Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide

Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
P/N 702607 Rev. 2
For research use only.
Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
Trademarks
, GeneChip®, HuSNP®, GenFlex®, Flying Objective™, CustomExpress®, CustomSeq®, NetAffx™,
Affymetrix®,
Tools to Take You As Far As Your Vision®, The Way Ahead™, Powered by Affymetrix™, GeneChip-compatible™, and
Command Console™ are trademarks of Affymetrix, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Limited License
Subject to the Affymetrix terms and conditions that govern your use of Affymetrix products, Affymetrix grants you a nonexclusive, non-transferable, non-sublicensable license to use this Affymetrix product only in accordance with the manual
and written instructions provided by Affymetrix. You understand and agree that except as expressly set forth in the
Affymetrix terms and conditions, that no right or license to any patent or other intellectual property owned or licensable
by Affymetrix is conveyed or implied by this Affymetrix product. In particular, no right or license is conveyed or implied to
use this Affymetrix product in combination with a product not provided, licensed or specifically recommended by
Affymetrix for such use.
Patents
Arrays: Products may be covered by one or more of the following patents: U.S. Patent Nos. 5,445,934; 5,744,305; 5,945,334;
6,140,044; 6,261,776; 6,291,183; 6,346,413; 6,399,365; 6,420,169; 6,551,817; 6,610,482; 6,733,977; 6,955,915 and D430,024
and other U.S. or foreign patents. Products are manufactured and sold under license from OGT under 5,700,637 and
6,054,270
Reagents: Products may be covered by one or more of the following patents: U.S. Patent Nos. 6,965,020; 6,864,059.
Copyright
© 2008 Affymetrix, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Before You Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
About the Affymetrix Cytogenetics Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Tips for Ensuring Successful Performance of the Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Equipment and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Pipetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Reagent Handling and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Master Mix Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Laboratory Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Preparing the Work Area for Each Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Thermal Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Program Your Thermal Cyclers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 2
Laboratory Setup and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Configuration 1 — Two Separate Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pre-PCR Clean Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Post-PCR Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Configuration 2 — One Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pre-PCR Clean Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Post-PCR Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Single Direction Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Contamination Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Chapter 3
Genomic DNA General Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sources of Human Genomic DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Genomic DNA Extraction/Purification Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
DNA Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 4
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
About the Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
About the Illustrations in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
About the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables Specified in this Chapter . . . . . . . 20
Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Genomic DNA Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Input Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Preparing the Genomic DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Aliquoting the Prepared Genomic DNA and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Input Required From Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Prepare the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Prepare the Nsp Digest Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Add Nsp Digest Master Mix to Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Prepare the Sty Digest Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Add Sty Digest Master Mix to Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Load Nsp and Sty Samples onto the Thermal Cycler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Input Required From Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Prepare the Nsp Ligation Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Add Nsp Ligation Master Mix to Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Prepare the Sty Ligation Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Add Sty Ligation Master Mix to Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Load the Nsp and Sty Samples Onto the Thermal Cycler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Dilute the Ligated Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Equipment and Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Gels and Related Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Important Information About This Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Transfer Diluted Ligated Samples to the PCR Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Prepare the PCR Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
contents
iii
Add PCR Master Mix to Each Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Load PCR Plate onto a Thermal Cycler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Check the PCR Reaction by Running a Gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Stage 4: PCR Product Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Important Information About This Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Prepare the 75% EtOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Pool the PCR Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Purify the Pooled PCR Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Stage 5: Quantitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Important Information About This Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Prepare the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Procedure if Using a Microplate Spectrophotometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Procedure if Using a NanoDrop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Assess the OD Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Stage 6: Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Gels and Related Materials Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Important Information About This Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Prepare the Samples for Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Check the Fragmentation Reaction by Running a Gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Stage 7: Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Prepare the Labeling Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Add the Labeling Master Mix to the Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
What To Do Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Stage 8: Target Hybridization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
About this Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Location and Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Input Required from Previous Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Important Information About This Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Prepare the Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Prepare the Hybridization Master Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Chapter 5
Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Equipment and Consumables Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Reagents Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Reagent Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Wash A: Non-Stringent Wash Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Wash B: Stringent Wash Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
0.5 mg/mL Anti-Streptavidin Antibody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
12X MES Stock Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
1X Array Holding Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Fluidics Station and Scanner Control Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Register a New Experiment or Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Prime the Fluidics Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Wash and Stain Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Prepare Arrays for Washing and Staining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Prepare Buffers and Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Washing and Staining Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Scanning Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Prepare the Scanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Prepare Arrays for Scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Scanning the Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Chapter 6
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
General Assay Performance Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Troubleshooting the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
OD Troubleshooting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Affymetrix Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
contents
Chapter 7
v
Fluidics Station Care and Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
General Fluidics Station Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Fluidics Station Bleach Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
The Bleach Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
The Rinse Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Appendix A
Guidelines for Processing 16 Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Digestion, Ligation and PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Appendix B
Guidelines for Processing 24 Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Digestion, Ligation and PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Appendix C
Reagents, Equipment, and Consumables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
About this Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
From Affymetrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Equipment Required from Other Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Pre-PCR Clean Area Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Post-PCR Area Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Reagents Required from Other Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Consumables Required from Other Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Supplier Contact List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Appendix D
Thermal Cycler Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Cyto Digest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Cyto Ligate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Cyto PCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Cyto Fragment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Cyto Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Cyto Hyb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
vi
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Chapter
1
BEFORE YOU START
Topics in this chapter include:
• About the Affymetrix Cytogenetics Solution on page 2
• Tips for Ensuring Successful Performance of the Protocol on page 2
IMPORTANT: The Cytogenetics Copy Number assay protocol is optimized for processing
from 4 to 24 samples at a time to obtain copy number results. This protocol is not intended
for genome-wide association studies.
An assay protocol for processing 48 samples is described in the Affymetrix® Genome-Wide
Human SNP Nsp/Sty 6.0 User Guide, P/N 702504.
2
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
About the Affymetrix Cytogenetics Solution
Cytogenetics studies are performed to identify structural changes in DNA, such as copy number changes.
Individuals typically have two copies of the genome in each of their cells: one inherited from the mother,
and one inherited from the father. Chromosomal abnormalities are common in several disease states such
as:
• Deletions
When one or both copies of a particular chromosome region are lost.
• Gains
When a chromosome or chromosomal region is duplicated or multiplied.
• Uniparental Disomies (UPDs)
When two copies of a chromosome or chromosomal region are present, but both have been inherited
from a single parent.
Traditional cytogenetics techniques, such as karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
have been used to study chromosomal abnormalities for decades. However, karyotyping only detects
abnormalities at low resolutions (larger than ~5 Mb), and FISH is a more focused and targeted approach
without the benefit of genome-wide analysis. Further, these techniques are limited to only providing copy
number information so that UPDs cannot be identified.
The combination of Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays, the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay, and Genotyping
Console 2.1 software allows you to perform high-resolution genome-wide DNA copy number analysis.
The Affymetrix solution for cytogenetics also provides genotyping information, enabling detection of
loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which can be used to detect UPDs. The combined high resolution DNA
copy number data and the ability to detect gains, losses, and UPDs on a single array makes the Affymetrix
Cytogenetics Solution a great tool for next generation cytogenetics studies.
Tips for Ensuring Successful Performance of the Protocol
Successful performance of the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay requires accuracy and attention to
detail. Many stages involve specific yet distinct enzymatic reactions. For example, in stage 1, genomic
DNA is digested with the restriction enzymes NspI and StyI. In stage 2, it is ligated to a common adaptor
with T4 DNA ligase. Following ligation, the template undergoes PCR using TITANIUM™ Taq DNA
polymerase. Once the product has been purified, it is then fragmented and end-labeled using terminal
deoxynucleotidyl transferase.
The stages involving enzymatic reactions are the most critical of the assay. Thus, it is important to
carefully monitor and control any variables such as pH, salt concentrations, time, and temperature, all of
which can adversely modulate enzyme activity.
Equipment and Calibration
Keep dedicated equipment in each of the areas used for this protocol including pipettors, ice buckets,
coolers, etc. To avoid contamination, do not move equipment from one area to another.
Along with the enzymatic stages, lab instrumentation plays an important role in the successful
completion of this assay. To aid in maintaining consistency across samples and operators, all equipment
should be well maintained and calibrated, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
All thermal cyclers
GeneChip® Hybridization Oven
GeneChip® Fluidics Station
GeneChip® Scanner 3000 7G
Plate spectrophotometer or NanoDrop
All multi-channel pipets
chapter 1 | Before You Start
3
Pipetting
Since the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay involves a series of ordered stages, the output of one stage
directly impacts the performance of the subsequent stage. For example, the quantity and purity of the
DNA after purification can affect the kinetics of the Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme) during the
subsequent fragmentation stage.
To efficiently process samples:
• Always use pipets that have been calibrated to ± 5%.
• It is essential that you be proficient with the use of single- and multi-channel pipets.
To familiarize yourself with the use of multi-channel pipets, we strongly recommend practicing several
times before processing actual samples. You can use water to get a feel for aspirating and dispensing
solutions to multiple wells simultaneously.
Reagent Handling and Storage
IMPORTANT: Always use the 30 reaction Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit
5.0/6.0 (P/N 901013) for this protocol. This kit has been tested for multiple freeze/thaw
cycles.
You can freeze/thaw the reagents in the 30 reaction kit ≤ 8 times.
Successful sample processing can be achieved by incorporating the following principles:
• Use only fresh reagents from the recommended vendors to help eliminate changes in pH or the salt
concentration of buffers.
• Properly store all enzyme reagents. Storage methods can profoundly impact activity.
• Store the reagents used for the digestion, ligation and PCR in the Pre-PCR Clean Area.
• Consult the appropriate MSDS for reagent storage and handling requirements.
When Using Reagents at the Lab Bench
• Properly chill essential equipment such as cooling chambers and reagent coolers before use.
• Unless otherwise indicated, keep all reagents (except enzymes) on ice, or in a cooling chamber/block
that has been chilled to 4 °C on ice or in a refrigerator.
• Ensure that enzymes are kept at –20 °C until needed. When removed from the freezer, immediately
place in a cooler that has been chilled to –20 °C.
• Keep all tubes, master mixes and working solutions in chilled cooling chambers on ice.
• Since enzyme activity is a function of temperature, ensure that all temperature transitions are rapid and/
or well-controlled to help maintain consistency across samples.
Master Mix Preparation
Carefully follow each master mix recipe. Use pipets that have been calibrated to ± 5%. When molecular
biology-grade water is specified, be sure to use the AccuGENE® water listed in Appendix C. Using inhouse ddH2O or other water can negatively affect your results. The enzymatic reaction in Stage 6:
Fragmentation is particularly sensitive to pH and metal ion contamination.
If you run out of master mix during any of these procedures, a volume error has been made or the pipets
are not accurate. We recommend that you stop and repeat the experiment.
4
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Laboratory Workflow
• Maintain a single direction workflow. Do not re-enter the Pre-PCR Clean Area after entering the PostPCR Area until you have showered and changed into freshly laundered clothing.
• Never bring amplified products into the Pre-PCR Clean Area.
• Keep dedicated equipment in each room or area used for this protocol. To avoid contamination, do not
move equipment between the Pre-PCR Clean Area and the Post-PCR Area.
Preparing the Work Area for Each Stage
Many of the stages in the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay must be performed rapidly and on ice to
carefully control enzyme activity and temperature transitions. Therefore, we recommend that you set up
all of the equipment, consumables and reagents (except for the enzymes) prior to beginning each stage.
NOTE: The illustrations in this user guide depict the recommended setup for 8 samples:
6 genomic DNA samples plus 1 positive and 1 negative control.
Thermal Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals
The Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay has been optimized using the following thermal cyclers, 96-well
plate, and adhesive films.
IMPORTANT: Use only the 96-well plate and adhesive seals listed in Table 1.1, and only the
thermal cyclers listed in Table 1.2. Using other plates and seals that are incompatible with
these thermal cyclers can result in loss of sample or poor results.
Table 1.1 96-well plate and adhesive seals optimized for use with this protocol
Item
Vendor
Part Number
Multiplate 96-well unskirted PCR plate
Bio-Rad
MLP-9601
Bio-Rad
MSB1001
Applied Biosystems
4306311
Adhesive seals:
• Microseal 'B' Adhesive Seal
• MicroAmp® Clear Adhesive Film
chapter 1 | Before You Start
Table 1.2 Thermal cyclers optimized for use with this protocol
Laboratory
Thermal Cyclers Validated for Use
Pre-PCR Clean Area
Applied Biosystems units:
• 2720 Thermal Cycler
• GeneAmp® PCR System 9700
Use one of these units.
Bio-Rad units:
• MJ Tetrad PTC-225
• DNA Engine Tetrad 2
Applied Biosystems:
• GeneAmp® PCR System 9700
(silver block or gold-plated silver block)
Post-PCR Area
Use one of these units.
(if processing > 8 samples, you may want to use
additional thermal cyclers for PCR.)
Bio-Rad units:
• MJ Tetrad PTC-225
• DNA Engine Tetrad 2
Program Your Thermal Cyclers
The thermal cycler programs listed in Table 1.3 and Table 1.4 are used during this protocol. Enter and
store these programs on the appropriate thermal cycler in the Pre-PCR Clean Area and the Post-PCR
Area.
Thermal cycler program details are listed in Appendix D, Thermal Cycler Programs.
Table 1.3 Pre-PCR Clean Area
# of Thermal Cyclers Required
Program Name
Cyto Digest
1
Cyto Ligate
Table 1.4 Post-PCR Area
# of Thermal Cyclers Required
Program Name
Cyto PCR
1
Cyto Fragment
(if routinely processing > 8 samples, you may want to
use additional thermal cyclers for PCR.)
Cyto Label
Cyto Hyb
5
6
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Chapter
2
LABORATORY SETUP AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter provides an overview of two laboratory setups that can used when performing the
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay.
IMPORTANT: If possible, we strongly recommend using two separate rooms when
performing this protocol.
Configuration 1 — Two Separate Rooms
The use of two separate rooms greatly reduces the risk of sample contamination due to previouslyamplified PCR products. These rooms are referred to as the:
• Pre-PCR Clean Room
• Post-PCR Room
The high-level steps performed in each room is presented in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Assay workflow when two separate rooms are used
Room
Pre-PCR Clean Room
Assay steps:
• Genomic DNA preparation
• Digestion
• Ligation
• PCR setup only
Post-PCR Room
Assay steps:
• PCR thermal cycling
• Fragmentation
• Labeling
• Hybridization
• Washing and staining
• Scanning
Template
(Genomic DNA)
PCR Product
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
8
Pre-PCR Clean Room
The Pre-PCR Clean Room should be a low copy DNA template lab, and should be free of PCR product
(amplicons). The major pieces of equipment required for this room are shown in Figure 2.1.
Activities that take place in this room include:
• Preparation of non-amplified genomic DNA.
• Digestion and ligation reactions.
• Preparation of PCR reactions.
1
2
3
5
6
6
4
Equipment Shown
1. Vortexer
2. Microfuge
3. Pipets on stand
4. Ice bucket
7
5. Thermal cycler
6. Plate centrifuge
7. Freezer
Figure 2.1 Pre-PCR Clean Room
To help prevent sample contamination:
• All of the reagents and master stocks required for the steps performed in the Pre-PCR Clean Room
should be stored in this room under the appropriate conditions.
• All of the equipment required for the steps performed in this room should be dedicated. Do not move
any equipment including ice buckets and pipets between the Pre- and the Post-PCR Rooms.
• Always wear a fresh gown, booties, and gloves to prevent PCR carryover, and to minimize the risk of
trace levels of contaminants being brought into the room.
chapter 2 | Laboratory Setup and Recommendations
9
Post-PCR Room
The Post-PCR Room has airborne contamination with PCR product and template. After entering the PostPCR Room, do not re-enter the Pre-PCR Clean Room without first showering and changing into freshly
laundered clothes.
Activities that take place in this room include:
• PCR amplification.
• PCR product purification and quantitation.
• PCR product fragmentation and labeling.
• Sample hybridization onto arrays.
• Scanning of arrays.
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
10
9
11
12
98
13
Equipment Shown
1. Vortexer (with plate pad)
2. Microfuge
3. Pipets on stand
4. Vortexer (with tube mixer attachment)
5. Ice bucket
14
6. Magnetic stand
7. Thermal cycler (one to three)
8. Hyb oven
18
9. Plate centrifuge
10. MicroCentrifuge
11. Spectrophotometer
15
12. Gel Imager
13. Gel box for electrophoresis
14. Computer, monitor, keyboard
17
15. Fluidics Station
16. Scanner
16
17. Refrigerator
18. Freezer
To help prevent sample contamination:
• All of the reagents and master stocks required for the steps performed in the Post-PCR Room should
be stored in this room under the appropriate conditions.
• All of the equipment required for the steps performed in this area should be dedicated. Do not move
any equipment including ice buckets and pipets between the Pre- and Post-PCR Rooms.
• Always wear a fresh gown and gloves to minimize sample contamination.
10
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Configuration 2 — One Room
One room with two distinctly separated areas: Pre-PCR Clean Area and Post-PCR Area.
1 Laminar Flow or PCR Cabinet
2
3
5
4
7
7
Storage Area
6
We strongly recommend the use of a laminar flow cabinet or a PCR
cabinet when the entire assay is to be performed in one room.
Pre-PCR Clean Area
8
MARKING ON FLOOR TO DILINEATE PRE-PCR CLEAN AREA FROM POST-PCR AREA
18
3
2
1
17
Post-PCR Area
16
15
14
13
13
12
12
11
10
Figure 2.2 One room configuration
4
5
9
8
7
6
chapter 2 | Laboratory Setup and Recommendations
11
Pre-PCR Clean Area
For the best results, adhere to the following guidelines.
• Keep the Pre-PCR Clean Area
- Free of DNA template and PCR amplicons.
- Protected from contaminants by performing all steps inside a laminar flow cabinet or a PCR cabinet.
• If using a laminar flow cabinet, keep it turned on at all times.
• Keep the UV light in the laminar flow or PCR cabinet turned on when not in use.
• Always wear a gown, booties, and gloves to prevent PCR carryover, and to minimize the risk of trace
levels of contaminants being brought into this area.
Equipment in Pre-PCR Clean Area
The equipment shown for the Pre-PCR Clean Area in Figure 2.2 on page 10 is listed below.
1. Laminar flow cabinet or PCR cabinet
2. Vortexer
3. Microfuge
4. Pipets on stand
5. Ice bucket
6. Thermal cycler
7. Plate centrifuge
8. Freezer
About Laminar Flow Cabinets
The air curtain from the laminar flow cabinet prevents the introduction of contaminants from the
surrounding air into work area, particularly PCR products from the Post-PCR Area. Store master stocks
of PCR primer and adaptor in the laminar flow cabinet.
IMPORTANT: We strongly recommend that each pre-PCR step be performed in a laminar
flow or PCR cabinet, including reagent and master mix preparation. The use of this cabinet
is essential for preventing sample contamination due to the introduction of PCR products
from the Post-PCR Area and DNA template.
All of the equipment required for the pre-PCR steps should be dedicated for pre-PCR and
kept in the laminar flow or PCR cabinet. This equipment includes pipets and tips, the thermal
cycler, and vortexer.
Post-PCR Area
The Post-PCR Area has airborne contamination with PCR product and template. After entering the PostPCR Area it is inadvisable to re-enter the Pre-PCR Clean Area without first showering and changing into
freshly laundered clothes.
The equipment shown for the Post-PCR Area in Figure 2.2 on page 10 consists of:
1. Computer, monitor and keyboard
2. Fluidics station
3. Scanner
4. Ice bucket
5. Magnetic stand
6. Vortexer with plate stand
12
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
7. Microfuge
8. Pipets on stand
9. Vortexer with tube mixer attachment
10. Thermal cycler (one to three)
11. Hybridization oven
12. Plate centrifuge
13. MicroCentrifuge
14. Spectrophotometer
15. Gel imager
16. Gel box for electrophoresis
17. Refrigerator
18. Freezer
chapter 2 | Laboratory Setup and Recommendations
13
Single Direction Workflow
To keep the Pre-PCR Clean Area as free from PCR amplicons and other contaminants as possible, always
maintain a single direction workflow.
1 Laminar flow or PCR cabinet
2
3
5
4
7
Storage Area
7
6
Enter laboratory
Pre-PCR Clean Area
8
18
3
2
4
1
Post-PCR Area
17
Exit laboratory
16
15
14
13
13
12
12
11
Figure 2.3 Single direction workflow
5
6
10
9
8
7
14
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Contamination Prevention
Care should be taken to minimize possible sources of contamination that would reduce genotyping
accuracy, call rate, and consequently, genetic power. To reduce the possibility of cross-contamination,
Affymetrix strongly recommends that you maintain a single direction workflow: from the Pre-PCR Clean
Area to the Post-PCR Area. Do not re-enter the Pre-PCR Clean Area from the Post-PCR Area.
IMPORTANT:
• The most likely potential source of contamination for the Cytogenetics Copy Number
Assay is previously amplified PCR product.
• Each area should contain dedicated equipment such as thermal cyclers, microfuges, pipets
and tips, ice buckets, etc.
• Once you enter the Post-PCR Area, do not return to the Pre-PCR Clean Area until you have
showered and changed into freshly laundered clothing.
• Maintain an ambient laboratory environment throughout the procedure.
Precautions that you can take to minimize contaminating pre-PCR steps with amplified PCR product
include the following:
• Store reagents in the proper area according to the box label and reagent kit insert.
• Use proper gowning procedures.
• Print separate copies of the protocol for each room.
Safety Precautions
The Affymetrix® Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit 5.0/6.0 as well as the Affymetrix®
Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 are for research use only.
All blood and other potentially infectious materials should be handled as if capable of transmitting
infection and disposed of with proper precautions in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations.
NOTE: Some components required for this assay may pose significant health risks. Follow
prudent laboratory practices when handling and disposing of carcinogens and toxins. Refer
to the manufacturer’s Material Safety Data Sheet for additional information.
Wear appropriate personal protective equipment when performing this assay. At a minimum, safety
glasses and chemical resistant gloves should be worn.
Chapter
3
GENOMIC DNA GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The general requirements for genomic DNA sources and extraction methods are described in this chapter.
The success of this assay requires the amplification of PCR fragments between 200 and 1100 bp in size
throughout the genome. To achieve this, the genomic DNA must be of high quality, and must be free of
contaminants that would affect the enzymatic reactions carried out.
For this protocol, you will use the Affymetrix® Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit 5.0/6.0
(30 reaction; P/N 901013). This kit contains the genomic DNA control Reference Genomic DNA 103
(Ref 103). This control meets the requirements outlined below. The size of the starting genomic DNA
can be compared with Ref103 DNA to assess the quality. The control DNA should also be used as a
routine experimental positive control and for troubleshooting.
Assay performance may vary for genomic DNA samples that do not meet the general requirements
described below. However, the reliability of any given result should be assessed in the context of overall
experimental design and goals.
General Requirements
• DNA must be double-stranded (not single-stranded).
This requirement relates to the restriction enzyme digestion step in the protocol.
• DNA must be free of PCR inhibitors.
Examples of inhibitors include high concentrations of heme (from blood) and high concentrations of
chelating agents (i.e., EDTA). The genomic DNA extraction/purification method should render DNA
that is generally salt-free because high concentrations of certain salts can also inhibit PCR and other
enzyme reactions. DNA should be prepared as described in Chapter 4, Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy
Number Assay.
• DNA must not be contaminated with other human genomic DNA sources, or with genomic DNA from
other organisms.
PCR amplification of the ligated genomic DNA is not human specific, so sufficient quantities of nonhuman DNA may also be amplified and could potentially result in compromised genotype calls.
Contaminated or mixed DNA may manifest as high detection rates and low call rates.
• DNA must not be highly degraded.
For any particular SNP, the genomic DNA fragment containing the SNP must have Nsp I (or Sty I)
restriction sites intact so that ligation can occur on both ends of the fragment and PCR can be
successful. The approximate average size of genomic DNA may be assessed on a 1% or 2% agarose
gel using an appropriate size standard control. Ref 103 can be run on the same gel for side-by-side
comparison. High quality genomic DNA will run as a major band at approximately 10-20 kb on the gel.
Pre-amplification methods or pre-digestion with restriction enzymes other than Nsp I or Sty I have not
been tested by Affymetrix. If other methods are desired, we recommend conducting experiments to
evaluate their performance with this assay.
16
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Sources of Human Genomic DNA
The following sources of human genomic DNA have been successfully tested in the laboratories at
Affymetrix for DNA that meets the requirements described in the section General Requirements on
page 15.
• blood
• cell line
Success with other types of samples such as saliva will depend on quality (degree of degradation, degree
of inhibitors present, etc.), quantity of genomic DNA extracted, and purity of these types of samples, as
described under General Requirements on page 15.
Genomic DNA Extraction/Purification Methods
Genomic DNA extraction and purification methods that meet the general requirements outlined above
should yield successful results. Methods that include boiling or strong denaturants are not acceptable,
because the DNA would be rendered single-stranded. Genomic DNA extracted using the following
methods have been tested at Affymetrix:
1. SDS/ProK digestion, phenol-chloroform extraction, Microcon® or Centricon® (Millipore)
ultrapurification and concentration.
2. QIAGEN; QIAamp® DNA Blood Maxi Kit.
DNA Cleanup
If a genomic DNA preparation is suspected to contain inhibitors, the following cleanup procedure can be
used:
1. Add 0.5 volumes of 7.5 M NH4OAc, 2.5 volumes of absolute ethanol (stored at –20°C), and 0.5 µL
of glycogen (5 mg/mL) to 250 ng genomic DNA.
2. Vortex and incubate at –20°C for 1 hr.
3. Centrifuge at 12,000 ° x g in a microcentrifuge at room temperature for 20 min.
4. Remove supernatant and wash pellet with 0.5 mL of 80% ethanol.
5. Centrifuge at 12,000 ° g at room temperature for 5 min.
6. Remove the 80% ethanol and repeat the 80% ethanol wash one more time.
7. Resuspend the pellet in reduced EDTA TE buffer (10 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0).
References
Feigelson, H.S., Rodriguez, C., Robertson, A.S., Jacobs, E.J., Calle, E.E., Reid, Y.A., Thun, M.J.
Determinants of DNA yield and quality from buccal cell samples collected with mouthwash. Cancer
Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 10(9), 1005-8 (2001).
Heath, Ellen M., Morken, Nathaniel W., Campbell, Kristen A., Tkach, Dennis, Boyd, Erin A., Strom,
Daniel A. Use of Buccal Cells Collected in Mouthwash as a Source of DNA for Clinical Testing. Arch
Pathol Lab Med 125, 127-133 (2001).
King, I.B., Satia-Abouta, J., Thornquist, M.D., Bigler, J., Patterson, R.E., Kristal, A.R., Shattuck, A. L.,
Potter, J.D., White, E., Abouta, J.S. Buccal cell DNA yield, quality, and collection costs: comparison of
methods for large-scale studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 11(10 Pt 1), 1130-3 (2002).
Lench, N., Stanier, P., Williamson, R. Simple non-invasive method to obtain DNA for gene analysis.
Lancet Jun 18;1(8599), 1356–1358 (1988).
Paez, J.G., Lin, M., Beroukhim, R., Lee, J.C., Zhao, X., Richter, D.J., Gabriel, S., Herman, P., Sasaki,
H., Altshuler, D., Li, C., Meyerson, M., Sellers, W.R. Genome coverage and sequence fidelity of phi29
polymerase-based multiple strand displacement whole genome amplification. Nucleic Acids Research
32(9), (2004).
chapter 3 | Genomic DNA General Requirements
17
Tzvetkov, M.V., Becker, C., Kulle, B., Nurnberg, P., Brockmoller, J., Wojnowski, L. Genome-wide
single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays demonstrate high fidelity of multiple displacement-based wholegenome amplification. Electrophoresis Feb;26(3):710-5 (2005).
Wong, K.K., Tsang, Y.T.M., Shen, J., Cheng, R.S., Chang, Y., Man, T., Lau, C.C. Allelic imbalance
analysis by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphic allele (SNP) array with whole genome amplified
DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. May 17;32(9):e69 (2004).
18
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Chapter
4
AFFYMETRIX® CYTOGENETICS COPY NUMBER ASSAY
About the Protocol
The Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay is designed for processing as few as four samples
(including controls). The protocol is presented in the following stages:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Genomic DNA Preparation on page 23
Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest on page 28
Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation on page 34
Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR on page 41
Stage 4: PCR Product Purification on page 51
Stage 5: Quantitation on page 58
Stage 6: Fragmentation on page 63
Stage 7: Labeling on page 71
Stage 8: Target Hybridization on page 75
IMPORTANT: The Cytogenetics Copy Number assay protocol is optimized for processing
from 4 to 24 samples at a time to obtain copy number results. This protocol is not intended
for genome-wide association studies.
An assay protocol for processing 48 samples is described in the Affymetrix® Genome-Wide
Human SNP Nsp/Sty 6.0 User Guide, P/N 702504.
20
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
About the Illustrations in this Chapter
This protocol has been optimized for processing 4 to 24 samples. The illustrations in this chapter are
based on running 8 samples: 6 genomic DNA samples, plus 1 positive and 1 negative control. Use these
illustrations as guidelines when processing 8 or fewer samples.
If processing 9 to 24 samples, refer to Appendix A, Guidelines for Processing 16 Samples or Appendix B,
Guidelines for Processing 24 Samples. Important guidelines for plate layouts are included in these
appendices.
About the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables Specified in this Chapter
Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit 5.0/6.0 — 30 Reactions
IMPORTANT: Always use the 30 reaction Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit
5.0/6.0 for this protocol. This kit has been tested for multiple freeze/thaw cycles. You can
freeze/thaw the reagents in the 30 reaction kit ≤ 8 times.
Equipment, Consumables, and Other Reagents
IMPORTANT: This protocol has been optimized using the equipment, consumables and
reagents listed herein. For the best results, we strongly recommend that you adhere to the
protocol as described (no deviations); do not substitute reagents.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Workflows
Recommended 4-Day Workflow
Figure 4.1 shows the recommended 4-day workflow for one operator processing four to 24 samples
including controls.
Figure 4.1 Workflow recommended for processing one to 24 samples
21
22
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Optional 3-Day Workflow
Figure 4.2 illustrates the optional 3-day workflow. The difference between the 3-day workflow and the
4-day workflow is that you will hybridize your samples onto arrays at the end of day 2. This workflow
may be an option if you are processing a small number of samples (≤ 8 samples). If processing > 8
samples, the length of time required to complete all Day 2 activities will likely require more than an 8 hr.
Figure 4.2 Optional 3-day workflow
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
23
Genomic DNA Preparation
About this Stage
The human genomic DNA you will process using the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay should meet the
general requirements listed in Chapter 3, Genomic DNA General Requirements. During this stage, you
will prepare the genomic DNA by:
1. Determining the concentration of each sample (if required).
2. Diluting each sample to 50 ng/µL using reduced EDTA TE buffer.
Location and Duration
• Pre-PCR Clean Area
• Hands-on time: dependent upon number of samples to be processed
Input Required
The illustrations in this user guide depict the processing of eight samples: six genomic DNA samples,
plus one positive and one negative control.
Table 4.1 Input Required for Genomic DNA Preparation
Quantity
4 to 24
Item
Genomic DNA samples that meet the requirements listed in Chapter 3, Genomic DNA General
Requirements.
About Using Controls
We recommend including one positive and one negative control with every set of samples processed. For
the positive control, use the Ref 103 included in the Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit 5.0/
6.0. For the negative control, use water (AccuGENE).
24
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Equipment and Consumables Required
The equipment and consumables listed in Table 4.2 are required for this stage.
Table 4.2 Equipment and Consumables Required for Genomic DNA Preparation
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Cooling chamber, double, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
2
Markers, red and blue, fine point, permanent
1
Mini microcentrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P20
1
Pipet, single channel P100 or P200
As needed
Pipet tips
2
Plate, Bio-Rad 96-well unskirted
1
Plate centrifuge
1
Plate spectrophotometer or NanoDrop
(required only if no OD measurements available for samples)
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal Cyclers,
96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.3 Reagents Required for Genomic DNA Preparation
Reagent
Reduced EDTA TE Buffer (0.1 mM EDTA, 10 mM Tris HCL, pH 8.0)
Reference Genomic DNA 103 (positive control)
AccuGENE water (negative control)
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
25
Preparing the Genomic DNA
This protocol has been optimized using UV absorbance to determine genomic DNA concentrations. Other
quantitation methods such as PicoGreen may give different readings. Therefore, you should correlate
readings from other methods to the equivalent UV absorbance reading.
Setup the Work Area
To setup the work area:
1. Place a double cooling chamber on ice (Figure 4.3).
2. Place a 96-well plate in the top half of the cooling chamber.
1
2
3
1
2
4
Reduced EDTA TE Buffer
5
6
3
4
Genomic DNA samples
5
6
+
Reference Genomic DNA 103
— do NOT dilute
Figure 4.3 Diluting genomic DNA samples to 50 ng/µL
.
NOTE: The illustrations in this user guide depict the setup recommended for eight samples:
six genomic DNA samples plus one positive control and one negative control.
If running less than eight samples, follow the same plate layout.
If running more than eight samples, refer to Appendix A, Guidelines for Processing 16
Samples or Appendix B, Guidelines for Processing 24 Samples for more information.
Dilute the Genomic DNA
To dilute the genomic DNA:
1. Thaw the genomic DNA (gDNA) and Ref 103 as follows:
A. Place on the bench top at room temperature until thawed.
B. Once thawed, place in the cooling chamber on ice.
2. Vortex the gDNA samples at high speed for 3 sec.
3. Spin down for 30 sec; then place back in the cooling chamber.
4. If sample concentration is unknown, take an OD measurement of each sample now.
26
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
IMPORTANT: To avoid contaminating samples with PCR product, take an aliquot of
each sample to the plate spectrophotometer or NanoDrop.
Apply the convention that 1 absorbance unit at 260 nm equals 50 µg/mL for double-stranded DNA.
This convention assumes a path length of 1 cm. Consult your spectrophotometer handbook for more
information. If using a method other than UV absorbance, correlate the reading to the equivalent UV
absorbance reading.
5. Based on OD measurements, dilute each sample in a separate well of the 96-well plate to 50 ng/µL
using reduced EDTA TE buffer.
IMPORTANT: Do NOT dilute Ref 103; it is already at a working concentration.
An elevated EDTA level may interfere with subsequent reactions.
6. Seal the plate, vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
7. Place back on the cooling chamber.
Aliquoting the Prepared Genomic DNA and Controls
Setup the Work Area
To setup the work area:
1. Mark a 96-well plate as shown in Figure 4.4 [use a blue marker for Nsp (N) and a red marker for Sty
(S)].
The Nsp and Sty digestion and ligation reactions will be performed in this plate.
2. Place the plate on the bottom half of the cooling chamber (Figure 4.5 on page 27).
3. Place at least 5 µL of water on ice (negative control).
N
S
+
+
–
–
Figure 4.4 Marking a 96-well plate for Nsp and Sty digestion and ligation
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
27
Aliquot the gDNA and Controls
NOTE: 5 μL of the 50 ng/μL working stock is equivalent to 250 ng genomic DNA per well.
To aliquot the prepared genomic DNA and controls:
1. Vortex the Ref 103 for 3 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
2. Transfer two 5 µL aliquots of the first sample to wells A1 and A12 of the digest/ligate plate
(Figure 4.5 on page 27).
3. Transfer two 5 µL aliquots of each remaining gDNA sample in the same manner.
4. For the controls, aliquot 5 µL of:
A. Ref 103 (+) to wells G1 and G12.
B. Water (–) to wells H1 and H12.
5. Tightly seal the digest/ligate plate.
Transfer two 5 μL aliquots of each diluted gDNA to the digest/ligate plate — one for Nsp reactions; one for Sty reactions.
+ = positive control (5 μL Ref 103)
– = negative control (5 μL water)
1
2
3
Diluted gDNA
samples
4
5
6
N
S
Water, AccuGENE
96-well plate
labeled for Nsp and
Sty digestion and
ligation
+
+
–
–
Ref 103 positive
control
Figure 4.5 Setup for aliquoting diluted gDNA and controls to a 96-well plate labeled for Nsp and Sty digest/ligation
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• Proceed to Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest on page 28.
• Store the prepared digest/ligate plate at –20 °C.
28
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest
About this Stage
During this stage, one aliquot of each sample is digested by the NspI restriction enzyme; the other aliquot
by the StyI restriction enzyme. You will:
1. Prepare a Nsp Digest Master Mix and add it to the samples in column 1.
2. Prepare a Sty Digest Master Mix and add it to the samples in column 12.
3. Place the samples onto a thermal cycler and run the Cyto Digest program.
Location and Duration
• Pre-PCR Clean Area
• Hands-on time: 30 min
• Cyto Digest thermal cycler program time: 2.5 hr
Input Required From Previous Stage
The input required is shown below.
Item
Plate containing two equal aliquots of each genomic DNA and each control prepared as instructed under Genomic
DNA Preparation on page 23 (5 µL at 50 ng/µL in each well).
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
29
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
Table 4.4 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Centrifuge, plate
1
Cooler, chilled to –20 °C
1
Cooling chamber, double, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
1
Markers, blue and red, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P10
1
Pipet, single channel P100 or P200
As required
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1
Thermal cycler
2
Tubes, Eppendorf 1.5 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal Cyclers,
96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.5 Reagents Required for Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest
Reagent
BSA (100X; 10 mg/mL)
NE Buffer 2 (10X)
NE Buffer 3 (10X)
NspI (10 U/µL; NEB)
StyI (10 U/µL; NEB)
AccuGENE® Water, molecular biology-grade
30
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Prepare the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables
Thaw Reagents and Genomic DNA
1. Allow the following reagents to thaw on ice:
• NE Buffer 2
• NE Buffer 3
• BSA
2. If the plate of genomic DNA and controls is frozen, allow it to thaw in a cooling chamber on ice.
IMPORTANT: Leave the NspI and StyI enzymes at –20 °C until ready to use.
Setup the Work Area
Keep Sty master mix reagents
on ice off to the side.
STY
NE Buffer 3
Sty digest master mix tube
N 1
1 S
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
+ +
– —
+
—
Water
BSA
NE Buffer 2
+
–
NSP
Nsp digest
master mix tube
Figure 4.6 Setup for Nsp and Sty Digest (NspI and StyI enzymes not pictured; still at –20 °C)
To setup the work area (Figure 4.6):
1. Place a double cooling chamber and the water on ice.
2. Label the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tubes as follows:
• Using a blue marker, label one tube NSP and place in the cooling chamber.
• Using a red marker, label one tube STY and set aside.
3. Prepare the genomic DNA and controls as follows:
A. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec.
B. Spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
C. Place in the cooling chamber.
4. Prepare the NE Buffer 2 and BSA as follows:
A. Vortex 3 times, 1 sec each time.
B. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
C. Place in the cooling chamber on ice.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
31
Preheat the Thermal Cycler Lid
Power on the thermal cycler to preheat the lid. Leave the block at room temperature.
Prepare the Nsp Digest Master Mix
Keeping all reagents and tubes on ice, prepare the Nsp Digest Master Mix as follows:
1. To the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube labeled NSP, add the appropriate volumes of the following reagents
(see Table 4.6):
• Water (AccuGENE)
• NE Buffer 2
• BSA
2. Place the master mix in the cooling chamber.
3. Remove the NspI enzyme from the freezer and immediately place in a cooler.
4. Pulse spin the enzyme for 3 sec.
5. Immediately add the enzyme to the master mix.
6. Return the enzyme to the cooler.
7. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
8. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
9. Place in the cooling chamber.
10. Proceed immediately to Add Nsp Digest Master Mix to Samples on page 31.
Table 4.6 NspI Digest Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(25% extra**)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
AccuGENE® Water
11.55 µL
57.8 µL
106.3 µL
159.4 µL
318.8 µL
NE Buffer 2 (10X)
2 µL
10 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
0.2 µL
1 µL
1.8 µL
2.8 µL
5.5 µL
1 µL
5 µL
9.2 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
14.75 µL
73.8 µL
135.7 µL
203.6 µL
407.1 µL
BSA (100X; 10 mg/mL)
NspI (10 U/µL)
Total
** To avoid pipetting < 1 μL of BSA, prepare 25% extra when processing ≤ 4 samples.
Add Nsp Digest Master Mix to Samples
Genomic DNA (50 ng/µL)
5.00 µL
Nsp Digest Master Mix
14.75 µL
Total Volume
19.75 µL
To add Nsp Digest Master Mix to samples:
1. Aliquot 14.75 µL of Nsp Digest Master Mix to each sample and controls in column 1.
2. Return remaining NE Buffer 2 and NspI enzyme to the freezer.
3. Discard remaining Nsp Digest Master Mix.
32
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
N
S
+
+
–
–
Add 14.75 μL Nsp Digest
Master Mix to each sample
and controls in column 1.
Figure 4.7 Adding Nsp Digest Master Mix to gDNA samples and controls
Prepare the Sty Digest Master Mix
Keeping all reagents and tubes on ice, prepare the Sty Digest Master Mix as follows:
1. To the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube labeled STY, add the appropriate volumes of the following reagents as
shown in Table 4.7:
• Water (AccuGENE)
• NE Buffer 3
• BSA
2. Place the master mix in the cooling chamber.
3. Remove the StyI enzyme from the freezer and immediately place in a cooler.
4. Pulse spin the enzyme for 3 sec.
5. Immediately add the enzyme to the master mix.
6. Return remaining enzyme to the cooler.
7. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
8. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
9. Place in the cooling chamber.
10. Proceed immediately to Add Sty Digest Master Mix to Samples on page 33.
Table 4.7 StyI Digest Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(25% extra**)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
AccuGENE® Water
11.55 µL
57.8 µL
106.3 µL
159.4 µL
318.8 µL
NE Buffer 3 (10X)
2 µL
10 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
0.2 µL
1 µL
1.8 µL
2.8 µL
5.5 µL
1 µL
5 µL
9.2 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
14.75 µL
73.8 µL
135.7 µL
203.6 µL
407.1 µL
BSA (100X; 10 mg/mL)
StyI (10 U/µL)
Total
** 25% extra is required for 4 samples only. If processing
8 samples, 15% extra is sufficient.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
33
Add Sty Digest Master Mix to Samples
To add the Sty Digest Master Mix to samples:
1. Aliquot 14.75 µL of Sty Digest Master Mix to each sample and control in column 12.
The total volume in each well is now 19.75 µL.
2. Tightly seal the plate.
N
S
Add 14.75 μL Sty Digest Master
Mix to each sample and control in
column 12.
+
+
–
–
Figure 4.8 Adding Sty Digest Master Mix
Load Nsp and Sty Samples onto the Thermal Cycler
1. Vortex the plate at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
2. Ensure that the lid of thermal cycler is preheated.
3. Load the plate onto the thermal cycler and run the Cyto Digest program (Table 4.8).
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off the wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
4. Return any remaining reagents to the freezer.
5. When the program is finished, remove the plate and spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
Table 4.8 Cyto Digest Program
Cyto Digest Program
Temperature
Time
37 °C
120 min
65 °C
20 min
4 °C
Hold
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• If following the recommended workflow (Figure 4.1 on page 21), place the plate in a cooling chamber
on ice and proceed immediately to Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation on page 34.
• If not proceeding directly to the next step, store the plate at –20 °C.
34
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation
About this Stage
During this stage, the Nsp digested samples are ligated using the Nsp Adaptor; the Sty digested samples
are ligated using the Sty Adaptor. You will:
1. Prepare a Nsp Ligation Master Mix and add it to the Nsp digested samples.
2. Prepare a Sty Ligation Master Mix and add it to the Sty digested samples.
3. Place samples onto a thermal cycler and run the Cyto Ligate program.
4. Dilute the ligated samples with water.
Location and Duration
• Pre-PCR Clean Area
• Hands-on time: 30 min
• Cyto Ligate thermal cycler program time: 3.3 hr
Input Required From Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 1: Nsp and Sty Restriction Enzyme Digest is:
Item
Plate of Nsp and Sty digested samples
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
Table 4.9 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation
Quantity
Item
1
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Centrifuge, plate
1
Cooler, chilled to –20 °C
1
Cooling chamber, double, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
1
Marker, blue and red, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P10
1
Pipet, single channel P20
1
Pipet, single channel P100 or P200
As needed
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1
Thermal cycler
3
Tubes, Eppendorf 1.5 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal
Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.10 Reagents Required for Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation
Reagent
T4 DNA Ligase (400 U/µL; NEB)
T4 DNA Ligase Buffer (10X)
Adaptor, Nsp (50 µM)
Adaptor, Sty (50 µM)
Water, AccuGENE molecular biology-grade
35
36
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components
Thaw the Reagents and Digested Samples
To thaw the reagents and digested samples:
1. Allow the following reagents to thaw on ice:
• Adaptor Nsp
• Adaptor Sty
• T4 DNA Ligase Buffer (10X; requires approximately 20 min to thaw)
2. If the digested samples were frozen, allow them to thaw in a cooling chamber on ice.
IMPORTANT: Leave the T4 DNA Ligase at –20 °C until ready to use.
Setup the Work Area
Keep Sty master mix reagents
on ice off to the side.
STY
Sty Adaptor
Sty ligation master mix tube
N 1
2
1 S
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
+
+ +
– —
—
T4 DNA Ligase Buffer
Nsp Adaptor
+
–
NSP
Nsp ligation master mix tube
Figure 4.9 Setup for Nsp and Sty Ligation (T4 DNA Ligase enzyme not pictured; still at –20 °C)
To setup the work area (Figure 4.9):
1. Place a double cooling chamber on ice.
2. Label the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tubes as follows:
• Label one tube NSP and place in the cooling chamber.
• Label one tube STY and set aside.
3. Prepare the digested samples as follows:
A. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
B. Place in the cooling chamber on ice.
4. To prepare the reagents:
A. Vortex at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time (except for the enzyme).
B. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
C. Place in the cooling chamber.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
37
IMPORTANT: T4 DNA Ligase Buffer (10X) contains ATP and should be thawed on ice.
Vortex the buffer as long as necessary before use to ensure precipitate is resuspended and that the buffer is clear.
Preheat the Thermal Cycler Lid
Power on the thermal cycler to preheat the lid. Leave the block at room temperature.
The lid must be preheated before samples are loaded.
Prepare the Nsp Ligation Master Mix
Keeping all reagents and tubes on ice, prepare the Nsp Ligation Master Mix as follows:
1. To the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube labeled NSP, add the following reagents based on the volumes shown
in Table 4.11:
• T4 DNA Ligase Buffer (10X)
• Adaptor Nsp
2. Remove the T4 DNA Ligase from the freezer and immediately place in the cooler.
3. Pulse spin the T4 DNA Ligase for 3 sec.
4. Immediately add the T4 DNA Ligase to the master mix; then place back in the cooler.
5. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
6. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
7. Place the master mix on ice.
8. Proceed immediately to Add Nsp Ligation Master Mix to Reactions.
Table 4.11 NspI Ligation Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(15% extra)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
T4 DNA Ligase Buffer
(10X)
2.5 µL
11.5 µL
23.0 µL
34.5 µL
69 µL
Adaptor, Nsp
(50 µM)
0.75 µL
3.45 µL
6.90 µL
10.35 µL
20.7 µL
2 µL
9.2 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
5.25 µL
24.15 µL
48.30 µL
72.45 µL
144.90 µL
T4 DNA Ligase
(400 U/µL)
Total
38
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Add Nsp Ligation Master Mix to Reactions
To add Nsp Ligation Master Mix to samples:
1. Using a P20 pipet, aliquot 5.25 µL of Nsp Ligation Master Mix to each Nsp digested sample and
control (Figure 4.10).
2. Discard any remaining Nsp Ligation Master Mix.
Nsp Digested DNA
19.75 µL
Nsp Ligation Master Mix*
5.25 µL
Total
25.00 µL
* Contains ATP and DTT. Keep on ice.
N
S
+
+
–
–
Add 5.25 μL Nsp Ligation
Master Mix to each sample
and control in column 1.
Figure 4.10 Adding Nsp ligate master mix to Nsp digested samples and controls
Prepare the Sty Ligation Master Mix
Keeping all reagents and tubes on ice, prepare the Sty Ligation Master Mix as follows:
1. To the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube labeled STY, add the following reagents based on the volumes shown
in Table 4.12 on page 39:
• T4 DNA Ligase Buffer (10X)
• Adaptor, Sty
2. Immediately add the T4 DNA Ligase to the master mix; then place back in the cooler.
3. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
4. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
5. Place the master mix on ice.
6. Proceed immediately to Add Sty Ligation Master Mix to Reactions.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Table 4.12 Sty Ligation Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(15% extra)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
T4 DNA Ligase Buffer
(10X)
2.5 µL
11.5 µL
23.0 µL
34.5 µL
69 µL
Adaptor, Sty
(50 µM)
0.75 µL
3.45 µL
6.90 µL
10.35 µL
20.7 µL
2 µL
9.2 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
5.25 µL
24.15 µL
48.30 µL
72.45 µL
144.90 µL
T4 DNA Ligase
(400 U/µL)
Total
Add Sty Ligation Master Mix to Reactions
To add Sty Ligation Master Mix to samples:
1. Using a P20 pipet, aliquot 5.25 µL of Sty Ligation Master Mix to each Sty digested sample and
control. (Figure 4.11).
The total volume in each well is now 25 µL.
2. Tightly seal the plate.
N
S
+
+
–
–
Add 5.25 μL Sty Ligation
Master Mix to each sample and
control in column 1.
Figure 4.11 Adding Sty Ligation Master Mix to Sty digested samples and controls
39
40
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Load the Nsp and Sty Samples Onto the Thermal Cycler
1. Vortex the plate at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
2. Ensure that the thermal cycler lid is preheated.
3. Load the plate onto the thermal cycler and run the Cyto Ligate program.
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off the wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
4. Return remaining reagents to the freezer and discard remaining master mix.
Table 4.13 Cyto Ligate Thermal Cycler Program
Cyto Ligate Program
Temperature
Time
16ºC
180 min
70ºC
20 min
4ºC
Hold
Dilute the Ligated Samples
IMPORTANT: It is crucial to dilute the ligated DNA with AccuGENE water prior to PCR.
To dilute the samples:
1. Place the water on ice 20 min prior to use.
2. When the Cyto Ligate program is finished, remove the plate and spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
3. Place in a cooling chamber on ice.
4. Using a P200 pipet, add 75 µL of water to each reaction.
Nsp and Sty Ligated DNA
25 µL
Water, AccuGENE
75 µL
Total
100 µL
5. Tightly seal the plate.
6. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• If following the recommended workflow (Figure 4.1 on page 21), proceed immediately to Stage 3: Nsp
and Sty PCR on page 41.
Samples can be stored in a cooling chamber on ice for up to 60 min.
• If not proceeding directly to the next step, store the plate at –20 °C.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR
About this Stage
During this stage, you will:
1. Transfer equal aliquots of each:
• Nsp diluted ligated sample into four wells of a 96-well plate.
• Sty diluted ligated sample into three wells of the same 96-well plate.
2. Prepare a PCR Master Mix and add it to each ligated sample.
3. Place the samples onto a thermal cycler and run the Cyto PCR program.
4. Confirm each PCR reaction by running 3 µL of each PCR product on a gel.
Location and Duration
• Pre-PCR Clean Area
- PCR Master Mix preparation
- PCR set up
• Post-PCR Area: samples placed on thermal cycler
• Hands-on time: 1 hr
• Cyto PCR thermal cycler program time: 1.5 hr
Samples can be held overnight at 4 °C.
Input Required from Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 2: Nsp and Sty Ligation is:
Item
Diluted ligated Nsp and Sty samples
41
42
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Equipment and Materials Required
The following equipment and materials are required to perform this stage.
Table 4.14 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Centrifuge, plate
1
Cooler, chilled to –20 °C
1
Cooling chamber, double, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
2
Markers, blue and red, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P20
1
Pipet, single channel P100
1
Pipet, single channel P200
1
Pipet, single channel P1000
1
Optional: Pipet, 8-channel P20
1
Optional: Pipet, 8-channel P200
As required
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1 to 3
As required
Plate, Bio-Rad 96-well PCR
• 1 to 8 samples: 1 plate
• 9 to 16 samples: 2 plates
• 17 to 24 samples: 3 plates
Plate holder, 96-well PCR
1
Solution basin, 55 mL
1
Thermal cycler
(If routinely processing > 8 samples, you may want to use more than one thermal cycler.)
1
Tube, centrifuge 50 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal Cyclers,
96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
43
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.15 Reagents Required for Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR
Reagent
AccuGENE water, molecular biology-grade
PCR Primer 002 (100 µM)
From the Clontech TITANIUM™ DNA Amplification Kit:
• dNTPs (2.5 mM each)
• GC-Melt (5M)
• TITANIUM™ Taq DNA Polymerase (50X)
• TITANIUM™ Taq PCR Buffer (10X)
Gels and Related Materials Required
Verifying the PCR reaction is required for this stage.
Table 4.16 Gels and Related Materials Required for Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR
Reagent
DNA Marker (BioNexus All Purpose Hi-Lo Ladder)
Gels, 2% TBE (precast or house-made)
Gel loading solution
Plates, 96-well reaction
Important Information About This Stage
To help ensure the best results, carefully read the information below before you begin this stage of the
protocol.
IMPORTANT:
• Ensure that the Nsp and Sty ligated samples were diluted to 100 μL with AccuGENE
water.
• Prepare the PCR Master Mix immediately prior to use in Pre-PCR Clean Area (ideally in a
laminar flow or PCR cabinet). To help ensure the correct distribution of fragments, be sure
to add the correct amount of primer. Mix well to ensure the even distribution of primers.
• Ensure that the PCR product distribution is between ~250 bp to 1100 bp by running 3 μL
aliquots of each PCR reaction on a gel.
About Controls
To assess the presence of contamination, always include one PCR negative control with every set of
samples run. Use water as the negative control.
44
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components
Thaw Reagents and Samples
To thaw the reagents and samples:
1. Allow the following reagents to thaw on ice.
• TITANIUM Taq PCR Buffer
• dNTPs
• PCR Primer 002
IMPORTANT: Leave the TITANIUM Taq DNA Polymerase at –20 °C until ready to use.
2. If the diluted ligated samples are frozen, thaw them in a cooling chamber on ice.
Setup Your Work Area (Pre-PCR Clean Area)
To setup your work area (Figure 4.13 on page 45):
1. Place a double cooling chamber on ice.
2. Place the plate of diluted ligated samples in the top half of the cooling chamber.
3. Label a fresh 96-well plate as shown in Figure 4.12 (blue for Nsp; red for Sty).
4. Place the plate in the lower half of the cooling chamber.
N
S
P
C
R
Figure 4.12 Labeling the 96-well plate for PCR.
Prepare the Ligated Samples and Reagents
To prepare the ligated samples, and reagents:
1. Label the 50 mL centrifuge tubes PCR.
2. Place on ice:
• Water (AccuGENE)
• GC-Melt
• Solution basin
3. Prepare the diluted ligated samples as follows:
A. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
B. Place in the top half of the chamber as shown in Figure 4.13 on page 45.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Solution basin
Nsp diluted ligated
samples
Sty diluted ligated
samples
PCR
N 1
N
45
PCR master
mix tube
1 S
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
+
6
+
—
—
Water (AccuGENE)
Titanium Taq PCR Buffer
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
— — — —
S
P
C
R
— — —
GC-Melt
dNTPs
PCR Primer 002
Figure 4.13 Setup for PCR (Titanium Taq DNA Polymerase not shown; still at –20 °C)
4. To prepare the reagents:
A. Vortex at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time (except for the enzyme).
B. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
C. Place on ice or in the cooling chamber.
Preheat the Thermal Cycler Lids (Post-PCR Area)
Have someone in the Post-PCR Area power on the thermal cycler(s) to preheat the lid. Leave the blocks
at room temperature.
To avoid contamination, do not go from the Pre-PCR Clean Area to the Post-PCR Area and back again.
Transfer Diluted Ligated Samples to the PCR Plate
To transfer the diluted ligated samples to the PCR plate:
1. Using a P20 pipet (single or multichannel):
A. Transfer 10 µL of each Nsp ligated sample to the corresponding four wells of the PCR plate
Figure 4.13 on page 45).
B. Transfer 10 µL of each Sty ligated sample to the corresponding three wells of the PCR plate.
2. Seal, label and store the plate with the remaining ligated Nsp and Sty samples at
–20 °C.
Discard this plate once you have successfully processed these samples.
46
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Prepare the PCR Master Mix
The same PCR master mix is used for both Nsp and Sty ligated samples.
IMPORTANT: The PCR reaction is sensitive to the concentration of primer used. It is critical
that the correct amount of primer be added to the PCR Master Mix to achieve the correct
distribution of fragments (200 to 1100 bp) in the products.
Check the PCR reactions on a gel to ensure that the distribution is correct.
To prepare the PCR Master Mix:
1. Keeping the 50 mL centrifuge tube in the cooling chamber, add the reagents in the order shown in
Table 4.17 on page 46 (except for the Taq DNA polymerase).
2. Remove the TITANIUM Taq DNA Polymerase from the freezer and immediately place in a cooler.
3. Pulse spin the Taq DNA polymerase for 3 sec.
4. Immediately add the Taq DNA polymerase to the master mix; then return the tube to the cooler.
5. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
6. Pour the master mix into the solution basin, keeping the basin on ice.
Table 4.17 PCR Master Mix — Volumes sufficient for processing both Nsp and Sty ligated samples
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(15% extra)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
39.5 µL
1272 µL
2544 µL
3816 µL
7632 µL
TITANIUM Taq PCR Buffer
(10X)
10 µL
322 µL
644 µL
966 µL
1932 µL
GC-Melt (5M)
20 µL
644 µL
1288 µL
1932 µL
3864 µL
dNTP (2.5 mM each)
14 µL
451 µL
902 µL
1352 µL
2704 µL
PCR Primer 002 (100 µM)
4.5 µL
145 µL
290 µL
435 µL
870 µL
2 µL
64.4 µL
129 µL
193 µL
386 µL
90 µL
2898 µL
5796 µL
8694 µL
17.4 mL
AccuGENE water
TITANIUM Taq DNA
Polymerase (50X)
(do not add until ready to
aliquot master mix to ligated
samples)
Total
Add PCR Master Mix to Each Sample
To add the PCR Master Mix to samples:
1. Aliquot 90 µL PCR Master Mix to each sample and control on the PCR plate.
To avoid contamination, change pipet tips after each dispense.
For four samples, you may have to tilt the solution basin for the last pickup/dispense to ensure 90 µL
picked up in each pipet tip.
Total volume in each well is 100 µL.
2. Tightly seal the plate.
3. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
4. Keep in the cooling chamber on ice until ready to load onto a thermal cycler.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
47
Load PCR Plate onto a Thermal Cycler
Location
Post-PCR Area
Procedure
To load the plate and run the Cyto PCR program:
1. Transfer the plate to the Post-PCR Area.
2. Ensure that the thermal cycler lid is preheated.
The block should be at room temperature.
3. Load the plate onto the thermal cycler.
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off any wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
4. Run the Cyto PCR program.
IMPORTANT: PCR protocols for the MJ Tetrad PTC-225 and Applied Biosystems thermal
cyclers are different. See Table 4.18 and Table 4.19 on page 48.
If using GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermal cyclers, be sure the blocks are silver or goldplated silver. Do NOT use thermal cyclers with aluminum blocks. It is not easy to visually
distinguish between silver and aluminum blocks.
Table 4.18 Cyto PCR Thermal Cycler Program for the GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 (silver or gold-plated silver
blocks)
Cyto PCR Program for GeneAmp® PCR System 9700
Temperature
Time
Cycles
94ºC
3 min
1X
94ºC
30 sec
60ºC
45 sec
68ºC
15 sec
68ºC
7 min
4ºC
HOLD (Can be held overnight)
Volume: 100 μL
Specify Maximum mode.
}
1X
30X
48
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Table 4.19 Cyto PCR Thermal Cycler Program for the MJ Tetrad PTC-225
Cyto PCR Program for MJ Tetrad PTC-225
Temperature
Time
Cycles
94ºC
3 min
1X
94ºC
30 sec
60ºC
30 sec
68ºC
15 sec
68ºC
7 min
4ºC
HOLD (Can be held overnight)
}
30X
1X
Volume: 100 μL
Use Heated Lid and Calculated Temperature
Check the PCR Reaction by Running a Gel
To ensure consistent results, run a 3 µL aliquot from each PCR reaction on a gel.
WARNING: Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment when handling ethidium
bromide.
Run the Gels
When the Cyto PCR program is finished:
1. Remove the plate from the thermal cycler.
2. Spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
3. Place in a cooling chamber on ice or keep at 4 °C.
4. Label a fresh 96-well plate as shown in Figure 4.14 on page 49.
This plate is referred to as the gel plate.
5. Aliquot 3 µL of 2X Gel Loading Dye to each well to be used.
6. Load 10 µL BioNexus Hi-Lo Ladder to the first and last lanes of the gel.
7. Transfer 3 µL of Nsp PCR product from each well in one column only to the corresponding wells of
the gel plate.
8. Transfer 3 µL of Sty PCR product from each well in one column only to the corresponding wells of
the gel plate.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
N 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 S
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3 C
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
— — — —
3 μL
N 1
P
R
PCR Plate
— — —
3 μL
1 S
2
2
3
3 E
4
4
5
5
6
6
+
+
—
—
G
Gel Plate
L
Figure 4.14 Transferring aliquots of each Nsp and Sty PCR product to the gel plate
9. Seal both plates.
10. Vortex the gel plate, then spin them down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
11. Load the total volume from each well of the gel plate onto a 2% TBE gel.
12. Run the gel at 120V for 40 min to 1 hr.
13. Verify that the PCR product distribution is between ~250 bp to 1100 bp (Figure 4.15 on page 50).
49
50
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
—
Figure 4.15 Example of PCR products run on 2% TBE agarose gel at 120V for 1 hr. Average product distribution is
between ~200to 1100 bp.
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• If the PCR has been confirmed, proceed to Stage 4: PCR Product Purification on page 51.
• If not proceeding directly to the next stage, seal the plate with PCR product and store at –20 °C.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Stage 4: PCR Product Purification
About this Stage
During this stage, you will purify the PCR products by:
•
•
•
•
Pooling the Nsp and Sty PCR reactions.
Adding magnetic beads (Agencourt AMPure®) to each pooled reaction and incubating the mix.
Adding 75% EtOH to wash DNA.
Adding Buffer EB to resuspend the beads and elute the DNA.
Location and Duration
•
•
•
•
•
•
Post-PCR Area
Hands-on time: 1 hr
DNA binding to magnetic bead: 15 to 20 min
EtOH wash: approximately 10 to 20 min
Elution: 15 to 30 min
Total time for this stage: approximately 1.5 hr
Input Required from Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 3: Nsp and Sty PCR is:
Item
Plate of Nsp and Sty PCR products
51
52
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and materials are required to perform this stage.
Table 4.20 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 4: PCR Product Purification
Quantity
Item
1
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Microcentrifuge, Eppendorf 5415D with rotor for 24 – tubes, 2.0 mL
1
MagnaRack magnetic stand
1
Marker, fine point, permanent
1
Microtube Foam Insert (for vortexing 2.0 mL tubes)
1
Pipet, single channel P20
1
Pipet, single channel P200
1
Pipet, single channel P1000
As needed
1
One per 96-well plate
1
One per sample
(minus neg control)
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
Plate, Bio-Rad 96-well
Plate holder
Optional: Tube, 50 mL conical
Tubes, 2.0 mL Microcentrifuge Safe-Lock
Must be round bottom. Do NOT use conical tubes.
1
Tube holder
1
Vortexer (with foam tube adaptor attached)
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal
Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.21 Reagents Required for Stage 4: PCR Product Purification
Reagent
Elution Buffer (Buffer EB)
75% EtOH (ACS-grade ethanol diluted to 75% using AccuGENE water)
Agencourt AMPure® magnetic beads
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
53
Important Information About This Stage
To help ensure the best results, carefully read the information below before you begin this stage of the
protocol.
IMPORTANT:
• The storage temperature for Agencourt AMPure is 4° C (refrigerator). The pH should be
5.5. If not pH 5.5, discard and use fresh reagent.
• To avoid cross-contamination, pipet very carefully when pooling the PCR reactions.
Prepare the 75% EtOH
Dilute ACS-grade ethanol to 75% using water (AccuGENE).
Pool the PCR Products
CAUTION: Be very careful when pooling PCR products. Avoid cross-contaminating
neighboring wells with small droplets.
To pool the PCR products:
1. If frozen, thaw the PCR products in a plate holder on the bench top to room temperature.
2. Vortex the plate at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
3. Mark each 2.0 mL microcentrifuge tube with a sample number such as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
4. Using a P200 single-channel pipet, transfer all 7 aliquots of each sample to the appropriately marked
2.0 mL tube (Figure 4.16 on page 54).
Do not pool the negative control. Discard.
IMPORTANT: Use round-bottom tubes only. Do NOT use conical tubes. Change pipet
tips after pooling each sample.
Sty PCR wells (3):
100 µL from each well
= 300 µL
Nsp PCR wells (4):
100 µL from each well
= 400 µL
Total Volume in Each 2.0 mL Microcentrifuge Tube
= 700 µL/tube
5. When finished, examine the PCR plate and ensure that the total volume in each well has been
transferred and pooled.
54
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
N 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 S
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
4 P
C
5 R
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
— — — —
— — —
1
2
3
Pool PCR products for each
sample in a 2 mL round
bottom microcentrifuge tube.
Do not pool the negative
control. Discard.
Figure 4.16 Pooling PCR products
Purify the Pooled PCR Products
Add Agencourt AMPure Magnetic Beads and Incubate
To add magnetic beads and incubate:
1. Thoroughly mix the magnetic bead stock by vigorously shaking the bottle.
Examine the bottom of the bottle and ensure that the solution appears homogenous.
2. Optional: Pour magnetic beads into a 50 mL conical tube.
3. Aliquot 1 mL of magnetic beads to each pooled sample.
IMPORTANT: The solution is viscous and sticky. Pipet carefully to ensure that you
aspirate and dispense 1 mL.
Thorough mixing is critical to ensure that the PCR products bind to the beads.
4. Securely cap each tube and mix well by inverting 10✕.
5. Incubate at room temperature for 10 min.
During incubation, the DNA binds to the magnetic beads.
6. Load the tubes – cap hinge facing out – onto the microcentrifuge and spin for 3 min at maximum
speed (16,100 rcf; Figure 4.17 on page 55).
7. Place the tubes on the magnetic stand (Figure 4.18 on page 55).
8. Leaving the tubes in the rack, pipet off the supernatant without disturbing the bead pellet and discard.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Position tubes with the cap hinges facing
out. Bead pellet will be spun to the bottom
and back of the tube.
Figure 4.17 Position tubes with cap hinges out
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.18 Samples with magnetic beads on MagnaRack
Avoid contact with the bead pellet
when pipetting off the supernatant.
Figure 4.19 Bead pulled to back and side of tube in magnetic stand
55
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Add Ethanol
To add ethanol:
1. Using a P1000 pipet, add 1.5 mL of 75% EtOH to each tube.
2. Cap the tubes and load them into the foam tube adaptor (Figure 4.20).
Fully insert tubes into the foam to ensure they are secure. Space tubes adequately to balance.
3. Vortex at 75% power for 2 min.
4. Centrifuge the tubes for 3 min at maximum speed (hinges facing out; 16,100 rcf).
5. Place the tubes on the magnetic stand.
Figure 4.20 Resuspended bead clump and vortexer with foam tube adaptor
6. Leaving the tubes in the rack, pipet off the supernatant without disturbing the bead pellet and discard.
7. Spin the tubes for 30 sec at maximum speed (hinges facing out; 16,100 rcf).
8. Place the tubes back on the magnetic stand.
9. Using a P20 pipet, remove remaining drops of EtOH from the bottom of each tube.
IMPORTANT: Be careful not to disturb or break off any of the bead pellet.
10. Allow the remaining EtOH to evaporate by leaving the tubes uncapped at room temperature for
15 min.
Add Buffer EB
To add Buffer EB to each sample:
1. Using a P200 pipet, add 55 µL of Buffer EB to each tube.
2. Cap the tubes and load them into the foam tube adaptor.
3. Vortex at 75% power for 10 min.
Vortexing will resuspend the magnetic beads.
4. Examine each tube to ensure that the beads are resuspended in a homogeneous slurry.
IMPORTANT: If the beads are not fully resuspended, flick the tube to dislodge the
pellet, and vortex an additional 2 min. Re-examine.
5. Centrifuge the tubes for 5 min at maximum speed (hinges facing out; 16,100 rcf).
6. Place the tubes on the magnetic stand for 5 min.
The magnetic beads are pulled to the side of the tube (Figure 4.19).
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
57
7. Check that all of the beads have been pulled to the side in each tube.
If all of the beads have not been pulled to the side of the tubes, leave the tubes on the stand an
additional 3 min.
NOTE: The eluate will appear yellowish. If you open the cap and look directly into the
tube, you will see that the eluate is clear.
8. Transfer 47 µL of eluted sample to the appropriate well on a fresh 96-well plate (Figure 4.21 on
page 57).
Brown residue on pipet tips is OK.
9. Tightly seal the plate.
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.21 Transferring each purified sample to a fresh 96-well plate.
What To Do Next
Proceed to Stage 5: Quantitation on page 58. Here you will remove 2 µL from each sample for an OD
measurement.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Stage 5: Quantitation
About this Stage
During this stage, you will quantitate each sample.
Location and Duration
• Post-PCR Room
• Hands-on time: 20 min
Input Required from Previous Stage
Input required from Stage 4: PCR Product Purification is:
Item
Pooled, purified PCR products (47 µL each sample)
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
Table 4.22 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 5: Quantitation
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Marker, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipette, single channel P20
1
Pipette, single channel P200
As needed
Pipette tips for pipets listed above
1
Plate, 96-well (if using NanoDrop)
1
UV Plate, 96-well, 370ul, UV-Star® (if using microplate spectrophotometer)
1
Spectrophotometer, microplate or NanoDrop
1
Optional: Tube, 50 mL conical or solution basin
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal
Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.23 Reagents Required for Stage 5: Quantitation
Reagent
Water, AccuGENE molecular biology-grade
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59
Important Information About This Stage
To help ensure the best results, carefully read the information below before you begin this stage of the
protocol.
IMPORTANT:
• The accuracy of the OD measurement is critical. Carefully follow this procedure and be
sure the OD measurement is within the quantitative linear range of the instrument.
• The spectrophotometer should be calibrated regularly to ensure correct readings.
This protocol has been optimized using a UV spectrophotometer for quantitation.
Prepare the Reagents, Equipment and Consumables
Turn on the Spectrophotometer
Turn the instrument on and allow it to warm for 10 min before use.
Prepare Your Work Area
To prepare the work area:
1. Place the following on the bench top:
• Optional: conical tube or solution basin
• Water
• UV or 96-well plate
2. Spin down the purified samples at 2000 rpm for 30 sec, and put in a plate holder.
Procedure if Using a Microplate Spectrophotometer
Prepare Diluted Aliquots of Purified Sample
IMPORTANT: The P20 pipet must be accurate to within ± 5%.
To prepare diluted aliquots of the purified samples:
1. Using a P200 pipet, aliquot 198 µL of water to the corresponding wells of a UV plate.
2. Pipet 200 µL of water into each well of an empty column (Figure 4.22 below).
3. Using a P20 pipet:
A. Transfer 2 µL of each purified sample to the corresponding well of the UV plate.
B. Pipette up and down 2 times to ensure that all of the sample is dispensed.
The result is a 100-fold dilution.
4. Do one of the following to mix the samples:
• Set a P200 pipet to 170 µL and pipet up and down 5 times.
• Seal the plate, vortex, and spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
198 μL water (AccuGENE) + 2 μL
purified sample in each well
200 μL water for blank
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.22 UV plate layout.
Quantitate the Diluted PCR Product
Apply the convention that 1 absorbance unit at 260 nm equals 50 µg/mL (equivalent to 0.05 µg/µL) for
double-stranded PCR products. This convention assumes a path length of 1 cm. Consult your
spectrophotometer handbook for further information.
To quantitate the diluted purified PCR product:
1. Measure the OD of each sample at 260, 280 and 320 nm.
OD280 and OD320 are used as controls.
2. Determine the OD260 measurement for the water blank and average.
3. Determine the concentration of each PCR product as follows:
A. Calculate one OD reading for every sample.
OD = (sample OD) – (average water blank OD)
B. Calculate the undiluted concentration for each sample in µg/µL:
Undiluted sample concentration = OD X 0.05 ug/uL X 100
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Procedure if Using a NanoDrop
IMPORTANT: The P20 pipet must be accurate to within ± 5%.
To prepare diluted aliquots of the purified samples:
1. Using a P20 pipet, aliquot 18 µL of water to the corresponding wells of a 96-well plate.
2. Using a P20 pipet:
A. Transfer 2 µL of each purified sample to the corresponding well of the 96-well plate.
B. Pipette up and down 2 times to ensure that all of the sample is dispensed.
The result is a 10-fold dilution.
3. Do one of the following to mix the samples:
• Set a P20 pipet to 17 µL and pipet up and down 5 times.
• Seal the plate, vortex, and spin down at 2000 rpm for 30 sec.
18 μL water (AccuGENE) + 2 μL
purified sample in each well
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.23 96-well plate layout for NanoDrop
4. Blank the NanoDrop with water.
5. Take 2 µL of the diluted sample and:
A. Measure the OD of each sample at 260, 280 and 320 nm.
OD280 and OD320 are used as controls.
B. Calculate the undiluted concentration for each sample as follows:
Undiluted sample concentration in µg/µL = OD X 10
61
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Assess the OD Readings
Acceptable OD Range and DNA Yield
• An acceptable OD should fall within this range: 0.9 to 1.4.
DNA yield equivalent = 4.5 to 7.0 µg/µL
This OD range is based on the use of a conventional UV spectrophotometer plate reader and assumes
a path length of 1 cm.
• The OD260/OD280 ratio should be between 1.8 and 2.0.
Do not proceed if this metric falls outside of this range.
• The OD320 measurement should be very close to zero (≤ 0.1).
- If > 0.2:
A. Centrifuge the sample for 5 min.
B. Place on the MagnaRack and pipet off the eluate.
C. Requantitate the sample.
D. If the OD320 reading is now ≤ 0.1, proceed.
If your OD readings are not within the acceptable range, refer to OD Troubleshooting Guidelines on
page 99.
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• Proceed immediately to Stage 6: Fragmentation on page 63.
• If not proceeding immediately to the next step, seal the plate of purified samples, and store at –20 °C.
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Stage 6: Fragmentation
About this Stage
During this stage the purified samples are fragmented using Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme) by:
•
•
•
•
Preparing a Fragmentation Master Mix.
Quickly adding the mix to each sample.
Placing the samples onto a thermal cycler and running the Cyto Fragment program.
Checking each reaction on a gel.
Location and Duration
• Post-PCR Area
• Hands-on time: 30 min
• Cyto Fragment thermal cycler program time: 1 hr
Input Required from Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 5: Quantitation is:
Item
Plate of purified samples that have been quantitated.
63
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
Table 4.24 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 6: Fragmentation
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Centrifuge, plate
1
Cooler, chilled to –20 °C
1
Cooling chamber, single, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
1
Marker, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P20
1
Pipet, single channel P100
1
Pipet, single channel P1000
1
Pipet, 8-channel P20 (accurate to within ± 5%)
As needed
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1
Plate, Bio-Rad 96-well
1
Thermal cycler
1
Tube, Eppendorf 1.5 mL
1
Tubes, strip of 8 with caps, 0.2 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, 96-well plate, and adhesive films and listed under Thermal Cyclers,
96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.25 Reagents Required for Stage 6: Fragmentation
Reagent
Fragmentation Buffer (10X)
Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme; DNase I)
AccuGENE® water, molecular biology-grade
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65
Gels and Related Materials Required
Verifying the fragmentation reaction is required for this stage. You can use the following gels and related
materials.
Table 4.26 Gels and Related Materials Required
Item/Reagent
4% TBE Gel (precast or house-made)
DNA Markers, 5 µL per well
Gel loading solution
Important Information About This Stage
To help ensure the best results, carefully read the information below before you begin this stage of the
protocol.
IMPORTANT:
n
• The degree of fragmentation is critical. Perform this stage carefully to ensure uniform,
reproducible fragmentation.
• Use only the AccuGENE water. Using in-house ddH2O or other water can negatively affect
your results. The fragmentation reaction is particularly sensitive to pH and metal ion
contamination.
• All additions, dilutions and mixing must be performed on ice. Be sure to allow all reagents
to reach equilibrium before adding new fluid.
About the Fragmentation Reagent (Enzyme)
• This enzyme is extremely temperature sensitive and rapidly loses activity at higher temperatures. To
avoid loss of activity:
- Handle the tube by the cap only. Do not touch the sides of the tube as the heat from your fingers will
raise the reagent temperature.
- Dilute immediately prior to use.
- Keep at –20 °C until ready to use. Transport and hold in a –20 °C cooler. Return to the cooler
immediately after use.
- Spin down so that the contents of the tube are uniform.
- Perform all steps rapidly and without interruption.
• This enzyme is sticky, and may adhere to the walls of some microfuge tubes and 96-well plates.
• This enzyme is viscous and requires extra care when pipetting. Follow these guidelines:
- Pipet slowly to allow enough time for the correct volume of solution to enter the pipet tip.
- Avoid excess solution on the outside of the pipet tip.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components
Thaw Reagents
Thaw the Fragmentation Buffer (10X) on ice.
IMPORTANT: Leave the Fragmentation Reagent at –20 °C until ready to use.
Setup Your Work Area
To setup your work area (Figure 4.24):
1. Place a cooling chamber and the water on ice.
2. Place the plate of purified, quantitated samples in the cooling chamber.
3. Prepare the Fragmentation Buffer as follows:
A. Vortex 3 times, 1 sec each time.
B. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
C. Place in the cooling chamber.
4. Label the 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube Frag and place in the cooling chamber.
Purified samples
Fragmentation
Buffer
1
2
Water
(AccuGENE)
3
4
5
6
+
FRAG
Figure 4.24 Setup for fragmentation.
Preheat the Thermal Cycler Block
The block must be heated to 37 °C before samples are loaded.
To preheat the thermal cycler:
1. Power on the thermal cycler and preheat the block to 37 °C.
2. Allow it to heat for 10 min before loading samples.
Fragmentation
master mix tube
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67
Prepare the Samples for Fragmentation
Add Fragmentation Buffer to Samples
IMPORTANT: All additions in this procedure must be performed on ice.
To prepare the samples for Fragmentation:
1. Add 5 µL of Fragmentation Buffer to each sample.
2. Check your pipet tips each time to ensure that all of the buffer has been dispensed.
The total volume in each well is now 50 µL.
Prepare the Fragmentation Master Mix
IMPORTANT: The concentration of stock Fragmentation Reagent (U/μL) may vary from
lot-to-lot. Therefore, read the label on the tube and record the stock concentration before
diluting this reagent.
To prepare the Fragmentation Master Mix:
The Fragmentation Reagent must be diluted to 0.1 U/µL in the master mix.
1. Read the Fragmentation Reagent tube label and record the concentration.
2. Based on the number of samples you are processing, determine which Fragmentation Master Mix table to
use:
• 4 to 7 samples: Table 4.27 on page 67
• 8 to 16 samples: Table 4.28 on page 68
• 17 to 24 samples: Table 4.29 on page 68
3. Add the appropriate volume of water and Fragmentation Buffer to the Frag tube on ice.
4. Allow to cool on ice for 5 min.
Table 4.27 Fragmentation Master Mix for 4 to 7 Samples
Reagent
Fragmentation Reagent Concentration
2 U/μL
2.25 U/μL
2.5 U/μL
2.75 U/μL
3 U/μL
AccuGENE water
34.00 µL
38.50 µL
43.00 µL
48.50 µL
52.00 µL
10X Fragmentation Buffer
4.00 µL
4.50 µL
5.00 µL
4.50 µL
6.00 µL
Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme)
2.00 µL
2.00 µL
2.00 µL
2.00 µL
2.00 µL
Total
40 µL
45 µL
50 µL
55 µL
60 µL
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Table 4.28 Fragmentation Master Mix for 8 to 16 Samples
Reagent
Fragmentation Reagent Concentration
2 U/μL
2.25 U/μL
2.5 U/μL
2.75 U/μL
3 U/μL
AccuGENE water
85.00 µL
96.25 µL
107.50 µL
118.75 µL
130.00 µL
10X Fragmentation Buffer
10.00 µL
11.25 µL
12.50 µL
13.75 µL
15.00 µL
Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme)
5.00 µL
5.00 µL
5.00 µL
5.00 µL
5.00 µL
Total
100 µL
112.50 µL
125 µL
137.50 µL
150 µL
Table 4.29 Fragmentation Master Mix for 17 to 24 Samples
Reagent
Fragmentation Reagent Concentration
2 U/μL
2.25 U/μL
2.5 U/μL
2.75 U/μL
3 U/μL
AccuGENE water
136.00 µL
154.00 µL
172.00 µL
190.00 µL
208.00 µL
10X Fragmentation Buffer
16.00 µL
18.00 µL
20.00 µL
22.00 µL
24.00 µL
Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme)
8.00 µL
8.00 µL
8.00 µL
8.00 µL
8.00 µL
Total
160 µL
180 µL
200 µL
220 µL
240 µL
5. Remove the Fragmentation Reagent (enzyme) from the freezer and:
A. Immediately pulse spin for 3 sec.
Spinning is required because the reagent tends to cling to the top of the tube, making it warm
quicker.
B. Immediately place in a cooler.
6. Add the appropriate volume of Fragmentation Reagent.
7. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
8. Pulse spin for 3 sec and immediately place on ice.
9. Proceed immediately to the next set of steps, Add Fragmentation Master Mix to the Samples.
Add Fragmentation Master Mix to the Samples
Aliquot Frag
Master Mix
equally to strip
tubes.
5 μL to each sample
F
R
A
G
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.25 Adding Fragmentation Master Mix to samples
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69
To add Fragmentation Master Mix to the samples:
1. Quickly and on ice, aliquot out the Fragmentation Master Mix equally to the strip tubes (Figure 4.25).
2. Spin down the strip tubes.
3. Using an 8-channel P20 pipet, transfer 5 µL of Fragmentation Master Mix to each sample — do not
pipet up and down.
Avoid introducing air bubbles at the bottom of the tubes to ensure the accurate transfer of 5 µL to
each sample.
IMPORTANT: To help ensure the same amount of fragmentation for each sample, add
the master mix to the samples as quickly as possible.
Sample with Fragmentation Buffer
50 µL
Fragmentation Master Mix
5 µL
Total
55 µL
4. Remove and discard any remaining Fragmentation Master Mix.
Never re-use Fragmentation Master Mix.
5. Tightly seal the plate.
6. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
7. Immediately load the samples onto the pre-heated block of the thermal cycler (37 °C) and run the
Cyto Fragment program (Table 4.30).
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off any wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
Table 4.30 Cyto Fragment Thermal Cycler Program
Cyto Fragment Program
Temperature
Time
37ºC
35 min
95ºC
15 min
4ºC
Hold
What To Do Next
Proceed directly to the next stage. While the labeling reaction is taking place, check the fragmentation
reaction by running gels as described under Check the Fragmentation Reaction by Running a Gel on
page 70.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Check the Fragmentation Reaction by Running a Gel
The instructions below are for running 4% TBE gels.
To ensure that fragmentation was successful:
1. When the Cyto Fragment program is finished:
A. Remove the samples from the thermal cycler.
B. Spin down for 30 sec, and place in a cooling chamber on ice.
2. Remove 2.0 µL of each sample and place in a 96-well plate.
3. Add 4 µL gel loading dye to each sample.
4. Load the samples onto the gel.
5. Load 10 µL BioNexus All Purpose Hi-Lo Ladder to the first and last lanes.
6. Run the samples on a 4% TBE gel at 120V for 30 min to 1 hr.
7. Inspect the gel and compare it against the example shown in Figure 4.26 below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
+
Figure 4.26 Typical example of fragmented PCR products run on 4% TBE agarose gel at 120V for 30 min to 1 hr.
Average fragment size is < 180 bp.
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71
Stage 7: Labeling
About this Stage
During this stage, you will label the fragmented samples using the DNA Labeling Reagent by:
• Preparing a Labeling Master Mix.
• Adding the mix to each sample.
• Placing the samples onto a thermal cycler and running the Cyto Label program.
Location and Duration
• Post-PCR Area
• Hands-on time: 30 min
• Cyto Label thermal cycler program time: 4.25 hr
Input Required from Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 6: Fragmentation is:
Item
Fragmented samples
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
Table 4.31 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 7: Labeling
Quantity
As required
Item
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Centrifuge, plate
1
Cooler, chilled to –20 °C
1
Cooling chamber, single, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
1
Marker, fine point, permanent
1
Mini centrifuge (microfuge)
1
Pipet, single channel P200
1
Pipet, single channel P1000
1
Pipet, 8-channel P20 (accurate to within ± 5%)
As needed
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1
Thermal cycler
1
Tube, centrifuge 1.5 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, tubes, 96-well plates, and adhesive film and listed under Thermal
Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.32 Reagents Required for Stage 7: Labeling
Reagent
DNA Labeling Reagent (30 mM)
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT; 30 U/µL)
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Buffer (TdT Buffer; 5X)
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components
Thaw Reagents
Thaw the following reagents on ice:
• 5X TdT Buffer
• DNA Labeling Reagent
IMPORTANT: Leave the TdT enzyme at –20 °C until ready to use.
Prepare Your Work Area
To prepare the work area:
1. Place a cooling chamber on ice (Figure 4.27 on page 72).
2. Prepare the reagents as follows:
A. Vortex each reagent at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
B. Pulse spin for 3 sec; then place in the cooling chamber.
3. Label the 1.5 mL centrifuge tube LBL, and place in the cooling chamber.
TdT Buffer
1
2
3
DNA Labeling
Reagent
4
5
6
+
LBL
Figure 4.27 Setup for labeling
Label master mix
tube
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Preheat the Thermal Cycler Block
The block must be heated to 37 °C before samples are loaded.
To preheat the thermal cycler block:
1. Turn on the thermal cycler and preheat the block to 37 °C.
2. Allow it to heat for 10 min before loading samples.
Prepare the Labeling Master Mix
Preparation
Keep all reagents and tubes on ice while preparing the Labeling Master Mix.
To prepare the Labeling Master Mix:
1. Add the following to the 1.5 mL centrifuge tube on ice using the volumes shown in Table 4.33 on
page 73:
• 5X TdT Buffer
• DNA Labeling Reagent
2. Remove the TdT enzyme from the freezer and immediately place in the cooler.
3. Pulse spin the enzyme for 3 sec; then immediately place back in the cooler.
4. Add the TdT enzyme to the master mix.
5. Vortex the master mix at high speed 3 times, 1 sec each time.
6. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
7. Immediately proceed to the next set of steps, Add the Labeling Master Mix to the Samples.
Table 4.33 Labeling Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(15% extra)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
TdT Buffer (5X)
14.0 µL
64.4 µL
128.8 µL
193.2 µL
386.4 µL
DNA Labeling Reagent
(30 mM)
2.0 µL
9.2 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
TdT enzyme (30 U/µL)
3.5 µL
16.1 µL
32.2 µL
48.3 µL
96.6 µL
19.5 µL
89.5 µL
179.4 µL
269.1 µL
538.2 µL
Total
Add the Labeling Master Mix to the Samples
To add the Labeling Master Mix to the samples:
Keep samples in the cooling chamber and all tubes on ice when making additions.
1. Optional: If processing 16 or more samples, aliquot the Labeling Master Mix equally into strip tubes.
2. Using a P20 single or 8-channel pipet:
A. Aliquot 20 µL of Labeling Master Mix to each sample.
B. Pipet up and down one time to ensure that all of the mix is added to the samples.
Fragmented DNA (less 2.0 µL for gel analysis)
53.0 µL
Labeling Mix
19.5 µL
Total
72.5 µL
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
3. Tightly seal the plate.
4. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
5. Place on the pre-heated thermal cycler block and run the Cyto Label program.
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off any wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
6. When the Cyto Label program is finished, remove the plate from the thermal cycler and spin down
for 30 sec.
Table 4.34 Cyto Thermal Cycler Program
Cyto Label Program
Temperature
Time
37ºC
4 hr
95ºC
15 min
4ºC
Hold
(OK to hold overnight)
What To Do Next
Do one of the following:
• Proceed to the next stage.
• If not proceeding directly to the next stage, you can:
- Hold at 4 °C on the thermal cycler overnight.
- Freeze the samples at –20 °C.
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75
Stage 8: Target Hybridization
About this Stage
During this stage, each sample will be hybridized onto a Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 by:
•
•
•
•
Preparing a Hybridization Master Mix and adding it to each sample.
Denaturing the samples on a thermal cycler.
Loading each sample onto a Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0.
Placing the arrays into a hybridization oven at 50 °C for 16 to 18 hr.
Location and Duration
• Post-PCR Area
• Hands-on time: 45 min
• Hybridization time: 16 to 18 hr
Input Required from Previous Stage
The input required from Stage 7: Labeling is:
Item
Labeled samples
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for this stage.
IMPORTANT: Increased variability in Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay performance has
been observed in GeneChip® Hybridization Oven 640 models (P/N 800138 or 800189)
manufactured prior to 2001. Check the serial number of your hybridization oven(s). If the
serial numbers are 11214 or lower, contact Affymetrix for an upgrade.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
The following table lists the equipment and consumables required.
Table 4.35 Equipment and Consumables Required for Stage 8: Target Hybridization
Quantity
Item
1
Adhesive seals for 96-well plates
1
Cooling chamber, chilled to 4 °C on ice (do not freeze)
One array per sample
Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0
1
GeneChip® Hybridization Oven 640 or 645
1
Ice bucket, filled with ice
1
Pipet, single channel P200
1
Pipet, single channel P1000
As needed
Pipet tips for pipets listed above
1
Solution basin, 55 mL
1
Thermal cycler
2 per array
Tough-Spots®
1
Tube, centrifuge 50 mL
1
Vortexer
** IMPORTANT Use only the thermal cyclers, tubes, 96-well plate, and adhesive film and listed under Thermal
Cyclers, 96-well Plate, and Adhesive Seals on page 4.
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for this stage.
Table 4.36 Reagents Required for Stage 8: Target Hybridization
Reagent
Denhardt’s Solution (50X)
DMSO (100%)
EDTA (0.5 M)
Herring Sperm DNA (HSDNA; 10 mg/mL)
Human Cot-1 DNA® (1 mg/mL)
MES Hydrate SigmaUltra
MES Sodium Salt
Tetramethyl Ammonium Chloride (TMACL; 5M)
Tween-20, 10%
Oligo Control Reagent (OCR), 0100
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Important Information About This Stage
To help ensure the best results, carefully read the information below before you begin this stage of the
protocol.
IMPORTANT:
• It is critical that the samples remain on the thermal cycler at 49 °C after denaturation and
while being loaded onto arrays.
• About DMSO:
When adding to the Hybridization Master Mix, pipet DMSO into the middle of the tube.
Do not touch the sides of the tube as the DMSO can leach particles out of the plastic
which, in turn, may cause high background.
DMSO is light sensitive and must be stored in a dark glass bottle. Do not store in a plastic
container.
• Be sure to equilibrate the arrays to room temperature; otherwise, the rubber septa may
crack and the array may leak.
• An accurate hybridization temperature is critical for this assay. Therefore, we recommend
that your hybridization ovens be serviced at least once per year to ensure that they are
operating within specifications.
• Gloves, safety glasses, and lab coats must be worn when preparing the Hybridization
Master Mix.
• Consult the appropriate MSDS for reagent storage and handling requirements.
Prepare the Reagents, Consumables and Other Components
Prepare a 12X MES Stock Solution
The 12X MES stock solution can be prepared in bulk and kept for at least one month if properly stored.
Proper storage:
• Protect from light using aluminum foil
• Keep at 4 °C
IMPORTANT: Do not autoclave. Store between 2 °C and 8 °C, and shield from light using
aluminum foil. Discard solution if it turns yellow.
To prepare 500 mL of 12X MES Stock Solution (1.25 M MES, 0.89 M [Na+]):
1. Combine:
• 35.2 g MES hydrate
• 96.65 g MES sodium salt
• 400 mL AccuGENE® water
2. Mix and adjust volume to 475 mL.
3. Test the pH.
The pH should be between 6.5 and 6.7.
4. Adjust the pH so it falls between 6.5 and 6.7.
5. Adjust the volume to 500 mL.
6. Filter the solution through a 0.2 µm filter.
7. Protect from light using aluminum foil and store at 4 °C.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Preheat the Hybridization Ovens
To preheat the hybridization ovens:
1. Turn on each oven and set the temperature to 50 °C.
2. Set the rpm to 60.
3. Turn the rotation on and allow to preheat for 1 hr before loading arrays.
IMPORTANT: An accurate hybridization temperature is critical for this assay. Therefore,
we recommend that your hybridization ovens be serviced at least once per year to ensure
that they are operating within the manufacturer’s specifications.
Prepare the Samples
To prepare the samples:
1. If the labeled samples from the previous stage were frozen. allow them to thaw on the bench top to
room temperature.
2. Vortex at high speed for 3 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
3. Place in a cooling chamber on ice.
Preheat the Thermal Cycler Lid
Power on the thermal cycler to preheat the lid. Leave the block at room temperature.
Prepare the Arrays
To prepare the arrays:
1. Unwrap the arrays and place on the bench top, septa-side up.
2. Mark the front or back of each array with a designation that will identify which sample is loaded onto
each array (Figure 4.28).
3. Allow the arrays to warm to room temperature on the bench top 10 to 15 min.
4. Insert a 200 µL pipet tip into the upper right septum of each array.
IMPORTANT: To ensure that the data collected during scanning is associated with the
correct sample, mark each array in a meaningful way. It is critical that you know which
sample is loaded onto each array.
Figure 4.28 Arrays prepared for sample loading
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
79
Prepare the Hybridization Master Mix
As an option, you can prepare a larger volume of Hybridization Master Mix than required. The extra mix
can be aliquoted and stored at –20 °C for up to one week.
Preparing Fresh Hybridization Master Mix
To prepare the Hybridization Master Mix:
1. To the 50 mL centrifuge tube, add the appropriate volume of each reagent in the order shown in
Table 4.37.
DMSO addition: pipet directly into the solution of other reagents. Avoid pipetting along the side of
the tube.
2. Mix well.
3. If making a larger volume, aliquot out the volume required, and store the remainder at –20 °C for up
to one week.
Table 4.37 Hybridization Master Mix
Reagent
1 Sample
4 Samples
(15% extra)
8 Samples
(15% extra)
12 Samples
(15% extra)
24 Samples
(15% extra)
MES (12X; 1.25 M)
12.0 µL
55.2 µL
110.4 µL
165.6 µL
331.2 µL
Denhardt’s Solution (50X)
13.0 µL
59.8 µL
119.6 µL
179.4 µL
358.8 µL
EDTA (0.5 M)
3.0 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
41.4 µL
82.8 µL
HSDNA (10 mg/mL)
3.0 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
41.4 µL
82.8 µL
OCR, 0100
2.0 µL
9.2 µL
18.4 µL
27.6 µL
55.2 µL
Human Cot-1 DNA® (1 mg/
mL)
3.0 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
41.4 µL
82.8 µL
Tween-20 (3%)
1.0 µL
4.6 µL
9.2 µL
13.8 µL
27.6 µL
DMSO (100%)
13.0 µL
59.8 µL
119.6 µL
179.4 µL
358.8 µL
TMACL (5 M)
140.0 µL
644.0 µL
1288.0 µL
1932.0 µL
3864.0 µL
Total
190 µL
874 µL
1748 µL
2622 µL
5244 µL
Using Premixed Hybridization Master Mix
Hybridization Master Mix can be made ahead of time, aliquoted and stored for 1 week at –20 °C.
To prepare stored Hybridization Master Mix:
1. Place the stored Hybridization Master Mix on the bench top, and allow to warm to room temperature.
2. Vortex at high speed until the mixture is homogeneous and without precipitates (may take up to
5 min).
3. Pulse spin for 3 sec.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Add Hybridization Master Mix and Denature
To add Hybridization Master Mix and denature the samples:
1. Optional: pour the Hybridization Master Mix into a solution basin.
2. Using a P200 pipet, add 190 µL of Hybridization Master Mix to each sample.
Total volume in each well is 262.5 µL.
3. Tightly seal the plate.
4. Vortex the plate for 30 sec; then spin down for 30 sec.
5. Place the plate onto the thermal cycler and run the Cyto Hyb program.
IMPORTANT: Ensure that the seal is not pulled off any wells when you close the
thermal cycler lid.
Table 4.38 Cyto Hyb Thermal Cycler Program
Cyto Hyb Program
Temperature
Time
95 °C
10 min
49 °C
Hold
Load the Samples onto Arrays
To load the samples onto arrays:
1. When the thermal cycler reaches 49 °C, open the lid.
2. If > 7 samples, cut and remove the film from one column of samples.
Leave the remaining wells covered. Keeping these wells covered will help to prevent crosscontamination and evaporation.
3. Using a P200 pipet, remove 200 µL of the first sample and immediately inject it into an array.
4. Cover the septa on the array with a Tough-Spot (Figure 4.29).
Press firmly to ensure a tight seal to prevent evaporation and leakage.
Septa covered
with Tough-Spots
Figure 4.29 Loading samples onto arrays
chapter 4 | Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
81
5. When 4 arrays are loaded and the septa are covered:
A. Load the arrays into an oven tray evenly spaced.
B. Immediately place the tray into the hybridization oven.
Do not allow loaded arrays to sit at room temperature for more than approximately 1 min. Ensure
that the oven is balanced as the trays are loaded, and ensure that the trays are rotating at 60 rpm
at all times.
6. Repeat this process until all samples are loaded onto arrays and are placed in a hybridization oven.
All samples should be loaded within 30 min.
7. Allow the arrays to rotate at 50 °C, 60 rpm for 16 to 18 hr.
IMPORTANT: Allow the arrays to rotate in the hybridization ovens for 16 to 18 hr at 50 °C
and 60 rpm. This temperature is optimized for this product, and should be stringently
followed.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Chapter
5
WASHING, STAINING AND SCANNING ARRAYS
This chapter describes how to wash, stain and scan the Affymetrix® Genome-Wide Human SNP Array
6.0. The instruments that you will use include the:
• Fluidics Station 450 to wash and stain arrays
• GeneChip® Scanner 3000 7G to scan arrays
Once the arrays are scanned, the array image (.dat file) is ready for analysis.
Equipment and Consumables Required
The following equipment and consumables are required for washing, staining and scanning arrays.
Table 5.1 Equipment and Consumables Required for Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
Item
Vendor
Part Number
GeneChip ® Scanner 3000 7G
Affymetrix
—
GeneChip ® Fluidics Station 450
Affymetrix
—
One of the following instrument control applications:
• Affymetrix GeneChip® Operating Software
• Affymetrix GeneChip® Command Console
Affymetrix
—
USA Scientific
1415-2600 (or
equivalent)
Rainin Pipetman®
(or equivalent)
—
—
—
Cole-Parmer
H-06418-04
USA Scientific
9185-0000
Sterile, RNase-free, microcentrifuge vials, 1.5 mL
Pipets, (P-2, P-20, P-200, P-1000)
Sterile-barrier pipette tips and non-barrier pipette tips
Tygon ® Tubing, 0.04” inner diameter
Tough-Spots ®, Label Dots
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Reagents Required
The following reagents are required for washing and staining arrays. These reagents are
recommendations, and have been tested and evaluated by Affymetrix scientists. Information and part
numbers listed are based on U.S. catalog information.
Table 5.2 Reagents Required for Washing and Staining Arrays
Reagent
Vendor
Part Number
Lonza
51200
Invitrogen
15230147
Lonza
51214
Vector Laboratories
BA-0500
Molecular Probes
S-866
Pierce Chemical
28320
Bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite)
VWR Scientific
21899-504
(or equivalent)
Denhardt’s Solution, 50X concentrate
Sigma-Aldrich
D2532
MES hydrate
Sigma-Aldrich
M5287
MES Sodium Salt
Sigma-Aldrich
M5057
Ambion
9760G
AccuGENE® Molecular Biology-Grade Water, 1 L
Distilled water
20X SSPE (3 M NaCl, 0.2 M NaH2PO4, 0.02 M EDTA)
Anti-streptavidin antibody (goat), biotinylated (reconstitute
according to product instructions)
R-Phycoerythrin Streptavidin
10% Surfact-Amps® 20 (Tween-20)
5 M NaCl, RNase-free, DNase-free
Reagent Preparation
Prepare the following buffers and antibody:
•
•
•
•
•
Wash A (Non-Stringent Wash Buffer)
Wash B (Stringent Wash Buffer)
Anti-streptavidin Antibody (0.5 mg/mL)
MES Stock Buffer
Array Holding Buffer
Wash A: Non-Stringent Wash Buffer
(6X SSPE, 0.01% Tween 20)
For 1000 mL:
• 300 mL of 20X SSPE
• 1.0 mL of 10% Tween-20
• 699 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Store at room temperature.
chapter 5 | Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
85
Wash B: Stringent Wash Buffer
(0.6X SSPE, 0.01% Tween 20)
For 1000 mL:
• 30 mL of 20X SSPE
• 1.0 mL of 10% Tween-20
• 969 mL of water
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
Store at room temperature.
The pH should be 8.
IMPORTANT: Prepare Wash B in smaller quantities to avoid long term storage. Tightly seal
the container to avoid changes in salt concentration due to evaporation.
0.5 mg/mL Anti-Streptavidin Antibody
Resuspend 0.5 mg in 1 mL of water.
Store at 4°C.
12X MES Stock Buffer
(1.25 M MES, 0.89 M [Na+])
For 1000 mL:
• 70.4g of MES hydrate
• 193.3g of MES Sodium Salt
• 800 mL of Molecular Biology Grade Water
Mix and adjust volume to 1000 mL.
The pH should be between 6.5 and 6.7.
Filter through a 0.2 µm filter.
IMPORTANT: Do not autoclave. Store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light.
Discard solution if yellow.
1X Array Holding Buffer
(Final 1X concentration is 100 mM MES, 1M [Na+], 0.01% Tween-20)
For 100 mL:
• 8.3 mL of 12X MES Stock Buffer
• 18.5 mL of 5 M NaCl
• 0.1 mL of 10% Tween-20
• 73.1 mL of water
Store at 2°C to 8°C, and shield from light.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Fluidics Station and Scanner Control Software
You will use one of the instrument control applications listed below to operate the fluidics station and
the scanner. For more information on these applications, refer to the appropriate user’s guide.
• Affymetrix GeneChip® Operating Software (GCOS)
Affymetrix GeneChip® Operating Software User’s Guide
• Affymetrix GeneChip® Command Console (AGCC)
Affymetrix GeneChip® Command Console™ User’s Guide
Register a New Experiment or Sample
To register a new experiment or sample:
• If using GCOS, register a new Experiment.
• If using AGCC, register a new Sample.
Prime the Fluidics Station
The Fluidics Station 450 is used to wash and stain the arrays; it is operated using either GCOS or AGCC
software.
To prime the Fluidics Station:
1. Turn on the Fluidics Station.
2. Prime the Fluidics Station.
• Select protocol Prime_450 for each module
• Intake buffer reservoir: use Non-Stringent Wash Buffer
• Intake buffer reservoir B: use Stringent Wash Buffer
About Priming the Fluidics Station
Priming ensures the lines of the fluidics station are filled with the appropriate buffers and the fluidics
station is ready to run fluidics station protocols.
Priming should be done:
•
•
•
•
When the fluidics station is first started
When wash solutions are changed
Before washing, if a shutdown has been performed
If the LCD window instructs the user to prime
chapter 5 | Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
87
Wash and Stain Arrays
The staining protocol for mapping arrays is a three stage process:
1. A Streptavidin Phycoerythin (SAPE) stain.
2. An antibody amplification step.
3. A final stain with SAPE.
Once stained, each array is filled with Array Holding Buffer prior to scanning.
Prepare Arrays for Washing and Staining
To prepare the arrays for washing and staining:
1. After 16 to 18 hr of hybridization, remove the arrays from the oven.
2. Extract the hybridization cocktail from each array and transfer it to the corresponding well of a
96-well plate.
Store on ice during the procedure, or at –80 °C for long-term storage.
3. Fill each array completely with 270 µL of Array Holding Buffer.
See Array Holding Buffer on page 88 for buffer recipe.
4. Allow the arrays to equilibrate to room temperature before washing and staining.
NOTE: Arrays can be stored in the Array Holding Buffer at 4°C for up to 3 hr before
proceeding with washing and staining. Equilibrate arrays to room temperature before
washing and staining.
Prepare Buffers and Solutions
Prepare the following buffers and solutions (recipes follow). Mix well.
•
•
•
•
Stain Buffer
SAPE Stain Solution
Antibody Stain Solution
Array Holding Buffer
Stain Buffer
Mix well.
Table 5.3 Stain Buffer
Reagent
1 Array
4 Arrays
(15% extra)
8 Arrays
(15% extra)
12 Arrays
(15% extra)
24 Arrays
(15% extra)
800.04 µL
3680 µL
7360 µL
11040 µL
22.08 mL
SSPE (20X)
360 µL
1656 µL
3312 µL
4968 µL
9.94 mL
Tween-20 (3%)
3.96 µL
18.2 µL
36.4 µL
54.6 µL
109.3 µL
24 µL
110.4 µL
220.8 µL
331.2 µL
662.4 µL
1188 µL
5465 µL
10929 µL
16394 µL
32.79 mL
H2 O
Denhardt’s (50X)
Total
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
SAPE Stain Solution
Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE) should be stored in the dark at 4°C, either foil-wrapped or in an
amber tube. Remove SAPE from refrigerator and tap the tube to mix well before preparing stain solution.
Always prepare the SAPE stain solution immediately before use. Mix well. Do not freeze either
concentrated SAPE or diluted SAPE stain solution.
A vial containing SAPE Stain Solution must be placed in position 1 for each module used.
Table 5.4 SAPE Stain Solution
Reagent
1 Array
4 Arrays
(10% extra)
8 Arrays
(10% extra)
12 Arrays
(10 extra)
24 Arrays
(10% extra)
Stain Buffer
594 µL
2614 µL
5227 µL
7841 µL
15.68 mL
6 µL
26 µL
53 µL
79 µL
158.4 µL
600 µL
2640 µL
5280 µL
7920 µL
15.84 mL
1 mg/mL
Streptavidin
Phycoerythrin
(SAPE)
Total
Antibody Stain Solution
Mix well. A vial containing Antibody Stain Solution must be placed in position 2 for each module used.
Table 5.5 Antibody Solution
Reagent
1 Array
4 Arrays
(10% extra)
8 Arrays
(10% extra)
12 Arrays
(10 extra)
24 Arrays
(10% extra)
Stain Buffer
594 µL
2614 µL
5227 µL
7841 µL
15.68 mL
0.5 mg/mL
biotinylated
antibody
6 µL
26 µL
53 µL
79 µL
158.4 µL
600 µL
2640 µL
5280 µL
7920 µL
15.84 mL
Total
Array Holding Buffer
Mix well. A vial containing Array Holding Buffer must be placed in position 3 for each module used.
Table 5.6 Array Holding Buffer
Components
Volume
MES Stock Buffer (12X)
8.3 mL
5 M NaCl
18.5 mL
Tween-20 (10%)
0.1 mL
Water
73.1 mL
Total
100 mL
chapter 5 | Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
89
Washing and Staining Arrays
Wash and Stain Protocol
The GenomeWideSNP6_450 protocol is an antibody amplification protocol for mapping targets
(described in Table 5.7). Use it to wash and stain the Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0.
Table 5.7 GenomeWideSNP6_450 protocol for the Fluidics Station 450
GenomeWideSNP6_450 Protocol for 49 Format (Standard) Arrays
Post Hyb Wash #1
6 cycles of 5 mixes/cycle with Wash Buffer A at 25°C.
Post Hyb Wash #2
24 cycles of 5 mixes/cycle with Wash Buffer B at 45°C.
Stain
Stain the array for 10 min in SAPE solution at 25°C.
Post Stain Wash
6 cycles of 5 mixes/cycle with Wash Buffer A at 25°C.
2nd Stain
Stain the array for 10 min in Antibody Stain Solution at 25°C.
3rd Stain
Stain the array for 10 min in SAPE solution at 25°C.
Final Wash
10 cycles of 6 mixes/cycle with Wash Buffer A at 30°C. The final holding
temperature is 25°C.
Filling Array
Fill the array with Array Holding Buffer.
Wash Buffer A = non-stringent wash buffer
Wash Buffer B = stringent wash buffer
IMPORTANT: These wash and stain buffers differ from the GeneChip® expression buffers.
Washing and Staining Arrays
To wash and stain the arrays:
1. Select your experiment (GCOS) or sample (AGCC) name.
The Probe Array Type appears automatically.
2. Select the protocol GenomeWideSNP6_450.
3. Start the protocol and follow the instructions in the LCD on the fluidics station.
If you are unfamiliar with inserting and removing arrays from the fluidics station modules, refer to
the appropriate Fluidics Station User’s Guide, or Quick Reference Card (P/N 08-0093 for the Fluidics
Station 450).
4. Insert an array into the designated module of the fluidics station while the cartridge lever is in the
Down or Eject position.
5. When finished, verify that the cartridge lever is returned to the Up or Engaged position.
6. Remove any vials remaining in the positions of the fluidics station module(s) being used.
7. When prompted to “Load Vials 1-2-3,” place the three vials into positions 1, 2 and 3 on the fluidics
station.
A. Place one vial containing 600 µL Streptavidin Phycoerythrin (SAPE) stain solution mix in
position 1.
B. Place one vial containing 600 µL anti-streptavidin biotinylated antibody stain solution in
position 2.
C. Place one vial containing 1 mL Array Holding Buffer in position 3.
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
D. Press down on the needle lever to snap needles into position and to start the run.
Once these steps are complete, the fluidics protocol begins. The Fluidics Station dialog box at the
workstation terminal and the LCD window displays the status of the washing and staining steps.
8. When staining is finished, remove the microcentrifuge vials containing stain and replace with three
empty vials as prompted.
9. Remove the arrays from the fluidics station by first pressing down the cartridge lever to the eject
position.
10. Check the array window for large bubbles or air pockets.
If bubbles are present, 1) use a pipette to manually fill the array with Array Holding Buffer, 2) remove
one-half of the solution, then 3) manually fill the array with Array Holding Buffer.
IMPORTANT: If a bubble is present, do not return the array to the array holder. The
array must be filled manually with Array Holding Buffer.
11. If the array has no large bubbles, it is ready for scanning. Pull up on the cartridge lever to engage
wash block and proceed to Scanning Arrays on page 91.
If the arrays cannot be scanned promptly, store them at 4°C in the dark until ready for scanning. Scan
must be performed within 24 hr.
12. When finished washing and staining, shut down the fluidics station following the procedure listed
under Shutting Down the Fluidics Station on page 92.
chapter 5 | Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
91
Scanning Arrays
The GeneChip Scanner 3000 7G is controlled by GCOS or AGCC software.
Prepare the Scanner
Turn on the scanner at least 10 min before use.
WARNING: The scanner uses a laser and is equipped with a safety interlock system.
Defeating the interlock system may result in exposure to hazardous laser light.
Read and be familiar with the operation of the scanner before attempting to scan an array.
Refer to the GeneChip® Scanner 3000 Quick Reference Card (P/N 08-0075).
Prepare Arrays for Scanning
To prepare arrays for scanning:
1. If the arrays were stored at 4°C, allow them to warm to room temperature before scanning.
2. If necessary, clean the glass surface of the array with a non-abrasive towel or tissue before scanning.
Do not use alcohol to clean the glass.
3. On the back of the array cartridge, clean excess fluid from around the septa.
4. Carefully cover both septa with Tough Spots (See Figure 5.1 on page 91).
Press to ensure the spots remain flat. If the spots do not apply smoothly (e.g. if you see bumps,
bubbles, tears or curled edges) do not attempt to smooth out the spot. Remove the spot and apply a
new spot.
5. Insert an array into the scanner and test the autofocus to ensure the spots do not interfere with the
focus.
If a focus error message is observed, remove the spot and apply a new spot. Ensure that the spots lie
flat.
Figure 5.1 Applying Tough-Spots® to Arrays
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Scanning the Array
NOTE: Customers using the Autoloader should refer to the Autoloader User’s Guide.
To scan arrays:
1. Select the experiment name (GCOS) or sample name (AGCC) that corresponds to the array being
scanned.
2. Following the GCOS or AGCC instructions as appropriate, load the array into the scanner and begin
the scan.
Only one scan per array is required. Pixel resolution and wavelength are preset and cannot be
changed.
WARNING: The scanner door will open and close automatically. Do not attempt to
manually open or close the scanner door as this may damage the instrument.
Do not force the array into the holder.
Shutting Down the Fluidics Station
To shut down the Fluidics Station:
1. Gently lift up the cartridge lever to engage (close) the washblock.
After removing an array from the holder, the LCD window displays the message ENGAGE
WASHBLOCK. The instrument automatically performs a Cleanout procedure. The LCD window
indicates the progress of this procedure.
2. When REMOVE VIALS is displayed in the LCD, remove the vials.
The REMOVE VIALS message indicates the Cleanout procedure is complete.
3. If no other processing is to be performed, place the wash lines into a bottle filled with deionized
water.
4. Using GCOS or AGCC, choose the Shutdown_450 protocol for all modules.
5. Run the protocol for all modules.
The Shutdown protocol is critical to instrument reliability. Refer to the instrument User’s Guide for
more information.
6. When the protocol is complete, turn the instrument off.
7. Place the wash lines in a different bottle of deionized water than the one used for the shutdown
protocol.
IMPORTANT: To maintain the cleanliness of the fluidics station and obtain the highest
quality image and data possible, a weekly bleach protocol is highly recommended.
chapter 5 | Washing, Staining and Scanning Arrays
93
Data Analysis
To analyze the data collected by the scanner, use Affymetrix Genotyping Console™ version 2.1 or later.
Genotyping Console includes copy number and LOH algorithms for the SNP Array 6.0. It also includes
the Genotyping Console Browser and Segment Reporting Tool.
Figure 5.2 Use Genotyping Console version 2.1 or later to analyze your data
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Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Chapter
6
TROUBLESHOOTING
General Assay Performance Recommendations
As with any assay using PCR, the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay has an inherent risk of
contamination with PCR product from previous reactions. In Chapter 2 Laboratory Setup and
Recommendations, we strongly recommend two separate work areas be used to minimize the risk of cross
contamination during the assay procedure. It is essential to adhere to workflow recommendations. PCR
reactions should only be carried out in the Post-PCR Area only. Personnel should not re-enter the PrePCR Clean Area once exposed to PCR products without first showering and changing into clean clothes.
Carefully reading and following the protocol as written is essential. The Cytogenetics Copy Number
Assay has been validated using the reagents and suppliers listed. Substitution of reagents and taking
shortcuts are not recommended as your results could be suboptimal. For example, always use
AccuGENE® water from Cambrex, and ligase and restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs.
Additional recommendations are as follows:
• Think ahead to ensure that the reagents and equipment you require, including pipettes, are in the correct
work area. Ensuring the proper equipment is available in the proper laboratory areas will make the
workflow easier, and will help reduce the risk of sample contamination.
• Pay particular attention to the storage and handling of reagents. Proper storage and handling is
particularly important for enzymes such as DNA Ligase and the Fragmentation Reagent (DNase I
enzyme). Both of these enzymes are sensitive to temperatures exceeding –20°C.
To prevent loss of enzyme activity:
- Immediately place enzymes in a cooler chilled to –20 °C when removed from the freezer.
Immediately return the enzyme to –20 °C after use.
- Take care when pipetting enzymes stored in glycerol, which is viscous. Do not store at –80 °C.
- Because Fragmentation Reagent activity can decline over time after dilution on ice, add it to the
samples as quickly as possible.
• Preparing master mixes with a 15% excess ensures consistency in reagent preparation by minimizing
pipetting errors and reducing handling time of temperature sensitive reagents. The success of this assay
depends on the accurate pipetting and subsequent thorough mixing of small volumes of reagents.
• The PCR reaction for this assay has been validated using the specified thermal cyclers. These thermal
cyclers were chosen because of their ramping times. We highly recommend that your PCR thermal
cyclers be calibrated regularly. Take care when programming your thermal cycler and use the
recommended 96-well plate.
• It is essential to run gels to monitor both the PCR and the fragmentation reactions.
For the PCR reaction, individual PCR products are run on a gel. Product (bands) should be visible in
the 200to 1100 bp size range. See Check the PCR Reaction by Running a Gel on page 48 for more
information.
96
•
•
•
•
•
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Following fragmentation, run your samples on a gel. Successful fragmentation is confirmed by the
presence of a smear of < 180 bp in size. See Check the Fragmentation Reaction by Running a Gel on
page 70 for more information.
Run controls in parallel with each group of samples.
Substitute water for DNA as a negative control. The absence of bands on your PCR gel for this control
confirms no previously amplified PCR product has contaminated your samples. Use Reference
Genomic DNA 103 as a positive control (included in the reagent kit). These controls are effective
troubleshooting tools that will help you confirm the successful completion of each stage of the assay.
Oligonucleotide controls are included in the reagent kit. These controls are added to the target samples
prior to hybridization and act to confirm successful hybridization, washing, staining, and sensitivity of
the array. The oligonucleotide control reagents contain oligo B2 which is used for grid alignment.
Regularly calibrate all multichannel pipettes.
Check that your spectrophotometer is accurately calibrated, and be sure the OD measurement is within
the quantitative linear range of the instrument (0.2 to 2.0 OD).
Hybridization ovens should be serviced at least once per year to ensure that they are operating within
the manufacturer’s specifications.
chapter 6 | Troubleshooting
97
Troubleshooting the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay
Problem
Likely Cause
Solution
Faint/absent bands on PCR gel
Both samples & positive control Problem with master mixes or individual
affected.
reagents.
Ensure all reagents added to master mixes and
enzymes are stored at –20°C. Work quickly with
enzymes and return to –20°C directly after use to
prevent loss of activity.
Failed restriction digest.
Use restriction enzyme to digest a known good
DNA sample. Run gel to confirm restriction
enzyme activity. Use the correct concentration of
BSA.
Failed adaptor ligation reaction.
Confirm enzyme activity.
Ligase buffer contains ATP and should be
defrosted/ held at 4°C. Vortex ligase buffer
thoroughly before use to ensure precipitate is resuspended. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Try
a fresh tube of buffer.
Reduced adaptor ligation efficiency due to
adaptor self-ligation, DNA re-ligation.
To prevent self-ligation of adaptor, work rapidly
and add DNA ligase last.
Failed PCR reaction.
Check PCR reagents. Take care with preparation of
master mixes and ensure accurate pipetting and
thorough mixing.
Reduced PCR reaction yield – non optimal
PCR conditions.
Use a calibrated thermal cycler, and check PCR
programs. Use the recommended 96-well PCR
plates.
Thoroughly mix PCR reaction.
Samples affected (but positive
controls OK).
Ligation mix not diluted prior to PCR
reaction.
Ligation mixture diluted 1:4 with molecular
biology grade water to remove potential inhibitors
and maintain optimal pH and salt concentration.
Incorrect concentration of nucleotides.
Check dNTP stock concentration and vendor.
Used Nsp adaptor for Sty digest, or vice
versa.
Repeat ligation step with correct adaptors.
Non-optimal reaction conditions.
Prepare master mixes as described and include a
positive control to eliminate reagents and assay
problems as detailed above.
Insufficient starting material.
250 ng genomic DNA should be used. Confirm
concentration using calibrated
spectrophotometer.
Sample DNA contains enzymatic or
chemical inhibitors.
Ensure genomic DNA is purified and diluted in low
EDTA (0.1mM) TE buffer.
Use the DNA cleanup procedure on page 16 to
remove inhibitors.
Degraded sample DNA.
Confirm quality of genomic DNA sample.
Beads not fully resuspended during DNA
elution step.
Ensure that beads are fully resuspended and
mixed during the elution step (before pelleting
and transfer of the eluate).
Low PCR yield
DNA lost during purification.
Gel images show PCR product,
but low OD.
98
Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Problem
Likely Cause
Solution
Insufficient purified PCR product for fragmentation
Do the following in this order:
1.Measure the actual volume using a pipettor.
2.Add Buffer EB to a final volume of 47 µL.
3.Mix by pipetting up and down.
4.Transfer 2 µL to the corresponding well(s) in the
OD plate.
5.Proceed to fragmentation with 45 µL in each
well.
Volume of eluate for particular
samples is
< 47 µL.
Fragmented PCR product is not the correct size
PCR product is still visible in
200-1100 bp size region
Failed or incomplete fragmentation due to
reduced DNase activity.
Check that you have selected the correct activity of
DNase to add to fragmentation reaction. (See
Prepare the Fragmentation Master Mix on
page 67)
Ensure fragmentation reagent is kept at
–20°C. Do not reuse diluted working stock.
.CEL file can not be generated
GCOS or AGCC is unable to
align grid.
Unable to place a grid on the .dat file due to Hybridization controls including oligo B2 must be
the absence of B2 signal.
added to hybridization cocktail for grid alignment.
.dat image is dim.
Insufficient signal intensity or staining
failure.
Make fresh stain buffers.
Incorrect wash buffers used on fluidics
station.
Prime the fluidics station with the correct buffers
prior to running the assay. Incorrect wash buffers
will disrupt hybridization of the labeled,
fragmented DNA.
High MAPD or Low Contrast QC Values
Over fragmentation of DNA sample due to
Gel images and
incorrect dilution of Fragmentation Reagent
spectrophotometric
quantitation indicate successful stock.
PCR reaction.
Extremely high MAPD or low
Contrast QC values.
Sample hybridization is absent
on .cel and .dat images but B2
grid is bright.
Labeling reaction suboptimal.
Check that you have selected the correct activity of
DNase to add to fragmentation reaction. (See
Prepare the Fragmentation Master Mix on
page 67.) Work quickly and on ice; mix
thoroughly. Transfer reactions to pre-heated
thermal cycler (37°C).
Use a new vial of Terminal Dideoxynucleotidyl
Transferase. Verify the labeling reagents and
repeat labeling.
Positive control has good MAPD Genomic DNA not optimal.
and Contrast QC values, but
samples do not.
Ensure DNA samples are of high quality (i.e., run
in a 1 to 2% gel and compare to Reference 103
DNA control). Use positive control sample as a
reference guide for assay procedures. Prepare
master mixes for samples and controls.
Very high MAPD or low Contrast Mixed up Nsp and Sty enzymes during the
QC values.
digestion or ligation stages.
Repeat the experiment, making sure the correct
reagents are used for each digestion and ligation
stage.
chapter 6 | Troubleshooting
99
OD Troubleshooting Guidelines
Table 6.1 Sample OD > 1.4 (> 7 µg/µL)
If the sample OD is greater than 1.4 (calculated concentration greater than 7 µg/µL), a problem may exist with either PCR product
elution or the OD reading. The limit on PCR yield is approximately 7 µg/µL, as observed in practice and as predicted by the mass
of dNTPs in the reaction.
Possible causes include:
• Check the OD320 reading. If it is > 0.1, you may have bead slurry carryover. OK to proceed.
• The purified PCR product was eluted in a volume less than 55 µL.
• The purified PCR product was not mixed adequately before making the 1:100 dilution.
• The diluted PCR product was not mixed adequately before taking the OD reading.
• The plate spectrophotometer or NanoDrop may require calibration.
• Pipettes may require calibration.
• The settings on the plate spectrophotometer, NanoDrop, or the software may be incorrect.
• OD calculations may be incorrect and should be checked.
Table 6.2
Sample OD < 0.9 (4.5 µg/µL)
If the sample OD is less than 0.8 (calculated concentration less than 4 µg/µL), a problem may exist with either the genomic DNA,
the PCR reaction, the elution of purified PCR products, or the OD readings.
Possible problems with input genomic DNA that would lead to reduced yield include:
• The presence of inhibitors (heme, EDTA, etc.).
• Severely degraded genomic DNA.
• Inaccurate concentration of genomic DNA.
Check the OD reading for the PCR products derived from Reference DNA 103 as a control for these issues.
Troubleshooting possible problems with the elution or OD readings. Possible causes include:
• The purified PCR product was eluted in a volume greater than 55 µL.
• The purified PCR product was not mixed adequately before making the 1:100 dilution.
• The diluted PCR product was not mixed adequately before taking the OD reading.
Table 6.3 OD260/OD280 ratio is not between 1.8 and 2.0
Possible causes include:
• The PCR product may be not be sufficiently purified. Ensure the vortexer is working properly.
• An error may have been made while taking the OD readings.
• The PCR product may not have been adequately washed. Check the 75% EtOH wash solution.
100 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Table 6.4 The OD320 measurement is > 0.2
Possible causes include:
• Magnetic beads may have been carried over into purified sample. Action: Spin down the sample for 5 min. Place on the
MagnaRack and pipet out the eluate.
• Precipitate may be present in the eluted samples.
• There may be defects in the OD plate.
• Air bubbles in the OD plate or in solutions.
Affymetrix Instruments
Under any of the following conditions, unplug the instrument from the power source and contact
Affymetrix Technical Support:
• When the power cord is damaged or frayed
• If any liquid has penetrated the instrument
• If, after service or calibration, the instrument does not perform to specifications
.
NOTE: Make sure you have the model and serial number available when calling Affymetrix
Technical Support.
Affymetrix, Inc.
3420 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95051
USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: 1-888-362-2447 (1-888-DNA-CHIP)
Fax: 1-408-731-5441
Affymetrix UK Ltd
Voyager, Mercury Park,
Wycombe Lane, Wooburn Green,
High Wycombe HP10 0HH
United Kingdom
E-mail: [email protected]
UK and Others Tel: +44 (0) 1628 552550
France Tel: 0800919505
Germany Tel: 01803001334
Fax: +44 (0) 1628 552585
Affymetrix Japan, K. K.
Mita NN Bldg
16 Floor, 4-1-23 Shiba,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014
Japan
Tel: (03) 5730-8200
Fax: (03) 5730-8201
Chapter
7
FLUIDICS STATION CARE AND MAINTENANCE
General Fluidics Station Care
• Use a surge protector on the power line to the fluidics station.
• Always run a Shutdown protocol when the instrument will be off or unused overnight or longer. This
will prevent salt crystals from forming within the fluidics system.
• To ensure proper functioning of the instrument, perform periodic maintenance.
• When not using the instrument, leave the sample needles in the lowered position. Each needle should
extend into an empty vial. This will protect them from accidental damage.
• Always use deionized water to prevent contamination of the lines. Change buffers with freshly
prepared buffer at each system startup.
• The fluidics station should be positioned on a sturdy, level bench away from extremes in temperature
and away from moving air.
WARNING: Before performing any maintenance, turn off power to the fluidics station to
avoid injury in case of a pump or electrical malfunction.
Fluidics Station Bleach Protocol
Affymetrix recommends a weekly cleaning protocol for the fluidics station. This protocol uses commonly
purchased sodium hypochlorite bleach.
This protocol is designed to eliminate any residual SAPE-antibody complex that may be present in the
fluidics station tubing and needles. The protocol runs a bleach solution through the system followed by
a rinse cycle with deionized (DI) water. This protocol takes approximately one hr and forty minutes to
complete. Affymetrix recommends running this protocol weekly, regardless of the frequency of use. The
current version of the protocol can be found at:
www.affymetrix.com/support/technical/fluidics_scripts.affx
102 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
The Bleach Cycle
To avoid carryover, or cross contamination, from the bleach protocol, Affymetrix recommends the use
of dedicated bottles for bleach and DI water. Additional bottles can be obtained from Affymetrix.
Table 7.1 Affymetrix Recommended Bottles
Part Number
Description
400118
Media Bottle, SQ, 500 mL
400119
Media Bottle, SQ, 1000 mL
1. Disengage the washblock for each module by pressing down on the cartridge lever. Remove any
probe array cartridge Figure 7.1 on page 102.
2. Prepare 500 mL of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution using deionized water.
You can follow these directions to make 500 mL of bleach:
In a 1 liter plastic or glass graduated cylinder, combine 43.75 mL of commercial bleach (such as
Clorox® bleach, which is 6% sodium hypochlorite) with 456.25 mL of DI H2O, mix well. Pour the
solution into a 500 mL plastic bottle, and place the plastic bottle on fluidics station.
IMPORTANT:
• The shelf life of this solution is 24 hr. After this period, you must prepare fresh solution.
• Each fluidics station with 4 modules requires 500 mL of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite
solution.
Figure 7.1 Disengaged washblocks showing cartridge levers in the down position. Remove any cartridges
chapter 7 | Fluidics Station Care and Maintenance 103
3. As shown in Figure 7.2:
A. Place on the fluidics station an empty one liter waste bottle, a 500 mL bottle of bleach and a one
liter bottle of DI water.
The Bleach protocol requires approximately one liter of DI water.
B. Insert the waste line into the waste bottle.
C. Immerse all three wash and water lines into the bleach solution.
IMPORTANT: Do NOT immerse the waste line into the bleach.
x
4. Open the instrument control software (GCOS or AGCC).
5. Choose the current bleach protocol (as of the writing of this manual, it is BLEACHv2_450) for each
module.
Figure 7.2 The bleach cycle. Immerse the tubes into the 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. The waste line
remains in the waste bottle.
104 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Figure 7.3 The Fluidics Station protocol window: select all modules.
6. In GCOS or AGCC, run the protocol for all modules.
NOTE: The fluidics station will not start until the needle lever is pressed down (Figure 7.4
on page 104). The temperature will ramp up to 50 °C.
7. Follow the prompts on each LCD. Load empty 1.5 mL vials onto each module if not already done so.
8. Press down on each of the needle levers to start the bleach protocol (Figure 7.4).
Figure 7.4 Press down on the needle levers to start the bleach protocol.
9. The fluidics station will begin the protocol, emptying the lines and performing the cleaning cycles
using bleach solution.
10. After approximately 30 min, the LCD will prompt you when the bleach cycle is over and the rinse
cycle is about to begin.
chapter 7 | Fluidics Station Care and Maintenance 105
The Rinse Cycle
Once the bleach cycle has finished, the second part of the protocol is a rinse step. This step is essential
to remove all traces of bleach from the system. Failure to complete this step can result in damaged arrays.
1. Follow the prompts on the LCD for each module. Lift up on the needle levers and remove the bleach
vials. Load clean, empty vials onto each module.
2. Remove the three wash and water lines from the bleach bottle and transfer them to the DI water bottle
(Figure 7.5).
At this step, there is no need to be concerned about the bleach remaining in the lines.
Figure 7.5 Immerse the three wash and water lines in the DI water bottle.
3. Press down on the needle levers to begin the rinse cycle.
The fluidics station will empty the lines and rinse the needles.
4. When the rinse is completed after approximately one hour, the fluidics station will bring the
temperature back to 25°C and drain the lines with air.
The LCD display will read CLEANING DONE.
5. Discard the vials used for the bleach protocol.
6. After completing the bleach protocol, follow the suggestions for storage of the Fluidics Station 450
in Table 7.2 below.
106 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Table 7.2 Storage Suggestions for the Fluidics Station 450
If:
Then do this:
Planning to use the system immediately
After running the bleach protocol, remove the DI water
supply used in the rinse phase and install the appropriate
reagents for use in the next staining and washing protocol
(including fresh DI water).
•
Perform a prime protocol without loading your probe
arrays.
Failure to run a prime protocol will result in
irreparable damage to the loaded hybridized probe
arrays.
Not planning to use the system immediately
Since the system is already well purged with water, there
is no need to run an additional shutdown protocol.
Remove the old DI water bottle and replace it with a fresh
bottle.
Not planning to use the system for an extended
period of time (longer than one week)
Remove the DI water and perform a “dry” protocol
shutdown. This will remove most of the water from the
system and prevent unwanted microbial growth in the
supply lines.
Also, remove the pump tubing from the peristaltic pump
rollers.
Appendix
A
GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING 16 SAMPLES
This appendix illustrates the plate layouts recommended for processing 16 reactions (14 samples plus one
positive and one negative control). It also provides a high level overview of the workflow.
108 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Digestion, Ligation and PCR
First Transfer
Digest/Ligate Plate
N
1
9
1
9
2
10
2
10
3
11
3
11
4
12
4
12
5
13
5
13
6
14
6
14
+ 7
+
7
+ +
– 8
–
8
– –
P
C
R
1
Example: When transferring samples from Digest/Ligate
plate column 1 to PCR plate 1:
• Cap all wells in columns 2 through 12 on the Digest/
Ligate plate.
• Cap all wells in columns 5 through 12 on PCR Plate 1.
1
PCR Plate 1
N
To avoid transfer mistakes, keep all wells capped except
for:
• One column on the Digest/Ligate plate.
• The columns to which you are transferring to on the
PCR plate.
S
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Second Transfer
Digest/Ligate Plate
S
N
P
C
R
1
S
9
1
9
2
10
2
10
3
11
3
11
4
12
4
12
5
13
5
13
6
14
6
14
+
7
+
+
–
8
–
–
S
1
+ 7
– 8
2
PCR Plate 2
N
P
C
R
2
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Figure A.1 16 reaction workflow — Digest/Ligate plate to 96-well plates
P
C
R
2
appendix A | Guidelines for Processing 16 Samples 109
PCR to Purification
2 mL Tubes – 1 per Reaction
PCR Plate 1
N
P
C
R
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
S
1
2
P
C
R
1
3a
3
4
5
6
7
8
PCR Plate 2
N
P
C
R
2
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Gel check for
PCR product
S
9
10
P
C
R
2
11
13
14
+
Do not pool negative control.
3b
Add magnetic beads to
each tube and incubate in
tube rack.
4b
9
1
Figure A.2 16 reaction workflow — PCR to purification
4a
12
10
2
5
11
12
13
14
3
4
5
6
–
+
7
8
110 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Purification continued to Fragmentation and Labeling
10
9
1
2
11
12
13
14
3
4
5
6
14
1
+
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
Fragment/Label Plate
11
12
UV Spec Plate for Quantitation
8
1
9
2
10
3
11
12
1
9
4
5
13
2
10
6
14
7
+
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
+ 7
+
L
B
L
10
Transfer eluted sample to the
appropriate well of a fresh 96-well plate
7
F
R
A
G
8
7
After incubation, centrifuge and place
tubes on magnetic rack.
6
13
–
+
8
10
Quantitate, label and hyb
samples onto arrays.
Figure A.3 16 reaction workflow — Purification to Labeling
8
Fragmentation gel
9
Appendix
B
GUIDELINES FOR PROCESSING 24 SAMPLES
This appendix illustrates the plate layouts recommended for processing 24 reactions (22 samples plus one
positive and one negative control). It also provides a high level overview of the workflow.
112 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Digestion, Ligation and PCR
To avoid transfer mistakes, keep all wells capped except
for:
• One column on the Digest/Ligate plate.
• The columns to which you are transferring to on the
PCR plate.
First Transfer – Digest/Ligate Plate
N
S
1
9
1
9
2
10
2
10
3
11
3
11
4
12
4
12
5
13
5
13
6
14
6
14
+ 7
+
7
+ +
– 8
–
8
– –
1
PCR Plate 1
N
P
C
R
1
Example: When transferring samples from Digest/Ligate
plate column 1 to PCR plate 1:
• Cap all wells in columns 2 through 12 on the Digest/
Ligate plate.
• Cap all wells in columns 5 through 12 on PCR Plate 1.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
Second Transfer – Digest/Ligate Plate
S
N
P
C
R
1
P
C
R
3
S
11
11
12
12
6
5
13
13
7
6
14
14
8
+ 7
– 8
15
15
+
16
16
–
17
17
2
18
18
3
19
19
4
20
20
5
21
21
6
22
22
+
+
–
–
2
PCR Plate 2
S
N
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
+
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
–
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
P
C
R
2
3
PCR Plate 3
N
9
10
3
1
+ 7
– 8
9
10
4
Third Transfer – Digest/Ligate Plate
N
1
2
17 17 17 17
17 17 17
18 18 18 18
18 18 18
19 19 19 19
19 19 19
20 20 20 20
20 20 20
21 21 21 21
21 21 21
22 22 22 22
22 22 22
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
S
P
C
R
3
Figure B.1 24 reaction workflow — Digest/Ligate plate to PCR plates
S
P
C
R
2
appendix B | Guidelines for Processing 24 Samples 113
PCR to Purification
Gel check for
PCR product
4a
PCR Plate 1
N
P
C
R
1
2 mL Tubes – 1 per Reaction
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
S
1
2
P
C
R
1
3
4b
4
5
6
7
8
PCR Plate 2
N
5a
P
C
R
2
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
S
9
10
5b
P
C
R
2
11
12
13
Gel14check
for
14 14
PCR product
15 15 15 15
14
15
15 15 15
16 16 16 16
16
16 16 16
PCR Plate 3
N
6a
P
C
R
2
17
17 17
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
19 19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20 20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22 22
22
22
22
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
—
—
—
—
—
—
Add magnetic beads to
each tube and incubate.
Figure B.2 24 reaction workflow — PCR to purification
18
10
17
7
9
1
2
S
17
6b
18
P
C
R
2
19
20
21
22
+
Do not pool negative control.
19
11
3
20
12
21
13
4
5
22
14
6
+
15
7
16
–
8
114 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Purification continued to Fragmentation and Labeling
18
10
17
9
2
1
19
11
3
20
12
21
13
4
5
After incubation, centrifuge and
place tubes on magnetic rack.
13 14 15 16
1
3
2
4
6
15
6
16
–
8
7
8
17 18 19 20
5
+
22
14
7
8
21 22 23
9
10 11
12
Transfer eluted sample to the
appropriate well of a fresh 96-well plate
9
Fragment/Label Plate
Fragmentation gel
11
F
R
A
G
L
B
L
1
9
17
2
10
18
3
11
19
4
12 20
5
13
21
6
14
22
+ 7
15
8
16
+
12
Quantitate, label and hyb
samples onto arrays.
Figure B.3 24 reaction workflow — PCR to purification
UV Spec Plate for Quantitation
10
1
9
17
2
10
18
19
3
11
4
12 20
5
13
21
6
14
22
7
15
+
8
16
Appendix
C
REAGENTS, EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES
About this Appendix
This appendix includes the vendor and part number information for the reagents, equipment and
consumables that have been validated for use with the Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay.
IMPORTANT: This protocol has been optimized using the equipment, consumables and
reagents listed in this user guide. For the best results, we strongly recommend that you
adhere to the protocol as described. Do not deviate from the protocol; do not substitute
reagents.
From Affymetrix
Affymetrix Equipment Required
Table C.1 Affymetrix Equipment Required
9
Item
Part Number
❐
GeneChip® Fluidics Station 450
00-0079
❐
GeneChip® Hybridization Oven 640 or 645
800139 (640)
00-0331 (645)
❐
GeneChip® 3000 Scanner with 7G upgrade
901153
Affymetrix Software Required
Table C.2 Affymetrix Software Required
9
Item
Part Number
❐
One of the following instrument control applications:
• GeneChip® Operating Software
• GeneChip® Command Console
Latest version
❐
Genotyping Console
Latest version
116 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Affymetrix Arrays Required
Table C.3 Affymetrix® Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0
9
❐
Item
Part Number
100 arrays
901150
50 arrays
901153
5 arrays
901182
Affymetrix Reagents Required
Table C.4 Affymetrix® Genome-Wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty Assay Kit 5.0/6.0 – 30 reaction kit
9
Item
Part Number
❐
30 reactions
901013
Components contained in this kit:
• Adaptor, Nsp (50 µM)
• Adaptor, Sty (50 µM)
• PCR Primer, 002 (100 µM)
• GeneChip® Fragmentation Reagent
• 10X Fragmentation Buffer
• GeneChip® DNA Labeling Reagent (30 mM)
• Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (30 U/µL)
• 5X Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Buffer
• Oligonucleotide Control Reagent 0100
• Reference Genomic DNA, 103 (50 ng/µL)
Optional Affymetrix Equipment
Table C.5 Optional Affymetrix® Equipment
9
Item
Part Number
❐
GeneChip® System 3000Dx v.2 with Data Transfer Server
00-0349
❐
GeneChip® Hybridization Oven 645
00-0331
appendix C | Reagents, Equipment and Consumables 117
Equipment Required from Other Suppliers
Pre-PCR Clean Area Equipment Required
When performing the pre-PCR stages of the Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay, great care should be
taken to avoid sample contamination with PCR products. If the assay is to be run in a single room, we
strongly recommend that the pre-PCR stages be performed in a laminar flow or PCR cabinet.
Table C.6 Pre-PCR Clean Area Equipment Required
9
Item
Vendor
❐
Recommended if protocol is to be performed in one room only:
• Laminar Flow Cabinet, 6 ft (ESCO, SVE-6A)
• PCR Cabinet
Laminar Cabinet: ESCO SVE-6A or
equivalent
Part Number
PCR Cabinet: C.B.S. Scientific P-048-02
or equivalent
❐
Benchtop Cooler, –20°C
Stratagene
400012
❐
Biocooler aluminum block, 96-well
Required if processing > 8 samples.
(1 for 9 to 16 samples; 2 for 17 to 24 samples)
Bio-Smith
81001
❐
Cooling Chamber, double block
Diversified Biotech
CHAM-1020
❐
Freezer, –20°C; deep freeze; manual defrost; 17 cu ft
Any vendor
—
❐
Ice Bucket, 4 to 9 liters (Magic Touch Icewares)
Fisher Scientific
—
❐
Microfuge (for tubes and strip tubes)
Any vendor
—
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 2–20 µL
Rainin
L-20
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 20–200 µL
Rainin
L-200
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 100–1000 µL
Rainin
L-1000
❐
Pipet, 8-channel, 2–20 µL
Rainin
L8-20
❐
Pipet, 8-channel, 20–200 µL
Rainin
L8-200
❐
Plate centrifuge, multipurpose
Eppendorf
5804 or 5810
❐
Vortexer (with plate pad)
VWR
58816-1212
• GeneAmp PCR System 9700 (gold/silver block)
Applied Biosystems
4314878
• 2720 Thermal Cycler
Applied Biosystems
4359659
• MJ Tetrad PTC-255
Bio-Rad
—
• DNA Engine Tetrad 2
Bio-Rad
PTC-0240G
Select one of these thermal cyclers:
❐
118 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Post-PCR Area Equipment Required
Table C.7 Post-PCR Area Equipment Required
9
Item
Vendor
Part Number
❐
Benchtop Cooler, –20°C
Stratagene
400012
❐
Cooling Chamber, single
Diversified Biotech
CHAM-1020
❐
Freezer, –20°C; deep freeze; manual defrost; 17 cu ft
Any vendor
—
❐
Gel box for electrophoresis
Any vendor
—
❐
Gel imager
Any vendor
—
❐
Ice Bucket, 4 to 9 liters (Magic Touch Icewares)
Fisher Scientific
—
❐
MagnaRack, magnetic stand
Invitrogen
CS15000
❐
Microcentrifuge 5414D or R
Eppendorf
022621408
❐
Microcentrifuge Standard Rotor F-45-24-11, 24 bores
Eppendorf
022621502
❐
Microfuge (for tubes and strip tubes)
Any vendor
—
❐
Microtube Foam Insert with stem
(Multiple Sample Starter Set, Model H301)
(you will attach to one of the vortexers)
Scientific Industries
504-0233-00
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 2–20 µL
Rainin
L-20
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 20–200 µL
Rainin
L-200
❐
Pipet, single-channel, 100–1000 µL
Rainin
L-1000
❐
Pipet, 8-channel, 2–20 µL
Rainin
L8-20
❐
Pipet, 8-channel, 20–200 µL
Rainin
L8-200
❐
Pipet, 8-channel, 100–1000 µL
Rainin
L8-1000
❐
Plate centrifuge, multipurpose
Eppendorf
5804 or 5810
❐
Refrigerator, 4°C, 6 cu ft
Any vendor
—
• SpectraMax spectrophotometer
Molecular Devices
Spectramax
Plus384
• NanoDrop
NanoDrop
ND-1000
Spectrophotometer – select one of the following:
❐
Select one of these thermal cyclers:
(if routinely processing > 8 samples, you may to use additional thermal cyclers for PCR)
❐
❐
• GeneAmp PCR System 9700 (gold/silver block)
Applied Biosystems
4314878
• MJ Tetrad PTC-255
Bio-Rad
—
• DNA Engine Tetrad 2
Bio-Rad
PTC-0240G
Vortexer (2 required)
One vortexer must have a plate pad. The Microtube Foam
Insert listed above will be attached to the other vortexer.
VWR
58816-1212
appendix C | Reagents, Equipment and Consumables 119
Reagents Required from Other Suppliers
Table C.8 Reagents Required from Other Suppliers
9
Item
Vendor
Part Number
❐
Nsp I Enzyme
• NE Buffer 2 (10X)
• BSA (100X)
New England Biolabs
R0602L
❐
Sty I Enzyme
• NE Buffer 3 (10X)
• BSA (100X)
New England Biolabs
R0500S
❐
T4 DNA Ligase
New England Biolabs
M0202L
❐
Magnetic Beads
Agencourt
000130 (60 mL)
000132 (450 mL)
❐
TITANIUM DNA Amplification Kit (300 rxn)
Clontech
639240
❐
Reduced EDTA TE Buffer, pH 8.0
TekNova
T0223
❐
AccuGENE Water
Lonza Group LTD
51200
❐
SSPE
Lonza Group LTD
51214
❐
EB Buffer
Qiagen
19086
❐
Human Cot-1 DNA (1 mg/mL; 500 µL per tube)
Invitrogen
15279-011
❐
10% Tween-20
Pierce
28320
❐
Herring Sperm DNA (HSDNA) (10 mg/mL; 100 mg)
Promega
D1815
❐
Absolute Ethanol (for dilution to 75%)
Sigma-Aldrich
459844
❐
Denhardt’s Solution
Sigma-Aldrich
D2532
❐
DMSO
Sigma-Aldrich
D5879
❐
MES Hydrate SigmaUltra (50 g or 250 g)
Sigma-Aldrich
M5287
❐
MES Sodium Salt (10 g, 25 g, or 100 g)
Sigma-Aldrich
M5057
❐
Tetramethyl Ammonium Chloride (TMAC)
Sigma-Aldrich
T3411
❐
5 M NaCl, RNase-free, DNase-free
Ambion
9760G
❐
EDTA
Ambion
9260G
❐
R Phycoerythrin Streptavidin
Molecular Probes
S-866
❐
Antistreptavidin-antibody
Vector Labs
BA-0500
❐
Bleach (5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite)
VWR
21899-504
(or equivalent)
❐
Distilled water
Invitrogen
15230147
120 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Consumables Required from Other Suppliers
Table C.9 Consumables Required from Other Suppliers
9
Item
Vendor
Part Number
• MicroAmp Clear Adhesive Film
Applied Biosystems
4306311
• Microseal 'B' Film
Bio-Rad
MSB1001
❐
DNA Marker, All Purpose Hi-Lo
Bionexus
BN2050
❐
Gel Loading Solution
Sigma
G2526
❐
Pipet tips, 20 µL filter tips
Rainin
GP-L10F
❐
Pipet tips, 200 µL filter tips
Rainin
GP-L200F
❐
Pipet tips, 1000 µL filter tips
Rainin
GP-L1000F
❐
Plates, 96-well unskirted PCR
Bio-Rad
MLP-9601
❐
Plate, OD for UV spec, 96-well
(required only if using microplate spectrophotometer)
E & K Scientific
EK-25801
❐
Solution Basin, 55 mL sterile
Labcor
730-004
❐
TBE Gel, 4%, BMA Reliant precast
Lonza Group LTD
54929
❐
TBE Gel, 2%, BMA Reliant precast
Lonza Group LTD
54939
❐
TBE for electrophoresis
Any vendor or house made
❐
Tough Spots, 1/2”
Diversified Biotech
T-SPOTS-50
❐
Tube, Eppendorf Safe-Lock Microcentrifuge 1.5 mL
VWR
21008-959
❐
Tube, Eppendorf Safe-Lock Microcentrifuge 2.0 mL
(must be round bottom tubes)
VWR
20901-540
❐
Tube, centrifuge 50 mL
VWR
21008-178
❐
Tube strips, 8-well, 0.2 mL
VWR
20170-004
Adhesive film for 96-well plates – use on of these:
❐
appendix C | Reagents, Equipment and Consumables 121
Supplier Contact List
Table C.10
Supplier Contact List
Supplier
Web Site Address
Affymetrix
www.affymetrix.com
Agencourt Bioscience Corp.
agencourt.com
Ambion
ambion.com
Applied Biosystems
www.appliedbiosystems.com
Bionexus Inc.
www.bionexus.net
Bio-Rad
bio-rad.com
Bio-Smith
biosmith.com
Clontech
www.clontech.com
Diversified Biotech
divbio.com
E&K Scientific
eandkscientific.com
Eppendorf
eppendorf.com
ESCO
www.escoglobal.com
Fisher Scientific
www.fishersci.com
Invitrogen Life Technologies
invitrogen.com
Labcor
labcorproducts.com
Lonza
www.lonza.com
Molecular Devices
moleculardevices.com
Molecular Probes
molecularprobes.com
NanoDrop
nanodrop.com
New England Biolabs
www.neb.com
Pierce Biotechnology (part of Thermo Fisher Scientific)
piercenet.com
Promega
www.promega.com
QIAGEN
www1.qiagen.com
Rainin
www.rainin.com
Scientific Industries
www.scientificindustries.com
Sigma-Aldrich
www.sigma-aldrich.com
Stratagene
stratagene.com
Teknova
teknova.com
VWR
vwr.com
Vector Labs
vectorlabs.com
122 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Appendix
D
THERMAL CYCLER PROGRAMS
This appendix includes the thermal cycler programs required for the Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy
Number Assay.
Before you begin processing samples, enter and save these programs into the appropriate thermal cyclers.
Cyto Digest
Cyto Digest Program
Temperature
Time
37ºC
120 min
65ºC
20 min
4ºC
Hold
Cyto Ligate
Cyto Ligate Program
Temperature
Time
16ºC
180 min
70ºC
20 min
4ºC
Hold
124 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
Cyto PCR
For the GeneAmp® PCR System 9700
You must use GeneAmp PCR System 9700 thermal cyclers with silver or gold-plated silver blocks. Do
not use GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermal cyclers with aluminum blocks.
Ramp speed: Max
Volume: 100 µL
Cyto PCR Program for GeneAmp® PCR System 9700
Temperature
Time
Cycles
94ºC
3 min
1X
94ºC
30 sec
60ºC
45 sec
68ºC
15 sec
68ºC
7 min
4ºC
HOLD (Can be held overnight)
}
30X
1X
For the MJ Tetrad PTC-225 and Tetrad 2
Use: Heated Lid and Calculated Temperature
Volume: 100 µL
Cyto PCR Program for MJ Tetrad PTC-225 and Tetrad 2
Temperature
Time
Cycles
94ºC
3 min
1X
94ºC
30 sec
60ºC
30 sec
68ºC
15 sec
68ºC
7 min
4ºC
HOLD (Can be held overnight)
}
30X
1X
Cyto Fragment
Cyto Fragment Program
Temperature
Time
37ºC
35 min
95ºC
15 min
4ºC
Hold
appendix D | Thermal Cycler Programs 125
Cyto Label
Cyto Label Program
Temperature
Time
37ºC
4 hr
95ºC
15 min
4ºC
Hold
Samples can remain at 4°C overnight.
Cyto Hyb
Cyto Hyb Program
Temperature
Time
95ºC
10 min
49ºC
Hold
126 Affymetrix® Cytogenetics Copy Number Assay User Guide
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