey, A9031ND
The following table shows how the modular connector pins on an
application correspond to the microcontroller pins. This
configuration provides the full MPLAB ICD 2 functionality.
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Hardware Specifications
FIGURE A-1:
A.3.2
MODULAR CONNECTOR PINOUT OF
DESIGNER'S BOARD
Modular Plug Specification
• Manufacturer, Part Number – AMP Incorporated, 5-554710-3
• Distributor, Part Number – Digikey, A9117ND
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
A.3.3
Modular Cable Specification
• Manufacturer, Part Number – Microchip Technology,
07-00024
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Hardware Specifications
A.4
POWER SUPPLY
The MPLAB ICD 2 module requires a 9.0 V, 750 mA power supply.
The demo board or your target application may also require an
additional power supply if it is drawing too much power from the
MPLAB ICD 2 module. The MPLAB ICD 2 module can power a
demo board/target application of up to 200 mA for 5 VDC.
A power adapter is included in the following product kits:
Part Number
Description
Includes these Components
DV164006
MPLAB®
ICD 2
Evaluation Kit
MPLAB ICD 2 module, USB,
MPLAB ICD 2 interface and
RS-232 cables, PICDEM 2
Plus demo board, power
adapter, MPLAB IDE
CD-ROM
DV164007
MPLAB ICD 2
Module SW
MPLAB ICD 2 module, USB,
MPLAB ICD 2 interface and
RS-232 cables, power
adapter, MPLAB IDE
CD-ROM
AC162048
RS-232 Desk Top Kit Power adapter and RS-232
cable
The power supply specifications for the MPLAB ICD 2 module and
the PICDEM 2 Plus demo board are:
• DC power supply: 9 VDC @ 0.75A
• With barrel connector: ID = 2.5 mm, OD = 5.5 mm, barrel
length = 10.0 mm, inside positive
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MPLAB® ICD 2
USER’S GUIDE
Index
A
Abort ................................................................................... 72, 74
Additional .................................................................................. 63
Advanced Breakpoint Dialog
dsPIC30F Devices ............................................................. 89
dsPIC33F Devices ............................................................. 91
Extended PIC18F Devices ................................................. 85
Extended PIC18F Devices V2 ........................................... 86
PIC18F Devices ................................................................. 84
PIC24F Devices ................................................................. 91
Animate .................................................................................... 70
Application Code .................................................................... 102
AVDD ................................................................................ 17, 102
AVSS ................................................................................. 17, 102
B
Blank Check ....................................................................... 39, 74
Blinking LED ........................................................................... 114
Breakpoints ........................................................................ 35, 71
Advanced ................................................... 84, 85, 86, 89, 91
Setting ........................................................................ 53, 116
BSR Register .......................................................................... 115
Build-In Debug Circuitry ........................................................... 68
C
Calibration Data .............................................................. 113, 116
CALL FAST .................................................................... 103, 115
Capacitors ................................................................................ 18
Circuits that Interfere with MPLAB ICD 2 ................................. 18
Code Protect ............................................................ 20, 103, 112
Communications ....................................................................... 27
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
Configuration Bits .........................................................20, 32, 49
Connecting ..................................................30, 31, 32, 43, 72, 74
Connections ..............................................................................16
Creating a Hex File ...................................................................48
Customer Notification Service ....................................................8
Customer Support .......................................................................9
D
Debug
Executive ............................................................23, 102, 111
Registers ....................................................................24, 103
Reserved Resources ..........................................................24
Resources ........................................................................103
Debug Mode
Requirements .....................................................................20
Sequence of Operations .....................................................21
Debug Tool ...............................................................................29
Debugger Menu ........................................................................52
Debugging ..........................................................................34, 53
Demo Board ..............................................................................51
Device Selection .......................................................................29
Download ............................................................................72, 74
Drivers Not Found ...................................................................112
dsPIC Silicon Version Information ............................................32
E
EEData ...................................................................................113
EEPROM ..................................................................................36
EEPROM Data Memory, Start Of .............................................65
Environment Setup ...................................................................32
Erase ..................................................................................39, 73
Erase All Before Programming .........................................50, 113
Error LED ................................................................................115
External Memory, ROMless Devices ........................................67
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Index
F
Fast
Call ........................................................................... 103, 115
Interrupts .......................................................................... 103
Return .............................................................................. 115
Firmware ............................................................................ 43, 99
Firmware Upgrades .................................................................. 63
Frequently .............................................................................. 109
G
Getting Started ......................................................................... 25
GP1/RA1 ................................................................................ 114
GPIO ...................................................................................... 114
Green Light ......................................................................... 29, 42
H
Halt ........................................................................................... 70
Header Board ............................................................. 24, 26, 109
Specification .................................................................. 6, 68
Hex File ........................................................................ 36, 48, 64
Hold in Reset ............................................................................ 74
How MPLAB ICD 2 Works ........................................................ 14
I
ICD ........................................................................................... 99
Cable ................................................................................. 16
Devices .............................................................................. 68
Header Adapters .............................................................. 109
ICE Devices .............................................................................. 68
ICE vs ICD ................................................................................ 14
ICSP ................................................................................... 20, 24
Installation ................................................................................ 27
Interconnections ....................................................................... 16
Internal Buffer Circuits ............................................................ 100
Internet Address ......................................................................... 7
Interrupts ................................................................................ 114
Fast .................................................................................. 103
High Priority ..................................................................... 115
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
L
Linker Script File .......................................................................65
Loading Program and Debug Code ..........................................51
Low Voltage ............................................................................111
LVP .........................................................................................112
M
MCLR ........................................................................................74
Microchip Internet Web Site ........................................................7
Modular Interface Cable ...............................................16, 20, 26
MPASM Assembler ...................................................................44
MPLAB ......................................................................................13
mplab.exe .................................................................................28
O
On-Chip Debug Circuitry ...........................................................68
Operating System Upgrades ....................................................63
Oscillator, Target ....................................................................101
P
PGC, PGD ........................................................................17, 109
PIC18F452 ................................................................................41
PICDEM 18R ............................................................................66
PICDEM 2 Plus demo board .....................................................41
Port B ......................................................................................114
Power ......................................................................................110
Sequence ...........................................................................30
Target ...............................................................................100
Program ..............................................................................71, 73
Device for Debug ................................................................34
Mode ..................................................................................24
Tab, Settings Dialog ...........................................................50
Programmer ..............................................................................37
Programming ............................................................................58
Programming Options ...............................................................49
Project .......................................................................................33
Project Wizard ..........................................................................44
Pull-ups .....................................................................................18
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Index
R
Read ................................................................................... 71, 73
Read a Device .......................................................................... 38
Read EEPROM ........................................................................ 71
Real-Time Execution ................................................................ 35
Red Light .................................................................................. 29
Release from Reset .................................................................. 74
Reserved Resources ................................................................ 24
Reset
Hold in ................................................................................ 74
Processor ........................................................................... 71
Release from ..................................................................... 74
Resistors .................................................................................. 18
RETFIE .................................................................................. 115
RETURN FAST ........................................................................ 115
ROMless Devices ..................................................................... 65
RS-232 ..................................................................................... 26
Run ........................................................................................... 70
S
Selecting Device and Development Mode ............................... 42
Self Test ................................................................................. 115
Set Breakpoint .......................................................................... 53
Setting Program and Debug Options ....................................... 48
Setting Up Hardware and Software .......................................... 42
Settings Dialog ......................................................................... 33
Setup Wizard ...................................................................... 43, 81
Shadow Stack ........................................................................ 103
Single Stepping ...................................................................... 116
Status Register ....................................................................... 115
Step .......................................................................................... 70
Step-Mode Execution ............................................................... 36
System Components ................................................................ 26
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
T
Table Read Protect ...........................................................20, 103
Target
Device ................................................................................99
Oscillator ..........................................................................101
Power ...............................................................................100
Timers .............................................................................114, 116
Toolbar Buttons ........................................................................52
Troubleshooting ........................................................................97
tut452.asm ................................................................................52
Source Code ......................................................................59
Tutorial ......................................................................................41
U
Updating Firmware ...................................................................43
USB ..........................................................................................26
Drivers ........................................................................98, 110
Hub ...................................................................................110
V
VDD ...........................................................................................17
Verify ...................................................................................38, 73
W
W Register ..............................................................................115
Warranty Registration .................................................................5
Watch Window ..........................................................................55
Watchdog Timer .......................................................................20
Windows Device Manager ......................................................110
WWW Address ...........................................................................7
Y
Yellow Light ..............................................................................29
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Index
NOTES:
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MPLAB® ICD 2 User’s Guide
NOTES:
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Index
NOTES:
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Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8528-2100
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
China - Fuzhou
Tel: 86-591-8750-3506
DS51331C-page 142
Japan - Yokohama
Tel: 81-45-471- 6166
Korea - Gumi
Tel: 82-54-473-4301
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-646-8870
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-572-9526
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
EUROPE
Austria - Wels
Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
Denmark Copenhagen
Tel: 45-4450-2828
France - Paris
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
© 2007 Microchip Technology
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