Code of good practice for the re-use of (W)EEE

Code of good practice for the re-use of (W)EEE
Code of good practice
for the re-use
of (W)EEE
Code of good practice for the
re-use of (W)EEE
Author: Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM)
1
Introduction
1.1
Background and summary
According to the European waste hierarchy (preparation for) re-use is preferable to recycling. However
re-use does not always has the lowest environmental impact. In some cases it may be more
environmentally responsible to immediately recycle the waste product instead of re-using it. In the case
of waste electrical and electronic equipment for example the question may arise whether the re-use of
old appliances which consume a lot of energy or contain polluting substances (such as CFCs, PCBs,
1
Hg, etc.) is environmentally responsible. OVAM commissioned a study with the aim of establishing
specific criteria for various product categories making it possible to determine whether an electrical or
electronic appliance can be re-used in an environmentally responsible way. These criteria are
described in Chapter 2 of the Code of Good Practice.
From an environmental perspective, electrical and electronic equipment which does not meet these reuse criteria should not be re-used. Such equipment should no longer be made available on the market
or exported as a (second-hand) product. When a used electrical or electronic equipment, which the
holder wants to make available on the market as a (second-hand) product, does not meet the re-use
criteria, that used electrical or electronic equipment should be regarded as waste according to the
OVAM, and must be discharged to a licensed waste treatment facility or a re-use center.
Used electrical and electronic equipment which does not meet the re-use criteria but which can
potentially be re-used can be prepared for this purpose by a re-use centre. This process of preparing
for re-use, which is a waste treatment operation, has to meet certain requirements. These conditions
are described in Chapter 3 of the Code of Good Practice.
Currently the Code of Good Practice has the status of a guideline. At a later stage, in the frame of the
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next review of VLAREMA (2013), the elements in the Code of Good Practice shall be transposed in a
Ministerial Order and VLAREMA shall refer to this order. From then on the re-use criteria shall be
legally enforceable.
1.2
Definitions
The following definitions are used in the frame of this Code of Good Practice and shall not affect
existing definitions.
― WEEE
Waste electrical and electronic equipment.
1 Hergebruikscriteria AEEA, OVAM, March 2011.
2
Flemish regulation on sustainable management of materialcycles and waste materials.
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―
―
―
―
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1.3
EEE
3
Electrical and electronic equipment .
Used EEE
EEE that has been used but which is not necessarily considered as waste.
EEE for professional use
Equipment that is designed to be solely used by professional users.
Second-hand EEE
EEE that has already been used but which meets all the applicable re-use criteria.
Re-use
Any act whereby products or components which are not waste are re-used for the same purpose
for which they were intended.
Re-use centre
A company or organisation where used electrical and electronic equipment which is suitable for
product re-use is stored, sorted, tested, cleaned and/or repaired and where re-usable EEE is
separated from non re-usable EEE.
Preparing for re-use
‘Preparing for re-use’ means checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which
products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be reused without any other pre-processing.
Target audience
The Code of Good Practice describes the criteria which electrical and electronic appliances should
meet to be made available on the market or exported as a (second-hand) product. Additionally the
Code of Good Practice sets out specific guidelines to which re-use centres have to adhere during the
process of preparing WEEE for re-use.
The Code of Good Practice is intended for natural or legal persons wishing to:
― prepare used EEE for re-use;
― make used EEE available on the market as a second-hand product;
― transport used EEE (transboundary) as a (second-hand) product;
― facilitate or organise the marketing of used EEE as an intermediary or a broker.
In addition the Code of Good Practice is destined for supervisory authorities who inspect
(transboundary) transports of used EEE. A significant share of WEEE is exported as ‘second-hand’
EEE in order to circumvent waste legislation. The re-use criteria were designed as a tool for
supervisory authorities in order to enable them to better distinguish between WEEE and second-hand
EEE and to facilitate enforcement. Used EEE which does not meet the re-use criteria set out in this
document, in addition to existing requirements of a European or global nature, should be considered as
waste. This means amongst others that the transboundary shipment of WEEE, in accordance with
Regulation 1013/2006/EC, is subject to the notification procedure and that exports to countries to
which the OECD Decision does not apply are prohibited.
1.4
Objectives
The following objectives shall be achieved if the Code of Good Practice is properly adhered to:
― Improvement of the environmental score of equipment which is re-used
The environment shall benefit when equipment that is being re-used meets the re-use criteria.
Equipment with a very high energy consumption for example shall no longer be able to be reused.
3 For a definition of ‘electrical and electronic equipment’: see Article 1.2.1§2 of VLAREMA.
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The prevention of exports of WEEE under the guise of second-hand goods
A significant share of WEEE is illegally exported to non-OECD countries as second-hand goods. A
share of the WEEE that was generated in neighbouring countries also passes through Flemish
ports (transit). A clearer distinction may be made between second-hand EEE and WEEE (=waste)
based on the re-use criteria. The re-use criteria, as described in Chapter 2 of the Code of Good
Practice, were designed as a tool for supervisory authorities in order to enable them to better
distinguish between WEEE and second-hand EEE and to facilitate enforcement. The first
objective (improving the environmental score of the equipment that is re-used) is also important in
the frame of these exports. The application of the re-use criteria prevents used EEE which are no
longer considered suitable for re-use in their own country from ending up in vulnerable regions
around the world where the (W)EEE is added to the local landfill in the short term.
―
Encouraging the re-use of WEEE which meets the re-use criteria
Currently only a very small percentage of the collected WEEE is re-used. OVAM encourages the
re-use of WEEE insofar as the provisions of the Code of Good Practice are complied with.
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Re-use criteria for (W)EEE
This chapter describes the criteria which used electrical and electronic equipment should meet in order
to be made available on the market or shipped transboundary as (second-hand) products.
2.1
Scope of the re-use criteria for (W)EEE
The (W)EEE re-use criteria apply to:
1
All waste electrical and electronic equipment:
When a holder discards a used electrical or electronic appliance it becomes waste. This WEEE
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has to undergo a selection on re-use in accordance with Article 3.4.4.4 of VLAREMA . Only
discarded appliances which, after a preparation for re-use according to the guidelines as
described in Chapter 3, meet the re-use criteria can be made available on the market as secondhand products. When a discarded product after a preparation for re-use does not meet the re-use
criteria then this appliance shall continue to be considered as waste and will have to be
transferred to a licensed waste treatment plant or re-use centre.
2
All used EEE which the holder wishes to make available on the market:
Used appliances can only be made available on the market again as second-hand EEE when the
re-use criteria are met. When a used appliance, which the holder wishes to make available on the
market as second-hand EEE, does not meet the re-use criteria, this used EEE is considered as
waste (WEEE) by the OVAM, and will have to be transferred to a licensed waste treatment plant
or a re-use centre.
Appliances for personal use do not fall under the scope. As long as the holder uses the appliance
for personal purposes the appliance does not necessarily have to meet the re-use criteria. This
means that used appliances for personal use which do not meet the re-use criteria do not obtain
the status of waste as long as the holder does not discards it.
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All used EEE that is shipped transboundary:
Used EEE that is transboundary shipped has to meet the re-use criteria in order to be able to be
shipped as a (second-hand) product. When the re-use criteria are not met, the used EEE should
be regarded as waste. This means amongst others that the transboundary shipment of this
WEEE, according to Regulation 1013/2006/EC, is subject to the notification procedure, and that
export to countries to which the OECD Decision does not apply is prohibited.
However, if supported by conclusive proof that the shipment is taking place in the framework of a
business-to-business transfer agreement and that at least one of the following conditions are met,
then the used EEE does not has to meet the re-use criteria and can be shipped as a (secondhand) product:
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The EEE is sent back to the producer or a third party acting on his behalf as defective for
repair under warranty with the intention of re-use;
The used EEE for professional use is sent to the producer or a third party acting on his behalf
or a third-party facility in countries to which Decision C(2001)107/Final of the OECD Council
concerning the revision of Decision C(92)39/Final on control of transboundary movements of
wastes destined for recovery operations applies, for refurbishment or repair under a valid
4 This should not be taken to mean that all WEEE has to always undergo a selection on re-use. In practice WEEE only has to
be selected for re-use if there is a specific demand (e.g., from a re-use centre) for potentially reusable WEEE. A pre-selection
(based on a visual inspection, see § 3.2.1 for more information) can already be carried out at the level of a collection or
centralisation point. A more extensive selection on re-use (in keeping with the criteria described in Chapter 3.2) needs to be
done onsite at the re-use centre.
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contract with the intention of re-use;
The defective used EEE for professional use , such as medical devices or their parts, is sent to
the producer or a third party acting on his behalf for root cause analysis under a valid contract,
in cases where such an analysis can only be conducted by the producer or third parties acting
on his behalf.
EEE which falls under the above scope and which does not meet the re-use criteria shall be
considered waste and is thus subject to waste legislation.
Only when this WEEE, after a preparation for re-use, according to the guidelines set out in Chapter 3,
meets the re-use criteria again, can it be regarded as a (second-hand) product.
2.2
Re-use criteria for 9 product groups
The Code of Good Practice covers all electrical and electronic equipment. Household EEE as well as
EEE for professional use falls under the scope of the re-use criteria, insofar that they do not fall under
one of the exceptions described in section 2.1. But not all re-use criteria are applicable to all types of
appliances. A distinction is made between various product categories, each with their specific re-use
criteria.
There are specific re-use criteria for the following 8 household appliance groups:
― Refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners
― Laundry machines, dishwashers, tumble-dryers
― Cooking stoves, ovens, microwave ovens and related equipment
― Television equipment and monitors
― ICT equipment (computers and peripherals)
― Video recorders, DVD equipment, digicorders, game consoles, ...
― Small electronic appliances (cell phones, MP3 players, tablets, and so on)
― Small electronic household appliances
Next to this the more general re-use criteria also apply to a residual category. This residual category
includes all household EEE which cannot be defined as belonging to one of the other 8 categories and
all EEE for professional use.
2.3
General overview of the re-use criteria
Below is an overview of the various re-use criteria. Some criteria apply to all the product categories,
others are specific to one or more product categories.
2.3.1
Criteria which allow for an evaluation of the condition of the appliance
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“The appliance is fully functional”
An appliance is fully functional when it has been tested and demonstrated that it can perform the
originally intended functions of the appliance. There are specific test procedures in place for a
number of specific products such as mobile phones and computers (see paragraph 3.2.3).
―
“The appliance is electrically safe”
Only equipment of which the electrical safety has been tested may be re-used (see paragraph
3.2.2 for more information).
―
“Full housing”
If part of the appliance’s housing is missing the appliance cannot be re-used.
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2.3.2
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“Presence of all the essential components”
The product type will determine which components certainly have to be in place. Without the
presence of a key part the appliance cannot properly function.
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“The components are in good condition”
That is to say that the components may not be wet, dirty, worn or defective.
―
“Complete and intact insulation
Fridges and freezers have two types of insulation, i.e., the insulation in the walls of the appliance
and the seal of the door. Both should be in excellent condition in order to avoid high energy
consumption.
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“No calcification on the heating elements”
Calcification on the heating elements of appliances used to heat water can substantially increase
energy consumption. That is why a visual inspection should check whether there is any
calcification on the heating elements. If this is the case then the appliance’s heating elements
should be replaced or decalcified before re-use of the appliance.
―
“No or only very little rust”
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“No or very little cosmetic damage”
Environment-related criteria
―
“Absence of environmentally hazardous substances such as PCBs, PBBs, PBDEs, lead, mercury,
cadmium, hexavalent chromium, asbestos”
This criterion is highly relevant from an environmental point of view. At the same time it is
practically impossible to apply given that it is nearly impossible to determine visually whether an
appliance contains hazardous materials. This criterion can only be used with the help of a
complete EEE-database. For the time being this criterion shall not be retained given that such a
database does not yet exist or is not yet available.
―
“Absence of CFCs / HCFCs”
CFCs and HCFCs, which were used as coolants in refrigerators, are considered harmful to the
ozone layer. Appliances which contain one of the controlled substances as set out in Regulation
1005/2009/EG may not be made available on the market as a second-hand appliance. Other
coolants are allowed. Usually the coolants used are listed on the refrigerator. If the used coolants
are not listed on the appliance there has to be assumed that the appliance does indeed contain
CFCs or HCFCs and therefore it may not be re-used.
―
“Energy label”
5
The re-use of appliances that consume a lot of energy is environmentally irresponsible. A study
commissioned by OVAM about re-use criteria showed that the re-use of the following household
appliances only makes sense from a given energy label:
― Refrigerators: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Freezers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Portable air conditioning units: Re-use from energy label C or higher;
― Laundry machines: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Dishwashers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
5 Hergebruikscriteria AEEA, OVAM, March 2011.
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― Tumble-dryers: Re-use from energy label C or higher;
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Appliances with an energy label under the above threshold have to be transferred to a licensed
waste treatment plant and may not be re-used. In the future this minimum threshold will probably
be raised again.
A database can be used to check an appliance’s energy label. If the appliance is not found in the
database or if such a database cannot be used then the energy consumption needs to be
measured. The measurement of energy consumption needs to be done based on a test
procedure that is approved by OVAM.
―
2.3.3
No CRT screen
The use of new flat panel displays is preferred over the re-use of CRT screens (CRT monitors and
CRT televisions) for energy reasons. Furthermore, there is virtually no market anymore for
second-hand CRT screens. When these are exported to non-OECD countries most second-hand
CRT screens end up with informal ‘recyclers’, who limit themselves to the recovery of valuable
metals, such as copper. The ‘remainder' of the appliance is then dumped or burned, releasing
materials that are hazardous for the environment, such as the lead in CRT screens, which cause
environmental and health problems. OVAM is of the opinion that CRT screens should not be reused but immediately be recycled.
Criteria about the level of certainty that the appliance will effectively be re-used
―
“There is a regular market for the appliance”
An outdated appliance may still be fully functional and in perfect condition, but when there is no
longer a market for the appliance (whereby the appliance is used for the same objectives as
originally intended) in the destination country, then chances are that the appliance will not be reused. For example, a perfectly working PC with a Pentium I processor is a rather outdated
appliance, for which there no longer is a regular market. When this appliance is exported to Africa
as a ‘second-hand’ product one can be reasonably certain that this appliance will probably not be
re-used, but instead will be ‘cannibalized’, giving rise to environmental and health problems.
―
“The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport”
The appliance needs to be transported in an appropriate manner and be sufficiently protected (by
adequate packaging and a suitable stacking of the load) so that it will not be damaged during the
loading and unloading process and during transport. If the equipment has not been sufficiently
packed or appropriately stacked the equipment will be considered as waste.
2.4
Re-use criteria by product category
2.4.1
Refrigerators, freezers and portable air conditioning units
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
7
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
Complete and intact insulation
No or only very little rust
No or very little cosmetic damage
― Potential environmental hazard of the appliance
8
Absence of CFCs / HCFCs
6 Naturally the energy label of the appliance when it was put on the market as a new product needs to be taken into account.
7 Essential components include: the plug, compressor, inner and outer door, joints, controls ...
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Energy label :
Refrigerators: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
Freezers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
Portable air conditioning units: Re-use from energy label C or higher;
Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
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2.4.2
Laundry machines, dishwashers, tumble-dryers
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
10
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
No calcification on the heating elements
No or only very little rust
No or very little cosmetic damage
― Potential environmental hazard of the appliance
11
Energy label :
Laundry machines: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
Dishwashers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
Tumble-dryers: Re-use from energy label C or higher;
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.3
Cooking stoves, ovens, microwave ovens and related equipment
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
12
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
Microwave ovens: no radiation loss
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
8 Usually the coolants used are listed on the refrigerator. When one of the regulated substances of Regulation 1005/2009/EC
is used the appliance may not be brought into re-use nor may it be exported as a second-hand product. Other coolants are
allowed. If the used coolants are not listed on the appliance the appliance cannot be re-used.
9 A database can be used to check an appliance’s energy label. If the appliance is not found in the database or if such a
database cannot be used then the energy consumption needs to be measured. The measurement of energy consumption
needs to be done based on a test procedure that is approved by OVAM.
10 Essential components include: laundry machines: plug, glass window, display, controls, supply and drain hoses; washing
machines: plug, baskets, sprinklers, course under door, controls, supply and drain hoses ; tumble-dryers: plug, door seal,
clearance on bearings, controls.
11 A database can be used to check an appliance’s energy label. If the appliance is not found in the database or if such a
database cannot be used then the energy consumption needs to be measured. The measurement of energy consumption
needs to be done based on a test procedure that is approved by OVAM.
12 Essential components include: cooking stoves: plug, controls ; ovens: plug, oven dishes, enamel ; microwave ovens: plug,
hinges ; related appliances: plug, door.
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2.4.4
Televisions and monitors
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
13
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Potential environmental hazard of the appliance
14
No CRT screen
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.5
ICT equipment (computers and peripherals)
― General condition of the appliance
16
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
17
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Potential environmental hazard of the appliance
18
No CRT screen
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The following minimum system requirements apply:
Processor: Pentium III, 1 Ghz
RAM memory: 512 MB
Hard drive space: 5 GB
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.6
Video recorder, DVD players, digicorders, game consoles, ...
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
19
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
15
13 Essential components include: connectors, plug, remote control.
14 CRT monitors may not be made available on the market as second-hand products. CRT TVs may not be made available on
the market as second-hand products from 01.01.2015. CRTs that are part of appliances that do not fall under the WEEE
acceptance obligation are not included in the scope of this code of good practice.
15 In the frame of this code of good practice ICT equipment shall be taken to mean: computers (PCs), laptops, notebooks,
netbooks, …, including the screen (CRT, LCD, LED, plasma), keyboard, mouse and peripherals such as a printer and a
scanner.
16 The functionality of ICT equipment has to be tested according to specific criteria as described in paragraph 3.2.3.
17 Essential components include: connectors, plug; for laptop: battery, adaptor.
18 CRT monitors may not be made available on the market as second-hand products. CRTs that are part of appliances that do
not fall under the WEEE acceptance obligation are not included in the scope of this code of good practice.
19 Essential components include: connectors, plug, remote control
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The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.7
Small electronic appliances (mobile phones, MP3 players, tablets, and so on)
― General condition of the appliance
20
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
21
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.8
Small electronic household appliances
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
22
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
2.4.9
Residual category
― General condition of the appliance
The appliance is fully functional
The appliance is electrically safe
Full housing
Presence of all the essential components
The components are in good condition
― Intention of re-use
There is a regular market for the appliance
The appliance is sufficiently secured and protected during transport
20 The functionality of mobile phones has to be tested according to specific criteria as described in paragraph 3.2.3.
21 Essential components include: plug if applicable, connectors if applicable, controls and keys.
22Essential components include: plug if applicable, connectors if applicable, buttons and keys, the shaver of a razor, loose or
movable parts (e.g., pot, filter, cover, door, display).
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Preparing for re-use
Used electrical and electronic equipment which does not meet the re-use criteria but which can
potentially be re-used can be prepared for this purpose by a re-use centre. This process of preparing
for re-use, which is a waste treatment operation, has to meet certain requirements.
According to the Waste Framework Directive (art.3, 16°) “preparing for re-use” shall mean:
“checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of
products, that have become waste are prepared so that they can be re-used without any other
pre-processing”
3.1
Minimum requirements for re-use centres
3.1.1
Inspection by an ISO170120-accredited inspection body
Re-use centres wishing to have access to WEEE that is collected at Recupel collection and
centralisation points should sign a cooperation agreement regarding the careful collection of electrical
and electronic appliances and the selection on re-use. The cooperation agreement is an agreement
between the re-use centre, a Recupel collection or centralisation point and Recupel. This agreement
sets out the provisions for mutual collaboration between the Recupel collector and the re-use centre for
the transportation and preliminary selection with a view to the re-use of collected appliances from the
collection or centralisation point. The cooperation agreement includes a provision that the Code of
Good Practice regarding the re-use of (W)EEE has to be complied with.
Re-use centres which prepare WEEE from a Recupel collection or centralisation point for re-use will be
periodically inspected by an ISO170120 accredited inspection body. Based on a checklist drawn up by
OVAM the inspection body will check whether the re-use centre complies with the Code of Good
Practice regarding the re-use of (W)EEE. Only those re-use centres which comply adequately with the
Code of Good Practice may prepare WEEE for re-use. Concerning the financing of the controls, the
provisions of the current environmental policy agreement apply.
3.1.2
Registration and licensing
Re-use centres who wish to collect WEEE in the Flemish region from third parties (e.g., from Recupel
collection or centralisation points) have to register with OVAM as a waste-collector, -dealer or -broker
and have an internal quality assurance system. If the re-use centres limit themselves to the
transportation of WEEE which has already undergone a pre-selection on re-use (according to the
criteria listed in paragraph 3.2.1) and which potentially is suitable for re-use they will not be required to
register as a waste-collector, -dealer or -broker for the transportation of this WEEE.
Preparing for re-use of WEEE is a waste treatment operation. Re-use centres who limit themselves to
only preparing WEEE for re-use which has already undergone a pre-selection on re-use (according to
23
the criteria listed in paragraph 3.2.1) shall not be considered as waste treatment plants . This implies
that no permit is required for the storage and sorting of waste (Vlarem-section 2). By contrast re-use
centres who collect WEEE which has not yet undergone a pre-selection on re-use, which implies that
the first selection on re-use only takes place on the site of the re-use centre, are considered waste
treatment plants. When no pre-selection on re-use has been conducted before the WEEE is processed
onsite at the re-use centre the re-use centre effectively requires a permit.
23 The following exception has been included in annexe 1 of VLAREM: “Re-use centres, etc., concretely facilities where
second-hand household goods and comparable industrial goods which qualify for product re-use such as clothing, books,
furniture, household goods, toys, electrical and electronic equipment are stored, sorted, cleaned or repaired, are not
facilities for the treatment of waste.”
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Producers/importers, brokers or end vendors who accept WEEE from customers in the context of
extended producer responsibility for WEEE, and who then prepare it for re-use are also excluded from
24
the permit obligation if the storage is done at the end vendor, brokers, producer or importer and if the
WEEE is stored in function of an organised regular removal of this waste.
But in spite of the fact that no permit is required for the preparation for re-use of this WEEE, the
process of preparation for re-use is still considered a waste treatment process. WEEE, which may
have already undergone a pre-selection on re-use, retains the status of waste until all the applicable reuse criteria have been met. Only when all the re-use criteria have been met can a discarded appliance
be considered as a product again.
In the Brussels-Capital Region and the Walloon Region, other legislative provisions are in force in
terms of registrations and authorizations.
3.1.3
Documenting the process of preparation for re-use
The process of preparation for re-use has to be fully documented. This means that every appliance
that shall be made available on the market as a second-hand product or will be exported as such
requires a unique identification code and a re-use record. This re-use record (electronic and/or on
paper) needs to fully document every step in the process of the preparation for re-use as described in
paragraph 3.2. Such a re-use record has to be presented for every appliance in case of an inspection.
Appliances that are discarded during the process of preparation for re-use and which shall not be
made available on the market or exported as a second-hand product do not require a unique
identification code and re-use record in case of an inspection.
3.2
Steps to be taken in the process of preparing for re-use
Re-use centres wishing to prepare WEEE for re-use have to comply with the following steps during the
process of preparing for re-use:
3.2.1
Preselection on re-use – visual inspection
A first step in the process of 'preparing for re-use' is the visual inspection of the discarded or used
appliance. This step can already be carried out onsite where the used EEE is collected (e.g., at a
Recupel collection or centralisation point). When the appliance meets one or more of the criteria listed
below then it needs to be kept separate as ‘non re-usable WEEE’ and be transferred to a licensed
waste treatment plant. For these appliances it is not worth to take further preparatory steps. The
following criteria apply:
25
― Incomplete housing (e.g.: missing door)
26
― Essential components are missing (e.g.: compressor of a fridge is missing)
― Poor general condition of the appliance
27
― CRT-screen
― A lot of rust on the body
― A lot of cosmetic damage (e.g.: dents, cracks, holes ...)
― The appliance looks very outdated
24 This exception has been included in annexe 1 of VLAREM.
25 This only applies to defects that are easy to determine.
26 This only applies to missing parts that are easy to determine.
27 CRT-televisions can still be prepared for re-use until 01.01.2015.
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3.2.2
Test of the appliance’s electrical safety
The electrical safety of each appliance needs to be tested including (if applicable): an insulation
measurement, an earthing measurement and a check for short circuits. Only appliances that are
electrically safe may be re-used.
When the appliance fails the electrical safety test it has to be repaired or transferred to a licensed
waste treatment plant.
3.2.3
Functionality test
The functionality of each appliance has to be tested. Only appliances that are fully functional may be
re-used. An appliance is fully functional when it has been tested and demonstrated that it can perform
the originally intended functions of the appliance.
When the appliance fails the functionality test it has to be repaired or transferred to a licensed waste
treatment plant.
For certain product categories the functionality of the appliance has to be tested on the basis of a
number of specific criteria:
Specific criteria for ICT equipment (computers and peripherals): Reference is made here to
the criteria that are listed in appendix 5 of the ‘Guidance document on the environmentally
sound management of used and end-of-life computing equipment’ (PACE, 15 March 2011,
p.45-46). The criteria were developed in the frame of the PACE working group of the
Convention of Basel. A copy of appendix 5 is included in annex.
3.2.4
-
Specific criteria for mobile phones: Reference is made here to the criteria that are listed in
paragraph 2.2 of the ‘Guideline for the transboundary movement of collected mobile phones’
(MPPI, 25 March 2009, p.13-14). The criteria were developed in the frame of the MPPI project
of the Convention of Basel. A copy is included in annex.
-
Specific criteria for fridges and freezers:
― Refrigerators should be at least capable of cooling to 5°C
― Freezers should be able to freeze at least to:
― freezers with one star: min 6°C
― freezers with two stars: min 12°C
― freezers with three stars: min 18°C
Test of an appliance’s energy consumption
28
The study commissioned by OVAM about re-use criteria showed that the re-use of the following
household appliances only makes sense from a given energy label:
― Refrigerators: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Freezers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Portable air conditioning units: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Laundry machines: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Dishwashers: Re-use from energy label B or higher;
― Tumble-dryers: Re-use from energy label C or higher;
So the energy label of refrigerators, freezers, air conditioning units, laundry machines, dishwashers
and tumble-dryers at the time that the appliance was put on the market as a new product needs to be
28Hergebruikscriteria AEEA, OVAM, March 2011.
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checked. Appliances with an energy label under the above threshold have to be transferred to a
licensed waste treatment plant and may not be re-used.
A database can be used to check an appliance’s energy label. If the appliance is not found in the
database or if such a database cannot be used then the energy consumption needs to be measured.
The energy consumption needs to be measured based on a documented test procedure which has to
be submitted to OVAM for approval.
3.2.5
Repairing the appliance
If the previous steps show that the appliance is not in good condition, is unsafe or not fully functional
the decision can be made to repair the appliance. If it is uneconomic to repair the appliance then it
should be kept separate as ‘non re-usable WEEE’ and transferred to a licensed waste treatment plant.
If the decision is made to repair the appliance it should preferable be repaired with original parts or with
replacement parts that have been approved by the manufacturer. If the appliance is repaired with nonoriginal parts or with replacement parts that have not been approved by the manufacturer then the reuse centre has to guarantee that the appliance complies with all the applicable legislation and norms
that apply for appliances that are being put on the market. In this case the party that is making the
appliance available on the market for re-use shall ensure that the original manufacturer cannot in any
way be held accountable for the appliance that was re-used and has to offer the necessary legal
29
guarantees for this .
Re-use centres need to repair the appliances according to a documented repair procedure.
Refrigerators, freezers and portable air conditioning units have to be repaired in accordance with the
applicable legislation for coolants, e.g., the applicable training requirements for personnel have to be
respected.
3.2.6
Deleting personal data
All the personal data has to be erased from IT equipment before it can be re-used. Certified software
has to be used for this.
3.2.7
Software
ICT equipment, including computers, always have to have a working operating system. Unless the OS
is open source software it always has to be licensed. Copyrighted software for which the license is
missing has to be removed.
3.2.8
Does the appliance meet all the re-use criteria?
All appliances which will be made available on the market by the re-use centre have to meet the
applicable re-use criteria as set out in Chapter 2.
3.2.9
Warranty
30
In accordance with the law on consumer protection in the frame of the sale of consumer goods , reuse centres need to give consumers a warranty of at least one year per appliance, starting from the
date of delivery.
29 See Article 6 §1 of the environmental policy agreement regarding the acceptance obligation for waste electrical and
electronic equipment of 17 October 2008.
30 Law concerning the protection of consumers in the frame of the sale of consumer goods (1 September 2004).
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4
Transboundary shipment of used EEE
Used EEE can be considered as a (second-hand) product in the context of transboundary shipment, in
so far the used EEE meets the re-use criteria and the shipment meets the ‘minimum requirements for
shipments’, as specified in Annex 6 of Directive 2012/19/EU.
If the re-use criteria and the 'minimum requirements for shipments' are not met, this used EEE should
be regarded as waste. This means amongst others that the transboundary shipment of this WEEE,
according to Regulation 1013/2006/EC, is subject to the notification procedure, and that there is an
exportban to countries to which the OECD Decision does not apply.
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Annex 1: Appendix 5 of the 'Guidance document on the environmentally sound
management of used and end-of-life computing equipment' (PACE, 15 March
2011, p.45-46):
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Annex 2: Paragraph 2.2 of the 'Guideline for the transboundary movement of
collected mobile phones' (MPPI, 25 March 2009, p.13-14):
2.2 Evaluation, Testing and Labelling
The Evaluation and/or Testing and Labelling decision point, whether functionality has been tested or
not, may include evaluation and/or testing for defects that materi-ally affect the mobile phones
functionality, such as whether the device powers up, and or whether it performs an internal set-up
routine and/or self-checks, and/or whether it communicates; physical damage that impairs functionality
or safety may include but is not limited to whether the mobile phone screen is broken, cracked, heavily
scratched or marked, or that the image is distorted. Used mobile phones des-tined for re-use, including
repair, refurbishment or upgrading should be packaged in an appropriate protective manner.
Batteries that are unable to be charged or to hold power and the absence of sufficient packaging to
protect the mobile phones from damage may also be considered in de-termining whether collected
phones are being managed for re-use. The functionality evaluation and/or test should determine
whether the collected mobile phones are suitable for reuse as is, require repair or refurbishment before
reuse, or whether the used mobile phones are suitable only for the material recovery and recycling.
1
For testing the functionality of a collected mobile phone the test numbers can be ap-plied . At a
minimum the following basic tests should be applied as an efficient mi-nimum test procedure:
"Air" or "Ping" (automatic phone response) test. The tester is to dial the above-mentioned number,
which will then “ping” a network and receive a customer service response from the nearest network. In
North America the number is "611". If a response is received then it can be assumed that the mobile
phone is essentially functional.
"Loop back test". The tester to blow or speak into the handset, whilst on a call, to determine whether or
not the microphone and speaker are functional.
Microphone and speaker test. The tester is to blow or speak into the microphone and listen to see if
the same input sound can be heard out of the speaker. If this is working, then the sound system of the
phone can be considered as functional.
Screen and keypad test: The tester is to turn on the phone so that the screen is dis-played and the
keypad is punched to show that it is functioning for each key. If the numbers appear on the screen for
each key then the screen and keypad can be con-sidered as functional.
11 Test-numbers of other regions may be available
Battery test: Battery should be charged (either through the phone it accompanies or by using
commercial charging and measuring equipment) and tested with a volt meter to determine whether or
not the battery is functional and hold an appropriate charge12. The battery will be tested to guarantee
accepting and holding a charge and operate correctly under load of standard mobile phone. In addition,
the test will in-clude a guarantee that the battery protection circuit is present and functioning properly.
All batteries tested for reuse possibilities will only be OEM product and not created from used or
recycled power.
1 In other locations other numbers are used.
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