review on vibration reduction of a vertical axis drum based

review on vibration reduction of a vertical axis drum based
Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
Churnika N. Narkhede1 , Dr. K.K. Dhande2
Research Scholar ME Student, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pimpri,Pune,
Maharashtra, India
Head of Department,Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology, Pimpri,Pune,Maharashtra,
Today, there is a rapid increase in the demand for saving energy in all industries and industrial applications and
even in home appliances such as microwaves, refrigerators, air conditioners, power tools, vacuum cleaners and
washing machines. In a fully automatic washing machine, an unbalanced mass of clothes in a spin drum can cause
vibration problems. Each time a washing machine enters its spin cycle, it begins to create high frequency
vibrations. The unbalanced mass of clothes causes vibration because in the spin drying stage, the drum spins at a
relatively high speed causing the clothes to be pressed against the inner wall of the spin drum and this can become a
large unbalanced mass until the end of the stage. In this review paper the causes of mechanical vibrations and
different methods to reduce vibrations in washing machine are st udied. From the research it is concluded that
adding springs and dampers to the machine can cause the major reduction in the vibrations.
Keyword: -Vertical axis washing machine, Vibration, Design, Analysis;
The development of high speed spinning washing machines is a big problem in the current market scene. There has
also been a rapid increase in the demand for saving energy in all industries and industrial applications and even in
home appliances such as microwaves, refrigerators, air conditioners, power tools, vacuum cleaners and washing
When a machine is taken apart, one can find a number of different parts inside of it. Each of these parts is used in a
number of different ways, but the end goal is to have each part wo rking accurately, cohesively and safely. If a
machine is off balance or is vibrating more than requisite, it may cause damage to any number of the parts inside it
as well as to the floor on which it has been placed. Once there is damage, repairs will need to be made. A machine
cannot be safely repaired while still in use so even the smallest of repair means a loss in productivity.
Reducing machine vibration controls the damages that can be seen in machines and their surrounding environment
while maximizing the production efficiency.
Washing machines are an important type of domestic machines and have been used for the welfare of the human
beings for many years now. In a fully automatic was hing machine, an unbalanced mass of clothes within a spin
drum can cause vibration problems. Because of the nature of the operation of the machine, its laundry behaves like
a rotating unbalance during the spinning cycle of its operation. This transmits ve ry large forces to the cabinet and
emits noise. This frequently occurs during the water extraction process when the drum starts to rotate and this gives
rise to significant centrifugal imbalance forces and the laundry mass rotates in an imbalanced manner. This results in
vibration and shaking. The elimination of such vibrations will make it possible to design less noisier washing
machines for higher wash loads within the same housing dimensions. Therefore, the suspension parameters of the
drum have to be properly designed to limit the vibration transmissibility and increase the isolation efficiency.
Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
Current environmental awareness demands the improvement of washer efficiency. The first thought that comes to
mind with respect to efficient is optimization. The basic factors that can be considered for the optimization of a
washing machine are its washing capacity, power consumption, cost and vibration. The industrial drive technology
can be classified into two different groups. The first of these groups includ es machines driven electrically and
requiring speed control systems for different applications like machine tools and measuring machines for which
accuracy in movement is imperative. The second group consists of consumer electrical systems, for example pumps,
washing machines, vacuum cleaners and fans in which precision torque or speed control systems are not necessary.
Poor efficiency and distortion are some of the common disadvantages of these systems. High efficiency, reduced
noise, extended lifetime, rapid time to market at optimum cost are the issues faced by many industries.
Low vibration characteristic is becoming an increasingly important performance measuring index for washing
machines. In an automatic washing machine, the drying process comprises of the spin motions of a basket, while the
washing process involves the oscillating motions of the basket. The power is transmitted, through a belt from a
motor, to the identical rotating axis of the basket during both the washing and spin drying. After th e washing mode,
the laundry is dried by the spin drying mode. In the washing cycle, the clothes tend to form a clump, and hence
create an unbalance mass in the basket. During the drying cycle, when the basket spins with relatively high speed,
this unbalanced mass can cause serious vibration problems. The amount of the unbalance mass depends on both the
weight of the laundry and the condition of the washing machine.
Bagepalli et al. [5] has investigated the dynamic modeling of agitator-type washers. He studied two concepts for
suspension systems: non-translating "xed node design (NTFN) and translating free node design (TFN). He
concluded that the NTFN concept is useful for minimizing the walking force, whereas the TFN concept, which was
found to be the preferred design, is useful for minimizing transient excursions.
Turkay et al. [6] has presented a dynamic model for horizontal axis washers. They carried out theoretical and
experimental dynamic analyses for transient and steady state cond itions. Later, the validated model was used to
optimize the spring stiffness of suspension and the two dry -friction coefficient of shock absorber and lateral
damper. They used an optimization routine that minimizes the maximum displacements for transient and steady state
conditions subjected to the constraint of inequality of stepping forces.
Conrad and Soedel et al. [7] has discussed extensively the qualitatively observed characteristics and mechanism of
walk by using simplified models for both horizontal and vertical axis washers. Based on numerical simulations, they
concluded that the vertical axis washing machine tends to walk inbounded region while the horizontal axis washing
machine tends to walk unbounded ina direction dictated by the rotational dire ction of the wash basket.
Evangelos Papadopoulos et al. [8] modeled a horizontal axis washing machine focusing on port -ability. He proposed
an innovative method of minimizing vibrations i.e. an improved estimation of the drum angular position and
velocity results in greatly reduced residual vibrations. Finally, the study noted that the passive and active methods of
stabilization are inexclusive and hence, they could be employed in parallel, which would improve the washer`s
spinning response. But, the problem with this technique was that it led to a drastic increase in the cost.
S. Bae et al. [4] performed dynamic analysis of an automatic washing machine during spin drying mode. It is given
that the centrifugal force acting on the hydraulic balancer is direct ly dependent on the fluid’s centroidal distance in
the hydraulic balancer, and the centroidal distance is a function of the eccentricity of the geometric center of the
hydraulic balancer from the axis of rotation. A mathematical model of the hydraulic bala ncer in steady state was
validated by the experimental result of the centrifugal force. The results of the experiments performed on a washing
machine during spin drying mode were compared with the simulation result. An investigation of the parameters
affecting the vibration of the washing machine was also done within the parameter study. It was concluded that that
the vibration would be reduced by increasing the mass and the inner radius of the hydraulic balancer, and by
decreasing the volumetric ratio.
Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
Fig 1. The hydraulic balancer
Seok-Ho Son et al. [9] formulated a design optimization problem in which the maximum displacement of the spin
component in a low-RPM setting was minimized while satisfying the design constraint on the maximum
displacement of the spin component in a high-RPM setting. They successfully obtained optimal results using the
meta-model based design optimization and performed another experiment to verify the validity of the results by
installing optimally designed layers.
Sichani et al. [10] in his work explained vibration responses of a horizontal washing machine which have been
measured during run-up and run-down. Multiple impulse tests were also conducted to compare and check the
validity the results. The identification of modes of the washing machine was done both by the EFDD and SSI
methods with operational tests. Modes of the body between 0 to 55 Hz were identified along with their damping
ratios, natural frequencies and shapes in both the methods. A comparison of the results of OMA and the classical
modal testing (impact test with an instrumental hammer) was conducted. Also, the applications of stochastic
subspace identification and stabilization diagrams were investigated. The false peaks and closely coupled modes
were easily detected. It is concluded that run-up/run-down can identify modes of a vibrating system except for cases
where the modes are located close to the working frequency of the rotating parts of the system.
Cristinospelta et al. [1] (2008) has studied the various effects of vibrations on a washing machine and techniques to
reduce the damage. They proposed to reduce vibrations by replacing passive dampers with magneto rheological
dampers. Their work is the analysis and design of a control system for vibration and noise reduction in a washing
machine. The implementation of the control system is done via a semi-active magneto rheological (MR) damper
located on the suspension that links the drum to the cabinet. The system analyzed and different mounting positions
of the dampers have been tested. The design and testing procedure of two different adaptive algorithms has been
proposed. The control system is implemented on a rapid prototyping ECU and its testing is done on a washing
machine instrumented with three 3-axis MEMS accelerometers. Tests in an anechoic chamber have been done, in
order to study the effect of vibration control on the acoustic noise. It is concluded that the electronically controlled
magnetorheological dampers are more effective than the standard pas sive dampers.
Fig 2: The controllable RD-1097-01 friction damper by Lord.
Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
FengTyan et al. [13] in his work explained a multibody dynamic model developed for a front loading type washing
machine in detail. This model was constructed for verifying the bearing model between the tub and drum, and for
analyzing the suspension system created by two springs and magnetorheological dampers between the case and
basket. A multibody dynamic model of a drum-type washing machine with MR fluid dampers was generated in a
commercial package “RecurDyn”. The resultant displacements from Recurdyn -Simulink simulation were conducted
by utilizing this virtual system. It is concluded that what are required, and relocate the springs and MRdampers at
the ours will efficiently. It is also concluded that the PI control strategy is the best for reducing the vibrations of the
bakset and the case at the same time.
A.K.Ghorbani-Tanha et al. [14] describes about the Operation of home appliances like washing machines can
produce unwanted vibrations and noise and the purpose of this study was to analyze and develop a control system
for reduction in vibration of washing machines employing smart materials.
Thomas Nygards et al. [15] developed a multibody model of a commercial washing machin e (front-loaded) and
performed dynamic analysis (Eigen frequencies, Eigen modes, force transmission) and kinematic analysis (drum
motion) of the washing machine during spinning. They developed the model to analyze dynamics and vibration of
washing machines (front-load) which can be used to solve multiple problems in terms of optimization for washing
machines both with conventional passive suspension as well as with active suspension systems. The model was
developed basically to show the feasibility of a two-plane automatic balancing device for vibration reduction.
Sanjay Mohite et al. [16] proposed a design using multimode multiple matrix convertor. In this the output voltage
was synthesized by switching the IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) in a matrix. Switching was done by
control signals generated by Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) techniques where SPWM technique was
used to control desired output voltage across load. A computer simulation model was developed using MATLAB.
Simulated results have been observed and analyzed. It is concluded that the approach of FIRST building a
simulation model and then building a large power 3 phase to single phase conversion at 20 kHz, has given the
confidence that this topology can be used to build a co nverter to control the speed in a washing machine drive.
Sunil Patel and S.A. Kulkarni et al. [17] (2013) explained the optimization of crosspiece of washing machine by
using the concept of Finite Element Analysis. One simple component was taken to obtain the correlation of
optimization FEA results and the practical results. After validating simulation results of optimization, an industrial
component crosspiece of a washing machine with drum assembly was considered for optimization. The material
reduction objective was satisfied here by using simulation software tools like Optistruct, Hypermesh, Hyper view.
The manufacturable part was obtained from the output shape from optistruct. Again simulation testing is performed
for static loading. In the end, the res ults before optimization and after optimization were compared for crosspiece. It
is concluded that the Optimization of component with the help of Finite Element Analysis is a better and less time
consuming process than currently available methods. Software like Optistruct, Ls-Optiare well capable of handling
complex structural parts for optimization. Parts can be designed faster and better with optimization.
SundeepKolhar and Dhiren Patel et al. [2] proposed an idea for the optimization of a washing machine in terms of
reduction in power and water consumption, and drum vibration. A mathematical model was also formulated for
reducing the drum vibration and an improved drum design has been proposed to further reduce the vibrations. Based
on the values obtained from the mathematical model, the Finite Element Analysis of the old and the new model is
performed in Solid-Works Cosmos software and it was observed that the displacement of the drum reduced to a
considerable extent in the new model.
Ms. NehaVirkhare and Prof. R.W. Jasutkar et al. [18] provided a description about the washing machine system
consisting of neuron fuzzy and fuzzy techniques that will enable the system to take its own decisions like release of
water and washing powder as per need of cloth.
Following points to be noted from all the above study 
In this paper we introduced the methods of reducing mechanical vibration in washing machine.
We studied the different components that have been used to reduce vibration in washing machine.
Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
From the above study we have seen that the electronically controlled magnetorheological dampers are more
effective than standard passive dampers. It has been also seen that the use ball bearings along the periphery of the
drum can reduce the vibrations effectively.
With the help of above study, it is planned to prepare a vibration analysis model for a vertical axis drum type
washing machine. It is propose to use 4 springs and 4 dampers on the top side of th e drum. Using the created model,
parameter tests will be conducted to reduce the vibration of the drum type washing machine. The obtained results
should improve the performance of washing machines efficiently in terms of washing capacity, power consumption ,
and vibration.
I would like to thank Dr. K. K. Dhande (H.O.D.-Mechanical Engineering) for the valuable suggestion and also by
Prof. N. I. Jamadar and special thanks to Dr. R. K. Jain (Principal) for their extreme support to complete this research .
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Vol-2 Issue-3 2016
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