Restraint Fitters Manual - Centre for Road Safety

Restraint Fitters Manual - Centre for Road Safety
Restraint Fitters Manual
Guidelines to the correct installation and use of child restraints
Restraint Fitters Manual
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A fitter is engaging a seat belt buckle and tongue
Contents
Preface
Purpose
Scope
Document controls
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1 General information
1.1 Glossary of child restraint terms
1.2 Basics of injury prevention and crash dynamics
1.2.1 Overview
1.2.2 Type of crashes
1.2.3 Newton’s laws of motion
1.2.4 How child restraints prevent injury
1.2.5 Videos of crash testing
1.3 Types of child restraints
1.3.1 Overview
1.3.2 Rearward-facing child restraints
(Types A1, A2 and A4)
1.3.3 Forward-facing child restraints
1.3.4 Convertible rearward/forward-facing
child restraints (Type A/B)
1.3.5 Booster Seats
1.3.6 Convertible forward-facing/booster
seats, Type B/E and Type B/F
1.3.7 Integrated booster cushions/seats
1.3.8 Dickey seats
1.3.9 ISOFIX compatible child restraints
1.3.10 Detailed description of child restraint types
1.4 Child Restraint Regulation
1.4.1 Summary of child restraint regulation
1.4.2 Approved child restraints
1.4.3 Penalties for not using approved child restraints
1.5 Best practices
1.5.1 General
1.5.2 When to move a child to the next type
of child restraint
1.5.3 Seating Position
1.5.4 Airbags
1.5.5 Further information
Appendix 1 – Frequently asked questions by parents and carers
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2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.1 Overview
2.2 Child restraint installation
2.2.1 Installing rearward-facing child restraints
(Types A1, A2 and A4)
2.2.2 Installing forward-facing (Type B and G) restraints
2.2.3 Installing convertible child restraints:
rearward/forward-facing (Type A/B)
2.2.4 Installing booster seats (Type E and Type F)
weighing 2kg or less
2.2.5 Installing booster seats (Type E and F)
weighing more than 2kg
2.2.6 Installing convertible restraints
forward-facing/booster seats (Type B/E and B/F)
2.3 Installing ISOFIX compatible child restraints
2.3.1 Overview
2.3.2 In a car with ISOFIX mounting point
2.3.3 In a car without ISOFIX mounting point
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2.4 Securing the child in the child restraint
2.4.1 Overview
2.4.2 Rearward and forward-facing child restraints
2.4.3 Booster seats (Type E and Type F)
2.5 Child restraint fitting accessories
2.5.1 Overview
2.5.2 Reasons why accessories should not be used
2.6 Installing old child restraints
2.7 Restraint care and maintenance
2.7.1 Overview
2.7.2 Cleaning the cover
2.7.3 Cleaning the harness buckle
2.7.4 Cleaning the straps/harness
2.8 Advice to parents and carers
2.8.1 Overview
2.8.2 Further information
Appendix 2 – Further information
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3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.1 Scope
3.2 General requirements
3.2.1 Overview
3.2.2 Anchorage points without pre-installed anchorages
3.2.3 Australian Design Rules
3.2.4 Vehicle Standards Information
3.3 Installing child restraint anchorages to pre-ADR
vehicles and those not required to have them
3.3.1 Overview
3.3.2 Rear parcel shelf mounted anchorage points
3.3.3 Child Restraint Anchorage Bar
3.3.4 Child restraint anchorage bar installation
in panel vans and station wagons
3.3.5 Universal Frame
3.3.6 Techsafe post and Pedestal bar
3.3.7 Installing child restraint anchorages in
dual cab utility vehicles
3.3.8 Installing child restraint anchorages
in Toyota Commuter buses
3.4 Contact information for enquiries
3.5 Further Information
Appendix 3 – Installation instructions
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4 Child restraints for children with special needs
4.1 Scope
4.2 Children with disabilities or medical conditions
4.3 Modifications to complying child restraints
4.4 Special purpose child restraints
4.5 Other information
4.5.1 More Information
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01
Preface
This Restraint Fitters Manual (Manual) is intended to be used to assist restraint fitters authorised
under the Roads and Maritime Services Authorised Restraint Fitting Station Scheme in the correct
installation and use of child restraints.
This manual is developed by Transport for NSW in consultation with Crashlab, VicRoads and
Neuroscience Research Australia (NeuRA).
This manual is presented in four modules:
1
General information
General information including glossary and terms used in the manual as well as regulations
pertaining to child restraints.
2
Installation and use of child restraints
Information related to correct use and installation of child restraints in vehicles already equipped with
child restraint anchorages.
3
Installation of child restraint anchorages
Information related to installation of child restraint anchorages and other vehicle modifications
required to optimally securing children in motor vehicles.
4
Child restraints for children with special needs
Information related to safe restraint of children with additional needs.
This Manual was first published in 1997, and last updated 25 May 2016. It is a live document and
subject to change in response to practical feedback.
Purpose
The purpose of the Manual is to provide Roads and Maritime Services authorised restraint fitters with
the information for the correct use and installation of child restraints and associated equipment as
part of NSW Government’s commitment to reducing child fatalities and injuries on our roads due to
the incorrect use of child restraints.
Scope
This Manual applies to all types of light vehicles, except motorcycles.
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Restraint Fitters Manual
Module 1
1
General information
Restraint Fitters Manual
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A fitter is adjusting the 5 point harness
1 General information
1.1 Glossary of child restraint terms
2 for 3 seat: A double seat consisting of two adult
seating positions that incorporates an additional centre
seating position with a lap sash seat belt fitted within
the two original seating positions and which has been
shown to comply with the applicable vehicle standards
in this configuration for occupation of each of the
three seating positions by a child under 12.
Additional seat: Aftermarket extra seat installed in a
non-passenger part of a vehicle, usually the cargo area
of a station wagon or other vehicle. Also known as a
‘Dickey’ seat.
Airbag: A vehicle safety feature that consists of a
flexible ‘bag’ which rapidly inflates with gas in a crash,
in order to better control occupant motion and/or
cushion the occupant from impact.
Appropriate restraint use: The use of a restraint
that is optimal for the child’s body measurements and
development, and varies with age.
AS/NZS 1754: The mandatory Australian/New
Zealand Standard Child Restraint Systems for Use
in Motor Vehicles (AS/NZS 1754) that governs
various requirements for the design, construction,
performance, packaging, marking and user instructions
of child restraints that are legal to be used in Australia.
Authorised Restraint Fitting Station: An RMS
authorised establishment, such as a service station,
garage, workshop, or other appropriate premises
where motor vehicles safety restraint systems or
components (including child restraints) are inspected,
installed, modified and fitted in accordance with the
‘Child Restraint Fitters Manual’.
Booster seat: A child restraint having a backrest,
that raises the child and adapts the vehicle’s seatbelt
to better fit the child and is defined in the Australian
Standard AS/NZS 1754 as either Type E or Type F
restraint suitable for children from ages 4 to 8 (Type E)
and 4-10 (Type F). It is also known as a ‘belt positioning
booster seat’ or ‘high back booster seat’ overseas.
Booster cushion: A child restraint that raises the child
and adapts the vehicle’s seatbelt to better fit the child
and does not have a backrest. It is also known as a
‘low back booster seat’. This type of restraint has been
removed from AS/NZS 1754:2010 and onward as they
do not offer side impact protection.
Restraint Fitters Manual
Buckle cover: An aftermarket device designed to
obstruct access to a seatbelt buckle or inbuilt harness
buckle to discourage a child from unbuckling their
restraint while travelling (see AS/NZS 8005:2013 for
further information).
Inbuilt harness: A set of webbing straps built into the
child restraint that are used to restrain a child.
Chest clip: Aftermarket device designed to keep the
shoulder straps of a child restraint’s inbuilt harness
together to minimise the chance of these coming off
the shoulder. It is also known as ‘cross chest clips’.
Child restraint: A device used in a motor vehicle
that restrains a child passenger to minimise the risk of
injury in the event of a crash. This includes rearwardfacing child restraints for infants, forward-facing child
restraints for young children and booster seats for
older children. It is also known as ‘child safety seat’,
‘child car seat’ and ‘child safety system’.
Child restraint accessory: An add-on device used
with a child restraint or seatbelt occupied by a child.
Child safety harness: An add-on harness that is
designed to be used together with a compatible
booster seat, lap-only seatbelt or converted lap-sash
seatbelt to provide upper torso restraint. It is also
known as an ‘H-harness’.
Correct restraint use: The use of a restraint as
instructed by the restraint manufacturer.
Converter: A device, other than a booster seat, for
adapting an adult lap-sash seatbelt to better fit the
child or provides additional upper body restraint. It is
defined in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1754 as a
Type H.
Convertible restraint: A child restraint that can be
used in more than one restraint mode, e.g. a restraint
that can be used as either a rearward-facing child
restraint or a forward-facing child restraint; or a
restraint that can be used as either a forward facing
child restraint or a booster seat.
Dickey seat: Aftermarket additional seat installed in a
non-passenger part of a vehicle, usually the cargo area
of a station wagon or other vehicle. It is also known as
an ‘additional seat’.
Five step test: A set of five assessment criteria
designed to determine whether a child is big enough
to get optimal fit in an adult seatbelt.
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1 General information
Forward-facing child restraint: A child restraint
with an inbuilt 6 point harness that restrains young
children facing the front of the vehicle and is defined
in the Australian Standard as Type B (for children from
6 months to 4 years) and Type G (for children from 6
months to 8 years).
Front passenger airbag: An airbag installed in front
of the front passenger seat of a vehicle designed to
protect the occupant in frontal crashes.
Harness slot: The slots in the back of a child restraint
through which the inbuilt harness straps pass.
Inappropriate restraint use: The use of a restraint
that is not optimal for the child’s size and development,
e.g. the use of a booster seat by a 2 year old would be
inappropriate restraint use.
Incorrect restraint use: The use of a restraint in a
manner other than that instructed by the restraint
manufacturer. Also known as ‘restraint misuse’, and
includes errors in installation of a restraint in a vehicle,
and how a child is secured in the restraint, e.g. a child
having the arms out of a harness, or failure to use a top
tether strap.
Integrated child restraint: A child restraint, usually
a booster seat, built into a vehicle by the vehicle
manufacturer. It is also known as an ‘integrated
booster cushion’.
ISOFIX lower anchorages: A pair of horizontal bar
fittings installed in a vehicle at the join between the
seat cushion and the seat back. This is specifically
designed for attachment of compatible child
restraints that have ISOFIX anchorage connectors as
an alternative to using a seatbelt when installing the
restraint. It is also known as ISOFIX low anchorages or
LATCH lower anchorages.
Lap only seatbelt: A seatbelt with only two points
of attachment to the vehicle that restrains the pelvis of
the occupant and does not restrain the wearer’s upper
torso. It is also known as ‘two point belt’.
Lap sash seatbelt: A seatbelt with three points of
attachment to the vehicle. The lap portion sits over the
pelvis of the occupant and the sash belt restrains the
upper torso. It is also known as ‘lap-shoulder belt’ or
‘three point belt’.
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Long distance coach: A bus designed for long trips
and/or highway routes. This typically has individual
seats, seatbelts in newer buses and nominated
locations for the installation of child restraints.
Rearward-facing child restraint: An infant restraint
with an inbuilt 5 or 6 point harness that restrains
infants facing the rear of the vehicle. It is defined in the
Australian Standard as Type A.
Road Rules: [NSW] Road Rules 2014.
Seatbelt: A device in a vehicle that restrains an
occupant in a crash or sudden braking. Typically
consists of webbing, and may be retractable or
manually adjustable.
Seatbelt extender: An aftermarket device that
provides additional length for a seatbelt. Typically used
for large occupants, but can also be used to lengthen
a seatbelt to facilitate installation of larger child
restraints.
Seatbelt guide: A component of a booster seat
designed to assist in positioning the seatbelt.
Seatbelt positioner: An aftermarket device designed
to position an adult seatbelt to better fit a child.
Seatbelt tensioner: An aftermarket device designed
to tighten the seatbelt when used with a child restraint.
Seating position: A dedicated location within a
vehicle for a person to occupy.
Shoulder height markers: A set of labels on a child
restraint that indicate the maximum and minimum
shoulder height for a child using that restraint, or the
height at which a child should transition from one
restraint mode to another.
Side curtain airbag: An airbag installed in the side of
a vehicle that deploys over the inside window region
during a side impact crash.
Slack: Looseness in a child restraint’s inbuilt harness,
top tether strap, ISOFIX flexible straps or seatbelt that
can reduce the performance of the restraint.
Submarining: A phenomenon which occurs during
a vehicle crash where the vehicle occupant moves
forward and the pelvis slides under the lap belt.
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Top tether: A flexible strap attached to the upper
back of a child restraint, which connects to an
anchorage point in a vehicle, and limits rotation of the
restraint in a crash. Also known as an ‘upper anchorage
strap’ or ‘top tether strap’.
Torso airbag: A side airbag installed in either the seat
or door of a vehicle that deploys to protect the chest in
side impact crashes. Also known as a thorax airbag.
Type A restraint: Rearward-facing or transversely
installed child restraint with inbuilt 5 or 6 point harness
that restrains infants facing the rear of the vehicle. Type
A restraint is divided into four types: Type A1, A2, A3
and A4.
n
Type A1 restraints accommodate infant up to
approximately 70cm tall or 6 months of age.
n
Type A1/0 restraints are suitable for infants of low
birth weight and up to approximately 70cm tall or 6
months of age.
Type D restraint: A rearward-facing child restraint
with inbuilt harness designed to accommodate children
to an older age (approximately 6 months to 4 years of
age) than a Type A restraint.
Type E restraint: A booster seat that raises the
child and adapts the vehicle’s seatbelt to better fit
the child. Type E restraint is intended for children
approximately 4 to 8 years of age with a height of up
to approximately 128cm.
Type F restraint: A booster seat that raises the child
and adapts the vehicle’s seatbelt to better fit the child.
Typically has a taller seat back than Type E booster
seats, allowing children to stay in the booster seat
for longer. Type F restraint is intended for children
approximately 4 to 10 years of age with a height of up
to approximately 138cm.
Type G restraint: A larger, forward-facing restraint
with an inbuilt 6 point harness included in AS/NZS
1754: 2013, for use up to older ages (approximately 8
years) than a Type B forward-facing restraint.
n
Type A2 accommodates infant up to 80cm tall or
approximately 12 months of age.
n
Type A2/0 restraints are suitable for infants of low
birth weight and up to 80cm tall or approximately
12 months of age.
n
Type A3 is a transversely installed restraint suitable
for infant up to 6 months of age.
n
Type A3/0 is a transversely installed restraints
suitable for infants of low birth weight and up to 6
months of age.
n
Type A4 accommodates children up to
approximately 2-3 years.
1.2 Basics of injury prevention and
crash dynamics
n
Type A4/0 restraints are suitable for infants of low
birth weight and up to 2-3 years of age.
1.2.1 Overview
Type B restraint: Forward-facing child restraint with
inbuilt 6 point harness that restrains children facing
the front of the vehicle. Type B accommodates children
from 6 months to 4 years of age.
Type H restraint: A converter used with a booster
seat suitable for children approximately 4-7 years of
age and/or used with a seatbelt without a booster seat
for children 7-10 years of age.
Urban bus: Public route bus used in urban areas. This
typically does not have seatbelts or seating positions
suitable for installing child restraints.
The aim of this section is to provide restraint fitters
with a brief understanding of the types of crashes,
the motion of children and cars during crashes, and
how restraints can work to minimise injury.
Type C restraint: A forward-facing harness without
a chair, also known as an add-on child safety harness
or ‘H-harness’ that can be used to provide upper body
restraint with lap-only seatbelts.
n
Type C1 is designated for use with a compatible
booster seat by children approximately 4-10 years
of age.
n
Type C2 is designated for use with a lap-only belt by
children approximately 7-10 years of age.
Restraint Fitters Manual
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1 General information
Figure 1-1:
Types of vehicle crashes
(a) Frontal crash
(b) Side impact crash
1.2.2 Type of crashes
The main types of crashes that child restraints are
designed to protect child occupants are: frontal,
side-impact, rear-impact and roll-overs. These types
of crashes are illustrated in Figure 1-1. These crashes
are over-simplifications of the complex combination
of collisions that constitute motor vehicle crashes, but
statistically, this tends to be how they are categorised.
A research study on road crashes in which children
were injured or killed found that:
n
Frontal crashes accounted for 50 per cent of crashes
and 55 per cent of the injuries
n
Side impacts accounted for 27 per cent of crashes
and 27 per cent of the injuries
n
Rear impacts accounted for 15 per cent of crashes
and 11 per cent of the injuries
n
Roll-overs accounted for 7 per cent of crashes and 7
per cent of the injuries.
While roll-overs were less frequent than other types
of crashes, around 12 per cent resulted in an injury
to a child occupant. This was followed by frontal
collisions (around 2 per cent), side-impact collisions
(around 1.5 per cent) and rear-impact collisions (less
than 1 per cent). It should also be noted that there
are many factors besides the direction of the collision
that can influence the injuries incurred, including age
of the child, model of car, presence of airbags, seating
position, the use of restraints, the type of restraint and
how restraint was used. The importance of each of
these factors is covered in the sections that follow.
1.2.3 Newton’s laws of motion
The energy exchange that causes tissue damage
(injuries) to vehicle occupants during motor vehicle
crashes can be explained by Newton’s laws of motion:
n
(c) Roll-over crash
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A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in
motion will remain in motion unless acted on
by an external force. When a car crashes, the
occupants continue moving at the speed of the
vehicle immediately before impact. If unrestrained,
these occupants will hit the decelerating interior of
the vehicle at their pre-crash speed, or be ejected
from the vehicle and hit the ground or a roadside
object. Figure 1-2 shows a still image when a vehicle
hits an object.
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
n
The force (F) applied to a body is a function of
its acceleration (a) and its mass (m) which can be
expressed as F=m * a. In a crash where a vehicle’s
occupant is wearing a seat belt, the belt will cause
the wearer to decelerate at the same speed as the
vehicle, maximising the distance over which the
occupant comes to a stop, thereby reducing the
force he/she experiences. The exterior of the car
experiences the ‘first collision’ which - depending
upon the direction of the collision - can be slowed
down by the car’s exterior design. The ‘second
collision’ is between the occupant and their restraint
system, also designed to spread the change in
velocity over more time – thereby reducing the
force on the body. An example of this mechanism
is shown in Figure 1-3 where the collision is slowed
down by the airbag.
Figure 1-2:
Vehicle colliding with an object
n
For every force there is an equal and opposite
force, or reaction. A body will push back or
deform when a force is applied to it. The greater
the area over which a force is spread the more there
is to absorb the force. Restraints are designed to
spread these forces over the strongest parts of the
body (skeleton) to minimise the risk of injury.
Figure 1-3:
Vehicle occupant colliding with vehicle interior
In summary, a car crash is a real world demonstration
of Newton’s laws of motion. Coming to a stop, as
happens in a crash, results in forces being applied
to the vehicle occupants. The greater the change
in velocity that the body experiences or the shorter
the time taken to decelerate, the greater the force
experienced. While vehicle design can do much to
absorb the forces of impact, a child restraint works to
firstly prevent a child from striking rigid surfaces, and
secondly to spread the forces over a wider body area.
Both these factors are vital to minimise injury.
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1 General information
Figure 1-4:
How a child restraint prevents injury in a crash
1.2.4 How child restraints prevent injury
A child restraint is designed to spread the forces over
a child’s body so as to reduce the tissue damage
that would result if it were applied to only a small
area (such as when a child’s head hits a windscreen).
Further, the more energy absorbing the material from
which child restraints are made, compared to the
interior of the car or objects outside the car, means
that the deceleration is slower and the resultant forces
being exchanged are reduced.
The four main functions of a seatbelt or child restraint
are to:
(a) A photo showing an appropriate restraint use
(b) The restraint spreads the forces to prevent injury in
a frontal crash
n
Prevent the child from hitting the vehicle interior or
intruding objects
n
Spread the forces over strong parts of the body - the
bony pelvis and rib cage
n
Limit harmful movements of the body, such as
excessive bending of the spine
n
Allow the crumple zone of the car to absorb the
energy exchanged during a crash rather than a
child’s body, which would occur if the child were not
held firmly within their seat.
In order for a restraint to perform these functions
optimally, it is important that children are in the correct
restraint for their age and size, that they are using
the restraint properly and that the restraint has been
correctly installed in the vehicle. Furthermore, there
should be no objects that interfere with the correct
performance of a restraint during a crash or that
can collide with the child or another occupant in the
vehicle. Figure 1-4 (a) shows an appropriate restraint
use (b) the restraint spreads the forces to prevent injury
in a frontal crash (c) the restraint cushions the child
occupant in a side impact crash.
(c) The restraint cushions the child occupant in side
impact crash
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Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
1.2.5 Videos of crash testing
The following links show examples how child restraints
prevent injury in a crash:
https://www.childcarseats.com.au/testing-explained
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUoE5YTdWPI
Video 1: Examples on how child car seats are tested
1.3 Types of child restraints
1.3.1 Overview
This section covers types of child restraints and the
differences between each version of the standard AS/
NZS 1754.
Child restraints are categorised into several types based
on the size and age of children they are designed to
accommodate. These types of restraints are described
as in the following sub sections:
1.3.2 Rearward-facing child restraints
(Types A1, A2 and A4)
Video 2: Commodore at 60km and 100km
Rearward-facing restraints are for infants up to 6
months old for Type A1 or up to 12 months old for
Type A2 and up to 30 months old for Type A4. These
restraints provide better crash protection for infants
and toddlers because they distribute crash forces
more evenly over a greater area of the child’s body
and because they minimise the risk of the infant’s
disproportionately large head adversely loading
the neck.
Each type has an inbuilt harness system with 5 or 6
points of attachment to the restraint shell. The restraint
is held in place by a seatbelt and a top tether strap. An
example of this type of restraint is shown in Figure 1-5.
Some rearward-facing restraints are ISOFIX compatible
where they are connected to the vehicle using the
ISOFIX connectors. See Section 1.3.9 for more details
on ISOFIX.
1.3.3 Forward-facing child restraints
Figure 1-5:
A rearward-facing child restraint installed in a vehicle
Forward facing child restraints are fitted using the car
seat belt and a tether strap that attaches to an anchor
point. Similar to rearward-facing restraints, some
forward facing restraints are ISOFIX compatible where
they are connected to the vehicle’s lower anchorages
using the ISOFIX connectors. See Section 1.3.9 for
details on ISOFIX.
Depending on their designation, forward facing child
restraints are divided into two types: Type B and
Type G.
1.3.3.1 Type B forward-facing child restraints
Type B forward-facing child restraints with inbuilt
harness are designed for children from 6 months old
to approximately 4 years old. An example of this seat is
shown in Figure 1-6.
Restraint Fitters Manual
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1 General information
Figure 1-6:
Type B Forward-facing child restraint
1.3.3.2 Type G forward facing child restraints
Type G forward-facing child restraints with inbuilt
harness are designed for children from 6 months old
to approximately 8 years old. An example of this seat is
shown in Figure 1-7.
1.3.4 Convertible rearward/forward-facing child
restraints (Type A/B)
Convertible rearward/forward-facing child restraints
combine the features of rearward- facing and forward
facing restraints in one child restraint. These restraints
are suitable for infants in rearward-facing mode (see
Figure 1-8) and then be converted to forward facing
mode for toddlers (see Figure 1-9). Most convertible
Type A/B restraints come with a detachable insert to
support the child’s head and sometimes come with
torso supports.
Convertible restraints are generally larger than a
dedicated rearward-facing or a dedicated forwardfacing child restraint. As a result, when they are used
as rearward-facing restraints, they cannot always be
reclined to the degree they should be, resulting in the
infant sitting in a too upright position.
Figure 1-7:
Type G forward facing child restraints
Because of the need to cater for larger children, their
shoulder harness webbing is wider than in dedicated
rearward-facing child restraints and is not be suitable
for low birth weight infants.
1.3.5 Booster seats
Booster seats are designed to position the adult lapsash seatbelt correctly across the child’s shoulder and
thighs and must not be used with lap-only belt. If a
lap-sash belt is not available, the child can use a laponly belt with a child safety harness and a compatible
booster seat that has been shown to prevent
submarining, however it is recommended that a child
safety harness is only used when it is not possible to
replace the lap only seatbelt with a lap-sash seatbelt.
Depending on their designation, booster seats are
divided into two types: Type E and Type F.
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Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
1.3.5.1 Type E booster seats
Type E booster seats are designed to accommodate
children from 4 to 8 years.
Figure 1-8:
Rear/forward facing convertible in rearward-facing mode
There are two types of Type E booster seats, namely:
n
Booster cushions are a booster seat without back
and side wings and are being phased out from the
Australian Standard. Although they are still legal
to use, they are not recommended as they do not
offer any head or side support. These cushions can
collapse and promote submarining in the event
of a crash. Examples of this booster cushion are
illustrated in Figure 1-10.
n
Booster seats that have a back and sides (for head
protection in side impacts) may be equipped with
a sash guide(s) and/or a top tether strap (if the seat
weighs over 2kg). An example of this booster seat
is shown in Figure 1-11a. Some booster seats come
with an adjustable head rest which can be adjusted
to suit the child’s head position. Figure 1-11b shows
this type of booster seat.
Figure 1-9:
Rear/forward facing convertible in forward-facing mode
Figure 1-10:
Example of booster cushion without back
Figure 1-11:
Booster seats
(a) Standard booster seat
Restraint Fitters Manual
(b) Booster seat with
adjustable head rest
13
1 General information
1.3.5.2 Type F Booster Seats
Type F booster seats are designed to accommodate
children from 4 to 10 years old. They also have a
narrower base to better allow three child restraints be
installed across the rear seat of most cars, and better
access to the seatbelt buckle for doing up the belt. An
example of this seat is shown in Figure 1-12.
Figure 1-12:
Type F booster seat
1.3.6 Convertible forward-facing/booster seats,
Type B/E and Type B/F
Figure 1-13:
Forward facing/booster seat convertible
Convertible forward-facing child restraints/booster
seats combine the features of forward facing restraints
for young children and booster seats for older children.
These restraints come with an inbuilt harness and a
top tether strap. The harness is used until the child’s
shoulders have exceeded the upper shoulder markers.
When the child has outgrown the inbuilt harness, the
inbuilt harness is removed and the restraint is used as
a booster seat. An example of this type of seat when
positioned as a forward facing mode is shown in Figure
1-13a and when converted in a booster seat is shown
in Figure 1-13b.
1.3.7 Integrated booster cushions/seats
An integrated (or integral) booster cushion/seat is
one that is built into some vehicles by the vehicle
manufacturer and is used in conjunction with the adult
lap-sash seatbelt. An example of this type of seat is
shown in Figure 1-14.
(a) Forward-facing mode
Figure 1-14:
Integrated booster cushion
14
(b) Booster seat mode
The occupant’s minimum and maximum weight
restrictions for integrated booster cushions are
specified in the vehicle owner’s manual. An integrated
booster cushion is an approved booster seat and
therefore can be used by a child aged 4 years and over.
1.3.8 Dickey seats
n
Children aged between four to seven years old are
allowed to occupy dickey seats without using a
booster seat provided that they are secured in either
the lap-sash seatbelt or the lap belt in combination
with a child safety harness.
n
Dickey seats can be installed as after-market options
in non-passenger areas of the vehicle, such as in
the cargo area of a station wagon. The guidelines
on manufacture and installation of these seats
are specified under the Vehicle Standard Bulletin
No 5: Commercial Manufacture and Installation of
Additional Seats. Only Category 2 and 3 seats can be
installed in station wagons.
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
These dickey seats are usually limited to specific
ages, weights and heights of children, and may
not have appropriate anchorages for child restraint
installation. Dickey seats should only be used when
all adult seats are occupied. An example of this seat
is illustrated in Figure 1-15.
n
The Dickey seat manufacturer’s recommendations
for weight and height should be followed to avoid
overloading the additional seat, or increasing the risk
of head contacts with the vehicle interior.
n
The 5-step test discussed in Section 1.5.2 should
be used to determine whether a child is tall enough
to sit in an additional seating position without a
booster seat.
Figure 1-15:
Dickey seat fitted in a station wagon
1.3.9 ISOFIX compatible child restraints
What is the ISOFIX System?
Designing vehicle seatbelts to achieve their primary
purpose of protecting occupants creates challenges
when installing child restraints in vehicles. An idea
originated in Europe to develop a child restraint
anchorage system that was independent of the
vehicle seatbelt.
In 1989, the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) began work to develop an
ISO standard for child restraint anchorages. This ISO
standard was published in 1999 and is called the
ISO 13216-1 Standard Road vehicles – Anchorages in
Vehicles and Attachments to Anchorages for Child
Restraint Systems.
The technical specifications of this ISO standard have
already been adapted for use by the United States
(2002), Canada (2002), Europe (2004) and Australia
(2013). Each of these systems is different:
n
In the United States this system is known as LATCH
(Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children). The
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS 225)
requires ISOFIX low anchorages in the vehicle, two
lower attachments connectors at the base of the
child restraint which may be either rigid or flexible,
and a top tether strap.
n
In Canada this system is known as the Universal
Attachment System (UAS) and is very similar to the
LATCH system in the United States.
Restraint Fitters Manual
n
In Europe this system is known as ISOFIX and includes
three types – universal ISOFIX, semi-universal ISOFIX
and vehicle specific ISOFIX. The United Nations
Economic Commission for Europe Standard (UNECE
R14) includes provisions on ISOFIX in the vehicle and
a pair of rigid attachment connectors at the base of
the child restraint, in addition to other requirements
depending on the ISOFIX type.
n
In Australia this system is known as ISOFIX
compatible. The Australian Design Rules for vehicles
provide an option for ISOFIX low anchorages in the
vehicle with a corresponding top tether anchorage
point. A pair of ISOFIX compatible lower attachment
connectors for rearward and forward facing child
restraints is provided as an option in AS/NZS
1754:2013 in addition to the top tether strap.
15
1 General information
Figure 1-16:
Vehicle with visible ISOFIX lower anchorages
What has been introduced in Australia?
The ISOFIX compatible system for Australia is allowed
by a combination of changes to the Australian Design
Rules for vehicles (ADR 34) and the Australian/New
Zealand Standard for child restraints (AS/NZS 1754).
The Australian Design Rules have been amended to
set design and performance requirements for any new
vehicle being supplied to Australia with ISOFIX low
anchorages. Vehicle manufacturers, from 1 November
2012, could include ISOFIX low anchorages in new
models of vehicles, and from 1 November 2013 for all
other new vehicles of existing models.
An example of ISOFIX low anchorages is shown in
Figure 1-16 below where they are located on the seat
bight (between the seat back and cushion) of the
vehicle rear seat.
Figure 1-17:
ISOFIX connectors
The lower attachment connectors on the child restraint
can either be a pair of rigid (Figure 1-17a) or flexible
connectors (Figure 1-17b). The lower attachment
connectors are incorporated into the child restraint
design at the time of manufacture and connect to the
vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages.
Figure 1-18 illustrates the installation of an ISOFIX
compatible restraint into the vehicle’s seat where it
connects to the vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages and
top tether anchorage point by using the top tether
strap and the rigid or flexible lower attachment
connectors located at the seat bight (junction of the
vehicle’s seat back and cushion).
(a) Rigid lower attachment
(b) Flexible lower attachment
16
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Figure 1-18:
ISOFIX compatible restraint fitted into the seat using the
top tether strap and the lower anchorages located on the
seat bight
Figure 1-19 shows an ISOFIX compatible restraint with
rigid connectors being connected to the vehicle’s
ISOFIX low anchorages.
ISOFIX compatible child restraints are also suitable
for use in seating positions not fitted with ISOFIX low
anchorages. To install the child restraint in the vehicle it
requires the use of the vehicle seatbelt and top tether
strap. When the vehicle seatbelt is being used, the
lower attachment connectors on the child restraint are
not required and can be retracted.
Child restraints purchased from overseas, including
ISOFIX compatible child restraints, are illegal to use in
Australia as they do not comply with AS/NZS 1754.
Unlike the European standard, the Australian/New
Zealand Standard requires all restraints to:
Figure 1-19:
Rigid connectors being connected to a vehicle seat
n
have a top tether strap
n
have a rebound prevention feature to keep a
rearward-facing child restraint in the correct position
in the event of a crash
n
be tested in a side impact
n
be tested in an inverted position to test for occupant
ejection to ensure the child does not get ejected
from their child restraint if the vehicle rolls.
AS/NZS 1754:2013 specifies child restraints Types A1/
A2/A4, Type B, Type D, Type A1/B, Type A2/B, and Type
A4/B are allowed to be fitted with ISOFIX attachment.
Booster seats and their combinations cannot use
ISOFIX anchorages as there has been some concern
internationally about their likelihood for the occupant
to submarine. ISOFIX anchorages are also not allowed
in Type G restraints as the low anchorages may not be
strong enough to withstand the loads.
Restraint Fitters Manual
17
1 General information
1.3.10 Detailed description of child restraint types
Prior to the introduction of the 2010 edition of AS/NZS 1754, restraint types were recommended based on the
weight of the child. Current standards are now based on the age and guided by shoulder height markers on the
restraint rather than by the child’s weight (see Section 1.4 – Child Restraint Regulations), as many parents do not
accurately know their child’s weight beyond infancy. These shoulder markers were introduced in the 2010 version
of AS/NZS 1754.
Since Australian restraints are tested with dummies that are significantly heavier than the maximum weight range
for the age of children they are representing, exceeding the nominated weight range by a small amount (1-3kg)
is unlikely to pose a significant risk to the structural integrity of the restraint in a crash as long as the child still
fits in the restraint’s inbuilt harness. Similarly, since the crash forces in booster seats are carried by the vehicle’s
inbuilt seatbelt, exceeding the weight limits should not pose a significant risk provided the child fits well within
the child restraint.
Comparison of child restraint types specified in AS/NZS 1754 versions 2004, 2010 and 2013 is presented in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1:
AS/NZS 1754 versions 2004, 2010 and 2013 specifying the criteria for restraint selection for children
AS/NZS 1754
2004
2010
2013
Type
A1
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for infants up to
9kg and supine length up
to 70cm.
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for infants whose
shoulders don’t yet reach
the shoulder height marker.
Supine length up to 70cm
(approx. 6 months of age).
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for infants whose
shoulders don’t yet reach
the shoulder height marker.
Supine length up to 70cm
(approx. 6 months of age).
Type
A2
Rearward-facing chair
with harness for infants up
to 12kg.
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for infants whose
shoulders don’t yet reach
the shoulder height marker.
Supine length up to 80cm
(approx. 12 months of age).
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for infants whose
shoulders don’t yet reach
the shoulder height marker.
Supine length up to 80cm
(approx. 12 months of age).
Type
A3
Transversely installed restraint
for infants up to 9kg and
supine length up to 70cm.
Transversely installed restraint
for infants whose shoulders
don’t yet reach the shoulder
height marker. Supine length
up to 70cm (approx. 6
months of age).
Transversely installed restraint
for infants whose shoulders
don’t yet reach the shoulder
height marker. Supine length
up to 70cm (approx. 6
months of age).
Type
A4
—
—
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for children whose
shoulders reach the shoulder
height marker (approx. 30
months of age).
Type
A1/0
—
—
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for low birth weight
infants and supine length up
to 70cm (approx. 6 months
of age).
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Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
AS/NZS 1754
2004
2010
2013
Type
A2/0
—
—
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for low birth weight
infants and supine length up
to 80cm (approx. 12 months
of age).
Type
A3/0
—
—
Transversely installed restraint
for low birth weight infants
and supine length up to
70cm (approx. 6 months
of age).
Type
A4/0
—
—
Rearward-facing chair with
harness for low birth weight
infants until shoulders reach
the shoulder height marker
(approx. 30 months of age).
Type
B
Forward-facing child restraint
for children whose weight
ranged between 8-18kg.
Forward-facing child restraint
for children whose shoulders
are above the lower shoulder
height marker and until they
reach the upper shoulder
height marker (approx. 6
months to 4 years of age).
Forward-facing child restraint
for children whose shoulders
are above the lower shoulder
height marker and until they
reach the upper shoulder
height marker (approx. 6
months to 4 years of age).
Type
C
Child safety harness for
children whose weight
ranged between 14-32kg.
Child safety harness for
children aged approx. 4-7
years: to be used with a
compatible booster seat.
Ages approx. 8-10 years: to
be used with a compatible
booster seat or vehicle seat
with a lap-only belt.
Child safety harness:
Rearward-facing child
restraint for children in the
rearward-facing position
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach the
upper shoulder height marker
(approx. 6 months to 4 years
of age).
Rearward-facing child
restraint for children in the
rearward-facing position
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach the
upper shoulder height marker
(approx. 6 months to 4 years
of age).
Type
D
Rearward-facing child
restraint whose weight
ranged between 8-18kg.
Restraint Fitters Manual
Type C1: for use with suitable
booster seat and lap-only
belt, for approx. 4-10 years of
age, depending on booster
seat used.
Type C2: for use on vehicle
seat with lap belt only for
children approx. 7-10 years of
age. Not suitable for use with
a booster seat.
19
1 General information
AS/NZS 1754
2004
2010
2013
Type
E
i) Booster cushion/ seat for
children whose weight raged
between 14-26kg or
ii) a converter for children
whose weight raged
between 18-32kg.
Booster seat for children
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach the
upper shoulder height marker
(approx. 4-8 years of age
whose height is less than
128cm). To be used with
either a lap sash seatbelt or
an add-on accessory harness.
Booster seat for children
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach
the upper shoulder height
marker. To be used with
either a lap sash seatbelt,
or it can be used with an
add-on accessory harness
and lap-only belt that is
approved with this booster
seat. (approx. 4-8 years of
age whose height is up to
128cm).
—
n
Booster seat for children
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach
the upper shoulder height
marker (approx. 4-10 years
of age whose height is
up to 138cm). To be used
with a lap sash seatbelt.
Can be used with a child
safety harness and lap
only belt.
n
Converter used in
conjunction with a
seatbelt, suitable for
children approximately 8
to 10 years of age.
Booster seat for children
whose shoulders are above
the lower shoulder height
marker until they reach
the upper shoulder height
marker. To be used with
either a lap sash seatbelt
or an add-on accessory
harness. Can be used
with a child safety harness
which is approved with this
booster seat and lap-only
belt. (approx. 4-10 years
of age whose height is up
to 138cm).
Type
F
Type
G
—
—
Forward-facing chair with
harness for children whose
shoulders are above the
lower shoulder height marker
until they reach the upper
shoulder height marker
(approx. 6 months to approx.
8-10 years of age).
Type
H
—
—
Converter
a) for children aged approx.
4-7 years: to be used with
a compatible booster seat
b) for children aged approx.
7-10 years: to be used
with a seatbelt without a
booster seat.
20
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
1.4 Child Restraint Regulation
1.4.1 Summary of child restraint regulation
The current child restraint regulations were implemented as state laws in NSW in March 2010 and are administered
through the [NSW] Road Rules 2014 (the Road Rules). Under the Road Rules, all children under 7 years of age must
be restrained in a suitable and approved child restraint or booster seat when travelling in a motor vehicle. The type
of restraint that a child must use depends on the age of the child. Details of the Road Rules are summarised in
Table 1-2 and Table 1-3.
Table 1-2:
Summary of the Road Rules related to child restraint use
Child Age
Rules and Type of restraint
Birth to under 6 months
old
Children under 6 months must be restrained in an approved rearward-facing
restraint (Types A1, A2, A3 or A4) that is properly fitted to the vehicle and
adjusted to fit the child’s body correctly.
From 6 months to under
4 years old
Children from 6 months to less than 4 years old must be restrained in either
a properly fastened and adjusted approved rearward-facing child restraint
(Types A1, A2, A3 or A4) or properly fastened and adjusted approved forwardfacing child restraint with inbuilt harness (Type B or G).
From 4 years old to
under 7 years old
Children from 4 years and less than 7 years old must be restrained in an
approved forward-facing restraint (Type B or G) or booster seat (Type E or
F) that is properly fitted to the vehicle and adjusted to fit the child’s body
correctly or if he or she is seated in a Dickey Seat be secured by a lap sash
seatbelt, or a lap seatbelt in combination with child safety harness.
From 7 years old to
16 years old
Children aged 7 years and under 16 years old must be restrained in a properly
worn seatbelt, or Type G restraint, or booster seat (Type E or F) that is properly
fitted to the vehicle and adjusted to fit the child’s body correctly.
Table 1-3:
Summary of the NSW regulations for child restraint and seat belt use
Issue
Requirements in NSW
Sharing of seatbelts
It is illegal for a seatbelt to be shared either by an adult with a child seated on
their lap or by children sitting side by side. There must be only one passenger
for each seating position and one seatbelt for each passenger.
Front seat
n
Children under 4 years old must not be seated in the front seat in vehicles
with two or more rows of seats.
n
Children 4 years to less than 7 years old can only be seated in the front if all
other seats in the row(s) behind are occupied by other passengers less than
7 years old.
Complying child restraints
Child restraints must comply with AS/NZS 1754. It is illegal to use a child
restraint that does not comply with AS/NZS 1754.
Additional seats
Additional seats are permitted for use by children aged 4 to 7 years, without
the need to be used in conjunction with a booster seat or child restraint,
provided the seat is suitable for the children’s size and weight and a lap-sash
seatbelt or a lap seatbelt with an approved child safety harness is used.
Restraint Fitters Manual
21
1 General information
Issue
Requirements in NSW
Taxis
In NSW taxi drivers are required to ensure:
n
All passengers younger than 12 months must be secured in a child restraint.
n
All passengers aged over 12 months and under 7 years must use a child
restraint or booster seat if available. If no restraint is available the child
passenger must:
n
occupy a seating position that is fitted with a suitable seatbelt, and
n
not occupy the same seating position as another passenger (whether or
not the other passenger is exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule
267), and
n
wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened.
n
No passenger under 4 years old is in the front seat and a child 4 years or
older but under 7 years may only sit in the front row if all of the other seats
in the row or rows behind the front row are occupied by passengers who
are also under 7 years old.
Taxi drivers do not have to provide child restraints or booster seats. However,
they must ensure there is at least one anchor fitting ready for passengers who
wish to supply their own.
Motorcycles
The rider of a motorcycle must not ride with a passenger who is under 8 years
old unless the passenger is in a sidecar.
A passenger must not ride in a sidecar of a motorbike unless the passenger is
seated safely and wearing a helmet.
Buses
Buses (more than 12 seats)
A driver of a bus, that is designed to seat over 12 adults (including the driver), is
not required to ensure passengers, including those under 16 years of age are in a
restraint. It is recommended that where a restraint is available, it should be worn.
Small bus (between 9 to 12 seats including the driver’s seat)
A driver of a small bus providing a public passenger service under the
Passenger Transport Act 1990 must ensure that:
n
All passengers younger than 12 months are secured in a child restraint.
n
All passengers aged over 12 months and under 16 years:
n
n
occupy a seating position that is fitted with a suitable seatbelt, and
n
not occupy the same seating position as another passenger, and
n
wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened.
No passenger under 4 years old is in the front seat and a child 4 years or
older but under 7 years may only sit in the front row if all of the other seats
in the row or rows behind the front row are occupied by passengers who
are also under 7 years old.
A driver of a small bus not providing a public passenger service under the
Passenger Transport Act 1990 is required to fully comply with the child
restraint laws and must ensure that all passengers under 7 years old are
appropriately restrained in an approved child restraint or booster seat.
Buses fitted with 2 for 3 seats
Three children under the age of 12 years old are allowed to occupy
a 2 for 3 seat and must wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened.
22
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Issue
Requirements in NSW
Coaches and public buses
Drivers of public transport buses and coaches are not required to ensure that
children are restrained according to the child restraint laws.
Vehicles with side facing
seats
There are no regulations specific to children occupying side facing seats.
However, the Road Rules require that a child restraint or seatbelt must be
properly adjusted, and correct installation of a restraint precludes installation
in a side facing seat.
Modification for children
with special needs
If any modification is made to a restraint or to the child’s use of a restraint,
even if for a short-term medical condition, a medical certificate must be
carried within the vehicle.
1.4.2 Approved child restraints
The definition of an ‘approved child restraint’,
‘approved booster seat’, and ‘approved child safety
harness’ referred to in the Road Rules are:
‘approved child restraint’ means a child
restraint that:
a) is or was designated as a Type A1, A1/0, A2, A2/0,
A3, A3/0, A4, A4/0, B, D, G or H child restraint
under the relevant Australian Standard, and
b) complies with the edition of the relevant
Australian Standard that was in force at the time
of its manufacture in Australia or importation into
Australia (as the case may be) or with any later
edition of the Standard in force at the time the
restraint is being used, and
c) has an identifying mark from a body accredited
or approved by the Joint Accreditation System of
Australia and New Zealand that certifies compliance
with the edition concerned of the Standard.
‘approved booster’ seat means any of
the following:
a) a booster seat or booster cushion that:
i. is or was designated as a Type E or Type F
child restraint under the relevant Australian
Standard, and
ii. complies with the edition of the relevant
Australian Standard that was in force at the time
of its manufacture in Australia or importation into
Australia (as the case may be) or with any later
edition of the Standard in force at the time the
seat or cushion is being used, and
b) a booster seat or cushion that:
i. is an integrated part of a motor vehicle, and
ii. was installed by the manufacturer of the motor
vehicle to enable an existing adult lap-sash
seatbelt to become suitable for use by a
child, and
iii. complies with the relevant Australian Design
Rules under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act
1989 of the Commonwealth for child restraints of
the type concerned that was in force at the time
the vehicle was manufactured or imported into
Australia (as the case may be) or with any later
edition of those Rules in force at the time the seat
or cushion is being used.
‘approved child safety harness’ means a
harness that:
a) is or was designated as a Type C child restraint under
the relevant Australian Standard, and
b) complies with the edition of the relevant
Australian Standard that was in force at the time
of its manufacture in Australia or importation into
Australia (as the case may be) or with any later
edition of the Standard in force at the time the
harness is being used, and
c) has an identifying mark from a body accredited
or approved by the Joint Accreditation System of
Australia and New Zealand that certifies compliance
with the edition concerned of the Standard.
iii. has an identifying mark from a body accredited
or approved by the Joint Accreditation System
of Australia and New Zealand that certifies
compliance with the edition concerned of
the Standard.
Restraint Fitters Manual
23
1 General information
And the definition of relevant Australian Standard is
defined as:
1.5.2 When to move a child to the next type of
child restraint
‘relevant Australian Standard’ means any of the
following editions of the Australian/New Zealand
Standard for child restraint systems for use in motor
vehicles (as in force from time to time):
Children should be moved to the next type of restraint
when they no longer fit in their current child restraint.
a) AS/NZS 1754:1995,
b) AS/NZS 1754:2000,
c) AS/NZS 1754:2004,
From a rearward-facing child restraint to a
forward-facing restraint
A child should be moved:
n
When he/she is aged between 6 or 12 months
(depending on the type of rearward facing child
restraint used) and is able to hold their head up; or
n
When his/her shoulders are above the top harness
slot; or
n
If the child restraint is a convertible rearward-facing
infant restraint (Type A/B), move the child when
their shoulders are just above the top harness slot
nominated for rearward-facing use; or
n
If the child restraint has shoulder marks printed or
sewn on the cover, move the child when his/her
shoulders have passed the upper marks as seen in
Figure 1-20(a), or for Type A/B convertible restraints,
when the shoulders are above the transition marker,
as shown in Figure 1-20(b).
d) any subsequent edition of the Standard.
More details on the Road Rules – Rule 266. “Wearing
of seatbelts by passengers under 16 years old” can be
found on the following website:
http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/maintop/view/
inforce/subordleg+758+2014+cd+0+N
1.4.3 Penalties for not using approved child
restraints
The driver of a vehicle could be fined and lose demerit
points for failing to comply with the Road Rules,
including not securing the child passenger using an
approved child restraint. The approximate fines and
demerit points for failing to ensure all children are
appropriately restrained are outlined in Table 1 4 below:
Table.1.4:
Penalties for failure to comply with child restraint
or road rules in NSW.
From a forward-facing child restraint to a
booster seat
A child should be moved:
n
When his/her shoulders no longer fit comfortably
within the child restraint; or
n
When his/her eye-level is higher than the back of the
child restraint; or
n
When the top harness slots are below the level of
his/her shoulders; or
n
If the child restraint has shoulder marks, move the
child to a booster seat when his/her shoulders have
passed the upper marks, or for Type B/E convertible
restraints, when the shoulders are above the
transition marker.
Penalties
Fine
$311
Demerit points 3 or 6 during double demerit periods
For up to date information, visit the Transport for NSW
web page ‘Demerit point offences’:
http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/index.cgi?fuseaction=demeritpoints.browsehandler&category=Seat+belts+%26+restraints&offence=
1.5 Best practices
1.5.1 General
Below is a list of best practices that restraint fitters
should advise parents/carers to help ensure that
their children are correctly transported in the most
suitable child restraint restraints. Where appropriate,
fitters should demonstrate how to fit the restraint.
Restraint fitters should also give parents and carers the
knowledge to install their child’s restraint correctly and
to move restraints between vehicles.
24
From a booster seat to a seatbelt
This five-step test can help assess whether a child is big
enough to be safely restrained by a seatbelt. The child
should be able to:
1. Sit with their back against the seat back
2. Bend their knees comfortably over the front of the
seat cushion
3. Sit with the sash belt across their mid-shoulder
4. Sit with the lap belt across the top of their thighs
5. Remain in this position for the whole trip
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Figure 1-20:
Forward-facing child restraint with shoulder height markers
1.5.3 Seating Position
When choosing seat positions for child passengers, as many
of the following safety tips should be followed as possible:
n
Children 12 years of age and under are safest in the
rear seat. Injury risk to children 12 years of age and
under is nearly double in the front seat compared to
the back seat, irrespective of restraint type.
n
For a child in a booster seat or an adult seatbelt, use a
seating position with a lap-sash (lap and shoulder) belt.
n
The top tether strap (if required) should not be able to fall
into a gap between seat back sections such as if there is a
split-folding seat, or off the side of a single seat.
n
Entry and exit from the vehicle from the kerb side is
safer than the road/traffic side.
n
Avoid positions that allow interaction with other
restraints, e.g. where an adjacent restraint might
make it difficult to access the seatbelt buckle for a
booster seat user.
n
Choose positions where the child can be seen easily
by the driver.
(a) Upper shoulder markers
1.5.4 Airbags
Airbags are a proven vehicle safety feature. Airbags can
help protect children by significantly reducing their risk
of injury in a crash. However there is a chance children
could be injured from the force of an airbag in a crash,
particularly if they are not restrained correctly.
n
Rearward-facing child restraints (Types A1, A2 and
A4) must not to be used in the front row where a
front passenger airbag is present.
n
Forward-facing child restraints (Type B and Type G),
booster seats and booster cushions may be used in
the front seating position (e.g. in a vehicle with only
one row of seats) where an airbag is designed to be
deployed, but it is recommended that the vehicle
seat be moved as far back as is possible without it
affecting the seatbelt fit.
n
Curtain airbags and torso airbags have not been
shown to pose any risk to a properly restrained
and positioned child, and may have safety benefits,
but children should not rest any part of their body
(particularly the head) on the window or sill in the
deployment path of a curtain or torso airbag, and
should also maintain an upright posture.
(b) Transition shoulder marker
If they do not pass this five-step-test in the position in
which they will be seated, the child should either:
n
remain in their Type E booster seat or move to a
larger booster seat (Type F); or
n
move to an adult seat belt when their shoulders
have passed the bottom of the head restraint with
the head restraint in the uppermost position.
1.5.5 Further information
Further information about the child restraint regulation
and best practices is included in the frequently asked
questions attached in Appendix 1.
Restraint Fitters Manual
25
1 General information
Appendix 1 - Frequently asked questions by parents and carers
Transport for NSW has provided additional information on child restraint use and answers to frequently asked
questions from parents. Fitters can refer parents and carers to these sites:
https://www.childcarseats.com.au/faqs
Question
Answer
Can my child
sit in the front
seat?
This depends on whether there is more than one row of seats in the car and the age of the
child.
Where there are two or more rows of seats:
A child under four years of age cannot sit in the front row if there is more than one row
of seats, even if they are large enough to fit in a booster seat.
n
n
A child between four years of age and seven years of age cannot sit in the front row
if there is more than one row of seats, unless the other rows are occupied by younger
children in approved child restraint.
However, for their safety, it is strongly recommended that children up to and including 12
years of age always sit in the rear seat.
As front seats do not have child restraint anchorage points supplied, child restraints and
booster seats with top tether straps cannot be used in these seating positions, unless an
anchorage point has been retro-fitted.
Where there is only one row of seats (for example a single-cab ute or sports car
with a front anchorage point):
n A child of any age can sit in the front seat provided they are properly restrained.
n
If I have four
children under
7 years of age
can I carry
them all in my
car?
However, most car manufacturers recommend against the use of rearward-facing child
restraints in front passenger seats.
This will depend on the age of your children and the size of your car, as well as the type of
child restraints including booster seats you have.
If you have a standard sedan with two rows of seats you should be able to accommodate
three child restraints in the second row and carry one child aged over four years in the front
row. As front seats do not have child restraint anchorage points supplied, child restraints
and booster seats with top tether straps cannot be used in these seating positions, unless
an anchorage point has been retrofitted. Booster seats weighing less than 2 kg do not
require a top tether strap.
There are a range of child restraints including booster seats available with narrow bases
that may be suitable for your child and car. You can find the child restraint dimensions
in www.childcarseats.com.au website to see if the seat will fit in your car.
26
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Question
Answer
What if I need
to take my
child in a taxi
or a bus?
In taxis
In NSW, taxi drivers are required to ensure:
n
All passengers younger than 12 months must be secured in a child restraint.
n
All passengers aged over 12 months and under 16 years must:
n
Occupy a seating position that is fitted with a suitable seatbelt, and
n
Not share a seatbelt.
n
Passengers under 4 years old must not be in the front seat.
n
Passengers aged between 4 years and under 7 years may sit in the front seat only if the
rear seat(s) are occupied by passengers under seven years old.
In NSW, one in ten taxis carries an approved child restraint. If you need a child restraint for
your child, you should ask for one when booking a taxi or take one with you.
It is recommended that parents provide their own child restraint when travelling in a taxi.
In buses (more than 12 seats)
A driver of a bus that is designed to seat over 12 adults (including the driver), is not
required to ensure passengers, including those under 16 years of age are in a restraint. It is
recommended that where a restraint is available, it should be worn.
In small Buses (9 to 12 seats)
In NSW, a driver of a small bus (between 9 to 12 seats including the driver) providing a
public passenger service under the [NSW] Passenger Transport Act 1990 must ensure:
n
All passengers younger than 12 months must be secured in a child restraint.
n
All passengers aged over 12 months and under 16 years must:
n
occupy a seating position that is fitted with a suitable seatbelt, and
n
not occupy the same seating position as another passenger (whether or not the other
passenger is exempt from wearing a seatbelt under Rule 267 of the Road Rules), and
n
wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened.
n
No passenger under 4 years old is in the front seat
n
A child 4 years or older but under 7 years may only sit in the front row if all of the other
seats in the row or rows behind the front row are occupied by passengers who are also
under 7 years old.
A driver of a small bus not providing a public passenger service under the [NSW] Passenger
Transport Act 1990 is required to fully comply with the child restraint laws and must ensure
that all passengers under 7 years old are appropriately restrained in an approved child
restraint or booster seat.
Can I use a
child restraint
I have brought
with me from
overseas?
No. Child restraints bought overseas do not comply with Australian Standards and they are
not compatible with Australian vehicles.
Australian vehicles have a unique top-tether strap anchorage system, with which only
Australian Standard approved child restraints are compatible.
Restraint Fitters Manual
27
1 General information
Question
Answer
Can I use an
accessory child
safety harness
with a booster
seat?
A child safety harness is difficult to fit correctly. Research recommends using a child safety
harness only in situations where it is not possible to replace your lap-only seatbelt with
a lap-sash seatbelt. In this case, it is recommended to use a booster seat with an antisubmarining feature.
If you must use a child safety harness, ensure that the shoulder straps are not too tight
and that the lap part of the seatbelt is very low across the thighs, otherwise it may ride
up into the child’s stomach area. Incorrect use of a child safety harness may cause severe
submarining and direct contact between the harness system and the child’s neck.
Remember, every child must be suitably restrained when travelling in a vehicle, unless you
have and carry a current certificate signed by a medical practitioner exempting your child
due to medical reasons.
If my family
has more than
four children
can I carry
them in my
vehicle?
Most cars sold in Australia have three child restraint anchorage points fitted as standard.
If your car has three rows of seats, it is possible to carry more than four children, however,
additional anchorage points must be retro-fitted to connect the top tether straps of any
additional child restraints you place in the car.
Front seats do not have child restraint anchorage points supplied. Child restraints and
booster seats with top tether straps cannot be used in the front seat unless an anchorage
point has been retro-fitted, however, booster seats weighing less than 2kg do not require a
top tether strap.
Some cars have additional third-row seats that are designed for use by children aged four
and less than seven years, without the need to be used in conjunction with a booster seat
or child restraint, provided the seat is suitable for the child’s size and weight and a lap-andsash seatbelt or lap seatbelt with an approved child safety harness is used.
Authorised Restraint Fitting Stations offer specialist help to install additional anchorage
points, retrofit lap and lap-sash seatbelts or fit child restraints that require vehicle
modifications.
What is the
Australian/
New Zealand
Standard
for child
restraints?
The Australian/New Zealand Standard for child restraints is the Australian/New Zealand
Standard 1754 Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles (AS/NZS 1754).
Standards are published documents that set out specifications and procedures designed to
ensure products, services and systems are safe, reliable and consistently perform the way
they are intended to. They establish a common language that defines quality and safety
criteria.
AS/NZS 1754:2013 is the current version and was published on 7 June 2013. This version
introduces new requirements for a lower anchorage system for restraining a child restraint
to the vehicle instead of using the seatbelt. Child restraints provided with this alternative
option are defined in AS/NZS 1754 as “ISOFIX compatible child restraints”.
28
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Question
Answer
How is
ISOFIX being
introduced in
Australia?
The ISOFIX compatible system for Australia represents a combination of changes to the
Australian Design Rules for vehicles (ADR 34) and the Australian/New Zealand Standard for
child restraints (AS/NZS 1754).
The Australian Design Rules have been amended to set design and performance
requirements for any new vehicle being supplied to Australia with ISOFIX low anchorages.
Vehicle manufacturers, from 1 November 2012, could include ISOFIX low anchorages in
new models of vehicles, and from 1 November 2013 for all other new vehicles of existing
models.
ISOFIX low anchorages are a pair of dedicated anchorage bars, fitted to the junction of the
vehicle’s seat back and cushion, specifically for attaching a child restraint.
The lower attachment connectors on the child restraint can either be a pair of rigid or
flexible connectors. The lower attachment connectors are incorporated into the child
restraint design at the time of manufacturer and connect to the vehicle’s ISOFIX low
anchorages.
How does
the ISOFIX
compatible
system for
Australia work?
In Australia, an ISOFIX compatible child restraint that complies with the Australian/New
Zealand Standard 1754, connects to a vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages and top tether
anchorage point by using the child restraint’s rigid or flexible lower attachment connectors
and top tether strap.
What is the
difference
between rigid
and flexible
connectors?
Rigid or flexible connectors are incorporated into the design of the child restraint at the time
of manufacture and both types are compatible with the vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages.
This is why the child restraint is called an ISOFIX compatible child restraint.
ISOFIX compatible child restraints that comply with AS/NZS 1754 are also suitable for use in
seating positions not fitted with ISOFIX low anchorages. Install the child restraint in the vehicle
by using the vehicle seatbelt and top tether strap. When the vehicle seatbelt is being used, the
lower attachment connectors on the child restraint are not required and can be retracted.
Rigid connectors (see Figure 1-21a): A pair of rigid connectors is located at the base of the
child restraint which connects to the vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages. The top tether strap
must be anchored to the vehicle. The vehicle seatbelt will not be required when the rigid
connectors are being used.
Flexible connectors (see Figure 1-21b): A pair of flexible straps with connectors is located at
the base of the child restraint which connects to the vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages. The
flexible connectors are then adjusted to secure the child restraint firmly to the vehicle. The
top tether strap must be anchored to the vehicle. The vehicle seatbelt will not be required
when the flexible connectors are being used.
Figure 1-21: ISOFIX connectors
(a) Rigid connectors
Restraint Fitters Manual
(b) Flexible connectors
29
1 General information
Question
Answer
How are AS/
NZS 1754
ISOFIX
compatible
child restraints
different to
European
and American
versions?
Child restraints which comply with the Australian/New Zealand Standard for child restraints
(AS/NSZ 1754), including ISOFIX compatible child restraints, are different to child restraints
from overseas.
For example, AS/NZS 1754 child restraints are required to:
n
have a top tether strap (that is independently tested for strength)
n
have a rebound prevention feature (to keep a rearward-facing child restraint in the
correct position in the event of a crash)
n
be tested in a side impact (in the event of a side impact crash)
n
be tested in an inverted position to test for occupant ejection (to ensure the child does
not get ejected from their child restraint if the vehicle rolls).
It will continue to be illegal to use an ISOFIX compatible child restraint from overseas.
Is the ISOFIX
compatible
system for
Australia easier
to use?
It is not known at this stage whether the ISOFIX compatible system for Australia is an easier
system to use. This depends on the design of the child restraint, the design of the vehicle,
and the ease of access to the ISOFIX low anchorages in the vehicle.
Australian research has shown that installing a child restraint using the vehicle seatbelt
accounts for 25 per cent of misuse in forward facing restraints and 10 per cent misuse in
rearward-facing restraints.
ISOFIX and similar systems (for example LATCH) were designed to reduce serious installation
errors when the vehicle seatbelt is used to secure the child restraint. However there is still
potential for incorrect use of ISOFIX low anchorages.
This was recently highlighted in an overseas study which showed 40 per cent of parents
incorrectly connected the child restraint to the vehicle’s ISOFIX low anchorages. Details
of this research can be found in the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Status Report
(2012).
Whether a child restraint uses ISOFIX compatible connectors or the vehicle seatbelt, parents
and carers need to continue to take care when fitting and using child restraints.
To protect a child in a crash, ensure the child restraint is:
30
n
the right size for the child
n
correctly fitted to the vehicle
n
properly adjusted and fastened.
Restraint Fitters Manual
1 General information
Question
Answer
Are all
Australian
child restraints
ISOFIX
compatible?
No. Child restraints that use the vehicle seatbelt and top tether strap continue to
be available.
The reason for introducing the ISOFIX compatible system to Australia is not because there
are any concerns with the current Australian system of using the adult seatbelt and top
tether strap to install child restraints. There is strong evidence that Australian child restraints,
which use the top tether and vehicle seatbelt to secure the restraint to the vehicle, provide
excellent protection to children, even in very high severity crashes.
The ISOFIX compatible system for Australia provides consumers with greater choice. All
AS/NZS 1754 child restraints, whether they are ISOFIX compatible or not, can be installed
using the vehicle seatbelt and top tether strap.
How can I
identify an AS/
NZS 1754 child
restraint?
When buying a child restraint or booster seat, look for the Australian and New Zealand
Standard label on the seat and wording on the package that states it complies with
AS/NZS 1754.
Is a top tether
strap still
required to
be used with
an ISOFIX
compatible
child restraint?
Yes. Australian rearward and forward facing child restraints all require the use of the
top tether strap. This continues to be required for all rearward and forward facing child
restraints, including any AS/NZS 1754 ISOFIX compatible child restraints.
Do all
vehicles have
ISOFIX low
anchorages?
No. Since 2000 some vehicles imported from Europe, Asia and the United States have
arrived in Australia fitted with ISOFIX low anchorages. This has been included on a
voluntary basis by the manufacturer, so not all vehicles sold in Australia have ISOFIX low
anchorages.
My vehicle
already has
ISOFIX low
anchorages
fitted – can I
use them?
A: Yes, provided the seating position has a corresponding top tether anchorage point and
you are using an ISOFIX compatible child restraint that complies with the Australian/New
Zealand Standard for child restraints (AS/NZS 1754).
How many
ISOFIX low
anchorages
can be fitted in
a vehicle?
ISOFIX low anchorages are built in to the vehicle at the time of manufacture, if the vehicle
manufacturer chooses to provide them. The number of ISOFIX low anchorages depend on
the design of the vehicle. Generally, ISOFIX low anchorages are located on the two outer
seating positions in the second row, and not in the middle seating position.
Child restraints that meet the standards released in 2000, 2004, 2010 and 2013 are legal
and can be used in motor vehicles throughout most of Australia.
A top tether strap prevents the child restraint from rotating forward in a crash and is tested
for strength, independent of the ISOFIX low anchorages or vehicle seatbelt.
Some older vehicles may have ISOFIX low anchorages but no corresponding top tether
anchorage point. A corresponding top tether anchorage point must be fitted before these
ISOFIX low anchorages can be used. Contact your nearest Authorised Restraint Fitting
Station, licensed certifier or vehicle engineer to determine if a top tether anchorage point
can be installed.
If you wish to use the middle seating position in the second row, you can still fit an ISOFIX
compatible child restraint in the middle position by using the vehicle seatbelt and top
tether strap.
It is not recommended to have aftermarket ISOFIX low anchorages fitted.
Restraint Fitters Manual
31
1 General information
Question
Answer
Can I use
an ISOFIX
compatible
child restraint
in a seating
position that is
not fitted with
ISOFIX low
anchorages?
Yes. The Australian/New Zealand Standard for child restraints (AS/NZS 1754:2013) requires
all child restraints (including ISOFIX compatible child restraints) to be able to be anchored to
the vehicle using the vehicle seatbelt and the top tether strap.
Can I fit
three ISOFIX
compatible
child restraints
in the second
row?
If provided, ISOFIX low anchorages are generally located on the two outer seating positions
in the second row. The experience in Europe is that if using both pairs of ISOFIX low
anchorages, it is unlikely that there will be room for a third child restraint or passenger in
the same row.
However, as ISOFIX compatible child restraints that comply with AS/NZS 1754 can be fitted
to the vehicle using the vehicle seatbelt and top tether, it may be possible to use three
restraints in the second row, depending on the size of the vehicle.
Some manufacturers may offer three ISOFIX anchorages in the same row, however, it will
depend on the size of your vehicle and whether you can fit three ISOFIX compatible child
restraints side by side using the ISOFIX low anchorages.
Can I convert
my existing
child restraint
to make it
suitable to
connect to
ISOFIX low
anchorages?
No. Only child restraints that have been specifically manufactured, crash tested, and
certified to the Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS 1754:2013) can be used.
Can ISOFIX
compatible
child restraints
be used in the
front seat?
ISOFIX compatible child restraints cannot be used in the front row of vehicles with two or
more rows of seats. In Australia, children aged under 7 years must not travel in the front
seat of a vehicle with two or more rows of seats. However, if all rear seats are being used by
children aged under 7 years, then children aged 4 years to under 7 years may travel in the
front seat, provided they use a booster seat.
If your vehicle does not have a rear row (for example, a ute) children are able to travel in the
front row, provided they are restrained in a suitable child restraint that is properly adjusted
and fastened.
A rearward-facing child restraint cannot be used in the front row where a passenger airbag
is fitted.
Is there
an ISOFIX
compatible
booster seat?
32
No. AS/NZS 1754:2013 only allows child restraint manufacturers to produce ISOFIX
compatible rearward and forward facing child restraints, not booster seats.
Restraint Fitters Manual
Module 2
2
Installation and use of
child restraints
Restraint Fitters Manual
33
34
A fitter is adjusting the 5 point harness
2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.1 Overview
This section covers how to correctly install different
types of restraints in vehicles that have had child
restraint anchorages and how to properly secure the
child in the restraint. For vehicles that do not have child
restraint anchorage, see Module 3.
Parents and carers should be shown how to correctly
install their child’s restraint, and how to correctly
secure the child in the restraint. They should also be
shown how to adjust the restraint as the child grows.
or sheet supplied with the restraints. Information
provided below is for general reference only or where
this information is not available.
General guidelines on installing child restraints:
n
Child restraints in Australia are required to be
installed using a seatbelt or ISOFIX connectors and a
top tether system. Top tethers have been shown to
be highly effective in reducing injuries compared to
restraints that are installed with just a seatbelt.
n
Neither the seat belt nor the top tether strap
should be twisted except, for those convertible
child restraints where half a twist in the top tether
is necessary.
n
All rearward-facing restraints, forward-facing
restraints, and booster seats over 2kg are required to
be installed with a top tether strap that anchors the
restraint to the vehicle, reducing movement of the
restraint in a crash.
n
It is important to always connect the top tether
strap to the correct child restraint anchorage point
in the vehicle and tighten the strap to remove slack.
The anchorage clip must be installed correctly as
shown in Figure 2-1a. If the clip is incorrect installed,
as shown in Figure 2-1b, it may inadvertently detach
from the anchor fitting especially if the black plastic
keeper is missing from the hook. Always ensure the
keeper is in place.
2.2 Child restraint installation
Before starting the installation of a child restraint in a
vehicle, restraint fitters must:
n
check the restraint is in a good condition and in
working order
n
check that the restraint is not more than 10 years old
n
make sure that the restraint meets AS/NZS 1754
n
not repair damaged or worn restraints
Note: If a child restraint is damaged, the restraint
fitter should advise the customer to send it to the
manufacturer for repair.
When installing child restraints, the restraint fitter must
install them according to the restraint manufacturers’
instructions as outlined in the instruction booklet
Figure 2-1: Attaching top tether strap anchor fitting into a child restraint anchorage.
üCORRECT
û INCORRECT
NOTE: Fittings have been enlarged and straps have been lengthened/
shortened to improve clarity of the diagram.
Be sure that the attachment clip is not lying flat on the anchor fitting
as shown below.
Correct engagement of attachment clip to anchor fitting when the
attachment clip cover is used.
Front of vehicle
Incorrect engagement of attachment clip to anchor fitting when attachment
clip cover is not used.
Front of vehicle
Note: Fittings have been enlarged and straps have been lengthened/shortened to improve clarity of the diagram.
Restraint Fitters Manual
35
2 Installation and use of child restraints
Figure 2-2:
Possible locations of child restraint anchorage point for attaching the anchorage clip.
Vehicle ceiling
High
Front of vehicle
Low
Vehicle vertical mount
Vehicle parcel shelf
If anchor point is less than 80mm
from seat, install in this position.
Vehicle floor
Anchor point
n
Figure 2-2 shows the correct orientation of the top
tether strap anchor fitting into a few possible child
restraint anchorage locations. The location of the
child restraint anchorage points can be found in the
vehicle’s user manual.
n
Care must be taken not to attach the tether strap to
a luggage tie-down or other non-complying child
restraint anchorage points.
n
Always ensure that the seatbelt and top tether
strap are firmly adjusted by pushing the restraint
toward the vehicle’s seat, without over-tightening
the seatbelt or the top tether. Over-tightening may
reduce the crash performance of the restraint. It can
also leave the restraint permanently distorted.
n
For installation of child restraints in vehicles fitted
with cargo barriers, it is sometimes necessary for the
top tether strap to pass through the cargo barrier.
In these instances, plastic cover strips are available
to ensure a smooth surface is provided for the top
tether strap to pass over when it passes through the
cargo barrier. See Figure 2-3.
36
Figure 2-3:
Cargo barrier fitted in a station wagon with provision
for the passage of top tether straps.
Rear of vehicle
Anchorage points
Restraint Fitters Manual
2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.2.1 Installing rearward-facing child restraints
(Types A1, A2 and A4)
n
n
For restraints that are designed with a base that
separates from the carrier, the base should be
installed separately first by placing the base on the
seating position at the correct recline angle and
then threading the seatbelt through the seatbelt
path in accordance with the restraint manufacturer’s
instructions. In restraints manufactured to AS/NZS
1754:2010 onwards, the rearward-facing seatbelt
path will be colour-coded blue. Fasten the seatbelt
buckle, remove all slack from the seatbelt and
ensure the seatbelt is firm. The carrier can then be
fitted to the base in accordance with the restraint
manufacturer’s instructions.
For restraints that do not have a separate base,
the restraint should be placed at the correct
recline angle on the seat according to the restraint
manufacturer’s instructions, then the seatbelt
threaded through the seatbelt path in accordance
with the restraint manufacturer’s instructions. In
restraints manufactured to AS/NZS 1754:2010
onwards, the rearward-facing seatbelt path is
colour-coded blue. Fasten the seatbelt buckle,
remove all slack from the seatbelt and ensure the
seatbelt is firm.
n
All rearward-facing child restraints require the use
of the top tether strap. At one end of the top tether
strap will be the upper anchorage clip which must
be attached to the vehicle’s child restraint upper
anchorage point, and adjusted to remove slack.
n
In instances where there are two separate parts
to the top tether strap for easy connection,
disconnection and removal of the child and/
or carrier, refer to the restraint manufacturer’s
instructions for installation requirements.
Restraint Fitters Manual
2.2.2 Installing forward-facing
(Type B and G) restraints
n
Forward-facing child restraints must always be
installed with a seatbelt and top tether strap.
n
Place the restraint in the desired seating position,
and thread the seatbelt through the forwardfacing seatbelt path in accordance with the
restraint manufacturer’s instructions. In restraints
manufactured to AS/NZS 1754:2010 onwards, the
forward-facing seatbelt path is colour-coded yellow.
Fasten the seatbelt buckle, remove all slack from the
seatbelt and ensure the seatbelt is firm.
n
The top tether strap must be attached to the
vehicle’s child restraint anchorage point, and be
adjusted to remove slack.
2.2.3 Installing convertible child restraints:
rearward/forward-facing (Type A/B)
n
When using convertible rearward/forward-facing
restraints, great care must be taken to use the
appropriate seatbelt path for rearward-facing mode
(marked blue in restraints manufactured to AS/NZS
1754:2010 onwards) and to change the belt path for
forward-facing mode (marked yellow in restraints
manufactured to AS/NZS 1754:2010 onwards).
n
All convertible rearward/forward-facing child
restraints are required to have a top tether strap in
both modes which must be attached to the vehicle’s
child restraint anchorage point, and be adjusted to
remove slack. The strap must be readjusted when
the child restraint is changed from rearward-facing
mode to forward-facing mode.
37
2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.2.4 Installing booster seats (Type E and Type F)
weighing 2kg or less
n
Booster seats weighing 2kg or less are not required
to have a top tether strap.
n
Place the booster seat on the vehicle seat in the
desired seating position.
n
Thread the seatbelt through the seatbelt path
in accordance with the restraint manufacturer’s
instructions. In restraints manufactured to AS/NZS
1754:2010 onwards, the booster seat seatbelt path
is colour-coded red. Fasten the seatbelt buckle and
adjust any seatbelt guides. Remove all slack from
the seatbelt.
2.2.6 Installing convertible restraints: forwardfacing/booster seats (Type B/E and B/F)
n
When using convertible forward-facing/booster
seats, great care must be taken to use the
appropriate seatbelt path for forward-facing mode
(marked yellow in in restraints manufactured to
AS/NZS 1754:2010 onwards), and to change the
seatbelt path for booster seat mode (marked
red in in restraints manufactured to AS/NZS
1754:2010 onwards).
n
All convertible forward-facing restraint/booster
seats are also required to have a top tether strap in
both modes which must be attached to the vehicle’s
child restraint anchorage point, and be adjusted to
remove slack. The strap must be readjusted when
the child restraint is changed from forward-facing
mode to booster seat mode.
n
Converting from forward-facing mode to booster
seat mode (or vice versa) must be performed
carefully in accordance with the restraint
manufacturer’s instructions. The steps include:
2.2.5 Installing booster seats (Type E and F)
weighing more than 2kg
n
n
All booster seats that weigh 2kg or more must have
a top tether strap. The top tether strap secures
the restraint to the vehicle, so that the child is not
loaded from the back by the booster seat during a
frontal crash.
Place the booster seat on the vehicle seat in the
desired seating position.
n
Attach the upper anchorage clip to the vehicle’s
child restraint anchorage point, and adjust the strap
to remove any slacks.
n
Thread the seatbelt through the seatbelt path
in accordance with the restraint manufacturer’s
instructions. In restraints manufactured to AS/NZS
1754:2010 onwards, the booster seat seatbelt path
is colour-coded red. Fasten the seatbelt buckle and
adjust any seatbelt guides. Remove all slack from
the seatbelt.
38
1. Inbuilt harness removal and storage
2. Locating and, if required, installing belt guides to
position the lap-sash seatbelt, or lap-only seatbelt
with child safety harness
3. Threading the lap-sash belt for booster mode
4. Connection and adjustment of the top
tether strap
Restraint Fitters Manual
2 Installation and use of child restraints
Figure 2-4:
ISOFIX lower anchorage symbol
2.3 Installing ISOFIX compatible
child restraints
2.3.1 Overview
It may take many years before all vehicles in Australia
have ISOFIX mounting points thus child restraints
with ISOFIX attachment connectors must be able to
be fitted into vehicles that are not fitted with ISOFIX
mounting points.
2.3.2 In a car with ISOFIX mounting point
n
The first thing to do is locate the ISOFIX mounting
points which are usually at the bottom of the seat
where the seat back meets the seat base. If the car
has ISOFIX mounting points, the location may be
identified by a symbol as shown in Figure 2-4, or the
anchorage bars may be visible as shown in Figure 1
16 in the previous module.
n
If the restraint has rigid connectors fitted, engage
each connector to the corresponding ISOFIX bar on
the vehicle as shown in Figure 2-5. Push the child
restraint towards the backrest applying a firm and
even pressure on both sides. Care should be taken
to ensure both sides have been engaged.
n
If the restraint comes with flexible connectors,
engage the connectors into each ISOFIX low
anchorage. A click may be felt and a green indicator
will show on the top of the flexible connector when
it has engaged. Pull each strap to ensure both lower
anchorage connectors are engaged. For more detail
follow the instruction provided by the restraint’s
manufacturer.
n
All ISOFIX compatible child restraints also require the
use of the top tether strap which must be attached
to the vehicle’s child restraint anchorage point, and
be adjusted to remove slack.
n
Australian ISOFIX compatible child restraints are also
suitable for use in a seating position not fitted with
ISOFIX low anchorages, using the seatbelt and top
tether strap as in non-ISOFIX compatible restraints.
The rigid connectors on the child restraint can be
retracted when used in this way.
Figure 2-5:
Rigid connectors being connected to a vehicle seat.
Restraint Fitters Manual
39
2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.3.3 In a car without ISOFIX mounting point
Installation of child restraints with ISOFIX connectors
in a car without ISOFIX mounting points is the
same process as installing a standard child restraint,
but ensure the ISOFIX connectors are pushed fully
inwards (for rigid connector) or stowed away (for
flexible connectors).
2.4 Securing the child in the child
restraint
n
If the crotch strap is adjustable, this should be
adjusted to ensure the buckle is above the genitals
and/or pubic bone.
n
Some infant restraints are supplied with inserts
to support the infant’s head and assist with
correctly positioning the child’s body. Follow the
restraint manufacturer’s instructions on the use of
these accessories.
2.4.3 Booster seats (Type E and Type F)
n
In booster seats, the child is restrained by the adult
lap-sash seatbelt in which the sash part of the belt is
positioned across the child’s chest and the lap part
of the belt is positioned low across the hip. Most
booster seats come with an additional sash belt
guide to locate the sash belt on the correct location.
n
When placing a child in a booster seat, ensure that
the seatbelt path is followed exactly, and care is
taken to ensure the seatbelt is located on the correct
parts of the child’s body.
n
The seatbelt must not be positioned under the
child’s arm or behind the child’s back. Incorrect
use of the seatbelt dramatically increases the risk of
injury to the child’s head, abdomen and spine.
n
When a sash belt guides is supplied, it must be used
in every trip.
2.4.1 Overview
This section covers the process for restraint fitters in
demonstrating to the parent/carer on how to secure
the child in the child restraint.
2.4.2 Rearward and forward-facing child
restraints
n
n
n
n
n
Firstly, restraint fitters should advise parents
and carers how to correctly adjust and tension
the harness.
For rearward-facing restraints (Types A1, A2 and
A4), and forward-facing restraints (Type B and G),
the child is secured using the inbuilt harness which
incorporates a crotch strap.
It is critical that the appropriate harness slot for the
child’s shoulder height be used. This needs to be
adjusted as the child grows.
For rearward-facing restraints the shoulder straps
must be positioned nearest, but not lower than
the child’s shoulders. For forward-facing restraints
the shoulder straps must be positioned nearest but
not lower than 25mm (2.5cm) below the child’s
shoulder. The use of a slot that is too low can
cause high compressive forces on the child’s spine,
and increase the possibility of the shoulder straps
slipping, which can result in the child being ejected
from the child restraint in a crash.
The inbuilt harness must be securely fastened and all
slack should be removed. No more than two fingers
should be able to fit between the harness and the
child when properly adjusted and securely fastened.
A loose harness can result in the child being ejected
from the child restraint during a crash.
40
2.5 Child restraint fitting
accessories
2.5.1 Overview
This section covers common accessories for child
restraints that are not supplied with the restraint. It
includes child safety harnesses, installation and fitting
aids, pillows, padding, wraps, toys and other products
designed for comfort or entertainment. Accessories
for child restraints are covered by a standard, AS/NZS
8005:2013 Accessories for child restraints for use in
motor vehicles. However, this standard is not called up
in any regulations and these after-market devices are
not regulated.
Restraint Fitters Manual
2 Installation and use of child restraints
Child restraints are designed to be installed in most
passenger vehicles, without special fitting accessories.
Incorrect use of these accessories by parents and carers
securing the child in their child restraint can reduce
the efficacy of installation and should only be used if
necessary. Where they are needed, the restraint user
must be instructed in their correct use.
Accessories for child restraints, other than those
supplied by the manufacturer and tested with the
restraint under either AS/NZS 1754 or AS/NZS 8005
are not recommended. Such accessories can shift and
cause slack in the fitting of the restraint to the vehicle
as well as securing the child to the restraint and can
increase the risk of the child being ejected in a crash.
n
Belt tensioners and other fitting accessories
are generally not required for standard installations,
and should only be used if recommended by
the restraint manufacturer or an experienced
child restraint fitter. If used with booster seats
or seatbelts, they can lead to injury if over
tightened and they may make the seatbelt buckle
more difficult to unbuckle in the event of an
emergency. When used to install a child restraint,
they may deform the restraint, reducing the
restraint’s strength.
n
Seatbelt extenders should not be used if the
buckle is located in contact with the child’s body.
They may introduce slack into the belt which could
increase the chance of the buckle being located in
front of a child’s abdomen and causing injury. They
can interfere with the correct belt path if used with
a booster seat. They also require the parents or
carer to check that both the extender buckle and
main belt buckle are connected each time, with the
possibility that one buckle is left unsecured.
2.5.2 Reasons why accessories should not be
used
The following reasons apply to some specific accessory
items that are sometimes used in conjunction with
children in child restraints. None of these accessory
items are recommended for a variety of reasons.
n
Seatbelt positioners - several common designs of
seatbelt positioners link the sash and lap sections of
a seatbelt, raising the lap belt up into the abdomen,
and increasing the risk of submarining and
abdominal injuries. If children cannot fit well in an
adult seatbelt, they should use a booster seat with a
lap-sash seatbelt.
n
Toys and entertainment accessories. Rigid toys
and entertainment accessories may pose a risk of
injury if they come in contact with the child in a
crash. Also, if not secured, rigid toys may become
projectiles in a crash and injure vehicle occupants.
Only soft toys that contain no rigid parts should be
used unsecured in a vehicle.
n
Buckle covers and other devices to stop a
child from unbuckling a restraint can impede
rapid removal of the child in the event of an
emergency (e.g. after a crash). Behavioural solutions
are preferred.
n
n
Padding, pillows and cushions that surround
the head or neck, are positioned behind the head,
or are within the harness of a restraint may result
in harness or seatbelt slack, and/or encourage poor
posture and therefore not optimal belt positioning.
Pillows behind the head might increase the risk of
head injuries in side impacts by pushing the head
forward and beyond the side wings of a restraint.
Chest clips, designed to prevent the child from
removing their arms from the inbuilt harness, pose
a strangulation hazard and could injure the child’s
throat or chest in a crash or the chest. Behavioural
solutions to a child slipping their arms out of a
harness should be employed.
n
Sun shades or insect nets, which cover both the
child and restraint, may prevent a parent or carer
from seeing a child misusing their child restraint or
in distress. Such covers may reduce air circulation
and result in the overheating of children.
Restraint Fitters Manual
41
2 Installation and use of child restraints
2.6 Installing old child restraints
When requested to fit an old child restraint or booster
seat, restraint fitters should check that:
n
It meets AS/NZS 1754, version 2004 or later.
Look for this information on the restraint on the
standards sticker.
n
It has not been involved in a serious crash. It is
important to know the full history of the restraint. If
a child restraint has been involved in a severe crash
i.e. a crash where the vehicle was towed away or any
occupants of the vehicle were hospitalised, it must
not be used again even if no damage is obvious.
n
The plastic shell is not damaged. Look for evidence
of cracks in the shell and inspect the plastic shell and
metal components.
n
The harnesses are is not frayed, worn or damaged.
Inspect the harness and stitching on the harness.
n
The webbing straps aren’t twisted and are free from
tears and abrasions (see Figure 2-6).
n
The quick release buckle works smoothly. Engage
and disengage the buckle several times.
n
It is not more than 10 years old; and
n
All the parts are included.
Restraint fitters must not fit a damaged restraint and
should advise the customer to dispose of it in a way
that ensures that it cannot be re-used.
2.7 Restraint care and
maintenance
2.7.1 Overview
This section outlines the guidelines for restraint
maintenance and should only be used if the customer
requests it. Fitters must not attempt to repair the
restraint if they find the restraints are faulty.
2.7.2 Cleaning the cover
All child restraints have flame retardant covers which
can be removed for cleaning. Cleaning instructions are
usually on the care label attached to the cover.
2.7.3 Cleaning the harness buckle
Spillages on the buckle, such as baby formula, fruit
juice, etc., can cause the harness buckle to become
sluggish. An indication of a sluggish harness buckle
is that you cannot hear a click when engaging the
harness tongues. To restore the harness buckle to
good working order, follow the details in the restraint’s
instruction manual.
2.7.4 Cleaning the straps/harness
The strap or harness may be cleaned using a damp
sponge. The harness straps can be soaked but must be
dried thoroughly without excessive heat (do not tumble
dry). The harness straps must not be machine washed
as this may cause damage to the stitching.
2.8 Advice to parents and carers
Figure 2-6: Undamaged and damaged straps
2.8.1 Overview
Below is a brief list of items that restraint fitters
should advise parents/carers and demonstrate to
help ensure restraints are used correctly and remain
correctly installed. It is also important that restraint
fitters give parents and carers the knowledge to install
their child’s restraint correctly and move restraints
between vehicles.
ü
(a) good strap
42
û
(b) frayed strap
Restraint Fitters Manual
2 Installation and use of child restraints
Advise parents and carers to:
n
Always use a restraint for every child under seven
years old. It is the law that each person in a motor
vehicle has their own restraint.
n
Choose a restraint:
– by consulting the information on the CREP
website http://www.childcarseats.com.au and
choose a restraint with the best rating for both
crash protection and ease of use. This will provide
the best safety performance and ensure and that
is easy to use correctly.
– that will fit a growing child for the longest time,
particularly if the child is of above average height
for their age. E.g. consider buying a Type F
booster seat rather than a Type E, consider buying
an adjustable height booster seat rather than a
non-adjustable booster seat with less growing
room.
– If considering a second-hand restraint, do not
accept anything that is over 10 years old, has
been in a moderate to serious crash, or one that
shows any signs of wear and tear to the webbing.
n
Keep each child in the restraint as long as they still
fit into it. Don’t be in a hurry to move them to the
next stage restraint and, when using convertible
restraints (i.e. those which have two or more modes,
e.g. rearward-facing and forward-facing, or forwardfacing and booster seat), use the initial mode for as
long as possible.
n
When choosing seat positions for child passengers,
there are a number of considerations depending
upon the type of vehicle, presence of airbags, and
the number of other children and restraints in the
vehicle. Go through the points outlined in section on
seating position.
Restraint Fitters Manual
n
Regularly check that child restraints are correctly
installed and that the restraint is adjusted properly
for the child’s size according to the restraint user’s
manual. Recommend using a restraint fitting service
when the instructions are not clear or when the
parent or carer has attempted to install the restraint
and they are not confident with the result.
n
Secure unoccupied child restraints to the vehicle.
Explain that they can become ‘flying objects’ in a
crash and injure other occupants.
Demonstrate to parents and carers how to identify
when a child is ready for the next stage restraint,
based on the fit in the particular restraint(s) that are
being used.
From rearward-facing to forward-facing
restraints
Demonstrate the significance of shoulder height
markers, or for older restraints without markers, where
the shoulder can come to before the child needs to
be moved to the next stage restraint, as appropriate.
(See Section 1.5.2 on moving from rearward-facing to
forward-facing child restraints).
From forward-facing restraints to booster seats
Demonstrate the significance of shoulder height
markers, or for older restraints without markers, where
the shoulder can come to before the child needs to be
moved to the next stage restraint, as appropriate. (See
Section 1.5.2 on moving from forward-facing child
restraint to booster seat).
43
2 Installation and use of child restraints
From booster seats to seatbelt
Run through “the 5-step test” to assess if a child is
ready to move from a booster seat to a seat. (See
Section 1.5.2. on moving from a booster seat to
a seatbelt).
Demonstrate to parents and carers how to ensure
that all child restraints and booster seats are installed
correctly, according to the restraint manufacturer’s
instructions, by showing them the following:
n
The top tether straps and how these should be used
for all rearward-facing and forward-facing restraints
and booster seats that have them.
n
The correct belt path of the seatbelts through the
restraint. This may change when restraints that can
be used in more than one restraint mode.
n
How to pull taut, without any twists or slack, belts
and straps that keep the restraint in place in the
vehicle. The harnesses in the restraint should be
pulled taut without any twists or slack anywhere.
n
How to check that the seatbelt is securely fastened
before each trip.
Demonstrate to parents and carers how to ensure that
child restraints are used correctly every trip, by showing
them the following:
n
How to identify that inbuilt harness straps in
rearward and forward-facing child restraints are
adjusted firmly with no slack.
n
How to adjust the harness slot in rearward and
forward-facing restraints as the child grows.
n
How lap-sash belts should be positioned over the
child’s body, and must not be worn under the child’s
arm or behind their back whether they are being
used alone or with a booster seat.
Appendix 2 – Further information
Child restraint manufacturers
There are several different restraint manufacturers
who make many different types of child restraints.
The restraints that are available to purchase change
frequently. An online list of current makes and models
of child restraints is maintained by VicRoads. Visit the
‘Child restraint and booster seat product tables’ section
of the VicRoads website for a list of child restraint and
booster seats.
https://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/safety-and-road-rules/
vehicle-safety/child-restraints/child-restraint-producttables
Contacts for further information
For further information about child passenger safety in
NSW, contact Transport for NSW
Phone: 132213 or visit:
http://roadsafety.transport.nsw.gov.au/stayingsafe/
children/childcarseats/index.html
See Transport for NSW website for details on
authorised fitting stations and their locations.
http://roadsafety.transport.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/index.
cgi?action=authrestraintfitting.form
Roads and Maritime Services’ Vehicle Safety
Compliance Certification Scheme (VSCCS)
The VSCCS licenses competent people to inspect
significantly modified vehicles and non-standard
vehicles, and issue compliance certificates for those
that comply with legislated vehicle standards.
2.8.2 Further information
http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/business-industry/
examiners/vsccs/index.html
Further information on child restraint manufacturers
and other useful information is included in Appendix 2.
Other useful sources of information
44
n
The National Guidelines for the safe restraint
of children travelling in motor vehicles provides
a very detailed review of a broad range of issues
related to child passengers, and a summary of all
the relevant scientific evidence (www.neura.edu.au/
crs-guidelines). This handbook has been developed
to be consistent with these guidelines.
n
Kidsafe (www.kidsafe.org.au)
Restraint Fitters Manual
Module 3
3
Installation of child
restraint anchorages
Restraint Fitters Manual
45
46
A fitter is attaching the top tether strap to the vehicle’s child anchorage point
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.1 Scope
This module lays out the processes and procedures for
modifying vehicles to install child restraint anchorages
in vehicles that do not have suitable anchorages
installed at the time of their manufacture.
These procedures shall only be carried out by Tier
1 child restraint fitters (also known as “full fitting
services”) who are authorised by RMS to modify
vehicles in order to install child restraint anchorage
points.
Tier 2 fitters (“simple fitting services”) must not install
those child restraint anchorage points.
3.2 General requirements
3.2.1 Overview
Vehicle safety performance, including the location and
performance of child restraint anchorage points, are
mandated by the Australian Design Rules (ADRs). Please
refer to Section 3.3 for further information on the
ADRs which are relevant to child restraint anchorage
installation.
The design and safety performance requirements of
child restraints are provided by Australian Standard for
Child Restraints AS/NZS 1754 Child Restraints for Use in
Motor Vehicles.
The content of this module is based on procedures
developed by Transport for NSW. Parts of the content
are covered in Vehicle Standards Bulletin 14 (VSB 14)
Section LK6, the National Code of Practice for Light
Vehicle Construction, and reports produced by the
NSW Government.
For vehicles manufactured prior to ADRs, modification
to provide one or more child restraint anchorages can
be provided. However, the modification must ensure
that the vehicle seat is not adversely loaded by child
restraints in the event of a crash, and must therefore
be carefully designed, constructed and installed to
ensure they can properly anchor a child restraint during
a crash. There are after-market devices available which
are designed to provide anchorage points for these
vehicles.
Vehicle modifications necessary to install complying
child restraint anchorage points require engineering
certification issued in accordance with VSB.14. Their
installation may affect the vehicle’s compliance with
the ADRs, and therefore the vehicle’s continued
compliance with the relevant ADRs (particularly ADR
5/--, ADR 34/--) must be determined.
3.2.2 Anchorage points without
pre-installed anchorages
Vehicles that are fitted with child restraint anchorage
points without an anchorage fitting installed can
have the fitting supplied with the child restraint fitted
to these points, in accordance with the restraint
manufacturer’s instructions.
These fittings are usually supplied with all child
restraints that require a top tether. However, aftermarket replacement anchorage fitting kits are also
available.
The child restraint user manual provides instructions for
installing these fittings. As this is considered a minor
modification, it can be performed by the consumer,
with due care, in accordance with the instructions
provided by the vehicle manufacturer and by the child
restraint manufacturer.
Modified vehicles must continue to comply with
the vehicle standards requirements of the relevant
transport legislation of the Australian State or Territory
in which they are registered. Those vehicle standards
include the ADRs to which vehicles were originally
certified before they could be used in road transport
in Australia. Those standards also incorporate the
Australian Vehicle Standards Rules (AVSRs) which are
national roadworthiness guidelines.
Restraint Fitters Manual
47
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.2.3 Australian Design Rules
The ADRs set down minimum performance, design and
construction standards for particular safety features
in vehicles imported to, or manufactured in, Australia.
There are over 80 ADRs covering a wide variety of
safety requirements, such as occupant restraints,
braking systems, lighting systems, tyres and other
features to improve occupant protection.
Currently there are two ADR editions in operation:
n
The second edition covering vehicles manufactured
on or after 1 January 1969 to 30 June 1988; and
n
The third edition ADRs apply to vehicles
manufactured on or after 1 July 1988.
The application of the various ADRs depends on the
vehicle’s ADR category.
MA
A passenger vehicle with 9 seating positions or
less that is not an MB or MC category vehicle.
MB
A passenger vehicle with 9 seating positions
or less that is not an MC category vehicle, and
which has the centre of its steering wheel in the
forward quarter of its overall length.
MC
A passenger vehicle with 9 seating positions or
less that has special features for use off road.
MD
A light omnibus or bus which is a passenger
vehicle with 10 or more seating positions.
When fitting a child restraint anchorage point to a
vehicle, reference should be made to the relevant ADR
requirements for that particular vehicle category.
The current ADRs related to child restraint anchorage
requirements that motor vehicles must comply with
are: ADR 34/02 Child Restraint Anchorages and Child
Restraint Anchor Fittings and ADR 68/00 Occupant
Protection in Buses.
ADR 34/02 and ADR 68/00 were adopted to
ensure that vehicles equipped with ‘Child Restraint
Anchorages’ and ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fittings’ were
safe for use and suitable for standard ‘Attaching Clips’.
Compliance with those ADRs will ensure that child
restraints may be adequately secured to a vehicle’s
structure. Table 3-1 summarises the current child
restraint anchorage requirements for each vehicle type.
MD1 A bus with a GVM of 3.5t or less that has 12
seating positions or less.
MD2 A bus with a GVM of 3.5t or less that has more
than 12 seating positions.
MD3 A bus with a GVM exceeding 3.5 tonnes but not
exceeding 4.5 tonnes.
48
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Table 3-1:
ADRs Related to child restraint anchorages
Standard
Requirements
ADR
34/02
This ADR applies to LEP, MA, MB, MC & MD1 category vehicles. Click here to read or download
ADR 34/02 or use the following link: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2012L00703.
The relevant clauses on child restraints anchorages state:
34.3
NOMINATED SEATING POSITIONS FOR UPPER ANCHORAGES
34.3.2
For MB, MC and MD1 vehicles:
34.3.2.1 For vehicles with less than three seating positions in Vehicle Rear Seat(s) each seating
position in Vehicle Rear Seat(s) equipped with an adult Seatbelt Assembly.
34.3.2.2 For vehicles with three or more seating positions in Vehicle Rear Seat(s) any three seating
positions in Vehicle Rear Seat(s) equipped with an adult Seatbelt Assembly except for
Folding Seats where a Child Restraint would bar access to the rear Seats and except the
middle seating position where the Seat back is divided into two or more sections which
may be folded independently of each other, and the division between two sections lies
substantially along the Seating Reference Plane of the middle seating position.
MA category vehicles with rear seating positions must be provided with a child restraint anchorage
location for each of these positions unless the seat has a split for folding in the centre of the seat.
(see note below).
Specifically: ‘An upper anchorage for use with a child restraint system is provided for each rear
seating position.’
Notes:
a) At least 3 child restraint anchorages are required if there are 3 or more rear seating positions.
b) A child restraint anchorage point is not required on the centre seat of a split folding rear seat.
c) Optional ISOFIX low anchorages are specified in ADR 34/02 (clause 34.8) and these are required
to be accompanied by an upper anchorage for use with an ISOFIX compatible child restraint,
(i.e. one certified to AS/NZS 1754:2013).
ADR
68/00
This ADR applies to MD3 category vehicles. Click here to read or download ADR 68/00 or use the
following link: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2006L01454.
The relevant clauses on child restraints anchorages state:
5.6.1 At least six ‘Seats’ in the vehicle must be provided with ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fittings’ or,
at the ‘Manufacturer’s’ option, ‘Child Restraint Anchorages’ and ‘Child Restraint Anchor
Fittings’ meeting the requirements specified in ADR 34/--.
5.6.2 Each ‘Seat’ provided with a ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’ must be provided with a means
of preventing the ‘Child Restraint Anchorage’ tether strap from moving sideways.
5.6.3 Each ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’ must be either integral with the ‘Seat’ or mounted in a
permanent structure immediately behind the ‘Seat’.
5.6.4 Each ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’ applicable to a ‘Seat’ tested according to clause 7 or
Appendix 2 must be present during those tests with any closure plugs removed and with a
‘Child Restraint Attaching Clip’ attached.
5.6.5 A ‘Child Restraint Anchor Fitting’, with any closure plugs removed and with a ‘Child Restraint
Attaching Clip’ attached must be treated as an accessory and must meet the requirements
of clause 6.
Notes:
MD1 category vehicles must have at least 3 child restraint anchorages, if there are 3 or more rear seating positions;
n A child restraint anchorage point is not required on the centre seat of a split folding rear seat if the fold is in the
centre of the seating position.
n
Restraint Fitters Manual
49
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
n
Each anchorage point must be suitable for a 5/16¨
18 UNC bolt.
3.2.4 Vehicle Standards Information
Vehicle Standards Bulletins (VSBs) are nationally
accepted specifications published by the
Commonwealth Government’s Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development (DIRD).
They provide detailed technical information on safetyrelated vehicle modifications. Additionally, some
states and territories issue state-specific vehicle safety
information publications. Restraint fitters should check
these publications for the latest information on vehicle
standards and modifications.
Click here to read or download copies of the VSBs from
the DIRD website, or use the following link: http://
www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/vehicle_regulation/
bulletin/index.aspx
Click here to read or download copies of the NSW
specific safety information publications from the
Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) website, or use the
following link: http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/registration/
downloads/vsi/vsi_dl1.html
3.3 Installing child restraint
anchorages to pre-ADR
vehicles and those not
required to have them
3.3.1 Overview
Vehicles manufactured prior to the implementation of
the second edition of ADR in 1 January 1969 (preADR vehicles) were not required to be fitted with child
restraint anchorage points.
All goods vehicles such as panel vans and utility
vehicles are also not required to have child restraint
anchorage points. These vehicles can usually be
modified to provide one or more child restraint
anchorage points but they must be installed in the
appropriate position to ensure that the vehicle seat is
not adversely loaded by the child and the child restraint
in the event of a crash.
In addition, the anchor point must have adequate
50
strength to withstand the forces generated during a
crash and thus, with the child restraint, offer maximum
protection to the child in the event of a crash.
In pre-ADR vehicles anchorage points must not be
installed in the floor behind a seat unless engineering
certification verifies that the seat complies with the
requirements of ADRs 3/03, 4/05 and 5/05, otherwise
the loads imposed on the seat by the tether strap may
cause the seat to fail.
The following is the list of after-market devices which
are designed for this purpose:
n
Anchorage kit for parcel shelf of a sedan
n
Child Restraint Anchor Bar (CRAB)
n
Vertical Post
n
Universal Frame
n
Dual Cab Device
n
Anchorage kit for Toyota Commuter buses
The following sections outline the minimum
requirements for the installation of each of
these options.
3.3.2 Rear parcel shelf mounted
anchorage points
Child restraint anchorages may be installed in the
parcel shelves of pre-ADR 34 passenger cars by using a
standard anchor bracket and anchor bolt kit. Do not
install child restraint anchorages if the shelf is
not made of metal. Installation of the kit requires
a 9mm diameter hole to be drilled in the rear parcel
shelf. It is essential that the hole is:
n
drilled through a substantially flat metal section that
is structurally sound and rust free
n
located more than 50mm from any existing hole in
the metal
n
located within 40mm of the longitudinal centreline
of the seating position (see Figure 3-1)
n
located in a position that allows for the top tether
strap to be easily adjusted as well as the easy
engagement and disengagement of the anchorage
fitting to the anchor bolt.
All components of the anchor bolt kit should be used;
the spreader plate washer must be fitted to bear on a
flat surface on the underside of the parcel shelf. A
range of spacers and spreader plates are available for
parcel-shelf installations (see Figure 3-2, Figure 3-3 and
Figure 3-4).
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Figure 3-1:
Typical Child Restraint Anchorage locations.
Figure 3-2:
Anchor fitting strap to straddle speaker holes
(suitable for pre-ADR vehicles).
40mm distance from centreline of seating position
Boot
Parcel shelf
Seating
position
(1)
Seating
position
(2)
Seating
position
(3)
Rear seat
Door
Centreline of seating position
Figure 3-3:
Range of parcel shelf spacers (square spacers can be used
for Toyota Tarago – between the trim and the body panel –
when fitting CRAB).
Restraint Fitters Manual
Figure 3-4:
Range of spreader plates used for various applications
(5/16” UNC thread used for child restraint anchor fittings
and 7/16” UNF thread used for seatbelts and CRAB
installations).
51
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.3.3 Child Restraint Anchorage Bar
A Child Restraint Anchorage Bar (CRAB) is commonly
installed in vehicles that do not have rear parcel shelves
such as station wagons, four wheel drive and forward
control passenger vehicles.
A CRAB device has a wall thickness of 2.0mm and
consists of a main tube (with an outside diameter of
48.4mm) that is designed to slide over an inner and
smaller tube (with an outside diameter of 42.5mm)
to adjust the CRAB for varying widths between its
proposed mounting points.
The CRAB (see Figure 3-5) can incorporate anchorage
points for up to three children, with a maximum
mass of up to 32.5kg each, including the mass of
their restraint.
CRABs are currently available in two telescopic sizes to
suit the width of the vehicle to which they will be fitted
– one for small to medium sized vehicles measuring
1250mm to 1460mm between the proposed mounting
points, and one for larger vehicles measuring 1460mm
to 1600mm between those points.
To suit smaller vehicles, the 1250mm to 1460mm CRAB
can be shortened by cutting the Main Tube to the
required length and drilling a new pilot hole at the cut
end of the Tube (see Figure 3-5).
The amount of metal removed from the Main Tube
must not exceed, by more than 100mm, the difference
between 1250mm and the distance between the
proposed CRAB mounting points.
Once the length of the Main Tube has been adjusted, a
new 8.5mm pilot hole may be required at the cut end
of the Main Tube. If this is the case, drill a new 8.5mm
pilot hole at the same distance from the cut end and in
the same plane as the pilot hole from the uncut end of
the tube.
Figure 3-5:
Child Restraint Anchorage Bar (CRAB)
(All bolts are tensile, grade 8.8 or higher)
“X”
Pre-drilled 8.5mm pilot hole
(NB if main tube is shortened,
one hole may need to be re-drilled)
Main tube
Dimension “X” must be equidistant
from end if main tube is cut to adjust
for length between brackets
Small tube
“X”
Spreader plate
(with welded nut)
M8 x 60mm bolt
& self locking nut
7/16” 20 UNF bolt,
lock washer &
flat washer
End bracket
Pre-drilled 8.5mm hole
for end bracket bolt
M8 x 60mm bolt
& self locking nut
Slip ring – up to 3 off
(centralised on CRAB)
Spreader plate
(with wing-nut)
52
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
secure the child anchorage attachment and must also
be aligned so that the force lines are parallel to the
child restraint load lines to minimise seat back loading
as shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6:
CRAB Location Relative to Seat Back
NOT TO SCALE
“Aligned”
Slip Ring
secured to
CRAB using
M5 x 60.0mm
bolt
Anchorage
attachment for
Child Restraint
secured to Slip
Ring using 5/16”
18UNC x 18mm bolt
Must not
exceed 100mm
Rear of vehicle
gned”
p Ring
ured to
B using
60.0mm
bolt
Seat Back
Figure 3-7:
Typical CRAB location
Anchorage
attachment for
Child
Restraint
CRAB
Bar anchor
secured
Slip be
point to
should
Ringlocated
using 5/16”
within the
cross
hatched
18UNC
x 18mm
boltarea
To satisfy this requirement, it is recommended that the
CRAB mounting points are installed at waist rail height
in the cross hatched area shown in Figure 3-7.
There must be sufficient clearance between the inner
and outer body panels to allow the 7/16” 20 UNF
mounting bolts to be installed without them fouling
the outer panels.
The inner panel supporting the CRAB end
brackets must be 0.7mm thick or thicker.
200mm or more
CRAB bar
O SCALE
Slip Ring
aligned with
child restraint’s
line of force
Slip Ring
aligned with
child restraint’s
line of force
m
200m
Must not
exceed 100mm
The spreader plate must measure at least 65.0mm X
34.0mm X 3.0mm and have a flat surface on which to
bear when positioned behind the vehicle’s inner panel.
Failure to do this will result in distortion of the panel,
which may lead to failure of the anchorage system in
the event of a crash.
Drill a 12mm hole through the inner body panel and
install the end bracket (and spacer block if required)
and spreader plate using 7/16” 20 UNF bolt (refer to
Figure 3-8).
Figure 3-8:
Cross section view of vehicle’s inner panel showing a typical
CRAB attachment.
Interior trim
m
100m
CRAB bar
200mm or more
End bracket
Spreader plate
Rear of vehicle
Rear of vehicle
7/16
U.N.F. bolt
Seat Back
Outer
panel
Shake
proof
washer
The CRAB unit must be installed in accordance with
its manufacturer’s instructions. In case the instruction
is missing, a copy is provided in Appendix 3-A1 with
some editorial changes.
The CRAB unit must be fitted not less than 200mm
behind and not more than 100mm below the top
rear edge of the seat back. The attached slip rings
must be suitable for use with a 5/16” 18 UNC bolt to
Restraint Fitters Manual
Inner panel
Spacer block
53
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Unless supported by an engineering report, the
CRAB must not be used in vehicles with aluminium or
composite body panels. For these vehicles, a Vertical
Post may be a suitable alternative.
Figure 3-10:
Universal Frame
3.3.4 Child restraint anchorage bar installation
in panel vans and station wagons
A mounting position is usually located behind the
rear seat, in the waist-rail (see Figure 3-9 below), but
can be positioned elsewhere where there is sufficient
body material to allow a firm mounting. In these
situations, the suitability of the desired location should
be confirmed with the manager of the RMS Authorised
Restraint Fitting Station Scheme. The CRAB must be
located so that the child restraint anchorage points are
not less than 200mm behind the top rear edge
of the seat back and not more than 100mm
below the top of the seat back, as shown in Figure
3-6 above. This latter requirement is specified in the
ADRs, and is applied to ensure only minimal additional
loads are applied to the seat back.
In vehicles with three or more rows of seats, CRABs
cannot be mounted behind middle row seats where
they may become a hazard to occupants sitting behind
in third row seats.
3.3.4.1 Suitable Vehicles
There is no specific vehicle make and model listed
in this manual but authorised fitters are required
to measure the thickness of the vehicle’s rear inner
panel before starting the work. If the thicknesss of the
inner panel is less than 0.7 mm, CRAB MUST NOT
be installed in the vehicle. The CRAB must not also be
installed in vehicles with aluminium body panels or
with soft tops.
(a) Universal frame
Figure 3-9: CRAB fitted in an Econovan
CRAB bar
Rear of vehicle
(b) Universal frame with
child car seat fitted
54
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Engineering certification is not required if CRAB is
fitted to vehicles where the thickness of the vehicle’s
rear inner panel is at least 0.7mm.
n
3.3.5 Universal Frame
3.3.5.2 Suitable Vehicles
There is no specific vehicle make and model listed
for this device but authorised fitters are required to
measure the thickness of the vehicle’s floor pan before
starting the work. If the thickness of the floor pan is
less than 1.2 mm, the Universal Frame must not be
installed in the vehicle.
3.3.5.1 Overview
A Universal Frame (refer to Figure 3-10) has been
developed for use in panel vans and station wagons to
accommodate child seats where there are no passenger
seats fitted.
While it has been designed for installation in the rear of
vehicles with a single steel floor pan, it may be possible
to install a Universal Frame in vehicles with raised false
floors, provided the cavity between the false floor and
floor pan can be accessed.
The Universal Frame:
n
Must be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s fitting instructions and must not
be modified in any way (in case the instruction is
missing, a copy is provided in Appendix 3-A2 with
some editorial changes).
n
Should be positioned as close as possible behind
the front seats to ensure good access to the child
restraint and the child while in the seat, but allow
sufficient space for the child’s legs and feet between
the vehicle seats and the frame.
n
Must be installed in the forward-facing position.
Figure 3-11:
Examples of Techsafe post (left) and Pedestal bar (right)
Must be secured using high tensile bolts with
suitable locking devices such as shake-proof
washers.
Engineering certification is not required if the Universal
Frame is fitted to vehicles where the thickness of the
vehicle’s floor pan is at least 1.2 mm.
3.3.6 Techsafe post and Pedestal bar
3.3.6.1 Overview
The Techsafe post and Pedestal bar are post type
anchorage points where both were originally designed
to provide anchorage points in pre 1 July 1990 Range
Rovers. These devices were developed because CRAB
is not suitable for the Range Rovers since it its inner
panels are made of aluminium.
The Techsafe post can be folded down when it is not
in use. However, the Pedestal Bar is permanent and
does not fold down. Each Techsafe post or Pedestal bar
provides only one anchorage point. An example of the
Techsafe post is shown in Figure 3-11a and the Pedestal
bar is in Figure 3-11b.
Figure 3-12:
Techsafe post fitted in a Suzuki Vitara
Rear of vehicle
(a) Post
(b) Pedestal bar
Anchorage bar – vertical
Restraint Fitters Manual
55
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
An example of Techsafe post when fitted in Suzuki
Vitara is shown in Figure 3-12.
Both devices must be mounted on a solid section
of the floor. Do not mount them on a removable or
timber section. They must not be mounted on the floor
panel over the fuel tank in a Ford Falcon panel van.
Figure 3-13:
Typical attachment on vehicles with corrugated floor.
Base
channel
11mm bolt
Corrugated
floor
The general fitting instructions for these devices are:
n
Both devices must be installed in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions. In case the
instruction is missing, a copy is provided in Appendix
3-A3 and 3-A4 with some editorial changes.
n
Under no circumstances is either item of equipment
to be modified.
n
The centreline of the post must lie within 40mm
of the longitudinal centreline of the child restraint
when fitted in the required seating position.
n
Load spreader plates must be used in all
applications.
n
For vehicles with corrugated floors, the base channel
must be positioned so that holes are drilled through
the middle of the vee. Spacers must be used to fill
the depth of the vee (see Figure 3-13).
3.3.6.2 List of Vehicles
Both Techsafe post and Pedestal bar are originally
designed to provide anchorage points in pre 1990
Range Rovers where the thickness of the floor pan was
approximately 1.2 mm. Both devices are allowed to be
fitted in other vehicles providing the vehicle’s floor pan
thickness is at least 1.2 mm.
Spacers
Spreader
plate
Figure 3-14:
Dual Cab Device
(a) Dual Cab Device with flexible strap
3.3.7 Installing child restraint anchorages in
dual cab utility vehicles
3.3.7.1 Overview
Child restraint anchorages may be provided in twin cab
or dual cab utility vehicles which do not have factoryinstalled child restraint anchorage points.
There are two common products available for
providing child restraint anchorage points in these
types of vehicles: the Dual Cab Device (DCD) and the
Dual Cab Anchorage (DCA).
3.3.7.2 Dual Cab Device (DCD)
The DCD comprises a strap that passes through a `D’
ring mounted just below the rear window and then
attaches to the floor of the vehicle. An example of this
device is shown in Figure 3-14a and when it is fitted to
the vehicle in Figure 3-14b.
Anchorage fitting
(b) Dual Cab Device when fitted to a utility vehicle
56
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Things to look for when using this device
n
If there is not enough adjustment for the top strap
of the baby capsule after fitting the device, use a
gated buckle on both sides of the top tether strap to
shorten it. (See Figure 3-15).
n
In some twin cabs there is very little room between
the cab and the tray but the recess just under the
tray top should allow enough room for the spreader
plate with nut.
n
To adjust the dual cab strap, unbuckle the seat belt,
lift the child seat up to the roof of the vehicle and
fold the seal back forward under the child seat. This
should allow enough room to adjust the strap.
n
n
In some convertible restraints, because the top
tether cannot shorten enough, you may have to put
the snap hook down through the “D” ring and then
attach it to the DCD.
The DCD must be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. In case the instruction
is missing, a copy is provided in Appendix 3-A5 with
some editorial changes.
3.3.7.3 Dual Cab Anchorage (DCA)
The DCA, as illustrated in Figure 3-16, is fitted at the
rear window of the vehicle’s cab. Although it was
originally developed for a Holden Rodeo, this device
has been adapted to suit other vehicles including the
Nissan 720, Nissan Navara, Mitsubishi Triton, and
Toyota Hilux 1984 onwards. Please refer to the full list
of vehicles this device can be fitted to at the end of
this section.
An example of DCA device when fitted in a utility
vehicle is shown in Figure 3-17.
Note: Only a DCA permanently marked with an
approval number and a RMS licensed certifier’s
certificate number can be used.
The DCA must be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. In case the instruction
is missing, a copy is provided in Appendix 3-A6 with
some editorial changes.
Figure 3-16:
Dual Cab Anchorage Device kit and cover.
Figure 3-15:
Installation diagrams for DCD
Rear
window
Figure 3-17:
Showing DCA fitted to a utility vehicle
Anchor clips
Anchor fitting
Tether strap
“D” ring
Spreader
plate
Dual cab
strap
Seat
back
Adjuster
Spreader
plate
Restraint Fitters Manual
Seat
57
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.3.7.4 Suitable Vehicles
Engineering certification is not required if both the
Dual Cab Device and the Dual Cab Anchorage is fitted
to the following vehicles:
n
Mitsubishi Triton – MJ, manufactured approximately
from 1992 to 1996 with Compliance Plate Approval
(CPA) No 9639.
n
Nissan Navara – D22, manufactured approximately
from 1997 to 2012 with CPA No 11821.
n
Toyota Hilux – 140 series, manufactured
approximately from 1997 to 2005 with CPA No
12126.
n
Toyota Hilux – 145 series, manufactured
approximately from 1997 to 2005 with CPA No
13262.
n
Ford Courier – PE, PG, & PH, manufactured
approximately from 1999 to 2006 with CPA No
13283.
n
Holden Rodeo – R9, manufactured approximately
from 1998 to 2002 with CPA Nos: 12555 and 12556.
Installation of a DCD and DCA in a vehicle not listed
above must be certified by a Licensed Certifier
authorised under the RMS Vehicle Safety and
Compliance Certification Scheme.
3.3.8 Installing child restraint anchorages in
Toyota Commuter buses
The Toyota Commuter 200 series vehicle is classified
in ADR as a MD2 vehicle where it is not required to be
fitted with a child restraint anchorage. A specifically
designed child restraint anchorage kit model number
A176 to suit Toyota Commuter 200 series vehicles has
been developed to allow children to be transported
in this vehicle model. The kit consists of an anchorage
bracket and two sets of 6mm x 35mm 12-9 high
tensile graded bolts. An example of this kit is shown
in Figure 3-18.
The A176 child restraint anchorage bracket must
only be fitted in inboard seating positions where
the upper seat belt anchorage is located on the seat
back structure.
58
Figure 3-18:
Installation bracket for Toyota Commuter (2005 onwards),
model A176, and as installed.
Note: Tests done by Transport for NSW on the device
found that when it is fitted in seating positions
where the upper seat belt anchorage is located
on the vehicle structure, the seat arrangement
failed the requirements of ADR 34. But when it
was fitted in inboard position where the upper
seat belt anchorage is located on the seat back
structure, the seat met ADR 34 requirements.
Do not install the bracket in the outboard rear seating
positions where the upper seat belt anchorage is
located on the vehicle structure. Anchorages must be
fitted by an Authorised Fitter. This device allows for
up to 3 anchorages per vehicle. The upper anchorage
strap (child restraint tether) fits under the hand grab.
See Figure 3-18 above.
These fitting Instructions are for child restraint anchor
points into the single and double fixed base seats only.
These instructions are not suitable for rearmost or side
fold up seats.
The bracket must be installed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. In case the instruction
is missing, a copy is provided in Appendix 3-A7 with
some editorial changes.
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
3.4 Contact information for
enquiries
Appendix 3-A. Installation
instructions
Enquires on installation of child restraint anchorage can
be addressed to:
3-A1 Child Restraint Anchorage Bar
Crashlab
409 Great Western Highway, Huntingwood, NSW
Phone (02) 9830 1710
Fax: (02) 9830 1781
email: [email protected]
or RMS’ appointed agent:
Mobility Engineering
4/45 Salisbury Road, Asquith, NSW 2077
Phone: (02) 9482 4572
Fax: (02) 9482 4571
email: [email protected]
3.5 Further Information
Fitters undertaking vehicle modifications must
familiarise themselves with the relevant Australian
Design Rules and the state regulations that apply.
Further details are in the sections above. Some helpful
links include:
ADRs:
ADR 34 (Child Restraint Anchorages and Child Restraint
Anchor Fittings)
ADR 68 (Occupant Protection in Buses)
Australian government’s Vehicle Standards Bulletins can
be found at:
http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/vehicle_
regulation/bulletin/index.aspx
NSW Vehicle Standards information is available from:
http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/roads/safety-rules/vehiclestandards/information-sheets-specifications.html
Below is the installation instruction for Child
Restraint Anchorage Bar copied from the product’s
manufacturer with some editorial changes:
1. Select a mounting location for each CRAB end
bracket by referring to Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7.
2. Ensure that each inner panel at that location is not
less than 0.7mm thick.
3. Ensure that each inner panel at that location will
provide the CRAB end bracket spreader plate with
a flat surface on which to bear when positioned
behind the panel. Failure to do this will result in
distortion of the panel, which may lead to failure of
the anchorage system in the event of a crash.
4. Ensure that there is sufficient clearance between
the inner and outer panels for the 7/16” 20 UNF
mounting bolts to be installed without them
fouling the outer panel.
5. Remove any trim that is covering the waist rail or
restricting access to the body cavity. Sometimes
access for installing spreader plates can be
improved by removing a tail light cluster or air vent.
6. Using one of the spreader plates (to check that the
panel is flat), mark the location of the end bracket
mounting hole(s).
7. If the trim will cover the proposed mounting point,
replace the trim and remark the location of the
mounting hole on the trim. Remove the trim and
cut a hole in it at the marked location using a 12mm
diameter hole saw. A hole saw usually makes a
neater cut in trim if the drill is put in reverse.
8. Drill the inner panel, using an 11.5mm (7/16”) sheet
metal drill. To avoid damaging the outer panel
during this operation, a depth gauge or sheet
metal drill should be used.
9. Replace the trim.
10. Mount the end bracket, spacer block (if the trim is
too thick or spongy), and spreader plate, using the
7/16” 20 UNF bolt provided (Figure 3-8). In some
cases, it may be necessary to secure the spreader
plate to the body panel to ensure it remains
correctly aligned during the tightening procedure.
A ‘PK’ screw or pop rivet is adequate for this
purpose or it may be necessary to weld a piece of
wire to the spreader plate to help in positioning it.
Restraint Fitters Manual
59
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
11. Tighten the bolt, making sure the spreader plate is
correctly aligned (Figure 3-8).
19. With each slip ring properly located, drill a 5.5mm
hole through the slip ring and CRAB.
12. Repeat the previous steps for each end bracket.
20. Secure each slip ring to the CRAB unit, using a
M5x60mm bolt and self-locking nut, to prevent it
sliding and being displaced in the event of a crash.
13. Fit the slip ring(s) to the CRAB unit.
14. Assemble the CRAB unit by sliding the short inner
tubes into each end of the main tube with the
drilled ends protruding (Figure 3-5). If possible,
align the end brackets parallel to the vehicle floor
as shown in Figure 3-9, unless they are mounted
on an angled surface and can be positioned so that
they will work as a universal joint.
15. Attach the CRAB inner tubes to the end brackets
using the M8x60mm bolt and self-locking nuts
provided (Figure 3-5). Do not tighten these bolts at
this point.
16. Centralise the CRAB main tube and drill an 8.5mm
hole completely through both End Tubes, parallel
to the vehicle floor, using the pilot holes in the
Main Tube as a guide.
17. Fit the M8x60mm bolts and self-locking nuts
provided and tighten, to secure the CRAB unit to
each end bracket.
18. Position the slip ring(s) so that each Child
Anchorage is parallel to the anchorage strap or
top tether strap (i.e. so that the load is in a straight
line) and aligned with the centre of the respective
seating position.
Figure 3-19:
Positioning of Child Restraint Frame behind the
vehicle’s seat.
21. Fit and tighten the child restraint anchorage
fitting(s).
A CRAB device must not be extended or modified,
other than as noted above for small vehicles.
Use only high tensile bolts of Grade 8.8 or higher or
Aluminium/steel rivets of Grade 5.056 or higher.
3-A2 Universal Frame
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
n
Inspect the surface on which the frame is to be
mounted to ensure that it is all steel construction
and that the underside is free of obstructions that
may hinder the correct installation of the frame.
n
Position the frame as shown in Figure 3-19 to ensure
good access to the child restraint and the occupant,
while ensuring sufficient space between the vehicle
seat(s) and the frame for the child’s legs and feet.
n
Check under the floor for access and for room for
the spreader plates to run across the vehicle.
Figure 3-20:
Universal Frame Attachment
Universal frame
850mm
(minimum)
High tensile
bolt
Spring washer
Rear of vehicle
spacer
Rivet used to
hold spreader
plate in place
Universal frame
Seat
Vehicle floor plan
60
Spreader plate with
nut welded to it
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
n
with the hole in the base channel to the rear of the
vehicle using the dimensions in Figure 3-22. Position
the Post so that the anchorage point on top is
located approximately 250mm rearwards of the seat
back. For Range Rovers only, position the anchorage
point exactly 176mm rearward of the seat belt lower
anchorages.
Mark out the anchorage points for the frame using
the frame as a template ensuring that the anchorage
bolt spreader plates clamp against a flat surface. If
the floor-pan is made of corrugated steel, suitable
spreader plates and spacers must be used to fill in
the depth of the “V” (vee) (see Figure 3-20).
Drill four 10 mm holes and position and secure the
frame using the bolts and spreader plates provided.
(Note: if necessary, the spreader plates may be kept in
position by riveting them onto the floor so they cannot
drop off if the frame is temporarily removed from the
vehicle).
If necessary, the spreader plates may be cut to avoid
obstacles such as “top-hat” sections. However, ensure
that the spreader plate is not shorter than 100 mm
at either end. The modified plate should be riveted
to ensure that it does not work loose or rotate when
tightening the anchor bolt.
n
Mark the floor through the hole in the base channel
to determine the location of 11mm diameter hole
to be drilled in the vehicle floor (For Range Rovers,
11mm diameter hole must pass directly through the
centre of the underfloor cross member).
n
Measure 215mm +/ - 15mm from 11mm diameter
hole along the base channel to locate the position of
the 8mm diameter hole to be drilled in the channel
and the floor.
n
Note: Before drilling the floor and channel.
n
Check to ensure there is sufficient clearance on the
underside of the floor for fitting the spreader plates.
n
For corrugated floors, the base channel must be
positioned so that the hole is drilled through the
middle of vee and spacers used to fill depth of vee.
n
As a result of these checks, the base channel may
need slight relocation and the distance between
the 11mm and 8mm holes may have to be altered.
The channel must still be positioned parallel to the
vehicle centreline with the anchorage point located
approximately 250mm behind the seat back.
n
Mark the hole positions as determined in step (4)
and drill the holes.
3-A3 Techsafe post
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
n
Place the child restraint in the seat position and
fasten the adult belt. Pass the top tether strap over
the seat and allow it to hang clear of the floor. Mark
the floor directly under the centre of the strap and
use this to mark a line rearwards parallel to vehicle
centreline.
n
Assemble the Techsafe post as illustrated in Figure
3-21 and place it along the line marked as above (1)
Figure 3-21:
Restraint anchorage post
Restraint
anchorage point
Seat
Detail
Wing-nut
Anti-raffle washers
Bolt and plain washer
Restraint Fitters Manual
Spacer washer
Base channel
61
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
n
n
n
Securely bolt the base channel member only to
the floor ensuring equal size spacers are used on
both mountings (where necessary) and the square
reinforcement plate is placed under the head of
11mm bolt. Note the positioning of the spreader
plate under the floor (Figure 3-22). For Range
Rovers, use a smaller spreader plate to fit into under
floor cross member.
n
The vertical post may be reduced in height to suit
seat back heights less than 640mm. However, under
no circumstances must the anchorage point be more
than 100mm below the top of the seat back.
3-A4 Pedestal bar
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
Assemble the anchorage post as illustrated in Figure
3-21, ensuring all washers are fitted correctly as
shown in Figure 3-23 and noting that the three
holes are provided in the base channel for final
positioning of the anchorage point.
1. Cut the Pedestal Bar to a length of 500mm and fit
the plastic plug rivet belt guide.
Attach the anchorage bolt and clip to the anchorage
point and attach the child restraint and adjust the
tether strap to secure the seat.
3. Use the pedestal bar as a guide and drill a pilot
hole through the floor lining and floor.
2. Position the pedestal bar 215mm from the back
seat at floor level (Figure 3-24) and centre the hole
over the troughs in the floor.
4. Check from underneath the vehicle and ensure the
hole is 30 mm behind the floor cross member.
5. Take both holes out to 8mm.
6. Lower the fuel tank on the front mounting without
totally removing the nuts – use a 9/16” spanner.
Figure 3-22:
Restraint anchorage post relative to seat back, top view.
Spreader plate
Figure 3-23:
Restraint anchorage post, side view.
Seat back
_ 15mm
215 +
50mm Tube
Base channel
3/8” Flat washer
Ø 8mm
3/8” Flat washer
3/8” Bolt
Ø 11mm
Floor channel
Seat belt anchor
(Range Rover)
7/16” UNF bolt
3mm
Reinforced
plate
176mm for Range Rover
3/8” Spring washer
3/8” Wing-nut
7/16” Shakeproof
washer
7/16” Spacers
Floor
150 x 50mm
Spreader plate
250mm for other vehicles
Figure 3-24:
The distance between the pedestal bar and the back of the seat.
Rear of vehicle
Seat
Pedestal bar
215
62
Fuel tank
Restraint Fitters Manual
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
Figure 3-25:
Hole Saw
n
This device must only be fitted where there is
nothing obstructing the spreader plate position,
(e.g. fuel tank/lines, brake lines, electrical wires or
chassis rails).
n
Before fitting the device, set the child seat up in
the desired position using the adult seatbelt, find
and mark the position for the child seat upper
restraint strap.
n
Remove the child seat, fold the seat back down and
mark the lower and upper anchor holes.
n
Use a 7/16” drill for anchor holes. The ‘D’ ring should
fit approximately 100mm maximum below the seat
top frame tube (see Figure 3-14b for more detail).
3-A6 Dual Cab Anchorage
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
7. Slide in the spreader plate over the fuel tank.
8. Fit the bolts and gently tighten them.
9. Install the mounting plate securing rivets.
10. Remove the bolts and Pedestal Bar and cut out the
floor lining using a hole saw as shown in Figure
3-25. Fit the 20mm spacers. Refit the Pedestal Bar
and bolts. Retighten the fuel tank mount.
3-A5 Dual Cab Device
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
1. Position the DCA above the rear seat upright and
check that the bolt holes can be easily located on
the double panel under the rear window rubber
(see Figure 3-26).
2. Mark the centre line of the seating position onto
the double panel.
3. Using the anchorage as a template, mark the
position of the mounting holes onto the double
panel, 60.5mm either side of centre line.
Note: On a Nissan Navara, drill out upper headrest
mounting captive nuts.
4. Drill a 3mm (1/8”) pilot hole through both panels.
Figure 3-26:
Dual Cab Anchorage
Rear
DCA
Reinforcement
plate
M8 (hi-tensile)
bolt
Seat
Vehicle’s
double panel
Crush
1 x Flat and
1 x spring washer
Restraint Fitters Manual
63
3 Installation of child restraint anchorages
5. Enlarge the interior panel hole to 7/16” and exterior
panel hole to 8.5mm (11/32”).
6. Fit brass crush tube/s through 7/16” holes until
contact is made with the exterior panel.
7. Mark the tubes and cut approximately 0.5mm
shorter than the mark, and then cut the bolts 1617mm longer than tubes.
8. Fit the top slide part to the anchorage - assemble
bolts, washers and crush tubes to the anchorage
and fit it to the interior panel.
11. Tighten the M8 bolts and fit a third 4mm rivet, if
required, to prevent the top slide from rattling, see
Figure 3-27.
12. This unit is supplied with an anchor bolt fitting. If
using a “hook” type fitting, remove the anchor bolt
and fit the hook anchor plate using the 5/16” UNC
x 5/8” screw supplied with the kit. Don’t use bolts
or spacers supplied with the hook anchor fitting.
Operation:
n
Depress 6mm pins on each side of the anchorage
and slide the front panel up far enough to swing
the “0” ring forward, Then feed the tether strap or
harness up through the “0” ring and attach to the
anchor bolt.
n
Push the “0” ring back and slide the front panel
down to the locked position and listen for a “click”.
n
Adjust the tether strap as required.
9. Position the reinforcement plate (250x32x6mm)
on the outside of the cab, with its rubber sealing
strip facing toward the cab. Then hand-tighten
the screws.
10. Position the top slide so that the 4mm rivets can
be fitted (a No.20 panel drill can be used for this
purpose) approximately 10mm above the window
rubber.
Note: A double panel is located behind the
headlining, see Figure 3-27.
Each anchorage is supplied with a cover which must
be used whenever the seating position is occupied by
an adult, or a child using a harness, to prevent possible
head injury caused by impacting the anchorage in
a crash.
Note: The lower edge of this cover will need to be cut
in order for it to be installed in a Nissan Navara,
as use of an unmodified cover will prevent the
seat latch mechanism from securely locking.
Figure 3-27:
Installation diagram for DCA rivets
Roof panel
3-A7 Toyota Commuter Bracket
Interior
double
panel
Headlining
4mm rivets (x2)
Top slide
64
Below is the instruction manual copied from the
product’s manufacturer with some editorial changes:
n
Using a small screwdriver, open the flaps on the
sides of the grab handles on the back of the seats.
n
Using a small Phillips-Head screwdriver, remove the
grab handles and discard the 6mm screws that were
holding them.
n
Position the anchorage bracket with the curve
side downward. Place the grab handles over the
anchorage bracket and using the 6mm x 35mm Cap
Head, 12-9 Hi Tensile graded bolts supplied, fit the
handle and the anchorage bracket back onto the
seat and tighten by hand, so as not to force the bolt
through the grab handle.
Restraint Fitters Manual
Module 4
4
Child restraints for children
with special needs
Restraint Fitters Manual
65
66
Child asleep in correctly fitted child car seat
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
4.1 Scope
This module is provided to RMS Authorised Restraint
Fitters for their information only on the processes
involved in installing child restraints prescribed for
children with special needs or medical conditions. This
module should not be used by restraint fitters to supply
or install restraints except as part of a case-by-case
assessment by a prescriber as described below.
4.2 Children with disabilities or
medical conditions
Certain children with a disability, medical condition
or challenging behaviour require specialist,
multidisciplinary, case-by-case assessment, which
means general guidelines on restraint practices are
not appropriate. Such children often require special
consideration when they are passengers in vehicles.
There is an Australian/New Zealand Standard covering
child restraint practices for children with medical,
physical or behavioural needs, AS/NZS 4370: Restraint
of children with disabilities, or medical conditions, in
motor vehicles. This Standard is aimed at the person
responsible for prescribing the appropriate restraint
option for the child. This person is defined as a
‘prescriber’ in AS/NZS 4370 as follows:
Prescriber: the person or persons responsible for
assessing an individual child’s needs and prescribing
the way in which a child with a disability or medical
condition should be transported in a motor vehicle.
For example, occupational therapist, physiotherapist,
medical practitioner, rehabilitation engineer.
There are a range of child restraint options available,
as outlined in Table 4-1. A prescriber will assess the
child’s specific needs, and then determine which
type of restraint system is suitable. This assessment
process takes into account a broad range of factors,
including those related to the child and their particular
disability or medical condition, the capacity of the
parents and other regular carers to appropriately
restrain the child, which include physical, practical and
financial constraints, the vehicle in which the child
will be travelling, and available restraint options. This
assessment process is laid out in more detail in AS/NZS
4370:2013.
Restraint fitters can assist with this process by providing
installation services for families once an appropriate
restraint has been prescribed. This may include typical
restraint installation for complying restraints or
modified complying restraints, but may also involve
vehicle modifications in some circumstances.
The prescribing process is as follows:
a) The prescriber assesses the individual child’s
restraint needs.
b) The prescriber analyses the assessment to determine
the most appropriate restraint solution using the
prescribing flowchart shown in Figure 4-1.
c) The prescriber completes the ‘Advice to Parent(s)’
form.
Table 4-1:
Restraint options for children with a disability, or medical condition travelling
Option
Type of restraint
Legal/other requirements
1
Complying child restraint
Also known as an ‘approved child restraint’,
‘approved booster seat’ and ‘approved child
safety harness’.
Children under 7 years of age must be secured
in a suitable child restraint that complies with
the Australian/New Zealand Standard 1754
Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles.
2
Complying child restraint, with
modifications
Any type of modification means the restraint no
longer complies with AS/NZS 1754.
A medical certificate must be carried by the
driver at all times when the child is travelling in
the vehicle.
3
Special purpose child restraint
This type of restraint is mostly manufactured
overseas and must comply with Road Rule 2014
exemption requirements to legally be used in a
motor vehicle in NSW.
A medical certificate must be carried by the
driver at all times when the child is travelling in
the vehicle.
Restraint Fitters Manual
67
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
Option
Type of restraint
Legal/other requirements
4
Special purpose child restraint, with
modifications
A modified special purpose child restraint
must comply with Road Rule 2014 exemption
requirements to legally be used in a motor
vehicle in NSW.
A medical certificate must be carried by the
driver at all times when the child is travelling in
the vehicle.
5
Customised restraint, or other option
A medical certificate must be carried by the
driver at all times when the child is travelling in
the vehicle.
This option should only be considered in
extreme circumstances
Figure 4-1:
Prescribing flow chart
Assess child’s restraint needs
(Table 1)
Is complying restraint suitable?
YES
NO
Is a modified complying
child restraint suitable?
YES
NO
Is a special purpose child
restraint suitable?
YES
NO
Is a modified special purpose
child restraint suitable?
YES
NO
Is a customised restraint or other
option suitable?
68
YES
PRESCRIBE
Restraint Fitters Manual
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
4.3 Modifications to complying
child restraints
When a complying restraint cannot be used,
modifications to a complying restraint may be required.
Modifying an approved child restraint means the child
restraint no longer meets the requirements of AS/NZS
1754. Some AS/NZS 1754 certified child restraints can
be modified to meet the individual needs of children
with a disability or medical condition. Depending on
the type of modification, AS/NZS 4370:2013 defines a
modified child restraint as:
Modified child restraint is a child restraint that
includes accessories, postural supports, and/or
additional padding that are not provided with the
child restraint, and are not included in the child
restraint manufacturer’s instructions for use.
Common modifications prescribed for AS/NZS 1754
certified child restraints include an extended crotch
strap or additional padding.
If a modified child restraint is prescribed, the parent/
carer will be provided with a form which includes,
as a minimum, information for installing, using
and maintaining the modified child restraint. It
will also include the reason why the modification
is recommended, a detailed description of the
modification, whether the modification is reversible
as well as the period of time the modification is
recommended, which must be no more than 12
months without review.
The parent/carer must also be advised in writing
that the restraint is to be used only by the child for
whom it was modified, and that they are not to
carry out further modifications to the child restraint
without reference to the person who prescribed the
modification.
Drivers carrying passengers using a modified child
restraint must carry a certificate signed by a registered
medical practitioner stating that because of a medical
condition or physical disability it is impracticable for the
child to use an approved restraint. The certificate must
show the date on which the exemption expires (e.g. in
the case of children in casts).
Restraint Fitters Manual
4.4 Special purpose child restraints
A special purpose child restraint is defined in AS/NZS
4370 as a child restraint that is specifically designed
and designated as suitable for use by a child with a
disability or medical condition that complies with one
or more of the following standards:
n
AS/NZS 1754
n
Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213
(CMVSS 213)
n
US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213
(FMVSS 213)
n
United Nation – Economic Commission for Europe
Regulation 44 (UN ECE R 44)
In Australia, all special purpose child restraints currently
available are supplied from overseas. Not one of the
special purpose child restraints comply with AS/NZS
1754. Examples of special purpose child restraints are
listed in Table 4-2 where all of these restraints comply
with at least one of the overseas standards listed
above.
Some child restraints may require modifications to
be made to the vehicle (e.g. seat belt/anchor points
strengthened, or additional anchor locations) for safe
installation. These modifications must be carried out
by a trained fitter and checked by an RMS licensed
certifier. The list of RMS licensed certifiers can be
downloaded from the following website:
http://www.rms.nsw.gov.au/documents/businessindustry/examiners/vsccs-bulletin-01-licensed-certifiers.
pdf
Documentation for Special Purpose Restraints
Prescribers should request child restraint manufacturers
or distributors to provide the following, in English, for
each child restraint for a child with a disability that is
not certified to AS/NZS 1754.
n
test data
n
standard/regulation compliance certification
n
fitting instructions for the user
n
instructions for the installation in the vehicle
n
labelling on the child restraint instructions for use.
69
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
Table 4-2:
Examples of Special Purpose Child Restraints.
Product
Design features
Carrot 3000
n
Forward-facing
n
Modular pieces to suit size of
user
n
Shoulder protector wings option
for a child with seating height
more than 65cm
n
Broad growth range to suit
infants to older children
n
Swivel base
n
Slightly reclinable
n
Forward-facing (fixed)
n
Height adjustable
n
Padded head supports
n
Seat depth extender
n
Four lateral positioning foam
pads
n
Pommel
n
Tether Strap
n
Forward-facing
n
Adjustable padded head
supports
n
Open sides for easy transfer
n
Recline up to 30º
n
Swing-away lateral and hip
supports
n
Broad range of width
adjustment
n
Seat depth extender
n
Pommel
n
Tether Strap
Columbia orthopaedic restraint
Columbia Spirit
70
Recommended size range
Designed for children
Between 3 and 15 years
Body weight: 15 to 36kg
Model 2000
Body weight: 9 to 46kg
Height: up to 152cm
Model 2500
Body weight: 18 to 58kg
Height: 137 to 167cm
Body weight: 11.3 to 59kg
Height: up to 167cm
Restraint Fitters Manual
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
Product
Design features
Lars child restraint
n
Forward-facing
n
Width and depth adjustable seat
n
Back height adjustment
n
Adjustable hip supports
n
Swivel base
n
Height and angle adjustable
footrest
n
Tilt up to 25 degrees
n
Optional head and lateral
supports
n
Range of positioning accessories
n
Forward-facing
n
Optional padded abductor
n
Height adjustable headrest
n
Reclinable
n
Support padding
n
Buckle guard
n
Optional seat extension
n
Forward-facing
n
Swivel base
n
Reclinable
n
Height and angle adjustable
footrest
n
Additional position padding for
head and torso
n
Support tray option
n
Rigid fibreglass shell can support
many body support accessories
Snug Seat Traveller plus
Timy
Restraint Fitters Manual
Recommended size range
Available in two sizes
Body weight: up to 36kg
Body weight: 10 to 47.5kg
Height: up to 142.2 cm
Model Junior
Body weight: 36kg
Age: 2 to 6 years
Model Standard
Body weight: 36kg
Age: 4 to 12 years
Model Senior
Body weight: 36kg
Age: 6 to 14 years
Model Maxi
Body weight: 49kg
Age: 8 to 16 years
71
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
Product
Design features
Recaro Start 2.0
n
Forward-facing
n
Adjustable height, shoulder
width and seat cushion length
n
Wide shoulder width
n
Reclinable
n
Swivel Base
n
Padded Lateral head and
Thoracic supports
n
Tray, footrest
n
Adjustable headrest
n
Reclinable
n
Swivel Base
n
Padded lateral head and thoracic
supports
n
Tray, footrest
Starlight SP
72
Recommended size range
Body weight: 15 to 36kg
Model Small SRYS-RK1
Body weight: 9 to 18kg
Model Large SRYS-RK2
Body weight: 18 to 36kg
Restraint Fitters Manual
4 Child restraints for children with special needs
4.5 Other information
Funding is available to assist families with their child’s
restraint needs
EnableNSW provides appropriate assistive technology
devices and specialised support services to assist
eligible residents of NSW with a permanent or longterm disability to live and participate in their family and
community through the Aids and Equipment Program
(A&EP). Parents or carers of children with a disability
interested in seeking further information about the
program should discuss their query with a health
care provider, or contact EnableNSW on one of the
following details:
Phone: 1 800 ENABLE (1 800 362 253)
Fax: 02 8797 6543
Mail: Locked Bag 5270 Parramatta NSW 2124
E-mail: [email protected]
4.5.1 More Information
The TranSPOT committee (formerly known as the
Transport Seating Working Group) initially formed in
1989 and is now affiliated with Speech Pathologists,
Physiotherapists and Occupational Therapists working
in Developmental/Intellectual Disability (SPOT on DD).
The committee comprises of therapists, vehicle
specialists/modifiers, authorised restraint
fitters, mobility engineers, equipment suppliers,
individual positioning customisers/technicians, and
representatives from the Assisted School Travel
Program (DEC), Transport for NSW and EnableNSW.
Links are maintained with external organisations
within and outside NSW, including other states and
international contacts.
The committee meets approximately six times per
year. Resourcing questions sent to the committee
are discussed and responses provided. The responses
reflect a risk minimisation approach to promote safe
seating, positioning and assistive technology solutions
in transport. The knowledge and expertise of the group
members, current evidence, best practice, relevant
legislation, and Australian and International Standards
/ guidelines, are considered and disseminated through
SPOT on DD or other avenues.
For further information contact:
SPOT on DD
PO Box 2283
Hornsby Westfield 1635
Email: [email protected]
Restraint Fitters Manual
73
March 2017 © Transport for NSW
Author: Basuki Suratno, Senior Research and Policy Analyst
Reviewer: Dan Leavy, Safer Vehicles Manager
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 (Commonwealth) and subject to the
confidentiality requirements below, no part may be reproduced by any process, nor may any other exclusive right be exercised, without the
prior written permission of Transport for NSW, L1, 18 Lee Street Chippendale NSW 2008.
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