Autolab Twingle-Springle SPR user manual 4.4.0-6

Autolab Twingle-Springle SPR user manual 4.4.0-6
Autolab TWINGLE/
SPRINGLE
Data Acquisition
4.4
User manual SPR
Copyright Statement
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BV. Copyright and other intellectual property laws protect these materials. Reproduction
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through this manual are listed below.
Welcome
The Autolab Twingle and Autolab Springle are Surface Plasmon Resonance
instruments used for analysis of biomolecular interactions in real time without
labelling. Our systems also provide the possibility of simultaneous
electrochemical measurement with a separate potentiostat / galvanostat.
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a standard tool in life
sciences and pharmaceutical research laboratories. The study and
characterisation of molecular interactions is essential to explore the structurefunction relationships of biomolecules and to aid our understanding of
biological systems in life sciences, like antibody-antigen, ligand-receptor,
protein-nucleic acid, cell adhesion and drug development. With the option of
electrochemistry, an extra tool is available for the study of enzymes, ion
channels, membrane proteins, polymer layers, polymerisation and polymerbiomolecular interactions.
SPR provides quantitative information, which can be used to determine
reaction kinetics and affinity constants for molecular interactions, as well as
the active concentration of biomolecules in solution. It also provides
qualitative information and allows small-molecule screening to epitope
mapping and complex assembly studies.
The SPR technique is related to the nature of the surface plasmon. Methods
of optical excitation and basic properties of surface plasmon resonance that
are important in the sensor application are summarized in this manual.
The optical detection principle of the Autolab SPR instrument has been
derived from technology developed at the University of Twente, The
Netherlands, which was supported financially by the Dutch Foundation of
Technical Sciences (STW). The hardware and software of the Autolab
instrument was developed by Metrohm Autolab BV.
Another SPR system is the Autolab ESPRIT, a fully automated double channel
SPR system.
The user manual consists of eleven chapters:
• Chapter 1 describes the hardware installation
• Chapter 2 describes the software installation
• Chapter 3 describes a ‘getting started’ experiment for the TWINGLE
• Chapter 4 describes a ‘getting started’ experiment for the SPRINGLE
• Chapter 5 describes the data acquisition software in detail
• Chapter 6 provides detailed information regarding the sequence editor
• Chapter 7 describes detailed information regarding the automation
• Chapter 8 explains the theoretical background on the Surface
Plasmon Resonance technique
• Chapter 9 discusses the maintenance of the SPR instrument
• Chapter 10 shows some trouble shooting
•
•
Chapter 11 has a list of all figures of this document
Chapter 12 is the index of this document
Important notice:
The Autolab SPR instruments are developed as a research instrument by
Metrohm Autolab B.V. However, Metrohm Autolab B.V. can never be held
responsible for the outcome of results, or the interpretation of results,
measured with Autolab instruments.
Autolab SPR User manual
Safety rules
For personal safety and to prevent any unnecessary damage to the Autolab
TWINGLE/SPRINGLE, please read and take note of the following safety rules
and precautions.
Failure to follow these instructions when using the instrument may cause
unsafe operation or severe injury. Metrohm Autolab B.V. is not liable for any
damage caused by not complying with the following rules and precautions.
* Instrument precautions;
•
This instrument was designed for use in laboratories and should not be
used in rooms with high air humidity or where there is lot of dust. It is
not meant to be stored or to be used outdoors. High levels of moisture
and high concentrations of dust will cause leakage currents in the
instrument. This can result in a risk of electrical shock and may cause
fire.
•
The manufacturers warranty is only valid for use in the permitted
environments, as stated.
•
Like most electronic equipment, the Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE
requires air to cool the electronics. If the air supply is restricted, this
may result in a fire. Do not cover or block the air vents of the
instrument.
•
If the instrument is brought from a cold environment into a warm room,
do not switch on the instrument until it has warmed up. Condensed
water needs to be able to evaporate.
•
Do not expose the instrument to damp or wet conditions.
•
Do not place the instrument in direct sunlight or anywhere where it is
likely to be exposed to additional external heat sources, except a
thermostatted water bath.
•
Because the instrument works with a scanning mirror and other fixed
mirrors, place the instrument on a stable levelled table or lab bench.
Do not lean on the instrument or table during measurements. Do not
Autolab SPR User manual
put the instrument in a position where it is subjected to vibrations, it will
harm the mirror calibration and, thus, the measurements.
•
It is recommended to fill all tubes with milli-Q or demineralized water to
prevent bacterial growth and salt precipitation in the tubes when the
autosampler is shut down for a period shorter than one week. For
longer periods, it is recommended to fill the tubes with 0.05 % sodium
azide in milli-Q or to remove the solution from all tubing to prevent
bacterial growth.
* Personal precautions;
•
The Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE instrument has a lift. Samples can
be aspirated and dispensed by the pipette tip. Nothing should impede
the movement of the pipette tip, injury may result.
•
Never look directly into the laser beam or reflections of the laser,
failure to follow this instruction may seriously damage your eyes.
•
The peristaltic pump is an open system. Do not put anything near the
pump. Keep the pump free from interference.
•
Do not allow untrained personnel to operate the instrument without
supervision.
* Electrical hazards;
•
There are no user-serviceable parts inside. Only factory qualified
personnel should service the instrument.
•
Removal of front or back panels may expose potentially dangerous
voltages. Always disconnect the instrument from all power sources
before removing protective panels.
•
Replace blown fuses only with new fuses in size and rating that are
stipulated near the fuse panel holder and in the manual.
•
The power cord should be placed so that it cannot be damaged. The
main cable should not be bent, laid over sharp edges, walked over or
exposed to any chemicals. If the insulation on the main cable has
been damaged, this may cause electric shocks and /or fire.
•
Replace or repair faulty or frayed insulation on power cords and
control cables.
Autolab SPR User manual
•
Replace control cables only with original spare parts. When replacing
a power cord, use only approved type consistent the regulations.
•
Check all connected equipment for proper grounding. Do not attempt
to move the instrument with power cords connected.
•
This instrument may only be connected to a power supply that has the
voltage and frequency stated on the type plate. It may only be
connected to the power supply using the power cable provided.
Incorrect voltages may damage the instrument.
•
Disconnect the power cord during thunderstorms. Voltage surges from
lightning strikes or other causes may damage the instrument through
the main power supply.
Customer service
Metrohm Autolab B.V. and its worldwide network of distributors provide you
with instrument service and help with technical questions. If you need
assistance, please contact your local representative.
On our web page, www.Metrohm-Autolab.com, we maintain an up to date list
with address details of our distributors.
Autolab SPR User manual
7
Table of contents
Welcome ..........................................................................................................2
Safety rules ......................................................................................................4
Chapter 1 ....................................................................................................... 11
1 – Hardware Installation. .............................................................................. 11
1.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 11
1.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 12
1.3 – Computer requirements..................................................................... 12
1.4 – Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE Hardware........................................... 12
1.5 – Specifications. ................................................................................... 13
1.6 – Hardware Installation......................................................................... 17
1.7 – SPR and ESPR setup......................................................................... 18
1.8 – Chemical Resistance......................................................................... 21
1.9 – Materials. ........................................................................................... 24
Chapter 2 ....................................................................................................... 26
2 – Software Installation. ................................................................................ 26
2.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 26
2.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 27
2.3 – Installation of the Autolab SPR software. ........................................... 27
2.4 – Autolab SPR software setup on the hard disk after installation. ........ 34
2.4.1 – Folder structure............................................................................ 34
2.4.2 – Files in C:\Autolab SPR\. .............................................................. 34
2.4.3 – Examples of data files in the subfolder C:\Autolab SPR\Data...... 35
2.4.4 – Softcopy manuals in the subdirectory MANUALS. ...................... 36
2.4.5 – Examples of KE models in the subdirectory MODELS. ............... 36
2.4.6 – Examples of KE PROJECT files in the subdirectory Data. .......... 36
2.4.7 – Autolab TWINGLE sequence files in subdirectory SEQUENCES.37
2.4.8 – Autolab SPRINGLE sequence files in subdirectory SEQUENCES.
................................................................................................................ 38
Chapter 3 ....................................................................................................... 39
3 – Getting started Autolab TWINGLE. .......................................................... 39
3.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 39
3.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 40
3.3 – Two days before the experiment. ...................................................... 42
3.3.1 – Gold surface modification with a 11-MUA layer. ......................... 42
3.4 – One day before the experiment......................................................... 42
3.4.1 – Washing the 11-MUA modified gold surface............................... 42
3.4.2 – Startup of the Autolab instrument. ............................................... 42
3.4.3 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab. .................................................. 43
3.4.4 – Initialization of the instrument. ..................................................... 44
3.4.5 – Autolab lift position calibration..................................................... 44
3.4.6 – Installation of the gold sensor disk. ............................................. 47
3.4.7 – Check for leakage between the two measurement channels. ..... 49
3.4.8 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange the buffer solution. .................... 51
8
Autolab SPR User manual
3.5 – D-day, The immobilization. ................................................................ 52
3.5.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 52
3.5.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate buffer. ......................... 54
3.5.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 11-MUA disk. .................................. 55
3.5.4 – Start the immobilization procedure. ............................................. 56
3.6 – The interaction. .................................................................................. 59
3.6.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 59
3.6.2 – Stabilize the surface. ................................................................... 60
3.6.3 – Start the association procedure................................................... 60
3.7 – The Autolab Twingle data.................................................................. 63
3.8 – Cleaning of the TWINGLE instrument. ............................................... 63
Chapter 4 ....................................................................................................... 65
4 – Getting started Autolab SPRINGLE.......................................................... 65
4.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 65
4.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 66
4.3 – Startup of the Autolab SPRINGLE instrument.................................... 68
4.4 – Preparation of solutions. .................................................................... 68
4.4.1 – Chemicals. ................................................................................... 68
4.4.2 – Reagents. .................................................................................... 69
4.5 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab SPRINGLE....................................... 70
4.6 – Initialization of the SPRINGLE instrument. ......................................... 71
4.6.1 – Autolab SPRINGLE lift position calibration. ................................. 71
4.7 – Installation of the gold sensor disk. ................................................... 75
4.7.1 – Preparation of a self assembled monolayer of 11MUA on the gold
surface..................................................................................................... 75
4.7.2 – Assembling the sensor disk on the hemi-cylinder. ...................... 75
4.7.3 – Installation of the cuvette. ............................................................ 77
4.7.4 – Check for leakage of the measurement channel. ........................ 78
4.7.5 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange the buffer solution. .................... 78
4.8 – The immobilization............................................................................. 80
4.8.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 80
4.8.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate buffer (B.4).................. 80
4.8.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 11-MUA disk. .................................. 81
4.8.4 – Start the immobilization procedure. ............................................. 82
4.9 – The interaction. .................................................................................. 83
4.9.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 83
4.9.2 – Stabilize the surface. ................................................................... 83
4.9.3 – Start the association procedure................................................... 83
4.10 – The SPRINGLE Data........................................................................ 84
4.11 – Cleaning of the SPRINGLE instrument. ........................................... 85
Chapter 5 ....................................................................................................... 87
5 – Data Acquisition software. ....................................................................... 87
5.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 87
5.2 – Overview of the functions. ................................................................. 88
5.3 – File menu. .......................................................................................... 94
5.4 – Edit menu. ......................................................................................... 96
5.5 – View menu. ........................................................................................ 96
Autolab SPR User manual
9
5.6 – Plot menu........................................................................................... 99
5.7 – TWINGLE/SPRINGLE menu............................................................. 100
5.7.1 – Manual Control of the Autolab. .................................................. 101
5.7.2 – Lift position in the software. ....................................................... 103
5.7.3 – Inject .......................................................................................... 104
5.7.4 – Wash.......................................................................................... 106
5.7.5 – Drain. ......................................................................................... 107
5.7.6 – Place Event Marker.................................................................... 108
5.7.7 – Update SPR recording............................................................... 108
5.7.8 – Start measurement..................................................................... 109
5.7.9 – Pause measurement. ................................................................. 109
5.7.10 – Stop measurement................................................................... 109
5.7.11 – Set Baseline. ............................................................................ 109
5.7.12 – Adjust to zero........................................................................... 109
5.7.13 – Lift Calibration.......................................................................... 109
5.7.14 – System Parameters.................................................................. 110
5.8 – Options menu. ................................................................................. 111
5.8.1 – Sequencer. ................................................................................ 111
5.8.2 – Automation................................................................................. 111
5.8.3 – Scope mode. ............................................................................. 111
5.8.4 – Scanner. .................................................................................... 111
5.8.5 – Customize. ................................................................................. 111
5.9 – Communications menu.................................................................... 113
5.10 – User menu (optional). .................................................................... 114
5.11 – Window menu. ............................................................................... 115
5.12 – Help menu. .................................................................................... 115
5.13 – Event Log. ..................................................................................... 116
Chapter 6 ..................................................................................................... 118
6 – Sequencer.............................................................................................. 118
6.1 – Index................................................................................................ 118
6.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 119
6.3 – Sequence editor window. ................................................................ 119
6.4 – Software Sequence editor. .............................................................. 123
6.4.1 – The sequence editor menu and toolbar..................................... 123
6.5 – Set-up of sequence files.................................................................. 124
6.5.1 – Include-sequence...................................................................... 124
6.5.2 – Safety lines. ............................................................................... 125
6.5.3 – Wait command........................................................................... 125
6.5.4 – Save data................................................................................... 126
6.5.5 – Commands with variables. ........................................................ 127
6.5.6 – Commands for Semi-Automatic sequences. ............................. 127
6.5.7 – The semi-automatic sequences................................................. 135
6.5.8 – Writing a sequence.................................................................... 137
Chapter 7 ..................................................................................................... 142
7 – Automation ............................................................................................. 142
7.1 – Index................................................................................................ 142
7.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 143
10
Autolab SPR User manual
7.3 – How to open the Automation Control Window. ................................ 143
7.4 – The Automation control window. ..................................................... 144
Chapter 8 ..................................................................................................... 146
8 – SPR theory. ............................................................................................ 146
8.1 – Index................................................................................................ 146
8.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 147
8.3 – Surface Plasmon Resonance. ......................................................... 148
8.4 – AUTOLAB Twingle configuration..................................................... 153
8.4.1 – Optics of the Twingle system..................................................... 154
8.4.2 – Sensor........................................................................................ 154
8.4.3 – Cuvette. ..................................................................................... 159
8.4.4 – Liquid handling. ......................................................................... 160
8.5 – SPR methods. .................................................................................. 161
8.5.1 – Introduction................................................................................ 161
8.5.2 – Methods using the SPR disk. ..................................................... 161
8.6 – References. ..................................................................................... 162
Chapter 9 ..................................................................................................... 165
9 – Maintenance. ......................................................................................... 165
9.1 – Index................................................................................................ 165
9.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 166
9.3 – Storage of SPR disk and sensor chip. ............................................. 166
9.4 – Optics. ............................................................................................. 166
9.5 – Routine inspections. ........................................................................ 167
9.6 – Replacing syringe and piston.......................................................... 167
Chapter 10 ................................................................................................... 168
10 – Troubleshooting. .................................................................................. 168
10.1 – Index.............................................................................................. 168
10.2 – Troubleshoot list – general. ........................................................... 169
10.3 – Troubleshoot list - sample handling............................................... 171
10.4 – Troubleshoot list - biochemistry, hydrodynamics, coatings. ......... 172
10.5 – SPR signal problems. .................................................................... 174
Chapter 11 ................................................................................................... 179
11 – Figures. ................................................................................................ 179
Chapter 12 ................................................................................................... 184
12 – Index. ................................................................................................... 184
Chapter 1
11
Chapter 1
1 – Hardware Installation.
Installation .
1.1 – Index.
Index.
Chapter 1 ....................................................................................................... 11
1 – Hardware Installation. .............................................................................. 11
1.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 11
1.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 12
1.3 – Computer requirements..................................................................... 12
1.4 – Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE Hardware........................................... 12
1.5 – Specifications. ................................................................................... 13
1.6 – Hardware Installation......................................................................... 17
1.7 – SPR and ESPR setup......................................................................... 18
1.8 – Chemical Resistance......................................................................... 21
1.9 – Materials. ........................................................................................... 24
12
Hardware Installation
1.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
In this chapter the installation of the hardware is described. All necessary
cables and accessories are supplied with the TWINGLE instrument.
1.3 – Computer requirements.
requirements .
The following minimum computer hardware specifications are required:
-
An IBM compatible computer
1 GHz Pentium 4 processor, preferably from Intel®
sVGA graphics card with minimal 800 x 600 pixels resolution
512 Mb RAM memory
3 Gb free HDU space
Microsoft Windows 2000 or XP
Microsoft Vista requires 2 Gb RAM memory (remark; folder position
installation direct in C:\, not in ‘program files” folder!)
One free RS232 serial communication port
One additional free RS232 com port is required for the optional
waterbath control
One USB port has to be available if an Autolab with GPES/NOVA software
has to be installed on the same computer.
1.4 – Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE
TWINGLE/SPRINGLE Hardware.
Hardware.
Power Supply
Power-Line frequency
Power consumption
Fuses
Operating Environment
Storage environment
Dimensions (W x H x D)
Weight
Warm-up time
Remote interface
Wave length light
100-240V +/- 10% (auto select)
47-63 Hz
120 VA max.
2 * 800 mA slow blow
+10 °C to +40 °C ambient temperature
< 80% relative humidity
+10 °C to +40 °C ambient temperature
330mm x 400mm x 360mm
24 kg
60 minutes
RS232
670 nm
Chapter 1
13
1.5 – Specifications
Specifications .
Table 1. Specification of the Autolab TWINGLE system.
Technical Specification
Measuring principle
Transducer principle
Liquid handling
Parallel channels
Fixed wavelength
Definition
Surface plasmon resonance
Scanning mirror
Cuvette system
Two
670 nm
Sample loading and injection
Mixing
Sample volume
Manual or semi-automatic
Continuous wall jet
2 x Syringe pump
1 x peristaltic pump
0.8 µl/s – 227.3 µl/s
Syringe pump
30 µl/s -130 µl/s
Peristaltic pump
20 µl - 150 µl
Offset of SPR angle by spindle
Dynamic range
Angle resolution
Minimum molecular weight
Association constant range
Dissociation constant range
Equilibrium affinity
Concentration range
62º - 78º
4000 mº
< 0.02 mº
180 D
103 – 107 M-1s-1
10-5 – 10-1 s-1
104 – 1010 M-1
10-11 – 10-3 M
Pumps
Flow rate range
Refractive index
Refractive index resolution
Measuring frequency
Time interval range
Baseline noise
Sensors
Standard supplied cuvette
Extra cuvette slider
1.26 – 1.38 (standard),
optional 1.32 - 1.44 or 1.40 - 1.52
-7
< 1.10
76 Hz
0.1 s – 300 s
0.1mº during a measurement time interval of
1s
Gold coated glass disk
Combined Electrochemistry and SPR or
SPR only (no electrochemistry)
Biacore sensor-chip adaptor (optional)
14
Hardware Installation
Spincoater
To spincoat standard gold disks, 10010.000 rpm (optional)
Weight
Dimensions (H x W x D)
Interface
Power requirements
23 kg
330mm x 400mm x 360mm
RS 232
170 W, 100 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Figure 1.1 – A.
A. The Autolab TWINGLE.
TWINGLE.
Chapter 1
15
Table 2. Specification of the Autolab SPRINGLE system.
T echnical Specification
Measuring principle
Transducer principle
Liquid handling
Parallel channels
Fixed wavelength
Definition
Surface plasmon resonance
Scanning mirror
Cuvette system
One
670 nm
Sample loading and injection
Mixing
Sample volume
Manual or semi-automatic
Continuous wall jet
1 x Syringe pump
1 x peristaltic pump
0.8 µl/s – 227.3 µl/s
Syringe pump
30 µl/s -130 µl/s
Peristaltic pump
20 µl - 150 µl
Offset of SPR angle by spindle
Dynamic range
Angle resolution
Minimum molecular weight
Association constant range
Dissociation constant range
Equilibrium affinity
Concentration range
62º - 78º
4000 mº
< 0.02 mº
180 D
103 – 107 M-1s-1
10-5 – 10-1 s-1
104 – 1010 M-1
10-11 – 10-3 M
Pumps
Flow rate range
Refractive index
Refractive index resolution
Measuring frequency
Time interval range
Baseline noise
1.26 – 1.38 (standard),
optional 1.32 - 1.44 or 1.40 - 1.52
-7
< 1.10
76 Hz
0.1 s – 300 s
0.1mº during a measurement time interval of
1s
Sensors
Gold coated glass disk
Standard supplied cuvette
Extra cuvette slider
Extra cuvette
Combined Electrochemistry and SPR
Biacore sensor-chip adaptor (optional)
SPR only (no electrochemistry) (optional)
16
Hardware Installation
Spincoater
To spincoat standard gold disks, 10010.000 rpm (optional)
Weight
Dimensions (H x W x D)
Interface
Power requirements
23 kg
330mm x 400mm x 360mm
RS 232
170 W, 100 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz
Figure 1.1 – B. The Autolab SPRINGLE.
Chapter 1
17
1.6 – Hardware Installation.
Installation.
The rear panel of the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE instruments shows a number of
connectors. The layout is shown below.
Figure 1.2 – Back panel of the TWINGLE.
TWINGLE.
The main entry on the left side holds two fuses (both 800mA slow blow) and
the power switch.
The functions and signals of the other connectors are described below.
BNC connectors.
connectors.
• Trigger
A signal output used to trigger an oscilloscope for monitoring the
intensity signals.
• Intensity1
Output of the amplified photodiode signal of channel 1, output
impedance is < 1Ω, the signal varies between 0V (total absorption)
and +10V (total reflection).
• Intensity2 (Twingle only)
Output of the amplified photodiode signal of channel 2, output
impedance is < 1Ω, the signal varies between 0V (total absorption)
and +10V (total reflection).
• SPR1
This signal is an analogue representation of the SPR angle measured
on channel 1, output impedance is < 1Ω, and the signal varies
between 0V and -10V, an SPR angle of 0 degrees equals -5V on this
output.
• SPR2 (Twingle only)
This signal is an analogue representation of the SPR angle measured
on channel 2, output impedance is < 1Ω, and the signal varies
between 0V and -10V, an SPR angle of 0 degrees equals -5V on this
output. This BNC connector is used to connect to the
18
Hardware Installation
Potentiostat/Galvanostat to record SPR data into the NOVA (GPES)
software.
Sub D connectors.
connectors .
•
Monitor
This output is used for service purposes only. It connects to a
standard VGA screen to monitor activity and error messages on the
internal computer in the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE.
•
Service
For service use only.
•
Therm.
Not in use.
•
COM
RS232 communication links to the computer. Please use the supplied
RS232C cable, other cables may not operate properly. Note: Some
SERIAL to USB converters have not enough internal memory to handle
data transport.
•
Digital in/out
This connector contains 24 free programmable TTL compatible digital
inputs and/or outputs. It can be used to connect third party
instruments to SPR, for example autosampler, FIA instruments or HPLC
instruments. Automated control of Electrochemical techniques in
combination with SPR is performed with a special cable connection
between the two systems DIO ports, SPR system and PGSTAT.
•
Mode
For service use only.
•
GND
This banana socket is connected to the internal instrument analogue
ground and indirectly connects to the protective earth. This socket is
only to be used as a ground terminal for an oscilloscope for service
engineers.
1.7 – SPR and ESPR setup.
setup.
When using the system as a stand-alone SPR system, connection with the
supplied serial cable (see figure 1.3, number 3) to the PC is enough.
In order to perform combined electrochemical and SPR measurements (i.e.
ESPR), the following setup of the system is required;
Chapter 1
19
1. Connect the coax cable from the BNC connector, SPR 2 (Twingle) or
SPR 1(Springle), of the SPR instrument to the ADC 1 or 2 of the
PGSTAT,
2. Connect the Autolab USB cable to the PC,
3. Connect the serial cable from the COM-port of the SPR instrument, to
a free COM port on the PC,
4. For automated control of ESPR experiments, connect the DIO ports of
SPR and PGSTAT,
5. Connect cell cables to electrodes in the cuvette.
A1. ESPR cuvette
A2. SPR cuvette
20
Hardware Installation
Figure 1.3 A – The Electrochemical cuvette and the normal SPR cuvette.
cuvette .
B.
Figure 1.3 B – The Electrochemical
Electrochemical cuvette.
A. 1. The electrochemical SPR TWINGLE cuvette with the three electrode
connections, WE, RE and CE.
2. The ‘normal’ SPR cuvette for the Twingle.
Compared with the SPRINGLE cuvettes, the SPRINGLE will have ONE
channel less and ONE drain less.
B. Connecting the cuvette electrodes to the potentiostat.
a. Counter electrode wire for the platinum bar (CE). (black)
b. Reference electrode wire for the Ag/AgCl RE.(blue)
c. Working electrode wire for the gold contact (WE).(red)
d. Connecting the CE of the cuvette with the CE of the potentiostat.
e. Connecting the RE of the cuvette with the RE of the potentiostat.
f. Connecting the WE of the cuvette with the WE of the potentiostat.
g. Connecting the ground of the electrode wires with the ground of
the potentiostat.
Chapter 1
21
1.8 – Chemical Resistance.
Resistance.
The material of the pump, the cuvette, the disk/chip and the Teflon tubing
determine the chemical resistance of the instrument. Aqueous buffer solution
without organic compounds can be used without damaging the sample
handling part of the instrument (Table 1.7.1 and 1.7.2). Some organic
solvents are not recommended for use in the TWINGEL/SPRINGLE
instrument, they may damage the system (Table 1.7.3).
Table 1.7.1: Recommended buffer solutions.
Solution
Concentration pH
Solution
Concentration pH
ACES
50 mM
6.8
MES
50 mM
6.1
ADA
50 mM
6.6
MOPS
50 mM
7.2
BES
50 mM
7.1
MOPSO
50 mM
6.9
BICINE
50 mM
8.3
Phosphate
50 mM
7.5
BIS-TRIS
50 mM
6.5
PIPES
50 mM
6.8
Borate
100 mM
8.8
POPSO
50 mM
7.8
CAPS
50 mM
10.4
TAPS
50 mM
8.4
CHES
50 mM
9.3
TED
50 mM
7.5
Citrate
50 mM
3.0
TRICINE
50 mM
8.1
EPPS
50 mM
8.0
TRIS-HCl
75 mM
8.0
Glycine
50 mM
2.3
TRIZMA BASE
50 mM
8.1
HEPES
50 mM
7.5
22
Hardware Installation
Table 1.7.2: Recommended regeneration solutions.
Solution
Concentration
Acetonitrile
20%
Hydrochloric acid
10 - 1000 mM
Ethanol
10 - 100 %
Formic acid
1 - 20 %
Glycine
0.01- 2 M
Phosphoric acid
0 - 1000 mM
SDS
5 - 20 %
Sodium carbonate
200 mM
Sodium chloride
1000 mM
Sodium hydroxide
10 - 1000 mM
pH
7.5
2.5 -3.5
11.5
Table 1.7.3: Organic solvents NOT recommended for the Autolab TWINGLE
instrument.
Chapter 1
Solution
23
Concentration
Solution
Concentration
Acetone
100 %
Ethyl chromide
100 %
Amyl acetate
100 %
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
100 %
Benzene
100 %
Methylene Chloride
100 %
Butyl alcohol
100 %
Nitric Acid
100 %
Carbon tetrachloride
100 %
Pyridine
100 %
Chlorine
100 %
Sulphuric Acid
100 %
Chloroform
100 %
Toluene
100 %
Chromic acid
100 %
Trichloroethylene
100 %
Cyclohexane
100 %
Xylene
100 %
Ethyl acetate
100 %
24
Hardware Installation
1.9 – Materials.
Materials .
Figure 1.4 – Cuvette, tubing and fitting.
fitting.
Figure 1.5 – Peristaltic pump.
pump.
Figure 1.6 – Peristaltic pump tubing.
tubing.
Item;
1 = Cuvette
2 = Fitting
3 = Tubing
4 = Connector peristaltic tubing
5 = Peristaltic pump tubing
6 = Valve
7 = Syringe barrel
8 = Syringe seal
9 = Syringe plunger
Figure 1.7 – Syringe pump.
pump.
Material;
standard KEL-F / special PVDF
Tefzel (ETFE)
Teflon
PVDF
Pharmed
Kel-F
Borosilicate glass
Teflon
Stainless steel, RVS
Chapter 1
•
•
•
•
•
25
PVDF
Polyvinyllidene Fluoride. Excellent chemical resistance. Ideal for the
cuvette and tubing connections.
KEL-F
PCTFE (polychloro-trifluoroethylene). Excellent chemical resistance,
ideal for fittings and sealing surfaces. THF (tetrahydrofuran) and a few
halogenated solvents will react with it.
PEEK
Polyetheretherketone. Excellent chemical resistance, although not
recommended with nitric acid, sulphuric acid, halogenated acids and
pure halogenated gases. Also, a swelling effect occurs with methylene
chloride, THF, and DMSO.
Teflon FEP and PFA
Fluorinated ethylene propylene and perfluoroalkoxy alkane. Inert to
virtually all chemicals.
Tefzel ETFE
Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene. Excellent solvent resistance.
KelKel-F
PEEk
PEEk
PVDF
FEP/PFA
Tefzel
Solvent
Aromatics
R
R
R
R
R
Chlorinated
M
M
R
R
R
Ketones
R
R
R
R
R
Aldehydes
R
R
R
R
R
Ethers
M
M
R
R
R
Amines
R
R
R
R
M
Aliphatic sol.
R
R
R
R
R
Organic Acids
R
M
R
R
R
Inorganic Acids
R
M
R
R
M
Bases
R
R
R
R
R
Sulfonated
R
M
R
R
R
Compounds
Thread strength
Good
Excellent Excellent
Good
Good
R = Recommended; NR = Not recommended; M = Moderate resistance
26
Software Installation
Chapter 2
2 – Software Installation.
Installation .
2.1 – Index.
Index.
Chapter 2 ....................................................................................................... 26
2 – Software Installation. ................................................................................ 26
2.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 26
2.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 27
2.3 – Installation of the Autolab SPR software. ........................................... 27
2.4 – Autolab SPR software setup on the hard disk after installation. ........ 34
2.4.1 – Folder structure............................................................................ 34
2.4.2 – Files in C:\Autolab SPR\. .............................................................. 34
2.4.3 – Examples of data files in the subfolder C:\Autolab SPR\Data...... 35
2.4.4 – Softcopy manuals in the subdirectory MANUALS. ...................... 36
2.4.5 – Examples of KE models in the subdirectory MODELS. ............... 36
2.4.6 – Examples of KE PROJECT files in the subdirectory Data. .......... 36
2.4.7 – Autolab TWINGLE sequence files in subdirectory SEQUENCES.37
2.4.8 – Autolab SPRINGLE sequence files in subdirectory SEQUENCES.
................................................................................................................ 38
Chapter 2
27
2.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
The Autolab SPR installation CD contains the Autolab ESPRIT, TWINGLE and
SPRINGLE instruments software. During the software installation, choose the
right setup software for the corresponding Autolab SPR instrument. The
software can be used on the Windows 2000/XP or Vista platforms. Insert the
CD into the computer and the installation will start automatically (see Figure
2.1).
2.3 – Installation of the Autolab SPR software.
software.
Start the computer and wait until the Windows start-up is finished:
• Close all open programs,
• Insert the Data acquisition installation software CD in the CD-drive,
• Wait until the automatic setup screen appears.
IF the automatic ‘Setup’ screen does not appear after inserting the CD:
• Select “Run..” from the windows Start menu,
• Browse to the Autolab SPR CD-ROM,
• Open “SETUP.EXE”,
• Select OK in the “RUN” screen.
Figure 2.1 – Start of the Setup procedure.
procedure.
28
Software Installation
Figure 2.2
2.2 – Installation window 2.
2.
This window appears for a very short time and disappears
automatically
Figure 2.3
2.3 – Installation window 3, ‘Welcome.
‘Welcome . ’
Press ‘Next’ to proceed with the installation procedure.
Figure 2.4
2.4 – Installation window 4 for Autolab TWINGLE.
TWINGLE.
Press ’Next’ to proceed with the installation procedure.
Chapter 2
29
Select the Autolab SPR instrument type TWINGLE which the software
should be in command of.
Figure 2.5
2.5 – Installation window 5.
5.
Press ’Next’ to proceed with the installation procedure.
A. Autolab SPR
or rename
B. Autolab TWINGLE
Figure 2.6
2.6 – Installation window 6 Twingle.
Twingle .
Not necessary, but the name of the destination folder can be
changed. So, for the SPRINGLE installation the name can be
changed in SPRINGLE. (Again it is not necessary!). Press ‘OK’ to
confirm the new folder name and location.
30
Software Installation
Figure 2.7 – Installation window 7.
7.
When the folder does not exist press ‘Yes’ to create the folder. If the folder
name has been changed into Autolab SPRINGLE, this box would ask for
confirmation as well.
A. Original folder location: Autolab SPR
B. New folder location: Autolab TWINGLE
TWINGL E
Figure 2.8 – Installation window 8.
8.
Press ’Next’ to proceed with the installation procedure.
Chapter 2
31
A. Original folder location: Autolab SPR
B. New folder location: Autolab TWINGLE
TWINGL E
Figure 2.9 – Installati
Installation
lati on window 9.
9.
The program folder name can be changed in TWINGLE or SPRINGLE as
well, like in picture B.
Press ’Next’ to proceed with the installation procedure.
32
Software Installation
Figure 2.10 – Installation
Installation window 10.
10 .
Figure 2.11
2.1 1 – Installation window 11.
11 .
This screen pops up for just a very short moment.
Figure 2.12
2.1 2 – Installation window 12.
12 .
This screen pops up for just a very short moment.
Chapter 2
Figure 2.13
2.1 3 – Installation window 13.
13 .
These two screens pop up at different positions a few times and
disappear again very quickly.
33
34
Software Installation
A shortcut icon to the Data Acquisition program and the kinetic evaluation
program will be installed on your desktop (figure 2.15).
Fig 2.15
2.15 – The desktop icons shown after
afte r the installation of the SPR
software.
software.
2.4 – Autolab SPR software setup on the hard disk after installation
installation..
2.4.1 – Folder structure.
structure.
The Autolab SPR folder is created during the installation of the SPR software.
There are two folders for sequences in the Twingle software. The main
sequence folder filled with sequences to use and one sub-folder for include
sequences (see chapter 6). The Autolab SPR root folder contains the
executable for the Kinetic Evaluation software.
C:\
C: \
Figure 2.16
2.1 6 – Folder structure.
structure.
Fig 2.16; Shows the Autolab SPR folder structure; C:\Autolab SPR\ with the
TWINGLE/SPRINGLE installation. The subdirectory “USER” is only installed in
the Good Laboratory Practice software version.
2.4.2 – Files in C:\
C: \Autolab SPR\
SPR\.
Files in the root of the Autolab SPR folder are shown below. The “user” folder
will only be installed with the security software version.
Chapter 2
35
Figure 2.17
2.1 7 – Content of C:\
C: \ Autolab SPR.. folder.
folder.
2.4.3 – Examples of data files in the subfolder
sub folder C:\
C: \Autolab SPR\
SPR\Data.
Data.
The shown files are original experimental data. One measurement has four
different saved files with different extensions; *.IBO, *.SPE, *.SPO, *.INI
extension has all experimental data. The current software will save measured
SPR data in just one file with the extension *.SPR.
Figure 2.18
2.1 8 – Content of C:\
C: \ Autolab SPR\
SPR\ Data.. folder.
folder.
36
Software Installation
2.4.4 – Softcopy
Softcopy manuals in the subdirectory MANUALS.
MANUALS .
C:\
C: \ Autolab SPR\
SPR\ Manuals
Figure 2.19
software..
2.1 9 – Manuals installed during the installation of the software
The Autolab SPR System Security manual will only be installed if the
Security version has been installed.
2.4.5 – Examples of KE models in the subdirectory M ODELS.
ODELS .
C:\
C: \ Autolab SPR\
SPR\ Models
Figure 2.20
2.20 – Examples of kinetic evaluation models installed with the
software.
software.
2.4.6 – Examples of KE PROJECT files in the subdirectory Data.
Data.
C:\
C: \ Autolab SPR\
SPR\ Data
Figure 2.2
2. 2 1 – Examples of kinetic evaluation projects installed with the
software.
software.
Chapter 2
37
2.4.7 – Autolab TWINGLE sequence files in subdirectory
SEQUEN
SEQUENCES.
CES .
Figure 2.22
2.22 – Sequences
Sequences for the Autolab TWINGLE instrument.
instrument.
Figure 2.22 shows typical Autolab TWINGLE sequences to perform double
channel SPR experiments. The left picture has all stand alone sequences for
specific experiments. The sequences in the right picture are components to
create sequences as shown in the left picture and are called “Include
Sequences”. More details about reading, adjusting and creating these
sequences can be found in Chapter 6.
38
Software Installation
2.4.8 – Autolab SPRINGLE sequence files in subdirectory
SEQUEN
SEQUENCES.
Figure 2.23
2.2 3 – Sequences
Sequences for the Autolab SPRINGLE instrument.
instrument.
Figure 2.23 shows typical Autolab SPRINGLE sequences to perform double
channel SPR experiments. The left picture has all stand alone sequences for
specific experiments. The sequences in the right picture are components to
create sequences as shown in the left picture and are called “Include
Sequences”. More details about reading, adjusting and creating these
sequences can be found in Chapter 6.
Chapter 3
39
Chapter 3
3 – Getting started Autolab TWINGLE.
TWINGLE .
3.1 – Index.
Index .
Chapter 3 ....................................................................................................... 39
3 – Getting started Autolab TWINGLE. .......................................................... 39
3.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 39
3.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 40
3.3 – Two days before the experiment. ...................................................... 42
3.3.1 – Gold surface modification with a 11-MUA layer. ......................... 42
3.4 – One day before the experiment......................................................... 42
3.4.1 – Washing the 11-MUA modified gold surface............................... 42
3.4.2 – Startup of the Autolab instrument. ............................................... 42
3.4.3 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab. .................................................. 43
3.4.4 – Initialization of the instrument. ..................................................... 44
3.4.5 – Autolab lift position calibration..................................................... 44
3.4.6 – Installation of the gold sensor disk. ............................................. 47
3.4.6.1 – Assembling the sensor disk on the hemi-cylinder............. 47
3.4.6.2 – Installation of the cuvette. ................................................. 49
3.4.7 – Check for leakage between the two measurement channels. ..... 49
3.4.8 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange the buffer solution. .................... 51
3.5 – D-day, The immobilization. ................................................................ 52
3.5.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 52
3.5.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate buffer. ......................... 54
3.5.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 11-MUA disk. .................................. 55
3.5.4 – Start the immobilization procedure. ............................................. 56
3.6 – The interaction. .................................................................................. 59
3.6.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 59
3.6.2 – Stabilize the surface. ................................................................... 60
3.6.3 – Start the association procedure................................................... 60
3.7 – The Autolab Twingle data.................................................................. 63
3.8 – Cleaning of the TWINGLE instrument. ............................................... 63
40
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
3.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
This “getting started” document will take you step by step through the
initialization of the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE instrument and, subsequently,
through an interaction experiment where the antibody anti-Insuline will be
interacting with the immobilized protein Insulin. Throughout this procedure,
most features of the software will be illustrated.
It is presumed that the hardware and software have been installed before;
the cuvette and hemi-cylinder are disassembled and all tubing is empty. A 60
min. warm-up time of the Autolab TWINGLE should be taken into account.
Detection of binding events between Insulin and anti-Insulin
K association
Insulin + α-Insulin
complex
K dissociation
First, the modified gold layer on the sensor disk is coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). After being assembled into the instrument, the
modified surface is stabilized with the immobilization coupling buffer. In the
immobilization procedure (Immobilization), the acid group of this molecule is
activated by incubation with EDC and NHS. Subsequently, the Insulin is
immobilized onto the modified gold layer.
The Insulin layer will thereafter be stabilized with association buffer. In the
interaction phase (Interaction), several dilutions of anti-Insulin are used to
visualize the Insulin / anti-Insulin interaction. In the reference channel the
effect of the plain association buffer is recorded to correct for any a-specific
interaction factors. After the association phase, which is used to calculate the
association constant Ka, the dissociation phase is performed by washing the
sample away with association buffer. The association buffer is the same
buffer as the dilution buffer for the anti-Insulin. The dissociation phase is used
for determining the strength of the interaction. After the dissociation phase,
all bound anti-Insulin is removed from the Insulin coated gold disk by diluted
SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulphate, (regeneration buffer). Then, the baseline of
the modified disk will be restored by washing the regeneration solution
replacing it with the baseline HEPES buffer.
Chapter 3
41
Prepare at the latest 2 days
before the experiment. §3.3
MUA coating
of
the gold disk
Prepare 1 day before the
interaction experiment.§3.4
Assembling
hemi cylinder/
gold disk
Start up
instrument
Stabilization
of
the MUA layer
D-day =the immobilization
experiment.§3.6
Immobilization
Insulin
on MUA
Stabilization
Insulin layer
Baseline
Association
With
α-Insulin
Dissociation
Regeneration
Restore
Baseline
Figure 3.1 – Flow chart of the experimental setup.
setup
After one initial immobilization, numerous SPR experiments can be
performed. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measures angle versus
time. There is a linear relationship between the amount of bound material and
shift in SPR angle. The SPR angle shift, in millidegrees (m˚), is used as a
response unit to quantify the binding of macromolecules to the sensor
surface. A change of 122 m° represents a change in surface protein mass of
2
approximately 1 ng/mm .
42
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
3.3 – Two days before the experiment.
experiment.
3.3.1 – Gold surface modification with a 1111 -MUA layer.
layer.
Chemicals: 11 – Mercapto-undecanoic acid (11-MUA), Aldrich 450561,
Preparation: 1 mM 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA):
Dissolve 11 mg 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (Mw. 218.36) in
50 ml alcohol; like methanol, ethanol or (iso)propanol.
Incubate a bare gold disk in a 6 well culture disk in a solution of 11mg 11MUA in 50 ml alcohol. This molecule will self assemble a monolayer onto the
gold surface. To get a reproducible quality thiol layer, filter the solution prior
to the incubation and perform the incubation overnight.
Figure 3.2 – 6 Well Microtiter culture plate.
plate
3.4 – One day before the experiment.
experiment.
3.4.1 – Washing the 1111 -MUA modified gold surface.
Wash the disk three times with alcohol to remove the excess thiol. To remove
the alcohol, rinse three times with demineralized water. Blow the disk dry with
compressed air or nitrogen gas. The thiol covered gold disk can be stored
dry up to 2 months in the original container.
3.4.2 – Startup of the Autolab instrument
instrument.
nstrument.
•
•
Install the power supply cable and connect the com port of the
instrument to the computer with the RS232 connector cable.
Switch on the Autolab instrument. Use the main switch on the back
panel (Figure 1.1) and the power button situated at the right top
Chapter 3
•
•
43
position of the front panel. The LED in the power button lights up after
a few seconds.
Start the Autolab SPR Data Acquisition software. Wait until the
instrument has finished initiating the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE “lift” and the
syringe pumps, this will take about 20 seconds.
A warm-up time of about 1 hour should be taken into account before
measuring with the Autolab TWINGLE/SPRINGLE.
Main switch
Com port
Figure 3.3
3.3 – the back panel of the TWINGLE
T WINGLE.
WINGLE .
Left side the black power switch I/O.
I/O.
3.4.3 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab.
Autolab.
Before the system can be used, all tubing needs to be filled with buffer. Fill
buffer flask with HEPES buffer and insert the inlet tubing of the syringe pump
into the running buffer flask and the green outlet tubing of the peristaltic
‘drain’ pump into the waste bottle.
Figure 3.4
3.4 – The draining tube from the drain peristaltic pump is
inserted into the waste bottle (green tubing in reality).
reality ). Both syringe
tubes
tube s are inserted into the buffer flask (SPRINGLE has only ONE
syringe tubing.).
tubing.).
44
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
3.4.4 – Initialization of
o f the instrument.
instrument.
Before using the instrument:
• Calibrate lift positions.
• Assemble a new sensor disk
• Assemble the cuvette
• Fill the tubing with running buffer solution
3.4.5 – Autolab lift position calibration.
calibration.
There are three ways to find out if the lift is calibrated;
- In the menu TWINGLE/SPRINGLE find the ‘lift position’ item to check
the positions, up, middle, down,
- In the menu TWINGLE/SPRINGLE find the ‘Manual control’ item to
check the three positions,
- In the toolbar find the button ‘lift positions’
Open the ‘Manual Control’ window in the ‘TWINGLE/SPRINGLE’ Menu or with
the
button in the toolbar.
Figure 3 .5 – Menu TWINGLE to open ‘Manual Control’ window.
window.
Chapter 3
45
The lift position has to be calibrated every time you change the pipette tip.
Figure 3 .6 – Open the Lift calibration window.
window.
Figure 3.
3 .7 – The lift calibration window.
window.
The lift calibration sets the pipette position. The cuvette position for the
pipette is normally calibrated to 1 mm above the gold disk; the middle
position is calibrated with the pipette just about 2 mm inside the cuvette.
Procedure (specified distances depend on the size of the used pipette tips):
1. Press button ‘Initialize lift’.
2. Enter a distance (max. 60 mm). Start with e.g. 50 mm.
3. Press the downward directed arrow button
4. Fine tune distance with 1 mm steps
46
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
‘Set new cuvette position’.
‘Move lift to top’
Enter distance of +/- 38 mm and fine tune with 1 mm steps
‘Set new middle position’
‘Move lift to top’
‘Close’.
See Figure 3.8 a and b, steps 1 to 10..
1
2 and 3 and 4
5
6
7
8
Figure 3.8 – a. The lift calibration procedure.
procedure .
Chapter 3
47
9
10
Fig 3.8 – b. The final steps of lift calibration.
calibration .
3.4.6 – Installation of the gold sensor disk.
disk.
3.4.6.1 –
Assembling the sensor disk on the hemihemi- cylinder.
cylinder.
Place a small drop of immersion oil on the outer edge of the hemi-cylinder
and gently slide the modified gold disk (coated with 11-MUA) from the start
to the end of the hemi-cylinder.
Figure 3 .9 – A drop of immersion oil on top of the hemihemi-cylinder.
cylinder.
Be sure that the gold layer is facing up. A rim of gold can be seen at the gold
coated side of the disk when slightly tilting it. Make sure that no air bubbles
are introduced between the gold disk and the hemi-cylinder. Check this by
looking through the hemi-cylinder.
Recommendations;
o Do not manipulate the gold sensor disk with bare hands. We recommend
wearing gloves when handling the disk.
48
o
o
o
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
Touch only the frosted sides of the hemi-cylinder to prevent scratches on
the accurately polished round sides of the hemi cylinder.
Manipulate the gold sensor disk with a fine tweezers, especially when
you take it out of the plastic case.
The gold sensor disk in the plastic case is oriented with the gold surface
facing down.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 3 . 10 – Assembly of a disk.
disk .
Cleaning the hemihemi-cylinder and slider.
slider.
The slider and the hemi-cylinder need to be cleaned regularly because of
inevitable spilling of immersion oil: Unscrew the M3x3 screw on the slider.
Gently slide the hemi-cylinder out of the slider. Clean the hemi-cylinder with
ethanol. Use only the lens tissue paper to clean and dry. Alternatively, the
hemi-cylinder and slider can be cleaned in an ultra sonic water bath. After
cleaning, slide the hemi-cylinder into the slider with the “oil overflow hole” to
the oil overflow hole of the slider. Reassemble the M3 screw.
One Gold disk provides 5 to 7 measuring positions: Set a measuring position
by gliding the disk over the hemi-cylinder surface with a clean pipette tip.
1
4
5
6
2
1
7
5
3
2
3
4
Figure 3 .11
.1 1 – Different positions on the gold disk.
disk .
Chapter 3
49
Figure 3.1
3 .12
.1 2 – Installed SPR gold disk.
disk .
3.4.6.2 –
Installation
Installation of the cuvette.
cuvette.
There is only one way to position the cuvette in the cuvette holder. Position
the cuvette with the pin towards the slot in the cuvette holder. The cuvette will
slide in the cuvette-holder; tighten the cuvette with the ring. Make sure that
the ring is tightened firmly to prevent leakage outside the channel. For extra
tightening use the supplied SPR key.
Figure 3 .13
.1 3 – LEFTLEFT - An overview of the cuvette holder.
holder. The
SPRINGLE cuvette has only a channel ONE position)
Figure 3.1
3 .14
.1 4 – RIGHTRIGHT - The ‘positioning pin’ of a cuvette.
cuvette .
3.4.7 – Check for leakage between the two measurement channels.
channels .
To check for leakage, pipette 125 µl HEPES into channel 1. Be sure the fluid
reaches the gold disk. Check the SPR plot. To monitor the dip continuously,
use the scope mode, which is available under the Options menu and on the
toolbar. Deselect the scope mode by clicking the scope mode button again.
If there is no leakage from one channel to the other, you will see a perfect dip
50
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
in channel 1 and a flat line around the absolute value of 90% in the empty
channel 2 (total reflection). When in channel 2, the horizontal flat line goes
down, the cuvette is not correctly assembled. Repeat the assembly of the
cuvette until it is leakage free. Drain the HEPES from channel 1 and check
channel 2 for leakage.
Awareness of possible leakage!
If there is leakage out of the cuvette onto the hemi-cylinder, the solution may
come in contact with the detector. The measurements will become very
noisy. A leakage with strong acids may detach the detector out of its
calibrated position, causing a hardware problem.
Figure 3.15
3.1 5 – Check for leakage from channel 1 into channel 2.
2.
Figure 3.16
3.1 6 – Check for leakage from channel 1 into channel 2 .
Check for leakage from channel 1 to channel 2. Leakage! Compare with
Fig. 3.15. After a longer period of time, a SPR minimum will appear.
Chapter 3
51
In case of leakage, reassemble the sensor disk and check for leakage again.
3.4.8 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange
buffer/Exchange the
the buffer solution.
solution.
Why should there be liquid in the tubing?
The solution in the tubing is used for washing the pipette tip. Secondly, fluid
is not compressible like air, which results in highly accurate sample volumes
and flow rates.
The general running
ru nning buffer?
In particular applications with non specific interaction, buffer solutions and
samples should contain 0.005% (v/v) Tween 20 to minimize non-specific
adsorption to the sensor disk. Be aware of samples that are detergentsensitive.
Chemicals: - Water, demineralised (demi), pro analysis, Merck 1.16754.9010
- HEPES free acid, MW 238.3, Fluka 54457
Preparation: -10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, 0.005% Tween 20:
In 90 ml dissolve 238 mg HEPES free acid in 90 ml demiwater.
Set pH to 7 with few drops of 10 M NaOH. Add 865 mg NaCl,
87.6 mg EDTA, 50 µl Tween 20 (10%). Adjust volume to 100
ml.
In a starting situation, the tubing can be empty (filled with air) or filled with a
solution. Run the sequence “Initialization of instrument.seq” to fill the tubing
with buffer or to change the running buffer as follows:
Select the menu bar item “options” - “Sequencer…””
Figure 3.17 –Two ways to activate the Sequencer,
Sequencer, via the MenuMenuOptions or the Toolbar button.
1. Click “sequence” in the menu bar and select “Open sequence”.
2. Select from the list of sequences the file “Initialization of Instrument.SEQ”
52
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
to run the procedure to
3. Press the green arrow toolbar button
fill/exchange the tubing solution with the buffer from the buffer flask.
4. The procedure will flush the liquid handling system, which will give the
opportunity to check for leaks at tubing connectors.
At this point the sensor disk can be exchanged. Do not forget to check for
leakage after disk exchange.
Figure 3.18 – TWINGLE
TWINGLE;; The sequence ‘Initialization of
I nstrument.SEQ’.
nstrument.SEQ’.
The instrument is now ready for use; the 11-MUA modified gold disk and the
cuvette are assembled correctly, the tubing is filled with the correct buffer.
The measurement can start. The experiments consist of two parts. The first
part is to physically attach the Insulin protein molecule to the 11-MUA
surface. This chemical binding step is called immobilization. The second part
is the interaction of the sample anti-insulin antibody with the BSA protein
molecule.
3.5 – D-day, The immobilization.
immobilization.
3.5.1 – Sample preparation.
preparation.
For the immobilization procedure, prepare the following samples and
solutions:
- Coupling buffer for baseline and wash steps;
Preparation of coupling buffer;10 mM Acetate buffer pH 4.5:
Dissolve 68,4 mg NaAc in 45 ml demi water. Adjust the pH to 4.5 with
acetic acid. Adjust volume to 50 ml with demi water. The pH of the
coupling buffer depends on the pI of the ligand protein. The general
rule for the pH of coupling buffer is: pHbuffer = pIligand – 0.5
Chapter 3
53
- EDC/NHS activation solution: 60 µl of 1:1 freshly mixed 0.4 M EDC and
0.1 M NHS in a 1.5ml vial;
Preparation of 400 mM EDC solution:
Dimethylaminopropyl-N’Ethylcarbodiimide N-3-hydrochloride, MW
191.70, Fluka 03449
Weigh 153,4 mg of EDC in a 3 ml vial and dissolve it in 2 ml demi
water.
Preparation of 100mM NHS solution:
N-Hydroxy Succinimide, MW 217.13, Fluka 56485
Weigh 23 mg of NHS in a 3 ml vial and dissolve it in 2 ml demi water.
- Ligand sample: 200 µl of ligand solution dissolved in coupling buffer in a
1.5 ml vial;
Preparation of 5 µg/ml insulin to immobilize on the sensor disk;
Insulin from bovine pancreas, Mw 5733.49, Sigma I5500.
Dissolve 1 mg insulin in 1 ml 1 M Acetic acid. Dilute 50 µl 200 x with
950 µl 10 mM Acetate buffer
- Deactivation solution: 200 µl of 1 M ethanolamine pH 8.5 in a 1.5 ml vial;
Preparation of 1 M Ethanolamine solution:
Pipette 600 µl of Ethanolamine in a 25 ml flask, dilute it with 10 ml demi
water, and adjust the pH to 8.5 with 1 M HCl.
- Regeneration solution: Coupling buffer + 0.1% SDS
SDS; Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate or Lauryl sulphate sodium salt, 20% in
H2O, MW 288.38, Fluka 05030
When to prepare the solutions?
solutions?
_
_
_
–
EDC and NHS are not stable in solution. Once prepared, use it the
same day and/or store aliquots of 200 µl at -20 C°.
The pH of the acetate buffer can change in time, so check the pH
before use.
The ligand dissolved in acetate buffer should be freshly prepared. The
same preparation of acetate buffer should be used for all steps of the
immobilization measurement.
Diluted antibodies can be stored at 4 C° for a few days, but be careful!
The experiment baseline buffer should be the same as the buffer for the
dilution of the samples.
54
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
3.5.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate
acet ate buffer.
Put 50 µl of acetate buffer on the gold disk and check the dip by selecting
the Scope Mode button
. To deactivate the scope mode, press this
button again. The scope mode will update the SPR angle every 0.5 seconds.
Figure 3.20 – The optical path cover.
cover.
Figure 3.19 – SPR “dip”.
“dip”.
Every TWINGLE instrument is calibrated with water on a bare gold disk. The
lowest value of the SPR ‘dip’ is between 0 and 10 percent absolute reflection.
To change the position of the dip, release the retaining screw of the optical
path. Adjusting the position of the dip is done by turning the micrometer
spindle. Click on start measurement in the tool bar and follow the change of
the angle in real time. Set the baseline around -1500 millidegrees (m°). After
adjusting the baseline, fasten the retaining screw again.
Release retaining screw.
Turn spindle to adjust baseline.
Channel 1
Channel 2
Fix retaining screw
Around – 1500
Figure 3.21 – Adjustment of the baseline angle before immobilization.
immobilization .
Chapter 3
55
Why should the sodium acetate buffer SPR angle be set at -1500 m°?
The solutions used in the immobilization differ significantly in refractive
index and will change a number of times during the procedure. The
acetate buffer has the lowest refractive index and therefore the smallest
SPR angle; the Ethanolamine solution has the largest angle.
3.5.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 1111 -MUA disk.
disk.
Before the modified gold disk can be used for immobilization, the baseline
must be stabilized.
The Coupling Buffer will be used for all washing steps in the immobilization
experiment. Therefore, the buffer flask will be filled with this solution.
Stabilize the surface of the gold disk using one of the sequences:
- Stabilization with buffer from flask.SEQ
- Stabilization with manually injected sample.SEQ
- Stabilization with sample from vial.SEQ
Start the sequence and continue to wash until the baseline is sufficiently
stable.
Figure 3.22 – Stabilization/cleaning of the gold
go ld disk surface with
coupling buffer (B4).
Eventually, every solution should show the same SPR angle every time it is
dispensed on the surface. When the desired stability is reached, the
sequence can be stopped at any time by clicking the stop measurement
button in the tool bar.
56
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
Stabilization of the surface is necessary for all kinds of modified gold
surfaces!
Commercially available Dextran surfaces also need extensive cleaning. In
general, change the baseline solution one after the other, like 0.1M NaOH
and 0.1M HCl alternatively. Eventually, every solution should show the
same SPR angle every time it is dispensed on the surface.
3.5.4 – Start the immobilization procedure.
procedure.
The EDC/NHS immobilization procedure is a standardized procedure that
can be easily performed semi-automatically. Open the sequence editor
window, and select the file “Tw44 –immobilization_SA 50ul samples.SEQ” to
have a glance on the procedure.
Figure 3.2
3 .23
.2 3 – The sequence editor showing the sequence ”Tw44
”Tw44 –
I mmobilization_SA
mmobilization _SA 50ul samples.SEQ
samples .SEQ”.
.SEQ ”.
The experiment sequence set up;
1. baseline,
Read include sequence “Tw44 –Immobilization – Baseline with Coupling
buffer.seq” (starts at command line 50)
2. EDC/NHS activation,
Read include sequence “Tw44 – Immobilization_SA 50ul mixure EDCNHS for activation step.seq” (starts at command line 91)
3. Ligand coupling,
Read include sequence “Tw44 – Immobilization_SA Ligand coupling
Step.seq” (starts at command line 171)
4. Ethanol Amine Deactivation
Chapter 3
57
Read include sequence “Tw44 – Immobilization_SA Ethanol Amine
Deactivation step.seq” (starts at command line 251)
5. Regeneration/cleaning
Read include sequence “Tw44 – Immobilization_SA Regeneration
cleaning step.seq” (starts at command line 331)
Within those include sequences, commands for incubation times are written,
subsequently, (1) Wait.Baseline [s] (line 86), (2) Wait.Associate [s] (line 113),
(3) Wait.Interval.2 [s] (line 193), (4) Wait.Interval.3 [s] (line 273), (5)
Wait.Regenerate [s] (line 354)
Those times are linked with the number filled out in the automation window.
Define the analysis time settings:
Baseline
120s
EDC/NHS activation
300s
Ligand coupling
900s
Deactivation
600s
Regeneration
120s
= coupling buffer
= EDC/NHS activation time
= ligand coupling time
= deactivation time
= regeneration time
The automation window enables to perform the immobilization semiautomatically.
Figure 3.2
3 .24
.2 4 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment.
When the desired interval times are set (see fig.3.24), the TAB sheet
“Parameters” can be used to adjust system parameters for the experiment.
58
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
Figure 3.2
3 .25
.2 5 – The automation window with Parameters tab sheets to set
up the experiment using EDIT.
With the button EDIT a new window “System parameters” pops up. Within this
window every item can be adjusted. The settings will be used for the
experiment and loaded into the sequence with the command line 49
“Automation.Load.Parameters.Set = [1]”
To finish the Automation window;
Give the experiment a name under which it will be stored.
filename (example) immobilization,
Because of automatic incremental numbering, the file names will start
with immob001 and every next experiment with the same name will be
up-numbered up to immob999.
Select the ‘Start sequence from disk’ button at the bottom of the
automation control window (Figure 3.25) to select and to execute the
specific immobilization experiment.
Have the samples ready for the experiment.;
Sample Injection routine;
Vial 1/ sample 1:
75 µl EDC
Vial 2/ sample 2:
75 µl NHS
When the EDC/NHS sample is requested by the software, mix both chemical
components and present it to the pipette tip for incubation. The chemicals
are not alouwed to be mixed sooner.
Vial 3/sample 3:
Vial 4/sample 4:
Vial 5/sample 5:
Vial 6/sample 6:
Pipette tip 1: 75 µl ligand Insulin in acetate buffer
Pipette tip 2: 75 µl acetate buffer
200 µl 1M ethanolamine pH 8.5
500 µl regeneration buffer; 0.1 M HCl
Chapter 3
59
The Coupling Buffer is being used for all washing steps in the immobilization
experiment. Therefore, the buffer flask will be filled with this solution.
3.6 – The interaction.
interaction.
3.6.1 – S ample preparation.
preparation.
For the interaction procedure, prepare the following samples and solutions:
Chemicals;
HEPES free acid, MW 238.3, Fluka 54457
EDTA; Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, MW 292.24, Fluka 03690,
pH 8.0, 0.5 M in H2O,
NaCl, 58.44 g/Mol, Sigma-Aldrich S7653
Tween 20, 10% in water, Fluka 93774
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 10% solution Sigma 71736
Preparation of running buffer;
- 10mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, 0.005% Tween 20:
In 90 ml dissolve 238 mg HEPES free acid in 90 ml demiwater. Set pH
to 7 with few drops of 10 M NaOH. Add 865 mg NaCl, 87.6 mg EDTA,
50 µl Tween 20 (10%). Adjust volume to 100 ml.
Preparation of Regeneration solution;
- 10 mM Acetate buffer + 0.1%SDS
Preparation of anti-Insulin dilutions:
S
stock
( 1:500):
Pipette 2 µl of the concentrated stock solution anti-insulin in a vial of
1.5 ml, dilute this with 1000 µl HEPES buffer. Mix by pipetting several
times up and down. This is a 1:500 dilution
1
Dilution 1
(1:8000):
Pipette 60 µl from the stock solution into a 1.5 ml vial and add 900 µl
HEPES buffer.
2
Dilution 2
(1:16000):
Pipette 200 µl from dilution 1 into a 1.5 ml vial and add 200 µl HEPES
buffer.
3
Dilution 3
(1:32000):
Pipette 200 µl from dilution 2 into a 1.5 ml vial and add 200 µl HEPES
buffer.
60
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
3.6.2 – Stabilize the surface.
surface.
Change the coupling buffer in the flask with the HEPES buffer (use the
“initialization of instrument.seq”). Stabilize the surface as described in
section 3.5.3 of the immobilization paragraph. Thiol layers, Dextran layers or
surfaces with immobilized ligands have to be stabilized to minimize matrix
effects that are caused by differences in pH or ionic strength (high-low salt
concentrations) of the different buffers used throughout the experiment. The
matrix effects influence the SPR signal. Due to exposure of the layer with the
different buffers of the experiment, the layer will respond in a more predictive
way and will continuously give a SPR signal at the same angle. When the
desired stability is reached, the sequence can be stopped at any time by
clicking the “Stop measurement” button in the tool bar.
3.6.3 – Start the association procedure.
procedure.
The association procedure starts with using the Automation window. First get
some inside knowledge of the procedure itself. Open the Sequence editor
and browse for the “Tw44 –Curve – a full kinetic plot_SA 50ul sample.SEQ”
Figure 3.2
3 .26
.2 6 – The sequence editor showing the sequence ” Tw44 –
Curve – a full kinetic plot_SA 50ul sample.SEQ”
sample.SEQ ”.
The experiment sequence set up;
1. Baseline,
Read include sequence “Tw44 -Curve - Baseline Phase.seq” (starts at
command line 60)
2. Association,
Chapter 3
61
Read include sequence “Tw44 -Curve_SA Association Phase - 50ul
sample.seq” (starts at command line 109)
3. Dissociation,
Read include sequence “Tw44 -Curve - Dissociation Phase-long.seq”
(starts at command line 135)
4. Regeneration,
Read include sequence “Tw44 -Curve_SA Regeneration Phase.seq”
(starts at command line 192)
5. Back to Baseline,
Read include sequence “Tw44 -Curve - Back to Baseline Phase.seq”
(starts at command line 226)
Within those include sequences, commands for incubation times are written,
subsequently, (1) Wait.Baseline [s] (line 94), (2) Wait.Associate [s] (line 132),
(3) Wait.Dissociate [s] (line 179), (4) Wait.Regenerate [s] (line 222), (5)
Wait.Interval 1 [s] (line 269).
Those times are linked with the number filled out in the automation window.
Define the analysis time settings:
Baseline
120s
Association
600s
Dissociation
60s
Regeneration
120s
Back to baseline
120s
= baseline time
= association time
= dissociation time
= regeneration time
= baseline time
The automation window enables to perform the binding experiment semiautomatic.
Figure 3.2
3 .27
.2 7 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment.
When the desired interval times are set (see fig.3.27), the TAB sheet
“Parameters” can be used to adjust system parameters for the experiment.
62
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
Figure 3.2
3 .28
.2 8 – The automation window with Parameters tab
t ab sheets to set
up the experiment using EDIT.
With the button EDIT a new window “System parameters” pops up. Within this
window every item can be adjusted. The settings will be used for the
experiment and loaded into the sequence with the command line 59
“Automation.Load.Parameters.Set = [1]”
To finish the Automation window;
Give the experiment a name under which it will be stored.
filename (example) interaction,
Because of automatic incremental numbering, the file names will start
with interact001 and every next experiment with the same name will be
up-numbered up to interact999.
Select the ‘Start sequence from disk’ button at the bottom of the
automation control window (Figure 3.27) to select and to execute the
specific experiment.
Have the samples ready for the experiment.;
Sample Injection routine;
Vial 1/sample 1:
Vial 2/sample 2:
Vial 3/sample 3:
Pipette tip 1: 75 µl analyte anti-Insulin (dilution1) in HEPES
buffer
Pipette tip 2: 75 µl HEPES buffer
Pipette 1 and 2: 1000 µl Regeneration solution
The HEPES Buffer is being used for all washing steps in the interaction
experiment. Therefore, the buffer flask will be filled with this solution.
Chapter 3
63
Next experiments can be performed with the other prepared dilutions 2 and
3.
3.7 – The Autolab Twingle
Twingle data.
data.
3.8 – Cleaning of the
the TWINGLE instrument.
instrument.
This is a guiding principle for cleaning all parts in the system which are in
contact with the solutions used in the experiments. Replace the buffer flask
solution step by step with cleaning solution after the specific sequence is
finished.
Cleaning Solution 1: - 0.5% (w/v) SDS/ 1% (w/v) Triton in water
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning Solution 2: - 0.5% (w/v) SDS
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning Solution 3: - 50 mM Glycine-NaOH pH 9.5
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 4: - 6 M Urea
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 5: - 1% acetic acid
Total cleaning time about 20 min.
64
Getting Started Autolab TWINGLE
Cleaning solution 6: - 0.2 M NaHCO3
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 7: - Hydrochloric acid : 0.1 M HCl
Total cleaning time about 20 min.
Cleaning solution 8: - Water
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 9: - 70% Ethanol
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
A. Clean before shutting down for a weekend;
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Put the inlet buffer flask tubings out off the flask
• Run the sequence to empty all tubings
• It’s also OK to replace the solution in the tubings with Solution 7,
water
B. Clean needles, cuvette and connected tubings once every two weeks
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubings into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence to clean with solution 1 and 8
C. Total clean of the system every two month’s
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubing into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence using every solution 1, 3, 7, 8, 9 step by step
D. Total clean of the system every half year
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubing into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence using every solution 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, step by
step
Use the routine ‘Initialization
‘I nitialization of Instrument.SEQ’ to prepare the system
before use.
Running buffer 1: PBS pH 7.4
Or Running buffer 2: 10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 3.4 mM EDTA, 0.005%
Tween P20
Chapter 4
65
Chapter 4
4 – Getting started Autolab SPRINGLE.
4.1 – Index.
Chapter 4 ....................................................................................................... 65
4 – Getting started Autolab SPRINGLE.......................................................... 65
4.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 65
4.2 – Introduction. ...................................................................................... 66
4.3 – Startup of the Autolab SPRINGLE instrument.................................... 68
4.4 – Preparation of solutions. .................................................................... 68
4.4.1 – Chemicals. ................................................................................... 68
4.4.2 – Reagents. .................................................................................... 69
4.5 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab SPRINGLE....................................... 70
4.6 – Initialization of the SPRINGLE instrument. ......................................... 71
4.6.1 – Autolab SPRINGLE lift position calibration. ................................. 71
4.7 – Installation of the gold sensor disk. ................................................... 75
4.7.1 – Preparation of a self assembled monolayer of 11MUA on the gold
surface..................................................................................................... 75
4.7.2 – Assembling the sensor disk on the hemi-cylinder. ...................... 75
4.7.3 – Installation of the cuvette. ............................................................ 77
4.7.4 – Check for leakage of the measurement channel. ........................ 78
4.7.5 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange the buffer solution. .................... 78
4.8 – The immobilization............................................................................. 80
4.8.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 80
4.8.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate buffer (B.4).................. 80
4.8.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 11-MUA disk. .................................. 81
4.8.4 – Start the immobilization procedure. ............................................. 82
4.9 – The interaction. .................................................................................. 83
4.9.1 – Sample preparation. .................................................................... 83
4.9.2 – Stabilize the surface. ................................................................... 83
4.9.3 – Start the association procedure................................................... 83
4.10 – The SPRINGLE Data........................................................................ 84
4.11 – Cleaning of the SPRINGLE instrument. ........................................... 85
66
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
4.2 – Introduction.
If this chapter is unclear please read chapter 3, which has a different setup
with the same content.
This “getting started” document will take you step by step through the
initialization of the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE instrument and, subsequently,
through an interaction experiment where the antibody anti-BSA will be
interacting with the immobilized protein BSA. Throughout this procedure,
most features of the software will be illustrated.
It is presumed that the hardware and software have been installed before;
the cuvette and hemi-cylinder are disassembled and all tubing is empty. A 60
min. warm-up time of the Autolab SPRINGLE should be taken into account.
Detection of binding events between Insulin and anti-Insulin
K association
BSA + α-BSA
complex
K dissociation
First, the modified gold layer on the sensor disk is coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). After being assembled into the instrument, the
modified surface is stabilized with the immobilization coupling buffer. In the
immobilization procedure (Immobilization), the acid group of this molecule is
activated by incubation with EDC and NHS. Subsequently, the Insulin is
immobilized onto the modified gold layer.
The Insulin layer will thereafter be stabilized with association buffer. In the
interaction phase (Interaction), several dilutions of anti-Insulin are used to
visualize the BSA / anti-BSA interaction. In the reference channel the effect of
the plain association buffer is recorded to correct for any a-specific
interaction factors. After the association phase, which is used to calculate the
association constant Ka, the dissociation phase is performed by washing the
sample away with association buffer. The association buffer is the same
buffer as the dilution buffer for the anti-BSA. The dissociation phase is used
for determining the strength of the interaction. After the dissociation phase,
all bound anti-Insulin is removed from the Insulin coated gold disk by diluted
SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulphate, (regeneration buffer). Then, the baseline of
the modified disk will be restored by washing the regeneration solution
replacing it with the baseline HEPES buffer.
Chapter 4
67
MUA coating
of
the gold disk
Assembling
hemi cylinder/
gold disk
Start up
instrument
Stabilization
of
the MUA layer
Immobilization
BSA
on MUA
Stabilization
BSA layer
Baseline
Association
With
α-BSA
Dissociation
Regeneration
Restore
Baseline
Figure 4.1
4 .1 – Flow chart of the experimental setup.
setup
After one initial immobilization, numerous SPR experiments can be
performed. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measures angle versus
time. There is a linear relationship between the amount of bound material and
shift in SPR angle. The SPR angle shift, in millidegrees (m˚), is used as a
response unit to quantify the binding of macromolecules to the sensor
surface. A change of 122 m° represents a change in surface protein mass of
2
approximately 1 ng/mm .
68
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
4.3 – Startup of the Autolab SPRINGLE
SP RINGLE instrument.
•
•
•
•
Install the power supply cable and connect the com port of the
instrument to the computer with the RS232 connector cable.
Switch on the Autolab SPRINGLE instrument.
Use the main switch on the back panel (Figure 4.2) and the power
button situated at the right top position of the front panel. The LED in
the power button lights up after a few seconds.
Start the Autolab SPR Data Acquisition software. Wait until the
instrument has finished initiating the syringe pump
Figure 4.2 – the back panel of the Autolab SPRINGLE.
SPRINGLE.
T he black power switch is situated on the left.
left .
4.4 – Preparation of solutions
solutions.
tions .
What do I use as a general running buffer?
A 10mM Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution is recommended as a
general wash/running buffer. In this particular application with proteins, buffer
solutions and samples should contain 0.005% (v/v) Tween 20 to minimize
non-specific adsorption to the sensor disk. Be aware of samples that are
detergent-sensitive.
4.4.1 – Chemicals.
Chemicals .
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
11 – Mercapto-undecanoic acid (11-MUA), Aldrich 450561
10x PBS buffer (Phosphate Buffered Saline, 0.1M, 9% NaCl), Fluka
79383
Water, demineralised (demi), pro analysis, Merck 1.16754.9010
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 30% (= 9.46M) Fluka 17077
BSA, Albumin from Bovine Serum, Fluka 05477
Anti-BSA, Rabbit anti-Cow Albumin, DAKO Z0229; or Clone BSA-33
Sigma B2901
Chapter 4
A.7
A.8
A.9
A.10
A.11
A.12
A.13
A.14
A.15
A.16
69
Alcohol, pro analysis 99,5 %; propanol or ethanol or methanol
NHS, N-Hydroxy Succinimide, Fluka 56480
EDC/ EDC-HCl. Dimethylaminopropyl-N’Ethylcarbodiimide N-3hydrochloride, Fluka 03449
Ethanolamine, Fluka 02400
Sodium Acetate – trihydrate (NaAc.3H2O); Fluka 71190.
Acetic Acid, Sigma A6283
Tween 20, 10% in water, Fluka 93774
HEPES free acid, Fluka 54457, MW 238.3 g/Mol
EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid), MW 292.25 g/Mol
NaCl 58.44 g/Mol
4.4.2 – Reagents
Reagents.
nts.
B.1
Preparation of 1 mM 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA):
dissolve 11 mg 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (Mw. 218.36) in 50ml
alcohol; like ethanol, ethanol or propanol (A.7).
B.2 Preparation of PBS buffer, 10mM:
Dilute PBS buffer in demineralised (demi) water. Pipette 20 ml of
concentrated PBS (A.2) in a 300 ml flask and add 180 ml of
demiwater. It is recommended to filter the solution through a 0.22 µm
filter. Degass under vacuum.
B.3 Preparation of regeneration buffer; 0.1M and 1 M hydrochloric acid
(HCl, A.4):
Dilute 0.5 ml of the 30% (9.46M) HCl in 47 ml demi water to get 0.1M
HCl.
Dilute 5 ml of the 30% (9.46M) HCl in 42,5 ml demi water to get 1.0 M
HCl.
B.4 Preparation of coupling buffer;10 mM Acetate buffer (A.11) pH 4.5:
Dissolve 68,4 mg NaAc (Mw. 136.08) in 45 ml demi water. Adjust the
pH to 4.5 with acetic acid (A.12). Adjust volume to 50 ml with demi
water. The pH of the coupling buffer depends on the pI of the ligand
protein. The general rule for the pH of coupling buffer is: pHbuffer = pIligand
– 0.5
B.4a Preparation of association buffer; 10mM HEPES, 150mM NaCl, 3mM
EDTA, 0.005% tween 20:
In 90 ml dissolve 238mg HEPES free acid in 90 ml demiwater. Set pH
to 7 with few drops of 10M NaOH. Add 865 mg NaCl, 87.6 mg EDTA,
50 µl Tween 20(10%). Adjust volume to 100 ml.
B.5 Preparation of 1mg/ml BSA to immobilize on the sensor disk:
Dissolve10 mg BSA (A.5) in 1 ml 10mM Acetate buffer (solution B.4).
Dilute 100 µl 10x with 900 µl 10mM Acetate buffer (B.4)
B.6 Preparation of 100mM NHS solution:
Weigh 23 mg of NHS (Mw 115.09, A.8) in a 3 ml vial and dissolve it in
2 ml demi water.
B.7 Preparation of 400mM EDC solution:
70
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
B.8
Weigh 153,4 mg of EDC (Mw. 191.70; A.9) in a 3 ml vial and dissolve it
in 2 ml demi water.
Preparation of 1M Ethanolamine solution:
Pipette 600 µl of Ethanolamine in a 25 ml flask, dilute it with 10 ml demi
water, and adjust the pH to 8.5 with 1 M HCl.
Preparation of anti-BSA dilutions:
B.9
Dilution 1 ( 1:100):
Pipette 5µl of the concentrated stock solution anti-BSA (A.6) in a vial of
1.5 ml, dilute this with 500 µl HEPES buffer. Mix by pipetting several
times up and down.
B.10 Dilution 2 (1:300):
Pipette 100 µl from dilution 1 into a 1.5 ml vial and add 200µl HEPES
buffer.
B.11 Dilution 3 (1:900):
Pipette 100 µl from dilution 2 into a 1.5 ml vial and add 200µl HEPES
buffer.
When to prepare the solutions?
solutions?
_
_
_
–
EDC and NHS are not stable in solution. Once prepared, use it the
same day and/or store aliquots of 200 µl at -20 C°.
The pH of the acetate buffer can change in time, so check the pH
before use.
The ligand dissolved in acetate buffer should be freshly prepared. The
same preparation of acetate buffer should be used for all steps of the
immobilization measurement.
Diluted antibodies can be stored at 4 C° for a few days
4.5 – Liquid Handling set up Autolab SPRINGLE.
Before the system can be used, all tubing needs to be filled with buffer. Fill
buffer flask with PBS buffer and insert the inlet tubing of the syringe pump
into the running buffer flask and the green outlet tubing (in figure 4.3 shown
in red) of the peristaltic ‘drain’ pump into the waste bottle.
Chapter 4
71
Figure 4.3 – The draining tube from the drain peristaltic pump is
inserted into the waste bottle (green tubing in reality).
reality). The syringe
syringe tube
is inserted into the buffer flask.
4.6 – Initialization of the SPRINGLE
SPRINGLE instrument.
instrument.
Before using the instrument:
• Calibrate lift positions.
• Prepare the gold disk
• Assemble a new sensor disk
• Assemble the cuvette
•
•
new sensor disk
Assemble the cuvette
4.6.1 – Autolab SPRINGLE lift position calibration.
calibration.
There are three ways to find out if the lift is calibrated;
- In the menu SPRINGLE find the ‘lift position’ item to check the
positions, up, middle, down,
- In the menu SPRINGLE find the ‘Manual control’ item to check the
three positions,
- In the toolbar find the button ‘lift positions’
Open the ‘Manual Control’ window in the ‘SPRINGLE’ Menu or with the
button in the toolbar
72
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
Figure 4.4 – Menu SPRINGLE to open ‘Manual Control’ window.
window.
The lift position has to be calibrated every time you change the pipette tip.
Figure 4.5 – Open the Lift calibration window.
window.
Chapter 4
73
Figure 4.6 – The lift calibration window.
window.
The lift calibration sets the pipette position. The cuvette position for the
pipette is normally calibrated to 1 mm above the gold disk; the middle
position is calibrated with the pipette just about 2 mm inside the cuvette.
Procedure (specified distances depend on the size of the used pipette tips):
11. Press button ‘Initialize lift’.
12. Enter a distance (max. 60 mm). Start with e.g. 50 mm.
13. Press the downward directed arrow button
14. Fine tune distance with 1 mm steps
15. ‘Set new cuvette position’.
16. ‘Move lift to top’
17. Enter distance of +/- 38 mm and fine tune with 1 mm steps
18. ‘Set new middle position’
19. ‘Move lift to top’
20. ‘Close’.
See Figure 4.7 a and b, step 1 to 10.
74
1
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
2 and 3 and 4
5
6
7
8
Figure 4.7 – a. The lift calibration procedure.
procedure .
9
10
Fig 4.7 – b. The final steps of lift calibration.
calibration.
Chapter 4
75
4.7 – Installation of the gold sensor disk.
disk.
4.7.1 – Preparation of a self assembled monolayer of 11MUA on the
gold surface.
Incubate a bare gold disk in a well of a 6 wells culture disk in a solution of
11mg 11-MUA in 50ml ethanol or isopropanol. To get a reproducible quality
thiol layer, filter the solution prior to the incubation and perform the incubation
overnight. Wash the disk three times with ethanol or isopropanol to remove
the excess thiol. To remove the alcohol rinse three times with dematerialized
water. Blow the disk dry with compressed air or nitrogen gas. The thiol
covered gold disk can be stored dry up to 2 months in the original container.
4.7.2 – Assembling the sensor
sens or disk on the hemihemi-cylinder.
cylinder.
Place a small drop of immersion oil on the outer edge of the hemi-cylinder
and gently slide the modified gold disk (coated with 11-MUA) from the start
to the end of the hemi-cylinder.
Figure 4.8 – A drop of immersion oil on top of the hemihemi-cylinder.
cylinder.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 4.9 – Assembly of a disk.
disk .
76
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
Be sure that the gold layer is facing up. A rim of gold can be seen at the gold
coated side of the disk when slightly tilting it. Make sure that no air bubbles
are introduced between the gold disk and the hemi-cylinder. Check this by
looking through the hemi-cylinder.
Recommendations;
o Do not manipulate the gold sensor disk with bare hands. We recommend
wearing gloves when handling the disk.
o Touch only the frosted sides of the hemi-cylinder to prevent scratches on
the accurately polished round sides of the hemi cylinder.
o Manipulate the gold sensor disk with a fine tweezers, especially when
you take it out of the plastic case.
o The gold sensor disk in the plastic case is oriented with the gold surface
facing down.
Cleaning the hemihemi-cylinder and slider.
slider.
The slider and the hemi-cylinder need to be cleaned regularly because of
inevitable spilling of immersion oil: Unscrew the M3x3 screw on the slider.
Gently slide the hemi-cylinder out of the slider. Clean the hemi-cylinder with
ethanol. Use only the lens tissue paper to clean and dry. Alternatively, the
hemi-cylinder and slider can be cleaned in an ultra sonic water bath. After
cleaning, slide the hemi-cylinder into the slider with the “oil overflow hole” to
the oil overflow hole of the slider. Reassemble the M3 screw.
One Gold disk provides 5 to 7 measuring positions: Set a measuring position
by gliding the disk over the hemi-cylinder surface with a clean pipette tip.
1
4
5
6
2
1
7
5
3
2
3
4
Figure 4.10 – Different positions on the gold disk.
disk .
Chapter 4
77
Figure 4.11 – Installed SPR gold disk.
disk .
4.7.3 – Installation of the cuvette.
cuvette.
There is only one way to position the cuvette in the cuvette holder. Position
the cuvette with the pin towards the slot in the cuvette holder. The cuvette will
slide in the cuvette-holder; tighten the cuvette with the ring. Make sure that
the ring is tightened firmly to prevent leakage outside the channel. For extra
tightening use the supplied SPR key.
Figure 4.12 – An overview of the cuvette holder.
holder.
Figure 4.13 –The ‘positioning pin’ of a cuvette.
cuvette.
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Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
4.7.4 – Check for leakage of the measurement channel.
To check for leakage, pipette 30µl PBS into channel 1. Be sure the fluid
reaches the gold disk. Check the SPR plot. To monitor the dip continuously,
use the scope mode that is available under the Options menu and on the
toolbar. Deselect the scope mode by clicking the scope mode button again.
If there is no leakage in channel 1, a perfect dip will be seen in channel 1. If
the cuvette is not correctly assembled, the dip will change it’s form to
become more horizontal. Repeat the assembly of the cuvette until it is
leakage free.
Awareness of possible leakage!
If there is leakage out of the cuvette onto the hemi-cylinder, the solution may
come in contact with the detector. The measurements will become very
noisy. A leakage with strong acids may detach the detector out of its
calibrated position, causing a hardware problem.
Figure 4.14 – Check for leakage outside of channel 1.
1.
At this point, the sensor disk can be reassembled.
4.7.5 – Fill tubing with buffer/Exchange
buffer/Exchange the buffer solution.
solution.
Why should there be liquid in the tubing?
The solution in the tubing is used for washing the pipette tip. Secondly, fluid
is not compressible like air, which results in highly accurate sample volumes
and flow rates.
Chapter 4
79
In a starting situation, the tubing can be empty (filled with air) or filled with a
solution. Run the sequence “initialization of instrument.seq” to fill the tubing
with buffer or to change the running buffer as follows:
Select the menu bar item “options” - “Sequencer…””
Figure 4.15 –Two ways to activate the Sequencer,
Sequencer, via the MenuMenuOptions or the Toolbar button.
Figure 4.16 – SPRINGLE; The sequence ‘Initialization of
Instrument.SEQ’.
Instrument.SEQ’.
5. Click “sequence” in the menu bar and select “Open sequence”.
6. Select from the list of sequences the file “Initialization of Instrument.SEQ”
7. Press the green arrow toolbar button
to run the procedure to
fill/exchange the tubing solution with the buffer from the buffer flask.
8. The procedure will flush the liquid handling system, which will give the
opportunity to check for leaks at tubing connectors.
At this point the sensor disk can be exchanged. Do not forget to check for
leakage after disk exchange.
The instrument is now ready for use; the 11-MUA modified gold disk and the
cuvette are assembled correctly, the tubing is filled with the correct buffer.
The measurement can start. The experiments consist of two parts. The first
part is to physically attach the BSA protein molecule to the 11-MUA surface.
This chemical binding step is called immobilization. The second part is the
interaction of the sample anti-BSA antibody with the BSA protein molecule.
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Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
4.8 – The immobilization.
immobilization.
4.8.1 – Sample preparation.
preparation.
For the immobilization procedure, prepare the following samples and
solutions:
- Coupling buffer (B4) for baseline and wash steps;
- EDC/NHS activation solution: 60 µl of 1:1 freshly mixed 0.4M EDC (B7)
and 0.1 M NHS (B6) in a 1.5ml vial;
- Ligand sample: 200 µl of ligand solution dissolved in coupling buffer (B4)
in a 1.5ml vial;
- Deactivation solution: 200 µl of 1M ethanolamine pH 8.5 (B8) in a 1.5ml
vial;
- Regeneration solution: 200 µl of 10 mM HCl (B3) in a 1.5ml vial.
4.8.2 – Set angle position of the sodium acetate
ac etate buffer (B.4).
Put 50 µl of acetate buffer on the gold disk and check the dip by selecting
. To deactivate the scope mode, press this
the Scope Mode button
button again. The scope mode will update the SPR angle every 0.5 seconds.
Figure 4.18 – The optical path cover.
cover.
Figure 4.17 – SPR “dip”.
“dip”.
Every SPRINGLE instrument is calibrated with water on a bare gold disk. The
lowest value of the SPR ‘dip’ is between 0 and 10 percent absolute reflection.
Chapter 4
81
To change the position of the dip, release the retaining screw of the optical
path. Adjusting the position of the dip is done by turning the micrometer
spindle. Click on start measurement in the tool bar and follow the change of
the angle in real time. Set the baseline around -1500 millidegrees (m°). After
adjusting the baseline, fasten the retaining screw again.
Release retaining screw.
Turn spindle to adjust baseline.
Channel 1
Fix retaining screw
Around – 1500 m°
Time [s]
Figure 4.19
4. 19 – Adjustment of the baseline angle before immobilization.
immobilization .
Why should the sodium acetate buffer SPR angle be set at -1500 m°?
The solutions used in the immobilization differ significantly in refractive
index and will change a number of times during the procedure. The
acetate buffer has the lowest refractive index and therefore the smallest
SPR angle; the Ethanolamine solution has the largest angle.
4.8.3 – Stabilize / rehydrate the dry 1111 -MUA disk.
disk.
Before the modified gold disk can be used for immobilization, the baseline
must be stabilized.
Stabilize the surface of the gold disk using one of the sequences:
- Stabilization with buffer from flask.SEQ
- Stabilization with manually injected sample.SEQ
- Stabilization with sample from vial.SEQ
82
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
Start the sequence and continue to wash until the baseline is sufficiently
stable. The sequence can be stopped at any time by clicking the end
measurement button in the tool bar.
Figure 4.20 – Stabilization/cleaning of the gold disk surface with
coupling buffer (B4),
(B4), regeneration buffer and 0.1 M NaOH.
NaOH.
Eventually, every solution should show the same SPR angle every time is it
dispensed on the surface.
Stabilization of the surface is necessary for all kinds of modified gold
surfaces!
Commercially available Dextran surfaces need extensive cleaning, like
shown above.
4.8.4 – Start the immobilization procedure.
procedure.
The EDC/NHS immobilization procedure is a standardized procedure that
can be easily performed semi-automatically. Open the sequence editor
window, and select the file “immobilization.SEQ” .
The lines, 67 (120s), 87 (300s), 141 (900s), 195 (600s) and 249 (300s) are
the incubation times for each different step in the immobilization procedure.
With a double click on the command line, the settings can be edited.
Select the green button with the arrow to start the immobilization experiment.
Whenever an action of the user is required, a message alert will pop up with
information to act upon.
Chapter 4
83
Figure 4.21 – The sequence editor showing the sequence
”immobilization.SEQ”.
”immobilization.SEQ ”.
4.9 – The interaction.
interaction.
4.9.1 – S ample preparation.
preparat ion.
For the interaction procedure, prepare the following samples and solutions:
- Running buffer, PBS (B2) for baseline, wash steps and dissociation;
- Anti-BSA dilutions for association (B9; B10; B11): 60 µl in a 1.5ml vial;
- Regeneration solution: 60 µl of 10 mM HCl (B3) in a 1.5ml vial.
4.9.2 – Stabilize the surface.
surface.
Change the coupling buffer in the flask with PBS (B2). Stabilize the surface
as described in section 4.8.3 of the immobilization paragraph. Thiol layers,
Dextran layers or surfaces with immobilized ligands have to be stabilized to
minimize matrix effects that are caused by differences in pH or ionic strength
(high-low salt concentrations) of the different buffers used throughout the
experiment. The matrix effects influence the SPR signal. Due to exposure of
the layer with the different buffers of the experiment, the layer will respond in
a more predictive way and will continuously give a SPR signal at the same
angle. When the desired stability is reached, the sequence can be stopped
at any time by clicking the “Stop measurement” button in the tool bar.
4.9.3 – Start the association procedure.
The experimental association procedure is a standardized procedure that
can be easily performed semi-automatically. Open the sequence editor
84
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
window, and select the file “Curve - SA – a full kinetic plot.SEQ”.The lines, 67
(120s), 86 (3600s), 117 (600s), 146 (300s) and 178 (120s) are the incubation
times for each different step in the full kinetic plot procedure. With a double
click on the command line, the settings can be edited.
Select the green button with the arrow to start the experiment. Whenever an
action of the user is required, a message alert will pop up with information to
act upon.
Figure 4.22 – Sequence Editor Window showing the “curve – ASAS- a full
kinetic
kinet ic plot.SEQ” sequence.
4.10 – The SPRINGLE Data.
Data.
Figure 4.23 – A typical example of an association experiment.
experiment .
Chapter 4
85
4.11 – Cleaning of the SPRINGLE instrument.
This is a guiding principle for cleaning all part’s in the system which are in
contact with the solutions used in the experiments. Replace the buffer flask
solution step by step with cleaning solution after the specific sequence is
finished.
Cleaning Solution 1: - 0.5% (w/v) SDS/ 1% (w/v) Triton in water
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning Solution 2: - 0.5% (w/v) SDS
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning Solution 3: - 50 mM Glycine-NaOH pH 9.5
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 4: - 6 M Urea
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 5: - 1% acetic acid
Total cleaning time about 20 min.
Cleaning solution 6: - 0.2 M NaHCO3
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 7: - Hydrochloric acid : 0.1 M HCl
Total cleaning time about 20 min.
Cleaning solution 8: - Water
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
Cleaning solution 9: - 70% Ethanol
Total cleaning time about 10 min.
A. Clean before shutting down for a weekend;
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Put the inlet buffer flask tubings out off the flask
• Run the sequence to empty all tubings
• It’s also OK to replace the solution in the tubings with Solution 7,
water
B. Clean needles, cuvette and connected tubings once every two weeks
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubings into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence to clean with solution 1 and 8
C. Total clean of the system every two month’s
86
Getting Started Autolab SPRINGLE
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubings into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence using every solution 1, 3, 7, 8, 9 step by step
D. Total clean of the system every half year
• Use the sequence “; ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’
• Place all inlet tubings into the ‘buffer’ flask
• Run the sequence using every solution 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, step by
step
Use the routine
rout ine ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’ to prepare the system
before use.
Running buffer 1: PBS pH7.4
Or Running buffer 2: 10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 3.4 mM EDTA, 0.005%
Tween P20
.
Chapter 5
87
Chapter 5
5 – Data Acquisition software.
software.
5.1 – Index.
Index .
Chapter 5 ....................................................................................................... 87
5 – Data Acquisition software. ....................................................................... 87
5.1 – Index.................................................................................................. 87
5.2 – Overview of the functions. ................................................................. 88
5.3 – File menu. .......................................................................................... 94
5.4 – Edit menu. ......................................................................................... 96
5.5 – View menu. ........................................................................................ 96
5.6 – Plot menu........................................................................................... 99
5.7 – TWINGLE/SPRINGLE menu............................................................. 100
5.7.1 – Manual Control of the Autolab. .................................................. 101
5.7.2 – Lift position in the software. ....................................................... 103
5.7.3 – Inject .......................................................................................... 104
5.7.4 – Wash.......................................................................................... 106
5.7.5 – Drain. ......................................................................................... 107
5.7.6 – Place Event Marker.................................................................... 108
5.7.7 – Update SPR recording............................................................... 108
5.7.8 – Start measurement..................................................................... 109
5.7.9 – Pause measurement. ................................................................. 109
5.7.10 – Stop measurement................................................................... 109
5.7.11 – Set Baseline. ............................................................................ 109
5.7.12 – Adjust to zero........................................................................... 109
5.7.13 – Lift Calibration.......................................................................... 109
5.7.14 – System Parameters.................................................................. 110
5.8 – Options menu. ................................................................................. 111
5.8.1 – Sequencer. ................................................................................ 111
5.8.2 – Automation................................................................................. 111
5.8.3 – Scope mode. ............................................................................. 111
5.8.4 – Scanner. .................................................................................... 111
5.8.5 – Customize. ................................................................................. 111
5.9 – Communications menu.................................................................... 113
5.10 – User menu (optional). .................................................................... 114
5.11 – Window menu. ............................................................................... 115
5.12 – Help menu. .................................................................................... 115
5.13 – Event Log. ..................................................................................... 116
88
Data Acquisition software
Figure 5.1
5 .1 – Data Acquisition software.
software .
The screen contains top -bottom the Title bar (1), Menu bar (2), Tool bar (3),
Binding Curve Plot (4), SPR 1 and 2 Plot (5), System Monitor bar (6), Event
Log (7) and Status Bar (8).
This chapter will provide in-depth coverage of the TWINGLE/SPRINGLE
software.
5.2 – Overview of the functions.
functions.
The Menus
A short overview of the menus is given below.
The functions for all menu items will be explained in the next sections.
A. The menu bar of the Springle
B. The menu bar of the Twingle.
Figure 5.
5 .2 – T he Data Acquisition menu
m enu bar.
bar.
Chapter 5
89
File menu,
menu shows all the instructions
related to old and new experimental data
files, like open, save, export and print a
data file. Some items are only available in
the security software version. Note:
Note some
of the instructions have a corresponding
button that is present in the toolbar. Two
commands are only visible in the security
software version.
Edit menu,
menu shows all the edit-related
commands.
View menu,
menu shows all the view-related
commands.
Note:
some
of
the
Note
instructions have a corresponding
command using the right click with the
mouse.
90
Data Acquisition software
Plot menu,
menu shows all possibilities to
organize the data acquisition
window plots. Note:
Note some of the
instructions have a corresponding
command using the right click with
the mouse.
TWINGLE
menu,
shows
all
menu
commands to control the instrument
and the experiment. . Note:
Note some of
the
instructions
have
a
corresponding button that is present
in the toolbar. Calibration only when
the pipette tip is replaced.
Chapter 5
91
SPRINGLE
menu,
shows
all
menu
commands to control the instrument
and the experiment. . Note:
Note some of
the
instructions
have
a
corresponding button that is present
in the toolbar. Calibration only when
the pipette tip is replaced.
Options
Option s menu,
menu used to choose
personal settings, execution of
sequence, or control of the scanner.
Communications
used to
Communications menu,
menu
select the right COM port or reconnect
to the instrument.
User menu,
menu used to control the
accessibility of users. Note:
Note This menu
is only available after installing the
security version.
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Data Acquisition software
Window menu,
menu used to organize
multiple data acquisition windows.
Help menu,
menu used
software version.
to
check
the
The toolbar buttons.
buttons .
Clicking a specific button in the toolbar can perform most of the manual
handling for measuring SPR. Figure 5.3 shows an overview of the DA toolbar
and its buttons.
A. The toolbar of the Springle
B. The toolbar of the Twingle
Figure 5.
5 .3 – The Data Acquisition tool bar
bar.
ar.
The toolbar shows a number of buttons, some of which might be grayed out
(in which case the attached instruction cannot be performed).
This section provides an overview of the toolbar buttons.
New ,
Opens a new data acquisition window for a
new measurement.
Open,
Open
SPR data files [*.ibo (old software versions)
or *.spr] in a new window.
Save,
Save
saves (or saves as) the currently measured
SPR data.
Start measurement,
measurement,
starts the measurement
Chapter 5
93
Pause measurement,
measurement,
pauses the measurement
Stop measurement,
measurement,
stops recording the measurement.
Place Event Marker,
Marker,
Add a marker in a measurement plot
Update SPR recording, Records a SPR signal, ‘dip’, during the
measurement.
Scope mode,
Refreshing update SPR every 0.5 s.
Manual control,
Manual measurement
Sampler position,
position
To control the position of the lift.
Mix:
Mix
Customize information window pops up.
Press the arrow and a selection of three
different sequences can be made.
Inject:
Inject:
A selection of Press the arrow and a
selection of three different sequences can
be made.
Wash:
Wash:
(de-) activates wash peristaltic pump.
Drain:
Drain :
(de-) activates drain peristaltic pump.
Sequence editor;
editor
The SPR sequence editor is used to
automate measurements, to create, adjust
and to execute sequences.
Automation
Auto mation:
mation
The Automation window handles the
experimental setup, parameters, incubation
times, and the sequences to automate an
experiment.
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Data Acquisition software
The tooltip
Hovering your mouse pointer over one of the
buttons will trigger a Tooltip to appear, displaying
some basic information on the functions of that
button.
5.3 – File menu.
menu.
Figure 5.4
5 .4 – File menu.
menu .
New
Opens a new
measurement.
data
acquisition
window
for
a
new
Open
Opens a data (*.spr or *.ibo) file window.
The *.spr file will have all data information in one file; the SPR
measurement plot (max. 50,000 data points), the eventlog,
the SPR signal (max. 20), the experiment parameters, and the
sequence.
The *.ibo file, an old software version used extension, is
linked to the *.ini, *.spo, and *.spe file extensions. These file
type are measurements performed with software version 4.1
and sooner.
Chapter 5
95
- Data file (*.ibo) for a data acquisition plot.
- Procedure file (*.ini) for measurement settings.
- SPR file (*.spo) for SPR curves of channel 1 (12 maximum).
- SPR file (*.spe) for SPR curves of channel 2 (12 maximum)
(Only the double channel will have the *.spe file).
Close
Closes a data acquisition window without saving.
Permissions
Allows the user to specify the level of visibility for their files.
This is explained in the Autolab SPR system security manual.
Electronic Signature
Allows users to electronically sign files. This is explained in
the Autolab SPR system security manual.
Extract Parameters
Opens the manual control window showing the used
parameters of the stored measurement.
Extract sequences
Opens the sequence editor showing the sequence used in
the stored measurement..
Save
Saves a data acquisition window as data file (*.spr) under the
current name. Previously saved files with the same name will
be overwritten.
Remark: The default directory to store the data needs to be
specified in menu Options - Customize settings – User
directories, see Figure 5.26.
Save as
Opens a ‘save as’ window to save recorded data as data file,
with a user created filename and directory.
Export
Export data as a text file (which can be imported in Excel for
instance) or export graphical plots as a BMP picture file.
Print
Print plot:
- Binding Curve Plot; a data acquisition plot: SPR angle vs.
time.
- SPR Plots; intensity of the reflected light vs. angle.
- Event Log; event log file.
Opens the print set-up window for selection of printer and
printer settings.
Print Setup
Exit
Exits TWINGLE program and saves the current settings as
default parameters.
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Data Acquisition software
5.4 – Edit menu.
menu.
Cut
Deletes the selected region of a text.
Copy
Copies the selected object to the clipboard. The copied
object can be retrieved in Microsoft Word or Excel with the
paste command.
Paste
Copies the clipboard contents into the current selected
object.
5.5 – View menu.
menu.
The view menu contains commands for presentation of data acquisition plots.
Figure 5.5
5 .5 – View menu.
menu.
Tool bar
Option for opening or closing the tool bar.
Status bar
Option for opening or closing the status bar.
Event log
Option for opening or closing the event log. The event
recorder window records important events from the data
acquisition plot. Events such as an SPR update or a manually
set event marker are recorded here. Events can be edited by
double clicking the text entry in the log.
Fixed X scale
Fixes the current X-axis scale during the measurement.
Fixed Y scale
Fixes the current Y-axis scale during the measurement.
Binding plot properties
Possibility to change the curve and/or graph settings.
Chapter 5
97
Figure 5 .6 – T he different tab sheets to adjust the curve or graph
properties.
properties.
The options to change the curve are based on curve style, width, size or
color. The graph changes are text, font, color, change of axis unit, grid lines
or axis range.
98
Data Acquisition software
Figure 5 .7 – The options of adjusting the curve or graph properties.
properties .
The ‘view’ options of Data Plot Properties is available with the mouse right
click. (See picture 5.9)
Zoom: Use the left mouse button to zoom in on the plot. The available
‘unzoom’ option (see section 5.6) can unzoom up to 30 zoom actions.
Move: press Shift and hold down both mouse buttons (or middle button on 3button mouse). Move the mouse to change the positioning of the chart.
Reset: Press the F4 function key to remove all scaling, moving and zooming
effects. The “r” key is used to remove all scaling effects in the active plot (DA,
SPR1 or SPR2).
View: Right mouse click on the DA window to open a window to change the
layout of all components. The window contains plot menu options and view
menu options. Extra options are the Curve and Graph Properties window.
This window allows to change axis scale for all data lines like; angle, time,
temperature and differential. It is also possible to put a title on top of the
graph, set grid lines and change the borderline and background colour. See
Figure 5.7 and section 5.6.
Depending on the second Y-axis choice (temperature or differential),
opening the plot-view option list with a left mouse click, the last tab on the
Graph properties window will be either differential or temperature.
Within the Curve Properties window, all data line properties can be changed,
see Figure 5.6.
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99
5.6 – Plot menu
Figure 5 .8 – Plot menu.
menu .
Figure 5 .9 – Right mouse
m ouse
click in DA window.
window.
This menu contains options to adjust the Data Acquisition plot and the SPR
plot. All items can also be controlled with a right mouse click in the Data
Acquisition window (see Figure 5.9).
Rescale
Undo zoom function, also possible with key “r” (case
sensitive). This will remove all scaling, moving and zooming
effects.
Undo Zoom
With the ‘left mouse click’ an area can be zoomed in, up to 30
zoom levels can be restored.
Channel 1
Shows or hides data-line of channel 1 in the data acquisition
window.
Channel 2
Shows or hides data-line of channel 2 in the data acquisition
window. (Twingle only)
Differential (channel 1 – channel 2) (Twingle only)
Shows or hides the differential data of channel 1 minus
channel 2.
When this option is activated, it is not possible to view the
temperature as the second y-axis.
Cuvette temperature
Shows or hides a second y-axis with temperature scale. The
temperature is always measured, even when the temperature
plot is not visible in the data acquisition plot.
Binding curve Shows or hides the data acquisition plot, angle versus time.
100
Data Acquisition software
SPR curve channel 1
Shows or hides a SPR plot of intensity versus of angle of
channel 1,
SPR curve channel 2
Shows or hides a SPR plot of intensity versus of angle of
channel 2. (Twingle only)
Figure 5 .10 – SPR curves of channel 1 and
and SPR curves of channel 2
With a right mouse click on the SPR plot window, the user can select or
deselect a recorded SPR curve. In this example, four SPR updates are still
visible in the Channel 2 SPR plot.
Position
Shows or hides x and y positions of the mouse in the upper
left corner of the data acquisition window.
Fixed position Connects the marker lines with channel 1 or channel 2 data
points depending on the closest position of the mouse to a
curve.
Marker lines
Option to show or hide a flexible x and y axis as a mouse
pointer, this enables to read the interception values of a data
point on the axes.
Event Markers Shows or hides the markers of channel 1 and/or channel 2 in
the data acquisition window.
5.7 – TWINGLE/SPRINGLE
TWINGLE/SPRINGLE menu.
menu.
Chapter 5
101
The TWINGLE/SPRINGLE menu contains commands to control the hardware
functions of the instrument.
Figure 5 .11 – TWINGLE menu items.
items .
The SPRINGLE has the same list of items.
5.7.1 – Manual Control of the Autolab.
Autolab .
Opens the pump control window used for manual control of a measurement.
Sample identification
The Sample identification text box can be used to specify the
name and the concentration of the sample. Specified text will be
shown in the event log when a measurement is started.
Lift position
Move the lift up and down. ‘Down’ is the inject position in the
cuvette, ‘middle’ position is just inside the cuvette and the ‘up’
position is the home position. All positions can be calibrated in the
lift calibration window. After the installation of the software, the lift
position must be calibrated.
Measurement settings
Measurement Settings box item ‘Interval time’ allows the user to
choose the time between two data points. Interval times between
0.1 and 300 seconds are possible. Adjust to zero time (between 1
to 10 seconds) can be used to average the data for calculating the
offset to adjust to zero.
Pump 1 and 2 are syringe pumps (Springle has only pump 1)
102
Data Acquisition software
Aspirate/Dispense section to aspirate or dispense sample in or
out of the cuvette, the sample can be positioned in a microtiter
plate or a vial which is held manually under the needles.
Valve options control a three-way valve: valve to needle connects
channel from pump to cuvette. Valve to buffer connects channel
from buffer flask to pump.
Flow control enables to select the speed of the pump in µl/s.
Corresponds to the aspirating, dispensing and mixing speed.
Mix section for mixing the solution in the cuvette. Fill in the mixing
volume in µl and check the mix box to start mixing. This option
should only be used when the needles are inside the cuvette and
the mix volume should not exceed the cuvette volume.
Figure 5 .12 A. – Manual control window of the Twingle.
Twingle .
Synchronized Pumps (Channels 1 & 2) (Twingle only)
This section is meant for synchronized mixing of pump1 and
pump2. Set volume and Flow, check the mix box and both pumps
will start mixing at the same time, with the same flow and with the
same volume.
Measurement box
The buttons to start, to pause or to stop the measurement.
Drain is a peristaltic pump
Select the pump speed and check the “on” box to activate the
pump, the solution is drained from the cuvette.
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103
Remark:
Remark In the software the peristaltic pumps are listed as having
a selectable range from 1 – 255. In fact, the peristaltic pump has a
maximum flow at 40 rpm selectable in 255 steps.
The SPRINGLE manual control has one extra item the “Continuous Flow”
Figure 5.12 B. – Manual control window of the SPRINGLE.
SPRINGLE.
Continuous Flow
The command item will dispense the syringe solution into the
pipette tip continuously. During refill, the pump valve is
automatically set to buffer flask and the piston will go its lowest
position to aspirate buffer from the flask. Then the valve is set to
pipette tip to dispense the buffer.
5.7.2 – Lift position in the software.
software.
Up position
Home position of the lift.
Middle position Calibrated position in the lift calibration window. Normally set
at a few millimetres inside the cuvette
Down position Inject position, calibrated in the lift calibration window.
Normally set at 1 mm above the gold disk.
104
Data Acquisition software
Figure 5.13 – Example of two
t wo TWINGLE DA screens with Lift Positions
choices via Menu bar or Toolbar.
SPRINGLE has equal
equal functionality.
5.7.3 – Inject
Figure 5.14 – Two TWINGLE DA screens
screens showing two ways to get quick
access to customize and to sequences.
sequences .
SPRINGLE has equal functionality.
Chapter 5
105
Press the toolbar inject picture and the Customize information window
pops up.
Figure 5 .15 – Example of a Customize window to change a linked
sequence shown in the Menu_Twingle “Inject”.
“Inject”.
SPRINGLE has equal functionality.
The Customize window is needed for selection of a sequence that will be
linked. Select Customize and the customize window will pop up. On the tab
page ‘Sequences’ a link can be established to the inject sequence icon in the
Menu_Twingle “Inject”. (see Figure 5.15).
Using the menu TWINGLE “Inject”, the name of the sequence which could be
linked would be replacing the words “not verified”; “Inject Sequence [not
verified]”.
Using a measurement sequence, the ‘Measurement time in inject
sequences[s]’ (incubation time) shown in the customize window will overwrite
the incubation time command “wait” in the sequence. (see Figure 5.16)
The flexibility of the customize window is the ability to link all other kinds of
sequences besides inject sequences to the inject toolbar arrow.
106
Data Acquisition software
Figure 5 .16 – An example of a TWINGLE inject sequence.
sequence . However,
Line 70, 72 has a defined incubation time, which will be overwritten
by the time shown in the Customize
Customize Sequence tab sheet (Fig 5 .15)
.15 ).
5.7.4 – Wash.
Wash.
Press the toolbar WASH icon and the Customize information window
pops up. (see Figure 5.18). Via the Menu TWINGLE “Wash”, a “user-defined
sequence” can be defined to be executed or choose to open the Customize
window.
Figure 5.17 – Two TWINGLE DA screens showing two ways to be
able to get quick access to customize and to sequences.
sequences.
SPRINGLE has equal functionality.
Chapter 5
107
Figure 5.18 – Example of the Customize window to change a linked
sequence shown in the Menu_Twingle “Wash”.
SPRINGLE has equal functionality.
5.7.5 – Drain.
Drain.
The DRAIN button in the toolbar will switch ON or OFF the peristaltic
drain pump. The speed is defined in the manual control window.
Figure 5.19
5.19 – Direct access to start and stop the drain pump.
108
Data Acquisition software
5.7.6 – Place Event Marker.
Marker.
To mark a position on the data line during a measurement select the
button and chose the position on the data curve. This button will mark
an event (for example the association and dissociation steps) in the
measurement window and describe this event in the event log window.
Events indicated by a marker will be recorded in the event log.
5.7.7 – Update SPR recording.
recording .
Records a SPR dip during the measurement. As shown in figure 4.20,
there are three different possibilities to have an update SPR recorded. A
SPR update is necessary to check if there is a gold disk quality problem
or an air bubble present on the gold disk during an experiment.
All updates are automatically stored in the event log. The plots are
visualized in the SPR 1 plot and SPR 2 (Twingle only) plot (Figure 5.1).
Every update can be shown or hidden with a right mouse click. In
Figure 5.21, all updates are selected, but they can also be (de)selected individually. The maximum number is 20 updates.
Figure 5 .20
.2 0 – Update SPR Recording.
Recording.
Figure 5 .21
.2 1 – Right
mouse click on SPR
plot 1 or on SPR plot 2.
2.
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109
5.7.8 – Start measurement.
measurement.
Start measurement will plot SPR data in the data acquisition plot, angle
vs. time. Each interval time, the angle at which the SPR minimum occurs, is
determined and plotted in the DA window.
5.7.9 – Pause measurement.
measurement.
Pauses plotting SPR minimum in de Binding Curve plot, although the
time is still proceeding on the background. A restart will draw a straight line
between the last plotted SPR data point and the first new SPR data point from
which the measurement will proceed.
5.7.10 – Stop measurement.
measurement.
Stops recording SPR. After measurement start, the measurement
continues with the last recorded data point.
5.7.11 – Set Baseline.
Baseline.
A set of data points which shows a horizontal line in the binding curve can be
marked as baseline with this option. All following events are recorded with a
relative response to this baseline, the relative response values are saved in
the event log.
5.7.12 – Adjust to zero.
zero .
Allows user to adjust the measured SPR angle to zero. The raw data,
recorded after adjust to zero, is modified with an offset, in contrast to the
previous option. The “adjust to zero” option can be used to adjust both
channels to zero.
5.7.13 – Lift Calibration.
Calibration.
Figure 5 .22
.2 2 – Lift calibration window.
window.
110
Data Acquisition software
The “lift calibration” calibrates the pipette position. The cuvette position for
the pipette is normally calibrated to 1 mm above the gold disk, the middle
position is calibrated with the pipette just about 2 mm inside the cuvette.
Procedure (specified distances depend on the size of the used pipette tips):
- Initialize lift.
- Enter a distance (max. 60 mm). Start with e.g. 54 mm and fine tune with
1 mm steps.
- Set new cuvette position.
- Move lift to top
- Enter distance of +/- 42 mm
- Set new middle position
- Move lift to top
- Close.
5.7.14 – System Parameters.
Parameters .
Figure 5 .23 – System settings.
settings .
Tab sheet “pump2” for Twingle only.
System settings
All hardware setup settings are defined in the System Settings. These
numbers should not be changed! One important number to read is the
“Mirror Amp.” which refers to a specific instrument unique dynamic scanning
Chapter 5
111
angle range. So, the number 2124 defines the dynamic scanning range of
4248 millidegrees. The number 2124 needs to be written in the NOVA
settings when performing ESPR measurements or should be checked in the
C:Windows\ESPR.ini file for the GPES software.
5.8 – Options menu.
menu.
Figure 5.24
5 .24 – Options
O ptions menu.
menu .
5.8.1 – Sequencer.
Sequencer.
The SPR sequence editor is used to automate measurements. See
chapter 5.
5.8.2 – Automation
Auto mation.
mation.
Opens the Automation window. Here experimental parameters,
incubation times and storage file name can be addressed. See chapter 6.
5.8.3 – Scope mode.
mode.
Updates the SPR dip every 0.5 seconds. Useful for manually adjusting
the optical path.
5.8.4 – Scanner.
Scanner.
Stops and starts the scanner. Only used for service items.
5.8.5 – Customize
Cust omize.
omize.
Opens a window to specify software settings.
General settings tab page
- Include filename in plot when printing:
Check this box to put the filename on the printouts.
- Alert before executing a changed sequence:
112
-
-
Data Acquisition software
Before the measurement will be executed, an alert is shown to confirm
the sequence change before starting the measurement.
Clear experimental title at new measurement:
Clear the experiment title before each start of a new measurement.
Try to connect SPR at start-up:
If the instrument power is ON, the software will automatically connect
to the instrument at start-up.
Initial temperature of water bath [°C]:
This command field set the water temperature in the water bath. The
waterbath must be switched on before starting the Twingle software.
Figure 5.25 – Customize – General tab page.
page .
Figure 5.26 – Customize - User directories tab page.
page .
Chapter 5
113
Sequences
See paragraph §5.7.3, figure 5.15.
User directories tab page (See Figure 5.26)
The user can set default paths for a sequence and a data directory.
Email configuration tab page.
Configure for the email address of the user to allow the email message
command in the sequencer to send an email message.
Figure 5.27 – Customize – Email configuration tab page.
page.
5.9 – Communications menu.
menu.
Figure 5 .28 – Communications.
Communications.
Serial port
The software will automatically check for COM1 up
to COM5. Check the correct COM port to start
connection with the ‘clear and check’ option. The
other COM port can be used for controlling a
waterbath.
114
Data Acquisition software
Clear and check
Re-establish the communication
system and the software.
between the
In cases where it is necessary to restart the software, the clear and check
option can be used to reconnect the instrument with the computer.
5.10 – User menu (optional).
(optional) .
A separate manual specific for the Good Laboratory Practice features is
written. Here only a few screen shots are shown as examples.
Figure 5 .29 – User.
User.
Administration Control Panel
Add or delete User accounts or groups, regulates the user access rules, shows
the user configuration settings. Keeps track of all actions in the Audit trail.
Figure 5.30 – The Administration Control Panel.
Panel.
Chapter 5
115
Figure 5.31 – The Administration Control Panel.
Panel. The access rules per
group can be limited. Every menu bar item with its commands can be
(de(de -) selected.
5.11 – Window menu.
menu.
Cascade
Places several overlapping windows in a cascade.
Tile
All binding plot curves windows are tiled within the
data acquisition window next to each other.
Arrange icons
Arrange data acquisition icons.
Close all
Close all data presentation windows, the data
acquisition window cannot be closed.
5.12 – Help menu.
menu.
Graph action help
Help on graph commands.
About SPR software
Software version information.
116
Data Acquisition software
5.13 – Event Log.
Log .
The Event Log can be selected in the menu VIEW. As the name indicates, all
events during an experiment are stored in this log.
These events are:
•
Update SPR.
See examples in Figure 4.32 with the lines; ‘Update SPR-[Blue]’,
Green, Cyan, Yellow, Black. Each event is recorded with time, angle,
temperature, relative response and a text line for comments.
•
Set Baseline (menu Twingle).
See Figure 4.33 with the lines; ‘New baseline value, relative response
is set to zero m°’. Notice the column ‘angle [m°]’ and the column
‘Rel(ative) Response [m°], before and after the ‘New baseline’ action
line. Afterwards the angle value in the Rel Response column is set to
zero to be able to read the angle shift during the experiment.
•
Place marker and ‘update / add event.item [ ]’.
Both actions are used to create an event line in the event log to
indicate what happened during the measurement. The Update/add
event item is a command line in the sequence editor (see chapter 6).
Use “Place marker” to get a number in the data acquisition plot and in
the event log. In the event log a remark can be added to this marker.
If the Update/add event item is used as a command in a sequence,
then the remark is already specified between the brackets in the
sequence. See for example the event text lines like ‘1:[association]’
and ‘2:[association]’ in Figure 4.32 and Figure 4.33.
Remarks:
• The event log remarks can be edited with a double click on the line.
• Deleting event log lines is also possible. If a marker is deleted and a
new marker is put onto the DA plot, the event log will continue to
increment the number. If the position of the new marker is coincidently
the same position as the deleted marker, the old marker number will
be used.
• A SPR plot can handle up to twelve updates of recorded dips.
Chapter 5
117
Figure 5.32
5 .32 – An example of a kinetic experiment,
experiment , with event log data.
The upper line is channel
c hannel 1 , the
the lower line is channel 2 data. The
middle curve is the differential angle curve between channel 1 and 2 .
Figure 5.33
5 .33 – A zoomzoom-in on the
t he event log from Fig. 5 .32.
.32 . A double
click on a remark will result in an editable line below the event log
window.
Automation
118
Chapter 6
6 – Sequencer.
Sequencer.
6.1 – Index
Index.
dex .
Chapter 6 ..................................................................................................... 118
6 – Sequencer.............................................................................................. 118
6.1 – Index................................................................................................ 118
6.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 119
6.3 – Sequence editor window. ................................................................ 119
6.4 – Software Sequence editor. .............................................................. 123
6.4.1 – The sequence editor menu and toolbar..................................... 123
6.5 – Set-up of sequence files.................................................................. 124
6.5.1 – Include-sequence...................................................................... 124
6.5.2 – Safety lines. ............................................................................... 125
6.5.3 – Wait command........................................................................... 125
6.5.4 – Save data................................................................................... 126
6.5.4.1 – Loop.Save= [xxxxxx00]................................................... 126
6.5.4.2 – Measurement.Save = [filename]. .................................... 126
6.5.4.3 – Automation.Save [see automation window]. ................... 126
6.5.5 – Commands with variables. ........................................................ 127
6.5.6 – Commands for Semi-Automatic sequences. ............................. 127
6.5.6.1 – The main automatic kinetic sequence with all of its included
sequences. ....................................................................................... 128
6.5.6.2 – The interaction plot sequence......................................... 131
6.5.6.3 – The inject sequence........................................................ 133
6.5.6.4 – The stabilization sequences............................................ 133
6.5.6.5 – The main immobilization sequence with all of its includesequences. ....................................................................................... 134
6.5.7 – The semi-automatic sequences................................................. 135
6.5.8 – Writing a sequence.................................................................... 137
Chapter 6
119
6.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
The sequence editor is a powerful tool to automate experiments. Sequences
can be used to describe experiment parameters (i.e. flow speed, mix volume,
sample volume, etc.), sample positions, measurement times and liquid
handling. In general, sequences are used for automatic or semi-automatic
control of an experiment.
6.3 – Sequence editor window.
window.
or use menu – Options – Sequencer… to open
Select from the toolbar
the Sequence Editor window.
Figure 6 .1 – Two ways to activate the Sequencer,
Sequencer, via the MenuMenu Options or the Toolbar
Toolbar button.
button .
The sequence editor window contains a list of simple commands in the left
window and a list of commands in sequence to the right window. The list of
commands on the right forms a sequence.
By using the double click, the selected command from the “left” will be
added at the bottom of the assembled sequence. The drag and drop
functionality allows inserting a specific command at a selected position on
the “right” in the assembled sequence. A user-defined sequence can be
stored or retrieved from disk, it will have the extension *.seq.
A sequence can execute other (include) sequences, this makes it possible to
develop a standard set of sequences for general purposes. These subroutine
sequences are called “include-sequences”. During installation of the
software a list of sequences and include-sequences are stored in the Autolab
SPR software directory.
All sequence commands and their functions are listed below.
120
Pump2 commands are
available in Twingle only.
Automation
- Loads the parameters settings determined
in the automation control window
‘parameters tab’.
- Aspirate the sample volume, filled out in
the ‘volume tab’, in pump 1 for channel 1.
- Dispense the sample volume, filled out in
the ‘volume tab’, in pump 1 for channel 1.
- Aspirate the sample volume, filled out in
the ‘volume tab’, in pump2 for channel 2.
- - Aspirate the sample volume, filled out in
the ‘volume tab’, in pump 2 for channel 2.
- Saves data. Fill out a file name in the
Sampler Window.
- Sends out a DIO port trigger to the PGSTAT.
- Receives a DIO port trigger from the PGSTAT.
- Defines the drain, left peristaltic pump (pump 3),
40rpm speed in 255 steps.
- Drains the cuvette.
- Stops draining the cuvette.
Inserts sequence file (*.seq) in opened sequence.
- Opens KE software and creates a new overlay.
- Add the channel 1 data to the KE overlay
- Add the channel 2 data to the KE overlay
- Add the differential data to the KE overlay
Sends the needles/pipette tips to the;
-Inject positon, 1mm above the gold
- Just within the cuvette position
- Home position
- Starts loop in sequence, N defines number of
cycles (linked to Loop.End command).
- Stops loop (linked to Loop.Begin).
- Saves the loop file by name + counter (e.g.
protein001)
Chapter 6
121
- Stops measurement
- Holds measurement plot, but the time is
recorded
- Defines measurement interval time in
seconds (0.1s – 300s)
- Clears the DA plot window and sets time
to zero
- Saves measurement.
- Starts measurement in channel 1 and
channel 2
- Starts measurement in channel 1
- Starts measurement in channel 2
- Shows message box with [message] and
postpones sequence until message is
confirmed by “Continue” or “Abort” button
- Sends out an email, which is configured in
Options_ Customize_ email.
Opens a
parameters
window
with
all
measurement
- Prints a hardcopy of the binding plot.
- Prints a hardcopy of the SPR signal.
- Defines aspirate volume in µl for channel 1.
- Defines dispense volume in µl for channel 1.
- Defines pump 1 flow in µl/s for channel 1.
- Starts mixing pump 1(advice: always in
Lift.Down position) .
- Stops mixing pump 1.
- Defines mix volume in µl for channel 1.
- Switches pump valve position to needle/pipette tip
for pump 1.
- Switches pump valve position to buffer for pump 1
Automation
122
Twingle only
Twingle only
- Defines aspirate volume in µl for channel 2.
- Defines dispense volume in µl for channel 2.
- Defines pump flow in µl/s for channel 2.
- Starts mixing pump 2 (advice: always in
Lift.Down position).
- Stops mixing pump 2.
- Defines pump 2 mix volume in µl for channel 2.
- Switches pump valve position to needle/pipette tip
for pump 2.
- Switches pump valve position to buffer for pump 2
- Defines pump 1 & 2 flow in µl/s for channel 1
and 2
- Starts mixing pump 1 & 2
- Stops mixing pump 1 & 2
- Defines pump 1 & 2 mix volume in µl for channel
1 and 2
Records an SPR plot for channel 1 and 2.
- Adds event with text to event recorder.
- Set Relative Response to zero.
- Wait period in seconds.
- Baseline wait period. Defined in the Automation
Window.
- Associate wait period. I Defined in the
Automation Window.
- Dissociate wait period. Defined in the
Automation Window.
- Regenerate wait period. Defined in the
Automation Window.
- Wait periods. Defined in the Automation Window.
- Wait periods. Defined in the Automation Window.
- Wait periods. Defined in the Automation Window.
- Wait periods. Defined in the Automation Window.
Chapter 6
123
- Set temperature of the waterbath,
(Julabo or Lauda)
- Set temperature of the waterbath and
wait until the temperature is reached
before continuing with the next
sequence step.
6.4 – Software Sequence editor.
editor.
The Sequence Editor toolbar, see Figure 5.3, contains the shortcuts to the
menu items: new sequence, open sequence, save sequence, print,
numbering and execute respectively.
The functions for the menu and toolbar items will be explained in the next
section.
Figure 6 . 3 – The menu bar and tool bar buttons.
buttons .
6.4.1 – The sequence editor menu and toolbar.
toolbar.
Figure 6.4
6 .4 – The sequence menu.
menu .
New Sequence
Clears the sequence editor window.
Automation
124
Open Sequence
Opens a sequence folder determined in the
customize – user directories tab (Figure 5.33,
p.122).
Save Sequence
Saves the sequence.
Save
Sequence As
Opens a ‘save as’ window to save the sequence
as SEQ file, with a user created filename and
directory.
Print
Prints the complete command structure of the
opened sequence.
Delete
Delete highlighted command line.
Numbering
Shows or hides the numbering of the command
lines.
Expand
Shows all sequence commands lines
Collapse
Shows only the main sequence command lines.
Run Sequence
Executes the current sequence.
Close
Closes the sequence editor window.
6.5 – SetSet -up of sequence files.
files .
6.5.1 – IncludeInclude -sequence.
sequence.
All of the basic liquid handling commands are stored in so called ‘includesequence’ files. This reduces the number of lines in a main sequence and
gives a better overview on the executed sequence. An include-sequence
executed as a main sequence, may cause problems. Check the sequence
with a buffer to verify if it can be used as a main sequence.
A sequence should be considered as the folder structure on the hard drive of
the PC. An “include sequence” can be described as the function ‘folder’ in
the ‘directory’. The “include sequence” also has many commands, that can
be read when clicking on the ‘plus’ box (like in widows explorer). A list of
include sequences can be found under C:\Autolab SPR\Sequencer\Include.
Chapter 6
125
First include sequence
Figure 6.
6 .5 – Example
Example of a sequence with includeinclude -sequences.
sequences. An
include sequence function resembles a folder in window explorer.
6.5.2 – Safety lines.
lines .
To prevent flooding of the cuvette and to prevent stock solution
contamination, some safety measures are necessary. After the
Pump1.Mix.Stop, Pump2.Mix.Stop (Twingle only) or Synchronized.Mix.Stop
(Twingle only) command, the syringe pump will automatically go to its
initialization position. The initial plunger position is half way the syringe (which
is the 250 µl point). Another situation, at which the pumps will go to their
initial position, is after finishing a sequence.
To prevent mistakes, use the Synchronized.Mix.Stop command as a start of
an include sequence. From that point on it is clear what the limits are in
aspirate and dispense volume:
- Pump1.flow=[227.3] µl/s
- Pump2.flow=[227.3] µl/s (Twingle only)
- Pump1.Valve.To.buffer
- Pump2.Valve.To.buffer
(Twingle only)
- Synchronized.Mix.Stop (Twingle only)
(Pump.Mix.Stop
(Springle only))
The changes in the syringe position will not affect the buffer and/or sample
level in the needle and/or cuvette.
6.5.3 – Wait command.
command.
A Wait command used as an incubation time for a measurement is positioned
in between a Synchronized.Mix.Start with Measurement.Start.Both.Channels
and a Measurement.End with Synchronized.Mix.Stop command. In case of a
Automation
126
xxxxx.Mix.Start before the Wait command also a xxxxx.Mix.Stop after the Wait
command is necessary.
If a wait command is active without a Measurement.Start command active,
the temperature registration in the software is not updated. In this case the
temperature is not updated in the software.
6.5.4 – Save data.
data.
There are three different commands to automatically save data while
executing a sequence.
6.5.4.1 –
Loop.Save=
Loop.Save= [xxxxxx00].
Data measured during the sequential execution of a loop command, will be
stored under the same name with an increasing serial number.
A proper filename has to be specified before starting the sequence.
Within a sequence:
- Loop.Begin:Repeat = [N]
N defines number of cycles,
- Loop. Save = (xxxxxx00)
like “sample00” or “3April00”
- Loop.end
The part of the sequence between the Loop.Begin:Repeat and Loop.End will
be repeated N times.
6.5.4.2 –
Measurement.Save = [filename].
At the end of an experiment the data are saved using the specified filename.
This command is useful at the end of a sequence to save one defined
experiment.
6.5.4.3 –
Automation.Save
Automation.Save [see automation window].
This is a command for a sequence that uses input from the Autosampler
window. Specify a filename in the Automation window. The data are
automatically saved using this filename. All samples will have the same
filename with an increasing serial numbers at the end.
Chapter 6
127
6.5.5 – Commands with variables.
Command
Valid entry
entry
Drain.Speed = [1-255]
between 1 and 255 rpm (≤120 ul/s)
Loop.Begin: Repeat = [N]
no limitation
Measurement.Interval = [s]
between 0.1 and 300
Waterbath set temp = ##.# [°C]
between 10.0 – 70.0
Waterbath set and wait = ##.# [°C]
between 10.0 – 70.0
Pump (1 or 2).Aspirates.Volume = [µl] between 1 and 500
Pump (1 or 2).Dispense.Volmue = [µl] between 1 and 500
Pump (1 or 2).Flow = [µl/s]
between 227.3 and 0.8, in 31 steps
Synchronized.Mix. Flow = [µl/s]
between 227.3 and 0.8, in 31 steps
Pump (1 or 2).Mix.Volume = [µl]
between 1 and 100
Synchronized.Mix.Volume = [µl]
between 1 and 100
.
6.5.6 – Commands for SemiSemi- A utomatic
uto matic sequences.
Semi-Automatic sequences are generally sequences used in combination
with the Automation window. A number of commands are linked to the
Automation control window. Those commands can not be specified in the
sequence editor window, they are linked to a specific figure filled out in the
Automation window. (menu –Options; Automation). For example, the ‘Wait’
table below is linked with the tab sheet ‘time’ in the Automation control
window. See also table 6.1
- Baseline wait period.
Input in the Automation Window ‘time tab’.
- Associate wait period.
Input in the Automation Window ‘time tab’.
- Dissociate wait period.
Input in the Automation Window ‘time tab’.
- Regenerate wait period.
Input in the Automation Window ‘time tab’.
- Interval.1 (Automation ‘time tab’).
- Interval.2 ( Automation ‘time tab’).
- Interval.3 ( Automation ‘time tab’).
- Interval.4 ( Automation ‘time tab’).
Automation
128
- Loads the parameters settings
determined in the automation control
window ‘parameters tab’.
- Aspirate the sample volume, filled out
in the ‘volume tab’, in pump 1 for
channel 1.
- Dispense the sample volume, filled
out in the ‘volume tab’, in pump 1 for
channel 1.
- Aspirate the sample volume, filled out
in the ‘volume tab’, in pump2 for
channel 2.
Pump 2 commands are available in
Aspirate
the sample volume, filled out
Twingle only.
in the ‘volume tab’, in pump 2 for
channel 2.
- Saves data. Input file name in the
Sampler Window.
6.5.6.1 –
The main automatic kinetic sequence
sequence with all of its
included sequences.
The sequences mentioned below are for double channel synchronized. The
basic of all the sequences is the same, just small changes serve different
measurement requirements. (see fig. 6.7)
Figure 6.6 A. – Twingle List of kinetic experiment sequences.
sequences.
For the TWINGLE the Tw44- Curve - a full kinetic plot_SA 50µl sample.seq
sequence is the main sequence from which all other sequences are
generated.
Chapter 6
129
Figure 6.6 A. – Springle list
list of kinetic experiment sequences.
sequences.
For the SPRINGLE the Sp44- Curve –SA_a full kinetic plot_SA 50µl
sample.seq sequence is the main sequence from which the other sequence
is generated.
For the explanation of the automation the Twingle has been used as an
example. The Springle has the same setup.
What and where are the changes to make different sequences is shown
below. Commands in lines 108,192 shows the Lift up position which indicates
that in the next folder (include sequence) the aspiration of a sample (lines
116, 118) needs to come from a vial underneath the pipette tip and lines
124,125 are dispensing the sample into the cuvette. It is therefore very easy
to adjust the sequence to a new volume. Even better, the right sequence has
a link with the automation control window where the volume can be filled out
(see fig. 6.7).
Figure 6 .7 – The difference in sample volume.
volume .
Automation
130
Tw44 -Curve - a full kinetic plot.seq
Main sequence
Tw44 -Curve - Baseline phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Association phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Dissociation phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Regeneration phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Back to Baseline
phase.seq
First level of include-sequences
Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl Buffer
Baseline.seq
Tw44 –Curve_SA_Inject 50 µl sample
Association.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl Buffer
Dissociation.seq
Tw44 –Curve_SA_Inject 50 µl sample
Regeneration.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl Buffer Back
to Baseline.seq
Second level of includesequences sets the sample
volume.
Sample volume commands are
the pump aspirate volume and
command
pump
dispense
volume
Table 6 .1; The order of incubation times per sequence.
Tw44 -Curve a full kinetic
plot_SA 35 ul
sample
Tw44 -Curve a full kinetic
plot_SA 50 ul
sample
Tw44 -Curve a full kinetic
plot_SA
adjustable
volume
TW44 -Curve
Baseline
Phase
Tw44 -Curve
Association
phase
Tw44 -Curve
Dissociation
phase
Tw44 -Curve
Regeneration
phase
Tw44 -Curve
Back to Baseline
phase
time
time
time
time
time
end
Sequence:
*.SEQ
Initialization
Include
sequence
Tw44 –
Conserv
ation QA
gold
time
35 ul sample
Wait.Baseline Wait.association Wait.dissociation Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Wait [s]
50 ul sample
Wait.baseline Wait.association Wait.dissociation Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Flexible
sample
volume
Wait [s]
Flexible sample Flexible sample
volume
volume
Flexible
sample
volume
Wait.baseline Wait.association Wait.dissociation Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Wait [s]
Flexible sample Flexible sample
volume
volume
Chapter 6
131
To be able to fill out the “time” tab page in the automation control window, the
knowledge of the sequence to be used is necessary. This knowledge can be
gained by opening the sequence in the sequence editor window and reading
the sequence. The table below shows sequences and their order of time
commands used in measurements. The SPRINGLE sequences use the same
set of incubation time commands!
6.5.6.2 –
The interaction plot sequence.
Figure 6.
6 .8 A. – Twingle list
l ist of interaction experiment
experiment sequences.
sequences.
The interaction plot sequence is an almost exact copy of the sequence called
“Tw44 -Curve- a full kinetic plot.seq”. The only difference is the absence of
the dissociation phase. This sequence can be used if the dissociation
constant is not of interest, like for affinity constant or for qualitative results.
Figure 6.
6 .8 B.–
B. – Springle list
l ist of interaction experiment sequences.
sequences.
For the SPRINGLE the Sp44- Curve –SA_Interaction plot-50µl sample.seq
sequence is the main sequence from which the other sequence is generated.
For the explanation of the automation the Twingle has been used as an
example. The Springle has the same setup.
To be able to fill out the “time” tab page in the automation control window, the
knowledge of the sequence to be used is necessary. This knowledge can be
gained by opening the sequence in the sequence editor window and reading
the sequence. The table below shows sequences and their order of time
commands used in measurements.
Automation
132
TW44 –Curve - Interaction plot - 50ul
sample.seq
Main sequence.
Tw44 -Curve - Baseline phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Association phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Regeneration phase.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Back to Baseline
phase.seq
Include-sequences
main sequence.
Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl Buffer
Baseline.seq
Tw44 –Curve_SA_Inject 50 µl sample
Association.seq
Tw44 –Curve_SA_Inject 50 µl sample
Regeneration.seq
Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl Buffer Back
to Baseline.seq
Second
level
sequences.
inside
of
the
include-
Table
Table 6 .2; The order of incubation times per sequence.
Tw44 -Curve Interaction plot_SA 35 ul
sample
Tw44 -Curve Interaction plot_SA 50 ul
sample
Tw44 -Curve Interaction plot_SA
adjustable volume
Tw44 -Curve
Baseline
Phase
Tw44 -Curve
Association
phase
Tw44 -Curve
Regeneration
phase
Tw44 -Curve
Back to Baseline
phase
time
time
time
time
end
Sequence: *.SEQ
Initialization
Include
sequence
Tw44 –
Conserv
ation QA
gold
time
35 ul sample
Wait.Baseline Wait.association Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Wait [s]
50 ul sample
Wait.baseline Wait.association Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Flexible
sample
volume
Wait [s]
Flexible sample
volume
Flexible
sample
volume
Wait.baseline Wait.association Wait.regeneration
Wait.interval.1[s]
[s]
[s]
[s]
Wait [s]
Flexible sample
volume
Flexible sample
volume
Chapter 6
6.5.6.3 –
133
The inject sequence
Figure 6 . 9 – The inject sequence.
sequence .
There are two ways to start these sequences, by using the sequence editor
window and by using the inject button in the toolbar. See paragraph 5.7.3
inject. It will inject one sample from one position and start the measurement
with an incubation time ’Wait [s]’ (=60). The inject sequence has the “Wait
[s]” command in its sequence. So, the incubation time has to be changed in
the sequence itself. To change the time (or any other item between brackets),
double click on the command and in the edit part of the window the
command with its value to be changed, is shown. Whenever the “Wait[s] has
been changed in one of the other “Wait.xxxx [s]” commands, the inject
sequence can also be executed via the Automation window.
The toolbar button inject (icon) will activate the Customize - Inject window. In
this window a sequence can be chosen and the measurement time in the
inject sequence can be specified. The incubation time wait [s] as specified in
the sequence will be overruled by this specified measurement time.
6.5.6.4 –
The stabilization sequences.
sequences .
These types of sequences have all the incubation command ‘wait [s]’ to be
filled out in the sequence editor. These sequences are used to generate a
stable baseline before the experiment starts. The only difference between
these sequences is the physical positions for the solutions used.
Automation
134
Figure 6 . 10 – List of stabilization
stabilization sequences.
sequences .
6.5.6.5 –
include-The main immobilization sequence with all of its include
sequences.
Figure 6.
6 .11 – The imobilization
imobilization sequences
sequence s.
The immobilization sequence is used to immobilize a ligand on the modified
gold surface. The sequence in combination with the automation control
Chapter 6
135
window will perform a chemically covalent binding using the EDC/NHS
strategy. For other immobilization techniques, new sequences need to be
written.
For the explanation of the automation the Twingle has been used as an
example. The Springle has the same setup.
Tw44–Immobilization_SA 50µl samples.SEQ
Main sequence.
Tw44-Immobilization
Baseline
with
Coupling Buffer.SEQ
Tw44–Immobilization_SA 50 µl mixture EDCFirst level of includesequences. IncludeNHS for activation step.SEQ
Tw44–Immobilization_SA Ligand Coupling sequences inside the main
sequence.
step.SEQ
Tw44–Immobilization_SA Ethanol Amine
Deactivation Step.SEQ
Tw44-Immobilization - Regeneration Cleaning Step.SEQ
Tw44-Immobilization - inject 50µl Baseline
Coupling Buffer.SEQ
The include-sequence inside
the above sequence sets the
sample volume.
Remark;
Instead of a long EDC/NHS activation time, it is better to have multiple
incubation times with refreshed EDC/NHS solutions. For this the sequence
needs two extra commands line. The include sequence “Tw44–
Immobilization_SA 50 µl mixture EDC-NHS for activation step » needs a
“Loop.Begin;Repeat=3” up front and the command “Loop.End” thereafter.
6.5.7 – The semisemi-automatic sequences.
sequences .
In a semi-automatic sequence, the sample is introduced manually to the
needles/pipette. The sample has to be presented manually to the pipette tip
at the lift “up” position. In this position a sample vial can be put under the
needles/pipette. The sample can be aspirated from the vial and dispensed
into the cuvette. The semi-automatic sequences can be recognized by the
abreviation SA (semi automatic) in the sequence name, for example “Tw44 Curve - a full kinetic plot_SA 50µl sample.seq “
Two basic commands in the sequence make the experiment semiautomated;
1. Lift.Up in combination with Lift.Down
2. Message.Alert =[]
136
Automation
With the Lift.Up command the needle/pipette tip have direct access for a
sample in a vial. The Message.Alert command the experiment stops the
sequence and shows a “message box” window. The message shown has
been written in the sequence, like….
Figure 6 .12 – Example of the sequence message alert box.
box.
With the “continue” button, the sequence proceeds to aspirate the sample
from the vial. A new message alert will pop up and request to remove the
vial. Then after clicking the “continue” button the sequence will proceed with
the experiment and start to measure.
Figure 6.
6 .13 – An example of a sequence where the message alert has
been used.
Chapter 6
137
6.5.8 – Writing a sequence.
sequence.
This section explains how to create a sequence to measure a binding curve.
For the explanation of the automation the Twingle has been used as an
example. The Springle has the same setup.
Basic routines of a binding curve:1. baseline (buffer)
2. association phase (analyte)
3. dissociation phase (buffer)
4. regeneration phase (regeneration
solution)
5. baseline (buffer)
Every phase is written as an include-sequence. A commonly used includesequence is the Parameters.seq. This sequence defines the measurement
variables; flow speed, mix volume and measurement interval. Before starting
a measurement it is advised to set the syringes in the home position and to
specify all parameters.
Be careful not to contaminate the buffer in the tubing or syringes with sample,
always use 50 µl of air between buffer in the needle/pipette tip tubing and
sample.
Sequence order;
- Define
measurement
variables
- Measures baseline
- Baseline time
- Define sample position
►
[PARAMETER.seq]
►
[Tw44 -Curve -Baseline phase.seq]
Wait.baseline[s]
Sample.Move.To.Sample[],
or Sampler.Next.⇒ If ready then step [])
[Tw44 –Curve_SA Association phase.
SEQ]
Wait.association[s]
[Tw44 -Curve -Dissociation phase.seq]
Wait.dissociation[s]
[Tw44
–Curve_SA
Regeneration
phase.seq]
Wait regeneration[s]
[Tw44 -Curve -Back to Baseline
phase.seq
[END.seq]
[Tw44 -Conservation quality of gold
disk]
►
►
►
►
-
Inject sample and
measure
Association time
Dissociate complex
Dissociation time
Regenerate surface
-
Regeneration time
Wash cuvette
►
-
End
Conservation gold
►
-
►
►
►
►
►
►
The measurement variables can either be defined in the sequence itself, or
as a sequence variable that is defined in the automation window. Below an
example of the sequence “Tw44 -Curve – a full kinetic plot_SA 50µl
sample.seq” is explained.
138
Automation
Syringe starts in default middle position.
- Lines 4,5,67; set syringe pumps to middle
- Line 9; Cleans the DA window
- Line 11; fills/wash needle/pipette tip and
peristaltic tubing;
- Lines 19,20; max. aspiration volume to fill up
the 500ul syringe barrel.
- Lines 26,27; Dispenses volume to clean the
needle/pipette tip and cuvette.
- Lines 31,32; dispense 50 µl on the gold
surface
- Line 36; will put the syringe to middle
position
- Lines 38,39 together with 42 and 45 aspirate
50 µl air into the needle/pipette tip.
SPECIALS, lines 7, 28, 37, 46 The command
to the valve of the syringe is used to let the
syringe finish its aspirate or dispense
actions, before going to the next step in the
sequence/experiment.
The basic measurement routine is defined in a
loop (line 42 till line 274), which is repeated 1
times.
Lines 48-58 define all parameters for the
measurements, which is also done by
Line 59 which is linked to the automation
window parameters,
The baseline include sequence
Lines 76,77; flush 125 µl buffer over the gold
Lines 80,81; define the baseline sample
volume
Lines 84,85; take up 50 µl of air
Lines 88-97
A measurement has a fixed set of commands;
- start mixing, line 88
- start the measurement, line 90
- update/Add.Event.Item[], line 91
- update SPR, line 93
- incubation time, line 94
- end the measurement, line 96
- stop mixing, line 97
SPECIALS, lines 68, 78, 82, 86, the syringe
finish its aspirate or dispense actions, before
going
to
the
next
step
in
the
sequence/experiment.
Chapter 6
139
Line 98-107;
The include sequence has been written to be
sure that the needle will have no sample left
from previous actions.
Lines 108 to 123 were discussed in figure
5.13.
- Line 108; The needle/pipette tip is
accessible to put a vial underneath
- Line 115, 117; Stop the experiment to put
the vial underneath the needle/pipette tip
- Line 116, 118; Aspirate the sample from the
vial
- Line 119; Stops the experiment to give time
to remove the vial from under the
needle/pipette tip
- Line 120-122; to drain away any solution on
top of the gold before the next sample will
be dispensed,
Lines 127 – 134; The fixed set of commands
to perform the measurement.
SPECIALS, lines 101, 107, 126; The syringe
finish its aspirate or dispense actions, before
going
to
the
next
step
in
the
sequence/experiment.
Line 136; Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl buffer
dissociation;
The time involves about 10 seconds before
measurement starts. Replace this include
sequence with a different file if this takes to
long for the current application.
- Lines 150,151; flush 450 µl buffer to wash
away the analyte,
- Line 154, 155; dispense the buffer sample
to measure the dissociation
- Lines 156,157,159,160,161 to put the
syringe in the middle position
- Lines 163,164, 170,171; aspirate 50 µl air.
This to prevent contamination of the buffer
in the tubing with the sample in the cuvette
Lines 174 to 181; The fixed set of commands
to perform the measurement.
Line 182; The include sequence has been
written to be sure that the needle will have no
sample left from previous actions.
SPECIALS, lines 152,162,172
140
Automation
Line 182; The include sequence has been
written to be sure that the needle will have no
sample left from previous actions.
Lines 192 to 215 are similar to as lines 108126.
- Line 192; The needle/pipette tip is
accessible to put a vial underneath
- Line 199, 201; Stop the experiment to put
the vial underneath the needle/pipette tip
- Line 200, 202; Aspirate the sample from the
vial
- Line 203; Stops the experiment to give time
to remove the vial from under the
needle/pipette tip
- Line 204,205,212; to drain away any
solution on top of the gold before the next
sample will be dispensed,
Lines 216 – 224; The fixed set of commands
to perform the measurement.
SPECIALS, lines 211, 215 The syringe
finishes its aspirate or dispense actions,
before going to the next step in the
sequence/experiment.
- Lines 225,272; Define a loop (2x) for
measuring the baseline twice.
- Lines 231 249; Define a loop (2x) to wash the
gold twice.
- Line 227; Tw44 -Curve - Inject 50 µl buffer
back to baseline;
Aspirates 500ul buffer from flask to wash the
needles with 500ul and subsequently 50 µl is
used for the incubation.
The
loop
will repeat
this
procedure
- Lines
241,242;
flush
450µl
buffer to2x.
wash
away the analyte,
- Lines 245, 246; the buffer sample to measure
the dissociation
- Lines 247,248,250 to put the syringe in the
middle position
- Lines 252,253, 259,260; aspirate 50 µl air.
This to prevent contamination of the buffer in
the tubing with the sample in the cuvette
Lines 263 to 271; The fixed set of commands to
perform the measurement.
SPECIALS, lines 243, 251, 261 The syringe
finishes its aspirate or dispense actions, before
going to the next step in the sequence/
experiment.
Chapter 6
141
- Line 273: saves the experiment with a file
name defined in the automation window
- Line 274; finish the experiment
- Line 275; to be sure all actions are stopped
- Lines 285-335; Preserve the quality of the
molecules attached to the gold surface.
- Lines 295,296; flush 150µl buffer to wash the
surface,
- Lines 299, 305, drain away the solution from
the gold
- Lines 307,308; the buffer sample to measure
the baseline
- Lines 311; aspirate 50 µl air. This to prevent
contamination of the buffer in the tubing with
the sample in the cuvette
Every hour the solution will be replace by a
new fresh solution
- Line 329; 1 hour of incubation
- Line 326,333; wait 10 seconds to measure the
SPR signal
- Lines 287,335; 72 repeats of this procedure,
cover 72 hours of conserving the gold
surface.
Automation
142
Chapter 7
7 – Automation
7.1 – Index.
Chapter 7 ..................................................................................................... 142
7 – Automation ............................................................................................. 142
7.1 – Index................................................................................................ 142
7.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 143
7.3 – How to open the Automation Control Window. ................................ 143
7.4 – The Automation control window. ..................................................... 144
Chapter 7
143
7.2 – Introduction
Introduc tion.
tion.
The Automation allows the user to perform measurements semi-automatically,
with customized variables such as times, volumes and other parameters.
Every issue of the automation control window will only be used if the
sequence to be executed has the commands which will be linked to the
automation control window (see chapter 6).
7.3 – How to open the Automation
Auto mation Control Window.
Window.
The automation control window is activated by selecting the automation
button at the tool bar or under menu <options> (Figure 7.1). For the
explanation of the automation the Twingle has been used as an example. The
Springle has the same setup.
Figure 7 .1 – The autosampler control window selection.
selection .
The automation control window consists of a number of selection windows.
• Parameters, times and volumes tab sheets.
• File name.
• Execute button.
Figure 7.2
7 .2 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment.
Automation
144
Although the name of the window suggests the experimental control is
automatic, measurements can only be performed semi-automatic. Whenever
a sample needs to be introduced to the gold surface, this action needs
manually presenting the sample vial to the needles/pipette tips.
7.4 – The Automation control window.
window.
The automation window enables changing parameters, incubation times and
sample volume outside of the sequence editor. Specific sequence
commands are linked to a typical box that can be filled out in the Automation
window.
The sequencer command “Automation.Load.Parameter.Set =[1-4]” will look
for the parameters settings filled out in the parameters TAB sheet (figure 6.2).
With the button EDIT, a new window “System parameters” pops up. Within
this window every item can be adjusted. The settings will be used for the
experiment and loaded into the sequence whenever the command line
“Automation.Load.Parameters.Set = [1-4]” is written.
Figure 7 .3 – The EDIT button gives access to these
these settings.
When the desired parameters settings are set, the incubation times can be
adjusted.
Chapter 7
145
Select the “Times” Tab sheet to address the incubation times of the
experiment. Eight different times can be edited. The box to edit depends on
the sequence to be executed. So, the typical “WAIT.xxxxxx [s]” (§6.5.6)
used in the sequence decides which box is necessary to fill out. Tables 6.1
and 6.2 show some examples.
Figure 7 .4 – The automation window with the incubation time TAB sheet
to set up the experiment.
Last but not least, whenever the commands “Automation.Pump.Aspirate” and
“Automation.Pump.Dispense” are used in the sequence, the Tab sheet
Volumes needs to be filled out.
Figure 7 .5 – The automation window with the volumes time TAB sheet to
set up the
the sample volumes of the experiment.
Automation
146
Chapter 8
8 – SPR theory.
theory.
8.1 – Index.
Chapter 8 ..................................................................................................... 146
8 – SPR theory. ............................................................................................ 146
8.1 – Index................................................................................................ 146
8.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 147
8.3 – Surface Plasmon Resonance. ......................................................... 148
8.4 – AUTOLAB Twingle configuration..................................................... 153
8.4.1 – Optics of the Twingle system..................................................... 154
8.4.2 – Sensor........................................................................................ 154
8.4.3 – Cuvette. ..................................................................................... 159
8.4.4 – Liquid handling. ......................................................................... 160
8.5 – SPR methods. .................................................................................. 161
8.5.1 – Introduction................................................................................ 161
8.5.2 – Methods using the SPR disk. ..................................................... 161
8.6 – References. ..................................................................................... 162
Chapter 8
147
8.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
A biosensor is a device that incorporates a biological recognition (sensing)
element in close proximity to, or integrated with the signal transducer, to give
a reagentless sensing system specific to a target compound (analyte).
Transducers are the physical components of the sensor that react to a signal
due to the interaction between the biological sensing element and the target
analyte. Biosensing occurs only when the analyte is recognized specifically
by the biological element. The biological recognition elements can be
divided into two distinct groups: catalytic and non-catalytic. The catalytic
group includes enzymes, micro-organisms and plant or mammalian tissue,
while the non-catalytic or affinity class includes antibodies, receptors, and
nucleic acids. The interaction output can be amplified, stored, or displayed.
The advantage of a biosensor is the label-free detection of the interaction.
The label-free form in most cases is achieved by immobilizing the biological
recognition element. In general, the immobilization matrix may function purely
as a support, or else, it may also be concerned with mediation of the signal
transduction mechanism associated with the analyte. Immobilization
techniques include physical entrapment by an inert membrane,
physical/chemical adsorption, binding to a functionalised support, and
entrapment in an ‘active’ membrane.
Surface Plasmon Resonance is a specific biosensor, a special case of the
interaction of light with matter. SPR signals are related to the refractive index
close to the sensor surface, and are therefore related to the amount of
macromolecules bound to the sensor surface.
Biomolecular interactions are conventionally studied by techniques as
immunoassays (ELISA or RIA), equilibrium dialysis, affinity chromatography
and spectroscopic techniques. The main advantage of SPR over these
techniques to study biomolecular interactions is real-time monitoring of
binding events and label-free detection of macromolecular interactions.
Advantages of the Twingle instrument are the modular-set up, which enables
a flexible design of experiments, and rapid analysis of the interaction plots by
the kinetic evaluation software. Interaction plots will show binding curves of
macromolecular interactions and baseline shifts due to changes in refractive
indices of sample solutions. Information can be obtained from the binding
curves, which include properties like:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Specificity
Concentration
Affinity
Kinetics
Cooperativity
Biocompatibility/coatings
Which molecules interact?
How many molecules are there?
How strong is the interaction?
How fast is the interaction?
Are there any steric/allosteric effects?
How does a molecule interact with a coating?
SPR Theory
148
8.3 – Surface Plasmon Resonance.
Resonance.
Surface plasmons are created by a consistent longitudinal charge fluctuation
at the surface of a metal and typically have their intensity maximum in the
surface and exponentially decaying field perpendicular to it. The surface
plasmon is a p(plane)-polarized surface bound electromagnetic wave
propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric.
Our SPR system measurement principle.
principle .
1-4
Surface plasmon resonance occurs under certain conditions when a thin
film of metal (gold or silver) is placed inside the laser beam. When the
incoming light is monochromatic and p-polarized (i.e. the electric vector
component is parallel to the plane of incidence), the free electrons of the
metal will oscillate and absorb energy at a certain angle of incident light. The
angle of incidence at which SPR occurs is called the SPR angle. SPR is
detected by measurement of the intensity of the reflected light. At the SPR
angle, a sharp decrease or 'dip' in intensity is measured. The position of the
SPR angle depends on the refractive index in the substance with a lowrefractive index, i.e. the sensing surface.
The refractive index of the sensor surface changes upon binding of
macromolecules to the surface. As a result, the SPR wave will change and
therefore the angle will change accordingly. There is a linear relationship
between the amount of bound material and shift in SPR angle5. The SPR
angle shift in millidegrees is used as a response unit to quantify the binding
of macromolecules to the sensor surface. The response also depends on the
refractive index of the bulk solution. A change of 122 millidegrees represents
a change in surface protein of approximately 1 ng/mm2, or in bulk refractive
index of approximately 10-3.
Table 8 .1.
Correlation of SPR parameters
SPR parameters
Equivalent values
SPR angle shift
122 millidegrees
Change in protein surface concentration
1 ng/mm
Change in bulk refractive index
0.001
2
The detection principle limits the size of the analyte, which can be studied. If
the molecular weight of the compound is below 1000 Dalton, then the change
in refractive index upon binding to the sensor surface is too low to be
detected directly. The penetration depth of the evanescent wave of 300-400
nm also determines the size of macromolecules or particles that can be
studied. Particles larger than 400 nm cannot be measured totally. As a result,
the signal is not linearly related to the amount of bound particles. Under
these circumstances it is possible to study the binding qualitatively, but a
quantitative or kinetic analysis cannot be performed.
Chapter 8
149
Background information, history.
history .
Augustin Fresnel presented in 1821-32 theories that, in principle, could have
explained the SPR-phenomenon. James Clark Maxwell presented in 1873 all
theories necessary to model SPR. He introduced the displacement current
and wrote down the relations between the electric and magnetic fields, now
known as the Maxwell’s Equations. Loss of light incident onto a grating was
first observed by R.W. Wood in 1902 while he was studying diffracted
spectra of metallic gratings (Woods anomalies). In 1941 Frano suggested an
excitation of electromagnetic surface waves. Pines and Bohm assumed that
the observed energy losses were due to the excitation of plasma oscillations
or “plasmons” of the conducting electrons (1951). This was in 1957
theoretically explained as Surface Plasmons (SP) by Ritchie. This theory was
confirmed experimentally in reflection studies by Powell and Swan (1959).
Later, Stern and Ferrell, observed “significant effect” on the angle of
incidence at which energy losses occurred (1960). Turbadar presented
experimental results of the SPR-phenomena and showed that it could be
predicted by the thin film theory, 1968. Otto invented the attenuated total
reflection (ATR) method to excite a surface plasmon. Between the prism and
metal layer is a layer with air. In 1971 the method was improved by
Kretschmann by applying a thin metal film directly onto an ATR prism,
denoted the Kretschmann configuration. The Kretschmann configuration is
the most used configuration, which is also the basic configuration of the
Autolab Twingle instrument (Figure 8.3).
Theory.
Theory.
Surface Plasmon Resonance is a physical process, which occurs when light
hits a metal under a special angle position during total internal reflection
conditions.
If a light beam passes the glass of a hemi cylinder prism, its path (angle) is
changed when it leaves the prism into air (beam 1, Figure 8.1). This change
always occurs when light passes through a denser medium into a less dense
medium (or vice versa). At a critical angle of incidence, the light beam (beam
2, Figure 7.1) does not leave the prism, but will be reflected at the interface of
the two media glass and air. This is called total internal reflection.
In the SPR situation we have a replaceable glass disk, coated with a thin
layer of gold, on the hemi-cylinder. Between the disk and the hemi-cylinder is
a thin layer of oil. The refractive index of the hemi-cylinder, the oil and the
disk is the same. In this way the laser light will not bend passing the hemicylinder, the oil and the glass to reach the gold layer. The photons hit the
gold instead of air at the total internal reflection angle.
SPR Theory
150
εair
Legend
Beam 1 is a refracted beam
Beam 2 is a reflected beam
θt
air
εglass
glass
Ι0
Beam 2
Beam 1
θi
Beam 1 Ι = intensity incoming light
O
ΙT ΙR = intensity reflected light
ΙT = intensity refracted light
θr
Ι0
hemi-cylinder
Beam 2
ΙR
θi = angle of incident light
θr = angle of reflected light
θt = angle of refracted light
θi, beam 2 = θr, beam 2
εair= refractive index of air = ε1
εglass = refractive index of glass
= ε2
in general : εair < εglass
Figure 8 .1 – An overview of light beams passing through the hemihemicylinder of glass .
There is a special situation for the photons when a dielectric medium is
placed on top of the gold.
If the dielectric medium has an opposite (or higher) dielectric constant than
gold, the free electrons in the gold will fluctuate. This electron fluctuation
gives charge fluctuations in the metal. The metal layer is very thin and
therefore the charge fluctuations are only taking place at the surface and
cause an electromagnetic surface wave, called surface plasma oscillations
(Ritchie, 1957).
Remarks;
• Definition of plasma; plasma is a medium with equal concentration of
positive and negative charges, of which at least one charge type (e.g.
electron) is mobile (e.g., metal).
•
Metals are conductors of electricity and insulators (like plastics, glass)
are called dielectrics.
All kind of components, liquid, gasses, metals and salts have a
dielectric constant.
•
Electron charge fluctuations are possible in the volume of a plasma
and in its boundary with a dielectric. The SPR situation has only the
boundary electron charge fluctuation, because the metal layer is very
thin.
Chapter 8
•
151
In physics photons and electrons are described as waves and
particles properties. A plasmon is the particle name for the electron
density waves.
Dielectric ambient medium = sample, air, …= εa
Evanescent
field
Z
Z
Ez=0
KSP
++
• • •
+++
• • •
++
EZ
Dielectric plasma = metal = Au, Ag, Cu,… = εm
Figure 8 .2 – Electron fluctuation.
fluctuation .
Electron fluctuations give rise to a surface plasmon wave.
The generated evanescent
evan escent field energy is maximum on the surface
and decaying exponentially in the Z direction.
When light hits the gold at a certain angle of incidence, the energy of the
photon can interact with the free fluctuating electron in the gold surface. In
general the electromagnetic wave phenomenon, surface plasmon, can be
excited by the fields of charged particles and photons. In our case, the
surface plasmon is excited by photons. This is called surface plasmon
resonance.
Therefore, when in the total internal reflection situation the energy of the light
is ideal (SPR situation) and the photons are converted to (resonating)
plasmons there will be (almost) no reflected light to detect by the detector.
Plotting the light intensity versus angle of incidence will give a dip at the
specific SPR angle.
SPR Theory
152
Bare gold disk
evanescent field
sample
gold layer
glass
immersion oil
hemi-cylinder
ϕ
SPR
laser beam
detector
“dip”
angle
Figure 8 .3 – Kretschmann configuration;
configuration ; special is the oil between
hemihemi-cylinder and gold disk.
A incoming light beam is being reflected and detected by the detector. At a
certain angle the reflected light intensity is decreased, at this point the
Surface Plasmon Resonance effect occurs.
Figure 8 .4 – Slider with hemihemi-cylinder.
cylinder.
Chapter 8
153
8.4 – AUTOLAB Twingle configuration.
configuration.
The Autolab Twingle is configured as a flexible instrument controlled by a
computer that can be configured to individual needs. It is mainly composed
of three parts (Figure 8.5):
Optics
Surface Plasmon Resonance is generated by vibrating
mirror optics
Sensor
One gold-coated glass surface can be installed as sensor.
The cuvette separates two areas to monitor two
macromolecular interactions at the same time.
Liquid handling The instrument is equipped with a continuously mixed
cuvette
Channel 1
Channel 2
polarisation
filter
Syringe pumps
scanner
laser
2 needles
cuvette
Gold
drain
diode
peristaltic
detector
pump
lens
mirror
Hemi-cylinder
OPTICAL
Waste
flask
Buffer
flask
spindle
retaining
screw
Figure 8 .5 – Schematic picture of the TWINGLE configuration.
configuration.
154
SPR Theory
8.4.1 – Optics of the Twingle system.
system .
The intensity of the reflected light (p-polarized with a wave length of 670
nanometer) is measured over a range of 4000 millidegrees. A scanning
mirror with a frequency of 76 Hertz is used to obtain an angle scan of 4000
millidegrees in approximately 13 milliseconds. The SPR angle of a buffer
solution can be fixed manually by a spindle with an offset SPR angle of 62°78° degrees, which corresponds to a refractive index range of 1.33-1.43 of
the sensor surface. The SPR angle scan is performed around the manually
fixed SPR position.
The optical reflectance of incident light at different angles around the fixed
SPR angle for a buffer solution is measured, while the laser beam is kept at
2
one spot of the sensor surface of approximately 2 mm . This is accomplished
by applying cylindrical optics. A half cylinder is used as a prism for the
optical contact with the sensor surface. The optics are designed in such a
way that a parallel light beam will be inside the half cylinder while scanning.
The function of the cylindrical lens is two-fold. It projects the rotating axis of
the vibrating mirror at the centre of the hemi-cylinder and compensates its
converging effect.
The advantage of the Twingle optical configuration is that unwanted defects
in the ligand specific layer will be averaged and artefacts due to spatial
inhomogeneties are eliminated. The optical configuration results in an accurate,
reproducible and sensitive detection.
In the vibrating mirror set-up7, the angular shift is measured for a non-coated
gold sensor surface with a resolution of approximately 0.05 millidegrees (m°),
corresponding to a refractive index resolution of approximately 1*10-5. For a
coated gold sensor surface, the angular shift is measured with a resolution of
approximately 0.1 millidegrees (m°).
8.4.2 –
Sensor.
Sensor.
Desirable features of the sensor surface for the study of macromolecular
interactions are:
• A rapid, simple and reproducible immobilization technique
• Stability and retained biological activity of the immobilized
biomolecules
• Low non-specific interaction
• Facilities for regeneration after use
• Flexibility in design of coatings for polymer-macromolecule
interactions
• Possibilities to detect particles as viruses, bacteria and cells
These features cannot be combined in one sensor surface. For this reason,
ESPR measurements can be performed using many different sensor
surfaces. Measurements can be performed using a disk covered either with a
bare gold layer or with a disk covered with one of the many options of
modified gold layers.
Chapter 8
155
The disk contains a gold layer of approximately 50 nm and is used to study
interactions of coatings with macromolecules, and to study the interactions of
large particles as viruses, bacteria and cells to coated proteins. A modified
gold layer disk can be bought but also made with help of an Autolab
spincoater. For example a thin film of polymer can be easily attached to the
gold surface by the use of an Autolab spincoater.
An example of a commercially available modified gold disk is the dextran
hydrogel modification. The hydrogel covering the gold surface of the sensor
chip is composed of non-cross-linked carboxymethylated dextran, attached
to the gold molecules via a thiol linker layer8. Dextran is a linear polymer of
glucose units, which possesses very low non-specific adsorption of
biomolecules. The dextran on the sensor chip is carboxymethylated, with a
composition of one carboxyl group per glucose residue. Three purposes are
achieved by the modification of dextran:
•
Incorporation of a functional group for immobilization procedures of
biomolecules
•
Negatively charged polymer at physiological pH values, which allows
positively charged biomolecules to adsorb electrostatically to the
dextran layer under conditions of low ionic strength
•
Enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the dextran layer by incorporation
of carboxymethyl groups
Biomolecules can be immobilized by reaction with activated carboxymethyl
functional groups of the dextran layer. Two functional groups of the ligand
can be used for the immobilization. Ligands are coupled by amine functional
groups or by thiol functional groups9.
The dextran coating is very suitable to study a variety of macromolecular
interactions. It is especially useful in the determination of kinetic parameters
or antibody concentration. Three methods are used to couple ligands:
•
Immobilization of the ligand to the dextran layer. The ligand is coupled
covalent either by amine functional groups or by thiol functional
groups to the dextran layer.
Immobilization by amine functional groups of ligands is performed in
three steps:
1. reaction of carboxymethyl groups with a mixture of Nhydroxysuccinimide
(NHS)
and
N-ethyl-N'(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodimide (EDC) to obtain an active
NHS ester
2. reaction of the activated ester with primary amine functional
groups of the ligand for a covalent ligand-hydrogel bond
3. deactivation of excess activated ester groups with ethanolamine
•
Non-covalent binding of biotinylated ligand to a streptavidinimmobilized gold disk. Due to the severe biotin-streptavidin
interaction, it is possible to regenerate the surface without disrupting
156
SPR Theory
the non-covalent biotin-streptavidin bond. This method is suitable to
couple synthetic DNA molecules to the surface.
•
Immobilization of capturing antibodies. Capturing antibodies are used
when the activity of antibodies is reduced by the immobilization
procedure. Detection of antigens is achieved in three steps. Firstly,
immobilization of the capturing antibody (for example anti-Rabbit Anti
Mouse-Fc). Secondly, binding of the second antibody (a mouse
antibody) by the capturing antibody. Thirdly, specific binding of the
antigen by the second antibody. Regeneration of the surface will
usually break all non-covalent interactions.
These methods have been used to study biomolecular interactions
intensively. Examples of biomolecular interactions are mentioned here:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Peptide-antibody interaction18
Peptide-MHC interaction19
Protein-antibody interaction, epitope mapping20
Protein-DNA interaction21
Protein-polysaccharide interaction22
Protein-virus interaction23
Protein-cell interaction24
Protein-T cell receptor interaction25
Antibody-antibody interaction, capturing antibody26
DNA-DNA interaction27
The activated NHS-ester reacts with uncharged primary amino groups of
biomolecules. This means that the reaction rate is favoured by high pH
values of the buffer.
The reaction can only occur if the ligand is available for reaction, i.e. when it
is inside the dextran layer. This is achieved by pre-concentration of the
ligand. Positively charged biomolecules adsorb electrostatically to the
negatively charged dextran layer by pre-concentration. Consequently, the
ligand buffer should be lower than the isoelectric point (pI) of the ligand.
A compromise for pH values should be chosen for ligand solutions to fulfil the
pre-concentration condition and the reaction rate condition for ligands.
Chapter 8
157
O
Step 1:
HO N
N
O
C OH + C
H
R1
N
R1
O
C O C
O
O
O
R2
R2
Step 2:
+
H2N-R
O
C N R +
H
N
+
C O N
N
N
H
O
R1
O
C
N
H
R2
O
HO N
O
Step 3:
O
C O N
O
+ H2NCH2CH2OH
O
With
O
C N CH2CH2O + HO N
H
O
O
R1 = -CH2CH3
⊕
R2 = -CH2CH2CH2N H(CH3)2Cl
R = biomolecule
Immobilization by thiol functional groups of ligands is performed by a thiol
coupling reagent:
1. activation of carboxymethyl groups to an NHS ester by EDC/NHS
chemistry
2. reaction with 2-(2-pyridinyldithio)ethaneamine (PDEA) to introduce
reactive disulfide bridges
3. reaction of disulfide bridges with thiol ligand groups
4. deactivation of excess disulfides with cysteine
158
SPR Theory
Step 1:
O
H
R1
C OH + C
N
O
C O C
N
N
O
N
R1
HO N
O
O
N
+
C O N
R1
C O
N
O
R2
R2
H
O
H
R2
Step 2:
O
O
C O N
+
O
O
C N CH2CH2S
H S
SSCH2NH2
N
O
N
+
HO N
O
Step 3:
O
C N CH2CH2S N
H S
O
C N CH2CH2S R +
H S
+ HS-R
N S
H
Step 4:
O
C N CH2CH2S
H S
H
N + HSCH2CCO2H
NH2
O
C
H
N CH2CH2SSCH2CCO2H
H
NH2
Chapter 8
159
8.4.3 – Cuvette.
Cuvette.
Figure 8 .6 – The Electrochemical
SPR Cuvette.
Cuvette . With working (WE),
reference (RE) and counter (CE)
electrode connections .
Figure 8 .7 – The normal SPR
Cuvette.
Cuvette . Each pipette tip has an
individual channel.
The cuvette limits the physical parameters for the reaction volume and
position of the reaction on the gold layer. The disk (Eco Chemie B.V.
standard supplied bare gold disk) and the sensor chip (Biacore supplied
gold disk) should be installed onto different sliders (Figure 8.4). In essence,
the cuvette is a multi-parameter controllable batch reactor, in which binding
events take place at the bottom, at the sensor surface. To prevent
concentration differences in the cuvette during measurements, the instrument
is equipped with a controllable automatic aspirate-dispense mixing needle. A
syringe is constantly aspirating and dispensing buffer into the cuvette during
measurements to obtain reproducible hydrodynamic conditions. The
hydrodynamic parameters of the cuvette are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mix volume
speed or frequency of mixing
distance of the pipette tip to the sensor surface
volume of the solution in the cuvette
diameter of the cuvette
geometry of the needle
viscosity of the solution
temperature of the solution
Physical transport phenomena will determine how fast the biomolecular
transport from a solution to the surface will be. Mass transport limitations
160
SPR Theory
arise when the concentration of analyte at the sensor surface is lower than
the total sample concentration. In the ESPR cuvette system, the mass
transport to the surface is highly increased by the aspirate-dispense mixing
process, which is a process according to the dynamic free wall-jet principle10.
During a mixing cycle of set volume and set speed, the solution is aspirated
from the cuvette. Normally, half the volume that is present in the cuvette will
be aspirated followed by a dispense action. During the dispense action, a jet
of the sample solution can be forced to flow into the diffusion layer of the
surface. As a result, the mass transport can be increased enormously.
The cuvette is connected to a pump to drain the cuvette and to a pump to
wash the cuvette.
8.4.4 – Liquid handling.
handling .
For fully automated measurements, the needles connected to the
autosampler will aspirate and dispense all solutions. The autosampler is
controlled by the Data Acquisition software. The liquid handling circuit is
shown in Figure 8.8.
Needle
Channel 2
To needle
To buffer
Syringe
Pump 1
Syringe
pump 2
Needle
Channel 1
cuvette
gold layer
prism
half cylinder
diode
detector
drain
peristaltic
pump
Waste
flask
Buffer
flask
Figure 8 .8 – Schematic picture of the instrument.
instrument .
Two threethree -way valves, the pump 1 valve (channel 1) and the pump 2
valve (channel 2) determine
de termine the liquid
liq uid handling. One peristaltic
pump is used for draining and washing.
Chapter 8
161
8.5 – SPR methods.
methods .
8.5.1 – Introduction.
Introduction.
Two approaches are available to study macromolecular interactions with the
biosensor. The interactions can be studied directly or indirectly. Direct
measurements monitor the binding of analytes with immobilized or coated
ligands. A direct measurement can be performed in multiple steps. i.e.
sequential binding of two or more components. If the molecular weight of an
analyte is too low for detection, direct measurements are not possible.
In that case, binding of the analyte can be determined by an indirect
measurement. Before a high molecular weight analyte is added to the
immobilized or coated ligand, the binding sites are blocked by preincubation with a low molecular weight compound. The blocked analyte is
not able to bind the ligand anymore, and therefore the binding curve will
disappear partially or totally. With indirect measurements, the response is
related to the amount of unblocked analyte and thereby to the amount of
'blocker' added during pre-incubation.
In an indirect measurement, two components compete with each other in a
parallel process, and not in a serial process as in multiple direct
measurements. The serial and parallel interaction processes can be
combined freely. Direct and indirect measurements can be performed with
the SPR disk and the sensor chip.
An important possibility of SPR is the determination of kinetic parameters of
biomolecular interactions and determination of analyte concentrations. It is
possible to separate kinetic measurements from concentration
measurements. Consequently, kinetic measurements can be performed with
non-purified analyte samples. These determinations will be explained in
chapter 3 and4, together with an explanation of the kinetic evaluation
software.
Methods for SPR measurements of the disk and the sensor chip are different,
and are therefore summarized separately in the rest of this section.
8.5.2 – Methods using the SPR disk.
disk .
Measurements can be performed with sensor surfaces of bare gold or
polymer coated sensor surfaces.
Bare gold surfaces:
• Macromolecular interaction measurements can be performed by
coating the ligand electrostatically to the surface, followed by adding
the analyte. After coating, a blocking compound is usually necessary
to prevent a-specific interactions. This method is especially suitable for
detection of large particles as cells and viruses11.
162
SPR Theory
•
Biomolecular
interaction
measurements
with
biotinylated
macromolecules12,13. First, the gold sensor surface is coated with biotin,
followed by binding with streptavidin. Then, biotinylated molecules are
allowed to bind with unoccupied binding sites of streptavidin
(stoichiometry streptavidin-biotin interaction is 1:4). Finally, binding of
the analyte can be measured.
•
Biomolecular interaction measurements with thiol containing
compounds. Gold interacts with sulfur14. By applying this property for
peptides, self-assembled receptor layers were developed15.
•
Direct measurement of low molecular weight compounds by response
enhancement with latex particles. Low molecular weight compounds
can be attached to carboxy modified latex by a carbodiimide coupling
reaction16,17. Direct binding of low molecular weight compounds
coupled to latex particles can be determined using a coated ligand at
the sensor surface.
Polymer coated surfaces:
• A thin film of 20-30 nm, of the polymer also used for ELISA microtiter
plates, can be attached to the gold surface of the SPR disk by
spincoating. ELISA methods can be used to study biomolecular
interactions with the polymer-coated gold surface.
•
Latex coating. Latex particles can be immobilized with ligand by a
carbodiimide coupling reaction16,17. The latex particles can be coated
on the SPR disk, resulting in a biospecific latex layer covering the
sensor surface. An advantage of this layer is that total regeneration of
the gold surface is possible with a sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)
buffer solution.
8.6 – References.
References .
1. Kooyman, R.P.H., H. Kolkman, J. van Gent, and J. Greve. 1988.
Surface
Plasmon
Resonance
immunosensors:
sensitivity
considerations, Anal. Chim. Acta, 213: 35-45.
2. Raether, H. 1977. In: Physics of Thin Films, 9: 145, Eds. G. Hass,
M.H. Francombe, R.W. Hoffman. Academic Press, New York.
3. Liedberg, B., C. Nylander, and I. Lundström. 1983. Surface
Plasmon Resonance for gas detection and biosensing. Sensors and
Actuators, 4: 299-304.
4. Welford, K.
K 1991. Surface plasmon-polaritons and their uses. Opt.
Quant. Electronics, 23: 1-27.
5. Stenberg, E., B. Persson, H. Roos, and C. Urbaniczky. 1991.
Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with
Chapter 8
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
163
Surface Plasmon Resonance using radio-labelled proteins. J. Coll.
Interface Sci. 143: 513-526.
Kretschmann, E. 1971. The determination of the optical constants of
metals by excitation of surface plasmons. Z. Physik, 241: 313-324.
Lenferink,
Len ferink, A.T.M., R.P.H. Kooyman, and J. Greve. 1991. An
improved optical method for Surface Plasmon Resonance
experiments. Sensors and Actuators B, 3: 261-265.
Johnson, B., S. Lofas, and G. Lindquist. 1991. Immobilization of
proteins to a carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface for
biospecific interaction analysis in Surface Plasmon Resonance
sensors. Anal. Biochem. 198: 268-277.
O'Shannessy, D.J., M. BrighamBrigham -Burke, and K. Peck. 1992.
Immobilization chemistries suitable for use in the BIAcore Surface
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Glaubert, M.B. 1956. The wall jet. J. Fluid. Mech. 1: 625-643.
Taylor, D.M., H. Morgan, and C. D'Silva. Characterisation of
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Morgan, H., and D.M. Taylor. 1992b. A Surface Plasmon Resonance
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Morgan, H., D.M. Taylor, and C. D'Silva. 1992 a. Surface Plasmon
Resonance studies of chemisorbed biotin-streptavidin multilayers. Thin
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Bain, C.D., and G.M. Whitesides. 1987. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
28: 506-512.
Van den Heuvel, D.J., R.P.H. Kooyman, J.W. Drijfhout, and G.W.
Welling. 1993. Synthetic Peptides as Receptors in Affinity Sensors: A
Feasibility Study. Anal. Biochem. 215:
215 223-230.
Stavros, J.V., R.W. Wright, and D.M. Single. 1986. Enhancement by
N-hydroxysulfsuccinimide of water-soluble carbodiimide-mediated
coupling reactions. Anal. Biochem. 156: 220-222.
Rich, D.H., and J. Singh. 1979. The carbodiimide method. The
peptides, 1: 241-261.
Altschuh, D., M.M. -C. Dubs, E. Weiss, G. ZederZeder-Lutz, and M.H.V. Van
Regenmortel. 1992. Determination of kinetic constants for the
interaction between a monoclonal antibody and peptides using
surface plasmon resonance. Biochemistry 31: 6298-6304.
Corr, M., Boyd, L.F. Frankel, S.R., S. Kozlowski, E.A. Padlan, D. H.
Marulies. 1992. Endogenous peptides of a soluble major
histocompatibility complex class I molecule, H-2L: sequence motif,
quantitative binding, and molecular modelling of the
complex. J. Exp. Med. 176: 1681-1692.
Dubs, M..M.. -C., D. Altschuh, and M.H.V. van Regenmortel. 1992.
Mapping of viral epitopes with conformationally specific monoclonal
antibodies using biosensor technology. J. Chromatography, 597: 391396.
Bondeson, K., Å. FrostellFrostell-Karlsson, L. Fägerstam, and G.
Magnusson. 1993. Lactose repressor-operator DNA interactions:
164
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
SPR Theory
Kinetic analysis by a Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor. Anal.
Biochem. 214: 245-251.
Mach, H., D.B. Volkin, C.J. Burke, C.R. Middaugh, R.J. Linhardt,
J.R. Fromm, D. Longanathan, and L. Mattson. 1993. Nature of the
interaction of heparin with acidic fibroblast growth factor.
Biochemistry, 32: 5480-5489.
Dubs, M.M. -C., D.
D. Altschuh, and M.H.V. van Regenmortel. 1991.
Interaction between viruses and monoclonal antibodies studied by
surface plasmon resonance. Immunol. Let. 31: 59-64.
Watts, H.J., and C.R. Lowe. 1994. Optical biosensors for monitoring
microbial cells. Anal. Chem. 66: 2465-2470.
BrighamBrigham -Burke, M., J.R. Edwards, and D.J. O'Shannessy. 1992.
Detection of receptor-ligand interactions using surface plasmon
resonance: model studies employing the HIV-1 gp 120/CD4
interaction. Anal. Biochem. 205: 125-131.
Johne, B., M. Gadnell, and K. Hansen. 1993. Epitope mapping and
binding kinetics of monoclonal antibodies studied by real time
biospecific interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance. J.
Immunol. Methods, 160: 191-198.
Wood, S.J. 1993. DNA-DNA hybridisation in real-time using BIAcore.
Microbiochem. J. 47: 330-337
Chapter 9
165
Chapter 9
9 – Maintenance.
Maintenance.
9.1 – Index.
Chapter 9 ..................................................................................................... 165
9 – Maintenance. ......................................................................................... 165
9.1 – Index................................................................................................ 165
9.2 – Introduction. .................................................................................... 166
9.3 – Storage of SPR disk and sensor chip. ............................................. 166
9.4 – Optics. ............................................................................................. 166
9.5 – Routine inspections. ........................................................................ 167
9.6 – Replacing syringe and piston.......................................................... 167
166
Maintenance
9.2 – Introduction.
Introduction.
In this chapter, the regular maintenance procedure is described.
During maintenance wear gloves, use clean lens paper and ultra pure
cleaning solutions. If the instrument is contaminated with biohazards (like
bacteria or viruses), disconnect all devices of the instrument that are
exposed to the biohazard and clean them with the right cleaning agents for
that biohazard. If any doubts exist about the cleaning procedure, please
contact the local distributor.
9.3 – Storage of SPR disk and sensor chip.
chip .
There are three recommended procedures to store a disk or sensor chip:
•
•
•
In the instrument during a relatively short period, e.g. until the next day.
Store it in buffer with the lowest deactivating behaviour. If the immobilized
biomolecules can resist distilled water, this is preferred. Otherwise, an
ammonium carbonate buffer may be used, because the salts of the buffer
will evaporate. In order to reduce the evaporation of the solution from the
cuvette, put some Parafilm on the cuvette.
In the slider during a relatively short period of maximal a week. Wash the
cuvette with distilled water. (Never wash with buffer because salts will dry
and will destroy the coating). Drain the cuvette and disconnect the
cuvette. Remove the slider from the instrument. Place the slider in a
plastic bag and store the slider in the bag in the refrigerator. The plastic
bag is necessary because otherwise moisture will condense on the hemicylinder lens. Let the slider equilibrate at room temperature before
removing the plastic bag (ca 30 minutes). Place the slider with disk or
chip in the holder and place the cuvette.
For storage of biomolecules on the disk or chip for a longer period, first
wash the coating with distilled water to remove the buffer containing salts.
Remove the cuvette and slider from the instrument and remove the disk or
chip from the slider. Place the disk with a pair of tweezers in a storage
box. The sensor chip can be inserted in the sensor chip cover. Place the
sensor chip or disk in a storage box or tube and add some silica gel
bags. Close the box or tube and store it in the refrigerator for a longer
period.
Always check the bioactivity after storing.
9.4 – Optics.
Optics .
•
Make it a routine to check the shape of the SPR-dip with the update SPR
command, in order to verify the right quality of the sensor disk, the
matching of the disk with the hemi-cylinder and the cleanness of the
optics. The possible errors in the SPR-dip check that may occur are
described in chapter 10.
Chapter 9
167
9.5 – Routine inspections.
inspections .
Inspect all visible liquid connections; pump syringes and valves, needles,
drain and wash pump connections. If any leaks are discovered, clean and
tighten the connections or replace tubing and seals if necessary.
Check the piston of the syringe pumps at least once a month. Look for
bacterial growth or salt crystals. Check the tubing of the peristaltic pumps on
signs of wear.
9.6 – Replacing syringe and piston.
piston.
The seal of each syringe should be changed with a minimum of once per
year. Seal lifetime varies according to the application, fluids used and quality
of maintenance. Cleaning the syringe at least once every three months
should extend the lifetime of the seal.
Screw the syringe from the valve port. Screw the piston from the manifold. Fill
a new syringe with distilled water before replacing. Carefully eliminate air
bubbles in the syringe and replace the syringe.
168
Troubleshooting
Chapter 10
10 – Troubles
Troubles hooting.
hooting.
10.1 – Index.
Chapter 10 ................................................................................................... 168
10 – Troubleshooting. .................................................................................. 168
10.1 – Index.............................................................................................. 168
10.2 – Troubleshoot list – general. ........................................................... 169
10.3 – Troubleshoot list - sample handling............................................... 171
10.4 – Troubleshoot list - biochemistry, hydrodynamics, coatings. ......... 172
10.5 – SPR signal problems. .................................................................... 174
Chapter 10
169
The following tables address problems that may be encountered with
common methods of immuno-detection and real-time interaction sensing with
the Autolab Twingle. Typical errors or misinterpretations are also presented.
For serious problems not found in this chapter, please contact the local
distributor.
10.2 – Troubleshoot list – general.
general.
Problem
Possible causes
The entire instrument
is not working.
Fuse defect.
No mains power.
The software is not
working.
The software is not
working in
combination with the
Twingle.
SPR starts, but there
is no initialisation
sound of autosampler
and syringe pumps.
Status bar indicates
“not connected”.
The minimum of the
SPR dip is bad.
Worse than 10% of
the maximum
intensity.
The minimum of the
Suggested solution
Replace fuse if source is
known.
Check for proper mains
voltage.
Wrong installation or Install with the most up-to-date
combination of the
version of the software. First
SPR files.
rename the SPR directory and
Win98/2000/XP not
delete the SPR icons. See
properly installed.
Chapter 2 for installation
instructions.
The instrument is not First, start the SPR program on
connected to the host the host computer, then switch
computer. Serial
on the instrument. Use
ports are not correct. preferably COM2 for the serial
The serial cable is
cable to connect the Twingle.
defect.
Internal fuse defect.
Call the local distributor.
The link between the
internal PC and the
host computer is not
working. RS232 cable
not connected
properly or is defect.
Coatings are too thick
or not homogeneous.
The thin gold layer is
not clean or
damaged. Wafer or
sensor chip is out of
specs.
Particles will adhere
Connect serial cable between
Com port of computer and
Com port of Twingle. Check
communications menu for port
settings.
Try a clean wafer or sensor
chip. Change the coating
procedures to higher spinning
rates and lower
concentrations of polymer in
solvent.
Filter the sample solution. Try
170
Problem
Troubleshooting
Possible causes
Suggested solution
SPR dip changes
to the surface.
another coating procedure.
dramatically during a Inhomogenities in the
measurement.
coating are created
during an experiment.
Signal is too noisy.
Bad SPR dip.
Interval time is too
small.
Optics
are not clean.
Clean the surface with SDS in
aqua distilled water followed
by 96% alcohol and wash
with buffer containing SDS.
Check SPR dip. Use an
alternate SPR wafer. Increase
the interval time.
Clean the hemi-cylinder.
By turning the spindle the
intensity variations remain at
the same angle, clean either
the hemi-cylinder or optics.
For a thorough cleaning of
the optics and lining out of
optics please contact the
local distributor.
The SPR check has
some intensity
variations.
The hemi-cylinder is
not clean.
Strange behaviour
around an angle of
zero mdegree when
water is replaced by
PBS.
Only a stepwise
change of the bulk
refractive index
should be measured.
The SPR dip is almost
out of the dynamic
range
First adjust the spindle to
1500 mdegree (set interval
time on 0.5 seconds) and
then adjust spindle slowly to
around zero mdegree.
Drift of the baseline
signal.
Temperature in the
laboratory is not
constant. There is a
reciprocal correlation
of temperature and
angle shift. The
coating is not stable.
Place SPR in a climate
chamber.
A spincoating of e.g.
polystyrene should first be
adapted to the new buffer.
Chapter 10
171
10.3 – Troubleshoot list - sample handling.
handling.
Problem
Possible causes
Suggested solutions
The volume in the
cuvette decreases
during an
experiment.
There is a leakage in
one of the chambers
of the cuvette. The
cuvette is damaged.
The cuvette is not
properly mounted
and is askew.
There is evaporation
of sample during
long experiments.
Try another cuvette. Turn the
mounting screw stepwise a
little after each other, in order
to press down the cuvette as
a whole, perpendicular to the
wafer.
Prevent evaporation with a
cover.
The signal is not
stable and noisy.
Air bubbles or solids
are interfering with
the mixture of the
sample solution.
Mix with a decreased volume.
No mixing occurs or
mixing falls out.
There is an
irreproducible SPR
angle shift.
Back plate and
ground floor in are
wet.
The needle tubing is
not mounted properly
on the needles. The
tubing has a leakage.
Improve the tube connections
on the syringe pump and on
the needles.
Leakage of pump
valve or piston seal
syringe.
Connection of tubing
is not fitted properly.
Tubing is damage.
Temperature is not
stable, air in liquids,
unstable flow or
mixing, leakage at
tube connections,
piston wear out.
Change pump valve, piston
seal or syringe mounting
fittings. Check and clean tube
connections.
Change defective tubing.
No response after
injection.
Clogging of the
needle or too loosely
fitted tubing on the
needle.
Check connections and
change the direction of flow.
Clean the needle.
The signal has a
regular noise with
time scale of the
interval time.
The pump frequency
is in phase with the
interval time.
Increase the frequency of the
pump speed vs. pump
volume e.g. twice the interval
time.
Unstable baseline.
View temperature and check
stability. De-gas if air in the
liquid is the cause. Check the
connections on leakage.
Check the quality of the
piston of the pump.
172
Troubleshooting
Problem
Possible causes
Suggested solutions
There is a big spike
after injection of the
sample.
The bulk refractive
indices of the
injection and the
starting buffer
solution are not the
same.
Try to dilute the sample
solution with the starting
buffer. Look for differences in
composition of the solutions.
Try another injection
sequence.
Wash with the help of the
sequencer. Add fresh buffer
immediately after draining of
the sample from the cuvette.
A big shift of the
baseline occurs after
washing.
Especially occurring
when a disk with
polystyrene coating
is applied.
10.4 – Troubleshoot list - biochemistry, hydrodynamics, coatings.
coatings .
Problem
Possible causes
No signal or weak
signal.
Reagents were
omitted or added in
an incorrect order.
Incorrect reagents
were used.
No signal or weak
signal.
Suggested solutions
Use all reagents in the proper
sequence.
Use matched reagents (for
example, a mouse primary
antibody with an anti-mouse
secondary antibody).
Insufficient amounts of Increase the primary antibody
antigen were present. concentration. Increase the
interaction time of the primary
antibody with the antigen. Use
more antigen.
Improper storage of
reagents resulted in
degradation.
Store reagents at recommended conditions.
Low affinity primary
anti-body was lost
Try higher affinity antibody if
available.
Chapter 10
Problem
173
Possible causes
Suggested solutions
during immunodetection procedure.
Increase incubation time or
concentration of primary
antibody with antigen to
maximize the amount of
primary antibody bound.
Decrease wash volume and
time to minimize dissociation of
primary antibody.
Primary antibody
Use procedures for retention of
reacted poorly with
the native form of the antigen.
denatured antigen.
Increase the incubation times.
Incubation times with
secondary antibody or
the streptavidin or
avidin conjugate were
insufficient.
High non-specific
adsorption.
Blocking was
insufficient.
Reagents were too
concentrated.
Excessive signal.
Poor reproducibility of
the results.
Concentration or
amount of reagents
used was excessive.
Excessive incubation
times were used.
Contamination of the
cuvette or interfering
substances resulted in
variable signals.
During mixing, air
bubbles are aspirated
in the needle.
Increase concentration of
blocking agent. Increase
incubation time with blocking
agent. Try to alternate blocking
agent
Dilute primary antibody,
secondary antibody, and/or
streptavidin or avidin
conjugate.
Dilute reagents to reduce
signal. Decrease the amount of
antigen employed. Decrease
incubation times.
Increase wash volumes to
remove residual reagents more
effectively. Use the right
cleaning conditions for the
cuvette. Use lower mixing
volumes. Prevent evaporation
of the sample.
174
Troubleshooting
Problem
Possible causes
Suggested solutions
High injection spike.
The bulk refractive
index of the injected
sample is too high.
The temperature of
injected sample is
different from
ambient.
Dilute the injected sample.
Add (blocking or glucose)
components to the initial
buffer to reduce injection
spike.
Wait 5 minutes before
injection of the sample
solution and let temperature
come to ambient.
Reaction too slow or
too fast.
Concentration, mix
frequency, volume,
needle distance. Too
viscous sample.
Increase concentration.
Increase mixing frequency.
Bad SPR dip.
The primary coating
is too thick or is too
irregular or rough.
Change the spin coat
conditions. RPM and/or
concentration of the polymer
solvent.
Shape of SPR-dip
changes during
measurement.
Particles in the
sample solution.
Agglutination at the
surface as a result of
denaturation
conditions or
interacting debris or
other components.
Change of
roughness of the
surface.
Filter the sample solution
prior to addition.
Use other buffers or coating
procedures. Try another
blocking agent. Try another
coating polymer. Increase
wash volumes to remove
residual reagents more
effectively.
10.5 – SPR signal problems.
problems .
Signal problems in SPR occur when the minimum of an SPR dip is not
determined correctly. Before starting a measurement, an SPR dip check
should be performed to confirm the right conditions.
Below some SPR dip checks are shown for certain problems that could occur
during SPR measurements. In case of an abnormal SPR dip, please follow
the instructions below. In practice, a SPR dip varies slightly. This means, that
the SPR dips shown in this section may differ slightly from dips produced
with your instrument.
Chapter 10
175
Figure 10.1
10 .1 – Ideal dip.
dip.
Figure 10.2
10.2 – SPR dip shift.
shift .
Ideal dips are smooth and symmetrical at the bottom of the dip. At the
beginning of a measurement, the SPR dip is located at the x-axis at zero
degree (Figure 9.1) and at the y-axis zero degree. The absolute intensity of
an SPR dip is normally lower than 10 %. If it is above 10 %, air bubbles are
present in most cases. Upon binding, the SPR dip will shift to the right as
shown in Figure 9.2.
Figure 10.3
10 .3 – No SPR dip.
dip.
176
Troubleshooting
Problem
Possible cause
Suggested solutions
No SPR dip
(Figure 10.3).
Incorrect spindle
position.
Incorrect scale settings.
Adjust spindle position.
Incorrect slider
installation:
1. hemi-cylinder not
clean
2. no immersion oil
3. disk reversed inserted
(gold layer not in buffer
compartment)
4. damaged gold layer
Incorrect cuvette
installation:
1. cuvette not centered
on laser spot
2. no buffer in cuvette
3. air bubbles between
buffer and gold layer
Optics:
1. no laser light
2. laser spot is not
centered on the hemicylinder
3. other
Adjust scale.
clean cylinder
repeat installation
repeat installation
new disk/chip
repeat cuvette
installation
add buffer in cuvette
drain cuvette and inject
buffer
Contact the local
distributor
Chapter 10
177
Figure 10.4
10 .4 – SPR dip shifted right.
right .
Figure 10.5
10 .5 – SPR dip shifted left.
left .
Problem
Possible cause
Suggested solutions
SPR dip shifted right
Incorrect spindle
position
and SPR signal out of
range
Adjust spindle to SPR
signal
of approximately zero
degrees (Figure 9.1)
Incorrect spindle
position
and SPR signal out of
range
Adjust spindle
(Figure 10.4)
SPR dip shifted left
(Figure 10.5)
178
Figure 10.6
10 .6 –
Unsymmetrical SPR
dip.
dip.
Troubleshooting
Figure 10.7
10.7 –
Consequences of an
unsymmetrical
unsymmetrical SPR
dip.
dip.
Figure 10.8
10.8 – SPR dip
shifted up.
up.
Problem
Possible cause
Suggested solutions
Unsymmetrical SPR dip
(fig.10.6, indicated by
arrow)
1. Particles in
buffer/sample
2. Dirt on hemicylinder
3. Dirt in immersion
oil
4. Dust in optics
Filter buffer/sample
Clean half cylinder
New immersion oil
Clean optics, please call
the local distributor for
advise
Unsymmetrical SPR dip,
consequences (fig
10.7):
Noisy signals, when a
new SPR dip is located
at the disturbance of the
first dip
SPR dip shifted up
(intensity minimum > 10
%)
SPR curve also broader
see above
see above
1. Particles on
surface
2. Air bubbles in
cuvette
(hydrophobic
surfaces)
Wash cuvette thoroughly
Wash cuvette thoroughly,
avoid to drain the cuvette
completely for hydrophobic
surfaces like bare gold and
polystyrene coatings
Chapter 11
179
Chapter 11
11
11 – Figures.
Figures .
180
Figures
Table of figures.
Figure 1.1 – A. The Autolab TWINGLE. ......................................................... 14
Figure 1.1 – B. The Autolab SPRINGLE......................................................... 16
Figure 1.2 – Back panel of the TWINGLE...................................................... 17
Figure 1.3 A – The Electrochemical cuvette and the normal SPR cuvette..... 20
Figure 1.3 B – The Electrochemical cuvette. ................................................. 20
Figure 1.4 – Cuvette, tubing and fitting.......................................................... 24
Figure 1.5 – Peristaltic pump. ........................................................................ 24
Figure 1.6 – Peristaltic pump tubing .............................................................. 24
Figure 1.7 – Syringe pump ............................................................................ 24
Figure 2.1 – Start of the Setup procedure...................................................... 27
Figure 2.2 – Installation window 2.................................................................. 28
Figure 2.3 – Installation window 3, ‘Welcome. ............................................... 28
Figure 2.4 – Installation window 4 for Autolab TWINGLE............................... 28
Figure 2.5 – Installation window 5.................................................................. 29
Figure 2.6 – Installation window 6 Twingle .................................................... 29
Figure 2.7 – Installation window 7.................................................................. 30
Figure 2.8 – Installation window 8.................................................................. 30
Figure 2.9 – Installation window 9.................................................................. 31
Figure 2.9 – Installation window 9.................................................................. 31
Figure 2.10 – Installation window 10.............................................................. 32
Figure 2.11 – Installation window 11.............................................................. 32
Figure 2.12 – Installation window 12.............................................................. 32
Figure 2.14 – Installation window 14.............................................................. 33
Figure 2.13 – Installation window 13.............................................................. 33
Fig 2.15 – The desktop icons shown after the installation of the SPR software
................................................................................................................ 34
Figure 2.16 – Folder structure........................................................................ 34
Figure 2.17 – Content of C:\Autolab SPR.. folder........................................... 35
Figure 2.18 – Content of C:\Autolab SPR\Data.. folder .................................. 35
Figure 2.19 – Manuals installed during the installation of the software.......... 36
Figure 2.20 – Examples of kinetic evaluation models installed with the
software .................................................................................................. 36
Figure 2.21 – Examples of kinetic evaluation projects installed with the
software .................................................................................................. 36
Figure 2.22 – Sequences for the Autolab TWINGLE instrument .................... 37
Figure 2.23 – Sequences for the Autolab SPRINGLE instrument................... 38
Figure 3.1 – Flow chart of the experimental setup ......................................... 41
Figure 3.2 – 6 Well Microtiter culture plate .................................................... 42
Figure 3.3 – the back panel of the TWINGLE ................................................ 43
Figure 3.4 – The draining tube from the drain peristaltic pump..................... 43
Figure 3.5 – Menu TWINGLE to open ‘Manual Control’ window .................... 44
Chapter 11
181
Figure 3.6 – Open the Lift calibration window ............................................... 45
Figure 3.7 – The lift calibration window.......................................................... 45
Figure 3.8 – a. The lift calibration procedure ................................................. 46
Fig 3.8 – b. The final steps of lift calibration .................................................. 47
Figure 3.9 – A drop of immersion oil on top of the hemi-cylinder .................. 47
Figure 3.10 – Assembly of a disk................................................................... 48
Figure 3.11 – Different positions on the gold disk.......................................... 48
Figure 3.12 – Installed SPR gold disk ............................................................ 49
Figure 3.13 – LEFT- An overview of the cuvette holder ................................ 49
Figure 3.14 – RIGHT- The ‘positioning pin’ of a cuvette ................................ 49
Figure 3.15 – Check for leakage from channel 1 into channel 2 ................... 50
Figure 3.16 – Check for leakage from channel 1 into channel 2 ................... 50
Figure 3.17 –Two ways to activate the Sequencer ........................................ 51
Figure 3.18 – TWINGLE; The sequence ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’ ..... 52
Figure 3.19 – SPR “dip” ................................................................................. 54
Figure 3.20 – The optical path cover ............................................................. 54
Figure 3.21 – Adjustment of the baseline angle before immobilization ......... 54
Figure 3.22 – Stabilization/cleaning ............................................................... 55
Figure 3.23 – The sequence editor ................................................................ 56
Figure 3.24 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment.............................................................................................. 57
Figure 3.25 – The automation window with Parameters tab sheets to set up
the experiment using EDIT. .................................................................... 58
Figure 3.26 – The sequence editor ................................................................ 60
Figure 3.27 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment.............................................................................................. 61
Figure 3.28 – The automation window with Parameters tab sheets to set up
the experiment using EDIT. .................................................................... 62
Figure 3.28 – An example of a binding experiment ....................................... 63
Figure 4.1 – Flow chart of the experimental setup ......................................... 67
Figure 4.2 – the back panel of the Autolab SPRINGLE.................................. 68
Figure 4.3 – The draining tube from the drain peristaltic pump..................... 71
Figure 4.4 – Menu SPRINGLE to open ‘Manual Control’ window................... 72
Figure 4.5 – Open the Lift calibration window ............................................... 72
Figure 4.6 – The lift calibration window.......................................................... 73
Figure 4.7 – a. The lift calibration procedure ................................................. 74
Fig 4.7 – b. The final steps of lift calibration .................................................. 74
Figure 4.8 – A drop of immersion oil on top of the hemi-cylinder .................. 75
Figure 4.9 – Assembly of a disk..................................................................... 75
Figure 4.10 – Different positions on the gold disk.......................................... 76
Figure 4.11 – Installed SPR gold disk ............................................................ 77
Figure 4.12 – An overview of the cuvette holder............................................ 77
Figure 4.13 –The ‘positioning pin’ of a cuvette .............................................. 77
Figure 4.14 – Check for leakage outside of channel 1 .................................. 78
Figure 4.15 –Two ways to activate the Sequencer ........................................ 79
Figure 4.16 – SPRINGLE; The sequence ‘Initialization of Instrument.SEQ’.... 79
182
Figures
Figure 4.17 – SPR “dip” ................................................................................. 80
Figure 4.18 – The optical path cover ............................................................. 80
Figure 4.19 – Adjustment of the baseline angle before immobilization ......... 81
Figure 4.20 – Stabilization/cleaning of the gold disk surface ........................ 82
Figure 4.21 – The sequence editor ................................................................ 83
Figure 4.22 – Sequence Editor Window......................................................... 84
Figure 4.23 – A typical example of an association experiment...................... 84
Figure 5.1 – Data Acquisition software .......................................................... 88
Figure 5.2 – The Data Acquisition menu bar.................................................. 88
Figure 5.3 – The Data Acquisition tool bar..................................................... 92
Figure 5.4 – File menu ................................................................................... 94
Figure 5.5 – View menu ................................................................................. 96
Figure 5.6 – The different tab sheets to adjust the curve or graph properties
................................................................................................................ 97
Figure 5.7 – The options of adjusting the curve or graph properties............. 98
Figure 5.9 – Right mouse click in DA window................................................ 99
Figure 5.8 – Plot menu ................................................................................... 99
Figure 5.10 – SPR curves of channel 1 and SPR curves of channel 2......... 100
Figure 5.11 – TWINGLE menu items............................................................ 101
Figure 5.12 A. – Manual control window of the Twingle............................... 102
Figure 5.12 B. – Manual control window of the SPRINGLE.......................... 103
Figure 5.13 – Example of two TWINGLE DA screens with Lift Positions
choices ................................................................................................. 104
Figure 5.14 – Two TWINGLE DA screens showing two ways to get quick
access to customize and to sequences ............................................... 104
Figure 5.15 – Example of a Customize window to change a linked sequence
shown in the Menu_Twingle “Inject”. .................................................... 105
Figure 5.16 – An example of a TWINGLE inject sequence.......................... 106
Figure 5.17 – Two TWINGLE DA screens showing two ways to be able to get
quick access to customize and to sequences ..................................... 106
Figure 5.18 – Example of the Customize window to change a linked
sequence shown in the Menu_Twingle “Wash”. ................................... 107
Figure 5.19 – Direct access to start and stop the drain pump. ................... 107
Figure 5.20 – Update SPR Recording.......................................................... 108
Figure 5.21 – Right mouse click on SPR plot 1 or on SPR plot 2 ................. 108
Figure 5.22 – Lift calibration window ........................................................... 109
Figure 5.23 – System settings...................................................................... 110
Tab sheet “pump2” for Twingle only............................................................ 110
Figure 5.24 – Options menu......................................................................... 111
Figure 5.25 – Customize – General tab page .............................................. 112
Figure 5.26 – Customize - User directories tab page .................................. 112
Figure 5.27 – Customize – Email configuration tab page ............................ 113
Figure 5.28 – Communications .................................................................... 113
Figure 5.29 – User ....................................................................................... 114
Figure 5.30 – The Administration Control Panel........................................... 114
Figure 5.31 – The Administration Control Panel........................................... 115
Chapter 11
183
Figure 5.32 – An example of a kinetic experiment....................................... 117
Figure 5.33 – A zoom-in on the event log .................................................... 117
Figure 6.1 – Two ways to activate the Sequencer ....................................... 119
Figure 6.3 – The menu bar and tool bar buttons.......................................... 123
Figure 6.4 – The sequence menu ................................................................ 123
Figure 6.5 – Example of a sequence with include-sequences .................... 125
Figure 6.6 A. – Twingle List of kinetic experiment sequences ..................... 128
Figure 6.6 A. – Springle list of kinetic experiment sequences ..................... 129
Figure 6.7 – The difference in sample volume ............................................. 129
Figure 6.8 A. – Twingle list of interaction experiment sequences................ 131
Figure 6.8 B.– Springle list of interaction experiment sequences................ 131
Figure 6.9 – The inject sequence................................................................. 133
Figure 6.10 – List of stabilization sequences ............................................... 134
Figure 6.11 – The imobilization sequences ................................................. 134
Figure 6.12 – Example of the sequence message alert box........................ 136
Figure 6.13 – An example of a sequence where the message alert has been
used...................................................................................................... 136
Figure 7.1 – The autosampler control window selection .............................. 143
Figure 7.2 – The automation window with three tab sheets to set up the
experiment............................................................................................ 143
Figure 7.3 – The EDIT button gives access to these settings. ..................... 144
Figure 7.4 – The automation window with the incubation time TAB sheet to set
up the experiment................................................................................. 145
Figure 7.5 – The automation window with the volumes time TAB sheet to set
up the sample volumes of the experiment............................................ 145
Figure 8.4 – Slider with hemi-cylinder .......................................................... 152
Figure 8.6 – The Electrochemical SPR Cuvette ........................................... 159
Figure 8.7 – The normal SPR Cuvette .......................................................... 159
Figure 10.1 – Ideal dip ................................................................................. 175
Figure 10.3 – No SPR dip ............................................................................ 175
Figure 10.4 – SPR dip shifted right .............................................................. 177
Figure 10.5 – SPR dip shifted left................................................................. 177
Figure 10.7 – Consequences of an unsymmetrical SPR dip........................ 178
Figure 10.8 – SPR dip shifted up ................................................................. 178
Figure 10.6 –Unsymmetrical SPR dip ......................................................... 178
184
Index
Chapter 12
12
12 – Index.
Index .
Index
Abort measurement ....................................................................................... 92
Affinity chromatography............................................................................... 146
Air vent.............................................................................................................4
Analysis view ................................................................................................. 92
Analyte ......................................................................................................... 147
Definition .................................................................................................. 146
Mass transport ......................................................................................... 159
Angle of incidence....................................................................... 147, 148, 150
Angle scan................................................................................................... 153
AUTOLAB ESPRIT ...........................................................................................3
Autolab SPR................................................................... 33, 35, 36, 37, 68, 168
Autolab SPR folder......................................................................................... 33
Autolab SPR software .................................................................................... 26
Automatic aspirate-dispense mixing needle ............................................... 158
Autosampler......................................................................................... 110, 168
precaution ....................................................................................................5
Sampler.Save ........................................................................................... 125
Axis zoom ...................................................................................................... 97
Biosensor
Definition .................................................................................................. 146
Specifically SPR ....................................................................................... 146
Biotinylated macromolecules....................................................................... 161
BNC connectors ............................................................................................ 17
Buffer
Recommended solutions ........................................................................... 21
Carbodiimide coupling reaction .................................................................. 161
Chemical resistance ...................................................................................... 21
Clear measurement plot ................................................................................ 92
Collapse one level ......................................................................................... 92
Connectors .................................................................................................... 18
Curve – a full kinetic plot.seq....................................................................... 136
Curve properties ............................................................................................ 97
Cuvette
Electrochemical ......................................................................................... 158
Hydrodynamic parameters....................................................................... 158
SPR configuration..................................................................................... 152
Data acquisition ....................................................................................... 91, 93
Temperature plot........................................................................................ 98
Dielectric medium........................................................................................ 149
disk ...................................................................................................... 165, 171
Disk...................................................................................................... 154, 160
Cuvette ..................................................................................................... 158
SPR situation ............................................................................................ 148
EDC ..................................................................................................... 154, 156
Electrical hazards ............................................................................................5
Electrical shock................................................................................................4
Electrochemical ............................................................................................. 18
Electromagnetic wave ......................................................................... 147, 150
Equilibrium dialysis ...................................................................................... 146
ESPR optical configuration .......................................................................... 153
Event Log..................................................................................................... 115
Expand one level ........................................................................................... 92
File menu ....................................................................................................... 88
Graph Properties ........................................................................................... 97
hardware requirements.................................................................................. 12
Help menu ......................................................................................... 89, 90, 91
Hydrodynamic parameters of the cuvette ................................................... 158
Immobilization...................................................................................... 153, 154
Immunoassay
Affinity chromatography ........................................................................... 146
Equilibrium dialysis .................................................................................. 146
Spectroscopic techniques ....................................................................... 146
include sequence
subroutine sequence ............................................................................... 123
Instrument Precautions ....................................................................................4
Interaction
Peptide-MHC............................................................................................ 155
Protein-antibody ....................................................................................... 155
Protein-cell ............................................................................................... 155
Protein-DNA ............................................................................................. 155
Protein-polysaccharide ............................................................................ 155
Protein-T cell receptor .............................................................................. 155
Protein-virus ............................................................................................. 155
Interactions .................................................................................. 153, 154, 155
KEL-F ............................................................................................................. 24
Kinetic.................................................................................................. 116, 154
Kretschmann configuration.......................................................................... 148
Label-less detection .................................................................................... 146
Ligand.......................................................................................... 153, 154, 155
Link parameters ............................................................................................. 92
Macromolecular interactions........................................................................ 160
Mass transport ............................................................................................. 159
Measurement settings ........................................................................... 94, 100
Menu bar ............................................................................................... 87, 122
Modified gold layer ...................................................................................... 154
New procedure .............................................................................................. 91
NHS ............................................................................................. 154, 155, 156
Pause measurement ...................................................................................... 92
Personal precautions .......................................................................................5
Plasma ................................................................................................. 148, 149
Plot menu ....................................................................................................... 98
Polymer ........................................................................ 153, 154, 160, 161, 173
Pump control................................................................................................ 100
PVDF .............................................................................................................. 24
Regeneration
Recommended solutions ........................................................................... 22
Save data
Loop.Save ................................................................................................ 125
Measurement.Save .................................................................................. 125
Sampler.Save ........................................................................................... 125
Save procedure ............................................................................................. 91
semi-automatic sequence ........................................................................... 134
sensor .......................................................................................................... 165
Sensor...................................................................................... 2, 146, 153, 154
Definition .................................................................................................. 146
sensor surfaces........................................................................................ 160
Sensor chip
Biacore ..................................................................................................... 158
Sequence editor ............................................................ 92, 110, 115, 118, 132
Setup procedure
software...................................................................................................... 26
Show all links ................................................................................................. 92
Spectroscopic techniques ........................................................................... 146
SPR
Advantages .............................................................................................. 146
Kretschmann configuration ...................................................................... 148
Definition .................................................................................................. 147
SPR minimum
dip .................................................................... 110, 169, 173, 174, 176, 177
Dip............................................................................................................ 147
Ideal dip ................................................................................................... 174
No SPR dip............................................................................................... 174
SPR curve channel 1 .................................................................................. 99
SPR curve channel 2 .................................................................................. 99
SPR dip shift............................................................................................. 174
SPR dip shifted left................................................................................... 176
SPR dip shifted up ................................................................................... 177
Unsymmetrical SPR dip ........................................................................... 177
Update SPR recording ............................................................................. 107
SPR1
BNC connector........................................................................................... 17
SPR2
BCN connector........................................................................................... 17
Start measurement......................................................................................... 91
Surface Plasmon Resonance....................................................... 143, 147, 152
syringe pumps ............................................................................................. 168
Syringe pumps............................................................................................. 101
Teflon FEP and PFA ....................................................................................... 24
Tefzel ETFE .................................................................................................... 24
Temperature plot ........................................................................................... 98
Thiol ............................................................................................. 154, 156, 161
Tools menu .................................................................................................... 89
Total internal reflection......................................................................... 148, 150
Unlink parameters.......................................................................................... 92
View menu ..................................................................................................... 88
Zoom.............................................................................................................. 97
07/2009
Kanaalweg 29/G
3526 KM Utrecht
The Netherlands
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