Outcomes framework user guide - Department of Human Services

Outcomes framework user guide - Department of Human Services
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Version 1.0 January 2015
Department of Health & Human Services
The Outcomes Framework
Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................1
Measuring outcomes: an overview of the outcomes framework ..........................................................2
Housing .......................................................................................................................................................3
Work and meaningful use of time .............................................................................................................5
Learning and development ........................................................................................................................6
Cultural and social wellbeing ..................................................................................................................10
Health .........................................................................................................................................................13
Safety .........................................................................................................................................................15
Behaviours and risk .................................................................................................................................18
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Introduction
The purpose of this guide is to provide detailed information regarding the process of tracking outcomes
measures for Services Connect clients. Traditionally human services have measured inputs such as the
amount of funding provided and outputs such as the number of services delivered. Services Connect is
shifting the focus to measure outcomes. An outcomes framework provides one approach to fully
understand whether the services being funded and delivered are having a real and lasting impact for
vulnerable Victorians. Measuring outcomes tells us if we have achieved what we want to achieve for
clients.
The outcomes framework being tested through Services Connect has seven outcome areas. Each
outcome area is underpinned by ‘indicators’ and ‘measures’ that will allow us to assess if change has
occurred for clients following interventions received through Services Connect. Some outcome
measures are more long term and may not change or are unlikely to change during the course of
Services Connect intervention.
Below is an example of the process used to determine outcomes for clients.
Example 1: Client presenting with a physical disability and facing mobility and access issues.
Previously we may have measured and recorded that this client was provided with a wheelchair and
adaptations were made to their home. The wheelchair and housing adaptations are the outputs
(interventions). The information does not tell us what impact these interventions have had on the
client’s life.
Using an outcomes framework we will measure actual change, such as whether the client’s house is
now more suitable and meets their needs. We will also measure changes to the client’s physical and
mental health and social wellbeing as a result of being provided with a wheelchair and more suitable
housing.
Inputs
Activities
Outputs
Outcomes
Outcomes
(what is available)
(what can you
offer)
(what can you achieve
with what you can offer)
What resources
are available to
help achieve
change for this
person?
What activities/
services will help
achieve maximum
impact?
What will you offer your
client that will help
achieve maximum
impact?
(short term)
(what are the expected
short term changes)
How will you know the
interventions are working?
(long term)
(what are the expected
long term changes)
What long term changes
would you expect/like to
see that will indicate that
the interventions and
support have worked?
How much
support/service provision
is required to achieve real
change?
Key worker
Client and
family
members
Funding
packages.
Funding
available for
mobility aids
Home
maintenance
program
Community
referral
program.
Provision of wheel chair
Housing adaptations
including installation of
an access ramp
Arrange for community
transport scheme to
transport client to and
from the local
neighbourhood house
to attend weekly social
programs.
What short term changes
would you expect/like to
see for this person that will
indicate that the
interventions and support
are working and the client
is progressing towards their
goals?
Client reports that housing
is more suitable and
meets their needs
Client reports an increased
ability to prepare and
cook meals alone at home
For the first time, client
attends a weekly cooking
program and becomes a
member of the community
garden committee.
Client is supported to
live independently
Client is physically and
mentally well
Client is engaged in
regular meaningful
activity.
Page 1
Outcomes Framework User Guide
An overview of the outcomes framework
Outcome Area
Outcome Indicators
What we are trying to capture
Housing
Suitable housing
Suitability and appropriateness of housing conditions including overcrowding, living
conditions and location.
Stable housing
Stability and affordability of current living arrangements including security of housing
tenure.
Work and
meaningful use
Engagement in the
labour market
Extent of engagement in paid employment.
of time
Engagement in
Outside of paid employment, extent of engagement in meaningful activity that may
meaningful activity
contribute to a range of economic, social, health and wellbeing outcomes.
Early childhood
development
Early childhood development and overall wellbeing including indications of future
health, development and wellbeing.
School achievement
School achievement and participation including school attendance, learning difficulties
Learning and
development
and educational stability.
Post compulsory
Extent of engagement in learning and achievement outside of the formal primary or
learning
secondary school environment.
Independent living
Ability to function and live independently and whether additional support is required.
skills
Cultural and
Family and
social wellbeing
relationships
Health
Safety
Extent of quality relationships including family, cultural and social connections.
Sense of place and
Connectedness and belonging to cultural and spiritual communities including
belonging
engagement in relevant cultural events and activities.
Social involvement
Extent of involvement in social and recreational activities.
Mental health
Mental health and wellbeing including factors that may affect state of mental health.
Physical health
Physical health and wellbeing including factors that may affect state of physical health.
Abuse and neglect
Existence and extent of abuse and neglect including child and elder abuse, physical,
sexual and financial abuse and neglect.
Family violence
Existence and extent of family violence.
Injury
Extent of injury including self harm and physical abuse.
Safe environment
Existence of abuse, bullying, violence, coercion or exploitation inside and outside the
home.
Behaviours
Alcohol and other
Alcohol and drug consumption including impact and risks of alcohol and drug use.
drug use
Sexual risk
Sexual exploitation, sexual assault and abuse including autonomy of decision making
and consent.
Financial stability
Level of financial stability and extent of financial security.
Gambling
Extent and impact of gambling.
Offending
Levels and patterns of offending behaviours.
Page 2
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Housing
This outcome area focuses on people and families having suitable and stable housing. There are two
indicators for this outcome area:
1. Suitable housing
2. Stable housing
Suitable housing
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the suitability, appropriateness and adequacy of current
housing arrangements, and the extent to which household members have the space and control of
living space and facilities.
Background information
There are a range of factors that determine housing suitability, these include: the physical state of the
housing arrangements; whether there are enough bedrooms for children and adults living in the house;
whether living arrangements are age and gender appropriate; whether the kitchen allows for the
preparation of food; length of housing tenure; and the extent to which the cost associated with
maintaining the upkeep and expenses of the housing arrangements are appropriate, when matched
with household income. Other considerations include; whether household members can access a
private bathroom; whether children have space and a suitable environment to do homework; and
proximity to public transport to access local services.
Outcome
indicator
Suitable
housing
Questions for capture
Answers
Do you currently have enough bedrooms for your household members?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this
client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this
client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this
client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this
client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this
client
If you live in a rooming house, aged care facility or other congregate living
arrangement other than a family home, do you have access to a private bathroom?
If there is a person in the house who has additional needs due to health or disability,
does your housing have all the required facilities?
Is your housing well located for your needs?
Is your housing more expensive than you can reasonably afford?
Page 3
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Stable housing
The purpose of this indicator is to determine stability and affordability of current living arrangements including
security of housing tenure.
Background information
Stability of housing has an impact on issues such as; homelessness or likelihood of homelessness; financial
difficulties; gambling problems; physical and mental health implications such as depression; poor nutrition;
substance misuse; and family breakdowns. Another consideration is the extent to which people are accessing help
and support such as rental assistance schemes, as this will have a direct impact on security of housing tenure.
Outcome
indicator
Stable housing
Questions for capture
Answers
Are you currently homeless?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
If you are currently homeless,
which of the following best
describes your situation? (If
more than one is applicable,
select the most recent or
relevant).
Do you have a housing/lease
agreement of 12 months or
more?
Can you stay in your current
housing for as long as you like?
How many times have you
moved in the last 12 months?
If you have moved in the last 12
months, in which month was
your last move?
How many weeks of rent do
you owe?
If you owe one or more weeks
of rent, what is your weekly
rent?
Staying with relatives
Staying at a friend's house
Staying in a caravan
Staying in a boarding/rooming
house or hostel
Staying in a night/homeless shelter
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Unsure
Not applicable for this client
0
1
2
3
4
5
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
0
1
2
3
4
5
$1‐$74
$75‐$99
$100‐$124
$125‐$149
$150‐$174
$175‐$199
Staying at a refuge
Squatting in an abandoned
building
Sleeping rough
Living in a severely overcrowded
dwelling
Not applicable for this client
6
7
8
9
10+
Not applicable for this client
August
September
October
November
December
Not applicable for this client
6
7
8
9
10+
Not applicable for this client
$200‐$224
$225‐$249
$250‐$274
$275‐$299
$300 and over
Not applicable for this client
Page 4
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Work and meaningful use of time
This outcome area focuses on people and families being meaningfully engaged. There are two
indicators for this outcome area:
1. Engagement in the labour market
2. Engagement in meaningful activity
Engagement in labour market
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the extent of engagement in the labour market.
Background information
Involvement in the labour market will have a direct impact on quality of life. Security of employment
can be an issue. Other considerations include whether people experience barriers to employment and
whether they are accessing all available employment pathways. Very often those not participating in
employment or other meaningful activity such as education or training, are more likely to experience
social and economic disadvantages, poorer physical and mental health or social exclusion (See the
learning and development indicator on page 6).
Outcome indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Engagement in the
labour market
What is your employment status?
Employed full time
Employed part time
Employed on a casual basis
Employed on a contract basis
Not employed and looking for
work
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Would you prefer to work more
than you currently do?
Not employed and not looking
for work
Not in labour force
Not applicable for this client
Engagement in meaningful activity
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the extent of engagement in meaningful activity
(excluding paid employment). This indicator is closely related to the labour market measure described
above and should be considered in conjunction with it.
Background information
The benefits that flow from employment may also be gained from engagement in other forms of
activity such as participation in full time education and training or volunteering. It is important that the
extent of participation in non-work activity is regular. Engagement in meaningful activity can contribute
to a range of economic, social, health and wellbeing outcomes.
Outcome indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Engagement in
meaningful activity
Which of the following activities do you regularly engage
in? (select all that apply)
Education/training
Caring (full time/part time)
Volunteering
Extra-curricular programs/activities
Work experience
Not applicable for this client
Page 5
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Learning and development
This outcome area focuses on the learning and development of people and families. There are four
indicators for this outcome area:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Early childhood development
School achievement
Post compulsory learning
Independent living skills
Early childhood development
The purpose of this indicator is to measure early childhood development among children. Indicators of
early childhood development are predictors of long term life outcomes in terms of both health and
wellbeing.
Background information
Access to high quality early childhood education and care, the development of language, and early
identification of emotional or behavioural issues are well known indicators of early childhood
development and future health, development and overall wellbeing. Considerations include: whether
the extent of involvement in early childhood education is regular and meaningful; and whether children
are actively involved when people read to them.
Outcome indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Early childhood
development
How many days per week are the children in the household read to?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Does the young person attend a government approved early childhood
education and care service?
Page 6
Outcomes Framework User Guide
School achievement
The purpose of this indicator is to assess school achievement of children and young people. Education
achievement is an indicator of current wellbeing but is also an important factor for future life chances.
Background information
It is not enough to consider and measure attendance and participation in school – what is important is
consideration and measurement of actual achievement as this is the outcome that helps predict
employment outcomes later in life. The ability to read, write and perform mathematics is essential in
day to day life and for educational opportunities and employment. If children are not actively involved
and achieving in school, some of the reasons for this may include: access barriers, learning difficulties
and or other issues such as bullying.
Outcome
indicator
School
achievement
Questions for capture
Is the young person currently enrolled in school,
including Vocational Education and Training
(VET)?
If the young person is currently enrolled in
school (including VET), how many days per
week does he/she attend?
During the previous four weeks of school, how
many days has the young person been absent
for any reason?
Has the young person had difficulty progressing
from one school year to another in the last 12
months?
How many reports have been unsatisfactory
over the last 12 months?
Has the young person's school contacted you
with concerns about their performance or
behaviour in the last 12 months?
Has the young person been excluded from
school in the last 12 months?
If the young person has been excluded from
school in the last 12 months, how many times
has this occurred?
If the young person has been excluded from
school in the last 12 months, in which month
did this last occur?
How many schools has the young person
attended in the last 12 months?
If the young person has attended more than
one school in the last 12 months, in which
month was the last move?
Answers
Yes
No
Less than 2 days
At least 2 days
At least 3 days
At least 4 days
0
1
2
3
Yes
No
0
1
2
Yes
No
Not applicable for this
client
Full time
Not at all
Not applicable for this
client
4
5
5+
Not applicable for this
client
Not applicable for this
client
3
4
Not applicable for this
client
Not applicable for this
client
Not applicable for this
client
9
10+
Not applicable for
this client
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
January
February
March
April
May
0
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
June
July
August
September
October
4
5
6
7
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Not applicable for
this client
8
9
10+
Not applicable for
this client
November
December
Not applicable for
this client
Page 7
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Post compulsory learning
The purpose of this indicator is to assess post compulsory learning. Higher educational attainment and
training increase employability and reduce poverty in the context of a knowledge based economy.
Background information
Post compulsory learning applies to both formal post-compulsory education (such as tertiary education)
and non-school qualifications (such as apprenticeships) – both these learning opportunities give people
additional skills and qualifications beneficial to their life chances. Providing supports that contribute to
people achieving more and better skills and competencies allows them greater opportunities for future
success.
Outcome
indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Post
compulsory
learning
Have you completed a subject or module in any of the following:
TAFE/vocational education institution, adult community education
centre, business college, professional association, industry association,
university or other tertiary institution?
If you have completed at least one subject or module in any of the above
institutions, how many subjects or modules have you completed?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Not applicable
Independent living skills
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the extent to which people’s independent living skills meet
their needs. Independent living skills are important as they provide people with foundation skills
required to manage their lives and increase their participation in society.
Background information
Independent living skills are essential for daily living and can impact on quality of life. It is important to
determine the extent to which a person can perform all necessary tasks required for daily living.
Considerations include: whether they need help and support to develop independent living skills in
areas such as social skills, family and other relationship skills, budgeting and managing money, catching
public transport, personal care, cooking and housekeeping.
Outcome
indicator
Independent
living skills
Questions for capture
Answers
Are you able to take care of and manage your house (e.g. wash clothes,
clean)?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Are you able to shop for food and prepare healthy meals?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Are you able to make and keep appointments (e.g. doctor, hairdresser)?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Page 8
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Are you able to fill in forms (e.g. applications for housing, Medicare, bank
account, Centrelink etc.)
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Are you able to read and understand information in letters, bills and
contracts (e.g. telephone, gas, electricity)?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Do you understand the set up and running costs of housing?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Do you understand and know how to manage contracts and bills (e.g.
mobile phone, credit cards?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Do you understand the good and bad points about buying on credit?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Are you able to set up and follow a budget?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Do you have basic financial skills (e.g. counting change, using an ATM)?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Can you advocate for yourself or access advocacy support?
Yes
Learning to do
Not learning to do
Not applicable for this client
Page 9
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Cultural and social wellbeing
This outcome area focuses on people and families being culturally and socially connected. There are
three indicators for this outcome area:
1. Family and relationships
2. Sense of place and belonging
3. Social involvement
Family and relationships
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the quality of relationships that people have with their
family and friends. Close personal networks (e.g. family, friends, and neighbours) provide people with
support for dealing with everyday life, taking on challenges, developing new skills and exploring new
roles and experiences.
Background information
Family relationships are the most important social relationships in the lives of most people, especially
children and young people, and have a direct influence on development of strong social skills,
resilience, self-esteem and on social and emotional wellbeing. Friendships outside the family provide a
sense of belonging and companionship for people. Unhealthy relationships, such as those involving
conflict or social stress, are known to adversely affect the wellbeing of children, young people, families
and communities.
Outcome
indicator
Family and
relationships
Questions for capture
Answers
Do you have a strong relationship with someone you live with?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Less than once
6
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable for
this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Less than once
6
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable for
this client
Do you have regular contact with family or friends outside your
home?
If you have regular contact with family or friends outside your
home, how many times per week on average does this contact
occur?
Do your parents/carers spend time 'just talking' to you?
If your parents/carers spend time 'just talking' to you, how many
times per week does this happen?
Page 10
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Sense of place and belonging
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the sense of place and belonging that people experience.
Feeling a part of the local community is an important enabler for developing a sense of belonging and
permanency.
Background information
Connectedness and belonging is important for wellbeing. For Aboriginal people this indicator has
particular significance, with connectedness to family, land, identity, and culture all identified as being
central to the development of resilience and strong positive social networks and relationships.
Developing positive and supportive relationships within culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD)
communities is also an important affirmation of cultural identity and wellbeing.
Outcome
indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Sense of place
and belonging
In the last three months have you participated in any of the following:
Local indigenous network, registered Aboriginal parties, National
Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee activities, Aboriginal
youth forums or sport and recreation events, reconciliation events or
services provided by Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations?
If you have participated in any of the above listed activities in the last
three months, how many times has this happened?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Do you have regular contact with other Aboriginal children/young
people?
If you have regular contact with other Aboriginal children/young people,
how many times per week?
Do you have regular contact with other children/young people from
your community/culture of origin?
If you have regular contact with other children/young people from your
community/culture of origin, how many times per week?
Do you attend events relevant to your culture or community?
If you attend events relevant to your community or culture, how many
times per month?
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable
6
for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable
6
for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable
6
for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
1
7
2
8
3
9
4
10+
5
Not applicable
6
for this client
Page 11
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Social involvement
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the extent to which people are socially involved in the
community around them. Access to a fulfilling social life is important for everyone regardless of their
circumstances and life stage.
Background information
Involvement in regular recreational and social activities helps improve quality of life, builds positive
feelings and reduces isolation which is important in building resilience, needed to cope with day to day
living. Having strong social networks not only provides emotional support that is helpful in difficult
times but also expands opportunities for accessing employment and other material supports.
Outcome
indicator
Social
involvement
Questions for capture
Answers
Do you participate in: social and recreational activities or social and
community networking activities?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Page 12
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Health
This outcome area focuses on the physical and mental health of people and families. There are two
indicators suggested for this outcome area:
1. Mental health
2. Physical health
Mental health
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the mental health and wellbeing of people. The World
Health Organisation (WHO) defines being mentally healthy as a state of wellbeing in which the
individual realises his or her abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively
and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.
Background information
There is a range of factors that affect mental health. Mental health is an essential part of personal
wellbeing and strongly influences family relationships, and the ability to contribute to and participate in
society. Mental health also significantly influences life expectancy, employment status and financial
position. Consequently mental illness is associated with enormous health, social and economic costs for
individuals and for the community more broadly.
Outcome indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Mental health
Have you deliberately hurt yourself in the past six
months?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Enter score:
Not applicable for this client
Have you attempted to hurt yourself in the past six
months?
What is the Kessler 10 score? The Kessler 10 assesses
levels of anxiety and depression to provide a measure of
psychological distress
What is the Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ) score? The
Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire is a behavioural
screening questionnaire for children and young people
aged 3-16 years old.
Enter score:
Not applicable for this client
Page 13
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Physical health
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the physical health and wellbeing of people. Physical health
influences numerous aspects of people’s lives and provides a basis for life outcomes.
Background information
There are numerous factors (individual, family, social, economic, neighbourhood, environmental and
political) that affect the achievement of good physical health.
Outcome indicator
Questions for capture
Answers
Physical Health
Was child born with low birth weight?
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Not applicable for this client
Vigorous
Moderate
Light
None (sedentary)
Not applicable for this client
Up to 15 minutes per day
Up to 30 minutes per day
Up to 45 minutes per day
Up to 60 minutes per day
Over 60 minutes per day
Not applicable for this client
5
1
6
2
7
3
Not applicable for
4
this client
0
2 or more
1
Not applicable for
this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
Not applicable for
this client
0
4
1
5 or more
2
Not applicable for
3
this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
Not applicable for
this client
Yes
Not applicable for
No
this client
At least daily
At least weekly
At least monthly
Not applicable for this client
Has child been to all scheduled maternal and child health
appointments?
Does child have up to date immunisations?
What sort of physical activity do you regularly engage in?
If you regularly engage in physical activity, how many
minutes per day would this last?
If you regularly engage in physical activity, how many
days per week would you undertake this level of physical
activity?
How many serves of fruit do you consume per day?
How many days per week would you consume this
amount?
How many serves of vegetables would you consume per
day?
How many days per week would you consume this
amount?
Do you miss meals because you have run out of food and
cannot afford to buy more?
If you miss meals because you have run out of food and
cannot afford to buy more, how often does this happen?
Page 14
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Safety
This outcome area focuses on the safety of people and families. There are four indicators for this
outcome area:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Abuse and neglect
Family violence
Injury
Safe environment
Abuse and neglect
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the extent to which abuse and neglect are impacting on
the lives of people.
Background information
The experience of abuse and neglect is typically associated with vulnerability and relationships defined
by an unhealthy power imbalance, mistreatment and breaches of trust. Vulnerable populations can
include the elderly, people with disabilities, and women in abusive relationships, and can include a wide
spectrum of violence and abuse. Children and young people who are exposed to unsafe and abusive
environments are at risk of a range of short and long term negative consequences. Child maltreatment
takes many forms including neglect, physical violence, emotional or psychological abuse, and sexual
abuse. There are many factors known to contribute to child neglect or abuse. These include history of
family violence, poor parental mental health and parental history of being neglected and abused.
Outcome
indicator
Abuse and
neglect
Questions for capture
Answers
Has there been a child abuse substantiation in the last 3
months?
Yes
No
Not applicable for
this client
Has there been a child abuse re-substantiation in the last 3
months?
In the last six months, has anyone done anything to you,
physically or sexually, that you didn't want them to do?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
Not applicable for
this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
In the last six months, has anyone you know or trust misused or
mismanaged your property or financial resources?
In the last six months, have you felt stressed or afraid because of
the actions or threats of another person?
In the last six months, has someone that you know or trust
stopped you from having contact with other people?
In the last six months, has your carer, or someone responsible
for your care, failed to make sure you are provided with
essential things like adequate food, shelter, clothing, medical or
dental care?
Not applicable for
this client
Not applicable for
this client
Not applicable for
this client
Page 15
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Family violence
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the extent to which the experience of family violence is
impacting on the lives of people. Family violence is a leading cause of homelessness, poverty,
preventable death, disability and illness for women.
Background information
Family violence can encompass a range of different forms. A key feature of family violence is the
behaviour associated with the exercising of power and control over people. This can manifest in a range
of different behaviours and forms of violence and abuse that include physical, sexual, emotional or
psychological, economic abuse and stalking. Exposure to family violence is also widely recognised as a
form of child abuse. Family violence is a complex social and economic problem.
Outcome
indicator
Family
violence
Questions for capture
Answers
Has a family violence order been breached in the last 6
months?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
If a family violence order has been breached in the last 6
months, in which month did this occur?
January
July
Not
February
August
applicable
March
September
for this
April
October
client
May
November
June
December
Yes
Not applicable for
No
this client
Prefer not to say
Yes
Not applicable for
No
this client
Prefer not to say
In the last six months, did anyone use physical force or
violence against you?
In the last six months, did anyone use or threaten physical
force or violence against you?
Not applicable for
this client
Injury
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the extent to which injury is impacting on people’s lives.
Background information
Dealing with injury can be difficult and is often impacted by personal, socio-economic and
environmental factors. Serious injury can have a major impact on a person’s life, potentially lasting a
lifetime. The most common injuries are those associated with falls, poisoning and road accidents with
the causes varying according to age (for example poisoning is most prominent in toddlers, falls in
school-age children and older people, and road accidents in young people and adults). Personal choice
and decision making around lifestyle, risk, and behaviour play a significant part in injury prevention.
Outcome
indicator
Injury
Questions for capture
Answers
Have you had an injury requiring medical attention in the
last six months?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
If you have had an injury requiring medical attention in the
last six months, how many have you had?
9
10+
Not
applicable
for this client
Page 16
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Safe environment
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the extent to which people feel safe in their community.
Personal relationships and environments that are underpinned by trust and perceptions of safety will
foster greater wellbeing and community participation.
Background information
The degree to which we feel safe is subjective; it is shaped by the experience of personal relationships
and different environments in which people engage with each other. The experience of violence (actual
or threatened) will affect trust and reduce likelihood of community participation. Increasingly, the
online environment is providing more platforms where people engage with each other. This is
especially the case for children and young people. The online environment can provide both
opportunities and risks. Very often children and young people are unaware of the extent of risk and
how to recognise and effectively deal with online risk.
Outcome
indicator
Safe
environment
Questions for capture
Answers
In the last 12 months, did anyone, including people you
know, use physical force or violence against you?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
In the last 12 months, did anyone, including people you
know, try or threaten to use physical force or violence
against you?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Do you feel safe at home?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Do you feel safe at work?
Do you feel safe at school?
Do you feel safe when using the internet?
Have you experienced the following in the last 12 months:
Bullying or harassment by friends or acquaintances; bullying
or harassment by strangers; unwanted sexual approaches in
chat rooms, social networking sites or on email; accidently
coming across sexual images or content; being sent
unwanted sexual images or content; someone using your
photos in an inappropriate way; someone taking unwanted
photos of you and circulating them; threats in the place
where you access the internet?
Page 17
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Behaviours and risk
This outcome area focuses on behaviours and risks. There are five indicators for this outcome area:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Alcohol and other drug use
Sexual risk
Financial stability
Gambling
Offending
Alcohol and other drug use
The purpose of this indicator is to measure the impact of alcohol and other drug use on people’s lives. Substance
use is among the top 20 risk factors for death and disability worldwide.
Background information
The risks associated with alcohol, tobacco and other drug use fall on a continuum from lower to higher risks.
Higher risk substance use is associated with dependence. There are significant costs – both to individuals and to
society – associated with non-dependent but hazardous substance use. Substance misuse can lead to increased
risks of social, financial, legal and relationship problems. People need support to make choices that reinforce
positive behaviours and reduce unhealthy risk taking, including making choices that reduce the risk of harm
associated with alcohol, tobacco and other drug use.
Outcome
indicator
Alcohol and
other drug use
Questions for capture
Answers
What is the alcohol use disorders
identification test (AUDIT) score?
Enter score:
Not applicable for this client
Do you regularly consume drinks containing
alcohol?
Yes
No
If you regularly consume drinks containing
alcohol, how many drinks do you have per
day?
1
2
3
If you regularly consume drinks containing
alcohol, how many days per week?
1
2
3
4
Enter score:
Not applicable for this client
What is the drug use disorders identification
test (DUDIT) score?
Do you regularly use illicit drugs?
Yes
No
If you regularly use illicit drugs, how many
times per day?
1
2
3
4
If you regularly use illicit drugs, how many
days per week?
1
2
3
Do you regularly misuse prescription drugs?
Yes
4
5
6
7
5
6
7
5
6
7
8
9
4
5
6
7
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this
client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this
client
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Prefer not to say
Page 18
Outcomes Framework User Guide
(This is defined as the use of prescription
medication for a purpose other than the
reason it was prescribed or when a person
takes medication that was not prescribed to
him or her.)
No
If you regularly misuse prescription drugs,
how many times per day?
1
2
3
4
If you regularly misuse prescription drugs,
how many days per week do you do this?
1
2
3
4
Not applicable for this
client
5
6
7
8
9
5
6
7
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Sexual risk
The purpose of this indicator is to determine levels of sexual risk.
Background information
An individual’s sexual health and wellbeing, including their ability to make decisions regarding their
sexual life, is influenced by a range of factors including gender, sexual orientation, marital status,
physical, psychological, cognitive, socio-cultural, religious, legal and economic factors. Some sexual
behaviours are likely to increase an individual’s risk of sexual ill health, including risk of sexually
transmitted infections, unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, infertility, gender-based
violence, sexual dysfunction and discrimination. These consequences are significant. Development of
appropriate sexual competence – that is, a person’s level of awareness, knowledge and willingness to
demonstrate responsibility during sexual practices (e.g. protection during sexual activity, no regret,
autonomy of decision-making and consensuality) is important for everyone. Sexual exploitation is
becoming more prominent. Regardless of personal behaviour and individual circumstances, all people
have the right to be free from any form of sexual exploitation.
Outcome
indicator
Sexual risk
Questions for capture
Answers
Have you felt taken advantage of sexually in the
past 12 months?
Yes
No
If you have felt taken advantage of sexually in
the past 12 months, how many times has this
happened?
1
2
3
4
Have you had regret following a sexual
experience in the past 12 months?
If you have had regret following a sexual
experience in the past 12 months, how many
times has this happened?
Yes
No
1
2
3
4
In the past 12 months have you had a sexual
experience involving the financial benefit of
yourself or someone else?
Yes
No
If you have had a sexual experience involving
the financial benefit of yourself or someone
else in the last 12 months, how many times?
1
2
3
4
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
5
6
7
8
9
5
6
7
8
9
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
5
6
7
8
9
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
Page 19
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Financial stability
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the level of financial stability experienced by people
accessing Services Connect. Financial stability is important for ensuring that individuals and families can
purchase the necessary goods and services needed for everyday living.
Background information
When financial problems occur, often people face difficulties paying for basic goods and services such
as food, heating for the home, electricity, gas, telephone bills or transport costs. This can have
significant negative impacts on individuals and families. It is important to assist people to develop the
skills to manage their finances and to connect with services that help address financial instability.
Outcome
indicator
Financial
stability
Questions for capture
Answers
What is your weekly personal income?
$1-199
$200-299
$300-399
$400-499
$500-599
$600+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
Have there been times when you have been unable to afford
to: purchase food or meals; heat your home; pay an electricity,
water or gas bill; pay a phone bill; or pay rent?
Page 20
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Gambling
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the impact of gambling on people’s lives. Problem
gambling is a significant risk to household financial stability.
Background information
Gambling can also lead to mental and physical health difficulties increasing the likelihood of having
problems with alcohol, difficulty in maintaining employment (which further contributes to financial
instability), and an increased risk of relationship breakdown. Problem gambling can be hard to detect. It
is important to try and determine the extent of the problem as early as possible to help people
understand the impact of the consequences associated with gambling.
Outcome
indicator
Gambling
Questions for capture
Answers
Thinking about the last 12 months, have you bet/gambled more than
you could really afford to lose?
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Never
Sometimes
Most of the time
Almost always
Not applicable for this client
Thinking about the last 12 months, have you needed to gamble with
larger amounts of money to get the same feeling of excitement?
When you gambled, did you go back another day to try and win back
the money you lost?
Have you borrowed money, or sold anything, to get money to gamble?
Have you felt that you might have a problem with gambling?
Has gambling caused you any health problems, including stress or
anxiety?
Have people criticised your betting, or told you that you had a gambling
problem, regardless of whether you thought it was true?
Has gambling caused any financial problems for you or your household?
Have you felt guilty about the way you gamble or what happens when
you gamble?
Page 21
Outcomes Framework User Guide
Offending
The purpose of this indicator is to determine the levels and patterns of offending behaviour. The
negative effects of offending are significant and impact on the victim of the crime, the offender, their
families, and the wider community.
Background information
The costs associated with criminal activity include costs of medical and other treatment, costs due to
loss of ability to work in a paid or unpaid capacity, costs associated with property losses, and the
personal impact such as fear, pain, suffering and loss of quality of life. The ongoing physical,
psychological, economic and social impacts on partners and children of offenders, regardless of
whether they are the victims of the crime, are significant. It is important that people are supported to
make positive personal choices and develop safe and positive personal relationships. Critical to this is
the need for people to avoid committing criminal offences – whether a first or subsequent offence including refraining from breaching court orders.
Outcome
indicator
Offending
Questions for capture
Answers
Have you been charged with a criminal offence in
the last six months?
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
9
January
July
February
August
March
September
April
October
May
November
June
December
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
9
January
July
February
August
March
September
April
October
May
November
June
December
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
9
January
July
If you have been charged with a criminal offence in
the last six months, how many times?
If you have been charged with a criminal offence in
the last six months, in which month did this last
occur?
Have you breached a court order in the last six
months?
If you have breached a court order in the last six
months, how many times?
If you have breached a court order in the last six
months, in which month did this last occur?
Have you re-offended in the last six months?
If you have re-offended in the last six months, how
many times?
If you have re-offended in the last six months, in
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Not applicable
for this client
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Not applicable
for this client
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable
for this client
Not applicable
Page 22
Outcomes Framework User Guide
which month did this last occur?
Have you received a community based order in the
last six months?
If you have received a community based order in
the last six months, how many have you received?
If you have received a community based order in
the last six months, in which month did this last
occur?
February
August
March
September
April
October
May
November
June
December
Yes
No
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for this client
1
5
2
6
3
7
4
8
9
January
July
February August
March
September
April
October
May
November
June
December
for this client
10+
Prefer not to say
Not applicable for
this client
Not applicable for
this client
Page 23
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