Fluke Calibration 2200 Benchtop Temperature Controllers User Manual

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Fluke Calibration 2200 Benchtop Temperature Controllers User Manual | Manualzz
2100
Temperature Controller
User Manual
PN 3729079
November 2013
© 2013 Fluke Corporation. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
LIMITED WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Each Fluke product is warranted to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use and
service. The warranty period is two years and begins on the date of shipment. Parts, product repairs, and
services are warranted for 90 days. This warranty extends only to the original buyer or end-user customer of
a Fluke authorized reseller, and does not apply to fuses, disposable batteries, or to any product which, in
Fluke's opinion, has been misused, altered, neglected, contaminated, or damaged by accident or abnormal
conditions of operation or handling. Fluke warrants that software will operate substantially in accordance
with its functional specifications for 90 days and that it has been properly recorded on non-defective media.
Fluke does not warrant that software will be error free or operate without interruption.
Fluke authorized resellers shall extend this warranty on new and unused products to end-user customers
only but have no authority to extend a greater or different warranty on behalf of Fluke. Warranty support is
available only if product is purchased through a Fluke authorized sales outlet or Buyer has paid the
applicable international price. Fluke reserves the right to invoice Buyer for importation costs of
repair/replacement parts when product purchased in one country is submitted for repair in another country.
Fluke's warranty obligation is limited, at Fluke's option, to refund of the purchase price, free of charge repair,
or replacement of a defective product which is returned to a Fluke authorized service center within the
warranty period.
To obtain warranty service, contact your nearest Fluke authorized service center to obtain return
authorization information, then send the product to that service center, with a description of the difficulty,
postage and insurance prepaid (FOB Destination). Fluke assumes no risk for damage in transit. Following
warranty repair, the product will be returned to Buyer, transportation prepaid (FOB Destination). If Fluke
determines that failure was caused by neglect, misuse, contamination, alteration, accident, or abnormal
condition of operation or handling, including overvoltage failures caused by use outside the product’s
specified rating, or normal wear and tear of mechanical components, Fluke will provide an estimate of repair
costs and obtain authorization before commencing the work. Following repair, the product will be returned to
the Buyer transportation prepaid and the Buyer will be billed for the repair and return transportation charges
(FOB Shipping Point).
THIS WARRANTY IS BUYER'S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY AND IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY
OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FLUKE SHALL NOT BE LIABLE
FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES,
INCLUDING LOSS OF DATA, ARISING FROM ANY CAUSE OR THEORY.
Since some countries or states do not allow limitation of the term of an implied warranty, or exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, the limitations and exclusions of this warranty may not
apply to every buyer. If any provision of this Warranty is held invalid or unenforceable by a court or other
decision-maker of competent jurisdiction, such holding will not affect the validity or enforceability of any other
provision.
Fluke Corporation
P.O. Box 9090
Everett, WA 98206-9090
U.S.A.
11/99
Fluke Europe B.V.
P.O. Box 1186
5602 BD Eindhoven
The Netherlands
Table of Contents
Chapter
1
Title
Page
Before You Start .................................................................................. 1-1
1.1
Introduction ................................................................................ 1-1
1.2
Symbols Used............................................................................ 1-2
1.3 Safety Information ........................................................................ 1-2
1.3.1
WARNINGS ............................................................................ 1-3
1.3.2
CAUTIONS ............................................................................ 1-5
1.4
Authorized Service Centers ....................................................... 1-7
Specifications and Environmental Conditions ............................................. 2-1
2.1
2.2
Specifications............................................................................. 2-1
Environmental Conditions .......................................................... 2-2
Quick Start ....................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1
3.2
3.3
Unpacking .................................................................................. 3-1
Set Up ........................................................................................ 3-2
Setting the Temperature ............................................................ 3-2
Installation ....................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Setup ......................................................................................... 4-1
Heater/Stirrer ............................................................................. 4-1
Control Probe............................................................................. 4-2
Thermocouple ............................................................................ 4-3
Power ........................................................................................ 4-3
Fuses ......................................................................................... 4-4
Parts and Controls .......................................................................................... 5-1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Control System .......................................................................... 5-1
Temperature Controller.............................................................. 5-1
Front Panel ................................................................................ 5-2
Rear Panel ................................................................................. 5-3
Controller Operation ....................................................................................... 6-1
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6.1
Process temperature ................................................................. 6-1
6.2
Reset Cutout .............................................................................. 6-1
6.3 Temperature Set-point .................................................................. 6-3
6.3.1
Programmable Set-points ...................................................... 6-3
6.3.2
Set-point Value ...................................................................... 6-4
6.3.3
Set-point Vernier .................................................................... 6-4
6.4
Temperature Scale Units ........................................................... 6-5
6.5
Secondary Menu........................................................................ 6-6
6.6
Heater Power ............................................................................. 6-6
6.7
Proportional Band ...................................................................... 6-6
6.8
Cutout ........................................................................................ 6-8
6.9
Controller Configuration ............................................................. 6-9
6.10 Probe Parameters RTD Sensor ................................................. 6-9
6.10.1
R0 .......................................................................................... 6-10
6.10.2
ALPHA ................................................................................... 6-10
6.11 Probe Parameters Thermistor Sensor ....................................... 6-10
6.11.1
D0 .......................................................................................... 6-10
6.11.2
DG ......................................................................................... 6-10
6.12 Operating Parameters ............................................................... 6-10
6.12.1
Cutout Reset Mode ................................................................ 6-10
6.13 Serial Interface Parameters .......................................................... 6-11
6.13.1
Baud Rate .............................................................................. 6-11
6.13.2
Sample Period ....................................................................... 6-12
6.13.3
Duplex Mode.......................................................................... 6-12
6.13.4
Linefeed ................................................................................. 6-12
6.14
IEEE-488 Parameters ............................................................ 6-13
6.14.1
IEEE-488 Address ................................................................. 6-13
6.15 Calibration Parameters .............................................................. 6-13
6.15.1
CTO ....................................................................................... 6-14
6.15.2
CO and CG ............................................................................ 6-14
6.15.3
H and L .................................................................................. 6-14
6.16 Operation Summary................................................................... 6-14
Digital Communication Interface ................................................................... 7-1
7.1
Serial Communications .............................................................. 7-1
7.1.1
Wiring..................................................................................... 7-2
7.1.2
Setup ..................................................................................... 7-2
7.1.2.1
Baud Rate .......................................................................... 7-2
7.1.2.2
Sample Period ................................................................... 7-2
7.1.2.3
Duplex Mode ...................................................................... 7-3
7.1.2.4
Linefeed ............................................................................. 7-3
7.1.3
Serial Operation ..................................................................... 7-3
7.2
IEEE-488 Communication (optional) ......................................... 7-3
7.2.1
Setup and Address Selection ................................................ 7-3
7.2.2
IEEE-488 Operation ............................................................... 7-4
7.3
Interface Commands ................................................................. 7-4
Calibration Procedure ..................................................................................... 8-1
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.2
8.3
RTD Probe Calibration............................................................... 8-1
Calibration Points................................................................... 8-1
Measuring the Set-point Error................................................ 8-2
Computing R0 and ALPHA .................................................... 8-2
Calibration Example................................................................... 8-3
Thermistor Probe Calibration ..................................................... 8-3
ii
Contents (continued)
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
Calibration Points................................................................... 8-3
Measuring the Set-point Error................................................ 8-4
Computing DO and DG.......................................................... 8-5
Calibration Example............................................................... 8-5
Maintenance .................................................................................................... 9-1
9.1
Maintenance .............................................................................. 9-1
Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 10-1
10.1 Troubleshooting ......................................................................... 10-1
10.2 Comments ................................................................................. 10-5
10.2.1
EMC Directive ........................................................................ 10-5
10.2.2
Low Voltage Directive (Safety) .............................................. 10-5
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iv
List of Tables
Table
1.
2.
3.
Title
Page
International Electrical Symbols ................................................................ 1-2
Specifications ............................................................................................ 2-1
2100 Controller Communications Commands ........................................... 7-5
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vi
List of Figures
Figure
Title
Page
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Controller to Heater Wiring ........................................................................
RTD Probe Wiring .....................................................................................
Cutout Probe Connections ........................................................................
Front Panel Features.................................................................................
Back Panel Features .................................................................................
Controller Operation Flowchart .................................................................
System Temperature Fluctuations at Various Proportional Band Settings
Serial Interface Cable Wiring .....................................................................
Calibration Example — Platinum RTD Probe ............................................
Calibration Example — Thermistor Probe .................................................
4-2
4-3
4-3
5-3
5-4
6-2
6-7
7-2
8-4
8-6
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viii
Chapter 1
Before You Start
1.1
Introduction
The Fluke Calibration 2100 is a solid state temperature controller. It is specifically
designed to control the temperature of fluid baths but is well suited for many
other applications as well. The unique combination of analog and digital
electronic circuitry provides exceptional accuracy and stability together with ease
of operation and programmability.
Temperature sensing is done with a 4-wire 100 ohm platinum resistance probe
(thermistor probe optionally available) which plugs into the back of the controller.
To maintain a constant temperature the controller adjusts the pulses of power
supplied to the heater by means of a solid-state relay. The maximum current
rating of the controller is 10 amps. Any combination of heater or stirrer may be
connected to the controller as long as the combined current does not exceed 10
amps.
The 2100 controller can be easily programmed via the four-button front panel or
by the optional serial interface. Programming allows the user to set the control
temperature, units °C or °F, the proportional band, and the calibration variables.
The process or actual temperature is continuously displayed on a bright green
LED panel. The percent heating power may also be monitored.
An added safety device, the over-temperature cutout, is also programmable. This
built in feature protects the system from fault conditions causing excessive
temperatures by disabling the heater if the temperature sensed by a separate
thermocouple probe exceeds the cutout set-point.
Before using the 2100 controller, you should understand the proper setup and
operation.
1-1
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User Manual
1.2
Symbols Used
Table 1 lists the International Electrical Symbols. Some or all of these symbols
may be used on the instrument or in this manual.
Table 1. International Electrical Symbols
Symbol











O
I

CATII


1.3
Description
AC (Alternating Current)
AC-DC
Battery
CE Complies with European Union Directives
DC
Double Insulated
Electric Shock
Fuse
PE Ground
Hot Surface (Burn Hazard)
Read the User’s Manual (Important Information)
Off
On
Canadian Standards Association
OVERVOLTAGE (Installation) CATEGORY II, Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC1010-1 refers to the level of Impulse
Withstand Voltage protection provided. Equipment of
OVERVOLTAGE CATEGORY II is energy-consuming
equipment to be supplied from the fixed installation. Examples
include household, office, and laboratory appliances.
C-TIC Australian EMC Mark
The European Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
(WEEE) Directive (2002/96/EC) mark
Safety Information
Use this instrument only as specified in this manual. Otherwise, the protection
provided by the instrument may be impaired.
The following definitions apply to the terms “Warning” and “Caution”.
1-2
•
“WARNING” identifies conditions and actions that may pose hazards to the
user.
•
“CAUTION” identifies conditions and actions that may damage the instrument
being used.
Before You Start
1.3
1.3.1
1
Safety Information
WARNINGS
 WARNINGS
To avoid personal injury, follow these guidelines.
GENERAL
•
The instrument does not come with a system cutout, unless
purchased as an option. If not purchased with the
controller, the user should provide a bi-metal cutout or
other safety device for the system. A cutout device
compatible with the controller can be purchased from Hart
Scientific.
•
DO NOT use the instrument for any application other than
calibration work. The instrument was designed for
temperature calibration. Any other use of the instrument
may cause unknown hazards to the user.
•
DO NOT use the instrument in environments other than
those listed in the user’s guide.
•
Follow all safety guidelines listed in the user’s manual.
•
Calibration Equipment should only be used by Trained
Personnel.
•
If this instrument is used in a manner not specified by the
manufacturer, the protection provided by the instrument
may be impaired.
•
If the instrument is used to control a calibration heat
source, insure the heater is wired correctly (see Figure 1).
•
Before initial use, or after transport, or after storage in
humid or semi-humid environments, or anytime the dry-well
has not been energized for more than 10 days, the
instrument needs to be energized for a “dry-out” period of 2
hours before it can be assumed to meet all of the safety
requirements of the IEC-61010-1. If the product is wet or has
been in a wet environment, take necessary measures to
remove moisture prior to applying power such as storage in
a low humidity temperature chamber operating at 50 °C for 4
hours or more.
•
The instrument is intended for indoor use only.
•
The instrument is a precision instrument. Although it has
been designed for optimum durability and trouble free
operation, it must be handled with care.
1-3
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User Manual
•
Operate the instrument in room temperatures listed in
Section 2.2, Environmental Conditions. The instrument is
not vented. Therefore, clearance for ventilation is not a
requirement. However, do not place the instrument on top of
a calibration bath or dry-well where it would be in contact or
direct path of heat.
•
DO NOT stack items on top of the instrument.
BURN HAZARD
•
The instrument can be used to control instruments which
generate extreme temperatures. Precautions must be taken
to prevent personal injury or damage to objects. Probes
may be extremely hot or cold when removed from a
calibration bath. Cautiously handle probes to prevent
personal injury. Carefully place probes on a heat resistant
surface or rack until they are at room temperature.
•
Fires and severe burns may result if personnel fail to
observe safety precautions.
ELECTRICAL HAZARD
1-4
•
These guidelines must be followed to ensure that the safety
mechanisms in this instrument will operate properly. The
instrument must be plugged into an appropriate outlet as
specified in Section 2.1, Specifications. Also, the current
and voltage capability of the instrument must not be
exceeded. The power cord of the instrument is equipped
with a three-pronged grounding plug for your protection
against electrical shock hazards. It must be plugged directly
into a properly grounded three-prong receptacle. The
receptacle must be installed in accordance with local codes
and ordinances. Consult a qualified electrician. DO NOT use
an extension cord or adapter plug.
•
DO use a ground fault interrupt device. This system that is
controlled by this instrument may contain a fluid. A ground
fault device is advised in case fluid is present in the
electrical system and could cause an electrical shock.
•
Always replace the power cord with an approved cord of the
correct rating and type. If you have questions, contact an
Authorized Service Center (see Section 1.4).
•
High voltage is used in the operation of this equipment.
Severe injury or death may result if personnel fail to
observe the safety precautions. Before working inside the
instrument, turn off the power and disconnect the power
cord.
Before You Start
1.3
1
Safety Information
FLUIDS
1.3.2
•
Fluids used in the system controlled by this instrument may
produce noxious or toxic fumes under certain
circumstances. Consult the fluid manufacturer’s MSDS
(Material Safety Data Sheet). Proper ventilation and safety
precautions must be observed.
•
The instrument is equipped with a soft cutout (adjustable
parameter) and a hard cutout (set at the factory) Adjust the
soft cutout according to fluid characteristics or application.
As a guideline, the soft cutout should be set 10 °C to 15 °C
below the flash point of the fluid (see Section 6.8, Cutout).
Insure that the flash point, boiling point, or other key fluid
characteristics are not exceeded.
CAUTIONS
 CAUTION
To avoid possible damage to the instrument, follow these
guidelines.
•
DO NOT plug the instrument into 230 V if the indicator
window of the power entry module reads 115 V. This action
will cause the fuses to blow and may damage the
instrument.
•
DO use a ground fault interrupt device.
•
Operate the instrument in room temperatures as listed in
Section 2.2, Environmental Conditions.
•
Calibration constants should only be changed by trained
personnel. The correct setting of these parameters is
important to the safety and proper operation of the
instrument.
•
The Factory Reset Sequence should be performed only by
authorized personnel if no other action is successful in
correcting a malfunction. You must have a copy of the most
recent Report of Test to restore the test parameters.
•
DO NOT operate this instrument in an excessively wet, oily,
dusty, or dirty environment or place in locations where hot
or cold liquids are splashed on it.
•
Most probes have handle temperature limits. Be sure that
the probe handle temperature limit is not exceeded in the air
above the system controlled by this instrument.
1-5
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User Manual
1-6
•
The instrument and any thermometer probes used with it
are sensitive instruments that can be easily damaged.
Always handle these devices with care. Do not allow them
to be dropped, struck, stressed, or overheated.
•
DO NOT use this instrument in a system that exceeds the
current capability of the instrument as listed in Section 2.1,
Specifications.
•
DO NOT replace fuse(s) with one of a higher current rating
or type. Always replace the fuse with one of the same rating,
voltage, and type. The current rating listed in Section 2.1,
Specifications, 7 is the maximum for the instrument. If the
instrument is connected to a system which uses less than
the maximum capability of this instrument, the fuses need
to be changed in order to be correct for the system. Once
the instrument is connected to the system, the system
current needs to be measured or calculated and the
appropriate fuse size and characteristics selected. Section
4.6, Fuses, can be used as a guide for selecting a fuse.
•
Once the correct fuse type and rating is selected, the
following information is applicable. The instrument is
equipped with operator accessible fuses. If a fuse blows, it
may be due to a power surge or failure of a component.
Replace the fuses once. If a fuse blows a second time, it is
likely caused by failure of a component. As a test
disconnect the output device (heater) and apply power to
the rest of the system. Check to see if the fuse(s) blow. If
the fuse(s) blow only when an output device (heater, stirrer)
is connected, the fault may be in the system component. If
not, contact an Authorized Service Center (see Section 1.4).
•
If a mains supply power fluctuation occurs, immediately
turn off the instrument. Power bumps from brown-outs and
black-outs can damage the system.
•
Wait until the power has stabilized before re-energizing the
instrument.
•
For best accuracy, the instrument needs to be calibrated
with the system it controls.
Before You Start
1.4
1.4
1
Authorized Service Centers
Authorized Service Centers
Please contact one of the following authorized Service Centers to coordinate
service on your Hart product:
Fluke Corporation, Hart Scientific Division
799 E. Utah Valley Drive
American Fork, UT 84003-9775
USA
Phone: +1.801.763.1600
Telefax: +1.801.763.1010
E-mail: [email protected]
Fluke Nederland B.V.
Customer Support Services
Science Park Eindhoven 5108
5692 EC Son
NETHERLANDS
Phone: +31-402-675300
Telefax: +31-402-675321
E-mail: [email protected]
Fluke Int'l Corporation
Service Center - Instrimpex
Room 2301 Sciteck Tower
22 Jianguomenwai Dajie
Chao Yang District
Beijing 100004, PRC
CHINA
Phone: +86-10-6-512-3436
Telefax: +86-10-6-512-3437
E-mail: [email protected]
1-7
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User Manual
Fluke South East Asia Pte Ltd.
Fluke ASEAN Regional Office
Service Center
60 Alexandra Terrace #03-16
The Comtech (Lobby D)
118502
SINGAPORE
Phone: +65 6799-5588
Telefax: +65 6799-5588
E-mail: [email protected]
When contacting these Service Centers for support, please have the following
information available:
1-8
•
Model Number
•
Serial Number
•
Voltage
•
Complete description of the problem
Chapter 2
Specifications and Environmental
Conditions
2.1
Specifications
Table 2. Specifications
−100 °C to 670 °C ( −148 °F to 1238 °F)
Temperature Range
Accuracy Capability
Stability Capability
†
†
± 0.1 °C
2100-T: ± 0.0005 °C; 2100-P: ± 0.001 °C
Stabilization Time
approximately 30 minutes (depends on system design)
Control Probe
100 Ω RTD, 4 wire (3 wire linearized thermistor optional,
probe type set at the factory)
Resolution
0.0002 °C/ °F in high-resolution mode
Readout
Switchable °C or °F
Controller
Hybrid Digital/Analog controller with data retention
Fault Protection
High temperature cutout (Type K thermocouple input)
Sensor burnout and short protection
Cutout Accuracy
± 10 °C
Combined Auxiliary and
Heater Output (max)
115 VAC ( ±10 %), 50/60 Hz, 7.8 A, 895 W
230 VAC ( ±10 %), 50/60 Hz, 7.8 A, 1795 W
Power (max)
115 VAC ( ±10 %), 50/60 Hz, 8 A, 1150 W
230 VAC ( ±10 %), 50/60 Hz, 8 A, 2300 W
Note: Internal electronics require 0.2 A to operate.
System Fuses
10 A 250 V fast acting (max) ͎
Exterior Dimension
72 mm H x 172 mm W x 250 mm D (2.83 in x 6.75 in x
9.86 in)
Weight
1.8 kg (4 lbs.)
Safety
OVERVOLTAGE (Installation) CATEGORY II, Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC-61010-1
†
Performance is dependent on system design including the control sensor. Capabilities are
based on Factory observed performance
2-1
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User's Manual
2.2
Environmental Conditions
Although the instrument has been designed for optimum durability and troublefree operation, it must be handled with care. The instrument should not be
operated in an excessively dusty or dirty environment. Maintenance and cleaning
recommendations can be found in the Maintenance Section of this manual.
The instrument operates safely under the following conditions:
2-2
•
ambient temperature range: 5 – 50 °C (41 – 122 °F)
•
ambient relative humidity: maximum 80 % for temperature <31 °C, decreasing
linearly to 50 % at 40 °C
•
pressure: 75kPa - 106kPa
•
mains voltage within ± 10 % of nominal
•
vibrations in the calibration environment should be minimized
•
altitude less than 2,000 meters
•
indoor use only
Chapter 3
Quick Start
This chapter gives a brief summary of the steps required to set up and operate
the 2100 temperature controller. This should be used as a general overview and
reference and not as a substitute for the remainder of the manual. Please read
Sections4 through carefully before operating the controller.
3.1
Unpacking
Unpack the controller carefully and inspect it for any damage that may have
occurred during shipment. If there is shipping damage, notify the carrier
immediately.
An RTD (thermistor optional) control probe and a thermocouple cutout probe
should have been purchased along with the controller. Typically, the user
provides the bath or system to be controlled and the heater.
Verify that the following components are present:
•
2100 Controller
•
Control Probe
•
Power Cord
•
Two Power Cords - 1 for the Heater and 1 for the Stirrer
•
Thermocouple Connector
•
User’s Guide
3-1
2100
User's Guide
3.2
Set Up
Set up of the controller requires unpacking and placement of the controller,
connection of the heater, connection of the stirrer, if applicable, installation of the
control and cutout probes, and connection of power.
 CAUTION:
Refer to Section 4, Installation for detailed instructions on
proper installation of the controller. Pay particular attention to
instructions for the heater, stirrer, control probe, and power
setup.
3.3
Setting the Temperature
In the following discussion and throughout this manual a solid box around the
word SET, U P, DOWN or EXIT indicates the panel button to press while the
dotted box indicates the display reading on the front panel. Explanation of the
button function or display reading is written at the right.
To view or set the temperature set-point proceed as follows. The front panel LED
display normally shows the actual process temperature.
24.68 C
Process temperature display
When “SET” is pressed the display will show the set-point memory that is
currently being used and its value. Eight set-point memories are available.
Access set-point selection
1.
25.0
Set-point 1, 25.0 °C currently used
Press “SET” to select this memory and access the set-point value.
Access set-point value
C
3-2
25.00 Current value of set-point 1, 25.00 °C
Quick Start
3.3 Setting the Temperature
3
Press “UP” or “DOWN” to change the set-point value.
Increment display
C
30.00 New set-point value
Press SET to accept the new value and display the vernier value. The system
begins heating or cooling to the new set-point.
Store new set-point, access vernier
0.00000
Current vernier value
Press “EXIT” and the process temperature will be displayed again.
Return to the temperature display
24.73 C
Process temperature display
The system will heat or cool until it reaches the new set-point temperature. The
over-temperature cutout should be correctly set for added safety. See Section
6.8.
 Note:
To obtain optimum control stability adjust the proportional band as
discussed in Section 6.7.
3-3
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User's Guide
3-4
Chapter 4
Installation
4.1
Setup
The 2100 controller is a precision instrument which should be located in an
appropriate environment. The location should be free from excessive dirt,
moisture, vibration, or temperature variations. There should be no present
danger of spilled liquids.
4.2
Heater/Stirrer
 WARNING:
The output voltage to the heater and stirrer sockets is the same
as the input voltage of the power entry module.
 CAUTION:
Insure that the combined current of the heater and stirrer does
not exceed that listed in Section 2.1, Specifications.
Connect the heater to the back of the controller into the socket labeled
"HEATER". Be sure the heater cable is adequate for the amount of current
required and that the heater is wired correctly and safely. See Figure 1 for heater
wiring. If applicable, connect the stirring device to the back of the controller in the
socket labeled "STIRRER". The stirrer outlet wiring is the same as the heater
outlet shown in Figure 1.
4-1
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User's Guide
Figure 1. Controller to Heater Wiring
4.3
Control Probe
 CAUTION:
Before using the controller, check controller settings and
insure they are set appropriately for the limitations of the
control probe.
If a control probe was ordered with the controller, note the following:
PRT - The controller hard cutout is factory set to 685 °C. The controller soft
cutout is set to 300 °C due to the temperature limit of the PRT.
Thermistor - The controller hard cutout is factory set to 125 °C. The controller
soft cutout is set to 125 °C due to the temperature limit of the thermistor.
If the controller was ordered without a control probe, all controller parameters are
set to factory default settings and need to checked and set for the specific control
probe used with the controller.
Connect the control probe into the socket at the back of the controller labeled
“PROBE” (see Figure 2). Insert the probe into the bath or system to be
controlled. For best stability and response time the control probe should be
located in close proximity to the heater. Observe the maximum temperature
rating of the probe and be careful it is not exceeded.
Normally the 2100 controller is set up to use a 100 Ω platinum probe. If better
resolution and stability are desired the 2100 may alternately be configured to use
Hart’s 2611 linearized thermistor probe. The controller operating temperature
range with the thermistor probe is −10 °C to 110 °C. For information on setup for
the thermistor probe see Section.
4-2
Installation
4.4 Thermocouple
4
Figure 2. RTD Probe Wiring
4.4 Thermocouple
Connect the optional thermocouple cutout probe to the back of the controller to
the connector labeled “TC”. Insert the probe into the bath or system being
controlled. If the safety cutout feature is not to be used then this input must be
shorted with a small wire jumper in order for the controller to operate properly
(see Figure 3).
Figure 3. Cutout Probe Connections
4.5
Power
 CAUTION:
Do not plug the instrument into 230 V if the indicator window of
the power entry module reads 115 V. This action will cause the
fuses to blow and may damage the instrument.
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User's Guide
Plug the controller power cord into a mains outlet of the proper voltage,
frequency, and current capability (see Section 2.1, Specifications). Insure that the
indicator window of the power entry module matches the voltage of the mains
supply.
Turn the controller on using the rear panel "POWER" switch. The controller will
turn on and begin to heat or cool the system to reach the previously programmed
temperature set-point. The front panel LED display will indicate the actual
process temperature. See Section 4.6, Fuses for information on selecting the
correct fuse for the application.
When powered on the control panel display will briefly show a four digit number.
This number indicates the number of times power has been applied to the unit.
Also briefly displayed is data which indicates the controller hardware
configuration. This data is used in some circumstances for diagnostic purposes.
Ordinarily, the controller is set up to be used with a metrology bath; however, you
may want to use the controller with a dry-well or other system. Contact an
Authorized Service center for assistance on setting the "Gain Range" for the
system.
4.6 Fuses
 CAUTION:
Never use this instrument in a system that uses more power or
current as listed in Section 2.1, Specifications.
The controller is shipped from the factory with fast acting fuses rated for the
maximum capacity of the instrument.
If the controller is connected to a system which uses less than 10 amps, the
fuses will need to be changed in order to be correct for the system. Once the
controller is connected in the system, the system current needs to be measured
or calculated and the appropriate fuse size and characteristics selected.
Generally, the fuse selected is rated at 125 % of the maximum current of the
system. The time-current characteristics of the fuse are selected by the
application. Usually, fast acting fuses are selected systems without a high in-rush
current, i.e. "hot" calibration baths. Time-delay or slow blow fuses are selected
for systems with a high in-rush current, i.e. "cold" calibration baths. Refer to the
fuse-ology section of your fuse catalog for help in determining fuse size and
characteristics or contact an Authorized Service Center (see Section 1.4) for
assistance. Once the correct fuse characteristics and rating of the fuses have
been selected and the appropriate fuses placed in the power entry module of the
instrument, mark the instrument so the user can visibly see the fuse size and
rating for fuse replacement. Be sure to change both fuses to the new rating and
correct characteristic.
4-4
Installation
4.6 Fuses
4
The controller uses 0.2 amps of current. This current should be taken into
consideration when calculating the system power.
Example when using the power of the system:
P = Power of the system (Total Watts)
V = Nominal line voltage (115 VAC or 230 VAC)
I = Fuse current
l = 1.25 ×
P
0.9 × V
Example when using the system current:
I = System current
IF = Fuse current rating
IF = 1.25 × I
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User's Guide
4-6
Chapter 5
Parts and Controls
5.1
Control System
The 2100 temperature controller is not specified for use with a particular system.
Its flexibility enables it to be used with a large variety of control systems. Often
the controller is used with a precision constant temperature bath.
It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that the components are chosen and
the system constructed to ensure safe and proper operation of the complete
system. The user should have a good knowledge of and experience with
electrical fundamentals and wiring practice as well as control systems. Hart
Scientific cannot be responsible for any damages or injury resulting from
improper design or operation of the control system. Technical support for setting
up and operating a control system using the 2100 controller is available by
telephone or fax from Hart Scientific. Be sure to read the 2100 user manual.
5.2
Temperature Controller
The system temperature is controlled by Hart Scientific’s unique hybrid
digital/analog temperature controller. The controller offers the tight control
stability of an analog temperature controller as well as the flexibility and
programmability of a digital controller.
The temperature is monitored with a platinum resistance sensor in the control
probe, or alternately a linearized thermistor probe. The signal is electronically
compared with the programmable reference signal, amplified, and then passed to
a pulse-width modulator circuit which controls the amount of power applied to the
bath heater.
For protection against solid-state relay failure or other circuit failure, the controller
will automatically turn off the heater with a second mechanical relay anytime the
process temperature is more than a certain amount above the set-point
temperature. As a second protection device, the controller is also equipped with
a separate thermocouple temperature monitoring circuit which will shut off the
heater if the temperature exceeds the cutout set-point.
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User Manual
The controller allows the operator to set the set-point temperature with high
resolution, set the cutout, adjust the proportional band, monitor the heater output
power, and program the controller configuration and calibration parameters.
The controller may be operated in temperature units of degrees Celsius or
Fahrenheit. The controller is operated and programmed from the front control
panel using the four key switches and digital LED display. The controller
equipped with an RS-232 serial or may also be optionally equipped with an IEEE488 (GPIB) digital interface for remote operation. Operation of the controller
using the front control panel is discussed following in Section6. Operation using
the digital interface is discussed in Section7.
When the controller is set to a new set-point the system will heat or cool to the
new temperature. Once the new temperature is reached it usually takes 10-15
minutes for the temperature to settle and stabilize. There may be a small
overshoot or undershoot of about 0.5 °C or more depending on the system and
proportional band.
5.3
Front Panel
The following controls and indicators are present: (1) the digital display, (2) the
control buttons, and (3) the control indicator light. (see Figure 4)
(1) The digital display is an important part of the temperature controller because
it not only displays set and actual temperatures but also various controller
functions, settings, and constants. The display shows temperatures in values
according to the selected scale °C or °F.
(2) The control buttons (SET, DOWN, UP, and EXIT) are used to set the
temperature set-point, access and set other operating parameters, and access
and set calibration parameters.
Setting the control temperature is done directly in degrees of the current scale. It
can be set to one-hundredth of a degree Celsius.
The functions of the buttons are as follows:
SET – Used to display the next parameter in the menu and to set parameters to
the displayed value.
DOWN – Used to decrement the displayed value of parameters.
UP – Used to increment the displayed value.
EXIT – Used to exit from a menu. When EXIT is pressed any changes made to
the displayed value will be ignored.
5-2
Parts and Controls
5.4 Rear Panel
5
Figure 4. Front panel features
(3) The Control Indicator is a two color light emitting diode. This indicator lets the
user visually see the ratio of heating to cooling. When the indicator is red the
heater is on, and when it is green the heater is off and the system is cooling.
5.4
Rear Panel
The following features are found on the rear panel of the controller: (1) power
entry module, (2) the solid state relay, (3) the heater power connector, (4) the
stirrer power connector, (5) the control probe input connector, (6) the cutout
thermocouple connector, (7) the optional IEEE-488 (GPIB) interface connector,
(8) the RS-232 interface connector, and (9) the serial number label. (see Figure
5)
  WARNING:
The output voltage to the heater and stirrer sockets (Items 3
and 4 in Figure 5) is the same as the input voltage of the power
entry module (Item 1 in Figure 5).
(1) The power entry module includes: (A) the IEC power line connector, (B) the
ON/OFF switch, (C) the voltage selector with indicator window and two fuses.
The unit is shipped from the factory with 10 A 250 V F fuses. Additional
information on fuse usage is in Section 1.3 and Section 4.6.
(A) The appropriate power cord with IEC connector has been included with
the controller for the voltage specified in the order.
(B) The double pole single throw (DPST) power switch indicates the
ON/OFF positions with the universal I/O.
(C) The power entry module is provided with a dual voltage selector
integrated into the fuse holder. The controller has been specially designed
to allow either 115 or 230 VAC operation. The voltage indicator window
notifies the user of the voltage selected. See Figure 5.
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User Manual
Figure 5. Back panel features
Two fuses are contained in the internal fuse holder. The fuse holder will accept
either 1/4" x 1 1/4" or 5 x 20 mm fuses. Access to the fuses and the voltage
selector is obtained by placing a flathead screwdriver in the slot at the top of the
power entry module and opening the module front panel.
 WARNING:
Access to the fuses may not be obtained with the power cord
plugged into the IEC power line connector.
(2) The heater socket is the source of controlled power for the system heater.
This power is switched by the solid-state relay to maintain a constant
temperature. The voltage is the same as that supplied through the power cord
(A). For a diagram of how to wire the heater to the controller see Figure 1. An
extra line cord has been included with the unit to make this connection.
(3) The stirrer socket is an auxiliary power socket for a stirring device for the
bath. The voltage is the same as supplied through the mains supply to the power
cord. An extra line cord is included with the unit to make this connection.
(4) The control probe is plugged in here. Normally the probe is a DIN 43760 type
RTD. Optionally a thermistor probe with a much more limited temperature range
but better stability is available. The controller must be internally configured to
work with one type of probe or the other. Probes or additional connectors for use
with the user’s own probes are available from Hart. For assistance in wiring an
RTD to the controller see Figure 2. A probe connector has been provided.
(5) The thermocouple cutout probe plugs in here. This probe senses the system
temperature for the safety cutout. When the temperature exceeds the cutout setpoint the heater is disabled by opening a relay inside the controller. This feature
should be utilized for added safety. The thermocouple probe is type K. Probes
and connectors are available from Hart Scientific. If the cutout feature of the
controller is not used, the thermocouple input must be shorted with a wire jumper
in order for the controller to continue to function (see Figure 3).
(6) The optional IEEE-488 (GPIB) interface connector for remote computer
control.
(7) The RS-232 communications cable is connected to this 9 pin D-subminiature
connector. This enables the controller to be programmed and operated remotely.
(8) The serial number label is located on the bottom of the unit towards the back
panel.
5-4
Chapter 6
Controller Operation
This chapter discusses in detail how to operate the temperature controller using
the front control panel. Using the front panel key switches and LED display the
user may monitor the process temperature, set the temperature set-point in
degrees C or F, monitor the heater output power, adjust the controller
proportional band, set the cutout set-point, and program the probe calibration
parameters, operating parameters, serial and IEEE-488 interface configuration,
and controller calibration parameters. Operation of the functions are shown in the
flowchart summarized in Figure 6.
6.1
Process temperature
The digital LED display on the front panel allows direct viewing of the process
temperature. This temperature value is what is normally shown on the display.
The units, C or F, of the temperature value are displayed at the right. For
example,
25.00 C
Process temperature in degrees Celsius
The temperature display function may be accessed from any other function by
pressing the “EXIT” button.
6.2 Reset Cutout
If the over-temperature cutout has been triggered then the temperature display
will alternately flash,
Cutout
Indicates cutout condition
The message will continue to flash until the temperature is reduced and the cutout is reset.
The cutout has two modes — automatic reset and manual reset. The mode
determines how the cutout is reset which allows the bath to heat up again. When
in automatic mode, the cutout will reset itself as soon as the temperature is
lowered below the cutout set-point. With manual reset mode the cutout must be
reset by the operator after the temperature falls below the set-point.
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When the cutout is active and the cutout mode is set to manual (“reset”) then the
display will flash “cutout” until the user resets the cutout. To access the reset
cutout function press the “SET” button.
Access cutout reset function
The display will indicate the reset function.
Figure 6. Controller Operation Flowchart
6-2
Controller Operation
6.3 Temperature Set-point
rESEt ?
6
Cutout reset function
Press “SET” once more to reset the cutout.
Reset cutout
This will also switch the display to the set temperature function. To return to
displaying the temperature press the “EXIT” button. If the cutout is still in the
over-temperature fault condition the display will continue to flash “cutout”. The
bath temperature must drop a few degrees below the cutout set-point before the
cutout can be reset.
6.3 Temperature Set-point
The temperature can be set to any value within the range as given in the
specifications with a high degree of resolution. The temperature range of the
particular fluid used in the bath must be known by the operator and the bath
should only be operated well below the upper temperature limit of the liquid. In
addition, the cutout temperature should also be set below the upper limit of the
fluid.
Setting the temperature involves three steps: (1) select the set-point memory, (2)
adjust the set-point value, and (3) adjust the vernier, if desired.
6.3.1
Programmable Set-points
The controller stores 8 set-point temperatures in memory. The set-points can be
quickly recalled to conveniently set the system to a previously programmed
temperature.
To set the temperature one must first select the set-point memory. This function
is accessed from the temperature display function by pressing “SET”. The
number of the set-point memory currently being used is shown at the left on the
display followed by the current set-point value.
25.00 C
Process temperature in degrees Celsius
Access set-point memory
1.
25.0
Set-point memory 1, 25.0 °C currently used
To change the set-point memory press “UP” or “DOWN”.
Increment memory
4.
40.0
New set-point memory 4, 40.0 °C
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User Manual
Press “SET” to accept the new selection and access the set-point value.
Accept selected set-point memory
6.3.2
Set-point Value
The set-point value may be adjusted after selecting the set-point memory and
pressing “SET”. The set-point value is displayed with the units, C or F, at the left.
C
40.00
Set-point 4 value in °C
If the set-point value need not be changed then press “EXIT” to resume
displaying the bath temperature. To adjust the set-point value press “UP” or
“DOWN”.
Increment display
C
42.50
New set-point value
When the desired set-point value is reached press “SET” to accept the new value
and access the set-point vernier. If “EXIT” is pressed instead then any changes
made to the set-point will be ignored.
Accept new set-point value
6.3.3
Set-point Vernier
The set-point value can be set with a resolution of 0.01 °C. The user may want to
adjust the set-point slightly to achieve a more precise temperature. The set-point
vernier allows one to adjust the temperature below or above the set-point by a
small amount with very high resolution. Each of the 8 stored set-points has an
associated vernier setting. The vernier is accessed from the set-point by pressing
“SET”. The vernier setting is displayed as a 6 digit number with five digits after
the decimal point. This is a temperature offset in degrees of the selected units, C
or F.
0.00000
Current vernier value in °C
To adjust the vernier press “UP” or “DOWN”. Unlike most functions the vernier
setting has immediate effect as the vernier is adjusted. “SET” need not be
pressed. This allows one to continually adjust the system temperature with the
vernier as it is displayed.
Increment display
0.00090
6-4
New vernier setting
Controller Operation
6.4 Temperature Scale Units
6
Next press “EXIT” to return to the temperature display or “SET” to access the
temperature scale units selection.
Access scale units
6.4 Temperature Scale Units
The temperature scale units of the controller may be set by the user to degrees
Celsius ( °C) or Fahrenheit ( °F). The units will be used in displaying the process
temperature, set-point, vernier, proportional band, and cutout set-point.
The temperature scale units selection is accessed after the vernier adjustment
function by pressing “SET”. From the temperature display function access the
units selection by pressing “SET” 4 times.
25.00 C
Process temperature
Access set-point memory
1.
25.0
Set-point memory
Access set-point value
C
25.00 Set-point value
Access vernier
0.00000
Vernier setting
Access scale units selection
Un= C
Scale units currently selected
Press “UP” or “DOWN” to change the units.
Change units
Un= F
New units selected
Press “SET” to accept the new selection and resume displaying the bath
temperature.
Set the new units and resume temperature display
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6.5
Secondary Menu
Functions which are used less often are accessed within the secondary menu.
The secondary menu is accessed by pressing “SET” and “EXIT” simultaneously
and then releasing. The first function in the secondary menu is the heater power
display.
6.6
Heater Power
The temperature controller controls the temperature of the system by pulsing the
heater on and off. The total power being applied to the heater is determined by
the duty cycle or the ratio of heater on time to the pulse cycle time. This value
may be estimated by watching the red/green control indicator light or read
directly from the digital display. By knowing the amount of heating the user can
tell if the system is heating up to the set-point, cooling down, or controlling at a
constant temperature. Monitoring the percent heater power will let the user know
how stable the temperature is. With good control stability the percent heating
power should not fluctuate more than ±1 % within one minute. The heater power
display is accessed in the secondary menu. Press “SET” and “EXIT”
simultaneously and release. The heater power will be displayed as a percentage
of full power.
+
12 Pct
Access heater power in secondary menu
Heater power in percent
To exit out of the secondary menu press “EXIT”. To continue on to the
proportional band setting function press “SET”.
Return to temperature display
6.7 Proportional Band
In a proportional controller such as this the heater output power is proportional to
the process temperature over a limited range of temperatures around the setpoint. This range of temperature is called the proportional band. At the bottom of
the proportional band the heater output is 100 %. At the top of the proportional
band the heater output is 0. Thus as the temperature rises the heater power is
reduced, which consequently tends to lower the temperature back down. In this
way the temperature is maintained at a fairly constant value.
The temperature stability of the system depends on the width of the proportional
band. See Figure 7. If the band is too wide the temperature will tend to deviate
excessively from the set-point due to varying external conditions. This is because
the power output changes very little with temperature and the controller cannot
respond very well to changing conditions or noise in the system. If the
proportional band is too narrow the temperature may swing back and
6-6
Controller Operation
6.7 Proportional Band
6
Figure 7. System Temperature Fluctuations at Various Proportional Band Settings
forth because the controller overreacts to temperature variations. For best control
stability the proportional band must be set for the optimum width.
The optimum proportional band width depends on several factors including
system heat transfer characteristics and heater-probe positioning. Thus the
proportional band width may require adjustment for best bath stability when any
of these conditions change.
The proportional band width is easily adjusted from the controller front panel. The
width may be set to discrete values in degrees C or F depending on the selected
units. The optimum proportional band width setting may be determined by
monitoring the stability with a high resolution thermometer or with the controller
percent output power display. Narrow the proportional band width to the point at
which the process temperature begins to oscillate and then increase the band
width from this point to 3 or 4 times wider.
The integral time of the controller is determined by component selection and
cannot be set by the user. It is fixed at approximately 300 seconds.
The proportional band adjustment may be accessed within the secondary menu.
Press “SET” and “EXIT” to enter the secondary menu and show the heater
power. Then press “SET” to access the proportional band.
+
12 Pct
Access heater power in secondary menu
Heater power in percent
Access proportional band
Pb=0.101C
Proportional band setting
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To change the proportional band press “UP” or “DOWN”.
Decrement display
Pb=0.060C
New proportional band setting
To accept the new setting and access the cutout set-point press “SET”. Pressing
“EXIT” will exit the secondary menu ignoring any changes just made to the
proportional band value.
Accept the new proportional band setting
6.8 Cutout
As a protection against software or hardware fault, shorted heater triac, or user
error, the controller is equipped with an adjustable heater cutout device that will
shut off power to the heater if the system temperature exceeds a set value.
This protects the heater and system materials from excessive temperatures. The
cutout temperature is programmable by the operator from the front panel of the
controller. It must always be set below the upper temperature limit of the system
components.
If the cutout is activated because of excessive temperature then power to the
heater will be shut off and the system will cool. It will cool until it reaches a few
degrees below the cutout set-point temperature. At this point the action of the
cutout is determined by the setting of the cutout mode parameter. The cutout has
two modes — automatic reset or manual reset. If the mode is set to automatic,
then the cutout will automatically reset itself when the system temperature falls
below the reset temperature allowing the system to heat up again. If the mode is
set to manual, then the heater will remain disabled until the user manually resets
the cutout.
The cutout set-point may be accessed within the secondary menu. Press “SET”
and “EXIT” to enter the secondary menu and show the heater power. Then press
“SET” twice to access the cutout set-point.
+
12 Pct
Access heater power in secondary menu
Heater power in percent
Access proportional band
Pb=0.101C
6-8
Proportional band setting
Controller Operation
6.9 Controller Configuration
6
Access cutout set-point
CO= 210C
Cutout set-point
To change the cutout set-point press “UP” or “DOWN”.
Decrement display
CO= 95C
New cutout set-point
To accept the new cutout set-point press “SET”.
Accept cutout set-point
The next function is the configuration menu. Press “EXIT” to resume displaying
the process temperature.
6.9 Controller Configuration
The controller has a number of configuration and operating options and
calibration parameters which are programmable via the front panel. These are
accessed from the secondary menu after the cutout set-point function by
pressing “SET”. The display will prompt with “COnFIG”. Press “SET” once more.
There are 5 sets of configuration parameters — probe parameters, operating
parameters, serial interface parameters, IEEE-488 interface parameters, and
controller calibration parameters. The menus are selected using the “UP” and
“DOWN” keys and then pressing “SET”. See Figure 6.
6.10 Probe Parameters RTD Sensor
The probe parameter menu is indicated by,
PrObE
Probe parameters menu
Press “SET” to enter the menu. The probe parameters menu contains the
parameters, R0 and ALPHA, which characterize the resistance-temperature
relationship of the platinum control probe.
If the controller is configured to use a thermistor probe then the constants are D0
and DG.
These parameters may be adjusted to improve the accuracy of the bath. This
procedure is explained in detail in Section8.
The probe parameters are accessed by pressing “SET” after the name of the
parameter is displayed. The value of the parameter may be changed using the
“UP” and “DOWN” buttons. After the desired value is reached press “SET” to set
the parameter to the new value. Pressing “EXIT” will cause the parameter to be
skipped ignoring any changes that may have been made.
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6.10.1 R0
This probe parameter refers to the resistance of the control probe at 0 °C.
Normally this is set for 100.000 ohms.
6.10.2 ALPHA
This probe parameter refers to the average sensitivity of the probe between 0
and 100 °C. Normally this is set for 0.00385 °C-1.
6.11 Probe Parameters Thermistor Sensor
The probe parameter menu is indicated by,
PrObE
Probe parameters menu
Press “SET” to enter the menu. The probe parameters menu contains the
parameters, D0 and DG. These parameters characterize the transfer function of
the linearized thermistor control probe. The parameters may be adjusted to
improve the accuracy of the bath. This procedure is explained in detail in Section
8.
The probe parameters are accessed by pressing “SET” after the name of the
parameter is displayed. The value of the parameter may be changed using the
“UP” and “DOWN” buttons. After the desired value is reached press “SET” to set
the parameter to the new value. Pressing “EXIT” will cause the parameter to be
skipped ignoring any changes that may have been made.
6.11.1 D0
This parameter refers to the temperature at which the control probe output would
be 0. Normally this is set for −25.229.
6.11.2 DG
This probe parameter refers to the temperature span of the probe between 0 and
100 % output. Normally this is set for 186.794.
6.12 Operating Parameters
The operating parameters menu is indicated by,
PAr
Operating parameters menu
Press “SET” to enter the menu. The operating parameters menu contains the
cutout reset mode parameter.
6.12.1 Cutout Reset Mode
The cutout reset mode determines whether the cutout resets automatically when
the system temperature drops to a safe value or must be manually reset by the
operator.
6-10
Controller Operation
6.13 Serial Interface Parameters
6
The parameter is indicated by,
CtorSt
Cutout reset mode parameter
Press “SET” to access the parameter setting. Normally the cutout is set for
manual mode.
Cto=rSt
Cutout set for manual reset
To change to automatic reset mode press “UP” and then “SET”.
Cto=Auto
Cutout set for automatic reset
6.13 Serial Interface Parameters
The serial RS-232 interface parameters menu is indicated by,
SErIAL
Serial RS-232 interface parameters menu
The serial interface parameters menu contains parameters which determine the
operation of the serial interface. These controls only apply to controllers fitted
with the serial interface. The parameters in the menu are — baud rate, sample
period, duplex mode, and linefeed.
6.13.1 Baud Rate
The baud rate is the first parameter in the menu. The baud rate setting
determines the serial communications transmission rate.
The baud rate parameter is indicated by,
BAUd
Serial baud rate parameter
Press “SET” to choose to set the baud rate. The current baud rate value will then
be displayed.
2400 b
Current baud rate
The baud rate of the serial communications may be programmed to 300, 600,
1200, or 2400 baud. Use “UP” or “DOWN” to change the baud rate value.
1200 b
New baud rate
Press “SET” to set the baud rate to the new value or “EXIT” to abort the
operation and skip to the next parameter in the menu.
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6.13.2 Sample Period
The sample period is the next parameter in the serial interface parameter menu.
The sample period is the time period in seconds between temperature
measurements transmitted from the serial interface. If the sample rate is set to 5
for instance then the controller will transmit the current measurement over the
serial interface approximately every five seconds. The automatic sampling is
disabled with a sample period of 0. The sample period is indicated by,
SAmPLE
Serial sample period parameter
Press “SET” to choose to set the sample period. The current sample period value
will be displayed.
SA= 1
Current sample period (seconds)
Adjust the value with “UP” or “DOWN” and then use “SET” to set the sample rate
to the displayed value.
SA= 60
New sample period
6.13.3 Duplex Mode
The next parameter is the duplex mode. The duplex mode may be set to full
duplex or half duplex. With full duplex any commands received by the controller
via the serial interface will be immediately echoed or transmitted back to the
device of origin. With half duplex the commands will be executed but not echoed.
The duplex mode parameter is indicated by,
dUPL
Serial duplex mode parameter
Press “SET” to access the mode setting.
dUP=FULL
Current duplex mode setting
The mode may be changed using “UP” or “DOWN” and pressing “SET”.
dUP=HALF
New duplex mode setting
6.13.4 Linefeed
The final parameter in the serial interface menu is the linefeed mode. This
parameter enables (on) or disables (off) transmission of a linefeed character (LF,
ASCII 10) after transmission of any carriage-return. The linefeed parameter is
indicated by,
6-12
Controller Operation
6.15 Calibration Parameters
LF
6
Serial linefeed parameter
Press “SET” to access the linefeed parameter.
LF= On
Current linefeed setting
The mode may be changed using “UP” or “DOWN” and pressing “SET”.
LF= OFF
6.14
New linefeed setting
IEEE-488 Parameters
Controllers may optionally be fitted with an IEEE-488 GPIB interface. In this case
the user may set the interface address within the IEEE-488 parameter menu.
This menu does not appear on instruments not fitted with the interface.
The menu is indicated by,
IEEE
IEEE-488 parameters menu
Press “SET” to enter the menu.
6.14.1 IEEE-488 Address
The IEEE-488 interface must be configured to use the same address as the
external communicating device. The address is indicated by,
AddrESS
IEEE-488 interface address
Press “SET” to access the address setting.
Add= 22
Current IEEE-488 interface address
Adjust the value with “UP” or “DOWN” and then use “SET” to set the address to
the displayed value.
Add= 15
New IEEE-488 interface address
6.15 Calibration Parameters
The operator of the controller has access to a number of the calibration and
setup constants, namely CTO, C0, CG, H, and L. The calibration values are set
at the factory and must not be altered. The correct values are important to the
accuracy of the bath. Access to these parameters is available to the user only so
that in the event that the controller’s memory fails the user may restore these
values to the factory settings. The user should have a list of these constants and
their settings with the manual.
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User Manual
The calibration parameters menu is indicated by,
CAL
Calibration parameters menu
Press “SET” five times to enter the menu.
6.15.1 CTO
Parameter CTO sets the calibration of the over-temperature cutout. This is not
adjustable by software but is adjusted with an internal potentiometer.
6.15.2 CO and CG
These parameters calibrate the accuracy of the bath set-point. These are
programmed at the factory when the bath is calibrated. Do not alter the value of
these parameters. If the user desires to calibrate the bath for improved accuracy
then calibrate R0 and ALPHA according to the procedure given in Section 8.
If the temperature range (set by the H and L parameters) is limited then the
calibration constants appear as B0 and BG.
CO (B0) and CG (BG) are not used if the controller is configured to operate with
a thermistor probe.
6.15.3 H and L
These parameters set the upper and lower set-point limits of the bath. These
parameters should not be set beyond the safe operating temperature limits of the
system.
6.16 Operation Summary
A complete flowchart of controller operation is shown in Figure 6. This chart may
be reproduced and used as a reference and operating guide.
6-14
Chapter 7
Digital Communication Interface
The 2100 controller is capable of communicating with and being controlled by
other equipment through the digital interface. The RS-232 serial interface is
standard. The IEEE-488 (GPIB) interface can be included as an option.
Hart recommends the use of shielded RS-232 and IEEE-488 (GPIB) cables for
all remote communication.
7.1
Serial Communications
The controller comes installed with an RS-232 serial interface that allows serial
digital communications over fairly long distances. With the serial interface the
user may access any of the functions, parameters and settings discussed in
Chapter 7 with the exception of the BAUD rate setting. The serial interface
operates with 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
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User Manual
7.1.1
Wiring
The serial communications cable attaches to the controller through the DB-9
connector on the back panel. Figure 8 shows the pin-out of this connector and
suggested cable wiring. To
eliminate noise, the serial cable
should be shielded with low
resistance between the
connector (DB-9) and the
shield.
7.1.2
Setup
Before operation, the serial
interface must first be set up by
programming the baud rate and
other configuration parameters.
These parameters are
programmed within the serial
interface menu.
To enter the serial parameter
programming mode first press
“EXIT” while pressing “SET”
and release to enter the
secondary menu. Press “SET”
repeatedly until the display
reads “ProbE”. This is the
menu selection. Press “UP”
repeatedly until the serial
interface menu is indicated with
“SErIAL”. Finally press “SET” to
enter the serial interface
parameters menu. In the serial
interface parameters menu are
the baud rate, sample rate,
duplex mode, and linefeed
parameters.
Figure 8. Serial Interface Cable Wiring
7.1.2.1 Baud Rate
The baud rate is the first parameter in the menu. The display will prompt with the
baud rate parameter by showing “BAUd”. Press “SET” to choose to set the baud
rate. The current baud rate value will then be displayed. The baud rate of the
serial communications may be programmed to 300, 600, 1200, or 2400 baud.
The baud rate is pre-programmed to 1200 baud. Use “UP” or “DOWN” to change
the baud rate value. Press “SET” to set the baud rate to the new value or “EXIT”
to abort the operation and skip to the next parameter in the menu.
7.1.2.2 Sample Period
The sample period is the next parameter in the menu and prompted with
“SAmPLE”. The sample period is the time period in seconds between
temperature measurements transmitted from the serial interface. If the sample
rate is set to 5 for instance then the controller will transmit the current
measurement over the serial interface approximately every five seconds. The
automatic sampling is disabled with a sample period of 0. Press “SET” to choose
to set the sample period. Adjust the period with “UP” or “DOWN” and then use
“SET” to set the sample rate to the displayed value.
7-2
Digital Communication Interface
7.2 IEEE-488 Communication (optional)
7
7.1.2.3 Duplex Mode
The next parameter is the duplex mode indicated with “dUPL”. The duplex mode
may be set to half duplex (“HALF”) or full duplex (“FULL”). With full duplex any
commands received by the bath via the serial interface will be immediately
echoed or transmitted back to the device of origin. With half duplex the
commands will be executed but not echoed. The default setting is full duplex.
The mode may be changed using “UP” or “DOWN” and pressing “SET”.
7.1.2.4 Linefeed
The final parameter in the serial interface menu is the linefeed mode. This
parameter enables (“On”) or disables (“OFF”) transmission of a linefeed
character (LF, ASCII 10) after transmission of any carriage-return. The default
setting is with linefeed on. The mode may be changed using “UP” or “DOWN”
and pressing “SET”.
7.1.3
Serial Operation
Once the cable has been attached and the interface set up properly the controller
will immediately begin transmitting temperature readings at the programmed rate.
The serial interface operates with 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. The setpoint and other commands may be sent to the bath via the serial interface to set
the controller and view or program the various parameters. The interface
commands are discussed in Section 7.3. All commands are ASCII character
strings terminated with a carriage-return character (CR, ASCII 13).
7.2 IEEE-488 Communication (optional)
The IEEE-488 interface is available as an option. Controllers supplied with this
option may be connected to a GPIB type communication bus which allows many
instruments to be connected and controlled simultaneously. To eliminate noise,
the GPIB cable should be shielded.
7.2.1
Setup and Address Selection
To use the IEEE-488 interface first connect an IEEE-488 standard cable to the
back of the bath.
Next set the device address. This parameter is programmed within the IEEE-488
interface menu. To enter the IEEE-488 parameter programming menu first press
“EXIT” while pressing “SET” and release to enter the secondary menu. Press
“SET” repeatedly until the display reaches “PrObE”. This is the menu selection.
Press “UP” repeatedly until the IEEE-488 interface menu is indicated with “IEEE”.
Press “SET” to enter the IEEE-488 parameter menu. The IEEE-488 menu
contains the IEEE-488 address parameter.
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The IEEE-488 address is prompted with “AddrESS”. Press “SET” to program the
address. The default address is 22. Change the device address of the bath if
necessary to match the address used by the communication equipment by
pressing “UP” or “DOWN” and then “SET”.
7.2.2
IEEE-488 Operation
Commands may now be sent via the IEEE-488 interface to read or set the
temperature or access other controller functions. All commands are ASCII
character strings and are terminated with a carriage-return (CR, ASCII 13).
Interface commands are listed below.
7.3 Interface Commands
The various commands for accessing the controller functions via the digital
interfaces are listed in this section (see Table 3). These commands are used with
both the RS-232 serial interface and the IEEE-488 GPIB interface. In either case
the commands are terminated with a carriage-return character. The interface
makes no distinction between upper and lower case letters, hence either may be
used. Commands may be abbreviated to the minimum number of letters which
determines a unique command. A command may be used to either set a
parameter or display a parameter depending on whether or not a value is sent
with the command following a “ =” character. For example “s” < CR > will return
the current set-point and “s=50.00” <CR> will set the set-point (set-point 1) to
50.00 degrees.
In the following list of commands, characters or data within brackets, “[” and “]”,
are optional for the command. A slash, “/”, denotes alternate characters or data.
Numeric data, denoted by “n”, may be entered in decimal or exponential notation.
Characters are shown in lower case although upper case may be used. Spaces
may be added within command strings and will simply be ignored. Backspace
(BS, ASCII 8) may be used to erase the previous character. A terminating CR is
implied with all commands.
7-4
Digital Communication Interface
7.3 Interface Commands
7
Table 3. 2100 Controller Communications Commands
Command Description
Command
Format
Command
Example
Returned
Returned
Example
set: 9999.99 {C or F}
set: 150.00 C
Acceptable
Values
Display Temperature
Read current set-point
s[etpoint]
s
S e t c u rre n t s e t-p o in t to n
s [e tp o in t]= n
s=450
R e a d v e rn ie r
v [e rn ie r]
v
S e t v e rn ie r to n
v [e rn ie r]= n
v = .0 0 0 0 1
Read temperature
t[emperature]
t
t: 9999.99 {C or F}
t: 55.69 C
R e a d te m p e ra tu re u n its
u [n its ]
u
u: x
u: c
Set temperature units:
u[nits]=c/f
In s tru m e n t
Range
v : 9 .9 9 9 9 9
v : 0 .0 0 0 0 0
Depends on
Configuration
C or F
Set temperature units to Celsius
u[nits]=c
u=c
Set temperature units to
Fahrenheit
u[nits]=f
u=f
Read proportional band setting
pr[op-band]
pr
Set proportional band to n
p r[o p -b a n d ]= n
p r= 8 .8 3
Read cutout setting
c[utout]
c
Set cutout setting:
c[utout]=n/r[eset]
Set cutout to n degrees
c [u to u t]= n
c=500
Reset cutout now
c[utout]=r[eset]
c=r
Read heater power
(duty cycle)
po[wer]
po
po: 9999
po: 1
r[0 ]
r
r0 : 9 9 9 .9 9 9
r0 : 1 0 0 .5 7 8
Secondary Menu
pr: 999.9
pr: 15.9
Depends on
Configuration
c: 9999 {x},{xxx}
c: 620 C, in
T e m p e ra tu re
Range
Configuration Menu
Probe Menu
R e a d R 0 c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
Set R0 calibration parameter to n r[0]=n
r= 1 0 0 .3 2 4
Read ALPHA calibration
parameter
al
al[pha]
Set ALPHA calibration parameter al[pha]=n
to n
a l= 0 .0 0 3 8 4 3 3
9 8 .0 to 1 0 4 .9
al: 9.9999999
al: 0.0038573
.0 0 3 7 0 to
.00399
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Table 3. 2100 Controller Communications Commands continued
Command Description
Command
Format
Command
Example
Returned
Returned
Example
*d 0
d 0 : 9 9 .9 9 9
d 0 : – 2 5 .2 9 9
Acceptable
Values
Available only with Thermistor configuration
R e a d D 0 c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
*d 0
Set D0 calibration parameter to n *dc0=n
*d 0 = -2 5 .2 9 9
R e a d D G c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
*d g
*d g
Set DG calibration parameter to n
*d g = n
*d g = 1 8 6 .9 7 4
Read cutout mode
cm[ode]
cm
Set cutout mode:
cm[ode]=r[eset]/a[uto]
Set cutout to be reset manually-
cm[ode]=r[eset]
cm=r
Set cutout to be reset
automatically
cm[ode]=a[uto]
cm=a
Read serial sample setting
sa[mple]
sa
Set serial sampling setting to n
seconds
s a [m p le ]= n
sa=0
Set serial duplex mode:
du[plex]=f[ull]/h[alf]
Set serial duplex mode to full
du[plex]=f[ull]
du=f
Set serial duplex mode to half
du[plex]=h[alf]
du=h
Set serial linefeed mode:
lf[eed]=on/of[f]
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
d g : 9 9 9 .9 9
d g : 1 8 6 .9 7 4
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
Operating Parameters Menu
cm: {xxxx}
cm: AUTO
RESET or
AUTO
Serial Interface Menu
sa: 9
sa: 1
0 to 4 0 0 0
FULL or HALF
ON or OFF
Set serial linefeed mode to on
lf[eed]=on
lf=on
Set serial linefeed mode to off
lf[eed]=of[f]
lf=of
*c 0
*c 0
Calibration Menu
Available with PRT configuration
R e a d C 0 c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
Set C0 calibration parameter to n *c0=n
R e a d C G c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
*c g
*c g
Set CG calibration parameter to n
*c g = n
*c g = 4 0 6 .2 5
R e a d B 0 c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
*b 0
Set B0 calibration parameter to n *b0=n
7-6
c0: 9
c0: 0
*c 0 = 0
*b 0
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
c g : 9 9 9 .9 9
c g : 4 0 6 .2 5
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
b0: 9
b0: 0
*b 0 = 0
R e a d B G c a lib ra tio n p a ra m e te r
*b g
*b g
Set BG calibration parameter to n
*b g = n
*b g = 1 5 6 .2 5
Read low set-point limit value
*tl[ow]
*tl
Set low set-point limit to n
*tl[o w ]= n
*tl= -8 0
Read high set-point limit value
*th[igh]
*th
Set high set-point limit to n
*th [ig h ]= n
*th = 2 0 5
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
b g : 9 9 9 .9 9
b g : 1 5 6 .2 5
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
tl: 999
tl: –80
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
th: 999
th: 205
– 9 9 9 .9 to 9 9 9 .9
Digital Communication Interface
7.3 Interface Commands
7
Table 3. 2100 Controller Communications Commands continued
Command Description
Command
Format
Command
Example
Returned
Returned
Example
ver.2100,3.56
Acceptable
Values
Miscellaneous (not on menus)
Read firmware version number
*ver[sion]
*ver
ver.9999,9.99
Read structure of all commands
h[elp]
h
list of commands
Legend:
[] O p tio n a l C o m m a n d d a ta
{} Returns either information
n Numeric data supplied by user
9 Numeric data returned to user
x Character data returned to user
N o te :
W h e n D U P L E X i s s e t to F U L L a n d a c o m m a n d i s s e n t to R E A D , th e c o m m a n d i s re tu rn e d fo l l o w e d b y a
carriage return and linefeed. Then the value is returned as indicated in the RETURNED column.
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7-8
Chapter 8
Calibration Procedure
In some instances the user may want to calibrate the controller to improve the
temperature set-point accuracy. Calibration is done by adjusting the controller
probe calibration constants R0 and ALPHA or D0 and DG for thermistor probes
so that the process temperature as measured with a standard thermometer
agrees more closely with the set-point. The thermometer used must be able to
measure the temperature with higher accuracy than the desired accuracy of the
system.
8.1
RTD Probe Calibration
8.1.1
Calibration Points
In calibrating the bath R0 and ALPHA are adjusted to minimize the set-point error
at each of two different temperatures. Any two reasonably separated
temperatures may be used for the calibration however best results will be
obtained when using temperatures which are just within the most useful
operating range of the system. The further apart the calibration temperatures the
larger will be the calibrated temperature range but the calibration error will also
be greater the range. If for instance 50 °C and 150 °C are chosen as the
calibration temperatures then the bath may achieve an accuracy of say ±0.03 °C
over the range 40 to 160 °C. Choosing 80 °C and 120 °C may allow the bath to
have a better accuracy of maybe ±0.01 °C over the range 75 to 125 °C but
outside that range the accuracy may be only ±0.05 °C.
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8.1.2
Measuring the Set-point Error
The first step in the calibration procedure is to measure the temperature errors
(including sign) at the two calibration temperatures. First set the temperature to
the lower set-point which we will call tL. Wait for the system to reach the set-point
and allow 15 minutes to stabilize at that temperature. Check the stability with the
thermometer. When both the system and the thermometer have stabilize
measure the system temperature with the thermometer and compute the
temperature error errL which is the actual temperature minus the set-point
temperature. If for example the temperature is set for a lower set-point of
tL =50 °C and the bath reaches a measured temperature of 49.7 °C then the error
is −0.3 °C.
Next, set the temperature for the upper set-point tH and after stabilizing measure
the temperature and compute the error errH. For our example we will suppose the
temperature was set for 150 °C and the thermometer measured 150.1 °C giving
an error of +0.1 °C.
8.1.3
Computing R0 and ALPHA
Before computing the new values for R0 and ALPHA the current values must be
known. The values may be found by either accessing the probe calibration menu
from the controller panel or by inquiring through the digital interface.
The user should keep a record of these values in case they may need to be
restored in the future. The new values R0 ′ and ALPHA ′ are computed by
entering the old values for R0 and ALPHA, the calibration temperature set-points
tL and tH, and the temperature errors errL and errH into the following equations,

′  err t −errL t H
R0 =  H L
ALPHA + 1 R0
tH − tL


 (1 + ALPHA t H )errL − (1 + ALPHA t L )errH
ALPHA′ = 
tH − tL


 ALPHA

If for example R0 and ALPHA were previously set for 100.000 and 0.0038500
respectively and the data for tL, tH, errL, and errH were as given above then the
new values R0 ′ and ALPHA ′ would be computed as 100.193 and 0.0038272
respectively. Program the new values R0 and ALPHA into the controller. Check
the calibration by setting the temperature to tL and tH and measuring the errors
again. If desired the calibration procedure may be repeated again to further
improve the accuracy.
8-2
Calibration Procedure
8.2 Calibration Example
8
8.2 Calibration Example
The controller is to be used between 75 and 125 °C and it is desired to calibrate
the system as accurately as possible for operation within this range. The current
values for R0 and ALPHA are 100.000 and 0.0038500 respectively. The
calibration points are chosen to be 80.00 and 120.00 °C. The measured
temperatures are 79.843 and 119.914 °C respectively. Refer to Figure 9 for
applying equations to the example data and computing the new probe constants.
8.3 Thermistor Probe Calibration
8.3.1
Calibration Points
In calibrating the bath DO and DG are adjusted to minimize the set-point error at
each of two different temperatures. Any two reasonably separated temperatures
may be used for the calibration however best results will be obtained when using
temperatures which are just within the most useful operating range of the system.
The farther apart the calibration temperatures the larger will be the calibrated
temperature range but the calibration error will also be greater over the range. If
for instance 20 °C and 80 °C are chosen as the calibration temperatures then the
controller may achieve an accuracy of say ±0.2 °C over the range 20 to 80 °C.
Choosing 30 °C and 70 °C may allow the controller to have a better accuracy of
maybe ±0.05 °C over the range 30 to 70 °C but outside that range the accuracy
may be only ±0.5 °C.
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R0 = 100.000
ALPHA = 0.0038500
tL = 80.00 °C
measured t = 79.843 °C
tH = 120.00 °C
measured t = 119.914 °C
Compute Errors,
errL = 79.843 – 80.00 °C = −0.157 °C
errH = 119.914 – 120.00 °C = −0.086 °C
Compute R0,
 ( −0.086) × 80.0 − ( −0.157) × 120.0

R 0′ = 
0.00385 + 1100.000 = 100.115
120.0 − 80.0


 (1 + 0.00385 × 120.0)( −0.157) − (1 + 0.00385 × 80.0)( −0.086) 
ALPHA′ = 
+ 10.00385 = 0.0038387
120.0 − 80.0


Figure 9. Calibration Example — Platinum RTD Probe
8.3.2
Measuring the Set-point Error
The first step in the calibration procedure is to measure the temperature errors
(including sign) at the two calibration temperatures. First set the controller to the
lower set-point which we will call tL. Wait for the system to reach the set-point and
allow 15 minutes to stabilize at that temperature. Check the stability with the
thermometer. When both the system and the thermometer have stabilized
measure the system temperature with the thermometer and compute the
temperature error errL which is the actual temperature minus the set-point
temperature. If for example the controller is set for a lower set-point of tL =20 °C
and the system reaches a measured temperature of 19.7 °C then the error
is −0.3 °C.
Next, set the controller for the upper set-point tH and after stabilizing measure the
temperature and compute the error errH. For our example we will suppose the
temperature was set for 80 °C and the thermometer measured 80.1 °C giving an
error of +0.1 °C.
8-4
Calibration Procedure
8.3 Thermistor Probe Calibration
8.3.3
8
Computing DO and DG
Before computing the new values for DO and DG the current values must be
known. The values may be found by either accessing the probe calibration menu
from the controller panel or by inquiring through the digital interface. The user
should keep a record of these values in case they may need to be restored in the
future. The new values DO ′ and DG ′ are computed by entering the old values
for DO and DG, the calibration temperature set-points tL and tH, and the
temperature errors errL and errH into the following equations,
D 0′ =
errH (t L − D0) − errL (t H − D 0)
+ D0
tL − tH
 err − errH

DG ′ =  L
+ 1 DG
 tL − tH

If for example DO and DG were previously set for −25.229 and 186.9740
respectively and the data for tL, tH, errL, and errH were as given above then the
new values DO ′ and DG ′ would be computed as −24.880 and 185.728
respectively. Program the new values DO and DG into the controller. The new
constants will be used the next time the bath temperature is set. Check the
calibration by setting the temperature to tL and tH and measuring the errors again.
If desired the calibration procedure may be repeated again to further improve the
accuracy.
8.3.4
Calibration Example
The system is to be used between 25 and 75 °C and it is desired to calibrate the
controller as accurately as possible for operation within this range. The current
values for DO and DG are −25.229 and .0028530 respectively. The calibration
points are chosen to be 25.00 and 75.00 °C. The measured bath temperatures
are 24.869 and 74.901 °C respectively. Refer to Figure 10 for applying equations
to the example data and computing the new probe constants.
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R0 = 100.000
ALPHA = 0.0038500
tL = −10.00 °C
measured t = −9.943 °C
tH = 50.00 °C
measured t = 49.874 °C
Compute errors,
errL = −9.943 – ( −10.00 °C) = 0.057 °C
errH = 49.874 – 50.00 °C = −0.126 °C
Compute R0,
 ( −0.126) × ( −10.0) − (0.57) × 50.0

R 0′ = 
0.00385 + 1100.000 = 99.9898
50.0 − ( −10.0)


Compute ALPHA,
 (1 + 0.00385 × 50.0)( −0.057) − (1 + 0.00385 × ( −10.0))( −0.126) 
ALPHA′ = 
+ 10.00385 = 0.0038621
50.0 − ( −10.0)


Figure 10. Calibration Example — Thermistor Probe
8-6
Chapter 9
Maintenance
9.1 Maintenance
The controller has been designed with the utmost care. Ease of operation and
simplicity of maintenance have been a central theme in the product development.
Therefore, with proper care the instrument should require very little maintenance.
Avoid operating the instrument in dirty or dusty environments. If the unit must be
used in a dusty environment, the controller can be sealed at the seams with a
silicone sealant. Sealing the controller protects the electrical components.
•
A battery is used to maintain operating parameters in the unit. All operating
parameters, including calibration parameters should be checked on a regular
basis to insure accuracy and proper operation of the instrument. See the
troubleshooting section for the procedure on checking the status of the
battery.
•
If the outside of the controller becomes soiled, it may be wiped clean with a
damp cloth and mild detergent. Do not use harsh chemicals on the surface
which may damage the paint.
•
If a hazardous material is spilt on or inside the equipment, the user is
responsible for taking the appropriate decontamination steps as outlined by
the national safety council with respect to the material. MSDS sheets
applicable to all fluids used in the baths should be kept in close proximity to
the instrument.
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•
If the mains supply cord becomes damaged, replace it with a cord with the
appropriate gauge wire for the current of the system. If there are any
questions, call Hart Scientific Customer Service for more information.
•
Before using any cleaning or decontamination method except those
recommended by Hart, users should check with Hart Scientific Customer
Service to be sure that the proposed method will not damage the equipment.
•
If the instrument is used in a manner not in accordance with the equipment
design, the operation of the bath may be impaired or safety hazards may
arise.
The over-temperature cutout should be checked every 6 months to see that it is
working properly. In order to check the user selected cutout, follow the controller
directions (Section 6.8) for setting the cutout. Both the manual and the auto reset
option of the cutout should be checked. Set the bath temperature higher than the
cutout. Check to see if the display flashes cutout and the temperature is
decreasing.
 WARNING:
When checking the over-temperature cutout, be sure that the
temperature limits of the bath fluid are not exceeded. Exceeding
the temperature limits of the bath fluid could cause harm to the
operator, lab, and instrument.
9-2
Chapter 10
Troubleshooting
This section contains information on troubleshooting.
10.1 Troubleshooting
In the event that the instrument appears to function abnormally, this section may
help to find and solve the problem. Several possible problem conditions are
described along with likely causes and solutions. If a problem arises, please read
this section carefully and attempt to understand and solve the problem. If the
problem cannot otherwise be solved, contact an Authorized Service Center (see
Section 1.4) for assistance. Be sure to have the instrument model number, serial
number, voltage, and problem description available.
 NOTE:
It is assumed that the controller is being used to control a calibration
bath.
Problem
Causes and Solutions
The heater indicator LED
stays red but the
temperature does not
increase
The problem may be either insufficient heating or no heating
at all. Insufficient heating may be caused by the amount of
cooling to the system being greater than the amount of heat
the heater is capable of supplying. Check that the heater is
operational using a clamp-on ammeter to measure the
current to the heater.
If the heater is receiving current but not heating enough,
either replace the heater with one of greater rating (not to
exceed specifications of instrument) or decrease the amount
of cooling to the system. If the heater is not receiving power
at all, use a voltmeter to verify that voltage is present at the
heater socket at the back of the controller. If voltage is
present, check the heater for correct wiring. An ohmmeter
may help to find a discontinuity in the wiring. Check for a
shorted heater. The solid- state relay may not be operating
properly.
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The controller display
flashes “Cut-out” and the
heater does not operate
The display flashes “Cut-out” alternately with the process
temperature. If the process temperature displayed seems
grossly in error, consult the following problem: ‘The display
flashes “Cut-out” and an incorrect process temperature’.
Normally, the cutout disconnects power to the heater when
the bath temperature exceeds the cutout set-point causing
the temperature to drop
back down to a safe value. If the cutout mode is set to
“AUTO”, the heater switches back on when the temperature
drops. If the mode is set to “RESET”, the heater only comes
on again when the temperature is reduced and the cutout is
manually reset by the operator, see Section 6.8, Cutout.
Check that the cutout set-point is adjusted to 10 or 20 °C
above the maximum bath operating temperature and that the
cutout mode is set as desired.
If the cutout activates when the bath temperature is well
below the cutout set-point or the cutout does not reset when
the bath temperature drops and it is manually reset, then the
cutout circuitry or the cutout thermocouple sensor may be
faulty or disconnected.
The display flashes “Cutout” and an incorrect
process temperature
The problem may be that the controller’s voltmeter circuit is
not functioning properly.
A problem with the thermocouple probe, the cutout
operation, or the cut-out circuitry may cause the cutout to
remain in this condition. Check that the thermocouple probe
is plugged into the controller and wired correctly. Check that
the probe temperature is well below the programmed setpoint. If not then reset the cutout temperature to a value well
above the probe temperature or wait for the temperature to
cool well below the cutout set-point. If the cutout is set for
manual reset mode then after the temperature cools the user
must also manually reset the cutout according to the
directions in this manual under Section 6.8, Cutout. If the
probe is not connected to the controller, either plug in the
appropriate thermocouple probe into the cutout probe socket
or use a wire jumper inserted into the socket to short the
input to simulate a probe at ambient temperature.
A problem could exist with the memory back-up battery. If
the battery voltage is insufficient to maintain the memory,
data may become scrambled causing problems. A nearby
large static discharge may also affect data in memory. Verify
that the parameters on the Report of Test. are accurate.
Cycle the power off, disconnect the bath from AC, and then
restart the bath.
If the problem reoccurs, the battery should be replaced.
Contact an Authorized Service Center (see Section 1.4) for
assistance.
If initializing the memory does not remedy the problem, there
may be a failed electronic component.
The controller may need to be reset. Perform the Factory
Reset Sequence described below.
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Troubleshooting
10
10.1 Troubleshooting
Factory Reset Sequence. Hold the SET and EXIT buttons
down at the same time while powering up the instrument.
The instrument display shows ‘-init-’, the model number, and
the firmware version. Each of the controller parameters and
calibration constants must be reprogrammed. The values
can be found on the Report of Test that was shipped with the
instrument.
The displayed process
temperature is in error
and the controller remains
in the cooling or heating
state at any set-point
value
Possible causes may be either a faulty control probe or
erroneous data in memory.
The probe may be disconnected, shorted, burned out, wired
incorrectly, or incompatible with the controller.
Check that the probe is connected properly. If wired properly,
and using a 100 ohm RTD, the probe may be checked with
an ohmmeter to see if it is open or shorted. The probe is a
platinum 4-wire Din 43760 type. The resistance should read
0.2 to 2.0 ohms between pins 1 and 2 on the probe
connector and 0.2 to 2.0 ohms between pins 3 and 4. It
should read 100 to 300 ohms between pins 1 and 4
depending on the temperature. If the probe appears to be
defective, contact an Authorized Service Center (see Section
1.4) for assistance.
If the problem is not the probe, erroneous data in memory
may be the cause. Re-initialize the memory as discussed in
the problem ‘The display flashes “Cut-out” and an incorrect
process temperature’. If the problem remains, the cause may
be a defective electronic component.
Verify that the probe is of the correct type for which the
controller was configured to use. The controller configuration
may be checked by watching the controller display as the
power is switched on. The display briefly flashes “CP-1”, “Pt
LO”, or “Pt HI”. Flashing “CP-1“ indicates the controller is
configured to use a thermistor probe. ”Pt LO” and “Pt HI”
indicate the controller is configured to use a DIN 43760 RTD
probe with the range of −100 to 200 and −100 to 600 °C,
respectively. If the probe is not correct, use the correct
probe. Both types of probes are available from Hart
Scientific. If the configuration is not as desired, contact an
Authorized Service Center.
The controller will not
control above
approximately 250 °C
The range for a thermistor probe is −10 to 110 °C. For an
RTD probe the range is either −100 to 200 °C or −100 to
600 °C depending on the configuration as discussed in item
above. If the configuration is not as desired, contact an
Authorized Service Center.
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The controller controls or
attempts to control at an
inaccurate temperature
The controller operates normally except when controlling at a
specified set-point. At this set-point, the temperature
displayed does not agree with the temperature measured by
the user’s reference thermometer to within the specified
accuracy. This problem may be caused by an actual
difference in temperature between the points where the
control probe and thermometer probe measure temperature,
by erroneous bath calibration parameters, or by a damaged
control probe.
Check that the system has an adequate amount of fluid in
the tank and that the stirrer is operating properly (if
applicable).
Check that the thermometer probe and control probe are
both fully inserted into the bath to minimize temperature
gradient errors.
Check that the calibration parameters are all correct
according to the Report of Test. If not, re-program the
constants. The memory backup battery may be weak
causing errors in data as described in the problem: ‘The
display flashes “cutout” and an incorrect process
temperature’.
Check that the control probe has not been struck, bent, or
damaged. If the user’s own probe is used, the calibration
parameters, namely R0 and ALPHA, may need to be
adjusted to more closely match the characteristics of the
probe. Calibration assistance may be obtained from an
Authorized Service Center.
The controller shows that
the output power is
steady, but the process
temperature is unstable
Possible causes are an improper proportional band setting or
the fluid being used.
If the bath temperature does not achieve the expected
degree of stability when measured using a thermometer, try
adjusting the proportional and to a narrower width as
discussed in Section 6.7, Proportional Band.
Check to ensure the fluid has not deteriorated or is not too
thick.
The controller alternately
heats for a while then
cools
The bath is not stable and the duty cycle is not constant.
The controller erratically
heats then cools, control
is unstable
If both the bath temperature and output power do not vary
periodically but in a very erratic manner, the problem may be
excess noise in the system. Noise due to the control sensor
should be less than 0.001 °C. However, if the probe has
been damaged or has developed an intermittent short, erratic
behavior may exist. The probe is located inside the stirrer
motor cover.
The proportional band being too narrow typically causes this
oscillation. Increase the width of the proportional band until
the temperature stabilizes as discussed in Section 6.7,
Proportional Band.
Check for a damaged probe or poor connection between the
probe and bath.
Intermittent shorts in the heater or controller electronic
10-4
Troubleshooting
10
10.2 Comments
circuitry may also be a possible cause. Contact an
Authorized Service Center (see Section 1.4) for assistance.
The heater heats
continuously and the
stirrer motor stirs
sporadically or not at all
Check to see that the heater and stirrer motor are plugged
into the correct sockets on the back of the unit. If not, plug
them in correctly. If they are plugged in correctly, call an
Authorized Service Center.
The controller does not
maintain controller
parameters or parameters
are reset each time the
power to the unit is
removed
Note: Before performing the memory check, you need to
record the controller calibration parameters (found in the
CAL menu of the instrument) and any user-adjusted
parameters that you have changed (such as the
programmable set points and proportional band).
Memory Check
Doing a memory check is the easiest way to verify the ability
of the battery to maintain controller parameters.
1. Power off the instrument.
2. Disconnect the instrument from AC power for 10 seconds.
3. Reconnect the AC power and power on the instrument.
4. If the display shows InIT and/or the cycle count shows a
low number such as 0002, the battery is spent and should be
replaced. Contact an Authorized Service Center for
assistance.
5. After replacing the battery, you must reprogram the
calibration and user-adjustable parameters into the
controller.
10.2 Comments
10.2.1 EMC Directive
Hart Scientifics’ equipment has been tested to meet the European
Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC Directive,
89/336/EEC). The Declaration of Conformity for your instrument lists
the specific standards to which the unit was tested.
10.2.2 Low Voltage Directive (Safety)
In order to comply with the European Low Voltage Directive
(73/23/EEC), Hart Scientific equipment has been designed to meet
the IEC 1010-1 (EN61010-1) and the IEC 1010-2-010 (EN 61010-2010) standards.
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10-6

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