PERIOD: - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

PERIOD: - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
2014-2016
STRATEGIC
Response Plan
Sahel Regioni
January 2014
PERIOD:
January 2014 – December 2016
145 million
estimated Sahel population
20.2 million
estimated number of people in
food insecurity
11.8 million
people targeted for food
assistance in 2014
5 million
estimated number of children
under 5 acutely malnourished
Key categories of people in
need:
800 internally
thousand displaced
million
768
displaced thousand refugees
pregnant,
785
lactating
thousand
women
million
non12.9 at risk of
displaced
million epidemics
1.6
7.5
USD 2
billion
requested
Prepared by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Affairs (OCHA) on behalf of Humanitarian Partners in the Sahel
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Deteriorating outlook in a number of big countries
driving numbers up in 2014
Substantial humanitarian action will continue to be required in the Sahel in
2014 and beyond. Over 20 million people are projected to be in need of
humanitarian assistance, including life-saving food security interventions,
protection from conflict and violence, strengthening household and
community coping mechanisms and supporting longer-term solutions for
internally displaced people (IDPs) and refugees.
A dramatic increase in the number of food insecure to 20 million (from
11.3 million in 2013) is expected, driven in particular by a deterioration in
the food security situation in Northern Nigeria, Northern Cameroon and
Senegal. These three countries represent over 40% of the overall
caseload. A further deterioration in the Niger situation will also see almost
one million more people join the ranks of the food insecure in 2014 as
compared to 2013.
Malnutrition rates remain largely unchanged across the region with the
exception of Burkina Faso where the number of food insecure and acutely
malnourished has dropped significantly. Refugee and IDP numbers
remain equally stable, with reductions in IDP numbers in Mali
compensated by increases in refugee movements into the region from
CAR, Northern Nigeria and Darfur/Sudan.
Instability and recovery in 2013
The humanitarian situation across the Sahel remained extremely fragile
through 2013. Mali was the most visible crisis of the year where an
international effort to dislodge the occupation of Northern Mali by armed
groups changed the situation dramatically for the better. Northern Mali
remained highly unstable nevertheless, characterized by insecurity,
collapsed basic services and alarming humanitarian indicators. A UN
peacekeeping operation was launched in April to assist Mali in its
transition to peace. Nearly 200,000 Malian refugees in neighbouring
countries remained in their camps, while inside Mali, IDPs began to return
to the North in significant numbers. The launch of counter-terrorist
operations in three States in the north of Nigeria in May 2013 was a
precursor to increased violence and displacement. A surge of refugee
arrivals from Darfur and CAR added to the existing burdens of Chad.
Photo credit: ©FAO/Giulio Napolitano
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this document do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by regional
humanitarian partners.
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
Millions of households across the Sahel struggled to regain their livelihoods and rebuild their assets in the
aftermath of the 2012 food crisis. Better rainfall across many – not all – parts of the region contributed to
harvests for the year that were up by 1% as compared to the 5-year average, but represent a 13% reduction
when adjusted for population growth. An estimated 11.3 million people remained at risk of food insecurity (much
reduced from the 18 million of the preceding year). Epidemics and flooding affected many communities from
Cameroon to Mauritania. Some 4.8 million children were estimated to have been acutely malnourished across
the region.
Funding of the 2013 Appeal reached 63% or about $1.1 billion against a $1.7 billion request. An additional $300
million was registered as having been committed to humanitarian activities outside of the Appeal. Efforts across
the region supported over 700 thousand refugees. Over 1 million acutely malnourished children were treated.
Agricultural assistance reached over 3.3 million farmers and agro-pastoralists. 7.4 million infants were
vaccinated against measles across the nine Sahel countries. 1,787 Nutritional centres delivered the WASH
minimum package
A new, three-year plan aimed at saving lives today and reducing the case-load
tomorrow
A three-year (rather than one-year) regional plan has been developed for the Sahel for the first time. The
strategy provides a set of ambitious objectives and targets that will require a sustained, multi-year effort to
achieve, and that could not be realistically contemplated on a planning horizon of merely 12 months. Working
within this three-year framework, annual review processes in each country – of priorities, of results, of number
of people in need, of funding implications – will continue to be an essential part of the planning and reporting
process. A new financing request will be generated on an annual basis and will be part of a formal annual
‘launch’ process for the region.
Over the next three years, humanitarian actors in the Sahel have agreed to work with partners towards three
overarching strategic goals:
1
Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into humanitarian and development
programming;
2
Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding earlier to warning
signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national actors;
3
Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected by emergencies.
These goals are not in order of priority. Given the large case-load already for 2014, life-saving naturally
continues to be the first priority of the humanitarian community in the Sahel. Special effort will be directed
towards a more inter-Cluster response to key vulnerabilities such as food insecurity, malnutrition, epidemics,
conflict and displacement and natural disasters. Innovations have been introduced for improved performance
and results monitoring and reporting. A light regional framework – informed by country-driven analyses of needs
– will continue to provide an anchor for regional coherence.
The trend towards increased humanitarian case-loads in the Sahel illustrates a worrying erosion of resilience in
the region. Vulnerable households are increasingly less able to cope with the greater frequency and intensity of
climate shocks. Early action is thus the centre piece of the humanitarian response strategy; in terms of first,
responding quickly to early indicators in order to help households protect assets and avoid negative coping
strategies and second, moving quickly in order to reduce recovery times and rebuild assets. Building the
emergency preparedness capacity of individuals, communities and Governments remains an ongoing priority
with even greater resonance in the current climate.
Chronic problems need structural solutions however and the strategy recognizes that the most influential actors
on the future humanitarian case-load are, ultimately, Governments and their development partners. Beyond
saving lives and bolstering the coping capacity of the households with whom we are working therefore, a key
mission for the humanitarian community in the Sahel is to engage, partner with, and influence, these
development actors much more systematically than in the past. A shared understanding between the
humanitarian and development communities of the hazard environment, of what is driving hazards to become
disasters, and who is least equipped to deal with the impact of such shocks is an indispensable first step.
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Sahel region
JOINT HUMANITARIAN PRIORITIES
1. Food Insecurityiv
As of January 2014, an estimated 20.2 million people, or
one in seven inhabitants of the Sahel region, are food
insecure. At least 2.5 million are in crisis conditions and
already require urgent lifesaving food assistance. For the
remaining millions, their food security conditions are
severely stressed and will require timely livelihood support
to avoid the risk of falling into crisis and emergency levels as
they face the lean season or experience recurring shocks
such as floods, drought, epidemics or conflict.
2. Malnutritionv
About 577,000 children die of malnutrition and health related
consequences each year in the Sahel. Malnutrition
prevalence remains alarming among children under-five
years of age, not only at the peak of the lean season, but
also in post-harvest periods. In 2014, 1.5 million children are
expected to suffer from severe acute malnutrition and an
additional 3.4 million from moderate acute malnutrition.
3. Conflict-related needs
Conflict and insecurity continue to affect the Sahel region,
causing death, displacement and destruction of property,
health facilities and schools, and exacerbating food
insecurity and malnutrition. The region is host to an
estimated 730,000 refugees and 495,000 internally
displaced people. Recent events in the Central Africa
Republic and Northern Nigeria have placed countries such
as Chad, Cameroon and Mali under additional pressure to
absorb thousands of returning third country nationals.
Displaced populations alongside their host communities are
particularly at risk of food insecurity, malnutrition and
epidemics.
4. Epidemic-related needs
12 million people in the Sahel are estimated to be at risk of
outbreaks of measles, meningitis, cholera and Lassa fever
in 2014. In 2013 epidemics resulted in over 1,000 deaths
despite the existence of effective prevention means such as
vaccines. Several countries are also affected by a high
seasonal incidence of malaria. HIV also remains a priority
concern for the region.
5. Disaster-related needs
Disasters associated with natural hazards such as drought,
floods and animal pests (e.g. locusts, etc.) are recurrent in
the Sahel routinely placing several million people at risk of
displacement, loss or disruption of livelihoods, epidemics,
etc.
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Scope of the response
The Sahel Response Plan provides a
regional framework for the humanitarian
needs and response plans across the
individual Strategic Response Plans of
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali,
Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and
The Gambia. For Nigeria and Cameroon
the response plan focuses mainly on
humanitarian needs in the northern regions.
Following a comprehensive needs
assessment and prioritization processii,
humanitarian partners plan to targetiii an
estimated 11.8 million people with food
security assistance and over 2.5 million
children under five with nutritional support.
Humanitarian assistance is planned for
approximately 740,000 refugees, 740,000
internally displaced people, returnees and
relocated populations and over 600,000
people in host communities. Water and
sanitation interventions aim to target over
12 million people at risk of epidemics.
Funding Requirements
Humanitarian partners are seeking
US$.2.025 billion for 117 organisations 512 projects- in nine Sahel countries and a
portfolio of regional projects. The 2014
request represents a 19% increase from
the 2013 funding request of US$1.7 billion
Funding breakdown (in US$ millions)
Burkina Faso
109.3
Cameroon
48.5
Chad
527.4
The Gambia
26.0
Mali
568.4
Mauritania
107.9
Niger
390.9
Nigeria
74.9
Regional Sahel
49.8
Senegal
122.1
Total
2,025.1
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Sahel region
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
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STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
FOREWORD
Hundreds of thousands of households remain in unacceptably precarious conditions across the Sahel. Food
insecurity, acute malnutrition, disease and disasters are a reality for millions. Conflicts within the region and in
countries along its borders have displaced many others, uprooting them from their homes and livelihoods and
forcing them to become dependent on outside assistance.
At the start of 2014, with 20 million at risk of food insecurity (2.5 million of them already at emergency level),
nearly 5 million acutely malnourished children, and well over 1 million refugees and internally displaced
persons, the region remains in crisis. In the face of these needs, the humanitarian community needs to do what
it does best – move quickly to save lives. The humanitarian response strategy that follows anticipates even
earlier and even faster responses to this vulnerable case-load. It proposes greater collaboration between
Clusters in order to address issues like malnutrition or food security in the multi-sectoral way it deserves. It
offers a regional perspective across a complex network of countries whose fates are inevitably intertwined.
The chronic nature of the Sahel’s spiralling humanitarian needs demands the humanitarian community go even
further however. The task of reducing tomorrow’s humanitarian case-load is also a crucial goal in the Sahel
context. Hence, for the first time, a three-year (rather than one year) strategy has been prepared that allows us
to set more ambitious goals for ourselves, and to go about these tasks more systematically. Building new levels
of partnership too, between humanitarian actors and the Governments of the region and between the
humanitarian and the development communities are central to this new vision; all of us need to come together
around a shared analysis of risk and vulnerability. The region’s large humanitarian case-load will only start to
substantially reverse when the underlying drivers of this vulnerability are addressed. To do so, will require a
tremendous amount of clarity, coordination and focus given the din of competing priorities.
This vulnerability is increasingly visible in the way households are responding to successive crises. We are
witnessing daily an erosion of coping capacities in the Sahel as crises of one form or another force households
to resort to increasingly negative coping strategies– taking on too much debt, eating seed stocks, taking a
daughter out of school – that in turn leave them less able to cope with the next crisis and more likely to need
emergency assistance in the future. Building the capacity of these households across the region to anticipate,
deal with and then recover from shocks is also therefore central to the strategy. Early intervention– early in the
sense of extending assistance to households early in a crisis before they deplete too many of their assets and
early in the sense of reducing the recovery period to the minimum time possible in the aftermath of a crisis – will
be a hallmark of the humanitarian effort.
Donors have been generous in their support to the Sahel region over recent years. We count on this generosity
to continue. A more ‘rounded’ cluster funding by donors in response to our attempts to address issues like
malnutrition and food security in a more multi-sectoral fashion, will be important. Donors will also,
understandably, look to some of the Governments of the region to shoulder a greater share of the financing
burden for the humanitarian effort. And they will surely look to the humanitarian community for real evidence
that we are both saving lives today, as well as making headway in reducing the trend for the future. We will rise
to this challenge as we must.
A great deal of time and effort has gone into putting together the multiple country and regional humanitarian
plans for the Sahel. In regional discussions and then across nine countries, within multiple Cluster
configurations, teams have worked hard to initially develop a shared analysis of the priority humanitarian needs
in their countries and then on developing a strategy to respond. Each Cluster has brought its contribution to
bear on a series of joint humanitarian priorities within an overarching set of regional goals. Governments for
their part have also participated actively in many of these discussions. I salute this extraordinary collective effort
of coordination, leadership and engagement by so many.
Robert Piper
Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel
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Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………….1
FOREWARD………………………………………………..4 HUMANITARIAN OVERVIEW……………………………9 HUMANITARIAN STRATEGY 2014-2016………………11 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND INDICATORS………20 CLUSTER RESPONSE PLANS…………………………22 COORDINATION
23 EDUCATION
25 HEALTH
32 MULTI SECTOR ASSISTANCE FOR REFUGEES
34 NUTRITION
36 PROTECTION
39 WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE
41 7
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
The Sahel Region
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Sahel region
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
HUMANITARIAN OVERVIEW
NEEDS REMAIN HIGH
High rates of food insecurity and malnutrition, in addition to displacement caused by violence and natural
disasters, continue to characterize the humanitarian situation in the Sahel region.
Across the region, 20 million people are moderately to severely food insecure. The 2014 projected global acute
malnutrition burden is close to 5 million children under five including a caseload of severe acutely malnourished
of 1.48 million.
While the overall agricultural yield has been above average, production in a number of countries has been
severely affected by late or erratic rainfall. Food prices have lowered somewhat compared to 2013 but remain
above the five-year average. Food insecurity has therefore risen to emergency and near-emergency levels in
Niger, northeast Nigeria, northern Mali and Senegal. Life-saving food assistance alongside livelihood support
will be necessary for millions in the Sahel.
Refugee and IDP numbers remain stable, with reductions in IDP numbers in Mali compensated by increases in
refugee movements into the region from CAR, Northern Nigeria and Darfur/Sudan.
Epidemics and recurring seasonal hazards such as floods and locusts are projected to affect over ten million
people and will require systematic surveillance, preparedness and mitigation measures.
INSECURITY REDUCES ACCESS
Insecurity in the region also remains of concern with terrorism, banditry and trafficking affecting nearly all the
Sahel belt. While Mali has been able to transition to a post-conflict scenario, and significant steps have been
taken towards the re-establishment of constitutional order and territorial integrity, asymmetrical warfare
continues to affect the northern region. Access in Niger remains severely constrained due to insecurity.
In Nigeria, the activities of suspected Boko Haram elements in the north-eastern States of Adamawa, Borno
and Yobe and the military operation launched by the Government against Boko Haram have led to a significant
increase in violence and reports of massive human rights violations, including loss of life. The persistent
insecurity and the increase in attacks on soft targets such as schools and teachers have slowed development
activities and severely impeded the delivery of public administrative and social services, with serious
consequences for children’s access to education.
The unfolding situation in the Central Africa Republic continues to have dramatic spill-over effects not only on
neighbouring countries such as Chad and Cameroon but also as far away as Burkina Faso and Mali now having
to deal with the reintegration of their returning migrants.
HUMANITARIAN, PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT: A JOINED AGENDA
In the Sahel, the humanitarian, peace and development agenda are closely inter-connected and require a
joined-up response. The growing threats of terrorism, violent extremism and cross-border organized crime,
compounded by weak or absent institutions and the limited ability of Governments to provide basic social
services place a severe challenge on humanitarian action but also thwart efforts to promote peace and stability
in the region.
The Sahel Strategic Response Plan commits humanitarian actors across the region to support resilience
building amongst households and reduce the future humanitarian case load. In so doing, humanitarian efforts
will support the roll out of the United Nations Integrated Strategy for the Sahel, which was endorsed by the
Security Council in mid-2013 and its resilience ‘pillar’ in particular. This aspect of the plan is also aligned with
the EU-sponsored AGIR initiative (the Global Alliance for Resilience Initiative) which also aims to help build
resilience to the recurrent food and nutrition crises that affect the countries of the Sahel region. A number of
indicators for this regional humanitarian plan for example, are shared indicators with the AGIR monitoring and
evaluation framework in order to facilitate this alignment on a sustained basis.
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STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
People in Need (in thousands)
COUNTRY
# of food
insecure
MAM*
SAM*
IDPs /
Host
Refugees Returnees /
Comm.
Relocated
Burkina Faso
1,330.4
370.0
144.0
35.0
North
Cameroon
1,737.7
132.4
54.2
96.5
Chad
2,420.0
300.6
135.5
466.9
285.0
40.8
7.9
8.3
3,330.0
360.0
136.0
470.0
94.5
30.7
60.0
Niger
4,197.6
649.6
356.3
87.0
North Nigeria
4,200.0
1,251.8
539.1
Senegal
2,250.0
261.3
78.9
14.2
20,220.7
3,461.0
1,482.7
767.9
Gambia
Mali
Mauritania
Total
60.0
350.0
560.0
PLW
At risk of
epidemics
130.0
5,372.5
41.1
6,039.0
182.4
28.5
301.1
87.0
16.7
271.7
44.4
1,500.0
194.9
28.0
890.4
620.0
785.3
12,911.5
People Targeted (in thousands)
COUNTRY
# of food
insecure
MAM*
SAM*
IDPs /
Host
Refugees Returnees /
Comm.
Relocated
1,330.4
315.0
115.0
35.0
784.5
92.7
48.8
96.5
1,820.0
177.5
135.5
466.9
105.0
33.5
7.9
8.3
1,570.0
252.0
107.0
470.0
75.1
30.7
60.0
Niger
3,360.0
575.2
356.3
62.7
North Nigeria
1,000.0
Senegal
1,360.1
182.9
50.3
14.2
11,800.0
1,704.0
1,175.0
743.6
Burkina Faso
North
Cameroon
Chad
Gambia
Mali
Mauritania
Total
60.0
350.0
180.7
323.5
At risk of
epidemics
72.3
5,372.9
37.0
6,039.0
20.0
28.5
51.0
12.7
44.4
271.7
1,000.0
194.9
8.9
770.0
* All MAM and SAM figures are projections for 2014
PLW: Pregnant and Lactating Women Host Comm. : Host Communities
SAM: Severe Acute Malnutrition MAM: Moderate Acute Malnutrition
10
560.0
PLW
620.0
502.0
12,411.9
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
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Sahel region
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STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
HUMANITARIAN STRATEGY 2014-2016
Three strategic objectives to guide humanitarian action in the Sahel
In order to save the lives and rebuild the livelihoods of millions of people in the need in the Sahel, humanitarian
action will continue to respond to life saving needs above all. However, taking into account both the acute and
chronic vulnerabilities of populations, the humanitarian strategy also aims to protect the asset base of
households and communities. In addition to the life-saving component therefore, the strategy aims to achieve a
better understanding of the risk and vulnerabilities being faced by people in the region and to better partner with
Governments and development actors to address them. Humanitarian actors also aim to reinforce their ability to
act early – as soon as surveillance indicators begin to worsen. Acting early will ensure recovery times are
reduced and assets preserved. Finally, and across the various strategic interventions, humanitarian action will
work to help governments improve their own ability to respond.
The 2014-2016 humanitarian strategy is designed to promote an integrated multi-sectoral response to needs.
Across all sectors, response plans have been designed to respond to five joint humanitarian priorities: food
insecurity, malnutrition, conflict-related needs such as displacement and protection, the humanitarian impact of
epidemics and the humanitarian impact of natural hazards.
Strategic Objectives and Indicators
1. Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into humanitarian and
development programming.
Improving the knowledge of risks and vulnerabilities across the region will strengthen evidence-based
programming and refine targeting processes. This will include working on improving data collection, data
organisation and sharing, strengthening sectoral surveillance mechanisms and early warning mechanisms
and establishing comprehensive vulnerability data sets for at-risk regions and livelihoods. With improved
data, humanitarian actors will be able to make a stronger case for integration of vulnerable populations in
international and national development programming. Increased advocacy and capacity building efforts will
be directed to national counterparts so as to promote strong national leadership in the response to the
needs of the region’s most vulnerable populations.
2. Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding earlier to warning
signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national actors.
While humanitarian actors cannot address the long term structural drivers of crises such as drought, floods
and conflicts, they can play a role in supporting households, communities and Governments to better
anticipate, manage and recover from shocks. The repeated failure to translate early warnings into early
action has major consequences for the efficacy of humanitarian responses, as agencies are limited in their
ability to raise and mobilise resources, build logistical capacity and undertake preventative interventions
designed to stop vulnerable people reaching crisis point. Through its second strategic objective, the Sahel
response strategy places emphasis on strengthening early warning systems that are able to generate
reliable predictions of emergencies and engender early mitigation and response measures. Activities will
focus on reinforcing the pre-positioning of supplies via core pipelines, response preparedness activities,
action trigger mechanisms and rapid programmatic interventions and investments that aim to reduce, and
where possible prevent, the impact of shocks on coping mechanisms. Early action must quickly lead to
early recovery so as to reduce the impact on coping mechanisms and the household recovery time. This will
include the re-stocking of productive assets, agricultural support, integration assistance and the like.
3. Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected by emergencies.
The third and most important pillar of the strategy is the response to the life-saving needs of the people of
the Sahel. This will form the core of the response activities and will target populations who have surpassed
emergency thresholds. Life-saving action will be geared towards maintaining frontline services in hotspot
areas until other longer-term delivery and funding mechanisms are in place. Addressing high malnutrition
rates, responding to disease outbreaks and continuing to improve water and hygiene conditions will remain
key priorities for humanitarian partners. Particular emphasis will be placed in assisting and protecting
refugees, IDPs and host communities.
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Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
A resilience approach for the Sahel
Households across the Sahel are increasingly and regularly threatened by crises and shocks of one kind or
another, that affect one or more countries in the region and whose ripple effects are often felt more widely.
Crises triggered for example by too much or too little rainfall, by a surge in food prices, by disease, by pests.
Rarely can any of these crises be solely attributable to any single cause, natural or Man Made, but are more
likely caused by a mix of factors that turn a ‘hazard’ into a ‘disaster’.
In order to protect yesterday’s and tomorrow’s progress, countries in the region must get better at anticipating,
adapting to and recovering from crises and shocks in a way that at minimum protects their development gains
achieved to date. The need to do so has taken on an added urgency in light of the growing evidence that the
region’s poorest households are coping less and less well with these crises that appear to be increasing in both
volume and intensity. A growing number of households in the region are struggling to recover from the last crisis
in time before the next one hits. In such circumstances, families turn increasingly to ‘negative’ coping strategies
– i.e. adopting measures that may relieve the problem in the short term but have long-term, irreversibly negative
consequences for the household, such as taking girls out of school or taking on unsustainable debt. These
emerging patterns are illustrated by a growing humanitarian case-load and spiralling needs for humanitarian
funding.
Humanitarian teams across the region are committed to doing their part to build greater resilience amongst
these households and reduce the future humanitarian case load. This strategy therefore:

Places priority on protecting assets and coping capacities of vulnerable households through (a) acting
even earlier on early warning indicators with mitigating interventions and (b) investing more
substantially in measures that will shorten recovery periods in the aftermath of a crisis;

Accelerates efforts to build the capacity of communities and Governments to prepare for and respond to
future crises, ultimately without recourse to international assistance;

Invests in more systematic collection, analysis and dissemination of risk and vulnerability data with a
view to influencing development policy making and programming, particularly with regard to the
households that make up ‘repeat clients’ of emergency interventions.
Humanitarian agencies will work more systematically with their evidence base. Information and data about
projects and beneficiaries will be put at the disposal of others, particularly Government policy makers. Early
action interventions will be developed that are backed by hard evidence of results in terms of protecting coping
capacities. The early recovery network will be reinvigorated with new interventions that demonstrably reduce
the length of the recovery period. Above all, the humanitarian community will work ever more closely with
Governments, regional organizations and their development partners across the Sahel to share experience,
expertise, data and strategies.
The humanitarian team recognizes that chronic problems need structural solutions and the most influential
actors on the future humanitarian case-load are, ultimately, Governments and their development partners.
Beyond saving lives and bolstering the coping capacity of the households with whom we are working therefore,
the team is placing unprecedented priority on engaging, partnering with, and influencing, these development
actors much more systematically than in the past in order to ensure the underlying drivers that are eroding
resilience will be successfully addressed and reversed.
A resilience approach also requires donors to operate differently in supporting the humanitarian effort. More
predictable, multi-year funding remains an elusive goal, the case for which is all the more compelling for a 3
year Sahel humanitarian strategy with a strong resilience theme. ‘Uneven’ financing across different sectors
also continues to be an issue in the Sahel as elsewhere; early treatment of acute malnutrition indicators, for
example, will not reduce a future caseload without a minimum of water, sanitation and health investments
alongside. Donors are also encouraged to finance even earlier humanitarian interventions in the face of warning
signals and possibly in advance of Governments formally declaring emergencies. The evidence for such an
approach has been well documented in multiple studies from the Sahel and The Horn.vi The chronic underfunding of both emergency preparedness and early recovery work generally, will also need to be reversed in
order to realize these ambitious goals.
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STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
Cross cutting issue: gender in the Sahel
The Sahel crisis is exacerbated by a range of variables that include deep-rooted gender inequalities.
Gender and social analysis will be part of all planned responses across the three strategic objectives of the
Sahel plan. Taking into account the different needs of women, girls, boys and men makes our
humanitarian response more effective and equitable. As such, humanitarian organisations working under
the Sahel Strategic Response Plans are required to make clear and operational commitments to gender
equalityvii, in line with gender in emergencies minimum standards, and ensure this forms an integral part of
all of their programmes.
In promoting risk and vulnerability analysis, priority will be placed on data disaggregation by age, sex and
diversity to ensure that protection and assistance activities are needs-driven and respond to the different
concerns and risks of women and men of all ages and background.
Early action and early recovery actions will be strengthened by recognizing traditional coping mechanisms
and the different risks, capacities and contributions of gender groups. For example, women’s limited
access to assets such as land, water and livestock perilously restricts their ability to ensure the wellbeing
and survival of their families and themselves. Hence the need to ensure that women’s as well as men’s
access to and control over production means (credit, agricultural inputs, farming tools and land) are fully
recognised and addressed.
In tackling life-saving needs such as malnutrition and food insecurity, a strong focus will be placed on the
gender aspects of poverty, as women are often the poorest, yet, culturally primarily responsible for
household food and nutrition security.
Scope of the strategy
The present Sahel Regional Strategic Response Plan provides an overview of the response plans of the nine
Sahel countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and The Gambia)
alongside regional response measures put in place under the aeigis of the Regional Sector Working Groups
(education, food security and nutrition, health, protection, WASH) based in Dakar.
18

Timeframe: The Sahel regional and country response plans cover a period of three-years (2014-2016)
with a view to better tackle the structural and chronic challenges facing the region. However, given the
changing contexts, figures related to humanitarian needs, number of people targeted and funding
requirements, relate only to 2014. Figures will be up-dated yearly, based on most recent assessments
and revised Humanitarian Needs Overviews.

People in need: The numbers of people in need per sector/cluster are generally drawn from the
Humanitarian Needs Overviews of the nine Sahel countries. In a number of instances, these figures
have been updated to reflect latest assessments and discussions at sector/cluster level. HNOs can be
viewd at https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/ROWCA/Coordination/HNOs/

People targeted: The number of targeted people in the sector /cluster response plans have been
identified and agreed upon by sectors/clusters at the national and regional level.

Financial requirements: Figures regarding financial requirements represent the sum of projects
(national and regional) up-loaded and endorsed in the Online Project System (OPS). Financial
agreements between humanitarian actors and donors outside the SRP process are not reflected.

Geographic scope: this Strategic Response Plan for the Sahel includes nine countries: Burkina Faso,
Cameroonviii, Chadix, the Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. For Cameroon and
Nigeriax, the response plan focuses on the situation in the northern areas of these countries.
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Planning assumptions

As per the seasonal calendar, the food insecurity and malnutrition caseload is expected to increase
during the course of the lean season (July-September). During the second semester, the rainy season
will heighten the risk of flooding and related displacement and epidemics.

Assistance to Malians who sought refuge in Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Niger is planned to continue
over the next three years as return movements are expected to be slow and small-scale. At the same
time a more significant increase in Mali IDP returns is projected. The situation in the Central Africa
Republic and in the Sudan is expected to continue to adversely impact neighbouring Sahel countries
i.e. Chad and Cameroon, leading to inter alia increased refugee movements, return of third country
nationals, etc.

Due to chronic vulnerabilities such as limited access to water and sanitation and weak health coverage,
the risk of epidemics, including in particular cholera, is expected to remain high across the region.
Response monitoring
A multi-year Strategic Response Plan requires strong monitoring systems to gather information and review
progress against its objectives. In order to address human suffering in an efficient manner and to facilitate
advocacy for adequate funding of the various clusters/sectors, it is essential to systematically monitor and
report on response, needs and gaps.
The Country and regional Strategic Response Plans will be reviewed on a six-monthly basis, allowing partners
to take stock of results achieved and recalibrate response plans as needed. Sector/cluster output indicators
have been set on a yearly basis, while strategic outcome indicators have been set to cover the three year
period.
Based upon progress made in 2013, a number of improvements relating to the expansion of data collection and
tracking are envisaged. For the Sahel planning processes, clusters and sectors in the nine Sahel countries
agreed on common strategic objectives and on standardized cluster response plans and activities. On this
basis, a centralized information management system will be rolled out in the first quarter of 2014 which will
allow for real-time data collection of implementing partner activities. This will in turn enable quality and timely
analysis of the effectiveness of the humanitarian response. The system comprises a dashboard and analytical
tools to provide users with meaningful analysis of their data in conjunction with other data sources.
The automated platform will reduce the reporting burden on humanitarian actors while at the same time
enabling an up to date operational overview of the humanitarian response situation. The regularly updated
information will also ensure that Humanitarian Country Teams and cluster partners are in a better position to
make decisions leading to more effective aid delivery. Enhanced reporting reinforces the humanitarian
programme cycle and the transformative agenda, allowing for greater transparency and accountability of
humanitarian action.
19
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND INDICATORS
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating
findings into humanitarian and development programming.
Indicator
Baseline and targets
Base
End-2014
Explanation/Monitoring method
2015
2016
Early Warning mechanisms
established for food security,
malnutrition, epidemics,
displacement and disasters.
3.3
4.8
5.1
5.5
Average number of sectoral early
warning mechanisms in place in
countriesxi
Existence of vulnerability data sets
for all sectors and regions
4.4
4.7
5.3
5.5
Average number of sectors with
vulnerability data availablexii
56%
76%
89%
100%
7
9
9
9
Number of countries where
development budgets target
vulnerable populations
6
Number of countries where % of
agriculture investment targeting
vulnerable households is greater
than 50%xiii
Risk and vulnerability analysis
integrated in country UNDAFs,
CCAs and SRPs and other key
international planning instruments
Government development plans
and budgets target vulnerable
populations
Agricultural investments target
marginalised and vulnerable
households (AGIR indicator)
3
4
4
Average percentage of vulnerability
analysis integrated into UNDAFs,
CCAs and SRP
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with
shocks by responding earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery
times and by building capacity of national actors.
Indicator
Baseline and targets
Explanation/Monitoring method
Base
End-2014
2015
2016
Improved coping capacity of
affected households (measured by
the Coping Strategies Index (CSI))
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
CSI data not yet available in all
countries. To be completed at midyear review 2014
Increased recovery rates of
affected households (measured by
the Coping Strategies Index (CSI))
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
CSI data not yet available in all
countries. To be completed at midyear review 2014
Number of countries with national
social protection policies and
programmes under development or
implementation
Development and implementation
of national social protection
policies and programmes (AGIR
indicator)
Stabilisation or improvement of
overall Cadre Harmonisé
classification in livelihood zones
over two seasons as a result of
20
3
9
9
9
0%
5%
9%
11%
Average % of livelihood zones for
which the CH classification over a
two season period will improve or
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Indicator
Baseline and targets
Explanation/Monitoring method
remain stablexiv
continued humanitarian assistance
An Early Action trigger mechanism
for emergencies developed and
operational
4
9
9
9
Number of countries with early action
trigger mechanism developed and
operational
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance
to people affected by emergencies.
Indicator
Baseline and targets
Base
Explanation
End-2014
2015
2016
People affected by
emergencies receiving lifesaving assistance
68%
81%
88%
92%
Average % of people targeted
receiving life-saving assistance
Percentage funding spread
between clusters
76%
54%
41%
32%
Average % of reduction in funding
spread between sectors/clusters
Number of people in Cadre
Harmonisé phase 3+4
3,054,236
2,614,312
2,307,611
1,893,825
Sum of estimated number of
people in CH phase 3+4xv
8
Number of countries with above
75% discharged/recovery rate for
SAM children <5
% of Children < 5 years with
Severe Acute Malnutrition
discharged and recovered
7
8
Crude mortality rate (CMR)
trend
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Multi-year targets to be set at
mid-year review 2014
Under-5 mortality rate
(U5MR) trend
222 per
1,000 live
births
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Not yet
available
Multi-year targets to be set at
mid-year review 2014
1,193,791
1,216,285
2,192,344
2,881,492
Sum of number of people
receiving the WASH package
Number of affected vulnerable
people (children, women,
men) having received a timely
and functional WASH
minimum package adapted to
their vulnerability(ies)
8
21
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
CLUSTER PLANS
xvi
Funding Requirements per Country per Sector
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
COO
1.0
-
EDU
0.4
3.7
ETC
-
ER
3.8
FS
31.8
HEA
5.0
-
-
10.3
Chad
6.6
4.4
-
4.3 179.9
Gambia
0.2
0.2
-
-
2.0
LOG
-
MS
27.3
NUT
31.7
PRO
5.4
3.4
-
18.4
7.5
1.2
199.6
42.4
5.3
7.0
2.7
1.1
1.7
-
31.5
23.1
17.1
2.2
-
30.6 255.0
38.0
9.9
SHE WASH
2.8
-
109.3
4.1
48.5
23.3
527.4
0.7
26.0
Mali
6.1
18.0
-
76.9
60.0
29.5
42.4
568.4
Mauritania
8.1
1.7
-
4.1
32.3
5.4
-
27.9
19.4
3.1
-
5.8
107.9
Niger
3.9
3.8
-
7.5 208.0
8.3
7.6
46.7
83.6
3.6
4.0
13.9
390.9
11.9
74.9
2.6
49.8
Nigeria
8.1
6.6
-
8.1
10.7
19.9
-
-
2.3
2.8
4.5
Regional Sahel
7.9
0.5
-
-
36.3
0.7
-
-
1.1
0.7
-
-
84.8
2.0
58.3 866.3
116.4
Senegal
1.6
-
Total
43.4
39.3
SHE
MS
ETC
WASH
2.0
Emergency Shelter and NFI
Multi-Sector Assistance to Refug
Emergency Telecommunucation
Water Hygiene and Sanitation
EDU
FS
NUT
HEA
40.6
23.3
0.4
-
327.1 289.3
4.4
84.1
45.0
Education
Food Security
Nutrition
Health
People in need and targeted per cluster/sector (in million)
22
∑
PRO
ER
LOG
COO
Protection
Early Recovery
Logistics
Coordination
5.6
122.1
113.2
2,025.1
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
COORDINATION
Lead agency: OCHA
Contact information: Allegra Baiocchi ([email protected])
Supporting hundreds of national and international NGOs, UN
agencies, international organisations and governmental institutions
in the delivery of effective, comprehensive and coordinated
humanitarian action.
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
43.4 million
Humanitarian coordination improves the effectiveness of the humanitarian response by ensuring greater
predictability, accountability and partnership. With the support of the Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) and the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel, Resident and/or
Humanitarian Coordinators, Humanitarian Country Teams and the clusters/sector leads across the region are
rolling out the Transformative Agenda and enhancing the humanitarian programme cycle. Key targets include
strong humanitarian leadership; representative and inclusive Humanitarian Country Teams and clusters;
effective and well-coordinated strategic and operational frameworks within which all humanitarian organizations
can contribute systematically and evidence-based humanitarian response and predictable funding tools.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
Coordination actors will promote the establishment of risk monitoring and risk management tools. A mapping of
vulnerabilities at country and at regional level will enable organisations to design programmes targeting the
most vulnerable populations. Based on data available, concerted advocacy efforts will be put in place to
promote the integration of this analysis in development programming. At the regional level, actors will also seek
to strengthen collaboration with existing regional initiatives such as the United Nations Sahel Integrated
Strategy and the regional Resilience Task Force, AGIR, etc.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Conduct/facilitate coordinated multi-sectoral assessments
with key partners
# of coordinated multi-sectoral assessments with the
participation of the government
Support the development and review of country/regional
HNO and SRP
# of HNO and SRP developed and updated
Multi-sectoral analysis of risks, vulnerabilities and
opportunities to identify priority needs/gaps (sex and age
disaggregated data analysis)
# of risk analysis that include sex and age disaggregated
data
Create and regularly update country/regional baseline of
harmonized information to facilitate joint analysis and better
planning and monitoring
Database regularly updated and accessible to key
stakeholders
Mapping disaster prone areas
# of disaster risk maps produced and shared
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
Early action and post crisis recovery efforts will require a coordinated effort among national governments,
regional bodies and humanitarian and development agencies. Coordination efforts will promote preparedness,
early action and early response measures. Key tools such as contingency planning, simulation exercises and
early warning will be rolled-out/updated. Emergency stand-by response capacity will also be reinforced to
further enable a rapid response to disasters and conflicts.
23
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Activities to address:
Sahel region
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Build the capacity of national counterparts to increase the
ability of national institutions to better prepare and respond
to emergencies
# of training sessions for national counterparts (national
authorities and civil society)
# of national capacity assessments conducted
Support and strengthen at country level the implementation
of minimum preparedness package with relevant
stakeholders (i.e. Contingency planning, simulation
exercises, MIRA training, etc.)
# of contingency plans updated
# of simulation exercises conducted
% of minimum preparedness actions completed
Support the development of resilience "markers" in
country/regional humanitarian strategies and appeals
# of projects that include resilience activities
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
Actions under this strategic objective will aim to ensure a coordinated and timely humanitarian response to lifesaving needs. This will include promoting the programme cycle of needs assessments, response plans,
fundraising and performance monitoring. Coordination resources will also support country and regional
clusters/sectors in the discharge of their roles.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Support strategic coordination through the HCT
# of HCT meetings/by quarter
Support strategic coordination through the InterSector/Cluster working groups and sectors/clusters and
promote participation of government
# of ISWG meetings/month
# of functional coordination mechanisms at decentralized
level
Prepare key messages to support advocacy and resource
mobilization
# key messages prepared, regularly updated and
disseminated
Mobilize resources for humanitarian actors through the SRP
% of SRP funding
Develop humanitarian information products as appropriate
to support the situational understanding, humanitarian
assessment and evidence-based response
# of key information products developed per reporting
schedule (snapshots, dashboards, sitreps, bulletins, 3Ws,
etc.)
Organize donor's briefings
# of donor's briefings organized
Monitor access constraints and advocate, if required, to
ensure that humanitarian assistance can be delivered
# of analysis "access" products and shared with the
humanitarian community reports
Coordination and Partnerships
Coordination efforts will aim to reinforce partnerships between humanitarians and national and development
actors. A stronger engagement of governmental institutions in clusters/sectors will be sought so as to promote a
joint strategic and operational partnership and, where possible, lay the foundation for transitional structures.
Regional Approach
The Sahel Strategic Response Plan aims to promote a coherent regional response to the Sahel crisis, including
with regard to peace and security and development efforts. Coordination frameworks such as the regional
IASC, the regional sectoral working groups (Food Security and Nutrition, Health, WASH, Protection, Education,
and Emergency Preparedness and Response) and the Resilience Task Force will serve to develop and
implement a regional vision and support and guide country efforts as required.
The Regional Humanitarian Coordinator will lead the humanitarian engagement in initiatives such as AGIR and
the UN Integrated Strategy on the Sahel. The on-going collaboration with UNOWA and regional organizations,
such as ECOWAS, will also help raise awareness of neglected crises and address situations of concern to the
humanitarian community.
24
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
EDUCATION
Lead agency: UNICEF
Contact information: Anne-Laure Rambaud ([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
6.3 million
2.6 million
39.3 million
Many of the issues facing education systems in the Sahel are structural e.g. absenteeism of school children
during the agricultural season, poor quality of teaching, absenteeism of teachers in rural areas, etc. However,
evaluations conducted by the Education cluster in 2013 in Niger, Chad and Mauritania on the impact of the food
and nutrition crisis on education noted that large numbers of children dropped out-of-school due to the crisis to
take part in income-generating or household activities; to migrate with their families in search of work, food and
water; or to be forced into exploitative relationships. While schools in northern Mali reopened in 2013,
challenges for conflict-affected children in-country and refugee children in Burkina, Niger and Mauritania remain
significant. It is estimated that only an average of 36% of school-age refugee children are accessing education
opportunities across Niger, Mauritania and Burkina Faso. In addition, flooding and cholera is expected to
hamper the education of thousands of children in the region in 2014.
Education plays a key role in the survival, protection and empowerment of children in the Sahel region.
Education can protect children from the risks that arise during a crisis, such as child marriage, trafficking, child
labour and abuse and increased prevalence of gender-based violence, especially affecting girls. Schools and
other learning environments provide a platform for integrated emergency response, in particular for food, health
and hygiene, and child protection. In the longer-term, the education sector is poised to build the resilience of
children and their communities to cope with the future shocks that are bound to affect the region in coming
years. Tomorrow’s resilience starts at school today. To date, however, discussions and funding towards
mitigating the impact of crises in the Sahel have failed to incorporate education as a key part of the response
and of resilience strategies.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
A key component of the work of the education sector over the next three years will be to track and analyse
vulnerability and risk to inform not only humanitarian but also longer term development programming. Key
interventions will include:



Roll-out of the Early Childhood Development prototype, which includes a survey on parental
practices;
Roll-out of the conflict and risk analysis in the education sector. This analysis is the foundation for
developing risk-informed and conflict-sensitive education sector plans;
Carrying out harmonised assessments of the impact and lasting effects of the food and nutrition
crisis as well as other shocks on education in the Sahel, in order to develop relevant and timely
responses.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Analyse the response capacities at national, regional and
local level
Existence of early warning system
Actively involve community in the risks and vulnerabilities
analysis
# of consultations held
Analyse the coordination mechanisms in the targeted areas
with all stakeholders
3W regularly updated
25
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
Food Insecurity
Assess the impact of food crisis on children schooling and
the existing mechanisms to minimize the negative impact
Drop-out rates before, during and after food insecure period
disaggregated by gender
The impact of conflict
Evaluate the impact of conflict on boys and girls education
Drop-out rates before, during and after conflict period
disaggregated by gender
Carry out risk and conflict analyses of the education system
# of communities covered by the analysis.
The impact of epidemics
Assess the WASH services and infrastructure in learning
spaces located in cholera prone areas
# of learning space located in cholera prone areas
assessed.
Assess practical knowledge and practices on hygiene in
school in cholera prone areas
% of children and teachers who know basic hygiene
practices
The impact of disasters
Assess formal and non-formal learning environments that
are considered safe for boys and girls of different ages
# of learning environments assessed
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
An early action focus on Disater Risk Reduction, preparedness and building resilience across the region will
enable communities to better cope with shocks and mitigate the potential effects of various crises. Planned
activities include:





Training workshops and on-going support to local education stakeholders such as traditional leaders,
teachers, parents and children;
Capacity-building of local and national education authorities as well as Education Cluster members in
disaster preparedness, contingency planning and response;
The development and/or dissemination of learning packages on DRR, WASH, agriculture and nutrition,
peace education and social cohesion that can be included in both formal school curriculum and nonformal settings to engage out of school youth;
Support for school feeding programs through the establishment of canteens and creation and
maintenance of school gardens ;
Investment in girls’ education through provision of school materials, capacity-building of MoE, and
inclusion of gender and inclusion in education sector policies.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
Capacity building and resilience
Support and build capacities of local stakeholders
(traditional leaders, PTAs, parents, etc.) involved in
education in emergencies
# of stakeholders involved in EiE in target areas trained on
school management and administration
Build capacities of MoE at national and local level in
emergency preparedness and response
# of MoE officials trained
Prepare/update contingency and preparedness planning in
MoE and decentralized education structures.
% of target schools/learning spaces with school-level
contingency/preparedness plans in place
Food Insecurity
Create/support school gardens
# of school gardens created/supported
Develop modules that focus on good nutritional and
agricultural practices
# of teachers trained to provide lessons on nutrition and
agricultural practices
Develop school feeding programmes to support children
# of school canteens constructed or rehabilitated
Malnutrition
Train pre-school teachers/other educational personnel in
hygiene promotion
26
# of male/female teachers/other educational personnel
trained
Sahel region
Activities to address:
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Output Indicator
The impact of conflict
Offer alternative education activities to support the
integration of out-of-school children
# of children attending alternative forms of education
(boys/girls)
Develop peace education and conflict prevention modules
/support MoE to mainstream peace education and conflict
prevention in the curriculum
# of modules mainstreamed in the curriculum
The impact of epidemics
Implement a WASH minimum activity package in schools
located in cholera prone areas
# of schools reaching the SPHERE WASH Minimum
standards
Train teachers/other educational personnel in hygiene
promotion
# of teachers/other educational female/male personnel
trained
The impact of disasters
Disseminate key messages on Disaster Risk Reduction to
children and youth in emergency affected learning
spaces/schools
# of boys/girls receiving key messages on DRR
Build capacities of local actors and systems to engage in
education continuity planning, and child centered disaster
risk reduction and emergency preparedness in areas
affected by or highly vulnerable to emergencies
# of male/female education actors trained in disaster risk
reduction, emergency preparedness and education
continuity planning
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
Schools and learning environments need to be recognized as places of learning and an opportunity to provide
children and youth with a sense of normalcy as well entry points for an integrated life-saving assistance to
children. Planned activities to support an integrated humanitarian response will include:
School-based nutrition and food interventions such as school feeding, provision of take-home rations, training of
mothers and school canteen staff on feeding practices and school gardens:




Health screenings in school, deworming and vitamin A supplementation campaigns;
Promotion of hygiene and sanitation practices in schools: hand-washing, ways to mitigating
environmental impact, cholera prevention;
School-based referral and support mechanisms. Additional life-saving interventions will include
ensuring the safety of schools and temporary learning spaces to enable access to learning
opportunities that are of good quality and equitable;
Capacity-building on the UNICEF/WHO “Care for Child Development” package which is available in
French and supports the integration of early stimulation and psychosocial assistance into nutrition
interventions.
Interventions addressing the education needs resulting from emergencies:




Temporary learning spaces and school rehabilitation;
Provision of teaching and learning materials, especially in displacement settings and flood-affected
contexts;
Teacher training on psychosocial support, large classroom management and positive discipline
techniques;
Accelerated learning programs for the children who have never been to school or who dropped-out due
to the crisis.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Undertake rapid joint need assessments
% of inter-cluster or from other clusters assessments that
include education questions
Conduct awareness campaigns in schools on life skills/lifesaving messages/peace behavior
# of children and youth reached disaggregated by gender
27
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
Coordinate education response with other sectors/clusters
Transparent and active mechanisms exist to share
information with other sector/clusters
Systematically and impartially evaluate the education
response in order to improve practice and enhance
accountability
Information is collected transparently and impartially
Food Insecurity
Implement emergency school feeding
# of school canteens supplied, constructed or rehabilitated
Implement deworming and vitamin A supplementation
campaign in school
#r of children who received deworming treatment
disaggregated by gender
Malnutrition
Sensitize mothers/parents on early childhood care and
development
# of parents sensitized
Distribute pre-school nutrients snacks
# of boys/girls provided with nutrients snacks
The impact of conflict
Provide inclusive and relevant quality education
opportunities
# of children and youth enrolled in formal and non-formal
education in target areas disaggregated by gender
In partnership with communities and local authorities,
establish or rehabilitate inclusive, safe and protective
temporary learning spaces (schools/ECD centers)
# children and youth benefiting from TLS- disaggregated
by gender
Distribute learning material in affected areas
# of children benefiting from the learning material distribution
(children/girls)
Monitor attacks on education
# of school/learning spaces occupied or attacked reported
The impact of epidemics
Refer sick children affected in the health center
# of children referred- disaggregated by gender
Build or rehabilitate adequate male and female WASH
facilities in Schools/learning spaces
# of adequate WASH and gender appropriate facilities for
male/female built/rehabilitated
The impact of disasters
Provide inclusive and quality education opportunities
# of boys / girls and youth enrolled in formal and non-formal
education in target areas
Distribute learning material
# of children benefiting from learning material disaggregated
by gender
In partnership with communities and local authorities,
establish or rehabilitate inclusive, safe and protective
temporary learning spaces for children and youth affected
by or highly vulnerable to emergencies
# of children benefiting from TLS disaggregated by gender
Coordination and Partnerships
Education is an integral part of a cross-sectoral response throughout the phases of preparedness, response
and recovery. The activities outlined above include clear synergies with the Nutrition, WASH, Health and
Protection sectors. In countries in the midst of conflict, use of the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM)
on grave violations of children's rights in situations of armed conflict to monitor attacks on education facilities will
be supported.
In each of the countries with an education response to the Sahel crisis, education Clusters or Working Groups
include representatives of the national Ministry of Education. Through this partnership, colleagues are working
to build the capacity of government stakeholders at the national and sub-national level to incorporate education
in emergencies into their education sector planning processes.
Regional Approach
As co-leads of the Regional Sector Working Group, UNICEF and Plan International will work closely with
partners to continue to track risks and vulnerabilities, address humanitarian needs, and strengthen resilience
across the region. Strategies and interventions in the regional education response plan build upon and
complement the country-level SRPs through data and situation analysis, capacity-building, evidence generation
and knowledge management, cross-border collaboration, technical assistance, and strategic advocacy for
education investments.
28
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
FOOD SECURITY
Lead agency: FAO, WFP and ACF
Contact information: Jose-Luis Fernandez ([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
20 million
11.8 million
866 million
Agriculture
Agriculture and pastoralism are the main sources of food and income for the majority of the population in the
Sahel. Recurring crises in 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2012 have eroded the coping capacities and weakened the
productive assets of the already vulnerable populations, further impoverishing them. Having yet to recover from
past crisis, these populations have been unable to withstand new shocks such as erratic rains, low agricultural
production, persistent high levels of food prices and national and regional insecurity. Specific challenges faced
by the agricultural sector such as environmental degradation, the threat of a desert locust infestation and
competition over natural resources, further jeopardize food production. It is therefore crucial to strongly support
the agricultural and pastoral sector to avoid a further degradation of the humanitarian situation and maintain an
enabling environment conducive to resilience building. The agriculture sector response plan is based on
cropping seasons. Three main campaigns can be defined in the Sahel: the main season (May-October), the offseason and floodplain recession campaign (October-May), and the irrigated agriculture (January-December).
Timely funding is needed ahead of each season and is particularly critical for landlocked countries, facing long
lead-time for in-country availability of inputs. Seasonality also needs to be considered for the funding of
pastoralist activities to ensure an appropriate response.
Food Assistance
Food assistance is essential to address the immediate needs of millions of people in the Sahel. Nevertheless;
the accumulation of shocks will require a combination of life-saving assistance and longer-term measures
enhancing livelihoods. Wherever possible a link between food assistance interventions and local food
production will be made. As one of the priorities for the region remains the strengthening of assets and the
improvement of access to food, investing in human capital through safety nets for the most vulnerable
populations remains essential. Early interventions oriented to tackle seasonal food insecurity during the lean
season will also be prioritised. Analysis of the most appropriate transfer modality will be encouraged and a wide
range of mutually supportive interventions will be promoted, involving national actors, NGOs and UN
organisations to streamline capacity building at local, national and regional level.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
Preparedness and early actions rely on the existence of efficient early warning systems. The food security
sector will work to reinforce the existing risk and food security vulnerability analysis and monitoring systems at
national and regional level to promote an adequate and timely response. In addition, the sector will promote
proper knowledge and information management of good practices in food security, agricultural risk reduction
and resilience strengthening to enhance the impact of the response intervention.
Activities to address:
Food Insecurity
Identifying risk areas and vulnerable populations through
joint analysis of Food Security, Nutrition , and Markets
# of joint analytical work leading to the identification of risk
area
Strengthening food security coordination at regional /
national and inter-sectoral level
# of inter-sectoral meetings
Knowledge management and capitalization of good DRR
practices and food security
# of capitalization actions conducted
29
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
Malnutrition
Strengthen coordination for multi-sectorality between Food
Security and Nutrition
# of FS/nutrition coordination meetings conducted
Knowledge management and capitalization of good food
security practices contributing to improve the nutritional
status
# of capitalization actions conducted
The impact of conflict
Analysis of the response capacity of different actors to
address food insecurity in conflict affected areas
# of analyses made
Knowledge management and capitalization of good
practices to ensure food security for people affected by a
conflict
# of actions of capitalization of good food security practices
in areas affected by a conflict
The impact of disasters
Analysis of the response capacity of different actors to
address food insecurity in case of disaster
# of analyses made
Communicate/share with partners at regional, national and
local levels, analysis and early warnings on food security
following a natural disaster
# of analyses shared
Knowledge management and capitalization of good
practices to ensure food security of populations facing
natural disasters
# of actions of capitalization of good food security practices
coping with natural disasters
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
To strengthen the adaptive capacity of households to climate shocks, the agriculture sector will centre its efforts
in the protection and rehabilitation of farmers, pastoralists and fishermen livelihoods by facilitating the access to
agricultural, zoo-veterinarian and fisheries inputs, crop flood protection (dikes, etc.), rehabilitation of productive
infrastructure (irrigation, garden wells, ponds and pastoral wells, etc.), the promotion of climate smart agriculture
techniques (conservation agriculture, agro forestry, drought resistant seed multiplication, animal multi-nutritional
blocks production, etc.), the promotion of sensitive agriculture and capacity building to deal with climate change.
Wherever appropriate, those actions would be complemented by food assistance through conditional transfer
(cash and/or food) supporting asset creation projects. At institutional level, the strengthening of institutional
capacities for coordination and management of food and agricultural crisis will also remain a priority for the food
security sector.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
Food insecurity, the impact of conflict and disasters
Timely sharing analysis and early warnings containing
recommended preventive measures (awareness) at local,
national and regional levels for all sectors
# of timely issued alerts
Pre-positioning of emergency food stocks at local, national
and regional levels
# of storage sites identified, brought up to standards and
secured
Protect and rehabilitate / strengthen livelihoods of P and VP
households through the distribution of agricultural and
pastoralist inputs
# of households assisted in the main season
# of households assisted in the off season
# of households assisted in irrigated crops
# of pastoralists assisted
Protect and rehabilitate/strengthen livelihoods of P and VP
households through cash or food for assets
# of household beneficiaries
Malnutrition
Joint food security/nutrition training to promote good
nutritional practices using appropriate training materials
# of people trained
Promotion of high nutritional value vegetable varieties
production
# of household beneficiaries
Health gardens
# of household beneficiaries
30
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
The impact of disasters
Development of contingency plans for natural disasters to
ensure food security at community , national and regional
levels
# of contingency plans made
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
Lifesaving interventions target destitute farmers, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists that have lost their
productive capacity due to climatic or conflict based crisis. Actions oriented to restore their livelihoods through
cash transfer and/or agricultural and pastoralist input provision will contribute to their survival and early
recovery. Food assistance through unconditional transfer (cash or in-kind) will contribute to ensure adequate
food and nutrition security of people affected by emergencies.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
Food insecurity, the impact of conflict and disasters
Food assistance for assets (Cash for assets, Food for
assets)
# of women, men receiving assistance
Unconditional Food Assistance (in kind)
# of women, children, girls and boys men receiving food
assistance
Unconditional cash transfers
# of households receiving unconditional cash transfer
Emergency distribution of agricultural and livestock inputs
# of households assisted in the main season
# of households assisted in the off season
# of households assisted in irrigated crops
# of pastoralists assisted
Partnerships and Coordination
The importance given by the regional intergovernmental organizations to the analysis of food insecurity and
early warning systems resulted in a timely response to the 2012 drought crisis. During the 2012 crisis,
government’s response plans played a key role in supporting fundraising efforts for the crisis. The willingness of
Sahel governments to play their role in the coordination, preparation and response to needs has increased over
the last years. The sectoral strategy will promote the active implication of national governments and regional
IGO in the SRP process in order to create an enabling environment for the management of multiple hazards
and risks that put agriculture, nutrition, and food security safety at risk.
Inter-agency cooperation and coordination will be enhanced in order to create cross-sectoral synergies among
agriculture, food assistance, nutrition and water-related activities. Nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions
contribute to diet diversification. Food assistance through food-for-assets and distributions of seed protection
rations plays a crucial role in addressing under nutrition and in fostering agricultural activities. Food production
surplus can be used for food assistance programs at the local level.
The Regional Approach
The Regional Food Security and Nutrition Working Group will contribute to the achievement of the Sahel
Strategic Response Plan in three main ways: collection, analysis and sharing of food security and nutritionrelated information to ensure information exchange, context monitoring and contribute to early warning and
advocacy at the regional level; gathering of good practices, lessons learned, evaluations’ results and key
recommendations to facilitate cross country learning and contribute to enhancing program quality and impact;
joint advocacy to draw the attention of decision-makers to priority areas and stimulate or adjust the response.
31
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
HEALTH
Lead agency: WHO and SCF-UK
Contact information: Dr. Sebastiao Nkundu ([email protected]) and Dr. Fatou Mbow
([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
21 million
17 million
116 million
Millions of people in the Sahel require humanitarian health support. The Sahel hosts five of the 20 countries
where children have the highest likelihood of dying before the age of five. Pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea
cause around one third of all deaths. Neonatal mortality has increased over time and is responsible for nearly
half of all deaths in the Sahel.
Since 1999, only two Sahel countries -Mali and Niger-, have achieved reductions in under-five mortality. In the
Sahel young women are most likely to die as an outcome of pregnancy, fertility rates are amongst the highest
worldwide and gender inequities profoundly impact all aspects of the humanitarian response.
Five Sahel countries are presently experiencing armed conflicts or are in the process of returning to peace, with
health systems profoundly weakened as an outcome. This has a particular impact on the prevention and
response to recurring preventable epidemics (measles, cholera, meningitis, lassa fever) with case fatality rates
far above Sphere standards (cholera 5%, meningitis 11.7%).
Children under five suffering from acute malnutrition are particularly vulnerable due to additional risk factors
including malaria, acute respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases, impacting their health status and
effectiveness of SAM treatment. This further underscores the importance of reinforcing health systems as an
integral part of humanitarian and resilience efforts in the Sahel.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyze risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
In the Sahel, availability of reliable data remains a clear challenge. Timely availability of quality data is essential
in ensuring an evidence-based response. This often requires cross-border collaboration which is presently not
supported to extent needed to ensure optimal response. Early warning systems are presently very weak and
the availability of pre-positioning of essential drugs and supply in risk prone is extremely variable.
Activities to address
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Joint multi-sectoral analysis of vulnerabilities taking into
account age, gender and handicaps
# of joint plans based upon multi-sectoral analysis publicly
disseminated
Strengthening mechanisms of regional collaboration on
epidemics
# regional collaboration meetings on epidemics
Establishment of early warning systems for epidemic-prone
diseases in health facilities and at community level
# of reports publicly shared which include results of
laboratory tests
Conduct mortality surveys (including for under-5)
# of mortality surveys conducted
Provide and secure nutrition supplies, medicines and other
essential supplies to ensure access to medico-nutritional
care (including inpatient’s care for SAM)
# of medical procurement requests financially and
logistically supported
32
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
Evidence-based interventions drastically reduce deaths and occurrences of diseases. Scaling up exclusive
breastfeeding in the first 6 months’ of life, ensuring large vaccinations’ coverage, providing essential
micronutrients and strengthening health systems are all essential elements of health resilience which is critical
in the Sahel region.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint priorities
Breastfeeding promotion
# of health structures displaying IEC material specifically
targeting women
Vitamin A supplementation in children under 5 to reduce the
overall risk of deaths as well as new occurrences of
diarrhoea and measles
# of supported campaigns for universal VitA
supplementation for children U5 which have been supported
Zinc supplementation, or fortification for the prevention of
pneumonia in children aged 2-59 months
# of initiatives for universal zinc supplementation or dietary
improvement or fortification for children under 5 which have
been supported
Routine EPI vaccination including Hib and measles
# of children fully vaccinated (including Hib and measles)
Antimalarial intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy
# of women who received 1 dose or more of sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (SP)
Staff trained in the case management of diseases most
likely to occur locally as per contingency plan
# of staffs trained, taking into account diseases’ caseload
seasonality
Supporting a functioning diseases’ surveillance system
# of reports with complete data that are provided on time
and publicly shared
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
Ensuring access to a high quality of service delivery in primary and secondary health care settings, including in
neglected areas such as mental health and surgery or in areas where further support is required such as
gender-based violence and HIV, is crucial in emergency settings. Activities will focus on scaling up the present
response and strengthening its quality.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Investigation of epidemic alerts
# of reports publicly shared which include results of
laboratory tests
Investigation of epidemic alerts
# of confirmed cased
Free access to primary healthcare services
# of health structures provided with medicines and supplies
Free access to primary healthcare services
# of free consultations provided in primary healthcare
facilities
Free access to emergency secondary healthcare services,
including surgery
# of health facilities with a free referral system at primary
and secondary healthcare level
Free access to emergency secondary healthcare services,
including surgery
# of free emergency surgical procedures performed
Medical management of survivors of rape
# of survivors of sexual violence medically managed for free
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) for PLWHA previously on
treatment and now lost to follow-up
# of PLWHA previously lost to follow-up who are back on
ART
Mental Health
# of free consultations provided on mental health
Free healthcare provided to non-malnourished children in
contexts of nutrition crisis
# of pediatric medical consultations at primary and
secondary healthcare level within non-malnourished children
33
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
MULTI SECTOR ASSISTANCE FOR REFUGEES
Lead agency: UNHCR
Contact information: [email protected]
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
768,000
743,000
327 million
In 2013, there were a number of significant refugee flights in the Sahel region. Following the military intervention
in Mali, approximately 94,000 individuals fled to Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Niger. While over 6,000
individuals have returned to Mali from these countries of asylum, an estimated 170,000 refugees remain in
exile. 2013 also saw new crises in northern Nigeria leading to flight to the flight of almost 20,000 individuals to
Chad, northern Cameroon, and Niger; the flight of refugees from Sudan to Chad (over 300,000 Sudanese
refugees are now living in Chad); and just under 20,000 new refugees from the Central African Republic having
fled to Sahel countries.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyze risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
Activities at country level will revolve around increasing the available information and analysis of vulnerable
groups and activities aimed at aiding these vulnerable groups. Examples of activities include analyses of the
need for livelihoods support, and analysis of risk with the participation of refugees in the analysis.
Activities to address
Output Indicator
Food Insecurity
Improving food assistance monitoring
Ensuring joint assessments, plans and strategies
The impact of conflict
Advocacy for the inclusion of refugees in national legal
frameworks
# of advocacy interventions
Participatory risk analysis and gender and age diversity
mainstreaming
Analyse the need for livelihood support
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
Activities will aim to promote resiliency in vulnerable populations, ensuring that targeted individuals will be better
able to cope with shocks. Examples of activities undertaken at country level to ensure that refugees can
respond to shocks includes promoting peaceful coexistence between refugees and host communities,
strengthening civil registration (increasing access to state led protection mechanisms), and ensuring better
access to energy (such as gas for cooking stoves).
Activities to address
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Promote peaceful coexistence with local communities
# of persons reached through community sensitisation
campaigns
Strengthen civil registration and civil status documentation
# of communities where issuance of civil status
documentation by national institutions supported
Promote access to energy
# of households provided with energy saving equipment
34
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
The majority of activities concerning the multi-sector refugee group will relate to life-saving. These activities
include ensuring basic services (water, food, and shelter), ensuring registration of refugees, and working to
ensure that refugee livelihoods are improved during their exile.
Activities to address
Output Indicator
Food Insecurity
Providing Cash Transfers (livelihoods and self-reliance)
# of communities where cash vouchers/grants provided
Improve food security
Av.# of Kcals distributed per person per day
The impact of conflict
Maintain and improve the quality of individual registration
and profiling
# of persons trained
Improve self-reliance and livelihoods
% of PoC (18-59) with own business or self employed for
more than 12 months.
% of PoC (18-59) with own business or self employed for
more than 12 months.
% of PoC (18-59) with own business or self employed for
more than 12 months.
Provide access to basic services (Wash, education, Santé)
# of health facilities equipped and rehabilitated
35
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
NUTRITION
UNICEF
Contact information: Patricia Hoorelbeke ([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
8.2 million
4.4 million
289 million
The nutritional status of children in the Sahel is alarming with prevalence exceeding emergency thresholds in
several regions. The estimated burden of children under-fivexvii affected by acute malnutrition (GAM) is close to
5 million, with 1.5 million suffering from Severe Acute Malnutrition SAM. In the nine countries covered under this
plan, the average yearly death toll of children under five is of 1.28 million. An average of 577,000 under-five
deaths (45%) are directly related to under nutrition. The principal goal of nutrition interventions under the SRP
will be to prevent excess mortality and morbidity resulting from acute malnutrition. The response will also
contribute to the prevention of all forms of under-nutrition in children (both boys and girls, in all regions) through
improved family practices.
Estimated
U-5 SAM
2014 Burden
SAM
2014 target
new
admissions
Estimated
U-5 MAM
2014
Burden
MAM
2014
target
Burden
AM PLW
2014
AM
PLW
2014
target
Burkina
Faso
514,000
144,000
115,000
80%
370,000
290,000
78%
130,000
72,266
Cameroon*
186,633
54,198
48,778
90%
132,435
92,704
70%
41,064
36,958
Chad
(Sahel Belt)
436,181
135,533
135,533
100%
300,647
177,000
59%
182,393
20,000
Mali
497,153
136,000
107,000
79%
361,153
253,000
70%
87,000
51,000
Mauritania
125,263
30,741
30,741
100%
94,523
75,115
79%
16,661
12,670
Niger
1,006,324
356,324
356,324
100%
650,000
575,000
88%
271,726
271,726
Nigeria
(11 states)
1,790,920
539,147
323,488
60%
1,251,773
Senegal
340,224
78,888
50,325
64%
261,336
130,924
50%
28,000
8,900
Gambia
49,408
8,640
7,859
91%
40,768
33,474
99%
28,502
28,502
Total
4,946,106
1,483,471
1,175,048
79%
3,462,635
1,627,217
47%
785,346
502,022
% of
estimated
Burden
Estimated
U-5 GAM
2014
Burden
% of
estimated
Burden
Countries
0%
Source: UNICEF and Nutrition cluster partners. For Cameroon figures refer to North, Extreme North, Est andAdamaoua.
36
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyze risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
The prevalence of acute malnutrition is high among children under-five years of age in the Sahel region not only
at the height of the lean season, or in a crisis year, but also in post-harvest periods and in normal years.
Situational analysis shows that humanitarian assistance and nutrition response programmes to treat severe and
moderate acute malnutrition are crucial to save lives of children. However, solving the nutritional problem in the
Sahel will require: a scale-up of prevention programs, ensuring nutritional assistance as part of long-term
programming, reinforcing linkages with development actors and regional organizations to tackle high
vulnerabilities, advocating for increased funding for human development, poverty reduction and mitigation
actions to recurrent crisis to promote resilience.
A key priority for the nutrition sector is the reinforcement of existing nutrition information systems and nutrition
analysis in the region to ensure adequate and timely response, as well as to better integrate the nutrition
problem in development policies and strategies,. Nutrition partners will continue to promote and support regular
nutrition surveys during the peak for the lean season and at post-harvest time to inform both humanitarian and
development programming. The use of new technologies to better analyze trends, vulnerabilities, and adequate
coverage of emergency and long-term programming will be promoted. Nutrition partners will also support the
integration of nutrition analysis in national plans in close collaboration with Scaling Up Nutrition, REACH and
resilience platforms at national and regional levels.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
Food Insecurity and Malnutrition
Carry out quality Nutrition surveys
# of regions/ health districts covered by nutritional survey or
where nutrition prevalence is known
Support and strengthen Nutrition Information Systems
# of supported health districts reporting CMAM data
(admissions, performance, and supply indicators
Advocate to integrate Nutrition in both humanitarian and
development programming
# of countries with nutrition sensitive sectorial development
policies
The impact of conflict, epidemics and disasters
Carry out Nutrition rapid assessment in affected areas /
population
# of affected areas where impact on the nutritional status of
population is known
Carry out Nutrition screening in affected population
# of affected girls, boys U- 5 and women screened
# of identified malnourished affected girls and boys under 5
years and women referred to adequate treatment facility
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
Chronic large-scale nutrition crises must be addressed by long-term year-round actions which are reinforced by
specific response programs during the lean season and informed by strong information systems. To combat
child mortality and malnutrition in the Sahel, and the related impact on the cognitive development and growth,
stronger emphasis must be put on actions that address the direct and immediate causes of malnutrition and
mortality, including for example poor caregiving practices, lack of safe drinking water and hygiene, poor infant
and young child feeding practices, inadequate access and availability of acceptable and adapted diet,
inadequate access to treatment for childhood diseases; etc.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
Food Insecurity and Malnutrition
Nutrition education and training in Infant and Young Child
feeding (IYCF), and essential family Practices (including
hygiene)
# of caretakers, men and women, who received training on
IYCF and essential family practices
Train health staff and community health workers on
management and prevention of acute malnutrition
# of health staff and community health workers (men and
women0 trained
Integrate Nutrition surveillance in Early warning systems
# of health districts integrating surveillance activities
Intensification of MAS screening and reference
# of U-5 children screened (#boys &girls for MAM, SAM &
referred to management centre)
37
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Activities to address:
Sahel region
Output Indicator
The impact of conflict, epidemics and disasters
Communication for Development on essential nutrition,
feeding and family practices in affected areas
# of caretakers, men and women, benefiting of C4D
activities on Nutrition
Preposition contingency stocks
# of Nutritional inputs prepositioned
Integrate Nutrition surveillance in Early warning systems
# of health districts integrating surveillance activities
Coordination among nutrition actors
# cluster / group meeting and coordinated activities
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
Every year, roughly 577,000 children die of malnutrition and health-related consequences, even in years when
no acute emergency has been declared. This situation is aggravate by widespread outbreaks of endemic
diseases due to poor access to health services, low coverage of immunization, limited access to clean water
and sanitation and high levels of food insecurity. UNICEF, governments and NGOs partners, will strengthen
their coordination and continue to support and strengthen health system capacities, to ensure adequate access
to life-saving treatment for children U-5 with severe acute malnutrition, with specific attention and additional
support to high SAM prevalence areas (SAM prevalence > 2). Specific effort and attention will be given to
program quality and coverage. WFP, governments and NGOs partners, will implement MAM treatment for
children U-5 with moderate acute malnutrition and undernourished pregnant and lactating women as an
important nutrition safety net, throughout the year. Targeted supplementary feeding to treat MAM will be
implemented in all regions where GAM exceeds 10% irrespective of the food security situation; blanket
supplementary feeding will be provided to prevent acute malnutrition among children 6 to 23 months of age and
pregnant and lactating women with children under 6 months during the lean season in areas where GAM
exceeds 15%, or where GAM exceeds 10% and a significant deterioration is expected due to aggravating
factors such as large food deficits, high level of food insecurity based on household survey and /or soaring food
prices.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Integrated Management of severe acute malnutrition in
children <5 years
# of SAM children < 5 years, girls and boys, admitted for
treatment
Management of moderate acute malnutrition in children <5
years and pregnant and lactating women
# of MAM children <5 years, girls and boys, and pregnant
and lactating women admitted for treatment
Blanket supplementary feeding
# of persons, girls, boys, men and women, who received a
supplementary feeding ration
Joint programming with others sectors activities that could
integrate a nutrition component (General Food Distribution,
vaccination campaign, etc.)
# of other sector activities integrating a nutrition component
Partnership and Coordination
All acute malnutrition prevention and treatment programs will be implemented within an integrated package of
interventions including infant and young child feeding promotion, hygiene and sanitation promotion, malaria
prevention and treatment, and promotion of prevention services at community and health centres levels.
Intensification of mass screening and reference is also needed in order to increase coverage and early
treatment.
The Sahel region is facing a critical shortage of qualified nutrition professionals with the appropriate capabilities
to design, implement and monitor large-scale nutrition programs. In addition to providing support for adequate
and up-to-date national protocols and standards at country level, nutrition partners will also invest in on-the-job
training for health service personnel at community and facility levels, as well as ensure that pre-service nutrition
curricula are updated to include the latest developments and integrate an expanded set of knowledge, skills and
competencies that adequately address the nutrition challenges faced in the region. In 2014, nutrition partners
will improve on-the-job capacity of health staff and community health workers and strengthen and harmonize
existing training programs on nutrition, work with key stakeholders to update nutrition training and introduce a
harmonized regional nutrition curriculum endorsed by the West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), and
provide support to countries to adopt and roll-out this harmonized training curricula.
38
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
PROTECTION
Lead agency: UNHCR
Contact information: Abdouraouf Gnon-Konde ([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
16 million
11 million
84 million
The protection strategy for humanitarian organizations in the Sahel is formulated in large part as a response to
the displacement of individuals in 2012 and 2013 due to conflict in Mali, northern Nigeria, Sudan and the
Central African Republic.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyze risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming.
Activities under this strategic objective aim at greater and better coordinated information gathering, and
breakdown of this data according to potential at-risk groups, including by gender. Protection activities at country
level will focus on mapping and analysing vulnerable populations, and ensuring proper protection monitoring of
populations affected by conflict. At a regional level, the aim will be to help with analysis of regional protection
trends and provision of tools for analysis at the country level.
Activities to address
Output Indicator
The impact of conflict
Mapping and analysing vulnerability of communities living in
areas affected by conflict focusing on risks and impact on
protection of boys, girls, women and people living with
specific needs (disabilities, GBV, family separation, child
labour, early marriage, child recruitment, land mines and
ERW)
# of maps or analytic reports produced
Implementation of systems/monitoring mechanisms for
protection, GBV and PE, including monitoring of human
rights violations, MRM and MARA.
# of systems/ monitoring mechanisms implemented by
community
Provision of technical support, based on regional interagency collaboration, to conflict-affected countries in core
protection area
# of common inter-agency tools, standards and procedures
across affected countries in the priority protection domains;
# of reports produced/ commented on
The impact of disasters
Provide support to countries regarding the development of
SOPs for GBV prevention and response
# of countries supported in the development of SOPs
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors.
Activities at the country level will aim to promote common responses including strengthening community
protection systems and training community members, and advocating for improving national protection
standards for areas such as child protection and gender-based violence. At the regional level, the focus will be
on capacity building of national level protection clusters, to include members of the national government and
local NGOs.
39
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Activities to address:
Sahel region
Output Indicator
The impact of conflict
Revitalize and / or strengthen mechanisms and systems of
community protection ( psychosocial support , community
centers, houses of women) and provide training to
community members in the management of cases ( for
various types of vulnerabilities and abuse)
# of supported and functional mechanisms
# of trainings for community members
Advocacy and technical support for improving standards ,
legal framework and specific policy area of Protection,
including GBV and PE
# of training sessions completed
# of men and women trained
Capacity building and response across Protection Clusters
# of trainings
# of advocacy sessions
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies.
The majority of protection interventions will fall under this strategic objective. At country level this will include
coordinating responses, advocating for life saving assistance such as food, water, and shelter, and ensuring
that there is a proper response to vulnerable individuals affected by human rights violations and abuse.
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
The impact of conflict
Coordination of the response
# of national coordination mechanisms and existing regional
-A mapping of operational humanitarian actors
# of coordination meetings
Advocate for life saving assistance for conflict-affected
people to receive essential assistance (food, water,
medication, shelter and NFIs)
# of communities where affected people expected to receive
essential life-saving assistance
Provide a holistic and appropriate response to the most
vulnerable people or people who have suffered violations or
abuses , including support (PEC ) of victims of GBV , the
EAFGA , ESNA , etc.
# of GBV survivors who access care services
(disaggregated by sex, age and type of service,
psychosocial, medical, rehabilitation, judicial, socioeconomic support)
# of children reunited with their families disaggregated
problem (ENAs, EAFGAs, trafficking victims, VBG etc.)
Partnership and Coordination
Protection cuts across all parts of humanitarian work, ensuring an approach based on human rights and dignity,
which is gender-sensitive, applies to all the sectors in their provision of services to the most at-risk population.
One common example of how protection links with other clusters is in relation to monitoring and reporting on
child rights violations, engaging particularly with health, education and nutrition through training on how to
identify the most at risk children and where to refer them, according to child protection partners’ in particular
operational areas. Thus protection clusters and working groups at country levels have adopted a transversal
approach which integrates essential protection principles in the five humanitarian priorities (food insecurity,
malnutrition, conflict, natural catastrophe, epidemics) throughout the three strategic objectives. An example of
these transversal activities comes from the Mali protection cluster, whose activities include ensuring the
integration of age, gender, and diversity in all sectors of the humanitarian response and sensitization and
training on the principle of « Do no harm » in all sectors.
The Regional Approach
The role of the Regional Protection Working Group is fourfold: i. to strengthen coordination across agencies
represented at regional level in order to better support countries in the Sahel; ii. to provide capacity building and
operational support for Sahel countries, particularly those with limited humanitarian resources; iii. to help
humanitarian organizations at country level with emergency preparedness and response planning; and iv. to
provide quality assurance and oversight to ensure a coherent approach to technical protection questions.
40
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE
Lead agency: UNICEF
Contact information: Francois Bellet ([email protected])
PEOPLE IN NEED
PEOPLE TARGETED
REQUIREMENTS (US$)
12 million
7 million
113 million
In the Sahel, populations’ access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation coverage is below 10%. The
WASH priority under the Sahel SRP therefore is to target the WASH needs of populations affected by food
insecurity, malnutrition, epidemics, floods, conflicts, displacement etc. All of WASH’s strategic activities are
based on WASH minimum packages tailored to the different vulnerabilities of populations affected by the joint
humanitarian priorities. The effectiveness of the WASH response is closely interlinked to other sectoral
responses. The “WASH in Nut” strategy launched in 2012 which targets the couple “mother-malnourished child”
from the nutritional centre to the household level will continue to provide the basis of an inter-sectoral response.
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: Track and analyse risk and vulnerability, integrating findings into
humanitarian and development programming
From emergency to development, water resources management - beyond the sanitation and hygiene practices
– is one the main cross-cutting factors impacting agriculture and livestock, health, nutrition, education and
protection, as well as social and gender issues. The inter-sectoral WASH interventions will support the
development of contingency plans, road maps and national plans with the governmental counterparts.
Information will be integrated from WASH data collection and GIS mapping as well as inter-sectoral lessons
learned, research studies, sharing of the identified good practices and 4W funding data, covering both
emergency and development activities.
Activities to address
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Capitalisation / lessons learned with local and / or national
authorities
# of areas covered by a capitalization/lessons learned
exercise organized with local and / or national authorities
Food Insecurity
Identification of strategic mixed water points in the areas of
food crisis (IPC ≥ 3) and hydrological stress
# of administrative areas (admin level 2) affected by food
insecurity (IPC ≥ 3) with strategic water points identified
Malnutrition
Contextualization of WASH in Nut strategy at the country
level and writing national advocacy documents
# of areas covered by a WASH in Nutrition strategy and
advocacy at national level
The impact of conflict
Joint risk analysis of potential conflicts
# of areas with joint WASH/Protection analysis on conflict
risk regularly updated
The impact of epidemics
Identification and mapping of areas , populations,
behaviours and high risk period for cholera transmission
# areas with joint WASH/Health analysis targeting the
population most at-risk of cholera, for which priority WASH
actions can be conducted
Identification and mapping of high risk areas of seasonal
malaria transmission
# of areas covered by a joint WASH/Health analysis to
identify high-risk areas of seasonal malaria transmission
The impact of disasters
Identification and mapping of areas at risk for disasters
(floods in the first place )
# of areas covered by floodplain mapping available
41
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: Support vulnerable populations to better cope with shocks by responding
earlier to warning signals, by reducing post-crisis recovery times and by building capacity of national
actors
Cluster activities will priorities the establishment of early warning systems on the functionality of basic WASH
facilities, e.g. wells/boreholes or latrines and hand washing point in health structures or camps. This will
increase humanitarian and community vigilance on hydric stress, water-borne diseases, gender and protection
issues etc. Data monitoring system will be established in high risk areas in collaboration with various
governmental counterparts (hydraulic/sanitation services, education/health system etc.).
Activities to address:
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
For communities and the most vulnerable groups,
systematize the key steps in "participatory decision " in
humanitarian or development projects
# of people benefited from a project's key milestones of
"participatory decision-making" of communities and the most
vulnerable groups
Food Insecurity
Monitoring of the functionality of strategic water points in
areas of food insecurity (IPC ≥ 3)
# of strategic water points regularly monitored for its
functionality
Malnutrition
Strengthening access to WASH in health centers / nutrition
centers targeted on the basis of nutrition indicators and
aggravating factors (diarrhea)
# of nutrition centers for which programs to improve WASH
access are implemented in the framework of early response
programs/early recovery
The impact of conflict
Rehabilitation of access to WASH services (schools , health
centers) in areas of return
# of schools with functional WASH services in the areas of
return
# of health centers with functional WASH services in the
areas of return
The impact of epidemics
Sustainable WASH strategies in urban and rural areas at
risk for cholera
# of cholera high-risk areas where sustainable WASH
strategies are put in place to protect vulnerable populations
The impact of disasters
Flooding contingency plan, including rapid response
capabilities WASH ( HR inputs , seasonal reinforcement)
# of agencies involved in the development of a multi-sectoral
contingency plan that is regularly updated and that includes
simulation exercise
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: Deliver coordinated and integrated life-saving assistance to people affected
by emergencies
The delivering of a timely and functional “WASH minimum package” will promote conditions for saving lives.
Existing WASH regional strategies like “WASH in Nut” or “Shield and Sword against Cholera” will continue to be
rolled-out, taking into account the specific risks and vulnerabilities of the different country contexts. The “Water”
“Sanitation” “Hygiene” approach strives to target challenges like transmission contexts of water-borne diseases
or water and sanitation infrastructures, including so as minimizing sexual violence risks.
An example of this is the WASH minimum packages for addressing the impact of conflict which fully integrates
gender and cross-sectoral issues, as follows:
• Counselling and promotion of behaviour change on key hygiene practices;
• Support to waste management in urban and high-density areas;
• Hygiene kit [450g soap/p/m, 1 intimate hygiene kit/woman in camps, jerry cans, baby potties, etc.] with
counselling on safe hygiene behaviours;
• Clean water [5-15l/p/d*] from protected sources (including HWTS and support to urban
stations/networks), with a safe location and a safe access to collective water points, without any
protection-related risk for individuals;
• Safe and gender-friendly sanitation [1 latrine/50 p, hand washing, safe sites identified with women,
and lit by night if needed].
42
Sahel region
Activities to address:
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Output Indicator
All joint humanitarian priorities
Consult women and girls at all stages of the project. Have
special attention with regard to the design and location of
water points, showers and toilets to reduce the waiting time
and incidents of violence. Ensure that the evaluation teams
and translation include female staff.
# of women/
Girls/boys spending less than 20 minutes to collect
water/queuing
Food Insecurity
Repairing strategic mixed water points in food insecurity
pastoral areas (IPC ≥ 3)
# of strategic water points repaired
Malnutrition
Implementation of the WASH in Nut package in nutritional
and health centres
# of nutritional centres delivering the WASH minimum
package (safe drinking water with residual chlorine ,
disinfecting hand washing and food utensils, hygienic and
secure defecation )
Implementation of the WASH in Nut package for
mothers/malnourished children (communities)
# of malnourished children in SAM/MAM treatment
benefiting from a WASH minimum package at household
level (safe drinking water and sanitation, disinfecting hand
washing and food utensils, key hygiene
messages/behaviours counselling)
The impact of conflict
Functional package WASH in displacement sites, host
communities / villages (drinking water, culturally
appropriated hygienic defecation with safe gender
separation, key inputs with hygiene promotion)
# girls/ boys/
Women/ men using minimum functional WASH package
(water drunk drinking , culturally appropriate safe hygienic
defecation with separation type, key inputs with hygiene
promotion) promotion)
The impact of epidemics
Specific urban and rural strategies (water and sanitation) for
actions against cholera
# of cholera high-risk areas where specific WASH
interventions are implemented according to the transmission
context
Strengthen the cross-border and inter-sectoral
(WASH/Health) coordination mechanism in affected or at
high epidemiological risk areas
# of cross-border multi-sectoral coordination meetings held
in the affected or areas at-high risk of epidemics
The impact disasters
Access to water and sanitation programmes for the affected
populations at community level
# of affected population with access to safe drinking water
(Global WASH Cluster W 2-4)
Designing separated (men and women) well lit latrines and
showers that can be locked from inside.
# of blocks of communal latrines in the area / location X/Y
separated by sex, lit outside, and equipped with a lock
Set up sanitation and access to hygiene emergency
infrastructures in affected communities
# of affected population (disaggregated by sex and age)
using sanitary latrines
Partnership and Coordination
The focus of the WASH sector will be on developing inter-clusters working groups based on thematic issues
e.g. response to cholera, composed of focal points across sectors and with governmental counterparts. Interclusters working groups will also help enhance advocacy towards decision makers. Regional studies and
workshops, such as the “WASH in Nut” evaluation, presented in January 2014, will continue to be undertaken to
align the WASH analysis and protocols with others sectors.
Implementing the strategic WASH activities will be facilitated by the on-going collaboration between national
authorities and WASH humanitarian actors. WASH clusters/sector groups systematically include governmental
counterparts, including the Ministry of Water (generally co-lead or chair), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry
of Education.
43
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
Sahel region
The Regional Approach
The regional WASH actors will aim to provide key WASH inter-sectoral strategic direction aimed at enhancing
the quality of the projects and their inter-sectoral impacts. This will help better target and respond to joint
humanitarian needs. The regional approach also aims to help mobilize additional funding beyond the“WASH in
Nut” response and serve as a framework for the regular sharing of lessons learnt and strategic inter-sectoral
support between regional and national/local partners.
44
Sahel region
STRATEGIC RESPONSE PLAN
ENDNOTES
i For the purpose of this Strategic Response Plan, the Sahel region covers: Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, Chad, Mali,
Mauritania, Niger, northern Nigeria, Senegal and The Gambia. Geographic coverage of figures for northern Cameroon:
Adamaoua, Est, Extrême-Nord, Nord. Geographic coverage of figures for northern Nigeria: Malnutrition (Adamawa, Bauchi,
Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, Zamfara). Food insecurity (Adamawa, Borno, Yobe). IDPs
(displaced by floods: states bordering River Niger and River Benue; displaced linked to inter-communal conflict: Taraba,
Benue, Nasarwa, Platuea, Kaduna and Kogi).
ii From October to December 2013, each Sahel country run a Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) process aimed at
identifying priority needs. Findings were compiled in the Sahel Humanitarian Needs Overview. Country and the Regional
Sahel HNOs are available at https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/ROWCA/Coordination/HNOs/
iii The numbers of people in need and targeted per sector/cluster are drawn from the country Strategic Response Plans
(SRPs) and Humanitarian Needs Overviews (HNO).
iv Source: Regional Food Security Working Group, Food Crisis Prevention and Management Network (PREGEC), Regional
Planning Workshop 28/29 November / Cadre harmonisé, Lomé findings Nov 2013.
v Source: UNICEF, SMART surveys, Regional Food Security and Nutrition WG
vi See for example “The Economics of Early Response and Resilience” series of reports from Kenya and Ethiopia (June
2012) and Niger (June 2013)
vii
All SRP partners were asked to comply with the gender marker process during the course of the project
elaboration phase.
viii
Northern Cameroon: Adamaoua, Est, Extrême-Nord, Nord.
In Chad, malnutrition covers : Batha, BEG, Guera, Hadjar-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, N'Djanema, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, WadiFira
x Northern Nigeria: For malnutrition: Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe,
Zamfara; for food insecurity: Adamawa, Borno, Yobe; for IDPs linked to floods: states bordering River Niger and River
Benue; for IDPs linked to inter-communal conflict: Taraba, Benue, Nasarwa, Platuea, Kaduna and Kogi.
xi Data not available for Burkina Faso. Six sectors considered: food security, malnutrition, epidemics, displacement, floods
and locust.
xii Average number of active sectors/clusters per country is 9
xiii Data not available for Cameroon and Mali
xiv Data not available for Cameroon and Mauritania
xv Data not available for Cameroon and Nigeria
ix
xvi
The Sahel Strategic Respone Plan, while covering the programmes and financial needs of all sectors/clusters
in the nine countries, only details the response plans for sectors represented at regional level.
xvii All figures presented in the table below come from national nutrition coordination bodies or clusters; Burden of acute
malnutrition are calculated on the basis of the harmonized calculation methods (UNICEF 2012)
45
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