UMEx 100 Operating Instructions

UMEx 100 Operating Instructions
Operating Instructions
863 Valley View Road, Eighty Four, PA 15330 USA
Tel: 724-941-9701 Fax: 724-941-1369 e-mail: [email protected]
Passive Sampler for Formaldehyde
Catalog No. 500-100
Developed in collaboration with the National
Institute of Working Life in Umea, Sweden
and validated by OSHA, the SKC UME x 100
Formaldehyde Passive Sampler collects formaldehyde in the 5 ppb to 5 ppm range*. The UMEx 100
Passive Sampler contains a tape treated with
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Each sampler
incorporates a “blank/correction” section of tape in addition
to the sample section of tape. Analysis is by high-performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) for identification of formaldehyde
that may be present in the sample. Designed for single use, the SKC
UMEx 100 Passive Sampler is packaged in an aluminized pouch for
easy sample transport to a laboratory.
* If sampling in an atmosphere containing formalin, see for
field study information.
Application Notes
Because of the UMEx 100 Sampler’s relatively high sampling rate and sensitive
analysis, it can be used for 15-minute (STEL) sampling in the ppm range, personal
monitoring up to 8 hours, and 24-hour or 7-day static monitoring of contaminants
found in indoor environments.
Note: Sampling periods between 24 hours and 7 days have not been evaluated.
Performance Profile
Sampling Rate
for Formaldehyde:
28.6 ml/min with a relative standard deviation of 18%
independent of variations in relative humidity and wind face
velocities between .05 and 1.0 m/s (meters per sec) for up to
8 hours or 24 hours
20.4 ml/min average sampling rate for 7-day sampling#
See the Passive Sampling Guide at for
UMEx 100 sampling rates for other aldehydes.
Concentration Range:
5 ppb to 5 ppm
Detection Principle:
Formation of stable DNPH-hydrazone in the
presence of formaldehyde*
Analysis Method:
Desorption of hydrazone and analysis by HPLC with
UV detection
Lower Detection Limits:
15 minutes: 200 ppb (.24 mg/m3)
8 hours: 5 ppb (.006 mg/m3)
24 hours: 2 ppb (.002 mg/m3)
7 days: 0.2 ppb (.0002 mg/m3)#
12 mos from date of manufacture at ≤39.2 F (4 C)
Before use: ≤39.2 F (4 C)
After use: ≤39.2 F (4 C) and analyze within three weeks
29 μg/sample
Do not store with food.
± 25%, exceeds OSHA requirements
Temperature Effects:
No effect on sampling rate between 10 and 30 C
Humidity Effects:
No effect from 10 to 80% relative humidity (RH).
Do not use sampler below 10% RH.
Wind Velocity Effects:
No effect from 0.05 to 1.0 m/s; good correlation at 0.02 m/s
• Highly specific for formaldehyde. Large amounts of
carbonyl compounds may reduce the uptake of
• Use in ozone levels less than 0.5 ppm
3.4 x 1.1 x .35 in (8.6 x 2.8 x .89 cm)
0.38 oz (10.9 gm)
Slide Cover:
Sampling periods between 24 hours and 7 days have not been evaluated.
* If sampling in an atmosphere containing formalin, see for
field study information.
Sampling Instructions
Cautions: • Store at ≤ 39.2 F (4 C) before use.
• Do not store with food.
• SKC recommends using gloves when handling chemically
treated media.
• Before sampling, check the expiration date on the pouch label.
Do not use after the last day of the month indicated.
• UMEx samplers are designed for single use only. Do NOT reuse
UMEx samplers.
Open the pouch and remove the sampler. Do not discard the pouch as it is
used to send sampler to the laboratory. Store the pouch away from potential
formaldehyde sources.
Note: Included in the pouch is a small length of tape similar to the tape inside the
sampler. This tape protects the background of the sampler should any formaldehyde in
the atmosphere enter the pouch. Leave the tape inside the pouch at all times and send
along with the sample to the laboratory.
Enter date and location in the space provided on the back of the sampler.
Position the sampler on a worker’s collar for personal sampling or in an appropriate location for area sampling.
Slide the sampler cover to the “on” position to begin sampling. Enter the sample
start time in the space provided on the back of the sampler.
After sampling for the desired time, up to 8 hours, slide the sampler cover to
the “off ” position to stop sampling. Enter the sample stop time in the space
provided on the back of the sampler.
Place the sampler in the original pouch immediately after sampling.
Seal the pouch. Send pertinent information and sample to an accredited laboratory for analysis. Use expedited shipping.
Analysis Instructions
Derivative Preparation
Note: Prepared derivative standards are commercially available.
Remove the sampler from the pouch and the sliding
cover from the sampler. Use forceps (cleaned with
acetonitrile) to lift out the reactive tape from each
section. Place each in a sealed vial. This provides
a sample and a blank/correction.
Sample Preparation
Add 10 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid to 2 grams of
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine under stirring.
The yellowish crystal mass is dissolved in 200 ml ethanol (95%).
Stir for 30 minutes, then cap the flask.
Filter to remove undissolved hydrazine hydrochloride.
Add 0.8-ml 37% aqueous formaldehyde to form a yellowish precipitate.
Filter and wash the crystals with 5-ml cold ethanol and recrystallize twice by
adding boiling ethanol (95%).
Prepare standard solutions in acetonitrile.
Note: The blank/correction section of tape has an
indentation for easy identification.
The formaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone
is desorbed from both the sample and blank/correction tapes by placing each in its own 4-ml glass
vial containing 3.0 ml of acetonitrile and shaking
them by hand for one minute.
Sample Analysis
A 10-μl portion of the solution resulting from
Step 2 above is subjected to high-performance
liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination
using an octadecylsilane column and a mobile
phase consisting of 33% water in methanol ‡.
Reactive tape
The formaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone is detected with UV absorption between 230 and 370 nanometers (nm). Tunable UV detectors should
use 365 nm for optimum results. Detection limit depends on instrument
Quantitative analysis is performed using the synthesized formaldehyde
hydrazone as an external standard and then converting results to reflect
concentration in formaldehyde. Use the following formula:
Concentration μg/ml formaldehyde = Concentration μg/ml hydrazone x 30.03
Where molecular weight of formaldehyde is 30.03
Where molecular weight of formaldehyde — 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone is
Formaldehyde content of the blank/correction tape must always be subtracted from the sample tape when calculating air concentrations.
Calculate the results by comparing the standards against the samples. Use
the following formulas to calculate:
Total mass collected (μg) = Concentration (μg/ml) x Desorption Volume (ml)
Volume of air (liters) = Time (minutes) x Sampling rate (28.6 ml/min ¥)
Concentration = Total mass collected (mg) x 1000
Total volume sampled
PPM in air = (24.45/30.03) x mg/m3
‡ Other conditions may be acceptable.
¥ When calculating results from 7-day sampling, use a sampling rate of 20.4 ml/min.
UMEx Passive Samplers
UMEx 100* for formaldehyde and other aldehydes
UMEx 200* for sulfur dioxide and/or nitrogen dioxide
UMEx 400* for amines
Treated Tape, for QC purposes only
Catalog No.
* Limited shelf-life; storage at ≤39.2 F (4 C) required. Do not store with food.
Designed for single use only. Do NOT reuse UMEx samplers.
Levin, J.O. and Lindahl, R., “Diffusive Air Sampling of Reactive Compounds - A Review,”
Analyst, Vol. 119, Jan. 1994, pp. 79-83
Levin, J., et al, “High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Formaldehyde in Air in the Ppb and Ppm range Using Diffusive Sampling and Hydrazone Formation,
Sweden Environ. Technology Letter 9, 1988, pp. 1423-1430
OSHA Method 1007 Formaldehyde (Diffusive Samplers), May 2005
Levin, J. O., Lindahl, R., and Andersson, K., “A Passive Sampler for Formaldehyde in Air
Using 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated Glass Fiber Filters,” Environmental Science and
Technology, Vol. 20, No. 12, 1986, pp. 1273-1276
Notice: This operating instruction may not address all safety concerns (if any) associated with this product
and its use. The user is responsible for determining and following the appropriate safety and health practices
and regulatory limitations (if any) before using the product. The information contained in this document should
not be construed as legal advice, opinion, or as a final authority on legal or regulatory procedures.
Form # 3760 Rev 1003
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