GRLIB IP Core User's Manual

GRLIB IP Core User's Manual
GRLIB IP Core User’s Manual
Version 1.0.15, April 2007
Jiri Gaisler, Edvin Catovic, Marko Isomäki, Kristoffer Glembo, Sandi Habinc
Copyright Gaisler Research, 2007.
2
Table of contents
1
Introduction............................................................................................................................ 16
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
AHB2AHB - Uni-directional AHB to AHB bridge............................................................... 21
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
3
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 29
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 29
AHB split support.................................................................................................................................. 30
AHB bus monitor .................................................................................................................................. 30
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 30
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 31
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 32
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 32
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 32
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 32
Debug print-out ..................................................................................................................................... 33
AHBCTRL_MB - AMBA AHB bus controller bus with support for multiple
AHB buses ............................................................................................................................. 36
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
6
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 26
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 26
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 26
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 26
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 27
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 28
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 28
AHBCTRL - AMBA AHB controller with plug&play support ............................................ 29
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
5
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 21
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 21
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 22
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 22
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 23
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 24
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 24
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 24
AHBBRIDGE - Bi-directional AHB/AHB bridge ................................................................ 26
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 16
IP core overview.................................................................................................................................... 16
Implementation characteristics.............................................................................................................. 19
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 36
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 37
AHB split support.................................................................................................................................. 38
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 38
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 39
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 39
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 40
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 40
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 40
Debug print-out ..................................................................................................................................... 41
AHBJTAG - JTAG Debug Link with AHB Master Interface................................................ 43
3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
AHBRAM - Single-port RAM with AHB interface .............................................................. 47
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
8
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 51
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 52
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 52
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 52
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 52
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 53
AHBTRACE - AHB Trace buffer.......................................................................................... 55
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
11
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 49
PROM generation.................................................................................................................................. 49
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 49
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 49
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 50
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 50
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 50
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 50
AHBSTAT - AHB Status Registers........................................................................................ 51
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
10
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 47
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 47
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 47
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 47
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 47
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 48
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 48
AHBROM - Single-port ROM with AHB interface .............................................................. 49
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
9
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 43
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 43
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 44
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 44
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 44
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 45
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 45
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 45
Simulation ............................................................................................................................................. 46
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 55
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 55
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 56
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 57
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 57
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 58
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 58
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 58
AHBUART- AMBA AHB Serial Debug Interface................................................................ 59
11.1
11.2
11.3
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 59
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 59
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 60
4
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
12
AMBAMON - AMBA Bus Monitor...................................................................................... 63
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
13
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 73
Receiver operation................................................................................................................................. 73
Transmitter operations........................................................................................................................... 74
Clock generation.................................................................................................................................... 74
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 75
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 76
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 77
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 77
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 77
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 77
Keboard scan codes ............................................................................................................................... 79
Keyboard commands............................................................................................................................. 81
APBUART - AMBA APB UART Serial Interface................................................................ 83
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
16
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 69
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 69
APB bus monitor ................................................................................................................................... 70
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 70
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 70
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 70
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 71
Component declaration.......................................................................................................................... 71
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 71
Debug print-out ..................................................................................................................................... 72
APBPS2 - PS/2 keyboard with APB interface....................................................................... 73
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
15
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 63
Rules...................................................................................................................................................... 63
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 66
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 66
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 66
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 67
APBCTRL - AMBA AHB/APB bridge with plug&play support ......................................... 69
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
14
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 61
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 61
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 61
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 61
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 61
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 83
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 83
Baud-rate generation ............................................................................................................................. 85
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 86
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 87
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 87
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 88
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 88
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 88
APBVGA - VGA controller with APB interface................................................................... 90
16.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 90
5
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
17
ATACTRL - ATA Controller.................................................................................................. 94
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
18
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 101
AHB interface...................................................................................................................................... 102
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 102
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 102
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 103
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 103
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 104
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 104
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 104
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 105
B1553BRM - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BRM ................................ 106
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
19.9
19.10
20
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 94
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 94
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 95
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 97
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 97
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 98
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 98
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 98
B1553BC - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BBC .................................... 101
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8
18.9
18.10
19
Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 90
Registers ................................................................................................................................................ 91
Vendor and device identifiers ................................................................................................................ 91
Configuration options............................................................................................................................ 92
Signal descriptions ................................................................................................................................ 92
Library dependencies ............................................................................................................................ 92
Instantiation ........................................................................................................................................... 92
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 106
AHB interface...................................................................................................................................... 107
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 107
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 108
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 109
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 109
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 110
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 111
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 111
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 111
B1553RT - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BRT ..................................... 113
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 113
AHB interface...................................................................................................................................... 114
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 114
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 115
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 116
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 117
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 118
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 118
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 118
6
21
CAN_OC - GRLIB wrapper for OpenCores CAN Interface core ....................................... 120
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
21.10
21.11
21.12
22
GRCAN - CAN 2.0 Controller with DMA.......................................................................... 139
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9
22.10
22.11
22.12
22.13
22.14
22.15
23
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 161
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 161
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 164
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 165
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 166
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 166
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 167
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 168
DIV32 - Signed/unsigned 64/32 divider module ................................................................. 169
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
25
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 139
Interface............................................................................................................................................... 140
Protocol ............................................................................................................................................... 140
Status and monitoring.......................................................................................................................... 141
Transmission........................................................................................................................................ 141
Reception............................................................................................................................................. 144
Global reset and enable ....................................................................................................................... 147
Interrupt ............................................................................................................................................... 147
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 148
Memory mapping ................................................................................................................................ 157
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 158
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 158
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 158
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 159
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 159
DDRSPA - 16-, 32- and 64-bit DDR266 Controller ............................................................ 161
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.7
23.8
24
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 120
Opencores CAN controller overview .................................................................................................. 120
AHB interface...................................................................................................................................... 120
BasicCAN mode.................................................................................................................................. 121
PeliCAN mode .................................................................................................................................... 125
Common registers................................................................................................................................ 135
Design considerations.......................................................................................................................... 136
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 136
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 137
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 137
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 137
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 137
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 169
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 169
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 169
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 170
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 170
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 170
DSU3 - LEON3 Hardware Debug Support Unit ................................................................. 171
25.1
25.2
25.3
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 171
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 171
AHB Trace Buffer ............................................................................................................................... 172
7
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
25.9
25.10
25.11
25.12
26
FTAHBRAM - On-chip SRAM with EDAC and AHB interface ....................................... 181
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.4
26.5
26.6
26.7
26.8
27
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 181
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 181
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 183
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 183
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 184
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 184
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 184
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 185
FTMCTRL - 8/16/32-bit Memory Controller with EDAC.................................................. 186
27.1
27.2
27.3
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.7
27.8
27.9
27.10
27.11
27.12
27.13
27.14
27.15
27.16
27.17
27.18
27.19
27.20
27.21
27.22
28
Instruction trace buffer ........................................................................................................................ 173
DSU memory map............................................................................................................................... 174
DSU registers ...................................................................................................................................... 175
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 177
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 178
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 178
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 178
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 178
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 179
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 186
PROM access ...................................................................................................................................... 186
Memory mapped IO ............................................................................................................................ 188
SRAM access ...................................................................................................................................... 189
8-bit and 16-bit PROM and SRAM access ......................................................................................... 190
8- and 16-bit I/O access....................................................................................................................... 191
Burst cycles ......................................................................................................................................... 192
SDRAM access.................................................................................................................................... 192
Refresh................................................................................................................................................. 193
Memory EDAC ................................................................................................................................... 194
Bus Ready signalling........................................................................................................................... 195
Access errors ....................................................................................................................................... 196
Attaching an external DRAM controller ............................................................................................. 197
Output enable timing ........................................................................................................................... 197
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 198
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 200
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 201
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 202
Signal definitions and reset values ...................................................................................................... 205
Timing ................................................................................................................................................. 206
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 208
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 208
FTSDCTRL - 32/64-bit PC133 SDRAM Controller with EDAC ...................................... 211
28.1
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.6
28.7
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 211
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 211
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 213
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 215
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 215
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 216
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 216
8
28.8
29
FTSRCTRL - Fault Tolerant 32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO Controller...................................... 219
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.5
29.6
29.7
29.8
29.9
29.10
30
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 249
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 249
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 250
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 251
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 252
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 252
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 253
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 253
GRAES - Advanced Encryption Standard ........................................................................... 254
32.1
32.2
32.3
32.4
32.5
32.6
32.7
32.8
32.9
32.10
32.11
32.12
33
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 236
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 236
SRAM/IO waveforms.......................................................................................................................... 237
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 241
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 242
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 242
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 243
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 246
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 246
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 246
GPTIMER - General Purpose Timer Unit............................................................................ 249
31.1
31.2
31.3
31.4
31.5
31.6
31.7
31.8
32
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 219
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 219
PROM/SRAM/IO waveforms ............................................................................................................. 222
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 227
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 228
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 229
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 229
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 232
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 232
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 232
FTSRCTRL8 - 8-bit SRAM/16-bit IO Memory Controller with EDAC ............................ 236
30.1
30.2
30.3
30.4
30.5
30.6
30.7
30.8
30.9
30.10
31
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 216
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 254
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 254
Background ......................................................................................................................................... 254
AES-128 parameters............................................................................................................................ 255
Throughput .......................................................................................................................................... 255
Characteristics ..................................................................................................................................... 255
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 256
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 258
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 258
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 258
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 258
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 258
GRECC - Elliptic Curve Cryptography ............................................................................... 260
33.1
33.2
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 260
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 260
9
33.3
33.4
33.5
33.6
33.7
33.8
33.9
33.10
33.11
33.12
33.13
34
GRETH - Ethernet Media Access Controller (MAC) with EDCL support ......................... 271
34.1
34.2
34.3
34.4
34.5
34.6
34.7
34.8
34.9
34.10
34.11
34.12
34.13
34.14
35
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 271
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 271
Tx DMA interface ............................................................................................................................... 272
Rx DMA interface ............................................................................................................................... 274
MDIO Interface ................................................................................................................................... 275
Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL) .................................................................................. 275
Media Independent Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 277
Software drivers .................................................................................................................................. 277
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 278
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 280
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 281
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 282
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 282
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 282
GRETH_GBIT - Gigabit Ethernet Media Access Controller (MAC) w. EDCL ................. 284
35.1
35.2
35.3
35.4
35.5
35.6
35.7
35.8
35.9
35.10
35.11
35.12
35.13
35.14
36
Advantages .......................................................................................................................................... 261
Background ......................................................................................................................................... 261
233-bit elliptic curve domain parameters ............................................................................................ 261
Throughput .......................................................................................................................................... 262
Characteristics ..................................................................................................................................... 262
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 263
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 268
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 269
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 269
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 269
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 269
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 284
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 284
Tx DMA interface ............................................................................................................................... 285
Rx DMA interface ............................................................................................................................... 288
MDIO Interface ................................................................................................................................... 289
Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL) .................................................................................. 290
Media Independent Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 291
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 292
Software drivers .................................................................................................................................. 294
Vendor and device identifier................................................................................................................ 294
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 295
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 296
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 296
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 296
ETH_ARB - Ethernet PHY arbiter ...................................................................................... 298
36.1
36.2
36.3
36.4
36.5
36.6
36.7
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 298
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 298
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 299
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 299
Signal description ................................................................................................................................ 299
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 300
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 300
10
37
GRFPU - High-performance IEEE-754 Floating-point unit................................................ 301
37.1
37.2
37.3
37.4
38
GRFPC - GRFPU Control Unit ........................................................................................... 307
38.1
38.2
38.3
39
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 314
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 314
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 314
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 315
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 316
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 316
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 316
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 316
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 317
GRSPW - SpaceWire codec with AHB host Interface and RMAP support ........................ 318
42.1
42.2
42.3
42.4
42.5
42.6
42.7
42.8
42.9
42.10
42.11
42.12
42.13
42.14
42.15
42.16
43
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 312
Floating-Point register file................................................................................................................... 312
Floating-Point State Register (FSR).................................................................................................... 312
Floating-Point Exceptions and Floating-Point Deferred-Queue ......................................................... 312
GRGPIO - General Purpose I/O Port................................................................................... 314
41.1
41.2
41.3
41.4
41.5
41.6
41.7
41.8
41.9
42
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 309
Functional Description ........................................................................................................................ 309
GRLFPC - GRFPU Lite Floating-point unit Controller ...................................................... 312
40.1
40.2
40.3
40.4
41
Floating-Point register file................................................................................................................... 307
Floating-Point State Register (FSR).................................................................................................... 307
Floating-Point Exceptions and Floating-Point Deferred-Queue ......................................................... 307
GRFPU Lite - IEEE-754 Floating-Point Unit...................................................................... 309
39.1
39.2
40
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 301
Functional description ......................................................................................................................... 301
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 305
Timing ................................................................................................................................................. 305
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 318
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 319
Link interface ...................................................................................................................................... 320
Receiver DMA engine......................................................................................................................... 322
Transmitter DMA engine .................................................................................................................... 326
RMAP.................................................................................................................................................. 328
AMBA interface .................................................................................................................................. 332
Synthesis and hardware ....................................................................................................................... 333
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 335
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 340
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 340
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 341
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 341
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 341
RTEMS Driver .................................................................................................................................... 342
API....................................................................................................................................................... 350
IRQMP - Multiprocessor Interrupt Controller..................................................................... 362
43.1
43.2
43.3
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 362
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 362
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 364
11
43.4
43.5
43.6
43.7
43.8
44
LEON3 - High-performance SPARC V8 32-bit Processor.................................................. 369
44.1
44.2
44.3
44.4
44.5
44.6
44.7
44.8
44.9
44.10
44.11
44.12
44.13
44.14
45
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 392
Register file SEU protection................................................................................................................ 392
Cache memory..................................................................................................................................... 393
DSU memory map............................................................................................................................... 395
Vendor and device identifers ............................................................................................................... 396
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 396
Limitations........................................................................................................................................... 396
LOGAN - On-chip Logic Analyzer ..................................................................................... 397
46.1
46.2
46.3
46.4
46.5
46.6
46.7
46.8
46.9
47
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 369
LEON3 integer unit ............................................................................................................................. 371
Instruction cache.................................................................................................................................. 377
Data cache ........................................................................................................................................... 378
Additional cache functionality ............................................................................................................ 379
Memory management unit................................................................................................................... 382
Floating-point unit and custom co-processor interface ....................................................................... 383
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 385
Implementation.................................................................................................................................... 385
Clock gating ........................................................................................................................................ 386
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 388
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 390
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 390
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 390
LEON3FT - Fault-Tolerant SPARC V8 Processor .............................................................. 392
45.1
45.2
45.3
45.4
45.5
45.6
45.7
46
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 366
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 366
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 367
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 367
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 367
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 397
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 397
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 398
Graphical interface .............................................................................................................................. 401
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 401
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 401
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 402
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 402
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 402
MCTRL - Combined PROM/IO/SRAM/SDRAM Memory Controller .............................. 404
47.1
47.2
47.3
47.4
47.5
47.6
47.7
47.8
47.9
47.10
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 404
PROM access ...................................................................................................................................... 404
Memory mapped I/O ........................................................................................................................... 406
SRAM access ...................................................................................................................................... 407
8-bit and 16-bit PROM and SRAM access ......................................................................................... 408
Burst cycles ......................................................................................................................................... 409
8- and 16-bit I/O access....................................................................................................................... 410
SDRAM access.................................................................................................................................... 410
Refresh................................................................................................................................................. 410
Using bus ready signalling .................................................................................................................. 411
12
47.11
47.12
47.13
47.14
47.15
47.16
47.17
47.18
48
MUL32 - Signed/unsigned 32x32 multiplier module .......................................................... 421
48.1
48.2
48.3
48.4
48.5
48.6
48.7
48.8
49
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 427
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 427
PCI Target Interface ............................................................................................................................ 428
PCI Target - Configuration Space Header Registers ........................................................................... 429
PCI Target Map Registers ................................................................................................................... 431
PCI Master Interface ........................................................................................................................... 432
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 433
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 434
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 435
Signal description ................................................................................................................................ 436
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 436
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 436
PCIDMA - DMA Controller for the GRPCI interface......................................................... 438
51.1
51.2
51.3
51.4
51.5
51.6
51.7
51.8
52
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 425
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 425
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 425
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 425
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 426
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 426
GRPCI - PCI Target / Master Unit....................................................................................... 427
50.1
50.2
50.3
50.4
50.5
50.6
50.7
50.8
50.9
50.10
50.11
50.12
51
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 421
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 421
Synthesis.............................................................................................................................................. 421
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 422
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 423
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 423
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 423
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 424
MULTLIB - High-performance multipliers ......................................................................... 425
49.1
49.2
49.3
49.4
49.5
49.6
50
Access errors ....................................................................................................................................... 412
Attaching an external DRAM controller ............................................................................................. 413
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 413
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 415
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 416
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 416
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 418
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 418
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 438
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 438
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 439
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 440
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 440
Signal description ................................................................................................................................ 440
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 440
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 441
PCITARGET - Simple 32-bit PCI target with AHB interface............................................. 442
52.1
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 442
13
52.2
52.3
52.4
52.5
52.6
53
PHY - Ethernet PHY simulation model............................................................................... 444
53.1
53.2
53.3
53.4
53.5
53.6
54
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 450
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 450
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 452
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 453
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 454
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 455
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 455
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 455
SRCTRL- 8/32-bit PROM/SRAM Controller ..................................................................... 458
56.1
56.2
56.3
56.4
56.5
56.6
56.7
56.8
56.9
56.10
56.11
57
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 448
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 448
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 449
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 449
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 449
SDCTRL - 32/64-bit PC133 SDRAM Controller................................................................ 450
55.1
55.2
55.3
55.4
55.5
55.6
55.7
55.8
56
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 444
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 444
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 445
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 446
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 446
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 446
REGFILE_3P 3-port RAM generator (2 read, 1 write) ....................................................... 448
54.1
54.2
54.3
54.4
54.5
55
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 442
Vendor and device identifier................................................................................................................ 442
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 443
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 443
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 443
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 458
8-bit PROM access.............................................................................................................................. 459
PROM/SRAM waveform .................................................................................................................... 459
Burst cycles ......................................................................................................................................... 460
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 460
Vendor and device identifier................................................................................................................ 460
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 460
Signal description ................................................................................................................................ 461
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 462
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 462
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 462
SSRCTRL- 32-bit SSRAM/PROM Controller.................................................................... 465
57.1
57.2
57.3
57.4
57.5
57.6
57.7
57.8
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 465
SSRAM/PROM waveform.................................................................................................................. 465
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 467
Vendor and device identifier................................................................................................................ 468
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 468
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 469
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 471
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 471
14
57.9
58
SVGACTRL - Vga Controller Core .................................................................................... 475
58.1
58.2
58.3
58.4
58.5
58.6
58.7
58.8
58.9
59
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 486
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 486
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 487
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 487
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 487
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 487
TAP - JTAG TAP Controller................................................................................................ 489
62.1
62.2
62.3
62.4
62.5
62.6
62.7
62.8
62.9
63
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 483
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 483
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 484
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 484
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 484
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 484
SYNCRAM_DP - Dual-port RAM generator...................................................................... 486
61.1
61.2
61.3
61.4
61.5
61.6
62
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 481
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 481
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 482
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 482
Component declaration........................................................................................................................ 482
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 482
SYNCRAM_2P - Two-port RAM generator ....................................................................... 483
60.1
60.2
60.3
60.4
60.5
60.6
61
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 475
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 475
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 476
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 477
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 478
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 478
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 479
Component instantiation...................................................................................................................... 479
Linux-2.6 command line options......................................................................................................... 479
SYNCRAM - Single-port RAM generator .......................................................................... 481
59.1
59.2
59.3
59.4
59.5
59.6
60
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 471
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 489
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 489
Technology specific TAP controllers .................................................................................................. 489
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 489
Vendor and device identifiers .............................................................................................................. 489
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 490
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 490
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 491
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 491
USBDCL - USB Debug Communication Link.................................................................... 492
63.1
63.2
63.3
63.4
63.5
Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 492
Operation ............................................................................................................................................. 492
Registers .............................................................................................................................................. 494
Vendor and device identifier................................................................................................................ 494
Configuration options.......................................................................................................................... 495
15
63.6
63.7
63.8
Signal descriptions .............................................................................................................................. 495
Library dependencies .......................................................................................................................... 495
Instantiation ......................................................................................................................................... 495
16
1
Introduction
1.1
Scope
This document describes specific IP cores provided with the GRLIB IP library. When applicable, the
cores use the GRLIP plug&play configuration method as described in the ‘GRLIB User’s Manual’.
1.2
IP core overview
The tables below lists the provided IP cores and their AMBA plug&play device ID. The license column indicates if a core is available under GNU GPL and/or under a commercial license. Cores
marked with FT are only available in the FT version of GRLIB. Note: the open-source version of
GRLIB includes only cores marked with GPL or LGPL.
Table 1. Processors and support functions
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
LEON3
SPARC V8 32-bit processor
0x01 : 0x003
COM/GPL
DSU3
Multi-processor Debug support unit
0x01 : 0x004
COM/GPL
IRQMP
Multi-processor Interrupt controller
0x01 : 0x00D
COM/GPL
GRFPU
High-performance IEEE-754 Floating-point unit
-
COM
GRFPU-Lite
Low-area IEEE-754 Floating-point unit
-
COM
LEON3FT
Fault-tolerant SPARC V8 32-bit Processor
0x01 : 0x053
FT
Table 2. Floating-point units
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
GRFPU
High-performance IEEE-754 Floating-point unit
-
COM
GRFPU-Lite
Low-area IEEE-754 Floating-point unit
-
COM
Function
Vendor:Device
License
SRCTRL
8/32-bit PROM/SRAM controller
0x01 : 0x008
COM/GPL
SDCTRL
PC133 SDRAM controller
0x01 : 0x009
COM/GPL
FTSDCTRL
32/64-bit PC133 SDRAM Controller with EDAC
0x01 : 0x055
FT
FTSRCTRL
Fault Tolerant 32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO Controller
0x01 : 0x051
FT
MCTRL
8/16/32-bit PROM/SRAM/SDRAM controller
0x04 : 0x00F
LGPL
FTMCTRL
8//32-bit PROM/SRAM/SDRAM controller with EDAC
0x01 : 0x054
FT
AHBSTAT
AHB failing address register
0x01 : 0x052
COM/GPL
DDRCTRL
8/16/32/64-bit DDR controller with two AHB ports (Xilinx only) 0x01 : 0x023
COM/GPL
DDRSPA
Single-port 16/32/64 bit DDR266 controller (Xilinx and Altera)
0x01 : 0x025
COM/GPL
SSRCTRL
32-bit synchronous SRAM (SSRAM) controller
0x01 : 0x00A
COM
FTSRCTRL8
8-bit SRAM / 16-bit IO Memory Controller with EDAC
0x01 : 0x056
FT
Table 3. Memory controllers
Name
17
Table 4. AMBA Bus control
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
AHB2AHB
Uni-directional AHB/AHB Bridge
0x01:0x020
COM
AHBBRIDGE
Bi-directional AHB/AHB Bridge
0x01:0x020
COM
AHBCTRL
AMBA AHB bus controller with plug&play
-
COM/GPL
AHBCTRL_MB
AMBA AHB bus controller for multiple buses with plug&play
APBCTRL
AMBA APB Bridge with plug&play
0x01 : 0x006
COM/GPL
COM
AHBTRACE
AMBA AHB Trace buffer
0x01 : 0x017
COM/GPL
Table 5. PCI interface
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
PCITARGET
32-bit target-only PCI interface
0x01 : 0x012
COM/GPL
PCIMTF/GRPCI
32-bit PCI master/target interface with FIFO
0x01 : 0x014
COM/GPL
PCITRACE
32-bit PCI trace buffer
0x01 : 0x015
COM/GPL
PCIDMA
DMA controller for PCIMTF
0x01 : 0x016
COM/GPL
PCIARB
PCI Bus arbiter
0x04 : 0x010
LGPL
Table 6. On-chip memory functions
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
AHBRAM
Single-port RAM with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x00E
COM/GPL
AHBROM
ROM generator with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x01B
COM/GPL
SYNCRAM
Parametrizable 1-port RAM
-
COM/GPL
SYNCRAM_2P
Parametrizable 2-port RAM
-
COM/GPL
SYNCRAM_DP
Parametrizable dual-port RAM
-
COM/GPL
REGFILE_3P
Parametrizable 3-port register file
-
COM/GPL
FTAHBRAM
RAM with AHB interface and EDAC protection
0x01 : 0x050
FT
Vendor:Device
License
Table 7. Serial communication
Name
Function
AHBUART
Serial/AHB debug interface
0x01 : 0x007
COM/GPL
AHBJTAG
JTAG/AHB debug interface
0x01 : 0x01C
COM/GPL
APBPS2
PS2 Keyboard interface with APB interface
0x01 : 0x060
COM/GPL
APBUART
Programmable UART with APB interface
0x01 : 0x00C
COM/GPL
CAN_OC
Opencores CAN 2.0 MAC with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x019
COM/GPL
GRETH
Gaisler Research 10/100 Mbit Ethernet MAC with AHB I/F
0x01 : 0x01D
COM/GPL
GRETH_GIGA
Gaisler Research 10/100/1000 Mbit Ethernet MAC with AHB
0x01 : 0x01D
COM
GRSPW
SpaceWire link with RMAP and AHB interface
0x01 : 0x01F
FT
USBDCL
USB-2.0 / AHB debug communication link
0x01 : 0x022
COM
GRCAN
CAN 2.0 Controller with DMA
0x01 : 0x03D
COM
18
Table 8. Misc. peripherals
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
ATACTRL
IDE/ATA controller with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x024
COM/GPL
GPTIMER
Modular timer unit
0x01 : 0x011
COM/GPL
GPIO
32-bit General purpose I/O port
0x01 : 0x01A
COM/GPL
LOGAN
On-chip logic analyzer
0x01 : 0x062
COM/GPL
TAP
Generic TAP controller
-
COM/GPL
NUHOSP3
PROM & I/O interface for Nuhorizons Spartan3 board
0x01 : 0x02B
COM/GPL
APBVGA
Text-only VGA controller
0x01 : 0x061
COM/GPL
CLKGEN
Clock generator and frequency divider for Altera/Xilinx
-
COM/GPL
RSTGEN
Generic reset generator
-
COM/GPL
SVGACTRL
SVGA video frame buffer
0x01 : 0x063
COM/GPL
Table 9. MIL-STD-1553 Bus interface
Name
Function
Device ID
License
B1553BC
1553 Bus controller with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x070
COM
B1553RT
1553 Remote terminal with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x071
COM
B1553BRM
1553 BC/RT/Monitor with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x072
COM
Function
Vendor:Device
License
GRAES
128-bit AES Encryption/Decryption Core
0x01 : 0x073
COM
GRECC
Elliptic Curve Cryptography Core
0x01 : 0x074
COM
Table 10. Encryption
Name
Table 11. Simulation and debugging
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
SRAM
SRAM simulation model with srecord pre-load
-
COM/GPL
MT48LC16M16
Micron SDRAM model with srecord pre-load
-
Free
MT46V16M16
Micron DDR model
-
Free
CY7C1354B
Cypress ZBT SSRAM model with srecord pre-load
-
Free
AHBMSTEM
AHB master simulation model with scripting
0x01 : 0x040
COM/GPL
AHBSLVEM
AHB slave simulation model with scripting
0x01 : 0x041
COM/GPL
AMBAMON
AHB and APB protocol monitor
-
COM
Table 12. CCSDS Telecommand and telemetry functions
Name
Function
Vendor:Device
License
GRTM
CCSDS Telemetry encoder
0x01 : 0x030
FT
GRTC
CCSDS Telecommand decoder
0x01 : 0x031
COM/GPL
GRPW
Packetwire receiver with AHB interface
0x01 : 0x032
COM/GPL
GRCTM
CCSDS Time manager
0x01 : 0x033
COM/GPL
NOTE: The CCSDS functions are described in separate manuals
19
1.3
Implementation characteristics
The table below shows the approximate area for some of the GRLIP IP blocks mapped on Virtex2,
Actel-AX and typical ASIC technologies. The area depends strongly on configuration options (generics), optimization constraints and used synthesis tools. The data in the table should therefore be seen
as an indication only. The tools used to obtain the area was Synplify-8.1 for FPGA and Synopsys DC
for ASIC. The LUT area for Altera Stratix devices is roughly the same as for Virtex2. Using XST
instead of Synplify for Xilinx FPGAs gives typically 15% larger area.
Table 13. Approximate area consumption for some standard GRLIB IP cores
Virtex2
AX/RTAX
RAM16
Block
LUT
AHBCTRL
200
500
1,000
AHBJTAG
120
350
1,000
AHBUART (DSU UART)
450
800
2,000
APBCTRL
150
200
800
APBPS2
450
800
2,000
APBUART
200
300
1,000
APBVGA
250
-
1,400
ATACTRL
400
600
2,000
CAN_OC (CAN-2.0 core with AHB I/F)
1,600
4
Cells
ASIC
2
2,800
RAM64
2
Gates
5,000
GRCAN (CAN 2.0 Controller with DMA)
2,300
3,600
15,000
DDRCTRL
1,600
2
-
10,000
DDRSPA (32-bit)
900
2
-
-
DIV32 (64/32-bit iterative divider)
400
500
2,000
GPTIMER (16-bit scaler + 2x32-bit timers)
250
400
GRETH 10/100 Mbit Ethernet MAC
1,500
2,500
2
8,000
GRETH 10/100 Mbit Ethernet MAC with EDCL
2,600
1
4,000
4
15,000
GRFPU-Lite including LEON3 controller
4,000
6
7,000
4
35,000
-
100,000
4
-
25,000
150
800
1,300
GRFPU IEEE-754 floating-point unit
9,000
GRFPC for LEON3
5,000
GRGPIO, 16-bit configuration
100
GRSWP Spacewire link
1,900
IRQMP (1 processor)
300
LEON3, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache
4,300
12
6,500
40
20,000
LEON3, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache + DSU3
5,000
12
7,500
40
25,000
LOGAN, 32 channels, 1024 traces, 1 trigger
300
2
-
-
MCTRL
350
1,000
1,500
MCTRL including SDRAM support
600
1,400
2,000
MUL32 (32x32 multiplier, 4-cycle iterative)
200
1,400
5,500
PCI_TARGET, simple PCI target
150
500
800
PCI_MTF, master/target PCI with FIFO
1,100
4
2,000
4
6,000
PCIDMA, master/target PCI with FIFO/DMA
1,800
4
3,000
4
9,000
PCITRACE
300
2
600
4
1,400
SRCTRL
100
SDCTRL
300
SVGACTRL
1,200
USBDCL
2,000
3
2,800
3
350
1,500
200
500
600
2
1,600
15,000
1,200
2
8,000
12,000
20
Table 14. Approximate area consumption for some FT GRLIB IP cores
Block
RTAX2000 (Cells)
ASIC (gates)
GRFPU-Lite-FT including LEON3 controller
7,100 + 4 RAM64K36
36,000
GRFPCFT for LEON3
-
30,000 + RAM
LEON3FT, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache
7,500 + 48 RAM64K36
22,000 + RAM
LEON3FT, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache + DSU3
8,500 + 48 RAM64K36
27,000 + RAM
LEON3FT, 8 + 4 Kbyte cache + DSU3
8,500 + 38 RAM64K36
27,000 + RAM
FTSRCTRL
700
2,500
FTSRCTRL8
750
-
FTSDCTRL
1,000
3,500
FTAHBRAM (2 Kbyte with EDAC)
300 + 5 RAM64K36
2,000 + RAM
The table below show the area resources for some common FPGA devices. It can be used to quickly
estimate if a certain GRLIB design will fit the target device.
Table 15. Area resources for some common FPGA devices
FPGA
Logic
Memory
Actel AX1000
18,144 Cells
32 RAM64K36
Actel AX2000
32,248 Cells
64 RAM64K36
Xilinx Spartan3-1500
33,248 LUT
64 RAMB16
Xilinx Virtex2-3000
28,672 LUT
96 RAMB16
Xilinx Virtex2-6000
67,584 LUT
144 RAMB16
21
2
AHB2AHB - Uni-directional AHB to AHB bridge
2.1
Overview
Uni-directional AHB to AHB bridge is used to connect two AHB buses clocked by synchronous
clocks with any frequency ratio. The bridge is connected through a pair consisting of an AHB slave
and an AHB master interface. AHB transfer forwarding is performed in one direction, AHB transfers
to the slave interface are forwarded to the master interface. Application of the uni-directional bridge
include system partitioning, clock domain partitioning and system expansion.
Features offered by the uni-directional AHB to AHB bridge are:
•
single and burst AHB transfers
•
data buffering in internal FIFOs
•
efficient bus utilization through use of SPLIT response and data prefetching
•
posted writes
•
dead-lock detection logic enables use of two uni-directional bridges to build bi-directional bridge
(see AHB/AHB bridge core)
MASTER 1
MASTER 2
MASTER N
AHB Bus 0
BUS
CONTROL
SLAVE 1
SLAVE 2
SLAVE I/F
AHB/AHB
BRIDGE
MASTER I/F
MASTER 1
MASTER N
AHB Bus 1
BUS
CONTROL
SLAVE 1
SLAVE 2
Figure 1. Two AHB buses connected with (uni-directional) AHB/AHB bridge
2.2
Operation
2.2.1
General
Address space occupied by the AHB/AHB bridge on the slave bus is configurable and determined by
Bank Address Registers in the slave interface AHB Plug&Play configuration record.
The bridge is capable of handling single and burst transfers of incremental type (HBURST,
HBURST4, HBURST8, HBURST16). Supported transfer sizes (HSIZE) are byte, halfword and word.
For AHB write transfers write data is always buffered in internal FIFO implementing posted writes.
For AHB read transfers the bridge uses GRLIB’s AMBA Plug&Play information to determine
weather the read data will be prefetch and buffered in internal FIFO. If the target address for an AHB
read transfer is a prefetchable location the read data will be prefetched and buffered. AHB master ini-
22
tiating a read transfer to the bridge is always splitted on the first transfer attempt to allow other masters to use the slave bus while the bridge performs read transfer on the master bus.
If the interrupt synchronization is enabled the interrupts on the slave bus interrupt lines will be forwarded to the master bus and vice versa.
2.2.2
AHB read transfers
When a read transfer is registered on the slave interface the bridge gives SPLIT response. The master
that initiated the transfer will be de-granted allowing other bus master to use the slave bus while the
bridge performs read transfer on the master side. The master interface requests the bus and starts the
read transfer on the master side. Single transfer on the slave side is translated to single access on the
master side. If the read FIFO is enabled and the transfer is a burst transfer to a prefetchable location
the master interface will perform transfer of either fixed length in case of fixed-length burst or burst of
the same length as the read FIFO. Read data is buffered in the internal FIFO and the burst transfer is
completed on the master side. If the read FIFO is disabled or the burst is to non-prefetchable area the
first access in the burst is performed and the master bus is kept by performing BUSY transfers. On the
slave side the splitted master that initiated the transfer is allowed in bus arbitration by asserting
HSPLIT signal to the AHB controller. When the splitted master re-attempts the transfer the slave
interface completes the burst transfer if the read data was prefetched to the read FIFO. In case of burst
to non-prefetchable location or if the read FIFO is disabled the first access in the transfer is completed
by returning read data and the transfer on the slave side is extended by asserting HREADY low while
the next access in the burst transfer is started on the master side. This sequence is repeated until the
transfer ends on the slave side.
Special case is the read burst marked as instruction fetch (indicated on HPROT signal) in which case
the prefetching on the master side is completed at the end of cache line (cache line size for instruction
fetch transfers is also configurable).
In case of error response on the master side the error response will be given for the same access on the
slave side. SPLIT and RETRY responses are re-attempted until OKAY or ERROR response is
received. The slave interface gives thus only OKAY or ERROR response on the slave interface.
2.2.3
AHB write transfers
AHB/AHB bridge implements posted writes. During the AHB write transfer on the slave side the data
is buffered in the internal write FIFO and the transfer is completed on the slave side by always giving
OKAY response. The master interface requests the bus and performs the write transfer when the master bus is granted. If the burst transfer is longer than the size of the write FIFO the SPLIT response is
given when the FIFO gets full. When the FIFO becomes empty the splitted master is allowed to reattempt the remaining accesses of the write burst transfer.
2.2.4
Locked transfers
The AHB/AHB bridge supports locked transfers. The master bus will be locked when the bus is
granted and remain locked until the transfer completes on the slave side.
2.3
Registers
The core does not implement any registers.
2.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x020. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
23
2.5
Configuration options
Table 16 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 16. Configuration options (VHDl generics)
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hsindex
Slave I/F AHB index
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
hmindex
Master I/F AHB index
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
dir
Clock frequency ratio.
0 - clock frequency on master bus is higer than frequency
on the slave bus, 1 - otherwise
0-1
0
tech
Memory technology
pfen
Prefetch enable. Enables read FIFO.
0-1
0
irqsync
Interrupt synchronization. Forward interrupts from each
bus to another
0-1
0
iburst
Instruction fetch burst length
4-8
8
rburst
Read burst length.
4 - 32
8
wburst
Write burst length
2 - 32
2
bar0
Address area 0 decoded by the bridge’s slave interface.
Appears as memory address register (BAR0) on the
slave interface. The generic has the same bit layout as
bank address registers with bits [19:18] suppressed (use
functions ahb2ahb_membar and ahb2ahb_iobar in
gaisler.misc package to generate this generic).
0 - 1073741823
0
bar1
Address area 1 (BAR1)
0 - 1073741823
0
bar2
Address area 2 (BAR2)
0 - 1073741823
0
bar3
Address area 3 (BAR2)
0 - 1073741823
0
sbus
The number of the AHB bus to which the slave interface
is connected. The value appears in bits [1:0] of the userdefined register 0 in the slave interface configuration
record and master configuration record.
0-3
0
mbus
The number of the AHB bus to which the master interface is connected. The value appears in bits [3:2] of the
user-defined register 0 in the slave interface configuration record and master configuration record.
0-3
0
ioarea
Configuration area for the master interface AHB bus.
0 - 16#FFF#
Appear in the bridge’s slave interface user-defined register 1.
0
24
2.6
Signal descriptions
Table 17 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 17. Signal descriptions (VHDL ports)
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
Input
Reset
Low
HCLKM
Input
AHB master bus clock
-
HCLKS
Input
AHB slave bus clock
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
AHBSO2
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
SLOCKI
Input
Used in systems with multiple AHB/AHB
bridges (e.g. bi-directional AHB/AHB bridge) to
detect dead-lock condition. Tie to ‘0’ in systems
with only uni-directional AHB/AHB bus.
High
BLOCKI
Input
See SLOCKI
High
SLOCKO
Output
Indicates possible dead-lock condition
High
BLOCKO
Output
Indicates possible dead-lock condition
High
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
2.7
Library dependencies
Table 18 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 18. Library dependencies
2.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity ahb2ahb_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
...
);
-- other signals
end;
architecture rtl of ahb2ahb_ex is
constant NCPU : integer := 4;
25
-- AMBA signals, maser bus
signal ahbmi1 : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo_m : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal ahbsi_m : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso_m : ahb_slv_out_type := (others => ahbs_none);
-- AMBA signals, slave bus
signal ahbmi_s : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo_s : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal ahbsi_s : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso_s : ahb_slv_out_type := (others => ahbs_none);
begin
-- AHB/AHB uni-directional bridge
ahb2ahb0 : ahb2ahb generic map (
hsindex => 1,hmindex => 3,pfen => 1,iburst => 8, mb0en => 1,
haddr0 => 16#400#, hmask => 16#F00#, hcache0 => 1, pfetch0 => 1)
port map (hclkm, hclks, rst, ahbsi_s, ahbso_s(3), ahbmi_m, ahbmo_m(3), ahbso_s, gnd, gnd,
open, open);
end;
26
3
AHBBRIDGE - Bi-directional AHB/AHB bridge
3.1
Overview
A typical application where AHB/AHB Bridge is used to partition system in high-speed AHB bus
hosting LEON3 CPUs and external memory controller with low-speed AHB bus hosting slow communication IP-cores is shown in figure 2. The bridge is capable of connecting two AHB buses clocked
by synchronous clocks with any frequency ratio. Internally, the bridge consists of two uni-directional
AHB to AHB bridges (see AHB2AHB core).
LEON3
SDRAM
SDRAM
Controller
DSU3
AHB
CTRL
High-speed bus
AHB/AHB
Bridge
PROM
LEON3
Async Mem
Controller
SRAM
Serial
Dbg Link
JTAG
Dbg Link
AHB
CTRL
Low-speed bus
AHB/APB
Bridge
Ethernet
MAC
I/O
UARTS
Timers
IrqCtrl
Figure 2. LEON3 system with AHB/AHB bus
3.2
Operation
3.2.1
General
AHB/AHB bridge is connected to each AHB bus through a pair consisting of AHB Master and AHB
Slave interface. Address space occupied by the AHB/AHB bridge on each bus is determined by Bank
Address Registers which are configured through VHDL-generics. Bridge is capable of handling single and burst transfers in both direction. Internal FIFOs are used for data buffering. The bridge implements SPLIT response to improve AHB bus utilization. For more information on AHB transfers
supported by the bridge refer to uni-directional AHB/AHB bridge (AHB2AHB) documentation.
3.2.2
Dead-lock detection
A dead-lock situation can occur if the bus is simultaneously accessed from both buses. Bridge contains dead-lock detection logic which will resolve dead-lock condition by giving RETRY response on
the low-speed bus.
3.3
Registers
The core does not implement any registers.
3.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x020. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
27
3.5
Configuration options
Table 19 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 19. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
tech
Target technology
-
0
ffact
Frequency ratio
-
0
hsb_hsindex
AHB slave index on the high-speed bus
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
hsb_hmindex
AHB master index on the high-speed bus
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
ncpu
Number of CPUs on the high-speed bus
0 - 15
0
hsb_iclize
Cache line size (in number of words) for CPUs on the
high-speed bus. Determines the number of the words that
are prefetched by the bridge when CPU performs
instruction bursts.
4, 8
8
hsb_bank0
Address area 0 mapped on the high-speed bus and
decoded by the bridge’s slave interface on the low-speed
bus. Appears as memory address register (BAR0) on the
bridge’s low-speed bus slave interface. The generic has
the same bit layout as bank address registers with bits
[19:18] suppressed (use functions ahb2ahb_membar and
ahb2ahb_iobar in gaisler.misc package to generate this
generic).
0 - 1073741823
0
hsb_bank1
Address area 1 mapped on the high-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
hsb_bank2
Address area 2 mapped on the high-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
hsb_bank3
Address area 3 mapped on the high-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
hsb_ioarea
High-speed bus configuration area will appear in the
bridge’s slave interface user-defined register 1 on the
low-speed bus.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
lsb_hsindex
AHB slave index on the low-speed bus
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
lsb_hmindex
AHB master index on the low-speed bus
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
lsb_rburst
Size of the prefetch buffer for read transfers initiated on
the low-speed-bus and crossing the bridge.
16, 32
16
lsb_wburst
Size of the write buffer for write transfers initiated on the
low-speed bus and crossing the bridge.
16, 32
16
lsb_bank0
Address area 0 mapped on the low-speed bus and
decoded by the bridge’s slave interface on the high-speed
bus. Appears as memory address register (BAR0) on the
bridge’s high-speed bus slave interface. The generic has
the same bit layout as bank address registers with bits
[19:18] suppressed (use functions ahb2ahb_membar and
ahb2ahb_iobar in gaisler.misc package to generate this
generic).
0 - 1073741823
0
lsb_bank1
Address area 1 mapped on the low-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
lsb_bank2
Address area 2 mapped on the low-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
lsb_bank3
Address area 3 mapped on the low-speed bus
0 - 1073741823
0
lsb_ioarea
Low-speed bus configuration area will appear in the
bridge’s slave interface user-defined register 1 on the
high-speed bus.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
28
3.6
Signal descriptions
Table 20 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 20. Signal descriptions
3.7
Signal name
Type
Function
Active
RST
Input
Reset
Low
HSB_HCLK
Input
High-speed AHB clock
-
LSB_HCLK
Input
Low-speed AHB clock
-
HSB_AHBSI
Input
High-speed bus AHB slave input signals
-
HSB_AHBSO
Output
High-speed bus AHB slave output signals
-
HSB_AHBSOV
Input
High-speed bus AHB slave input signals
-
HSB_AHBMI
Input
High-speed bus AHB master input signals
-
HSB_AHBMO
Output
High-speed bus AHB master output signals
-
LSB_AHBSI
Input
Low-speed bus AHB slave input signals
-
LSB_AHBSO
Output
Low-speed bus AHB slave output signals
-
LSB_AHBSOV
Input
Low-speed bus AHB slave input signals
-
LSB_AHBMI
Input
Low-speed bus AHB master input signals
-
LSB_AHBMO
Output
Low-speed bus AHB master output signals
-
Library dependencies
Table 21 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 21. Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
29
4
AHBCTRL - AMBA AHB controller with plug&play support
4.1
Overview
The AMBA AHB controller is a combined AHB arbiter, bus multiplexer and slave decoder according
to the AMBA 2.0 standard.
The controller supports up to 16 AHB masters, and 16 AHB slaves. The maximum number of masters
and slaves are defined in the GRLIB.AMBA package, in the VHDL constants NAHBSLV and NAHBMST. It can also be set with the nahbm and nahbs VHDL generics.
MASTER
MASTER
AHBCTRL
ARBITER/
DECODER
SLAVE
SLAVE
Figure 3. AHB controller block diagram
4.2
Operation
4.2.1
Arbitration
The AHB controller supports two arbitration algorithms: fixed-priority and round-robin. The selection
is done by the VHDL generic rrobin. In fixed-priority mode (rrobin = 0), the bus request priority is
equal to the master’s bus index, with index 0 being the lowest priority. If no master requests the bus,
the master with bus index 0 (set by the VHDL generic defmast) will be granted.
In round-robin mode, priority is rotated one step after each AHB transfer. If no master requests the
bus, the last owner will be granted (bus parking).
During incremental bursts, the AHB master should keep the bus request asserted until the last access
as recommended in the AMBA 2.0 specification, or it might loose bus ownership. For fixed-length
burst, the AHB master will be granted the bus during the full burst, and can release the bus request
immediately after the first access has started. For this to work however, the VHDL generic fixbrst
should be set to 1.
4.2.2
Decoding
Decoding (generation of HSEL) of AHB slaves is done using the plug&play method explained in the
GRLIB User’s Manual. A slave can occupy any binary aligned address space with a size of 1 - 4096
Mbyte. A specific I/O area is also decoded, where slaves can occupy 256 byte - 1 Mbyte. The default
address of the I/O area is 0xFFF00000, but can be changed with the cfgaddr and cfgmask VHDL
generics. Access to unused addresses will cause an AHB error response.
4.2.3
Plug&play information
GRLIB devices contain a number of plug&play information words which are included in the AHB
records they drive on the bus (see the GRLIB user’s manual for more information). These records are
combined into an array which is connected to the AHB controller unit.
30
The plug&play information is mapped on a read-only address area, defined by the cfgaddr and cfgmask VHDL generics. By default, the area is mapped on address 0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFFFFF. The
master information is placed on the first 2 kbyte of the block (0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFF800), while the
slave information id placed on the second 2 kbyte block. Each unit occupies 32 bytes, which means
that the area has place for 64 masters and 64 slaves. The address of the plug&play information for a
certain unit is defined by its bus index. The address for masters is thus 0xFFFFF000 + n*32, and
0xFFFFF800 + n*32 for slaves.
31
Identification Register
00
24 23
12 11 10 9
VENDOR ID
DEVICE ID
04
USER-DEFINED
08
USER-DEFINED
0C
USER-DEFINED
00
5 4
VERSION
0
IRQ
BAR0 10
HADDR
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
MASK
TYPE
BAR1 14
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
BAR2 18
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
BAR3 1C
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
Bank Address Registers
31
20 19 18 17 16 15
P = Prefetchable
C = Cacheable
4 3
0
TYPE
0001 = APB I/O space
0010 = AHB Memory space
0011 = AHB I/O space
Figure 4. AHB plug&play information record
4.3
AHB split support
AHB SPLIT functionality is supported if the split VHDL generic is set to 1. In this case, all slaves
must driver the AHB SPLIT signal.
4.4
AHB bus monitor
An AHB bus monitor is integrated into the core. It is enabled with the enbusmon generic. It has the
same functionality as the AHB and arbiter parts in the AMBA monitor core (AMBAMON). For more
information on which rules are checked se the AMBAMON documentation.
4.5
Registers
The core does not implement any registers.
31
4.6
Configuration options
Table 22 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 22. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
ioaddr
The MSB address of the I/O area. Sets the 12 most significant bits in the 32-bit AHB address.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
iomask
The I/O area address mask. Sets the size of the I/O area
and the start address together with ioaddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
cfgaddr
The MSB address of the configuration area.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
cfgmask
The address mask of the configuration area. Sets the size
of the configuration area and the start address together
with cfgaddr. If set to 0, the configuration will be disabled.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
rrobin
Selects between round-robin (1) or fixed-priority (0) bus
arbitration algorithm.
0-1
0
split
Enable support for AHB SPLIT response
0-1
0
defmast
Default AHB master
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
ioen
AHB I/O area enable. Set to0 to disable the I/O area
0-1
1
nahbm
Number of AHB masters
1 - NAHBMST
NAHBMST
nahbs
Number of AHB slaves
1 - NAHBSLV
NAHBSLV
timeout
Perform bus timeout checks (NOT IMPLEMENTED).
0-1
0
fixbrst
Enable support for fixed-length bursts
0-1
0
debug
Print configuration (0=none, 1=short, 2=all cores)
0-2
2
fpnpen
Enables full decoding of the PnP configuration records. 0 - 1
When disabled the user-defined registers in the PnP configuration records are not mapped in the configuration
area.
0
icheck
Check bus index
0-1
1
devid
Assign unique device identifier readable from plug and
play area.
N/A
0
enbusmon
Enable AHB bus monitor
0-1
0
assertwarn
Enable assertions for AMBA recommendations. Violations are asserted with severity warning.
0-1
0
asserterr
Enable assertions for AMBA requirements. Violations
are asserted with severity error.
0-1
0
hmstdisable
Disable AHB master rule check. To disable a master rule
check a value is assigned so that the binary representation contains a one at the position corresponding to the
rule number, e.g 0x80 disables rule 7.
N/A
0
hslvdisable
Disable AHB slave tests. Values are assigned as for
hmstdisable.
N/A
0
arbdisable
Disable Arbiter tests. Values are assigned as for hmstdis- N/A
able.
0
32
4.7
Signal descriptions
Table 23 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 23. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
AHB reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AHB clock
-
MSTI
*
Output
AMBA AHB master interface record array
-
MSTO
*
Input
AMBA AHB master interface record array
-
SLVI
*
Output
AMBA AHB slave interface record array
-
SLVO
*
Input
AMBA AHB slave interface record array
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
4.8
Library dependencies
Table 24 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 24. Library dependencies
4.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
component ahbctrl
generic (
defmast : integer := 0;-- default master
split
: integer := 0;-- split support
rrobin : integer := 0;-- round-robin arbitration
timeout : integer range 0 to 255 := 0; -- HREADY timeout
ioaddr : ahb_addr_type := 16#fff#; -- I/O area MSB address
iomask : ahb_addr_type := 16#fff#;
-- I/O area address mask
cfgaddr : ahb_addr_type := 16#ff0#; -- config area MSB address
cfgmask : ahb_addr_type := 16#ff0#; -- config area address maskk
nahbm
: integer range 1 to NAHBMST := NAHBMST; -- number of masters
nahbs
: integer range 1 to NAHBSLV := NAHBSLV; -- number of slaves
ioen
: integer range 0 to 15 := 1;
-- enable I/O area
disirq : integer range 0 to 1 := 0; -- disable interrupt routing
fixbrst : integer range 0 to 1 := 0; -- support fix-length bursts
debug : integer range 0 to 2 := 2; -- print configuration to consolee
fpnpen : integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
-- full PnP configuration decoding
icheck : integer range 0 to 1 := 1
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
msti
: out ahb_mst_in_type;
msto
: in ahb_mst_out_vector;
slvi
: out ahb_slv_in_type;
slvo
: in ahb_slv_out_vector
);
end component;
4.10
Instantiation
This examples shows the core can be instantiated.
33
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
.
.
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
begin
-- ARBITER
ahb0 : ahbctrl -- AHB arbiter/multiplexer
generic map (defmast => CFG_DEFMST, split => CFG_SPLIT,
rrobin => CFG_RROBIN, ioaddr => CFG_AHBIO, nahbm => 8, nahbs => 8)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbmo, ahbsi, ahbso);
-- AHB slave
sr0 : srctrl generic map (hindex => 3)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(3), memi, memo, sdo3);
-- AHB master
e1 : eth_oc
generic map (mstndx => 2, slvndx => 5, ioaddr => CFG_ETHIO, irq => 12, memtech =>
memtech)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(5), ahbmi => ahbmi,
ahbmo => ahbmo(2), ethi1, etho1);
...
end;
4.11
Debug print-out
If the debug generic is set to 2, the plug&play information of all attached AHB units are printed to the
console during the start of simulation. Reporting starts by scanning the master interface array from 0
to NAHBMST - 1 (defined in the grlib.amba package). It checks each entry in the array for a valid
vendor-id (all nonzero ids are considered valid) and if one is found, it also retrieves the device-id. The
descriptions for these ids are obtained from the GRLIB.DEVICES package, and are then printed on
standard out together with the master number. If the index check is enabled (done with a VHDL
generic), the report module also checks if the hindex number returned in the record matches the array
number of the record currently checked (the array index). If they do not match, the simulation is
aborted and an error message is printed.
This procedure is repeated for slave interfaces found in the slave interface array. It is scanned from 0
to NAHBSLV - 1 and the same information is printed and the same checks are done as for the master
interfaces. In addition, the address range and memory type is checked and printed. The address information includes type, address, mask, cacheable and pre-fetchable fields. From this information, the
report module calculates the start address of the device and the size of the range. The information
finally printed is type, start address, size, cacheability and pre-fetchability. The address ranges currently defined are AHB memory, AHB I/O and APB I/O. APB I/O ranges are ignored by this module.
# vsim -c -quiet leon3mp
VSIM 1> run
# LEON3 MP Demonstration design
34
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
GRLIB Version 1.0.7
Target technology: inferred, memory library: inferred
ahbctrl: AHB arbiter/multiplexer rev 1
ahbctrl: Common I/O area disabled
ahbctrl: Configuration area at 0xfffff000, 4 kbyte
ahbctrl: mst0: Gaisler Research
Leon3 SPARC V8 Processor
ahbctrl: mst1: Gaisler Research
AHB Debug UART
ahbctrl: slv0: European Space Agency
Leon2 Memory Controller
ahbctrl:
memory at 0x00000000, size 512 Mbyte, cacheable, prefetch
ahbctrl:
memory at 0x20000000, size 512 Mbyte
ahbctrl:
memory at 0x40000000, size 1024 Mbyte, cacheable, prefetch
ahbctrl: slv1: Gaisler Research
AHB/APB Bridge
ahbctrl:
memory at 0x80000000, size 1 Mbyte
apbctrl: APB Bridge at 0x80000000 rev 1
apbctrl: slv0: European Space Agency
Leon2 Memory Controller
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000000, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv1: Gaisler Research
Generic UART
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000100, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv2: Gaisler Research
Multi-processor Interrupt Ctrl.
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000200, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv3: Gaisler Research
Modular Timer Unit
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000300, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv7: Gaisler Research
AHB Debug UART
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000700, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv11: Gaisler Research
General Purpose I/O port
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000b00, size 256 byte
grgpio11: 8-bit GPIO Unit rev 0
gptimer3: GR Timer Unit rev 0, 8-bit scaler, 2 32-bit timers, irq 8
irqmp: Multi-processor Interrupt Controller rev 3, #cpu 1
apbuart1: Generic UART rev 1, fifo 4, irq 2
ahbuart7: AHB Debug UART rev 0
leon3_0: LEON3 SPARC V8 processor rev 0
leon3_0: icache 1*8 kbyte, dcache 1*8 kbyte
VSIM 2>
35
36
5
AHBCTRL_MB - AMBA AHB bus controller bus with support for multiple
AHB buses
5.1
Overview
AMBA AHB bus controller with support for multiple AHB buses performs arbitration and bus control
on one AHB bus identically to single-bus AHB controller (AHBCTRL). In addition AHBCTRL_MB
can decode plug&play information for multiple AHB buses making it suitable for use in multiple
AHB bus systems. The AMBA AHB bus controller supports systems with up to 4 AHB buses.
LEON3
SDRAM
SDRAM
Controller
LEON3
DSU3
AHBCTRL_MB
AHB Bus 0
AHB/AHB
Bridge
PROM
Async Mem
Controller
SRAM
JTAG
Dbg Link
AHBCTRL_MB
AHB Bus 1
AHB/APB
Bridge
Ethernet
MAC
I/O
UARTS
Timers
IrqCtrl
Figure 5. System with multiple AHB buses
The AMBA AHB controller with support for multiple AHB buses is a combined AHB arbiter, bus
multiplexer and slave decoder according to the AMBA 2.0 standard.
The controller supports up to 16 AHB masters, and 16 AHB slaves per AHB bus. The maximum number of masters and slaves per bus are defined in the GRLIB.AMBA package, in the VHDL constants
NAHBSLV and NAHBMST. It can also be set with the nahbm and nahbs VHDL generics.
MASTER
MASTER
AHBCTRL
ARBITER/
DECODER
SLAVE
Figure 6. AHB controller block diagram
SLAVE
37
5.2
Operation
5.2.1
Arbitration
The AHB controller supports two arbitration algorithms: fixed-priority and round-robin. The selection
is done by the VHDL generic rrobin. In fixed-priority mode (rrobin = 0), the bus request priority is
equal to the master’s bus index, with index 0 being the lowest priority. If no master requests the bus,
the master with bus index 0 (set by the VHDL generic defmast) will be granted.
In round-robin mode, priority is rotated one step after each AHB transfer. If no master requests the
bus, the last owner will be granted (bus parking).
During incremental bursts, the AHB master should keep the bus request asserted until the last access
as recommended in the AMBA 2.0 specification, or it might loose bus ownership. For fixed-length
burst, the AHB master will be granted the bus during the full burst, and can release the bus request
immediately after the first access has started. For this to work however, the VHDL generic fixbrst
should be set to 1.
5.2.2
Decoding
Decoding (generation of HSEL) of AHB slaves is done using the plug&play method explained in the
GRLIB User’s Manual. A slave can occupy any binary aligned address space with a size of 1 - 4096
Mbyte. A specific I/O area is also decoded, where slaves can occupy 256 byte - 1 Mbyte. The default
address of the I/O area is 0xFFF00000, but can be changed with the cfgaddr and cfgmask VHDL
generics. Access to unused addresses will cause an AHB error response.
5.2.3
Plug&play information
GRLIB devices contain a number of plug&play information words which are included in the AHB
records they drive on the bus (see the GRLIB user’s manual for more information). These records are
combined into an array which is connected to the AHB controller unit.
The plug&play information is mapped on a read-only address area, defined by the cfgaddr and cfgmask VHDL generics. By default, the area is mapped on address 0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFFFFF and
contains information for all buses in the system. The master information is placed on the first 2 kbyte
of the block (0xFFFFF000 - 0xFFFFF800), while the slave information is placed on the second 2
kbyte block. The master and slave information area contains plug&play information for all AHB
busus in the system where each bus occupies 512 bytes (masters on bus 0 occupy 0xFFFFF000 0xFFFFF200, masters on bus 1 occupy 0xFFFFF200 - 0xFFFFF400, ...). Each unit occupies 32 bytes,
which means that the area has place for 16 masters and 16 slaves per bus (64 master and 64 slaves
totally). The address of the plug&play information for a certain unit is defined by the AHB bus and its
master/slave index. The address for masters is thus 0xFFFFF000 + bus*512 + n*32, and 0xFFFFF800
+ bus*512 + n*32 for slaves (where bus is bus number and n is master/slave index). In a multiple
AHB bus system one AHB controller should decode plug&play information (e.g. AHBCTRL_MB on
bus 0) while configuration area should be disabled for the AHB controllers on other buses.
38
31
Identification Register
00
24 23
12 11 10 9
VENDOR ID
DEVICE ID
04
USER-DEFINED
08
USER-DEFINED
0C
USER-DEFINED
00
5 4
VERSION
0
IRQ
BAR0 10
HADDR
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
MASK
TYPE
BAR1 14
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
BAR2 18
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
BAR3 1C
ADDR
00
P C
MASK
TYPE
Bank Address Registers
31
20 19 18 17 16 15
P = Prefetchable
C = Cacheable
4 3
0
TYPE
0001 = APB I/O space
0010 = AHB Memory space
0011 = AHB I/O space
Figure 7. AHB plug&play information record
5.3
AHB split support
AHB SPLIT functionality is supported if the split VHDL generic is set to 1. In this case, all slaves
must driver the AHB SPLIT signal.
5.4
Registers
The core does not implement any registers.
39
5.5
Configuration options
Table 25 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 25. Configuration options
5.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
ioaddr
The MSB address of the I/O area. Sets the 12 most significant bits in the 32-bit AHB address.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
iomask
The I/O area address mask. Sets the size of the I/O area
and the start address together with ioaddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
cfgaddr
The MSB address of the configuration area.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
cfgmask
The address mask of the configuration area. Sets the size
of the configuration area and the start address together
with cfgaddr. If set to 0, the configuration will be disabled.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
rrobin
Selects between round-robin (1) or fixed-priority (0) bus
arbitration algorithm.
0-1
0
split
Enable support for AHB SPLIT response
0-1
0
defmast
Default AHB master
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
ioen
AHB I/O area enable. Set ot 0 to disable the I/O area
0-1
1
nahbm
Number of AHB masters
1 - NAHBMST
NAHBMST
nahbs
Number of AHB slaves
1 - NAHBSLV
NAHBSLV
timeout
Perform bus timeout checks (NOT IMPLEMENTED).
0-1
0
fixbrst
Enable support for fixed-length bursts
0-1
0
debug
Print configuration (0=none, 1=short, 2=all cores)
0-2
2
fpnpen
Enables full decoding of the PnP configuration records. 0 - 1
When disabled the user-defined registers in the PnP configuration records are not mapped in the configuration
area.
0
icheck
Check bus index
0-1
1
busndx
AHB bus number
0-3
0
Signal descriptions
Table 26 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 26. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
AHB reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AHB clock
-
MSTI
*
Output
AMBA AHB master interface record array
-
MSTO
*
Input
AMBA AHB master interface record array (vector)
-
SLVI
*
Output
AMBA AHB slave interface record array
-
SLVO
*
Input
AMBA AHB slave interface record array (vector)
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
40
5.7
Library dependencies
Table 27 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 27. Library dependencies
5.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
component ahbctrl
generic (
defmast : integer := 0;-- default master
split
: integer := 0;-- split support
rrobin : integer := 0;-- round-robin arbitration
timeout : integer range 0 to 255 := 0; -- HREADY timeout
ioaddr : ahb_addr_type := 16#fff#; -- I/O area MSB address
iomask : ahb_addr_type := 16#fff#;
-- I/O area address mask
cfgaddr : ahb_addr_type := 16#ff0#; -- config area MSB address
cfgmask : ahb_addr_type := 16#ff0#; -- config area address maskk
nahbm
: integer range 1 to NAHBMST := NAHBMST; -- number of masters
nahbs
: integer range 1 to NAHBSLV := NAHBSLV; -- number of slaves
ioen
: integer range 0 to 15 := 1;
-- enable I/O area
disirq : integer range 0 to 1 := 0; -- disable interrupt routing
fixbrst : integer range 0 to 1 := 0; -- support fix-length bursts
debug : integer range 0 to 2 := 2; -- print configuration to consolee
fpnpen : integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
-- full PnP configuration decoding
busndx : integer range 0 to 3 := 0;
icheck : integer range 0 to 1 := 1
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
msti
: out ahb_mst_in_type;
msto
: in ahb_mst_out_bus_vector;
slvi
: out ahb_slv_in_type;
slvo
: in ahb_slv_out_bus_vector
);
end component;
5.9
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated. Note that master and slave outputs from all
AHB buses in the systems are combined into vectors msto and slvo where each element holds master
or slave outputs on one AHB bus.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
.
.
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_bus_vector := (others => (others => ahbs_none));
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_bus_vector := (others => (others => ahbm_none));
41
begin
-- ARBITER
ahb0 : ahbctrl -- AHB arbiter/multiplexer
generic map (defmast => CFG_DEFMST, split => CFG_SPLIT,
rrobin => CFG_RROBIN, ioaddr => CFG_AHBIO, nahbm => 8, nahbs => 8, busndx => 0)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbmo(0), ahbsi, ahbso(0));
-- AHB slave
sr0 : srctrl generic map (hindex => 3)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(3), memi, memo, sdo3);
-- AHB master
e1 : eth_oc
generic map (mstndx => 2, slvndx => 5, ioaddr => CFG_ETHIO, irq => 12, memtech =>
memtech)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(5), ahbmi => ahbmi,
ahbmo => ahbmo(0)(2), ethi1, etho1);
...
end;
5.10
Debug print-out
If the debug generic is set to 2, the plug&play information of all attached AHB units on the current
AHB bus are printed to the console during the start of simulation. Reporting starts by scanning the
master interface array from 0 to NAHBMST - 1 (defined in the grlib.amba package). It checks each
entry in the array for a valid vendor-id (all nonzero ids are considered valid) and if one is found, it also
retrieves the device-id. The descriptions for these ids are obtained from the GRLIB.DEVICES package, and are then printed on standard out together with the master number. If the index check is
enabled (done with a VHDL generic), the report module also checks if the hindex number returned in
the record matches the array number of the record currently checked (the array index). If they do not
match, the simulation is aborted and an error message is printed.
This procedure is repeated for slave interfaces found in the slave interface array. It is scanned from 0
to NAHBSLV - 1 and the same information is printed and the same checks are done as for the master
interfaces. In addition, the address range and memory type is checked and printed. The address information includes type, address, mask, cacheable and pre-fetchable fields. From this information, the
report module calculates the start address of the device and the size of the range. The information
finally printed is type, start address, size, cacheability and pre-fetchability. The address ranges currently defined are AHB memory, AHB I/O and APB I/O. APB I/O ranges are ignored by this module.
# vsim -c -quiet leon3mp
VSIM 1> run
# LEON3 MP Demonstration design
# GRLIB Version 1.0.7
# Target technology: inferred, memory library: inferred
# ahbctrl: AHB arbiter/multiplexer rev 1
# ahbctrl: Common I/O area disabled
# ahbctrl: Configuration area at 0xfffff000, 4 kbyte
# ahbctrl: mst0: Gaisler Research
Leon3 SPARC V8 Processor
# ahbctrl: mst1: Gaisler Research
AHB Debug UART
# ahbctrl: slv0: European Space Agency
Leon2 Memory Controller
# ahbctrl:
memory at 0x00000000, size 512 Mbyte, cacheable, prefetch
# ahbctrl:
memory at 0x20000000, size 512 Mbyte
# ahbctrl:
memory at 0x40000000, size 1024 Mbyte, cacheable, prefetch
# ahbctrl: slv1: Gaisler Research
AHB/APB Bridge
# ahbctrl:
memory at 0x80000000, size 1 Mbyte
# apbctrl: APB Bridge at 0x80000000 rev 1
# apbctrl: slv0: European Space Agency
Leon2 Memory Controller
# apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000000, size 256 byte
# apbctrl: slv1: Gaisler Research
Generic UART
42
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000100, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv2: Gaisler Research
Multi-processor Interrupt Ctrl.
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000200, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv3: Gaisler Research
Modular Timer Unit
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000300, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv7: Gaisler Research
AHB Debug UART
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000700, size 256 byte
apbctrl: slv11: Gaisler Research
General Purpose I/O port
apbctrl:
I/O ports at 0x80000b00, size 256 byte
grgpio11: 8-bit GPIO Unit rev 0
gptimer3: GR Timer Unit rev 0, 8-bit scaler, 2 32-bit timers, irq 8
irqmp: Multi-processor Interrupt Controller rev 3, #cpu 1
apbuart1: Generic UART rev 1, fifo 4, irq 2
ahbuart7: AHB Debug UART rev 0
leon3_0: LEON3 SPARC V8 processor rev 0
leon3_0: icache 1*8 kbyte, dcache 1*8 kbyte
VSIM 2>
43
6
AHBJTAG - JTAG Debug Link with AHB Master Interface
6.1
Overview
The JTAG debug interface provides access to on-chip AMBA AHB bus through JTAG. The JTAG
debug interface implements a simple protocol which translates JTAG instructions to AHB transfers.
Through this link, a read or write transfer can be generated to any address on the AHB bus.
TDI
TCK
TMS
JTAG TAP
Controller
TDO
JTAG Communication
Interface
AHB master interface
AMBA AHB
Figure 8. JTAG Debug link block diagram
6.2
Operation
6.2.1
Transmission protocol
The JTAG Debug link decodes two JTAG instructions and implements two JTAG data registers: the
command/address register and data register. A read access is initiated by shifting in a command consisting of read/write bit, AHB access size and AHB address into the command/address register. The
AHB read access is performed and data is ready to be shifted out of the data register. Write access is
performed by shifting in command, AHB size and AHB address into the command/data register followed by shifting in write data into the data register. Sequential transfers can be performed by shifting
in command and address for the transfer start address and shifting in SEQ bit in data register for following accesses. The SEQ bit will increment the AHB address for the subsequent access. Sequential
transfers should not cross a 1 kB boundary. Sequential transfers are always word based.
Table 28. JTAG debug link Command/Address register
34 33 32 31
W
0
SIZE
AHB ADDRESS
34
Write (W) - ‘0’ - read transfer, ‘1’ - write transfer
33 32
AHB transfer size - “00” - byte, “01” - half-word, “10” - word, “11”- reserved
31 30
AHB address
Table 29. JTAG debug link Data register
32
31
SEQ
0
AHB DATA
32
Sequential transfer (SEQ) - If ‘1’ is shifted in this bit position when read data is shifted out or write
data shifted in, the subsequent transfer will be to next word address.
31 30
AHB Data - AHB write/read data. For byte and half-word transfers data is aligned according to bigendian order where data with address offset 0 data is placed in MSB bits.
44
6.3
Registers
The core does not implement any registers mapped in the AMBA AHB or APB address space.
6.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x01C. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
6.5
Configuration options
Table 30 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 30. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
tech
Target technology
0 - NTECH
0
hindex
AHB master index
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
nsync
Number of synchronization registers between clock
regions
1-2
1
idcode
JTAG IDCODE instruction code (generic tech only)
0 - 255
9
id_msb
JTAG Device indentification code MSB bits (generic
tech only)
0 - 65535
0
id_lsb
JTAG Device indentification code LSB bits (generic tech
only)
0 - 65535
0
idcode
JTAG IDCODE instruction (generic tech only)
0 - 255
9
ainst
Code of the JTAG instruction used to access JTAG
Debug link command/address register
0 - 255
2
dinst
Code of the JTAG instruction used to access JTAG
Debug link data register
0 - 255
3
45
6.6
Signal descriptions
Table 31 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 31. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
System clock (AHB clock domain)
-
TCK
N/A
Input
JTAG clock*
-
TCKN
N/A
Input
Inverted JTAG clock*
-
TMS
N/A
Input
JTAG TMS signal*
High
TDI
N/A
Input
JTAG TDI signal*
High
TDO
N/A
Output
JTAG TDO signal*
High
AHBI
***
Input
AHB Master interface input
-
AHBO
***
Output
AHB Master interface output
-
TAPO_TCK
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface TCK signal**
High
TAPO_TDI
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface TDI signal**
High
TAPO_INST[7:0]
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface INSTsignal**
High
TAPO_RST
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface RST signal**
High
TAPO_CAPT
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface CAPT signal**
High
TAPO_SHFT
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface SHFT signal**
High
TAPO_UPD
N/A
Output
TAP Controller User interface UPD signal**
High
TAPI_TDO
N/A
Input
TAP Controller User interface TDO signal**
High
*) If the target technology is Xilinx or Altera the cores JTAG signals TCK, TCKN, TMS, TDI and TDO are not used.
Instead the dedicated FPGA JTAG pins are used. These pins are implicitly made visible to the core through TAP controller
instantiation.
**) User interface signals from the JTAG TAP controller. These signals are used to interface additional user defined JTAG
data registers such as boundary-scan register. For more information on the JTAG TAP controller user interface see JTAG
TAP Controller IP-core documentation. If not used tie TAPI_TDO to ground and leave TAPO_* outputs unconnected.
***) see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
6.7
Library dependencies
Table 32 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 32. Library dependencies
6.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
JTAG
Signals, component
Signals and component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.jtag.all;
46
entity ahbjtag_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- JTAG signals
tck : in std_ulogic;
tms : in std_ulogic;
tdi : in std_ulogic;
tdo : out std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of ahbjtag_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
constant clkperiod : integer := 100;
begin
gnd <= ‘0’;
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- AHB JTAG
ahbjtag0 : ahbjtag generic map(tech => 0, hindex => 1)
port map(rstn, clkm, tck, tckn, tms, tdi, tdo, ahbmi, ahbmo(1),
open, open, open, open, open, open, open, gnd);
jtagproc : process
begin
wait;
jtagcom(tdo, tck, tms, tdi, 100, 20, 16#40000000#, true);
wait;
end process;
end;
6.9
Simulation
DSU communication over the JTAG debug link can be simulated using jtagcom procedure. The jtagcom procedure sends JTAG commands to the AHBJTAG on JTAG signals TCK, TMS, TDI and TDO.
The commands read out and report the device identification code, optionally put the CPU(s) in debug
mode, perform three write operations to the memory and read out the data from the memory. The
JTAG test works if the generic JTAG tap controller is used and will not work with built-in TAP macros (such as Altera and Xilinx JTAG macros) since these macros don’t have visible JTAG pins. The
jtagcom procedure is part of jtagtst package in gaisler library and has following declaration:
procedure jtagcom(signal tdo
: in std_ulogic;
signal tck, tms, tdi : out std_ulogic;
cp, start, addr
: in integer;
-- cp - TCK clock period in ns
-- start - time in us when JTAG test is started
-- addr - read/write operation destination address
haltcpu
: in boolean);
47
7
AHBRAM - Single-port RAM with AHB interface
7.1
Overview
AHBRAM implements a 32-bit wide on-chip RAM with an AHB slave interface. Memory size is configurable in binary steps through a VHDL generic. Minimum size is 1kB and maximum size is dependent on target technology and physical resources. Read accesses are zero-waitstate, write access have
one waitstate. The RAM supports byte- and half-word accesses, as well as all types of AHB burst
accesses. Internally, the AHBRAM instantiates four 8-bit wide SYNCRAM blocks.
7.2
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x00E. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
7.3
Configuration options
Table 33 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 33. Configuration options
7.4
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave bus index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
The MSB address of the AHB area. Sets the 12 most sig- 0 - 16#FFF#
nificant bits in the 32-bit AHB address.
16#FFF#
hmask
The AHB area address mask. Sets the size of the AHB
area and the start address together with haddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
tech
Technology to implement on-chip RAM
0 - NTECH
0
kbytes
RAM size in Kbytes
target-dependent
1
Signal descriptions
Table 34 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 34. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AMB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
7.5
Library dependencies
Table 35 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 35. Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
48
7.6
Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
component ahbram
generic ( hindex : integer := 0; haddr : integer := 0; hmask : integer := 16#fff#;
tech : integer := 0; kbytes : integer := 1);
port (
rst : in std_ulogic;
clk : in std_ulogic;
ahbsi : in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso : out ahb_slv_out_type
);
end component;
7.7
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
.
.
ahbram0 : ahbram generic map (hindex => 7, haddr => CFG_AHBRADDR,
tech => CFG_MEMTECH, kbytes => 8)
port map ( rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(7));
49
8
AHBROM - Single-port ROM with AHB interface
8.1
Overview
The AHBROM core implements a 32-bit wide on-chip ROM with an AHB slave interface. Read
accesses take zero waitstates, or one waitstate if the pipeline option is enabled. The ROM supports
byte- and half-word accesses, as well as all types of AHB burst accesses.
8.2
PROM generation
The AHBPROM is automatically generated by the make utility in GRLIB. The input format is a
sparc-elf binary file, produced by the BCC cross-compiler (sparc-elf-gcc). To create a PROM, first
compile a suitable binary and the run the make utility:
bash$ sparc-elf-gcc prom.S -o prom.exe
bash$ make ahbrom.vhd
Creating ahbrom.vhd : file size 272 bytes, address bits 9
The default binary file for creating a PROM is prom.exe. To use a different file, run make with the
FILE parameter set to the input file:
bash$ make ahbrom.vhd FILE=myfile.exe
The created PROM is realized in synthesizable VHDL code, using a CASE statement. For FPGA targets, most synthesis tools will map the CASE statement on a block RAM/ROM if available. For ASIC
implementations, the ROM will be synthesized as gates. It is then recommended to use the pipe option
to improve the timing.
8.3
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x01B. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
8.4
Configuration options
Table 36 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 36. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave bus index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
The MSB address of the AHB area. Sets the 12 most sig- 0 - 16#FFF#
nificant bits in the 32-bit AHB address.
16#FFF#
hmask
The AHB area address mask. Sets the size of the AHB
area and the start address together with haddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
tech
Not used
pipe
Add a pipeline stage on read data
0
0
kbytes
Not used
50
8.5
Signal descriptions
Table 37 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 37. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AMB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
8.6
Library dependencies
Table 38 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 38. Library dependencies
8.7
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
Component declaration
component ahbrom
generic ( hindex : integer := 0; haddr : integer := 0; hmask : integer := 16#fff#;
pipe : integer := 0; tech : integer := 0);
port (
rst : in std_ulogic;
clk : in std_ulogic;
ahbsi : in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso : out ahb_slv_out_type
);
end component;
8.8
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
.
.
brom : entity work.ahbrom
generic map (hindex => 8, haddr => CFG_AHBRODDR, pipe => CFG_AHBROPIP)
port map ( rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(8));
51
9
AHBSTAT - AHB Status Registers
9.1
Overview
The status registers store information about AMBA AHB accesses triggering an error response. There
is a status register and a failing address register capturing the control and address signal values of a
failing AMBA bus transaction, or the occurence of a correctable error being signaled from a fault tolerant core.
The status register and the failing address register are accessed from the AMBA APB bus.
9.2
Operation
The registers monitor AMBA AHB bus transactions and store the current HADDR, HWRITE,
HMASTER and HSIZE internally. The monitoring are always active after startup and reset until an
error response (HRESP = “01”) is detected. When the error is detected, the status and address register
contents are frozen and the New Error (NE) bit is set to one. At the same time an interrupt is generated.
The interrupt is generated on the line selected by the pirq VHDL generic.
The interrupt is usually connected to the interrupt controller to inform the processor of the error condition. The normal procedure is that an interrupt routine handles the error with the aid of the information in the status registers. When it is finished it resets the NE bit and the monitoring becomes active
again.
Not only error responses on the AHB bus can be detected. Many of the fault tolerant units containing
EDAC have a correctable error signal which is asserted each time a single error is detected. When
such an error is detected, the effect will be the same as for an AHB error response, The only difference
is that the Correctable Error (CE) bit in the status register is set to one when a single error is detected.
When the CE bit is set the interrupt routine can acquire the address containing the single error from
the failing address register and correct it. When it is finished it resets the CE bit and the monitoring
becomes active again.
The correctable error signals from the fault tolerant units should be connected to the stati.cerror input
signal vector of the AHB status register core, which is or-ed internally and if the resulting signal is
asserted, it will have the same effect as an AHB error response.
9.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 39. AHB Status registers
APB address offset
Registers
0x0
AHB Status register
0x4
AHB Failing address register
Table 40. AHB Status register
31
10
RESERVED
9
8
CE NE
7
HWRITE
6
3
HMASTER
2
0
HSIZE
31: 10
RESERVED
9
CE: Correctable Error. Set if the detected error was caused by a single error and zero otherwise.
8
NE: New Error. Deasserted at start-up and after reset. Asserted when an error is detected. Reset by
writing a zero to it.
52
7
Table 40. AHB Status register
The HWRITE signal of the AHB transaction that caused the error.
6: 3
The HMASTER signal of the AHB transaction that caused the error.
2: 0
The HSIZE signal of the AHB transaction that caused the error
Table 41. AHB Failing address register
31
0
AHB FAILING ADDRESS
31: 0
9.4
The HADDR signal of the AHB transaction that caused the error.
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x052. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
9.5
Configuration options
Table 42 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 42. Configuration options
9.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
paddr
APB address
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
APB address mask
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Interrupt line driven by the core
0 - 16#FFF#
0
nftslv
Number of FT slaves connected to the cerror vector
1 - NAHBSLV-1
3
Signal descriptions
Table 43 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 43. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave output signals
-
STATI
CERROR
Input
Correctable Error Signals
High
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
9.7
Library dependencies
Table 44 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 44. Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
53
9.8
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the status register. There are three Fault Tolerant units with EDAC connected to the status
register cerror vector. The connection of the different memory controllers to external memory is not
shown.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity mctrl_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
--other signals
....
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal sdo, sdo2: sdctrl_out_type;
signal sdi : sdctrl_in_type;
-- correctable error vector
signal stati : ahbstat_in_type;
signal aramo : ahbram_out_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are defined here ...
-- AHB Status Register
astat0 : ahbstat generic map(pindex => 13, paddr => 13, pirq => 11,
nftslv => 3)
port map(rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbsi, stati, apbi, apbo(13));
stati.cerror(3 to NAHBSLV-1) <= (others => ‘0’);
--FT AHB RAM
a0 : ftahbram generic map(hindex => 1, haddr => 1, tech => inferred,
kbytes => 64, pindex => 4, paddr => 4, edacen => 1, autoscrub => 0,
errcnt => 1, cntbits => 4)
port map(rst, clk, ahbsi, ahbso, apbi, apbo(4), aramo);
stati.cerror(0) <= aramo.ce;
-- SDRAM controller
sdc : ftsdctrl generic map (hindex => 3, haddr => 16#600#, hmask => 16#F00#,
ioaddr => 1, fast => 0, pwron => 1, invclk => 0, edacen => 1, errcnt => 1,
cntbits => 4)
54
port map (rstn, clk, ahbsi, ahbso(3), sdi, sdo);
stati.cerror(1) <= sdo.ce;
-- Memory controller
mctrl0 : ftsrctrl generic map (rmw => 1, pindex => 10, paddr => 10,
edacen => 1, errcnt => 1, cntbits => 4)
port map (rstn, clk, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(10), memi, memo, sdo2);
stati.cerror(2) <= memo.ce;
end;
55
10
AHBTRACE - AHB Trace buffer
10.1
Overview
The trace buffer consists of a circular buffer that stores AMBA AHB data transfers. The address, data
and various control signals of the AHB bus are stored and can be read out for later analysis.
AHB Trace Buffer
Trace buffer RAM
Trace control
AHB slave interface
IRQ
AMBA AHB
Figure 9. Block diagram
The trace buffer is 128 bits wide, the information stored is indicated in the table below:
Table 45. AHB Trace buffer data allocation
Bits
Name
Definition
127:96
Time tag
The value of the time tag counter
95
AHB breakpoint hit
Set to ‘1’ if a DSU AHB breakpoint hit occurred.
94:80
Hirq
AHB HIRQ[15:1]
79
Hwrite
AHB HWRITE
78:77
Htrans
AHB HTRANS
76:74
Hsize
AHB HSIZE
73:71
Hburst
AHB HBURST
70:67
Hmaster
AHB HMASTER
66
Hmastlock
AHB HMASTLOCK
65:64
Hresp
AHB HRESP
63:32
Load/Store data
AHB HRDATA or HWDATA
31:0
Load/Store address
AHB HADDR
In addition to the AHB signals, a 32-bit counter is also stored in the trace as time tag.
10.2
Operation
The trace buffer is enabled by setting the enable bit (EN) in the trace control register. Each AMBA
AHB transfer is then stored in the buffer in a circular manner. The address to which the next transfer is
written is held in the trace buffer index register, and is automatically incremented after each transfer.
Tracing is stopped when the EN bit is reset, or when a AHB breakpoint is hit. An interrupt is generated when a breakpoint is hit.
Note: the LEON3 Debug Support Unit (DSU3) also includes an AHB trace buffer. The trace buffer is
intended to be used in system without the LEON3 processor or when the DSU3 is not present.
The size of the trace buffer is configured by means of the kbytes VHDL generic, defining the size of the
complete buffer in kbytes.
56
The size of the trace buffer is TBD kbyte, with the resulting line depth of TBD/16 kbyte.
10.3
Registers
10.3.1 Register address map
The trace buffer occupies 128 kbyte address space in the AHB I/O area. The following register
address are decoded:.
Table 46. Trace buffer address space
Address
Register
0x000000
Trace buffer control register
0x000004
Trace buffer index register
0x000008
Time tag counter
0x000010
AHB break address 1
0x000014
AHB mask 1
0x000018
AHB break address 2
0x00001C
AHB mask 2
0x010000 - 0x020000
Trace buffer
..0
Trace bits 127 - 96
...4
Trace bits 95 - 64
...8
Trace bits 63 - 32
...C
Trace bits 31 - 0
10.3.2 Trace buffer control register
The trace buffer is controlled by the trace buffer control register:
31
16
DCNT
1
RESERVED
0
DM EN
Figure 10. Trace buffer control register
0:
1:
31:16
Trace enable (EN). Enables the trace buffer.
Delay counter mode (DM). Indicates that the trace buffer is in delay counter mode.
Trace buffer delay counter (DCNT). Note that the number of bits actually implemented depends on the size of the
trace buffer.
10.3.3 Trace buffer index register
The trace buffer index register indicates the address of the next 128-bit line to be written.
31
4
INDEX
3
0
0000
Figure 11. Trace buffer index register
31:4
Trace buffer index counter (INDEX). Note that the number of bits actually implemented depends on the size of the
trace buffer.
57
10.3.4 Trace buffer time tag register
The time tag register contains a 32-bit counter that increments each clock when the trace buffer is
enabled. The value of the counter is stored in the trace to provide a time tag.
31
0
TIME TAG VALUE
Figure 12. Trace buffer time tag counter
10.3.5 Trace buffer breakpoint registers
The DSU contains two breakpoint registers for matching AHB addresses. A breakpoint hit is used to
freeze the trace buffer by clearing the enable bit. Freezing can be delayed by programming the DCNT
field in the trace buffer control register to a non-zero value. In this case, the DCNT value will be decremented for each additional trace until it reaches zero, after which the trace buffer is frozen. A mask
register is associated with each breakpoint, allowing breaking on a block of addresses. Only address
bits with the corresponding mask bit set to ‘1’ are compared during breakpoint detection. To break on
AHB load or store accesses, the LD and/or ST bits should be set.
31
2
Break address reg.
BADDR[31:2]
31
2
Break mask reg.
1
0
0
0
1
0
LD ST
BMASK[31:2]
Figure 13. Trace buffer breakpoint registers
BADDR : breakpoint address (bits 31:2)
BMASK : Breakpoint mask (see text)
LD : break on data load address
ST : beak on data store address
10.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x017. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
10.5
Configuration options
Table 47 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 47. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave bus index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
ioaddr
The MSB address of the I/O area. Sets the 12 most significant bits in the 20-bit I/O address.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
iomask
The I/O area address mask. Sets the size of the I/O area
and the start address together with ioaddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#E00#
irq
Interrupt number
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
tech
Technology to implement on-chip RAM
0 - NTECH
0
kbytes
Trace buffer size in kbytes
1 - 64
1
58
10.6
Signal descriptions
Table 48 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 48. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
10.7
Library dependencies
Table 49 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 49. Library dependencies
10.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
component ahbtrace is
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
ioaddr : integer := 16#000#;
iomask : integer := 16#E00#;
tech
: integer := 0;
irq
: integer := 0;
kbytes : integer := 1);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbmi : in ahb_mst_in_type;
ahbsi : in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso : out ahb_slv_out_type);
end component;
59
11
AHBUART- AMBA AHB Serial Debug Interface
11.1
Overview
The interface consists of a UART connected to the AMBA AHB bus as a master. A simple communication protocol is supported to transmit access parameters and data. Through the communication link,
a read or write transfer can be generated to any address on the AMBA AHB bus.
Baud-rate
generator
RX
Serial port
Controller
8*bitclk
AMBA APB
Receiver shift register
Transmitter shift register
AHB master interface
AHB data/response
TX
AMBA AHB
Figure 14. Block diagram
11.2
Operation
11.2.1 Transmission protocol
The interface supports a simple protocol where commands consist of a control byte, followed by a 32bit address, followed by optional write data. Write access does not return any response, while a read
access only returns the read data. Data is sent on 8-bit basis as shown below.
Start D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7 Stop
Figure 15. Data frame
Write Command
Send
Receive
11 Length -1
Resp. byte
Addr[31:24]
Addr[23:16]
Addr[15:8]
Addr[7:0]
Data[31:24]
Data[23:16]
Data[15:8]
Data[7:0]
(optional)
Response byte encoding
Read command
Send
Receive
10 Length -1
Addr[31:24]
Addr[23:16]
Addr[15:8]
Addr[7:0]
Data[31:24]
Data[23:16]
Data[15:8]
Data[7:0]
Resp. byte
bit 7:3 = 00000
bit 2 = DMODE
bit 1:0 = AHB HRESP
(optional)
Figure 16. Commands
Block transfers can be performed be setting the length field to n-1, where n denotes the number of
transferred words. For write accesses, the control byte and address is sent once, followed by the number of data words to be written. The address is automatically incremented after each data word. For
60
read accesses, the control byte and address is sent once and the corresponding number of data words is
returned.
11.2.2 Baud rate generation
The UART contains a 18-bit down-counting scaler to generate the desired baud-rate. The scaler is
clocked by the system clock and generates a UART tick each time it underflows. The scaler is
reloaded with the value of the UART scaler reload register after each underflow. The resulting UART
tick frequency should be 8 times the desired baud-rate.
If not programmed by software, the baud rate will be automatically discovered. This is done by
searching for the shortest period between two falling edges of the received data (corresponding to two
bit periods). When three identical two-bit periods has been found, the corresponding scaler reload
value is latched into the reload register, and the BL bit is set in the UART control register. If the BL bit
is reset by software, the baud rate discovery process is restarted. The baud-rate discovery is also
restarted when a ‘break’ or framing error is detected by the receiver, allowing to change to baudrate
from the external transmitter. For proper baudrate detection, the value 0x55 should be transmitted to
the receiver after reset or after sending break.
The best scaler value for manually programming the baudrate can be calculated as follows:
scaler = (((system_clk*10)/(baudrate*8))-5)/10
11.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 50. AHB UART registers
APB address offset
Register
0x4
AHB UART status register
0x8
AHB UART control register
0xC
AHB UART scaler register
31
2
RESERVED
1
0
BL EN
Figure 17. AHB UART control register
0:
1:
Receiver enable (RE) - if set, enables both the transmitter and receiver.
Baud rate locked (BL) - is automatically set when the baud rate is locked.
31
7
RESERVED
6
FE
5
4
3
OV
2
1
TH TS DR
Figure 18. AHB UART status register
0:
1:
Data ready (DR) - indicates that new data has been received by the AMBA AHB master interface.
Transmitter shift register empty (TS) - indicates that the transmitter shift register is empty.
31
14 13
RESERVED
0
SCALER RELOAD VALUE
Figure 19. AHB UART scaler reload register
0
61
11.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x007. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
11.5
Configuration options
Table 51 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 51. Configuration options
11.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR filed of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK filed of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
Signal descriptions
Table 52 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports)..
Table 52. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
UARTI
RXD
Input
UART receiver data
High
CTSN
Input
UART clear-to-send
High
EXTCLK
Input
Use as alternative UART clock
-
RTSN
Output
UART request-to-send
High
TXD
Output
UART transmit data
High
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
UARTO
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
11.7
Library dependencies
Table 53 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 53. Library dependencies
11.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
UART
Signals, component
Signals and component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
62
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.uart.all;
entity ahbuart_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- UART signals
ahbrxd
: in std_ulogic;
ahbtxd
: out std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of ahbuart_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- UART signals
signal ahbuarti : uart_in_type;
signal ahbuarto : uart_out_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- AHB UART
ahbuart0 : ahbuart
generic map (hindex => 5, pindex => 7, paddr => 7)
port map (rstn, clk, ahbuarti, ahbuarto, apbi, apbo(7), ahbmi, ahbmo(5));
-- AHB UART input data
ahbuarti.rxd <= ahbrxd;
-- connect AHB UART output to entity output signal
ahbtxd <= ahbuarto.txd;
end;
63
12
AMBAMON - AMBA Bus Monitor
12.1
Overview
The AMBA bus monitor checks the AHB and APB buses for violations against a set of rules. When
an error is detected a signal is asserted and error message is (optionally) printed.
12.2
Rules
This section lists all rules checked by the AMBA monitor. The rules are divided into four different
tables depending on which type of device they apply to.
Some requirements of the AMBA specification are not adopted by the GRLIB implementation (on a
system level). These requirements are listed in the table below.
Table 54. Requirements not checked in GRLIB
Rule
Number
1
Description
References
A slave which issues RETRY must only be accessed by one master at a
time.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-38.
Table 55. AHB master rules.
Rule
Number
Description
References
1
Busy can only occur in the middle of bursts. That is only after a NON- AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
SEQ, SEQ or BUSY.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
492.html
2
Busy can only occur in the middle of bursts. It can be the last access of
a burst but only for INCR bursts.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
3
The address and control signals must reflect the next transfer in the
burst during busy cycles.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
4
The first transfer of a single access or a burst must be NONSEQ (this is
ensured together with rule 1).
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
5
HSIZE must never be larger than the bus width.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-43.
6
HADDR must be aligned to the transfer size.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-12, 3-25.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
492.html
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
582.html
Address and controls signals can only change when hready is low if
the previous HTRANS value was IDLE, BUSY or if an ERROR,
SPLIT or RETRY response is given.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
487.html
8
Address and control signals cannot change between consecutive
BUSY cycles.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
9
Address must be related to the previous access according to HBURST
and HSIZE and control signals must be identical for SEQUENTIAL
accesses.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
10
Master must cancel the following transfer when receiving an RETRY
response.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
11
Master must cancel the following transfer when receiving an SPLIT
response.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
7
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
579.html
64
Table 55. AHB master rules.
Rule
Number
Description
12
Master must reattempt the transfer which received a RETRY response. AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-21.
References
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
603.html.
13
Master must reattempt the transfer which received a SPLIT response.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-21.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
603.html.
14
Master can optionally cancel the following transfer when receiving an
ERROR response. Only a warning is given if assertions are enabled if
it does not cancel the following transfer.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-23.
15
Master must hold HWDATA stable for the whole data phase when wait
states are inserted. Only the appropriate byte lanes need to be driven
for subword transfers.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-7. AMBA
Spec. Rev 2.0 3-25.
16
Bursts must not cross a 1 kB address boundary. This means that htrans
can only be IDLE or NONSEQ when HADDR(9:0) = 0.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-11.
17
HMASTLOCK indicates that the current transfer is part of a locked
sequence. It must have the same timing as address/control.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-28.
18
HLOCK must be asserted at least one clock cycle before the address
phase to which it refers.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-28.
19
HLOCK must be asserted for the duration of a burst and can only be
deasserted so that HMASTLOCK is deasserted after the final address
phase.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
597.html
20
HLOCK must be deasserted in the last address phase of a burst.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
588.html
21
HTRANS must be driven to IDLE during reset.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
495.html
22
HTRANS can only change from IDLE to NONSEQ or stay IDLE
when HREADY is deasserted.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
579.html
65
Table 56. AHB slave rules.
Rule
Number
Description
References
1
AHB slave must respond with a zero wait state OKAY response to
BUSY cycles in the same way as for IDLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
2
AHB slave must respond with a zero wait state OKAY response to
IDLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-9.
3
HRESP should be set to ERROR, SPLIT or RETRY only one cycle
before HREADY is driven high.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
4
Two-cycle ERROR response must be given.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
5
Two-cycle SPLIT response must be given.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
6
Two-cycle RETRY response must be given.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-22.
7
SPLIT complete signalled to master which did not have pending
access.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-36.
8
Split complete must not be signalled during same cycle as SPLIT.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
616.html
9
It is recommended that slaves drive HREADY high and HRESP to
OKAY when not selected. A warning will be given if this is not followed.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
476.html
10
It is recommended that slaves do not insert more than 16 wait states. If
this is violated a warning will be given if assertions are enabled.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-20.
Table 57. APB slave rules.
Rule
Number
Description
References
1
The bus must move to the SETUP state or remain in the IDLE state
when in the IDLE state.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-4.
2
The bus must move from SETUP to ENABLE in one cycle.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-4.
3
The bus must move from ENABLE to SETUP or IDLE in one cycle.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-5.
4
The bus must never be in another state than IDLE, SETUP, ENABLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-4.
5
PADDR must be stable during transition from SETUP to ENABLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-5.
6
PWRITE must be stable during transition from SETUP to ENABLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-5.
7
PWDATA must be stable during transition from SETUP to ENABLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-5.
8
Only one PSEL must be enabled at a time.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-4.
9
PSEL must be stable during transition from SETUP to ENABLE.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 5-5.
Table 58. Arbiter rules
Rule
Number
Description
References
1
HreadyIn to slaves and master must be driven by the currently selected
device.
http://www.arm.com/support/faqip/
482.html
2
A master which received a SPLIT response must not be granted the
bus until the slave has set the corresponding HSPLIT line.
AMBA Spec. Rev 2.0 3-35.
66
12.3
Configuration options
Table 59 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 59.Configuration options
12.4
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
asserterr
Enable assertions for AMBA requirements. Violations
are asserted with severity error.
0-1
1
assertwarn
Enable assertions for AMBA recommendations. Violations are asserted with severity warning.
0-1
1
hmstdisable
Disable AHB master rule check. To disable a master rule
check a value is assigned so that the binary representation contains a one at the position corresponding to the
rule number, e.g 0x80 disables rule 7.
-
0
hslvdisable
Disable AHB slave tests. Values are assigned as for
hmstdisable.
-
0
pslvdisable
Disable APB slave tests. Values are assigned as for hmst- disable.
0
arbdisable
Disable Arbiter tests. Values are assigned as for hmstdis- able.
0
nahbm
Number of AHB masters in the system.
0 - NAHBMST
NAHBMST
nahbs
Number of AHB slaves in the system.
0 - NAHBSLV
NAHBSLV
napb
Number of APB slaves in the system.
0 - NAPBSLV
NAPBSLV
Signal descriptions
Table 60 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 60. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
AHB reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AHB clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master interface input record
-
AHBMO
*
Input
AHB master interface output record array
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave interface input record
-
AHBSO
*
Input
AHB slave interface output record array
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave interface input record
APBO
*
Input
APB slave interface output record array
ERR
N/A
Output
Error signal (error detected)
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
12.5
Library dependencies
Table 61 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 61. Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
GAISLER
SIM
Component
Component declaration
High
67
12.6
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.sim.all;
entity ambamon_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rst : in std_ulogic
end;
architecture rtl of ambamon_ex is
-- APB signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- APB signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.sim.all;
entity ambamon_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rst : in std_ulogic;
err : out std_ulogic
end;
architecture rtl of ambamon_ex is
-- AHB signals
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- AHB signals
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- APB signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
begin
mon0 : ambamon
generic map(
assert_err =>
assert_war =>
nahbm
=>
nahbs
=>
napb
=>
)
1,
0,
2,
2,
1
68
port map(
rst
clk
ahbmi
ahbmo
ahbsi
ahbso
apbi
apbo
err
end;
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
rst,
clk,
ahbmi,
ahbmo,
ahbsi,
ahbso,
apbi,
apbo,
err);
69
13
APBCTRL - AMBA AHB/APB bridge with plug&play support
13.1
Overview
The AMBA AHB/APB bridge is a APB bus master according the AMBA 2.0 standard.
The controller supports up to 16 slaves. The actual maximum number of slaves is defined in the
GRLIB.AMBA package, in the VHDL constant NAPBSLV. The number of slaves can also be set
using the nslaves VHDL generic.
AHB BUS
AHB/APB Bridge
APBO[0]
APB SLAVE
AHBSI
APBO[n]
AHB Slave
Interface
AHBSO[n]
APB SLAVE
•••
APBI
Figure 20. AHB/APB bridge block diagram
13.2
Operation
13.2.1 Decoding
Decoding (generation of PSEL) of APB slaves is done using the plug&play method explained in the
GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual. A slave can occupy any binary aligned address space with a size of
256 bytes - 1 Mbyte. Write to unassingned areas will be ignored, while reads from unassigned areas
will return an arbitrary value. AHB error response will never be generated.
13.2.2 Plug&play information
GRLIB APB slaves contain two plug&play information words which are included in the APB records
they drive on the bus (see the GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual for more information). These records
are combined into an array which is connected to the APB bridge.
The plug&play information is mapped on a read-only address area at the top 4 kbytes of the bridge
address space. Each plug&play block occupies 8 bytes. The address of the plug&play information for
a certain unit is defined by its bus index. If the bridge is mapped on AHB address 0x80000000, the
address for the plug&play records is thus 0x800FF000 + n*8.
31
APB Plug&play record
24 23
VENDOR ID
0x00
12 11 10 9
DEVICE ID
ADDR
0x04
31
C/P
20 19
00
5
VERSION
Figure 21. APB plug&play information
Configuration word
IRQ
MASK
16 15
0
4
BAR
TYPE
4 3
0
70
13.3
APB bus monitor
An APB bus monitor is integrated into the core. It is enabled with the enbusmon generic. It has the
same functionality as the APB parts in the AMBA monitor core (AMBAMON). For more information
on which rules are checked se the AMBAMON documentation.
13.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x006. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
13.5
Configuration options
Table 62 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 62. Configuration options
13.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
The MSB address of the AHB area. Sets the 12 most sig- 0 - 16#FFF#
nificant bits in the 32-bit AHB address.
16#FFF#
hmask
The AHB area address mask. Sets the size of the AHB
area and the start address together with haddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
nslaves
The maximum number of slaves
1 - NAPBSLV
NAPBSLV
debug
Print debug information during simulation
0-2
2
icheck
Enable bus index checking (PINDEX)
0-1
1
enbusmon
Enable APB bus monitor
0-1
0
asserterr
Enable assertions for AMBA requirements. Violations
are asserted with severity error.
0-1
0
assertwarn
Enable assertions for AMBA recommendations. Violations are asserted with severity warning.
0-1
0
pslvdisable
Disable APB slave rule check. To disable a slave rule
check a value is assigned so that the binary representation contains a one at the position corresponding to the
rule number, e.g 0x80 disables rule 7.
N/A
0
Signal descriptions
Table 63 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 63. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
AHB reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AHB clock
-
AHBI
*
Output
AHB slave input
-
AHBO
*
Input
AHB slave output
-
APBI
*
Output
APB slave inputs
-
APBO
*
Input
APB slave outputs
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
71
13.7
Library dependencies
Table 64 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 64. Library dependencies
13.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
component apbctrl
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
haddr
: integer := 0;
hmask
: integer := 16#fff#;
nslaves : integer range 1 to NAPBSLV := NAPBSLV;
debug
: integer range 0 to 2 := 2;
-- print config to console
icheck : integer range 0 to 1 := 1
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbi
: in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbo
: out ahb_slv_out_type;
apbi
: out apb_slv_in_type;
apbo
: in apb_slv_out_vector
);
end component;
13.9
Instantiation
This examples shows how an APB bridge can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use work.debug.all;
.
.
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal apbi
signal apbo
: apb_slv_in_type;
: apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
begin
-- APB bridge
apb0 : apbctrl-- AHB/APB bridge
generic map (hindex => 1, haddr => CFG_APBADDR)
port map (rstn, clk, ahbsi, ahbso(1), apbi, apbo );
72
-- APB slaves
uart1 : apbuart
generic map (pindex => 1, paddr => 1, pirq => 2)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(1), u1i, u1o);
irqctrl0 : irqmp
generic map (pindex => 2, paddr => 2)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(2), irqo, irqi);
...
end;
13.10 Debug print-out
The APB bridge can print-out the plug-play information from the attached during simulation. This is
enabled by setting the debug VHDL generic to 2. Reporting starts by scanning the array from 0 to
NAPBSLV - 1 (defined in the grlib.amba package). It checks each entry in the array for a valid vendor-id (all nonzero ids are considered valid) and if one is found, it also retrieves the device-id. The
description for these ids are obtained from the GRLIB.DEVICES package, and is printed on standard
out together with the slave number. If the index check is enabled (done with a VHDL generic), the
report module also checks if the pindex number returned in the record matches the array number of
the record currently checked (the array index). If they do not match, the simulation is aborted and an
error message is printed.
The address range and memory type is also checked and printed. The address information includes
type, address and mask. The address ranges currently defined are AHB memory, AHB I/O and APB I/
O. All APB devices are in the APB I/O range so the type does not have to be checked. From this information, the report module calculates the start address of the device and the size of the range. The
information finally printed is start address and size.
73
14
APBPS2 - PS/2 keyboard with APB interface
14.1
Introduction
The PS/2 interface is a bidirectional synchronous serial bus primarily used for keyboard and mouse
communications. The APBPS2 core implements the PS2 protocol with a APB back-end. Figure 22
shows a model of APBPS2 and the electrical interface.
Vcc
FPGA/ASIC
PS2Data_out
0
Data
Keyboard
PS2Data
APBPS2
Clock
PS2Clk_out
0
PS2Clk
Figure 22. APBPS2 electrical interface
PS/2 data is sent in 11 bits frames. The first bit is a start bit followed by eight data bits, one odd parity
bit and finally one stop bit. Figure 23 shows a typical PS/2 data frame.
Data frame with parity:
Start D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7 Parity Stop
Figure 23. PS/2 data frame
14.2
Receiver operation
The receiver of APBPS2 receives the data from the keyboard or mouse, and converts it to 8-bit data
frames to be read out via the APB bus. It is enabled through the receiver enable (RE) bit in the PS/2
control register. If a parity error or framing error occurs, the data frame will be discarded. Correctly
received data will be transferred to a 16 byte FIFO. The data ready (DR) bit in the PS/2 status register
will be set, and retained as long as the FIFO contains at least one data frame. When the FIFO is full,
the receiver buffer full (RF) bit in the status register is set. The keyboard will be inhibited and buffer
data until the FIFO gets read again. Interrupt is sent when a correct stop bit is received then it’s up to
the software to handle any resend operations if the parity bit is wrong. Figure 24 shows a flow chart
for the operations of the receiver state machine.
74
Idle
Stop
Data
0
rx_en
0
ps2_clk_fall
0
ps2_clk_fall
1
ps2_data_sync
1
1
1
update shift register
1
ps2_data_sync
0
1
shift_reg = 1111 1111
0
shift_reg(0)
rx_irq = 1
Frame_error = 1
0
Start
Parity
ps2_clk_fall
1
output buffer full
0
0
ps2_clk_fall
0
1
parity_error
1
1
1
0
ps2_data_sync
update parity flag
update FIFO
0
Idle
Figure 24. Flow chart for the receiver state machine
14.3
Transmitter operations
The transmitter part of APBPS2 is enabled for through the transmitter enable (TE) bit in the PS/2 control register. The PS/2 interface has a 16 byte transmission FIFO that stores commands sent by the
CPU. Commands are used to set the LEDs on the keyboard, and the typematic rate and delay. Typematic rate is the repeat rate of a key that is held down, while the delay controls for how long a key has
to be held down before it begins automatically repeating. Typematic repeat rates, delays and possible
other commands are listed in table 72.
If the TE bit is set and the transmission FIFO is not empty a transmission of the command will start.
The host will pull the clock line low for at least 100 us and then transmit a start bit, the eight bit command, an odd parity bit, a stop bit and wait for an acknowledgement bit by the device. When this happens an interrupt is generated. Figure 25 shows the flow chart for the transmission state machine.
14.4
Clock generation
A PS/2 interface should generate a clock of 10.0 - 16.7 KHz. To generate the PS/2 clock, APBPS2
divides the APB clock with either a fixed or programmable division factor. The divider consist of a
14-bit down-counter and can divide the APB clock with a factor of 1 - 16383. If the fixed generic is set
to 1, the division rate is set to the fKHz generic divided by 10 in order to generate a 10 KHz clock. If
fixed is 0, the division rate can be programmed through the timer reload register.
75
Idle
0
tx_en
1
fifo_empty
Start
Stop
ps2clkoe = 1
read FIFO
ps2_clk_fall
0
1
Data
1
ps2data = 1
0
ps2_clk_fall
0
Ack
ps2clk = 0
ps2clkoe = 0
1
ps2data = shift_reg(0)
update shift_reg
ps2data = 1
ps2dataoe = 0
shift_reg empty
Waitrequest
ps2dataoe = 1
0
1
timer = timer + 1
0
ps2_clk_fall
1
Parity
1
ps2_data_sync
timer < 5000
1
ps2_clk_fall
0
0
tx_irq = 1, ps2data = 1
ps2dataoe = 1,
0
1
ps2clk = 1, ps2data = 0
timer = 0
ps2data = parity bit
Idle
Figure 25. Flow chart for the transmitter state machine
14.5
Registers
The core is controlled through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 65. APB PS/2 registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
PS/2 Data register
0x04
PS/2 Status register
0x08
PS/2 Control register
0x0C
PS/2 Timer reload register
14.5.1 PS/2 Data Register
31
8
RESERVED
7
0
DATA
Figure 26. PS/2 data register
[7:0]:
Receiver holding FIFO (read access) and Transmitter holding FIFO (write access). If the receiver FIFO is not empty,
read accesses retrieve the next byte from the FIFO. Bytes written to this field are stored in the transmitter holding
FIFO if it is not full.
76
14.5.2 PS/2 Status Register
31
27 26
RCNT
22
5
4
3
2
1
0
TF RF KI FE PE DR
RESERVED
TCNT
Figure 27. PS/2 status register
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
[26:22]:
[31:27]:
Data ready (DR) - indicates that new data is available in the receiver holding register (read only).
Parity error (PE) - indicates that a parity error was detected.
Framing error (FE) - indicates that a framing error was detected.
Keyboard inhibit (KI) - indicates that the keyboard is inhibited.
Receiver buffer full (RF) - indicates that the output buffer (FIFO) is full (read only).
Transmitter buffer full (TF) - indicates that the input buffer (FIFO) is full (read only).
Transmit FIFO count (TCNT) - shows the number of data frames in the transmit FIFO (read only).
Receiver FIFO count (RCNT) - shows the number of data frames in the receiver FIFO (read only).
14.5.3 PS/2 Control Register
31
3
RESERVED
2
1
0
TI RI TE RE
Figure 28. PS/2 control register
0:
1:
2:
3:
Receiver enable (RE) - if set, enables the receiver.
Transmitter enable (TE) - if set, enables the transmitter.
Keyboard interrupt enable (RI) - if set, interrupts are generated when a frame is received
Host interrupt enable (TI) - if set, interrupts are generated when a frame is transmitted
14.5.4 PS/2 Timer Reload Register
31
12 11
RESERVED
0
TIMER RELOAD REG
Figure 29. PS/2 timer register
[11:0]:
14.6
PS/2 timer reload register
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x061. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
77
14.7
Configuration options
Table 66 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 66. Configuration options
14.8
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Index of the interrupt line.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
fKHz
Frequency of APB clock in KHz.
1 - 163830
50000
fixed
Used fixed clock divider to generate PS/2 clock
0-1
1
Signal descriptions
Table 67 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 67. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
PS2I
PS2_CLK_I
Input
PS/2 clock input
-
PS2_DATA_I
Input
PS/2 data input
-
PS2O
PS2_CLK_O
Output
PS/2 clock output
-
PS2_CLK_OE
Output
PS/2 clock output enable
Low
PS2_DATA_O
Output
PS/2 data output
-
PS2_DATA_OE
Output
PS/2 data output enable
Low
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
14.9
Library dependencies
Table 68 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 68. Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
APB signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Signals, component
PS/2 signal and component declaration
14.10 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.gencomp.all;
78
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity apbps2_ex is
port (
rstn : in std_ulogic;
clk : in std_ulogic;
-- PS/2 signals
ps2clk : inout std_ulogic;
ps2data : inout std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of apbuart_ex is
-- APB signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- PS/2 signals
signal kbdi : ps2_in_type;
signal kbdo : ps2_out_type;
begin
ps20 : apbps2 generic map(pindex => 5, paddr => 5, pirq => 4)
port map(rstn, clkm, apbi, apbo(5), kbdi, kbdo);
kbdclk_pad : iopad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ps2clk,kbdo.ps2_clk_o, kbdo.ps2_clk_oe, kbdi.ps2_clk_i);
kbdata_pad : iopad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ps2data, kbdo.ps2_data_o, kbdo.ps2_data_oe, kbdi.ps2_data_i);
end;
79
14.11 Keboard scan codes
Table 69. Scan code set 2, 104-key keyboard
KEY
MAKE
BREAK
A
1C
F0,1C
B
32
F0,32
C
21
F0,21
D
23
E
24
F
- KEY
- KEY
MAKE
BREAK
MAKE
BREAK
46
F0,46
[
54
FO,54
`0E
F0,0E
INSERT
E0,70
E0,F0,70
-
4E
F0,4E
HOME
E0,6C
E0,F0,6C
F0,23
=
55
FO,55
PG UP
E0,7D
E0,F0,7D
F0,24
\
5D
F0,5D
DELETE
E0,71
E0,F0,71
2B
F0,2B
BKSP
66
F0,66
END
E0,69
E0,F0,69
G
34
F0,34
SPACE
29
F0,29
PG DN
E0,7A
E0,F0,7A
H
33
F0,33
TAB
0D
F0,0D
U
ARROW
E0,75
E0,F0,75
I
43
F0,43
CAPS
58
F0,58
L
ARROW
E0,6B
E0,F0,6B
J
3B
F0,3B
L SHFT
12
FO,12
D
ARROW
E0,72
E0,F0,72
K
42
F0,42
L CTRL
14
FO,14
R
ARROW
E0,74
E0,F0,74
L
4B
F0,4B
L GUI
E0,1F
E0,F0,1F
NUM
77
F0,77
M
3A
F0,3A
L ALT
11
F0,11
KP /
E0,4A
E0,F0,4A
N
31
F0,31
R SHFT
59
F0,59
KP *
7C
F0,7C
O
44
F0,44
R CTRL
E0,14
E0,F0,14
KP -
7B
F0,7B
9
P
4D
F0,4D
R GUI
E0,27
E0,F0,27
KP +
79
F0,79
Q
15
F0,15
R ALT
E0,11
E0,F0,11
KP EN
E0,5A
E0,F0,5A
R
2D
F0,2D
APPS
E0,2F
E0,F0,2F
KP .
71
F0,71
S
1B
F0,1B
ENTER
5A
F0,5A
KP 0
70
F0,70
T
2C
F0,2C
ESC
76
F0,76
KP 1
69
F0,69
U
3C
F0,3C
F1
5
F0,05
KP 2
72
F0,72
V
2A
F0,2A
F2
6
F0,06
KP 3
7A
F0,7A
W
1D
F0,1D
F3
4
F0,04
KP 4
6B
F0,6B
X
22
F0,22
F4
0C
F0,0C
KP 5
73
F0,73
Y
35
F0,35
F5
3
F0,03
KP 6
74
F0,74
Z
1A
F0,1A
F6
0B
F0,0B
KP 7
6C
F0,6C
0
45
F0,45
F7
83
F0,83
KP 8
75
F0,75
1
16
F0,16
F8
0A
F0,0A
KP 9
7D
F0,7D
2
1E
F0,1E
F9
1
F0,01
]
5B
F0,5B
3
26
F0,26
F10
9
F0,09
;
4C
F0,4C
4
25
F0,25
F11
78
F0,78
52
F0,52
5
2E
F0,2E
F12
7
F0,07
,
41
F0,41
6
36
F0,36
PRNT
SCRN
E0,12,
E0,7C
E0,F0,
7C,E0,
F0,12
.
49
F0,49
7
3D
F0,3D
SCROLL
7E
F0,7E
/
4A
F0,4A
8
3E
F0,3E
PAUSE
E1,14,77,
E1,F0,14,
F0,77
-NONE-
80
Table 70. Windows multimedia scan codes
KEY
MAKE
BREAK
Next Track
E0, 4D
E0, F0, 4D
Previous Track
E0, 15
E0, F0, 15
Stop
E0, 3B
E0, F0, 3B
Play/Pause
E0, 34
E0, F0, 34
Mute
E0, 23
E0, F0, 23
Volume Up
E0, 32
E0, F0, 32
Volume Down
E0, 21
E0, F0, 21
Media Select
E0, 50
E0, F0, 50
E-Mail
E0, 48
E0, F0, 48
Calculator
E0, 2B
E0, F0, 2B
My Computer
E0, 40
E0, F0, 40
WWW Search
E0, 10
E0, F0, 10
WWW Home
E0, 3A
E0, F0, 3A
WWW Back
E0, 38
E0, F0, 38
WWW Forward
E0, 30
E0, F0, 30
WWW Stop
E0, 28
E0, F0, 28
WWW Refresh
E0, 20
E0, F0, 20
WWW Favorites
E0, 18
E0, F0, 18
Table 71. ACPI scan codes (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
KEY
MAKE
BREAK
Power
E0, 37
E0, F0, 37
Sleep
E0, 3F
E0, F0, 3F
Wake
E0, 5E
E0, F0, 5E
81
14.12 Keyboard commands
Table 72. Transmit commands:
Command
Description
0xED
Set status LED’s - keyboard will reply with ACK (0xFA). The host follows this command with an
argument byte*
0xEE
Echo command - expects an echo response
0xF0
Set scan code set - keyboard will reply with ACK (0xFA) and wait for another byte. 0x01-0x03
which determines the scan code set to use. 0x00 returns the current set.
0xF2
Read ID - the keyboard responds by sending a two byte device ID of 0xAB 0x83
0xF3
Set typematic repeat rate - keyboard will reply with ACK (0xFA) and wait for another byte which
determines the typematic rate.
0xF4
Keyboard enable - clears the keyboards output buffer, enables keyboard scanning and returns an
acknowledgement.
0xF5
Keyboard disable - resets the keyboard, disables keyboard scanning and returns an acknowledgement.
0xF6
Set default - load default typematic rate/delay (10.9cps/500ms) and scan code set 2
0xFE
Resend - upon receipt of the resend command the keyboard will retransmit the last byte
0xFF
Reset - resets the keyboard
* bit 0 controls the scroll lock, bit 1 the num lock, bit 2 the caps lock, bit 3-7 are ignored
Table 73. Receive commands:
Command
Description
0xFA
Acknowledge
0xAA
Power on self test passed (BAT completed)
0xEE
Echo respond
0xFE
Resend - upon receipt of the resend command the host should retransmit the last byte
0x00
Error or buffer overflow
0xFF
Error of buffer overflow
Table 74. The typematic rate/delay argument byte
MSB
0
LSB
DELAY
DELAY
RATE
RATE
RATE
RATE
RATE
82
Table 75. Typematic repeat rates
Bits 04
Rate
(cps)
Bits 04
Rate
(cps)
Bits 04
Rate
(cps)
Bits 04
Rate
(cps)
00h
30
08h
15
10h
7.5
18h
3.7
01h
26.7
09h
13.3
11h
6.7
19h
3.3
02h
24
0Ah
12
12h
6
1Ah
3
03h
21.8
0Bh
10.9
13h
5.5
1Bh
2.7
04h
20.7
0Ch
10
14h
5
1Ch
2.5
05h
18.5
0Dh
9.2
15h
4.6
1Dh
2.3
06h
17.1
0Eh
8.6
16h
4.3
1Eh
2.1
07h
16
0Fh
8
17h
4
1Fh
2
Table 76. Typematic delays
Bits 5-6 Delay (seconds)
00b
0.25
01b
0.5
10b
0.75
11b
1
83
15
APBUART - AMBA APB UART Serial Interface
15.1
Overview
The interface is provided for serial communications. The UART supports data frames with 8 data bits,
one optional parity bit and one stop bit. To generate the bit-rate, each UART has a programmable 12bit clock divider. Two FIFOs, each 2 bytes deep, are used for data transfer between the bus and UART,
when fifosize VHDL generic > 1. Two holding registers are used data transfer between the bus and
UART, when fifosize VHDL generic = 1. Hardware flow-control is supported through the RTSN/
CTSN hand-shake signals, when flow VHDL generic is set. Parity is supported, when parity VHDL
generic is set.
CTSN
Baud-rate
generator
RXD
8*bitclk
Serial port
Controller
Receiver shift register
Transmitter shift register
Receiver FIFO or
holding register
Transmitter FIFO or
holding register
RTSN
TXD
APB
Figure 30. Block diagram
15.2
Operation
15.2.1 Transmitter operation
The transmitter is enabled through the TE bit in the UART control register. Data that is to be transferred is stored in the FIFO/holding register by writing to the data register. This FIFO is configurable
to different sizes via the fifosize VHDL generic. When the size is 1, only a single holding register is
used but in the following discussion both will be referred to as FIFOs. When ready to transmit, data is
transferred from the transmitter FIFO/holding register to the transmitter shift register and converted to
a serial stream on the transmitter serial output pin (TXD). It automatically sends a start bit followed
by eight data bits, an optional parity bit, and one stop bit (figure 31). The least significant bit of the
data is sent first.
84
Data frame, no parity:
Start D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7 Stop
Data frame with parity:
Start D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7 Parity Stop
Figure 31. UART data frames
Following the transmission of the stop bit, if a new character is not available in the transmitter FIFO,
the transmitter serial data output remains high and the transmitter shift register empty bit (TS) will be
set in the UART status register. Transmission resumes and the TS is cleared when a new character is
loaded into the transmitter FIFO. When the FIFO is empty the TE bit is set in the status register. If the
transmitter is disabled, it will immediately stop any active transmissions including the character currently being shifted out from the transmitter shift register. The transmitter holding register may not be
loaded when the transmitter is disabled or when the FIFO (or holding register) is full. If this is done,
data might be overwritten and one or more frames are lost.
The discussion above applies to any FIFO configurations including the special case with a holding
register (VHDL generic fifosize = 1). If FIFOs are used (VHDL generic fifosize > 1) some additional
status and control bits are available. The TF status bit (not to be confused with the TF control bit) is
set if the transmitter FIFO is currently full and the TH bit is set as long as the FIFO is less than halffull (less than half of entries in the FIFO contain data). The TF control bit enables FIFO interrupts
when set. The status register also contains a counter (TCNT) showing the current number of data
entries in the FIFO.
When flow control is enabled, the CTSN input must be low in order for the character to be transmitted. If it is deasserted in the middle of a transmission, the character in the shift register is transmitted
and the transmitter serial output then remains inactive until CTSN is asserted again. If the CTSN is
connected to a receivers RTSN, overrun can effectively be prevented.
15.2.2 Receiver operation
The receiver is enabled for data reception through the receiver enable (RE) bit in the UART control
register. The receiver looks for a high to low transition of a start bit on the receiver serial data input
pin. If a transition is detected, the state of the serial input is sampled a half bit clocks later. If the serial
input is sampled high the start bit is invalid and the search for a valid start bit continues. If the serial
input is still low, a valid start bit is assumed and the receiver continues to sample the serial input at
one bit time intervals (at the theoretical centre of the bit) until the proper number of data bits and the
parity bit have been assembled and one stop bit has been detected. The serial input is shifted through
an 8-bit shift register where all bits have to have the same value before the new value is taken into
account, effectively forming a low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 1/8 system clock.
The receiver also has a configurable FIFO which is identical to the one in the transmitter. As mentioned in the transmitter part, both the holding register and FIFO will be referred to as FIFO.
During reception, the least significant bit is received first. The data is then transferred to the receiver
FIFO and the data ready (DR) bit is set in the UART status register as soon as the FIFO contains at
least one data frame. The parity, framing and overrun error bits are set at the received byte boundary,
at the same time as the receiver ready bit is set. The data frame is not stored in the FIFO if an error is
detected. Also, the new error status bits are or:ed with the old values before they are stored into the
status register. Thus, they are not cleared until written to with zeros from the AMBA APB bus. If both
85
the receiver FIFO and shift registers are full when a new start bit is detected, then the character held in
the receiver shift register will be lost and the overrun bit will be set in the UART status register.
If flow control is enabled, then the RTSN will be negated (high) when a valid start bit is detected and
the receiver FIFO is full. When the holding register is read, the RTSN will automatically be reasserted
again.
When the VHDL generic fifosize > 1, which means that holding registers are not considered here,
some additional status and control bits are available. The RF status bit (not to be confused with the RF
control bit) is set when the receiver FIFO is full. The RH status bit is set when the receiver FIFO is
half-full (at least half of the entries in the FIFO contain data frames). The RF control bit enables
receiver FIFO interrupts when set. A RCNT field is also available showing the current number of data
frames in the FIFO.
15.3
Baud-rate generation
Each UART contains a 12-bit down-counting scaler to generate the desired baud-rate. The scaler is
clocked by the system clock and generates a UART tick each time it underflows. It is reloaded with
the value of the UART scaler reload register after each underflow. The resulting UART tick frequency
should be 8 times the desired baud-rate. If the EC bit is set, the scaler will be clocked by the external
clock input rather than the system clock. In this case, the frequency of external clock must be less than
half the frequency of the system clock.
15.3.1 Loop back mode
If the LB bit in the UART control register is set, the UART will be in loop back mode. In this mode,
the transmitter output is internally connected to the receiver input and the RTSN is connected to the
CTSN. It is then possible to perform loop back tests to verify operation of receiver, transmitter and
associated software routines. In this mode, the outputs remain in the inactive state, in order to avoid
sending out data.
15.3.2 Interrupt generation
Interrupts are generated differently when a holding register is used (VHDL generic fifosize = 1) and
when FIFOs are used (VHDL generic fifosize > 1). When holding registers are used, the UART will
generate an interrupt under the following conditions: when the transmitter is enabled, the transmitter
interrupt is enabled and the transmitter holding register moves from full to empty; when the receiver
is enabled, the receiver interrupt is enabled and the receiver holding register moves from empty to
full; when the receiver is enabled, the receiver interrupt is enabled and a character with either parity,
framing or overrun error is received.
For FIFOs, two different kinds of interrupts are available: normal interrupts and FIFO interrupts. For
the transmitter, normal interrupts are generated when transmitter interrupts are enabled (TI), the transmitter is enabled and the transmitter FIFO goes from containing data to being empty. FIFO interrupts
are generated when the FIFO interrupts are enabled (TF), transmissions are enabled (TE) and the
UART is less than half-full (that is, whenever the TH status bit is set). This is a level interrupt and the
interrupt signal is continuously driven high as long as the condition prevails. The receiver interrupts
work in the same way. Normal interrupts are generated in the same manner as for the holding register.
FIFO interrupts are generated when receiver FIFO interrupts are enabled, the receiver is enabled and
the FIFO is half-full. The interrupt signal is continuously driven high as long as the receiver FIFO is
half-full (at least half of the entries contain data frames).
86
15.4
Registers
The core is controlled through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 77. UART registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
UART Data register
0x4
UART Status register
0x8
UART Control register
0xC
UART Scaler register
15.4.1 UART Data Register
Table 78. UART data register
31
8
7
0
RESERVED
DATA
7: 0
Receiver holding register or FIFO (read access)
7: 0
Transmitter holding register or FIFO (write access)
15.4.2 UART Status Register
Table 79. UART status register
31
26 25
RCNT
31: 26
20 19
TCNT
11 10
RESERVED
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RF TF RH TH FE PE OV BR TE TS DR
Receiver FIFO count (RCNT) - shows the number of data frames in the receiver FIFO.
25: 20
Transmitter FIFO count (TCNT) - shows the number of data frames in the transmitter FIFO.
10
Receiver FIFO full (RF) - indicates that the Receiver FIFO is full.
9
Transmitter FIFO full (TF) - indicates that the Transmitter FIFO is full.
8
Receiver FIFO half-full (RH) -indicates that at least half of the FIFO is holding data.
7
Transmitter FIFO half-full (TH) - indicates that the FIFO is less than half-full.
6
Framing error (FE) - indicates that a framing error was detected.
5
Parity error (PE) - indicates that a parity error was detected.
4
Overrun (OV) - indicates that one or more character have been lost due to overrun.
3
Break received (BR) - indicates that a BREAK has been received.
2
Transmitter FIFO empty (TE) - indicates that the transmitter FIFO is empty.
1
Transmitter shift register empty (TS) - indicates that the transmitter shift register is empty.
0
Data ready (DR) - indicates that new data is available in the receiver holding register
87
15.4.3 UART Control Register
Table 80. UART control register
31
11 10
RESERVED
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
RF TF EC LB FL PE PS TI
2
1
0
RI TE RE
10
Receiver FIFO interrupt enable (RF) - when set, Receiver FIFO level interrupts are enabled
9
Transmitter FIFO interrupt enable (TF) - when set, Transmitter FIFO level interrupts are enabled.
8
External Clock (EC) - if set, the UART scaler will be clocked by UARTI.EXTCLK
7
Loop back (LB) - if set, loop back mode will be enabled
6
Flow control (FL) - if set, enables flow control using CTS/RTS (when implemented)
5
Parity enable (PE) - if set, enables parity generation and checking (when implemented)
4
Parity select (PS) - selects parity polarity (0 = even parity, 1 = odd parity) (when implemented)
3
Transmitter interrupt enable (TI) - if set, interrupts are generated when a frame is transmitted
2
Receiver interrupt enable (RI) - if set, interrupts are generated when a frame is received
1
Transmitter enable (TE) - if set, enables the transmitter.
0
Receiver enable (RE) - if set, enables the receiver.
15.4.4 UART Scaler Register
Table 81. UART scaler reload register
31
12 11
0
RESERVED
11: 0
15.5
SCALER RELOAD VALUE
Scaler reload value
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x00C. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
15.6
Configuration options
Table 82 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 82. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
console
Prints output from the UART on console during VHDL
simulation and speeds up simulation by always returning
‘1’ for Data Ready bit of UART Status register. Does not
effect synthesis.
0-1
0
pirq
Index of the interrupt line.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
parity
Enables parity
0-1
1
flow
Enables flow control
0-1
1
fifosize
Selects the size of the Receiver and Transmitter FIFOs
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32
1
88
15.7
Signal descriptions
Table 83 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 83. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
UARTI
RXD
Input
UART receiver data
-
CTSN
Input
UART clear-to-send
Low
EXTCLK
Input
Use as alternative UART clock
-
RTSN
Output
UART request-to-send
Low
TXD
Output
UART transmit data
-
UARTO
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
15.8
Library dependencies
Table 84 shows libraries that should be used when instantiating the core.
Table 84. Library dependencies
15.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
APB signal definitions
GAISLER
UART
Signals, component
Signal and component declaration
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.uart.all;
entity apbuart_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- UART signals
rxd
: in std_ulogic;
txd
: out std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of apbuart_ex is
-- APB signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- UART signals
signal uarti : uart_in_type;
signal uarto : uart_out_type;
89
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- APB UART
uart0 : apbuart
generic map (pindex => 1, paddr => 1, pirq => 2,
console => 1, fifosize => 1)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(1), uarti, uarto);
-- UART input data
uarti.rxd <= rxd;
-- APB UART inputs not used in this configuration
uarti.ctsn <= ’0’; uarti.extclk <= ’0’;
-- connect APB UART output to entity output signal
txd <= uarto.txd;
end;
90
16
APBVGA - VGA controller with APB interface
16.1
Introduction
The APBVGA core is a text-only video controller with a resolution of 640x480 pixels, creating a display of 80x37 characters. The controller consists of a video signal generator, a 4 Kbyte text buffer, and
a ROM for character pixel information. The video controller is controlled through an APB interface.
A block diagram for the data path is shown in figure 32.
Character ROM
Video
Generator
Video memory
HSYNC
VSYNC
COMP_SYNC
BLANK
RED[7:0]
GREEN[7:0]
BLUE[7:0]
APB
Figure 32. APBVGA block diagram
16.2
Operation
The video timing of APBVGA is fixed to generate a 640x480 display with 60 Hz refresh rate. The text
font is encoded using 8x13 pixels. The display is created by scanning a segment of 2960 characters of
the 4 Kbyte text buffer, rasterizing the characters using the character ROM, and sending the pixel data
to an external video DAC using three 8-bit color channels. The required pixel clock is 25.175 MHz,
which should be provided on the VGACLK input.
Writing to the video memory is made through the VGA data register. Bits [7:0] contains the character
to be written, while bits [19:8] defines the text buffer address. Foreground and background colours are
set through the background and foreground registers. These 24 bits corresponds to the three pixel colors, RED, GREEN and BLUE. The eight most significant bits defines the red intensity, the next eight
bits defines the green intensity and the eight least significant bits defines the blue intensity. Maximum
intensity for a color is received when all eight bits are set and minimum intensity when none of the
bits are set. Changing the foreground color results in that all characters change their color, it is not
possible to just change the color of one character. In addition to the color channels, the video controller generates HSYNC, VSYNC, CSYNC and BLANK. Togetherm the signals are suitable to drive an
external video DAC such as ADV7125 or similar.
APBVGA implements hardware scrolling to minimize processor overhead. The controller monitors
maintains a reference pointer containing the buffer address of the first character on the top-most line.
When the text buffer is written with an address larger than the reference pointer + 2960, the pointer is
incremented with 80. The 4 Kbyte text buffer is sufficient to buffer 51 lines of 80 characters. To simplify hardware design, the last 16 bytes (4080 - 4095) should not be written. When address 4079 has
been written, the software driver should wrap to address 0. Sofware scrolling can be implemented by
only using the first 2960 address in the text buffer, thereby never activating the hardware scolling
mechanism.
91
16.3
Registers
The APB VGA is controlled through three registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 85. APB VGA registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
VGA Data register
0x4
VGA Background color
0x8
VGA Foreground color
16.3.1 VGA Data Register
19
31
8
RESERVED
7
0
DATA
ADDRESS
Figure 33. VGA data register
[19:8]:
[7:0]:
Video memory address (write access)
Video memory data (write access)
16.3.2 VGA Background Color
31
24 23
RESERVED
0
8 7
16 15
BLUE
GREEN
RED
Figure 34. PS/2 status register
[23:16]: Video background color red.
[15:8]: Video background color green.
[7:0]:
Video background color blue.
16.3.3 VGA Foreground Color
31
24 23
RESERVED
RED
0
8 7
16 15
GREEN
BLUE
Figure 35. PS/2 status register
[23:16]: Video foreground color red.
[15:8]: Video foreground color green.
[7:0]:
Video foreground color blue.
16.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x060. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
92
16.5
Configuration options
Table 86 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 86. Configuration options
16.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
memtech
Technology to implement on-chip RAM
0 - NTECH
2
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
Signal descriptions
Table 87 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 87. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
VGACLK
N/A
Input
VGA Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
VGAO
HSYNC
Output
Horizontal synchronization
High
Vertical synchronization
High
COMP_SYNC
Composite synchronization
Low
BLANK
Blanking
Low
VIDEO_OUT_R[7:0]
Video out, color red
-
VIDEO_OUT_G[7:0]
Video out, color green
-
VIDEO_OUT_B[7:0]
Video out, color blue
-
VSYNC
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
16.7
Library dependencies
Table 88 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 88. Library dependencies
16.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
APB signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Signals, component
VGA signal and component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
93
.
.
architecture rtl of apbuart_ex is
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal vgao : apbvga_out_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- APB VGA
vga0 : apbvga
generic map (memtech => 2, pindex => 6, paddr => 6)
port map (rstn, clk, vgaclk, apbi, apbo(6), vgao);
end;
94
17
ATACTRL - ATA Controller
17.1
Overview
The AT Attachment controller (ATACTRL) is an ATA/ATAPI-5 host interface based on the OCIDEC2 IP core from OpenCores. This IP core provides an interface to IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
devices, compatible to the ATA/ATAPI-5 standard. Only PIO transfer support is implemented, i.e.
DMA transfer is not supported.
Figure 36 shows how the ATA controller should be connected.
FPGA
AHB
ATA Signals
ATACTRL
IDE
DEVICE
Figure 36. ATACTRL connected to an IDE device.
17.2
Operation
17.2.1 System overview
Figure 37 shows a block diagram of the ATACTRL core. The AHB Slave block contains control registers for the ATA controller and handles the AHB communication. The ATA controller block handles
the timing control and data transfer to and from the IDE device. A write access to the register in the
core is done with no wait states, while a read access has one wait state. When the ATA device is
accessed, the controller blocks the AHB bus until the transfer is completed.
AHB
ATACTRL
ATA signals
AHB Slave
Interface
ATA Controller
Figure 37. Block diagram of the internal structure of the ATACTRL.
17.2.2 Device hardware reset
Bit 0 in the core control register controls the reset signal to the ATA device. When this bit is set to ‘1’
the reset signal is asserted. After system reset, this bit is set to ‘1’. The hardware reset procedure
should follow this protocol:
1: Set the ATA reset bit to ‘1’ and wait for at least 25 us.
95
2: Set the ATA reset bit to ‘0’ and wait for at least 2 ms.
3: Read the ATA status register until the busy bit is cleared.
4: Execute an Identify device or an Identify packet device command for all connected devices.
17.3
Registers
The core has 32-bit wide registers mapped into the AHB address space, with an offset shown in table
89. The registers in the ATA device are also mapped into the AHB address space starting with an offset of 0x40, see table 93. Data bits 7:0 are used for accessing the 8-bit registers in the ATA device and
bits 15:0 are used for accessing the 16-bit data register in the ATA device.
Table 89. Core Registers.
Name
Offset
CTRL
0x00
Control register
STAT
0x04
Status register
PCTR
0x08
PIO compatible timing register
PFTR0
0x0c
PIO fast timing register device 0
PFTR1
0x10
PIO fast timing register device 1
DTR0
0x14
(Reserved for DMA timing register device 0)
DTR1
0x18
(Reserved for DMA timing register device 1)
All the core registers can be read from and written to by any master on the AHB bus.
The Control register has the following bit layout, see table 90.
Table 90. Control Register
Bit #
Description
31
CompactFlash power on switch
30:16
Reserved
15
Reserved (DMA enable)
14
Reserved
13
Reserved (DMA direction)
12:10
Reserved
9
Reserved (Big Endian Little Endian conversion device 1)
8
Reserved (Big Endian Little Endian conversion device 0)
7
IDE enable
6
Fast timing device 1 enable
5
Fast timing device 0 enable
4
Reserved (PIO write ping-pong enable)
3
Fast timing device 1 IORDY enable
2
Fast timing device 0 IORDY enable
1
Compatible timing IORDY enable
0
ATA reset
All bits except bit 0 are set to zero after reset. Bit 0 is set to ‘1’. The timing registers should be loaded
with an appropriate value before any of bit 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 in the control register is set to ‘1’. Bit 31
controls the power signal for CompactFlash cards. When set to ‘1’ the power signal is connected to
Vcc. This signal is used when the power to the CompactFlash card is controlled via a transistor in the
design.
96
The Status register has the following bit layout, see table 91.
Table 91. Status Register
Bit #
Description
31:28
Device ID (= 0x02)
27:24
Revision Number (= 0)
23:16
Reserved
15
Reserved (DMA transfer in progress)
14:11
Reserved
10
Reserved (DMA receive buffer empty)
9
Reserved (DMA transmit buffer full)
8
Reserved (DMARQ line status)
7
PIO transfer in progress
6
Reserved (PIO write ping-pong full)
5:1
Reserved
0
IDE interrupt status (when set to 1, indicates that a device asserted its interrupt line)
The PIO timing registers have the following bit layout, see table 92.
Table 92. PIO Timing Register (PCTR, PFTR0, PFTR1)
Bit #
Description
31:24
End of Cycle Time (Teoc)
23:16
DIOW - data hold (T4)
15:8
DIOR/DIOW pulse width (T2)
7:0
Address valid to DIOR/DIOW (T1)
All timing values are in ns per clock cycle minus 2, rounded up to the nearest interger value.
Teoc = (T0 - T1 - T2) or T9 or T2i whichever is greater. For more timing information, read the ATA/
ATAPI-5 standard document and see figure 38.
The PCTR timing register determines the timing for all PIO access, except for access to the data register. For data register access, the timing is determined by the PFTR0 or the PFTR1 register.
T0
CS,DA
DIOR/DIOW
Data (Read)
Data (Write)
T4
T1
T2
Teoc
Figure 38. PIO timing diagram.
97
Table 93. ATA Device Registers
17.4
Name
Offset
Width
Data Register
0x40
16
Features/Error Register
0x44
8
Sector Number Register
0x48
8
Sector Count Register
0x4c
8
Cylinder Low Register
0x50
8
Cylinder High Register
0x54
8
Device/Head Register
0x58
8
Command/Status Register
0x5c
8
Alternate Status/Device Control Register
0x78
8
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x024. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
17.5
Configuration options
Table 94 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 94. Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
haddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining the address
space.
0 - 0xFFF
0x000
hmask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining the address
space.
0 - 0xFFF
0xFF0
pirq
Index of the interrupt line.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
TWIDTH
Timing counter width
8
PIO_mode0_T1
Reset value for T1
6
PIO_mode0_T2
Reset value for T2
28
PIO_mode0_T4
Reset value for T4
2
PIO_mode0_Teoc
Reset value for Teoc
23
The default values for PIO_mode0_* are calculated for a 100 MHz clock.
98
17.6
Signal descriptions
Table 95 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 95. Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
rst
Input
Synchronous reset signal
Low
arst
Input
Asynchronous reset signal
Low
clk
Input
Clock signal
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
ata_resetn
Output
Reset signal to ATA device
Low
ddin[15:0]
Input
Data Input
-
ddout[15:0]
Output
Data Output
-
ddoe
Output
Data output enable
High
da[2:0]
Output
Device address
-
cs0n
Output
Chip Select 0
Low
cs1n
Output
Chip Select 1
Low
diorn
Output
Device IO read
Low
diown
Output
Device IO write
Low
iordy
Input
IO channel ready
-
intrq
Input
Device interrupt
-
dmack
Output
DMA ACK signal. Always set to ‘1’
-
cfo
atasel
Output
Select “True-IDE“ mode for CompactFlash
-
csel
Output
Device Master select signal
-
da[10:3]
Output
Grounded address signals
-
power
Output
Power switch
-
we
Output
Connected to Vcc for True-IDE mode
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
17.7
Library dependencies
Table 96 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 96. Library dependencies
17.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
ATA
Signals, component
ATACTRL component declarations, ATA signals
Instantiation
This example shows how the can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.stdlib.all;
use grlib.devices.all;
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
99
library gaisler;
use gaisler.ata.all;
use work.config.all;
entity atactrl_ex is
port (
rstn : in std_ulogic;
clkm
: in std_ulogic;
ata_rst
ata_data
ata_da
ata_cs0
ata_cs1
ata_dior
ata_diow
ata_iordy
ata_intrq
ata_dmack
);
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
out std_logic;
inout std_logic_vector(15 downto 0);
out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
out std_logic;
out std_logic;
out std_logic;
out std_logic;
in std_logic;
in std_logic;
out std_logic
end;
architecture rtl of atactrl_ex is
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ata : ata_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
------------------------------------------------------------------------- ATA Controller ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------atac0 : atactrl
generic map(
hindex => 5,
haddr
=> 16#A00#,
hmask
=> 16#fff#,
pirq
=> 10,
TWIDTH
=> 8,
-- PIO mode 0 settings
PIO_mode0_T1
=> 6,
PIO_mode0_T2
=> 28,
PIO_mode0_T4
=> 2,
PIO_mode0_Teoc => 23
)
port map(
rst
=>
arst =>
clk
=>
ahbsi =>
ahbso =>
-- counter width
(@100MHz clock)
-- 70ns
-- 290ns
-- 30ns
-- 240ns ==> T0 - T1 - T2 = 600 - 70 - 290 = 240
rstn,
’1’,
clkm,
ahbsi,
ahbso(5),
-- ATA signals
ata_resetn => ata.rst,
ddin
=> ata.ddi,
ddout
=> ata.ddo,
ddoe
=> ata.oen,
da
=> ata.da,
cs0n
=> ata.cs0,
cs1n
=> ata.cs1,
diorn
=> ata.dior,
diown
=> ata.diow,
iordy
=> ata.iordy,
100
intrq
dmack
=> ata.intrq,
=> ata.dmack
);
ata_rst_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_rst, ata.rst);
ata_data_pad : iopadv generic map (tech => padtech, width => 16, oepol => 1)
port map (ata_data, ata.ddo, ata.oen, ata.ddi);
ata_da_pad : outpadv generic map (tech => padtech, width => 3)
port map (ata_da, ata.da);
ata_cs0_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_cs0, ata.cs0);
ata_cs1_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_cs1, ata.cs1);
ata_dior_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_dior, ata.dior);
ata_diow_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_diow, ata.diow);
iordy_pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_iordy, ata.iordy);
intrq_pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_intrq, ata.intrq);
dmack_pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (ata_dmack, ata.dmack);
end rtl;
101
18
B1553BC - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BBC
18.1
Overview
The interface provides a complete Mil-Std-1553B Bus Controller (BC). The interface connects to the
MIL-STD-1553B bus through external transceivers and transformers. The interface is based on the
Actel Core1553BBC core.
The interface provides a complete, MIL-STD-1553B Bus Controller (BC). The interface reads message descriptor blocks from the memory and generates messages that are transmitted on and transmitted on the 1553B bus. Data received is written to the memory.
The interface consists of five main blocks: the 1553B encoder, the 1553B decoder, a protocol controller block, a CPU interface, and a backend interface.
A single 1553B encoder takes each word to be transmitted and serializes it using Manchester encoding. The encoder includes independent logic to prevent the BC from transmitting for greater than the
allowed period and to provide loopback fail logic. The loopback logic monitors the received data and
verifies that the interface has correctly received every word that is transmitted. The encoder output is
gated with the bus enable signals to select which buses the encoder should be transmitting. Since the
BC knows which bus is in use at any time, only a single decoder is required.
The decoder takes the serial Manchester received data from the bus and extracts the received data
words The decoder contains a digital phased lock loop (PLL) that generates a recovery clock used to
sample the incoming serial data. The data is then deserialized and the 16-bit word decoded. The
decoder detects whether a command, status or data word has been received and checks that no
Manchester encoding or parity errors occurred in the word.
The protocol controller block handles all the message sequencing and error recovery. This is a complex state machine that reads the 1553B message frames from memory and transmits them on the
1553B bus. The AMBA interface allows a system processor to access the control registers. It also
allows the processor to directly access the memory connected to the backend interface, this simplifies
the system design.
The B1553BC core provides an AMBA interface with GRLIB plug&play for the Actel
Core1553BBC core (MIL-STD-1553B Bus Controller). B1553BC implements two AMBA interfaces: one AHB master interface for the memory interface, and one APB slave interface for the CPU
interface and control registers.
The Actel Core1553BBC core, entity named BC1553B, is configured to use the shared memory interface, and only internal register access is allowed through the APB slave interface. Data is read and
stored via DMA using the AHB master interface.
B1553BC
GR1553BC
1553 signals
Actel Core1553BBC
CPU IF
IRQ
MEM IF
APB slave IF
Control
registers
AHB master IF
AMBA APB
AMBA AHB
Figure 39. Block diagram
102
18.2
AHB interface
The Core1553BBC operates on a 65536 x 16 bit memory buffer, and therefore a 128 kilobyte aligned
memory area should be allocated. The memory is accessed via the AMBA AHB bus. The
Core1553BBC uses only 16 address bits, and the top 15 address bits of the 32-bit AHB address can be
programmed in the AHB page address register. The 16-bit address provided by the Core1553BBC is
left-shifted one bit, and forms the AHB address together with the AHB page address register. Note
that all pointers given to the Core1553BBC core need to be right-shifted one bit because of this. All
AHB accesses are done as half word single transfers.
The endianness of the interface depends on the endian VHDL generic.
The AMBA AHB protection control signal HPROT is driven permanently with “0011”, i.e a not
cacheable, not bufferable, privileged data access. The AMBA AHB lock signal HLOCK is driven
with ‘0’.
18.3
Operation
To transmit data on the 1553 bus, an instruction list and 1553 messages should be set up in the memory by the processor. After the bus interface has been activated, it will start to process the instruction
list and read/write data words from/to the specified memory locations. Interrupts are generated when
interrupt instructions are executed, on errors or when the interface has completed the list.
18.4
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space. The internal registers of
Core1553BBC are mapped on the eight lowest APB addresses. These addresses are 32-bit word
aligned although only the lowest 16 bits are used. Refer to the Actel Core1553BBC MIL-STD-1553B
Bus Controller data sheet for detailed information.
Table 97. B1553BC registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
Control/Status
0x04
Setup
0x08
List pointer
0x0C
Message pointer
0x10
Clock value
0x14
Asynchronous list pointer
0x18
Stack pointer
0x1C
Interrupt register
0x20
GR1553 status/control
0x24
AHB page address register
Table 98. GR1553 status register (read)
31
3
RESERVED
2
1
extflag memfail
31: 3
RESERVED
2
External flag bit. Drives the extflag input of the Core1553BBC. Resets to zero.
1
Memory failure. Shows the value of the memfail output from Core1553BBC.
0
Busy. Shows the value of the busy output from Core1553BBC.
0
busy
103
Table 99. GR1553 status register (write)
31
1
RESERVED
0
extflag
31: 2
RESERVED
0
External flag bit. Drives the extflag input of the Core1553BBC. Resets to zero.
Table 100. GR1553 status register (write)
31
17 16
ahbaddr
18.5
0
RESERVED
31: 17
Holds the 15 top most bits of the AHB address of the allocated memory area
16: 0
RESERVED
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x070. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
18.6
Configuration options
Table 101 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 101.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Interrupt number
0 - NAHBIRQ -1
0
104
18.7
Signal descriptions
Table 102 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 102.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
B1553I
-
Input
1553 bus input signals
-
busainp
Positive data input from the A receiver
High
busainn
Negative data input from the A receiver
Low
busbinp
Positive data to the B receiver
High
busbinn
Negative data to the B receiver
Low
1553 bus output signals
-
busainen
Enable for the A receiver
High
busaoutin
Inhibit for the A transmitter
High
busaoutp
Positive data to the A transmitter
High
busaoutn
Negative data to the A transmitter
Low
busbinen
Enable for the B receiver
High
busboutin
Inhibit for the B transmitter
High
busboutp
Positive output to the B transmitter
High
busboutn
Negative output to the B transmitter
Low
APB slave input signals
-
B1553O
-
Output
APBI
*
Input
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
18.8
Library dependencies
Table 103 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 103.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
Signal definitions
GAISLER
B1553
Signals, component
Signal and component declaration
The B1553BC depends on GRLIB, GAISLER, GR1553 and Core1553BBC.
18.9
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component b1553bc is
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
pindex : integer := 0;
paddr
: integer := 0;
pmask
: integer := 16#fff#;
pirq
: integer := 0
);
port (
rstn
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
105
b1553i : in
b1553o : out
apbi
: in
apbo
: out
ahbi
: in
ahbo
: out
);
end component;
b1553_in_type;
b1553_out_type;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_type;
ahb_mst_in_type;
ahb_mst_out_type
18.10 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.b1553.all;
...
signal bin : b1553_in_type;
signal bout : b1553_out_type;
...
bc1553_0 : b1553bc
generic map (hindex => 2, pindex => 12, paddr => 12, pirq => 2)
port map (rstn, clkm, bin, bout, apbi, apbo(12), ahbmi, ahbmo(2));
106
19
B1553BRM - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BRM
19.1
Overview
The interface provides a complete Mil-Std-1553B Bus Controller (BC), Remote Terminal (RT) or
Monitor Terminal (MT). The interface connects to the MIL-STD-1553B bus through external transceivers and transformers. The interface is based on the Actel Core1553BRM core.
The interface consists of six main blocks: 1553 encoder, 1553B decoders, a protocol controller block,
AMBA bus interface, command word legality interface, and a backend interface.
The interface can be configured to provide all three functions BC, RT and MT or any combination of
the three. All variations use all six blocks except for the command legalization interface, which is
only required on RT functions that implement RT legalization function externally.
A single 1553 encoder takes each word to be transmitted and serializes it using Manchester encoding.
The encoder also includes independent logic to prevent the interface from transmitting for greater
than the allowed period as well as loopback fail logic. The loopback logic monitors the received data
and verifies that the interface has correctly received every word that it transmits. The output of the
encoder is gated with the bus enable signals to select which buses the interface should be transmitting
on. Two decoders take the serial Manchester received data from each bus and extract the received data
words.
The decoder contains a digital phased lock loop (PLL) that generates a recovery clock used to sample
the incoming serial data. The data is then de-serialized and the 16-bit word decoded. The decoder
detects whether a command, status, or data word has been received, and checks that no Manchester
encoding or parity errors occurred in the word.
The protocol controller block handles all the message sequencing and error recovery for all three
operating modes, Bus Controller, Remote Terminal, and Bus Monitor. This is complex state machine
that processes messages based on the message tables setup in memory, or reacts to incoming command words. The protocol controller implementation varies depending on which functions are implemented. The AMBA interface allows a system processor to access the control registers. It also allows
the processor to directly access the memory connected to the backend interface, this simplifies the
system design.
The interface comprises 33 16-bit registers. Of the 33 registers, 17 are used for control function and
16 for RT command legalization.
The B1553BRM core provides an AMBA interface for the Actel Core1553BRM core (MIL-STD1553B Bus Controller/Remote Terminal/Bus Monitor). The B1553BRM core implements two AMBA
interfaces: one AHB master interface for the memory interface, and one APB slave interface for the
CPU interface and control registers.
The Actel Core1553BRM core, entity named BRM, is configured to use the shared memory interface,
and only internal register access is allowed through the APB slave interface. Data is read and stored
via DMA using the AHB master interface.
107
B1553BRM
GR1553BRM
Actel Core1553BRM
1553 signals
CPU IF
Core1553BRM signals
MEM IF
APB slave IF
Control
registers
AHB master IF
AMBA APB
AMBA AHB
Figure 40. Block diagram
19.2
AHB interface
The amount of memory that the Mil-Std-1553B interface can address is 128 (2**abit VHDL generic,
i.e. abit => 128) kbytes. The base address of this memory area must be aligned to a boundary of its
own size and written into the AHB page address register.
The 16 bit address provided by the Core1553BRM core is shifted left one bit, and forms the AHB
address together with the AHB page address register. Note that all pointers given to the
Core1553BRM core needs to be right shifted one bit because of this.
The amount of memory needed for the Core1553BRM core is operation and implementation specific.
Any configuration between 1 to 128 kilobytes is possible although a typical system needs at least 4
kbyte of memory. The allocated memory area needs to be aligned to a boundary of its own size and
the number of bits needed to address this area must be specificed with the abits VHDL generic.
The address bus of the Core1553BRM is 16 bits wide but the amount of bits actually used depends on
the setup of the data structures. The AHB page address register should be programmed with the 32abits top bits of the 32-bit AHB address, abit being a VHDL generic. The address provided by the
Core1553BRM core is shifted left one bit, and forms the AHB address together with the AHB page
address register. Note that all pointers given to the Core1553BRM core needs to be right shifted one
bit because of this.
When the Core1553BRM core has been granted access to the bus it expects to be able to do a series of
uninterrupted accesses. To handle this requirement the AHB master locks the bus during these transfers. In the worst case, the Core1553BRM can do up to 7 writes in one such access and each write
takes 2 plus the number of waitstate cycles with 4 idle cycles between each write strobe. This means
care has to be taken if using two simultaneous active Core1553BRM cores on the same AHB bus.All
AHB accesses are done as half word single transfers.
The endianness of the interface depends on the endian VHDL generic.
The AMBA AHB protection control signal HPROT is driven permanently with "0011" i.e a not
cacheable, not bufferable, privileged data access. During all AHB accesses the AMBA AHB lock signal HLOCK is driven with `1' and `0' otherwise.
19.3
Operation
The mode of operation can be selected with the mselin VHDL generic or later changed by writing to
the “operation and status” register of the Core1553BRM core. For information about how the core
functions during the different modes of operation see the Actel Core1553BRM MIL-STD-1553 BC,
RT, and MT data sheet.
108
19.4
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space. The internal registers of
Core1553BRM are mapped on the 33 lowest APB addresses. These addresses are 32-bit word aligned
although only the lowest 16 bits are used. Refer to the Actel Core1553BRM MIL-STD-1553 BC, RT,
and MT data sheet for detailed information.
Table 104.B1553BRM registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00 - 0x84
Core1553BRM registers
0x100
B1553BRM status/control
0x104
B1553BRM interrupt settings
0x108
AHB page address register
B1553BRM status/control register
12
31
RESERVED
reset
11
9
clksel
8
5
clkdiv
4
rtaderr
3
2
1
0
memfail
busy
active
ssysfn
Figure 41. B1553BRM status/control register
12:5
12
11:9
8:5
4:
3:
2:
1:
0:
Bit 12-5 are only available in the b1553brm_async toplevel which allows separate AHB and BRM frequencies.
Reset. For asynchronous toplevel only. Software reset. Self clearing.
Clock select. For asynchronous toplevel only. 0 - AHB clock, 1 - divided AHB clock, 2 - brm_clk1, 3 - brm_clk2.
Clock divisor. For asynchronous toplevel only. BRM core clocked by AHB clock divided by 2*(clkdiv+1).
Address error. Shows the value of the rtaderr output from Core1553BRM.
Memory failure. Shows the value of the memfail output from Core1553BRM.
Busy. Shows the value of the busy output from Core1553BRM.
Active. Show the value of the active output from Core1553BRM.
Ssyfn. Connects directly to the ssyfn input of the Core1553BRM core. Resets to 1.
B1553BRM interrupt register
31
2
RESERVED
1
intackm intackh
0
intlevel
Figure 42. B1553RM interrupt register
2:
1:
0:
Message interrupt acknowledge. Controls the intackm input signal of the Core1553BRM core.
Hardware interrupt acknowledge. Controls the intackh input signal of the Core1553BRM core.
Interrupt level. Controls the intlevel input signal of the Core1553BRM core.
AHB page address register
abits
31
ahbaddr
0
RESERVED
Figure 43. AHB page address register
[31:17]: Holds the top most bits of the AHB address of the allocated memory area.
109
19.5
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x072. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
19.6
Configuration options
Table 105 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 105.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index
0-NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0-NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR
0-16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR
0-16#FF0#
16#FF0#
pirq
Index of the interrupt line
0-NAHBIRQ-1
0
endian
Data endianness of the AHB bus (Big = 0, Little = 1)
0 -1
0
ahbaddr
Reset value for address register
16#00000#-16#FFFFF#
16#00000#
abits
Number of bits needed to address the memory area
12-17
17
rtaddr
RT address
0 - 31
0
rtaddrp
RT address parity bit. Set to achieve odd parity.
0-1
1
lockn
Lock rtaddrin, rtaddrp, mselin and abstdin
0-1
0
mselin
Mode select
0-3
0
abstdin
Bus standard A/B
0-1
0
bcenable
Enable bus controller
0-1
1
rtenable
Enable remote terminal
0-1
1
mtenable
Enable bus monitor
0-1
1
legregs
Enable legalization registers
0-1
1
enhanced
Enable enhanced register
0-1
1
initfreq
Initial operation frequency
12,16,20,24
20
betiming
Backend timing
0-1
1
Except for endian, ahbaddr and abits these generics drive the corresponding signal or generic of the
Core1553BRM core. Bcenable, rtenable, mtenable, legregs, enhanced, initfreq and betiming connects
to generics on the Core1553BRM core and therefore are ignored unless the RTL version is used.
110
19.7
Signal descriptions
Table 106 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 106.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
RSTOUTN
N/A
Output
Reset from BRM core
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
System clock (AHB)
-
BRM_CLK1
N/A
Input
BRM clock 1
-
BRM_CLK2
N/A
Input
BRM clock 1
-
TCLK
N/A
Input
External time base
-
B1553I
-
Input
1553 bus input signals
-
busainp
Positive data input from the A receiver
High
busainn
Negative data input from the A receiver
Low
busbinp
Positive data to the B receiver
High
busbinn
Negative data to the B receiver
Low
1553 bus output signals
-
busainen
Enable for the A receiver
High
busaoutin
Inhibit for the A transmitter
High
busaoutp
Positive data to the A transmitter
High
busaoutn
Negative data to the A transmitter
Low
busbinen
Enable for the B receiver
High
busboutin
Inhibit for the B transmitter
High
busboutp
Positive output to the B transmitter
High
busboutn
Negative output to the B transmitter
Low
Input
BRM input signals
-
Command word validation alright
High
Output
BRM output signals
-
msgstart
Message process started
High
cmdsync
Start of command word on bus
High
B1553O
-
BRMI
-
BRMO
-
Output
cmdok
syncnow
Synchronize received
High
busreset
Reset command received
High
opmode
Operating mode
-
cmdval
Active command
-
cmdokout
Command word validated
High
cmdstb
Active command value changed
High
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
111
19.8
Library dependencies
Table 107 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 107.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
Signal definitions
GAISLER
B1553
Signals, component
Signal and component declaration
The B1553BRM depends on VHDL libraries GRLIB, GAISLER, GR1553 and Core1553BRM.
19.9
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component b1553brm is
generic (
hindex
: integer := 0;
pindex
: integer := 0;
paddr
: integer := 0;
pmask
: integer := 16#ff0#;
pirq
: integer := 0;
ahbaddr
: integer range 0 to 16#FFFFF# := 0;
abits
: integer range 12 to 17 := 16;
rtaddr
: integer range 0 to 31 := 0;
rtaddrp
: integer range 0 to 1 := 1;
lockn
: integer range 0 to 1 := 1;
mselin
: integer range 0 to 3 := 1;
abstdin
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
bcenable
rtenable
mtenable
legregs
enhanced
initfreq
betiming
);
port (
rstn
rstoutn
clk
tclk
brmi
brmo
b1553i
b1553o
apbi
apbo
ahbi
ahbo
);
end component;
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
in
out
in
in
in
out
in
out
in
out
in
out
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
0 to 1 :=
0 to 1 :=
0 to 1 :=
0 to 4 :=
0 to 1 :=
12 to 24:=
0 to 1 :=
1;
1;
1;
1;
1;
20;
1
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
brm1553_in_type;
brm1553_out_type;
b1553_in_type;
b1553_out_type;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_type;
ahb_mst_in_type;
ahb_mst_out_type
19.10 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.b1553.all;
112
...
signal
signal
signal
signal
...
bin : b1553_in_type;
bout : b1553_out_type;
brmi : brm1553_in_type;
brmo : brm1553_out_type;
bc1553_0 : b1553brm
generic map (hindex => 2, pindex => 12, paddr => 16#10#, pirq => 2,
abits => 17, mselin => 0)
port map (rstn, open, clkm, gnd(0), brmi, brmo, bin, bout, apbi, apbo(12), ahbmi,
ahbmo(2));
113
20
B1553RT - AMBA plug&play interface for Actel Core1553BRT
20.1
Overview
The interface provides a complete Mil-Std-1553B Remote Terminal (RT). The interface connects to
the MIL-STD-1553B bus through external transceivers and transformers. The interface is based on
the Actel Core1553BRT core.
The interface provides a complete, dual-redundant MIL-STD-1553B remote terminal (RT) apart from
the transceivers required to interface to the bus. At a high level, the interface simply provides a set of
memory mapped sub-addresses that ‘receive data written to’ or ‘transmit data read from.’ The interface requires 2,048 words of memory, which can be shared with a local processor. The interface supports all 1553B mode codes and allows the user to designate as illegal any mode code or any
particular sub-address for both transmit and receive operations. The command legalization can be
done internally or via a command legalization interface.
The interface consists of six main blocks: 1553B encoders, 1553B decoders, backend interface, command decoder, RT controller blocks and a command legalization block.
A single 1553B encoder is used for the interface. This takes each word to be transmitted and serializes
it, after which the signal is Manchester encoded. The encoder also includes both logic to prevent the
RT from transmitting for greater than the allowed period and loopback fail logic. The loopback logic
monitors the received data and verifies that the interface has correctly received every word that it
transmits. The output of the encoder is gated with the bus enable signals to select which buses the RT
should use to transmit.
The interface includes two 1553B decoders. The decoder takes the serial Manchester data received
from the bus and extracts the received data words. The decoder contains a digital phased lock loop
(PLL) that generates a recovery clock used to sample the incoming serial data. The data is then deserialized and the 16-bit word decoded. The decoder detects whether a command or data word is
received, and also performs Manchester encoding and parity error checking.
The command decoder and RT controller blocks decode the incoming command words, verifying the
legality. Then the protocol state machine responds to the command, transmitting or receiving data or
processing a mode code.
The B1553RT core provides an AMBA interface with GRLIB plug&play for the Actel Core1553BRT
(MIL-STD-1553B Remote Terminal). B1553RT implements two AMBA interfaces: one AHB master
interface for the memory interface, and one APB slave interface for the control registers.
The Actel Core1553BRT core, entity named RT1553B, is configured to use the shared memory interface. Data is read and stored via DMA using the AHB master interface.
B1553RT
GR1553RT
1553 signals
Actel Core1553BRT
RT signals
MEM IF
APB slave IF
Control
registers
AHB master IF
AMBA APB
AMBA AHB
Figure 44. B1553RT block diagram
114
20.2
AHB interface
The Core1553BRT core operates on a 2048*16 bit memory buffer, and therefore a 4 kilobyte memory
area should be allocated. The memory is accessed via the AMBA AHB bus. The Core1553BRT uses
only 11 address bits, and the top 20 address bits of the 32-bit AHB address can be programmed in the
AHB page address register. The 11-bit address provided by the Core1553BRT core is left-shifted one
bit, and forms the AHB address together with the AHB page address register. Note that all pointers
given to the Core1553BRT core need to be right-shifted one bit because of this. All AHB accesses are
done as half word single transfers.
The endianness of the interface depends on the endian VHDL generic.
The used memory area has the following address map. Note that all 1553 data is 16 bit wide and will
occupy two byte addresses. Every sub-address needs memory to hold up to 32 16 bit words.
Table 108.Memory map for 1553 data
Address
Content
0x000-0x03F
RX transfer status words
0x040-0x07F
Receive sub-address 1 ...
0x780-0x7BF
Receive sub-address 30
0x7C0-0x7FF
TX transfer status words
0x800-0x83F
Not used
0x840-0x87F
Transfer sub-address 1 ...
0xF80-0xFBF
Transfer sub-address 30
0xFC0-0xFFF
Not used
The AMBA AHB protection control signal HPROT is driven permanently with “0011”, i.e a not
cacheable, not bufferable, privileged data access. The AMBA AHB lock signal HLOCK is driven
with ‘0’.
20.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 109.B1553RT registers
APB Address offset
Register
0x00
Status
0x04
Control
0x08
Vector word
0x0C
Interrupt vector
0x10
AHB page address register
Status register (read only)
31
RESERVED
Figure 45. Status register
2:
1:
0:
RT address error. Connected to the rtaderr output pin on Core1553BRT.
Memory failure. Shows the value of the memfail output from Core1553BRT.
Busy. Shows the value of the busy output from Core1553BRT.
2
1
rtaderr
memfail
0
busy
115
Control register
31
19
RESERVED
18
sa30loop bcasten
17
16
15
14
13
intenbbr extmdata wrtcmd wrttsw rtaddrp
12
8
rtaddr
7
6
clkspd
5
4
clrerr
intack
3
2
1
0
tflag ssflag rtbusy sreq
Figure 46. Control register
All these bits drive the corresponding input on the Core1553BRT core. Bit 0-5 are reset to zero while bit 6-19 are
reset according to the implementation (corresponding VHDL generic).
Vector word register
31
16
15
0
vword
RESERVED
Figure 47. Vector word register
[15:0]
Drives the vector word input of the Core1553BRT.
Interrupt vector register
31
7
6
0
intvect
RESERVED
Figure 48. Interrupt vector register
[6:0]
Shows the value of the interrupt vector output of the Core1553BRT.
AHB page address register
31
0
12
ahbaddr
RESERVED
Figure 49. Address register
[31:12]: Holds the 20 top most bits of the AHB address of the allocated memory area. Resets to the value specified with the
ahbaddr VHDL generic.
20.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x071. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
116
20.5
Configuration options
Table 110 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 110.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
endian
Endianness of the AHB bus (Big = 0)
0-1
0
ahbaddr
Reset value for address register
16#00000#-16#FFFFF#
16#00000#
clkspd
Clock speed
0-3
1
rtaddr
RT address
0 - 31
0
rtaddrp
RT address parity bit. Set to achieve odd parity.
0-1
1
wrtcmd
Write command word to memory
0-1
1
wrttsw
Write status word to memory
0-1
1
extmdata
Read/write mode code data from/to memory
0-1
0
intenbbr
Generate interrupts for bad messages
0-1
0
bcasten
Broadcast enable
0-1
1
sa30loop
Use sub-address 30 as loopback
0-1
0
All VHDL generics except endian are reset values for the corresponding bits in the wrapper control
register.
117
20.6
Signal descriptions
Table 111 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 111.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
B1553I
-
Input
1553 bus input signals
-
busainp
Positive data input from the A receiver
High
busainn
Negative data input from the A receiver
Low
busbinp
Positive data to the B receiver
High
busbinn
Negative data to the B receiver
Low
1553 bus output signals
-
busainen
Enable for the A receiver
High
busaoutin
Inhibit for the A transmitter
High
busaoutp
Positive data to the A transmitter
High
busaoutn
Negative data to the A transmitter
Low
busbinen
Enable for the B receiver
High
busboutin
Inhibit for the B transmitter
High
busboutp
Positive output to the B transmitter
High
busboutn
Negative output to the B transmitter
Low
RT input signals
-
B1553O
RTI
RTO
-
-
Output
Input
cmdok
Command word validation alright
High
useextok
Enable external command word validation
High
RT output signals
-
Message process started
High
-
Output
msgstart
cmdsync
Start of command word on bus
High
syncnow
Synchronize received
High
busreset
Reset command received
High
cmdval
Active command
-
cmdokout
Command word validated
High
cmdstb
Active command value changed
High
addrlat
Address latch enable
High
intlat
Interrupt latch enable
High
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
118
20.7
Library dependencies
Table 112 shows libraries that should be used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 112.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
Signal definitions
GAISLER
B1553
Signals, component
Signal and component declaration
The B1553RT depends on GRLIB, GAISLER, GR1553 and Core1553BRT.
20.8
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component b1553rt
generic (
hindex
pindex
paddr
pmask
pirq
ahbaddr
clkspd
rtaddr
rtaddrp
wrtcmd
wrttsw
extmdata
intenbbr
bcasten
sa30loop
port (
rstn
:
clk
:
b1553i
:
b1553o
:
rti
:
rto
:
apbi
:
apbo
:
ahbi
:
ahbo
:
end component;
20.9
is
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
in
in
in
out
in
out
in
out
in
out
:= 0;
:= 0;
:= 0;
:= 16#fff#;
:= 0;
range 0 to 16#FFFFF# := 0;
range 0 to 3 := 1;
range 0 to 31 := 0;
range 0 to 1 := 1;
range 0 to 1 := 1;
range 0 to 1 := 1;
range 0 to 1 := 0;
range 0 to 1 := 0;
range 0 to 1 := 1;
range 0 to 1 := 0);
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
b1553_in_type;
b1553_out_type;
rt1553_in_type;
rt1553_out_type;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_type;
ahb_mst_in_type;
ahb_mst_out_type);
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.b1553.all;
...
signal bin : b1553_in_type;
signal bout : b1553_out_type;
signal rti : rt1553_in_type;
signal rto : rt1553_out_type;
...
rt : b1553rt
generic map (hindex => 3, pindex => 13, paddr => 13, pmask => 16#fff#,
pirq => 3, rtaddr => 1, rtaddrp => 0, sa30loop => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, bin, bout, rti, rto, apbi, apbo(13), ahbmi, ahbmo(3));
119
rti.useextok <= ’0’;
120
21
CAN_OC - GRLIB wrapper for OpenCores CAN Interface core
21.1
Overview
CAN_OC is GRLIB wrapper for the CAN core from Opencores. It provides a bridge between AMBA
AHB and the CAN Core registers. The AHB slave interface is mapped in the AHB I/O space using the
GRLIB plug&play functionality. The CAN core interrupt is routed to the AHB interrupt bus, and the
interrupt number is selected through the irq generic. The FIFO RAM in the CAN core is implemented
using the GRLIB parametrizable SYNCRAM_2P memories, assuring portability to all supported
technologies.
This CAN interface implements the CAN 20.A and 2.0B protocolos. It is based on the Philips
SJA1000 and has a compatible register map with a few exceptions.
CAN_OC Wrapper
CAN_TXO
CAN Core
Syncram_2p
CAN_RXI
AHB slave interface
IRQ
AMBA AHB
Figure 50. Block diagram
21.2
Opencores CAN controller overview
This CAN controller is based on the Philips SJA1000 and has a compatible register map with a few
exceptions. It also supports both BasicCAN (PCA82C200 like) and PeliCAN mode. In PeliCAN
mode the extended features of CAN 2.0B is supported. The mode of operation is chosen through the
Clock Divider register.
This document will list the registers and their functionality. The Philips SJA1000 data sheet can be
used as a reference if something needs clarification. See also the Design considerations chapter for
differences between this core and the SJA1000.
The register map and functionality is different between the two modes of operation. First the BasicCAN mode will be described followed by PeliCAN. Common registers (clock divisor and bus timing)
are described in a separate chapter. The register map also differs depending on whether the core is in
operating mode or in reset mode. When reset the core starts in reset mode awaiting configuration.
Operating mode is entered by clearing the reset request bit in the command register. To re-enter reset
mode set this bit high again.
21.3
AHB interface
All registers are one byte wide and the addresses specified in this document are byte addresses. Byte
reads and writes should be used when interfacing with this core. The read byte is duplicated on all
byte lanes of the AHB bus. The wrapper is big endian so the core expects the MSB at the lowest
address.
The bit numbering in this document uses bit 7 as MSB and bit 0 as LSB.
121
21.4
BasicCAN mode
21.4.1 BasicCAN register map
Table 113.BasicCAN address allocation
Address
Operating mode
Reset mode
Read
Write
Read
Write
0
Control
Control
Control
Control
1
(0xFF)
Command
(0xFF)
Command
2
Status
-
Status
-
3
Interrupt
-
Interrupt
-
4
(0xFF)
-
Acceptance code
Acceptance code
5
(0xFF)
-
Acceptance mask
Acceptance mask
6
(0xFF)
-
Bus timing 0
Bus timing 0
7
(0xFF)
-
Bus timing 1
Bus timing 1
8
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
9
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
10
TX id1
TX id1
(0xFF)
-
11
TX id2, rtr, dlc
TX id2, rtr, dlc
(0xFF)
-
12
TX data byte 1
TX data byte 1
(0xFF)
-
13
TX data byte 2
TX data byte 2
(0xFF)
-
14
TX data byte 3
TX data byte 3
(0xFF)
-
15
TX data byte 4
TX data byte 4
(0xFF)
-
16
TX data byte 5
TX data byte 5
(0xFF)
-
17
TX data byte 6
TX data byte 6
(0xFF)
-
18
TX data byte 7
TX data byte 7
(0xFF)
-
19
TX data byte 8
TX data byte 8
(0xFF)
-
20
RX id1
-
RX id1
-
21
RX id2, rtr, dlc
-
RX id2, rtr, dlc
-
22
RX data byte 1
-
RX data byte 1
-
23
RX data byte 2
-
RX data byte 2
-
24
RX data byte 3
-
RX data byte 3
-
25
RX data byte 4
-
RX data byte 4
-
26
RX data byte 5
-
RX data byte 5
-
27
RX data byte 6
-
RX data byte 6
-
28
RX data byte 7
-
RX data byte 7
-
29
RX data byte 8
-
RX data byte 8
-
30
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
31
Clock divider
Clock divider
Clock divider
Clock divider
122
21.4.2 Control register
The control register contains interrupt enable bits as well as the reset request bit.
Table 114.Bit interpretation of control register (CR) (address 0)
Bit
Name
Description
CR.7
-
reserved
CR.6
-
reserved
CR.5
-
reserved
CR.4
Overrun Interrupt Enable
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
CR.3
Error Interrupt Enable
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
CR.2
Transmit Interrupt Enable
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
CR.1
Receive Interrupt Enable
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
CR.0
Reset request
Writing 1 to this bit aborts any ongoing transfer and enters reset mode. Writing 0 returns to operating mode.
21.4.3 Command register
Writing a one to the corresponding bit in this register initiates an action supported by the core.
Table 115.Bit interpretation of command register (CMR) (address 1)
Bit
Name
Description
CMR.7
-
reserved
CMR.6
-
reserved
CMR.5
-
reserved
CMR.4
-
not used (go to sleep in SJA1000 core)
CMR.3
Clear data overrun
Clear the data overrun status bit
CMR.2
Release receive buffer
Free the current receive buffer for new reception
CMR.1
Abort transmission
Aborts a not yet started transmission.
CMR.0
Transmission request
Starts the transfer of the message in the TX buffer
A transmission is started by writing 1 to CMR.0. It can only be aborted by writing 1 to CMR.1 and
only if the transfer has not yet started. If the transmission has started it will not be aborted when setting CMR.1 but it will not be retransmitted if an error occurs.
Giving the Release receive buffer command should be done after reading the contents of the receive
buffer in order to release this memory. If there is another message waiting in the FIFO a new receive
interrupt will be generated (if enabled) and the receive buffer status bit will be set again.
To clear the Data overrun status bit CMR.3 must be written with 1.
123
21.4.4 Status register
The status register is read only and reflects the current status of the core.
Table 116.Bit interpretation of status register (SR) (address 2)
Bit
Name
Description
SR.7
Bus status
1 when the core is in bus-off and not involved in bus activities
SR.6
Error status
At least one of the error counters have reached or exceeded the CPU warning
limit (96).
SR.5
Transmit status
1 when transmitting a message
SR.4
Receive status
1 when receiving a message
SR.3
Transmission complete
1 indicates the last message was successfully transferred.
SR.2
Transmit buffer status
1 means CPU can write into the transmit buffer
SR.1
Data overrun status
1 if a message was lost because no space in fifo.
SR.0
Receive buffer status
1 if messages available in the receive fifo.
Receive buffer status is cleared when the Release receive buffer command is given and set high if
there are more messages available in the fifo.
The data overrun status signals that a message which was accepted could not be placed in the fifo
because not enough space left. NOTE: This bit differs from the SJA1000 behavior and is set first
when the fifo has been read out.
When the transmit buffer status is high the transmit buffer is available to be written into by the CPU.
During an on-going transmission the buffer is locked and this bit is 0.
The transmission complete bit is set to 0 when a transmission request has been issued and will not be
set to 1 again until a message has successfully been transmitted.
21.4.5 Interrupt register
The interrupt register signals to CPU what caused the interrupt. The interrupt bits are only set if the
corresponding interrupt enable bit is set in the control register.
Table 117.Bit interpretation of interrupt register (IR) (address 3)
Bit
Name
Description
IR.7
-
reserved
IR.6
-
reserved
IR.5
-
reserved
IR.4
-
not used (wake-up interrupt of SJA1000)
IR.3
Data overrun interrupt
Set when SR.1 goes from 0 to 1.
IR.2
Error interrupt
Set when the error status or bus status are changed.
IR.1
Transmit interrupt
Set when the transmit buffer is released (status bit 0->1)
IR.0
Receive interrupt
This bit is set while there are more messages in the fifo.
This register is reset on read with the exception of IR.0. Note that this differs from the SJA1000
behavior where all bits are reset on read in BasicCAN mode. This core resets the receive interrupt bit
when the release receive buffer command is given (like in PeliCAN mode).
Also note that bit IR.5 through IR.7 reads as 1 but IR.4 is 0.
124
21.4.6 Transmit buffer
The table below shows the layout of the transmit buffer. In BasicCAN only standard frame messages
can be transmitted and received (EFF messages on the bus are ignored).
Table 118.Transmit buffer layout
Addr
Name
Bits
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10
ID byte 1
ID.10
ID.9
ID.8
ID.7
ID.6
ID.5
ID.4
ID.3
11
ID byte 2
ID.2
ID.1
ID.0
RTR
DLC.3
DLC.2
DLC.1
DLC.0
12
TX data 1
TX byte 1
13
TX data 2
TX byte 2
14
TX data 3
TX byte 3
15
TX data 4
TX byte 4
16
TX data 5
TX byte 5
17
TX data 6
TX byte 6
18
TX data 7
TX byte 7
19
TX data 8
TX byte 8
If the RTR bit is set no data bytes will be sent but DLC is still part of the frame and must be specified
according to the requested frame. Note that it is possible to specify a DLC larger than 8 bytes but
should not be done for compatibility reasons. If DLC > 8 still only 8 bytes can be sent.
21.4.7 Receive buffer
The receive buffer on address 20 through 29 is the visible part of the 64 byte RX FIFO. Its layout is
identical to that of the transmit buffer.
21.4.8 Acceptance filter
Messages can be filtered based on their identifiers using the acceptance code and acceptance mask
registers. The top 8 bits of the 11 bit identifier are compared with the acceptance code register only
comparing the bits set to zero in the acceptance mask register. If a match is detected the message is
stored to the fifo.
125
21.5
PeliCAN mode
21.5.1 PeliCAN register map
Table 119.PeliCAN address allocation
Operating mode
Reset mode
#
Read
Write
Read
Write
0
Mode
Mode
Mode
Mode
1
(0x00)
Command
(0x00)
Command
2
Status
-
Status
-
3
Interrupt
-
Interrupt
-
4
Interrupt enable
Interrupt enable
Interrupt enable
Interrupt enable
5
reserved (0x00)
-
reserved (0x00)
-
6
Bus timing 0
-
Bus timing 0
Bus timing 0
7
Bus timing 1
-
Bus timing 1
Bus timing 1
8
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
9
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
10
reserved (0x00)
-
reserved (0x00)
-
11
Arbitration lost capture
-
Arbitration lost capture -
12
Error code capture
-
Error code capture
-
13
Error warning limit
-
Error warning limit
Error warning limit
14
RX error counter
-
RX error counter
RX error counter
15
TX error counter
-
TX error counter
TX error counter
16
RX FI SFF
RX FI EFF
TX FI SFF
TX FI EFF
Acceptance code 0
Acceptance code 0
17
RX ID 1
RX ID 1
TX ID 1
TX ID 1
Acceptance code 1
Acceptance code 1
18
RX ID 2
RX ID 2
TX ID 2
TX ID 2
Acceptance code 2
Acceptance code 2
19
RX data 1
RX ID 3
TX data 1
TX ID 3
Acceptance code 3
Acceptance code 3
20
RX data 2
RX ID 4
TX data 2
TX ID 4
Acceptance mask 0
Acceptance mask 0
21
RX data 3
RX data 1
TX data 3
TX data 1
Acceptance mask 1
Acceptance mask 1
22
RX data 4
RX data 2
TX data 4
TX data 2
Acceptance mask 2
Acceptance mask 2
23
RX data 5
RX data 3
TX data 5
TX data 3
Acceptance mask 3
Acceptance mask 3
24
RX data 6
RX data 4
TX data 6
TX data 4
reserved (0x00)
-
25
RX data 7
RX data 5
TX data 7
TX data 5
reserved (0x00)
-
26
RX data 8
RX data 6
TX data 8
TX data 6
reserved (0x00)
-
27
FIFO
RX data 7
-
TX data 7
reserved (0x00)
-
28
FIFO
RX data 8
-
TX data 8
reserved (0x00)
-
29
RX message counter
-
RX msg counter
-
30
(0x00)
-
(0x00)
-
31
Clock divider
Clock divider
Clock divider
Clock divider
The transmit and receive buffers have different layout depending on if standard frame format (SFF) or
extended frame format (EFF) is to be transmitted/received. See the specific section below.
126
21.5.2 Mode register
Table 120.Bit interpretation of mode register (MOD) (address 0)
Bit
Name
Description
MOD.7
-
reserved
MOD.6
-
reserved
MOD.5
-
reserved
MOD.4
-
not used (sleep mode in SJA1000)
MOD.3
Acceptance filter mode
1 - single filter mode, 0 - dual filter mode
MOD.2
Self test mode
If set the controller is in self test mode
MOD.1
Listen only mode
If set the controller is in listen only mode
MOD.0
Reset mode
Writing 1 to this bit aborts any ongoing transfer and enters reset mode. Writing 0 returns to operating mode
Writing to MOD.1-3 can only be done when reset mode has been entered previously.
In Listen only mode the core will not send any acknowledgements. Note that unlike the SJA1000 the
Opencores core does not become error passive and active error frames are still sent!
When in Self test mode the core can complete a successful transmission without getting an acknowledgement if given the Self reception request command. Note that the core must still be connected to a
real bus, it does not do an internal loopback.
21.5.3 Command register
Writing a one to the corresponding bit in this register initiates an action supported by the core.
Table 121.Bit interpretation of command register (CMR) (address 1)
Bit
Name
Description
CMR.7
-
reserved
CMR.6
-
reserved
CMR.5
-
reserved
CMR.4
Self reception request
Transmits and simultaneously receives a message
CMR.3
Clear data overrun
Clears the data overrun status bit
CMR.2
Release receive buffer
Free the current receive buffer for new reception
CMR.1
Abort transmission
Aborts a not yet started transmission.
CMR.0
Transmission request
Starts the transfer of the message in the TX buffer
A transmission is started by writing 1 to CMR.0. It can only be aborted by writing 1 to CMR.1 and
only if the transfer has not yet started. Setting CMR.0 and CMR.1 simultaneously will result in a so
called single shot transfer, i.e. the core will not try to retransmit the message if not successful the first
time.
Giving the Release receive buffer command should be done after reading the contents of the receive
buffer in order to release this memory. If there is another message waiting in the FIFO a new receive
interrupt will be generated (if enabled) and the receive buffer status bit will be set again.
The Self reception request bit together with the self test mode makes it possible to do a self test of the
core without any other cores on the bus. A message will simultaneously be transmitted and received
and both receive and transmit interrupt will be generated.
127
21.5.4 Status register
The status register is read only and reflects the current status of the core.
Table 122.Bit interpretation of command register (SR) (address 2)
Bit
Name
Description
SR.7
Bus status
1 when the core is in bus-off and not involved in bus activities
SR.6
Error status
At least one of the error counters have reached or exceeded the error warning
limit.
SR.5
Transmit status
1 when transmitting a message
SR.4
Receive status
1 when receiving a message
SR.3
Transmission complete
1 indicates the last message was successfully transferred.
SR.2
Transmit buffer status
1 means CPU can write into the transmit buffer
SR.1
Data overrun status
1 if a message was lost because no space in fifo.
SR.0
Receive buffer status
1 if messages available in the receive fifo.
Receive buffer status is cleared when there are no more messages in the fifo. The data overrun status
signals that a message which was accepted could not be placed in the fifo because not enough space
left. NOTE: This bit differs from the SJA1000 behavior and is set first when the fifo has been read
out.
When the transmit buffer status is high the transmit buffer is available to be written into by the CPU.
During an on-going transmission the buffer is locked and this bit is 0.
The transmission complete bit is set to 0 when a transmission request or self reception request has
been issued and will not be set to 1 again until a message has successfully been transmitted.
21.5.5 Interrupt register
The interrupt register signals to CPU what caused the interrupt. The interrupt bits are only set if the
corresponding interrupt enable bit is set in the interrupt enable register.
Table 123.Bit interpretation of interrupt register (IR) (address 3)
Bit
Name
Description
IR.7
Bus error interrupt
Set if an error on the bus has been detected
IR.6
Arbitration lost interrupt
Set when the core has lost arbitration
IR.5
Error passive interrupt
Set when the core goes between error active and error passive
IR.4
-
not used (wake-up interrupt of SJA1000)
IR.3
Data overrun interrupt
Set when data overrun status bit is set
IR.2
Error warning interrupt
Set on every change of the error status or bus status
IR.1
Transmit interrupt
Set when the transmit buffer is released
IR.0
Receive interrupt
Set while the fifo is not empty.
This register is reset on read with the exception of IR.0 which is reset when the fifo has been emptied.
128
21.5.6 Interrupt enable register
In the interrupt enable register the separate interrupt sources can be enabled/disabled. If enabled the
corresponding bit in the interrupt register can be set and an interrupt generated.
Table 124.Bit interpretation of interrupt enable register (IER) (address 4)
Bit
Name
Description
IR.7
Bus error interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
IR.6
Arbitration lost interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
IR.5
Error passive interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
IR.4
-
not used (wake-up interrupt of SJA1000)
IR.3
Data overrun interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
IR.2
Error warning interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled.
IR.1
Transmit interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
IR.0
Receive interrupt
1 - enabled, 0 - disabled
21.5.7 Arbitration lost capture register
Table 125.Bit interpretation of arbitration lost capture register (ALC) (address 11)
Bit
Name
Description
ALC.7-5
-
reserved
ALC.4-0
Bit number
Bit where arbitration is lost
When the core loses arbitration the bit position of the bit stream processor is captured into arbitration
lost capture register. The register will not change content again until read out.
21.5.8 Error code capture register
Table 126.Bit interpretation of error code capture register (ECC) (address 12)
Bit
Name
Description
ECC.7-6
Error code
Error code number
ECC.5
Direction
1 - Reception, 0 - transmission error
ECC.4-0
Segment
Where in the frame the error occurred
When a bus error occurs the error code capture register is set according to what kind of error occurred,
if it was while transmitting or receiving and where in the frame it happened. As with the ALC register
the ECC register will not change value until it has been read out. The table below shows how to interpret bit 7-6 of ECC.
Table 127.Error code interpretation
ECC.7-6
Description
0
Bit error
1
Form error
2
Stuff error
3
Other
129
Bit 4 downto 0 of the ECC register is interpreted as below
Table 128.Bit interpretation of ECC.4-0
ECC.4-0
Description
0x03
Start of frame
0x02
ID.28 - ID.21
0x06
ID.20 - ID.18
0x04
Bit SRTR
0x05
Bit IDE
0x07
ID.17 - ID.13
0x0F
ID.12 - ID.5
0x0E
ID.4 - ID.0
0x0C
Bit RTR
0x0D
Reserved bit 1
0x09
Reserved bit 0
0x0B
Data length code
0x0A
Data field
0x08
CRC sequence
0x18
CRC delimiter
0x19
Acknowledge slot
0x1B
Acknowledge delimiter
0x1A
End of frame
0x12
Intermission
0x11
Active error flag
0x16
Passive error flag
0x13
Tolerate dominant bits
0x17
Error delimiter
0x1C
Overload flag
21.5.9 Error warning limit register
This registers allows for setting the CPU error warning limit. It defaults to 96. Note that this register is
only writable in reset mode.
21.5.10 RX error counter register (address 14)
This register shows the value of the rx error counter. It is writable in reset mode. A bus-off event
resets this counter to 0.
21.5.11 TX error counter register (address 15)
This register shows the value of the tx error counter. It is writable in reset mode. If a bus-off event
occurs this register is initialized as to count down the protocol defined 128 occurrences of the bus-free
signal and the status of the bus-off recovery can be read out from this register. The CPU can force a
bus-off by writing 255 to this register. Note that unlike the SJA1000 this core will signal bus-off
immediately and not first when entering operating mode. The bus-off recovery sequence starts when
entering operating mode after writing 255 to this register in reset mode.
130
21.5.12 Transmit buffer
The transmit buffer is write-only and mapped on address 16 to 28. Reading of this area is mapped to
the receive buffer described in the next section. The layout of the transmit buffer depends on whether
a standard frame (SFF) or an extended frame (EFF) is to be sent as seen below.
Table 129.
#
Write (SFF)
Write(EFF)
16
TX frame information
TX frame information
17
TX ID 1
TX ID 1
18
TX ID 2
TX ID 2
19
TX data 1
TX ID 3
20
TX data 2
TX ID 4
21
TX data 3
TX data 1
22
TX data 4
TX data 2
23
TX data 5
TX data 3
24
TX data 6
TX data 4
25
TX data 7
TX data 5
26
TX data 8
TX data 6
27
-
TX data 7
28
-
TX data 8
TX frame information (this field has the same layout for both SFF and EFF frames)
Table 130.TX frame information address 16
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
FF
RTR
-
-
DLC.3
DLC.2
DLC.1
DLC.0
Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5:4 Bit 3:0 -
FF selects the frame format, i.e. whether this is to be interpreted as an extended or standard frame. 1 = EFF, 0 = SFF.
RTR should be set to 1 for an remote transmission request frame.
are don’t care.
DLC specifies the Data Length Code and should be a value between 0 and 8. If a value greater than 8 is used 8 bytes
will be transmitted.
TX identifier 1 (this field is the same for both SFF and EFF frames)
Table 131.TX identifier 1 address 17
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.28
ID.27
ID.26
ID.25
ID.24
ID.23
ID.22
ID.21
Bit 7:0 - The top eight bits of the identifier.
TX identifier 2, SFF frame
Table 132.TX identifier 2 address 18
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.20
ID.19
ID.18
-
-
-
-
-
Bit 7:5 - Bottom three bits of an SFF identifier.
Bit 4:0 - Don’t care.
131
TX identifier 2, EFF frame
Table 133.TX identifier 2 address 18
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.20
ID.19
ID.18
ID.17
ID.16
ID.15
ID.14
ID.13
Bit 7:0 - Bit 20 downto 13 of 29 bit EFF identifier.
TX identifier 3, EFF frame
Table 134.TX identifier 3 address 19
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.12
ID.11
ID.10
ID.9
ID.8
ID.7
ID.6
ID.5
Bit 7:0 - Bit 12 downto 5 of 29 bit EFF identifier.
TX identifier 4, EFF frame
Table 135.TX identifier 4 address 20
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.4
ID.3
ID.2
ID.1
ID.0
-
-
-
Bit 7:3 - Bit 4 downto 0 of 29 bit EFF identifier
Bit 2:0 - Don’t care
Data field
For SFF frames the data field is located at address 19 to 26 and for EFF frames at 21 to 28. The data is
transmitted starting from the MSB at the lowest address.
132
21.5.13 Receive buffer
Table 136.
#
Read (SFF)
Read (EFF)
16
RX frame information
RX frame information
17
RX ID 1
RX ID 1
18
RX ID 2
RX ID 2
19
RX data 1
RX ID 3
20
RX data 2
RX ID 4
21
RX data 3
RX data 1
22
RX data 4
RX data 2
23
RX data 5
RX data 3
24
RX data 6
RX data 4
25
RX data 7
RX data 5
26
RX data 8
RX data 6
27
RX FI of next message in fifo
RX data 7
28
RX ID1 of next message in fifo
RX data 8
RX frame information (this field has the same layout for both SFF and EFF frames)
Table 137.RX frame information address 16
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
FF
RTR
0
0
DLC.3
DLC.2
DLC.1
DLC.0
Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5:4 Bit 3:0 -
Frame format of received message. 1 = EFF, 0 = SFF.
1 if RTR frame.
Always 0.
DLC specifies the Data Length Code.
RX identifier 1(this field is the same for both SFF and EFF frames)
Table 138.RX identifier 1 address 17
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.28
ID.27
ID.26
ID.25
ID.24
ID.23
ID.22
ID.21
Bit 7:0 - The top eight bits of the identifier.
RX identifier 2, SFF frame
Table 139.RX identifier 2 address 18
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.20
ID.19
ID.18
RTR
0
0
0
0
Bit 7:5 - Bottom three bits of an SFF identifier.
Bit 4 - 1 if RTR frame.
Bit 3:0 - Always 0.
133
RX identifier 2, EFF frame
Table 140.RX identifier 2 address 18
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.20
ID.19
ID.18
ID.17
ID.16
ID.15
ID.14
ID.13
Bit 7:0 - Bit 20 downto 13 of 29 bit EFF identifier.
RX identifier 3, EFF frame
Table 141.RX identifier 3 address 19
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.12
ID.11
ID.10
ID.9
ID.8
ID.7
ID.6
ID.5
Bit 7:0 - Bit 12 downto 5 of 29 bit EFF identifier.
RX identifier 4, EFF frame
Table 142.RX identifier 4 address 20
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
ID.4
ID.3
ID.2
ID.1
ID.0
RTR
0
0
Bit 7:3 - Bit 4 downto 0 of 29 bit EFF identifier
Bit 21 if RTR frame
Bit 1:0 - Don’t care
Data field
For received SFF frames the data field is located at address 19 to 26 and for EFF frames at 21 to 28.
21.5.14 Acceptance filter
The acceptance filter can be used to filter out messages not meeting certain demands. If a message is
filtered out it will not be put into the receive fifo and the CPU will not have to deal with it.
There are two different filtering modes, single and dual filter. Which one is used is controlled by bit 3
in the mode register. In single filter mode only one 4 byte filter is used. In dual filter two smaller filters are used and if either of these signals a match the message is accepted. Each filter consists of two
parts the acceptance code and the acceptance mask. The code registers are used for specifying the pattern to match and the mask registers specify don’t care bits. In total eight registers are used for the
acceptance filter as shown in the table below. Note that they are only read/writable in reset mode.
134
Table 143.Acceptance filter registers
Address
Description
16
Acceptance code 0 (ACR0)
17
Acceptance code 1 (ACR1)
18
Acceptance code 2 (ACR2)
19
Acceptance code 3 (ACR3)
20
Acceptance mask 0 (AMR0)
21
Acceptance mask 1 (AMR1)
22
Acceptance mask 2 (AMR2)
23
Acceptance mask 3 (AMR3)
Single filter mode, standard frame
When receiving a standard frame in single filter mode the registers ACR0-3 are compared against the
incoming message in the following way:
ACR0.7-0 & ACR1.7-5 are compared to ID.28-18
ACR1.4 is compared to the RTR bit.
ACR1.3-0 are unused.
ACR2 & ACR3 are compared to data byte 1 & 2.
The corresponding bits in the AMR registers selects if the results of the comparison doesn’t matter. A
set bit in the mask register means don’t care.
Single filter mode, extended frame
When receiving an extended frame in single filter mode the registers ACR0-3 are compared against
the incoming message in the following way:
ACR0.7-0 & ACR1.7-0 are compared to ID.28-13
ACR2.7-0 & ACR3.7-3 are compared to ID.12-0
ACR3.2 are compared to the RTR bit
ACR3.1-0 are unused.
The corresponding bits in the AMR registers selects if the results of the comparison doesn’t matter. A
set bit in the mask register means don’t care.
Dual filter mode, standard frame
When receiving a standard frame in dual filter mode the registers ACR0-3 are compared against the
incoming message in the following way:
Filter 1
ACR0.7-0 & ACR1.7-5 are compared to ID.28-18
ACR1.4 is compared to the RTR bit.
ACR1.3-0 are compared against upper nibble of data byte 1
ACR3.3-0 are compared against lower nibble of data byte 1
Filter 2
ACR2.7-0 & ACR3.7-5 are compared to ID.28-18
ACR3.4 is compared to the RTR bit.
The corresponding bits in the AMR registers selects if the results of the comparison doesn’t matter. A
set bit in the mask register means don’t care.
Dual filter mode, extended frame
When receiving a standard frame in dual filter mode the registers ACR0-3 are compared against the
incoming message in the following way:
135
Filter 1
ACR0.7-0 & ACR1.7-0 are compared to ID.28-13
Filter 2
ACR2.7-0 & ACR3.7-0 are compared to ID.28-13
The corresponding bits in the AMR registers selects if the results of the comparison doesn’t matter. A
set bit in the mask register means don’t care.
21.5.15 RX message counter
The RX message counter register at address 29 holds the number of messages currently stored in the
receive fifo. The top three bits are always 0.
21.6
Common registers
There are three common registers with the same addresses and the same functionality in both BasiCAN and PeliCAN mode. These are the clock divider register and bus timing register 0 and 1.
21.6.1 Clock divider register
The only real function of this register in the GRLIB version of the Opencores CAN is to choose
between PeliCAN and BasiCAN. The clkout output of the Opencore CAN core is not connected and it
is its frequency that can be controlled with this register.
Table 144.Bit interpretation of clock divider register (CDR) (address 31)
Bit
Name
Description
CDR.7
CAN mode
1 - PeliCAN, 0 - BasiCAN
CDR.6
-
unused (cbp bit of SJA1000)
CDR.5
-
unused (rxinten bit of SJA1000)
CDR.4
-
reserved
CDR.3
Clock off
Disable the clkout output
CDR.2-0
Clock divisor
Frequency selector
21.6.2 Bus timing 0
Table 145.Bit interpretation of bus timing 0 register (BTR0) (address 6)
Bit
Name
Description
BTR0.7-6
SJW
Synchronization jump width
BTR0.5-0
BRP
Baud rate prescaler
The CAN core system clock is calculated as:
tscl = 2*tclk*(BRP+1)
where tclk is the system clock.
The sync jump width defines how many clock cycles (tscl) a bit period may be adjusted with by one
re-synchronization.
136
21.6.3 Bus timing 1
Table 146.Bit interpretation of bus timing 1 register (BTR1) (address 7)
Bit
Name
Description
BTR1.7
SAM
1 - The bus is sampled three times, 0 - single sample point
BTR1.6-4
TSEG2
Time segment 2
BTR1.3-0
TSEG1
Time segment 1
The CAN bus bit period is determined by the CAN system clock and time segment 1 and 2 as shown
in the equations below:
ttseg1 = tscl * ( TSEG1+1)
ttseg2 = tscl * ( TSEG2+1)
tbit = ttseg1 + ttseg2 + tscl
The additional tscl term comes from the initial sync segment. Sampling is done between TSEG1 and
TSEG2 in the bit period.
21.7
Design considerations
This section lists known differences between this CAN controller and SJA1000 on which is it based:
•
All bits related to sleep mode areunavailable
•
Output control and test registers do not exist (reads 0x00)
•
Clock divisor register bit 6 (CBP) and 5 (RXINTEN) are not implemented
•
Overrun irq and status not set until fifo is read out
BasicCAN specific differences:
•
The receive irq bit is not reset on read, works like in PeliCAN mode
•
Bit CR.6 always reads 0 and is not a flip flop with no effect as in SJA1000
PeliCAN specific differences:
21.8
•
Writing 256 to tx error counter gives immediate bus-off when still in reset mode
•
Read Buffer Start Address register does not exist
•
Addresses above 31 are not implemented (i.e. the internal RAM/FIFO access)
•
The core transmits active error frames in Listen only mode
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x019. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
137
21.9
Configuration options
Table 147 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 147.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
slvndx
AHB slave bus index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
ioaddr
The AHB I/O area base address. Compared with bit 19-8
of the 32-bit AHB address.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
iomask
The I/O area address mask. Sets the size of the I/O area
and the start address together with ioaddr.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
irq
Interrupt number
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
memtech
Technology to implement on-chip RAM
0
0 - NTECH
21.10 Signal descriptions
Table 148 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 148.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
Input
AHB clock
RESETN
Input
Reset
Low
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AMBA AHB slave inputs
AHBSO
*
Input
AMBA AHB slave outputs
CAN_RXI
Input
CAN receiver input
High
CAN_TXO
Output
CAN transmitter output
High
*1) see AMBA specification
21.11 Library dependencies
Table 149 shows libraries that should be used when instantiating the core.
Table 149.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Types
AMBA signal type definitions
GAISLER
CAN
Component
Component declaration
21.12 Component declaration
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use gaisler.can.all;
component can_oc
generic (
slvndx
: integer := 0;
ioaddr
: integer := 16#000#;
iomask
: integer := 16#FF0#;
irq
: integer := 0;
memtech
: integer := 0);
port (
resetn : in std_logic;
clk
: in std_logic;
138
ahbsi
ahbso
can_rxi
can_txo
:
:
:
:
in
out
in
out
);
end component;
ahb_slv_in_type;
ahb_slv_out_type;
std_logic;
std_logic
139
22
GRCAN - CAN 2.0 Controller with DMA
22.1
Overview
The CAN controller is assumed to operate in an AMBA bus system where both the AMBA AHB bus
and the APB bus are present. The AMBA APB bus is used for configuration, control and status handling. The AMBA AHB bus is used for retrieving and storing CAN messages in memory external to
the CAN controller. This memory can be located on-chip, as shown in the block diagram, or external
to the chip.
The CAN controller supports transmission and reception of sets of messages by use of circular buffers
located in memory external to the core. Separate transmit and receive buffers are assumed. Reception
and transmission of sets of messages can be ongoing simultaneously.
After a set of message transfers has been set up via the AMBA APB interface the DMA controller initiates a burst of read accesses on the AMBA AHB bus to fetch messages from memory, which are performed by the AHB master. The messages are then transmitted by the CAN core. When a
programmable number of messages have been transmitted, the DMA controller issues an interrupt.
After the reception has been set up via the AMBA APB interface, messages are received by the CAN
core. To store messages to memory, the DMA controller initiates a burst of write accesses on the
AMBA AHB bus, which are performed by the AHB master. When a programmable number of messages have been received, the DMA controller issues an interrupt.
The CAN controller can detect a SYNC message and generate an interrupt, which is also available as
an output signal from the core. The SYNC message identifier is programmable via the AMBA APB
interface. Separate synchronisation message interrupts are provided.
The CAN controller can transmit and receive messages on either of two CAN busses, but only on one
at a time. The selection is programmable via the AMBA APB interface.
Note that it is not possible to receive a CAN message while transmitting one.
CAN 2.0 Core
Figure 51. Block diagram of the internal structure of the GRCAN.
22.1.1 Function
The core implements the following functions:
•
CAN protocol
•
Message transmission
•
Message filtering and reception
140
•
SYNC message reception
•
Status and monitoring
•
Interrupt generation
•
Redundancy selection
22.1.2 Interfaces
The core provides the following external and internal interfaces:
•
CAN interface
•
AMBA AHB master interface, with sideband signals as per [GRLIB] including:
•
cacheability information
•
interrupt bus
•
configuration information
•
diagnostic information
•
AMBA APB slave interface, with sideband signals as per [GRLIB] including:
•
interrupt bus
•
configuration information
•
diagnostic information
22.1.3 Hierarchy
The CAN controller core can be partition in the following hierarchical elements:
22.2
•
CAN 2.0 Core
•
Redundancy Multiplexer / De-multiplexer
•
Direct Memory Access controller
•
AMBA APB slave
•
AMBA AHB master
Interface
The external interface towards the CAN bus features two redundant pairs of transmit output and
receive input (i.e. 0 and 1).
The active pair (i.e. 0 or 1) is bselectable by means of a configuration register bit. Note that all reception and transmission is made over the active pair.
For each pair, there is one enable output (i.e. 0 and 1), each being individually programmable. Note
that the enable outputs can be used for enabling an external physical driver. Note that both pairs can
be enabled simultaneously. Note that the polarity for the enable/inhibit inputs on physical interface
drivers differs, thus the meaning of the enable output is undefined.
Redundancy is implemented by means of Selective Bus Access, as specified in [CANWG]. Note that
the active pair selection above provides means to meet this requirement.
22.3
Protocol
The CAN protocol is based on a CAN 2.0 controller VHDL core. The CAN controller complies with
[CANSTD], except for the overload frame generation.
Note that there are three different CAN types generally defined:
•
2.0A, which considers 29 bit ID messages as an error
141
•
2.0B Passive, which ignores 29 bit ID messages
•
2.0B Active, which handles 11 and 29 bit ID messages
Only 2.0B Active is implemented.
22.4
Status and monitoring
The CAN interface incorporates the status and monitoring functionalities. This includes:
•
Transmitter active indicator
•
Bus-Off condition indicator
•
Error-Passive condition indicator
•
Over-run indicator
•
8-bit Transmission error counter
•
8-bit Reception error counter
The status is available via a register and is also stored in a circular buffer for each received message.
22.5
Transmission
The transmit channel is defined by the following parameters:
•
base address
•
buffer size
•
write pointer
•
read pointer
The transmit channel can be enabled or disabled.
22.5.1 Circular buffer
The transmit channel operates on a circular buffer located in memory external to the CAN controller.
The circular buffer can also be used as a straight buffer. The buffer memory is accessed via the
AMBA AHB master interface.
Each CAN message occupies 4 consecutive 32-bit words in memory. Each CAN message is aligned to
4 words address boundaries (i.e. the 4 least significant byte address bits are zero for the first word in a
CAN message).
The size of the buffer is defined by the CanTxSIZE.SIZE field, specifying the number of CAN messages * 4 that fit in the buffer.
E.g. CanTxSIZE.SIZE =2 means 8 CAN messages fit in the buffer.
Note however that it is not possible to fill the buffer completely, leaving at least one message position
in the buffer empty. This is to simplify wrap-around condition checking.
E.g. CanTxSIZE.SIZE =2 means that 7 CAN messages fit in the buffer at any given time.
22.5.2 Write and read pointers
The write pointer (CanTxWR.WRITE) indicates the position+1 of the last CAN message written to
the buffer. The write pointer operates on number of CAN messages, not on absolute or relative
addresses.
The read pointer (CanTxRD.READ) indicates the position+1 of the last CAN message read from the
buffer. The read pointer operates on number of CAN messages, not on absolute or relative addresses.
142
The difference between the write and the read pointers is the number of CAN messages available in
the buffer for transmission. The difference is calculated using the buffer size, specified by the CanTxSIZE.SIZE field, taking wrap around effects of the circular buffer into account.
Examples:
•
There are 2 CAN messages available
CanTxWR.WRITE=2 and CanTxRD.READ=0.
for
transmit
when
CanTxSIZE.SIZE=2,
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for transmit when CanTxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanTxWR.WRITE
=0 and CanTxRD.READ =6.
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for transmit when CanTxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanTxWR.WRITE
=1 and CanTxRD.READ =7.
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for transmit when CanTxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanTxWR.WRITE
=5 and CanTxRD.READ =3.
When a CAN message has been successfully transmitted, the read pointer (CanTxRD.READ) is automatically incremented, taking wrap around effects of the circular buffer into account. Whenever the
write pointer CanTxWR.WRITE and read pointer CanTxRD.READ are equal, there are no CAN messages available for transmission.
22.5.3 Location
The location of the circular buffer is defined by a base address (CanTxADDR.ADDR), which is an
absolute address. The location of a circular buffer is aligned on a 1kbyte address boundary.
22.5.4 Transmission procedure
When the channel is enabled (CanTxCTRL.ENABLE=1), as soon as there is a difference between the
write and read pointer, a message transmission will be started. Note that the channel should not be
enabled if a potential difference between the write and read pointers could be created, to avoid the
message transmission to start prematurely.
A message transmission will begin with a fetch of the complete CAN message from the circular buffer
to a local fetch-buffer in the CAN controller. After a successful data fetch, a transmission request will
be forwarded to the CAN core. If there is at least an additional CAN message available in the circular
buffer, a prefetch of this CAN message from the circular buffer to a local prefetch-buffer in the CAN
controller will be performed. The CAN controller can thus hold two CAN messages for transmission:
one in the fetch buffer, which is fed to the CAN core, and one in the prefetch buffer.
After a message has been successfully transmitted, the prefetch-buffer contents are moved to the fetch
buffer (provided that there is message ready). The read pointer (CanTxRD.READ) is automatically
incremented after a successful transmission, i.e. after the fetch-buffer contents have been transmitted,
taking wrap around effects of the circular buffer into account. If there is at least an additional CAN
message available in the circular buffer, a new prefetch will be performed.
If the write and read pointers are equal, no more prefetches and fetches will be performed, and transmission will stop.
If the single shot mode is enabled for the transmit channel (CanTxCTRL.SINGLE=1), any message
for which the arbitration is lost, or failed for some other reason, will lead to the disabling of the channel (CanTxCTRL.ENABLE=0), and the message will not be put up for re-arbitration.
Interrupts are provided to aid the user during transmission, as described in detail later in this section.
The main interrupts are the Tx, TxEmpty and TxIrq which are issued on the successful transmission
of a message, when all messages have been transmitted successfully and when a predefined number of
messages have been transmitted successfully. The TxLoss interrupt is issued whenever transmission
arbitration has been lost, could also be caused by a communications error. The TxSync interrupt is
issued when a message matching the SYNC Code Filter Register.SYNC and SYNC Mask Filter Reg-
143
ister.MASK registers is successfully transmitted. Additional interrupts are provided to signal error
conditions on the CAN bus and AMBA bus.
22.5.5 Straight buffer
It is possible to use the circular buffer as a straight buffer, with a higher granularity than the 1kbyte
address boundary limited by the base address (CanTxADDR.ADDR) field.
While the channel is disabled, the read pointer (CanTxRD.READ) can be changed to an arbitrary
value pointing to the first message to be transmitted, and the write pointer (CanTxWR.WRITE) can
be changed to an arbitrary value.
When the channel is enabled, the transmission will start from the read pointer and continue to the
write pointer.
22.5.6 AMBA AHB error
Definition:
•
a message fetch occurs when no other messages is being transmitted
•
a message prefetch occurs when a previously fetched message is being transmitted
•
the local fetch buffer holds the message being fetched
•
the local prefetch buffer holds the message being prefetched
•
the local fetch buffer holds the message being transmitted by the CAN core
•
a successfully prefetched message is copied from the local prefetch buffer to the local fetch
buffer when that buffer is freed after a successful transmission.
An AHB error response occurring on the AMBA AHB bus while a CAN message is being fetched
will result in a TxAHBErr interrupt.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 0b, the channel causing the AHB error will skip the message
being fetched from memory and will increment the read pointer. No message will be transmitted.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 1b, the channel causing the AHB error will be disabled (CanTxCTRL.ENABLE is cleared automatically to 0 b). The read pointer can be used to determine which
message caused the AHB error. Note that it could be any of the four word accesses required to read a
message that caused the AHB error.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 1b, all accesses to the AMBA AHB bus will be disabled after an
AMBA AHB error occurs, as indicated by the CanSTAT.AHBErr bit being 1b. The accesses will be
disabled until the CanSTAT register is read, and automatically clearing bit CanSTAT.AHBErr.
An AHB error response occurring on the AMBA AHB bus while a CAN message is being prefetched
will not cause an interrupt, but will stop the ongoing prefetch and further prefetch will be prevented
temporarily. The ongoing transmission of a CAN message from the fetch buffer will not be affected.
When the fetch buffer is freed after a successful transmission, a new fetch will be initiated, and if this
fetch results in an AHB error response occurring on the AMBA AHB bus, this will be handled as for
the case above. If no AHB error occurs, prefetch will be allowed again.
22.5.7 Enable and disable
When an enabled transmit channel is disabled (CanTxCTRL.ENABLE=0b), any ongoing CAN message transfer request will not be aborted until a CAN bus arbitration is lost or the message has been
sent successfully. If the message is sent successfully, the read pointer (CanTxRD.READ) is automatically incremented. Any associated interrupts will be generated.
The progress of the any ongoing access can be observed via the CanTxCTRL.ONGOING bit. The
CanTxCTRL.ONGOING must be 0b before the channel can be re-configured safely (i.e. changing
144
address, size or read/write pointers). It is also possible to wait for the Tx and TxLoss interrupts
described hereafter.
The channel can be re-enabled again without the need to re-configure the address, size and pointers.
Priority inversion is handled by disabling the transmitting channel, i.e. setting CanTxCTRL.ENABLE=0b as described above, and observing the progress, i.e. reading via the CanTxCTRL.ONGOING bit as described above. When the transmit channel is disabled, it can be reconfigured and a higher priority message can be transmitted. Note that the single shot mode does not
require the channel to be disabled, but the progress should still be observed as above.
No message transmission is started while the channel is not enabled.
22.5.8 Interrupts
During transmission several interrupts can be generated:
•
TxLoss:
Message arbitration lost for transmit (could be caused by
communcations error, as indicated by other interrupts as well)
•
TxErrCntr: Error counter incremented for transmit
•
TxSync:
Synchronization message transmitted
•
Tx:
Successful transmission of one message
•
TxEmpty:
Successful transmission of all messages in buffer
•
TxIrq:
Successful transmission of a predefined number of messages
•
TxAHBErr: AHB access error during transmission
•
Off:
Bus-off condition
•
Pass:
Error-passive condition
The Tx, TxEmpty and TxIrq interrupts are only generated as the result of a successful message transmission, after the CanTxRD.READ pointer has been incremented.
22.6
Reception
The receive channel is defined by the following parameters:
•
base address
•
buffer size
•
write pointer
•
read pointer
The receive channel can be enabled or disabled.
22.6.1 Circular buffer
The receive channel operates on a circular buffer located in memory external to the CAN controller.
The circular buffer can also be used as a straight buffer. The buffer memory is accessed via the
AMBA AHB master interface.
Each CAN message occupies 4 consecutive 32-bit words in memory. Each CAN message is aligned to
4 words address boundaries (i.e. the 4 least significant byte address bits are zero for the first word in a
CAN message).
The size of the buffer is defined by the CanRxSIZE.SIZE field, specifying the number of CAN messages * 4 that fit in the buffer.
E.g. CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2 means 8 CAN messages fit in the buffer.
145
Note however that it is not possible to fill the buffer completely, leaving at least one message position
in the buffer empty. This is to simplify wrap-around condition checking.
E.g. CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2 means that 7 CAN messages fit in the buffer at any given time.
22.6.2 Write and read pointers
The write pointer (CanRxWR.WRITE) indicates the position+1 of the last CAN message written to
the buffer. The write pointer operates on number of CAN messages, not on absolute or relative
addresses.
The read pointer (CanRxRD.READ) indicates the position+1 of the last CAN message read from the
buffer. The read pointer operates on number of CAN messages, not on absolute or relative addresses.
The difference between the write and the read pointers is the number of CAN message positions available in the buffer for reception. The difference is calculated using the buffer size, specified by the
CanRxSIZE.SIZE field, taking wrap around effects of the circular buffer into account.
Examples:
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for read-out when CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanRxWR.WRITE=2 and CanRxRD.READ=0.
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for read-out when CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanRxWR.WRITE =0 and CanRxRD.READ=6.
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for read-out when CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanRxWR.WRITE =1 and CanRxRD.READ=7.
•
There are 2 CAN messages available for read-out when CanRxSIZE.SIZE=2, CanRxWR.WRITE =5 and CanRxRD.READ=3.
When a CAN message has been successfully received and stored, the write pointer (CanRxWR.WRITE) is automatically incremented, taking wrap around effects of the circular buffer into
account. Whenever the read pointer CanRxRD.READ equals (CanRxWR.WRITE+1) modulo (CanRxSIZE.SIZE*4), there is no space available for receiving another CAN message.
The error behavior of the CAN core is according to the CAN standard, which applies to the error
counter, buss-off condition and error-passive condition.
22.6.3 Location
The location of the circular buffer is defined by a base address (CanRxADDR.ADDR), which is an
absolute address. The location of a circular buffer is aligned on a 1kbyte address boundary.
22.6.4 Reception procedure
When the channel is enabled (CanRxCTRL.ENABLE=1), and there is space available for a message
in the circular buffer (as defined by the write and read pointer), as soon as a message is received by
the CAN core, an AMBA AHB store access will be started. The received message will be temporarily
stored in a local store-buffer in the CAN controller. Note that the channel should not be enabled until
the write and read pointers are configured, to avoid the message reception to start prematurely
After a message has been successfully stored the CAN controller is ready to receive a new message.
The write pointer (CanRxWR.WRITE) is automatically incremented, taking wrap around effects of
the circular buffer into account.
Interrupts are provided to aid the user during reception, as described in detail later in this section. The
main interrupts are the Rx, RxFull and RxIrq which are issued on the successful reception of a message, when the message buffer has been successfully filled and when a predefined number of messages have been received successfully. The RxMiss interrupt is issued whenever a message has been
received but does not match a message filtering setting, i.e. neither for the receive channel nor for the
SYNC message described hereafter.
146
The RxSync interrupt is issued when a message matching the SYNC Code Filter Register.SYNC and
SYNC Mask Filter Register.MASK registers has been successfully received. Additional interrupts are
provided to signal error conditions on the CAN bus and AMBA bus.
22.6.5 Straight buffer
It is possible to use the circular buffer as a straight buffer, with a higher granularity than the 1kbyte
address boundary limited by the base address (CanRxADDR.ADDR) field.
While the channel is disabled, the write pointer (CanRxWR.WRITE) can be changed to an arbitrary
value pointing to the first message to be received, and the read pointer (CanRxRD.READ) can be
changed to an arbitrary value.
When the channel is enabled, the reception will start from the write pointer and continue to the read
pointer.
22.6.6 AMBA AHB error
An AHB error response occurring on the AMBA AHB bus while a CAN message is being stored will
result in an RxAHBErr interrupt.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 0b, the channel causing the AHB error will skip the received
message, not storing it to memory. The write pointer will be incremented.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 1b, the channel causing the AHB error will be disabled (CanRxCTRL.ENABLE is cleared automatically to 0b). The write pointer can be used to determine which
message caused the AHB error. Note that it could be any of the four word accesses required to writ a
message that caused the AHB error.
If the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 1b, all accesses to the AMBA AHB bus will be disabled after an
AMBA AHB error occurs, as indicated by the CanSTAT.AHBErr bit being 1b. The accesses will be
disabled until the CanSTAT register is read, and automatically clearing bit CanSTAT.AHBErr.
22.6.7 Enable and disable
When an enabled receive channel is disabled (CanRxCTRL.ENABLE=0b), any ongoing CAN message storage on the AHB bus will not be aborted, and no new message storage will be started. Note
that only complete messages can be received from the CAN core. If the message is stored successfully, the write pointer (CanRxWR.WRITE) is automatically incremented. Any associated interrupts
will be generated.
The progress of the any ongoing access can be observed via the CanRxCTRL.ONGOING bit. The
CanRxCTRL.ONGOING must be 0b before the channel can be re-configured safely (i.e. changing
address, size or read/write pointers). It is also possible to wait for the Rx and RxMiss interrupts
described hereafter.
The channel can be re-enabled again without the need to re-configure the address, size and pointers.
No message reception is performed while the channel is not enabled
22.6.8 Interrupts
During reception several interrupts can be generated:
•
RxMiss:
Message filtered away for receive
•
RxErrCntr: Error counter incremented for receive
•
RxSync:
Synchronization message received
•
Rx:
Successful reception of one message
•
RxFull:
Successful reception of all messages possible to store in buffer
147
•
RxIrq:
Successful reception of a predefined number of messages
•
RxAHBErr: AHB access error during reception
•
OR:
Over-run during reception
•
OFF:
Bus-off condition
•
PASS:
Error-passive condition
The Rx, RxFull and RxIrq interrupts are only generated as the result of a successful message reception, after the CanRxWR.WRITE pointer has been incremented.
The OR interrupt is generated when a message is received while a previously received message is still
being stored. A full circular buffer will lead to OR interrupts for any subsequently received messages.
Note that the last message stored which fills the circular buffer will not generate an OR interrupt. The
overrun is also reported with the CanSTAT.OR bit, which is cleared when reading the register.
The error behavior of the CAN core is according to the CAN standard, which applies to the error
counter, buss-off condition and error-passive condition.
22.7
Global reset and enable
When the CanCTRL.RESET bit is set to 1b, a reset of the core is performed. The reset clears all the
register fields to their default values. Any ongoing CAN message transfer request will be aborted,
potentially violating the CAN protocol.
When the CanCTRL.ENABLE bit is cleared to 0b, the CAN core is reset and the configuration bits
CanCONF.SCALER, CanCONF.PS1, CanCONF.PS2, CanCONF.RSJ and CanCONF.BPR may be
modified. When disabled, the CAN controller will be in sleep mode not affecting the CAN bus by
only sending recessive bits. Note that the CAN core requires that 10 recessive bits are received before
any reception or transmission can be initiated. This can be caused either by no unit sending on the
CAN bus, or by random bits in message transfers.
22.8
Interrupt
Three interrupts are implemented by the CAN interface:
Index:
Name:
Description:
0
IRQ
Common output from interrupt handler
1
TxSYNC
Synchronization message transmitted
2
RxSYNC
Synchronization message received
The interrupts are configured by means of the pirq VHDL generic.
148
22.9
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 150.GRCAN registers
APB address offset
Register
16#000#
Configuration Register
16#004#
Status Register
16#008#
Control Register
16#018#
SYNC Mask Filter Register
16#01C#
SYNC Code Filter Register
16#100#
Pending Interrupt Masked Status Register
16#104#
Pending Interrupt Masked Register
16#108#
Pending Interrupt Status Register
16#10C#
Pending Interrupt Register
16#110#
Interrupt Mask Register
16#114#
Pending Interrupt Clear Register
16#200#
Transmit Channel Control Register
16#204#
Transmit Channel Address Register
16#208#
Transmit Channel Size Register
16#20C#
Transmit Channel Write Register
16#210#
Transmit Channel Read Register
16#214#
Transmit Channel Interrupt Register
16#300#
Receive Channel Control Register
16#304#
Receive Channel Address Register
16#308#
Receive Channel Size Register
16#30C#
Receive Channel Write Register
16#310#
Receive Channel Read Register
16#314#
Receive Channel Interrupt Register
16#318#
Receive Channel Mask Register
16#31C#
Receive Channel Code Register
22.9.1 Configuration Register [CanCONF] R/W
Table 151.Configuration Register
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
SCALER
15
14
22
21
20
PS1
13
RSJ
31-24:
23-20:
19-16:
14-12:
9:8:
23
SCALER
PS1
PS2
RSJ
BPR
12
11
10
9
8
7
19
18
17
16
PS2
6
5
BPR
Prescaler setting, 8-bit: system clock / (SCALER +1)
Phase Segment 1, 4-bit: (valid range 1 to 15)
Phase Segment 2, 4-bit: (valid range 2 to 8)
ReSynchronization Jumps, 3-bit: (valid range 1 to 4)
Baud rate, 2-bit:
00b = system clock / (SCALER +1) / 1
01b = system clock / (SCALER +1) / 2
10b = system clock / (SCALER +1) / 4
4
3
2
1
0
Sile
nt
Sele
ctio
n
Ena
ble
Ena
ble
Abo
rt
1
0
149
11b = system clock / (SCALER +1) / 8
SILENT Listen only to the CAN bus, send recessive bits.
SELECTIONSelection receiver input and transmitter output:
Select receive input 0 as active when 0b,
Select receive input 1 as active when 1b
Select transmit output 0 as active when 0b,
Select transmit output 1 as active when 1b
ENABLE1 Set value of output 1 enable
ENABLE0 Set value of output 0 enable
ABORT Abort transfer on AHB ERROR
4:
3:
2:
1:
0:
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that constraints on PS1, PS2 and RSJ are defined as:
•
PS1 +1 >= PS2
•
PS1 > PS2
•
PS2
>= RSJ
Note that CAN standard TSEG1 is defined by PS1+1.
Note that CAN standard TSEG2 is defined by PS2.
Note that the SCALER setting defines the CAN time quantum, together with the BPR setting:
system clock / (SCALER+1) / BPR
where SCALER is in range 0 to 255, and the resulting division factor due to BPR is 1, 2, 4 or 8.
Note that the resulting bit rate is:
system clock / (SCALER+1) / BPR * (1+ PS1+1 + PS2)
where PS1 is in the range 1 to 15, and PS2 is in the range 2 to 8.
Note that RSJ defines the number of allowed re-synchronization jumps according to the CAN standard, being in the range 1 to 4.
Note that the transmit or receive channel active during the AMBA AHB error is disabled if the
ABORT bit is set to 1b. Note that all accesses to the AMBA AHB bus will be disabled after an AMBA
AHB error occurs while the ABORT bit is set to 1b. The accesses will be disabled until the CanSTAT
register is read.
22.9.2 Status Register [CanSTAT] R
Table 152.Status register
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
5
4
3
2
1
0
Acti
ve
AH
B
Err
OR
Off
Pass
TxErrCntr
15
14
13
RxErrCntr
23-16:
15-8:
4:
3:
2:
1:
0:
TxErrCntr
RxErrCntr
ACTIVE
AHBErr
OR
OFF
PASS
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
Transmission error counter, 8-bit
Reception error counter, 8-bit
Transmission ongoing
AMBA AHB master interface blocked due to previous AHB error
Overrun during reception
Bus-off condition
Error-passive condition
150
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
The OR bit is set if a message with a matching ID is received and cannot be stored via the AMBA
AHB bus, this can be caused by bandwidth limitations or when the circular buffer for reception is
already full.
The OR and AHBErr status bits are cleared when the register has been read.
Note that TxErrCntr and RxErrCntr are defined according to CAN protocol.
Note that the AHBErr bit is only set to 1b if an AMBA AHB error occurs while the CanCONF.ABORT bit is set to 1b.
22.9.3 Control Register [CanCTRL] R/W
Table 153.Control Register
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rese Ena
t
ble
1:
0:
RESET
Reset complete core when 1
ENABLE Enable CAN controller, when 1. Reset CAN controller, when 0
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that RESET is read back as 0b.
Note that ENABLE should be cleared to 0b to while other settings are modified, ensuring that the
CAN core is properly synchronized.
Note that when ENABLE is cleared to 0b, the CAN interface is in sleep mode, only outputting recessive bits.
Note that the CAN core requires that 10 recessive bits be received before receive and transmit operations can begin.
22.9.4 SYNC Code Filter Register [CanCODE] R/W
Table 154.SYNC Code Filter Register
31
30
29
28
0
SYNC
28-0:
SYNC
Message Identifier
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that Base ID is bits 28 to 18 and Extended ID is bits 17 to 0.
22.9.5 SYNC Mask Filter Register [CanMASK] R/W
Table 155.SYNC Mask Filter Register
31
30
29
28
MASK
28-0:
MASK
Message Identifier
0
151
All bits are set to 1 at reset.
Note that Base ID is bits 28 to 18 and Extended ID is bits 17 to 0.
A RxSYNC message ID is matched when:
((Received-ID XOR CanCODE.SYNC) AND CanMASK.MASK) = 0
A TxSYNC message ID is matched when:
((Transmitted-ID XOR CanCODE.SYNC) AND CanMASK.MASK) = 0
22.9.6 Transmit Channel Control Register [CanTxCTRL] R/W
Table 156.Transmit Channel Control Register
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Single
Ong
oing
Ena
ble
2:
1:
0:
SINGLE Single shot mode
ONGOINGTransmission ongoing
ENABLE Enable channel
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that if the SINGLE bit is 1b, the channel is disabled (i.e. the ENABLE bit is cleared to 0b) if the
arbitration on the CAN bus is lost.
Note that in the case an AHB bus error occurs during an access while fetching transmit data, and the
CanCONF.ABORT bit is 1b, then the ENABLE bit will be reset automatically.
At the time the ENABLE is cleared to 0b, any ongoing message transmission is not aborted, unless
the CAN arbitration is lost or communication has failed.
Note that the ONGOING bit being 1b indicates that message transmission is ongoing and that configuration of the channel is not safe.
22.9.7 Transmit Channel Address Register [CanTxADDR] R/W
Table 157.Transmit Channel Address Register
31
10
9
0
ADDR
31-10:
ADDR
Base address for circular buffer
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
22.9.8 Transmit Channel Size Register [CanTxSIZE] R/W
Table 158.Transmit Channel Size Register
31
21
20
6
SIZE
20-6:
SIZE
The size of the circular buffer is SIZE*4 messages
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
5
0
152
Valid SIZE values are between 0 and 16384.
Note that each message occupies four 32-bit words.
Note that the resulting behavior of invalid SIZE values is undefined.
Note that only (SIZE*4)-1 messages can be stored simultaneously in the buffer. This is to simplify
wrap-around condition checking.
The width of the SIZE field may be made configurable by means of a VHDL generic. In this case it
should be set to 16-1 bits width.
22.9.9 Transmit Channel Write Register [CanTxWR] R/W
Table 159.Transmit Channel Write Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
WRITE
19-4:
WRITE
Pointer to last written message +1
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
The WRITE field is written to in order to initiate a transfer, indicating the position +1 of the last message to transmit.
Note that it is not possible to fill the buffer. There is always one message position in buffer unused.
Software is responsible for not over-writing the buffer on wrap around (i.e. setting WRITE=READ).
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
22.9.10 Transmit Channel Read Register [CanTxRD] R/W
Table 160.Transmit Channel Read Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
READ
19-4:
READ
Pointer to last read message +1
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
The READ field is written to automatically when a transfer has been completed successfully, indicating the position +1 of the last message transmitted.
Note that the READ field can be use to read out the progress of a transfer.
Note that the READ field can be written to in order to set up the starting point of a transfer. This
should only be done while the transmit channel is not enabled.
Note that the READ field can be automatically incremented even if the transmit channel has been disabled, since the last requested transfer is not aborted until CAN bus arbitration is lost.
When the Transmit Channel Read Pointer catches up with the Transmit Channel Write Register, an
interrupt is generated (TxEmpty). Note that this indicates that all messages in the buffer have been
transmitted.
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
153
22.9.11 Transmit Channel Interrupt Register [CanTxIRQ] R/W
Table 161.Transmit Channel Interrupt Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
IRQ
19-4:
IRQ
Interrupt is generated when CanTxRD.READ=IRQ, as a consequence of a message transmission
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that this indicates that a programmed number of messages have been transmitted.
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
22.9.12 Receive Channel Control Register [CanRxCTRL] R/W
Table 162.Receive Channel Control Register
31
2
1
0
OnG Ena
oing ble
1:
0:
ONGOINGReception ongoing (read-only)
ENABLE Enable channel
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that in the case an AHB bus error occurs during an access while fetching transmit data, and the
CanCONF.ABORT bit is 1b, then the ENALBE bit will be reset automatically.
At the time the ENABLE is cleared to 0b, any ongoing message reception is not aborted
Note that the ONGOING bit being 1b indicates that message reception is ongoing and that configuration of the channel is not safe.
22.9.13 Receive Channel Address Register [CanRxADDR] R/W
Table 163.Receive Channel Address Register
31
10
9
0
ADDR
31-10:
ADDR
Base address for circular buffer
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
22.9.14 Receive Channel Size Register [CanRxSIZE] R/W
Table 164.Receive Channel Size Register
31
21
20
6
SIZE
20-6:
SIZE
The size of the circular buffer is SIZE*4 messages
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Valid SIZE values are between 0 and 16384.
Note that each message occupies four 32-bit words.
5
0
154
Note that the resulting behavior of invalid SIZE values is undefined.
Note that only (SIZE*4)-1 messages can be stored simultaneously in the buffer. This is to simplify
wrap-around condition checking.
The width of the SIZE field may be made configurable by means of a VHDL generic. In this case it
should be set to 16-1 bits width.
22.9.15 Receive Channel Write Register [CanRxWR] R/W
Table 165.Receive Channel Write Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
WRITE
19-4:
WRITE
Pointer to last written message +1
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
The WRITE field is written to automatically when a transfer has been completed successfully, indicating the position +1 of the last message received.
Note that the WRITE field can be use to read out the progress of a transfer.
Note that the WRITE field can be written to in order to set up the starting point of a transfer. This
should only be done while the receive channel is not enabled.
22.9.16 Receive Channel Read Register [CanRxRD] R/W
Table 166.Receive Channel Read Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
READ
19-4:
READ
Pointer to last read message +1
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
The READ field is written to in order to release the receive buffer, indicating the position +1 of the
last message that has been read out.
Note that it is not possible to fill the buffer. There is always one message position in buffer unused.
Software is responsible for not over-reading the buffer on wrap around (i.e. setting WRITE=READ).
22.9.17 Receive Channel Interrupt Register [CanRxIRQ] R/W
Table 167.Receive Channel Interrupt Register
31
20
19
4
3
0
IRQ
19-4:
IRQ
Interrupt is generated when CanRxWR.WRITE=IRQ, as a consequence of a message reception
All bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Note that this indicates that a programmed number of messages have been received.
The field is implemented as relative to the buffer base address (scaled with the SIZE field).
155
22.9.18 Receive Channel Mask Register [CanRxMASK] R/W
Table 168.Receive Channel Mask Register
31
30
29
28
0
AM
28-0:
AM
Acceptance Mask, bits set to 1b are taken into account in the comparison between the received message
ID and the CanRxCODE.AC field
All bits are set to 1 at reset.
Note that Base ID is bits 28 to 18 and Extended ID is bits 17 to 0.
22.9.19 Receive Channel Code Register [CanRxCODE] R/W
Table 169.Receive Channel Code Register
31
30
29
28
0
AC
28-0:
AC
Acceptance Code, used in comparison with the received message
All bits are cleared to 0at reset.
Note that Base ID is bits 28 to 18 and Extended ID is bits 17 to 0.
A message ID is matched when:
((Received-ID XOR CanRxCODE.AC) AND CanRxMASS.AM) = 0
22.9.20 Interrupt registers
The interrupt registers give complete freedom to the software, by providing means to mask interrupts,
clear interrupts, force interrupts and read interrupt status.
When an interrupt occurs the corresponding bit in the Pending Interrupt Register is set. The normal
sequence to initialize and handle a module interrupt is:
•
Set up the software interrupt-handler to accept an interrupt from the module.
•
Read the Pending Interrupt Register to clear any spurious interrupts.
•
Initialise the Interrupt Mask Register, unmasking each bit that should generate the module interrupt.
•
When an interrupt occurs, read the Pending Interrupt Status Register in the software interrupthandler to determine the causes of the interrupt.
•
Handle the interrupt, taking into account all causes of the interrupt.
•
Clear the handled interrupt using Pending Interrupt Clear Register.
Masking interrupts: After reset, all interrupt bits are masked, since the Interrupt Mask Register is zero.
To enable generation of a module interrupt for an interrupt bit, set the corresponding bit in the Interrupt Mask Register.
Clearing interrupts: All bits of the Pending Interrupt Register are cleared when it is read or when the
Pending Interrupt Masked Register is read. Reading the Pending Interrupt Masked Register yields the
contents of the Pending Interrupt Register masked with the contents of the Interrupt Mask Register.
Selected bits can be cleared by writing ones to the bits that shall be cleared to the Pending Interrupt
Clear Register.
156
Forcing interrupts: When the Pending Interrupt Register is written, the resulting value is the original
contents of the register logically OR-ed with the write data. This means that writing the register can
force (set) an interrupt bit, but never clear it.
Reading interrupt status: Reading the Pending Interrupt Status Register yields the same data as a read
of the Pending Interrupt Register, but without clearing the contents.
Reading interrupt status of unmasked bits: Reading the Pending Interrupt Masked Status Register
yields the contents of the Pending Interrupt Register masked with the contents of the Interrupt Mask
Register, but without clearing the contents.
The interrupt registers comprise the following:
•
Pending Interrupt Masked Status Register
[CanPIMSR]
R
•
Pending Interrupt Masked Register
[CanPIMR]
R
•
Pending Interrupt Status Register
[CanPISR]
R
•
Pending Interrupt Register
[CanPIR]
R/W
•
Interrupt Mask Register
[CanIMR]
R/W
•
Pending Interrupt Clear Register
[CanPICR]
W
Table 170.Interrupt registers
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Tx
Loss
15
Rx
14
Tx
Miss Err
Cntr
13
12
11
10
9
8
Rx
Err
Cntr
Tx
Syn
c
Rx
Syn
c
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
Emp Full
ty
16:
TxLoss
15:
14:
13:
12:
11:
10:
9:
8:
7:
6:
5:
4:
3:
2:
1:
0:
RxMiss
TxErrCntr
RxErrCntr
TxSync
RxSync
Tx
Rx
TxEmpty
RxFull
TxIRQ
RxIRQ
TxAHBErr
RxAHBErr
OR
OFF
PASS
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Tx
IRQ
Rx
IRQ
Tx
AH
B
Err
Rx
AH
B
Err
OR
Off
Pass
Message arbitration lost during transmission (could be caused by
communcations error, as indicated by other interrupts as well)
Message filtered away during reception
Transmission error counter incremented
Reception error counter incremented
Synchronization message transmitted
Synchronization message received
Successful transmission of message
Successful reception of message
Successful transmission of all messages in buffer
Successful reception of all messages possible to store in buffer
Successful transmission of a predefined number of messages
Successful reception of a predefined number of messages
AHB error during transmission
AHB error during reception
Over-run during reception
Bus-off condition
Error-passive condition
All bits in all interrupt registers are reset to 0b after reset.
157
Note that the TxAHBErr interrupt is generated in such way that the corresponding read and write
pointers are valid for failure analysis. The interrupt generation is independent of the CanCONF.ABORT field setting.
Note that the RxAHBErr interrupt is generated in such way that the corresponding read and write
pointers are valid for failure analysis. The interrupt generation is independent of the CanCONF.ABORT field setting.
22.10 Memory mapping
The CAN message is represented in memory as shown in table 171.
Table 171.CAN message representation in memory.
AHB addr
0x0
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
IDE
RT
R
bID
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
eID
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
5
4
3
2
1
0
Ahb OR
Err
Off
Pass
eID
0x4
31
DLC
15
TxErrCntr
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
RxErrCntr
0x8
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Byte 0 (first transmitted)
15
14
13
12
31
11
10
9
8
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
20
19
18
17
16
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Byte 5
Byte 6
Values:
21
Byte 3
Byte 4
15
22
Byte 1
Byte 2
0xC
23
Levels according to CAN standard:
Legend: Naming and number in according to CAN standard
IDE
Identifier Extension:
RTR
Remote Transmission Request:
bID
eID
DLC
Base Identifier
Extended Identifier
Data Length Code, according to CAN standard:
7
Byte 7 (last transmitted)
1b is recessive,
0b is dominant
1b for Extended Format,
0b for Standard Format
1b for Remote Frame,
0b for Data Frame
0000b
0001b
0010b
0011b
0100b
0101b
0110b
0111b
0 bytes
1 byte
2 bytes
3 bytes
4 bytes
5 bytes
6 bytes
7 bytes
158
1000b
OTHERS
TxErrCntr
RxErrCntr
AHBErr
OR
OFF
PASS
Byte 00 to 07
8 bytes
illegal
Transmission Error Counter
Reception Error Counter
AHB interface blocked due to AHB Error when 1b
Reception Over run when 1b
Bus Off mode when 1b
Error Passive mode when 1b
Transmit/Receive data, Byte 00 first Byte 07 last
22.11 Vendor and device identifiers
The module has vendor identfier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identfier 0x03D. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
22.12 Configuration options
Table 172 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 172.Configuration options
Generic name
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
Addr field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
Mask field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFC#
pirq
Interrupt line used by the GRCAN.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
txchannels
Number of transmit channels
1-1
1
rxchannels
Number of receive channels
1-1
1
ptrwidth
Width of message pointers
4 - 16
16
22.13 Signal descriptions
Table 173 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 173.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
CANI
Rx[1:0]
Input
Receive lines
-
CANO
Tx[1:0]
Output
Transmit lines
-
Transmit enables
-
En[1:0]
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
159
22.14 Library dependencies
Table 174 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 174.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
CAN
Signals, component
GRCAN component and signal declarations.
22.15 Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library
use
ieee;
ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library
use
gaisler;
gaisler.can.all;
entity example is
generic (
padtech:
in
port (
-- CAN interface
cantx:
out
canrx:
in
canen:
out
integer := 0);
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
...
-- Signal declarations
signal
rstn:
signal
clk:
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
signal
signal
ahbmo:
ahbmi:
ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
ahb_mst_in_type;
signal
signal
apbi:
apbo:
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal
signal
cani0:
cano0:
can_in_type;
can_out_type;
...
-- Component instantiation
grcan0: grcan
generic map (
hindex
=> 1,
pindex
=> 1,
paddr
=> 16#00C",
pmask
=> 16#FFC",
pirq
=> 1,
txchannels
=> 1,
rxchannels
=> 1,
ptrwidth
=> 16)
port map (
rstn
=> rstn,
clk
=> clk,
apbi
=> apbi,
apbo
=> apbo(1),
ahbi
=> ahbmi,
ahbo
=> ahbmo(1),
cani
=> cani0,
cano
=> cano0);
160
cantx0_pad : outpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (cantx(0), cani0.tx(0));
canrx0_pad : inpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (canrx(0), cani0.rx(0));
canen0_pad : outpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (canen(0), cani0.en(0));
cantx1_pad : outpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (cantx(1), cani0.tx(1));
canrx1_pad : inpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (canrx(1), cani0.rx(1));
canen1_pad : outpad
generic map (tech => padtech) port map (canen(1), cani0.en(1));
161
23
DDRSPA - 16-, 32- and 64-bit DDR266 Controller
23.1
Overview
DDRSPA is a DDR266 SDRAM controller with AMBA AHB back-end. The controller can interface
two 16-, 32- or 64-bit DDR266 memory banks to a 32-bit AHB bus. The controller acts as a slave on
the AHB bus where it occupies a configurable amount of address space for DDR SDRAM access. The
DDR controller is programmed by writing to a configuration register mapped located in AHB I/O
address space. Internally, DDRSPA consists of a ABH/DDR controller and a technology specific
DDR PHY. Currently supported technologeis for the PHY is Xilinx Virtex2/Virtex4 and Altera
Startix-II. The modular design of DDRSPA allows to add support for other target technologies in a
simple manner. The DDRSPA is used in the following GRLIB template designs: leon3-avnet-ml401,
leon3-avnet-eval-xc4v, leon3-digilent-xup, leon3-digilent-xc3s1600e and leon3-altera-ep2s60-ddr .
DDRSPA
AHB
DDR CLOCK
DDR266
CONTROLLER
AHB SLAVE
CLK
SDCSN[1:0]
SDRASN
SDCASN
SDWEN
SDDQM[15:0]
SDCKE
ADDRESS[16:2]
D[127:0]
16/32/64-bit DDR
Memory
CLK
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
CKE
CLK
CLKN
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
CKE
ADDR[13:0]
BA[1:0]
DQ[63:0]
DDR
PHY
CLK
CLKN
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
CKE
ADDR[13:0]
BA[1:0]
DQ[63:0]
Figure 52. DDRSPA Memory controller conected to AMBA bus and DDR SDRAM
23.2
Operation
23.2.1 General
Double data-rate SDRAM (DDR RAM) access is supported to two banks of 16-, 32- or 64-bit
DDR266 compatible memory devices. The controller supports 64M, 128M, 256M, 512M and 1G
devices with 9- 12 column-address bits, up to 14 row-address bits, and 4 internal banks. The size of
each of each chip select can be programmed in binary steps between 8 Mbyte and 1024 Mbyte. The
DDR data width is set by the DDRBITS generic, and will affect the width of DM, DQS and DQ signals. The DDR data width does not change the behaviour of the AHB interface, except for data
latency.
23.2.2 Read cycles
An AHB read access to the controller will cause a corresponding access to the external DDR RAM.
The read cycle is started by performing an ACTIVATE command to the desired bank and row, followed by a READ command. CAS latency of 2 (CL=2) is always used. Byte, half-word (16-bit) and
word (32-bit) AHB accesses are supported. Incremental AHB burst access are supported for 32-bit
words only. The read cycle(s) are always terminated with a PRE-CHARGE command, no banks are
left open between two accesses. DDR read cyles are always performed in (aligned) 8-word bursts,
which are stored in a FIFO. After an initial latency, the data is then read out on the AHB bus with zero
waitstates.
162
23.2.3 Write cycles
Write cycles are performed similarly to read cycles, with the difference that WRITE commands are
issued after activation. An AHB write burst will store up to 8 words in a FIFO, before writing the data
to the DDR memory. As in the read case, only word bursts are supported
23.2.4 Initialization
If the pwron generic is 1, then the DDR controller will automatically perform the DDR initialization
sequence as described in the JEDEC DDR266 standard: PRE-CHARGE, LOAD-EXTMODE-REG,
LOAD-MODE-REG, PRE-CHARGE, 2xREFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG.. The generics col and
Mbyte can be used to also set the correct address decoding after reset. In this case, no further software
initialization is needed. The DDR initialization can be performed at a later stage by setting bit 15 in
the DDR control register.
23.2.5 Configurable DDR SDRAM timing parameters
To provide optimum access cycles for different DDR devices (and at different frequencies), three timing parameters can be programmed through the memory configuration register (SDCFG): TRCD,
TRP and TRFCD. The value of these field affects the SDRAM timing as described in table 175.
Table 175.DDR SDRAM programmable minimum timing parameters
SDRAM timing paramteter
Minumum timing (clocks)
Precharge to activate (tRP)
TRP + 2
Auto-refresh command period (tRFC)
TRFC + 3
Activate to read/write (tRCD)
TRCD + 1
Activate to Activate (tRC)
TRP + TRFC + 4
If the TCD, TRP and TRFC are programmed such that the DDR200/266 specifications are fullfilled,
the remaining SDRAM timing parameters will also be met. The table below shows typical settings for
100 and 133 MHz operation and the resulting SDRAM timing (in ns):
Table 176.DDR SDRAM example programming
DDR SDRAM settings
tRCD
tRC
tRP
tRFC
tRAS
100 MHz: TRP=0, TRFC=4, TRCD=0
20
80
20
70
50
133 MHz: TRP=1, TRFC=6, TRCD=1
20
82
22
67
52
The DDRSPA controller always uses CAS latency (CL) of two cycles. This means the a DDR
SDRAM speed grade of -75Z or better is needed to meet 133 MHz timing.
23.2.6 Refresh
The DDRSPA controller contains a refresh function that periodically issues an AUTO-REFRESH
command to both SDRAM banks. The period between the commands (in clock periods) is programmed in the refresh counter reload field in the SDCFG register. Depending on SDRAM type, the
required period is typically 7.8 us (corresponding to 780 at 100 MHz). The generated refresh period is
calculated as (reload value+1)/sysclk. The refresh function is enabled by bit 31 in SDCTRL register.
23.2.7 SDRAM commands
The controller can issue four SDRAM commands by writing to the SDRAM command field in
SDCFG: PRE-CHARGE, LOAD-EXTMODE-REG, LOAD-MODE-REG and REFRESH. If the
LEMR command is issued, the PLL Reset bit as programmed in SDCFG will be used, remaining
163
fields are fixed: 8 word sequential burst, CL=2, The command field will be cleared after a command
has been executed.
23.2.8 Clocking
The DDR controller is designed to operate with two clock domains, one for the DDR memory clock
and one for the AHB clock. The two clock domains do not have to be the same or be phase-aligned.
The DDR input clock (CLK_DDR) can be multiplied and divided by the DDR PHY to form the final
DDR clock frequency. The final DDR clock is driven on one output (CLKDDRO), which should
always be connected to the CLKDDRI input. If the AHB clock and DDR clock area generated from
the same clock source, a timing-ignore constraint should be placed between the CLK_AHB and
CLKDDRI to avoid optimization of false-paths during synthesis and place&route.
The Xilinx version of the PHY generates the internal DDR read clock usnig an external clock feedback. The feed-back should have the same delay as DDR signals to and from the DDR memories. The
feed-back should be driven by DDR_CLK_FB_OUT, and returned on DDR_CLK_FB. Most Xilinx
FPGA boards with DDR provides clock feed-backs of this sort. The supported frequencies for the Xilinx PHY depends on the clock-to-output delay of the DDR output registers, and the internal delay
from the DDR input registers to the read data FIFO. Virtex2 and Virtex4 can typically run at 120
MHz, while Spartan3e can run at 100 MHz.
The read data clock in the Xilinx version of the PHY is generated using a DCM to offset internal
delay of the DDR clock feed back. If the automatic DCM phase adjustment does not work due to
unsuitable pin selection, extra delay can be added through the RSKEW generic. The generic can be
between -255 and 255, and is passed directly to the PHASE_SHIFT generic of the DCM.
The Altera version of the PHY use the DQS signals and an internal PLL to generate the DDR read
clock. No external clock feed-back is needed and the DDR_CLK_FB_OUT/DDR_CLK_FB signals
are not used. The supported frequencies for the Altera PHY are 100, 110, 120 and 130 MHz.
23.2.9 Pads
The DDRSPA core has technology-specific pads inside the core. The external DDR signals should
therefore be connected directly the top-level ports, without any logic in between.
23.2.10 Registers
The DDRSPA core implements two control registers. The registers are mapped into AHB I/O address
space defined by the AHB BAR1 of the core.
Table 177.DDR controller registers
Address offset - AHB I/O - BAR1
Register
0x00
SDRAM control register
0x04
SDRAM configuration register (read-only)
Table 178. SDRAM control register (SDCTRL)
31
30 29
Refresh tRP
27
tRFC
26
tCD
25
23 22
SDRAM
bank size
21 20
SRAM
col. size
18 17 16 15 14
SDRAM
commnad
PR IN CE
0
SDRAM refresh load value
31
SDRAM refresh. If set, the SDRAM refresh will be enabled.
30
SDRAM tRP timing. tRP will be equal to 2 or 3 system clocks (0/1).
29: 27
SDRAM tRFC timing. tRFC will be equal to 3 + field-value system clocks.
26
SDRAM tRCD delay. Sets tRCD to 2 + field value clocks.
25: 23
SDRAM banks size. Defines the decoded memory size for each SDRAM chip select: “000”= 8
Mbyte, “001”= 16 Mbyte, “010”= 32 Mbyte .... “111”= 1024 Mbyte.
164
22: 21
Table 178. SDRAM control register (SDCTRL)
SDRAM column size. “00”=512, “01”=1024, “10”=2048, “11”=4096
20: 18
SDRAM command. Writing a non-zero value will generate an SDRAM command: “010”=PRECHARGE, “100”=AUTO-REFRESH, “110”=LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER, “111”=LOADEXTENDED-COMMAND-REGISTER. The field is reset after command has been executed.
17
PLL Reset. This bit is used to set the PLL RESET bit during LOAD-CONFIG-REG commands.
16
Initialize (IN). Set to ‘1’ to perform power-on DDR RAM initialisation. Is automatically cleared
when initialisation is completed.
15
Clock enable (CE). This value is driven on the CKE inputs of the DDR RAM. Should be set to ‘1’
for correct operation.
14: 0
The period between each AUTO-REFRESH command - Calculated as follows: tREFRESH =
((reload value) + 1) / SYSCLK
Table 179. SDRAM configuration register (SDCFG)
31
14
reserved
23.3
12 11
Data width
0
DDR Clock frequency
14: 12
DDR data width: “001” = 16 bits, “010” = 32 bits, “011” = 64 bits (read-only)
11: 0
Frequency of the (external) DDR clock (read-only)
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x025. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
165
23.4
Configuration options
Table 180 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 180.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
fabtech
PHY technology selection
virtex2, virtex4,
spartan3e, altera
virtex2
memtech
Technology selection for DDR FIFOs
infered, virtex2, virtex4,
spartan3e, altera
infered
hindex
AHB slave index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area.
Default is 0xF0000000 - 0xFFFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
hmask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address
space where DDR control register is mapped.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address
space
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
ddrbits
Data bus width of external DDR memory
16, 32, 64
16
MHz
DDR clock input frequency in MHz.
10 - 200
100
clkmul, clkdiv
The DDR input clock is multiplied with the clkmul
generic and divided with clkdiv to create the final DDR
clock
2 - 32
2
rstdel
Clock reset delay in micro-seconds.
1 - 1023
200
col
Default number of column address bits
9 - 12
9
Mbyte
Default memory chip select bank size in Mbyte
8 - 1024
16
pwron
Enable SDRAM at power-on initialization
0-1
0
oepol
Polarity of bdrive and vbdrive signals. 0=active low,
1=active high
0-1
0
ahbfreq
Frequency in MHz of the AHB clock domain
1 - 1023
50
rskew
Additional read data clock skew
-255 - 255
0
166
23.5
Signal descriptions
Table 181 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 181.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Type
Function
Active
RST_DDR
Input
Reset input for DDR clock domain
Low
RST_AHB
Input
Reset input for AHB clock domain
Low
CLK_DDR
Input
DDR input Clock
-
CLK_AHB
Input
AHB clock
-
LOCK
Output
DDR clock generator locked
High
CLKDDRO
Internal DDR clock output after clock multiplication
CLKDDRI
Clock input for the internal DDR clock domain.
Must be connected to CLKDDRO.
AHBSI
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
DDR_CLK[2:0]
Output
DDR memory clocks (positive)
High
DDR_CLKB[2:0]
Output
DDR memory clocks (negative)
Low
DDR_CLK_FB_OUT
Output
Same a DDR_CLK, but used to drive an external
clock feedback.
-
DDR_CLK_FB
Input
Clock input for the DDR clock feed-back
-
DDR_CKE[1:0]
Output
DDR memory clock enable
High
DDR_CSB[1:0]
Output
DDR memory chip select
Low
DDR_WEB
Output
DDR memory write enable
Low
DDR_RASB
Output
DDR memory row address strobe
Low
DDR_CASB
Output
DDR memory column address strobe
Low
DDR_DM[DDRBITS/8-1:0]
Output
DDR memory data mask
Low
DDR_DQS[DDRBITS/8-1:0]
Bidir
DDR memory data strobe
Low
DDR_AD[13:0]
Output
DDR memory address bus
Low
DDR_BA[1:0]
Output
DDR memory bank address
Low
DDR_DQ[DDRBITS-1:0]
BiDir
DDR memory data bus
-
1) see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual 2) Polarity selected with the oepol generic
23.6
Library dependencies
Table 182 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 182.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
167
23.7
Component declaration
component ddrspa
generic (
fabtech : integer := 0;
memtech : integer := 0;
hindex : integer := 0;
haddr
: integer := 0;
hmask
: integer := 16#f00#;
ioaddr : integer := 16#000#;
iomask : integer := 16#fff#;
MHz
: integer := 100;
clkmul : integer := 2;
clkdiv : integer := 2;
col
: integer := 9;
Mbyte
: integer := 16;
rstdel : integer := 200;
pwron
: integer := 0;
oepol
: integer := 0;
ddrbits : integer := 16;
ahbfreq : integer := 50
);
port (
rst_ddr : in std_ulogic;
rst_ahb : in std_ulogic;
clk_ddr : in std_ulogic;
clk_ahb : in std_ulogic;
lock
: out std_ulogic;-- DCM locked
clkddro : out std_ulogic;-- DCM locked
clkddri : in std_ulogic;
ahbsi
: in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso
: out ahb_slv_out_type;
ddr_clk : out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
ddr_clkb: out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
ddr_clk_fb_out : out std_logic;
ddr_clk_fb : in std_logic;
ddr_cke : out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
ddr_csb : out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
ddr_web : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr write enable
ddr_rasb : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr ras
ddr_casb : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr cas
ddr_dm
: out std_logic_vector (ddrbits/8-1 downto 0);
-- ddr dm
ddr_dqs : inout std_logic_vector (ddrbits/8-1 downto 0);
-- ddr dqs
ddr_ad
: out std_logic_vector (13 downto 0);
-- ddr address
ddr_ba
: out std_logic_vector (1 downto 0);
-- ddr bank address
ddr_dq
: inout std_logic_vector (ddrbits-1 downto 0) -- ddr data
);
end component;
168
23.8
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The DDR SDRAM controller decodes SDRAM area at 0x40000000 - 0x7FFFFFFF. The SDRAM
registers aremapped into AHB I/O space on address (AHB I/O base address + 0x100).
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
entity ddr_Interface is
port ( ddr_clk : out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
ddr_clkb : out std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
ddr_clk_fb : in std_logic;
ddr_clk_fb_out : out std_logic;
ddr_cke : out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
ddr_csb : out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
ddr_web : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr write enable
ddr_rasb : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr ras
ddr_casb : out std_ulogic;
-- ddr cas
ddr_dm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0);
-- ddr dm
ddr_dqs : inout std_logic_vector (7 downto 0);
-- ddr dqs
ddr_ad
: out std_logic_vector (13 downto 0);
-- ddr address
ddr_ba
: out std_logic_vector (1 downto 0);
-- ddr bank address
ddr_dq : inout std_logic_vector (63 downto 0); -- ddr data
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal clkml, lock : std_ulogic;
begin
-- DDR controller
ddrc : ddrspa generic map ( fabtech => virtex4, ddrbits => 64, memtech => memtech,
hindex => 4, haddr => 16#400#, hmask => 16#F00#, ioaddr => 1,
pwron => 1, MHz => 100, col => 9, Mbyte => 32, ahbfreq => 50, ddrbits => 64)
port map (
rstneg, rstn, lclk, clkm, lock, clkml, clkml, ahbsi, ahbso(4),
ddr_clk, ddr_clkb, ddr_clk_fb_out, ddr_clk_fb,
ddr_cke, ddr_csb, ddr_web, ddr_rasb, ddr_casb,
ddr_dm, ddr_dqs, ddr_adl, ddr_ba, ddr_dq);
169
24
DIV32 - Signed/unsigned 64/32 divider module
24.1
Overview
The divider module performs signed/unsigned 64-bit by 32-bit division. It implements the radix-2
non-restoring iterative division algorithm. The division operation takes 36 clock cycles. The divider
leaves no remainder. The result is rounded towards zero. Negative result, zero result and overflow
(according to the overflow detection method B of SPARC V8 Architecture manual) are detected.
24.2
Operation
The division is started when ‘1’ is samples on DIVI.START on positive clock edge. Operands are
latched externally and provided on inputs DIVI.Y, DIVI.OP1 and DIVI.OP2 during the whole operation. The result appears on the outputs during the clock cycle following the clock cycle after the
DIVO.READY was asserted. Asserting the HOLD input at any time will freeze the operation, until
HOLDN is de-asserted.
24.3
Signal descriptions
Table 183 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 183.Signal declarations
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
HOLDN
N/A
Input
Hold
Low
DIVI
Y[32:0]
Input
Dividend - MSB part
High
Y[32] - Sign bit
Y[31:0] - Dividend MSB part in 2’s complement
format
OP1[32:0]
Dividend - LSB part
High
OP1[32] - Sign bit
OP1[31:0] - Dividend LSB part in 2’s complement format
FLUSH
DIVO
Flush current operation
High
SIGNED
Signed division
High
START
Start division
High
The result is available one clock after the ready
signal is asserted.
High
NREADY
Not used
-
ICC[3:0]
Condition codes
High
READY
Output
ICC[3] - Negative result
ICC[2] - Zero result
ICC[1] - Overflow
ICC[0] - Not used. Always ‘0’.
RESULT[31:0]
Result
High
170
24.4
Library dependencies
Table 184 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 184.Library dependencies
24.5
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GAISLER
ARITH
Signals, component
Divider module signals, component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component div32
port (
rst
: in
clk
: in
holdn
: in
divi
: in
divo
: out
);
end component;
24.6
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
div32_in_type;
div32_out_type
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use gaisler.arith.all;
.
.
.
signal divi
signal divo
: div32_in_type;
: div32_out_type;
begin
div0 : div32 port map (rst, clk, holdn, divi, divo);
end;
171
25
DSU3 - LEON3 Hardware Debug Support Unit
25.1
Overview
To simplify debugging on target hardware, the LEON3 processor implements a debug mode during
which the pipeline is idle and the processor is controlled through a special debug interface. The
LEON3 Debug Support Unit (DSU) is used to control the processor during debug mode. The DSU
acts as an AHB slave and can be accessed by any AHB master. An external debug host can therefore
access the DSU through several different interfaces. Such an interface can be a serial UART (RS232),
JTAG, PCI, USB or ethernet. The DSU supports multi-processor systems and can handle up to 16 processors.
LEON3
LEON3
Processor(s)
LEON3
Processor
LEON3
Processor(s)
Processor(s)
Debug I/F
Debug Support
Unit
AHB Slave I/F
AHB Master I/F
AMBA AHB BUS
RS232
PCI
Ethernet
JTAG
USB
DEBUG HOST
Figure 53. LEON3/DSU Connection
25.2
Operation
Through the DSU AHB slave interface, any AHB master can access the processor registers and the
contents of the instruction trace buffer. The DSU control registers can be accessed at any time, while
the processor registers, caches and trace buffer can only be accessed when the processor has entered
debug mode. In debug mode, the processor pipeline is held and the processor state can be accessed by
the DSU. Entering the debug mode can occur on the following events:
•
executing a breakpoint instruction (ta 1)
•
integer unit hardware breakpoint/watchpoint hit (trap 0xb)
•
rising edge of the external break signal (DSUBRE)
•
setting the break-now (BN) bit in the DSU control register
•
a trap that would cause the processor to enter error mode
•
occurrence of any, or a selection of traps as defined in the DSU control register
•
after a single-step operation
•
one of the processors in a multiprocessor system has entered the debug mode
•
DSU AHB breakpoint hit
172
The debug mode can only be entered when the debug support unit is enabled through an external signal (DSUEN). When the debug mode is entered, the following actions are taken:
•
PC and nPC are saved in temporary registers (accessible by the debug unit)
•
an output signal (DSUACT) is asserted to indicate the debug state
•
the timer unit is (optionally) stopped to freeze the LEON timers and watchdog
The instruction that caused the processor to enter debug mode is not executed, and the processor state
is kept unmodified. Execution is resumed by clearing the BN bit in the DSU control register or by deasserting DSUEN. The timer unit will be re-enabled and execution will continue from the saved PC
and nPC. Debug mode can also be entered after the processor has entered error mode, for instance
when an application has terminated and halted the processor. The error mode can be reset and the processor restarted at any address.
When a processor is in the debug mode, an access to ASI diagnostic area is forwarded to the IU which
performs access with ASI equal to value in the DSU ASI register and address consisting of 20 LSB
bits of the original address.
25.3
AHB Trace Buffer
The AHB trace buffer consists of a circular buffer that stores AHB data transfers. The address, data
and various control signals of the AHB bus are stored and can be read out for later analysis. The trace
buffer is 128 bits wide, the information stored is indicated in the table below:
Table 185.AHB Trace buffer data allocation
Bits
Name
Definition
127
AHB breakpoint hit
Set to ‘1’ if a DSU AHB breakpoint hit occurred.
126
-
Not used
125:96
Time tag
DSU time tag counter
95
-
Not used
94:80
Hirq
AHB HIRQ[15:1]
79
Hwrite
AHB HWRITE
78:77
Htrans
AHB HTRANS
76:74
Hsize
AHB HSIZE
73:71
Hburst
AHB HBURST
70:67
Hmaster
AHB HMASTER
66
Hmastlock
AHB HMASTLOCK
65:64
Hresp
AHB HRESP
63:32
Load/Store data
AHB HRDATA or HWDATA
31:0
Load/Store address
AHB HADDR
In addition to the AHB signals, the DSU time tag counter is also stored in the trace.
The trace buffer is enabled by setting the enable bit (EN) in the trace control register. Each AHB
transfer is then stored in the buffer in a circular manner. The address to which the next transfer is written is held in the trace buffer index register, and is automatically incremented after each transfer. Tracing is stopped when the EN bit is reset, or when a AHB breakpoint is hit. Tracing is temporarily
suspended when the processor enters debug mode. Note that neither the trace buffer memory nor the
breakpoint registers (see below) can be read/written by software when the trace buffer is enabled.
173
25.4
Instruction trace buffer
The instruction trace buffer consists of a circular buffer that stores executed instructions. The instruction trace buffer is located in the processor, and read out via the DSU. The trace buffer is 128 bits
wide, the information stored is indicated in the table below:
Table 186.Instruction trace buffer data allocation
Bits
Name
Definition
127
-
Unused
126
Multi-cycle instruction
Set to ‘1’ on the second and third instance of a multi-cycle instruction (LDD, ST or FPOP)
125:96
Time tag
The value of the DSU time tag counter
95:64
Load/Store parameters
Instruction result, Store address or Store data
63:34
Program counter
Program counter (2 lsb bits removed since they are always zero)
33
Instruction trap
Set to ‘1’ if traced instruction trapped
32
Processor error mode
Set to ‘1’ if the traced instruction caused processor error mode
31:0
Opcode
Instruction opcode
During tracing, one instruction is stored per line in the trace buffer with the exception of multi-cycle
instructions. Multi-cycle instructions are entered two or three times in the trace buffer. For store
instructions, bits [63:32] correspond to the store address on the first entry and to the stored data on the
second entry (and third in case of STD). Bit 126 is set on the second and third entry to indicate this. A
double load (LDD) is entered twice in the trace buffer, with bits [63:32] containing the loaded data.
Multiply and divide instructions are entered twice, but only the last entry contains the result. Bit 126
is set for the second entry. For FPU operation producing a double-precision result, the first entry puts
the MSB 32 bits of the results in bit [63:32] while the second entry puts the LSB 32 bits in this field.
When the processor enters debug mode, tracing is suspended. The trace buffer and the trace buffer
control register can be read and written while the processor is in the debug mode. During the instruction tracing (processor in normal mode) the trace buffer and the trace buffer control register can not be
accessed.
174
25.5
DSU memory map
The DSU memory map can be seen in table 187 below. In a multiprocessor systems, the register map
is duplicated and address bits 27 - 24 are used to index the processor.
Table 187.DSU memory map
Address offset
Register
0x000000
DSU control register
0x000008
Time tag counter
0x000020
Break and Single Step register
0x000024
Debug Mode Mask register
0x000040
AHB trace buffer control register
0x000044
AHB trace buffer index register
0x000050
AHB breakpoint address 1
0x000054
AHB mask register 1
0x000058
AHB breakpoint address 2
0x00005c
AHB mask register 2
0x100000 - 0x110000
Instruction trace buffer (..0: Trace bits 127 - 96, ..4: Trace bits 95 - 64,
..8: Trace bits 63 - 32, ..C : Trace bits 31 - 0)
0x110000
0x200000 - 0x210000
Intruction Trace buffer control register
AHB trace buffer (..0: Trace bits 127 - 96, ..4: Trace bits 95 - 64,
..8: Trace bits 63 - 32, ..C : Trace bits 31 - 0)
0x300000 - 0x300FFC
IU register file
0x301000 - 0x30107C
FPU register file
0x400000 - 0x4FFFFC
IU special purpose registers
0x400000
Y register
0x400004
PSR register
0x400008
WIM register
0x40000C
TBR register
0x400010
PC register
0x400014
NPC register
0x400018
FSR register
0x40001C
CPSR register
0x400020
DSU trap register
0x400024
DSU ASI register
0x400040 - 0x40007C
ASR16 - ASR31 (when implemented)
0x700000 - 0x7FFFFC
ASI diagnostic access (ASI = value in DSU ASI register, address = address[19:0])
ASI = 0x9 : Local instruction RAM
ASI = 0xB : Local data RAM
ASI = 0xC : Instruction cache tags
ASI = 0xD : Instruction cache data
ASI = 0xE : Data cache tags
ASI = 0xF : Instruction cache data
The addresses of the IU registers depends on how many register windows has been implemented:
•
%on : 0x300000 + (((psr.cwp * 64) + 32 + n*4) mod (NWINDOWS*64))
•
%ln : 0x300000 + (((psr.cwp * 64) + 64 + n*4) mod (NWINDOWS*64))
•
%in : 0x300000 + (((psr.cwp * 64) + 96 + n*4) mod (NWINDOWS*64))
•
%gn : 0x300000 + (NWINDOWS*64)
•
%fn : 0x301000 + n*4
175
25.6
DSU registers
25.6.1 DSU control register
The DSU is controlled by the DSU control register:
.
31
11
10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PW HL PE EB EE DM BZ BX BS BW BE TE
Figure 54. DSU control register
[0]:
[1]:
[2]:
[3]:
[4]:
[5]:
[6]:
[7]:
[8]:
[9]:
[10]:
[11]:
Trace enable (TE). Enables instruction tracing. If set the instructions will be stored in the trace buffer. Remains set
when then processor enters debug or error mode.
Break on error (BE) - if set, will force the processor to debug mode when the processor would have entered error
condition (trap in trap).
Break on IU watchpoint (BW)- if set, debug mode will be forced on a IU watchpoint (trap 0xb).
Break on S/W breakpoint (BS) - if set, debug mode will be forced when an breakpoint instruction (ta 1) is executed.
Break on trap (BX) - if set, will force the processor into debug mode when any trap occurs.
Break on error traps (BZ) - if set, will force the processor into debug mode on all except the following traps:
priviledged_instruction, fpu_disabled, window_overflow, window_underflow, asynchronous_interrupt, ticc_trap.
Debug mode (DM). Indicates when the processor has entered debug mode (read-only).
EE - value of the external DSUEN signal (read-only)
EB - value of the external DSUBRE signal (read-only)
Processor error mode (PE) - returns ‘1’ on read when processor is in error mode, else ‘0’. If written with ‘1’, it will
clear the error and halt mode.
Processor halt (HL). Returns ‘1’ on read when processor is halted. If the processor is in debug mode, setting this bit
will put the processor in halt mode.
Power down (PW). Returns ‘1’ when processor in in power-down mode.
25.6.2 DSU Break and Single Step register
This register is used to break or single step the processor(s). This register controls all processors in a
multi-processor system, and is only accessible in the DSU memory map of processor 0.
31
SS15
18
...
SS2
17
16
15
SS1 SS0 BN15
2
...
1
0
BN2 BN1 BN0
Figure 55. DSU Break and Single Step register
[15:0] : Break now (BNx) -Force processor x into debug mode if the Break on watchpoint (BW) bit in the processors DSU
control register is set. If cleared, the processor x will resume execution.
[31:16] : Single step (SSx) - if set, the processor x will execute one instruction and return to debug mode. The bit remains set
after the processor goes into the debug mode.
25.6.3 DSU Debug Mode Mask Register
When one of the processors in a multiprocessor LEON3 system enters the debug mode the value of
the DSU Debug Mode Mask register determines if the other processors are forced in the debug mode.
This register controls all processors in a multi-processor system, and is only accessible in the DSU
memory map of processor 0.
31
DM15
18
...
17
16
15
DM2 DM1 DM0 ED15
Figure 56. DSU Debug Mode Mask register
2
...
1
0
ED2 ED1 ED0
176
[15:0] : Enter debug mode (EDx) - Force processor x into debug mode if any of processors in a multiprocessor system enters
the debug mode. If 0, the processor x will not enter the debug mode.
[31:16]: Debug mode mask. If set, the corresponding processor will not be able to force running processors into debug mode
even if it enters debug mode.
25.6.4 DSU trap register
The DSU trap register is a read-only register that indicates which SPARC trap type that caused the
processor to enter debug mode. When debug mode is force by setting the BN bit in the DSU control
register, the trap type will be 0xb (hardware watchpoint trap).
31
13 12 11
RESERVED
EM
4
TRAP TYPE
3
0
0000
Figure 57. DSU trap register
[11:4]:
[12]:
8-bit SPARC trap type
Error mode (EM). Set if the trap would have cause the processor to enter error mode.
25.6.5 Trace buffer time tag counter
The trace buffer time tag counter is incremented each clock as long as the processor is running. The
counter is stopped when the processor enters debug mode, and restarted when execution is resumed.
31
29
0
00
DSU TIME TAG VALUE
Figure 58. Trace buffer time tag counter
The value is used as time tag in the instruction and AHB trace buffer.
The width of the timer (up to 30 bits) is configurable through the DSU generic port.
25.6.6 DSU ASI register
The DSU can perform diagnostic accesses to different ASI areas. The value in the ASI diagnostic
access register is used as ASI while the address is supplied from the DSU.
31
7
0
ASI
Figure 59. ASI diagnostic access register
[7:0]:
ASI to be used on diagnostic ASI access
25.6.7 AHB Trace buffer control register
The AHB trace buffer is controlled by the AHB trace buffer control register:
31
16
DCNT
2
RESERVED
1
0
BR DM EN
Figure 60. AHB trace buffer control register
[0]:
[1]:
[2]:
[31:16]
Trace enable (EN). Enables the trace buffer.
Delay counter mode (DM). Indicates that the trace buffer is in delay counter mode.
Break (BR). If set, the processor will be put in debug mode when AHB trace buffer stops due to AHB breakpoint hit.
Trace buffer delay counter (DCNT). Note that the number of bits actually implemented depends on the size of the
trace buffer.
177
25.6.8 AHB trace buffer index register
The AHB trace buffer index register contains the address of the next trace line to be written.
31
4
3
0
0000
INDEX
Figure 61. AHB trace buffer index register
31:4
Trace buffer index counter (INDEX). Note that the number of bits actually implemented depends on the size of the
trace buffer.
25.6.9 AHB trace buffer breakpoint registers
The DSU contains two breakpoint registers for matching AHB addresses. A breakpoint hit is used to
freeze the trace buffer by automatically clearing the enable bit. Freezing can be delayed by programming the DCNT field in the trace buffer control register to a non-zero value. In this case, the DCNT
value will be decremented for each additional trace until it reaches zero, after which the trace buffer is
frozen. A mask register is associated with each breakpoint, allowing breaking on a block of addresses.
Only address bits with the corresponding mask bit set to ‘1’ are compared during breakpoint detection. To break on AHB load or store accesses, the LD and/or ST bits should be set.
31
2
Break address reg.
BADDR[31:2]
31
2
Break mask reg.
1
0
0
0
1
0
LD ST
BMASK[31:2]
Figure 62. Trace buffer breakpoint registers
[31:2]:
[31:2]:
[1]:
[0]:
Breakpoint address (bits 31:2)
Breakpoint mask (see text)
LD - break on data load address
ST - beak on data store address
25.6.10 Instruction trace control register
The instruction trace control register contains a pointer that indicates the next line of the instruction
trace buffer to be written.
31
16
RESERVED
0
IT POINTER
Figure 63. Instruction trace control register
[15:0]
25.7
Instruction trace pointer. Note that the number of bits actually implemented depends on the size of the trace buffer.
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x017. For a description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
178
25.8
Configuration options
Table 188 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 188.Configuration options
25.9
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
0 - AHBSLVMAX-1
0
haddr
AHB slave address (AHB[31:20])
0 - 16#FFF#
16#900#
hmask
AHB slave address mask
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
ncpu
Number of attached processors
1 - 16
1
tbits
Number of bits in the time tag counter
2 - 30
30
tech
Memory technology for trace buffer RAM
0 - TECHMAX-1
0 (inferred)
kbytes
Size of trace buffer memory in Kbytes. A value of 0
will disable the trace buffer function.
0 - 64
0 (disabled)
Signal descriptions
Table 189 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 189.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
DBGI
-
Input
Debug signals from LEON3
-
DBGO
-
Output
Debug signals to LEON3
-
DSUI
ENABLE
Input
DSU enable
High
BREAK
Input
DSU break
High
ACTIVE
Output
Debug mode
High
PWD[n-1 : 0]
Output
Clock gating enable for processor [n]
High
DSUO
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
25.10 Library dependencies
Table 190 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 190.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
LEON3
Component, signals
Component declaration, signals declaration
25.11 Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
179
component dsu3
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
haddr : integer := 16#900#;
hmask : integer := 16#f00#;
ncpu
: integer := 1;
tbits
: integer := 30;
tech
: integer := 0;
irq
: integer := 0;
kbytes : integer := 0
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbmi : in ahb_mst_in_type;
ahbsi : in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso : out ahb_slv_out_type;
dbgi
: in l3_debug_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
dbgo
: out l3_debug_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
dsui
: in dsu_in_type;
dsuo
: out dsu_out_type
);
end component;
25.12 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The DSU is always instantiated with at least one LEON3 processor. It is suitable to use a generate
loop for the instantiation of the processors and DSU and showed below.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.leon3.all;
constant NCPU : integer := 1; -- select number of processors
signal
signal
signal
signal
leon3i
leon3o
irqi
irqo
:
:
:
:
l3_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
l3_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
irq_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
irq_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
signal dbgi : l3_debug_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
signal dbgo : l3_debug_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
signal dsui
signal dsuo
: dsu_in_type;
: dsu_out_type;
.
begin
cpu : for i in 0 to NCPU-1 generate
u0 : leon3s-- LEON3 processor
generic map (ahbndx => i, fabtech => FABTECH, memtech => MEMTECH)
port map (clkm, rstn, ahbmi, ahbmo(i), ahbsi, ahbsi, ahbso,
irqi(i), irqo(i), dbgi(i), dbgo(i));
irqi(i) <= leon3o(i).irq; leon3i(i).irq <= irqo(i);
end generate;
dsu0 : dsu3-- LEON3 Debug Support Unit
generic map (ahbndx => 2, ncpu => NCPU, tech => memtech, kbytes => 2)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbsi, ahbso(2), dbgo, dbgi, dsui, dsuo);
180
dsui.enable <= dsuen; dsui.break <= dsubre; dsuact <= dsuo.active;
181
26
FTAHBRAM - On-chip SRAM with EDAC and AHB interface
26.1
Overview
The FTAHBRAM core is a version of the AHBRAM core with added Error Detection And Correction
(EDAC). The on-chip memory is accessed via an AMBA AHB slave interface. The memory implements 2 kbytes of data (configured via the kbytes VHDL generics). Registers are accessed via an
AMB APB interface.
The on-chip memory implements volatile memory that is protected by means of Error Detection And
Correction (EDAC). One error can be corrected and two errors can be detected, which is performed
by using a (32, 7) BCH code. Some of the optional features available are single error counter, diagnostic reads and writes and autoscrubbing (automatic correction of single errors during reads). Configuration is pereformed via a configuration register.
Figure 64 shows a block diagram of the internals of the memory.
AHB Bus
AHB Slave
Interface
FTAHBRAM
data
Mux
AHB/APB
Bridge
error Configuration Register
Mux
Encoding
Config bits
TCB
cb
APB Bus
Decoding
Mux
data
cb
Syncram
Figure 64. Block diagram
26.2
Operation
The on-chip fault tolerant memory is accessed through an AMBA AHB slave interface.
The memory address range is configurable with VHDL generics. As for the standard AHB RAM, the
memory technology and size is configurable through the tech and kbytes VHDL generics. The minimum size is 1 kb and the maximum is technology dependent but the values can only be increased in
binary steps.
Run-time configuration is done by writing to a configuration register accessed through an AMBA
APB interface.
The address of the interface and the available options are configured with VHDL generics. The
EDAC functionality can be completely removed by setting the edacen VHDL generic to zero during
synthesis. The APB interface is also removed since it is redundant without EDAC.
The following can be configured during run-time: EDAC can be enabled and disabled. When it is disabled, reads and writes will behave as the standard memory. Read and write diagnostics can be controlled through separate bits. The single error counter can be reset.
182
If EDAC is disabled (EN bit in configuration register set to 0) write data is passed directly to the
memory area and read data will appear on the AHB bus immediately after it arrives from memory. If
EDAC is enabled write data is passed to an encoder which outputs a 7-bit checksum. The checksum is
stored together with the data in memory and the whole operation is performed without any added
waitstates. This applies to word stores (32-bit). If a byte or halfword store is performed, the whole
word to which the byte or halfword belongs must first be read from memory (read - modify - write). A
new checksum is calculated when the new data is placed in the word and both data and checksum are
stored in memory. This is done with 1 - 2 additional waitstates compared to the non EDAC case.
Reads with EDAC disabled are performed with 0 or 1 waitstates while there could also be 2 waitstates
when EDAC is enabled. There is no difference between word and subword reads. Table 191 shows a
summary of the number of waitstates for the different operations with and without EDAC.
Table 191.Summary of the number of waitstates for the different operations for the memory.
Operation
Waitstates with EDAC Disabled
Waitstates with EDAC Enabled
Read
0-1
0-2
Word write
0
0
Subword write
0
1-2
If the ahbpipe VHDL generic is set to 1, pipeline registers are enabled for the AHB input signals. If
the pipeline registers are enabled, one extra waitstate should be added to the read and subword write
cases in Table 191.
When EDAC is used, the data is decoded the first cycle after it arrives from the memory and appears
on the bus the next cycle if no uncorrectable error is detected. The decoding is done by comparing the
stored checksum with a new one which is calculated from the stored data. This decoding is also done
during the read phase for a subword write. A so-called syndrome is generated from the comparison
between the checksum and it determines the number of errors that occured. One error is automatically
corrected and this situation is not visible on the bus. Two or more detected errors cannot be corrected
so the operation is aborted and the required two cycle error response is given on the AHB bus (see the
AMBA manual for more details). If no errors are detected data is passed through the decoder unaltered.
As mentioned earlier the memory provides read and write diagnostics when EDAC is enabled. When
write diagnostics are enabled, the calculated checksum is not stored in memory during the write
phase. Instead, the TCB field from the configuration register is used. In the same manner, if read diagnostics are enabled, the stored checksum from memory is stored in the TCB field during a read (and
also during a subword write). This way, the EDAC functionality can be tested during run-time. Note
that checkbits are stored in TCB during reads and subword writes even if a multiple error is detected.
An additional feature is the single error counter which can be enabled with the errcnten VHDL
generic. A single error counter (SEC) field is present in the configuration register, and is incremented
each time a single databit error is encountered (reads or subword writes). The number of bits of this
counter is 8, set with the cntbits VHDL generic. It is accessed through the configuration register. Each
counter bit can be reset to zero by writing a one to it. The counter saturates at the value 28 - 1 (2cntbits
- 1). Each time a single error is detected the aramo.ce signal will be driven high for one cycle. This
signal should be connected to an AHB status register which stores information and generates interrupts (see the AHB Status register documentation for more information).
Autoscrubbing is an error handling feature which is enabled with the autoscrub VHDL generic and
cannot be controlled through the configuration register. If enabled, every single error encountered during a read results in the word being written back with the error corrected and new checkbits generated.
It is not visible externally except for that it can generate an extra waitstate. This happens if the read is
followed by an odd numbered read in a burst sequence of reads or if a subword write follows. These
situations are very rare during normal operation so the total timing impact is negligible. The aramo.ce
signal is normally used to generate interrupts which starts an interrupt routine that corrects errors.
183
Since this is not necessary when autoscrubbing is enabled, aramo.ce should not be connected to an
AHB status register or the interrupt should be disabled in the interrupt controller.
26.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 192.FTAHBRAM registers
APB Address offset
Register
0x0
Configuration Register
Table 193. Configuration Register
31
13+8
12+8
13 12
SEC
12+8: 13
12:
10
10
9
8
7
MEMSIZE WB RB EN
6
0
TCB
Single error counter (SEC): Incremented each time a single error is corrected (includes errors on
checkbits). Each bit can be set to zero by writing a one to it. This feature is only available if the errcnten VHDL generic is set.
Log2 of the current memory size
9
Write Bypass (WB): When set, the TCB field is stored as check bits when a write is performed to the
memory.
8
Read Bypass (RB) : When set during a read or subword write, the check bits loaded from memory
are stored in the TCB field.
7
EDAC Enable (EB): When set, the EDAC is used otherwise it is bypassed during read and write
operations.
6: 0
Test Check Bits (TCB) : Used as checkbits when the WB bit is set during writes and loaded with the
check bits during a read operation when the RB bit is set.
Any unused most significant bits are reserved. Always read as ‘000...0’.
All fields except TCB are initialised at reset. The EDAC is initally disabled (EN = 0), which also applies to diagnostics fiels (RB and WB are zero).
When available, the single error counter (SEC) field is cleared to zero.
26.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x050. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
184
26.5
Configuration options
Table 194 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 194.Configuration options
26.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
Selects which AHB select signal (HSEL) will be used to
access the memory.
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
haddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR
0 to 16#FFF#
0
hmask
MASK field of the AHB BAR
0 to 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
tech
Memory technology
0 to NTECH
0
kbytes
SRAM size in kbytes
1 to targetdep.
1
pindex
Selects which APB select signal (PSEL) will be used to
access the memory configuration registers
0 to NAPBMAX-1
0
paddr
The 12-bit MSB APB address
0 to 16#FFF#
0
pmask
The APB address mask
0 to 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
edacen
Enable (1)/Disable (0) on-chip EDAC
0 to 1
0
autoscrub
Automatically store back corrected data with new check- 0 to 1
bits during a read when a single error is detected. Is
ignored when edacen is deasserted.
0
errcnten
Enables a single error counter
0 to 1
0
cntbits
number of bits in the single error counter
1 to 8
1
ahbpipe
Enable pipeline register on AHB input signals
0 to 1
0
Signal descriptions
Table 195 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 195.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
ARAMO
CE
Output
Single error detected
High
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
26.7
Library dependencies
Tabel 196 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 196.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Signals and component declaration
185
26.8
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
library gaisler;
use grlib.amba.all;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity ftram_ex is
port(
rst : std_ulogic;
clk : std_ulogic;
.... --others signals
);
end;
architecture rtl of ftram_ex is
--AMBA
signal
signal
signal
signal
signals
ahbsi :
ahbso :
apbi :
apbo :
ahb_slv_in_type;
ahb_slv_out_type;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_vector;
--other needed signals here
signal stati
: ahbstat_in_type;
signal aramo
: ahbram_out_type;
begin
--other component instantiations here
...
-- AHB Status Register
astat0 : ahbstat generic map(pindex => 13, paddr => 13, pirq => 11,
nftslv => 3)
port map(rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbso, stati, apbi, apbo(13));
stati.cerror(1 to NAHBSLV-1) <= (others => ‘0’);
--FT AHB RAM
a0 : ftahbram generic map(hindex => 1, haddr => 1, tech => inferred,
kbytes => 64, pindex => 4, paddr => 4, edacen => 1, autoscrub => 0,
errcnt => 1, cntbits => 4)
port map(rst, clk, ahbsi, ahbso(1), apbi, apbo(4), aramo);
stati.cerror(0) <= aramo.ce;
end architecture;
186
27
FTMCTRL - 8/16/32-bit Memory Controller with EDAC
27.1
Overview
The FTMCTRL combined 8/16/32-bit memory controller provides a bridge between external memory
and the AHB bus. The memory controller can handle four types of devices: PROM, asynchronous
static ram (SRAM), synchronous dynamic ram (SDRAM) and memory mapped I/O devices (IO). The
PROM, SRAM and SDRAM areas can be EDAC-protected using a (39,7) BCH code. The EDAC provides single-error correction and double-error detection for each 32-bit memory word.
The memory controller is configured through three configuration registers accessible via an APB bus
interface. The external data bus can be configured in 8-, 16-, or 32-bit mode, depending on application
requirements. The controller decodes three address spaces on the AHB bus (PROM, IO, and SRAM/
SDRAM). The addresses are determined through VHDL generics.
External chip-selects are provided for up to four PROM banks, one IO bank, five SRAM banks and
two SDRAM banks. Figure 65 below shows how the connection to the different device types is made.
APB
A
AHB
APB
ROMSN[3 :0]
OEN
WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
PROM
IOSN
CS
OE
WE
I/O
FTMCTRL
RAMSN[4:0]
RAMOEN[4:0]
RWEN[3:0]
MBEN[3:0]
AHB
SDCSN[1:0]
SDRASN
SDCASN
SDWEN
SDDQM[3:0]
CS
OE
WE
MBEN
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
SRAM
SDRAM
D
CB
A
D
CB
A
D
A
D
CB
A
D
CB
A[27:0]
D[31:0]
CB[7:0]
Figure 65. FTMCTRL connected to different types of memory devices
27.2
PROM access
Up to four PROM chip-select signals are provided for the PROM area, ROMSN[3:0]. There are two
modes: one with two chip-select signals and one with four. The size of the banks can be set in binary
steps from 16 kB to 256 MB.
A read access to PROM consists of two data cycles and between 0 and 30 waitstates. The read data
(and optional EDAC check-bits) are latched on the rising edge of the clock on the last data cycle. On
non-consecutive accesses, a lead-out cycle is added after a read cycle to prevent bus contention due to
slow turn-off time of PROM devices. Figure 66 shows the basic read cycle waveform (zero waitstate)
for non-consecutive PROM reads. Note that the address is undefined in the lead-out cycle. Figure 67
shows the timing for consecutive cycles (zero waitstate). Waitstates are added by extending the data2
phase. This is shown in figure 68 and applies to both consecutive and non-consecutive cycles. Only an
even number of waitstates can be assigned to the PROM area.
187
data1
data2
lead-out data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 66. Prom non-consecutive read cyclecs.
data1
data2
data1
data
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 67. Prom consecutive read cyclecs.
data1
data2
data2
data
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 68. Prom read access with two waitstates.
188
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
rwen
data
D1
cb
CB1
Figure 69. Prom write cycle (0-waitstates)
lead-in
data
data
data lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
rwen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 70. Prom write cycle (2-waitstates)
27.3
Memory mapped IO
Accesses to IO have similar timing as PROM accesses. The IO select (IOSN) and output enable
(OEN) signals are delayed one clock to provide stable address before IOSN is asserted. All accesses
are performed as non-consecutive accesses as shown in figure 71. The data2 phase is extended when
waitstates are added.
189
lead-in
data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
iosn
oen
data
D1
cb
CB1
Figure 71. I/O read cycle (0-waitstates)
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
iosn
writen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 72. I/O write cycle (0-waitstates)
27.4
SRAM access
The SRAM area is divided on up to five RAM banks. The size of banks 1-4 (RAMSN[3:0]) is programmed in the RAM bank-size field (MCFG2[12:9]) and can be set in binary steps from 8 Kbyte to
256 Mbyte. The fifth bank (RAMSN[4]) decodes the upper 512 Mbyte and cannot be used simultaneously with SDRAM memory. A read access to SRAM consists of two data cycles and between zero
and three waitstates. The read data (and optional EDAC check-bits) are latched on the rising edge of
the clock on the last data cycle. Accesses to RAMSN[4] can further be stretched by de-asserting
BRDYN until the data is available. On non-consecutive accesses, a lead-out cycle is added after a
190
read cycle to prevent bus contention due to slow turn-off time of memories. Figure 73 shows the basic
read cycle waveform (zero waitstate). Waitstates are added in the same way as for PROM in figure 68.
data1
data2
lead-out data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
ramsn
oen,
ramoen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 73. Sram non-consecutive read cyclecs.
For read accesses to RAMSN[4:0], a separate output enable signal (RAMOEN[n]) is provided for
each RAM bank and only asserted when that bank is selected. A write access is similar to the read
access but takes a minimum of three cycles. Waitstates are added in the same way as for PROM.
Each byte lane has an individual write strobe to allow efficient byte and half-word writes. If the memory uses a common write strobe for the full 16- or 32-bit data, the read-modify-write bit MCFG2
should be set to enable read-modify-write cycles for sub-word writes.
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
ramsn
rwen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 74. Sram write cycle (0-waitstates)
27.5
8-bit and 16-bit PROM and SRAM access
To support applications with low memory and performance requirements efficiently, the SRAM and
PROM areas can be individually configured for 8- or 16-bit operation by programming the ROM and
RAM width fields in the memory configuration registers. Since reads to memory are always done on
32-bit word basis, read access to 8-bit memory will be transformed in a burst of four read cycles while
access to 16-bit memory will generate a burst of two 16-bit reads. During writes, only the necessary
bytes will be written. Figure 75 shows an interface example with 8-bit PROM and 8-bit SRAM. Figure 76 shows an example of a 16-bit memory interface.
EDAC is not supported for 16-bit wide memories and therefore the EDAC enable bit corresponding to
a 16-bit wide area must not be set.
191
It is not allowed to set the ROM or RAM width fields to 8-bit width if ram8 is not set and also not to
16-bit width if ram16 is not set.
The RMW bit must not be set if RAM EDAC is not enabled when RAM width is set to 8-bit.
8-bit PROM
ROMSN[0]
OEN
WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
RAMSN[0]
RAMOEN[0]
RWEN[0]
A
D
A[25:0]
PROM
A
D
D[31:24]
8-bit RAM
CS
OE
RWE[0] WE
SRAM
A
D
A[25:0]
D[31:24]
A[27:0]
D[31:24]/
D[31:24]
Figure 75. 8-bit memory interface example
16-bit PROM
ROMSN[0]
OEN
WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
RAMSN[0]
RAMOEN[0]
RWEN[0:1]
A
D
A[26:1]
PROM
A
D
D[31:16]
16-bit RAM
CS
OE
RWE[1:0] WE
SRAM
A
D
A[26:1]
D[31:16]
A[27:0]
D[31:16]/
D[31:16]
Figure 76. 16-bit memory interface example
In 8-bit mode, the PROM/SRAM devices should be connected to the MSB byte of the data bus
(D[31:24]). The LSB address bus should be used for addressing (A[25:0]). In 16-bit mode, D[31:16]
should be used as data bus, and A[26:1] as address bus. EDAC protection is not available in 16-bit
mode.
27.6
8- and 16-bit I/O access
Similar to the PROM/SRAM areas, the IO area can also be configured to 8- or 16-bits mode. However, the I/O device will NOT be accessed by multiple 8/16 bits accesses as the memory areas, but
192
only with one single access just as in 32-bit mode. To access an IO device on an 8-bit bus, only byte
accesses should be used (LDUB/STB instructions for the CPU). To accesses an IO device on a 16-bit
bus, only halfword accesses should be used (LDUH/STH instructions for the CPU). To access the I/Oarea in 8- or 16-bit mode, ram8 or ram16 must be set respectively.
27.7
Burst cycles
To improve the bandwidth of the memory bus, accesses to consecutive addresses can be performed in
burst mode. Burst transfers will be generated when the memory controller is accessed using an AHB
burst request. These includes instruction cache-line fills, double loads and double stores. The timing
of a burst cycle is identical to the programmed basic cycle with the exception that during read cycles,
the lead-out cycle will only occurs after the last transfer. Burst cycles will not be generated to the IO
area.
Only word (HSIZE = “010”) bursts of incremental type (HBURST=INCR, INCR4, INCR8 or
INCR16) are supported.
27.8
SDRAM access
27.8.1 General
Synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) access is supported to two banks of PC100/PC133 compatible devices. This is implemented by a special version of the SDCTRL SDRAM controller core from
Gaisler Research, which is optionally instantiated as a sub-block. The SDRAM controller supports
64M, 256M and 512M devices with 8 - 12 column-address bits, and up to 13 row-address bits. The
size of the two banks can be programmed in binary steps between 4 Mbyte and 512 Mbyte. The operation of the SDRAM controller is controlled through MCFG2 and MCFG3 (see below). Both 32- and
64-bit data bus width is supported, allowing the interface of 64-bit DIMM modules. The memory controller can be configured to use either a shared or separate bus connecting the controller and SDRAM
devices.
27.8.2 Address mapping
The two SDRAM chip-select signals are decoded. SDRAM area is mapped into the upper half of the
RAM area defined by BAR2 register, and cannot be used simultaneously with fifth SRAM bank
(RAMSN[4]). When the SDRAM enable bit is set in MCFG2, the controller is enabled and mapped
into upper half of the RAM area as long as the SRAM disable bit is not set. If the SRAM disable bit is
set, all access to SRAM is disabled and the SDRAM banks are mapped into the lower half of the
RAM area.
27.8.3 Initialisation
When the SDRAM controller is enabled, it automatically performs the SDRAM initialisation
sequence of PRECHARGE, 8x AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG on both banks simultaneously. The controller programs the SDRAM to use single location access on write. The controller
programs the SDRAM to use line burst of length 8 when pageburst VHDL generic is 0. The controller
programs the SDRAM to use page burst when pageburst VHDL generic is 1. The controller programs
the SDRAM to use page burst or line burst of length 8, selectable via the MCFG2 register, when pageburst VHDL generic is 2.
27.8.4 Configurable SDRAM timing parameters
To provide optimum access cycles for different SDRAM devices (and at different frequencies), three
SDRAM parameters can be programmed through memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2): TCAS,
TRP and TRFCD. The value of these field affects the SDRAM timing as described in table 197.
193
Table 197.SDRAM programmable minimum timing parameters
SDRAM timing parameter
Minimum timing (clocks)
CAS latency, RAS/CAS delay (tCAS, tRCD)
TCAS + 2
Precharge to activate (tRP)
TRP + 2
Auto-refresh command period (tRFC)
TRFC + 3
Activate to precharge (tRAS)
TRFC + 1
Activate to Activate (tRC)
TRP + TRFC + 4
If the TCAS, TRP and TRFC are programmed such that the PC100/133 specifications are fulfilled,
the remaining SDRAM timing parameters will also be met. The table below shows typical settings for
100 and 133 MHz operation and the resulting SDRAM timing (in ns):
Table 198.SDRAM example programming
27.9
SDRAM settings
tCAS
tRC
tRP
tRFC
tRAS
100 MHz, CL=2; TRP=0, TCAS=0, TRFC=4
20
80
20
70
50
100 MHz, CL=3; TRP=0, TCAS=1, TRFC=4
30
80
20
70
50
133 MHz, CL=2; TRP=1, TCAS=0, TRFC=6
15
82
22
67
52
133 MHz, CL=3; TRP=1, TCAS=1, TRFC=6
22
82
22
67
52
Refresh
The SDRAM controller contains a refresh function that periodically issues an AUTO-REFRESH
command to both SDRAM banks. The period between the commands (in clock periods) is programmed in the refresh counter reload field in the MCFG3 register. Depending on SDRAM type, the
required period is typically 7.8 or 15.6 µs (corresponding to 780 or 1560 clocks at 100 MHz). The
generated refresh period is calculated as (reload value+1)/sysclk. The refresh function is enabled by
setting bit 31 in MCFG2.
27.9.1 SDRAM commands
The controller can issue three SDRAM commands by writing to the SDRAM command field in
MCFG2: PRE-CHARGE, AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG (LMR). If the LMR command
is issued, the CAS delay as programmed in MCFG2 will be used. Line burst of length 8 will be set for
read when pageburst VHDL generic is 0. Page burst will be set for read when pageburst VHDL
generic is 1. Page burst or line burst of length 8, selectable via the MCFG2 register will be set, when
pageburst VHDL generic is 2. Remaining fields are fixed: single location write, sequential burst. The
command field will be cleared after a command has been executed. When changing the value of the
CAS delay, a LOAD-MODE-REGISTER command should be generated at the same time. NOTE:
when issuing SDRAM commands, the SDRAM refresh must be disabled.
27.9.2 Read cycles
A read cycle is started by performing an ACTIVATE command to the desired bank and row, followed
by a READ command after the programmed CAS delay. A read burst is performed if a burst access
has been requested on the AHB bus. The read cycle is terminated with a PRE-CHARGE command,
no banks are left open between two accesses.
194
27.9.3 Write cycles
Write cycles are performed similarly to read cycles, with the difference that WRITE commands are
issued after activation. A write burst on the AHB bus will generate a burst of write commands without
idle cycles in-between.
27.9.4 Address bus
The memory controller can be configured to either share the address and data buses with the SRAM,
or to use separate address and data buses. When the buses are shared, the address bus of the SDRAMs
should be connected to A[14:2], the bank address to A[16:15]. The MSB part of A[14:2] can be left
unconnected if not used. When separate buses are used, the SDRAM address bus should be connected
to SA[12:0] and the bank address to SA[14:13].
27.9.5 Data bus
SDRAM can be connected to the memory controller through the common or separate data bus. If the
separate bus is used the width is configurable to 32 or 64 bits. 64-bit data bus allows the 64-bit
SDRAM devices to be connected using the full data capacity of the devices. 64-bit SDRAM devices
can be connected to 32-bit data bus if 64-bit data bus is not available but in this case only half the full
data capacity will be used. There is a drive signal vector and separate data vector available for
SDRAM. The drive vector has one drive signal for each data bit. These signals can be used to remove
timing problems with the output delay when a separate SDRAM bus is used.
27.9.6 Clocking
The SDRAM controller is designed for an external SDRAM clock that is in phase or slightly earlier
than the internal AHB clock. This provides the maximum margin for setup and hold on the external
signals, and allows highest possible frequency. For Xilinx and Altera device, the GRLIB Clock Generator (CLKGEN) can be configured to produce a properly synchronized SDRAM clock. For other
FPGA targets, the custom clock synchronization must be designed. For ASIC targets, the SDRAM
clock can be derived from the AHB clock with proper delay adjustments during place&route.
27.9.7 Initialisation
Each time the SDRAM is enabled (bit 14 in MCFG2), an SDRAM initialisation sequence will be sent
to both SDRAM banks. The sequence consists of one PRECHARGE, eight AUTO-REFRESH and
one LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER command.
27.10 Memory EDAC
The FTMCTRL is provided with an EDAC that can correct one error and detect two errors in a 32-bit
word. For each word, a 7-bit checksum is generated according to the equations below. A correctable
error will be handled transparently by the memory controller, but adding one waitstate to the access. If
an un-correctable error (double-error) is detected, the current AHB cycle will end with an error
response. The EDAC can be used during access to PROM, SRAM and SDRAM areas by setting the
corresponding EDAC enable bits in the MCFG3 register. The equations below show how the EDAC
checkbits are generated:
CB0
CB1
CB2
CB3
CB4
CB5
CB6
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
D0
D0
D0
D0
D2
D8
D0
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
D4
D1
D3
D1
D3
D9
D1
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
D6 ^ D7 ^
D2 ^ D4 ^
D4 ^ D7 ^
D5 ^ D6 ^
D4 ^ D5 ^
D10 ^ D11
D2 ^ D3 ^
D8 ^ D9 ^ D11 ^ D14 ^ D17 ^ D18 ^ D19 ^ D21 ^ D26 ^ D28 ^ D29 ^ D31
D6 ^ D8 ^ D10 ^ D12 ^ D16 ^ D17 ^ D18 ^ D20 ^ D22 ^ D24 ^ D26 ^ D28
D9 ^ D10 ^ D13 ^ D15 ^ D16 ^ D19 ^ D20 ^ D23 ^ D25 ^ D26 ^ D29 ^ D31
D7 ^ D11 ^ D12 ^ D13 ^ D16 ^ D17 ^ D21 ^ D22 ^ D23 ^ D27 ^ D28 ^ D29
D6 ^ D7 ^ D14 ^ D15 ^ D18 ^ D19 ^ D20 ^ D21 ^ D22 ^ D23 ^ D30 ^ D31
^ D12 ^ D13 ^ D14 ^ D15 ^ D24 ^ D25 ^ D26 ^ D27 ^ D28 ^ D29 ^ D30 ^ D31
D4 ^ D5 ^ D6 ^ D7 ^ D24 ^ D25 ^ D26 ^ D27 ^ D28 ^ D29 ^ D30 ^ D31
195
If the SRAM is configured in 8-bit mode, the EDAC checkbit bus (CB[7:0]) is not used but it is still
possible to use EDAC protection. Data is always accessed as words (4 bytes at a time) and the corresponding checkbits are located at the address acquired by inverting the word address (bits 2 to 27) and
using it as a byte address. The same chip-select is kept active. A word written as four bytes to
addresses 0, 1, 2, 3 will have its checkbits at address 0xFFFFFFF, addresses 4, 5, 6, 7 at 0xFFFFFFE
and so on. All the bits up to the maximum bank size will be inverted while the same chip-select is
always asserted. This way all the bank sizes can be supported and no memory will be unused (except
for a maximum of 4 byte in the gap between the data and checkbit area). A read access will automatically read the four data bytes individually from the nominal addresses and the EDAC checkbit byte
from the top part of the bank. A write cycle is performed the same way. Byte or half-word write
accesses will result in an automatic read-modify-write access where 4 data bytes and the checkbit byte
are firstly read, and then 4 data bytes and the newly calculated checkbit byte are writen back to the
memory. This 8-bit mode applies to SRAM while SDRAM always uses 32-bit accesses. The size of
the memory bank is determined from the settings in MCFG2. The EDAC cannot be used on memory
areas configured in 16-bit mode.
If the ROM is configured in 8-bit mode, EDAC protection is provided in a similar way as for the
SRAM memory described above. The difference is that write accesses are not being handled automatically. Instead, write accesses must only be performed as individual byte accesses by the software,
writing one byte at a time, and the corresponding checkbit byte must be calculated and be written to
the correct location by the software.
The operation of the EDAC can be tested trough the MCFG3 register. If the WB (write bypass) bit is
set, the value in the TCB field will replace the normal checkbits during memory write cycles. If the
RB (read bypass) is set, the memory checkbits of the loaded data will be stored in the TCB field during memory read cycles. NOTE: when the EDAC is enabled, the RMW bit in memory configuration
register 2 must be set.
EDAC is not supported for 64-bit wide SDRAM data busses.
27.11 Bus Ready signalling
The BRDYN signal can be used to stretch access cycles to the PROM, I/O area and the SRAM area
decoded by RAMSN[4]. The accesses will always have at least the pre-programmed number of waitstates as defined in memory configuration registers 1 & 2, but will be further stretched until BRDYN
is asserted. BRDYN should be asserted in the cycle preceding the last one. If bit 29 in MCFG1 is set,
BRDYN can be asserted asynchronously with the system clock. In this case, the read data must be
kept stable until the de-assertion of OEN/RAMOEN and BRDYN must be asserted for at least 1.5
clock cycle. The use of BRDYN can be enabled separately for the PROM, I/O and RAMSN[4] areas.
data1
data2
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn[4]
oen
data
D1
brdyn
Figure 77. READ cycle with one extra data2 cycle added with BRDYN (synchronous sampling). Lead-out cycle is only
applicable for I/O accesses.
196
Figure 78 shows the use of BRDYN with asynchronous sampling. BRDYN is kept asserted for more
than 1.5 clock-cycle. Two synchronization registers are used so it will take at least one additional
cycle from when BRDYN is first asserted until it is visible internally. In figure 78 one cycle is added
to the data2 phase.
data1
data2
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn[4]
oen
data
D1
brdyn
bexcn
Figure 78. BRDYN (asynchronous) sampling and BEXCN timing. Lead-out cycle is only applicable for I/O-accesses.
data1
data2
data2
ws
data2 lead-out
brdyn
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn[4]
oen
data
D1
brdyn
Figure 79. Read cycle with one waitstate (configured) and one BRDYN generated waitstate (synchronous sampling).
27.12 Access errors
An access error can be signalled by asserting the BEXCN signal, which is sampled together with the
data. If the usage of BEXCN is enabled in memory configuration register 1, an error response will be
generated on the internal AHB bus. BEXCN can be enabled or disabled through memory configuration register 1, and is active for all areas (PROM, IO and RAM). BEXCN is only sampled in the last
access for 8- and 16-bit mode for RAM and PROM. That is, when four bytes are written for a word
access to 8-bit wide memory BEXCN is only sampled in the last access with the same timing as a single access in 32-bit mode.
197
data1
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
oen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 80. Read cycle with BEXCN.
lead-in
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
rwen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 81. Write cycle with BEXCN. Chip-select (iosn) is not asserted in lead-in cycle for io-accesses.
27.13 Attaching an external DRAM controller
To attach an external DRAM controller, RAMSN[4] should be used since it allows the cycle time to
vary through the use of BRDYN. In this way, delays can be inserted as required for opening of banks
and refresh.
27.14 Output enable timing
A drive signal vector for the data I/O-pads is provided which has one drive signal for each data bit. It
can be used if the synthesis tool does not generate separate registers automatically for the current
technology. This can remove timing problems with output delay. An additional vector is used for the
separate SDRAM bus.
198
27.15 Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 199.FTMCTRL memory controller registers
APB Address offset
Register
0x0
Memory configuration register 1 (MCFG1)
0x4
Memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2)
0x8
Memory configuration register 3 (MCFG3)
27.15.1 Memory configuration register 1 (MCFG1)
Memory configuration register 1 is used to program the timing of rom and IO accesses.
Table 200. Memory configuration register 1.
31
30
29
PBRDY ABRDY
14
13
28
27
IOBUSW
12
RESERVED
11
PWEN
26
25
24
23
IBRDY BEXCN
10
9
20
IO WAITSTATES
8
PROM WIDTH
7
19
IOEN
4
PROM WRITE WS
18
17
ROMBANKSZ
3
0
PROM READ WS
31
RESERVED
30
PROM area bus ready enable (PBRDY) - Enables bus ready (BRDYN) signalling for the PROM
area. Reset to ‘0’.
29
Asynchronous bus ready (ABRDY) - Enables asynchronous bus ready.
28 : 27
I/O bus width (IOBUSW) - Sets the data width of the I/O area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “10” =32).
26
I/O bus ready enable (IBRDY) - Enables bus ready (BRDYN) signalling for the I/O area. Reset to
‘0’.
25
Bus error enable (BEXCN) - Enables bus error signalling. Reset to ‘0’.
24
RESERVED
23 : 20
I/O waitstates (IO WAITSTATES) - Sets the number of waitstates during I/O accesses (“0000”=0,
“0001”=1, “0010”=2,..., “1111”=15).
19
I/O enable (IOEN) - Enables accesses to the memory bus I/O area.
18
RESERVED
17: 14
PROM bank size (ROMBANKSZ) - Returns current PROM bank size when read. “0000” is a special case and corresponds to a bank size of 256 MB. All other values give the bank size in binary
steps: “0001”=16kB, “0010”=32kB, ... , “1111”=256 MB. For value “0000” or “1111” only two chip
selects are available. For other values, two chip select signals are available for fixed bank sizes. For
other values, four chip select signals are available for programmable bank sizes.
Programmable bank sizes can be changed by writing to this register field. The written values correspond to the bank sizes and number of chip-selects as above. Reset to “0000” when programmable.
Programmable ROMBANKSZ is only available when romasel VHDL generic is 0. For other values
this is a read-only register field containing the fixed bank size value.
13:12
RESERVED
11
PROM write enable (PWEN) - Enables write cycles to the PROM area.
10
RESERVED
9:8
PROM width (PROM WIDTH) - Sets the data width of the PROM area (“00”=8, “01”=16,
“10”=32).
7:4
PROM write waitstates (PROM WRITE WS) - Sets the number of wait states for PROM write
cycles (“0000”=0, “0001”=2, “0010”=4,..., “1111”=30).
3:0
PROM read waitstates (PROM READ WS) - Sets the number of wait states for PROM read cycles
(“0000”=0, “0001”=2, “0010”=4,...,”1111”=30). Reset to “1111”.
199
During reset, the prom width (bits [9:8]) are set with value on BWIDTH inputs. The prom waitstates
fields are set to 15 (maximum). External bus error and bus ready are disabled. All other fields are
undefined.
27.15.2 Memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2)
Memory configuration register 2 is used to control the timing of the SRAM and SDRAM.
Table 201. Memory configuration register 2.
31
30
SDRF
TRP
15
29
28
27
SDRAM TRFC
14
13
SE
SI
26
TCAS
12
25
9
RAM BANK SIZE
24
23
SDRAM BANKSZ
8
7
22
21
SDRAM COLSZ
6
RBRDY RMW
5
20
19
SDRAM CMD
4
RAM WIDTH
3
18
17
D64
SDPB
2
1
16
0
RAM WRITE WS RAM READ WS
31
SDRAM refresh (SDRF) - Enables SDRAM refresh.
30
SRAM TRP parameter (TRP) - tRP will be equal to 2 or 3 system clocks (0/1).
29 : 27
SDRAM TRFC parameter (SDRAM TRFC) - tRFC will be equal to 3+field-value system clocks.
26
SDRAM TCAS parameter (TCAS) - Selects 2 or 3 cycle CAS delay (0/1). When changed, a LOADCOMMAND-REGISTER command must be issued at the same time. Also sets RAS/CAS delay
(tRCD).
25 : 23
SDRAM bank size (SDRAM BANKSZ) - Sets the bank size for SDRAM chip selects (“000”=4
Mbyte, “001”=8 Mbyte, “010”=16 Mbyte.... “111”=512 Mbyte).
22 : 21
SDRAM column size (SDRAM COLSZ) - “00”=256, “01”=512, “10”=1024, “11”=4096 when bit
25:23=”111” 2048 otherwise.
20 : 19
SDRAM command (SDRAM CMD) - Writing a non-zero value will generate a SDRAM command.
“01”=PRECHARGE, “10”=AUTO-REFRESH, “11”=LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER. The field is
reset after the command has been executed.
18
64-bit SDRAM data bus (D64) - Reads ‘1’ if the memory controller is configured for 64-bit SDRAM
data bus width, ‘0’ otherwise. Read-only.
17
SDRAM Page Burst (SDPB) - SDRAM programmed for page bursts on read when set, else programmed for line burst lengths of 8 on read. Programmable when pageburst VHDL generic is 2, else
read-only.
16 : 15
RESERVED
14
SDRAM enable (SE) - Enables the SDRAM controller and disables fifth SRAM bank (RAMSN[4]).
13
SRAM disable (SI) - Disables accesses to SRAM bank if bit 14 (SE) is set to ‘1’.
12 : 9
RAM bank size (RAM BANK SIZE) - Sets the size of each RAM bank (“0000”=8 kbyte, “0001”=16
kbyte, ..., “1111”=256 Mbyte).
8
RESERVED
7
RAM bus ready enable (RBRDY) - Enables bus ready signalling for the RAM area.
6
Read-modify-write enable (RMW) - Enables read-modify-write cycles for sub-word writes to 16- bit
32-bit areas with common write strobe (no byte write strobe).
5:4
RAM width (RAM WIDTH) - Sets the data width of the RAM area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “1X”=32).
3:2
RAM write waitstates (RAM WRITE WS) - Sets the number of wait states for RAM write cycles
(“00”=0, “01”=1, “10”=2, “11”=3).
1:0
RAM read waitstates (RAM READ WS) - Sets the number of wait states for RAM read cycles
(“00”=0, “01”=1, “10”=2, “11”=3).
27.15.3 Memory configuration register 3 (MCFG3)
MCFG3 contains the reload value for the SDRAM refresh counter and to control and monitor the
memory EDAC. It also contains the configuration of the register file EDAC.
Table 202. Memory configuration register 3.
31
28
RESERVED
27
ME
26
SDRAM REFRESH COUNTER
200
Table 202. Memory configuration register 3.
12
11
10
9
8
WB
RB
RE
PE
7
0
TCB
31 : 28
RESERVED
27
Memory EDAC (ME) - Indicates if memory EDAC is present.
26 : 12
SDRAM refresh counter reload value (SDRAM REFRESH COUNTER)
11
EDAC diagnostic write bypass (WB) - Enables EDAC write bypass.
10
EDAC diagnostic read bypass (RB) - Enables EDAC read bypass.
9
RAM EDAC enable (RE) - Enable EDAC checking of the RAM area (including SDRAM).
8
PROM EDAC enable (PE) - Enable EDAC checking of the PROM area. Ar reset, this bit is initialized with the value of MEMI.EDAC.
7:0
Test checkbits (TCB) - This field replaces the normal checkbits during write cycles when WB is set.
It is also loaded with the memory checkbits during read cycles when RB is set.
The period between each AUTO-REFRESH command is calculated as follows:
tREFRESH = ((reload value) + 1) / SYSCLK
27.16 Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (GAISLER) and device identifier 0x05F. For description of vendor and device identifiers, see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
201
27.17 Configuration options
Table 203 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 203.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
romaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
Default PROM area is 0x0 - 0x1FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
rommask
MASK field of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#E00#
ioaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space.
Default I/O area is 0x20000000 - 0x2FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK field of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#E00#
ramaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR2 defining RAM address space.
Default RAM area is 0x40000000-0x7FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK field of the AHB BAR2 defining RAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#C00#
paddr
ADDR field of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK field of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
wprot
RAM write protection.
0-1
0
invclk
unused
N/A
0
fast
Enable fast SDRAM address decoding.
0-1
0
romasel
Sets the PROM bank size. 0 selects a programmable mode where
the rombanksz field in the MCFG1 register sets the bank size.
See the description of the MCFG1 register for more details.
0 - 28
28
Values 1 - 14 sets the size in binary steps (1 = 16 kB, 2 = 32 kB,
...., 14=128 MB). Four chip-selects are available for these values. 15 sets the bank size to 256 MB with two chip-selects.
Values 16 - 28 sets the bank size in binary steps (16 = 64 kB, 17
= 128 kB, 28 = 256 MB). Two chip-selects are available for this
range. The selected bank size is readable from the rombanksz
field in the MCFG1 register for the non-programmable modes.
sdrasel
log2(RAM address space size) - 1. E.g if size of the RAM
address space is 0x40000000 sdrasel is log2(2^30)-1= 29.
0 - 31
29
srbanks
Number of SRAM banks.
0-5
4
ram8
Enable 8-bit PROM, SRAM and I/O access.
0-1
0
ram16
Enable 16-bit PROM, SRAM and I/O access.
0-1
0
sden
Enable SDRAM controller.
0-1
0
sepbus
SDRAM is located on separate bus.
0-1
1
sdbits
32 or 64 -bit SDRAM data bus.
32, 64
32
oepol
Select polarity of drive signals for data pads. 0 = active low, 1 =
active high.
0-1
0
edac
Enable EDAC
0-1
0
sdlsb
Select least significant bit of the address bus that is connected to
SDRAM.
-
2
syncrst
Choose between synchronous and asynchronous reset for chipselect, oen and drive signals.
0-1
0
pageburst
Line burst read of length 8 when 0, page burst read when 1, programmable read burst type when 2.
0-2
0
202
27.18 Signal descriptions
Table 204 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 204.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
MEMI
DATA[31:0]
Input
Memory data
High
BRDYN
Input
Bus ready strobe
Low
BEXCN
Input
Bus exception
Low
CBI[7:0]
Input
EDAC checkbits
High
WRN[3:0]
Input
SRAM write enable feedback signal
Low
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
Sets the reset value of the PROM data bus width
field in the MCFG1 register
High
EDAC
Input
The reset value for the PROM EDAC enable bit
High
SD[31:0]
Input
SDRAM separate data bus
High
203
Table 204.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
MEMO
ADDRESS[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
CBO[7:0]
Output
EDAC Checkbit
DATA[31:0]
Output
Memory data
-
SDDATA[63:0]
Output
Sdram memory data
-
RAMSN[4:0]
Output
SRAM chip-select
Low
RAMOEN[4:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
IOSN
Output
Local I/O select
Low
ROMSN[3:0]
Output
PROM chip-select
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[3:0]
Output
SRAM write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
WRN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any WRN[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
MBEN[3:0]
Output
Byte enable:
Low
MBEN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
MBEN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
MBEN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
MBEN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any MBEN[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
BDRIVE[3:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus. Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low/High
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
BDRIVE[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any BDRIVE[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
VBDRIVE[31:0]
Output
Vectored I/O-pad drive signals.
Low/High
SVBDRIVE[63:0]
Output
Vectored I/O-pad drive signals for separate
sdram bus.
Low/High
READ
Output
Read strobe
High
SA[14:0]
Output
SDRAM separate address bus
High
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
WPROT
WPROTHIT
Input
Unused
-
204
Table 204.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
SDO
SDCASN
Output
SDRAM column address strobe
Low
SDCKE[1:0]
Output
SDRAM clock enable
High
SDCSN[1:0]
Output
SDRAM chip select
Low
SDDQM[7:0]
Output
SDRAM data mask:
Low
SDDQM[7] corresponds to SD[63:56],
SDDQM[6] corresponds to SD[55:48],
SDDQM[5] corresponds to SD[47:40],
SDDQM[4] corresponds to SD[39:32],
SDDQM[3] corresponds to SD[31:24],
SDDQM[2] corresponds to SD[23:16],
SDDQM[1] corresponds to SD[15:8],
SDDQM[0] corresponds to SD[7:0].
Any SDDQM[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
SDRASN
Output
SDRAM row address strobe
Low
SDWEN
Output
SDRAM write enable
Low
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
205
27.19 Signal definitions and reset values
The signals and their reset values are described in table 205.
Table 205.Signal definitions and reset values
Signal name
Type
Function
Active
Reset value
address[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
Undefined
data[31:0]
Input/Output
Memory data
High
Tri-state
cb[7:0]
Input/Output
Check bits
High
Tri-state
ramsn[4:0]
Output
SRAM chip select
Low
Logical 1
ramoen[4:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
Logical 1
rwen[3:0]
Output,
SRAM write enable:
Low
Logical 1
Low
Logical 1
rwen[0] corresponds to data[31:24],
rwen[1] corresponds to data[23:16],
rwen[2] corresponds to data[15:8],
rwen[3] corresponds to data[7:0].
Any rwen[ ] signal can be used for cb[ ].
ramben[3:0]
Output
SRAM byte enable:
ramben[0] corresponds to data[31:24],
ramben[1] corresponds to data[23:16],
ramben[2] corresponds to data[15:8],
ramben[3] corresponds to data[7:0].
Any ramben[ ] signal can be used for cb[ ].
oen
Output
Output enable
Low
Logical 1
writen
Output
Write strobe
Low
Logical 1
read
Output
Read strobe
High
Logical 1
iosn
Output
IO area chip select
Low
Logical 1
romsn[3:0]
Output
PROM chip select
Low
Logical 1
brdyn
Input
Bus ready. Extends accesses to the IO area.
Low
-
bexcn
Input
Bus exception.
Low
-
sa[15:0]
Output
SDRAM address
High
Undefined
sd[31:0]
Input/Output
SDRAM data
High
Tri-state
scb[15:0]
Input/Output
SDRAM check bits
High
Tri-state
sdcsn[1:0]
Output
SDRAM chip select
Low
Logical 1
sdwen
Output
SDRAM write enable
Low
Logical 1
sdrasn
Output
SDRAM row address strobe
Low
Logical 1
sdcasn
Output
SDRAM column address strobe
Low
Logical 1
sddqm[3:0]
Output
SDRAM data mask:
Low
Logical 1
sddqm[3] corresponds to sd[31:24],
sddqm[2] corresponds to sd[23:16],
sddqm[1] corresponds to sd[15:8],
sddqm[0] corresponds to sd[7:0].
Any sddqm[ ] signal can be used for scb[ ].
206
27.20 Timing
The timing waveforms and timing parameters are shown in figure 82 and are defined in table 206.
clk
tFTMCTRL0
address[]
tFTMCTRL1
tFTMCTRL1
ramsn[], romsn[]
tFTMCTRL2
tFTMCTRL2
rwen[], writen
tFTMCTRL3
data[], cb[]
(output)
tFTMCTRL5
clk
address[]
ramsn[], romsn[]
tFTMCTRL6
ramoen[]
ramben[], oen, read
tFTMCTRL6
tFTMCTRL7
tFTMCTRL8
data[], cb[]
(input)
tFTMCTRL9
brdyn, bexcn
Figure 82. Timing waveforms - SRAM, PROM accesses
tFTMCTRL10
207
clk
tFTMCTRL0
address[]
tFTMCTRL1
tFTMCTRL1
iosn[]
tFTMCTRL2
tFTMCTRL2
rwen[], writen
tFTMCTRL3
data[]
(output)
tFTMCTRL5
clk
address[]
iosn[]
tFTMCTRL6
tFTMCTRL6
oen, read
tFTMCTRL7
tFTMCTRL8
data[]
(input)
tFTMCTRL10
tFTMCTRL9
brdyn, bexcn
Figure 83. Timing waveforms - I/O accesses
Table 206.Timing parameters - SRAM, PROM and I/O accesses
Name
Parameter
Reference edge
Min
Max
Unit
tFTMCTRL0
address clock to output delay
rising clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL1
clock to output delay
rising clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL2
clock to data output delay
rising clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL3
clock to output delay
falling clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL4
clock to data non-tri-state delay
rising clk edge
0
15
ns
tFTMCTRL5
clock to data tri-state delay
rising clk edge
0
15
ns
tFTMCTRL6
clock to output delay
rising clk edge
0
15
ns
tFTMCTRL7
data input to clock setup
rising clk edge
7
-
ns
tFTMCTRL8
data input from clock hold
rising clk edge
1
-
ns
tFTMCTRL9
input to clock setup
rising clk edge
7
-
ns
tFTMCTRL10
input from clock hold
rising clk edge
1
-
ns
The timing waveforms and timing parameters are shown in figure 82 and are defined in table 206.
208
clk
tFTMCTRL11
sdcasn, sdrasn
sdwen, sdcsn[]
sddqm[]
write
read
nop
nop
term
nop
nop
nop
tFTMCTRL11
address[], sa[]
tFTMCTRL12
data[], cb[],
sd[], scb[]
nop
tFTMCTRL14
tFTMCTRL13
tFTMCTRL15
Figure 84. Timing waveforms - SDRAM accesses
Table 207.Timing parameters - SDRAM accesses
Name
Parameter
Reference edge
Min
Max
Unit
tFTMCTRL11
clock to output delay
rising clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL12
clock to data output delay
rising clk edge
0
10
ns
tFTMCTRL13
data clock to data tri-state delay
rising clk edge
0
15
ns
tFTMCTRL14
data input to clock setup
rising clk edge
7
-
ns
tFTMCTRL15
data input from clock hold
rising clk edge
1
-
ns
27.21 Library dependencies
Table 208 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 208.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals
Memory bus signals definitions
Components
FTMCTRL component
27.22 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined on the example designs port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock Generator and Reset Generator.
Memory controller decodes default memory areas: PROM area is 0x0 - 0x1FFFFFFF, I/O-area is
0x20000000-0x3FFFFFFF and RAM area is 0x40000000 - 0x7FFFFFFF. SDRAM controller is
enabled. SDRAM clock is synchronized with system clock by clock generator.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
entity mctrl_ex is
209
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
-- memory bus
address : out
std_logic_vector(27 downto 0); -- memory bus
data
: inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
ramsn
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
ramoen
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
rwen
: inout std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
romsn
: out
std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
iosn
: out
std_logic;
oen
: out
std_logic;
read
: out
std_logic;
writen
: inout std_logic;
brdyn
: in
std_logic;
bexcn
: in
std_logic;
-- sdram i/f
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0) -- optional sdram data
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal sdo : sdram_out_type;
signal wprot : wprot_out_type; -- dummy signal, not used
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic; -- system clock and reset
-- signals used by clock and reset generators
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
begin
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
-- Memory controller
ftmctrl0 : ftmctrl generic map (srbanks => 1, sden => 1, edac => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, memi, memo, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(0), wprot, sdo);
-- memory controller inputs not used in this configuration
memi.brdyn <= ’1’; memi.bexcn <= ’1’; memi.wrn <= "1111";
210
memi.sd <= sd;
-- prom width at reset
memi.bwidth <= "10";
-- I/O pads driving data memory bus data signals
datapads : for i in 0 to 3 generate
data_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
o => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
en => memo.bdrive(i),
i => memo.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8));
end generate;
-- connect memory controller outputs to entity output signals
address <= memo.address; ramsn <= memo.ramsn; romsn <= memo.romsn;
oen <= memo.oen; rwen <= memo.wrn; ramoen <= "1111" & memo.ramoen(0);
sa <= memo.sa;
writen <= memo.writen; read <= memo.read; iosn <= memo.iosn;
sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen; sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn;
sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn; sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
end;
211
28
FTSDCTRL - 32/64-bit PC133 SDRAM Controller with EDAC
28.1
Overview
The fault tolerant SDRAM memory interface handles PC133 SDRAM compatible memory devices
attached to a 32- or 64-bit wide data bus. The interface acts as a slave on the AHB bus where it occupies configurable amount of address space for SDRAM access. An optional Error Detection And
Correction Unit (EDAC) logic (only for the 32 - bit bus) corrects one bit error and detects two bit
errors.
The SDRAM controller function is programmed by means of register(s) mapped into AHB I/O
address space. Chip-select decoding is done for two SDRAM banks.
AHB
A
D
CB
FT SDRAM
CONTROLLER
SDO.SDCLK
SDO.SDCSN[1:0]
SDO.SDRASN
SDO.SDCASN
SDO.SDWEN
SDO.SDDQM[7:0]
SDO.SDCLK
A[16:15]
CLK
BA
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
CKE
SDRAM
A[14:2]
A
D
CB
SDO.ADDRESS[16:2]
SDI.D[63:0]/
SDO.D[31:0]
CB[6:0]
Figure 85. FT SDRAM memory controller connected to AMBA bus and SDRAM
28.2
Operation
28.2.1 General
Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM) access is supported to two banks of PC100/PC133 compatible devices. The controller supports 64, 256 and 512 Mbyte devices with 8 - 12 column-address bits,
up to 13 row-address bits, and 4 banks. The size of each of the two banks can be programmed in
binary steps between 4 Mbyte and 512 Mbyte. The operation of the SDRAM controller is controlled
through the configuration register SDCFG. A second register, ECFG, is available for configuring the
EDAC functions. SDRAM banks data bus width is configurable between 32 and 64 bits.
28.2.2 Initialisation
When the SDRAM controller is enabled, it automatically performs the SDRAM initialisation
sequence of PRECHARGE, 8x AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG on both banks simultaneously. The controller programs the SDRAM to use page burst on read and single location access on
write.
212
28.2.3 Configurable SDRAM timing parameters
To provide optimum access cycles for different SDRAM devices (and at different frequencies), some
SDRAM parameters can be programmed through SDRAM configuration register (SDCFG) The programmable SDRAM parameters can be seen in table below:
Table 209.SDRAM programmable timing parameters
Function
Parameter
range
unit
CAS latency, RAS/CAS delay
tCAS, tRCD
2-3
clocks
Precharge to activate
tRP
2-3
clocks
Auto-refresh command period
tRFC
3 - 11
clocks
10 - 32768
clocks
Auto-refresh interval
Remaining SDRAM timing parameters are according the PC100/PC133 specification.
28.2.4 Refresh
The SDRAM controller contains a refresh function that periodically issues an AUTO-REFRESH
command to both SDRAM banks. The period between the commands (in clock periods) is programmed in the refresh counter reload field in the SDCFG register. Depending on SDRAM type, the
required period is typically 7.8 or 15.6 µs (corresponding to 780 or 1560 clocks at 100 MHz). The
generated refresh period is calculated as (reload value+1)/sysclk. The refresh function is enabled by
setting bit 31 in SDCFG register.
28.2.5 SDRAM commands
The controller can issue three SDRAM commands by writing to the SDRAM command field in
SDCFG: PRE-CHARGE, AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG (LMR). If the LMR command
is issued, the CAS delay as programmed in SDCFG will be used, remaining fields are fixed: page read
burst, single location write, sequential burst. The command field will be cleared after a command has
been executed. Note that when changing the value of the CAS delay, a LOAD-MODE-REGISTER
command should be generated at the same time.
28.2.6 Read cycles
A read cycle is started by performing an ACTIVATE command to the desired bank and row, followed
by a READ command after the programmed CAS delay. A read burst is performed if a burst access
has been requested on the AHB bus. The read cycle is terminated with a PRE-CHARGE command,
no banks are left open between two accesses. Note that only word bursts are supported by the
SDRAM controller. The AHB bus supports bursts of different sizes such as bytes and halfwords but
they cannot be used.
28.2.7 Write cycles
Write cycles are performed similarly to read cycles, with the difference that WRITE commands are
issued after activation. A write burst on the AHB bus will generate a burst of write commands without
idle cycles in-between. As in the read case, only word bursts are supported.
28.2.8 Address bus connection
The SDRAM address bus should be connected to SA[12:0], the bank address to SA[14:13], and the
data bus to SD[31:0] or SD[63:0] if 64-bit data bus is used.
213
28.2.9 Data bus
Data bus width is configurable to 32 or 64 bits. 64-bit data bus allows the 64-bit SDRAM devices to
be connected using the full data capacity of the devices. 64-bit SDRAM devices can be connected to
32-bit data bus if 64-bit data bus is not available but in this case only half the full data capacity will be
used.
28.2.10 Clocking
The SDRAM clock typically requires special synchronisation at layout level. For Virtex targets, GR
Clock Generator can be configured to produce a properly synchronised SDRAM clock. For other
FPGA targets, the GR Clock Generator can produce an inverted clock.
28.2.11 EDAC
The controller optionally contains Error Detection And Correction (EDAC) logic, using a BCH(32, 7)
code. It is capable of correcting one bit error and detecting two bit errors. The EDAC logic does not
add any additional waitstates during normal operation. Detected errors will cause additional waitstates
for correction (single errors) or error reporting (multiple errors). Single errors are automatically corrected and generally not visible externally unless explicitly checked.
This checking is done by monitoring the ce signal and single error counter. This counter holds the
number of detected single errors. The ce signal is asserted one clock cycle when a single error is
detected and should be connected to the AHB status register. This module stores the AHB status of the
instruction causing the single error and generates interrupts (see the AHB status register documentation for more information).
The EDAC functionality can be enabled/disabled during run-time from the ECFG register (and the
logic can also be completely removed during synthesis with VHDL generics. The ECFG register also
contains control bits and checkbit fields for diagnostic reads. These diagnostic functions are used for
testing the EDAC functions on-chip and allows one to store arbitrary checkbits with each written
word. Checkbits read from memory can also be controlled.
64-bit bus support is not provided when EDAC is enabled. Thus, the sd64 and edacen VHDL generics
should never be set to one at the same time.
28.3
Registers
The memory controller is programmed through register(s) mapped into the AHB I/O space defined by
the controllers AHB BAR1.
If EDAC is enabled through the use of the edacen VHDL generic, an EDAC configuration register
will be available.
Table 210.FT SDRAM controller registers
AHB address offset
Register
0x0
SDRAM Configuration register
0x4
EDAC Configuration register
214
28.3.1 SDRAM configuration register (SDCFG)
SDRAM configuration register is used to control the timing of the SDRAM.
31 30 29 27 26 25
15 14
23 22 21 20 19
0
D64
SDRAM refresh reload value
SDRAM command
SDRAM Col. size
SDRAM Bank size
CAS delay, tRCD
tRFC
tRP
Refresh enable
Figure 86. SDRAM configuration register
[14:0]:
[15]:
[20:19]:
[22:21]:
[25:23]:
[26]:
[29:27]:
[30]:
[31]:
The period between each AUTO-REFRESH command - Calculated as follows:tREFRESH = ((reload value) + 1) /
SYSCLK
64-bit data bus (D64) - Reads ‘1’ if memory controller is configured for 64-bit data bus, otherwise ‘0’. Read-only.
SDRAM command. Writing a non-zero value will generate an SDRAM command: “01”=PRECHARGE,
“10”=AUTO-REFRESH, “11”=LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER. The field is reset after command has been
executed.
SDRAM column size. “00”=256, “01”=512, “10”=1024, “11”=4096 when bit[25:23]= “111”, 2048 otherwise.
SDRAM banks size. Defines the banks size for SDRAM chip selects: “000”=4 Mbyte, “001”=8 Mbyte, “010”=16
Mbyte .... “111”=512 Mbyte.
SDRAM CAS delay. Selects 2 or 3 cycle CAS delay (0/1). When changed, a LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER
command must be issued at the same time. Also sets RAS/CAS delay (tRCD).
SDRAM tRFC timing. tRFC will be equal to 3 + field-value system clocks.
SDRAM tRP timing. tRP will be equal to 2 or 3 system clocks (0/1).
SDRAM refresh. If set, the SDRAM refresh will be enabled.
28.3.2 EDAC Configuration register (ECFG)
The EDAC configuration register controls the EDAC functions of the SDRAM controller during run
time.
31
EAV
cntbits + 10
30
RESERVED
cnbits + 9
10
SEC
9
8
7
WB RB EN
6
0
TCB
Figure 87. EDAC configuration register
[6:0]
TCB : Test checkbits. These bits are written as checkbits into memory during a write operation when the WB bit in
the ECFG register is set. Checkbits read from memory during a read operation are written to this field when the RB
bit is set.
[7]
EN : EDAC enable. Run time enable/disable of the EDAC functions. If EDAC is disabled no error detection will
be done during reads and subword writes. Checkbits will still be written to memory during write operations.
[8]
RB : Read bypass. Store the checkbits read from memory during a read operation into the TCB field.
[9]
WB : Write bypass. Write the TCB field as checkbits into memory for all write operations.
[cntbits + 9:10] SEC : Single error counter. This field is available when the errcnt VHDL generic is set to one during synthesis.
It increments each time a single error is detected. It saturates when the maximum value is reached. The maximum
value is the largest number representable in the number of bits used, which in turn is determined by the cntbits
VHDL generic. Each bit in the counter can be reset by writing a one to it.
[30:cntbits + 10] Reserved.
[31]
EAV : EDAC available. This bit is always one if the SDRAM controller contains EDAC.
215
28.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The module has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x055. For a description of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
28.5
Configuration options
Table 211 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 211.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area.
Default is 0xF0000000 - 0xFFFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
hmask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address
space where SDCFG register is mapped.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
wprot
Write protection.
0-1
0
invclk
Inverted clock is used for the SDRAM.
0-1
0
fast
Enable fast SDRAM address decoding.
0-1
0
pwron
Enable SDRAM at power-on.
0-1
0
sdbits
32 or 64 -bit data bus width.
32, 64
32
edacen
EDAC enable. If set to one, EDAC logic will be included 0 - 1
in the synthesized design. An EDAC configuration register will also be available.
0
errcnt
Include an single error counter which is accessible from
the EDAC configuration register.
0-1
0
cntbits
Number of bits used in the single error counter
1-8
1
216
28.6
Signal descriptions
Table 212 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 212.Signals declarations
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
SDI
WPROT
Input
Not used
-
DATA[63:0]
Input
Data
-
CB[7:0]
Input
Checkbits
-
SDCKE[1:0]
Output
SDRAM clock enable
High
SDCSN[1:0]
Output
SDRAM chip select
Low
SDWEN
Output
SDRAM write enable
Low
RASN
Output
SDRAM row address strobe
Low
CASN
Output
SDRAM column address strobe
Low
DQM[7:0]
Output
SDRAM data mask:
Low
SDO
DQM[7] corresponds to DATA[63:56],
DQM[6] corresponds to DATA[55:48],
DQM[5] corresponds to DATA[47:40],
DQM[4] corresponds to DATA[39:32],
DQM[3] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
DQM[2] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
DQM[1] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
DQM[0] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any DQM[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
CE
BDRIVE
Output
Drive SDRAM data bus
Low
ADDRESS[16:2]
Output
SDRAM address
-
DATA[31:0]
Output
SDRAM data
-
CB[7:0]
Output
Checkbits
-
N/A
Output
Correctable Error
High
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
28.7
Library dependencies
Table 5 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 213.Library dependencies
28.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
217
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the FT SDRAM controller. The external SDRAM bus is defined in the example designs port
map and connected to the SDRAM controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock
Generator and Reset Generator. It is also shown how the correctable error (CE) signal is connected to
the ahb status register. It is not mandatory to connect this signal. In this example, 3 units can be connected to the status register.
The SDRAM controller decodes SDRAM area: 0x60000000 - 0x6FFFFFFF. SDRAM Configuration
and EDAC configuration registers are mapped into AHB I/O space on address (AHB I/O base address
+ 0x100).
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity mctrl_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
... -- other signals
-- sdram memory bus
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0); -- optional sdram data
cb
: inout std_logic_vector(7 downto 0) --EDAC checkbits
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect SDRAM controller and SDRAM memory bus
signal sdi
: sdctrl_in_type;
signal sdo
: sdctrl_out_type;
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic; -- system clock and reset
signal ce : std_logic_vector(0 to 2); --correctable error signal vector
-- signals used by clock and reset generators
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
begin
-- AMBA Components are defined here ...
218
...
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
rst0 : rstgen
port map (resetn, clkm, cgo.clklock, rstn);
-- AHB Status Register
astat0 : ahbstat generic map(pindex => 13, paddr => 13, pirq => 11,
nftslv => 3)
port map(rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbsi, ce, apbi, apbo(13));
-- SDRAM controller
sdc : ftsdctrl generic map (hindex => 3, haddr => 16#600#, hmask => 16#F00#,
ioaddr => 1, fast => 0, pwron => 1, invclk => 0, edacen => 1, errcnt => 1,
cntbits => 4)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(3), sdi, sdo, ce(0));
-- input signals
sdi.data(31 downto 0) <= sd(31 downto 0);
-- connect SDRAM controller outputs to entity output signals
sa <= sdo.address; sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen;
sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn; sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn;
sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
-- I/O pads driving data bus signals
sd_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 32)
port map (sd(31 downto 0), sdo.data, sdo.bdrive, sdi.data(31 downto 0));
-- I/O pads driving checkbit signals
cb_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (cb, sdo.cb, sdo.bdrive, sdi.cb);
end;
219
29
FTSRCTRL - Fault Tolerant 32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO Controller
29.1
Overview
The fault tolerant 32-bit PROM/SRAM memory interface uses a common 32-bit memory bus to interface PROM, SRAM and I/O devices. Support for 8-bit PROM banks can also be separately enabled.
In addition it also provides an Error Detection And Correction Unit (EDAC), correcting one and
detecting two errors. Configuration of the memory controller functions is performed through the APB
bus interface.
A
AHB
SRO.ROMSN
PROM
SRO.RAMSN
SRO.RAMOEN
SRO.RWEN[3:0]
CS
OE
WE
SRAM
SRO.IOSN
CS
OE
WE
IO
SRO.WRITEN
CB
A
CS
OE
WE
SRO.OEN
D
D
CB
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
A
D
CB
A
D
SRI.A[27:0]
SRI.D[31:0]
SRO.D[31:0]
CB[7:0]
AHB/APB
APB
Bridge
Figure 88. 32-bit FT PROM/SRAM/IO controller
29.2
Operation
The controller is configured through VHDL generics to decode three address ranges: PROM, SRAM
and I/O area. By default the PROM area is mapped into address range 0x0 - 0x00FFFFFF, the SRAM
area is mapped into address range 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFFF, and the I/O area is mapped to
0x20000000 - 0x20FFFFFF.
One chip select is decoded for the I/O area, while SRAM and PROM can have up to 8 chip select signals. The controller generates both a common write-enable signal (WRITEN) as well as four bytewrite enable signals (WREN). If the SRAM uses a common write enable signal the controller can be
configured to perform read-modify-write cycles for byte and half-word write accesses. Number of
waitstates is separately configurable for the three address ranges.
The EDAC function is optional, and can be enabled with the edacen VHDL generic. The configuration of the EDAC is done through a configuration register accessed from the APB bus. During nominal operation, the EDAC checksum is generated and checked automatically. Single errors are
corrected without generating any indication of this condition in the bus response. If a multiple error is
detected, a two cycle error response is given on the AHB bus.
220
Single errors can be monitored in two ways:
•
by monitoring the CE signal which is asserted for one cycle each time a single error is detected.
•
by checking the single error counter which is accessed from the MCFG3 configuration register.
The CE signal can be connected to the AHB status register which stores information of the AHB
instruction causing the error and also generates interrupts. See the AHB status register documentation
for more information. When EDAC is enabled, one extra latency cycle is generated during reads and
subword writes.
The EDAC function can be enabled for SRAM and PROM area accesses, but not for I/O area
accesses. For the SRAM area, the EDAC functionality is only supported for accessing 32-bit wide
SRAM banks. For the PROM area, the EDAC functionality is supported for accessing 32-bit wide
PROM banks, as well as for read accesses to 8-bit wide PROM banks.
29.2.1 8-bit PROM access
The FTSRCTRL controller can be configured to access an 8-bit wide PROM. The data bus of the
external PROM should be connected to the upper byte of the 32-bit data bus, i.e. D[31:24]. The 8-bit
mode is enabled with the prom8en VHDL generic. When enabled, read accesses to the PROM area
will be done in four-byte bursts for all 32-, 16- and 8-bit AMBA AHB accesses. The whole 32-bit
word is then output on the AHB data bus, allowing the master to chose the bytes needed (big-endian).
Writes should be done one byte at a time. For correct word aligned 32-bit word write accesses, the
byte should always be driven on bits 31 to 24 on the AHB data bus. For non-aligned 32-bit word write
accesses, the byte should be driven on the bits of the AHB data bus that correspond to the byte address
(big-endian). For correct half-word aligned 16-bit half-word write accesses, the byte should always be
driven on bits 31 to 24, or 15 to 8, on the AHB data bus. For non-aligned 16-bit half-word write
accesses, the byte should be driven on the bits of the AHB data bus that correspond to the byte address
(big-endian). For 8-bit word write accesses the byte should always be driven on the AHB data bus bits
that corresponds to the byte address (big-endian). To summarize, all legal AMBA AHB write accesses
are supported according to the AMBA standard, additional illegal accesses are supported as described
above, and it is always the addressed byte that is output.
It is possible to dynamically switch between 8- and 32-bit PROM mode by writing to the RBW field
of the MCFG1 register. The BWIDTH[1:0] input signal determines the reset value of this RBW register field. When RBW is “00” then 8-bit mode is selected. If RBW is “10” then 32-bit mode is selected.
Other RBW values are reserved for future use. SRAM access is not affected by the 8-bit PROM mode.
It is also possible to use the EDAC in the 8-bit PROM mode, configured by the edacen VHDL
generic, and enabled via the MCFG3 register. Read accesses to the 8-bit PROM area will be done in
five-byte bursts for all 32-, 16- and 8-bit AMBA AHB accesses. After a potential correction, the
whole 32-bit word is output on the AHB data bus, allowing the master to chose the bytes needed (bigendian). EDAC support is not provided for write accesses, they are instead performed in the same way
as without the EDAC enabled. The checksum byte must be written by the user into the correct byte
address location.
The fifth byte corresponds to the EDAC checksum and is located in the upper part of the effective
memory area, as explained in detail in the definition of the MCFG1 memory configuration register.
The EDAC checksums are located in the upper quarter of what is defined as available EDAC area by
means of the EBSZ field and the ROMBSZ field or rombanksz VHDL generic. When set to 0, the size
of the available EDAC area is defined as the PROM bank size. When set to 1, as twice the PROM
bank size. When set to 2, as four times the PROM bank size. And when set to 3, as eight times the
PROM bank size. For any other value than 0, the use of multiple PROM banks is required.
Example, if ROMBSZ=10 and EBSZ=1, the EDAC area is 8kB*2^ROMBSZ*2^EBSZ=
16MB=0x01000000. The checksum byte for the first word located at address 0x00000000 to
0x00000003 is located at 0x00C00000. The checksum byte for the second word located at address
221
0x00000004 to 0x00000007 is located at 0x00C00001, and so on. Since EBSZ=1, two PROM banks
are required for implementing the EDAC area, each bank with size 8MB=0x00800000.
29.2.2 Access errors
The active low Bus Exception signal (BEXCN) can be used to signal access errors. It is enabled by
setting the BEXCEN bit in MCFG1 and is active for all areas. The BEXCN signal is sampled on the
same cycle as read data is sampled. For writes it is sampled on the last rising edge before writen/rwen
is asserted (writen and rwen are clocked on the falling edge). When a bus exception is detected an
error response will be generated for the access.
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
oen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 89. Read cycle with BEXCN.
lead-in
data1
data2
data3 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
rwen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 90. Write cycle with BEXCN.
29.2.3 Using bus ready signalling
The Bus Ready (BRDYN) signal can be used to add waitstates to I/O-area accesses. It is enabled by
setting the Bus Ready Enable (BRDYEN) bit in the MCFG1 register. An access will have at least the
amount of waitstates set with the VHDL generic or through the register, but will be further stretched
until BRDYN is asserted. Additional waitstates can thus be inserted by de-asserting the BRDYN signal. BRDYN should be asserted in the cycle preceding the last one. Read accesses will have the same
222
timing as when EDAC is enabled while write accesses will have the timing as for single accesses even
if bursts are performed.
data
data
clk
address
A1
iosn
oen
data
D1
brdyn
Figure 91. READ cycle with one extra data cycle added with BRDYN.
29.3
PROM/SRAM/IO waveforms
The internal and external waveforms of the interface are presented in the figures hereafter.
data1
lead-out
data1 lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
ramsn
oen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
A1
A2
A3
10
10
00
hready
hrdata
D1
D2
Figure 92. PROM/SRAM non-consecutive read cyclecs.
223
data1
data1
data1
data1
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
A3
A4
romsn
ramsn
oen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
D1
D2
D3
D4
CB1
CB2
CB3
CB4
A3
A4
A1
A2
A5
00
11
10
hready
hrdata
D1
D2
D3
D4
Figure 93. 32-bit PROM/SRAM sequential read access with 0 wait-states and EDAC disabled.
data1
data2
lead-out data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
ramsn
oen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
A1
A2
A3
10
10
00
hready
hrdata
D1
D2
Figure 94. 32-bit PROM/SRAM non-sequential read access with 0 wait-states and EDAC enabled.
224
data1
data1
data1
data1
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
A3
A4
romsn
ramsn
oen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
D1
D2
D3
D4
CB1
CB2
CB3
CB4
A1
A3
A2
A5
A4
00
11
10
hready
hrdata
D1
D3
D2
D4
Figure 95. 32-bit PROM/SRAM sequential read access with 0 wait-states and EDAC enabled..
lead-in
data1
data2
lead-out lead-in
data1
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
ramsn
writen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
A1
A2
A3
10
10
00
hready
hwdata
D1
D2
Figure 96. 32-bit PROM/SRAM non-sequential write access with 0 wait-states and EDAC disabled.
225
lead-in
data1
data2
data1
data2
data1
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
A3
romsn
ramsn
writen
data
cb
haddr
htrans
A1
D1
D2
D3
CB1
CB2
CB3
A2
10
A3
A4
11
00
hready
hwdata
D1
D2
D3
Figure 97. 32-bit PROM/SRAM sequential write access with 0 wait-states and EDAC disabled.
If waitstates are configured through the VHDL generics or registers, one extra data cycle will be
inserted for each waitstate in both read and write cycles. The timing for write accesses is not affected
when EDAC is enabled while one extra latency cycle is introduced for single access reads and at the
beginning of read bursts.
226
clk
address
A1
romsn
ramsn
writen
oen
data
D1
cb
D1/M1
CM1
CB1
haddr
htrans
A1
A2
10
00
hready
hwdata
M1
Figure 98. 32-bit PROM/SRAM rmw access with 0 wait-states and EDAC disabled.
Read-Modify-Write (RMW) accesses will have an additional waitstate inserted to accommodate
decoding when EDAC is enabled.
I/O accesses are similar to PROM and SRAM accesses but a lead-in and lead-out cycle is always
present.
lead-in
data1
data2
data3 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
ramsn
writen
data
haddr
htrans
D1
A1
A2
10
00
hready
hwdata
D1
Figure 99. I/O write access with 0 wait-states.
227
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
ramsn
oen
data
D1
haddr
htrans
A1
A2
10
00
hready
hrdata
D1
Figure 100. I/O read access with 0 wait-states
29.4
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 214.FT
PROM/SRAM/IO controller registers
APB Address offset
Register
0x0
Memory configuration register 1
0x4
Memory configuration register 2
0x8
Memory configuration register 3
Table 215. Memory configuration register 1.
31
27 26 25 24 23
RESERVED
BR BE
20 19 18 17
IOWS
14 13 12 11 10
ROMBSZ
EBSZ RW
9
8
RBW
7
4
RESERVED
3
0
ROMWS
31: 27
RESERVED
26
Bus ready enable (BR) - Enables the bus ready signal (BRDYN).
25
Bus exception enable (BE) - Enables the bus exception signal (BEXCEN).
24
RESERVED
23: 20
I/O wait states (IOWS) - Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the I/O-area. Only available if
the wsreg VHDL generic is set to one.
19: 18
RESERVED
17: 14
ROM bank size (ROMBSZ) - Sets the PROM bank size. Only available if the rombanksz VHDL
generic is set to zero. Otherwise, the rombanksz VHDL generic sets the bank size and the value can
be read from this field. 0 = 8 kB, 1 = 16 kB, ..., 15=256 MB
13: 12
EDAC bank size (EBSZ) - Sets the EDAC bank size for 8-bit PROM support. Only available if the
rombanksz VHDL generic is zero, and edacen and prom8en VHDL generics are one. Otherwise, the
value is fixed to 0. The resulting EDAC bank size is 2^EBSZ * 2^ROMBSZ * 8kB. Note that only
the three lower quarters of the bank can be used for user data. The EDAC checksums are placed in
the upper quarter of the bank.
228
11
Table 215. Memory configuration register 1.
ROM write enable (RW) - Enables writes to the PROM memory area. When disabled, writes to the
PROM area will generate an ERROR response on the AHB bus.
10
RESERVED
9: 8
ROM data bus width (RBW) - Sets the PROM data bus width. “00” = 8-bit, “10” = 32-bit, others
reserved.
7: 4
RESERVED
3: 0
ROM waitstates (ROMWS) - Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the PROM area. Only
available if the wsreg generic is set to one.
Table 216. Memory configuration register 2.
31
13 12
RESERVED
9
8
7
RAMBSZ
6
RW
5
4
3
2
RESERVED
1
0
RAMW
31: 13
RESERVED
12: 9
RAM bank size (RAMBSZ) - Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the RAM area. Only
available if the banksz VHDL generic is set to zero. Otherwise, the banksz VHDL generic sets the
bank size and the value can be read from this field. 0 = 8 kB, 1 = 16 kB, ..., 15=256 MB
8: 7
RESERVED
6
Read-modify-write enable (RW) - Enables read-modify-write cycles for write accesses. Only available if the rmw VHDL generic is set to one.
5: 2
RESERVED
1: 0
RAM waitstates (RAMW) - Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the RAM area. Only available if the wsreg VHDL generic is set to one.
Table 217. Memory configuration register 3.
31
20 19
RESERVED
12 11 10
SEC
9
8
WB RB SE PE
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TCB
31: 20
RESERVED
19: 12
Single error counter.(SEC) - This field increments each time a single error is detected until the maximum value that can be stored in the field is reached. Each bit can be reset by writing a one to it.
11
Write bypass (WB) - Enables EDAC write bypass. When enabled the TCB field will be used as
checkbits in all write operations.
10
Read bypass (RB) - Enables EDAC read bypass. When enabled checkbits read from memory in all
read operations will be stored in the TCB field.
9
SRAM EDAC enable (SE) - Enables EDAC for the SRAM area.
8
PROM EDAC enable (PE) - Enables EDAC for the PROM area. Reset value is taken from the input
signal sri.edac.
7: 0
Test checkbits (TCB) - Used as checkbits in write operations when WB is activated and checkbits
from read operations are stored here when RB is activated.
All the fields in MCFG3 register are available if the edacen VHDL generic is set to one except SEC
field which also requires that the errcnt VHDL generic is set to one. The exact breakpoint between the
SEC and RESERVED field depends on the cntbits generic. The breakpoint is 11+cntbits. The values
shown in the table is for maximum cntbits value 8.
29.5
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x051. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
229
29.6
Configuration options
Table 214 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 218. Controller configuration options
29.7
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index.
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
romaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
Default PROM area is 0x0 - 0xFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
rommask
MASK field of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
Default RAM area is 0x40000000-0x40FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK field of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ioaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
Default RAM area is 0x20000000-0x20FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK field of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramws
Number of waitstates during access to SRAM area.
0 - 15
0
romws
Number of waitstates during access to PROM area.
0 - 15
2
iows
Number of waitstates during access to IO area.
0 - 15
2
rmw
Enable read-modify-write cycles.
0-1
0
srbanks
Set the number of RAM banks.
1-8
1
banksz
Set the size of bank 1 - 4. 1 = 16 kB, ... , 15 = 256 MB. If set to
zero, the bank size is set with the rambsz field in the MCFG2
register.
0 - 15
15
rombanks
Sets the number of PROM banks available.
1-8
1
rombanksz
Sets the size of one PROM bank. 1 = 16 kB, 2 = 32 kB, ..., 15 =
256 MB. If set to zero, the bank size is set with the rombsz field
in the MCFG1 register.
0 - 15
15
rombankszdef
Sets the reset value of the rombsz register field in MCFG1 if
available.
0 - 15
15
pindex
APB slave index.
1 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
APB address.
1 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
APB address mask.
1 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
edacen
EDAC enable. If set to one, EDAC logic is synthesized.
0-1
0
errcnt
If one, a single error counter is added.
0-1
0
cntbits
Number of bits in the single error counter.
1-8
1
wsreg
Enable programmable waitstate generation.
0-1
0
prom8en
Enable 8-bit PROM mode.
0-1
0
rmwold
Select between normal (0) and old (1) rmw behavior. With the
normal behavior, the write strobe (sro.wrn) decoding is skipped
(instead all write strobes are always active) only for accesses to
ram when rmw is enabled. With the old behavior the decoding is
skipped for accesses to all areas.
0-1
0
Signal descriptions
Table 219 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 219.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
230
Table 219.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
SRI
DATA[31:0]
Input
Memory data
High
BRDYN
Input
Bus ready strobe
Low
BEXCN
Input
Bus exception
Low
WRN[3:0]
Input
Not used
-
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
Sets the reset value of the PROM data bus width
field in the MCFG1 register
-
SD[31:0]
Input
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Input
Checkbits
-
PROMDATA[31:0]
Input
Not used
-
EDAC
Input
The reset value for the PROM EDAC enable bit
High
231
Table 219.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
SRO
ADDRESS[31:0]
Output
Memory address
High
DATA[31:0]
Output
Memory data
High
RAMSN[7:0]
Output
SRAM chip-select
Low
RAMOEN[7:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
IOSN
Output
IO area chip select
Low
ROMSN[7:0]
Output
PROM chip-select
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[3:0]
Output
SRAM write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
WRN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any WRN[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
MBEN[3:0]
Output
Byte enable:
MBEN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
MBEN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
MBEN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
MBEN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any MBEN[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
BDRIVE[3:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus.Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
BDRIVE[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any BDRIVE[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
READ
Output
Read strobe
High
RAMN
Output
Common SRAM Chip Select. Always asserted
when one of the 8 RAMSN signals is asserted.
Low
ROMN
Output
Common PROM Chip Select. Always asserted
when one of the 8 ROMSN signals is asserted.
Low
SA[14:0]
Output
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Output
Checkbits
-
PSEL
Output
Not used
-
CE
Output
Single error detected.
High
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
SDO
SDCASN
Output
Not used. All signals are drive to inactive state.
Low
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
232
29.8
Library dependencies
Table 220 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 220.Library dependencies
29.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component ftsrctrl
generic (
hindex
:
romaddr
:
rommask
:
ramaddr
:
rammask
:
ioaddr
:
iomask
:
ramws
:
romws
:
iows
:
rmw
:
srbanks
:
banksz
:
rombanks
:
rombanksz
:
rombankszdef :
pindex
:
paddr
:
pmask
:
edacen
:
errcnt
:
cntbits
:
wsreg
:
oepol
:
prom8en
:
);
port (
rst
:
clk
:
ahbsi
:
ahbso
:
apbi
:
apbo
:
sri
:
sro
:
sdo
:
);
end component;
is
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
in
in
in
out
in
out
in
out
out
:= 0;
:= 0;
:= 16#ff0#;
:= 16#400#;
:= 16#ff0#;
:= 16#200#;
:= 16#ff0#;
:= 0;
:= 2;
:= 2;
:= 0;
range 1 to 8 := 1;
range 0 to 15 := 15;
range 1 to 8 := 1;
range 0 to 15 := 15;
range 0 to 15 := 15;
:= 0;
:= 0;
:= 16#fff#;
range 0 to 1 := 1;
range 0 to 1 := 0;
range 1 to 8 := 1;
:= 0;
:= 0;
:= 0
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
ahb_slv_in_type;
ahb_slv_out_type;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_type;
memory_in_type;
memory_out_type;
sdctrl_out_type
29.10 Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined in the example design’s port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock Generator and Reset Generator. The CE signal of the memory controller is also connected to the AHB status register.
233
Memory controller decodes default memory areas: PROM area is 0x0 - 0xFFFFFF and RAM area is
0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFF.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity mctrl_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
-- memory bus
address : out
std_logic_vector(27 downto 0); -- memory bus
data
: inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
ramsn
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
ramoen
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
rwen
: inout std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
romsn
: out
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
iosn
: out
std_logic;
oen
: out
std_logic;
read
: out
std_logic;
writen
: inout std_logic;
brdyn
: in
std_logic;
bexcn
: in
std_logic;
-- sdram i/f
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0); -- optional sdram data
cb
: inout std_logic_vector(7 downto 0); --checkbits
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal sdo : sdctrl_out_type;
signal wprot : wprot_out_type; -- dummy signal, not used
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic; -- system clock and reset
-- signals used by clock and reset generators
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
234
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
signal stati : ahbstat_in_type; --correctable error vector
begin
-- AMBA Components are defined here ...
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
rst0 : rstgen
port map (resetn, clkm, cgo.clklock, rstn);
-- AHB Status Register
astat0 : ahbstat generic map(pindex => 13, paddr => 13, pirq => 11,
nftslv => 1)
port map(rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbsi, stati, apbi, apbo(13));
stati.cerror(0) <= memo.ce;
-- Memory controller
mctrl0 : ftsrctrl generic map (rmw => 1, pindex => 10, paddr => 10,
edacen => 1, errcnt => 1, cntbits => 4)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(10), memi, memo,
sdo);
-- I/O pads driving data memory bus data signals
datapads : for i in 0 to 3 generate
data_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
o => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
en => memo.bdrive(i),
i => memo.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8));
end generate;
--I/O pads driving checkbit signals
cb_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => cb,
o => memi.cb,
en => memo.bdrive(0),
i => memo.cb;
-- connect memory controller outputs to entity output signals
address <= memo.address; ramsn <= memo.ramsn; romsn <= memo.romsn;
oen <= memo.oen; rwen <= memo.wrn; ramoen <= memo.ramoen;
writen <= memo.writen; read <= memo.read; iosn <= memo.iosn;
sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen; sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn;
sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn; sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
end;
235
236
30
FTSRCTRL8 - 8-bit SRAM/16-bit IO Memory Controller with EDAC
30.1
Overview
The fault tolerant 8-bit SRAM/16-bit I/O memory interface uses a common 16-bit data bus to interface 8-bit SRAM and 16-bit I/O devices. It provides an Error Detection And Correction unit (EDAC),
correcting up to two errors and detecting up to four errors in a data byte. The EDAC eight checkbits
are stored in parallel with the 8-bit data in SRAM memory. Configuration of the memory controller
functions is performed through the APB bus interface.
A
AHB
SRO.RAMSN
SRO.OEN
SRO.WRITEN
D
A
CS
OE
WE
SRAM
CS
OE
WE
IO
D
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
SRO.IOSN
A
D
SRI.A[27:0]
SRI.D[15:0]
SRO.D[15:0]
AHB/APB
APB
Bridge
Figure 101. Block diagram
30.2
Operation
The controller is configured through VHDL generics to decode two address ranges: SRAM and I/O
area. By default the SRAM area is mapped into address range 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFFF, and the I/
O area is mapped to 0x20000000 - 0x20FFFFFF.
One chip select is decoded for the I/O area, while SRAM can have up to 8 chip select signals. The
controller generates a common write-enable signal (WRITEN) for both SRAM and I/O. Number of
waitstates is separately configurable for the two address ranges.
The EDAC function is optional, and can be enabled with the edacen VHDL generic. The configuration of the EDAC is done through a configuration register accessed from the APB bus. During nominal operation, the EDAC checksum is generated and checked automatically. The 8-bit input to the
EDAC function is split into two 4-bit nibbles. A modified hamming(8,4,4) coding featuring a single
error correction and double error detection is applied to each 4-bit nibble. This makes the EDAC
capable of correcting up to two errors and detecting up to four errors per 8-bit data. Single errors (correctable errors) are corrected without generating any indication of this condition in the bus response.
If a multiple error (uncorrectable errors) is detected, a two cycle error response is given on the AHB
bus.
Single errors can be monitored in two ways:
•
by monitoring the CE signal which is asserted for one cycle each time a corectable error is
detected.
•
by checking the single error counter which is accessed from the MCFG3 configuration register.
237
The CE signal can be connected to the AHB status register which stores information of the AHB
instruction causing the error and also generates interrupts. See the AHB status register documentation
for more information.
The EDAC function can only be enabled for SRAM area accesses. If an 16-bit or 32-bit bus access is
performed, the memory controller calculates the EDAC checksum for each byte read from the memory but the indication of single error is only signaled when the access is done. (i.e. if more then one
byte in an 32-bit access has an single error, only one error is indicated for the hole 32-bit access.)
30.2.1 Memory access
The memory controller supports 32/16/8-bit single accesses and 32-bit burst accesses to SRAM. An
32-bit or a 16-bit access is performed as multiple 8-bit accesses on the 16-bit memory bus, where data
is transferred on data lines 8 to 15 (Data[15:8]). The eight checkbits generated/used by the EDAC is
transferred on the eight first data lines (Data[7:0]). For 32-bit and 16-bit accesses, the bytes read from
the memory is arranged according to the big-endian order (i.e. for an 32-bit read access, the bytes read
from memory address A, A+1, A+2, and A+3 corresponds to the bit[31:24], bit[23:16], bit[15:8], and
bit[7:0] in the 32-bit word transferred to the AMBA bus.
30.2.2 I/O access
The memory controller accepts 32/16/8-bit single accesses to the I/O area, but the access generated
towards the I/O device is always 16-bit. The two least significant bits of the AMBA address (byte
address) determine which half word that should be transferred to the I/O device. (i.e. If the byte
address is 0 and it is an 32-bit access, bits 16 to 31 on the AHB bus is transferred on the 16-bit memory bus. If the byte address is 2 and it is an 16-bit access, bit 0 to 15 on the AHB bus is transferred on
the 16-bit memory bus.) If the access is an 8-bit access, the data is transferred on data lines 8 to 15
(Data[15:8]) on the memory bus. In case of a write, data lines 0 to 7 is also written to the I/O device
but these data lines does not transfer any valid data.
30.2.3 Using Bus Exception
The active low Bus Exception signal (BEXCN) can be used to signal access errors. It is enabled by
setting the BEXCEN bit in MCFG1 and is only active for the I/O area. The BEXCN signal is sampled
on the same cycle as data is written to memory or read data is sampled. When a bus exception is
detected an error response will be generated for the access. One additional latency cycle is added to
the AMBA access when Bus Exception is enable.
30.2.4 Using Bus Ready
The Bus Ready (BRDYN) signal can be used to add waitstates to I/O-area accesses. It is enabled by
setting the Bus Ready Enable (BRDYEN) bit in the MCFG1 register. An access will have at least the
amount of waitstates set with the VHDL generic or through the register, but will be further stretched
until BRDYN is asserted. Additional waitstates can thus be inserted by deasserting the BRDYN signal. BRDYN should be asserted in the cycle preceding the last one.
30.3
SRAM/IO waveforms
The internal and external waveforms of the interface are presented in the figures hereafter.
238
CLK
A
A
A+1
A+2
A+3
A+4
A+5
A+6
A+7
RAMSN
OEN
D
HADDR
HTRANS
B3
A
A+4
10
11
B2
B1
B0
B7
B6
B5
B4
A+8
00
HREADY
HRDATA
D[31:0]
D[31:0]
Figure 102. 32-bit SRAM sequential read accesses with 0
wait-states and EDAC enabled.
CLK
A
A
A+1
A+2
A+3
A+4
B2
B1
B0
D4
RAMSN
WRITEN
D
HADDR
HTRANS
B3
A
A+4
A+8
10
11
00
HREADY
HWDATA
D[31:0]
D[31:0]
Figure 103. 32-bit SRAM sequential writeaccess with 0
wait-states and EDAC enabled.
239
CLK
A
A
A+1
RAMSN
WRITEN
B3
D
B2
HADDR
A
A+1
A+2
HTRANS
10
10
00
HREADY
D[23:16]
D[31:24]
HWDATA
Figure 104. 8-bit SRAM non-sequential write access with 0
wait-states and EDAC enabled.
CLK
A
A
A+1
RAMSN
OEN
D
B3
B2
HADDR
A
A+1
A+2
HTRANS
10
10
00
HREADY
HRDATA
D[31:24]
Figure 105. 8-bit SRAM non-sequential read access with 0
wait-states and EDAC enabled.
On a read access, data is sampled one clock cycle before HREADY is asserted.
D[23:16]
240
CLK
A
A
RAMSN
WRITEN
H1
D
HADDR
A
A+1
HTRANS
10
00
HREADY
HWDATA
D[31:16]
Figure 106. 16-bit I/O non-sequential write access with 0
wait-states.
CLK
A
A+2
ROMSN
RAMSN
OEN
H0
D
HADDR
HTRANS
A+2
A+4
10
10
HREADY
HWDATA
D[15:0]
Figure 107. 16-bit I/O non-sequential read access with 0
wait-states.
I/O write accesses is extended with one extra latency cycle if bus exception is enabled.
If waitstates are configured through the VHDL generics or registers, one extra data cycle will be
inserted for each waitstate in both read and write cycles.
241
30.4
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 221.FT SRAM/IO controller registers
APB Address offset
Register
0x0
Memory configuration register 1
0x4
Memory configuration register 2
0x8
Memory configuration register 3
Table 222. MCFG1 register
31
27
RESERVED
26
25
BRDY
BEXC
24
23
20
19
0
IOWS
RESERVED
31 : 27
RESERVED
26
BRDYEN: Enables the BRDYN signal.
25
BEXCEN: Enables the BEXCN signal.
24
RESERVED
23 : 20
IOWS: Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the IO area. Only available if the wsreg VHDL
generic is set to one.
19 : 0
RESERVED
Table 223. MCFG2 register
31
13
RESERVED
12
9
8
2
RAMBSZ
1
RESERVED
0
RAMWS
31 : 12
RESERVED
12 : 9
RAMBSZ: Sets the SRAM bank size. Only available if the banksz VHDL generic is set to zero. Otherwise the banksz VHDL generic sets the bank size. 0 = 8 kB, 15 = 256 MB.
8:2
RESERVED
1:0
RAMWS: Sets the number of waitstates for accesses to the RAM area. Only available if the wsreg
VHDL generic is set to one.
Table 224. MCFG3 register
31
cnt + 13 cnt + 12
RESERVED
12
SEC
11
10
9
WB
RB
SEN
8
7
0
TCB
31 :
cnt+13
RESERVED
cnt+12
: 12
SEC. Single error counter. This field increments each time a single error is detected. It saturates at
the maximum value that can be stored in this field. Each bit can be reset by writing a one to it. cnt =
number of counter bits.
11
WB: Write bypass. If set, the TCB field will be used as checkbits in all write operations.
10
RB: Read bypass. If set, checkbits read from memory in all read operations will be stored in the TCB
field.
9
SEN: SRAM EDAC enable. If set, EDAC will be active for the SRAM area.
8
RESERVED
7:0
TCB: Used as checkbits in write operations when WB is one and checkbits from read operations are
stored here when RB is one.
242
All the fields in MCFG3 register are available if the edacen VHDL generic is set to one except SEC
field which also requires that the errcnt VHDL generic is set to one.
30.5
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x056. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
30.6
Configuration options
Table 221 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 225. Controller configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index.
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
ramaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
Default RAM area is 0x40000000-0x40FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK field of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ioaddr
ADDR field of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
Default RAM area is 0x20000000-0x20FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK field of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramws
Number of waitstates during access to SRAM area.
0 - 15
0
iows
Number of waitstates during access to IO area.
0 - 15
2
srbanks
Set the number of RAM banks.
1-8
1
banksz
Set the size of bank 1 - 4. 1 = 16 kB, ... , 15 = 256 MB. If set to
zero, the bank size is set with the rambsz field in the MCFG2
register.
0 - 15
15
pindex
APB slave index.
1 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
APB address.
1 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
APB address mask.
1 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
edacen
EDAC enable. If set to one, EDAC logic is synthesized.
0-1
0
errcnt
If one, a single error counter is added.
0-1
0
cntbits
Number of bits in the single error counter.
1-8
1
wsreg
Enable programmable waitstate generation.
0-1
0
243
30.7
Signal descriptions
244
Table 226 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 226.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
245
Table 226.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
SRI
DATA[15:0]
Input
Memory data:
High
[15:0] used for IO accesses
[7:0] used for checkbits for SRAM accesses
[15:8] use for data for SRAM accesses
SRO
BRDYN
Input
Bus ready strobe
Low
BEXCN
Input
Bus exception
Low
WRN[3:0]
Input
Not used
-
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
Not used
-
SD[31:0]
Input
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Input
Not used
-
PROMDATA[31:0]
Input
Not used
-
EDAC
Input
Not used
-
ADDRESS[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
DATA[15:0]
Output
Memory data:
High
[15:0] used for IO accesses
[7:0] used for checkbits for SRAM accesses
[15:8] use for data for SRAM accesses
RAMSN[7:0]
Output
SRAM chip-select
Low
RAMOEN[7:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
IOSN
Output
IO area chip select
Low
ROMSN[7:0]
Output
Not used
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[1:0]
Output
SRAM write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
BDRIVE[1:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus. Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
VBDRIVE[15:0]
Output
Vectored I/O-pad drive signal.
Low
READ
Output
Read strobe
High
RAMN
Output
Common SRAM Chip Select. Always asserted
when one of the 8 RAMSN signals is asserted.
Low
ROMN
Output
Not used
-
SA[14:0]
Output
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Output
Not used
-
PSEL
Output
Not used
-
CE
Output
Single error detected.
High
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
246
30.8
Library dependencies
Table 227 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 227.Library dependencies
30.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component ftsrctrl8 is
generic (
hindex
: integer := 0;
ramaddr
: integer := 16#400#;
rammask
: integer := 16#ff0#;
ioaddr
: integer := 16#200#;
iomask
: integer := 16#ff0#;
ramws
: integer := 0;
iows
: integer := 2;
srbanks
: integer range 1 to 8 := 1;
banksz
: integer range 0 to 15 := 15;
pindex
: integer := 0;
paddr
: integer := 0;
pmask
: integer := 16#fff#;
edacen
: integer range 0 to 1 := 1;
errcnt
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
cntbits
: integer range 1 to 8 := 1;
wsreg
: integer := 0;
oepol
: integer := 0
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbsi
: in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso
: out ahb_slv_out_type;
apbi
: in apb_slv_in_type;
apbo
: out apb_slv_out_type;
sri
: in memory_in_type;
sro
: out memory_out_type
);
end component;
30.10 Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined in the example design’s port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock Generator and Reset Generator. The CE signal of the memory controller is also connected to the AHB status register.
Memory controller decodes default memory areas: I/O area is 0x20000000 - 0x20FFFFFF and RAM
area is 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFF.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
247
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity ftsrctrl8_ex is
port (
resetn
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
address
data
ramsn
ramoen
rwen
oen
writen
read
iosn
brdyn
bexcn
);
end;
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
out std_logic_vector(27 downto 0);
inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0);
out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0);
out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0);
out std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic; -- Bus ready
in std_ulogic -- Bus exception
architecture rtl of ftsrctrl8_ex is
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
apbi
apbo
ahbsi
ahbso
ahbmi
ahbmo
:
:
:
:
:
:
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
ahb_slv_in_type;
ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
ahb_mst_in_type;
ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal clkm, rstn, rstraw : std_ulogic;
signal cgi
: clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo
: clkgen_out_type;
signal stati : ahbstat_in_type;
begin
-- clock and reset
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= rstraw; cgi.pllref
clk_pad : clkpad port map (clk, clkm);
rst0 : rstgen
-- reset generator
port map (resetn, clkm, ’1’, rstn, rstraw);
<= ’0’;
-- AHB controller
ahb0 : ahbctrl
-- AHB arbiter/multiplexer
generic map (rrobin => 1, ioaddr => 16#fff#, devid => 16#201#)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbmo, ahbsi, ahbso);
-- Memory controller
sr0 : ftsrctrl8 generic map (hindex => 0, pindex => 0, edacen => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(0), memi, memo);
brdyn_pad : inpad port map (brdyn, memi.brdyn);
bexcn_pad : inpad port map (bexcn, memi.bexcn);
addr_pad :
port map
rams_pad :
port map
oen_pad :
port map
rwen_pad :
port map
roen_pad :
port map
wri_pad :
outpadv generic map (width => 28 )
(address, memo.address(27 downto 0));
outpadv generic map (width => 4)
(ramsn, memo.ramsn(3 downto 0));
outpad
(oen, memo.oen);
outpadv generic map (width => 4)
(rwen, memo.wrn);
outpadv generic map (width => 4)
(ramoen, memo.ramoen(3 downto 0));
outpad
248
port map (writen, memo.writen);
read_pad : outpad
port map (read, memo.read);
iosn_pad : outpad
port map (iosn, memo.iosn);
data_pad : iopadvv generic map (width => 8) -- SRAM and I/O Data
port map (data(15 downto 8), memo.data(15 downto 8),
memo.vbdrive(15 downto 8), memi.data(15 downto 8));
cbdata_pad : iopadvv generic map (width => 8) -- SRAM checkbits and I/O Data
port map (data(7 downto 0), memo.data(7 downto 0),
memo.vbdrive(7 downto 0), memi.data(7 downto 0));
-- APB bridge and AHB stat
apb0 : apbctrl
-- AHB/APB bridge
generic map (hindex => 1, haddr => 16#800#)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(1), apbi, apbo );
stati.cerror(0) <= memo.ce;
ahbstat0 : ahbstat generic map (pindex => 15, paddr => 15, pirq => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbmi, ahbsi, stati, apbi, apbo(15));
end;
249
31
GPTIMER - General Purpose Timer Unit
31.1
Overview
The General Purpose Timer Unit provides a common prescaler and decrementing timer(s). Number of
timers is configurable through the ntimers VHDL generic in the range 1 to 7. Prescaler width is configured through the sbits VHDL generic. Timer width is configured through the tbits VHDL generic.
The timer unit acts a slave on AMBA APB bus. The unit implements one 16 bit prescaler and 3 decrementing 32 bit timer(s). The unit is capable of asserting interrupt on timer(s) underflow. Interrupt is
configurable to be common for the whole unit or separate for each timer.
timer 1 reload
timer 2 reload
prescaler reload
timer n reload
prescaler value
timer 1 value
pirq
timer 2 value
pirq+1
timer n value
pirq+2
-1
tick
-1
Figure 108. General Purpose Timer Unit block diagram
31.2
Operation
The prescaler is clocked by the system clock and decremented on each clock cycle. When the prescaler underflows, it is reloaded from the prescaler reload register and a timer tick is generated. Timers
share the decrementer to save area. On the next timer tick next timer is decremented giving effective
division rate equal to (prescaler reload register value + 1).
The operation of each timers is controlled through its control register. A timer is enabled by setting the
enable bit in the control register. The timer value is then decremented on each prescaler tick. When a
timer underflows, it will automatically be reloaded with the value of the corresponding timer reload
register if the restart bit in the control register is set, otherwise it will stop at -1 and reset the enable
bit.
The timer unit can be configured to generate common interrupt through a VHDL-generic. The shared
interrupt will be signalled when any of the timers with interrupt enable bit underflows. The timer unit
will signal an interrupt on appropriate line when a timer underflows (if the interrupt enable bit for the
current timer is set), when configured to signal interrupt for each timer. The interrupt pending bit in
the control register of the underflown timer will be set and remain set until cleared by writing ‘0’.
To minimize complexity, timers share the same decrementer. This means that the minimum allowed
prescaler division factor is ntimers+1 (reload register = ntimers) where ntimers is the number of
implemented timers, i.e. 3.
By setting the chain bit in the control register timer n can be chained with preceding timer n-1. Decrementing timer n will start when timer n-1 underflows.
Each timer can be reloaded with the value in its reload register at any time by writing a ‘one’ to the
load bit in the control register. The last timer acts as a watchdog, driving a watchdog output signal
when expired, when the wdog VHDL generic is set to a time-out value larger than 0.
250
31.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space. The number of implemented registers depend on number of implemented timers.
Table 228.General Purpose Timer Unit registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
Scaler value
0x04
Scaler reload value
0x08
Configuration register
0x0C
Unused
0x10
Timer 1 counter value register
0x14
Timer 1 reload value register
0x18
Timer 1 control register
0x1C
Unused
0xn0
Timer n counter value register
0xn4
Timer n reload value register
0xn8
Timer n control register
Table 229. Scaler value
31
16
16-1
0
“000..0”
16-1: 0
SCALER VALUE
Scaler value
Any unused most significant bits are reserved. Always reads as ‘000...0’.
Table 230. Scaler reload value
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
0
SCALER RELOAD VALUE
Scaler reload value
Any unused most significant bits are reserved. Always reada as ‘000...0’.
Table 231. General Purpose Timer Unit Configuration Register
31
10
“000..0”
9
8
DF SI
7
3
IRQ
2
0
TIMERS
31: 10
Reserved. Always reads as ‘000...0’.
9
Disable timer freeze (DF). If set the timer unit can not be freezed, otherwise signal GPTI.DHALT
freezes the timer unit.
8
Separate interrupts (SI). Reads ‘1’ if the timer unit generates separate interrupts for each timer, otherwise ‘0’. Read-only.
7: 3
APB Interrupt: If configured to use common interrupt all timers will drive APB interrupt nr. IRQ,
otherwise timer nwill drive APB Interrupt IRQ+n (has to be less the MAXIRQ). Read-only.
2: 0
Number of implemented timers. Read-only.
Table 232. Timer counter value register
32-1
0
TIMER COUNTER VALUE
251
32-1: 0
Table 232. Timer counter value register
Timer Counter value. Decremented by 1 for each n prescaler tick where n is number of implemented
timers.
Any unused most significant bits are reserved. Always reads as ‘000...0’.
Table 233. Timer reload value register
32-1
0
TIMER RELOAD VALUE
32-1: 0
Timer Reload value. This value is loaded into the timer counter value register when ‘1’ is written to
load bit in the timers control register or when the RS bit is set in the control register and the timer
underflows.
Any unused most significant bits are reserved. Always reads as ‘000...0’.
Table 234. General Purpose Timer Unit Configuration Register
31
7
“000..0”
31.4
6
5
4
DH CH IP
3
2
1
0
IE LD RS EN
31: 7
Reserved. Always reads as ‘000...0’.
6
Debug Halt (DH): Value of GPTI.DHALT signal which is used to freeze counters (e.g. when a system is in debug mode). Read-only.
5
Chain (CH): Chain with preceding timer. If set for timer n, decrementing timer n begins when timer
(n-1) underflows.
4
Interrupt Pending (IP): Sets when an interrupt is signalled. Remains ‘1’ until cleared by writing ‘0’
to this bit.
3
Interrupt Enable (IE): If set the timer signals interrupt when it underflows.
2
Load (LD): Load value from the timer reload register to the timer counter value register.
1
Restart (RS): If set, the timer counter value register is reloaded with the value of the reload register
when the timer underflows
0
Enable (EN): Enable the timer.
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x011. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
252
31.5
Configuration options
Table 235 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 235.Configuration options
31.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
Selects which APB select signal (PSEL) will be used to
access the timer unit
0 to NAPBMAX-1
0
paddr
The 12-bit MSB APB address
0 to 4095
0
pmask
The APB address mask
0 to 4095
4095
nbits
Defines the number of bits in the timers
1 to 32
32
ntimers
Defines the number of timers in the unit
1 to 7
1
pirq
Defines which APB interrupt the timers will generate
0 to MAXIRQ-1
0
sepirq
If set to 1, each timer will drive an individual interrupt
line, starting with interrupt irq. If set to 0, all timers will
drive the same interrupt line (irq).
0 to MAXIRQ-1
0
sbits
Defines the number of bits in the scaler
1 to 32
wdog
Watchdog reset value. When set to a non-zero value, the 0 to 2nbits - 1
last timer will be enabled and pre-loaded with this value
at reset. When the timer value reaches 0, the WDOG output is driven active.
(note: ntimers + irq must
be less than MAXIRQ)
16
0
Signal descriptions
Table 236 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 236.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
GPTI
GPTO
DHALT
Input
Freeze timers
High
EXTCLK
Input
Use as alternative clock
-
TICK[0:7]
Output
Timer ticks. TICK[0] is high for one clock each
time the scaler underflows. TICK[1-n] are high
for one clock each time the corrspondning timer
underflows.
High
WDOG
Output
Watchdog output. Equivalent to interrupt pending bit of last timer.
High
WDOGN
Output
Watchdog output Equivalent to interrupt pending
bit of last timer.
Low
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
253
31.7
Library dependencies
Table 237 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 237.Library dependencies
31.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Signals, component
Component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity gptimer_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
... -- other signals
);
end;
architecture rtl of gptimer_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
-- GP Timer Unit input signals
signal gpti : gptimer_in_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- General Purpose Timer Unit
timer0 : gptimer
generic map (pindex => 3, paddr => 3, pirq => 8, sepirq => 1)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(3), gpti, open);
gpti.dhalt <= ’0’; gpti.extclk <= ’0’; -- unused inputs
end;
254
32
GRAES - Advanced Encryption Standard
32.1
Overview
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric encryption algorithm for high throughput
application (like audio or video streams). The GRAES core implements the AES-128 algorithm, supporting the Electronic Codebook (ECB) method. The AES-128 algorithm is specified in the
“Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)” document, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
Publication 197. The document is established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST).
The core provides the following internal AMBA AHB slave interface, with sideband signals as per
[GRLIB] including:
•
interrupt bus
•
configuration information
•
diagnostic information
The core can be partition in the following hierarchical elements:
•
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) core
•
AMBA AHB slave
•
GRLIB plug&play wrapper
Note that the core can also be used without the GRLIB plug&play information.
32.2
Operation
The input and output for the AES algorithm each consist of sequences of 128 bits (digits with values
of 0 or 1). These sequences will sometimes be referred to as blocks and the number of bits they contain will be referred to as their length. The cipher key for the AES-128 algorithm is a sequence of 128
bits (can also be 192 or 256 bits for other algorithms).
To transfer a 128 bit key or data block four write operations are necessary since the bus interface is 32
bit wide. After supplying a “key will be input” command to the control register, the key is input via
four registers. After supplying a “data will be input” command to the control register, the input data is
written via four registers. After the last input data register is written, the encryption or decryption is
started. The progress can be observed via the debug register. When the operation is completed, an
interrupt is generated. The output data is then read out via four registers. Note that the above sequence
must be respected. It is not required to write a new key between each data input. There is no command
needed for reading out the result.
The implementation requires around 89 clock cycles for a 128 bit data block in encryption direction
and around 90 clock cycles for decryption direction. For decryption an initial key calculation is
required. This takes around 10 additional clock cycles per every new key. Typically large amounts of
data are decrypted (and also encrypted) with the same key. The key initialization for the decryption
round does not influence the throughput.
32.3
Background
The Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication Series of the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) is the official series of publications relating to standards and guidelines adopted and promulgated under the provisions of the Information Technology Management
Reform Act.
255
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) standard specifies the Rijndael algorithm, a symmetric
block cipher that can process data blocks of 128 bits, using cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and
256 bits. Rijndael was designed to handle additional block sizes and key lengths, however they are not
adopted in this standard.
32.4
AES-128 parameters
The GRAES core implements AES-128. An AES algorithm is defined by the following parameters
according to FIPS-197:
•
Nk
number of 32-bit words comprising the cipher key
•
Nr
number of rounds
The AES-128 algorithm is specified as Nk=4 and Nr=10.
The GRAES core has been verified against the complete set of Known Answer Test vectors included
in the AES Algorithm Validation Suite (AESAVS) from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Information Technology Laboratory, Computer Security Division.
32.5
Throughput
The data throughput for the GRAES core is around 128/90 bits per clock cycle, i.e. approximately 1.4
Mbits per MHz.
The underlaying AES core has been implemented in a dual crypto chip on 250 nm technology as
depicted in the figure below. The throughput at 33 MHz operating frequency was 42 Mbit/s, the
power consumption was 9,6 mW, and the size was 14,5 kgates.
Figure 109. Dual Crypto Chip
32.6
Characteristics
The GRAES core has been synthesized for a Xilinx Virtex-2 XC2V6000-4 devices with the following
results:
•
LUTs: 5040 (7%)
•
256x1 ROMs (ROM256X1): 128
256
•
32.7
Frequency:125 MHz
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into AHB I/O address space.
Table 238.GRAES registers
AHB I/O address offset
Register
16#000#
Control Register
16#010#
Data Input 0 Register
16#014#
Data Input 1 Register
16#018#
Data Input 2 Register
16#01C#
Data Input 3 Register
16#020#
Data Output 0 Register
16#024#
Data Output 1 Register
16#028#
Data Output 2 Register
16#02C#
Data Output 3 Register
16#03C#
Debug Register
32.7.1 Control Register (W)
Table 239.Control Register
31
2
-
31-2:
1:
0:
DEC
KEY
1
0
DE
C
KE
Y
Unused
0 = “encrypt”, 1 = “decrypt” (only relevant when KEY=1)
0 = “data will be input”, 1 = “key will be input”
Note that the Data Input Registers cannot be written before a command is given to the Control Register. Note that the Data Input Registers must then be written in sequence, and all four registers must be
written else the core ends up in an undefined state.
The KEY bit determines whether a key will be input (KEY=1), or data will be input (KEY=0). When
a “key will be input” command is written, the DEC bit determines whether decryption (DEC=1) or
encryption (DEC=0) should be applied to the subsequent data input.
Note that the register cannot be written after a command has been given, until the specific operation
completes. A write access will be terminated with an AMBA AHB error response till the Data Input
Register 3 has been written, and the with an AMBA AHB retry response till the operation completes.
Any read access to this register results in an AMBA AHB error response.
32.7.2 Debug Register (R)
Table 240.Debug Register
31
0
FSM
31-0:
FSM
Finite State Machine
Any write access to this register results in an AMBA AHB error response.
257
32.7.3 Data Input Registers (W)
Table 241.Data Input 0 Register
31
0
Data/Key(127 downto 96)
Table 242.Data Input 1 Register
31
0
Data/Key(95 downto 64)
Table 243.Data Input 2 Register
31
0
Data/Key(63 downto 32)
Table 244.Data Input 3 Register
31
0
Data/Key(31 downto 0)
Note that these registers can only be written with a key after a “key will be input” command has been
written to the control register. Note that the registers must then be written in sequence, and all four
registers must be written else the core ends up in an undefined state.
Note that these registers can only be written with data after a “data will be input” command has been
written to the control register, else an AMBA AHB error response is given. Note that the registers
must then be written in sequence and all four registers must be written else the core ends up in an
undefined state. The encryption or decryption operation is started when the Data Input 3 Register is
written to with data.
32.7.4 Data Output Registers (R)
Table 245.Data Output 0 Register
31
0
Data(127 downto 96)
Table 246.Data Output 1 Register
31
0
Data(95 downto 64)
Table 247.Data Output 2 Register
31
0
Data(63 downto 32)
Table 248.Data Output 3 Register
31
0
Data(31 downto 0)
Note that these registers can only be read after encryption or decryption has been completed. An
AMBA AHB response is given to read accesses that occur while the encryption or decryption is in
progress. If a read access is attempted before an encryption or decryption has even been initiated, then
258
an AMBA AHB erro response is given. Write accesses to these registers result in an AMBA AHB
error response.
32.8
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x073. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
32.9
Configuration options
Table 249 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 249.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
ioaddr
Addr field of the AHB I/O BAR
0 - 16#FFF#
0
iomask
Mask field of the AHB I/O BAR
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFC#
hirq
Interrupt line used by the GRAES
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
32.10 Signal descriptions
Table 250 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 250.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
DEBUG[0:4]
N/A
Output
Debug information
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
Note that the AES core can also be used without the GRLIB plug&play information. The AMBA
AHB signals are then provided as IEEE Std_Logic_1164 compatible scalars and vectors.
32.11 Library dependencies
Table 251 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 251.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
CRYPTO
Component
GRAES component declarations
32.12 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library
use
ieee;
ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
259
library
use
grlib;
grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use
gaisler.crypto.all;
...
...
signal debug: std_logic_vector(0 to 4);
..
..
GRAES0: graes
generic map (
hindex
=> hindex,
ioaddr
=> ioaddr,
iomask
=> iomask,
hirq
=> hirq)
port map (
rstn
=> rstn,
clk
=> clk,
ahbi
=> ahbsi,
ahbo
=> ahbso(hindex),
debug
=> debug);
260
33
GRECC - Elliptic Curve Cryptography
33.1
Overview
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is used as a public key mechanism. The computational burden
that is inhibited by ECC is less than the one of RSA. ECC provides the same level of security as RSA
but with a significantly shorter key length. ECC is well suited for application in mobile communication.
The GRECC core implements encryption and decryption for an elliptic curve based on 233-bit key
and point lengths. The implemented curve is denoted as sect233r1 or B-233.
The sect233r1 elliptic curve domain parameters are specified in the “Standards for Efficient Cryptography (SEC) - SEC2: Recommended Elliptic Curve Domain Parameters” document. The document is
established by the Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group (SECG).
The B-233 elliptic curve domain parameters are specified in the “Digital Signature Standard (DSS)”
document, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 186-2. The document is
established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
The GRECC can be used with algorithms such as:
•
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm DSA (ECDSA), which appears in FIPS 186-2, IEEE
1363-2000 and ISO/IEC 15946-2
•
Elliptic Curve El Gamal Method (key exchange protocol)
•
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) (key agreement protocol)
The core provides the following internal AMBA APB slave interface, with sideband signals as per
[GRLIB] including:
•
interrupt bus
•
configuration information
•
diagnostic information
The core can be partition in the following hierarchical elements:
•
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) core
•
AMBA APB slave
•
GRLIB plug&play wrapper
Note that the core can also be used without the GRLIB plug&play information.
33.2
Operation
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is an asymmetric cryptographic approach (also known as public
key cryptography) that applies different keys for encryption and decryption. The most expensive
operation during both encryption and decryption is the elliptic curve point multiplication. Hereby, a
point on the elliptic curve is multiplied with a long integer (k*P multiplication). The bit sizes of the
coordinates of the point P=(x, y) and the factor k have a length of hundreds of bits.
In this implementation the key and the point lengths are 233 bit, so that for every key there are 8 write
cycles necessary and for every point (consisting of x and y) there are 16 write cycles necessary. After
at least 16700 clock cycles the result can be read out.
261
The key is input via eight registers. The input point Pin=(x, y) is written via eight registers for x and
eight registers for y. After the last y input register is written, the encryption or decryption is started.
The progress can be observed via the status register. When the operation is completed, an interrupt is
generated. The output point Pout=(x, y) is then read out via eight registers for x and eight registers for
y.
33.3
Advantages
The main operation in ECC is the k*P multiplication. One k*P multiplication requires about 1500
field multiplications in the base field, which is the most expensive base operation. The complexity of
a field multiplication can be reduced by applying the Karatsuba method. Normally the Karatsuba
approach is applied recursively. The GRECC core includes an iterative implementation of the Karatsuba method which allows to realize area efficient hardware accelerators for the k*P multiplication.
Hardware accelerators which are realized applying an iterative approach need up to 60 per cent less
area and about 30 per cent less energy per multiplication than the recursive variants.
33.4
Background
The Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group (SECG) was initiated by Certicom Corporation to
address the difficulty vendors and users face when building and deploying interoperable security solutions. The SECG is a broad international coalition comprised of leading technology companies and
key industry players in the information security industry. One of the goals is to enable the effective
incorporation of Elliptic Curve Cryptographic (ECC) technology into these various cryptographic
solutions.
The Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group (SECG) has develop two sets of documents. The
first set, under the name SEC, specifies interoperable cryptographic technologies and solutions. The
second set, Guidelines for Efficient Cryptography (GEC), provides background information on elliptic curve cryptography and recommendations for ECC parameter and curve selection.
The Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Series of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is the official series of publications relating to standards and guidelines
adopted under the provisions of the Information Technology Management Reform Act.
This Digital Signature Standard (DSS) specifies a suite of algorithms which can be used to generate a
digital signature. Digital signatures are used to detect unauthorized modifications to data and to
authenticate the identity of the signatory. In addition, the recipient of signed data can use a digital signature in proving to a third party that the signature was in fact generated by the signatory. This is
known as nonrepudiation since the signatory cannot, at a later time, repudiate the signature.
33.5
233-bit elliptic curve domain parameters
The core implements the 233-bit elliptic curve domain parameters sect233r1, or the equivalent B-233,
which are verifiably random parameters. The following specification is established in “Standards for
Efficient Cryptography (SEC) - SEC 2: Recommended Elliptic Curve Domain Parameters”. The verifiably random elliptic curve domain parameters over F2m are specified by the septuple T = (m; f (x); a;
b; G; n; h) where m = 233 and the representation of F2233 is defined by:
f (x) = x233+x74 +1
The curve E: y2+xy = x3+ax2+b over F2m is defined by:
a = 0000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001
b = 0066 647EDE6C 332C7F8C 0923BB58 213B333B 20E9CE42 81FE115F 7D8F90AD
The base point G in compressed form is:
G = 0300FA C9DFCBAC 8313BB21 39F1BB75 5FEF65BC 391F8B36 F8F8EB73 71FD558B
and in uncompressed form is:
262
G = 04 00FAC9DF CBAC8313 BB2139F1 BB755FEF 65BC391F 8B36F8F8
EB7371FD 558B0100 6A08A419 03350678 E58528BE BF8A0BEF F867A7CA
36716F7E 01F81052
Finally the order n of G and the cofactor are:
n = 0100 00000000 00000000 00000000 0013E974 E72F8A69 22031D26 03CFE0D7
h = 02
33.6
Throughput
The data throughput for the GRECC core is around 233/16700 bits per clock cycle, i.e. approximately
13.9 kbits per MHz.
The underlaying EEC core has been implemented in a dual crypto chip on 250 nm technology as
depicted in the figure below. The throughput at 33 MHz operating frequency was 850 kbit/s, the
power consumption was 56,8 mW, and the size was 27,6 kgates.
Figure 110. Dual Crypto Chip
33.7
Characteristics
The GRECC core has been synthesized for a Xilinx Virtex-2 XC2V6000-4 devices with the following
results:
•
LUTs: 12850 (19%)
•
Frequency:93 MHz
263
33.8
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 252.GRECC registers
APB address offset
Register
16#020#
Key 0 Register
16#024#
Key 1 Register
16#028#
Key 2 Register
16#02C#
Key 3 Register
16#030#
Key 4 Register
16#034#
Key 5 Register
16#038#
Key 6 Register
16#03C#
Key 7 Register
16#040#
Point X Input 0 Register
16#044#
Point X Input 1 Register
16#048#
Point X Input 2 Register
16#04C#
Point X Input 3 Register
16#050#
Point X Input 4 Register
16#054#
Point X Input 5 Register
16#058#
Point X Input 6 Register
16#05C#
Point X Input 7 Register
16#060#
Point Y Input 0 Register
16#064#
Point Y Input 1 Register
16#068#
Point Y Input 2 Register
16#06C#
Point Y Input 3 Register
16#070#
Point Y Input 4 Register
16#074#
Point Y Input 5 Register
16#078#
Point Y Input 6 Register
16#07C#
Point Y Input 7 Register
16#0A0#
Point X Output 0 Register
16#0A4#
Point X Output 1 Register
16#0A8#
Point X Output 2 Register
16#0AC#
Point X Output 3 Register
16#0B0#
Point X Output 4 Register
16#0B4#
Point X Output 5 Register
16#0B8#
Point X Output 6 Register
16#0BC#
Point X Output 7 Register
16#0C0#
Point Y Output 0 Register
16#0C4#
Point Y Output 1 Register
16#0C8#
Point Y Output 2 Register
16#0CC#
Point Y Output 3 Register
16#0D0#
Point Y Output 4 Register
16#0D4#
Point Y Output 5 Register
16#0D8#
Point Y Output 6 Register
16#0DC#
Point Y Output 7 Register
16#0FC#
Status Register
264
33.8.1 Key 0 to 7 Registers (W)
Table 253.Key 0 Register (least significant)
31
0
KEY(31 downto 0)
Table 254.Key 1 Register
31
0
KEY(63 downto32)
Table 255.Key 2 Register
31
0
KEY(95 downto 64)
Table 256.Key 3 Register
31
0
KEY(127 downto 96)
Table 257.Key 4 Register
31
0
KEY(159 downto 128)
Table 258.Key 5 Register
31
0
KEY(191 downto 160)
Table 259.Key 6 Register
31
0
KEY(223 downto 192)
Table 260.Key 7 Register (most significant)
31
-
9
8
0
KEY(232 downto 224)
33.8.2 Point X Input 0 to 7 Registers (W)
Table 261.Point X Input 0 Register (least significant)
31
0
X(31 downto 0)
Table 262.Point X Input 1 Register
31
0
X(63 downto32)
Table 263.Point X Input 2 Register
31
X(95 downto 64)
0
265
Table 264.Point X Input 3 Register
31
0
X(127 downto 96)
Table 265.Point X Input 4 Register
31
0
X(159 downto 128)
Table 266.Point X Input 5 Register
31
0
X(191 downto 160)
Table 267.Point X Input 6 Register
31
0
X(223 downto 192)
Table 268.Point X Input 7 Register (most significant)
31
-
9
8
X(232 downto 224)
0
266
33.8.3 Point Y Input 0 to 7 Registers (W)
Table 269.Point Y Input 0 Register (least significant)
31
0
Y(31 downto 0)
Table 270.Point Y Input 1 Register
31
0
Y(63 downto32)
Table 271.Point Y Input 2 Register
31
0
Y(95 downto 64)
Table 272.Point Y Input 3 Register
31
0
Y(127 downto 96)
Table 273.Point Y Input 4 Register
31
0
Y(159 downto 128)
Table 274.Point Y Input 5 Register
31
0
Y(191 downto 160)
Table 275.Point Y Input 6 Register
31
0
Y(223 downto 192)
Table 276.Point Y Input 7 Register (most significant)
31
-
9
8
0
Y(232 downto 224)
The encryption or decryption operation is started when the Point Y Input 7 Register is written.
267
33.8.4 Point X Output 0 to 7 Registers (R)
Table 277.Point X Output 0 Register (least significant)
31
0
X(31 downto 0)
Table 278.Point X Output 1 Register
31
0
X(63 downto32)
Table 279.Point X Output 2 Register
31
0
X(95 downto 64)
Table 280.Point X Output 3 Register
31
0
X(127 downto 96)
Table 281.Point X Output 4 Register
31
0
X(159 downto 128)
Table 282.Point X Output 5 Register
31
0
X(191 downto 160)
Table 283.Point X Output 6 Register
31
0
X(223 downto 192)
Table 284.Point X Output 7 Register (most significant)
31
-
9
8
X(232 downto 224)
0
268
33.8.5 Point Y Output 0 to 7 Registers (R)
Table 285.Point Y Output 0 Register (least significant)
31
0
Y(31 downto 0)
Table 286.Point Y Output 1 Register
31
0
Y(63 downto32)
Table 287.Point Y Output 2 Register
31
0
Y(95 downto 64)
Table 288.Point Y Output 3 Register
31
0
Y(127 downto 96)
Table 289.Point Y Output 4 Register
31
0
Y(159 downto 128)
Table 290.Point Y Output 5 Register
31
0
Y(191 downto 160)
Table 291.Point Y Output 6 Register
31
0
Y(223 downto 192)
Table 292.Point Y Output 7 Register (most significant)
31
9
-
8
0
Y(232 downto 224)
33.8.6 Status Register (R)
Table 293.Status Register
31
1
.
31-1:
0:
33.9
0
FS
M
FSM
Unused
0 when ongoing, 1 when idle or ready
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x074. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
269
33.10 Configuration options
Table 294 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 294.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
Addr field of the APB BAR
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
Mask field of the APB BAR
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFC#
pirq
Interrupt line used by the GRECC
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
33.11 Signal descriptions
Table 295 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 295.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
DEBUG[10:0]
N/A
Output
Debug information
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
Note that the ECC core can also be used without the GRLIB plug&play information. The AMBA
APB signals are then provided as IEEE Std_Logic_1164 compatible scalars and vectors.
33.12 Library dependencies
Table 296 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 296.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
CRYPTO
Component
GRECC component declarations
33.13 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library
use
ieee;
ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library
use
grlib;
grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use
gaisler.crypto.all;
...
...
signal debug: std_logic_vector(10 downto 0);
..
270
..
grecc0: grecc
generic map (
pindex
paddr
pmask
pirq
port map (
rstn
clk
apbi
apbo
debug
=>
=>
=>
=>
pindex,
paddr,
pmask,
pirq)
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
rstn,
clk,
apbi,
apbo(pindex),
debug);
271
34
GRETH - Ethernet Media Access Controller (MAC) with EDCL support
34.1
Overview
Gaisler Research’s Ethernet Media Access Controller (GRETH) provides an interface between an
AMBA-AHB bus and an Ethernet network. It supports 10/100 Mbit speed in both full- and halfduplex. The AMBA interface consists of an APB interface for configuration and control and an AHB
master interface which handles the dataflow. The dataflow is handled through DMA channels. There
is one DMA engine for the transmitter and one for the receiver. Both share the same AHB master
interface. The ethernet interface supports both the MII and RMII interfaces which should be connected to an external PHY. The GRETH also provides access to the MII Management interface which
is used to configure the PHY.
Optional hardware support for the Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL) protocol is also provided. This is an UDP/IP based protocol used for remote debugging.
APB
AHB
Ethernet MAC
MDIO_OE
MDIO_O
Registers
MDIO
MDIO_I
MDC
Transmitter
DMA Engine
AHB Master
Interface
FIFO
Transmitter
EDCL
Transmitter
EDCL
Receiver
Receiver
DMA Engine
Receiver
FIFO
TX_EN
TX_ER
TXD(3:0)
TX_CLK
RX_CRS
RX_COL
RX_DV
RX_ER
RXD(3:0)
RX_CLK
Figure 111. Block diagram of the internal structure of the GRETH.
34.2
Operation
34.2.1 System overview
The GRETH consists 3 functional units: The DMA channels, MDIO interface and the optional Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL).
The main functionality consists of the DMA channels which are used to transfer data between an
AHB bus and an Ethernet network. There is one transmitter DMA channel and one Receiver DMA
channel. The operation of the DMA channels is controlled through registers accessible through the
APB interface.
The MDIO interface is used for accessing configuration and status registers in one or more PHYs connected to the MAC. The operation of this interface is also controlled through the APB interface.
The optional EDCL provides read and write access to an AHB bus through Ethernet. It uses the UDP,
IP, ARP protocols together with a custom application layer protocol to accomplish this. The EDCL
contains no user accessible registers and always runs in parallel with the DMA channels.
272
The Media Independent Interface (MII) is used for communicating with the PHY. There is an Ethernet
transmitter which sends all data from the AHB domain on the Ethernet using the MII interface. Correspondingly, there is an Ethernet receiver which stores all data from the Ethernet on the AHB bus. Both
of these interfaces use FIFOs when transferring the data streams. The GRETH also supports the RMII
which uses a subset of the MII signals.
The EDCL and the DMA channels share the Ethernet receiver and transmitter.
34.2.2 Protocol support
The GRETH is implemented according to IEEE standard 802.3-2002. There is no support for the
optional control sublayer and no multicast addresses can be assigned to the MAC. This means that
packets with type 0x8808 (the only currently defined ctrl packets) are discarded.
34.2.3 Clocking
GRETH has three clock domains: The AHB clock, Ethernet receiver clock and the Ethernet transmitter clock. The ethernet transmitter and receiver clocks are generated by the external ethernet PHY, and
are inputs to the core through the MII interface. The three clock domains are unrelated to each other
and all signals crossing the clock regions are fully synchronozed inside the core.
Both full-duplex and half-duplex operating modes are supported and both can be run in either 10 or
100 Mbit. The minimum AHB clock for 10 Mbit operation is 2.5 MHz, while 18 MHz is needed for
100 Mbit. Using a lower AHB clock than specified will lead to excessive packet loss.
34.3
Tx DMA interface
The transmitter DMA interface is used for transmitting data on an Ethernet network. The transmission
is done using descriptors located in memory.
34.3.1 Setting up a descriptor.
A single descriptor is shown in figure 112. The number of bytes to be sent should be set in the length
field and the address field should point to the data. The address must be word-aligned. If the interrupt
enable (IE) bit is set, an interrupt will be generated when the packet has been sent (this requires that
the transmitter interrupt bit in the control register is also set). The interrupt will be generated regardless of whether the packet was transmitted successfully or not. The Wrap (WR) bit is also a control bit
that should be set before transmission and it will be explained later in this section.
273
31
15
0x0
RESERVED
14
13
AL UE IE
12
11
WR EN
0
10
LENGTH
31
2 1
0x4
ADDRESS
0
RESERVED
10 - 0: LENGTH - The number of bytes to be transmitted.
11: Enable (EN) - Set to one to enable the descriptor. Should always be set last of all the descriptor fields.
12: Wrap (WR) - Set to one to make the descriptor pointer wrap to zero after this descriptor has been
used. If this bit is not set the pointer will increment by 8. The pointer automatically wraps to
zero when the 1 kB boundary of the descriptor table is reached.
13: Interrupt Enable (IE) - Enable Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated when the packet from this
descriptor has been sent provided that the transmitter interrupt enable bit in the control register
is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was transmitted successfully or if it
terminated with an error.
14: Underrun Error (UE) - The packet was incorrectly transmitted due to a FIFO underrun error.
15: Attempt Limit Error (AL) - The packet was not transmitted because the maximum number of
attempts was reached.
31 - 2: Address - Pointer to the buffer area from where the packet data will be loaded.
Figure 112. Transmitter descriptor. Memory offsets are shown in the left margin.
To enable a descriptor the enable (EN) bit should be set and after this is done, the descriptor should
not be touched until the enable bit has been cleared by the GRETH.
34.3.2 Starting transmissions
Enabling a descriptor is not enough to start a transmission. A pointer to the memory area holding the
descriptors must first be set in the GRETH. This is done in the transmitter descriptor pointer register.
The address must be aligned to a 1 kB boundary. Bits 31 to 10 hold the base address of descriptor area
while bits 9 to 3 form a pointer to an individual descriptor.The first descriptor should be located at the
base address and when it has been used by the GRETH the pointer field is incremented by 8 to point at
the next descriptor. The pointer will automatically wrap back to zero when the next 1 kB boundary has
been reached (the descriptor at address offset 0x3F8 has been used). The WR bit in the descriptors can
be set to make the pointer wrap back to zero before the 1 kB boundary.
The pointer field has also been made writable for maximum flexibility but care should be taken when
writing to the descriptor pointer register. It should never be touched when a transmission is active.
The final step to activate the transmission is to set the transmit enable bit in the control register. This
tells the GRETH that there are more active descriptors in the descriptor table. This bit should always
be set when new descriptors are enabled, even if transmissions are already active. The descriptors
must always be enabled before the transmit enable bit is set.
34.3.3 Descriptor handling after transmission
When a transmission of a packet has finished, status is written to the first word in the corresponding
descriptor. The Underrun Error bit is set if the FIFO became empty before the packet was completely
transmitted while the Alignment Error bit is set if more collisions occurred than allowed. The packet
was successfully transmitted only if both of these bits are zero. The other bits in the first descriptor
word are set to zero after transmission while the second word is left untouched.
The enable bit should be used as the indicator when a descriptor can be used again, which is when it
has been cleared by the GRETH. There are three bits in the GRETH status register that hold transmission status. The Transmitter Error (TE) bit is set each time an transmission ended with an error (when
at least one of the two status bits in the transmit descriptor has been set). The Transmitter Interrupt
(TI) is set each time a transmission ended successfully.
274
The transmitter AHB error (TA) bit is set when an AHB error was encountered either when reading a
descriptor or when reading packet data. Any active transmissions were aborted and the transmitter
was disabled. The transmitter can be activated again by setting the transmit enable register.
34.3.4 Setting up the data for transmission
The data to be transmitted should be placed beginning at the address pointed by the descriptor address
field. The GRETH does not add the Ethernet address and type fields so they must also be stored in the
data buffer. The 4 B Ethernet CRC is automatically appended at the end of each packet. Each descriptor will be sent as a single Ethernet packet. If the size field in a descriptor is greater than 1514 B, the
packet will not be sent.
34.4
Rx DMA interface
The receiver DMA interface is used for receiving data from an Ethernet network. The reception is
done using descriptors located in memory.
34.4.1 Setting up descriptors
A single descriptor is shown in figure 113. The address field should point to a word-aligned buffer
where the received data should be stored. The GRETH will never store more than 1514 B to the
buffer. If the interrupt enable (IE) bit is set, an interrupt will be generated when a packet has been
received to this buffer (this requires that the receiver interrupt bit in the control register is also set).
The interrupt will be generated regardless of whether the packet was received successfully or not. The
Wrap (WR) bit is also a control bit that should be set before the descriptor is enabled and it will be
explained later in this section.
31
0x0
17 16
RESERVED
15
14 13
OE CE FT AE IE
12
11
WR EN
0
10
LENGTH
31
2 1
0x4
ADDRESS
0
RESERVED
10 - 0: LENGTH - The number of bytes received to this descriptor.
11: Enable (EN) - Set to one to enable the descriptor. Should always be set last of all the descriptor fields.
12: Wrap (WR) - Set to one to make the descriptor pointer wrap to zero after this descriptor has been
used. If this bit is not set the pointer will increment by 8. The pointer automatically wraps to
zero when the 1 kB boundary of the descriptor table is reached.
13: Interrupt Enable (IE) - Enable Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated when a packet has been
received to this descriptor provided that the receiver interrupt enable bit in the control register
is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was received successfully or if it
terminated with an error.
14: Alignment error (AE) - An odd number of nibbles were received.
15: Frame Too Long (FT) - A frame larger than the maximum size was received. The excessive part was
truncated.
16: CRC Error (CE) - A CRC error was detected in this frame.
17: Overrum Error (OE) - The frame was incorrectly received due to a FIFO overrun.
31 - 2: Address - Pointer to the buffer area from where the packet data will be loaded.
Figure 113. Receive descriptor. Memory offsets are shown in the left margin.
34.4.2 Starting reception
Enabling a descriptor is not enough to start reception. A pointer to the memory area holding the
descriptors must first be set in the GRETH. This is done in the receiver descriptor pointer register. The
address must be aligned to a 1 kB boundary. Bits 31 to 10 hold the base address of descriptor area
while bits 9 to 3 form a pointer to an individual descriptor. The first descriptor should be located at the
275
base address and when it has been used by the GRETH the pointer field is incremented by 8 to point at
the next descriptor. The pointer will automatically wrap back to zero when the next 1 kB boundary has
been reached (the descriptor at address offset 0x3F8 has been used). The WR bit in the descriptors can
be set to make the pointer wrap back to zero before the 1 kB boundary.
The pointer field has also been made writable for maximum flexibility but care should be taken when
writing to the descriptor pointer register. It should never be touched when reception is active.
The final step to activate reception is to set the receiver enable bit in the control register. This will
make the GRETH read the first descriptor and wait for an incoming packet.
34.4.3 Descriptor handling after reception
The GRETH indicates a completed reception by clearing the descriptor enable bit. The other control
bits (WR, IE) are also cleared. The number of received bytes is shown in the length field. The parts of
the Ethernet frame stored are the destination address, source address, type and data fields. Bits 17-14
in the first descriptor word are status bits indicating different receive errors. All four bits are zero after
a reception without errors. The status bits are described in figure 113.
Packets arriving that are smaller than the minimum Ethernet size of 64 B are not considered as a
reception and are discarded. The current receive descriptor will be left untouched an used for the first
packet arriving with an accepted size. The TS bit in the status register is set each time this event
occurs.
If a packet is received with an address not accepted by the MAC, the IA status register bit will be set.
Packets larger than maximum size cause the FT bit in the receive descriptor to be set. The length field
is not guaranteed to hold the correct value of received bytes. The counting stops after the word containing the last byte up to the maximum size limit has been written to memory.
The address word of the descriptor is never touched by the GRETH.
34.4.4 Reception with AHB errors
If an AHB error occurs during a descriptor read or data store, the Receiver AHB Error (RA) bit in the
status register will be set and the receiver is disabled. The current reception is aborted. The receiver
can be enabled again by setting the Receive Enable bit in the control register.
34.5
MDIO Interface
The MDIO interface provides access to PHY configuration and status registers through a two-wire
interface which is included in the MII interface. The GRETH provided full support for the MDIO
interface. If it is not needed in a design it can be removed with a VHDL generic.
The MDIO interface can be used to access from 1 to 32 PHY containing 1 to 32 16-bit registers. A
read transfer i set up by writing the PHY and register addresses to the MDIO Control register and setting the read bit. This caused the Busy bit to be set and the operation is finished when the Busy bit is
cleared. If the operation was successful the Linkfail bit is zero and the data field contains the read
data. An unsuccessful operation is indicated by the Linkfail bit being set. The data field is undefined
in this case.
A write operation is started by writing the 16-bit data, PHY address and register address to the MDIO
Control register and setting the write bit. The operation is finished when the busy bit is cleared and it
was successful if the Linkfail bit is zero.
34.6
Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL)
The EDCL provides access to an on-chip AHB bus through Ethernet. It uses the UDP, IP and ARP
protocols together with a custom application layer protocol. The application layer protocol uses an
ARQ algorithm to provide reliable AHB instruction transfers. Through this link, a read or write trans-
276
fer can be generated to any address on the AHB bus. The EDCL is optional and must be enabled with
a generic.
34.6.1 Operation
The EDCL receives packets in parallel with the MAC receive DMA channel. It uses a separate MAC
address which is used for distinguishing EDCL packets from packets destined to the MAC DMA
channel. The EDCL also has an IP address which is set through generics. Since ARP packets use the
Ethernet broadcast address, the IP-address must be used in this case to distinguish between EDCL
ARP packets and those that should go to the DMA-channel. Packets that are determined to be EDCL
packets are not processed by the receive DMA channel.
When the packets are checked to be correct, the AHB operation is performed. The operation is performed with the same AHB master interface that the DMA-engines use. The replies are automatically
sent by the EDCL transmitter when the operation is finished. It shares the Ethernet transmitter with
the transmitter DMA-engine but has higher priority.
34.6.2 EDCL protocols
The EDCL accepts Ethernet frames containing IP or ARP data. ARP is handled according to the protocol specification with no exceptions.
IP packets carry the actual AHB commands. The EDCL expects an Ethernet frame containing IP,
UDP and the EDCL specific application layer parts. Table 297 shows the IP packet required by the
EDCL. The contents of the different protocol headers can be found in TCP/IP literature.
Table 297.The IP packet expected by the EDCL.
Ethernet
IP
UDP
2B
4B
4B
Data 0 - 242
Ethernet
Header
Header
Header
Offset
Control word
Address
4B Words
CRC
The following is required for successful communication with the EDCL: A correct destination MAC
address as set by the generics, an Ethernet type field containing 0x0806 (ARP) or 0x0800 (IP). The
IP-address is then compared with the value determined by the generics for a match. The IP-header
checksum and identification fields are not checked. There are a few restrictions on the IP-header
fields. The version must be four and the header size must be 5 B (no options). The protocol field must
always be 0x11 indicating a UDP packet. The length and checksum are the only IP fields changed for
the reply.
The EDCL only provides one service at the moment and it is therefore not required to check the UDP
port number. The reply will have the original source port number in both the source and destination
fields. UDP checksum are not used and the checksum field is set to zero in the replies.
The UDP data field contains the EDCL application protocol fields. Table 298 shows the application
protocol fields (data field excluded) in packets received by the EDCL. The 16-bit offset is used to
align the rest of the application layer data to word boundaries in memory and can thus be set to any
value. The R/W field determines whether a read (0) or a write(1) should be performed. The length
Table 298.The EDCL application layer fields in received frames.
16-bit Offset
14-bit Sequence number
1-bit R/W
10-bit Length
7-bit Unused
field contains the number of bytes to be read or written. If R/W is one the data field shown in table
297 contains the data to be written. If R/W is zero the data field is empty in the received packets.
Table 299 shows the application layer fields of the replies from the EDCL. The length field is always
zero for replies to write requests. For read requests it contains the number of bytes of data contained in
the data field.
277
Table 299.The EDCL application layer fields in transmitted frames.
16-bit Offset
14-bit sequence number
1-bit ACK/NAK
10-bit Length
7-bit Unused
The EDCL implements a Go-Back-N algorithm providing reliable transfers. The 14-bit sequence
number in received packets are checked against an internal counter for a match. If they do not match,
no operation is performed and the ACK/NAK field is set to 1 in the reply frame. The reply frame contains the internal counter value in the sequence number field. If the sequence number matches, the
operation is performed, the internal counter is incremented, the internal counter value is stored in the
sequence number field and the ACK/NAK field is set to 0 in the reply. The length field is always set to
0 for ACK/NAK=1 frames. The unused field is not checked and is copied to the reply. It can thus be
set to hold for example some extra identifier bits if needed.
34.7
Media Independent Interfaces
There are several interfaces defined between the MAC sublayer and the Physical layer. The GRETH
supports two of them: The Media Independent Interface (MII) and the Reduced Media Independent
Interface (RMII).
The MII was defined in the 802.3 standard and is most commonly supported. The ethernet interface
have been implemented according to this specification. It uses 16 signals.
The RMII was developed to meet the need for an interface allowing Ethernet controllers with smaller
pin counts. It uses 6 (7) signals which are a subset of the MII signals. Table 300 shows the mapping
betweem the RMII signals and the GRLIB MII interface.
Table 300.Signal mappings between RMII and the GRLIB MII interface.
34.8
RMII
MII
txd[1:0]
txd[1:0]
tx_en
tx_en
crs_dv
rx_crs
rxd[1:0]
rxd[1:0]
ref_clk
rmii_clk
rx_er
not used
Software drivers
Drivers for the GRETH MAC is provided for the following operating systems: RTEMS, eCos,
uClinux and Linux-2.6. The drivers are freely available in full source code under the GPL license
from Gaisler Research’s web site (http://gaisler.com/).
278
34.9
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 301.GRETH registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
Control register
0x4
Status/Interrupt-source register
0x8
MAC Address MSB
0xC
MAC Address LSB
0x10
MDIO Control/Status
0x14
Transmit descriptor pointer
0x18
Receiver descriptor pointer
0x1C
EDCL IP
31 30
ED
BS
28
7
RESERVED
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SP RS PR FD RI TI RE TE
Figure 114. GRETH control register.
0:
Transmit Enable (TE) - Should be written with a one each time new descriptors are enabled. As long as this bit is
one the GRETH will read new descriptors and as soon as it encounters a disabled descriptor it will stop until TE is
set again. This bit should be written with a one after the new descriptors have been enabled. Reset value: ‘0’.
1:
Receive Enable (RE) - Should be written with a one each time new descriptors are enabled. As long as this bit is
one the GRETH will read new descriptors and as soon as it encounters a disabled descriptor it will stop until TE is
set again. This bit should be written with a one after the new descriptors have been enabled. Reset value: ‘0’.
2:
Transmitter Interrupt (TI) - Enable Transmitter Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated each time a packet is
transmitted when this bit is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was transmitted successfully or if
it terminated with an error. Not Reset.
3:
Receiver Interrupt (RI) - Enable Receiver Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated each time a packet is received
when this bit is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was received successfully or if it terminated
with an error. Not Reset.
4:
Full Duplex (FD) - If set, the GRETH operates in full-duplex mode otherwise it operates in half-duplex. Not Reset.
5:
Promiscuous Mode (PM) - If set, the GRETH operates in promiscuous mode which means it will receive all packets
regardless of the destination address. Not Reset.
6:
Reset (RS) - A one written to this bit resets the GRETH core. Self clearing.
7:
Speed (SP) - Sets the current speed mode. 0 = 10 Mbit, 1 = 100 Mbit. Only used in RMII mode (rmii = 1). A default
value is automatically read from the PHY after reset.
30 - 28: EDCL Buffer Size (BS) - Shows the amount of memory used for EDCL buffers. 0 = 1 kB, 1 = 2 kB, ...., 6 = 64 kB.
31:
EDCL Available (ED) - Set to one if the EDCL is available.
31
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IA TS TA RA TI RI TE RE
Figure 115. GRETH status register
0:
1:
2:
3:
Receiver Error (RE) - A packet has been received which terminated with an error. Cleared when written with a one.
Not Reset.
Transmitter Error (TE) - A packet was transmitted which terminated with an error. Cleared when written with a one.
Not Reset.
Receiver Interrupt (RI) - A packet was received without errors. Cleared when written with a one. Not Reset.
Transmitter Interrupt (TI) - A packet was transmitted without errors. Cleared when written with a one. Not Reset.
279
4:
Receiver AHB Error (RA) - An AHB error was encountered in receiver DMA engine. Cleared when written with a
one. Not Reset.
Transmitter AHB Error (TA) - An AHB error was encountered in transmitter DMA engine. Cleared when written
with a one. Not Reset.
Too Small (TS) - A packet smaller than the minimum size was received. Cleared when written with a one. Reset
value: ‘0’.
Invalid Address (IA) - A packet with an address not accepted by the MAC was received. Cleared when written with
a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
5:
6:
7:
31
16
0
15
RESERVED
Bit 47 downto 32 of the MAC Address
Figure 116. MAC Address MSB.
31 - 16: The two most significant bytes of the MAC Address. Not Reset.
31
0
Bit 31 downto 0 of the MAC Address
Figure 117. MAC Address LSB.
31 - 0:
The 4 least significant bytes of the MAC Address. Not Reset.
31
16 15
DATA
11 10
PHY ADDRESS
4
6
REGISTER ADDRESS
3
2
1
0
NV BU LF RD WR
Figure 118. GRETH MDIO ctrl/status register.
0:
Write (WR) - Start a write operation on the management interface. Data is taken from the Data field. Reset value:
‘0’.
1:
Read (RD) - Start a read operation on the management interface. Data is stored in the data field. Reset value: ‘0’.
2:
Linkfail (LF) - When an operation completes (BUSY = 0) this bit is set if a functional management link was not
detected. Not Reset.
3:
Busy (BU) - When an operation is performed this bit is set to one. As soon as the operation is finished and the
management link is idle this bit is cleared. Reset value: ‘0’.
4:
Not valid (NV) - When an operation is finished (BUSY = 0) this bit indicates whether valid data has been received
that is, the data field contains correct data. Not Reset.
10 - 6: Register Address - This field contains the address of the register that should be accessed during a write or read
operation. Not Reset.
15 - 11: PHY Address - This field contains the address of the PHY that should be accessed during a write or read operation.
Not Reset.
31 - 16: Data - Contains data read during a read operation and data that is transmitted is taken from this field. Not Reset.
31
10
TRANSMITTER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
9
3
2
DESCRIPTOR POINTER
0
RESERVED
Figure 119. GRETH transmitter descriptor table base address register.
31 - 10: Base address to the transmitter descriptor table.Not Reset.
9 - 3:
Pointer to individual descriptors. Automatically incremented by the Ethernet MAC.
2 - 0:
Reserved. Reads as zeroes.
280
31
10
RECEIVER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
9
3
2
DESCRIPTOR POINTER
0
RESERVED
Figure 120. GRETH receiver descriptor table base address register.
31 - 10: Base address to the receiver descriptor table.Not Reset.
9 - 3:
Pointer to individual descriptors. Automatically incremented by the Ethernet MAC.
2 - 0:
Reserved. Reads as zeroes.
31
0
EDCL IP ADDRESS
Figure 121. GRETH EDCL IP register.
31 - 0:
EDCL IP address. Reset value is set with the ipaddrh and ipaddrl generics.
34.10 Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x1D. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
281
34.11 Configuration options
Table 302 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 302.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
Addr field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
Mask field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Interrupt line used by the GRETH.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
memtech
Memory technology used for the FIFOs.
0 - NTECH
inferred
ifg_gap
Number of ethernet clock cycles used for one interframe
gap. Default value as required by the standard. Do not
change unless you know what your doing.
1 - 255
24
attempt_limit
Maximum number of transmission attempts for one
packet. Default value as required by the standard.
1 - 255
16
backoff_limit
Limit on the backoff size of the backoff time. Default
value as required by the standard. Sets the number of bits
used for the random value. Do not change unless you
know what your doing.
1 - 10
10
slot_time
Number of ethernet clock cycles used for one slot- time.
Default value as required by the ethernet standard. Do
not change unless you know what you are doing.
1 - 255
128
mdcscaler
Sets the divisor value use to generate the mdio clock
(mdc). The mdc frequency will be clk/(2*(mdcscaler+1)).
0 - 255
25
enable_mdio
Enable the Management interface,
0-1
0
fifosize
Sets the size in 32-bit words of the receiver and transmit- 4 - 32
ter FIFOs.
8
nsync
Number of synchronization registers used.
1-2
2
edcl
Enable EDCL.
0-1
0
edclbufsz
Select the size of the EDCL buffer in kB.
1 - 64
1
macaddrh
Sets the upper 24 bits of the EDCL MAC address.*)
0 - 16#FFFFFF#
16#00005E#
macaddrl
Sets the lower 24 bits of the EDCL MAC address. *)
0 - 16#FFFFFF#
16#000000#
ipaddrh
Sets the upper 16 bits of the EDCL IP address reset
value.
0 - 16#FFFF#
16#C0A8#
ipaddrl
Sets the lower 16 bits of the EDCL IP address reset
value.
0 - 16#FFFF#
16#0035#
phyrstadr
Sets the reset value of the PHY address field in the
MDIO register.
0 - 31
0
rmii
Selects the desired PHY interface. 0 = MII, 1 = RMII.
0-1
0
oepol
Selects polarity on output enable (ETHO.MDIO_OE).
0-1
0
0 = active low, 1 = active high
*) Not all addresses are allowed and most NICs and protocol implementations will discard frames
with illegal addresses silently. Consult network literature if unsure about the addresses.
282
34.12 Signal descriptions
Table 303 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 303.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
ETHI
*
Input
Ethernet MII input signals.
-
ETHO
*
Output
Ethernet MII output signals.
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
34.13 Library dependencies
Table 304 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 304.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
ETHERNET_MAC
Signals, component
GRETH component declarations, GRETH signals
GAISLER
NET
Signals
Ethernet signals
34.14 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.ethernet_mac.all;
entity greth_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- ethernet signals
ethi :: in eth_in_type;
etho : in eth_out_type
);
end;
architecture rtl of greth_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
283
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- GRETH
e1 : greth
generic map(
hindex
=> 0,
pindex
=> 12,
paddr
=> 12,
pirq
=> 12,
memtech
=> inferred,
mdcscaler
=> 50,
enable_mdio => 1,
fifosize
=> 32,
nsync
=> 1,
edcl
=> 1,
edclbufsz
=> 8,
macaddrh
=> 16#00005E#,
macaddrl
=> 16#00005D#,
ipaddrh
=> 16#c0a8#,
ipaddrl
=> 16#0035#)
port map(
rst
=> rstn,
clk
=> clk,
ahbmi
=> ahbmi,
ahbmo
=> ahbmo(0),
apbi
=> apbi,
apbo
=> apbo(12),
ethi
=> ethi,
etho
=> etho
);
end;
284
35
GRETH_GBIT - Gigabit Ethernet Media Access Controller (MAC) w. EDCL
35.1
Overview
Gaisler Research’s Gigabit Ethernet Media Access Controller (GRETH_GBIT) provides an interface
between an AMBA-AHB bus and an Ethernet network. It supports 10/100/1000 Mbit speed in both
full- and half-duplex. The AMBA interface consists of an APB interface for configuration and control
and an AHB master interface which handles the dataflow. The dataflow is handled through DMA
channels. There is one DMA engine for the transmitter and one for the receiver. Both share the same
AHB master interface.
The ethernet interface supports the MII and GMII interfaces which should be connected to an external
PHY. The GRETH also provides access to the MII Management interface which is used to configure
the PHY. Optional hardware support for the Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL) protocol is
also provided. This is an UDP/IP based protocol used for remote debugging.
Some of the supported features for the DMA channels are Scatter Gather I/O and TCP/UDP over IPv4
checksum offloading for both receiver and transmitter. Software Drivers are provided for RTEMS,
eCos, uClinux and Linux 2.6.
APB
AHB
Ethernet MAC
Registers
MDIO
Transmitter
DMA Engine
AHB Master
Interface
RAM
Transmitter
EDCL
Transmitter
EDCL
Receiver
Receiver
DMA Engine
Receiver
RAM
MDIO_OE
MDIO_O
MDIO_I
MDC
TX_EN
TX_ER
TXD(7:0)
TX_CLK
RX_CRS
RX_COL
GTX_CLK
RX_DV
RX_ER
RXD(7:0)
RX_CLK
Figure 122. Block diagram of the internal structure of the GRETH_GBIT.
35.2
Operation
35.2.1 System overview
The GRETH_GBIT consists of 3 functional units: The DMA channels, MDIO interface and the
optional Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL).
The main functionality consists of the DMA channels which are used for transferring data between an
AHB bus and an Ethernet network. There is one transmitter DMA channel and one Receiver DMA
channel. The operation of the DMA channels is controlled through registers accessible through the
APB interface.
285
The MDIO interface is used for accessing configuration and status registers in one or more PHYs connected to the MAC. The operation of this interface is also controlled through the APB interface.
The optional EDCL provides read and write access to an AHB bus through Ethernet. It uses the UDP,
IP and ARP protocols together with a custom application layer protocol to accomplish this. The
EDCL contains no user accessible registers and always runs in parallel with the DMA channels.
The Media Independent Interface (MII) and Gigabit Media Independent Interface (GMII) are used for
communicating with the PHY. More information can be found in section 35.7.
The EDCL and the DMA channels share the Ethernet receiver and transmitter. More information on
these functional units is provided in sections 35.3 - 35.6.
35.2.2 Protocol support
The GRETH_GBIT is implemented according to IEEE standard 802.3-2002. There is no support for
the optional control sublayer and no multicast addresses can be assigned to the MAC. This means that
packets with type 0x8808 (the only currently defined ctrl packets) are discarded.
35.2.3 Hardware requirements
The GRETH_GBIT is synthesisable with most Synthesis tools. There are three or four clock domains
depending on if the gigabit mode is used. The three domains always present are the AHB clock,
Ethernet Receiver clock (RX_CLK) and the 10/100 Ethernet transmitter clock (TX_CLK). If the gigabit mode is also used the fourth clock domain is the gigabit transmitter clock (GTX_CLK). Both fullduplex and half-duplex operating modes are supported and both can be run in either 10/100 or 1000
Mbit. The system frequency requirement (AHB clock) for 10 Mbit operation is 2.5 MHz, 18 MHz for
100 Mbit and 40 MHz for 1000 Mbit mode. The 18 MHz limit was tested on a Xilinx board with a
DCM that did not support lower frequencies so it might be possible to run it on lower frequencies. It
might also be possible to run the 10 Mbit mode on lower frequencies.
RX_CLK and TX_CLK are sourced by the PHY while GTX_CLK is sourced by the MAC according
to the 802.3-2002 standard. The GRETH_GBIT does not contain an internal clock generator so
GTX_CLK should either be generated in the FPGA (with a PLL/DLL) or with an external oscillator.
35.3
Tx DMA interface
The transmitter DMA interface is used for transmitting data on an Ethernet network. The transmission
is done using descriptors located in memory.
35.3.1 Setting up a descriptor.
A single descriptor is shown in figure 123. The number of bytes to be sent should be set in the length
field and the address field should point to the data. There are no alignment restrictions on the address
field. If the interrupt enable (IE) bit is set, an interrupt will be generated when the packet has been sent
(this requires that the transmitter interrupt bit in the control register is also set). The interrupt will be
generated regardless of whether the packet was transmitted successfully or not.
286
20
31
0x0
RESERVED
19
18
UC TC IC
17
16 15
14
13
MO LC AL UE IE
12
11
WR EN
0
10
LENGTH
31
0
0x4
ADDRESS
10 - 0: LENGTH - The number of bytes to be transmitted.
11:
Enable (EN) - Set to one to enable the descriptor. Should always be set last of all the descriptor
fields.
12:
Wrap (WR) - Set to one to make the descriptor pointer wrap to zero after this descriptor has
been used. If this bit is not set the pointer will increment by 8. The pointer automatically wraps
to zero when the 1 kB boundary of the descriptor table is reached.
13:
Interrupt Enable (IE) - Enable Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated when the packet from
this descriptor has been sent provided that the transmitter interrupt enable bit in the control
register is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was transmitted successfully
or if it terminated with an error.
14:
Underrun Error (UE) - The packet was incorrectly transmitted due to a FIFO underrun error.
15:
Attempt Limit Error (AL) - The packet was not transmitted because the maximum number of
attempts was reached.
16:
Late Collision (LC) - A late collision occurred during the transmission (1000 Mbit mode only).
17:
More (MO) - More descriptors should be fetched for this packet (Scatter Gather I/O).
18:
IP Checksum (IC) - Calculate and insert the IP header checksum for this packet. The checksum
is only inserted if an IP packet is detected.
19:
TCP Checksum (TC) - Calculate and insert the TCP checksum for this packet. The checksum
is only inserted if an TCP packet is detected.
20:
UDP Checksum (UC) - Calculate and insert the UDP checksum for this packet. The checksum
is only inserted if an UDP packet is detected.
31 - 2: Address - Pointer to the buffer area from where the packet data will be loaded.
Figure 123. Transmitter descriptor. Memory offsets are shown in the left margin.
To enable a descriptor the enable (EN) bit should be set and after this is done, the descriptor should
not be touched until the enable bit has been cleared by the GRETH_GBIT. The rest of the fields in the
descriptor are explained later in this section.
35.3.2 Starting transmissions
Enabling a descriptor is not enough to start a transmission. A pointer to the memory area holding the
descriptors must first be set in the GRETH_GBIT. This is done in the transmitter descriptor pointer
register. The address must be aligned to a 1 kB boundary. Bits 31 to 10 hold the base address of
descriptor area while bits 9 to 3 form a pointer to an individual descriptor. The first descriptor should
be located at the base address and when it has been used by the GRETH_GBIT the pointer field is
incremented by 8 to point at the next descriptor. The pointer will automatically wrap back to zero
when the next 1 kB boundary has been reached (the descriptor at address offset 0x3F8 has been used).
The WR bit in the descriptors can be set to make the pointer wrap back to zero before the 1 kB boundary.
The pointer field has also been made writable for maximum flexibility but care should be taken when
writing to the descriptor pointer register. It should never be touched when a transmission is active.
The final step to activate the transmission is to set the transmit enable bit in the control register. This
tells the GRETH_GBIT that there are more active descriptors in the descriptor table. This bit should
always be set when new descriptors are enabled, even if transmissions are already active. The descriptors must always be enabled before the transmit enable bit is set.
287
35.3.3 Descriptor handling after transmission
When a transmission of a packet has finished, status is written to the first word in the corresponding
descriptor. The Underrun Error bit is set if the transmitter RAM was not able to provide data at a sufficient rate. This indicates a synchronization problem most probably caused by a low clock rate on the
AHB clock. The whole packet is buffered in the transmitter RAM before transmission so underruns
cannot be caused by bus congestion. The Alignment Error bit is set if more collisions occurred than
allowed. When running in 1000 Mbit mode the Late Collision bit indicates that a collision occurred
after the slottime boundary was passed.
The packet was successfully transmitted only if these three bits are zero. The other bits in the first
descriptor word are set to zero after transmission while the second word is left untouched.
The enable bit should be used as the indicator when a descriptor can be used again, which is when it
has been cleared by the GRETH_GBIT. There are three bits in the GRETH_GBIT status register that
hold transmission status. The Transmit Error (TE) bit is set each time an transmission ended with an
error (when at least one of the three status bits in the transmit descriptor has been set). The Transmit
Successful (TI) is set each time a transmission ended successfully.
The Transmit AHB Error (TA) bit is set when an AHB error was encountered either when reading a
descriptor, reading packet data or writing status to the descriptor. Any active transmissions are aborted
and the transmitter is disabled. The transmitter can be activated again by setting the transmit enable
register.
35.3.4 Setting up the data for transmission
The data to be transmitted should be placed beginning at the address pointed by the descriptor address
field. The GRETH_GBIT does not add the Ethernet address and type fields so they must also be
stored in the data buffer. The 4 B Ethernet CRC is automatically appended at the end of each packet.
Each descriptor will be sent as a single Ethernet packet. If the size field in a descriptor is greater than
1514 B, the packet will not be sent.
35.3.5 Scatter Gather I/O
A packet can be generated from data fetched from several descriptors. This is called Scatter Gather I/
O. The More (MO) bit should be set to 1 to indicate that more descriptors should be used to generate
the current packet. When data from the current descriptor has been read to the RAM the next descriptor is fetched and the new data is appended to the previous data. This continues until a descriptor with
the MO bit set to 0 is encountered. The packet will then be transmitted.
Status is written immediately when data has been read to RAM for descriptors with MO set to 1. The
status bits are always set to 0 since no transmission has occurred. The status bits will be written will
be written to the last descriptor for the packet (which had MO set to 0) when the transmission has finished.
No interrupts are generated for descriptors with MO set to 1 so the IE bit is don’t care in this case.
The checksum offload control bits (explained in section 35.3.6) must be set to the same values for all
descriptors used for a single packet.
35.3.6 Checksum offloading
Support is provided for checksum calculations in hardware for TCP and UDP over IPv4. The checksum calculations are enabled in each descriptor and applies only to that packet (when the MO bit is set
all descriptors used for a single packet must have the checksum control bits set in the same way).
The IP Checksum bit (IC) enables IP header checksum calculations. If an IPv4 packet is detected
when transmitting the packet associated with the descriptor the header checksum is calculated and
inserted. If TCP Checksum (TC) is set the TCP checksum is calculated and inserted if an TCP/IPv4
288
packet is detected. Finally, if the UDP Checksum bit is set the UDP checksum is calculated and
inserted if a UDP/IPv4 packet is detected.
35.4
Rx DMA interface
The receiver DMA interface is used for receiving data from an Ethernet network. The reception is
done using descriptors located in memory.
35.4.1 Setting up descriptors
A single descriptor is shown in figure 124. The address field points at the location where the received
data should be stored. There are no restrictions on alignment. The GRETH_GBIT will never store
more than 1518 B to the buffer (the tagged maximum frame size). If the interrupt enable (IE) bit is set,
an interrupt will be generated when a packet has been received to this buffer (this requires that the
receiver interrupt bit in the control register is also set). The interrupt will be generated regardless of
whether the packet was received successfully or not.
The enable bit is set to indicate that the descriptor is valid which means it can be used by the to store a
packet. After it is set the descriptor should not be touched until the EN bit has been cleared by the
GRETH_GBIT.
The rest of the fields in the descriptor are explained later in this section.
31
0x0
24 23
22
21 20
RESERVED TR TD UR UD IR
19
18 17 16
15
14 13
ID LE OE CE FT AE IE
12
11
WR EN
0
10
LENGTH
31
0
0x4
ADDRESS
10 - 0:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
17:
18:
19:
20:
21:
22:
23:
24:
31 - 0:
LENGTH - The number of bytes received to this descriptor.
Enable (EN) - Set to one to enable the descriptor. Should always be set last of all the descriptor
fields.
Wrap (WR) - Set to one to make the descriptor pointer wrap to zero after this descriptor has
been used. If this bit is not set the pointer will increment by 8. The pointer automatically wraps
to zero when the 1 kB boundary of the descriptor table is reached.
Interrupt Enable (IE) - Enable Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated when a packet has been
received to this descriptor provided that the receiver interrupt enable bit in the control register
is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was received successfully or if it
terminated with an error.
Alignment error (AE) - An odd number of nibbles were received.
Frame Too Long (FT) - A frame larger than the maximum size was received. The excessive
part was truncated.
CRC Error (CE) - A CRC error was detected in this frame.
Overrun Error (OE) - The frame was incorrectly received due to a FIFO overrun.
Length Error (LE) - The length field does not correspond to the number of bytes received.
IP Detected (ID) - IP packet detected.
IP Error (IR) - IP checksum error detected.
UDP Detected (UD) - UDP packet detected.
UDP Error (UR) - UDP checksum error detected.
TCP Detected (TD) - TCP packet detected.
TCP Error (TR) - TCP checksum error detected.
Address - Pointer to the buffer area from where the packet data will be loaded.
Figure 124. Receive descriptor. Memory offsets are shown in the left margin.
289
35.4.2 Starting reception
Enabling a descriptor is not enough to start reception. A pointer to the memory area holding the
descriptors must first be set in the GRETH_GBIT. This is done in the receiver descriptor pointer register. The address must be aligned to a 1 kB boundary. Bits 31 to 10 hold the base address of descriptor area while bits 9 to 3 form a pointer to an individual descriptor. The first descriptor should be
located at the base address and when it has been used by the GRETH_GBIT the pointer field is incremented by 8 to point at the next descriptor. The pointer will automatically wrap back to zero when the
next 1 kB boundary has been reached (the descriptor at address offset 0x3F8 has been used). The WR
bit in the descriptors can be set to make the pointer wrap back to zero before the 1 kB boundary.
The pointer field has also been made writable for maximum flexibility but care should be taken when
writing to the descriptor pointer register. It should never be touched when reception is active.
The final step to activate reception is to set the receiver enable bit in the control register. This will
make the GRETH_GBIT read the first descriptor and wait for an incoming packet.
35.4.3 Descriptor handling after reception
The GRETH indicates a completed reception by clearing the descriptor enable bit. The other control
bits (WR, IE) are also cleared. The number of received bytes is shown in the length field. The parts of
the Ethernet frame stored are the destination address, source address, type and data fields. Bits 24-14
in the first descriptor word are status bits indicating different receive errors. Bits 18 - 14 are zero after
a reception without link layer errors. The status bits are described in figure 124 (except the checksum
offload bits which are also described in section 35.4.5).
Packets arriving that are smaller than the minimum Ethernet size of 64 B are not considered as a
reception and are discarded. The current receive descriptor will be left untouched an used for the first
packet arriving with an accepted size. The TS bit in the status register is set each time this event
occurs.
If a packet is received with an address not accepted by the MAC, the IA status register bit will be set.
Packets larger than maximum size cause the FT bit in the receive descriptor to be set. The length field
is not guaranteed to hold the correct value of received bytes. The counting stops after the word containing the last byte up to the maximum size limit has been written to memory.
The address word of the descriptor is never touched by the GRETH.
35.4.4 Reception with AHB errors
If an AHB error occurs during a descriptor read or data store, the Receiver AHB Error (RA) bit in the
status register will be set and the receiver is disabled. The current reception is aborted. The receiver
can be enabled again by setting the Receive Enable bit in the control register.
35.4.5 Checksum offload
Support is provided for checksum calculations in hardware for TCP/UDP over IPv4. The checksum
logic is always active and detects IPv4 packets with TCP or UDP payloads. If IPv4 is detected the ID
bit is set, UD is set if an UDP payload is detected in the IP packet and TD is set if a TCP payload is
detected in the IP packet (TD and UD are never set if an IPv4 packet is not detected). When one or
more of these packet types is detected its corresponding checksum is calculated and if an error is
detected the checksum error bit for that packet type is set. The error bits are never set if the corresponding packet type is not detected.
35.5
MDIO Interface
The MDIO interface provides access to PHY configuration and status registers through a two-wire
interface which is included in the MII interface. The GRETH_GBIT provides full support for the
MDIO interface.
290
The MDIO interface can be used to access from 1 to 32 PHY containing 1 to 32 16-bit registers. A
read transfer i set up by writing the PHY and register addresses to the MDIO Control register and setting the read bit. This caused the Busy bit to be set and the operation is finished when the Busy bit is
cleared. If the operation was successful the Linkfail bit is zero and the data field contains the read
data. An unsuccessful operation is indicated by the Linkfail bit being set. The data field is undefined
in this case.
A write operation is started by writing the 16-bit data, PHY address and register address to the MDIO
Control register and setting the write bit. The operation is finished when the busy bit is cleared and it
was successful if the Linkfail bit is zero.
35.6
Ethernet Debug Communication Link (EDCL)
The EDCL provides access to an on-chip AHB bus through Ethernet. It uses the UDP, IP and ARP
protocols together with a custom application layer protocol. The application layer protocol uses an
ARQ algorithm to provide reliable AHB instruction transfers. Through this link, a read or write transfer can be generated to any address on the AHB bus. The EDCL is optional and must be enabled with
a generic.
35.6.1 Operation
The EDCL receives packets in parallel with the MAC receive DMA channel. It uses a separate MAC
address which is used for distinguishing EDCL packets from packets destined to the MAC DMA
channel. The EDCL also has an IP address which is set through generics. Since ARP packets use the
Ethernet broadcast address, the IP-address must be used in this case to distinguish between EDCL
ARP packets and those that should go to the DMA-channel. Packets that are determined to be EDCL
packets are not processed by the receive DMA channel.
When the packets are checked to be correct, the AHB operation is performed. The operation is performed with the same AHB master interface that the DMA-engines use. The replies are automatically
sent by the EDCL transmitter when the operation is finished. It shares the Ethernet transmitter with
the transmitter DMA-engine but has higher priority.
35.6.2 EDCL protocols
The EDCL accepts Ethernet frames containing IP or ARP data. ARP is handled according to the protocol specification with no exceptions.
IP packets carry the actual AHB commands. The EDCL expects an Ethernet frame containing IP,
UDP and the EDCL specific application layer parts. Table 305 shows the IP packet required by the
EDCL. The contents of the different protocol headers can be found in TCP/IP literature.
Table 305.The IP packet expected by the EDCL.
Ethernet
IP
UDP
2B
4B
4B
Data 0 - 242
Ethernet
Header
Header
Header
Offset
Control word
Address
4B Words
CRC
The following is required for successful communication with the EDCL: A correct destination MAC
address as set by the generics, an Ethernet type field containing 0x0806 (ARP) or 0x0800 (IP). The
IP-address is then compared with the value determined by the generics for a match. The IP-header
checksum and identification fields are not checked. There are a few restrictions on the IP-header
fields. The version must be four and the header size must be 5 B (no options). The protocol field must
always be 0x11 indicating a UDP packet. The length and checksum are the only IP fields changed for
the reply.
The EDCL only provides one service at the moment and it is therefore not required to check the UDP
port number. The reply will have the original source port number in both the source and destination
fields. UDP checksum are not used and the checksum field is set to zero in the replies.
291
The UDP data field contains the EDCL application protocol fields. Table 306 shows the application
protocol fields (data field excluded) in packets received by the EDCL. The 16-bit offset is used to
align the rest of the application layer data to word boundaries in memory and can thus be set to any
value. The R/W field determines whether a read (0) or a write(1) should be performed. The length
Table 306.The EDCL application layer fields in received frames.
16-bit Offset
14-bit Sequence number
1-bit R/W
10-bit Length
7-bit Unused
field contains the number of bytes to be read or written. If R/W is one the data field shown in Table
305 contains the data to be written. If R/W is zero the data field is empty in the received packets.
Table 307 shows the application layer fields of the replies from the EDCL. The length field is always
zero for replies to write requests. For read requests it contains the number of bytes of data contained in
the data field.
Table 307.The EDCL application layer fields in transmitted frames.
16-bit Offset
14-bit sequence number
1-bit ACK/NAK
10-bit Length
7-bit Unused
The EDCL implements a Go-Back-N algorithm providing reliable transfers. The 14-bit sequence
number in received packets are checked against an internal counter for a match. If they do not match,
no operation is performed and the ACK/NAK field is set to 1 in the reply frame. The reply frame contains the internal counter value in the sequence number field. If the sequence number matches, the
operation is performed, the internal counter is incremented, the internal counter value is stored in the
sequence number field and the ACK/NAK field is set to 0 in the reply. The length field is always set to
0 for ACK/NAK=1 frames. The unused field is not checked and is copied to the reply. It can thus be
set to hold for example some extra id bits if needed.
35.7
Media Independent Interfaces
There are several interfaces defined between the MAC sublayer and the Physical layer. The
GRETH_GBIT supports the Media Independent Interface (MII) and the Gigabit Media Independent
Interface (GMII).
The GMII is used in 1000 Mbit mode and the MII in 10 and 100 Mbit. These interfaces are defined
separately in the 802.3-2002 standard but in practice they share most of the signals. The GMII has 9
additional signals compared to the MII. Four data signals are added to the receiver and transmitter
data interfaces respectively and a new transmit clock for the gigabit mode is also introduced.
Table 308.Signals in GMII and MII.
MII and GMII
GMII Only
txd[3:0]
txd[7:4]
tx_en
rxd[7:4]
tx_er
gtx_clk
rx_col
rx_crs
rxd[3:0]
rx_clk
rx_er
rx_dv
292
35.8
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 309.GRETH_GBIT registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
Control register
0x4
Status/Interrupt-source register
0x8
MAC Address MSB
0xC
MAC Address LSB
0x10
MDIO Control/Status
0x14
Transmit descriptor pointer
0x18
Receiver descriptor pointer
0x1C
EDCL IP
31 30
ED
BS
28 27
GA
9
RESERVED
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BM GB SP RS PR FD RI TI RE TE
Figure 125. GRETH_GBIT control register.
0:
Transmit Enable (TE) - Should be written with a one each time new descriptors are enabled. As long as this bit is
one the GRETH_GBIT will read new descriptors and as soon as it encounters a disabled descriptor it will stop until
TE is set again. This bit should be written with a one after the new descriptors have been enabled. Reset value: ‘0’.
1:
Receive Enable (RE) - Should be written with a one each time new descriptors are enabled. As long as this bit is
one the GRETH_GBIT will read new descriptors and as soon as it encounters a disabled descriptor it will stop until
TE is set again. This bit should be written with a one after the new descriptors have been enabled. Reset value: ‘0’.
2:
Transmitter Interrupt (TI) - Enable Transmitter Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated each time a packet is
transmitted when this bit is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was transmitted successfully or if
it terminated with an error. Not Reset.
3:
Receiver Interrupt (RI) - Enable Receiver Interrupts. An interrupt will be generated each time a packet is received
when this bit is set. The interrupt is generated regardless if the packet was received successfully or if it terminated
with an error. Not Reset.
4:
Full Duplex (FD) - If set, the GRETH_GBIT operates in full-duplex mode otherwise it operates in half-duplex. Not
Reset.
5:
Promiscuous Mode (PM) - If set, the GRETH_GBIT operates in promiscuous mode which means it will receive all
packets regardless of the destination address. Not Reset.
6:
Reset (RS) - A one written to this bit resets the GRETH_GBIT core. Self clearing.
7:
Speed (SP) - Sets the current speed mode. 0 = 10 Mbit, 1 = 100 Mbit. Must not be set to 1 at the same time as bit 8
(GB).
8:
Gigabit (GB) - 1 sets the current speed mode to 1000 Mbit and when set to 0, the speed mode is selected with bit 7
(SP).
9:
Burstmode (BM) - When set to 1, transmissions use burstmode in 1000 Mbit Half-duplex mode (GB=1, FD = 0).
When 0 in this speed mode normal transmissions are always used with extension inserted. Operation is undefined
when set to 1 in other speed modes.
27:
Gigabit Mac Available (GA) - This bit always reads as a 1 and indicates that the MAC has 1000 Mbit capability.
30 - 28: EDCL Buffer Size (BS) - Shows the amount of memory used for EDCL buffers. 0 = 1 kB, 1 = 2 kB, ...., 6 = 64 kB.
31:
EDCL Available (ED) - Set to one if the EDCL is available.
293
31
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IA TS TA RA TI RI TE RE
Figure 126. GRETH_GBIT status register
0:
Receiver Error (RE) - A packet has been received which terminated with an error. Cleared when written with a one.
Not Reset.
Transmitter Error (TE) - A packet was transmitted which terminated with an error. Cleared when written with a one.
Not Reset.
Receive Successful (RI) - A packet was received without errors. Cleared when written with a one. Not Reset.
Transmit Successful (TI) - A packet was transmitted without errors. Cleared when written with a one. Not Reset.
Receiver AHB Error (RA) - An AHB error was encountered in receiver DMA engine. Cleared when written with a
one. Not Reset.
Transmitter AHB Error (TA) - An AHB error was encountered in transmitter DMA engine. Cleared when written
with a one. Not Reset.
Too Small (TS) - A packet smaller than the minimum size was received. Cleared when written with a one. Reset
value: ‘0’.
nvalid Address (IA) - A packet with an address not accepted by the MAC was received. Cleared when written with
a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7: I
31
16
0
15
RESERVED
Bit 47 downto 32 of the MAC Address
Figure 127. MAC Address MSB.
31 - 16: The two most significant bytes of the MAC Address. Not Reset.
31
0
Bit 31 downto 0 of the MAC Address
Figure 128. MAC Address LSB.
31 - 0:
The 4 least significant bytes of the MAC Address. Not Reset.
31
16 15
DATA
11 10
PHY ADDRESS
6
REGISTER ADDRESS
4
3
2
1
0
NV BU LF RD WR
Figure 129. GRETH_GBIT MDIO ctrl/status register.
0:
Write (WR) - Start a write operation on the management interface. Data is taken from the Data field. Reset value:
‘0’.
1:
Read (RD) - Start a read operation on the management interface. Data is stored in the data field. Reset value: ‘0’.
2:
Linkfail (LF) - When an operation completes (BUSY = 0) this bit is set if a functional management link was not
detected. Not Reset.
3:
Busy (BU) - When an operation is performed this bit is set to one. As soon as the operation is finished and the
management link is idle this bit is cleared. Reset value: ‘0’.
4:
Not valid (NV) - When an operation is finished (BUSY = 0) this bit indicates whether valid data has been received
that is, the data field contains correct data. Not Reset.
10 - 6: Register Address - This field contains the address of the register that should be accessed during a write or read
operation. Not Reset.
15 - 11: PHY Address - This field contains the address of the PHY that should be accessed during a write or read operation.
Not Reset.
294
31 - 16: Data - Contains data read during a read operation and data that is transmitted is taken from this field. Not Reset.
31
10
9
TRANSMITTER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
3
2
DESCRIPTOR POINTER
0
RESERVED
Figure 130. GRETH_GBIT transmitter descriptor table base address register.
31 - 10: Base address to the transmitter descriptor table.Not Reset.
9 - 3:
Pointer to individual descriptors. Automatically incremented by the Ethernet MAC.
2 - 0:
Reserved. Reads as zeroes.
31
10
RECEIVER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
9
3
2
DESCRIPTOR POINTER
0
RESERVED
Figure 131. GRETH_GBIT receiver descriptor table base address register.
31 - 10: Base address to the receiver descriptor table.Not Reset.
9 - 3:
Pointer to individual descriptors. Automatically incremented by the Ethernet MAC.
2 - 0:
Reserved. Reads as zeroes.
31
0
EDCL IP ADDRESS
Figure 132. GRETH_GBIT EDCL IP register.
31 - 0:
35.9
EDCL IP address. Reset value is set with the ipaddrh and ipaddrl generics.
Software drivers
Drivers for the GRETH_GBIT MAC is provided for the following operating systems: RTEMS, eCos,
uClinux and Linux-2.6. The drivers are freely available in full source code under the GPL license
from Gaisler Research’s web site (http://www.gaisler.com/).
35.10 Vendor and device identifier
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x01D. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
295
35.11 Configuration options
Table 310 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 310.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1 0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
Addr field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
Mask field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Interrupt line used by the GRETH.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
memtech
Memory technology used for the FIFOs.
0 - NTECH
inferred
ifg_gap
Number of ethernet clock cycles used for one interframe gap.
Default value as required by the standard. Do not change unless
you know what your doing.
1 - 255
24
attempt_limit
Maximum number of transmission attempts for one packet.
Default value as required by the standard.
1 - 255
16
backoff_limit
Limit on the backoff size of the backoff time. Default value as
1 - 10
required by the standard. Sets the number of bits used for the
random value. Do not change unless you know what your doing.
10
slot_time
Number of ethernet clock cycles used for one slot- time. Default
value as required by the ethernet standard. Do not change unless
you know what you are doing.
1 - 255
128
mdcscaler
Sets the divisor value use to generate the mdio clock (mdc). The
mdc frequency will be clk/(2*(mdcscaler+1)).
0 - 255
25
nsync
Number of synchronization registers used.
1-2
2
edcl
Enable EDCL.
0-1
0
edclbufsz
Select the size of the EDCL buffer in kB.
1 - 64
1
burstlength
Sets the maximum burstlength used during DMA
4 - 128
32
macaddrh
Sets the upper 24 bits of the EDCL MAC address.*)
0 - 16#FFFFFF#
16#00005E#
macaddrl
Sets the lower 24 bits of the EDCL MAC address. *)
0 - 16#FFFFFF#
16#000000#
ipaddrh
Sets the upper 16 bits of the EDCL IP address reset value.
0 - 16#FFFF#
16#C0A8#
ipaddrl
Sets the lower 16 bits of the EDCL IP address reset value.
0 - 16#FFFF#
16#0035#
phyrstadr
Sets the reset value of the PHY address field in the MDIO register. When set to 32, the address is taken from the ethi.phyrstaddr
signal.
0 - 32
0
sim
Set to 1 for simulations and 0 for synthesis. 1 selects a faster mdc
clock to speed up simulations.
0-1
0
*) Not all addresses are allowed and most NICs and protocol implementations will discard frames
with illegal addresses silently. Consult network literature if unsure about the addresses.
296
35.12 Signal descriptions
Table 311 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 311.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
ETHI
*
Input
Ethernet MII input signals.
-
ETHO
*
Output
Ethernet MII output signals.
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
35.13 Library dependencies
Table 312 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 312.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
ETHERNET_MAC
Signals, component
GRETH_GBIT component declarations,
GRETH_GBIT signals.
GAISLER
NET
Signals
Ethernet signals
35.14 Instantiation
This example shows how the core an be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.ethernet_mac.all;
entity greth_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- ethernet signals
ethi : in eth_in_type;
etho : in eth_out_type
);
end;
architecture rtl of greth_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
297
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- GRETH
e1 : greth_gbit
generic map(
hindex
=> 0,
pindex
=> 12,
paddr
=> 12,
pirq
=> 12,
memtech
=> inferred,
mdcscaler
=> 50,
burstlength => 32,
nsync
=> 1,
edcl
=> 1,
edclbufsz
=> 8,
macaddrh
=> 16#00005E#,
macaddrl
=> 16#00005D#,
ipaddrh
=> 16#c0a8#,
ipaddrl
=> 16#0035#)
port map(
rst
=> rstn,
clk
=> clk,
ahbmi
=> ahbmi,
ahbmo
=> ahbmo(0),
apbi
=> apbi,
apbo
=> apbo(12),
ethi
=> ethi,
etho
=> etho
);
end;
298
36
ETH_ARB - Ethernet PHY arbiter
36.1
Overview
The Ethernet PHY arbiter provides access to a single physical Ethernet medium for two Media Access
Controllers (MACs). It handles both half- and full-duplex modes. The MACs are connected to separate MII interfaces which the ETH_ARB the arbitrates to a single MII interface.
A block diagram is shown in figure 133.
Ethernet Medium
PHY
MII
ETH_ARB
MII
MAC
MII
MAC
Figure 133. Ethernet PHY arbiter block diagram.
36.2
Operation
36.2.1 Arbitration method
The ETH_ARB provides two MII interfaces to which Ethernet MACs can be connected. These interfaces are identical to the one provided directly from a PHY. There are two different arbitration algorithms: one for full-duplex mode and one for half-duplex. The mode is selected with a VHDL generic
and must correspond to the operating mode on the physical medium. In half-duplex mode, both
MACs have equal priority and the arbiter uses the normal CSMA-CD protocol for selecting which
MAC gains access to the medium.
In full-duplex mode, one MAC has priority (master) over the other (slave). When the master unit
wants to transmit, the arbiter stops any ongoing transmissions from the slave MAC and inserts an
interframe gap. Since the last 4 B of the interrupted frame will be interpreted as the CRC value, it will
be incorrect (with a high probability) and therefore discarded at the receiving end. The master is
allowed to transmit after the interframe gap and cannot be interrupted by the slave. The reason for this
solution is that there should be no contention of the medium on a full-duplex network link and therefore Ethernet does not provide any signals for delaying a MAC transmission in this mode.
Since the arbiter will cause lost frames due to higher contention of the medium in half-duplex and due
to the arbitration protocol in full-duplex, the higher level protocols must provide reliable transmissions (for example ARQ) with long enough time-outs. Normally, this will not be a problem and the
standard protocols such as TCP can be used. Half-duplex normally works fine without any special
care, but full-duplex can cause problems for the slave since its transmissions can always be interrupted. If the master transmits for a long period without pauses the slave can timeout. This has not yet
been seen in normal operation but must be considered.
The MDIO interface is not arbitrated and one MAC has constant access to it. The mdiomaster generic
selects which of the MACs has access.
299
36.3
Registers
The core does not implement any user programmable registers.
36.4
Configuration options
Table 313 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 313.Configuration options
36.5
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
fullduplex
Select full-duplex mode arbitration.
0-1
0
mdiomaster
Select which of the MACs that has access to the MDIO interface.
0 selects the MAC connected to dethi/detho and 1 selects the
MAC connected to methi/metho.
0-1
0
Signal description
Table 314 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 314.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
ETHI
TX_CLK
Input
Transmit clock
-
RX_CLK
Input
Receive clock
-
RXD[3:0]
Input
Receive data
-
RX_DV
Input
Receive data valid
High
RX_ER
Input
Receive data error
High
RX_COL
Input
Collision detect
High
RX_CRS
Input
Carrier sense
High
ETHO
Active
MDIO_I
Input
MDIO input data
-
RESET
Output
Ethernet Reset
High
TXD[3:0]
Output
Transmit data
-
TX_EN
Output
Transmit enable
High
TX_ER
Output
Transmit error
High
MDC
Output
MDIO clock
-
MDIO_O
Output
MDIO output data
-
MDIO_OE
Output
MDIO output enable
High
METHI
N/A*
Input
MII output signals from master MAC
-
METHO
N/A*
Output
MII input signals to master MAC
-
DETHI
N/A*
Input
MII output signals from slave MAC
-
DETHO
N/A*
Output
MII input signals to slave MAC
-
*) See ETHI and ETHO definitions
300
36.6
Library dependencies
Table 315 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 315.Library dependencies
36.7
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GAISLER
NET
Signals, component
Ethernet signals and component declaration
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.net.all;
entity eth_arb_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-- Ethernet signals
ethi : in std_ulogic;
etho : out std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of eth_arb_ex is
signal edcli : edcl_in_type;
-- MII signals
signal ethi1, ethi2 : eth_in_type;
signal etho1, etho2 : eth_out_type;
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- Ethernet MAC
e0 : eth_oc generic map(mstndx => 1, slvndx => 1, ioaddr => 16#B00#,
irq => 12, memtech => inferred)
port map(rstn, clk, ahbsi, ahbso(1), ahbmi, ahbmo(1), ethi1, etho1);
-- EDCL
e1 : edcl generic map (mstndx => 2, macaddrh => 16#00005E#, macaddrl => #000000#,
ipaddrh => 16#C0A8#, ipaddrl => 16#0033#, udpport => 8000, memtech => inferred,
speed => 0)
port map (rstn, clk, edcli, ahbmi, ahbmo(2), ethi2, etho2);
edcli.lsbip <= "0000";
-- ETH_ARB
ea0 : eth_arb generic map(fullduplex => 0, mdiomaster => 1)
port map(rstn, ethi, etho, etho1, ethi1, etho2, ethi2);
end
301
37
GRFPU - High-performance IEEE-754 Floating-point unit
37.1
Overview
GRFPU is a high-performance FPU implementing floating-point operations as defined in IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE-754) and SPARC V8 standard (IEEE-1754). Supported formats are single and double precision floating-point numbers. The advanced design
combines two execution units, a fully pipelined unit for execution of the most common FP operations
and a non-blocking unit for execution of divide and square-root operations.
The logical view of the GRFPU is shown in figure 134.
clk
Pipelined execution
unit
reset
GRFPU
start
opcode
9
ready
opid
6
allow
3
operand1
64
resid
6
operand2
64
result
64
round
2
except
6
Iteration unit
cc
flush
flushid
2
6
nonstd
Figure 134. 1: GRFPU Logical View
This document describes GRFPU from functional point of view. Chapter “Functional description”
gives details about GRFPU implementation of the IEEE-754 standard including FP formats, operations, opcodes, operation timing, rounding and exceptions. “Signals and timing” describes the
GRFPU interface and its signals. “GRFPU Control Unit” describes the software aspects of the
GRFPU integration into a LEON processor through the GRFPU Control Unit - GRFPC. For implementation details refer to the white paper, “GRFPU - High Performance IEEE-754 Floating-Point
Unit” (available at www.gaisler.com).
37.2
Functional description
37.2.1 Floating-point number formats
GRFPU handles floating-point numbers in single or double precision format as defined in IEEE-754
standard with exception for denormalized numbers. See section 37.2.5 for more information on denormalized numbers.
37.2.2 FP operations
GRFPU supports four types of floating-point operations: arithmetic, compare, convert and move. The
operations implement all FP instructions specified by SPARC V8 instruction set, and most of the
operations defined in IEEE-754. All operations are summarized in table 316, with their opcodes, operands, results and exception codes. Throughputs and latencies and are shown in table 316.
302
Table 316.: GRFPU operations
Operation
OpCode[8:0]
Op1
Op2
Result
Exceptions
Description
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
Addition
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
Subtraction
SP
DP
SP
SP
DP
SP
SP
DP
DP
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
Multiplication, FSMULD gives
exact double-precision product of
two single-precision operands.
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
Division
-
SP
DP
SP
DP
UNF, NV,
NX
Square-root
-
INT
SP
DP
NX
-
Integer to floating-point conversion
-
SP
DP
INT
UNF, NV,
NX
Floating-point to integer conversion.
The result is rounded in round-tozero mode.
-
SP
DP
INT
UNF, NV,
NX
Floating-point to integer conversion.
Rounding according to RND input.
-
SP
DP
DP
SP
UNF, NV
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
Conversion between floating-point
formats
SP
DP
SP
DP
CC
NV
Floating-point compare. Invalid
exception is generated if either operand is a signaling NaN.
SP
DP
SP
DP
CC
NV
Floating point compare. Invalid
exception is generated if either operand is a NaN (quiet or signaling).
Arithmetic operations
FADDS
FADDD
001000001
FSUBS
FSUBD
001000101
FMULS
FMULD
FSMULD
001001001
FDIVS
FDIVD
001001101
FSQRTS
FSQRTD
000101001
001000010
001000110
001001010
001101001
001001110
000101010
UNF, NV,
OF, UF, NX
UNF, NV,
OF, UF
Conversion operations
FITOS
FITOD
011000100
FSTOI
FDTOI
011010001
FSTOI_RND
FDTOI_RND
111010001
FSTOD
FDTOS
011001001
011001000
011010010
111010010
011000110
Comparison operations
FCMPS
FCMPD
001010001
FCMPES
FCMPED
001010101
001010010
001010110
Negate, Absolute value and Move
FABSS
000001001
-
SP
SP
-
Absolute value.
FNEGS
000000101
-
SP
SP
-
Negate.
FMOVS
000000001
SP
SP
-
Move. Copies operand to result output.
SP - single precision floating-point number
CC - condition codes, see table 319
DP - double precision floating-point number
UNF, NV, OF, UF, NX - floating-point exceptions, see section 37.2.3
INT - 32 bit integer
Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and square-root. Each
arithmetic operation can be performed in single or double precision formats. Arithmetic operations
have one clock cycle throughput and latency of three clock cycles, except for divide and square-root
operations, which have a throughput of 14 - 23 clock cycles and latency of 15 - 25 clock cycles (see
303
table 317). Add, sub and multiply can be started on every clock cycle providing very high throughput
for these common operations. Divide and square-root operations have lower throughput and higher
latency due to complexity of the algorithms, but are executed parallelly with all other FP operations in
a non-blocking iteration unit. Out-of-order execution of operations with different latencies is easily
handled through the GRFPU interface by assigning an id to every operation which appears with the
result on the output once the operation is completed (see section 3.2).
Table 317.: Throughput and latency
Operation
Throughput
Latency
FADDS, FADDD, FSUBS, FSUBD, FMULS, FMULD, FSMULD
1
3
FITOS, FITOD, FSTOI, FSTOI_RND, FDTOI, FDTOI_RND, FSTOD,
FDTOS
1
3
FCMPS, FCMPD, FCMPES, FCMPED
1
3
FDIVS
15
15
FDIVD
16.5 (15/18)*
16.5 (15/18)*
FSQRTS
23
23
FSQRTD
24.5 (23/26)*
24.5 (23/26)*
* Throughput and latency are data dependant with two possible cases with equal statistical possibility.
Conversion operations execute in a pipelined execution unit and have throughput of one clock cycle
and latency of three clock cycles. Conversion operations provide conversion between different floating-point numbers and between floating-point numbers and integers.
Comparison functions offering two different types of quiet Not-a-numbers (QNaNs) handling are provided. Move, negate and absolute value are also provided. These operations do not ever generate
unfinished exception (unfinished exception is never signaled since compare, negate, absolute value
and move handle denormalized numbers).
37.2.3 Exceptions
GRFPU detects all exceptions defined by the IEEE-754 standard. This includes detection of Invalid
Operation (NV), Overflow (OF), Underflow (UF), Division-by-Zero (DZ) and Inexact (NX) exception conditions. Generation of special results such as NaNs and infinity is also implemented. Overflow (OF) and underflow (UF) are detected before rounding. If an operation underflows the result is
flushed to zero (GRFPU does not support denormalized numbers or gradual underflow). A special
Unfinished exception (UNF) is signaled when one of the operands is a denormalized number which
are not handled by the arithmetic and conversion operations.
37.2.4 Rounding
All four rounding modes defined in the IEEE-754 standard are supported: round-to-nearest, round-to+inf, round-to--inf and round-to-zero.
37.2.5 Denormalized numbers
Denormalized numbers are not handled by the GRFPU arithmetic and conversion operations. A system (microprocessor) with the GRFPU could emulate rare cases of operations on denormals in software using non-FPU operations. A special Unfinished exception (UNF) is used to signal an arithmetic
or conversion operation on the denormalized numbers. Compare, move, negate and absolute value
operations can handle denormalized numbers and don’t raise unfinished exception. GRFPU does not
generate any denormalized numbers during arithmetic and conversion operations on normalized numbers. If infinitely precise result of an operation is a tiny number (smaller than minimum value representable in normal format) the result is flushed to zero (with underflow and inexact flags set).
304
37.2.6 Non-standard Mode
GRFPU can operate in a non-standard mode where all denormalized operands to arithmetic and conversion operations are treated as (correctly signed) zeroes. Calculations are performed on zero operands instead of the denormalized numbers obeying all rules of the floating-point arithmetics including
rounding of the results and detecting exceptions.
37.2.7 NaNs
GRFPU supports handling of Not-a-Numbers (NaNs) as defined in the IEEE-754 standard. Operations on signaling NaNs (SNaNs) and invalid operations (e.g. inf/inf) generate Invalid exception and
deliver QNaN_GEN as result. Operations on Quiet NaNs (QNaNs), except for FCMPES and
FCMPED, do not raise any exceptions and propagate QNaNs through the FP operations by delivering
NaN-results according to table 318. QNaN_GEN is 0x7fffe00000000000 for double precision results
and 0x7fff0000 for single precision results.
Table 318.: Operations on NaNs
Operand 2
Operand 1
FP
QNaN2
SNaN2
none
FP
QNaN2
QNaN_GEN
FP
FP
QNaN2
QNaN_GEN
QNaN1
QNaN1
QNaN2
QNaN_GEN
SNaN1
QNaN_GEN
QNaN_GEN
QNaN_GEN
305
37.3
Signal descriptions
Table 319 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports). All signals are active high except for
RST which is active low.
Table 319.: Signal descriptions
Signal
I/O
Description
CLK
I
Clock
RST
I
Reset
START
I
Start an FP operation on the next rising clock edge
NONSTD
I
Nonstandard mode. Denormalized operands are converted to zero.
OPCODE[8:0]
I
FP operation. For codes see table 316.
OPID[5:0]
I
FP operation id. Every operation is associated with an id which will appear on the RESID
output when the FP operation is completed. This value shall be incremented by 1 (with wraparound) for every started FP operation.
OPERAND1[63:0]
I
FP operation operands are provided on these one or both of these inputs. All 64 bits are used
for IEEE-754 double precision floating-point numbers, bits [63:32] are used for IEEE-754
single precision floating-point numbers and 32-bit integers.
ROUND[1:0]
I
Rounding mode. 00 - rounding-to-nearest, 01 - round-to-zero, 10 - round-to-+inf, 11 - roundto--inf.
FLUSH
I
Flush FP operation with FLUSHID.
OPERAND2[63:0]
FLUSHID[5:0]
I
Id of the FP operation to be flushed.
READY
O
The result of a FP operation will be available at the end of the next clock cycle.
ALLOW[2:0]
O
Indicates allowed FP operations during the next clock cycle.
ALLOW[0] - FDIVS, FDIVD, FSQRTS and FSQRTD allowed
ALLOW[1] - FMULS, FMULD, FSMULD allowed
ALLOW[2] - all other FP operations allowed
RESID[5:0]
O
Id of the FP operation whose result appears at the end of the next clock cycle.
RESULT[63:0]
O
Result of an FP operation. If the result is double precision floating-point number all 64 bits
are used, otherwise single precision or integer result appears on RESULT[63:32].
EXCEPT[5:0]
O
Floating-point exceptions generated by an FP operation.
EXC[5] - Unfinished FP operation. Generated by an arithmetic or conversion operation with
denormalized input(s).
EXC[4] - Invalid exception.
EXC[3] - Overflow.
EXC[2] - Underflow.
EXC[1] - Division by zero.
EXC[0] - Inexact.
CC[1:0]
37.4
O
Result (condition code) of an FP compare operation.
00 - equal,
01 - operand1 < operand2
10 - operand1 > operand2
11 - unordered
Timing
An FP operation is started by providing the operands, opcode, rounding mode and id before rising
edge. The operands need to be provided a small set-up time before a rising edge while all other signals
are latched on rising edge.
The FPU is fully pipelined and a new operation can be started every clock cycle. The only exceptions
are divide and square-root operations which require 15 to 26 clock cycles to complete, and which are
not pipelined. Division and square-root are implemented through iterative series expansion algorithm.
306
Since the algorithms basic step is multiplication the floating-point multiplier is shared between multiplication, division and square-root. Division and square-root do not occupy multiplier during the
whole operation and allow multiplication to be interleaved and executed parallelly with division or
square-root.
One clock cycle before an operation is completed, the output signal RDY is asserted to indicate that
the result of an FPU operation will appear on the output signals at the end of the next cycle. The id of
the operation to be completed and allowed operations are reported on signals RESID and ALLOW.
During the next clock cycle the result appears on RES, EXCEPT and CC outputs.
Table 135 shows signal timing during four arithmetic operations on GRFPU.
CLK
START
OPCODE
FADDS
FADDS
FDIVS
FSUBS
0
1
2
3
OPERAND1,
OPERAND2
OPID
READY
RESID
0
1
3
RESULT
ALLOW[2]
ALLOW[1]
ALLOW[0]
Figure 135. Signal timing
2
307
38
GRFPC - GRFPU Control Unit
GRFPU Control Unit (GRFPC) is used to attach the GRFPU to the LEON integer unit (IU). GRFPC
performs scheduling, decoding and dispatching of the FP operations to the GRFPU as well as managing the floating-point register file, the floating-point state register (FSR) and the floating-point
deferred-trap queue (FQ). Floating-point operations are executed in parallel with other integer instructions, the LEON integer pipeline is only stalled in case of operand or resource conflicts.
In the FT-version, all registers are protected with TMR and the floating-point register file is protected
using (39,7) BCH coding. Correctable errors in the register file are detected and corrected using the
instruction restart function in the IU.
38.1
Floating-Point register file
GRFPU floating-point register file contains 32 32-bit floating-point registers (%f0-%f31). The register file is accessed by floating-point load and store instructions (LDF, LDDF, STD, STDF) and floating-point operate instructions (FPop).
38.2
Floating-Point State Register (FSR)
GRFPC manages the floating-point state register (FSR) containing FPU mode and status information.
All fields of the FSR register as defined in SPARC V8 specification are implemented and managed by
the GRFPU conforming to SPARC V8 specification and IEEE-754 standard. Implementation-specific
parts of the FSR managing are the NS (non-standard) bit and ftt field.
If the NS (non-standard) bit of the FSR register is set, all floating-point operation will be performed in
non-standard mode as described in section 37.2.6. When NS bit is cleared all operations are performed in standard IEEE-compliant mode.
Following floating-point trap types never occur and are therefore never set in the ftt field:
- unimplemented_FPop: all FPop operations are implemented
- hardware_error: non-resumable hardware error
- invalid_fp_register: no check that double-precision register is 0 mod 2 is performed
GRFPU implements the qne bit of the FSR register which reads 0 if the floating-point deferred-queue
(FQ) is empty and 1 otherwise.
The FSR is accessed using LDFSR and STFSR instructions.
38.3
Floating-Point Exceptions and Floating-Point Deferred-Queue
GRFPU implements SPARC deferred trap model for floating-point exceptions (fp_exception). A
floating-point exception is caused by a floating-point instruction performing an operation resulting in
one of following conditions:
•
an operation raises IEEE floating-point exception (ftt = IEEE_754_exception) e.g. executing
invalid operation such as 0/0 while the NVM bit of the TEM field id set (invalid exception
enabled).
•
an operation on denormalized floating-point numbers (in standard IEEE-mode) raises
unfinished_FPop floating-point exception
•
sequence error: abnormal error condition in the FPU due to the erroneous use of the floatingpoint instructions in the supervisor software.
The trap is deferred to one of the floating-point instruction (FPop, FP load/store, FP branch) following
the trap-inducing instruction (note that this may not be next floating-point instruction in the program
order due to exception-detecting mechanism and out-of-order instruction execution in the GRFPC).
When the trap is taken the floating-point deferred-queue (FQ) contains trap-inducing instruction and
up to two FPop instructions that where dispatched in the GRFPC but did not complete.
308
After the trap is taken the qne bit of the FSR is set and remains set until the FQ is emptied. STDFQ
instruction reads a double-word from the floating-point deferred queue, the first word is the address of
the instruction and the second word is the instruction code. All instructions in the FQ are FPop type
instructions. First access to the FQ gives double-word with trap-inducing instruction, following double-words contain pending floating-point instructions. Supervisor software should emulate FPops
from the FQ in the same order as they were read from the FQ.
Note that instructions in the FQ may not appear in the same order as the program order since GRFPU
executes floating-point instructions out-of-order. A floating-point trap is never deferred past an
instruction specifying source registers, destination registers or condition codes that could be modified
by the trap-inducing instruction. Execution or emulation of instructions in the FQ by the supervisor
software gives therefore the same FPU state as if the instructions where executed in the program
order.
309
39
GRFPU Lite - IEEE-754 Floating-Point Unit
39.1
Overview
The GRFPU Lite floating-point unit implements floating-point operations as defined in IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE-754) and SPARC V8 standard (IEEE-1754).
Supported formats are single and double precision floating-point numbers. The floating-point unit is
not pipelined and executes thus one floating-point operation at a time.
GRFPU
Lite
clk
reset
ctrl_out
Unpack
opcode
operand1
Pack
Iteration unit
(Add/Sub/Mul/Div)
operand2
result
except
cc
round
ctrl_in
Control
unit
39.2
Functional Description
39.2.1 Floating-point number formats
The floating-point unit handles floating-point numbers in single or double precision format as defined
in IEEE-754 standard.
310
39.2.2 FP operations
The floating-point unit supports four types of floating-point operations: arithmetic, compare, convert
and move. The operations implement all FP instructions specified by SPARC V8 instruction set. All
operations are summarized in the table below.
Table 320.:Floating-point operations
Operation
Op1
Op2
Result
Exceptions
Description
Arithmetic operations
FADDS
FADDD
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
NV, OF, UF, NX
Addition
FSUBS
FSUBD
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
NV, OF, UF, NX
Subtraction
FMULS
FMULD
FSMULD
SP
DP
SP
SP
DP
SP
SP
DP
DP
NV, OF, UF, NX
Multiplication
FDIVS
FDIVD
SP
DP
SP
DP
SP
DP
NV, OF, UF, NX
Division
FSQRTS
FSQRTD
-
SP
DP
SP
DP
NV, NX
Square-root
NV, OF, UF, NX
NV,OF, UF
Conversion operations
FITOS
FITOD
-
INT
SP
DP
NX
-
Integer to floating-point conversion
FSTOI
FDTOI
-
SP
DP
INT
NV, NX
Floating-point to integer conversion. The result is
rounded in round-to-zero mode.
FSTOD
FDTOS
-
SP
DP
DP
SP
NV
NV, OF, UF, NX
Conversion between floating-point formats
Comparison operations
FCMPS
FCMPD
SP
DP
SP
DP
CC
NV
Floating-point compare. Invalid exception is generated if either operand is a signaling NaN.
FCMPES
FCMPED
SP
DP
SP
DP
CC
NV
Floating point compare. Invalid exception is generated if either operand is a NaN (quiet or signaling).
Negate, Absolute value and Move
FABSS
-
SP
SP
-
Absolute value.
FNEGS
-
SP
SP
-
Negate.
FMOVS
SP
SP
-
Move. Copies operand to result output.
SP - single precision floating-point number
CC - condition codes
DP - double precision
floating-point number
INT - 32 bit integer
NV, OF, UF, NX - floating-point exceptions, see section 39.2.3
311
Below is a table of worst-case throughput of the floating point unit.
Table 321.Worst-case instruction timing
Instruction
Throughput
Latency
FADDS, FADDD, FSUBS, FSUBD,FMULS, FMULD, FSMULD, FITOS,
FITOD, FSTOI, FDTOI, FSTOD, FDTOS, FCMPS, FCMPD, FCMPES.
FCMPED
8
8
FDIVS
31
31
FDIVD
57
57
FSQRTS
46
46
FSQRTD
65
65
39.2.3 Exceptions
The floating-point unit detects all exceptions defined by the IEEE-754 standard. This includes detection of Invalid Operation (NV), Overflow (OF), Underflow (UF), Division-by-Zero (DZ) and Inexact
(NX) exception conditions. Generation of special results such as NaNs and infinity is also implemented.
39.2.4 Rounding
All four rounding modes defined in the IEEE-754 standard are supported: round-to-nearest, round-to+inf, round-to--inf and round-to-zero.
312
40
GRLFPC - GRFPU Lite Floating-point unit Controller
40.1
Overview
The GRFPU Lite Floating-Point Unit Controller (GRLFPC) is used to attach the GRFPU Lite floating-point unit (FPU) to the LEON integer unit (IU). It performs decoding and dispatching of the floating-point (FP) operations to the floating-point units as well as managing the floating-point register
file, the floating-point state register (FSR) and the floating-point deferred-trap queue (FQ).
The GRFPU Lite floating-point unit is not pipelined and executes thus only one instruction at a time.
To improve performance, the controller (GRLFPC) allows the GRFPU Lite floating-point unit to execute in parallel with the processor pipeline as long as no new floating-point instructions are pending.
40.2
Floating-Point register file
The floating-point register file contains 32 32-bit floating-point registers (%f0-%f31). The register
file is accessed by floating-point load and store instructions (LDF, LDDF, STD, STDF) and floatingpoint operate instructions (FPop).
In the FT-version, the floating-point register file is protected using 4-bit parity per 32-bit word. The
controller is capable of detecting and correcting one bit error per byte. Errors are corrected using the
instruction restart function in the IU.
40.3
Floating-Point State Register (FSR)
The controller manages the floating-point state register (FSR) containing FPU mode and status information. All fields of the FSR register as defined in SPARC V8 specification are implemented and
managed by the controller conform to the SPARC V8 specification and IEEE-754 standard.
The non-standard bit of the FSR register is not used, all floating-point operation are performed in
standard IEEE-compliant mode.
Following floating-point trap types never occur and are therefore never set in the ftt field:
- unimplemented_FPop: all FPop operations are implemented
- unfinished_FPop: all FPop operation complete with valid result
- invalid_fp_register: no check that double-precision register is 0 mod 2 is performed
The controller implements the qne bit of the FSR register which reads 0 if the floating-point deferredqueue (FQ) is empty and 1 otherwise. The FSR is accessed using LDFSR and STFSR instructions.
40.4
Floating-Point Exceptions and Floating-Point Deferred-Queue
Floating-point unit implements SPARC deferred trap model for floating-point exceptions
(fp_exception). A floating-point exception is caused by a floating-point instruction performing an
operation resulting in one of following conditions:
•
an operation raises IEEE floating-point exception (ftt = IEEE_754_exception) e.g. executing
invalid operation such as 0/0 while the NVM bit of the TEM field id set (invalid exception
enabled).
•
sequence error: abnormal error condition in the FPU due to the erroneous use of the floatingpoint instructions in the supervisor software.
•
hardware_error: uncorrectable parity error is detected in the FP register file
The trap is deferred to the next floating-point instruction (FPop, FP load/store, FP branch) following
the trap-inducing instruction. When the trap is taken the floating-point deferred-queue (FQ) contains
the trap-inducing instruction.
313
After the trap is taken the qne bit of the FSR is set and remains set until the FQ is emptied. STDFQ
instruction reads a double-word from the floating-point deferred queue, the first word is the address of
the instruction and the second word is the instruction code.
314
41
GRGPIO - General Purpose I/O Port
41.1
Overview
The general purpose input output port core is a scalable and provides optional interrupt support. The
port width can be set to 2 - 32 bits through the nbits VHDL generic (i.e. nbits = 16). Interrupt generation and shaping is only available for those I/O lines where the corresponding bit in the imask VHDL
generic has been set to 1.
Each bit in the general purpose input output port can be individually set to input or output, and can
optionally generate an interrupt. For interrupt generation, the input can be filtered for polarity and
level/edge detection.
The figure 136 shows a diagram for one I/O line.
Input
Value
(GPIOO.VAL)
Direction
D
Q
Output
Value
D
Q
Input D
Q
Value
Q
D
PAD
Figure 136. General Purpose I/O Port diagram
41.2
Operation
The I/O ports are implemented as bi-directional buffers with programmable output enable. The input
from each buffer is synchronized by two flip-flops in series to remove potential meta-stability. The
synchronized values can be read-out from the I/O port data register. They are also available on the
GPIOO.VAL signals. The output enable is controlled by the I/O port direction register. A ‘1’ in a bit
position will enable the output buffer for the corresponding I/O line. The output value driven is taken
from the I/O port output register.
Each I/O port can drive a separate interrupt line on the APB interrupt bus. The interrupt number is
equal to the I/O line index (PIO[1] = interrupt 1, etc.). The interrupt generation is controlled by three
registers: interrupt mask, polarity and edge registers. To enable an interrupt, the corresponding bit in
the interrupt mask register must be set. If the edge register is ‘0’, the interrupt is treated as level sensitive. If the polarity register is ‘0’, the interrupt is active low. If the polarity register is ‘1’, the interrupt
is active high. If the edge register is ‘1’, the interrupt is edge-triggered. The polarity register then
selects between rising edge (‘1’) or falling edge (‘0’).
41.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
315
Table 322. General Purpose I/O Port registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
I/O port data register
0x04
I/O port output register
0x08
I/O port direction register
0x0C
Interrupt mask register
0x10
Interrupt polarity register
0x14
Interrupt edge register
Table 323. I/O port data register
31
16
16-1
0
“000..0”
16-1: 0
I/O port input value
I/O port input value
Table 324. I/O port output register
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
0
I/O port output value
I/O port output value
Table 325. I/O port direction register
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
0
I/O port direction value
I/O port direction value (0=output disabled, 1=output enabled)
Table 326. Interrupt mask register
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
0
Interrupt mask
Interrupt mask (0=interrupt masked, 1=intrrupt enabled)
Table 327. Interrupt polarity register
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
0
Interrupt polarity
Interrupt polarity (0=low/falling, 1=high/rising)
Table 328. Interrupt edge register
31
16
16-1
“000..0”
16-1: 0
41.4
0
Interrupt edge
Interrupt edge (0=level, 1=edge)
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x01A. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
316
41.5
Configuration options
Table 329 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 329.Configuration options
41.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
Selects which APB select signal (PSEL) will be used to
access the GPIO unit
0 to NAPBMAX-1
0
paddr
The 12-bit MSB APB address
0 to 16#FFF#
0
pmask
The APB address mask
0 to 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
nbits
Defines the number of bits in the I/O port
1 to 32
8
imask
Defines which I/O lines are provided with interrupt generation and shaping
0 - 16#FFFF#
0
oepol
Select polarity of output enable signals. 0 = active low, 1
= active high.
0-1
0
Signal descriptions
Table 330 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 330.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
GPIOO
OEN[31:0]
Output
I/O port output enable
see oepol
DOUT[31:0]
Output
I/O port outputs
-
VAL[31:0]
Output
The current (synchronized) value of the GPIO
signals
DIN[31:0]
Input
I/O port inputs
GPIOI
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
41.7
Library dependencies
Table 331 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 331.Library dependencies
41.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Signals, component
Component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
ibrary gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity grgpio is
317
generic (
pindex
paddr
pmask
imask
nbits
);
port (
rst
:
clk
:
apbi
:
apbo
:
gpioi :
gpioo :
);
end;
41.9
:
:
:
:
:
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
in
in
in
out
in
out
:=
:=
:=
:=
:=
0;
0;
16#fff#;
16#0000#;
16-- GPIO bits
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
apb_slv_in_type;
apb_slv_out_type;
gpio_in_type;
gpio_out_type
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
signal gpti : gptimer_in_type;
begin
gpio0 : if CFG_GRGPIO_EN /= 0 generate
-- GR GPIO unit
grgpio0: grgpio
generic map( pindex => 11, paddr => 11, imask => CFG_GRGPIO_IMASK, nbits => 8)
port map( rstn, clkm, apbi, apbo(11), gpioi, gpioo);
pio_pads : for i in 0 to 7 generate
pio_pad : iopad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (gpio(i), gpioo.dout(i), gpioo.oen(i), gpioi.din(i));
end generate;
end generate;
318
42
GRSPW - SpaceWire codec with AHB host Interface and RMAP support
42.1
Overview
The GRSPW SpaceWire core provides an interface between the AHB bus and a SpaceWire network.
It implements the SpaceWire standard (ECSS-E-50-12A) with the protocol identification extension
(ECSS-E-50-11). The optional Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) command handler implements the ECSS standard (ECSS-E-50-11).
The GRSPW SpaceWire interface is configured through a set of registers accessed through an APB
interface. Data is transferred through DMA channels using an AHB master interface.
Currently, there is one DMA channel but the core can easily be extended to use separate DMA channels for specific protocols.
There are three clock domains: one for the AHB interface (system clock), one for the transmitter and
one for the receiver. The receiver clock can be twice as fast and the transmitter clock four times as fast
as the system clock whose frequency should be at least 10 MHz.
The core only supports byte addressed 32-bit big-endian host systems.
TxClk
AHB clock domain
D
Transmitter
S
Send
FSM
Transmitter
FIFO
RMAP
Transmitter
DMA Engine
Transmitter
Tx clock domain
Receiver
DMA Engine
LinkInterface
FSM
AHB Master
Interface
Rx clock domain
Registers
RMAP
Receiver
Receiver
AHB FIFO
D
Receiver
N-Char
FIFO
Data
Parallelization
RxClock
S
RxClock
Recovery
Figure 137. Block diagram
APB
Interface
319
42.2
Operation
42.2.1 Overview
The GRSPW can be split into three main parts: the link interface, the AMBA interface and the RMAP
handler. A block diagram of the internal structure can be found in figure 137.
The link interface consists of the receiver, transmitter and the link interface FSM. They handle communication on the SpaceWire network. The AMBA interface consists of the DMA engines, the AHB
master interface and the APB interface. The link interface provides FIFO interfaces to the DMA
engines. These FIFOs are used to transfer N-Chars between the AMBA and SpaceWire domains during reception and transmission.
The RMAP handler is an optional part of the GRSPW which can be enabled with a VHDL generic.
The RMAP handler handles incoming packets which are determined to be RMAP commands instead
of the receiver DMA engine. The RMAP command is decoded and if it is valid, the operation is performed on the AHB bus. If a reply was requested it is automatically transmitted back to the source by
the RMAP transmitter.
The GRSPW is controlled by writing to a set of user registers through the APB interface and three signals: tick-in, rmapen and clkdiv10. The controlled parts are clock-generation, DMA engines, RMAP
handler and the link interface.
The link interface, DMA engines, RMAP handler and AMBA interface are described in section 42.3,
42.4, 42.6 and 42.7 respectively.
42.2.2 Protocol support
The GRSPW only accepts packets with a destination address corresponding to the one set in the node
address register. Packets with address mismatch will be silently discarded (except in promiscuous
mode which is covered in section 42.4.10). The node address register is initialized to the default
address 254 during reset. It can then be changed to some other value by writing to the register.
The GRSPW also requires that the byte following the destination address is a protocol identifier as
specified in part 2 of the SpaceWire standard. It is used to determine to which DMA-channel a packet
is destined. Currently only one channel is available to which all packets (except RMAP commands)
are stored but the GRSPW is prepared to be easily expandable with more DMA channels. Figure 138
shows the packet type expected by the GRSPW.
RMAP (Protocol ID = 0x01) commands are handled separately from other packets if the hardware
RMAP handler is enabled. When enabled, all RMAP commands are processed, executed and replied
in hardware. All RMAP replies received are still stored to the DMA channel. If the RMAP handler is
disabled, all packets are stored to the DMA channel. More information on the RMAP protocol support
is found in section 42.6.
All packets arriving with the extended protocol ID (0x00) are dumped to the DMA channel. This
means that the hardware RMAP command handler will not work if the incoming RMAP packets use
the extended protocol ID. Note also that the reserved extended protocol identifier (ID = 0x000000) are
not ignored by the GRSPW. It is up to the client receiving the packets to ignore them.
When transmitting packets, the address and protocol-ID fields must be included in the buffers from
where data is fetched. They are not automatically added by the GRSPW.
320
Figure 138 shows a packet with a normal protocol identifier. The GRSPW also allows reception and
transmission with extended protocol identifiers but then the hardware RMAP and RMAP CRC calculations will not work.
Addr ProtID D0
D1
D2
D3
..
Dn-2 Dn-1 EOP
Figure 138. The SpaceWire packet with protocol ID that is expected by the GRSPW.
42.3
Link interface
The link interface handles the communication on the SpaceWire network and consists of a transmitter,
receiver, a FSM and FIFO interfaces. An overview of the architecture is found in figure 137.
42.3.1 Link interface FSM
The FSM controls the link interface (a more detailed description is found in the SpaceWire standard).
The low-level protocol handling (the signal and character level of the SpaceWire standard) is handled
by the transmitter and receiver while the FSM in the host domain handles the exchange level.
The link interface FSM is controlled through the control register. The link can be disabled through the
link disable bit, which depending on the current state, either prevents the link interface from reaching
the started state or forces it to the error-reset state. When the link is not disabled, the link interface
FSM is allowed to enter the started state when either the link start bit is set or when a NULL character
has been received and the autostart bit is set.
The current state of the link interface determines which type of characters are allowed to be transmitted which together with the requests made from the host interfaces determine what character will be
sent.
Time-codes are sent when the FSM is in the run-state and a request is made through the time-interface
(described in section 42.3.4).
When the link interface is in the connecting- or run-state it is allowed to send FCTs. FCTs are sent
automatically by the link interface when possible. This is done based on the maximum value of 56 for
the outstanding credit counter and the currently free space in the receiver N-Char FIFO. FCTs are sent
as long as the outstanding counter is less than or equal to 48 and there are at least 8 more empty FIFO
entries than the counter value.
N-Chars are sent in the run-state when they are available from the transmitter FIFO and there are
credits available. NULLs are sent when no other character transmission is requested or the FSM is in
a state where no other transmissions are allowed.
The credit counter (incoming credits) is automatically increased when FCTs are received and
decreased when N-Chars are transmitted. Received N-Chars are stored to the receiver N-Char FIFO
for further handling by the DMA interface. Received Time-codes are handled by the time-interface.
42.3.2 Transmitter
The state of the FSM, credit counters, requests from the time-interface and requests from the DMAinterface are used to decide the next character to be transmitted. The type of character and the character itself (for N-Chars and Time-codes) to be transmitted are presented to the low-level transmitter
which is located in a separate clock-domain.
This is done because one usually wants to run the SpaceWire link on a different frequency than the
host system clock. The GRSPW has a separate clock input which is used to generate the transmitter
clock. More information on transmitter clock generation is found in section 42.8.1. Since the transmitter often runs on high frequency clocks (> 100 MHz) as much logic as possible has been placed in the
system clock domain to minimize power consumption and timing issues.
321
The transmitter logic in the host clock domain decides what character to send next and sets the proper
control signal and presents any needed character to the low-level transmitter as shown in figure 139.
The transmitter handles sends the requested characters and generates parity and control bits as needed.
If no requests are made from the host domain, NULLs are sent as long as the transmitter is enabled.
Most of the signal and character levels of the SpaceWire standard is handled in the transmitter. External LVDS drivers are needed for the data and strobe signals.
D
Transmitter
S
Transmitter Clock Domain
Send Time-code
Send FCT
Send NChar
Time-code[7:0]
NChar[8:0]
Host Clock Domain
Figure 139. Schematic of the link interface transmitter.
A transmission FSM reads N-Chars for transmission from the transmitter FIFO. It is given packet
lengths from the DMA interface and appends EOPs/EEPs and RMAP CRC values if requested. When
it is finished with a packet the DMA interface is notified and a new packet length value is given.
42.3.3 Receiver
The receiver detects connections from other nodes and receives characters as a bit stream on the data
and strobe signals. It is also located in a separate clock domain which runs on a clock generated from
the received data and strobe signals. More information on the clock-generation can be found in section 42.8.1.
The receiver is activated as soon as the link interface leaves the error reset state. Then after a NULL is
received it can start receiving any characters. It detects parity, escape and credit errors which causes
the link interface to enter the error reset state. Disconnections are handled in the link interface part in
the system clock domain because no receiver clock is available when disconnected.
Received Characters are flagged to the host domain and the data is presented in parallel form. The
interface to the host domain is shown in figure 140. L-Chars are the handled automatically by the host
domain link interface part while all N-Chars are stored in the receiver FIFO for further handling. If
two or more consecutive EOPs/EEPs are received all but the first are discarded.
There are no signals going directly from the transmitter clock domain to the receiver clock domain
and vice versa. All the synchronization is done to the system clock.
D
Receiver
S
Receiver Clock Domain
Got Time-code
Got FCT
Got EOP
Got EEP
Got NChar
Time-code[7:0]
NChar[7:0]
Host Clock Domain
Figure 140. Schematic of the link interface receiver.
42.3.4 Time interface
The time interface is used for sending Time-codes over the SpaceWire network and consists of a timecounter register, time-ctrl register, tick-in signal, tick-out signal, tick-in register field and a tick-out
322
register field. There are also two control register bits which enable the time receiver and transmitter
respectively.
Each Time-code sent from the grspw is a concatenation of the time-ctrl and the time-counter register.
There is a timetxen bit which is used to enable Time-code transmissions. It is not possible to send
time-codes if this bit is zero.
Received Time-codes are stored to the same time-ctrl and time-counter registers which are used for
transmission. The timerxen bit in the control register is used for enabling time-code reception. No
time-codes will be received if this bit is zero.
The two enable bits are used for insuring that a node will not (accidentally) both transmit and receive
time-codes which violates the SpaceWire standard. It also insures that a the master sending timecodes on a network will not have its time-counter overwritten if another (faulty) node starts sending
time-codes.
The time-counter register is set to 0 after reset and is incremented each time the tick-in signal is
asserted for one clock-period and the timetxen bit is set. This also causes the link interface to send the
new value on the network. Tick-in can be generated either by writing a one to the register field or by
asserting the tick-in signal. A Tick-in should not be generated too often since if the time-code after the
previous Tick-in has not been sent the register will not be incremented and no new value will be sent.
The tick-in field is automatically cleared when the value has been sent and thus no new ticks should
be generated until this field is zero. If the tick-in signal is used there should be at least 4 system-clock
and 25 transmit-clock cycles between each assertion.
A tick-out is generated each time a valid time-code is received and the timerxen bit is set. When the
tick-out is generated the tick-out signal will be asserted one clock-cycle and the tick-out register field
is asserted until it is cleared by writing a one to it.
The current time counter value can be read from the time register. It is updated each time a Time-code
is received and the timerxen bit is set. The same register is used for transmissions and can also be
written directly from the APB interface.
The control bits of the Time-code are always stored to the time-ctrl register when a Time-code is
received whose time-count is one more than the nodes current time-counter register. The time-ctrl register can be read through the APB interface. The same register is used during time-code transmissions.
It is possible to have both the time-transmission and reception functions enabled at the same time.
42.4
Receiver DMA engine
The receiver DMA engine handles reception of data from the SpaceWire network to different DMA
channels. Currently there is only one receive DMA channel available but the GRSPW has been written so that additional channels can be easily added if needed.
42.4.1 Basic functionality
The receiver DMA engine reads N-Chars from the N-Char FIFO and stores them to a DMA channel.
Reception is based on descriptors located in a consecutive area in memory that hold pointers to buffers where packets should be stored. When a packet arrives at the GRSPW it reads a descriptor from
memory and stores the packet to the memory area pointed to by the descriptor. Then it stores status to
the same descriptor and increments the descriptor pointer to the next one.
42.4.2 Setting up the GRSPW for reception
A few registers need to be initialized before reception can take place. First the link interface need to
be put in the run state before any data can be sent. The DMA channel has a maximum length register
which sets the maximum size of packet that can be received to this channel. Larger packets are truncated and the excessive part is spilled. If this happens an indication will be given in the status field of
the descriptor. The minimum value for the receiver maximum length field is 4 and the value can only
323
be incremented in steps of four bytes. If the maximum length is set to zero the receiver will not function correctly.
The node address register needs to be set to hold the address of this SpaceWire node. Packets received
with the incorrect address are discarded. Finally, the descriptor table and control register must be initialized. This will be described in the two following sections.
42.4.3 Setting up the descriptor table address
The GRSPW reads descriptors from a area in memory pointed to by the receiver descriptor table
address register. The register consists of a base address and a descriptor selector. The base address
points to the beginning of the area and must start on a 1 kbytes aligned address. It is also limited to be
1 kbytes in size which means the maximum number of descriptors is 128.
The descriptor selector points to individual descriptors and is increased by 1 when a descriptor has
been used. When the selector reaches the upper limit of the area it wraps to the beginning automatically. It can also be set to wrap automatically by setting a bit in the descriptors. The idea is that the
selector should be initialized to 0 (start of the descriptor area) but it can also be written with another 8
bytes aligned value to start somewhere in the middle of the area. It will still wrap to the beginning of
the area.
If one wants to use a new descriptor table the receiver enable bit has to be cleared first. When the
rxactive bit for the channel is cleared it is safe to update the descriptor table register. When this is finished and descriptors are enabled the receiver enable bit can be set again.
42.4.4 Enabling descriptors
As mentioned earlier one or more descriptors must be enabled before reception can take place. Each
descriptor is 8 byte in size and the layout is shown in figure 141. The descriptors should be written to
the memory area pointed to by the receiver descriptor table address register. When new descriptors are
added they must always be placed after the previous one written to the area. Otherwise they will not
be noticed.
A descriptor is enabled by setting the address pointer to point at a location where data can be stored
and then setting the enable bit. The WR bit can be set to cause the selector to be set to zero when
reception has finished to this descriptor. IE should be set if an interrupt is wanted when the reception
has finished. The DMA control register interrupt enable bit must also be set for this to happen.
The descriptor packet address should be word aligned. All accesses on the bus are word accesses so
complete words will always be overwritten regardless of whether all 32-bit contain received data.
Also if the packet does not end on a word boundary the complete word containing the last data byte
will be overwritten. If the rxunaligned or rmap VHDL generic is set to 1 this restriction is removed
and a number of bytes can be received to any packet address without excessive bytes being overwritten.
324
31
0x0
30 29
28 27
26 25
0
24
PACKET LENGTH
TR DC HC EP IE WR EN
31
0
0x4
PACKET ADDRESS
24-0:
25:
26:
27:
28:
29:
30:
31:
31-0:
Packet Length - The number of bytes received to this buffer. Only valid after EN has been set
to 0 by the GRSPW.
Enable (EN) - Set to one to activate this descriptor. This means that the descriptor contains
valid control values and the memory area pointed to by the packet address field can be used to
store a packet.
Wrap (WR) - If set, the next descriptor used by the GRSPW will be the first one in the
descriptor table (at the base address). Otherwise the descriptor pointer will be increased with
0x8 to use the descriptor at the next higher memory location. The descriptor table is limited to
1 kbytes in size and the pointer will be automatically wrap back to the base address when it
reaches the 1 kbytes boundary.
Interrupt Enable (IE) - If set, an interrupt will be generated when a packet has been received if
the receive interrupt enable bit in the DMA channel control register is set.
EEP Termination (EP) - This packet ended with an Error End of Packet character.
Header CRC (HC) - 1 if a CRC error was detected for the header and 0 otherwise.
Data CRC (DC) - 1 if a CRC error was detected for the data and 0 otherwise.
Truncated (TR) - Packet was truncated due to maximum length violation.
Packet Address - The address pointing at the buffer which will be used to store the received
packet. If the rxunaligned and rmap VHDL generics are both set to zero only bit 31 to 2 are
used.
Figure 141. SpaceWire Receive descriptor. Address offsets are shown in the left margin.
42.4.5 Setting up the DMA control register
To final step to receive packets is to set the control register in the following steps: The receiver must
be enabled by setting the rxen bit in the DMA control register (see section 42.9). This can be done
anytime and before this bit is set nothing will happen. The rxdescav bit in the DMA control register is
then set to indicate that there are new active descriptors. This must always be done after the descriptors have been enabled or the GRSPW might not notice the new descriptors. More descriptors can be
activated when reception has already started by enabling the descriptors and writing the rxdescav bit.
When these bits are set reception will start immediately when data is arriving.
42.4.6 The effect to the control bits during reception
When the receiver is disabled all packets going to the DMA-channel are discarded. If the receiver is
enabled the next state is entered where the rxdescav bit is checked. This bit indicates whether there are
active descriptors or not and should be set by the external application using the DMA channel each
time descriptors are enabled as mentioned above. If the rxdescav bit is ‘0’ and the nospill bit is ‘0’ the
packets will be discarded. If nospill is one the grspw waits until rxdescav is set.
When rxdescav is set the next descriptor is read and if enabled the packet is received to the buffer. If
the read descriptor is not enabled, rxdescav is set to ‘0’ and the packet is spilled depending on the
value of nospill.
The receiver can be disabled at any time and will cause all packets received afterwards to be discarded. If a packet is currently received when the receiver is disabled the reception will still be finished. The rxdescav bit can also be cleared at any time. It will not affect any ongoing receptions but
no more descriptors will be read until it is set again. Rxdescav is also cleared by the GRSPW when it
reads a disabled descriptor.
325
42.4.7 Address recognition and packet handling
When the receiver N-Char FIFO is not empty, N-Chars are read by the receiver DMA engine. The
first character is interpreted as the logical address which is compared to the node address register. If it
does not match, the complete packet is discarded (up to and including the next EOP/EEP). Otherwise
the next action taken depends on whether the node is configured with RMAP or not. If RMAP is disabled all packets are stored to the DMA channel and depending on the conditions mentioned in the
previous section, the packet will be received or not. If the packet is received complete packet including address and protocol ID but excluding EOP/EEP is stored to the address indicated in the descriptor, otherwise the complete packet is discarded.
If RMAP is enabled the protocol ID and 3rd byte in the packet is first checked before any decisions
are made. If incoming packet is an RMAP packet (ID = 0x01) and the command type field is 01b the
packet is processed by the RMAP command handler which is described in section 42.6. Otherwise the
packet is processed by the DMA engine as when RMAP is disabled.
At least 2 non EOP/EEP N-Chars needs to be received for a packet to be stored to the DMA channel.
If it is an RMAP packet with hardware RMAP enabled 3 N-Chars are needed since the command byte
determines where the packet is processed. Packets smaller than these sizes are discarded.
42.4.8 Status bits
When the reception of a packet is finished the enable bit in the current descriptor is set to zero. When
enable is zero, the status bits are also valid and the number of received bytes is indicated in the length
field. The DMA control register contains a status bit which is set each time a packet has been
received. The GRSPW can also be made to generate an interrupt for this event as mentioned in section.
RMAP CRC is always checked for all packets when CRC logic is included in the implementation
(rmapcrc or rmap VHDL generic set to 1). If the received packet is not of RMAP type the CRC error
indication bits in the descriptor should be ignored. If the received packet is of RMAP type the bits are
valid and the HC bit is set if a header CRC error was detected. In this case, the data CRC will not be
calculated at all and the DC bit is undefined. If the header CRC was correct the DC bit will also contain a valid value and is set to one if a data CRC error was detected.
42.4.9 Error handling
If a packet reception needs to be aborted because of congestion on the network, the suggested solution
is to set link disable to ‘1’. Unfortunately, this will also cause the packet currently being transmitted to
be truncated but this is the only safe solution since packet reception is a passive operation depending
on the transmitter at the other end. A channel reset bit could be provided but is not a satisfactory solution since the untransmitted characters would still be in the transmitter node. The next character
(somewhere in the middle of the packet) would be interpreted as the node address which would probably cause the packet to be discarded but not with 100% certainty. Usually this action is performed
when a reception has stuck because of the transmitter not providing more data. The channel reset
would not resolve this congestion.
If an AHB error occurs during reception the current packet is spilled up to and including the next
EEP/EOP and then the currently active channel is disabled and the receiver enters the idle state. A bit
in the channels control/status register is set to indicate this condition.
42.4.10 Promiscuous mode
The GRSPW supports a promiscuous mode where all the data received is stored to the DMA channel
regardless of the node address and possible early EOPs/EEPs. This means that all non-eop/eep NChars received will be stored to the DMA channel. The rxmaxlength register is still checked and
packets exceeding this size will be truncated.
326
If the RMAP handler is present, RMAP commands will still be handled by it when promiscuous mode
is enabled if the rmapen bit is set. If it is cleared, RMAP commands will also be stored to the DMA
channel.
42.5
Transmitter DMA engine
The transmitter DMA engine handles transmission of data from the DMA channel to the SpaceWire
network. Currently there is only one DMA channel available but the GRSPW has been written so that
additional DMA channels can be easily added if needed.
42.5.1 Basic functionality
The transmit DMA engine reads data from the AHB bus and stores them in the transmitter FIFO for
transmission on the SpaceWire network. Transmission is based on the same type of descriptors as for
the receiver and the descriptor table has the same alignment and size restrictions. When there are new
descriptors enabled the GRSPW reads them and transfer the amount data indicated.
42.5.2 Setting up the GRSPW for transmission
Four steps need to be performed before transmissions can be done with the GRSPW. First the link
interface must be enabled and started by writing the appropriate value to the ctrl register. Then the
address to the descriptor table needs to be written to the transmitter descriptor table address register
and one or more descriptors must also be enabled in the table. Finally, the txen bit in the DMA control
register is written with a one which triggers the transmission. These steps will be covered in more
detail in the next sections.
42.5.3 Enabling descriptors
The descriptor table address register works in the same way as the receiver’s corresponding register
which was covered in section 42.4.
To transmit packets one or more descriptors have to be initialized in memory which is done in the following way: The number of bytes to be transmitted and a pointer to the data has to be set. There are
two different length and address fields in the transmit descriptors because there are separate pointers
for header and data. If a length field is zero the corresponding part of a packet is skipped and if both
are zero no packet is sent. The maximum header length is 255 bytes and the maximum data length is
16 Mbyte - 1. When the pointer and length fields have been set the enable should be set to enable the
descriptor. This must always be done last. The other control bits must also be set before enabling the
descriptor.
The transmit descriptors are 16 bytes in size so the maximum number in a single table is 64. The different fields of the descriptor is shown in figure 142 together with the memory offsets.
The CC field should be set if RMAP CRC should be calculated and inserted for the current packet.
This field is only used by the GRSPW when the CRC logic is available (rmap or rmapcrc VHDL
generic set to 1). The first CRC will be calculated from the data fetched from the header pointer and
the data CRC is generated from data fetched from the data pointer. The CRCs are appended after the
corresponding fields. The NON-CRC bytes field is set to the number of bytes in the beginning of the
header field that should not be included in the CRC calculation.
The CRC is skipped if the corresponding field is zero. If both fields are zero nothing will be sent not
even an EOP.
42.5.4 Starting transmissions
When the descriptors have been initialized, the transmit enable bit in the DMA control register has to
be set to tell the GRSPW to start transmitting. New descriptors can be activated in the table on the fly
(while transmission is active). Each time a set of descriptors is added the transmit enable register bit
327
should be set. This has to be done because each time the GRSPW encounters a disabled descriptor this
register bit is set to 0.
16
31
0x0
15
CC LE
14
IE
13
12
WR EN
11
8
7
NON-CRC BYTES
0
HEADER LENGTH
31
0
0x4
HEADER ADDRESS
24 23
31
0x8
0
DATA LENGTH
31
0
0xC
DATA ADDRESS
7-0:
11-8:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
31-0:
23-0:
31-0:
Header Length - Header Length in bytes. If set to zero, the header is skipped.
Non-CRC bytes - Sets the number of bytes in the beginning of the header which should not be
included in the CRC calculation. This is necessary when using path addressing since one or
more bytes in the beginning of the packet might be discarded before the packet reaches its
destination.
Enable (EN) - Enable transmitter descriptor. When all control fields (address, length, wrap and
crc) are set, this bit should be set. While the bit is set the descriptor should not be touched since
this might corrupt the transmission. The GRSPW clears this bit when the transmission has
finished.
Wrap (WR) - If set, the descriptor pointer will wrap and the next descriptor read will be the
first one in the table (at the base address). Otherwise the pointer is increased with 0x10 to use
the descriptor at the next higher memory location.
Interrupt Enable (IE) - If set, an interrupt will be generated when the packet has been
transmitted and the transmitter interrupt enable bit in the DMA control register is set.
Link Error (LE) - A Link error occurred during the transmission of this packet.
Calculate CRC (CC) - If set, two CRC values according to the RMAP specification will be
generated and appended to the packet. The first CRC will be appended after the data pointed
to by the header address field and the second is appended after the data pointed to by the data
address field.
Header Address - Address from where the packet header is fetched. Does not need to be word
aligned.
Data Length - Length of data part of packet. If set to zero, no data will be sent. If both dataand header-lengths are set to zero no packet will be sent.
Data Address - Address from where data is read. Does not need to be word aligned.
Figure 142. SpaceWire Transmitter descriptor. Address offsets are shown in the left margin.
42.5.5 The transmissions process
When the txen bit is set the GRSPW starts reading descriptors immediately. The number of bytes indicated are read and transmitted. When a transmission has finished, status will be written to the first
field of the descriptor and a packet sent bit is set in the DMA control register. If an interrupt was
requested it will also be generated. Then a new descriptor is read and if enabled a new transmission
starts, otherwise the transmit enable bit is cleared and nothing will happen until it is enabled again.
42.5.6 The descriptor table address register
The internal pointer which is used to keep the current position in the descriptor table can be read and
written through the APB interface. This pointer is set to zero during reset and is incremented each
time a descriptor is used. It wraps automatically when the 1 kbytes limit for the descriptor table is
reached or it can be set to wrap earlier by setting a bit in the current descriptor.
328
The descriptor table register can be updated with a new table anytime when no transmission is active.
No transmission is active if the transmit enable bit is zero and the complete table has been sent or if
the table is aborted (explained below). If the table is aborted one has to wait until the transmit enable
bit is zero before updating the table pointer.
42.5.7 Error handling
The DMA control register contains a bit called Abort TX which if set causes the current transmission
to be aborted, the packet is truncated and an EEP is inserted. This is only useful if the packet needs to
be aborted because of congestion on the SpaceWire network. If the congestion is on the AHB bus this
will not help (This should not be a problem since AHB slaves should have a maximum of 16 waitstates). The aborted packet will have its LE bit set in the descriptor. The transmit enable register bit is
also cleared and no new transmissions will be done until the transmitter is enabled again.
When an AHB error is encountered during transmission the currently active DMA channel is disabled, the packet is truncated and an EEP is inserted (if the transmission has started) and the transmitter goes to the idle mode. A bit in the DMA channel’s control/status register is set to indicate this error
condition. The client using the channel has to correct the error and enable the channel again.
42.6
RMAP
The Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) is used to implement access to resources in the node
via the SpaceWire Link. Some common operations are reading and writing to memory, registers and
FIFOs. The GRSPW has an optional hardware RMAP command handler which is enabled with a
VHDL generic. This section describes the basics of the RMAP protocol and the command handler
implementation.
42.6.1 Fundamentals of the protocol
RMAP is a protocol which is designed to provide remote access via a SpaceWire network to memory
mapped resources on a SpaceWire node. It has been assigned protocol ID 0x01. It provides three operations write, read and read-modify-write. These operations are posted operations which means that a
source does not wait for an acknowledge or reply. It also implies that any number of operations can be
outstanding at any time and that no timeout mechanism is implemented in the protocol. Time-outs
must be implemented in the user application which sends the commands. Data payloads of up to 16
Mb - 1 is supported in the protocol. A destination can be requested to send replies and to verify data
before executing an operation. A complete description of the protocol is found in the RMAP standard.
42.6.2 Implementation
The GRSPW includes an handler for RMAP commands which processes all incoming packets with
protocol ID = 0x01 and type field (bit 7 and 6 of the 3rd byte in the packet) equal to 01b. When such a
packet is detected it is not stored to the DMA channel, instead it is passed to the RMAP receiver.
The GRSPW implements all three commands defined in the standard with some restrictions. The
implementation is based on draft C of the RMAP standard. Support is only provided for 32-bit bigendian systems. This means that the first byte received is the msb in a word. The command handler
will not receive RMAP packets using the extended protocol ID which are always dumped to the DMA
channel.
The RMAP receiver processes commands. If they are correct and accepted the operation is performed
on the AHB bus and a reply is formatted. If an acknowledge is requested the RMAP transmitter automatically send the reply. RMAP transmissions have priority over DMA channel transmissions.
Packets with a mismatching destination logical address are never passed to the RMAP handler. There
is a user accessible destination key register which is compared to destination key field in incoming
packets. If there is a mismatch and a reply has been requested the error code in the reply is set to 3.
Replies are sent if and only if the ack field is set to ‘1’.
329
Detection of all error codes is supported. When a failure occurs during a bus access the error code is
set to 1 (General Error). There is predetermined order in which error-codes are set in the case of multiple errors in the GRSPW. It is shown in table 332.
Table 332.The order of error detection in case of multiple errors in the GRSPW. The error detected first has number 1.
Detection Order
Error Code
Error
1
2
RMAP command not supported by node
2
3
Invalid destination key
3
11
RMW data length error
4
9
Verify buffer overrun
5
10
Authorization failure
6
5/6
Early EOP/EEP
7
4
Invalid data CRC
8
7/8
Late EOP/EEP
Read accesses are performed on the fly, that is they are not stored in a temporary buffer before transmitting. This means that the error code 1 will never be seen in a read reply since the header has
already been sent when the data is read. If the AHB error occurs the packet will be truncated and
ended with an EEP.
The details of the support for the different commands are now presented. All defined commands
which are received but have an option set which is not supported in this specific implementation will
not be executed and a possible reply is sent with error code 10.
42.6.3 Write commands
The write commands are divided into two subcategories when examining their capabilities: verified
writes and non-verified writes. Verified writes have a length restriction of 4 B and the address must be
aligned to the size. That is 1 B writes can be done to any address, 2 B must be halfword aligned, 3 B
are not allowed and 4 B writes must be word aligned. Since there will always be only on AHB operation performed for each RMAP verified write command the incrementing address bit can be set to any
value.
Non-verified writes have no restrictions when the incrementing bit is set to 1. If it is set to 0 the number of bytes must be a multiple of 4 and the address word aligned. There is no guarantee how many
words will be written when early EOP/EEP is detected for non-verified writes.
42.6.4 Read commands
Read commands are performed on the fly when the reply is sent. Thus if an AHB error occurs the
packet will be truncated and ended with an EEP. There are no restrictions for incrementing reads but
non-incrementing reads have the same alignment restrictions as non-verified writes. Note that the
“Authorization failure” error code will be sent in the reply if a violation was detected even if the
length field was zero.
42.6.5 RMW commands
All read-modify-write sizes are supported except 6 which will lead to 3 B being read and written on
the bus. The RMW bus accesses have the same restrictions as the verified writes. As in the verified
write case, the incrementing bit can be set to any value since only one AHB bus operation will be performed for each RMW command,
42.6.6 Control
The RMAP command handler mostly runs in the background without any external intervention, but
there are a few control possibilities.
330
There is an enable bit in the control register of the GRSPW which can be used to completely disable
the RMAP command handler. When it is set to ‘0’ no RMAP packets will be handled in hardware,
instead they are all stored to the DMA channel.
There is a possibility that RMAP commands will not be performed in the order they arrive. This can
happen if a read arrives before one or more writes. Since the command handler stores replies in a
buffer with more than one entry several commands can be processed even if no replies are sent. Data
for read replies is read when the reply is sent and thus writes coming after the read might have been
performed already if there was congestion in the transmitter. To avoid this the RMAP buffer disable
bit can be set to force the command handler to only use one buffer which prevents this situation.
The last control option for the command handler is the possibility to set the destination key which is
found in a separate register.
331
Table 333.GRSPW hardware RMAP handling of different packet type and command fields.
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Command
Action
Reserved
Verify
data
Command Write / before
/ Response Read
write
Acknow- Increment
ledge
Address
0
0
-
-
-
-
Response
Stored to DMA-channel.
0
1
0
0
0
0
Not used
Does nothing. No reply is sent.
0
1
0
0
0
1
Not used
Does nothing. No reply is sent.
0
1
0
0
1
0
Read single
address
Executed normally. Address has
to be word aligned and data size
a multiple of four. Reply is sent.
If alignment restrictions are violated error code is set to 10.
0
1
0
0
1
1
Read incrementing
address.
Executed normally. No restrictions. Reply is sent.
0
1
0
1
0
0
Not used
Does nothing. No reply is sent.
0
1
0
1
0
1
Not used
Does nothing. No reply is sent.
0
1
0
1
1
0
Not used
Does nothing. Reply is sent with
error code 2.
0
1
0
1
1
1
Read-Modify-Write
incrementing address
Executed normally. If length is
not one of the allowed rmw values nothing is done and error
code is set to 11. If the length
was correct, alignment restrictions are checked next. 1 byte
can be rmw to any address. 2
bytes must be halfword aligned.
3 bytes are not allowed. 4 bytes
must be word aligned. If these
restrictions are violated nothing
is done and error code is set to
10. If an AHB error occurs error
code is set to 1. Reply is sent.
0
1
1
0
0
0
Write, single-address,
do not verify
before writing, no
acknowledge
Executed normally. Address has
to be word aligned and data size
a multiple of four. If alignment is
violated nothing is done. No
reply is sent.
0
1
1
0
0
1
Write, incrementing
address, do
not verify
before writing, no
acknowledge
Executed normally. No restrictions. No reply is sent.
0
1
1
0
1
0
Write, single-address,
do not verify
before writing, send
acknowledge
Executed normally. Address has
to be word aligned and data size
a multiple of four. If alignment is
violated nothing is done and
error code is set to 10. If an AHB
error occurs error code is set to 1.
Reply is sent.
332
Table 333.GRSPW hardware RMAP handling of different packet type and command fields.
42.7
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Command
Action
Reserved
Verify
data
Command Write / before
/ Response Read
write
Acknow- Increment
ledge
Address
0
1
1
0
1
1
Write, incrementing
address, do
not verify
before writing, send
acknowledge
Executed normally. No restrictions. If AHB error occurs error
code is set to 1. Reply is sent.
0
1
1
1
0
0
Write, single
address, verify before
writing, no
acknowledge
Executed normally. Length must
be 4 or less. Otherwise nothing is
done. Same alignment restrictions apply as for rmw. No reply
is sent.
0
1
1
1
0
1
Write, incrementing
address, verify before
writing, no
acknowledge
Executed normally. Length must
be 4 or less. Otherwise nothing is
done. Same alignment restrictions apply as for rmw. If they
are violated nothing is done. No
reply is sent.
0
1
1
1
1
0
Write, single
address, verify before
writing, send
acknowledge
Executed normally. Length must
be 4 or less. Otherwise nothing is
done and error code is set to 9.
Same alignment restrictions
apply as for rmw. If they are violated nothing is done and error
code is set to 10. If an AHB error
occurs error code is set to 1.
Reply is sent.
0
1
1
1
1
1
Write, incrementing
address, verify before
writing, send
acknowledge
Executed normally. Length must
be 4 or less. Otherwise nothing is
done and error code is set to 9.
Same alignment restrictions
apply as for rmw. If they are violated nothing is done and error
code is set to 10. If an AHB error
occurs error code is set to 1.
Reply is sent.
1
0
-
-
-
-
Unused
Stored to DMA-channel.
1
1
-
-
-
-
Unused
Stored to DMA-channel.
AMBA interface
The AMBA interface consists of an APB interface, an AHB master interface and DMA FIFOs. The
APB interface provides access to the user registers which are described in section 42.9. The DMA
engines have 32-bit wide FIFOs to the AHB master interface which are used when reading and writing to the bus.
The transmitter DMA engine reads data from the bus in bursts which are half the FIFO size in length.
A burst is always started when the FIFO is half-empty or if it can hold the last data for the packet. The
burst containing the last data might have shorter length if the packet is not an even number of bursts in
size.
333
The receiver DMA works in the same way except that it checks if the FIFO is half-full and then performs a burst write to the bus which is half the fifo size in length. The last burst might be shorter.
There might be 1 to 3 single byte writes when writing the beginning and end of the received packets,
if the rmap or rxunaligned VHDL generics are set to 1.
42.7.1 APB slave interface
As mentioned above, the APB interface provides access to the user registers which are 32-bits in
width. The accesses to this interface are required to be aligned word accesses. The result is undefined
if this restriction is violated.
42.7.2 AHB master interface
The GRSPW contains a single master interface which is used by both the transmitter and receiver
DMA engines. The arbitration algorithm between the channels is done so that if the current owner
requests the interface again it will always acquire it. This will not lead to starvation problems since the
DMA engines always deassert their requests between accesses.
The AHB accesses are always word accesses (HSIZE = 0x010) of type incremental burst with unspecified length (HBURST = 0x001) if rmap and rxunaligned are disabled. Otherwise the accesses can be
of size byte, halfword and word (HSIZE = 0x000, 0x001, 0x010). Byte and halfword accesses are
always NONSEQ.
The burst length will be half the AHB FIFO size except for the last transfer for a packet which might
be smaller. Shorter accesses are also done during descriptor reads and status writes.
The AHB master also supports non-incrementing accesses where the address will be constant for several consecutive accesses. HTRANS will always be NONSEQ in this case while for incrementing
accesses it is set to SEQ after the first access. This feature is included to support non-incrementing
reads and writes for RMAP.
If the GRSPW does not need the bus after a burst has finished there will be one wasted cycle
(HTRANS = IDLE).
BUSY transfer types are never requested and the core provides full support for ERROR, RETRY and
SPLIT responses.
42.8
Synthesis and hardware
42.8.1 Clock-generation
Figure 143 shows the clock recovery scheme for the receiver. Data and strobe are coupled directly
from their pads to an xor gate which generates the clock. The output from the xor is then connected to
a clock network. The specific type of clock network depends on the technology used. The xor gate is
actually all that logically belongs to the Rx clock recovery module in figure 143.
The clock output drives all flip-flops in the receiver module found in figure 137. The data signal
which is used for generating the clock is also coupled to the data inputs of several flip-flops clocked
334
by the Rx clock as seen in figure 143. Care must be taken so that the delay from the data and strobe
signals through the clock network are longer than the delay to the data input + setup time.
D
Q
D
Q
D
S
Figure 143. The clocking scheme for the receiver. The clock is
The transmitter clock is generated from the txclk input. A separate clock input is used to allow the
transmitter to be run at much higher frequencies than the system clock. The SpaceWire node contains
a clock-divider which divides the txclk signal to the wanted frequency. The transmitter clock should
be 10 MHz during initialization and any frequency above 2 MHz in the run-state.
There is an input signal called clkdiv10 which sets the clock divisor value during initialization and the
reset value for the user accessible clock divisor register. The user register value will be used in runstate. The resulting tx clock frequency will be txclk/(clock divisor value+1). So if no clock division is
wanted, the clock divisor should be set to 0.
Since only integer values are allowed for the clock division and the required init-frequency is 10 Mhz
the frequency of the txclk input must be a multiple of 10 MHz. The clock divisor value is 8-bits wide
so the maximum txclk frequency supported is 2.56 GHz (note that there is also a restriction on the
relation between the system and transmit clock frequencies).
42.8.2 Timers
There are two timers in the grpsw: one for generating the 6.4/12.8 us periods and one for disconnect
timing. The system clock frequency must be at least 10 MHz to guarantee disconnect timing limits.
There are two user accessible registers which are used to the set the number of clock cycles used for
the timeout periods. These registers are described in section 42.9.
The reset value for the timer registers can be set in two different ways selected by the usegen VHDL
generic. If usegen is set to 1, the sysfreq VHDL generic is used to generate reset values for the disconnect, 6.4 us and 12.8 us timers. Otherwise, the input signals dcrstval and timerrstval will be used as
reset values. If the system clock frequency is 10 MHz or above the disconnect time will be within the
limits specified in the SpaceWire standard.
42.8.3 Synchronization
The VHDL generic nsync selects how many synchronization registers are used between clock
domains. The default is one and should be used when maximum performance is needed. It allows the
transmitter to be clocked 4 times faster than the system clock and the receiver 2 times faster. These are
theoretical values without consideration for clock skew and jitter. Note also that the receiver clocks
data at both negative and positive edges. Thus, the bitrate is twice as high as the clock-rate.
The synchronization limits the Tx and Rx clocks to be at most 4 and 2 times faster than the system
clock. But it might not be possible to achieve such high clock rates for the Tx and Rx clocks for all
technologies.
The asynchronous reset to the receiver clock domain has to have a maximum delay of one receiver
clock cycle to ensure correct operation. This is needed because the receiver uses has a completely
335
asynchronous reset. To make sure that nothing bad happens the is a synchronous reset guard which
prevents any signals from being assigned before all registers have their reset signals released.
42.8.4 Fault-tolerance
The GRSPW core can optionally be implemented with fault-tolerance against SEU errors in the FIFO
memories. The fault-tolerance is enabled through the ft VHDL generic. Possible options are byte parity protection (ft = 1) or TMR registers (ft = 2). Note: the GPL version of GRLIB does not include
fault-tolerance, and the GRSPW core will not work unless the ft VHDL generic is 0.
42.8.5 Synthesis
Since the receiver and transmitter may run on very high frequency clocks their clock signals have
been coupled through a clock buffer with a technology wrapper. This clock buffer will utilize a low
skew net available in the selected technology for the clock.
The clock buffer will also enable most synthesis tools to recognize the clocks and it is thus easier to
find them and place constraints on them. The fact there are three clock domains in the GRSPW of
which all are possibly high frequency clocks makes it necessary to declare all paths between the clock
domains as false paths.
In Synplify this is most easily done by declaring all the clocks to be in different clockgroups in the sdc
file (if Synplify does not automatically put them in different groups). This will disable any timing
considerations between the clock domains and these constraints will also propagate to the place and
route tool.
The type of clock buffer is selectable with a VHDL generic and the value zero provides a normal feed
through which lets the synthesis tool infer the type of net used.
42.9
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 334.GRSPW registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
Control
0x4
Status/Interrupt-source
0x8
Node address
0xC
Clock divisor
0x10
Destination key
0x14
Time
0x18
Timer and Disconnect
0x20
DMA channel 1 control/status
0x24
DMA channel 1 rx maximum length
0x28
DMA channel 1 transmit descriptor table address.
0x2C
DMA channel 1 receive descriptor table address.
336
31 30 29 28
RA RX RC
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
8:
9:
10:
11:
16:
17:
29:
30:
31:
18 17 16 15
RESERVED
RD RE
11 10 9
8
TR TT LI TQ
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RS PM TI IE AS LS LD
Link Disable (LD) - Disable the SpaceWire codec. Reset value: ‘0’.
Link Start (LS) - Start the link, i.e. allow a transition from ready to started state. Reset value:
‘1’.
Autostart (AS) - Automatically start the link when a NULL has been received. Not reset.
Interrupt Enable (IE) - If set, an interrupt is generated when one of bit 8 to 10 is set and its
corresponding event occurs. Reset value: ‘0’.
Tick In (TI) - The host can generate a tick by writing a one to this field. This will increment the
timer counter and the new value is transmitted after the current character is transferred. A tick
can also be generated by asserting the tick_in signal. Reset value : ‘0’.
Promiscuous Mode (PM) - Enable Promiscuous mode. Reset value: ‘0’.
Reset (RS) - Make complete reset of the SpaceWire node. Self clearing. Reset value: ‘0’.
Tick-out IRQ (TQ) - Generate interrupt when a valid time-code is received. Not reset.
Link error IRQ (LI) - Generate interrupt when a link error occurs. Not reset.
Time Tx Enable (TT) - Enable time-code transmissions. Reset value: ‘0’.
Time Rx Enable (TR) - Enable time-code receptions. Reset value: ‘0’.
RMAP Enable (RE) - Enable RMAP command handler. Only available if rmap VHDL generic
is set to 1. Reset value: ‘1’.
RMAP buffer disable (RD) - If set only one RMAP buffer is used. This ensures that all RMAP
commands will be executed consecutively. Reset value: ‘0’.
RMAP CRC available - Set to one if RMAP CRC is enabled in the core. Only readable.
Rx Unaligned access - Set to one if unaligned writes are available for the receiver. Only
readable.
RMAP available - Set to one if the RMAP command handler is available. Only readable.
Figure 144. GRSPW control register.
337
24 23 21
31
LS
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
6:
7:
8:
23-21:
8
7
6
EE IA WE
5
4
3
2
1
PE DE ER CE TO
Tick Out (TO) - A new time count value was received and is stored in the time counter field.
Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Credit Error (CE) - A credit has occurred. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Escape Error (ER) - An escape error has occurred. Cleared when written with a one. Reset
value: ‘0’.
Disconnect Error (DE) - A disconnection error has occurred. Cleared when written with a one.
Reset value: ‘0’.
Parity Error (PE) - A parity error has occurred. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value:
‘0’.
Write synchronization Error (WE) - A synchronization problem has occurred when receiving
N-Chars. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Invalid Address (IA) - Set to one when a packet is received with an invalid destination address
field, i.e it does not match the nodeaddr register. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value:
‘0’.
Early EOP/EEP (EE) - Set to one when a packet is received with an EOP after the first byte for
a non-rmap packet and after the second byte for a RMAP packet. Cleared when written with a
one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Link State (LS) - The current state of the start-up sequence. 0 = Error-reset, 1 = Error-wait, 2
= Ready, 3 = Started, 4 = Connecting, 5 = Run. Reset value: 0.
Figure 145. GRSPW status register
8
31
0
7
RESERVED
7 - 0:
NODE ADDRESS
8-bit node address used for node identification on the SpaceWire network. Reset value: 254.
Figure 146. GRSPW node address register.
8
31
0
7
CLOCK DIVISOR
RESERVED
7 - 0:
8-bit Clock divisor value used for the clock-divider when the link-interface is in the run-state.
The actual divisor value is Clock Divisor register + 1. Reset value: clkdiv10 input signal.
Figure 147. GRSPW clock divisor register
8
31
RESERVED
7 - 0:
0
RMAP destination key. Reset value: 0.
Figure 148. GRSPW destination key register.
0
7
DESTINATION KEY
338
8
31
7 - 6:
6
0
5
TIME-CTRL
RESERVED
5 - 0:
7
TIME-COUNTER
Time Counter. The current value of the system time counter. It is incremented for each tick-in
and the incremented value is transmitted. The register can also be written directly but the
written value will not be transmitted. Received time-counter values are also stored in this
register. Reset value: ‘0’.
Time Control Flags - The current value of the time control flags. Sent with time-code resulting
from a tick-in. Received control flags are also stored in this register. Reset value: ‘0’.
Figure 149. GRSPW time register.
22 21
31
RESERVED
11 - 0:
21- 12:
0
12 11
DISCONNECT
TIMER64
Timer64 - Used to generate the 6.4 and 12.8 us time periods. Should be set to the smallest
number of clock cycles that is greater than or equal to 6.4 us. Reset value is set with VHDL
generics or with input signals depending on the value of the usegen VHDL generic.
Disconnect - Used to generate the 850 ns disconnect time period. The disconnect period is the
number is the number of clock cycles in the disconnect register + 3. So to get a 850 ns period,
the smallest number of clock cycles that is greater than or equal to 850 ns should be calculated
and this values - 3 should be stored in the register. Reset value is set with VHDL generics or
with input signals depending on the value of the usegen VHDL generic.
Figure 150. GRSPW timer and disconnect register.
339
12 11
31
10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
NS RD RX AT RA TA PR PS AI RI
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
2
1
0
TI RE TE
Transmitter Enable (TE) - Write a one to this bit each time new descriptors are activated in the
table. Writing a one will cause the SW-node to read a new descriptor and try to transmit the
packet it points to. This bit is automatically cleared when the SW-node encounters a descriptor
which is disabled. Reset value: ‘0’.
Receiver Enable (RE) - Set to one when packets are allowed to be received to this channel.
Reset value: ‘0’.
Transmit Interrupt (TI) - If set, an interrupt will be generated each time a packet is transmitted.
The interrupt is generated regardless of whether the transmission was successful or not. Not
reset.
Receive Interrupt (RI) - If set, an interrupt will be generated each time a packet has been
received. This happens both if the packet is terminated by an EEP or EOP. Not reset.
AHB Error Interrupt (AI) - If set, an interrupt will be generated each time an AHB error occurs
when this DMA channel is accessing the bus. Not reset.
Packet Sent (PS) - This bit is set each time a packet has been sent. Never cleared by the SWnode. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Packet Received (PR) - This bit is set each time a packet has been received. never cleared by
the SW-node. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
TX AHB Error (TA) - An error response was detected on the AHB bus while this transmit DMA
channel was accessing the bus. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
RX AHB Error (RA) - An error response was detected on the AHB bus while this receive DMA
channel was accessing the bus. Cleared when written with a one. Reset value: ‘0’.
Abort TX (AT) - Set to one to abort the currently transmitting packet and disable transmissions.
If no transmission is active the only effect is to disable transmissions. Self clearing. Reset value:
‘0’.
RX Active (RX) - Is set to ‘1’ if a reception to the DMA channel is currently active otherwise
it is ‘0’. Only readable.
Rx Descriptors Available (RD) - Set to one, to indicate to the GRSPW that there are enabled
descriptors in the descriptor table. Cleared by the GRSPW when it encounters a disabled
descriptor: Reset value: ‘0’.
No Spill (NS) - If cleared, packets will be discarded when a packet is arriving and there are no
active descriptors. If set, the GRSPW will wait for a descriptor to be activated.
Figure 151. GRSPW DMA channel control/status register.
31
0
24
RX MAXIMUM LENGTH
24 - 0:
Receiver packet maximum length in bytes. Only bits 24 - 2 are writable. Bits 1 - 0 are always
0. Not reset.
Figure 152. GRSPW DMA channel receiver max length register.
10
31
TRANSMITTER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
9
4
DESCRIPTOR SELECT
3 - 0:
9 - 4:
3
0
RES
Reserved.
Descriptor selector - Offset into the descriptor table. Shows which descriptor is currently used
by the GRSPW. For each new descriptor read, the selector will increase with 16 and eventually
wrap to zero again. Reset value: 0.
31 - 10: Descriptor table base address - Sets the base address of the descriptor table. Not reset.
Figure 153. GRSPW transmitter descriptor table address register
340
31
10
3 2
9
DESCRIPTOR SELECT
RECEIVER DESCRIPTOR TABLE BASE ADDRESS
0
RES
2 - 0:
9 - 3:
Reserved.
Descriptor Selector - Offset into the descriptor table. Shows which descriptor is currently used
by the GRSPW. For each new descriptor read, the selector will increase with 8 and eventually
wrap to zero again. Reset value: 0.
31 - 10: Descriptor table base address - Sets the base address of the descriptor table. Not reset.
Figure 154. GRSPW receiver descriptor table address register.
42.10 Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x1F. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
42.11 Configuration options
Table 335 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 335.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
tech
Technology for fifo memories.
0 - NTECH
inferred
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
Addr field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
Mask field of the APB bar.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
pirq
Interrupt line used by GRSPW.
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
sysfreq
Frequency of clock input “clk” in kHz.
-
10000
usegen
Use values calculated from sysfreq generic as reset values
for 6.4 us timer and disconnect timer.
0-1
1
nsync
Number of synchronization registers.
1-2
1
rmap
Include hardware RMAP command handler. RMAP CRC
logic will also be added.
0-1
0
rmapcrc
Enable RMAP CRC logic.
0-1
0
fifosize1
Sets the number of entries in the 32-bit receiver and transmitter AHB fifos.
4 - 32
32
fifosize2
Sets the number of entries in the 9-bit receiver fifo (NChar fifo).
16 - 64
64
rxclkbuftype
Select clock buffer type for receiver clock. 0 does not
select a buffer, instead i connects the input directly to the
output (synthesis tools may still infer a buffer). 1 selects
hardwired clock while 2 selects routed clock.
0-2
0
rxunaligned
Receiver unaligned write support. If set, the receiver can
write any number of bytes to any start address without
writing any excessive bytes.
0-1
0
rmapbufs
Sets the number of buffers to hold RMAP replies.
2-8
4
ft
Enable fault-tolerance against SEU errors
0-2
0
341
42.12 Signal descriptions
Table 336 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 336.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
TXCLK
N/A
Input
Transmitter default run-state clock
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AMB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
SWNI
D
Input
Data input
-
S
Input
Strobe input
-
SWNO
TICKIN
Input
Time counter tick input
High
CLKDIV10
Input
Clock divisor value used during initialization
and as reset value for the clock divisor register
-
RMAPEN
Input
Reset value for the rmapen control register bit
-
DCRSTVAL
Input
Reset value for disconnect timer. Used if usegen
VHDL generic is set to 0.
-
TIMERRSTVAL
Input
Reset value for 6.4 us timer. Used if usegen
VHDL generic is set to 0.
-
D
Output
Data output
-
S
Output
Strobe output
-
TICKOUT
Output
Time counter tick output
High
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
42.13 Library dependencies
Table 337 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 337.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
SPACEWIRE
Signals, component
Component and record declarations.
42.14 Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
Normally di, si, do and so should be connected to input and output pads configured with LVDS drivers. How this is done is technology dependent.
The GRSPW in the example is configured with non-ft memories of size 4, 64 and 8 entries for AHB
FIFOs, N-Char FIFO and RMAP buffers respectively. The system frequency (clk) is 40 MHz and the
transmitter frequency (txclk) is 20 MHz.
The memory technology is inferred which means that the synthesis tool will select the appropriate
components. The rx clk buffer uses a hardwired clock.
342
The hardware RMAP command handler is enabled which also automatically enables rxunaligned and
rmapcrc. The Finally, the DMA channel interrupt line is 2 and the number of synchronization registers
is 1.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.spacewire.all;
entity spacewire_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
-di
si
do
so
);
spacewire signals
:: in std_ulogic;
: in std_ulogic;
:: out std_ulogic;
: out std_ulogic
end;
architecture rtl of spacewire_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- Spacewire signals
signal swni : grspw_in_type;
signal swno : grspw_out_type;
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- GRSPW
sw0 : grspw
generic map (tech => inferred, hindex => 5, pindex => 7, paddr => 7, nsync => 1,
rmap => 1, rxunaligned => 0, rmapcrc => 0, rxclkbuftype => 0, sysfreq => 40000,
pirq => 2, fifosize1 => 4, fifosize2 => 64, rmapbufs => 8, ft => 0)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(7), ahbmi, ahbmo(5), swni, swno);
swni.rmapen
swni.clkdiv10
swni.tickin
swni.d
swni.s
do
so
end;
<=
<=
<=
<=
<=
<=
<=
‘1’;
“00000001”;
‘0’;
di;
si;
swno.d;
swno.s;
42.15 RTEMS Driver
The RTEMS GRSPW driver supports the standard accesses to file descriptors such as read, write and
ioctl. User applications should include the file spacewire.h which contains definitions of all necessary
data structures used when accessing the driver and a function for registration. An example application
using the driver called rtems-spwtest is provided in the Gaisler Research RTEMS distribution.
343
42.15.1 Driver registration
The function spacewire_register whose prototype is provided in spacewire.h is used for registering
the driver. It returns 0 on success and 1 on failure.
42.15.2 Opening the device
After the driver is registered the device should be opened next. It is done with the open call. An example of a open call is shown below.
fd = open("/dev/spacewire", O_RDONLY)
A file descriptor is returned on success and -1 otherwise. In the latter case errno is set.
Table 338.Open errno values.
ERRNO
Description
EINVAL
Illegal device name or not available.
EIO
Error when writing to grspw registers.
ETIMEDOUT
Link did not startup.
42.15.3 Closing the device
The device is closed using the close call. An example is shown below.
res = close(fd)
Close always returns 0 (success) for the Spacewire driver.
42.15.4 Data structures
The spw_ioctl_packetsize struct is used when changing the size of the drivers’ receive and transmit
buffers.
typedef struct {
unsigned int rxsize;
unsigned int txdsize;
unsigned int txhsize;
} spw_ioctl_packetsize;
Table 339.spw_ioctl_packetsize member descriptions.
Member
Description
rxsize
Sets the size of the receiver descriptor buffers.
txdsize
Sets the size of the transmitter data buffers.
txhsize
Sets the size of the transmitter header buffers.
The spw_ioctl_pkt_send struct is used for transmissions through the ioctl call. Se the transmission
section for more information. The sent variable is set by the driver when returning from the ioctl call
while the other are set by the caller.
typedef struct {
unsigned int hlen;
char *hdr;
unsigned int dlen;
char *data;
unsigned int sent;
} spw_ioctl_pkt_send;
344
Table 340.spw_ioctl_pkt_send member descriptions.
Member
Description
hlen
Number of bytes that shall be transmitted from the header buffer.
hdr
Pointer to the header buffer.
dlen
Number of bytes that shall be transmitted from the data buffer.
data
Pointer to the data buffer.
sent
Number of bytes transmitted.
The spw_stats struct contains various statistics gathered from the GRSPW.
typedef struct {
unsigned int tx_link_err;
unsigned int rx_rmap_header_crc_err;
unsigned int rx_rmap_data_crc_err;
unsigned int rx_eep_err;
unsigned int rx_truncated;
unsigned int parity_err;
unsigned int escape_err;
unsigned int credit_err;
unsigned int write_sync_err;
unsigned int disconnect_err;
unsigned int early_ep;
unsigned int invalid_address;
unsigned int packets_sent;
unsigned int packets_received;
} spw_stats;
Table 341.spw_stats member descriptions.
Member
Description
tx_link_err
Number of link-errors detected during transmission.
rx_rmap_header_crc_err
Number of RMAP header CRC errors detected in received packets.
rx_rmap_data_crc_err
Number of RMAP data CRC errors detected in received packets.
rx_eep_err
Number of EEPs detected in received packets.
rx_truncated
Number of truncated packets received.
parity_err
Number of parity errors detected.
escape_err
Number of escape errors detected.
credit_err
Number of credit errors detected.
write_sync_err
Number of write synchronization errors detected.
disconnect_err
Number of disconnect errors detected.
early_ep
Number of packets received with an early EOP/EEP.
invalid_address
Number of packets received with an invalid destination address.
packets_sent
Number of packets transmitted.
packets_received
Number of packets received.
The spw_config struct holds the current configuration of the GRSPW.
typedef struct {
unsigned int nodeaddr;
unsigned int destkey;
unsigned int clkdiv;
unsigned int rxmaxlen;
unsigned int timer;
unsigned int disconnect;
345
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
int
int
int
int
int
int
int
promiscuous;
timetxen;
timerxen;
rmapen;
rmapbufdis;
linkdisabled;
linkstart;
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
rtems_id
int check_rmap_err;
int rm_prot_id;
int tx_blocking;
int tx_block_on_full;
int rx_blocking;
int disable_err;
int link_err_irq;
event_id;
unsigned int is_rmap;
unsigned int is_rxunaligned;
unsigned int is_rmapcrc;
} spw_config;
Table 342.spw_config member descriptions.
Member
Description
nodeaddr
Node address.
destkey
Destination key.
clkdiv
Clock division factor.
rxmaxlen
Receiver maximum packet length.
timer
Link-interface 6.4 us timer value.
disconnect
Link-interface disconnection timeout value.
promiscuous
Promiscuous mode.
timetxen
Time-code transmission enable.
timerxen
Time-code reception enable.
rmapen
RMAP command handler enable.
rmapbufdis
RMAP multiple buffer enable.
linkdisabled
Linkdisabled.
linkstart
Linkstart.
check_rmap_error
Check for RMAP CRC errors in received packets.
rm_prot_id
Remove protocol ID from received packets.
tx_blocking
Select between blocking and non-blocking transmissions.
tx_block_on_full
Block when all transmit descriptors are occupied.
rx_blocking
Select between blocking and non-blocking receptions.
disable_err
Disable Link automatically when link-error interrupt occurs.
link_err_irq
Enable link-error interrupts.
event_id
Task ID to which event is sent when link-error interrupt occurs.
is_rmap
RMAP command handler available.
is_rxunaligned
RX unaligned support available.
is_rmapcrc
RMAP CRC support available.
42.15.5 Configuration
The GRSPW core and driver are configured using ioctl calls. The table below lists all the supported
calls. SPACEWIRE_IOCTRL_ should be concatenated with the call number in the table to get the
346
actual constant used in the code. Return values for all calls are 0 for success and -1 for failure. Errno
is set after a failure.
An example of a ioctl is shown below:
result = ioctl(fd, SPACEWIRE_IOCTRL_SET_NODEADDR, 0xFE);
Table 343.ERRNO values for ioctl calls.
ERRNO
Description
EINVAL
Null pointer or an out of range value was given as the argument.
EBUSY
Only used for SEND. Returned when no descriptors are available in nonblocking mode.
ENOSYS
Returned for SET_DESTKEY if RMAP command handler is not available
or if an non-implemented call is used.
ETIMEDOUT
Returned for SET_PACKETSIZE if the link did not start after the size
change.
ENOMEM
Returned for SET_PACKETSIZE if it was unable to allocate the new buffers.
EIO
Error when writing to grspw registers.
347
Table 344.Ioctl calls supported by the GRSPW driver.
Call Number
Description
SET_NODEADDR
Change node address.
SET_RXBLOCK
Change blocking mode of receptions.
SET_DESTKEY
Change destination key.
SET_CLKDIV
Change clock division factor.
SET_TIMER
Change timer setting.
SET_DISCONNECT
Change disconnection timeout.
SET_PROMISCUOUS
Enable/Disable promiscuous mode.
SET_RMAPEN
Enable/Disable RMAP command handler.
SET_RMAPBUFDIS
Enable/Disable multiple RMAP buffer utilization.
SET_CHECK_RMAP
Enable/Disable RMAP CRC error check for reception.
SET_RM_PROT_ID
Enable/Disable protocol ID removal for reception.
SET_TXBLOCK
Change blocking mode of transmissions.
SET_TXBLOCK_ON_FULL
Change the blocking mode when all descriptors are in use.
SET_DISABLE_ERR
Enable/Disable automatic link disabling when link error occurs.
SET_LINK_ERR_IRQ
Enable/Disable link error interrupts.
SET_EVENT_ID
Change the task ID to which link error events are sent.
SET_PACKETSIZE
Change buffer sizes.
GET_LINK_STATUS
Read the current link status.
SET_CONFIG
Set all configuration parameters with one call.
GET_CONFIG
Read the current configuration parameters.
GET_STATISTICS
Read statistics.
CLR_STATISTICS
Clear all statistics.
SEND
Send a packet with both header and data buffers.
LINKDISABLE
Disable the link.
LINKSTART
Start the link.
SET_NODEADDR
This call sets the node address. It is only used to check the destination of incoming packets. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 255. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal
value or if the register can not be written.
SET_RXBLOCK
This call sets the blocking mode for receptions. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. 0
selects non blocking mode while 1 selects blocking mode. The call will fail if the argument contains
an illegal value.
SET_DESTKEY
This call sets the destination key. It can only be used if the RMAP command handler is available. The
argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 255. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal
value, if the RMAP command handler is not available or if the register cannot be written.
SET_CLKDIV
This call sets the clock division factor used in the run-state. The argument must be an integer in the
range 0 to 255. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value or if the register cannot be
written.
348
SET_TIMER
This call sets the counter used to generate the 6.4 and 12.8 us time-outs in the link-interface FSM. The
argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 4095. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value or if the register cannot be written.
SET_DISCONNECT
This call sets the counter used to generate the 850 ns disconnect interval in the link-interface FSM.
The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1023. The call will fail if the argument contains an
illegal value or if the register cannot be written.
SET_PROMISCUOUS
This call sets the promiscuous mode bit. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. The call
will fail if the argument contains an illegal value or if the register cannot be written.
SET_RMAPEN
This call sets the RMAP enable bit. It can only be used if the RMAP command handler is available.
The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value, if the RMAP command handler is not available or if the register cannot be written.
SET_RMAPBUFDIS
This call sets the RMAP buffer disable bit. It can only be used if the RMAP command handler is
available. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value, if the RMAP command handler is not available or if the register cannot be written.
SET_CHECK_RMAP
This call selects whether or not RMAP CRC should be checked for received packets. If enabled the
header CRC error and data CRC error bits are checked and if one or both are set the packet will be discarded. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. 0 disables and 1 enables the RMAP CRC
check. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value.
SET_RM_PROT_ID
This call selects whether or not the protocol ID should be removed from received packets. It is
assumed that all packets contain a protocol ID so when enabled the second byte (the one after the
node address) in the packet will be removed. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. 0
disables and 1 enables the RMAP CRC check. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal
value.
SET_TXBLOCK
This call sets the blocking mode for transmissions. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to
1. 0 selects non blocking mode while 1 selects blocking mode. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value.
SET_TXBLOCK_ON_FULL
This call sets the blocking mode for transmissions when all descriptors are in use. The argument must
be an integer in the range 0 to 1. 0 selects non blocking mode while 1 selects blocking mode. The call
will fail if the argument contains an illegal value.
SET_DISABLE_ERR
This call sets automatic link-disabling due to link-error interrupts. Link-error interrupts must be
enabled for it to have any effect. The argument must be an integer in the range 0 to 1. 0 disables automatic link-disabling while a 1 enables it. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value.
SET_LINK_ERR_IRQ
This call sets the link-error interrupt bit in the control register. The interrupt-handler sends an event to
the task specified with the event_id field when this interrupt occurs. The argument must be an integer
349
in the range 0 to 1. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value or if the register write
fails.
SET_EVENT_ID
This call sets the task ID to which an event is sent when a link-error interrupt occurs. The argument
can be any positive integer. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal value.
SET_PACKETSIZE
This call changes the size of buffers and consequently the maximum packet sizes. The this cannot be
done while the link is running so first it is stopped and then the old buffers are deallocated. Lastly the
new buffers are allocated and the link is started again. The configuration before the call will be preserved (except for the packet sizes). The argument must be a pointer to a spw_ioctl_packetsize struct.
The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal pointer, the requested buffer sizes cannot be allocated or the link cannot be re-started.
GET_LINK_STATUS
This call returns the current link status. The argument must be a pointer to an integer. The return value
in the argument can be one of the following: 0 = Error-reset, 1 = Error-wait, 2 = Ready, 3 = Started, 4
= Connecting, 5 = Run. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal pointer.
GET_CONFIG
This call returns all configuration parameters in a spw_config struct which is defined in spacewire.h.
The argument must be a pointer to a spw_config struct. The call will fail if the argument contains an
illegal pointer.
GET_STATISTICS
This call returns all statistics in a spw_stats struct. The argument must be a pointer to a spw_stats
struct. The call will fail if the argument contains an illegal pointer.
CLR_STATISTICS
This call clears all statistics. No argument is taken and the call always succeeds.
SEND
This call sends a packet. The difference to the normal write call is that separate data and header buffers can be used. The argument must be a pointer to a spw_ioctl_send struct. The call will fail if the
argument contains an illegal pointer, or the struct contains illegal values. See the transmission section
for more information.
LINKDISABLE
This call disables the link (sets the linkdisable bit to 1 and the linkstart bit to 0). No argument is taken.
The call fails if the register write fails.
LINKSTART
This call starts the link (sets the linkdisable bit to 0 and the linkstart bit to 1). No argument is taken.
The call fails if the register write fails.
42.15.6 Transmission
Transmissions are done with either the write call or a special ioctl call. Write calls are used when data
only needs to be taken from a single contiguous buffer. An example of a write call is shown below:
result = write(fd, tx_pkt, 10))
On success the number of transmitted bytes is returned and -1 on failure. Errno is also set in the latter
case. Tx_pkt points to the beginning of the packet which includes the destination node address. The
last parameter sets the number of bytes that the user wants to transmit.
350
The call will fail if the user tries to send more bytes than is allocated for a single packet (this can be
changed with the SET_PACKETSIZE ioctl call) or if a NULL pointer is passed.
The write call can be configured to block in different ways. If normal blocking is enabled the call will
only return when the packet has been transmitted. I non-blocking mode, the transmission is only set
up in the hardware and then the function returns immediately (that is before the packet is actually
sent). If there are no resources available in the non-blocking mode the call will return with an error.
There is also a feature called Tx_block_on_full which means that the write call blocks when all
descriptors are in use.
The ioctl call used for transmissions is SPACEWIRE_IOCTRL_SEND. A spw_ioctl_send struct is
used as argument and contains length, and pointer fields. The structure is shown in the data structures
section. This ioctl call should be used when a header is taken from one buffer and data from another.
The header part is always transmitted first. The hlen field sets the number of header bytes to be transmitted from the hdr pointer. The dlen field sets the number of data bytes to be transmitted from the
data pointer. Afterwards the sent field contains the total number (header + data) of bytes transmitted.
The blocking behavior is the same as for write calls. The call fails if hlen+dlen is 0, one of the buffer
pointer is zero and its corresponding length variable is nonzero.
Table 345.ERRNO values for write and ioctl send.
ERRNO
Description
EINVAL
An invalid argument was passed. The buffers could be null pointers or the
length parameters could be 0 or larger than the maximum allowed size.
EBUSY
The packet could not be transmitted because all descriptors are in use (only
in non-blocking mode).
42.15.7 Reception
Reception is done using the read call. An example is shown below:
len = read(fd, rx_pkt, tmp);
The requested number of bytes to be read is given in tmp. The packet will be stored in rx_pkt. The
actual number of received bytes is returned by the function on success and -1 on failure. In the latter
case errno is also set.
The call will fail if a null pointer is passed.
The blocking behavior can be set using ioctl calls. In blocking mode the call will block until a packet
has been received. In non-blocking mode, the call will return immediately and if no packet was
available -1 is returned and errno set appropriately. The table below shows the different errno values
that can be returned.
Table 346.ERRNO values for read calls.
ERRNO
Description
EINVAL
A NULL pointer was passed as the data pointer or the length was illegal.
EBUSY
No data could be received (no packets available) in non-blocking mode.
42.16 API
A simple Application Programming Interface (API) is provided together with the GRSPW. The API is
located in $(GRLIB)/software/spw. The files are rmapapi.c, spwapi.c, rmapapi.h, spwapi.h. The
spwapi.h file contains the declarations of the functions used for configuring the GRSPW and transferring data. The corresponding definitions are located in spwapi.c. The rmapapi is structured in the
same manner and contains a function for building RMAP packets.
351
These functions could be used as a simple starting point for developing drivers for the GRSPW. The
different functions are described in this section.
42.16.1 GRSPW Basic API
The basic GRSPW API is based on a struct spwvars which stores all the information for a single
GRSPW core. The information includes its address on the AMBA bus as well as SpaceWire parameters such as node address and clock divisor. A pointer to this struct is used as a input parameter to all
the functions. If several cores are used, a separate struct for each core is created and used when the
specific core is accessed.
Table 347.The spwvars struct
Field
Description
Allowed range
regs
Pointer to the GRSPW
-
nospill
The nospill value used for the core.
0-1
rmap
Indicates whether the core is configured with RMAP. Set by
spw_init.
0-1
rxunaligned
Indicates whether the core is configured with rxunaligned support.
Set by spw_init.
0-1
rmapcrc
Indicates whether the core is configured with RMAPCRC support.
Set by spw_init.
0-1
clkdiv
The clock divisor value used for the core.
0 - 255
nodeaddr
The node address value used for the core.
0 - 255
destkey
The destination key value used for the core.
0 - 255
rxmaxlen
The Receiver maximum length value used for the core.
0 - 33554431
rxpnt
Pointer to the next receiver descriptor.
0 - 127
rxchkpnt
Pointer to the next receiver descriptor that will be polled.
0 - 127
txpnt
Pointer to the next transmitter descriptor.
0 - 63
txchkpnt
Pointer to the next transmitter descriptor that will be polled.
0 - 63
timetxen
The timetxen value used for this core.
0-1
timerxen
The timerxen value used for this core.
0-1
txd
Pointer to the transmitter descriptor table.
-
rxd
Pointer to the receiver descriptor table
-
The following functions are available in the basic API:
int spw_setparam(int nodeaddr, int clkdiv, int destkey, int nospill, int timetxen, int
timerxen, int rxmaxlen, int spwadr, struct spwvars *spw);
Used for setting the different parameters in the spwvars struct. Should always be run first after creating a spwvars struct. This function only initializes the struct. Does not write anything to the
SpaceWire core.
Table 348.Return values for spw_setparam
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
One or more of the parameters had an illegal value
352
Table 349.Parameters for spw_setparam
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
nodeaddr
Sets the node address value of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-255
clkdiv
Sets the clock divisor value of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-255
destkey
Sets the destination key of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-255
nospill
Sets the nospill value of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-1
timetxen
Sets the timetxen value of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-1
timerxen
Sets the timerxen value of the struct spw passed to the function.
0-1
rxmaxlen
Sets the receiver maximum length field of the struct spw passed to
the function.
0 - 225-1
spwadr
Sets the address to the GRSPW core which will be associated with
the struct passed to the function.
0 - 232-1
int spw_init(struct spwvars *spw);
Initializes the GRSPW core located at the address set in the struct spw. Sets the following registers:
node address, destination key, clock divisor, receiver maximum length, transmitter descriptor table
address, receiver descriptor table address, ctrl and dmactrl. All bits are set to the values found in the
spwvars struct. If a register bit is not present in the struct it will be set to zero. The descriptor tables
are allocated to an aligned area using malloc. The status register is cleared and lastly the link interface
is enabled. The run state frequency will be set according to the value in clkdiv.
Table 350.Return values for spw_init
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
One or more of the parameters could not be set correctly or the link failed to initialize.
Table 351.Parameters for spw_init
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
The spwvars struct associated with the GRSPW core that should be
initialized.
-
int set_txdesc(int pnt, struct spwvars *spw);
Sets a new address to the transmitter descriptor table address register. Should only be used when no
transmission is active. Also resets the pointers for spw_tx and spw_checktx (Explained in the section
for those functions).
Table 352.Return values for spw_txdesc
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The new address could not be written correctly
353
Table 353.Parameters for spw_txdesc
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
pnt
The new address to the descriptor table area
0 - 232-1
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
int set_rxdesc(int pnt, struct spwvars *spw);
Sets a new address to the Receiver descriptor table address register. Should only be used when no
transmission is active. Also resets the pointers for spw_rx and spw_checkrx (Explained in the section
for those functions).
Table 354.Return values for spw_rxdesc
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The new address could not be written correctly
Table 355.Parameters for spw_rxdesc
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
pnt
The new address to the descriptor table area
0 - 232-1
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
void spw_disable(struct spwvars *spw);
Disables the GRSPW core (the link disable bit is set to ‘1’).
Table 356.Parameters for spw_disable
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
void spw_enable(struct spwvars *spw);
Enables the GRSPW core (the link disable bit is set to ‘0’).
354
Table 357.Parameters for spw_enable
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
void spw_start(struct spwvars *spw);
Starts the GRSPW core (the link start bit is set to ‘1’).
Table 358.Parameters for spw_start
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
void spw_stop(struct spwvars *spw);
Stops the GRSPW core (the link start bit is set to ‘0’).
Table 359.Parameters for spw_start
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
int spw_setclockdiv(struct spwvars *spw);
Sets the clock divisor register with the clock divisor value stored in the spwvars struct.
Table 360.Return values for spw_setclockdiv
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The new clock divisor value is illegal.
Table 361.Parameters for spw_setclockdiv
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
int spw_set_nodeadr(struct spwvars *spw);
355
Sets the node address register with the node address value stored in the spwvars struct.
Table 362.Return values for spw_set_nodeadr
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The new node address value is illegal.
Table 363.Parameters for spw_set_nodeadr
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
int spw_set_rxmaxlength(struct spwvars *spw);
Sets the Receiver maximum length register with the rxmaxlen value stored in the spwvars struct.
Table 364.Return values for spw_set_rxmaxlength
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The new node address value is illegal.
Table 365.Parameters for spw_set_rxmaxlength
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be configured
-
int spw_tx(int crc, int skipcrcsize, int hsize, char *hbuf, int dsize, char *dbuf, struct
spwvars *spw);
Transmits a packet. Separate header and data buffers can be used. If CRC logic is available the GSPW
inserts RMAP CRC values after the header and data fields if crc is set to one. This function only sets a
descriptor and initiates the transmission. Spw_checktx must be used to check if the packet has been
transmitted. A pointer into the descriptor table is stored in the spwvars struct to keep track of the next
location to use. It is incremented each time the function returns 0.
Table 366.Return values for spw_tx
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
There are no free transmit descriptors currently available
2
There was illegal parameters passed to the function
356
Table 367.Parameters for spw_tx
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
crc
Set to one to append RMAP CRC after the header and data fields.
Only available if hardware CRC is available in the core.
0-1
skipcrcsize
The number of bytes in the beginning of a packet that should not be
included in the CRC calculation
0 - 15
hsize
The size of the header in bytes
0 - 255
hbuf
Pointer to the header data
-
dsize
The size of the data field in bytes
0 - 224-1
dbuf
Pointer to the data area.
-
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should transmit the packet
-
int spw_rx(char *buf, struct spwvars *spw);
Enables a descriptor for reception. The packet will be stored to buf. Spw_checkrx must be used to
check if a packet has been received. A pointer in the spwvars struct is used to keep track of the next
location to use in the descriptor table. It is incremented each time the function returns 0.
Table 368.Return values for spw_rx
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
There are no free receive descriptors currently available
Table 369.Parameters for spw_rx
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
buf
Pointer to the data area.
-
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should receive the packet
-
int spw_checkrx(int *size, struct rxstatus *rxs, struct spwvars *spw);
Checks if a packet has been received. When a packet has been received the size in bytes will be stored
in the size parameter and status is found in the rxs struct. A pointer in the spwvars struct is used to
keep track of the location in the descriptor table to poll. It is incremented each time the function
returns nonzero.
Table 370.Return values for spw_checkrx
Value
Description
0
No packet has been received
1
A packet has been received
Table 371.Parameters for spw_checkrx
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
size
When the function returns 1 this variable holds the number of bytes
received
-
rxs
When the function returns 1 this variable holds status information
-
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be polled
-
357
Table 372.The rxstatus struct
Field
Description
Allowed range
truncated
Packet was truncated
0-1
dcrcerr
Data CRC error bit was set. Only indicates an error if the packet
received was an RMAP packet.
0-1
hcrcerr
Header CRC error bit was se.t. Only indicates an error if the packet
received was an RMAP packet.
0-1
eep
Packet was terminated with EEP
0-1
int spw_checktx(struct spwvars *spw);
Checks if a packet has been transmitted. A pointer is used to keep track of the location in the descriptor table to poll. It is incremented each time the function returns nonzero.
Table 373.Return values for spw_checktx
Value
Description
0
No packet has been transmitted
1
A packet has been correctly transmitted
2
A packet has been incorrectly transmitted
Table 374.Parameters for spw_checktx
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be polled
-
void send_time(struct spwvars *spw);
Sends a new time-code. Increments the time-counter in the GRSPW and transmits the value.
Table 375.Parameters for send time
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be polled
-
int check_time(struct spwvars *spw);
Check if a new time-code has been received.
Table 376.Return values for check_time
Value
Description
0
No time-code has been received
1
A new time-code has been received
Table 377.Parameters for check_time
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be polled
-
358
int get_time(struct spwvars *spw);
Get the current time counter value.
Table 378.Return values for get_time
Value
Description
0 - 63
Returns the current time counter value
Table 379.Parameters for get_time
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be polled
-
void spw_reset(struct spwvars *spw);
Resets the GRSPW.
Table 380.Parameters for spw_reset
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be reset
-
void spw_rmapen(struct spwvars *spw);
Enables hardware RMAP. Has no effect if the RMAP command handler is not available in GRSPW.
Table 381.Parameters for spw_rmapen
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be set
-
void spw_rmapdis(struct spwvars *spw);
Disables hardware RMAP. Has no effect if the RMAP command handler is not available in GRSPW
Table 382.Parameters for spw_rmapdis
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be set
-
int spw_setdestkey(struct spwvars *spw);
Set the destination key of the GRSPW. Has no effect if the RMAP command handler is not available.
The value from the spwvars struct is used.
Table 383.Return values for spw_setdestkey
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
The destination key parameter in the spwvars struct contains an illegal value
359
Table 384.Parameters for spw_setdestkey
Parameter
Description
Allowed range
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be set.
-
42.16.2 GRSPW RMAP API
The RMAP API contains only one function which is used for building RMAP headers.
int build_rmap_hdr(struct rmap_pkt *pkt, char *hdr, int *size);
Builds a RMAP header to the buffer pointed to by hdr. The header data is taken from the rmap_pkt
struct.
Table 385.Return values for build_rmap_hdr
Value
Description
0
The function completed successfully
1
One or more of the parameters contained illegal values
Table 386.Parameters for build_rmap_hdr
Parameter
Description
pkt
Pointer to a rmap_pkt struct which contains the data from which the
header should be built
hdr
Pointer to the buffer where the header will be built
spw
Pointer to the spwvars struct associated with GRSPW core that
should be set
Allowed range
-
360
Table 387.rmap_pkt struct fields
Field
Description
Allowed Range
type
Selects the type of packet to build.
writecmd, readcmd,
rmwcmd, writerep, readrep,
rmwrep
verify
Selects whether the data should be verified before writing
yes, no
ack
Selects whether an acknowledge should be sent
yes, no
incr
Selects whether the address should be incremented or not
yes, no
destaddr
Sets the destination address
0 - 255
destkey
Sets the destination key
0 - 255
srcaddr
Sets the source address
0 - 255
tid
Sets the transaction identifier field
0 - 65535
addr
Sets the address of the operation to be performed. The extended
address field is currently always set to 0.
0 - 232-1
len
The number of bytes to be writte, read or read-modify-written
0 - 224-1
status
Sets the status field
0 - 11
dstspalen
Number of source path address bytes to insert before the destination
address
0 - 228
dstspa
Pointer to memory holding the destination path address bytes
-
srcspalen
Number of source path address bytes to insert in a command. For a
reply these bytes are placed before the return address
0 - 12
srcspa
Pointer to memory holding the source path address bytes
-
361
362
43
IRQMP - Multiprocessor Interrupt Controller
43.1
Overview
The AMBA system in GRLIB provides an interrupt scheme where interrupt lines are routed together
with the remaining AHB/APB bus signals, forming an interrupt bus. Interrupts from AHB and APB
units are routed through the bus, combined together, and propagated back to all units. The multiprocessor interrupt controller core is attached to AMBA bus as an APB slave, and monitors the combined
interrupt signals.
The interrupts generated on the interrupt bus are all forwarded to the interrupt controller. The interrupt
controller prioritizes, masks and propagates the interrupt with the highest priority to the processor. In
multiprocessor systems, the interrupts are propagated to all processors.
Interrupt level
Interrupt acknowledge
MP IRQ
CTRL
Processor 0
Processor n
Processor 1
AHB BUS
BUS
CONTROL
SLAVE 1
SLAVE 2
Figure 155. LEON3 multiprocessor system with Multiprocessor Interrupt controller
43.2
Operation
43.2.1 Interrupt prioritization
The interrupt controller monitors interrupt 1 - 15 of the interrupt bus (APBI.PIRQ[15:1]). When any
of these lines are asserted high, the corresponding bit in the interrupt pending register is set. The pending bits will stay set even if the PIRQ line is de-asserted, until cleared by software or by an interrupt
acknowledge from the processor.
Each interrupt can be assigned to one of two levels (0 or 1) as programmed in the interrupt level register. Level 1 has higher priority than level 0. The interrupts are prioritised within each level, with interrupt 15 having the highest priority and interrupt 1 the lowest. The highest interrupt from level 1 will
be forwarded to the processor. If no unmasked pending interrupt exists on level 1, then the highest
unmasked interrupt from level 0 will be forwarded. PIRQ[31:16] are not used by the IRQMP core.
Interrupts are prioritised at system level, while masking and forwarding of interrupts in done for each
processor separately. Each processor in an multiprocessor system has separate interrupt mask and
force registers. When an interrupt is signalled on the interrupt bus, the interrupt controller will prioritize interrupts, perform interrupt masking for each processor according to the mask in the corresponding mask register and forward the interrupts to the processors.
363
Priority
select
IRQ
Pending
Priority
encoder
APBI.PIRQ[15:1]
4
15
IRQO[0].IRL[3:0]
IRQ
IRQ
Force[0] mask[0]
Priority
encoder
4
IRQO[n].IRL[3:0]
IRQ
IRQ
Force[n] mask[n]
Figure 156. Interrupt controller block diagram
When a processor acknowledges the interrupt, the corresponding pending bit will automatically be
cleared. Interrupt can also be forced by setting a bit in the interrupt force register. In this case, the processor acknowledgement will clear the force bit rather than the pending bit. After reset, the interrupt
mask register is set to all zeros while the remaining control registers are undefined. Note that interrupt
15 cannot be maskable by the LEON3 processor and should be used with care - most operating systems do not safely handle this interrupt.
43.2.2 Processor status monitoring
The processor status can be monitored through the Multiprocessor Status Register. The STATUS field
in this register indicates if a processor is halted (‘1’) or running (‘0’). A halted processor can be reset
and restarted by writing a ‘1’ to its status field. After reset, all processors except processor 0 are
halted. When the system is properly initialized, processor 0 can start the remaining processors by
writing to their STATUS bits.
43.2.3 Irq broadcasting
The Broadcast Register is activated when the generic ncpu is > 1. A incoming irq that has its bit set in
the Broadcast Register is propagated to the force register of all CPUs rather than only to the Pending
Register. This can be used to implement a timer that fires to all cpus with that same irq.
364
43.3
Registers
The core is controlled through registers mapped into APB address space. The number of implemented
registers depend on number of processor in the multiprocessor system.
Table 388.Interrupt Controller registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
Interrupt level register
0x04
Interrupt pending register
0x08
Interrupt force register (NCPU = 0)
0x0C
Interrupt clear register
0x10
Multiprocessor status register
0x14
Broadcast register
0x40
Processor interrupt mask register
0x44
Processor 1 interrupt mask register
0x40 + 4 * n
Processor n interrupt mask register
0x80
Processor interrupt force register
0x84
Processor 1 interrupt force register
0x80 + 4 * n
Processor n interrupt force register
43.3.1 Interrupt level register
31
17
16
1
IL[15:1]
“000..0”
0
0
Figure 157. Interrupt level register
[31:16]
[15:1]
[0]
Reserved.
Interrupt Level n (IL[n]): Interrupt level for interrupt n.
Reserved.
43.3.2 Interrupt pending register
16 15
31
“000...0”
Figure 158. Interrupt pending register
[31:17]
[16:1]
[0]
Reserved.
Interrupt Pending n (IP[n]): Interrupt pending for interrupt n.
Reserved
1
IP[15:1]
0
0
365
43.3.3 Interrupt force register (NCPU = 0)
16 15
31
“000...0”
1
IF[15:1]
0
0
Figure 159. Interrupt force register
[31:16]
[15:1]
[0]
Reserved.
Interrupt Force n (IF[n]): Force interrupt nr n.
Reserved.
43.3.4 Interrupt clear register
16 15
31
“000...0”
1
0
0
IC[15:1]
Figure 160. Interrupt clear register
[31:16]
[15:1]
[0]
Reserved.
Interrupt Clear n (IC[n]): Writing ‘1’ to ICn will clear interrupt n.
Reserved.
43.3.5 Multiprocessor status register
28
31
NCPU
16 15
“000...0”
0
STATUS[15:0]
Figure 161. PMultiprocessor status register
[31:28]
[27:16]
[15:1]
NCPU. Number of CPU’s in the system -1 .
Reserved.
Power-down status of CPU [n]: ‘1’ = power-down, ‘0’ = running. Write with ‘1’ to force processor n out of powerdown.
43.3.6 Processor interrupt mask register
16 15
31
“000...0”
1
IM[15:1]
Figure 162. Processor interrupt mask register
[31:16]
[15:1]
[0]
Reserved.
Interrupt Mask n (IM[n]): If IMn = 0 the interrupt n is masked, otherwise it is enabled.
Reserved.
0
0
366
43.3.7 Broadcast register (NCPU > 1)
16 15
31
1
IM[15:1]
“000...0”
0
0
Figure 163. Processor interrupt mask register
[31:16]
[15:1]
Reserved.
Broadcast Mask n (BM[n]): If BMn = 1 the interrupt n is broadcasted (written to the Force Register of all CPUs),
otherwise standard semantic applies (Pending Register).
Reserved.
[0]
43.3.8 Processor interrupt force register (NCPU > 0)
17 16 15
31
IFC[15:1]
1
0
0
IF[15:1]
0
Figure 164. Processor interrupt force register
[31:17]
[15:1]
[0]
43.4
Interrupt force clear n (IFC[n]).
Interrupt Force n (IF[n]): Force interrupt nr n.
Reserved.
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x00D. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
43.5
Configuration options
Table 389 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 389.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
pindex
Selects which APB select signal (PSEL) will be used to
access the timer unit
0 to NAPBMAX-1
0
paddr
The 12-bit MSB APB address
0 to 4095
0
pmask
The APB address mask
0 to 4095
4095
ncpu
Number of processors in multiprocessor system
1 to 16
1
367
43.6
Signal descriptions
Table 390 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 390.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
IRQI[n]
INTACK
Input
Processor n Interrupt acknowledge
High
Processor n interrupt level
High
Output
Processor n Input interrupt level
High
IRL[3:0]
IRQO[n]
IRL[3:0]
RST
Reset power-down and error mode of processor n High
RUN
Start processor n after reset (SMP systems only)
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
43.7
Library dependencies
Table 391 shows libraries that should be used when instantiating the core.
Table 391.Library dependencies
43.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
LEON3
Signals, component
Signals and component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.leon3.all;
entity irqmp_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
...
);
-- other signals
end;
architecture rtl of irqmp_ex is
constant NCPU : integer := 4;
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
High
368
-- GP Timer Unit input signals
signal irqi
: irq_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
signal irqo
: irq_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
-- LEON3 signals
signal leon3i : l3_in_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
signal leon3o : l3_out_vector(0 to NCPU-1);
begin
-- 4 LEON3 processors are instantiated here
cpu : for i in 0 to NCPU-1 generate
u0 : leon3s generic map (hindex => i)
port map (clk, rstn, ahbmi, ahbmo(i), ahbsi,
irqi(i), irqo(i), dbgi(i), dbgo(i));
end generate;
-- MP IRQ controller
irqctrl0 : irqmp
generic map (pindex => 2, paddr => 2, ncpu => NCPU)
port map (rstn, clk, apbi, apbo(2), irqi, irqo);
end
369
44
LEON3 - High-performance SPARC V8 32-bit Processor
44.1
Overview
LEON3 is a 32-bit processor core conforming to the IEEE-1754 (SPARC V8) architecture. It is
designed for embedded applications, combining high performance with low complexity and low
power consumption.
The LEON3 core has the following main features: 7-stage pipeline with Harvard architecture, separate instruction and data caches, hardware multiplier and divider, on-chip debug support and multiprocessor extensions.
3-Port Register File
Trace Buffer
IEEE-754 FPU
Co-Processor
7-Stage
Integer pipeline
HW MUL/DIV
Local IRAM
ITLB
I-Cache
D-Cache
SRMMU
Debug port
Debug support unit
Interrupt port
Interrupt controller
Local DRAM
DTLB
AHB I/F
AMBA AHB Master (32-bit)
Figure 165. LEON3 processor core block diagram
Note: this manual describes the full functionality of the LEON3 core. Through the use of VHDL
generics, parts of the described functionality can be suppressed or modified to generate a smaller or
faster implementation.
44.1.1 Integer unit
The LEON3 integer unit implements the full SPARC V8 standard, including hardware multiply and
divide instructions. The number of register windows is configurable within the limit of the SPARC
standard (2 - 32), with a default setting of 8. The pipeline consists of 7 stages with a separate instruction and data cache interface (Harvard architecture).
44.1.2 Cache sub-system
LEON3 has a highly configurable cache system, consisting of a separate instruction and data cache.
Both caches can be configured with 1 - 4 sets, 1 - 256 kbyte/set, 16 or 32 bytes per line. Sub-blocking
is implemented with one valid bit per 32-bit word. The instruction cache uses streaming during linerefill to minimize refill latency. The data cache uses write-through policy and implements a doubleword write-buffer. The data cache can also perform bus-snooping on the AHB bus. A local scratch
pad ram can be added to both the instruction and data cache controllers to allow 0-waitstates access
memory without data write back.
370
44.1.3 Floating-point unit and co-processor
The LEON3 integer unit provides interfaces for a floating-point unit (FPU), and a custom co-processor. Two FPU controllers are available, one for the high-performance GRFPU (available from Gaisler
Research) and one for the Meiko FPU core (available from Sun Microsystems). The floating-point
processors and co-processor execute in parallel with the integer unit, and does not block the operation
unless a data or resource dependency exists.
44.1.4 Memory management unit
A SPARC V8 Reference Memory Management Unit (SRMMU) can optionally be enabled. The
SRMMU implements the full SPARC V8 MMU specification, and provides mapping between multiple 32-bit virtual address spaces and 36-bit physical memory. A three-level hardware table-walk is
implemented, and the MMU can be configured to up to 64 fully associative TLB entries.
44.1.5 On-chip debug support
The LEON3 pipeline includes functionality to allow non-intrusive debugging on target hardware. To
aid software debugging, up to four watchpoint registers can be enabled. Each register can cause a
breakpoint trap on an arbitrary instruction or data address range. When the (optional) debug support
unit is attached, the watchpoints can be used to enter debug mode. Through a debug support interface,
full access to all processor registers and caches is provided. The debug interfaces also allows single
stepping, instruction tracing and hardware breakpoint/watchpoint control. An internal trace buffer can
monitor and store executed instructions, which can later be read out over the debug interface.
44.1.6 Interrupt interface
LEON3 supports the SPARC V8 interrupt model with a total of 15 asynchronous interrupts. The interrupt interface provides functionality to both generate and acknowledge interrupts.
44.1.7 AMBA interface
The cache system implements an AMBA AHB master to load and store data to/from the caches. The
interface is compliant with the AMBA-2.0 standard. During line refill, incremental burst are generated to optimise the data transfer.
44.1.8 Power-down mode
The LEON3 processor core implements a power-down mode, which halts the pipeline and caches
until the next interrupt. This is an efficient way to minimize power-consumption when the application
is idle, and does not require tool-specific support in form of clock gating. To implement clock-gating,
a suitable clock-enable signal is produced by the processor.
44.1.9 Multi-processor support
LEON3 is designed to be use in multi-processor systems. Each processor has a unique index to allow
processor enumeration. The write-through caches and snooping mechanism guarantees memory
coherency in shared-memory systems.
44.1.10 Performance
Using 8K + 8K caches and a 16x16 multiplier, the dhrystone 2.1 benchmark reports 1,500 iteration/s/
MHz using the gcc-3.4.4 compiler (-O2). This translates to 0.85 dhrystone MIPS/MHz using the VAX
11/780 value a reference for one MIPS.
371
44.2
LEON3 integer unit
44.2.1 Overview
The LEON3 integer unit implements the integer part of the SPARC V8 instruction set. The implementation is focused on high performance and low complexity. The LEON3 integer unit has the following
main features:
•
7-stage instruction pipeline
•
Separate instruction and data cache interface
•
Support for 2 - 32 register windows
•
Hardware multiplier with optional 16x16 bit MAC and 40-bit accumulator
•
Radix-2 divider (non-restoring)
•
Single-vector trapping for reduced code size
Figure 166 shows a block diagram of the integer unit.
call/branch address
I-cache
data address
+1
Add
‘0’ jmpa tbr
f_pc
Fetch
d_inst
d_pc
r_inst
r_pc
Decode
r_imm
rd
register file
rs1
imm
rs2
Register Access
y, tbr, wim, psr
e_inst
e_pc
rs1
Execute
operand2
mul/div
alu/shift
y
e pc
m_inst
m_pc
result
30
jmpl address
32
32
address/dataout
datain
m_y
D-cache
Memory
x_inst
x_pc
xres
x_y
w_inst
w_pc
wres
Y
Exception
Write-back
30
tbr, wim, psr
Figure 166. LEON3 integer unit datapath diagram
372
44.2.2 Instruction pipeline
The LEON integer unit uses a single instruction issue pipeline with 7 stages:
1. FE (Instruction Fetch): If the instruction cache is enabled, the instruction is fetched from the
instruction cache. Otherwise, the fetch is forwarded to the memory controller. The instruction is valid
at the end of this stage and is latched inside the IU.
2. DE (Decode): The instruction is decoded and the CALL and Branch target addresses are generated.
3.
RA (Register access): Operands are read from the register file or from internal data bypasses.
4. EX (Execute): ALU, logical, and shift operations are performed. For memory operations (e.g.,
LD) and for JMPL/RETT, the address is generated.
5. ME (Memory): Data cache is accessed. Store data read out in the execution stage is written to the
data cache at this time.
6. XC (Exception) Traps and interrupts are resolved. For cache reads, the data is aligned as appropriate.
7. WR (Write): The result of any ALU, logical, shift, or cache operations are written back to the
register file.
Table 392 lists the cycles per instruction (assuming cache hit and no icc or load interlock):
Table 392.Instruction timing
Instruction
Cycles (MMU disabled) Cycles (MMU enabled)
JMPL, RETT
3
3
Double load
2
2
Single store
2
4
Double store
3
5
SMUL/UMUL
4*
4*
SDIV/UDIV
35
35
Taken Trap
5
5
Atomic load/store
3
5
All other instructions
1
1
* Multiplication cycle count is 5 clocks when the multiplier is configured to be pipelined.
44.2.3 SPARC Implementor’s ID
Gaisler Research is assigned number 15 (0xF) as SPARC implementor’s identification. This value is
hard-coded into bits 31:28 in the %psr register. The version number for LEON3 is 3, which is hardcoded in to bits 27:24 of the %psr.
44.2.4 Divide instructions
Full support for SPARC V8 divide instructions is provided (SDIV, UDIV, SDIVCC & UDIVCC). The
divide instructions perform a 64-by-32 bit divide and produce a 32-bit result. Rounding and overflow
detection is performed as defined in the SPARC V8 standard.
373
44.2.5 Multiply instructions
The LEON processor supports the SPARC integer multiply instructions UMUL, SMUL UMULCC
and SMULCC. These instructions perform a 32x32-bit integer multiply, producing a 64-bit result.
SMUL and SMULCC performs signed multiply while UMUL and UMULCC performs unsigned
multiply. UMULCC and SMULCC also set the condition codes to reflect the result. The multiply
instructions are performed using a 16x16 signed hardware multiplier, which is iterated four times. To
improve the timing, the 16x16 multiplier can optionally be provided with a pipeline stage.
44.2.6 Multiply and accumulate instructions
To accelerate DSP algorithms, two multiply&accumulate instructions are implemented: UMAC and
SMAC. The UMAC performs an unsigned 16-bit multiply, producing a 32-bit result, and adds the
result to a 40-bit accumulator made up by the 8 lsb bits from the %y register and the %asr18 register.
The least significant 32 bits are also written to the destination register. SMAC works similarly but performs signed multiply and accumulate. The MAC instructions execute in one clock but have two
clocks latency, meaning that one pipeline stall cycle will be inserted if the following instruction uses
the destination register of the MAC as a source operand.
Assembler syntax:
umacrs1, reg_imm, rd
smacrs1, reg_imm, rd
Operation:
prod[31:0] = rs1[15:0] * reg_imm[15:0]
result[39:0] = (Y[7:0] & %asr18[31:0]) + prod[31:0]
(Y[7:0] & %asr18[31:0]) = result[39:0]
rd = result[31:0]
%asr18 can be read and written using the RDASR and WRASR instructions.
44.2.7 Hardware breakpoints
The integer unit can be configured to include up to four hardware breakpoints. Each breakpoint consists of a pair of application-specific registers (%asr24/25, %asr26/27, %asr28/30 and %asr30/31)
registers; one with the break address and one with a mask:
31
%asr24, %asr26
%asr28, %asr30
2
WADDR[31:2]
31
%asr25, %asr27
%asr29, %asr31
0
IF
2
WMASK[31:2]
1
0
DL DS
Figure 167. Watch-point registers
Any binary aligned address range can be watched - the range is defined by the WADDR field, masked
by the WMASK field (WMASK[x] = 1 enables comparison). On a breakpoint hit, trap 0x0B is generated. By setting the IF, DL and DS bits, a hit can be generated on instruction fetch, data load or data
store. Clearing these three bits will effectively disable the breakpoint function.
374
44.2.8 Instruction trace buffer
The instruction trace buffer consists of a circular buffer that stores executed instructions. The trace
buffer operation is controlled through the debug support interface, and does not affect processor operation (see the DSU description). The size of the trace buffer is configurable from 1 to 64 kB through a
VHDL generic. The trace buffer is 128 bits wide, and stores the following information:
•
Instruction address and opcode
•
Instruction result
•
Load/store data and address
•
Trap information
•
30-bit time tag
The operation and control of the trace buffer is further described in section 25.4. Note that in multiprocessor systems, each processor has its own trace buffer allowing simultaneous tracing of all
instruction streams.
44.2.9 Processor configuration register
The application specific register 17 (%asr17) provides information on how various configuration
options were set during synthesis. This can be used to enhance the performance of software, or to support enumeration in multi-processor systems. The register can be accessed through the RDASR
instruction, and has the following layout:
31
%asr17
28
INDEX
17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
RESERVED
CS
8
7
5 4
CF DW SV LD FPU M V8 NWP
0
NWIN
Figure 168. LEON3 configuration register (%asr17)
Field Definitions:
[31:28]: Processor index. In multi-processor systems, each LEON core gets a unique index to support enumeration. The
value in this field is identical to the hindex generic parameter in the VHDL model.
value in this field is identical to the hindex generic parameter in the VHDL model.
[17]:
Clock switching enabled (CS). If set switching between AHB and CPU frequency is available.
[16:15]: CPU clock frequency (CF). CPU core runs at (CF+1) times AHB frequency.
[14]:
Disable write error trap (DWT). When set, a write error trap (tt = 0x2b) will be ignored. Set to zero after reset.
[13]:
Single-vector trapping (SVT) enable. If set, will enable single-vector trapping. Fixed to zero if SVT is not
implemented. Set to zero after reset.
[12]:
Load delay. If set, the pipeline uses a 2-cycle load delay. Otherwise, a 1-cycle load delay i s used. Generated from
the lddel generic parameter in the VHDL model.
[11:10]: FPU option. “00” = no FPU; “01” = GRFPU; “10” = Meiko FPU, “11” = GRFPU-Lite
[9]:
If set, the optional multiply-accumulate (MAC) instruction is available
[8]:
If set, the SPARC V8 multiply and divide instructions are available.
[7:5]:
Number of implemented watchpoints (0 - 4)
[4:0]:
Number of implemented registers windows corresponds to NWIN+1.
375
44.2.10 Exceptions
LEON adheres to the general SPARC trap model. The table below shows the implemented traps and
their individual priority.
Table 393.Trap allocation and priority
Trap
TT
Pri
Description
reset
0x00
1
Power-on reset
write error
0x2b
2
write buffer error
instruction_access_error
0x01
3
Error during instruction fetch
illegal_instruction
0x02
5
UNIMP or other un-implemented instruction
privileged_instruction
0x03
4
Execution of privileged instruction in user mode
fp_disabled
0x04
6
FP instruction while FPU disabled
cp_disabled
0x24
6
CP instruction while Co-processor disabled
watchpoint_detected
0x0B
7
Hardware breakpoint match
window_overflow
0x05
8
SAVE into invalid window
window_underflow
0x06
8
RESTORE into invalid window
register_hadrware_error
0x20
9
register file EDAC error (LEON-FT only)
mem_address_not_aligned
0x07
10
Memory access to un-aligned address
fp_exception
0x08
11
FPU exception
cp_exception
0x28
11
Co-processor exception
data_access_exception
0x09
13
Access error during load or store instruction
tag_overflow
0x0A
14
Tagged arithmetic overflow
divide_exception
0x2A
15
Divide by zero
interrupt_level_1
0x11
31
Asynchronous interrupt 1
interrupt_level_2
0x12
30
Asynchronous interrupt 2
interrupt_level_3
0x13
29
Asynchronous interrupt 3
interrupt_level_4
0x14
28
Asynchronous interrupt 4
interrupt_level_5
0x15
27
Asynchronous interrupt 5
interrupt_level_6
0x16
26
Asynchronous interrupt 6
interrupt_level_7
0x17
25
Asynchronous interrupt 7
interrupt_level_8
0x18
24
Asynchronous interrupt 8
interrupt_level_9
0x19
23
Asynchronous interrupt 9
interrupt_level_10
0x1A
22
Asynchronous interrupt 10
interrupt_level_11
0x1B
21
Asynchronous interrupt 11
interrupt_level_12
0x1C
20
Asynchronous interrupt 12
interrupt_level_13
0x1D
19
Asynchronous interrupt 13
interrupt_level_14
0x1E
18
Asynchronous interrupt 14
interrupt_level_15
0x1F
17
Asynchronous interrupt 15
trap_instruction
0x80 - 0xFF
16
Software trap instruction (TA)
44.2.11 Single vector trapping (SVT)
Single-vector trapping (SVT) is an SPARC V8e option to reduce code size for embedded applications.
When enabled, any taken trap will always jump to the reset trap handler (%tbr.tba + 0). The trap type
will be indicated in %tbr.tt, and must be decoded by the shared trap handler. SVT is enabled by setting
bit 13 in %asr17. The model must also be configured with the SVT generic = 1.
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44.2.12 Address space identifiers (ASI)
In addition to the address, a SPARC processor also generates an 8-bit address space identifier (ASI),
providing up to 256 separate, 32-bit address spaces. During normal operation, the LEON3 processor
accesses instructions and data using ASI 0x8 - 0xB as defined in the SPARC standard. Using the
LDA/STA instructions, alternative address spaces can be accessed. The table shows the ASI usage for
LEON. Only ASI[5:0] are used for the mapping, ASI[7:6] have no influence on operation.
Table 394.ASI usage
ASI
Usage
0x01
Forced cache miss
0x02
System control registers (cache control register)
0x08, 0x09, 0x0A, 0x0B
Normal cached access (replace if cacheable)
0x0C
Instruction cache tags
0x0D
Instruction cache data
0x0E
Data cache tags
0x0F
Data cache data
0x10
Flush instruction cache
0x11
Flush data cache
44.2.13 Power-down
The processor can be configured to include a power-down feature to minimize power consumption
during idle periods. The power-down mode is entered by performing a WRASR instruction to
%asr19:
wr %g0, %asr19
During power-down, the pipeline is halted until the next interrupt occurs. Signals inside the processor
pipeline and caches are then static, reducing power consumption from dynamic switching.
44.2.14 Processor reset operation
The processor is reset by asserting the RESET input for at least 4 clock cycles. The following table
indicates the reset values of the registers which are affected by the reset. All other registers maintain
their value (or are undefined).
Table 395.Processor reset values
Register
Reset value
PC (program counter)
0x0
nPC (next program counter)
0x4
PSR (processor status register)
ET=0, S=1
By default, the execution will start from address 0. This can be overridden by setting the RSTADDR
generic in the model to a non-zero value. The reset address is always aligned on a 4 kbyte boundary.
44.2.15 Multi-processor support
The LEON3 processor support synchronous multi-processing (SMP) configurations, with up to 16
processors attached to the same AHB bus. In multi-processor systems, only the first processor will
start. All other processors will remain halted in power-down mode. After the system has been initialized, the remaining processors can be started by writing to the ‘MP status register’, located in the
multi-processor interrupt controller. The halted processors start executing from the reset address (0 or
RSTADDR generic). Enabling SMP is done by setting the smp generic to 1 or higher. Cache snooping
should always be enabled in SMP systems to maintain data cache coherency between the processors.
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44.2.16 Cache sub-system
The LEON3 processor implements a Harvard architecture with separate instruction and data buses,
connected to two independent cache controllers. Both instruction and data cache controllers can be
separately configured to implement a direct-mapped cache or a multi-set cache with set associativity
of 2 - 4. The set size is configurable to 1 - 256 kbyte, divided into cache lines with 16 or 32 bytes of
data. In multi-set configurations, one of three replacement policies can be selected: least-recentlyused (LRU), least-recently-replaced (LRR) or (pseudo-) random. If the LRR algorithm can only be
used when the cache is 2-way associative. A cache line can be locked in the instruction or data cache
preventing it from being replaced by the replacement algorithm.
NOTE: The LRR algorithm uses one extra bit in tag rams to store replacement history. The LRU algorithm needs extra flip-flops per cache line to store access history. The random replacement algorithm
is implemented through modulo-N counter that selects which line to evict on cache miss.
Cachability for both caches is controlled through the AHB plug&play address information. The memory mapping for each AHB slave indicates whether the area is cachable, and this information is used
to (statically) determine which access will be treated as cacheable. This approach means that the cachability mapping is always coherent with the current AHB configuration.
The detailed operation of the instruction and data caches is described in the following sections.
44.3
Instruction cache
44.3.1 Operation
The instruction cache can be configured as a direct-mapped cache or as a multi-set cache with associativity of 2 - 4 implementing either LRU or random replacement policy or as 2-way associative
cache implementing LRR algorithm. The set size is configurable to 1 - 64 kbyte and divided into
cache lines of 16- 32 bytes. Each line has a cache tag associated with it consisting of a tag field, valid
field with one valid bit for each 4-byte sub-block and optional LRR and lock bits. On an instruction
cache miss to a cachable location, the instruction is fetched and the corresponding tag and data line
updated. In a multi-set configuration a line to be replaced is chosen according to the replacement policy.
If instruction burst fetch is enabled in the cache control register (CCR) the cache line is filled from
main memory starting at the missed address and until the end of the line. At the same time, the
instructions are forwarded to the IU (streaming). If the IU cannot accept the streamed instructions due
to internal dependencies or multi-cycle instruction, the IU is halted until the line fill is completed. If
the IU executes a control transfer instruction (branch/CALL/JMPL/RETT/TRAP) during the line fill,
the line fill will be terminated on the next fetch. If instruction burst fetch is enabled, instruction
streaming is enabled even when the cache is disabled. In this case, the fetched instructions are only
forwarded to the IU and the cache is not updated. During cache line refill, incremental burst are generated on the AHB bus.
If a memory access error occurs during a line fill with the IU halted, the corresponding valid bit in the
cache tag will not be set. If the IU later fetches an instruction from the failed address, a cache miss
will occur, triggering a new access to the failed address. If the error remains, an instruction access
error trap (tt=0x1) will be generated.
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44.3.2 Instruction cache tag
A instruction cache tag entry consists of several fields as shown in figure 169:
Tag for 1 Kbyte set, 32 bytes/line
31
10
ATAG
9
8
7
0
LRR LOCK
VALID
Tag for 4 Kbyte set, 16bytes/line
31
12
ATAG
9
00
8
LRR LOCK
3
0000
0
VALID
Figure 169. Instruction cache tag layout examples
Field Definitions:
[31:10]:
[9]:
[8]:
[7:0]:
Address Tag (ATAG) - Contains the tag address of the cache line.
LRR - Used by LRR algorithm to store replacement history, otherwise 0.
LOCK - Locks a cache line when set. 0 if cache locking not implemented.
Valid (V) - When set, the corresponding sub-block of the cache line contains valid data. These bits is set when a
sub-block is filled due to a successful cache miss; a cache fill which results in a memory error will leave the valid
bit unset. A FLUSH instruction will clear all valid bits. V[0] corresponds to address 0 in the cache line, V[1] to
address 1, V[2] to address 2 and so on.
NOTE: only the necessary bits will be implemented in the cache tag, depending on the cache configuration. As an example, a 4 kbyte cache with 16 bytes per line would only have four valid bits and 20
tag bits. The cache rams are sized automatically by the ram generators in the model.
44.4
Data cache
44.4.1 Operation
The data cache can be configured as a direct-mapped cache or as a multi-set cache with associativity
of 2 - 4 implementing either LRU or (pseudo-) random replacement policy or as 2-way associative
cache implementing LRR algorithm. The set size is configurable to 1 - 64 kbyte and divided into
cache lines of 16 - 32 bytes. Each line has a cache tag associated with it consisting of a tag field, valid
field with one valid bit for each 4-byte sub-block and optional lock and LRR bits. On a data cache
read-miss to a cachable location 4 bytes of data are loaded into the cache from main memory. The
write policy for stores is write-through with no-allocate on write-miss. In a multi-set configuration a
line to be replaced on read-miss is chosen according to the replacement policy. Locked AHB transfers
are generated for LDD, STD, LDST and SWAP instructions. If a memory access error occurs during a
data load, the corresponding valid bit in the cache tag will not be set. and a data access error trap
(tt=0x9) will be generated.
44.4.2 Write buffer
The write buffer (WRB) consists of three 32-bit registers used to temporarily hold store data until it is
sent to the destination device. For half-word or byte stores, the stored data replicated into proper byte
alignment for writing to a word-addressed device, before being loaded into one of the WRB registers.
The WRB is emptied prior to a load-miss cache-fill sequence to avoid any stale data from being read
in to the data cache.
Since the processor executes in parallel with the write buffer, a write error will not cause an exception
to the store instruction. Depending on memory and cache activity, the write cycle may not occur until
several clock cycles after the store instructions has completed. If a write error occurs, the currently
executing instruction will take trap 0x2b.
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Note: the 0x2b trap handler should flush the data cache, since a write hit would update the cache while
the memory would keep the old value due the write error.
44.4.3 Data cache tag
A data cache tag entry consists of several fields as shown in figure 170:
31
10
ATAG
9
8
LRR LOCK
7
0
VALID
Figure 170. Data cache tag layout
Field Definitions:
[31:10]:
[9]:
[8]:
[3:0]:
Address Tag (ATAG) - Contains the address of the data held in the cache line.
LRR - Used by LRR algorithm to store replacement history. ‘0’ if LRR is not used.
LOCK - Locks a cache line when set. ‘0’ if instruction cache locking was not enabled in the configuration.
Valid (V) - When set, the corresponding sub-block of the cache line contains valid data. These bits is set when a
sub-block is filled due to a successful cache miss; a cache fill which results in a memory error will leave the valid
bit unset. V[0] corresponds to address 0 in the cache line, V[1] to address 1, V[2] to address 2 and V[3] to address 3.
NOTE: only the necessary bits will be implemented in the cache tag, depending on the cache configuration. As an example, a 2 kbyte cache with 32 bytes per line would only have eight valid bits and 21
tag bits. The cache rams are sized automatically by the ram generators in the model.
44.5
Additional cache functionality
44.5.1 Cache flushing
Both instruction and data cache are flushed by executing the FLUSH instruction. The instruction
cache is also flushed by setting the FI bit in the cache control register, or by writing to any location
with ASI=0x15. The data cache is also flushed by setting the FD bit in the cache control register, or by
writing to any location with ASI=0x16. Cache flushing takes one cycle per cache line, during which
the IU will not be halted, but during which the caches are disabled. When the flush operation is completed, the cache will resume the state (disabled, enabled or frozen) indicated in the cache control register. Diagnostic access to the cache is not possible during a FLUSH operation and will cause a data
exception (trap=0x09) if attempted.
44.5.2 Diagnostic cache access
Tags and data in the instruction and data cache can be accessed through ASI address space 0xC, 0xD,
0xE and 0xF by executing LDA and STA instructions. Address bits making up the cache offset will be
used to index the tag to be accessed while the least significant bits of the bits making up the address
tag will be used to index the cache set.
Diagnostic read of tags is possible by executing an LDA instruction with ASI=0xC for instruction
cache tags and ASI=0xE for data cache tags. A cache line and set are indexed by the address bits making up the cache offset and the least significant bits of the address bits making up the address tag. Similarly, the data sub-blocks may be read by executing an LDA instruction with ASI=0xD for instruction
cache data and ASI=0xF for data cache data. The sub-block to be read in the indexed cache line and
set is selected by A[4:2].
The tags can be directly written by executing a STA instruction with ASI=0xC for the instruction
cache tags and ASI=0xE for the data cache tags. The cache line and set are indexed by the address bits
making up the cache offset and the least significant bits of the address bits making up the address tag.
D[31:10] is written into the ATAG filed (see above) and the valid bits are written with the D[7:0] of
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the write data. Bit D[9] is written into the LRR bit (if enabled) and D[8] is written into the lock bit (if
enabled). The data sub-blocks can be directly written by executing a STA instruction with ASI=0xD
for the instruction cache data and ASI=0xF for the data cache data. The sub-block to be read in the
indexed cache line and set is selected by A[4:2].
44.5.3 Cache line locking
In a multi-set configuration the instruction and data cache controllers can be configured with optional
lock bit in the cache tag. Setting the lock bit prevents the cache line to be replaced by the replacement
algorithm. A cache line is locked by performing a diagnostic write to the instruction tag on the cache
offset of the line to be locked setting the Address Tag field to the address tag of the line to be locked,
setting the lock bit and clearing the valid bits. The locked cache line will be updated on a read-miss
and will remain in the cache until the line is unlocked. The first cache line on certain cache offset is
locked in the set 0. If several lines on the same cache offset are to be locked the locking is performed
on the same cache offset and in sets in ascending order starting with set 0. The last set can not be
locked and is always replaceable. Unlocking is performed in descending set order.
NOTE: Setting the lock bit in a cache tag and reading the same tag will show if the cache line locking
was enabled during the LEON3 configuration: the lock bit will be set if the cache line locking was
enabled otherwise it will be 0.
44.5.4 Local instruction ram
A local instruction ram can optionally be attached to the instruction cache controller. The size of the
local instruction is configurable from 1-64 kB. The local instruction ram can be mapped to any 16
Mbyte block of the address space. When executing in the local instruction ram all instruction fetches
are performed from the local instruction ram and will never cause IU pipeline stall or generate an
instruction fetch on the AHB bus. Local instruction ram can be accessed through load/store integer
word instructions (LD/ST). Only word accesses are allowed, byte, halfword or double word access to
the local instruction ram will generate data exception.
44.5.5 Local scratch pad ram
Local scratch pad ram can optionally be attached to both instruction and data cache controllers. The
scratch pad ram provides fast 0-waitstates ram memories for both instructions and data. The ram can
be between 1 - 512 kbyte, and mapped on any 16 Mbyte block in the address space. Accessed performed to the scratch pad ram are not cached, and will not appear on the AHB bus. The scratch pads
rams do not appear on the AHB bus, and can only be read or written by the processor. The instruction
ram must be initialized by software (through store instructions) before it can be used. The default
address for the instruction ram is 0x8e000000, and for the data ram 0x8f000000. See section 44.11 for
additional configuration details. Note: local scratch pad ram can only be enabled when the MMU is
disabled.
44.5.6 Cache Control Register
The operation of the instruction and data caches is controlled through a common Cache Control Register (CCR) (figure 171). Each cache can be in one of three modes: disabled, enabled and frozen. If
disabled, no cache operation is performed and load and store requests are passed directly to the memory controller. If enabled, the cache operates as described above. In the frozen state, the cache is
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accessed and kept in sync with the main memory as if it was enabled, but no new lines are allocated
on read misses.
31
23 22 21
16 15 14
DS FD FI
IB IP DP
6
5
4 3
2
DF IF DCS
1
0
ICS
Figure 171. Cache control register
[23]:
[22]:
[21]:
[16]:
[15]:
[14]:
[5]:
[4]:
[3:2]:
[1:0]:
Data cache snoop enable [DS] - if set, will enable data cache snooping.
Flush data cache (FD). If set, will flush the instruction cache. Always reads as zero.
Flush Instruction cache (FI). If set, will flush the instruction cache. Always reads as zero.
Instruction burst fetch (IB). This bit enables burst fill during instruction fetch.
Instruction cache flush pending (IP). This bit is set when an instruction cache flush operation is in progress.
Data cache flush pending (DP). This bit is set when an data cache flush operation
is in progress.
Data Cache Freeze on Interrupt (DF) - If set, the data cache will automatically be frozen when an asynchronous
interrupt is taken.
Instruction Cache Freeze on Interrupt (IF) - If set, the instruction cache will automatically be frozen when an
asynchronous interrupt is taken.
Data Cache state (DCS) - Indicates the current data cache state according to the following: X0= disabled, 01 =
frozen, 11 = enabled.
Instruction Cache state (ICS) - Indicates the current data cache state according to the
following: X0= disabled, 01 = frozen, 11 = enabled.
If the DF or IF bit is set, the corresponding cache will be frozen when an asynchronous interrupt is
taken. This can be beneficial in real-time system to allow a more accurate calculation of worst-case
execution time for a code segment. The execution of the interrupt handler will not evict any cache
lines and when control is returned to the interrupted task, the cache state is identical to what it was
before the interrupt. If a cache has been frozen by an interrupt, it can only be enabled again by
enabling it in the CCR. This is typically done at the end of the interrupt handler before control is
returned to the interrupted task.
44.5.7 Cache configuration registers
The configuration of the two caches if defined in two registers: the instruction and data configuration
registers. These registers are read-only and indicate the size and configuration of the caches.
31
CL
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23
REPL SN
SETS
20 19
SSIZE
LR
18
LSIZE
16 15
12 11
LRSIZE
4 3
LRSTART
0
M
Figure 172. Cache configuration register
[31]:
Cache locking (CL). Set if cache locking is implemented.
[29:28]: Cache replacement policy (REPL). 00 - no replacement policy (direct-mapped cache), 01 - least recently used
(LRU), 10 - least recently replaced (LRR), 11 - random
[27]:
Cache snooping (SN). Set if snooping is implemented.
[26:24]: Cache associativity (SETS). Number of sets in the cache: 000 - direct mapped, 001 - 2-way associative, 010 - 3-way
associative, 011 - 4-way associative
[23:20]: Set size (SSIZE). Indicates the size (Kbytes) of each cache set. Size = 2SIZE
[19]:
Local ram (LR). Set if local scratch pad ram is implemented.
[18:16]: Line size (LSIZE). Indicated the size (words) of each cache line. Line size = 2LSZ
[15:12]: Local ram size (LRSZ). Indicates the size (Kbytes) of the implemented local scratch pad ram. Local ram size =
2LRSZ
[11:4]: Local ram start address. Indicates the 8 most significant bits of the local ram start address.
[3]:
MMU present. This bit is set to ‘1’ if an MMU is present.
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All cache registers are accessed through load/store operations to the alternate address space (LDA/
STA), using ASI = 2. The table below shows the register addresses:
Table 396.ASI 2 (system registers) address map
Address
Register
0x00
Cache control register
0x04
Reserved
0x08
Instruction cache configuration register
0x0C
Data cache configuration register
44.5.8 Software consideration
After reset, the caches are disabled and the cache control register (CCR) is 0. Before the caches may
be enabled, a flush operation must be performed to initialized (clear) the tags and valid bits. A suitable
assembly sequence could be:
flush
set 0x81000f, %g1
sta%g1, [%g0] 2
44.6
Memory management unit
A memory management unit (MMU) compatible with the SPARC V8 reference MMU can optionally
be configured. For details on operation, see the SPARC V8 manual.
44.6.1 ASI mappings
When the MMU is used, the following ASI mappings are added:
Table 397.MMU ASI usage
ASI
Usage
0x10
Flush page
0x10
MMU flush page
0x13
MMU flush context
0x14
MMU diagnostic dcache context access
0x15
MMU diagnostic icache context access
0x19
MMU registers
0x1C
MMU bypass
0x1D
MMU diagnostic access
44.6.2 Cache operation
When the MMU is disabled, the caches operate as normal with physical address mapping. When the
MMU is enabled, the caches tags store the virtual address and also include an 8-bit context field. For
snooping to work bit 2 of the dsnoop generic has to be set. This will add extra RAM to save the physical tag along with the virtual tag. On a SMP system with a virtual address space this is needed for
snooping to work on the physical AHB bus if the MMU is enabled. In addition for snooping to work
if the MMU is enabled, the cache size has to be less or equal 4k (equivalent to 1 page size) so that the
tag offset is equal for the physical and virtual address of a translation.
Because the cache is virtually tagged, no extra clockcycles are needed in case of a cache load hit. In
case of a cache miss or store hit (write-through cache) at least 2 extra clock cycles are used if there is
a TLB hit. If there is a TLB miss the page table must be traversed, resulting in up to 4 AMBA read
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accesses and one possible writeback operation. If a combined TLB is used by the instruction cache,
the translation is stalled until the TLB is free.
44.6.3 MMU registers
The following MMU registers are implemented:
Table 398.MMU registers (ASI = 0x19)
Address
Register
0x000
MMU control register
0x100
Context pointer register
0x200
Context register
0x300
Fault status register
0x400
Fault address register
The definition of the registers can be found in the SPARC V8 manual.
44.6.4 Translation look-aside buffer (TLB)
The MMU can be configured to use a shared TLB, or separate TLB for instructions and data. The
number of TLB entries can be set to 2 - 32 in the configuration record. The organisation of the TLB
and number of entries is not visible to the software and does thus not require any modification to the
operating system.
44.7
Floating-point unit and custom co-processor interface
The SPARC V8 architecture defines two (optional) co-processors: one floating-point unit (FPU) and
one user-defined co-processor. The LEON3 pipeline provides an interface port for both of these units.
Two different FPU’s can be interfaced: Gaisler Research’s GRFPU, and the Meiko FPU from Sun.
Selection of which FPU to use is done through the VHDL model’s generic map. The characteristics of
the FPU’s are described in the next sections.
44.7.1 Gaisler Research’s floating-point unit (GRFPU)
The high-performance GRFPU operates on single- and double-precision operands, and implements all
SPARC V8 FPU instructions. The FPU is interfaced to the LEON3 pipeline using a LEON3-specific
FPU controller (GRFPC) that allows FPU instructions to be executed simultaneously with integer
instructions. Only in case of a data or resource dependency is the integer pipeline held. The GRFPU is
fully pipelined and allows the start of one instruction each clock cycle, with the exception is FDIV
and FSQRT which can only be executed one at a time. The FDIV and FSQRT are however executed
in a separate divide unit and do not block the FPU from performing all other operations in parallel.
All instructions except FDIV and FSQRT has a latency of three cycles, but to improve timing, the
LEON3 FPU controller inserts an extra pipeline stage in the result forwarding path. This results in a
384
latency of four clock cycles at instruction level. The table below shows the GRFPU instruction timing
when used together with GRFPC:
Table 399.GRFPU instruction timing with GRFPC
Instruction
Throughput
Latency
FADDS, FADDD, FSUBS, FSUBD,FMULS, FMULD, FSMULD, FITOS, FITOD,
FSTOI, FDTOI, FSTOD, FDTOS, FCMPS, FCMPD, FCMPES. FCMPED
1
4
FDIVS
14
16
FDIVD
15
17
FSQRTS
22
24
FSQRTD
23
25
The GRFPC controller implements the SPARC deferred trap model, and the FPU trap queue (FQ) can
contain up to three queued instructions when an FPU exception is taken. When the GRFPU is enabled
in the model, the version field in %fsr has the value of 2.
44.7.2 GRFPU-Lite
GRFPU-Lite is a smaller version of GRFPU, suitable for FPGA implementations with limited logic
resources. The GRFPU-Lite is not pipelined and executes thus only one instruction at a time. To
improve performance, the FPU controller (GRLFPC) allows GRFPU-Lite to execute in parallel with
the processor pipeline as long as no new FPU instructions are pending. Below is a table of worst-case
throughput of the GRFPU-Lite:
Table 400.GRFPU-Lite worst-case instruction timing with GRLFPC
Instruction
Throughput
Latency
FADDS, FADDD, FSUBS, FSUBD,FMULS, FMULD, FSMULD, FITOS, FITOD,
FSTOI, FDTOI, FSTOD, FDTOS, FCMPS, FCMPD, FCMPES. FCMPED
8
8
FDIVS
31
31
FDIVD
57
57
FSQRTS
46
46
FSQRTD
65
65
When the GRFPU-Lite is enabled in the model, the version field in %fsr has the value of 3.
44.7.3 The Meiko FPU
The Meiko floating-point core operates on both single- and double-precision operands, and implements all SPARC V8 FPU instructions. The Meiko FPU is interfaced through the Meiko FPU controller (MFC), which allows one FPU instruction to execute in parallel with IU operation. The MFC
implements the SPARC deferred trap model, and the FPU trap queue (FQ) can contain up to one
queued instruction when an FPU exception is taken.
When the Meiko FPU is enabled in the model, the version field in %fsr has the value of 1.
The Meiko FPU is not distributed with the open-source LEON3 model, and must be obtained separately from Sun.
44.7.4 Generic co-processor
LEON can be configured to provide a generic interface to a user-defined co-processor. The interface
allows an execution unit to operate in parallel to increase performance. One co-processor instruction
can be started each cycle as long as there are no data dependencies. When finished, the result is written back to the co-processor register file.
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44.8
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifiers 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifiers 0x003. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
44.9
Implementation
44.9.1 Area and timing
Both area and timing of the LEON3 core depends strongly on the selected configuration, target technology and the used synthesis tool. The table below indicates the typical figures for two baseline configurations.
Table 401.Area and timing
Actel AX2000
ASIC (0.13 um)
Configuration
Cells
RAM64
MHz
Gates
MHz
LEON3, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache
6,500
40
30
20,000
400
LEON3, 8 + 8 Kbyte cache + DSU3
7,500
40
25
25,000
400
44.9.2 Technology mapping
LEON3 has two technology mapping generics, fabtech and memtech. The fabtech generic controls the
implementation of some pipeline features, while memtech selects which memory blocks will be used
to implement cache memories and the IU/FPU register file. Fabtech can be set to any of the provided
technologies (0 - NTECH) as defined in the GRPIB.TECH package. See the GRLIB Users’s Manual
for available settings for memtech.
44.9.3 Double clocking
The LEON3 CPU core be clocked at twice the clock speed of the AMBA AHB bus. When clocked at
double AHB clock frequency, all CPU core parts including integer unit and caches will operate at
double AHB clock frequency while the AHB bus access is performed at the slower AHB clock frequency. The two clocks have to be synchronous and a multicycle paths between the two clock
domains have to be defined at synthesis tool level. A separate component (leon3s2x) is provided for
the double clocked core. Double clocked versions of DSU (dsu3_2x) and MP interrupt controller
(irqmp2x) are used in a double clocked LEON3 system. An AHB clock qualifier signal (clken input)
is used to identify end of AHB cycle. The AHB qualifier signal is generated in CPU clock domain and
is high during the last CPU clock cycle under AHB clock low-phase. Sample leon3-clk2x design provides a module that generates an AHB clock qualifier signal.
Double-clocked design has two clock domains: AMBA clock domains (HCLK) and CPU clock
domain (CPUCLK). LEON3 (leon3s2x component) and DSU3 (dsu3_2x) belong to CPU clock
domain (clocked by CPUCLK), while the rest of the system is in AMBA clock domain (clocked by
HCLK). Paths between the two clock domains (paths starting in CPUCLK domain and ending in
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HCLK and paths starting in HCLK domain and ending in CPUCLK domain) are multicycle paths
with propagation time of two CPUCLK periods (or one HCLK period) with following exceptions:
Start point
Through
End point
Propagation time
CPUCLK
ahbi
CPUCLK
2 CPUCLK
CPUCLK
ahbsi
CPUCLK
2 CPUCLK
leon3s2x core
CPUCLK
ahbso
CPUCLK
2 CPUCLK
HCLK
irqi
CPUCLK
1 CPUCLK
CPUCLK
irqo
HCLK
1 CPUCLK
u0_0/p0/c0/sync0/r[*]
(register)
1 CPUCLK
Through
End point
Propagation time
CPUCLK
ahbmi
CPUCLK
2 CPUCLK
CPUCLK
ahbsi
CPUCLK
2 CPUCLK
dsui
CPUCLK
1 CPUCLK
rh[*] (register)
1 CPUCLK
r[*] (register)
1 CPUCLK
CPUCLK
Start point
dsu3_2x core
r[*] (register)
irqmp2x core
r2[*] (register)
44.10 Clock gating
To further reduce the power consumption of the processor, the clock can be gated-off when the processor has entered power-down state. Since the cache controllers and MMU operate in parallel with
the processor, the clock cannot be gated immediately when the processor has entered the power-down
state. Instead, a power-down signal (DBGO.idle) is generated when all outstanding AHB accesses
have been completed and it is safe to gate the clock. This signal should be clocked though a positive-
387
edge flip-flop followed by a negative-edge flip-flop to guarantee that the clock is gated off during the
clock-low phase. To insure proper start-up state, the clock should not be gated during reset.
LEON3CG
RESETN
DBGO.IDLE
D
Q
D
Q
GCLK
CLK
AHB CLK
LEON3CG
RESETN
DSUO.PWD[n]
D
Q
GCLK
CLK
AHB CLK
Figure 173. Examples of LEON3 clock gating
The processor should exit the power-down state when an interrupt become pending. The signal
DBGO.ipend will then go high when this happen, and should be used to re-enable the clock.
When the debug support unit (DSU3) is used, the DSUO.pwd signal should be used instead of
DBGO.idle. This will insure that the clock also is re-enabled when the processor is switched from
power-down to debug state by the DSU. The DSUO.pwd is a vector with one power-down signal per
CPU (for SMP systems). DSUO.pwd takes DBGO.ipend into account, and no further gating or latching needs to be done of this signal. If cache snooping has been enabled, the continuous clock will
insure that the snooping logic is activated when necessary and will keep the data cache synchronized
even when the processor clock is gated-off. In a multi-processor system, all processor except node 0
will enter power-down after reset and will allow immediate clock-gating without additional software
support.
Clock-tree routing must insure that the continuous clock (CLK) and the gated clock (GCLK) are
phase-aligned. The template design leon3-clock-gating shows an example of a clock-gated system.
The leon3cg entity should be used when clock gating is implemented. This entity has one input more
(GCLK) which should be driven by the gated clock. Using the double-clocked version of leon3
(leon3s2x), the GCLK2 is the gated double-clock while CLK and CLK2 should be continuous.
388
44.11 Configuration options
Table 402 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 402.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index
0 - NAHBMST-1 0
fabtech
Target technology
0 - NTECH
0 (inferred)
memtech
Vendor library for regfile and cache RAMs
0 - NTECH
0 (inferred)
nwindows
Number of SPARC register windows. Choose 8 windows to be
compatible with Bare-C and RTEMS cross-compilers.
2 - 32
8
dsu
Enable Debug Support Unit interface
0-1
0
fpu
Floating-point Unit
0 - 15
0
0 - no FPU
1 - 7 GRFPU: 1 - inferred multiplier, 2 - DW multiplier, 3 - Module Generator multiplier
8 - 14 GRFPU-Lite: 8 - simple FPC, 9 - data forwarding FPC, 10
- non-blocking FPC
15 - Meiko
v8
Generate SPARC V8 MUL and DIV instructions
0-2
0
cp
Generate co-processor interface
0 -1
0
mac
Generate SPARC V8e SMAC/UMAC instruction
0-1
0
pclow
Least significant bit of PC (Program Counter) that is actually
generated. PC[1:0] are always zero and are normally not generated. Generating PC[1:0] makes VHDL-debugging easier.
0, 2
2
notag
Currently not used
-
-
nwp
Number of watchpoints
0-4
0
icen
Enable instruction cache
0-1
1
irepl
Instruction cache replacement policy.
0-1
0
0 - least recently used (LRU), 1 - least recently replaced (LRR),
2 - random
isets
Number of instruction cache sets
1-4
1
ilinesize
Instruction cache line size in number of words
4, 8
4
isetsize
Size of each instruction cache set in kByte
1 - 256
1
isetlock
Enable instruction cache line locking
0-1
0
dcen
Data cache enable
0-1
1
drepl
Data cache replacement policy.
0-1
0
0 - least recently used (LRU), 1 - least recently replaced (LRR),
2 - random
dsets
Number of data cache sets
1-4
1
dlinesize
Data cache line size in number of words
4, 8
4
dsetsize
Size of each data cache set in kByte
1 - 256
1
389
Table 402.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
dsetlock
Enable instruction cache line locking
0-1
0
dsnoop
Enable data cache snooping
0-6
0
Bit 0-1: 0: disable, 1: slow, 2: fast (see text)
Bit 2: 0: simple snooping, 1: save extra physical tags (MMU
snooping)
ilram
Enable local instruction RAM
0-1
0
ilramsize
Local instruction RAM size in kB
1 - 512
1
ilramstart
8 MSB bits used to decode local instruction RAM area
0 - 255
16#8E#
dlram
Enable local data RAM (scratch-pad RAM)
0-1
0
dlramsize
Local data RAM size in kB
1 - 512
1
dlramstart
8 MSB bits used to decode local data RAM area
0 - 255
16#8F#
mmuen
Enable memory management unit (MMU)
0-1
0
itlbnum
Number of instruction TLB entries
2 - 64
8
dtlbnum
Number of data TLB entries
2 - 64
8
tlb_type
Separate (0) or shared TLB (1)
0-1
1
tlb_rep
Random (0) or LRU (1) TLB replacement
0-1
0
lddel
Load delay. One cycle gives best performance, but might create a
critical path on targets with slow (data) cache memories. A 2cycle delay can improve timing but will reduce performance
with about 5%.
1-2
2
disas
Print instruction disassembly in VHDL simulator console.
0-1
0
tbuf
Size of instruction trace buffer in kB (0 - instruction trace disabled)
0 - 64
0
pwd
Power-down. 0 - disabled, 1 - area efficient, 2 - timing efficient.
0-2
1
svt
Enable single-vector trapping
0-1
0
rstaddr
Default reset start address
0 - (2**20-1)
0
smp
Enable multi-processor support
0 - 15
0
390
44.12 Signal descriptions
Table 403 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 403.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
AMBA and processor clock (leon3s, leon3cg)
-
CLK2
Input
Processor clock in 2x mode (leon3sx2)
GCLK2
Input
Gated processor clock in 2x mode (leon3sx2)
RSTN
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
AHBI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
IRQI
IRL[3:0]
Input
Interrupt level
High
RST
Input
Reset power-down and error mode
High
RUN
Input
Start after reset (SMP system only)
INTACK
Output
Interrupt acknowledge
High
IRL[3:0]
Output
Processor interrupt level
High
DBGI
-
Input
Debug inputs from DSU
-
DBGO
-
Output
Debug outputs to DSU
-
Input
Gated processor clock for leon3cg
IRQO
GCLK
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
44.13 Library dependencies
Table 404 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 404.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
LEON3
Component, signals
LEON3 component declaration, interrupt and
debug signals declaration
44.14 Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
entity leon3s
generic (
hindex
fabtech
memtech
nwindows
dsu
fpu
v8
cp
mac
pclow
notag
nwp
icen
irepl
isets
is
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
integer
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
:=
NTECH
NTECH
32 :=
1 :=
3 :=
2 :=
1 :=
1 :=
2 :=
1 :=
4 :=
1 :=
2 :=
4 :=
0;
:= 0;
:= 0;
8;
0;
0;
0;
0;
0;
2;
0;
0;
0;
2;
1;
391
ilinesize : integer range 4 to 8 := 4;
isetsize : integer range 1 to 256 := 1;
isetlock : integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
dcen
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
drepl
: integer range 0 to 2 := 2;
dsets
: integer range 1 to 4 := 1;
dlinesize : integer range 4 to 8 := 4;
dsetsize : integer range 1 to 256 := 1;
dsetlock : integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
dsnoop
: integer range 0 to 6:= 0;
ilram
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
ilramsize : integer range 1 to 512 := 1;
ilramstart : integer range 0 to 255 := 16#8e#;
dlram
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
dlramsize : integer range 1 to 512 := 1;
dlramstart : integer range 0 to 255 := 16#8f#;
mmuen
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
itlbnum
: integer range 2 to 64 := 8;
dtlbnum
: integer range 2 to 64 := 8;
tlb_type : integer range 0 to 1 := 1;
tlb_rep
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
lddel
: integer range 1 to 2 := 2;
disas
: integer range 0 to 1 := 0;
tbuf
: integer range 0 to 64 := 0;
pwd
: integer range 0 to 2 := 2;
-- power-down
svt
: integer range 0 to 1 := 1;
-- single vector trapping
rstaddr
: integer
:= 0;
smp : integer range 0 to 15 := 0);
port (
clk
: in std_ulogic;
rstn
: in std_ulogic;
ahbi
: in ahb_mst_in_type;
ahbo
: out ahb_mst_out_type;
ahbsi : in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso : in ahb_slv_out_vector;
irqi
: in l3_irq_in_type;
irqo
: out l3_irq_out_type;
dbgi
: in l3_debug_in_type;
dbgo
: out l3_debug_out_type
);
end;
392
45
LEON3FT - Fault-Tolerant SPARC V8 Processor
45.1
Overview
LEON3 is a 32-bit processor core conforming to the IEEE-1754 (SPARC V8) architecture. It is
designed for embedded applications, combining high performance with low complexity and low
power consumption.
The LEON3 core has the following main features: 7-stage pipeline with Harvard architecture, separate instruction and data caches, on-chip debug support and multi-processor extensions.
The LEON3FT processor is a derivate of the standard LEON3 SPARC V8 processor, enhanced with
fault-tolerance against SEU errors. The fault-tolerance is focused on the protection of on-chip RAM
blocks, which are used to implement IU/FPU register files and the cache memory. The LEON3FT
processor is functionally identical to the standard LEON3 processor, and this chapter only outlines the
FT features.
45.2
Register file SEU protection
45.2.1 IU SEU protection
The SEU protection for the integer unit register file can be implemented in four different ways,
depending on target technology and available RAM blocks. The SEU protection scheme is selected
during synthesis, using the iuft VHDL generic. Table 405 below shows the implementation characteristics of the four possible SEU protection schemes.
Table 405.Integer unit SEU protection schemes
ID
Implementation
Description
0
Hardened flip-flops or TMR
Register file implemented with SEU hardened flip-flops. No error checking.
1
4-bit parity with restart
4-bit checksum per 32-bit word. Detects and corrects 1 bit per byte (4 bits
per word). Pipeline restart on correction.
2
8-bit parity without restart
8-bit checksum per 32-bit word. Detects and corrects 1 bit per byte (4 bits
per word). Correction on-the-fly without pipeline restart.
3
7-bit BCH with restart
7-bit BCH checksum per 32-bit word. Detects 2 bits and corrects 1 bit per
word. Pipeline restart on correction.
The SEU error detection has no impact on behaviour or timing, but a correction cycle (scheme 1 and
3) will delay the the current instruction with 6 clock cycles. An uncorrectable error in the IU register
file will cause trap 0x20 (register_access_error). An uncorrectable error in the FPU register file will
cause an (deferred) FPU exception with %fsr.ftt set to 5 (hardware_error).
393
45.2.2 FPU SEU protection
The FPU register file has similar SEU protection as the IU register file, but with less configuration
options. When the GRFPU is enabled, the protection scheme is always 7-bit BCH with pipeline
restart. When GRFPU-Lite is enable, the rotection scheme is always 4-bit parity with pipeline restart.
Table 406.DP ram select usage
TE
DP
Function
1
0
Write to IU register (%i, %l, %o, %g) will only write location of %rs1
Write to FPU register (%f) will only write location of %rs2
1
1
Write to IU register (%i, %l, %o, %g) will only write location of %rs2
Write to IU register (%f) will only write location of %rs1
0
X
IU and FPU registers written nominally
45.2.3 ASR16 register
ASR register 16 (%asr16) is used to control the IU/FPU register file SEU protection. It is possible to
disable the SEU protection by setting the IDI/FDI bits, and to inject errors using the ITE/FTE bits.
Corrected errors in the register file are counted, and available in ICNT and FCNT fields. The counters
saturate at their maximum value (7), and should be reset by software after read-out.
31
30 29
FPFT
17
27 26
FCNT
RESERVED
16
FDI
15
14 13
IUFT
11 10
ICNT
3
TB[7:0]
2
1
DP
TE IDI
0
Figure 174. %asr16 - Register protection control register
[31:30]:
[29:27]:
[26:17]:
[16]:
[15:14]:
[13:11]:
[10:3]:
[2]:
[1]:
[0]:
FP FT ID - Defines which SEU protection is implemented in the FPU (table 405).
FP RF error counter - Number of detected parity errors in the FP register file.
Reserved
FP RF protection disable (FDI) - Disables FP RF parity protection when set.
IU FT ID - Defines which SEU protection is implemented in the IU (table 405).
IU RF error counter - Number of detected parity errors in the IU register file.
RF Test bits (FTB) - In test mode, these bits are xored with correct parity bits before written to the register file.
DP ram select (DP) - Only applicable if the IU or FPU register files consists of two dual-port rams. See text below
for details.
IU RF Test Enable - Enables register file test mode. Parity bits are xored with TB before written to the resgiter file.
IU RF protection disable (IDI) - Disables IU RF parity protection when set.
45.2.4 IU register file error injection
The SEU protection feature can be tested by inserting errors into the checkbits. When the RF Test
Enable bit (%asr16[1]) is ‘1’, the checkbits will be XORed with the RF Test bits before written to the
register file. If the IU and/or FPU register files are implemented with dual-port RAM, then the DP bit
defines which of the two register file DPRAMs the checkbits will be written to according to the following table.
45.3
Cache memory
Each word in the cache tag or data memories is protected by four check bits. An error during cache
access will cause a cache line flush, and a re-excution of the failing instruction. This will insure that
the complete cache line (tags and data) is refilled from external memory. For every detected error, a
counter in the cache control register is incremented. The counters saturate at their maximum value (3),
and should be reset by software after read-out. The cache memory check bits can be diagnostically
394
read by setting the PS bit in the cache control register and then perform a normal tag or data diagnostic read.
45.3.1 Cache Control Register
31
29 28 27
PS
24 23 22 21 20 19
TB
DS FD FI FT
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
IB IP DP ITE
6
5
4 3
2
IDE DTE DDE DF IF DCS
1
0
ICS
Figure 175. Cache control register
[28]:
[27:24]:
[23]:
[22]:
[21]:
[20:19]:
[16]:
[15]:
[14]:
[13:12]:
[11:10]:
[9:8]:
[7:6]:
[5]:
[4]:
[3:2]:
[1:0]:
Parity Select [PS] - if set diagnostic read will return 4 check bits in the lsb bits, otherwise tag or data word is
returned.
Test Bits [TB] - if set, check bits will be xored with test bits TB during diagnostic write
Data cache snoop enable [DS] - if set, will enable data cache snooping.
Flush data cache (FD). If set, will flush the instruction cache. Always reads as zero.
Flush Instruction cache (FI). If set, will flush the instruction cache. Always reads as zero.
FT scheme: “00” = no FT, “01” = 4-bit checking implemented
Instruction burst fetch (IB). This bit enables burst fill during instruction fetch.
Instruction cache flush pending (IP). This bit is set when an instruction cache flush operation is in progress.
Data cache flush pending (DP). This bit is set when an data cache flush operation is in progress.
Instruction Tag Errors (ITE) - Number of detected parity errors in the instruction tag cache.
Instruction Data Errors (IDE) - Number of detected parity errors in the instruction data cache.
Data Tag Errors (DTE) - Number of detected parity errors in the data tag cache.
Data Data Errors (IDE) - Number of detected parity errors in the data data cache.
Data Cache Freeze on Interrupt (DF) - If set, the data cache will automatically be frozen when an asynchronous
interrupt is taken.
Instruction Cache Freeze on Interrupt (IF) - If set, the instruction cache will automatically be frozen when an
asynchronous interrupt is taken.
Data Cache state (DCS) - Indicates the current data cache state according to the following: X0= disabled, 01 =
frozen, 11 = enabled.
Instruction Cache state (ICS) - Indicates the current data cache state according to the following: X0= disabled, 01
= frozen, 11 = enabled.
395
45.4
DSU memory map
The FPU register file check bits can be accessed at address 0x301800 - 0x30187C.
Table 407.DSU memory map
Address offset
Register
0x000000
DSU control register
0x000008
Time tag counter
0x000020
Break and Single Step register
0x000024
Debug Mode Mask register
0x000040
AHB trace buffer control register
0x000044
AHB trace buffer index register
0x000050
AHB breakpoint address 1
0x000054
AHB mask register 1
0x000058
AHB breakpoint address 2
0x00005c
AHB mask register 2
0x100000 - 0x110000
Instruction trace buffer (..0: Trace bits 127 - 96, ..4: Trace bits 95 - 64,
..8: Trace bits 63 - 32, ..C : Trace bits 31 - 0)
0x110000
0x200000 - 0x210000
Intruction Trace buffer control register
AHB trace buffer (..0: Trace bits 127 - 96, ..4: Trace bits 95 - 64,
..8: Trace bits 63 - 32, ..C : Trace bits 31 - 0)
0x300000 - 0x300FFC
IU register file
0x301000 - 0x30107C
FPU register file
0x301800 - 0x30187C
FPU register file check bits
0x400000 - 0x4FFFFC
IU special purpose registers
0x400000
Y register
0x400004
PSR register
0x400008
WIM register
0x40000C
TBR register
0x400010
PC register
0x400014
NPC register
0x400018
FSR register
0x40001C
CPSR register
0x400020
DSU trap register
0x400024
DSU ASI register
0x400040 - 0x40007C
ASR16 - ASR31 (when implemented)
0x700000 - 0x7FFFFC
ASI diagnostic access (ASI = value in DSU ASI register, address = address[19:0])
ASI = 0x9 : Local instruction RAM
ASI = 0xB : Local data RAM
ASI = 0xC : Instruction cache tags
ASI = 0xD : Instruction cache data
ASI = 0xE : Data cache tags
ASI = 0xF : Instruction cache data
45.4.1 Data scrubbing
There is generally no need to perform data scrubbing on either IU/FPU register files or the cache
memory. During normal operation, the active part of the IU/FPU register files will be flushed to mem-
396
ory on each task switch. This will cause all registers to be checked and corrected if necessary. Since
most real-time operating systems performs several task switches per second, the data in the register
files will be frequently refreshed.
The similar situation arises for the cache memory. In most applications, the cache memory is significantly smaller than the full application image, and the cache contents is gradually replaced as part of
normal operation. For very small programs, the only risk of error build-up is if a part of the application is resident in the cache but not executed for a long period of time. In such cases, executing a
cache flush instruction periodically (e.g. once per minute) is sufficient to refresh the cache contents.
45.4.2 Initialisation
After power-on, the check bits in the IU and FPU register files are not initialized. This means that
access to an uninitialized (un-written) register could cause a register access trap (tt = 0x20). Such
behaviour is considered as a software error, as the software should not read a register before it has
been written. It is recommended that the boot code for the processor writes all registers in the IU and
FPU register files before launching the main application.
The check bits in the cache memories do not need to be initialized as this is done automatically during
cache line filling.
45.5
Vendor and device identifers
The core has vendor identifers 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifers 0x053. For description
of vendor and device identiferss see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
45.6
Configuration options
In addition to the configuration of the standard LEON3 processor, the LEON3FT processor has the
following configuartion options.
Table 408 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 408.Configuration options
45.7
Generic
Function
Range
Default
iuft, fpft
Register file SEU protection. (0: no protection; 1 : 4-bit parity, 2
: 8-bit parity; 3 : 7-bit BCH)
0-3
0
cft
Enable cache memory SEU protection.
0-1
0
ceinj
Error injection. Used for simulation only.
0-3
0
Limitations
The LEON3FT core does not support the following functions present in the LEON3 model:
- Local scratch pad RAM
- Data cache snooping with MMU enabled
397
46
LOGAN - On-chip Logic Analyzer
46.1
Introduction
The LOGAN core implements an on-chip logic analyzer for tracing and displaying of on-chip signals.
LOGAN consists of a circular trace buffer and a triggering module. When armed, the logic analyzers
stores the traced signals in the circular buffer until a trigger condition occurs. A trigger condition will
freeze the buffer, and the traced data can then be read out via an APB interface.
The depth and width of the trace buffer is configurable through VHDL generics, as well as the number
of trigger levels.
On-chip Logic Analyzer core
Traced
signals
Trace buffer
Trigger engine
On-chip RAM
Write port
Control unit with
APB slave interface
Read port
AMBA APB
Figure 176. On-chip Logic Analyzer block diagram
46.2
Operation
46.2.1 Trace buffer
When the logic analyzer is armed, the traced signals are sampled and stored to the trace buffer on the
rising edge of the sample clock (TCLK). The trace buffer consists of a circular buffer with an index
register pointing to the next address in the buffer to be written. The index register is automatically
incremented after each store operation to the buffer.
46.2.2 Clocking
LOGAN uses two clocks: TCLK and the APB clock. The trace signals are sampled on the rising edge
of the sample clock (TCLK), while the control unit and the APB interface suse the APB clock. TCLK
and the APB clock does not need to be synchronized or have the same freqency.
398
46.2.3 Triggering
The logic analyzer contains a configurable number of trig levels. Each trig level is associated with a
pattern and a mask. The traced signals are compared with the pattern, only comparing the bits set in
the mask. This allows for triggering on any specific value or range. Furthermore each level has a
match counter and a boolean equality flag. The equality flag specifies whether a match means that the
pattern should equal the traced signals or that it should not be equal. It is possible to configure the trigger engine to stay at a certain level while the traced signals have a certain value using this flag. The
match counter is a 6 bit counter which can be used to specify how many times a level should match
before proceeding to the next. This is all run-time configurable through registers described in the register section.
To specify post-, center- or pre-triggering mode, the user can set a counter register that controls when
the sampling stops relative to the triggering event. It can be set to any value in the range 0 to depth-1
thus giving total control of the trace buffer content.
To support the tracing of slowly changing siganls, the logic analyzer has a 16-bit sample frequency
divider register that controls how often the siganls are sampled. The default divider value of 1 will
sample the siganls every clock cycle.
The usequal configuration option has a similar purpose as the sample frequency divider. The user can
define one of the traced signals as a qualifier bit that has to have a specified value for the current signals to be stored in the trace buffer. This makes sampling of larger time periods possible if only some
easily distinguished samples are interesting. This option has to be enabled with the usequal generic
and the qualifier bit and value are written to a register.
46.2.4 Arming
To start operation, the logic analyzer needs to be armed. This is done by writing to the status register
with bit 0 set to 1. A reset can be performed anytime by writing zero to the status register. After the
final triggering event, the trigged flag will be raised and can be read out from the status register. The
logic analyzer remains armed and trigged until the trigger counter reaches zero. When this happens
the index of the oldest sample can be read from the trace buffer index register.
46.3
Registers
Both trace data and all registers are accessed through an APB interface. The LOGAN core will allocate a 64 kbyte block in the APB address space.
Table 409.APB address mapping
APB address offset
Registers
0x0000
Status register
0x0004
Trace buffer index
0x0008
Page register
0x000C
Trig counter
0x0010
Sample freq. divider
0x0014
Storage qualifier setting
0x2000 - 0x20FF
Trig control settings
0x6000 - 0x6FFF
Pattern/mask configuration
0x8000 - 0xFFFF
Trace data
399
46.3.1 Status register
31
usereg
30
qualifier
29
armed
28
trigged
27
20
19
dbits
6
5
depth
0
trig levels
Figure 177. Status register
[31:28]
These bits indicate whether an input register and/or storage qualifier is used and if the Logic Analyzer is armed and/
or trigged.
Number of traced signals.
Last index of trace buffer. Depth-1.
Number of trig levels.
[27:20]
[19:6]
[5:0]
46.3.2 Trace buffer index
31
abits abits-1
“000...0”
0
the index of the oldest sample
Figure 178. Trace buffer index register
[31:abits] - Reserved.
[abits-1:0] - The index of the oldest sample in the buffer. abits is the number of bits needed to represent the configured depth.
Note that this register is written by the trigger engine clock domain and thus needs to be known stable
when read out. Only when the ‘armed’ bit in the status register is zero is the content of this register
reliable.
46.3.3 Page register
4 3
31
0
current page
“000...0”
Figure 179. Page register
[31:4] - Reserved.
[3:0] - This register selects what page that will be used when reading from the trace buffer.
The trace buffer is organized into pages of 1024 samples. Each sample can be
between 1 and 256 bits. If the depth of the buffer is more than 1024 the page register has to be used to
access the other pages. To access the i:th page the register should be set i (where i=0..15).
46.3.4 Trig counter
31
abits abits-1
“000...0”
0
trig counter value
Figure 180. Trig counter register
[31:abits] - Reserved.
[nbits-1:0] - Trig counter value. A counter is incremented by one for each stored sample after the final triggering event and
when it reaches the value stored in this register the sampling stops. 0 means posttrig and depth-1 is pretrig. Any
value in between can be used.
400
46.3.5 Sample frequency divider
31
16
15
0
“000...0”
divider value
Figure 181. Sample freq. divider register
[31:16] - Reserved.
[15:0] - A sample is stored on every i:th clock cycle where i is specified through this register. This resets to 1 thus sampling
occurs every cycle if not changed.
46.3.6 Storage qualifier
9
31
8
1
“000...0”
0
val
qualifier bit
Figure 182. Storage qualifier register
[31:9] - Reserved.
[8:1] - Which bit to use as qualifier.
[0] - Qualify storage if bit is 1/0.
46.3.7 Trig control registers
This memory area contains the registers that control when the trigger engine shall proceed to the next
level, i.e the match counter and a one bit field that specifies if it should trig on equality or inequality.
There are trigl words where each word is used like in the figure below.
7
31
“000...0”
6
1
match counter
0
eq
Figure 183. Trigger control register
[31:7] - Reserved.
[6:1] - Match counter. A counter is increased with one on each match on the current level and when it reaches the value stored
in this register the trigger engine proceeds to the next level or if it is the last level it raises the trigged flag and starts
the count of the trigger counter.
[0] - Specifies if a match is that the pattern/mask combination is equal or inequal compared to the traced signals.
46.3.8 Pattern/mask configuration
In these registers the pattern and mask for each trig level is configured. The pattern and mask can contain up to 8 words (256 bits) each so a number of writes can be necessary to specify just one pattern.
They are stored with the LSB at the lowest address. The pattern of the first trig level is at 0x6000 and
the mask is located 8 words later at 0x6020. Then the next trig levels starts at address 0x6040 and so
on.
46.3.9 Trace data
It is placed in the upper half of the allocated APB address range. If the configuration needs more than
the allocated 32 kB of the APB range the page register is used to page into the trace buffer. Each
stored word is dbits wide but 8 words of the memory range is always allocated so the entries in the
trace buffer are found at multiples of 0x20, i.e. 0x8000, 0x8020 and so on.
401
46.4
Graphical interface
The logic analyzer is normally controlled by the LOGAN debug driver in GRMON. It is also possible
to control the LOGAN operation using a graphical user interface (GUI) written in Tcl/Tk. The GUI is
provided with GRMON, refer to the GRMON manual for more details.
46.5
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x062. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
46.6
Configuration options
Table 410 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 410.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
dbits
Number of traced signals
1 - 255
32
depth
Number of stored samples
256 - 16384
1024
trigl
Number of trigger levels
1 - 63
1
usereg
Use input register
0-1
1
usequal
Use storage qualifier
0-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV - 1
0
paddr
The 12-bit MSB APB address
0 -16#FFF#
0
pmask
The APB address mask
16#000 - 16#F00#
F00
memtech
Memory technology
0 - NTECH
0
402
The usereg VHDL generic specifies whether to use an input register to synchronize the traced signals
and to minimize their fan out. If usereg=1 then all signals will be clocked into a register on the positive edge of the supplied clock signal, otherwise they are sent directly to the RAM.
46.7
Signal descriptions
Table 411 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 411.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
System clock
-
TCLK
N/A
Input
Sample clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
SIGNALS
N/A
Input
Vector of traced signals
-
* See GRLIB IP Library users manual
46.8
Library dependencies
Table 412 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 412.Library dependencies
46.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity logan_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rstn : in std_ulogic;
... -- other signals
);
end;
architecture rtl of logan_ex is
-- AMBA signals
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal signals : std_logic_vector(63 downto 0);
begin
-- Logic analyzer core
403
logan0 : logan
generic map (dbits=>64,depth=>4096,trigl=>2,usereg=>1,usequal=>0,
pindex => 3, paddr => 3, pmask => 16#F00#, memtech => memtech)
port map (rstn, clk, clk, apbi, apbo(3), signals);
end;
404
47
MCTRL - Combined PROM/IO/SRAM/SDRAM Memory Controller
47.1
Overview
The memory controller handles a memory bus hosting PROM, memory mapped I/O devices, asynchronous static ram (SRAM) and synchronous dynamic ram (SDRAM). The controller acts as a slave
on the AHB bus. The function of the memory controller is programmed through memory configuration registers 1, 2 & 3 (MCFG1, MCFG2 & MCFG3) through the APB bus. The memory bus supports
four types of devices: prom, sram, sdram and local I/O. The memory bus can also be configured in 8or 16-bit mode for applications with low memory and performance demands.
Chip-select decoding is done for two PROM banks, one I/O bank, five SRAM banks and two
SDRAM banks.
The controller decodes three address spaces (PROM, I/O and RAM) whose mapping is determined
through VHDL-generics.
Figure 184 shows how the connection to the different device types is made.
APB
A
AHB
MEMO.ROMSN[1:0]
MEMO.OEN
MEMO.WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
MEMO.IOSN
CS
OE
WE
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
MEMO.RAMSN[4:0]
MEMO.RAMOEN[4:0]
MEMO.RWEN[3:0]
MEMO.MBEN[3:0]
MEMO.SDCLK
MEMO.SDCSN[1:0]
MEMO.SDRASN
MEMO.SDCASN
MEMO.SDWEN
MEMO.SDDQM[3:0]
CS
OE
WE
MBEN
CLK
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
PROM
D
A
D
I/O
A
SRAM
A
D
D
A[16:15]
BA
SDRAM
A[14:2]
A
D
MEMI.A[27:0]
MEMI.D[31:0]/
MEMO.D[31:0]
Figure 184. Memory controller conected to AMBA bus and different types of memory devices
47.2
PROM access
Accesses to prom have the same timing as RAM accesses, the differences being that PROM cycles
can have up to 15 waitstates.
405
data1
data2
lead-out data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 185. Prom non-consecutive read cyclecs.
data1
data2
data1
data
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 186. Prom consecutive read cyclecs.
data1
data2
data2
data
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
oen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 187. Prom read access with two waitstates.
406
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
rwen
data
D1
cb
CB1
Figure 188. Prom write cycle (0-waitstates)
lead-in
data
data
data lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn
rwen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 189. Prom write cycle (2-waitstates)
Two PROM chip-select signals are provided, MEMO.ROMSN[1:0]. MEMO.ROMSN[0] is asserted
when the lower half of the PROM area as addressed while MEMO.ROMSN[1] is asserted for the
upper half. When the VHDL model is configured to boot from internal prom, MEMO.ROMSN[0] is
never asserted and all accesses to the lower half of the PROM area are mapped on the internal prom.
47.3
Memory mapped I/O
Accesses to I/O have similar timing to ROM/RAM accesses, the differences being that a additional
waitstates can be inserted by de-asserting the MEMI.BRDYN signal. The I/O select signal
(MEMO.IOSN) is delayed one clock to provide stable address before MEMO.IOSN is asserted.
407
lead-in
data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
iosn
oen
data
D1
cb
CB1
Figure 190. I/O read cycle (0-waitstates)
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
iosn
oen
data
cb
D1
CB1
Figure 191. I/O write cycle (0-waitstates)
47.4
SRAM access
The SRAM area can be up to 1 Gbyte, divided on up to five RAM banks. The size of banks 1-4
(MEMO.RAMSN[3:0]is programmed in the RAM bank-size field (MCFG2[12:9]) and can be set in
binary steps from 8 Kbyte to 256 Mbyte. The fifth bank (MEMO.RAMSN[4]) decodes the upper 512
Mbyte. A read access to SRAM consists of two data cycles and between zero and three waitstates.
Accesses to MEMO.RAMSN[4] can further be stretched by de-asserting MEMI.BRDYN until the
data is available. On non-consecutive accesses, a lead-out cycle is added after a read cycle to prevent
bus contention due to slow turn-off time of memories or I/O devices. Figure 192 shows the basic read
cycle waveform (zero waitstate).
408
data1
data2
lead-out data1
data2
lead-out
clk
address
A1
A2
ramsn
oen,
ramoen
data
cb
D1
D2
CB1
CB2
Figure 192. SRAM non-consecutive read cyclecs.
For read accesses to MEMO.RAMSN[4:0], a separate output enable signal (MEMO.RAMOEN[n]) is
provided for each RAM bank and only asserted when that bank is selected. A write access is similar to
the read access but takes a minimum of three cycles:
Through an (optional) feed-back loop from the write strobes, the data bus is guaranteed to be driven
until the write strobes are de-asserted. Each byte lane has an individual write strobe to allow efficient
byte and half-word writes. If the memory uses a common write strobe for the full 16- or 32-bit data,
the read-modify-write bit in the MCFG2 register should be set to enable read-modify-write cycles for
sub-word writes.
lead-in
data
lead-out
clk
address
A1
ramsn
rwen
data
D1
cb
CB1
Figure 193. Sram write cycle (0-waitstates)
A drive signal vector for the data I/O-pads is provided which has one drive signal for each data bit. It
can be used if the synthesis tool does not generate separate registers automatically for the current
technology. This can remove timing problems with output delay.
47.5
8-bit and 16-bit PROM and SRAM access
To support applications with low memory and performance requirements efficiently, it is not necessary to always have full 32-bit memory banks. The SRAM and PROM areas can be individually configured for 8- or 16-bit operation by programming the ROM and RAM size fields in the memory
configuration registers. Since read access to memory is always done on 32-bit word basis, read access
to 8-bit memory will be transformed in a burst of four read cycles while access to 16-bit memory will
409
generate a burst of two 16-bits reads. During writes, only the necessary bytes will be writen. Figure
194 shows an interface example with 8-bit PROM and 8-bit SRAM. Figure 195 shows an example of
a 16-bit memory interface.
8-bit PROM
MEMO.ROMSN[0]
MEMO.OEN
MEMO.WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
MEMO.RAMSN[0]
MEMO.RAMOEN[0]
MEMO.RWEN[0]
A
D
A[27:0]
PROM
A
D
D[31:24]
8-bit RAM
CS
OE
RWE[0]
WE
A[27:0]
SRAM
A
D
D[31:24]
MEMI.A[27:0]
MEMI.D[31:24]/
MEMO.D[31:24]
Figure 194. 8-bit memory interface example
16-bit PROM
MEMO.ROMSN[0]
MEMO.OEN
MEMO.WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
MEMO.RAMSN[0]
MEMO.RAMOEN[0]
MEMO.RWEN[0:1]
A
D
A[27:1]
PROM
A
D
D[31:16]
16-bit RAM
CS
OE
RWE[1:0] WE
A[27:1]
SRAM
A
D
D[31:16]
MEMI.A[27:0]
MEMI.D[31:16]/
MEMO.D[31:16]
Figure 195. 16-bit memory interface example
47.6
Burst cycles
To improve the bandwidth of the memory bus, accesses to consecutive addresses can be performed in
burst mode. Burst transfers will be generated when the memory controller is accessed using an AHB
burst request. These includes instruction cache-line fills, double loads and double stores. The timing
of a burst cycle is identical to the programmed basic cycle with the exception that during read cycles,
the lead-out cycle will only occurs after the last transfer.
410
47.7
8- and 16-bit I/O access
Similar to the PROM/RAM areas, the I/O area can also be configured to 8- or 16-bit mode. However,
the I/O device will NOT be accessed by multiple 8/16 bit accesses as the memory areas, but only with
one single access just as in 32-bit mode. To access an I/O device on a 16-bit bus, LDUH/STH instructions should be used while LDUB/STB should be used with an 8-bit bus.
47.8
SDRAM access
47.8.1 General
Synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) access is supported to two banks of PC100/PC133 compatible devices. This is implemented by a special version of the SDCTRL SDRAM controller core from
Gaisler Research, which is optionally instantiated as a sub-block. The SDRAM controller supports
64M, 256M and 512M devices with 8 - 12 column-address bits, and up to 13 row-address bits. The
size of the two banks can be programmed in binary steps between 4 Mbyte and 512 Mbyte. The operation of the SDRAM controller is controlled through MCFG2 and MCFG3 (see below). Both 32- and
64-bit data bus width is supported, allowing the interface of 64-bit DIMM modules. The memory controller can be configured to use either a shared or separate bus connecting the controller and SDRAM
devices.
47.8.2 Address mapping
The two SDRAM chip-select signals are decoded. SDRAM area is mapped into the upper half of the
RAM area defined by BAR2 register. When the SDRAM enable bit is set in MCFG2, the controller is
enabled and mapped into upper half of the RAM area as long as the SRAM disable bit is not set. If the
SRAM disable bit is set, all access to SRAM is disabled and the SDRAM banks are mapped into the
lower half of the RAM area.
47.8.3 Initialisation
When the SDRAM controller is enabled, it automatically performs the SDRAM initialisation
sequence of PRECHARGE, 2x AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG on both banks simultaneously. The controller programs the SDRAM to use page burst on read and single location access on
write.
47.8.4 Configurable SDRAM timing parameters
To provide optimum access cycles for different SDRAM devices (and at different frequencies), some
SDRAM parameters can be programmed through memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2) The programmable SDRAM parameters can be seen in tabel 413.
Table 413.SDRAM programmable timing parameters
Function
Parameter
Range
Unit
CAS latency, RAS/CAS delay
tCAS, tRCD
2-3
clocks
Precharge to activate
tRP
2-3
clocks
Auto-refresh command period
tRFC
3 - 11
clocks
10 - 32768
clocks
Auto-refresh interval
Remaining SDRAM timing parameters are according the PC100/PC133 specification.
47.9
Refresh
The SDRAM controller contains a refresh function that periodically issues an AUTO-REFRESH
command to both SDRAM banks. The period between the commands (in clock periods) is pro-
411
grammed in the refresh counter reload field in the MCFG3 register. Depending on SDRAM type, the
required period is typically 7.8 or 15.6 µs (corresponding to 780 or 1560 clocks at 100 MHz). The
generated refresh period is calculated as (reload value+1)/sysclk. The refresh function is enabled by
setting bit 31 in MCFG2.
47.9.1 SDRAM commands
The controller can issue three SDRAM commands by writing to the SDRAM command field in
MCFG2: PRE-CHARGE, AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG (LMR). If the LMR command
is issued, the CAS delay as programmed in MCFG2 will be used, remaining fields are fixed: page
read burst, single location write, sequential burst. The command field will be cleared after a command
has been executed. Note that when changing the value of the CAS delay, a LOAD-MODE-REGISTER command should be generated at the same time.
47.9.2 Read cycles
A read cycle is started by performing an ACTIVATE command to the desired bank and row, followed
by a READ command after the programmed CAS delay. A read burst is performed if a burst access
has been requested on the AHB bus. The read cycle is terminated with a PRE-CHARGE command,
no banks are left open between two accesses.
47.9.3 Write cycles
Write cycles are performed similarly to read cycles, with the difference that WRITE commands are
issued after activation. A write burst on the AHB bus will generate a burst of write commands without
idle cycles in-between.
47.9.4 Address bus connection
The memory controller can be configured to either share the address and data buses with the SRAM,
or to use separate address and data buses. When the buses are shared, the address bus of the SDRAMs
should be connected to A[14:2], the bank address to A[16:15]. The MSB part of A[14:2] can be left
unconnected if not used. When separate buses are used, the SDRAM address bus should be connected
to SA[12:0] and the bank address to SA[14:13].
47.9.5 Data bus
SDRAM can be connected to the memory controller through the common or separate data bus. If the
separate bus is used the width is configurable to 32 or 64 bits. 64-bit data bus allows the 64-bit
SDRAM devices to be connected using the full data capacity of the devices. 64-bit SDRAM devices
can be connected to 32-bit data bus if 64-bit data bus is not available but in this case only half the full
data capacity will be used. There is a drive signal vector and separate data vector available for
SDRAM. The drive vector has one drive signal for each data bit. These signals can be used to remove
timing problems with the output delay when a separate SDRAM bus is used. SDRAM bus signals are
described in section 47.13, for configuration options refer to section 47.15.
47.9.6 Clocking
The SDRAM clock typically requires special synchronisation at layout level. For Xilinx and Altera
device, the GR Clock Generator can be configured to produce a properly synchronised SDRAM
clock. For other FPGA targets, the GR Clock Generator can produce an inverted clock.
47.10 Using bus ready signalling
The MEMI.BRDYN signal can be used to stretch access cycles to the I/O area and the ram area
decoded by MEMO.RAMSN[4]. The accesses will always have at least the pre-programmed number
of waitstates as defined in memory configuration registers 1 & 2, but will be further stretched until
412
MEMI.BRDYN is asserted. MEMI.BRDYN should be asserted in the cycle preceding the last one.
The use of MEMI.BRDYN can be enabled separately for the I/O and RAM areas.
data1
data2
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn[4]
oen
data
D1
brdyn
Figure 196. READ cycle with one extra data2 cycle added with BRDYN (synchronous sampling). Lead-out cycle is
only applicable for I/O accesses.
data1
data2
data2
ws
data2 lead-out
brdyn
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn[4]
oen
data
D1
brdyn
Figure 197. Read cycle with one waitstate (configured) and one BRDYN generated waitstate (synchronous
sampling).
47.11 Access errors
An access error can be signalled by asserting the MEMI.BEXCN signal, which is sampled together
with the data. If the usage of MEMI.BEXCN is enabled in memory configuration register 1, an error
response will be generated on the internal AMBA bus. MEMI.BEXCN can be enabled or disabled
through memory configuration register 1, and is active for all areas (PROM, I/O an RAM).
413
data1
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
oen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 198. Read cycle with BEXCN.
lead-in
data2 lead-out
clk
address
A1
romsn/iosn/ramsn
rwen
data
D1
bexcn
Figure 199. Write cycle with BEXCN. Chip-select (iosn) is not asserted in lead-in cycle for io-accesses.
47.12 Attaching an external DRAM controller
To attach an external DRAM controller, MEMO.RAMSN[4] should be used since it allows the cycle
time to vary through the use of MEMI.BRDYN. In this way, delays can be inserted as required for
opening of banks and refresh.
47.13 Registers
The memory controller is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 414.Memory controller registers
APB address offset
Register
0x0
MCFG1
0x4
MCFG2
0x8
MCFG3
414
47.13.1 Memory configuration register 1 (MCFG1)
Memory configuration register 1 is used to program the timing of rom and local I/O accesses.
Table 415. Memory configuration register 1.
31
29
RESERVED
28
27
IOBUSW
12
RESERVED
11
26
25
24
23
IBRDY BEXCN
10
PWEN
9
20
19
IO WAITSTATES
8
7
PROM WIDTH
18
IOEN
4
3
PROM WRITE WS
0
PROM READ WS
31 : 29
RESERVED
28 : 27
I/O bus width (IOBUSW) - Sets the data width of the I/O area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “10” =32).
26
I/O bus ready enable (IBRDY) - Enables bus ready (BRDYN) signalling for the I/O area. Reset to
‘0’.
25
Bus error enable (BEXCN) - Enables bus error signalling. Reset to ‘0’.
24
RESERVED
23 : 20
I/O waitstates (IO WAITSTATES) - Sets the number of waitstates during I/O accesses (“0000”=0,
“0001”=1, “0010”=2,..., “1111”=15).
19
I/O enable (IOEN) - Enables accesses to the memory bus I/O area.
18:12
RESERVED
11
PROM write enable (PWEN) - Enables write cycles to the PROM area.
10
RESERVED
9:8
PROM width (PROM WIDTH) - Sets the data width of the PROM area (“00”=8, “01”=16,
“10”=32).
7:4
PROM write waitstates (PROM WRITE WS) - Sets the number of wait states for PROM write
cycles (“0000”=0, “0001”=1, “0010”=2,..., “1111”=15).
3:0
PROM read waitstates (PROM READ WS) - Sets the number of wait states for PROM read cycles
(“0000”=0, “0001”=1, “0010”=2,...,”1111”=15). Reset to “1111”.
During power-up, the prom width (bits [9:8]) are set with value on MEMI.BWIDTH inputs. The prom
waitstates fields are set to 15 (maximum). External bus error and bus ready are disabled. All other
fields are undefined.
47.13.2 Memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2)
Memory configuration register 2 is used to control the timing of the SRAM and SDRAM.
Table 416. Memory configuration register 2.
31
30
SDRF
TRP
15
29
28
27
SDRAM TRFC
14
13
SE
SI
26
TCAS
12
25
9
RAM BANK SIZE
24
23
SDRAM BANKSZ
8
7
22
21
SDRAM COLSZ
6
RBRDY RMW
5
20
19
SDRAM CMD
4
RAM WIDTH
3
18
D64
2
17
RESERVED
1
0
RAM WRITE WS RAM READ WS
31
SDRAM refresh (SDRF) - Enables SDRAM refresh.
30
SRAM TRP parameter (TRP) - tRP will be equal to 2 or 3 system clocks (0/1).
29 : 27
SDRAM TRFC parameter (SDRAM TRFC) - tRFC will be equal to 3+field-value system clocks.
26
SDRAM TCAS parameter (TCAS) - Selects 2 or 3 cycle CAS delay (0/1). When changed, a LOADCOMMAND-REGISTER command must be issued at the same time. Also sets RAS/CAS delay
(tRCD).
25 : 23
SDRAM bank size (SDRAM BANKSZ) - Sets the bank size for SDRAM chip selects (“000”=4
Mbyte, “001”=8 Mbyte, “010”=16 Mbyte.... “111”=512 Mbyte).
22 : 21
SDRAM column size (SDRAM COLSZ) - “00”=256, “01”=512, “10”=1024, “11”=4096 when bit
25:23=”111” 2048 otherwise.
415
20 : 19
18
Table 416. Memory configuration register 2.
SDRAM command (SDRAM CMD) - Writing a non-zero value will generate a SDRAM command.
“01”=PRECHARGE, “10”=AUTO-REFRESH, “11”=LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER. The field is
reset after the command has been executed.
64-bit SDRAM data bus (D64) - Reads ‘1’ if the memory controller is configured for 64-bit SDRAM
data bus width, ‘0’ otherwise. Read-only.
17 : 15
RESERVED
14
SDRAM enable (SE) - Enables the SDRAM controller.
13
SRAM disable (SI) - Disables accesses RAM if bit 14 (SE) is set to ‘1’.
12 : 9
RAM bank size (RAM BANK SIZE) - Sets the size of each RAM bank (“0000”=8 kbyte, “0001”=16
kbyte, ..., “1111”=256 Mbyte).
8
RESERVED
7
RAM bus ready enable (RBRDY) - Enables bus ready signalling for the RAM area.
6
Read-modify-write enable (RMW) - Enables read-modify-write cycles for sub-word writes to 16- bit
32-bit areas with common write strobe (no byte write strobe).
5:4
RAM width (RAM WIDTH) - Sets the data width of the RAM area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “1X”=32).
3:2
RAM write waitstates (RAM WRITE WS) - Sets the number of wait states for RAM write cycles
(“00”=0, “01”=1, “10”=2, “11”=3).
1:0
RAM read waitstates (RAM READ WS) - Sets the number of wait states for RAM read cycles
(“00”=0, “01”=1, “10”=2, “11”=3).
47.13.3 Memory configuration register 3 (MCFG3)
MCFG3 is contains the reload value for the SDRAM refresh counter.
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10
RESERVED
SDRAM REFRESH RELOAD VALUE
31: 27
RESERVED
26: 12
SDRAM refresh counter reload value (SDRAM
REFRESH RELOAD VALUE)
11: 0
RESERVED
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RESERVED
The period between each AUTO-REFRESH command is calculated as follows:
tREFRESH = ((reload value) + 1) / SYSCLK
47.14 Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x04 (ESA) and device identifier 0x00F. For description of vendor and
device identifier see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
416
47.15 Configuration options
Table 417 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 417.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
romaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
Default PROM area is 0x0 - 0x1FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
rommask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#E00#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space.
Default I/O area is 0x20000000 - 0x2FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#E00#
ramaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR2 defining RAM address space.
Default RAM area is 0x40000000-0x7FFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR2 defining RAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#C00#
paddr
ADDR filed of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK filed of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
wprot
RAM write protection.
0-1
0
invclk
Inverted clock is used for the SDRAM.
0-1
0
fast
Enable fast SDRAM address decoding.
0-1
0
romasel
log2(PROM address space size) - 1. E.g. if size of the PROM
area is 0x20000000 romasel is log2(2^29)-1 = 28.
0 - 31
28
sdrasel
log2(RAM address space size) - 1. E.g if size of the RAM
address space is 0x40000000 sdrasel is log2(2^30)-1= 29.
0 - 31
29
srbanks
Number of SRAM banks.
0-5
4
ram8
Enable 8-bit PROM and SRAM access.
0-1
0
ram16
Enable 16-bit PROM and SRAM access.
0-1
0
sden
Enable SDRAM controller.
0-1
0
sepbus
SDRAM is located on separate bus.
0-1
1
sdbits
32 or 64 -bit SDRAM data bus.
32, 64
32
oepol
Select polarity of drive signals for data pads. 0 = active low, 1 =
active high.
0-1
0
47.16 Signal descriptions
Table 418 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 418.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
417
Table 418.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
MEMI
DATA[31:0]
Input
Memory data
High
BRDYN
Input
Bus ready strobe
Low
BEXCN
Input
Bus exception
Low
MEMO
WRN[3:0]
Input
SRAM write enable feedback signal
Low
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
Sets the reset value of the PROM data bus width
field in the MCFG1 register
High
SD[31:0]
Input
SDRAM separate data bus
High
ADDRESS[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
DATA[31:0]
Output
Memory data
-
SDDATA[63:0]
Output
Sdram memory data
-
RAMSN[4:0]
Output
SRAM chip-select
Low
RAMOEN[4:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
IOSN
Output
Local I/O select
Low
ROMSN[1:0]
Output
PROM chip-select
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[3:0]
Output
SRAM write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
WRN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
MBEN[3:0]
Output
Byte enable:
Low
MBEN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
MBEN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
MBEN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
MBEN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
BDRIVE[3:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus.Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low/High
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
BDRIVE[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
VBDRIVE[31:0]
Output
Vectored I/O-pad drive signals.
Low/High
SVBDRIVE[63:0]
Output
Vectored I/O-pad drive signals for separate
sdram bus.
Low/High
READ
Output
Read strobe
High
SA[14:0]
Output
SDRAM separate address bus
High
AHBSI
*
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
WPROT
WPROTHIT
Input
Unused
-
418
Table 418.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
SDO
SDCASN
Output
SDRAM column address strobe
Low
SDCKE[1:0]
Output
SDRAM clock enable
High
SDCSN[1:0]
Output
SDRAM chip select
Low
SDDQM[7:0]
Output
SDRAM data mask:
Low
DQM[7] corresponds to DATA[63:56],
DQM[6] corresponds to DATA[55:48],
DQM[5] corresponds to DATA[47:40],
DQM[4] corresponds to DATA[39:32],
DQM[3] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
DQM[2] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
DQM[1] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
DQM[0] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
SDRASN
Output
SDRAM row address strobe
Low
SDWEN
Output
SDRAM write enable
Low
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
47.17 Library dependencies
Table 419 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 419.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals
Memory bus signals definitions
Components
SDMCTRL component
Component
Memory controller component declaration
ESA
MEMORYCTRL
47.18 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined on the example designs port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock Generator and Reset Generator.
Memory controller decodes default memory areas: PROM area is 0x0 - 0x1FFFFFFF, I/O-area is
0x20000000-0x3FFFFFFF and RAM area is 0x40000000 - 0x7FFFFFFF. SDRAM controller is
enabled. SDRAM clock is synchronized with system clock by clock generator.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
library esa;
use esa.memoryctrl.all;
entity mctrl_ex is
419
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
-- memory bus
address : out
std_logic_vector(27 downto 0); -- memory bus
data
: inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
ramsn
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
ramoen
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
rwen
: inout std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
romsn
: out
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
iosn
: out
std_logic;
oen
: out
std_logic;
read
: out
std_logic;
writen
: inout std_logic;
brdyn
: in
std_logic;
bexcn
: in
std_logic;
-- sdram i/f
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0) -- optional sdram data
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal sdo : sdram_out_type;
signal wprot : wprot_out_type; -- dummy signal, not used
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic; -- system clock and reset
-- signals used by clock and reset generators
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
begin
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
-- Memory controller
mctrl0 : mctrl generic map (srbanks => 1, sden => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, memi, memo, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(0), wprot, sdo);
-- memory controller inputs not used in this configuration
memi.brdyn <= ’1’; memi.bexcn <= ’1’; memi.wrn <= "1111";
420
memi.sd <= sd;
-- prom width at reset
memi.bwidth <= "10";
-- I/O pads driving data memory bus data signals
datapads : for i in 0 to 3 generate
data_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
o => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
en => memo.bdrive(i),
i => memo.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8));
end generate;
-- connect memory controller outputs to entity output signals
address <= memo.address; ramsn <= memo.ramsn; romsn <= memo.romsn;
oen <= memo.oen; rwen <= memo.wrn; ramoen <= "1111" & memo.ramoen(0);
sa <= memo.sa;
writen <= memo.writen; read <= memo.read; iosn <= memo.iosn;
sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen; sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn;
sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn; sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
end;
421
48
MUL32 - Signed/unsigned 32x32 multiplier module
48.1
Overview
The multiplier module is highly configurable module implementing 32x32 bit multiplier. Multiplier
takes two signed or unsigned numbers as input and produces 64-bit result. Multiplication latency and
hardware complexity depend on multiplier configuration. Variety of configuration option makes it
possible to configure the multiplier to meet wide range of requirements on complexity and performance.
For DSP applications the module can be configured to perform multiply & accumulate (MAC) operation. In this configuration 16x16 multiplication is performed and the 32-bit result is added to 40-bit
value accumulator.
48.2
Operation
The multiplication is started when ‘1’ is samples on MULI.START on positive clock edge. Operands
are latched externally and provided on inputs MULI.OP1 and MULI.OP2 during the whole operation.
The result appears on the outputs during the clock cycle following the clock cycle when
MULO.READY is asserted if multiplier if 16x16, 32x8 or 32x16 configuration is used. For 32x32
configuration result appears on the output during the second clock cycle after the MULI.START was
asserted.
Signal MULI.MAC shall be asserted to start multiply & accumulate (MAC) operation. This signal is
latched on positive clock edge. Multiplication is performed between two 16-bit values on inputs
MULI.OP1[15:0] and MULI.OP2[15:0]. The 32-bit result of the multiplication is added to the 40-bit
accumulator value on signal MULI.ACC to form a 40-bit value on output MULO.RESULT[39:0].
The result of MAC operation appears during the second clock cycle after the MULI.MAC was
asserted.
48.3
Synthesis
Table 420 shows hardware complexity in ASIC gates and latency for different multiplier configurations.
Table 420.Multiplier latencies and hardware complexity
Multiplier size
(multype)
Pipelined (pipe)
Latency (clocks)
Approximate area (gates)
16x16
1
5
6 500
16x16
0
4
6 000
32x8
-
4
5 000
32x16
-
2
9 000
32x32
-
1
15 000
422
48.4
Configuration options
Table 421 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 421.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
infer
If set the multipliers will be inferred by the synthesis tool. Use
this option if your synthesis tool i capable of inferring efficient
multiplier implementation.
0 to 1
1
multype
Size of the multiplier that is actually implemented. All configuration produce 64-bit result with different latencies.
0 to 3
0
0 - 16x16 bit multiplier
1 - 32x8 bit multiplier
2 - 32x16 bit multiplier
3 - 32x32 bit multiplier
pipe
Used in 16x16 bit multiplier configuration with inferred option
enabled. Adds a pipeline register stage to the multiplier. This
option gives better timing but adds one clock cycle to latency.
0 to 1
0
mac
Enable multiply & accumulate operation. Use only with 16x16
multiplier option with no pipelining (pipe = 0)
0 to 1
0
423
48.5
Signal descriptions
Table 422 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 422.Signal declarations
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
HOLDN
N/A
Input
Hold
Low
MULI
OP1[32:0]
Input
Operand 1
High
OP1[32] - Sign bit.
OP1[31:0] - Operand 1 in 2’s complement format
OP2[32:0]
Operand 2
High
OP2[32] - Sign bit.
OP2[31:0] - Operand 2in 2’s complement format
MULO
FLUSH
Flush current operation
High
SIGNED
Signed multiplication
High
START
Start multiplication
High
MAC
Multiply & accumulate
High
ACC[39:0]
Accumulator. Accumulator value is held externally.
High
Result is ready during the next clock cycle for
16x16, 32x8 and 32x16 configurations. Not used
for 32x32 configuration or MAC operation.
High
NREADY
Not used
-
ICC[3:0]
Condition codes
High
READY
Output
ICC[3] - Negative result (not used in 32x32
conf)
ICC[1] - Zero result (not used in 32x32 conf)
ICC[1:0] - Not used
RESULT[63:0]
48.6
Result. Available at the end of the clock cycle if High
MULO.READY was asserted in previous clock
cycle. For 32x32 configuration the result is available during second clock cycle after the
MULI.START was asserted.
Library dependencies
Table 423 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 423.Library dependencies
48.7
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GAISLER
ARITH
Signals, component
Signals, component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component mul32
generic (
infer
: integer := 1;
multype : integer := 0;
424
pipe
mac
: integer := 0;
: integer := 0
);
port (
rst
: in
clk
: in
holdn
: in
muli
: in
mulo
: out
);
end component;
48.8
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic;
mul32_in_type;
mul32_out_type
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The module is configured to implement 16x16 pipelined multiplier with support for MAC operations.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use gaisler.arith.all;
.
.
.
signal muli
signal mulo
: mul32_in_type;
: mul32_out_type;
begin
mul0 : mul32 generic map (infer => 1, multype => 0, pipe => 1, mac => 1)
port map (rst, clk, holdn, muli, mulo);
end;
425
49
MULTLIB - High-performance multipliers
49.1
Overview
The GRLIB.MULTLIB VHDL-library contains a collection of high-performance multipliers from the
Arithmetic Module Generator at Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 32x32, 32x8,
32x16, 16x16 unsigned/signed multipliers are included. 16x16-bit multiplier can be configured to
include a pipeline stage. This option improves timing but increases latency with one clock cycle.
49.2
Configuration options
Table 424 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 424.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
mulpipe
Include a pipeline stage
0-1
0
(0 -pipelining disabled, 1 - pipelining enabled)
49.3
Signal descriptions
Table 425 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 425.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Type
Function
Active
CLK
Input
Clock
-
Input
Hold. When active, the pipeline register is not
updates
Low
Input
Operand 1. MBS bit is sign bit.
High
Input
Operand 2. MSB bit is sign bit.
High
Result. Two MSB bits are sign bits.
High
(16x16 multiplier only)
HOLDN
(16x16 multiplier only)
X[16:0] (16x16 mult)
X[32:0] (32x8 mult)
X[32:0] (32x16 mult)
X[32:0] (32x32 mult)
Y[16:0] (16x16 mult)
Y[8:0] (32x8 mult)
Y[16:0] (32x16 mult)
Y[32:0] (32x32 mult)
P[33:0] (16x16 mult)
P[41:0] (32x8 mult)
P[49:0] (32x16 mult)
P[65:0] (32x32 mult)
49.4
Library dependencies
Table 426 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 426.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit
Description
GRLIB
MULTLIB
Component
Multiplier component declarations
426
49.5
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component mul_33_33
port (
x
: in std_logic_vector(32 downto 0);
y
: in std_logic_vector(32 downto 0);
p
: out std_logic_vector(65 downto 0)
);
end component;
49.6
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The core is configured to implement 16x16 pipelined multiplier with support for MAC operations.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.multlib.all;
.
.
signal op1, op2 : std_logic_vector(32 downto 0);
signal prod : std_logic_vector(65 downto 0);
begin
m0 : mul_33_33
port map (op1, op2, prod);
end;
427
50
GRPCI - PCI Target / Master Unit
50.1
Overview
The PCI Target/Master Unit is a bridge between PCI bus and AMBA AHB bus. The unit is connected
to the PCI bus through two interfaces PCI Target and PCI Master. PCI Master interface is optional and
can be disabled in the VHDL model. Two interfaces connect the core to the AHB bus: AHB Slave and
AHB Master Interface. PCI Configuration / Status register is attached to AMBA APB bus.
The PCI and AMBA interfaces belong to two different clock domains. Synchronization is performed
inside the core through FIFOs with configurable depth.
AMBA bus
PCI Bridge
Cfg/Stat
AHB Slave
MTx FIFO
AHB Master
MRx FIFO
PCI Master
TTx FIFO
TRx FIFO
PCI Target
PCI Off-chip bus
Figure 200. PCI Master/Target Unit
50.2
Operation
A connection between the PCI bus and the AMBA bus is provided by the units PCI target interface
and AHB master. The PCI target is capable of handling configuration and single or burst memory
cycles on the PCI bus. Configuration cycles are used to access Targets Configuration Space Header
while the memory cycles are translated to AHB accesses. The PCI target interface can be programmed
to occupy two areas in the PCI address space. Mapping to AHB address space is defined by a pair of
map registers accessible from PCI and AHB address space.
The PCI master interface occupies one 256 MB AHB memory bank and one 128 KB AHB IO bank.
Accesses to the memory area are translated to PCI memory cycles and accesses to the IO area generate IO or configuration cycles. Generation of PCI cycles and mapping to the PCI address spaces is
controlled through registers.
Both target and master interface are capable of burst transactions. Data is buffered internally in FIFOs
with configurable size.
Since PCI is little endian and the controller’s AHB is big endian it performs byte twisting on all
accesses to preserve the byte ordering. See figure 201 below.
428
AMBA bus
31-24
23-16
15-8
Address 0
7-0
Address 3
GRPCI
Address 3
PCI Off-chip bus
31-24
Address 0
23-16
15-8
7-0
Figure 201. GRPCI byte twisting
The byte twisting can be disabled through the PAGE0 register.
Because of the byte twisting byte sized PIO accesses work correctly but 16 and 32 bit PIO accesses
need to be twisted before being sent to the PCI core.
NOTE: Only accesses that go from AHB to PCI and vice versa are twisted, i.e not accesses to configuration space or the PAGE0 register.
If any of the PCI interrupts lines specified through the irqmask generic is asserted the PCI core will
drive irq number irq. E.g. if irqmask is 1 only PCI int A will be used but if it is 3 PCI int A and B will
be used.
50.3
PCI Target Interface
PCI target interface occupies two memory areas in the PCI address space. Memory mapping is determined by BAR0 and BAR1 registers of the units Configuration Space Header. The size of the PCI
memory areas is determined by number of bits actually implemented by BAR registers (configurable
through abits and dmaabits VHDL-generics).
PCI Target interface handles following PCI commands:
Configuration Read/Write: Single access to Configuration Space Header. No AHB access is performed.
Memory Read: If prefetching is enabled, the units AHB master interface fetches a cache line,
otherwise a single AHB access is performed.
Memory Read Line: The unit prefetches data according to the value of the cache line size register.
Memory Read Multiple: The unit performs maximum prefetching. This can cause long response
time, depending of the user defined FIFO depth.
Memory Write, Memory Write and Invalidate: Handled similarly.
429
The target interface supports incremental bursts for PCI memory cycles.
The target interface can finish a PCI transaction with one of the following abnormal responses:
Retry: This response indicates that the master should perform the same request later, while the
target is temporarily busy. This response is always given at least one time for read accesses, but
can also occur for write accesses.
Disconnect with data: Indicates that the target will accept one more data transaction, but no more.
This occurs if the master tries to read more data than the target has prefetched.
Disconnect without data: Indicates that the target is unable to accept more data. This occurs if the
master tries to write more data than the target can buffer.
Target-Abort: Indicates that the current access caused an internal error, and the target never will
be able to finish it.
Targets AHB master interface is capable of burst transactions. Burst transactions are performed on the
AHB when supported by the destination unit (AHB slave), otherwise multiple single access are performed. A PCI burst crossing 1 kB address boundary will be performed as multiple AHB bursts by the
AHB master interface. The AHB master interface will insert an idle-cycle before requesting a new
AHB burst to allow re-arbitration on the AHB. AHB transactions with ‘retry’ response are repeated
by the AHB master until ‘okey’ or ‘error’ response is received. The ‘error’ response on AHB bus will
result in ‘target abort’ response for the PCI memory read cycle. In case of PCI memory write cycle,
AHB access will not be finished with error response since write data is posted to the destination unit.
Instead the WE bit will be set in the units AMBA Configuration/Status register.
If the PCI host signal is asserted (active low), the PCI target response to configuration cycles when no
IDSEL signals is asserted (none of AD[31:11] is asserted). This is done for the master to be able to
configure its own target. If the core is not to be configured as the system host, the PCI host signal
should have a pull-up connection to disable this feature.
50.4
PCI Target - Configuration Space Header Registers
Following registers are implemented in PCI Configuration Space Header:
Table 427.Configuration Space Header registers
Address offset
Register
0x00
Device ID & Vendor ID
0x04
Status & Command
0x08
Class Code & Revision ID
0x0C
BIST & Header Type & Latency Timer & Cache Line Size
0x10
BAR0
0x14
BAR1
16
31
15
DEVICE_ID
Figure 202. Device ID & Vendor ID register
[31:16]: Device ID (read-only). Returns value of device_id VHDL-generic.
0
VENDOR_ID
430
[15:0]:
Vendor ID (read-only). Returns value of vendor_id VHDL-generic.
31 30
29 28
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
DPE ‘0’ RMA RTA STA
16 15
‘10’ DPD ‘0’ ‘0’ ‘0’ RESERVED
10
RESERVED
9
7
8
6
5
4
‘0’ PER ‘0’ MIE
‘0’ ‘0’
3
2
1
‘0’ BM MS
0
‘0’
Figure 203. Status & Command register
[31:16]:
[31]:
[30]:
[29]:
Status Register - Writing one to a bit 31 - 16 clears the bit. Writes can not set a bit.
Detected parity Error (DPE).
Signalled System Error (SSE) - Not implemented. Always reads 0.
Received Master Abort (RMA) - Set by the PCI Master interface when its transaction is terminated with MasterAbort.
[28]:
Received Target Abort (RTA) - Set by the PCI Master interface when its transaction is terminated with TargetAbort.
[27]:
Signalled Target Abort (STA) - Set by the PCI Target Interface when the target terminates transaction with TargetAbort.
[26:25]: DEVSEL timing (DST) -Always reads “10” - medium DEVSEL timing.
[24]:
Data Parity Error Detected (DPD).
[23]:
Fast Back-to-Back Capable - The Target interface is not capable of fast back-to-back transactions. Always reads ‘0’.
[22]:
UDF Supported - Not supported. Always reads ‘0’,
[21]:
66 Mhz Capable - Not supported. Always reads ‘0’.
[20:16]: Reserved. Always reads ‘00..0’.
[15:0]: Command Register - Writing one to a bit 15 - 0 sets the bit. Writing zero clears the bit.
[15:10]: Reserved - Always reads as ‘00..0’.
[9]:
Fast back-to-Back Enable - Not implemented. Always reads ‘0’.
[8]:
SERR# enable - Not implemented. Always reads ‘0’.
[7]:
Wait cycle control - Not implemented. Always reads ‘0’.
[6]:
Parity Error Response (PER) - Controls units response on parity error.
[5]:
VGA Palette Snoop - Not implemented. Always reads ‘0’.
[4]:
Memory Write and Invalidate Enable (MIE) - Enables the PCI Master interface to generate Memory Write and
Invalidate Command.
[3]:
Special Cycles - Not implemented. Always reads ‘0’.
[2]:
Bus Master (BM) - Enbales the Master Interface to generate PCI cycles.
[1]:
Memory Space (MS) - Allows the unit to respond to Memory space accesses.
[0]:
I/O Space (IOS) - The unit never responds to I/O cycles. Always reads as ‘0’.
8
31
7
CLASS CODE
0
REVISION ID
Figure 204. Class Code & revision ID
[31:8]:
[7:0]:
Class Code - Processor device class code: 0x0B4000 (Read-only).
Revision ID - 0x00 (Read-only).
31
24
BIST
23
16 15
HEADER
8
LTM
7
0
CLS
Figure 205. BIST, Header Type, Latency Timer and Cache Line Size register
[31:24]: BIST - Not supported. Reads always as ‘00..0’.
[23:16]: Header Type (HEADER)- Header Type 0. Reads always as ‘00..0’.
[15:8]: Latency Timer (LTIM) - Maximum number of PCI clock cycles that Master can own the bus.
431
[7:0]:
Cache Line Size (CLS) - System cache line size. Defines the prefetch length for ‘Memory Read’ and ‘Memory Read
Line’ commands.
4
abits-1 abits-2
31
BASE ADDRESS
‘00..0’
3
2 1
0
‘0’
‘00’
‘0’
Figure 206. BAR0 register
[31:abits]: PCI Base Address - PCI Targets interface Base Address 0. The number of implemented bits depend on the VHDLgeneric abits. Memory area of size 2^abits bytes at Base Address is occupied through this Base Address register.
Register PAGE0 is accessed through upper half of this area. PCI memory accesses to the lower half of this area is
translated to AHB accesses using PAGE0 map register.
[abits-1:4]: These bits are read-only and always read as ‘00..0’. This field can be used to determine devices memory
requirement by writing value of all ones to this register and reading the value back. The device will return zeroes in
unimplemented bits positions effectively defining memory area requested.
[3]:
Prefetchable: Not supported. Always reads ‘0’.
[2:1]:
Base Address Type - Mapping can be done anywhere in the 32-bit memory space. Reads always as ‘00’.
[0]:
Memory Space Indicator - Register maps into Memory space. Read always as ‘0’.
PAGE0 register is mapped into upper half of the PCI address space defined by BAR0 register.
4
dmaabits dmaabits-1
31
BASE ADDRESS
‘00..0’
3
2 1
0
‘0’
‘00’
‘0’
Figure 207. BAR1 register
[31:dmaabits]: PCI Base Address - PCI Targets interface Base Address 1. The number of implemented bits depends on the
VHDL-generic dmaabits. Memory area of size 2^dmaabits bytes at Base Address is occupied through this Base
Address register. PCI memory accesses to this memory space are translated to AHB accesses using PAGE1 map
register.
[dmaabits-1:4]: These bits are read-only and always read as ‘00..0’. This field can be used to determine devices memory
requirement by writing value of all ones to this register and reading the value back. The device will return zeroes in
unimplemented bits positions effectively defining memory area requested.
[3]:
Prefetchable: Not supported. Always reads as ‘0’.
[2:1]:
Base Address Type - Mapping can be done anywhere in the 32-bit memory space. Reads always as ‘00’.
[0]:
Memory Space Indicator - Register maps in Memory space. Read always as ‘0’.
50.5
PCI Target Map Registers
PAGE0 and PAGE1 registers map PCI access to AHB address space.
Table 428.PCI Target Map Registers
Address Space
Address
Register
PCI
Upper half of PCI address space defined by BAR0 register
PAGE0
AMBA APB
APB base address + 0x10
PAGE1
abits-1
31
abits-2
AHB MAP
1
‘00..0’
Figure 208. PAGE0 register
0
BTEN
432
[31:abits-1]: AHB Map Address - Maps PCI accesses to PCI BAR0 address space to AHB address space. AHB address is
formed by concatenating AHB MAP with LSB of the PCI address.
[abits-2:1]: Reserved. Reads always as ‘00..0’.
[0]:
BTEN - Byte twisting enabled if ‘1’. Reset value ‘1’. May only be altered when bus mastering is disabled.
dmaabits
31
dmaabits-1
0
AHB MAP
‘00..0’
Figure 209. PAGE1 register
[31:dmaabits]: AHB Map Address (AHB MAP) - Maps PCI accesses to PCI BAR1 address space to AHB address space.
AHB address is formed by concatenating AHB MAP with LSB of the PCI address.
[dmaabits-1:0]: Reserved. Reads always as ‘00..0’.
50.6
PCI Master Interface
PCI Master interface occupies 256 MB of AHB memory address space and 128 kB of AHB I/O
address space. PCI Master interface handles AHB accesses to its back-end AHB Slave interface and
translates them to PCI configuration, memory or I/O cycles.
Mapping of PCI masters AHB address space is configurable through VHDL generics. PCI cycles performed on the PCI bus are directly dependable on AHB access and value in Configuration/Status register.
The PCI Master interface is capable of performing following PCI cycles:
PCI Configuration Cycles: Single PCI Configuration cycles are performed by accessing upper 64
kB of AHB I/O address space allocated by the PCI Masters AHB Slave. Type 0 Configuration
cycles are supported. Figure below shows mapping of LSB of AHB I/O address.
16
31
AHB ADDRESS MSB
11 10
15
IDSEL
FUNC
8 7
2 1
REGISTER
0
‘00’
Figure 210. Mapping of AHB I/O addresses to PCI address for PCI Configuration cycles
[31:16]: AHB Address MSB - Not used for Configuration cycle address mapping.
[15:11]: IDSEL - This field is decoded to drive PCI AD[IDSEL+10]. AD[31:11] signal lines are supposed to drive IDSEL
lines during Configuration Cycles.
[10:8]: Function Number (FUNC) - Selects function on multi-function device.
[7:2]:
Register Number (REGISTER) - Used to index a PCI DWORD in Configuration Space.
[1:0]:
Should always be driven to ‘00’ to generate Type 0 Configuration cycle.
I/O cycles: Single PCI I/O cycles are supported. Lower 64 kB of the AHB I/O address space
occupied by masters AHB slave interface are translated into PCI I/O cycles. Mapping is determined by value of I/O Map register.
PCI memory cycles are performed by accessing 256 MB AHB address space occupied by masters
AHB slave. Mapping and PCI command generation are determined by value of AMBA Configuration/Status register. Burst operation is supported for PCI memory cycles.
The PCI commands generated by the master are directly dependant of the AMBA transfer type and
the value of Configuration/Status register. The Configuration/Status register can be programmed to
issue Memory Read, Memory Read Line, Memory Read Multiple, Memory Write or Memory Write
and Invalidate.
If a burst AHB access is made to PCI Masters AHB memory space it is translated to burst PCI mem-
433
ory cycle. When the PCI Master interface is busy performing the transaction on the PCI bus, its AHB
slave interface will not be able to accept new requests. ‘Retry’ response will be given to all accesses to
its AHB slave interface. Requesting AHB Master should repeat its request until ‘OK’ or ‘Error’
response is given by the PCI Masters AHB slave interface.
Note that ‘RETRY’ responses on the PCI bus are not transparent, and will automatically be retried by
the master PCI interface until the transfer is either finished or aborted.
For burst accesses, only linear-incremental mode is supported and is directly translated from the
AMBA commands.
The byte-enables on the PCI bus are translated from the HSIZE control AHB signal and the AHB
address according to the table below. Note that only WORD, HALF-WORD and BYTE values of
HSIZE are valid.
Table 429.Byte enable generation
HSIZE
Address[1:0]
CBE[3:0]
00 (8 bit)
00
1110
00 (8 bit)
01
1101
00 (8 bit)
10
1011
00 (8 bit)
11
0111
01 (16 bit)
00
1100
01 (16 bit)
10
0011
10 (32 bit)
00
0000
If the PCI host signal is asserted (active low) during reset, the PCI Master function will be enabled
after reset.
50.7
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 430.AMBA registers
Address offset
Register
Note
0x00
Configuration/Status register
-
0x04
BAR0 register
Read-only access from AMBA, write/read access from PCI
(see section 50.4).
0x08
PAGE0 register
Read-only access from AMBA, write/read access from PCI
(see section 50.5).
0x0C
BAR1 register
Read-only access from AMBA, write/read access from PCI
(see section 50.4).
0x10
PAGE1 register
-
0x14
IO Map register
-
0x18
Status & Command register (PCI
Configuration Space Header)
Read-only access from AMBA, write/read access from PCI
(see section 50.4).
434
28
31
MMAP
23 22
27
RESERVED
15 14
LTIMER
13 12 11 10 9
8
7
WE SH BM MS WB RB CTO
0
CLS
Figure 211. Configuration/Status register
[31:28]: Memory Space Map register - Defines mapping between PCI Masters AHB memory address space and PCI address
space when performing PCI memory cycles. Value of this filed is used as 4 MSB of the PCI address. LSB bits are
taken from the AHB address.
[27-23]: Reserved
[22-15]: Latency Timer (LTIMER) - Value of Latency Timer Register in Configuration Space Header. (Read-only)
[14]:
Write Error (WE) - Target Write Error. Write access to units target interface resulted in error. (Read-only)
[13]:
System Host (SH) - Set if the unit is system host. (Read-only)
[12]:
Bus Master (BM) - Value of BM field in Command register in Configuration Space Header. (Read-only)
[11]:
Memory Space (MS) - Value of MS field in Command register in Configuration Space Header. (Read-only)
[10]:
Write Burst Command (WB) - Defines PCI command used for PCI write bursts.
‘0’ - ‘Memory Write’
‘1’ - ‘Memory Write and Invalidate’
[9]:
Read Burst Command (RB) - Defines PCI command used for PCI read bursts.
‘0’ - Memory Read Multiple’
‘1’ - Memory Read Line’
[8]:
Configuration Timeout (CTO) - Received timeout when performing Configuration cycle. (Read-only)
[7:0]:
Cache Line Size (CLS) - Value of Cache Line Size register in Configuration Space Header. (Read-only)
16 15
31
IOMAP
0
RESERVED
Figure 212. I/O Map register
[31:16]: I/O Map (IOMAP) - Most significant bits of PCI address when performing PCI I/O cycle. Concatenated with low
bits of AHB address to from PCI address.
[15:0]: Reserved.
50.8
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x014. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
435
50.9
Configuration options
Table 431 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 431.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
memtech
The memory technology used for the FIFO instantiation
-
0
mstndx
The AMBA master index for the target backend AHB master
interface.
0 - NAHBMST-1 0
dmamst
0 - NAHBMS
The AMBA master index for the DMA controller, if present.
This value is used by the PCI core to detect when the DMA controller accesses the AHB slave interface.
readpref
Prefetch data for the ‘memory read’ command. If set, the target
prefetches a cache line, otherwise the target will give a single
word response.
0 -1
0
abits
Least significant implemented bit of BAR0 and PAGE0 registers. Defines PCI address space size.
16 - 28
21
dmaabits
Least significant implemented bit of BAR1 and PAGE1 registers. Defines PCI address space size.
16 - 28
26
fifodepth
Size of each FIFO is 2^fifodepth 32-bit words.
>= 3
5
device_id
PCI device ID number
0 -16#FFE#
0
vendor_id
PCI vendor ID number
0 - 16#FFF#
0
master
Disables/enables PCI master interface.
0-1
0
slvndx
The AHB index of the master backend AHB slave interface.
0 - NAHBSLV-1
0
apbndx
The AMBA APB index for the configuration/status APB interface
0 - NAPBMAX1
0
paddr
APB interface base address
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
APB interface address mask
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
haddr
AHB slave base address
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
hmask
AHB address mask
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
ioaddr
AHB I/O area base address
0 - 16#FFF#
0
irq
IRQ line driven by the PCI core
0 - NAHBIRQ-1
0
irqmask
Specifies which PCI interrupt lines that can cause an interrupt
0-F
0
nsync
The number of clock registers used by each signal that crosses
the clock regions.
1-2
1
oepol
Polarity of pad output enable signals. 0=active low, 1=active
high
0-1
0
NAHBMST
(= disabled)
436
50.10 Signal description
Table 432 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 432.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AMBA system clock
-
PCICLK
N/A
Input
PCI clock
-
PCII
*1
Input
PCI input signals
-
PCIO
*1
Output
PCI output signals
-
APBI
*2
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*2
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBMI
*2
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*2
Output
AHB master output signals
-
AHBSI
*2
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
*2
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
*1) see PCI specification
*2) see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
The PCIO record contains an additional output enable signal VADEN. It is has the same value as aden
at each index but they are all driven from separate registers. A directive is placed on this vector so that
the registers will not be removed during synthesis. This output enable vector can be used instead of
aden if output delay is an issue in the design.
For a system host, the (active low) PCII.host signal should to be connected to the PCI SYSEN signal.
For a device that is not a system host, this signal should have a pull-up connection.
50.11 Library dependencies
Table 433 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 433.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
PCI
Signals, component
PCI signals and component declaration
GAISLER
PADS
Components
PCI pads
50.12 Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.stdlib.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.pci.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
.
.
signal apbi
: apb_slv_in_type;
437
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
apbo
ahbsi
ahbso
ahbmi
ahbmo
:
:
:
:
:
apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
ahb_slv_in_type;
ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
ahb_mst_in_type;
ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal pcii : pci_in_type;
signal pcio : pci_out_type;
begin
pci0 : pci_mtf generic map (memtech => memtech,
hmstndx => 1,
fifodepth => log2(CFG_PCIDEPTH), device_id => CFG_PCIDID, vendor_id => CFG_PCIVID,
hslvndx => 4, pindex => 4, paddr => 4, haddr => 16#E00#,
ioaddr => 16#400#, nsync => 2)
port map (rstn, clkm, pciclk, pcii, pcio, apbi, apbo(4), ahbmi,
ahbmo(1), ahbsi, ahbso(4));
pcipads0 : pcipads generic map (padtech => padtech)-- PCI pads
port map ( pci_rst, pci_gnt, pci_idsel, pci_lock, pci_ad, pci_cbe,
pci_frame, pci_irdy, pci_trdy, pci_devsel, pci_stop, pci_perr,
pci_par, pci_req, pci_serr, pci_host, pci_66, pcii, pcio );
438
51
PCIDMA - DMA Controller for the GRPCI interface
51.1
Introduction
The DMA controller is an add-on interface to the GRPCI interface. This controller perform bursts to
or from PCI bus using the master interface of GR PCI Master/target unit.
Figure 1 below illustrates how the DMA controller is attached between the AHB bus and the PCI
master interface.
AMBA bus
AHB
Master
Buffer
Ctrl
DMA Controller
PCI Bridge
Cfg/Stat
AHB Slave
MTx FIFO
MRx FIFO
PCI Master
AHB Master
TTx FIFO
TRx FIFO
PCI Target
PCI Off-chip bus
Figure 213. DMA Controller unit
51.2
Operation
The DMA controller is set up by defining the location of memory areas between which the DMA will
take place in both PCI and AHB address space as well as direction, length and type of the transfer.
Only 32-bit word transfer are supported.
The DMA transfer is automatically aborted when any kind of error is detected during a transfer. The
DMA controller does not detect deadlocks in its communication channels. If the system concludes
that a deadlock has occurred, it can manually abort the DMA transfer. It is allowed to perform burst
over a 1 Kbyte boundary of the AHB bus. When this happens, an AHB idle cycle will be automatically inserted to break up the burst over the boundary.
When the DMA is not active the AHB slave interface of PCI Master/Target unit will be directly connected to AMBA AHB bus.
439
51.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 434.DMA Controller registers
Address offset
Register
0x00
Command/status register
0x04
AMBA Target Address
0x08
PCI Target Address
0x0C
Burst length
8
31
7
4
2
1
0
ERR RDY TD ST
TTYPE
RESERVED
3
Figure 214. Status/Command register
[31:8]:
[7:4]:
[3]:
[2]:
[1]:
[0]:
Reserved.
Transfer Type (TTYPE) - Perform either PCI Memory or I/O cycles. “1000” - memory cycles, “0100” - I/O cycles.
This value drives directly HMBSEL signals on PCI Master/Targets units AHB Slave interface.
Error (ERR) - Last transfer was abnormally terminated. If set by the DMA Controller this bit will remain zero until
cleared by writing ‘1’ to it.
Ready (RDY) - Current transfer is completed. When set by the DMA Controller this bit will remain zero until
cleared by writing ‘1’ to it.
Transfer Direction (TD) - ‘1’ - write to PCI, ‘0’ - read form PCI.
Start (ST) - Start DMA transfer. Writing ‘1’ will start the DMA transfer. All other registers have to be set up before
setting this bit. Set by the PCI Master interface when its transaction is terminated with Target-Abort. Writing ‘1’
31
0
ATA
Figure 215. AMBA Target Address
[31:0]:
AMAB Target Address (ATA) - AHB start address for the data on AMBA bus. In case of error, it indicated failing
address.
31
0
PTA
Figure 216. PCI Target Address
[31:0]:
PCI Target Address (PTA) - PCI start address on PCI bus. This is a complete 32-bit PCI address and is not further
mapped by the PCI Master/Target unit. In case of error, it indicated failing address.
blength
31
blength-1
LEN
Figure 217. Length register
[blentgh-1:0]: DMA Transfer Length (LEN) - Number of 32-bit words to be transferred.
0
440
51.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x016. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
51.5
Configuration options
Table 435 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 435.Configuration options
51.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
mstndx
DMA Controllers AHB Master interface index
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
apbndx
The AMBA APB index for the configuration/status APB
interface
0 - NAPBMAX-1
0
apbaddr
APB interface base address
0 - 16#FFF#
0
apbmask
APB interface address mask
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
blength
Number of bits in the Burst length register
-
16
Signal description
Table 436 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 436.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AMBA system clock
-
PCICLK
N/A
Input
PCI clock
-
APBI
*
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*
Output
APB slave output signals
-
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
AHBSI0
*
Input
AHB slave input signals, main AHB bus
-
AHBSO0
*
Output
AHB slave output signals, main AHB bus
-
AHBSI1
*
Input
AHB slave input signals, connected to PCI Target/Master unit
-
AHBSO1
*
Output
AHB slave output signals, connected to PCI Tar- get/Master unit
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
51.7
Library dependencies
Table 437 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 437.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
PCI
Component
Component declaration
441
51.8
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.pci.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
signal pcii : pci_in_type;
signal pcio : pci_out_type;
dma : pcidma generic map (memtech => memtech, dmstndx => 1,
dapbndx => 5, dapbaddr => 5, blength => blength, mstndx => 0,
fifodepth => log2(fifodepth), device_id => CFG_PCIDID, vendor_id => CFG_PCIVID,
slvndx => 4, apbndx => 4, apbaddr => 4, haddr => 16#E00#, ioaddr => 16#800#,
nsync => 1)
port map (rstn, clkm, pciclk, pcii, pcio, apbo(5), ahbmo(1),
apbi, apbo(4), ahbmi, ahbmo(0), ahbsi, ahbso(4));
pcipads0 : pcipads generic map (padtech => padtech)
port map ( pci_rst, pci_gnt, pci_idsel, pci_lock, pci_ad, pci_cbe,
pci_frame, pci_irdy, pci_trdy, pci_devsel, pci_stop, pci_perr,
pci_par, pci_req, pci_serr, pci_host, pci_66, pcii, pcio );
442
52
PCITARGET - Simple 32-bit PCI target with AHB interface
52.1
Overview
This core implements PCI interface with a simple target-only interface. The interface is developed
primarily to support DSU communication over the PCI bus. Focus has been put on small area and
robust operation, rather than performance. The interface has no FIFOs, limiting the transfer rate to
about 5 Mbyte/s. This is however fully sufficient to allow fast download and debugging using the
DSU.
PCI Bus
AMBA AHB
AHB Master
AHB
Interface
PCI
Target
Figure 218. Target-only PCI interface
52.2
Registers
The core implements one PCI memory BAR.
31
abits-1 abits-2
AHB address [31:abits-1]
0
UNUSED
Figure 219. AHB address register (BAR0, 0x100000)
The interface consist of one PCI memory BAR occupying (2^abits) bytes (default: 2 Mbyte) of the
PCI address space, and an AHB address register. Any access to the lower half of the address space
(def.: 0 - 0xFFFFF) will be forwarded to the internal AHB bus. The AHB address will be formed by
concatenating the AHB address filed of AHB address register with the LSB bits of the PCI address.
An access to the upper half of the address space (default: 1 Mbyte on 0x100000 - 0x1FFFFF) of the
BAR will read or write the AHB address register.
52.3
Vendor and device identifier
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x012. For description of
vendor and device identifies see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
443
52.4
Configuration options
Table 438 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 438.Configuration options
52.5
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
Selects which AHB select signal (HSEL) will be used to access
the PCI target core
0 to NAHBMAX-1
0
abits
Number of bits implemented for PCI memory BAR
0 to 31
21
device_id
PCI device id
0 to 65535
0
vendor_id
PCI vendor id
0 to 65535
0
nsync
One or two synchronization registers between clock regions
1-2
1
oepol
Polarity of output enable signals. 0=active low, 1=active high
0-1
0
Signal descriptions
Table 439 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 439.Signals descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
AHB system clock
-
PCICLK
N/A
Input
PCI clock
-
PCII
*1
Input
PCI input signals
-
PCIO
*1
Output
PCI output signals
-
APBI
*2
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
*2
Output
APB slave output signals
-
*1) see PCI specification
*2) see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
The PCIO record contains an additional output enable signal vaden. It is has the same value as aden at
each index but they are all driven from separate registers. A directive is placed on this vector so that
the registers will not be removed during synthesis. This output enable vector can be used instead of
aden if output delay is an issue in the design.
52.6
Library dependencies
Table 440 shows the libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 440.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
PCI
Signals, component
PCI signals and component declaration
444
53
PHY - Ethernet PHY simulation model
53.1
Overview
The Ethernet PHY simulation model is a model of an Ethernet PHY chip which is connected between
the physical line and the MAC in Ethernet connections. It receives a bitstream from the MAC and
converts it into an analog signal which is driven on the line. This model is loosely based on the Intel
LXT971A chip. It does not nearly implement all functionality provided by the real device but merely
provides enough functions to make it possible to conduct simple simulations.
53.2
Operation
The PHY simulation model was designed to make it possible to perform simple simulations on the
EDCL unit also included in GRLIB. The EDCL uses the Opencores Ethernet MAC for the Ethernet
communication and the PHY model provides stimuli for the MAC receiver from a file and also stores
output from the MAC in another file. Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a typical connection.
Input from file
Output to file
PHY
MII Interface
MAC
MAC
Figure 220. Block diagram of the PHY simulation model connected to a MAC.
The PHY model provides the complete MII interface as defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard with the
exception of the management interface. Signals are provided for the management part also but they
are currently not used and should be connected to dummy signals or left unconnected were appropriate. Although it was designed to be used with the Opencores MAC in the EDCL, the MII interface
should make it possible to connect it to any MAC.
The model can be used in any of the following modes: 10 Mbit half- or full duplex, 100 Mbit half- or
full-duplex. The mode is selected with the LEDCFG signals and table 441 shows the different settings. The rx-clk and tx-clk signals are driven with the correct frequency depending on the selected
mode. The other signals are driven in such a way that the follow the 802.3 specification as closely as
possible.
Table 441.The led_cfg values used for the different operating modes
LED_CFG
Mode
000
10 Mbit half-duplex
001
10 Mbit full-duplex
010
100 Mbit half-duplex
011
100 Mbit full-duplex
The PHY model reads its in-data from a file called ‘indata’ from the current working directory. The
data should be stored as ASCII with one nibble in binary format per row. It is read using the VHDL
445
TEXTIO functions. The file should begin with a row containing an invalid bit-vector (anything that
cannot be converted to a valid bit-vector by TEXTIO) and all packets should have such a row inbetween. This is needed because the PHY inserts a delay between packets and packet boundaries are
located by letting the TEXTIO read function set an invalid value parameter to true when an invalid
row is found. The delays between packets are currently hard-coded in the design. When a certain
number of packets have been sent (set by the win_size generic) a different delay value is used once
and then the normal values are used again. This is repeated indefinitely.The output from the MAC is
stored in a file called outdata in the current working directory. Data is formatted in the same way as
the input file. An example of this formatting is shown in figure 221.
start
1101
1001
.
new
1001
0000
.
new
1001
.
Figure 221. An example of an indata file layout.
53.3
Configuration options
Table 442 shows the configuration options of the model (VHDL generics).
Table 442.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
win_size
Sets the number of packets between each special delay.
all positive integers
3
446
53.4
Signal descriptions
Table 443 shows the interface signals of the model (VHDL ports).
Table 443.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RESETN
-
Input
Reset
Low
LED_CFG
-
Input
Configuration signals used to select the operating mode
-
MDIO
-
Input/
Output
Data signal for the management interface (Currently not used)
-
TX_CLK
-
Output
Transmitter clock
-
RX_CLK
-
Output
Receiver clock
-
RXD
-
Output
Receiver data
-
RX_DV
-
Output
Receiver data valid
High
RX_ER
-
Output
Receiver error
High
RX_COL
-
Output
Collision
High
RX_CRS
-
Output
Carrier sense
High
TXD
-
Input
Transmitter data
-
TX_EN
-
Input
Transmitter enable
High
TX_ER
-
Input
Transmitter error
High
MDC
-
Input
Management interface clock (Currently not
used)
-
see the IEEE 802.3 standard for a description of how the signals are used.
53.5
Library dependencies
Table 444 shows the libraries used when instantiating the model (VHDL libraries).
Table 444.Library dependencies
53.6
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GAISLER
SIM
Component
Component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the model can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.sim.all;
entity phy_ex is
port (
rst : std_ulogic;
clk : std_ulogic;
);
end;
architecture rtl of phy_ex is
-- Signals
signal eled_cfg
: std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);
447
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
signal
etx_clk
erx_clk
erxd
erx_dv
erx_er
erx_col
erx_crs
etxd
etx_en
etx_er
emdc
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
std_logic;
std_logic;
std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
std_logic;
std_logic;
std_logic;
std_logic;
std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
std_logic;
std_logic;
std_logic;
begin
-- Other components are instantiated here
...
-- PHY model
phy0 : phy
generic map (win_size => 8)
port map(resetn => rst, led_cfg => eled_cfg, mdio => open, tx_clk => etx_clk,
erx_clk, rxd => erxd, rx_dv => erx_dv, rx_er => erx_er,
rx_col => erx_col, rx_crs => erx_crs, txd => etxd, tx_en => etx_en,
tx_er => etx_er, mdc => emdc);
end;
rx_clk =>
448
54
REGFILE_3P 3-port RAM generator (2 read, 1 write)
54.1
Overview
The 3-port register file has two read ports and one write port. Each port has a separate address and
data bus. All inputs are latched on the rising edge of clk. The read data appears on dataout directly
after the clk rising edge. Note: on most technologies, the register file is implemented with two 2-port
RAMs with combined write ports. Address width, data width and target technology is parametrizable
through generics.
Write-through is supported if the function syncram_2p_write_through(tech) returns 1 for the target
technology.
54.2
Configuration options
Table 445 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 445.Configuration options
Name
Function
Range
Default
tech
Technology selection
0 - NTECH
0
abits
Address bits. Depth of RAM is 2abits-1
see table 446
-
dbits
Data width
see table 446l
-
wrfst
Write-first (write-through). Only applicable to inferred technology
0-1
0
numregs
Not used
Table 446 shows the supported technologies for the core.
Table 446.Supported technologies
Tech name
Technology
RAM cell
abit range
dbit range
axcel
Actel AX/RTAX
RAM64K36
2 - 12
unlimited
altera
All Altera devices
altsyncram
unlimited
unlimited
ihp25
IHP 0.25
flip-flops
unlimited
unlimited
inferred
Behavioural description
synthesis tool dependent
rhumc
Rad-hard UMC 0.18
flip-flops
unlimited
unlimited
virtex
Xilinx Virtex, Virtex-E, Spartan-2
RAMB4_Sn
2 - 10
unlimited
virtex2
Xilinx Virtex2, Spartan3, Virtex4
RAMB16_Sn
2 - 14
unlimited
proasic3
Actel Proasic3
ram4k9
2 - 12
unlimited
lattice
Lattice XP/EC/ECP
dp8ka
2 - 13
unlimited
memvirage
Virage ASIC RAM
hdss2_64x32cm4sw0
6-9
32
hdss2_128x32cm4sw0
hdss2_256x32cm4sw0
hdss2_512x32cm4sw0
449
54.3
Signal descriptions
Table 447 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 447.Signal descriptions
54.4
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
WCLK
N/A
Input
Write port clock
WADDR
N/A
Input
Write address
WDATA
N/A
Input
Write data
WE
N/A
Input
Write enable
High
RCLK
N/A
Input
Read ports clock
-
RADDR1
N/A
Input
Read port1 address
-
RE1
N/A
Input
Read port1 enable
High
RDATA1
N/A
Output
Read port1 data
-
RADDR2
N/A
Input
Read port2 address
-
RE2
N/A
Input
Read port2 enable
High
RDATA2
N/A
Output
Read port2 data
-
Library dependencies
Table 448 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 448.Library dependencies
54.5
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
TECHMAP
GENCOMP
Constants
Technology contants
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
component regfile_3p
generic (tech : integer := 0; abits : integer := 6; dbits : integer := 8;
wrfst : integer := 0; numregs : integer := 64);
port (
wclk
: in std_ulogic;
waddr : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
wdata : in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
we
: in std_ulogic;
rclk
: in std_ulogic;
raddr1 : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
re1
: in std_ulogic;
rdata1 : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
raddr2 : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
re2
: in std_ulogic;
rdata2 : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0)
);
end component;
450
55
SDCTRL - 32/64-bit PC133 SDRAM Controller
55.1
Overview
The SDRAM controller handles PC133 SDRAM compatible memory devices attached to 32 or 64 bit
wide data bus. The controller acts as a slave on the AHB bus where it occupies configurable amount
of address space for SDRAM access. The SDRAM controller function is programmed by writing to a
configuration register mapped into AHB I/O address space.
Chip-select decoding is provided for two SDRAM banks.
AHB
A
D
SDRAM
CONTROLLER
SDCLK
SDCSN[1:0]
SDRASN
SDCASN
SDWEN
SDDQM[7:0]
SDCKE
CLK
CSN
RAS
CAS
WE
DQM
CKE
A[16:15]
BA
SDRAM
A[14:2]
A
D
D[63:0]
ADDRESS[16:2]
D[63:0]
Figure 222. SDRAM Memory controller conected to AMBA bus and SDRAM
55.2
Operation
55.2.1 General
Synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) access is supported to two banks of PC100/PC133 compatible devices. The controller supports 64M, 256M and 512M device with 8 - 12 column-address bits, up
to 13 row-address bits, and 4 banks. The size of each of the two banks can be programmed in binary
steps between 4 Mbyte and 512 Mbyte. The operation of the SDRAM controller is controlled through
the configuration register SDCFG (see section 55.3). SDRAM banks data bus width is configurable
between 32 and 64 bits.
55.2.2 Initialization
When the SDRAM controller is enabled, it automatically performs the SDRAM initialization
sequence of PRECHARGE, 8x AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG on both banks simultaneously. The controller programs the SDRAM to use page burst on read and single location access on
write. If the pwron VHDL generic is 1, the initialization sequence is also sent automatically when
reset is released. Note that some SDRAM require a stable clock of 100 us before any commands
might be sent. When using on-chip PLL, this might not always be the case and the pwron VHDL
generic should be set to 0 in such cases.
55.2.3 Configurable SDRAM timing parameters
To provide optimum access cycles for different SDRAM devices (and at different frequencies), three
SDRAM parameters can be programmed through memory configuration register 2 (MCFG2): TCAS,
TRP and TRFCD. The value of these field affects the SDRAM timing as described in table 449.
451
Table 449.SDRAM programmable minimum timing parameters
SDRAM timing paramteter
Minumum timing (clocks)
CAS latency, RAS/CAS delay (tCAS, tRCD)
TCAS + 2
Precharge to activate (tRP)
TRP + 2
Auto-refresh command period (tRFC)
TRFC + 3
Activate to precharge (tRAS)
TRFC + 1
Activate to Activate (tRC)
TRP + TRFC + 4
If the TCAS, TRP and TRFC are programmed such that the PC100/133 specifications are fullfilled,
the remaining SDRAM timing parameters will also be met. The table below shows typical settings for
100 and 133 MHz operation and the resulting SDRAM timing (in ns):
Table 450.SDRAM example programming
SDRAM settings
tCAS
tRC
tRP
tRFC
tRAS
100 MHz, CL=2; TRP=0, TCAS=0, TRFC=4
20
80
20
70
50
100 MHz, CL=3; TRP=0, TCAS=1, TRFC=4
30
80
20
70
50
133 MHz, CL=2; TRP=1, TCAS=0, TRFC=6
15
82
22
67
52
133 MHz, CL=3; TRP=1, TCAS=1, TRFC=6
22
82
22
67
52
55.2.4 Refresh
The SDRAM controller contains a refresh function that periodically issues an AUTO-REFRESH
command to both SDRAM banks. The period between the commands (in clock periods) is programmed in the refresh counter reload field in the SDCFG register. Depending on SDRAM type, the
required period is typically 7.8 or 15.6 µs (corresponding to 780 or 1560 clocks at 100 MHz). The
generated refresh period is calculated as (reload value+1)/sysclk. The refresh function is enabled by
setting bit 31 in SDCFG register.
55.2.5 SDRAM commands
The controller can issue three SDRAM commands by writing to the SDRAM command field in
SDCFG: PRE-CHARGE, AUTO-REFRESH and LOAD-MODE-REG (LMR). If the LMR command
is issued, the CAS delay as programmed in SDCFG will be used, remaining fields are fixed: page read
burst, single location write, sequential burst. The command field will be cleared after a command has
been executed. Note that when changing the value of the CAS delay, a LOAD-MODE-REGISTER
command should be generated at the same time.
55.2.6 Read cycles
A read cycle is started by performing an ACTIVATE command to the desired bank and row, followed
by a READ command after the programmed CAS delay. A read burst is performed if a burst access
has been requested on the AHB bus. The read cycle is terminated with a PRE-CHARGE command,
no banks are left open between two accesses. Note that only word bursts are supported by the
SDRAM controller. The AHB bus supports bursts of different sizes such as bytes and half-words but
they cannot be used.
452
55.2.7 Write cycles
Write cycles are performed similarly to read cycles, with the difference that WRITE commands are
issued after activation. A write burst on the AHB bus will generate a burst of write commands without
idle cycles in-between. As in the read case, only word bursts are supported.
55.2.8 Address bus connection
The SDRAM address bus should be connected to SA[12:0], the bank address to SA[14:13], and the
data bus to SD[31:0] or SD[63:0] if 64-bit data bus is used.
55.2.9 Data bus
The external SDRAM data bus is configurable to either 32 or 64 bits width, using the sdbits generic.
64-bit data bus allows 64-bit (SO)DIMS to be connected using the full data capacity of the devices.
The polarity of the output enable signal to the data pads can be selected with the oepol generic. Sometimes it is difficult to fulfil the output delay requirements of the output enable signal. In this case, the
vbdrive signal can be used instead of bdrive. Each index in this vector is driven by a separate register
and a directive is placed on them so that they will not be removed by the synthesis tool.
55.2.10 Clocking
The SDRAM controller is designed for an external SDRAM clock that is in phase or slighly earlier
than the internal AHB clock. This provides the maximum margin for setup and hold on the external
signals, and allows highest possible frequency. For Xilinx and Altera device, the GRLIB Clock Generator (CLKGEN) can be configured to produce a properly synchronised SDRAM clock. For other
FPGA targets, the custom clock synchronization must be designed, or the inverted clock option can be
used (see below). For ASIC targets, the SDRAM clock can be derived from the AHB clock with
proper delay adjustments during place&route.
If the VHDL generic INVCLK is set, then all outputs from the SDRAM controller are delayed for 1/2
clock. This is done by clocking all output registers on the falling clock edge. This option can be used
on FPGA targets where proper SDRAM clock synchronization cannot be achieved. The SDRAM
clock can be the internal AHB clock without further phase adjustements. Since the SDRAM signals
will only have 1/2 clock period to propagate, this option typically limits the maximum SDRAM frequency to 40 - 50 MHz.
55.3
Registers
The memory controller is programmed through register(s) mapped into the AHB I/O space defined by
the controllers AHB BAR1.
Table 451.SDRAM controller registers
AHB address offset
Register
0x0
SDRAM Configuration register
453
55.3.1 SDRAM configuration register (SDCFG)
SDRAM configuration register is used to control the timing of the SDRAM.
31 30 29 27 26 25
23 22 21 20 19
15 14
D64
0
SDRAM refresh reload value
SDRAM command
SDRAM Col. size
SDRAM Bank size
CAS delay, tRCD
tRFC
tRP
Refresh enable
Figure 223. SDRAM configuration register
The period between each AUTO-REFRESH command - Calculated as follows:tREFRESH = ((reload value) + 1) /
SYSCLK
[15]:
64-bit data bus (D64) - Reads ‘1’ if memory controller is configured for 64-bit data bus, otherwise ‘0’. Read-only.
[20:19] SDRAM command. Writing a non-zero value will generate an SDRAM command: “01”=PRECHARGE,
“10”=AUTO-REFRESH, “11”=LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER. The field is reset after command has been
executed.
[22:21]: SDRAM column size. “00”=256, “01”=512, “10”=1024, “11”=4096 when bit[25:23]= “111”, 2048 otherwise.
[25:23]: SDRAM banks size. Defines the banks size for SDRAM chip selects: “000”=4 Mbyte, “001”=8 Mbyte, “010”=16
Mbyte .... “111”=512 Mbyte.
[26]:
SDRAM CAS delay. Selects 2 or 3 cycle CAS delay (0/1). When changed, a LOAD-COMMAND-REGISTER
command must be issued at the same time. Also sets RAS/CAS delay (tRCD).
[29:27]: SDRAM tRFC timing. tRFC will be equal to 3 + field-value system clocks.
[30]:
SDRAM tRP timing. tRP will be equal to 2 or 3 system clocks (0/1).
[31]:
SDRAM refresh. If set, the SDRAM refresh will be enabled.
[14:0]:
55.4
Vendor and device identifiers
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x009. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
454
55.5
Configuration options
Table 452 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 452.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
haddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area. Default
is 0xF0000000 - 0xFFFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
hmask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining SDRAM area.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#F00#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space
where SDCFG register is mapped.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining I/O address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
wprot
Write protection.
0-1
0
invclk
Inverted clock is used for the SDRAM.
0-1
0
pwron
Enable SDRAM at power-on initialization
0-1
0
sdbits
32 or 64-bit data bus width.
32, 64
32
oepol
Polarity of bdrive and vbdrive signals. 0=active low, 1=active
high
0-1
0
455
55.6
Signal descriptions
Table 453 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 453.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
AHBSI
1)
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
1)
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
SDI
WPROT
Input
Not used
-
DATA[63:0]
Input
Data
High
SDO
SDCKE[1:0]
Output
SDRAM clock enable
High
SDCSN[1:0]
Output
SDRAM chip select
Low
SDWEN
Output
SDRAM write enable
Low
RASN
Output
SDRAM row address strobe
Low
CASN
Output
SDRAM column address strobe
Low
DQM[7:0]
Output
SDRAM data mask:
Low
DQM[7] corresponds to DATA[63:56],
DQM[6] corresponds to DATA[55:48],
DQM[5] corresponds to DATA[47:40],
DQM[4] corresponds to DATA[39:32],
DQM[3] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
DQM[2] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
DQM[1] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
DQM[0] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
BDRIVE
Output
Drive SDRAM data bus
Low/High2
VBDRIVE[31:0]
Output
Identical to BDRIVE but has one signal for each
data bit. Every index is driven by its own register. This can be used to reduce the output delay.
Low/High2
ADDRESS[16:2]
Output
SDRAM address
Low
DATA[31:0]
Output
SDRAM data
Low
1) see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
2) Polarity selected with the oepol generic
55.7
Library dependencies
Table 454 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 454.Library dependencies
55.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
456
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the SDRAM controller. The external SDRAM bus is defined on the example designs port
map and connected to the SDRAM controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock
Generator and Reset Generator.
SDRAM controller decodes SDRAM area:0x60000000 - 0x6FFFFFFF. SDRAM Configuration register is mapped into AHB I/O space on address (AHB I/O base address + 0x100).
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity mctrl_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0) -- optional sdram data
);
end;
architecture rtl of mctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
signal sdi
: sdctrl_in_type;
signal sdo
: sdctrl_out_type;
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic;
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
begin
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
rst0 : rstgen
port map (resetn, clkm, cgo.clklock, rstn);
-- SDRAM controller
sdc : sdctrl generic map (hindex => 3, haddr => 16#600#, hmask => 16#F00#,
ioaddr => 1, pwron => 0, invclk => 0)
457
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(3), sdi, sdo);
-- input signals
sdi.data(31 downto 0) <= sd(31 downto 0);
-- connect SDRAM controller outputs to entity output signals
sa <= sdo.address; sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen;
sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn; sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn;
sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
--Data pad instantiation with scalar bdrive
sd_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 32)
port map (sd(31 downto 0), sdo.data, sdo.bdrive, sdi.data(31 downto 0));
end;
--Alternative data pad instantiation with vectored bdrive
sd_pad : iopadvv generic map (width => 32)
port map (sd(31 downto 0), sdo.data, sdo.vbdrive, sdi.data(31 downto 0));
end;
458
56
SRCTRL- 8/32-bit PROM/SRAM Controller
56.1
Overview
SRCTRL is an 8/32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO controller that interfaces external asynchronous SRAM,
PROM and I/O to the AMBA AHB bus. The controller can handle 32-bit wide SRAM and I/O, and
either 8- or 32-bit PROM.
A
AHB
SRO.ROMSN
PROM
SRO.RAMSN
SRO.RAMOEN
SRO.RWEN[3:0]
CS
OE
WE
SRAM
SRO.IOSN
CS
OE
WE
IO
SRO.WRITEN
CB
A
CS
OE
WE
SRO.OEN
D
D
CB
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
A
D
CB
A
D
SRI.A[27:0]
SRI.D[31:0]
SRO.D[31:0]
CB[7:0]
AHB/APB
APB
Bridge
Figure 224. 8/32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO controller
The controller is configured through VHDL-generics to decode three address ranges: PROM, SRAM
and I/O area. By default PROM area is mapped into address range 0x0 - 0x00FFFFFF, the SRAM area
is mapped into address range 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFFF, and the I/O area is mapped to 0x20000000
- 0x20FFFFFF.
One chip select is decoded for the I/O area, while SRAM and PROM can have up to four and two
select signals respectively. The controller generates both a common write-enable signal (WRITEN) as
well as four byte-write enable signals (WREN). If the SRAM uses a common write enable signal the
controller can be configured to perform read-modify-write cycles for byte and half-word write
accesses. Number of waitstates is separately configurable for the three address ranges.
A single write-enable signal is generated for the PROM area (WRITEN), while four byte-write enable
signals (RWEN[3:0]) are provided for the SRAM area. If the external SRAM uses common write
enable signal, the controller can be configured to perform read-modify-write cycles for byte and halfword write accesses.
Number of waitstates is configurable through VHDL generics for both PROM and SRAM areas.
A signal (BDRIVE) is provided for enabling the bidirectional pads to which the data signals are connected. The oepol generic is used for selecting the polarity of these enable signals. If output delay is
an issue, a vectored output enable signal (VBDRIVE) can be used instead. In this case, each pad has
459
its own enable signal driven by a separate register. A directive is placed on these registers so that they
will not be removed during synthesis (if the output they drive is used in the design).
56.2
8-bit PROM access
The SRCTRL controller can be configured to access a 8-bit wide PROM. The data bus of external
PROM should be connected to the upper byte of the 32-bit data bus, i.e. D[31:24]. The 8-bit mode is
enabled with the prom8en VHDL generic. When enabled, read accesses to the PROM area will be
done in four-byte bursts. The whole 32-bit word is then presented on the AHB data bus. Writes should
be done one byte at a time and the byte should always be driven on bit 31-24 on the AHB data bus
independent of the byte address.
It is possible to dynamically switch between 8- and 32-bit PROM mode using the BWIDTH[1:0]
input signal. When BWIDTH is “00” then 8-bit mode is selected. If BWIDTH is “10” then 32-bit
mode is selected. Other BWIDTH values are reserved for future use.
SRAM access is not affected by the 8-bit PROM mode.
56.3
PROM/SRAM waveform
Read accesses to 32-bit PROM and SRAM has the same timing, see figure below.
data1
data2
lead-out
CLK
A
A1
ROMSN
RAMSN
OEN
D
D1
Figure 225. 32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO read cycle
The write access for 32-bit PROM and SRAM can be seen below.
lead-in
data
lead-out
CLK
A
A1
RAMSN
RWEN
D
D1
Figure 226. 32-bit PROM/SRAM/IO write cycle
460
If waitstates are configured through the VHDL generics, one extra data cycle will be inserted for each
waitstate in both read and write cycles.
56.4
Burst cycles
To improve the bandwidth of the memory bus, accesses to consecutive addresses can be performed in
burst mode. Burst transfers will be generated when the memory controller is accessed using an AHB
burst request. These includes instruction cache-line fills and burst from DMA masters. The timing of
a burst cycle is identical to the programmed basic cycle with the exception that during read cycles, the
lead-out cycle will only occurs after the last transfer.
56.5
Registers
The core does not implement any use programmable registers.
All configuration is done through the VHDL generics.
56.6
Vendor and device identifier
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x008. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
56.7
Configuration options
Table 456 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 455.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
romaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
Default PROM area is 0x0 - 0xFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
rommask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining SRAM address space.
Default SRAM area is 0x40000000-0x40FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining SRAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
Default IO area is 0x20000000-0x20FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramws
Number of waitstates during access to SRAM area
0 - 15
0
romws
Number of waitstates during access to PROM area
0 - 15
2
iows
Number of waitstates during access to IO area
0 - 15
2
rmw
Enable read-modify-write cycles.
0-1
0
prom8en
Enable 8 - bit PROM accesses
0-1
0
oepol
Polarity of bdrive and vbdrive signals. 0=active low, 1=active
high
0-1
0
srbanks
Set the number of SRAM banks
1-5
1
banksz
Set the size of bank 1 - 4. 0 = 8 Kbyte, 1 = 16 Kbyte, ... , 13 =
64Mbyte.
0 - 13
13
romasel
address bit used for PROM chip select.
0 - 27
19
461
56.8
Signal description
Table 455 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 456.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Polarity
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
SRI
DATA[31:0]
Input
Memory data
High
BRDYN
Input
Not used
-
BEXCN
Input
Not used
-
WRN[3:0]
Input
Not used
-
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
BWIDTH=”00” => 8-bit PROM mode
-
BWIDTH=”10” => 32-bit PROM mode
SD[31:0]
SRO
Input
Not used
-
ADDRESS[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
DATA[31:0]
Output
Memory data
High
RAMSN[4:0]
Output
SRAM chip-select
Low
RAMOEN[4:0]
Output
SRAM output enable
Low
IOSN
Output
Not used. Driven to ‘1’ (inactive)
Low
ROMSN[1:0]
Output
PROM chip-select
Low
RAMN
Output
Common SRAM chip-select. Asserted when one
of the RAMSN[4:0] signals is asserted.
Low
ROMN
Output
Common PROM chip-select. Asserted when one
of the ROMSN[1:0] signals is asserted.
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[3:0]
Output
SRAM write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
WRN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
MBEN[3:0]
Output
Byte enable:
Low
MBEN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
MBEN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
MBEN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
MBEN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
BDRIVE[3:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus. Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low/High2
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
BDRIVE[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
VBDRIVE[31:0]
Output
Identical to BDRIVE but has one signal for each
data bit. Every index is driven by its own register. This can be used to reduce the output delay.
Low/High2
READ
Output
Read strobe
High
SA[14:0]
Output
Not used
High
462
Table 456.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Polarity
AHBSI
1)
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
1)
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
SDO
SDCASN
Output
Not used. All signals are driven to inactive state.
Low
1) See GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
2) Polarity is selected with the oepol generic
56.9
Library dependencies
Table 457 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 457.Library dependencies
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
56.10 Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component srctrl
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
romaddr : integer := 0;
rommask : integer := 16#ff0#;
ramaddr : integer := 16#400#;
rammask : integer := 16#ff0#;;
ioaddr : integer := 16#200#;
iomask : integer := 16#ff0#;
ramws
: integer := 0;
romws
: integer := 2;
iows
: integer := 2;
rmw
: integer := 0;-- read-modify-write enable
prom8en : integer := 0;
oepol
: integer := 0;
srbanks : integer range 1 to 5 := 1;
banksz : integer range 0 to 13:= 13;
romasel : integer range 0 to 27:= 19
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbsi
: in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso
: out ahb_slv_out_type;
sri
: in memory_in_type;
sro
: out memory_out_type;
sdo
: out sdctrl_out_type
);
end component;
56.11 Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined on the example designs port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by GR Clock Generator and Reset Generator.
463
Memory controller decodes default memory areas: PROM area is 0x0 - 0xFFFFFF and SRAM area is
0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFF. The 8-bit PROM mode is disabled. Two SRAM banks of size 64 Mbyte
are used and the fifth chip select is disabled.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.pads.all;
-- used for I/O pads
use gaisler.misc.all;
library esa;
use esa.memoryctrl.all;
entity srctrl_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
resetn : in std_ulogic;
pllref : in std_ulogic;
-- memory bus
address : out
std_logic_vector(27 downto 0); -- memory bus
data
: inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
ramsn
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
ramoen
: out
std_logic_vector(4 downto 0);
rwen
: inout std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
romsn
: out
std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
iosn
: out
std_logic;
oen
: out
std_logic;
read
: out
std_logic;
writen
: inout std_logic;
brdyn
: in
std_logic;
bexcn
: in
std_logic;
modesel : in
std_logic; --PROM width select
-- sdram i/f
sdcke
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- clk en
sdcsn
: out std_logic_vector ( 1 downto 0); -- chip sel
sdwen
: out std_logic;
-- write en
sdrasn
: out std_logic;
-- row addr stb
sdcasn
: out std_logic;
-- col addr stb
sddqm
: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); -- data i/o mask
sdclk
: out std_logic;
-- sdram clk output
sa
: out std_logic_vector(14 downto 0); -- optional sdram address
sd
: inout std_logic_vector(63 downto 0) -- optional sdram data
);
end;
architecture rtl of srctrl_ex is
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
signal sdo : sdctrl_out_type;
signal wprot : wprot_out_type; -- dummy signal, not used
signal clkm, rstn : std_ulogic; -- system clock and reset
-- signals used by clock and reset generators
464
signal cgi : clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo : clkgen_out_type;
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
begin
-- AMBA Components are defined here ...
-- Clock and reset generators
clkgen0 : clkgen generic map (clk_mul => 2, clk_div => 2, sdramen => 1,
tech => virtex2, sdinvclk => 0)
port map (clk, gnd, clkm, open, open, sdclk, open, cgi, cgo);
cgi.pllctrl <= "00"; cgi.pllrst <= resetn; cgi.pllref <= pllref;
rst0 : rstgen
port map (resetn, clkm, cgo.clklock, rstn);
-- Memory controller
srctrl0 : srctrl generic map (rmw => 1, prom8en => 0, srbanks => 2,
banksz => 13, ramsel5 => 0)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(0), memi, memo, sdo);
-- I/O pads driving data memory bus data signals
datapads : for i in 0 to 3 generate
data_pad : iopadv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
o => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
en => memo.bdrive(i),
i => memo.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8));
end generate;
-- Alternative I/O pad instantiation with vectored enable instead
datapads : for i in 0 to 3 generate
data_pad : iopadvv generic map (width => 8)
port map (pad => data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
o => memi.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
en => memo.bdrive(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8),
i => memo.data(31-i*8 downto 24-i*8));
end generate;
-- connect memory controller outputs to entity output signals
address <= memo.address; ramsn <= memo.ramsn; romsn <= memo.romsn;
oen <= memo.oen; rwen <= memo.wrn; ramoen <= memo.ramoen;
writen <= memo.writen; read <= memo.read; iosn <= memo.iosn;
sdcke <= sdo.sdcke; sdwen <= sdo.sdwen; sdcsn <= sdo.sdcsn;
sdrasn <= sdo.rasn; sdcasn <= sdo.casn; sddqm <= sdo.dqm;
end;
465
57
SSRCTRL- 32-bit SSRAM/PROM Controller
57.1
Overview
The memory controller (SSRCTRL) is an 32-bit SSRAM/PROM/IO controller that interfaces external
Synchronous pipelined SRAM, PROM, and I/O to the AMBA AHB bus. The controller acts as a slave
on the AHB bus and has a configuration register accessible through an APB slave interface. Figure
227 illustrates the connection between the different devices.
A
AHB
SRO.ROMSN
SRO.OEN
SRO.WRITEN
CS
OE
WE
D
A
PROM
D
MEMORY
CONTROLLER
SRO.RAMSN
SRO.RWN[3:0]
SRO.IOSN
CS
OE
BW
WE
CS
OE
WE
SSRAM
IO
A
D
A
D
SRI.A[27:0]
SRI.D[31:0]
SRO.D[31:0]
AHB/APB
APB
Bridge
Figure 227. 32-bit SSRAM/PROM/IO controller
The controller is configured by VHDL-generics to decode three address ranges: PROM, SSRAM and
I/O area. By default PROM area is mapped into address range 0x0 - 0x00FFFFFF; the SSRAM area is
mapped into address range 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFFF; and the I/O area is mapped to 0x20000000 0x20FFFFFF.
One chip select is generated for each of the address areas. The controller generates both a common
write-enable signal (WRITEN) as well as four byte-write enable signals (WRN). The byte-write
enable signal enables byte and half-word write access to the SSRAM.
A signal (BDRIVE) is provided for enabling the bidirectional pads to which the data signals are connected. The oepol generic is used to select the polarity of these enable signals. If output delay is an
issue, a vectored output enable signal (VBDRIVE) can be used instead. In this case, each pad has its
own enable signal driven by a separate register. A directive is placed on these registers so that they
will not be removed during synthesis (in case the output they drive is used in the design).
57.2
SSRAM/PROM waveform
Because the SSRAM (Synchronous pipelined SRAM) has a pipelined structure, the data output has a
latency of three clock cycles. The pipelined structure enables a new memory operation to be issued
each clock cycle. Figure 228 and figure 229 show timing diagrams for the SSRAM read and write
accesses.
466
read0
read0+1
A(0)
A(0+1)
read0+2
read0+3
CLK
A
A(0+2)
A(0+3)
RAMSN
OEN
D(0)
D
D(0+1)
Figure 228. 32-bit SSRAM read cycle
As shown in the figure above, the controller always perform a burst read access to the memory. This
eliminates all data output latency except for the first word when a burst read operation is executed.
write
read
CLK
A
A1
A0
RAMSN
WRITEN
D
D1
D0
Figure 229. 32-bit SSRAM write cycle
A write operation takes three clock cycles. On the rising edge of the first clock cycle, the address and
control signals are latched into the memory. On the next rising edge, the memory puts the data bus in
high-impedance mode. On the third rising edge the data on the bus is latched into the memory and the
write is complete. The controller can start a new memory (read or write) operation in the second clock
cycle. In figure 229 this is illustrated by a read operation following the write operation.
Due to the memory automatically putting the data bus in high-impedance mode when a write operation is performed, the output-enable signal (OEN) is held active low during all SSRAM accesses
(including write operations).
For the PROM and I/O operations, a number of waitstates can be inserted to increase the read and
write cycle. The number of waitstates can be configured separately for the I/O and PROM address
ranges, through a programmable register mapped into the APB address space. After a reset the waitstates for PROM area is set to its maximum (15). Figure 230 and figure 231 show timing diagrams for
the PROM read and write accesses.
467
Read accesses to 32-bit PROM and I/O has the same timing, see figure 230
data
lead-out
CLK
A
A1
ROMSN
IOSN
OEN
D
D1
Figure 230. 32-bit PROM/IO read cycle
The write access for 32-bit PROM and I/O can be seen in figure 231
lead-in
data
lead-out
CLK
A
A1
ROMSN
IOSN
WRITEN
D
D1
Figure 231. 32-bit PROM/IO write cycle
57.3
Registers
The core is programmed through registers mapped into APB address space.
Table 458.SSRAM controller registers
APB address offset
Register
0x00
Memory configuration register
31
29 28 27 26 25 24 23
Reserved
I/O width
I/O ready enable
BEXCN enable
20 19 18 17
I/O waitstates
12 11 10 9
Reserved
I/O enable
Prom write enable
Prom width
Figure 232. Memory configuration register
8
7
4
3
0
Prom write ws Prom read ws
468
[3:0]:
Prom read waitstates. Defines the number of waitstates during prom read cycles (“0000”=0, “0001”=1,...
“1111”=15).
[7:4]:
Prom write waitstates. Defines the number of waitstates during prom write cycles (“0000”=0, “0001”=1,...
“1111”=15).
[9:8]: Prom width. Defines the data with of the prom area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “10”=32). The width is hardwired to
“10“ (32 bit).
[10]:
Reserved
[11]:
Prom write enable. If set, enables write cycles to the prom area. NOT USED.
[17:12]: Reserved
[19]:
I/O enable. If set, the access to the memory bus I/O area are enabled. NOT USED.
[23:20]: I/O waitstates. Defines the number of waitstates during I/O accesses (“0000”=0,
“0001”=1, “0010”=2,..., “1111”=15).
[25]:
Bus error (BEXCN) enable. NOT USED.
[26]:
Bus ready (BRDYN) enable. NOT USED.
[28:27]: I/O bus width. Defines the data with of the I/O area (“00”=8, “01”=16, “10”=32). The width is hardwired to “10“
(32 bit).
During power-up (reset), the PROM waitstates fields are set to 15 (maximum). All other fields are initialized to zero.
57.4
Vendor and device identifier
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x00A. For description
of vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
57.5
Configuration options
Table 459 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 459.Configuration options
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB slave index
1 - NAHBSLV-1
0
pindex
APB slave index
0 - NAPBSLV-1
0
romaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
Default PROM area is 0x0 - 0xFFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#000#
rommask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR0 defining PROM address space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ramaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
Default RAM area is 0x40000000-0x40FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#400#
rammask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR1 defining RAM address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
ioaddr
ADDR filed of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
Default IO area is 0x20000000-0x20FFFFFF.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#200#
iomask
MASK filed of the AHB BAR2 defining IO address space.
0 -16#FFF#
16#FF0#
paddr
ADDR filed of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
0
pmask
MASK filed of the APB BAR configuration registers address
space.
0 - 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
oepol
Polarity of bdrive and vbdrive signals. 0=active low, 1=active
high
0-1
0
469
57.6
Signal descriptions
Table 460 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 460.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Polarity
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock
-
RST
N/A
Input
Reset
Low
SRI
DATA[31:0]
Input
Memory data
High
BRDYN
Input
Not used
-
BEXCN
Input
Not used
-
WRN[3:0]
Input
Not used
-
BWIDTH[1:0]
Input
Not used
-
SD[63:0]
Input
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Input
Not used
-
SCB[7:0]
Input
Not used
-
EDAC
Input
Not used
-
470
Table 460.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Polarity
SRO
ADDRESS[27:0]
Output
Memory address
High
DATA[31:0]
Output
Memory data
High
SDDATA[63:0]
Output
Not used
-
RAMSN[7:0]
Output
SSRAM chip-select, only bit 0 is used
Low
RAMOEN[7:0]
Output
Same as OEN
Low
IOSN
Output
I/O chip-select
Low
ROMSN[7:0]
Output
PROM chip-select, only bit 0 is used
Low
OEN
Output
Output enable
Low
WRITEN
Output
Write strobe
Low
WRN[3:0]
Output
SSRAM byte write enable:
Low
WRN[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
WRN[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
WRN[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
WRN[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
MBEN[3:0]
Output
Not used
Low
BDRIVE[3:0]
Output
Drive byte lanes on external memory bus. Controls I/O-pads connected to external memory
bus:
Low/High2
BDRIVE[0] corresponds to DATA[31:24],
BDRIVE[1] corresponds to DATA[23:16],
BDRIVE[2] corresponds to DATA[15:8],
BDRIVE[3] corresponds to DATA[7:0].
Any BDRIVE[ ] signal can be used for CB[ ].
VBDRIVE[31:0]
Output
Identical to BDRIVE but has one signal for each
data bit. Every index is driven by its own register. This can be used to reduce the output delay.
Low/High2
SVBDRIVE
Output
Not used
-
READ
Output
Not used
-
SA[14:0]
Output
Not used
-
CB[7:0]
Output
Not used
-
SCB[7:0]
Output
Not used
-
VCDRIVE[7:0]
Output
Not used
-
SVCDRIVE[7:0]
Output
Not used
-
CE
Output
Not used
-
AHBSI
1)
Input
AHB slave input signals
-
AHBSO
1)
Output
AHB slave output signals
-
APBI
1)
Input
APB slave input signals
-
APBO
1)
Output
APB slave output signals
-
1) See GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
2) Polarity is selected with the oepol generic
471
57.7
Library dependencies
Table 461 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 461.Library dependencies
57.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AHB signal definitions
GAISLER
MEMCTRL
Signals, component
Memory bus signals definitions, component declaration
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
component ssrctrl
generic (
hindex : integer := 0;
pindex : integer := 0;
romaddr : integer := 0;
rommask : integer := 16#ff0#;
ramaddr : integer := 16#400#;
rammask : integer := 16#ff0#;
ioaddr : integer := 16#200#;
iomask : integer := 16#ff0#;
paddr
: integer := 0;
pmask
: integer := 16#fff#;
oepol
: integer := 0
);
port (
rst
: in std_ulogic;
clk
: in std_ulogic;
ahbsi
: in ahb_slv_in_type;
ahbso
: out ahb_slv_out_type;
apbi
: in apb_slv_in_type;
apbo
: out apb_slv_out_type;
sri
: in memory_in_type;
sro
: out memory_out_type
);
end component;
57.9
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
The example design contains an AMBA bus with a number of AHB components connected to it,
including the memory controller. The external memory bus is defined in the example designs port
map and connected to the memory controller. System clock and reset are generated by the
Clkgen_ml401 Clock Generator and GR Reset Generator.
The memory controller decodes default memory areas: PROM area is 0x0 - 0x00FFFFFF, I/O-area is
0x20000000-0x20FFFFFF and RAM area is 0x40000000 - 0x40FFFFFF.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib, techmap;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.stdlib.all;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.memctrl.all;
use gaisler.misc.all;
entity ssrctrl_ex is
port (
472
sys_rst_in: in std_ulogic;
sys_clk: in std_ulogic; -- 100 MHz main clock
sram_flash_addr : out std_logic_vector(22 downto 0);
sram_flash_data : inout std_logic_vector(31 downto 0);
sram_cen : out std_logic;
sram_bw
: out std_logic_vector (0 to 3);
sram_flash_oe_n : out std_ulogic;
sram_flash_we_n : out std_ulogic;
flash_ce : out std_logic;
sram_clk : out std_ulogic;
sram_clk_fb: in std_ulogic;
sram_mode : out std_ulogic;
sram_adv_ld_n : out std_ulogic;
sram_zz : out std_ulogic;
iosn
: out std_ulogic;
);
end;
architecture rtl of ssrctrl_ex is
-- Clock generator component
component clkgen_ml401
generic (
clk_mul : integer := 1;
clk_div : integer := 1;
freq
: integer := 100000);-- clock frequency in KHz
port (
clkin
: in std_logic;
clk
: out std_logic;-- main clock
ddrclk : out std_logic;-- DDR clock
ddrclkfb: in std_logic;-- DDR clock feedback
ddrclk90 : out std_logic;-- DDR 90 clock
ddrclk180 : out std_logic;-- 180 clock
ddrclk270 : out std_logic;-- DDR clock
ssrclk : out std_logic;-- SSRAM clock
ssrclkfb: in std_logic;-- SSRAM clock feedback
cgi
: in clkgen_in_type;
cgo
: out clkgen_out_type);
end component;
-- signals used to connect memory controller and memory bus
signal memi : memory_in_type;
signal memo : memory_out_type;
-- AMBA bus (AHB and APB)
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out_vector := (others => apb_none);
signal ahbsi : ahb_slv_in_type;
signal ahbso : ahb_slv_out_vector := (others => ahbs_none);
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
-- Signals used by clock and reset generators
signal clkm, rstn, rstraw, srclkl : std_ulogic;
signal cgi
: clkgen_in_type;
signal cgo
: clkgen_out_type;
signal ddrclkfb, ssrclkfb, ddr_clkl, ddr_clknl : std_ulogic;
begin
clkgen0 : clkgen_ml401 -- clock generator
port map (sys_clk, clkm, ddr_clkl, ddrclkfb, open, ddr_clknl, open, sram_clk,
sram_clk_fb, cgi, cgo);
rst0 : rstgen-- reset generator
port map (sys_rst_in, clkm, cgo.clklock, rstn, rstraw);
-- AMBA Components are defined here ...
473
-- Memory controller
mctrl0 : ssrctrl generic map (hindex => 0, pindex => 0)
port map (rstn, clkm, ahbsi, ahbso(0), apbi, apbo(0), memi, memo);
-- connect memory controller outputs to entity output signals
sram_adv_ld_n <= ’0’; sram_mode <= ’0’; sram_zz <= ’0’;
sram_flash_addr <= memo.address(24 downto 2); sram_cen <= memo.ramsn(0);
flash_ce <= memo.romsn(0); sram_flash_oe_n <= memo.oen; iosn <= memo.iosn;
sram_bw <= memo.wrn; sram_flash_we_n <= memo.writen;
-- I/O pad instantiation with vectored enable instead
bdr : for i in 0 to 31 generate
data_pad : iopad generic map (tech => padtech)
port map (sram_flash_data(i), memo.data(i),
memo.vbdrive(i), memi.data(i));
end generate;
end;
474
475
58
SVGACTRL - Vga Controller Core
58.1
Introduction
The SVGACTRL core is a pixel based video controller (frame buffer), capable of displaying standard
and custum resolutions with variable bit depth and refresh rates. The controller consists of a synchronization unit, main controll unit, FIFO unit and an AHB master as shown in the figure below.
Clk mux
Video clocks
AHB bus
Clk sel.
AHB
Master
Vga
Controller
Hsync, Vsync, Csync, Blank
Red [7:0]
Green[7:0]
Blue[7:0]
APB bus
58.2
Operation
SVGACTRL uses external frame buffer memory, located in the AHB address space. A frame on the
display is created by fetching the pixel data from memory, and sending it to the screen through an
external DAC using three 8-bit color vectors. To hide the AHB bus latency, the pixel data is buffered
in a FIFO inside the core. The start address of the frame buffer is specified in the Frame buffer Memory Position register, and can be anywhere in the AHB address space. In addition to the color vectors
the, video controller also generates HSYNC, VSYNC, CSYNC and BLANK signals control signals.
The SVGACTRL video timing is programmable through the Video Length, Front Porch, Sync
Length and Line Length registers. The bit depth selection and enabling of the controller is done
through the status register. These values makes it possible to display a wide range of resolutions and
refresh rates.
The pixelclock can be either static or a dynamic multiplexed. The frequency of the pixel clock is calcultaed as “Horizontal Line Length * Vertical Line Length * refresh rate”. When using a dynamically
multiplexed clock, bits [5:4] in the status register are used to controll the clock selector. The dynamic
pixel clocks should be defined in the SVGACTRL generics to allow the overlying software can read
out the availabke pixel clock frequencies.
The SVGACTRL can use bit depths of 8, 16 and 32 bits. When using 32 bits, bits[23:0] are used,
when 16 bits a [5,6,5] color scheme is used and when using 8 bits a color lookup table “CLUT” is
used. The CLUT has 256 adresses each 24 bits wide and the 8 bit values read from memory are used
to index the CLUT to obtain the actual colour.
476
58.3
Registers
The SVGACTRL core is controlled by 11 registers mapped into APB adress space.
TABLE 462. APB Register map
Register
APB offset
Status register
0x0
Video Length
0x4
Front Porch
0x8
Sync Length
0xC
Line Length
0x10
Framebuffer Memory Position
0x14
Dynamic Clock 0
0x18
Dynamic Clock 1
0x1C
Dynamic Clock 2
0x20
Dynamic Clock 3
0x24
CLUT access register
0x28
58.3.1 Status register
Reserved
[0]
[1]
[2]
[3]
[5:4]
[7:6]
[8]
[9]
Table 463. Status register
9 8
7-6
5-4
3 2 1 0
Enable, Starts the hardware.
Reset, Resets the hardware.
Vertical Refresh, displays current refresh state, active high.
Running, displays the current mode, active high.
Clock Select, clock selector when using dynamic pixelclock.
Bit depth selector. “01” = 8-bit mode; “10” = 16-bit mode; “10” or “01” = 32-bit mode
Hpolarity, sets the polarity for the horizontal sync pulse.
Vpolarity, sets the polarity for the vertical sync pulse.
58.3.2 Video length register
Vertical video length
Horizontal video length
[15:0] Horizontal screen resolution in pixels -1.
[31:16] Vertical screen resolution in pixels -1.
58.3.3 Front porch register
Vertical front porch
[15:0] Horizontal front porch in pixels.
[31:16] Vertical front porch in pixels.
Horizontal front porch
477
58.3.4 Sync pulse register
Vertical sync pulse length
Horizontal sync pulse length
[15:0] Horizontal sync pulse length in pixels.
[31:16] Vertical sync pulse length in pixels.
58.3.5 Line length register
Vertical video length
Horizontal video length
[15:0] Horizontal line length. The length of the total line with front and back porch, sync pulse length and horizontal screen
resolution.
[31:16] Vertical line length. The length of the total line with front and back porch, sync pulse length and vertical screen
resolution.
58.3.6 Framebuffer memory position register
Vertical sync pulse length
[31:0] Holds the memory position of the framebuffer, must be aligned on a 1 Kbyte boundary.
58.3.7 Dynamic clocks 0-3 registers
Dynamic clock
[31:0] Dynamic pixel clock defined in ns.
58.3.8 CLUT access register
Color register
[31:24]
[23:16]
[15:8]
[7:0]
58.4
Color data
Color lookup table register to set.
Red color data to set in the specified register.
Green color data to set in the specified register.
Blue color data to set in the specified register.
Vendor and device identifiers
The SVGACTRL hardware has device id 0x063 and the vendor id 1 (Gaisler Research).
478
58.5
Configuration options
The SVGACTRL hardware has these configuration options via VHDL generics.
TABLE 464. SVGACTRL Generics
58.6
Generic
Function
Allowed Range
Default
length
Size of the pixel FIFO
3-1008
384
part
Pixel FIFO part length
1-336
128
memtech
Memory technology
0- NTECH
0
pindex
APB slave index
0- NAPBSLV-1
0
paddr
12-bit MSB APB address
0- 16#FFF#
0
pmask
APB address mask
0- 16#FFF#
16#FFF#
hindex
AHB master index
0- NAHBMST-1
0
hirq
Interrupt number
0- NAHBIRQ-1
0
clk0
Period of dynamic clock 0 in ns 0- 16#FFFFFFFF#
40000
clk1
Period of dynamic clock 1 in ns 0- 16#FFFFFFFF#
20000
clk2
Period of dynamic clock 2 in ns 0- 16#FFFFFFFF#
15385
clk3
Period of dynamic clock 3 in ns 0- 16#FFFFFFFF#
0
burstlen
AHB burst length.
8
2- 8
Signal descriptions
Below is a table with the VGA controller input/output signals.
TABLE 465. Signals
Sinal name
Field
Type
Description
Active
Rst
N/A
Input
Global reset
low
Clk
N/A
Input
System clock
Vgaclk
N/A
Input
Pixel clock
Apbi
*
Input
APB slave input
Apbo
*
Output
APB slave output
Vgao
Hsync
Output
Horizontal sync
Vsync
Output
Vertical sync
Csync
Output
Composite sync
Blank
Output
Blanking
Video_out_R[7:0]
Output
Video out, Red
Video_out_G[7:0]
Output
Video out, Green
Video_out_B[7:0]
Output
Video out, Blue
Ahbi
*
Input
AHB master input
Ahbo
*
Output
AHB master output
Clk_sel
N/A
Output
2 bit clock selector
479
58.7
Library dependencies
Below is a table with the required libraries that should be used when instantiating the VGA controller
hardware.
TABLE 466. Library dependencies
58.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
MISC
Component
Component declaration
Component instantiation
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
library Gaisler; 27
use gaiser.misc.all;
.
architecture rtl of test is
signal apbi : apb_slv_in_type;
signal apbo : apb_slv_out;
signal vgao : apbvga_out_type;
signal ahbi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbo : ahb_mst_out_type;
signal clk_sel :std_logic_vector(1 downto 0));
signal clkmvga : std_logic;
begin
.
.
-- VGA Controller
vga0 : svgactrl
generic map(memtech => memtech, pindex => 6, paddr => 6, hindex => 6,
clk0 => 40000, clk1 => 20000, clk2 => 15385, clk3 => 0)
port map(rstn,clkm,clkmvga, apbi, apbo(6), vgao,ahbmi,ahbmo(6),clk_sel);
end;
58.9
Linux-2.6 command line options
A video driver for SVGACTRL is provided Snapgear Linux (-p27 and later). The proper kernel command line options must be used for the driver to detect the SVGACTRL core. The table below lists
the boot options and the order they should appear in.
480
TABLE 467. Linux-2.6 kernel options
Order
Value
Custom/All
0
video=grvga:
N/A
Needed to select driver
1
custom
N/A
One of these values is needed. Custom is
used when the user wants to specify all the
timings like resolution and refresh rate.
The other valuse is for predefined resolutions and refresh rates.
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Description
[email protected]
2
Pixelclock
Custom
Pixelclock in ns.
3
xres
Custom
Horizontal resolution in pixels.
4
rmargin
Custom
Horizontal front porch in pixels.
5
hsync_len
Custom
Horizontal Sync length in pixels.
6
lmargin
Custom
Horizontal Back porch in pixels.
7
yres
Custom
Vertical resolution in pixels.
8
llmargin
Custom
Vertical front porch in pixels.
9
vsync_len
Custom
Vertical Sync length in pixels.
10
umargin
Custom
Vertical Back porch in pixels.
11
bits_per_pixel
All
Bits per pixel, Valid = 8,16,32.
12
Mem_size
All
Framebuffer memory size in bytes.
All of these valuse must be defined at the boot options in some form. Exceptions are for the values 210 if a predefined mode is set.
Example using the predefined mode at [email protected] with 2 MB memory size:
video=grvga:[email protected],16,2000000
The same as above but using a custom mode:
video=grvga:custom,15385,1024,24,136,160,768,3,6,29,16,2000000
481
59
SYNCRAM - Single-port RAM generator
59.1
Overview
The single port RAM has a common address bus, and separate data-in and data-out buses. All inputs
are latched on the on the rising edge of clk. The read data appears on dataout directly after the clk rising edge.
59.2
Configuration options
Table 468 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 468.Configuration options
Name
Function
Range
Default
tech
Technology selection
0 - NTECH
0
abits
Address bits. Depth of RAM is 2abits-1
see table below
-
dbits
Data width
see table below
-
Table 469 shows the supported technologies for the core.
Table 469.Supported technologies
Tech name
Technology
RAM cell
abit range
dbit range
altera
All Altera devices
altsyncram
unlimited
unlimited
ihp15
IHP 0.25
sram2k (512x32)
2-9
unlimited
inferred
Behavioral description
Tool dependent
unlimited
unlimited
virtex
Xilinx Virtex, VirtexE, Spartan2
RAMB4_Sn
2 - 12
unlimited
virtex2
Xilinx Virtex2, Spartan3, Virtex4,
Spartan3e
RAMB16_Sn
2 - 14
unlimited
axcel
Actel AX, RTAX
RAM64K36
2 - 12
unlimited
proasic
Actel Proasic
RAM256x9SST
2 - 14
unlimited
proasic3
Actel Proasic3
ram4k9, ram512x18
2 - 12
unlimited
lattice
Lattice XP/EC/ECP
sp8ka
2 - 13
unlimited
memvirage
Virage ASIC RAM
hdss1_128x32cm4sw0
hdss1_256x32cm4sw0
hdss1_512x32cm4sw0
hdss1_1024x32cm8sw0
7 - 11
32
memartisan
Artisan ASIC RAM
sp_256x32m32
sp_512x32m32
sp_1kx32m32
sp_2kx32m32
sp_4kx32m32
sp_8kx32m32
sp_16kx32m32
8 - 14
32
482
59.3
Signal descriptions
Table 470 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 470.Signal descriptions
59.4
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK
N/A
Input
Clock. All input signals are latched on the rising
edge of the clock.
-
ADDRESS
N/A
Input
Address bus. Used for both read and write
access.
-
DATAIN
N/A
Input
Data inputs for write data
-
DATAOUT
N/A
Output
Data outputs for read data
-
ENABLE
N/A
Input
Chip select
High
WRITE
N/A
Input
Write enable
High
Library dependencies
Table 471 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 471.Library dependencies
59.5
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
TECHMAP
GENCOMP
Constants
Technology contants
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
component syncram
generic (tech : integer := 0; abits : integer := 6; dbits : integer := 8);
port (
clk
: in std_ulogic;
address : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
datain
: in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
dataout : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
enable
: in std_ulogic;
write
: in std_ulogic);
end component;
59.6
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
.
clk
address
datain
dataout
enable
write
:
:
:
:
:
:
std_ulogic;
std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
std_ulogic;
std_ulogic);
ram0 : syncram generic map ( tech => tech, abits => addrbits, dbits => dbits)
port map ( clk, addr, datain, dataout, enable, write);
483
60
SYNCRAM_2P - Two-port RAM generator
60.1
Overview
The two-port RAM generator has a one read port and one write port. Each port has a separate address
and data bus. All inputs are registered on the rising edge of clk. The read data appears on dataout
directly after the clk rising edge. Address width, data width and target technology is parametrizable
through generics.
Write-through is supported if the function syncram_2p_write_through(tech) returns 1 for the target
technology.
60.2
Configuration options
Table 472 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 472.Configuration options
Name
Function
Range
Default
tech
Technology selection
0 - NTECH
0
abits
Address bits. Depth of RAM is 2abits-1
see table below
-
dbits
Data width
see table below
-
sepclk
If 1, separate clocks (rclk/wclk) are used for the two ports. If 0,
rclk is used for both ports.
0-1
0
Table 473 shows the supported technologies for the core.
Table 473.Supported technologies
Tech name
Technology
RAM cell
abit range
dbit range
Inferred
Behavioural description
Tool dependent
unlimited
unlimited
altera
All Altera devices
altsyncram
umlimited
unlimited
virtex
Xilinx Virtex, Virtex-E, Spartan-2
RAMB4_Sn
2 - 10
unlimited
virtex2
Xilinx Virtex2, Spartan3, Virtex4,
Spartan3e
RAMB16_Sn
2 - 14
unlimited
axcel
Actel AX, RTAX
RAM64K36
2 - 12
unlimited
proasic
Actel Proasic
RAM256x9SST
2 - 14
unlimited
proasic3
Actel Proasic3
ram4k9, ram512x18
2 - 12
unlimited
lattice
Lattice XP/EC/ECP
dp8ka
2 - 13
unlimited
memvirage
Virage ASIC RAM
hdss2_64x32cm4sw0
hdss2_128x32cm4sw0
hdss2_256x32cm4sw0
hdss2_512x32cm4sw0
6-9
32
memartisan
Artisan ASIC RAM
rf2_256x32m4
rf2_512x32m4
8-9
32
484
60.3
Signal descriptions
Table 474 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 474.Signal descriptions
60.4
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RCLK
N/A
Input
Read port clock
-
RENABLE
N/A
Input
Read enable
High
RADDRESS
N/A
Input
Read address bus
-
DATAOUT
N/A
Output
Data outputs for read data
-
WCLK
N/A
Input
Write port clock
-
WRITE
N/A
Input
Write enable
High
WADDRESS
N/A
Input
Write address
-
DATAIN
N/A
Input
Write data
-
Library dependencies
Table 475 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 475.Library dependencies
60.5
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
TECHMAP
GENCOMP
Constants
Technology contants
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
component syncram_2p
generic (tech : integer := 0; abits : integer := 6; dbits : integer := 8; sepclk : integer
:= 0);
port (
rclk
: in std_ulogic;
renable : in std_ulogic;
raddress : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
dataout : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
wclk
: in std_ulogic;
write
: in std_ulogic;
waddress : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
datain
: in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0));
end component;
60.6
Instantiation
This examples shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
rclk
renable
raddress
dataout
wclk
:
:
:
:
:
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
in std_ulogic;
485
write
: in std_ulogic;
waddress : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
datain
: in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0));
ram0 : syncram_2p generic map ( tech => tech, abits => addrbits, dbits => dbits)
port map ( rclk, renable, raddress, dataout, wclk, write, waddress, datain, enable,
write);
486
61
SYNCRAM_DP - Dual-port RAM generator
61.1
Overview
The dual-port RAM generator has two independent read/write ports. Each port has a separate address
and data bus. All inputs are latched on the on the rising edge of clk. The read data appears on dataout
directly after the clk rising edge. Address width, data width and target technology is parametrizable
through generics. Simultaneous write to the same address is technology dependent, and generally not
allowed.
61.2
Configuration options
Table 476 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 476.Configuration options
Name
Function
tech
Technology selection
abits
Address bits. Depth of RAM is 2
dbits
Data width
abits-1
Range
Default
0 - NTECH
0
see table below
-
see table below
-
Table 477 shows the supported technologies for the core.
Table 477.Supported technologies
Tech name
Technology
RAM cell
abit range
dbit range
altera
All altera devices
altsyncram
unlimited
unlimited
virtex
Xilinx Virtex, Virtex-E, Spartan-2
RAMB4_Sn
2 - 10
unlimited
virtex2
Xilinx Virtex2, Spartan3, Virtex4,
Spartan3e
RAMB16_Sn
2 - 14
unlimited
proasic3
Actel Proasic3
ram4k9
2 - 12
unlimited
lattice
Lattice XP/EC/ECP
dp8ka
2 - 13
unlimited
memvirage
Virage ASIC RAM
hdss2_64x32cm4sw0
hdss2_128x32cm4sw0
hdss2_256x32cm4sw0
hdss2_512x32cm4sw0
6-9
32
memartisan
Artisan ASIC RAM
dp_256x32m4
dp_512x32m4
dp_1kx32m4
8 - 10
32
487
61.3
Signal descriptions
Table 478 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 478.Signal descriptions
61.4
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
CLK1
N/A
Input
Port1 clock
-
ADDRESS1
N/A
Input
Port1 address
-
DATAIN1
N/A
Input
Port1 write data
-
DATAOUT1
N/A
Output
Port1 read data
-
ENABLE1
N/A
Input
Port1 chip select
High
WRITE1
N/A
Input
Port 1 write enable
High
CLK2
N/A
Input
Port2 clock
-
ADDRESS2
N/A
Input
Port2 address
-
DATAIN2
N/A
Input
Port2 write data
-
DATAOUT2
N/A
Output
Port2 read data
-
ENABLE2
N/A
Input
Port2 chip select
High
WRITE2
N/A
Input
Port 2 write enable
High
Library dependencies
Table 479 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 479.Library dependencies
61.5
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
TECHMAP
GENCOMP
Constants
Technology contants
Component declaration
The core has the following component declaration.
library techmap;
use techmap.gencomp.all;
component syncram_dp
generic (tech : integer := 0; abits : integer := 6; dbits : integer := 8);
port (
clk1
: in std_ulogic;
address1 : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
datain1 : in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
dataout1 : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
enable1 : in std_ulogic;
write1
: in std_ulogic;
clk2
: in std_ulogic;
address2 : in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
datain2 : in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
dataout2 : out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
enable2 : in std_ulogic;
write2
: in std_ulogic);
end component;
61.6
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library techmap;
488
use techmap.gencomp.all;
clk1
address1
datain1
dataout1
enable1
write1
clk2
address2
datain2
dataout2
enable2
write2
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
in std_ulogic;
in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
in std_logic_vector((abits -1) downto 0);
in std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
out std_logic_vector((dbits -1) downto 0);
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic);
ram0 : syncram_dp generic map ( tech => tech, abits => addrbits, dbits => dbits)
port map ( clk1, address1, datain1, dataout1, enable1, write1, clk2, address2, datain2,
dataout2, enable2, write2);
489
62
TAP - JTAG TAP Controller
62.1
Overview
JTAG TAP Controller provides an Test Access Port according to IEEE-1149 (JTAG) Standard. The
core implements the Test Access Port signals, the synchronous TAP state-machine, a number of JTAG
data registers (depending on the target technology) and an interface to user-defined JTAG data registers.
TDI
JTAG TAP
Controller
TCK
TMS
Interface to user-defined
data registers
TDO
Figure 233. TAP controller block diagram
62.2
Operation
62.2.1 Generic TAP Controller
The generic TAP Controller implements JTAG Test Access Point interface with signals TCK, TMS,
TDI and TDO, a synchronous state-machine compliant to the IEEE-1149 standard, JTAG instruction
register and two JTAG data registers: bypass and device identification code register. The core is capable of shifting and updating the JTAG instruction register, putting the device into bypass mode
(BYPASS instruction) and shifting out the devices identification number (IDCODE instruction).
User-defined JTAG test registers are accessed through user-defined data register interface.
The access to the user-define test data registers is provided through the user-defined data register
interface. The instruction in the TAP controller instruction register appears on the interface as well as
shift-in data and signals indicating that the TAP controller is in Capture-Data-Register, Shift-DataRegister or Update-Data-Register state. Logic controlling user-defined data registers should observe
value in the instruction register and TAP controller state signals in order to capture data, shift data or
update data-registers.
JTAG test registers such as boundary-scan register can be interfaced to the TAP controller through the
user data register interface.
62.3
Technology specific TAP controllers
The core instantiates technology specific TAP controller for Altera and Xilinx devices.
62.4
Registers
The core implements three JTAG registers: instruction, bypass and device identification code register.
62.5
Vendor and device identifiers
The core does not have vendor and device identifiers since it does not have AMBA interfaces.
490
62.6
Configuration options
Table 480 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 480.Configuration options
62.7
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
tech
Target technology
0 - NTECH
0
irlen
Instruction register length (generic tech only)
2-8
2
idcode
JTAG IDCODE instruction code(generic tech only)
0 - 255
9
id_msb
JTAG Device indentification code MSB bits (generic tech only)
0 - 65535
0
id_lsb
JTAG Device indentification code LSB bits (generic tech only)
0 - 65535
0
idcode
JTAG IDCODE instruction (generic tech only)
0 - 255
9
Signal descriptions
Table 481 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 481.Signal declarations
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
Active
RST
N/A
Input
System reset
Low
CLK
N/A
Input
System clock (AHB clock domain)
-
TCK
N/A
Input
JTAG clock*
-
TCKN
N/A
Input
Inverted JTAG clock*
-
TMS
N/A
Input
JTAG TMS signal*
High
TDI
N/A
Input
JTAG TDI signal*
High
TDO
N/A
Output
JTAG TDO signal*
High
User-defined data register interface
TAPO_TCK
N/A
Output
TCK signal
High
TAPO_TDI
N/A
Output
TDI signal
High
TAPO_INST[7:0]
N/A
Output
Instruction in the TAP Ctrl instruction register
High
TAPO_RST
N/A
Output
TAP Controller in Test-Logic_Reset state
High
TAPO_CAPT
N/A
Output
TAP Controller in Capture-DR state
High
TAPO_SHFT
N/A
Output
TAP Controller in Shift-DR state
High
TAPO_UPD
N/A
Output
TAP Controller in Update-DR state
High
TAPO_XSEL1
N/A
Output
Xilinx User-defined Data Register 1 selected
(Xilinx tech only)
High
TAPO_XSEL2
N/A
Output
Xilinx User-defined Data Register 2 selected
(Xilinx tech only)
High
TAPI_EN1
N/A
Input
Enable shift-out data port 1 (TAPI_TDO1), when
disabled data on port 2 is used
High
TAPI_TDO1
N/A
Input
Shift-out data from user-defined register port 1
High
TAPI_TDO2
N/A
Input
Shift-out data from user-defined register port 2
High
*) If the target technology is Xilinx or Altera the cores JTAG signals TCK, TCKN, TMS, TDI and
TDO are not used. Instead the dedicated FPGA JTAG pins are used. These pins are implicitly made
visible to the core through technology-specific TAP macro instantiation.
491
62.8
Library dependencies
Table 482 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 482.Library dependencies
62.9
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GAISLER
JTAG
Component
TAP Controller component declaration
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.jtag.all;
entity tap_ex is
port (
clk : in std_ulogic;
rst : in std_ulogic;
-- JTAG signals
tck : in std_ulogic;
tms : in std_ulogic;
tdi : in std_ulogic;
tdo : out std_ulogic
);
end;
architecture rtl of tap_ex is
signal gnd : std_ulogic;
signal
signal
signal
signal
tapo_tck, tapo_tdi, tapo_rst, tapo_capt : std_ulogic;
tapo_shft, tapo_upd : std_ulogic;
tapi_en1, tapi_tdo : std_ulogic;
tapo_inst : std_logic_vector(7 downto 0);
begin
gnd <= ‘0’;
tckn <= not tck;
-- TAP Controller
tap0 : tap (tech => 0)
port map (rst, tck, tckn, tms, tdi, tdo, tapo_tck, tapo_tdi, tapo_inst,
tapo_rst, tapo_capt, tapo_shft, tapo_upd, open, open,
tapi_en1, tapi_tdo, gnd);
-- User-defined JTAG data registers
...
end;
492
63
USBDCL - USB Debug Communication Link
63.1
Overview
The Universal Serial Bus Debug Communication Link (USBDCL) provides an interface between an
USB 2.0 bus and an AMBA-AHB bus. An external High-/Full-Speed Universal Transceiver Macrocell Interface (UTMI) with an 8-bit interface is needed to connect to the USB. The USBDCL is an
AHB master and provides read and write access to the whole AHB address space using a simple protocol over two USB bulk endpoints. Figure 234 shows how the USBDCL should be connected to the
UTMI.
FPGA
AHB
USBDCL
USB
UTMI
Figure 234. USBDCL connected to an external UTMI device.
63.2
Operation
63.2.1 System overview
Figure 235 shows the internal structure of the USBDCL. This section describes the function of the different blocks briefly.
The Speed Negotiation Engine (SNE) detects connection by monitoring VBUS on the USB connector.
When a steady 5 V voltage is detected the SNE waits for a reset and then starts the High-speed negotiation. When the Speed negotiation and reset procedure is finished the selected speed mode is notified to the Serial Interface Engine (SIE).
The SIE is enabled when the SNE notifies that the reset procedure has finished. It then waits for packets to arrive and processes them according to the USB 2.0 specification. There are four endpoints: one
in/out pair of control type with number 0 (default pipe) and one in/out pair of bulk type with number
1. Data received to an endpoint is stored in the endpoint’s buffer located in block ram.
The AIE reads the packets from the endpoint buffers and if the packet was received to endpoint 0 the
device request is processed directly and a response is stored in the buffer for IN endpoint 0. This is
also notified to the SIE which transmits the data to the host when the next IN token arrives. Device
requests never access the AHB bus.
493
AHB
UTMI
USBDCL
SIE
AHB Master
Interface
AIE
ENDPOINT
BUFFERS
SNE
TXVALID
TERM_SELECT
SUSPENDM
OPMODE(1:0)
XCVR_SELECT
RESET
DATAIN(7:0)
CLK
LINESTATE(1:0)
TXREADY
RXVALID
RXACTIVE
DATAOUT(7:0)
RXERROR
Figure 235. Block diagram of the internal structure of the USBDCL.
If the packet was received to endpoint 1 it is an AHB command and the AIE performs the operation
on the AHB bus. Read commands arrive to OUT endpoint 1 and the read data from the AHB bus is
stored in the buffer of IN endpoint 1 and transmitted in the same manner as for endpoint 0.
Write commands also arrive to OUT endpoint 1 and are executed on the bus immediately. No reply is
sent for writes.
Each endpoint has two buffers that can hold one max payload packet each. The USBDCL automatically alternates between them when a packet has been received/transmitted. When it operates in highspeed mode OUT transactions are replied with a ACK handshake if the other buffer (the one to which
the packet is not stored) is empty and with a NYET if is full. A NAK is sent if both are full since the
packet cannot be received.
63.2.2 Protocol
The protocol used for the AHB commands is very simple and consists of two 32-bit control words.
The first word consists of the 32-bit AHB address and the second consists of a read/write bit at bit 31
and the number of words to be written at bits 16 downto 2. All other bits in the second word are
reserved for future use and must be set to 0. The read/write bit must be set to 1 for writes.
Figure 236 shows the layout of a write command. The command should be sent as the data cargo of an
OUT transaction to endpoint 1. The data for a command must be included in the same packet. The
maximum payload is 512 B when running in high-speed mode and 64 B in full-speed mode. Since the
control information takes 8 B the maximum number of bytes per command is 504 B and 56 B respectively. Subword writes are not supported so the number of bytes must be a multiple of four between 0
and 504.
The words should be sent with the one to be written at the start address first. Individual bytes should
be transmitted msb first, i.e. the one at bits 31-24.
494
There is no reply sent for writes since the USB handshake mechanism for bulk writes guarantees that
the packet has been correctly received by the target.
31
Word 1
0
address
31
Word 2
16
r/w
2
length
31
Word 3 128
0
data
Figure 236. Layout of USBDCL write commands.
Figure 88 shows the layout of read commands and replies. In this case the command only consists of
two words containing the same control information as the two first words for write commands. However, for reads the r/w bit must be set to 0.
When the read is performed data is read to the buffer belonging to IN endpoint 1. The reply packet is
sent when the next IN token arrives after all data has been stored to the buffer. The reply packets only
contains the read data (no control information is needed) with the word read from the start address
transmitted first. Individual bytes are sent with most significant byte first, i.e. the byte at bit 31
downto 24.
Read Command
31
Word 1
31
Word 2
0
address
16
r/w
2
length
Read Reply
31
Word 0126
0
data
Figure 237. Layout of USBDCL read commands and replies.
63.2.3 AHB operations
All AHB operations are performed as incremental bursts of unspecified length. Only word size
accesses are done.
63.3
Registers
The core does not contain any user accessible registers.
63.4
Vendor and device identifier
The core has vendor identifier 0x01 (Gaisler Research) and device identifier 0x022. For description of
vendor and device identifiers see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual.
The USB vendor identifier is 0x1781 and product identifier is 0x0AA0.
495
63.5
Configuration options
Table 483 shows the configuration options of the core (VHDL generics).
Table 483.Configuration options
63.6
Generic
Function
Allowed range
Default
hindex
AHB master index.
0 - NAHBMST-1
0
memtech
Memory technology used for blockrams (endpoint buffers).
0 - NTECH
0
Signal descriptions
Table 484 shows the interface signals of the core (VHDL ports).
Table 484.Signal descriptions
Signal name
Field
Type
Function
UCLK
N/A
Active
Input
USB UTMI Clock
-
USBI
Input
USB UTMI Input signals
-
USBO
Output
USB UTMI Output signals
-
HCLK
Input
AMBA Clock
-
HRST
Input
AMBA Reset
Low
AHBMI
*
Input
AHB master input signals
-
AHBMO
*
Output
AHB master output signals
-
* see GRLIB IP Library User’s Manual
63.7
Library dependencies
Table 485 shows libraries used when instantiating the core (VHDL libraries).
Table 485.Library dependencies
63.8
Library
Package
Imported unit(s)
Description
GRLIB
AMBA
Signals
AMBA signal definitions
GAISLER
USB
Signals, component
USBDCL component declarations, USB signals
Instantiation
This example shows how the core can be instantiated.
library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all;
library grlib;
use grlib.amba.all;
use grlib.tech.all;
library gaisler;
use gaisler.usb.all;
entity usbdcl_ex is
port (
clk
: in std_ulogic; --AHB Clock
rstn
: in std_ulogic;
-- usb signals
usb_clkout
: in std_ulogic;
usb_d
: inout std_logic_vector(7 downto 0);
usb_linestate : in std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
496
usb_opmode
usb_reset
usb_rxactive
usb_rxerror
usb_rxvalid
usb_suspend
usb_termsel
usb_txready
usb_txvalid
usb_xcvrsel
usb_vbus
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
out std_logic_vector(1 downto 0);
out std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
out std_ulogic;
in std_ulogic);
end;
architecture rtl of usbdcl_ex is
constant padtech : integer := inferred;
constant memtech : integer := inferred;
-- AMBA signals
signal ahbmi : ahb_mst_in_type;
signal ahbmo : ahb_mst_out_vector := (others => ahbm_none);
begin
-- AMBA Components are instantiated here
...
-- USBDCL
usb_d_pads: for i in 0 to 7 generate
usb_d_pad: iopad generic map(tech => padtech)
port map (usb_d(i), usbo.dout(i), usbi.rxactive, usbi.din(i));
end generate;
usbi0pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_txready,usbi.txready);
usbi1pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_rxvalid,usbi.rxvalid);
usbi2pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_rxerror,usbi.rxerror);
usbi3pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_rxactive,usbi.rxactive);
usbi4pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map
(usb_linestate(0),usbi.linestate(0));
usbi5pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map
(usb_linestate(1),usbi.linestate(1));
usbi6pad : inpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_vbus, usbi.vbus);
usbo0pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_reset,usbo.reset);
usbo1pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_suspend,usbo.suspend);
usbo2pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_termsel,usbo.termselect);
usbo3pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_xcvrsel,usbo.xcvrselect);
usbo4pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_opmode(0),usbo.opmode(0));
usbo5pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_opmode(1),usbo.opmode(1));
usbo6pad : outpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_txvalid,usbo.txvalid);
usb_clk_pad : clkpad generic map (tech => padtech) port map (usb_clkout, uclk);
usb_ctrl : usbdcl
generic map (
hindex => 0, memtech => memtech)
port map (
uclk, usbi, usbo, clkm, rstn, ahbmi, ahbmo(0));
end;
Information furnished by Gaisler Research is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by Gaisler Research for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or
other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Gaisler Research.
Gaisler Research AB
tel +46 31 7758650
Första Långgatan 19
fax +46 31 421407
413 27 Göteborg
[email protected]
Sweden
www.gaisler.com
Copyright © 2006 Gaisler Research AB.
All information is provided as is. There is no warranty that it is correct or suitable for any purpose, neither
implicit nor explicit.
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