SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Last Updated June 30, 2015
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SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
© 2015 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
About this Guide .............................................................................................. xxi
Conventions Used ................................................................................................................................. xxii
Supported Documents and Resources ................................................................................................ xxiii
Related Common Documentation .................................................................................................... xxiii
Related Product Documentation ...................................................................................................... xxiii
Obtaining Documentation ................................................................................................................. xxiii
Contacting Customer Support .............................................................................................................. xxiv
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview ............................................ 25
Product Description ................................................................................................................................ 26
Qualified Platforms ............................................................................................................................. 27
Licenses ............................................................................................................................................. 27
Network Deployments and Interfaces .................................................................................................... 28
SGSN and Dual Access SGSN Deployments .................................................................................... 28
SGSN/GGSN Deployments ............................................................................................................... 29
S4-SGSN Deployments...................................................................................................................... 30
SGSN Logical Network Interfaces ...................................................................................................... 31
SGSN Core Functionality ....................................................................................................................... 35
All-IP Network (AIPN) ......................................................................................................................... 35
SS7 Support ....................................................................................................................................... 35
PDP Context Support ......................................................................................................................... 36
Mobility Management ......................................................................................................................... 36
GPRS Attach .................................................................................................................................. 36
GPRS Detach ................................................................................................................................ 37
Paging ............................................................................................................................................ 37
Service Request ............................................................................................................................. 37
Authentication ................................................................................................................................ 38
P-TMSI Reallocation ...................................................................................................................... 38
P-TMSI Signature Reallocation ..................................................................................................... 38
Identity Request ............................................................................................................................. 38
Location Management ........................................................................................................................ 38
Session Management......................................................................................................................... 39
PDP Context Activation .................................................................................................................. 39
PDP Context Modification .............................................................................................................. 40
PDP Context Deactivation ............................................................................................................. 40
PDP Context Preservation ............................................................................................................. 40
Charging ............................................................................................................................................. 40
SGSN in GPRS/UMTS Network .................................................................................................... 40
SGSN in LTE/SAE Network ........................................................................................................... 42
Features and Functionality ..................................................................................................................... 43
3G-2G Location Change Reporting .................................................................................................... 45
Accounting Path Framework, New for 14.0........................................................................................ 45
AAA Changes To Support Location Services (LCS) Feature ............................................................ 46
APN Aliasing ...................................................................................................................................... 46
Default APN ................................................................................................................................... 46
APN Redirection per APN with Lowest Context-ID ............................................................................ 46
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APN Resolution with SCHAR or RNC-ID ........................................................................................... 47
APN Restriction .................................................................................................................................. 47
Automatic Protection Switching (APS) ............................................................................................... 47
Authentications and Reallocations -- Selective .................................................................................. 48
Avoiding PDP Context Deactivations ................................................................................................. 49
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics ....................................................................................... 49
Bulk Statistics Support........................................................................................................................ 49
Bypassing APN Remap for Specific IMEI Ranges ............................................................................. 50
CAMEL Service Phase 3, Ge Interface .............................................................................................. 51
CAMEL Service .............................................................................................................................. 51
CAMEL Support ............................................................................................................................. 51
Ge Interface ................................................................................................................................... 51
CAMEL Configuration .................................................................................................................... 52
Commandguard .................................................................................................................................. 52
Configurable RAB Asymmetry Indicator in RAB Assignment Request .............................................. 52
Congestion Control ............................................................................................................................. 52
Different NRIs for Pooled and Non-pooled RNCs/BSCs .................................................................... 53
Direct Tunnel ...................................................................................................................................... 53
Direct Tunnel Support on the S4-SGSN............................................................................................. 53
Downlink Data Lockout Timer ............................................................................................................ 54
DSCP Templates for Control and Data Packets - Iu or Gb over IP ................................................... 54
Dual PDP Addresses for Gn/Gp ......................................................................................................... 55
ECMP over ATM................................................................................................................................. 55
EDR Enhancements ........................................................................................................................... 55
EIR Selection for Roaming Subscribers ............................................................................................. 55
Equivalent PLMN ................................................................................................................................ 56
First Vector Configurable Start for MS Authentication ....................................................................... 56
Format Encoding of MNC and MCC in DNS Queries Enhanced ....................................................... 56
Gb Manager ........................................................................................................................................ 56
GMM-SM Event Logging .................................................................................................................... 57
Gn/Gp Delay Monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 57
GTP-C Path Failure Detection and Management .............................................................................. 57
GTPv0 Fallback, Disabling to Reduce Signalling ............................................................................... 58
Handling Multiple MS Attaches All with the Same Random TLLI ...................................................... 58
HSPA Fallback ................................................................................................................................... 58
Ignore Context-ID during 4G/3G Handovers ...................................................................................... 59
Interface Selection Based on UE Capability....................................................................................... 59
Intra- or Inter-SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation (3G only) ................... 59
Lawful Intercept .................................................................................................................................. 60
Lawful Interception Capacity Enhanced ............................................................................................. 60
Link Aggregation - Horizontal ............................................................................................................. 60
Local DNS .......................................................................................................................................... 60
Local Mapping of MBR ....................................................................................................................... 61
Local QoS Capping ............................................................................................................................ 61
Location Change Reporting on the S4-SGSN .................................................................................... 61
Location Services ............................................................................................................................... 62
Lock/Shutdown the BSC from the SGSN ........................................................................................... 62
Management System Overview ......................................................................................................... 62
Multiple PLMN Support....................................................................................................................... 64
Network Sharing ................................................................................................................................. 65
Benefits of Network Sharing........................................................................................................... 65
GWCN Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 65
MOCN Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 66
Implementation ............................................................................................................................... 66
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
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NRI-FQDN based DNS resolution for non-local RAIs (2G subscribers) ............................................ 67
NRI Handling Enhancement ............................................................................................................... 67
NRPCA - 3G ....................................................................................................................................... 67
NRSPCA Support for S4-SGSN ......................................................................................................... 67
Operator Policy................................................................................................................................... 68
Some Features Managed by Operator Policies ............................................................................. 68
Overcharging Protection .................................................................................................................... 68
QoS Traffic Policing per Subscriber ................................................................................................... 68
QoS Classes .................................................................................................................................. 69
QoS Negotiation ............................................................................................................................. 69
DSCP Marking ............................................................................................................................... 69
Traffic Policing ............................................................................................................................... 69
VPC-DI platform support for SGSN .................................................................................................... 70
Reordering of SNDCP N-PDU Segments .......................................................................................... 70
RAN Information Management (RIM)................................................................................................. 70
S4 Support on the SGSN ................................................................................................................... 71
S3 and S4 Interface Support ......................................................................................................... 72
S4-SGSN Support for .................................................................................................................... 73
S6d and Gr Interface Support ........................................................................................................ 73
Configurable Pacing of PDP Deactivations on the S4-SGSN ....................................................... 74
DNS SNAPTR Support .................................................................................................................. 74
S4-SGSN Statistics Support .......................................................................................................... 74
S13’ Interface Support ................................................................................................................... 75
Idle Mode Signaling Reduction ...................................................................................................... 75
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback ................................................................................................ 75
ISD / DSD Message Handling and HSS Initiated Bearer Modification .......................................... 76
UMTS-GSM AKA Support on the S4-SGSN.................................................................................. 77
3G and 2G SGSN Routing Area Update ....................................................................................... 77
IPv4 and IPv6 PDP Type Override ................................................................................................ 78
NAPTR-based Dynamic HSS Discovery ....................................................................................... 78
P-GW Initiated PDP Bearer Deactivation ...................................................................................... 79
S-GW and P-GW Tunnel and EPS Subscription Recovery ........................................................... 79
Local Configuration of S-GW and S4-SGSN per RAI .................................................................... 79
Configurable GUTI to RAI Conversion Mapping ............................................................................ 79
S4-SGSN Support for Fallback to V1 Cause Code in GTPv2 Context Response ........................ 80
S4-SGSN Support for Mobility Management Procedures ............................................................. 80
QoS Mapping Support ................................................................................................................... 80
MS Initiated Primary and Secondary Activation............................................................................. 81
Deactivation Procedure Support .................................................................................................... 81
MS, PGW and HSS Initiated PDP Modification Procedure Support .............................................. 81
Fallback from the S4 Interface to the Gn Interface ........................................................................ 82
Operator Policy Selection of S4 or Gn Interface ............................................................................ 83
IDFT Support During Connected Mode Handovers ....................................................................... 83
Disassociated DSR Support .......................................................................................................... 83
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation Support ....................................... 84
E-UTRAN Service Handover Support ............................................................................................ 84
Support for Gn Handoff from S4-SGSN to 2G/3G Gn SGSN ........................................................ 85
Suspend/Resume Support on the S4-SGSN ................................................................................. 85
Flex Pooling (Iu / Gb over S16) Support on the S4-SGSN ............................................................ 86
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection on S4-SGSN ............................................................. 86
Summary of Functional Differences between an S4-SGSN and an SGSN (Gn/Gp)..................... 86
Session Recovery .............................................................................................................................. 92
SGSN Pooling and Iu-Flex / Gb-Flex ................................................................................................. 93
Gb/Iu Flex Offloading ..................................................................................................................... 93
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SGSN Support for RAI Based Query ................................................................................................. 93
SGSN Support For Sending Extended Bits Bi-directionally ............................................................... 94
SGSN support to Ignore PDP Data Inactivity ..................................................................................... 94
Short Message Service (SMS over Gd) ............................................................................................. 94
SMS Authentication Repetition Rate .................................................................................................. 95
SMSC Address Denial ........................................................................................................................ 95
Status Updates to RNC ...................................................................................................................... 95
Topology-based Gateway (GW) Selection ......................................................................................... 95
Threshold Crossing Alerts (TCA) Support .......................................................................................... 95
Tracking Usage of GEA Encryption Algorithms ................................................................................. 96
VLR Pooling via the Gs Interface ....................................................................................................... 96
Synchronization of Crash Events and Minicores between Management Cards ................................ 97
Zero Volume S-CDR Suppression ..................................................................................................... 97
How the SGSN Works ............................................................................................................................ 98
First-Time GPRS Attach ..................................................................................................................... 98
PDP Context Activation Procedures ................................................................................................... 99
Network-Initiated PDP Context Activation Process .......................................................................... 101
MS-Initiated Detach Procedure ........................................................................................................ 102
Supported Standards ............................................................................................................................ 103
IETF Requests for Comments (RFCs) ............................................................................................. 103
3GPP Standards ............................................................................................................................... 103
ITU Standards .................................................................................................................................. 108
Object Management Group (OMG) Standards ................................................................................ 109
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network ..................................................................... 111
2.5G SGSN Configuration Components ............................................................................................... 112
The SGSN_Ctx ................................................................................................................................. 112
The Accounting_Ctx ......................................................................................................................... 113
How the 2.5G SGSN Works ................................................................................................................. 115
For GPRS and/or IMSI Attach .......................................................................................................... 115
For PDP Activation ........................................................................................................................... 116
Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN ............................................................................................. 118
Global Configuration ......................................................................................................................... 118
SGSN Context Configuration ........................................................................................................... 120
Accounting Context Configuration .................................................................................................... 121
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration ...................................................................... 123
3G SGSN Configuration Components .................................................................................................. 124
For GPRS and/or IMSI Attach .......................................................................................................... 125
Information Required for 3G Configuration ........................................................................................... 126
Global Configuration ......................................................................................................................... 126
SGSN Context Configuration ........................................................................................................... 128
Accounting Context Configuration .................................................................................................... 130
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures .................................................... 133
2.5G SGSN Service Configuration ....................................................................................................... 135
3G SGSN Service Configuration .......................................................................................................... 137
Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration ........................................................................................... 139
Configuring the S4-SGSN..................................................................................................................... 141
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain .................................................................................................... 143
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support Broadband SS7 Signaling ................................... 143
Example Configuration ................................................................................................................. 143
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP Signaling for SIGTRAN ................................... 144
Example Configuration ................................................................................................................. 145
Configuring GTT ................................................................................................................................... 146
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 146
Configuring an SCCP Network ............................................................................................................. 148
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 148
Configuring a MAP Service .................................................................................................................. 149
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 149
Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only) ................................................................................................ 151
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 151
Configuring an SGTP Service .............................................................................................................. 152
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 152
Configuring a Gs Service...................................................................................................................... 153
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 153
Configuring an SGSN Service (3G only) .............................................................................................. 154
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 154
Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only) ............................................................................................. 156
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 156
Configuring a Network Service Entity ................................................................................................... 158
Configure a Network Service Entity for IP ........................................................................................ 158
Example Configuration for a Network Service Entity for IP ......................................................... 158
Configure a Network Service Entity for Frame Relay ...................................................................... 158
Example Configuration for a Network Service Entity for IP ......................................................... 159
Configuring DNS Client ........................................................................................................................ 160
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 160
Configuring GTPP Accounting Support ................................................................................................ 161
Creating GTPP Group ...................................................................................................................... 161
Configuring GTPP Group ................................................................................................................. 162
Verifying GTPP Group Configuration ............................................................................................... 163
Configuring and Associating the EGTP Service (S4 Only) .................................................................. 164
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 164
Configuring and Associating the GTPU Service (S4 Only) .................................................................. 166
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 166
Configuring the DNS Client Context for APN and SGW Resolution (Optional) ................................... 167
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 167
Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only) ............................................................................... 169
Configuring the Diameter Endpoint for the S6d Interface ................................................................ 169
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 170
Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S6d Interface ....................... 170
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 171
Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the S6d Interface ....... 171
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 171
Configuring Operator Policy-Based S6d Interface Selection (Optional) .......................................... 172
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 172
Configuring the Subscription Interface Preference for the S6d Interface (Optional) ....................... 172
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 172
Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional) .............................................................................. 173
Configuring a Diameter Endpoint for the S13’ Interface .................................................................. 173
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 174
Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S13’ Interface ...................... 174
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 175
Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the S13’ Interface ...... 176
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 176
Configuring S13’ Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy ................................................ 176
Example Configuration................................................................................................................. 177
Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4 Interface (S4 Only, Optional) ............ 178
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 178
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Configuring the Peer SGSN Interface Type (S4 Only, Optional).......................................................... 180
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 180
Configuring Gn Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy (S4 Only, Optional) ....................... 181
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 181
Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional) .................................................................. 182
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 182
Configuring and Associating the Selection of an SGW for RAI (S4 Only, Optional) ............................ 184
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 184
Configuring a Local PGW Address (S4 Only, Optional) ....................................................................... 186
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 186
Configuring the Peer MME Address (S4 Only, Optional) ..................................................................... 187
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 187
Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional) ................................................................................. 188
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 188
Configuring IDFT for Connected Mode Handover (S4 Only, Optional) ................................................ 190
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 190
Creating and Configuring ATM Interfaces and Ports (3G only) ............................................................ 192
Creating and Configuring Frame Relay Ports (2.5G only) .................................................................... 193
Configuring APS/MSP Redundancy ..................................................................................................... 194
Example Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 194
3G-2G Location Change Reporting ............................................................... 195
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 196
Relationships .................................................................................................................................... 196
License ............................................................................................................................................. 196
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 196
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 197
Call Flows ......................................................................................................................................... 197
Configuring Location Change Reporting .............................................................................................. 199
Verifying the Location Change Reporting Configuration .................................................................. 199
APN Restriction ............................................................................................... 201
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 202
Relationships to Other Features ....................................................................................................... 202
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 203
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 204
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 204
Configuring APN Restriction ................................................................................................................. 205
Verifying the APN Restriction Configuration .................................................................................... 205
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the APN Restriction .......................................................................... 206
Attach Rate Throttling .................................................................................... 207
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 208
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 209
Attach Rate Throttling Feature ......................................................................................................... 209
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 210
Configuring the Attach Rate Throttling Feature .................................................................................... 211
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Attach Rate Throttling Feature.................................................... 212
Attach Rate Throttling Show Commands and Outputs .................................................................... 212
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics ................................................ 213
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 214
How It Works......................................................................................................................................... 215
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 215
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 216
Configuring Backup Statistics Feature ................................................................................................. 217
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
Configuration .................................................................................................................................... 217
Verifying the Backup Statistics Feature Configuration ..................................................................... 218
Managing Backed-up Statistics ............................................................................................................ 219
Cause Code Mapping ..................................................................................... 221
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 222
Configuring Cause Code Mapping ....................................................................................................... 223
Configuring GMM Cause Codes to Replace MAP Cause Codes .................................................... 223
Verifying Configuration to Replace MAP Cause Codes ................................................................... 224
Configuring GMM Cause Code for RAU Reject due to Context Transfer Failure ............................ 224
Verifying Configuration for Context Transfer Failures ...................................................................... 224
Configuring SM Cause Codes .......................................................................................................... 224
Verifying Configuration for SM Cause Codes .................................................................................. 225
Direct Tunnel ................................................................................................... 227
Direct Tunnel Feature Overview ........................................................................................................... 228
Direct Tunnel Configuration .................................................................................................................. 232
Configuring Direct Tunnel Support on the SGSN ............................................................................ 232
Enabling Setup of GTP-U Direct Tunnels .................................................................................... 233
Enabling Direct Tunnel per APN .................................................................................................. 233
Enabling Direct Tunnel per IMEI .................................................................................................. 234
Enabling Direct Tunnel to Specific RNCs .................................................................................... 234
Verifying the SGSN Direct Tunnel Configuration ......................................................................... 235
Configuring S12 Direct Tunnel Support on the S-GW ..................................................................... 237
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN ............................................................... 239
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 240
How It Works ........................................................................................................................................ 242
Establishment of Direct Tunnel ........................................................................................................ 242
Direct Tunnel Activation for Primary PDP Context ...................................................................... 242
Direct Tunnel Activation for UE Initiated Secondary PDP Context .............................................. 243
RAB Release with Direct Tunnel ................................................................................................. 243
Iu Release with Direct Tunnel ...................................................................................................... 244
Service Request with Direct Tunnel ............................................................................................. 245
Downlink Data Notification with Direct Tunnel when UE in Connected State ............................. 245
Downlink Data Notification with Direct Tunnel when UE in Idle State ......................................... 246
Intra SGSN Routing Area Update without SGW Change ............................................................ 247
Routing Area Update with S-GW Change ................................................................................... 248
Intra SRNS with S-GW Change ................................................................................................... 250
Intra SRNS without S-GW Change .............................................................................................. 251
New SRNS with S-GW Change and Direct Data Transfer .......................................................... 253
New SRNS with S-GW Change and Indirect Data Transfer ........................................................ 254
Old SRNS with Direct Data Transfer ........................................................................................... 256
Old SRNS with Indirect Data Transfer ......................................................................................... 257
Network Initiated Secondary PDP Context Activation ................................................................. 259
PGW Init Modification when UE is Idle ........................................................................................ 259
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 260
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 260
Configuring Direct Tunnel on an S4-SGSN .......................................................................................... 261
Enabling Setup of GTP-U Direct Tunnel .......................................................................................... 261
Enabling Direct Tunnel to RNCs ...................................................................................................... 261
Verifying the Call-Control Profile Configuration ............................................................................... 262
Verifying the RNC Configuration ...................................................................................................... 262
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Direct Tunnel .................................................................................... 263
show subscribers sgsn-only ............................................................................................................. 263
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show gmm-sm statistics sm-only ................................................................................................. 263
Direct Tunnel Bulk Statistics ............................................................................................................. 263
GMM-SM Event Logging................................................................................. 265
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 266
Feature Overview ............................................................................................................................. 266
Events to be Logged......................................................................................................................... 266
Event Record Fields ......................................................................................................................... 266
EDR Storage .................................................................................................................................... 270
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 270
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 270
Configuration ........................................................................................................................................ 271
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN ....................................... 273
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 274
Relationships .................................................................................................................................... 274
How ISR Works .................................................................................................................................... 275
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 276
Call Flows ......................................................................................................................................... 276
2G ISR Activation by the S4-SGSN ............................................................................................. 276
2G ISR Activation by the MME..................................................................................................... 278
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 280
Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction ......................................................................................... 281
Configuring 2G ISR .......................................................................................................................... 281
Verifying the 2G ISR Configuration .............................................................................................. 281
Configuring 3G ISR .......................................................................................................................... 282
Verifying the 3G ISR Configuration .............................................................................................. 283
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the ISR Feature................................................................................. 284
ISR Show Command(s) and Outputs ............................................................................................... 284
show subscribers gprs-only full .................................................................................................... 284
show subscribers sgsn-only full ................................................................................................... 284
show s4-sgsn statistics (2G ISR) ................................................................................................. 284
show s4-sgsn statistics (3G ISR) ................................................................................................. 284
show gmm statistics (2G ISR) ...................................................................................................... 285
show gmm statistics (3G ISR) ...................................................................................................... 285
InTracer Support for SGSN ............................................................................ 287
InTracer Support for SGSN .................................................................................................................. 288
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 290
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 291
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 291
Intracer support 2G and 3G .............................................................................................................. 292
Relationships to Other Features ....................................................................................................... 292
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 292
Configuring IPMS Server Address ........................................................................................................ 293
Verifying Intracer Support ................................................................................................................. 293
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback ............................................................... 295
ISR with CSFB - Feature Description ................................................................................................... 296
Call Flows ............................................................................................................................................. 297
Relationships to Other Features ........................................................................................................... 299
Relationships to Other Products ........................................................................................................... 300
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 301
ISR CSFB Procedures .......................................................................................................................... 302
Standards Compliance ......................................................................................................................... 306
Configuring ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback.................................................................................... 307
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
Monitoring and trouble-shooting the CSFB feature .............................................................................. 308
Location Services ........................................................................................... 309
Location Services - Feature Description .............................................................................................. 310
How Location Services Works .............................................................................................................. 311
Relationship to Other SGSN Functions............................................................................................ 311
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 311
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 312
Flows ................................................................................................................................................ 312
Flows ............................................................................................................................................ 312
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 314
Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN ............................................................................. 315
Enabling LCS ................................................................................................................................... 315
Identifying the GMLC........................................................................................................................ 316
Creating the Location Service Configuration ................................................................................... 316
Fine-tuning the Location Service Configuration ............................................................................... 317
Associating the Location Service Config with the SGSN ................................................................. 318
Associating the Location Service Config with an Operator Policy ................................................... 318
Verifying the LCS Configuration for the SGSN ................................................................................ 318
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the LCS on the SGSN ...................................................................... 320
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN ......................... 321
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 322
LORC Subscriber Overcharge Protection on the S4-SGSN ............................................................ 322
Release Access Bearer Requests ................................................................................................... 322
Relationships .................................................................................................................................... 323
How It Works ........................................................................................................................................ 324
3G Iu-Release Procedure and Overcharge Protection over S4 ....................................................... 324
2G Ready-to-Standby State Transition and Overcharge Protection over S4 .................................. 325
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 326
Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection ................................................................................. 328
Enabling Release Access Bearer Request ...................................................................................... 328
Configuring the Causes to Include ARRL in Release Access Bearer Request ............................... 328
Enabling Subscriber Overcharging Protection on S4 ....................................................................... 330
MOCN for 2G SGSN ........................................................................................ 333
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 334
Gate Core Network (GWCN) Configuration ..................................................................................... 334
Multi Operator Core Network (MOCN) Configuration .................................................................. 334
Relationships to Other Features ...................................................................................................... 335
How It Works ........................................................................................................................................ 336
Automatic PLMN Selection in Idle Mode .......................................................................................... 336
MOCN Configuration with Non-supporting MS ............................................................................ 336
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 337
Redirection in GERAN with MOCN Configuration ....................................................................... 337
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 339
Configuring 2G MOCN ......................................................................................................................... 340
GPRS MOCN Configuration ............................................................................................................. 340
gprs-mocn .................................................................................................................................... 340
Verifying gprs-mocn Configuration .............................................................................................. 340
Common PLMN-Id and List of PLMN Ids Configuration .................................................................. 340
plmn id.......................................................................................................................................... 340
Verifying plmn id Configuration .................................................................................................... 341
Network Sharing Configuration ........................................................................................................ 341
network-sharing cs-ps-coordination ............................................................................................. 341
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▀ Contents
Verifying network-sharing Configuration ...................................................................................... 341
network-sharing failure-code ........................................................................................................ 342
Verifying Failure Code Configuration ........................................................................................... 342
Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support ................................................................ 343
show sgsn-mode .............................................................................................................................. 343
show gprs-service name................................................................................................................... 343
show gmm-sm statistics verbose ..................................................................................................... 343
MTC Congestion Control ................................................................................ 347
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 348
Relationships .................................................................................................................................... 348
How It Works......................................................................................................................................... 349
SGSN Congestion Control ............................................................................................................... 349
APN-level Congestion Control for MM ............................................................................................. 349
APN-level Congestion Control for SM .............................................................................................. 350
Support for the Extended T3312 Timer ............................................................................................ 350
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 351
Flows for SGSN Congestion Control ................................................................................................ 351
Flows for APN-level Congestion Control for MM .............................................................................. 353
Flows for APN-level Congestion Control for SM .............................................................................. 354
Handling Value for Extended T3312 Timer ...................................................................................... 355
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 356
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ................................................................................................... 357
Enabling Global-level Congestion Control........................................................................................ 357
Verifying the Global-level Congestion Control Configuration ....................................................... 358
Configuring System-detected Congestion Thresholds ..................................................................... 358
Verifying System-detected Congestion Thresholds Configuration .............................................. 359
Configuring SGSN Congestion Control ............................................................................................ 359
Verifying the SGSN Congestion Control Configuration ............................................................... 361
Configuring APN-based Congestion Control .................................................................................... 362
Verifying the APN-based Congestion Control Configuration ....................................................... 362
Configuring Extended T3312 Timer ................................................................................................. 362
Verifying the Extended T3312 Configurations ............................................................................. 364
Configuring Backoff Timers .............................................................................................................. 365
Verifying the T3346 Configurations .............................................................................................. 366
Configuring O&M Triggered Congestion .......................................................................................... 366
Monitoring MTC Congestion Control .................................................................................................... 367
show session disconnect-reasons .................................................................................................... 367
show congestion-control statistics imsimgr all full ............................................................................ 367
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation ........................... 369
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 370
Benefits ............................................................................................................................................. 370
Relationships to Other Features ....................................................................................................... 370
How It Works......................................................................................................................................... 371
Gn/Gp SGSN .................................................................................................................................... 371
Successful Activation for Gn/Gp SGSN ....................................................................................... 371
Unsuccessful Activation for Gn/Gp SGSN ................................................................................... 372
S4-SGSN .......................................................................................................................................... 374
Successful Activation for S4-SGSN ............................................................................................. 374
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 377
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 377
Configuring NRSPCA ........................................................................................................................... 378
Sample NRSPCA Configuration ....................................................................................................... 378
Verifying the NRSPCA Configuration ............................................................................................... 378
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature ....................................................................... 380
NRSPCA show Commands ............................................................................................................. 380
show gmm-sm statistics sm-only ................................................................................................. 380
show sgtpc statistics .................................................................................................................... 382
Operator Policy ............................................................................................... 385
What Operator Policy Can Do .............................................................................................................. 386
A Look at Operator Policy on an SGSN ........................................................................................... 386
A Look at Operator Policy on an S-GW ........................................................................................... 386
The Operator Policy Feature in Detail .................................................................................................. 387
Call Control Profile ........................................................................................................................... 387
APN Profile ....................................................................................................................................... 388
IMEI-Profile (SGSN only) ................................................................................................................. 389
APN Remap Table ........................................................................................................................... 389
Operator Policies .............................................................................................................................. 390
IMSI Ranges ..................................................................................................................................... 390
How It Works ........................................................................................................................................ 392
Operator Policy Configuration .............................................................................................................. 393
Call Control Profile Configuration ..................................................................................................... 394
Configuring the Call Control Profile for an SGSN ........................................................................ 394
Configuring the Call Control Profile for an MME or S-GW ........................................................... 394
APN Profile Configuration ................................................................................................................ 395
IMEI Profile Configuration - SGSN only ........................................................................................... 395
APN Remap Table Configuration ..................................................................................................... 396
Operator Policy Configuration .......................................................................................................... 396
IMSI Range Configuration ................................................................................................................ 397
Configuring IMSI Ranges on the MME or S-GW ......................................................................... 397
Configuring IMSI Ranges on the SGSN ...................................................................................... 397
Associating Operator Policy Components on the MME ................................................................... 398
Configuring Accounting Mode for S-GW .......................................................................................... 399
Verifying the Feature Configuration ...................................................................................................... 400
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G ........................................ 401
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 402
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 403
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G subscriber ........................................................................ 403
Paging in Common Routing Area for 3G subscriber ........................................................................ 403
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 404
Configuring Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G ............................................................. 405
Verifying the Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Configuration ................................. 405
show sgsn-mode .......................................................................................................................... 405
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature ................. 406
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Show Command(s) and/or Outputs .................... 406
show gmm-sm statistics ............................................................................................................... 406
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Bulk Statistics ..................................................... 407
Page Throttling ................................................................................................ 409
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 410
Relationships to Other SGSN Features ........................................................................................... 410
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 411
Page Throttling in a GPRS Scenario ................................................................................................ 411
Page Throttling in an UMTS Scenario.............................................................................................. 412
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 414
Configuring Page Throttling .................................................................................................................. 416
To map RNC Name to RNC Identifier .............................................................................................. 416
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▀ Contents
To associate a paging RLF template ................................................................................................ 416
Verifying the Page Throttling Configuration...................................................................................... 418
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Page Throttling feature ............................................................... 419
Page Throttling Show Command(s) and/or Outputs ........................................................................ 419
show gmm-sm statistics verbose ................................................................................................. 419
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN .......................................................... 421
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 422
Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 423
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 424
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 424
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 424
Configuring PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN.............................................................................. 425
Configure Node IE For PRN Advertisement ..................................................................................... 425
Configure Default APN Restoration Priority ..................................................................................... 425
Verifying the PRN Configuration in S4-SGSN .................................................................................. 426
Monitoring and Troubleshooting PRN support in S4-SGSN ................................................................. 427
PGW Restart Notification Show Command(s) and/or Outputs......................................................... 427
show s4-sgsn statistics ................................................................................................................ 427
show egtpc statistics .................................................................................................................... 427
show session disconnect-reasons verbose ...................................................................................... 428
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN ........................................ 429
Quality of Service Management............................................................................................................ 430
SGSN Quality of Service Management ............................................................................................ 430
Quality of Service Attributes ............................................................................................................. 430
Quality of Service Attributes in Release 97/98 ................................................................................. 430
Quality of Service Attributes in Release 99 ...................................................................................... 431
Quality of Service Management in SGSN ........................................................................................ 432
QoS Features ................................................................................................................................... 434
Traffic Policing .............................................................................................................................. 434
QoS Management When UE is Using S4-interface for PDP Contexts ............................................ 442
QoS Handling Scenarios .................................................................................................................. 446
QoS Handling During Primary PDP Activation ................................................................................. 450
QoS Handling When EPS Subscription is Available .................................................................... 450
QoS Handling When Only GPRS Subscription is Available ........................................................ 450
QoS Handling During Secondary PDP Activation ............................................................................ 451
QoS Handling When EPS Subscription is Available .................................................................... 451
QoS Handling When Only GPRS Subscription is Available ........................................................ 451
MS Initiated QoS Modification .......................................................................................................... 451
HSS Initiated PDP Context Modification .......................................................................................... 453
PGW Initiated QoS Modification ....................................................................................................... 453
ARP Handling ................................................................................................................................... 454
Difference between Gn SGSN and S4 SGSN ............................................................................. 454
ARP values in Gn SGSN .............................................................................................................. 454
ARP values in S4 SGSN .............................................................................................................. 456
Handling of ARP Values in Various Scenarios ................................................................................. 457
Mapping EPC ARP to RANAP ARP ................................................................................................. 458
ARP configured in CC Profile ........................................................................................................... 459
ARP-RP Mapping for Radio Priority in Messages ............................................................................ 459
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB ................................. 463
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 464
RAN Information Management (RIM) ............................................................................................... 464
Relationships to Other Feature or Products ..................................................................................... 464
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
How It Works ........................................................................................................................................ 465
RIM Addressing ................................................................................................................................ 465
Call Flows - Transmitter of GTP RIM Msg ....................................................................................... 465
Call Flows - Receiver of GTP RIM Msg ........................................................................................... 466
RIM Application ................................................................................................................................ 466
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 467
Configuring RIM Msg Transfer to or from eNodeB ............................................................................... 468
Configuring RIM Functionality .......................................................................................................... 468
Associating Previously Configured SGTP and IuPS Services ......................................................... 468
Configuring the peer-MME's address - Locally ................................................................................ 469
Configuring the peer-MME's address - for DNS Query .................................................................... 469
Monitoring and Troubleshooting RIM Msg Transfer ............................................................................. 470
show gmm-sm statistics verbose ..................................................................................................... 470
show gmm-sm statistics verbose | grep RIM ................................................................................... 470
show sgtpc statistics verbose ........................................................................................................... 470
show bssgp statistics verbose .......................................................................................................... 471
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices ................................................ 473
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 474
Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 474
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 475
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 475
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 476
Configuring S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable Devices ....................................................... 477
Configuring selection of the S4 interface ......................................................................................... 477
Monitoring and Troubleshooting S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable devices ....................... 478
S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC devices Show Command(s) and/or Outputs ............................ 478
show call-control-profile full name < > ......................................................................................... 478
show subscribers sgsn-only full imsi < > ..................................................................................... 478
show subscribers gprs-only full imsi < > ...................................................................................... 478
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature............................................................. 479
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 480
Suspension of GPRS Services ........................................................................................................ 480
Relationships to Other Features ...................................................................................................... 480
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 481
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature .............................................................................................. 481
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 481
Call Flows ......................................................................................................................................... 481
Intra-SGSN Suspend Procedure with Resume as the Subsequent Procedure ........................... 482
Intra-SGSN Suspend with Resume Procedure with Intra-RAU as Subsequent Procedure ........ 483
Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer S4-SGSN/MME ................................. 484
New Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure from BSS to 2G Gn-SGSN ........................ 485
New SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer Gn-SGSN as Old SGSN .................... 486
Interface Selection Logic for Inter-SGSN Suspend (New SGSN) Procedure .............................. 487
Intra-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure ...................................................... 489
Inter-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure ...................................................... 489
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 491
Configuring the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ......................................................................... 493
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ......................................... 494
S4-SGSN Suspend and Resume Feature Show Commands .......................................................... 494
show subscriber gprs-only full all ................................................................................................. 494
show subscriber sgsn-only full all ................................................................................................ 495
show bssgp statistics verbose ..................................................................................................... 496
show egtpc statistics .................................................................................................................... 496
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▀ Contents
show egtpc statistics verbose ...................................................................................................... 497
show sgtpc statistics verbose....................................................................................................... 501
S4-SGSN Suspend and Resume Feature Bulk Statistics ................................................................ 502
SGSN-MME Combo Optimization .................................................................. 505
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 506
Overview ........................................................................................................................................... 506
How It Works......................................................................................................................................... 507
Architecture ...................................................................................................................................... 507
Flows ................................................................................................................................................ 508
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 509
Configuring the Combo Optimization .................................................................................................... 510
Verifying Combo Optimization Configuration ................................................................................... 510
show lte-policy sgsn-mme summary ............................................................................................ 510
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization ......................................................................... 511
Monitoring Commands for the SGSN-MME Combo Node ............................................................... 511
show hss-peer-service statistics all .............................................................................................. 511
Monitoring Commands for the SGSN ............................................................................................... 511
show demux-mgr statistics imsimgr all sgsn ................................................................................ 511
show subscribers sgsn-only summary ......................................................................................... 511
show subscribers gprs-only summary.......................................................................................... 512
show subscribers sgsn-only full all ............................................................................................... 512
show subscribers gprs-only full all ............................................................................................... 512
show session subsystem facility aaamgr instance <instance> .................................................... 513
Monitoring Commands for the MME ................................................................................................. 513
show mme-service statistics handover ........................................................................................ 513
Bulk Statistics for Monitoring the MME in an SGSN-MME Combo Node ........................................ 514
SGSN Pooling .................................................................................................. 515
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 516
A Basic Pool Structure...................................................................................................................... 516
Benefits of SGSN Pooling ................................................................................................................ 517
Pooling Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 517
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 519
P-TMSI - NRI and Coding................................................................................................................. 519
Non-Broadcast LAC and RAC .......................................................................................................... 519
SGSN Address Resolution ............................................................................................................... 519
Mobility Inside the Pool..................................................................................................................... 520
Mobility Outside the Pool .................................................................................................................. 521
MS Offloading ................................................................................................................................... 522
Iu/Gb Flex support over S16/S3 interface ........................................................................................ 523
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 524
Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature ................................................................................................. 525
2G-SGSN pool configuration ............................................................................................................ 525
3G-SGSN pool configuration ............................................................................................................ 525
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the SGSN Pooling feature ................................................................ 528
SGSN Pooling Show Command(s) and/or Outputs ......................................................................... 528
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation ............................... 529
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 530
Relationships to Other Features ....................................................................................................... 530
How it Works ......................................................................................................................................... 531
SRNS Relocation on the SGSN (Gn/Gp) ......................................................................................... 531
SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Call Flow Diagrams ............................................................... 532
SRNS Relocation on the S4-SGSN .................................................................................................. 536
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
IDFT Support During Connected Mode Handovers ..................................................................... 540
S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation Call Flow Diagrams ........................................................................ 542
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 559
Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN ........................................................................................ 560
Configuring the SRNS Relocation Feature ...................................................................................... 560
Enabling IDFT (Optional, S4-SGSN Only) ................................................................................... 560
Verifying the SRNS Feature Configuration ...................................................................................... 561
Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation .............................................................................. 563
SRNS Bulk Statistics ........................................................................................................................ 563
Show Command Output Supporting the SRNS Relocation Feature ................................................ 564
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling ..................................................... 567
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 568
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 569
Detailed Description ......................................................................................................................... 569
Relationships to Other Features ...................................................................................................... 569
Configuring Support for Multiple IMSI Managers ................................................................................. 571
Verifying the Configuration ............................................................................................................... 571
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager Support .................................................. 572
Multiple IMSI Managers Show Command(s) and/or Outputs........................................................... 572
show linkmgr all ........................................................................................................................... 572
show linkmgr instance parser statistics all ................................................................................... 572
show gbmgr instance parser statistics all .................................................................................... 572
show demuxmgr statistics imsimgr verbose ................................................................................ 573
show demux-mgr statistics sgtpcmgr instance < id > .................................................................. 573
show session subsystem facility mmemgr instance < id > .......................................................... 573
show subscribers mme-only full all/ show mme-service session full all ...................................... 573
show mme-service db record call-id <id> .................................................................................... 573
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking ..................................................... 575
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 576
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 577
Configuring Peer-Server Blocking ........................................................................................................ 579
Verifying the Peer-Server Blocking Configuration ............................................................................ 579
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Peer-Server Blocking .................................................................. 580
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF ........................................ 581
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 582
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 583
Configuring Support for QoS upgrade from GGSN/PCRF ................................................................... 585
Verifying the QoS Upgrade Support Configuration .......................................................................... 585
Support for SGSN QoS based on PLMN, RAT Type ................................... 587
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 588
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 589
Configuring SGSN Support for RAT Type based QoS Selection ......................................................... 590
Configuring APN Profile and QoS Profile Association ..................................................................... 590
Configuring the Quality of Service Profile ........................................................................................ 590
Monitoring and Troubleshooting RAT Type Based QoS Selection ...................................................... 592
Show Command(s) and/or Outputs .................................................................................................. 592
show apn-profile full [all | name] .................................................................................................. 592
show quality-of-service-profile [ all | full [ all | name ] | name ] ................................................... 592
Support for RAT/Frequency Selection Priority ID (RFSP-ID) ..................... 595
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 596
How it Works ........................................................................................................................................ 597
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
▀ Contents
Encoding and De-coding of RFSP Ids in different scenarios ........................................................... 597
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 599
Configuring Support for RAT/Frequency Selection Priority ID ............................................................. 600
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the the Support for RFSP-ID............................................................. 601
Show Command(s) and/or Outputs .................................................................................................. 601
show call-control profile................................................................................................................ 601
show subscribers sgsn-only full all ............................................................................................... 601
show subscribers gprs-only full all ............................................................................................... 601
show iups-service name............................................................................................................... 601
show sgsn-mode .......................................................................................................................... 601
Subscriber Overcharging Protection ............................................................ 603
Feature Overview ................................................................................................................................. 604
Overcharging Protection - GGSN Configuration................................................................................... 606
GTP-C Private Extension Configuration ........................................................................................... 606
Verifying Your GGSN Configuration ................................................................................................. 607
Overcharging Protection - SGSN Configuration ................................................................................... 608
Private Extension IE Configuration ................................................................................................... 608
RANAP Cause Trigger Configuration ............................................................................................... 609
Verifying the Feature Configuration .................................................................................................. 609
Topology-based Gateway Selection ............................................................. 611
Feature Description .............................................................................................................................. 612
How It Works......................................................................................................................................... 613
First Primary Activation - Gn/Gp-SGSN ........................................................................................... 613
Primary Activation - S4-SGSN ......................................................................................................... 613
Primary Activation for Subsequent PDN .......................................................................................... 613
Intra RAU, New SGSN RAU, Intra SRNS, New SRNS, IRAT .......................................................... 614
Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 614
Standards Compliance ..................................................................................................................... 614
Configuring Topology-based GW Selection ......................................................................................... 615
Configuring GW Selection ................................................................................................................ 615
Verifying the GW Selection Configuration ........................................................................................ 616
Configuring DNS Queries for the Gn/Gp-SGSN .............................................................................. 616
Verifying the DNS Queries Configuration for the Gn/Gp-SGSN .................................................. 616
Configuring DNS Queries for the S4-SGSN ..................................................................................... 617
Verifying the DNS Queries Configuration for the S4-SGSN ........................................................ 617
Configuring the Canonical Node Name for the Gn/Gp-SGSN ......................................................... 617
Verifying the Canonical Node Name Configuration ..................................................................... 618
Monitoring Topology-based GW Selection ........................................................................................... 619
show subscribers [ gprs-only | sgsn-only ] full .................................................................................. 619
Monitoring and Troubleshooting .................................................................. 621
Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................. 622
Daily - Standard Health Check ......................................................................................................... 622
Monthly System Maintenance .......................................................................................................... 624
Every 6 Months ................................................................................................................................. 625
Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................... 626
Problems and Issues ........................................................................................................................ 626
Troubleshooting More Serious Problems ......................................................................................... 626
Causes for Attach Reject ............................................................................................................. 626
Single Attach and Single Activate Failures .................................................................................. 626
Mass Attach and Activate Problems ............................................................................................ 627
Single PDP Context Activation without Data................................................................................ 628
Mass PDP Context Activation but No Data .................................................................................. 629
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Contents ▀
Engineering Rules........................................................................................... 631
Service Rules ....................................................................................................................................... 632
SGSN Connection Rules ...................................................................................................................... 633
Operator Policy Rules ........................................................................................................................... 634
SS7 Rules ............................................................................................................................................. 636
SS7 Routing ..................................................................................................................................... 636
SIGTRAN ......................................................................................................................................... 636
Broadband SS7 ................................................................................................................................ 637
SCCP ............................................................................................................................................... 637
GTT .................................................................................................................................................. 637
SGSN Interface Rules .......................................................................................................................... 638
System-Level .................................................................................................................................... 638
3G Interface Limits ........................................................................................................................... 638
2G Interface Limits ........................................................................................................................... 638
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
About this Guide
This preface describes the SGSN Administration Guide, its organization, document conventions, related documents, and
contact information for Cisco customer service.
The SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) is a StarOS™ application that runs on Cisco® ASR 5x00 and virtualized
platforms.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
About this Guide
▀ Conventions Used
Conventions Used
The following tables describe the conventions used throughout this documentation.
Icon
Notice Type
Description
Information Note
Provides information about important features or instructions.
Caution
Alerts you of potential damage to a program, device, or system.
Warning
Alerts you of potential personal injury or fatality. May also alert you of potential electrical hazards.
Typeface Conventions
Description
Text represented as a screen
display
This typeface represents displays that appear on your terminal screen, for example:
Login:
Text represented as commands
This typeface represents commands that you enter, for example:
show ip access-list
This document always gives the full form of a command in lowercase letters. Commands
are not case sensitive.
Text represented as a command
This typeface represents a variable that is part of a command, for example:
variable
show card slot_number
slot_number is a variable representing the desired chassis slot number.
Text represented as menu or submenu names
This typeface represents menus and sub-menus that you access within a software
application, for example:
Click the File menu, then click New
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
About this Guide
Supported Documents and Resources ▀
Supported Documents and Resources
Related Common Documentation
The most up-to-date information for this product is available in the SGSN Release Notes provided with each product
release.
The following common documents are available:
 AAA Interface Administration and Reference
 Command Line Interface Reference
 GTPP Interface Administration and Reference
 Installation Guide (platform dependent)
 Release Change Reference
 SNMP MIB Reference
 Statistics and Counters Reference
 System Administration Guide (platform dependent)
 Thresholding Configuration Guide
 Cisco StarOS IP Security (IPSec) Reference
Related Product Documentation
The following documents are also available for products that work in conjunction with the SGSN:
 GGSN Administration Guide
 InTracer Installation and Administration Guide
 MME Administration Guide
 MURAL Software Installation Guide
 Web Element Manager Installation and Administration Guide
Obtaining Documentation
The most current Cisco documentation is available on the following website:
http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/psa/default.html
Use the following path selections to access the SGSN documentation:
Products > Wireless > Mobile Internet> Network Functions > Cisco SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
About this Guide
▀ Contacting Customer Support
Contacting Customer Support
Use the information in this section to contact customer support.
Refer to the support area of http://www.cisco.com for up-to-date product documentation or to submit a service request.
A valid username and password are required to access this site. Please contact your Cisco sales or service representative
for additional information.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 1
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
This section contains general overview information about the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), including sections
for:
 Product Description
 Network Deployments and Interfaces
 SGSN Core Functionality
 Features and Functionality
 How the SGSN Works
 Supported Standards
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ Product Description
Product Description
StarOS provides a highly flexible and efficient Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) service to the wireless carriers.
Functioning as an SGSN, the system readily handles wireless data services within 2.5G General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) and 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) data networks. The SGSN also can serve as an
interface between GPRS and/or UMTS networks and the 4G Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network.
Important: Throughout this section the designation for the subscriber equipment is referred to in various ways:
UE for user equipment (common to 3G/4G scenarios), MS or mobile station (common to 2G/2.5G scenarios), and MN
or mobile node (common to 2G/2.5G scenarios involving IP-level functions). Unless noted, these terms are equivalent
and the term used usually complies with usage in the relevant standards.
In a GPRS/UMTS network, the SGSN works in conjunction with radio access networks (RANs) and Gateway GPRS
Support Nodes (GGSNs) to:
 Communicate with home location registers (HLR) via a Gr interface and mobile visitor location registers (VLRs)
via a Gs interface to register a subscriber’s user equipment (UE), or to authenticate, retrieve or update
subscriber profile information.
 Support Gd interface to provide short message service (SMS) and other text-based network services for attached
subscribers.
 Activate and manage IPv4, IPv6, or point-to-point protocol (PPP) -type packet data protocol (PDP) contexts for
a subscriber session.
 Setup and manage the data plane between the RAN and the GGSN providing high-speed data transfer with
configurable GEA0-3 ciphering.
 Provide mobility management, location management, and session management for the duration of a call to
ensure smooth handover.
 Provide various types of charging data records (CDRs) to attached accounting/billing storage mechanisms such
as our SMC-based hard drive or a GTPP Storage Server (GSS) or a charging gateway function (CGF).
 Provide CALEA support for lawful intercepts.
The S4-SGSN is an SGSN configured with 2G and/or 3G services and then configured to interface with the 4G EPC
network via the S4 interface. This enables the S4-SGSN to support handovers from UMTS/GPRS networks to the EPC
network. The S4-SGSN works in conjunction with EPC network elements and gateways to:
 Interface with the EPC network S-GW (via the S4 interface) and MME (via the S3 interface) to enable
handovers between 2G/3G networks and the EPC (4G) network.
 Interface with the Equipment Identity Registry via the S13’ interface to perform the ME identity check.
 Interface with the HSS via the S6d interface to obtain subscription-related information.
 Communicate with S4-SGSNs via the S16 interface.
 Provide Idle Mode Signaling support for EPC-capable UEs.
This section catalogs many of the SGSN key components and features for data services within the GPRS/UMTS
environment. Also, a range of SGSN operational and compliance information is summarized with pointers to other
information sources.
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Product Description ▀
Qualified Platforms
SGSN is a StarOS™ application that runs on Cisco® ASR 5x00 and virtualized platforms. For additional platform
information, refer to the appropriate System Administration Guide and/or contact your Cisco account representative.
Licenses
The SGSN is a licensed Cisco product and requires the purchase and installation of the SGSN Software License.
Separate feature licenses may be required. Contact your Cisco account representative for detailed information on
specific licensing requirements.
For information on installing and verifying licenses, refer to the Managing License Keys section of the Software
Management Operations section in the System Administration Guide.
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Network Deployments and Interfaces
The following logical connection maps illustrate the SGSN’s ability to connect to various radio access network types,
core network types, and network components:
 GSM edge radio access network (GERAN) provides access to the 2.5G general packet radio service (GPRS)
network
 UMTS terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN) provides access to the 3G universal mobile
telecommunications system (UMTS) network
 evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) provides access to the 4G mobile evolved packet core (EPC) of the long term
evolution/system architecture evolution (LTE/SAE) network
 another SGSN
 standalone gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)
 co-located P-GW/GGSN
 mobile service center (MSC)
 visitor location register (VLR)
 home location register (HLR)
 charging gateway (CF - sometimes referred to as a charging gateway function (CGF))
 GTPP storage server (GSS)
 equipment identity registry (EIR)
 home subscriber server (HSS)
 mobility management entity (MME)
 serving gateway (S-GW)
 CAMEL service’s GSM service control function (gsmSCF)
 short message service server center (SMS-C)
 network devices in another PLMN
SGSN and Dual Access SGSN Deployments
SGSNs and GGSNs work in conjunction within the GPRS/UMTS network. As indicated earlier in the section on System
Configuration Options, the flexible architecture of StarOS enables a single chassis to reduce hardware requirements by
supporting integrated co-location of a variety of the SGSN services.
A chassis can be devoted solely to SGSN services or the SGSN system can include any co-location combination, such
as multiple instances of 2.5G SGSNs (configured as GPRS services); or multiple instances of 3G SGSNs (configured as
SGSN services); or a combination of 2.5G and 3G SGSN to comprise a dual access SGSN.
Important: The following illustrates the GPRS/UMTS Dual Access architecture with a display of all the
interfaces supported as of Release 14.0. The SGSN Logical Network Interfaces section below lists the interfaces
available for the release applicable to the version of this manual.
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Network Deployments and Interfaces ▀
Figure 1.
2.5G & 3G Dual Access Architecture
SGSN/GGSN Deployments
The co-location of the SGSN and the GGSN in the same chassis facilitates handover. A variety of GSN combos is
possible, 2.5G or 3G SGSN with the GGSN.
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Figure 2.
GSN Combo Architecture
S4-SGSN Deployments
An S4-SGSN is an SGSN that is configured for S4 interface support to enable the soft handover of 2G and 3G
subscribers to the EPC S-GW via the EPC S4 interface. Comprehensive S4-SGSN support includes interfaces to the
following network elements and gateways:
 EPC serving gateway (S-GW) via the S4 interface
 Equipment identity registry (EIR) via the S13’ interface
 Home subscriber server (HSS) via the S6d interface
 EPC mobility management entity (MME) via the S3 interface
 Peer S4-SGSN via the S16 interface
The S4, S13’ and S6d interfaces are license-enabled features. Support for the S16 and S3 interfaces are included as part
of the S4 license.
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Figure 3.
S4-SGSN Network Architecture
SGSN Logical Network Interfaces
The SGSN provides IP-based transport on all RAN and core network interfaces, in addition to the standard IP-based
interfaces (Ga, Gn, Gp, Iu-PS). This means enhanced performance, future-proof scaling and reduction of interconnectivity complexity. The all-IP functionality is key to facilitating evolution to the next generation technology
requirements.
The SGSN provides the following functions over the logical network interfaces illustrated above:
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 Ga: The SGSN uses the Ga interface with GPRS Transport Protocol Prime (GTPP) to communicate with the
charging gateway (CG, also known as CGF) and/or the GTPP storage server (GSS). The interface transport
layer is typically UDP over IP but can be configured as TCP over IP for:
 One or more Ga interfaces per system context, and
 An interface over Ethernet 10/100 or Ethernet 1000 interfaces
The charging gateway handles buffering and pre-processing of billing records and the GSS provides storage for
Charging Data Records (CDRs). For additional information regarding SGSN charging, refer to the Charging
section.
 IuPS: The SGSN provides an IP over ATM (IP over AAL5 over ATM) interface between the SGSN and the
RNCs in the 3G UMTS radio access network (UTRAN). RANAP is the control protocol that sets up the data
plane (GTP-U) between these nodes. SIGTRAN (M3UA/SCTP) or QSAAL (MTP3B/QSAAL) handle IuPS-C
(control) for the RNCs.
Some of the procedures supported across this interface are:
 Control plane based on M3UA/SCTP
 Up to 128 Peer RNCs per virtual SGSN. Up to 256 peers per physical chassis
 SCTP Multi-Homing supported to facilitate network resiliency
 M3UA operates in and IPSP client/server and single/double-ended modes
 Multiple load shared M3UA instances for high-performance and redundancy
 Works over Ethernet and ATM (IPoA) interfaces
 Facilitates SGSN Pooling
 RAB (Radio Access Bearer) Assignment Request
 RAB Release Request
 Iu Release Procedure
 SGSN-initiated Paging
 Common ID
 Security Mode Procedures
 Initial MN Message
 Direct Transfer
 Reset Procedure
 Error Indication
 SRNS relocation
 Gb: This is the SGSN’s interface to the base station system (BSS) in a 2G radio access network (RAN). It
connects the SGSN via UDP/IP via an Ethernet interface or Frame Relay via a Channelized SDH or SONET
interface (only available on an ASR 5000 chassis). Gb-IP is the preferred interface as it improves control plane
scaling as well as facilitates the deployment of SGSN Pools.
Some of the procedures supported across this interface are:
 BSS GSM at 900/1800/1900 MHz
 BSS Edge
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 Frame Relay congestion handling
 Traffic management per Frame Relay VC
 NS load sharing
 NS control procedures
 BVC management procedures
 Paging for circuit-switched services
 Suspend/Resume
 Flow control
 Unacknowledged mode
 Acknowledged mode
 Gn/Gp: The Gn/Gp interfaces, comprised of GTP/UDP/IP-based protocol stacks, connect the SGSNs and
GGSNs to other SGSNs and GGSNs within the same public land mobile network (PLMN) - the Gn - or to
GGSNs in other PLMNs - the Gp.
This implementation supports:
 GTPv0 and GTPv1, with the capability to auto-negotiate the version to be used with any particular peer
 GTP-C (control plane) and GTP-U (user plane)
 Transport over ATM/STM-1Optical (only available with an ASR 5000 chassis), Fast Ethernet, and
Ethernet 1000 line cards/QGLCs)
 One or more Gn/Gp interfaces configured per system context
As well, the SGSN can support the following IEs from later version standards:
 IMEI-SV
 RAT TYPE
 User Location Information
 Extended PDP Type (Release 9)
 Extended RNC ID (Release 9)
 Ge: This is the interface between the SGSN and the SCP that supports the CAMEL service. It supports both SS7
and SIGTRAN and uses the CAP protocol.
 Gr: This is the interface to the HLR. It supports SIGTRAN (M3UA/SCTP/IP) over Ethernet.
Some of the procedures supported by the SGSN on this interface are:
 Send Authentication Info
 Update Location
 Insert Subscriber Data
 Delete Subscriber Data
 Cancel Location
 Purge
 Reset
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 Ready for SM Notification
 SIGTRAN based interfaces M3UA/SCTP
 Peer connectivity can be through an intermediate SGP or directly depending on whether the peer (HLR,
EIR, SMSC, GMLC) is SIGTRAN enabled or not
 SCTP Multi-Homing supported to facilitate network resiliency
 M3UA operates in IPSP client/server and single/double-ended modes
 Multiple load shared M3UA instances for high-performance and redundancy
 Works over Ethernet (IPoA) interface
 Gs: This is the interface used by the SGSN to communicate with the visitor location register (VLR) or mobile
switching center (MSC) to support circuit switching (CS) paging initiated by the MSC. This interface uses
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connectionless service and BSSAP+ application protocols.
 Gd: This is the interface between the SGSN and the SMS Gateway (SMS-GMSC / SMS-IWMSC) for both 2G
and 3G technologies through multiple interface mediums. Implementation of the Gd interface requires
purchase of an additional license.
 Gf: Interface is used by the SGSN to communicate with the equipment identity register (EIR) which keeps a
listing of UE (specifically mobile phones) being monitored. The SGSN’s Gf interface implementation supports
functions such as:
 International Mobile Equipment Identifier-Software Version (IMEI-SV) retrieval
 IMEI-SV status confirmation
 Lg: This is a Mobile Application Part (MAP) interface, between the SGSN and the gateway mobile location
center (GMLC), supports 3GPP standards-compliant LoCation Services (LCS) for both 2G and 3G
technologies. Implementation of the Lg interface requires purchase of an additional license.
 S3:On the S4-SGSN, this interface provides a GTPv2-C signaling path connection between the EPC mobility
management entity (MME) and the SGSN. This functionality is part of the S4 interface feature license.
 S4: On the S4-SGSN, this interface provides a data and signaling interface between the EPC S-GW and the S4SGSN for bearer plane transport (GTPv1-U). The S4-SGSN communicates with the P-GW via the S-GW. A
separate feature license is required for S4 interface support.
 S6d: On the SGSN, this is the S6d interface between the SGSN and the HSS. This enables the SGSN to get
subscription details of a user from the HSS when a user tries to register with the SGSN. A separate feature
license is required for S6d Diameter interface support.
 S13’: The SGSN supports the S13‘ interface between the SGSN and the EIR. This enables the SGSN to
communicate with an Equipment Identity Registry (EIR) via the Diameter protocol to perform the Mobile
Equipment (ME) identity check procedure between the SGSN and EIR. Performing this procedure enables the
SGSN to verify the equipment status of the Mobile Equipment. A separate feature license is required for S13’
interface support.
 S16:On the S4-SGSN, this interface provides a GTPv2 path to a peer S4-SGSN. Support for this interface is
provided as part of the S4 interface license.
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SGSN Core Functionality ▀
SGSN Core Functionality
The SGSN core functionality is comprised of:
 All-IP Network (AIPN)
 SS7 Support
 PDP Context Support
 Mobility Management
 Location Management
 Session Management
 Charging
All-IP Network (AIPN)
AIPN provides enhanced performance, future-proof scaling and reduction of inter-connectivity complexity.
In accordance with 3GPP, the SGSN provides IP-based transport on all RAN and core network interfaces, in addition to
the standard IP-based interfaces (Ga, Gn, Gp, Iu-Data). The all-IP functionality is key to facilitating Iu and Gb Flex
(SGSN pooling) functionality as well as evolution to the next generation technology requirements.
The following IP-based protocols are supported on the SGSN:
 SCTP
 M3UA over SCTP
 GTPv0 over UDP
 GTPv1 over UDP
 GTPv2 over UDP (S4-SGSN only)
 GTP-U over UDP
 Diameter over TCP and SCTP (S4-SGSN only)
SS7 Support
StarOS SGSN implements SS7 functionality to communicate with the various SS7 network elements, such as HLRs
and VLRs.
The SGSN employs standard Signaling System 7 (SS7) addressing (point codes) and global title translation. SS7 feature
support includes:
 Transport layer support includes:
 Broadband SS7 (MTP3B/SSCF/SSCOP/AAL5)
 Narrowband SS7 (high speed and low speed) (only available on an ASR 5000 chassis)
 SIGTRAN (M3UA/SCTP/IP)
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 SS7 variants supported:
 ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunications - Europe)
 ANSI (American National Standards Institute - U.S.)
 B-ICI (B-ISDN Inter-Carrier Interface)
 China
 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee - Japan)
 NTT (Japan)
 SS7 protocol stack components supported:
 MTP2 (Message Transfer Part, Level 2)
 MTP3 (Message Transfer Part, Level 3)
 SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part ) with BSSAP+ (Base Station System Application Part Plus)
and RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part)
 ISUP (ISDN User Part
 TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Applications Part) and MAP (Mobile Application Part)
PDP Context Support
Support for subscriber primary and secondary Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts in compliance with 3GPP standards
ensure complete end-to-end GPRS connectivity.
The SGSN supports a total of 11 PDP contexts per subscriber. Of the 11 PDP context, all can be primaries, or 1 primary
and 10 secondaries or any combination of primary and secondary. Note that there must be at least one primary PDP
context in order for secondaries to establish.
PDP context processing supports the following types and functions:
 Types: IPv4, IPv6, IPv4v6 (dual stack) and/or PPP
 GTPP accounting support
 PDP context timers
 Quality of Service (QoS)
Mobility Management
The SGSN supports mobility management (MM) in compliance with applicable 3GPP standards and procedures to
deliver the full range of services to the mobile device. Some of the procedures are highlighted below:
GPRS Attach
The SGSN is designed to accommodate a very high rate of simultaneous attaches. The actual attach rate depends on the
latencies introduced by the network and scaling of peers. In order to optimize the entire signaling chain, the SGSN
eliminates or minimizes bottlenecks caused by large scale control signaling. For this purpose, the SGSN implements
features such as an in-memory data-VLR and SuperCharger. Both IMSI and P-TMSI based attaches are supported.
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The SGSN provides the following mechanisms to control MN attaches:
 Attached Idle Timeout - When enabled, if an MN has not attempted to setup a PDP context since attaching, this
timer forces the MN to detach with a cause indicating that the MN need not re-attach. This timer is particularly
useful for reducing the number of attached subscribers, especially those that automatically attach at power-on.
 Detach Prohibit - When enabled, this mechanism disables the Attached Idle Timeout functionality for selected
MNs which aggressively re-attach when detached by the network.
 Prohibit Reattach Timer - When enabled, this timer mechanism prevents MNs, that were detached due to
inactivity, from re-attaching for a configured period of time. Such MNs are remembered by the in-memory
data-VLR until the record needs to be purged.
 Attach Rate Throttle - It is unlikely that the SGSN would become a bottleneck because of the SGSN’s high
signaling rates. However, other nodes in the network may not scale commensurately. To provide network
overload protection, the SGSN provides a mechanism to control the number of attaches occurring through it on
a per second basis.
Beside configuring the rate, it is possible to configure the action to be taken when the overload limit is reached. Note,
this is a soft control and the actual attach rate may not match exactly the configured value depending on the load
conditions.
GPRS Detach
The SGSN is designed to accommodate a very high rate of simultaneous detaches. However, the actual detach rate is
dependent on the latencies introduced by the network and scaling of peers. A GPRS detach results in the deactivation of
all established PDP contexts.
There are a variety of detaches defined in the standards and the SGSN supports the following detaches:
 MN Initiated Detach - The MN requests to be detached.
 SGSN Initiated Detach - The SGSN requests the MN to detach due to expiry of a timer or due to administrative
action.
 HLR Initiated Detach - The detach initiated by the receipt of a cancel location from the HLR.
Mass detaches triggered by administrative commands are paced in order to avoid flooding the network and peer nodes
with control traffic.
Paging
CS-Paging is initiated by a peer node - such as the MSC - when there is data to be sent to an idle or unavailable UE. CSpaging requires the Gs interface. This type of paging is intended to trigger a service request from the UE. If necessary,
the SGSN can use PS-Paging to notify the UE to switch channels. Once the UE reaches the connected state, the data is
forwarded to it.
Paging frequency can be controlled by configuring a paging-timer.
Service Request
The Service Request procedure is used by the MN in the PMM Idle state to establish a secure connection to the SGSN
as well as request resource reservation for active contexts.
The SGSN allows configuration of the following restrictions:
 Prohibition of services
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 Enforce identity check
 PLMN restriction
 Roaming restrictions
Authentication
The SGSN authenticates the subscriber via the authentication procedure. This procedure is invoked on attaches, PDP
activations, inter-SGSN routing Area Updates (RAUs), and optionally by configuration for periodic RAUs. The
procedure requires the SGSN to retrieve authentication quintets/triplets from the HLR (AuC) and issuing an
authentication and ciphering request to the MN. The SGSN implements an in-memory data-VLR functionality to prefetch and store authentication vectors from the HLR. This decreases latency of the control procedures.
Additional configuration at the SGSN allows for the following:
 Enforcing ciphering
 Retrieval of the IMEI-SV
P-TMSI Reallocation
The SGSN supports standard Packet-Temporary Mobile Identity (P-TMSI) Reallocation procedures to provide identity
confidentiality for the subscriber.
The SGSN can be configured to allow or prohibit P-TMSI reallocation on the following events:
 Routing Area Updates
 Attaches
 Detaches
 Service Requests
The SGSN reallocates P-TMSI only when necessary.
P-TMSI Signature Reallocation
The SGSN supports operator definition of frequency and interval for Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (PTMSI) signature reallocation for all types of routing area update (RAU) events.
Identity Request
This procedure is used to retrieve IMSI and IMEI-SV from the MN. The SGSN executes this procedure only when the
MN does not provide the IMSI and the MM context for the subscriber is not present in the SGSN’s data-VLR.
Location Management
The SGSN’s 3GPP compliance for location management ensures efficient call handling for mobile users.
The SGSN supports routing area updates (RAU) for location management. The SGSN implements standards based
support for:
 Periodic RAUs
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 Intra-SGSN RAUs
 Inter-SGSN RAUs.
The design of the SGSN allows for very high scalability of RAUs. In addition, the high capacity of the SGSN and Flex
functionality provides a great opportunity to convert high impact Inter-SGSN RAUs to lower impact Intra-SGSN RAUs.
The SGSN provides functionality to enforce the following RAU restrictions:
 Prohibition of GPRS services
 Enforce identity request
 Enforce IMEI check
 PLMN restriction
 Roaming restrictions
The SGSN also provides functionality to optionally supply the following information to the MN:
 P-TMSI Signature and Allocated P-TMSI
 List of received N-PDU numbers for loss less relocation
 Negotiated READY timer value
 Equivalent PLMNs
 PDP context status
 Network features supported
Session Management
Session management ensures proper PDP context setup and handling.
For session management, the SGSN supports four 3GPP-compliant procedures for processing PDP contexts:
 Activation
 Modification
 Deactivation
 Preservation
PDP Context Activation
The PDP context activation procedure establishes a PDP context with the required QoS from the MN to the GGSN.
These can be either primary or secondary contexts. The SGSN supports a minimum of 1 PDP primary context per
attached subscriber, and up to a maximum of 11 PDP contexts per attached subscriber.
The PDP context types supported are:
 PDP type IPv4
 PDP type IPv6
 PDP type IPv4v6
 PDP type PPP
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Both dynamic and static addresses for the PDP contexts are supported.
The SGSN provides configuration to control the duration of active and inactive PDP contexts.
When activating a PDP context the SGSN can establish the GTP-U data plane from the RNC through the SGSN to the
GGSN or directly between the RNC and the GGSN (one tunnel).
The SGSN is capable of interrogating the DNS infrastructure to resolve the specified APN to the appropriate GGSN.
The SGSN also provides default and override configuration of QoS and APN.
PDP Context Modification
This procedure is used to update the MN and the GGSN. The SGSN is capable of initiating the context modification or
negotiating a PDP context modification initiated by either the MN or the GGSN.
PDP Context Deactivation
This procedure is used to deactivate PDP contexts. The procedure can be initiated by the MN or the SGSN. The SGSN
provides configurable timers to initiate PDP deactivation of idle contexts as well as active contexts.
PDP Context Preservation
The SGSN provides this functionality to facilitate efficient radio resource utilization. This functionality comes into play
on the following triggers:
 RAB (Radio Access Bearer) Release Request
This is issued by the RAN to request the release of RABs associated with specific PDP contexts. The SGSN
responds with a RAB assignment request, waits for the RAB assignment response and marks the RAB as
having been released. The retention of the PDP contexts is controlled by configuration at the SGSN. If the PDP
contexts are retained the SGSN is capable of receiving downlink packets on them.
 Iu Release Request
The RAN issues an Iu release request to release all RABs of an MN and the Iu connection. The retention of the
PDP contexts is controlled by configuration at the SGSN. When PDP contexts are retained the SGSN is
capable of receiving downlink packets on them.
When PDP contexts are preserved, the RABs can be restored on a service request from the MN without having
to go through the PDP context establishment process again. The service request is issued by the MN either
when it has some data to send or in response to a paging request, on downlink data, from the SGSN.
Charging
Charging functionality for the SGSN varies depending upon the type of network in which it is deployed.
SGSN in GPRS/UMTS Network
The SGSN provides an efficient and accurate billing system for all calls and SMSs passing through the SGSN. The
charging-specific interfaces and 3GPP standards supported by the SGSN deployments are listed below:
 Allows the configuration of multiple CGFs and a single GSS in a single GTPP group along with their relative
priorities.
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 Implements the standardized Ga interface.
 Fully supports the GPRS Tunneling Protocol Prime (GTPP) over UDP/TCP.
 Supports the relevant charging information as defined in:
 3GPP TS 29.060 v7.9.0 (2008-09): Technical Specification; 3rd Generation Partnership Project;
Technical Specification Group Core Network; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS
Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface (Release 6)
 3GPP TS 32.215 v5.9.0 (2005-06): 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
Services and System Aspects; Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging
data description for the Packet Switched (PS) domain (Release 4)
 3GPP TS.32.251 V8.8.0 (2009-12): 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
Services and System Aspects; Telecommunication management; Charging management; Packet
Switched (PS) domain charging (Release 8)
 3GPP TS 32.298 V8.7.0 (2009-12): 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
Service and System Aspects; Telecommunication management; Charging management; Charging
Data Record (CDR) parameter description (Release 8)
Charging Data Records (CDRs)
The SGSN generates CDRs with the charging information. The following sections outline the types of CDRs generated
by the SGSN.
SGSN Call Detail Records (S-CDRs)
These charging records are generated for PDP contexts established by the SGSN. They contain attributes as defined in
TS 32.251 v7.2.0.
Mobility Call Detail Records (M-CDRs)
These charging records are generated by the SGSN’s mobility management (MM) component and correspond to the
mobility states. They contain attributes as defined in 3GPP TS 32.251 v7.2.0.
Short Message Service CDRs
SGSN supports following CDRs for SMS related charging:
 SMS-Mobile Originated CDRs (SMS-MO-CDRs)
 SMS Mobile Terminated CDRs (SMS-MT-CDRs)
These charging records are generated by the SGSN’s Short Message Service component. They contain attributes as
defined in 3GPP TS 32.215 v5.9.0.
Location Request CDRs
SGSN supports the following Location Request CDRs:
 Mobile terminated location request CDRs (LCS-MT-CDRs)
 Mobile originated location request CDRs (LCS-MO-CDRs)
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▀ SGSN Core Functionality
SGSN in LTE/SAE Network
Beginning in release 14.0, an SGSN can function in an LTE/SAE network using enhancements to support various other
interfaces including an S4 interface. In these cases, the SGSN is referred to as an S4-SGSN.
Serving Gateway Call Detail Records (S-GW-CDRs)
The S4-SGSN does not support S-CDRs because the S4 interface is used, per PDP (or EPS bearer) and charging records
are generated by the S-GW using the S-GW-CDR. The S-GW collects the charging information per user per IP-CAN
bearer. The collected information is called as S-GW-CDR and sent to the Charging Gateway over the Gz interface.
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Features and Functionality ▀
Features and Functionality
It is impossible to list all of the features supported by the Gn/Gp SGSN (2.5G and 3G) or the S4-SGSN.
Those features listed below are only a few of the features that enable the operator to control the SGSN and their
network. All of these features are either proprietary or comply with relevant 3GPP specifications.
Some of the proprietary features may require a separate license. Contact your Cisco account representative for detailed
information on specific licensing requirements. For information on installing and verifying licenses, refer to the
Managing License Keys section of the Software Management Operations section in the System Administration Guide.
The following is an alphabetical list of the features described in this overview:
 3G-2G Location Change Reporting
 AAA Changes To Support Location Services (LCS) Feature
 Accounting Path Framework, New for 14.0
 APN Aliasing
 APN Redirection per APN with Lowest Context-ID
 APN Resolution with SCHAR or RNC-ID
 APN Restriction
 Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
 Authentications and Reallocations -- Selective
 Avoiding PDP Context Deactivations
 Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
 Bypassing APN Remap for Specific IMEI Ranges
 Bulk Statistics Support
 CAMEL Service Phase 3, Ge Interface
 Commandguard
 Configurable RAB Asymmetry Indicator in RAB Assignment Request
 Congestion Control
 Different NRIs for Pooled and Non-pooled RNCsBSCs
 Direct Tunnel
 Direct Tunnel Support on the S4SGSN
 Downlink Data Lockout Timer
 DSCP Templates for Control and Data Packets - Iu or Gb over IP
 Dual PDP Addresses for Gn/Gp
 ECMP over ATM
 EDR Enhancements
 Equivalent PLMN
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 First Vector Configurable Start for MS Authentication
 Format encoding Of MNC and MCC in DNS Queries Enhanced
 Gb Manager
 GMM-SM Event Logging
 Gn/Gp Delay Monitoring
 GTP-C Path Failure Detection and Management
 Handling Multiple MS Attaches All with the Same Random TLLI
 Ignore Context-ID during 4G3G Handovers
 Interface Selection Based on UE Capability
 Intra- or Inter-SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation (3G only)
 Lawful Intercept
 Lawful Interception Capacity Enhanced
 Link Aggregation - Horizontal
 Local DNS
 Local Mapping of MBR
 Local QoS Capping
 Location Change Reporting on the S4SGSN
 Location Services
 LockShutdown the BSC from the SGSN
 Management System Overview
 Multiple PLMN Support
 Network Sharing
 NRI-FQDN based DNS resolution for non-local RAIs (2G subscribers)
 NRI Handling Enhancement
 NRPCA 3G
 NRSPCA Support for S4-SGSN
 Operator Policy
 Overcharging Protection
 QoS Traffic Policing per Subscriber
 VPC-DI platform support for SGSN
 RAN Information Management RIM
 Reordering of SNDCP N-PDU Segments
 S4 Support on the SGSN
 Session Recovery
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 SGSN Pooling and Iu-Flex Gb-Flex
 SGSN Support for RAI Based Query
 SGSN Support for Sending Extended Bits Bi-directionally
 SGSN support to Ignore PDP Data Inactivity
 Short Message Service (SMS over Gd)
 SMS Authentication Repetition Rate
 SMSC Address Denial
 Status Updates to RNC
 Threshold Crossing Alerts (TCA) Support
 Tracking Usage of GEA Encryption Algorithms
 VLR Pooling via the Gs Interface
 Synchronization of Crash Events and Minicores between Management Cards
 Zero Volume S-CDR Suppression
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
With Location Change Reporting enabled, the SGSN facilitates location-based charging on the GGSN by providing the
UE’s geographical location information when the UE is in connected mode.
Location-based charging is a values-added function that ensures subscribers pay a premium for location-based services,
such as service in a congested areas. With the required feature license installed, the operator uses the CLI to enable the
reporting independently for each network access type: GPRS (2G) or UMTS (3G).
For more information about how the feature works and how to configure it, refer to the 3G-2G Location Change
Reporting feature section.
Important:
The “Location reporting in connected mode” license is required to enable this functionality.
Accounting Path Framework, New for 14.0
As of Release 14.0, the SGSN uses a new accounting path framework to support PSC3 numbers of 8 million attached
subs and 16 million PDP contexts. In the old accounting path framework, there was one AAA session per sub-session in
the Session manager and one archive session per sub-session in AAA manager. As part of the new accounting path
framework there is only one AAA session per call in the Session manager and one archive session per call in the AAA
manager. Also, there is an additional accounting session in the Session manager and the AAA manager per sub-session.
The new accounting path framework improves memory and CPU utilization and prevents tariff or time limit delay.
There are no changes in the CLI syntax to support the new accounting path and the existing accounting behavior of
SGSN is not modified.
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▀ Features and Functionality
AAA Changes To Support Location Services (LCS) Feature
The Location Services (LCS) feature in SGSN provides the mechanism to support mobile location services for
operators, subscribers and third party service providers. AAA changes have been made to support the LCS feature. A
new CDR type Mobile Originated Location Request CDRs (LCS-MO-CDR) is introduced. LCS-MO-CDRs support the
standard dictionaries.
For detailed information on LCS-MO-CDRs, refer to the GTPP Interface Administration and Reference.
APN Aliasing
In many situations, the APN provided in the Activation Request is unacceptable – perhaps it does not match with any of
the subscribed APNs or it is misspelled – and would result in the SGSN rejecting the Activation Request. The APN
Aliasing feature enables the operator to override an incoming APN – specified by a subscriber or provided during the
APN selection procedure (TS 23.060) – or replace a missing APN with an operator-preferred APN.
The APN Aliasing feature provides a set of override functions: Default APN, Blank APN, APN Remapping, and
Wildcard APN to facilitate such actions as:
 overriding a mismatched APN with a default APN.
 overriding a missing APN (blank APN) with a default or preferred APN.
 overriding an APN on the basis of charging characteristics.
 overriding an APN by replacing part or all of the network or operator identifier with information defined by the
operator, for example, MNC123.MCC456.GPRS could be replaced by MNC222.MCC333.GPRS.
 overriding an APN for specific subscribers (based on IMSI) or for specific devices (based on IMEI).
Default APN
Operators can configure a “default APN” for subscribers not provisioned in the HLR. The default APN feature will be
used in error situations when the SGSN cannot select a valid APN via the normal APN selection process. Within an
APN remap table, a default APN can be configured for the SGSN to:
 override a requested APN when the HLR does not have the requested APN in the subscription profile.
 provide a viable APN if APN selection fails because there was no “requested APN” and wildcard subscription
was not an option.
In either of these instances, the SGSN can provide the default APN as an alternate behavior to ensure that PDP context
activation is successful.
Recently, the SGSN’s default APN functionality was enhanced so that if a required subscription APN is not present in
the subscriber profile, then the SGSN will now continue the activation with another configured 'dummy' APN. The call
will be redirected, via the GGSN, to a webpage informing the user of the error and prompting to subscribe for services.
APN Redirection per APN with Lowest Context-ID
The APN Redirection per APN with Lowest Context-ID feature adds the flexibility to select the subscription APN with
the least context ID when the APN is not found in the subscription. SGSN already provides sophisticated APN
replacement with support for first-in-subscription, default APN, blank APN, and wildcard APN. This latest feature
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works along similar lines providing further flexibility to the operator in allowing activations when the MS requested
APN is incorrect, misspelled, or not present in the subscription.
The SGSN's APN selection procedure is based on 3GPP 23.060 Annex A, which this feature extends based on CLI
controls under the APN Remap Table configuration mode.
APN Resolution with SCHAR or RNC-ID
It is now possible to append charging characteristic information to the DNS string. The SGSN includes the profile index
value portion of the CC as binary/decimal/hexadecimal digits (type based on the configuration) after the APN network
identification. The charging characteristic value is taken from the subscription record selected for the subscriber during
APN selection. This enables the SGSN to select a GGSN based on the charging characteristics information.
After appending the charging characteristic the DNS string will take the following form:
<apn_network_id>.<profile_index>.<apn_operator_id >. The profile index in the following example has a
value 10: quicknet.com.uk.1010.mnc234.mcc027.gprs.
If the RNC_ID information is configured to be a part of the APN name, and if inclusion of the profile index of the
charging characteristics information is enabled before the DNS query is sent, then the profile index is included after the
included RNC_ID and the DNS APN name will appear in the following form:
<apn_network_id>.<rnc_id>.<profile_index>.<apn_operator_id>. In the following example, the DNS
query for a subscriber using RNC 0321 with the profile index of value 8 would appear as:
quicknet.com.uk.0321.1000.mnc234.mcc027.gprs.
APN Restriction
The reception, storage, and transfer of APN Restriction values is used to determine whether a UE is allowed to establish
PDP Context or EPS bearers with other APNs. This feature is supported by both the Gn/Gp-SGSN and the S4-SGSN.
During default bearer activation, the SGSN sends the current maximum APN restriction value for the UE to the
GGSN/P-GW in a Create Session Request (CSR). The GGSN/P-GW retains an APN restriction value for each APN.
The UE’s APN Restriction value determines the type of application data the subscriber is allowed to send. If the
maximum APN restriction of the UE (received in the CSR) and the APN Restriction value of the APN (for which
activation is being request) do not concur, then the GGSN/P-GW rejects activation. The maximum APN restriction for a
UE is the most restrictive based on all already active default EPS bearers.
This feature provides the operator with increased control to restrict certain APNs to UEs based on the type of APN. This
feature requires no special license.
APN Restriction for SGSN is enabled/disabled in the call-control-profile configuration mode using the apnrestriction command. Refer to the Command Line Interface Reference for usage details.
Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
Automatic protection switching (APS is now available on an inter-card basis for SONET configured CLC2 (Frame
Relay) and OLC2 (ATM) optical line cards. Multiple switching protection (MSP) version of is also available for SDH
configured for the CLC2 and OLC2 (ATM) line cards.
APS/MSP offers superior redundancy for SONET/SDH equipment and supports recovery from card failures and fiber
cuts. APS allows an operator to configure a pair of SONET/SDH lines for line redundancy. In the event of a line
problem, the active line switches automatically to the standby line within 60 milliseconds (10 millisecond initiation and
50 millisecond switchover).
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At this time, the Gn/Gp-SGSN supports the following APS/MSP parameters:
 1+1 - Each redundant line pair consists of a working line and a protection line.
 uni-directional - Protection on one end of the connection.
 non-revertive - Upon restoration of service, this parameter prevents the network from automatically reverting to
the original working line.
The protection mechanism used for the APS/MSP uses a linear 1+1 architecture, as described in the ITU-T G.841
standard and the Bellcore publication GR-253-CORE, SONET Transport Systems; Common Generic Criteria, Section
5.3. The connection is unidirectional.
With APS/MSP 1+1, each redundant line pair consists of a working line and a protection line. Once a signal fail
condition or a signal degrade condition is detected, the hardware switches from the working line to the protection line.
With the non-revertive option, if a signal fail condition is detected, the hardware switches to the protection line and does
not automatically revert back to the working line.
Since traffic is carried simultaneously by the working and protection lines, the receiver that terminates the APS/MSP
1+1 must select cells from either line and continue to forward one consistent traffic stream. The receiving ends can
switch from working to protection line without coordinating at the transmit end since both lines transmit the same
information.
Figure 4.
SONET APS 1+1
Refer to the section on Configuring APS/MSP Redundancy in the SGSN Service Configuration Procedures section for
configuration details.
Authentications and Reallocations -- Selective
Subscriber event authentication, P-TMSI reallocation, and P-TMSI signature reallocation are now selective rather than
enabled by default.
The operator can enable and configure them to occur according to network requirements:
 every instance or every nth instance;
 on the basis of UMTS, GPRS or both;
 on the basis of elapsed time intervals between events.
There are situations in which authentication will be performed unconditionally:
 IMSI Attach – all IMSI attaches will be authenticated
 When the subscriber has not been authenticated before and the SGSN does not have a vector
 When there is a P-TMSI signature mismatch
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 When there is a CKSN mismatch
There are situation in which P-TMSI will be reallocated unconditionally:
 Inter SGSN Attach/RAU
 Inter-RAT Attach/RAU in 2G
 IMSI Attach
Avoiding PDP Context Deactivations
The SGSN can be configured to avoid increased network traffic resulting from bursts of service
deactivations/activations resulting from erroneous restart counter change values in received messages (Create PDP
Context Response or Update PDP Context Response or Update PDP Context Request). Be default, the SGSN has the
responsibility to verify possible GTP-C path failure by issuing an Echo Request/Echo Response to the GGSN. Path
failure will only be confirmed if the Echo Response contains a new restart counter value. Only after this confirmation of
the path failure does the SGSN begin deactivation of PDP contexts.
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
This feature allows the backup of a small set of KPI counters for recovery of the counter values after a session manager
crash.
Using the feature-specific CLI statistics-backup sgsn backup-interval command, in the Global
configuration mode, the operator can enable the feature and define the frequency of the backup; range 1-60 minutes.
In support of this functionality, four schemas (gprs-bk, iups-bk, map-bk, sgtp-bk) have been defined with stats, derived
from the SGSN and SGTP schemas, that will be backed up for recovery of their counter values.
For more information about the schema, refer to the Statistics and Counters Reference. For more information about this
functionality and configuration for this feature, refer to the Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics feature chapter in
this Guide.
Bulk Statistics Support
System support for bulk statistics allows operators to choose which statistics to view and to configure the format in
which the statistics are presented. This simplifies the post-processing of statistical data since it can be formatted to be
parsed by external, back-end processors.
When used in conjunction with the Web Element Manager, the data can be parsed, archived, and graphed.
The system can be configured to collect bulk statistics (performance data) and send them to a collection server (called a
receiver). Bulk statistics are statistics that are collected in a group. The individual statistics are grouped by schema. The
following is the list of schemas supported for use by the SGSN:
 System: Provides system-level statistics
 Card: Provides card-level statistics
 Port: Provides port-level statistics
 DLCI-Util: Provides statistics specific to DLCIs utilization for CLC-type line cards
 EGTPC: Provides statistics specific to the configured ETPC service on the S4-SGSN
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 GPRS: Provides statistics for LLC, BSSGP, SNDCP, and NS layers
 SCCP: Provides SCCP network layer statistics
 SGTP: Provides SGSN-specific GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) statistics
 SGSN: Provides statistics for: mobility management (MM) and session management (SM) procedures; as well,
MAP, TCAP, and SMS counters are captured in this schema. SGSN Schema statistic availability is per service
(one of: SGSN, GPRS, MAP) and per routing area (RA)
 SS7Link: Provides SS7 link and linkset statistics
 SS7RD: Provides statistics specific to the proprietary SS7 routing domains
The system supports the configuration of up to 4 sets (primary/secondary) of receivers. Each set can be configured with
to collect specific sets of statistics from the various schemas. Statistics can be pulled manually from the chassis or sent
at configured intervals. The bulk statistics are stored on the receiver(s) in files.
The format of the bulk statistic data files can be configured by the user. Users can specify the format of the file name,
file headers, and/or footers to include information such as the date, chassis host name, chassis uptime, the IP address of
the system generating the statistics (available for only for headers and footers), and/or the time that the file was
generated.
When the Web Element Manager is used as the receiver, it is capable of further processing the statistics data through
XML parsing, archiving, and graphing.
The Bulk Statistics Server component of the Web Element Manager parses collected statistics and stores the information
in the PostgreSQL database. If XML file generation and transfer is required, this element generates the XML output and
can send it to a Northbound NMS or an alternate bulk statistics server for further processing.
Additionally, if archiving of the collected statistics is desired, the Bulk Statistics server writes the files to an alternative
directory on the server. A specific directory can be configured by the administrative user or the default directory can be
used. Regardless, the directory can be on a local file system or on an NFS-mounted file system on the Web Element
Manager server.
Bypassing APN Remap for Specific IMEI Ranges
Prior to Release 16, if a local default APN configured in an IMEI profile could not be used, then any default APN
configured under an operator policy was used. Also, only the apn-selection-default CLI option, under the APN
Remap Table configuration associated with an IMEI profile, was valid. Other CLI options such as apn-remap and
blank-apn were not applicable when a remap table was associated with an IMEI profile.
With Release 16, an APN Remap Table associated with an IMEI profile overrides a remap table associated with an
operator policy. This means activation will be rejected if a local default APN configured, in an APN Remap Table
associated with an IMEI profile, cannot be used. This will occur even if a valid local default APN is available in an
APN Remap Table associated with an operator policy.
Important: To achieve the previous default behavior, customers already using an APN Remap Table that is
associated with an IMEI profile will have to change the existing configuration to achieve the previous behavior. For
details and sample configurations, see the Release 16 specific information for apn-selection-default in the APN
Remap Table Configuration Mode Commands section of the Command Line Interface Reference for a Release 16 or
higher.
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CAMEL Service Phase 3, Ge Interface
The SGSN provides PDP session support as defined by Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
(CAMEL) phase 3.
CAMEL Service
CAMEL service enables operators of 2.5G/3G networks to provide operator-specific services (such as prepaid GPRS
service and prepaid SMS service) to subscribers, even when the subscribers are roaming outside their HPLMN.
CAMEL Support
SGSN support for CAMEL phase 3 services expands with each SGSN application release. Current support enables
operators of 2.5G/3G networks to provide operator-specific services (such as prepaid GPRS service and prepaid SMS
service) to subscribers, even when the subscribers are roaming outside their HPLMN.
For this release the SGSN has expanded its support for CAMEL Scenario 1 adding:
 Implementation of Scenario1 triggers (TDP-Attach, TDP-Attach-ChangeofPosition)
 Implementation of Scenario1 Dynamic triggers (DP-Detach, DP-ChangeofPosition)
 Expanded conformance to 3GPP spec 23.078 (Release 4)
The SGSN supports the following GPRS-related functionality in CAMEL phase 3:
 Control of GPRS PDP contexts
Functional support for CAMEL interaction includes:
 PDP Context procedures per 3GPP TS 29.002
 GPRS TDP (trigger detection point) functions
 Default handling codes, if no response received from SCP
 GPRS EDP (event detection points) associated with SCP
 Charging Procedures: Handle Apply Charging GPRS & Handle Apply Charging Report GPRS
 “GPRS Dialogue scenario 2" for CAMEL control with SCP
 CAMEL-related data items in an S-CDR:
 SCF Address
 Service Key
 Default Transaction Handling
 Level of CAMEL service (phase 3)
 Session Recovery for all calls have an ESTABLISHED CAMEL association.
Ge Interface
The SGSN’s implementation of CAMEL uses standard CAP protocol over a Ge interface between the SGSN and the
SCP. This interface can be deployed over SS7 or SIGTAN.
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The SGSN's Ge support includes use of the gprsSSF CAMEL component with the SGSN and the gsmSCF component
with the SCP.
CAMEL Configuration
To provide the CAMEL interface on the SGSN, a new service configuration mode, called “CAMEL Service”, has been
introduced on the SGSN.
1. An SCCP Network configuration must be created or exist already.
2. A CAMEL Service instance must be created.
3. The CAMEL Service instance must be associated with either the SGSN Service configuration or the GPRS
Service configuration in order to enable use of the CAMEL interface.
4. The CAMEL Service must be associated with the SCCP Network configuration.
Until a CAMEL Service is properly configured, the SGSN will not process any TDP for pdp-context or mo-sms.
Commandguard
Operators can accidentally enter configuration mode via CLI or file replay. To protect against this, SGSN supports
commandguard CLI command. Commandguard, which is disabled by default, can only be enabled or disabled from the
Global Configuration mode. When Commandguard is enabled it affects the configure and autoconfirm CLI
commands by causing them to prompt (Y/N) for confirmation. When autoconfirm is enabled Commandguard has no
affect. The commandguard state is preserved in the SCT and, when enabled, is output by the various variants of the
show config CLI.
Configurable RAB Asymmetry Indicator in RAB Assignment Request
The SGSN sets the value for the RAB Asymmetry Indicator that is included in the RAB Assignment Request.
In releases prior to R12.0, the SGSN set the RAB asymmetry indicator to "Symmetric-Bidirectional" when downlink
and uplink bit rates were equal. Now, the SGSN selects the value based on the symmetry of negotiated maximum bit
rates as follows:
 If the uplink and downlink bit rates are equal then it is set to “Symmetric-Bidirectional”,
 If uplink bit rate is set to 0 kbps, then it is set to “Asymmetric-Unidirectional-Downlink”,
 If downlink bit rate is set to 0 kbps, then it is set to “Asymmetric-Unidirectional-Uplink”,
 If the uplink and downlink bit rates are non-zero and different, then it is set to “Asymmetric-Bidirectional”.
A change in CLI configuration allows the SGSN to override the above functionality and set the RAB Asymmetry
Indicator to “Asymmetric-Bidirectional” when uplink and downlink bit rates are equal. As a result, two sets of bit rates one for downlink and one for uplink - will be included in the RAB Assignment Requests as mandated in 3GPP TS
25.413.
Congestion Control
With Release 17, the SGSN supports several of the 3GPP TS23.060 R10 machine type communications (MTC)
overload control mechanisms to be used in the handling of signaling bursts from machine-to-machine (M2M) devices:
 General congestion control – applicable only for Mobility Management messages.
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 APN-based congestion control for Mobility Management
 APN-based congestion control for Session Management
 Extended T3312 timer support
 MM (Mobility Management) T3346 - MM Back-off Timer and SM (Session Management) T3396 - SM Backoff Timer
For more information about the congestion control functionality and configuration, refer to the MTC Congestion
Control section in this Guide.
Different NRIs for Pooled and Non-pooled RNCs/BSCs
The SGSN adds support for configuring different NRIs for pooled and non-pooled areas in order to load-balance
subscribers coming from non-pooled RNCs to pooled RNCs.
Consider a scenario when two SGSNs support pooling and a RNC/BSC controlled by a SGSN is in pool but not the
other, and both RNCs/BSCs are given same NRI(s), this leads to imbalance in subscriber distribution between the
SGSNs. With this enhancement if an NRI is configured for both pooled and non-pooled, then the SGSN reuses the same
NRI when moving from pooled to non-pooled areas and vice versa.
A new keyword non-pooled-nri-value is introduced in the NRI configuration for GPRS and SGSN services to
configure set of NRI which should be used for non-pooled RNCs/BSCs. The NRIs configured under the existing
keyword nri-value will be used for pooled RNCs/BSCs. If the new keyword non-pooled-nri-value is not
configured, then NRIs configured under the keyword nri-value will be used for both pooled and non-pooled
RNCs/BSCs.
If the new keyword non-pooled-nri-value is configured without pooling enabled at SGSN(null-nri-value is not
configured), then SGSN will use NRIs under non-pooled-nri-value irrespective of BSC/RNCs being pooled or
non-pooled, till pooling is enabled at SGSN. After pooling is enabled, NRIs under keyword nri-value will be for
pooled RNC/BSCs and non-pooled-nri-value will be for non-pooled RNC/BSCs. This is applicable for both SGSN
and GPRS service.
Direct Tunnel
In accordance with standards, one tunnel functionality enables the SGSN to establish a direct tunnel at the user plane
level - a GTP-U tunnel, directly between the RAN and the GGSN. Feature details and configuration procedures are
provided in the Direct Tunnel feature section in this guide.
Direct Tunnel Support on the S4-SGSN
Important:
With this release, this feature is qualified for lab and field trials only.
Direct tunnelling of user plane data between the RNC and the S-GW can be employed to scale UMTS system
architecture to support higher traffic rates. The direct tunnel (DT) approach optimizes core architecture without impact
to UEs and can be deployed independently of the LTE/SAE architecture.
Now, DT support is added to the S4-SGSN to enable the establishment of a direct tunnel over the S12 interface between
an RNC and an S-GW in a PS domain under a range of scenarios, such as (but not limited to):
 Primary PDP activation
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 Secondary PDP activation
 Service Request Procedure
 Intra SGSN Routing Area Update without SGW change
 Intra SGSN Routing Area Update with SGW change
 Intra SGSN SRNS relocation without SGW change
 Intra SGSN SRNS relocation with SGW change
 New SGSN SRNS relocation with SGW change
 New SGSN SRNS relocation without SGW relocation
 E-UTRAN to UTRAN Iu mode IRAT handover - with application of S12U FTEID for Indirect Data Forwarding
Tunnels as well
 UTRAN to E-UTRAN Iu mode IRAT handover - with application of S12U FTEID for Indirect Data Forwarding
Tunnels as well
 Network-Initiated PDP Activation
For a complete description of this feature and its configuration requirements, refer to the S4-SGSN Direct Tunnel
Solution session in the Serving GPRS Support Node Administration Guide
Downlink Data Lockout Timer
The Downlink Data Lockout Timer is a new, configurable timer added for both GPRS and SGSN services to reduce the
frequency of mobile-initiated keep alive messages. If enabled, this timer starts whenever the paging procedure fails after
the maximum number of retransmissions and the Page Proceed Flag (PPF) is cleared. If there is any downlink activity
when the lockout timer is running, the packets are dropped and the drop cause is set as Page Failed. When the lockout
timer expires, the PPF is set to true and further downlink packets are queued and paging is re-initiated. In order to avoid
endless paging activity when there is no page response or uplink activity from the UE, an optional configurable repeat
count value is used. If the repeat value is configured as 'y' then the lockout timer is started 'y' number of times after page
failure. The implementation of the lockout timer is different for 2G/3G subscribers, but the behavior is the same.
DSCP Templates for Control and Data Packets - Iu or Gb over IP
The SGSN supports a mechanism for differentiated services code point (DSCP) marking of control packets and
signaling messages for the SGSN’s M3UA level on the Iu interface and for LLC messages for the Gb interface.
This DSCP marking feature enables the SGSN to perform classifying and managing of network traffic and to determine
quality of service (QoS) for the interfaces to an IP network.
Implementation of this feature requires the use of several CLIs commands to create one or more reusable templates.
These templates set DSCP parameter configuration for downlink control packets and data packets that can be associated
with one or more configurations for at the GPRS service level, the peer-NSEI level, the IuPS service level, and the PSP
instance level.
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Dual PDP Addresses for Gn/Gp
In accordance with 3GPP Release 9.0 specifications, it is now possible to configure SGSN support for dual stack PDP
type addressing (IPv4v6) for PDP context association with one IPv4 address and one IPv6 address/prefix when
requested by the MS/UE.
ECMP over ATM
Iu Redundancy is the ASR 5000's implementation of equal-cost multi-path routing (ECMP) over ATM.
Iu Redundancy is based on the standard ECMP multi-path principle of providing multiple next-hop-routes of equal cost
to a single destination for packet transmission. ECMP works with most routing protocols and can provide increased
bandwidth when traffic load-balancing is implemented over multiple paths.
ECMP over ATM will create an ATM ECMP group when multiple routes with different destination ATM interfaces are
defined for the same destination IP address. When transmitting a packet with ECMP, the NPU performs a hash on the
packet header being transmitted and uses the result of the hash to index into a table of next hops. The NPU looks up the
ARP index in the ARP table (the ARP table contains the next-hop and egress interfaces) to determine the next-hop and
interface for sending packets.
EDR Enhancements
A new event-logging handle has been introduced. In earlier releases the EDR module was used for event logging
purpose, from this release onwards CDR_MODULE_EVENT_RECORD is used instead of CDR_MODULE_EDR. In
Release 12.0, for generating event logs the SGSN re-used the existing ‘EDR” module which is primarily used for
charging records. But from Release 15.0 onwards, the session-event module will be used by SGSN for event logging.
The CLI options present under the EDR Module are also present under the Session Event Module.
EIR Selection for Roaming Subscribers
EIR selelction for roaming subscribers functionality makes it possible for the SGSN to select an EIR based on the
PLMN into which the subscriber has roamed and reduce signalling back to home PLMNs for roamers.
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR), used for authentication and authorization during an Attach, is the carrier's
IMEI(SV) database of the unique numbers allocated to each subscriber’s mobile station equipment (IMEI) and the
manufacturer’s software version (SV). An IMEI(SV) can be in one of three lists in the EIR:
 white list - the subscriber equipment is permitted access
 black list - the subscriber equipment is not permitted access
 grey list - the subscriber equipment is being tracked for evaluation or other purposes
As part of this function, the operator can create and use an EIR profile to define the parameters to:
 use a single EIR address for multiple EIRs,
 achieve the Check-IMEI-Request, and
 associate the EIR profile with a call control profile.
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Equivalent PLMN
This feature is useful when an operator deploys both GPRS and UMTS access in the same radio area and each radio
system broadcasts different PLMN codes. It is also useful when operators have different PLMN codes in different
geographical areas, and the operators’ networks in the various geographical areas need to be treated as a single HPLMN.
This feature allows the operator to consider multiple PLMN codes for a single subscriber belonging to a single home
PLMN (HPLMN). This feature also allows operators to share infrastructure and it enables a UE with a subscription with
one operator to access the network of another operator.
First Vector Configurable Start for MS Authentication
Previously, the SGSN would begin authentication towards the MS only after the SGSN received all requested vectors.
This could result in a radio network traffic problem when the end devices timed out and needed to re-send attach
requests.
Now, the SGSN can be configured to start MS authentication as soon as it receives the first vector from the AuC/HLR
while the SAI continues in parallel. After an initial attach request, some end devices restart themselves after waiting for
the PDP to be established. In such cases, the SGSN restarts and a large number of end devices repeat their attempts to
attach. The attach requests flood the radio network, and if the devices timeout before the PDP is established then they
continue to retry, thus even more traffic is generated. This feature reduces the time needed to retrieve vectors over the
GR interface to avoid the high traffic levels during PDP establishment and to facilitate increased attach rates.
Format Encoding of MNC and MCC in DNS Queries Enhanced
In order to provide effective control on DNS queries for particular type of procedures, existing CLI commands in GPRS
and SGSN services have been deprecated and replaced with new enhanced commands. The command dns israumcc-mnc-encoding [hexadecimal | decimal] has been deprecated and a new CLI command dns mcc-mncencoding { rai-fqdn | apn-fqdn | rnc-fqdn| mmec-fqdn| tai-fqdn}* {a-query | snaptr-query
}* { decimal | hexadecimal }. New keyword options snaptr-query and a-Query are provided to control
different types of queries.
To ensure backward compatibility:
1. If the command dns israu-mcc-mnc-encoding decimal is executed, it will be auto converted to dns
mcc-mnc-encoding rai-fqdn a-query snaptr-query decimal.
2. If the command dns israu-mcc-mnc-encoding hexadecimal is executed, it will be auto converted to dns
mcc-mnc-encoding rai-fqdn a-query snaptr-query hexadecimal
For more information see, Command Line Interface Reference.
Gb Manager
A new SGSN proclet has been developed. Now, all the link level procedures related to Gb  protocol (GPRS-NS and BSSGP) hosting, handling, administration, message distribution,
 keeping the other managers informed about the link/remote-node status,
 handling functionality of the Gb interface (all 2G signaling)
are removed from the Link Manager and moved to the SGSN's new Gb Manager proclet.
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The new Gb Manager provides increased flexibility in handling link level procedures for each access type independently
and ensures scalability. The consequence of relieving the Link Manager, of a large amount of message handling, is to
decrease delays in sending sscop STAT messages resulting in the detection of link failure at the remote end. Use of this
separate new proclet to handle 2G signaling messages means there will not be any MTP link fluctuation towards the
RNS, which is seen during the BSC restart or extension activity in the network. As well, this improves the fluctuation
towards the 3G connectivity.
GMM-SM Event Logging
To facilitate troubleshooting, the SGSN will capture procedure-level information per 2G or 3G subscriber (IMSI-based)
in CSV formatted event data records (EDRs) that are stored on an external server.
This feature logs the following events:
 Attaches
 Activation of PDP Context
 RAU
 ISRAU
 Deactivation of PDP Context
 Detaches
 Authentications
 PDP Modifications
The new SGSN event logging feature is enabled/disabled per service via CLI commands. For more information on this
feature, refer to the section GMM/SM Event Logging in this guide.
Gn/Gp Delay Monitoring
The SGSN measures the control plane packet delay for GTP-C signaling messages on the SGSN’s Gn/Gp interface
towards the GGSN.
If the delay crosses a configurable threshold, an alarm will be generated to prompt the operator.
A delay trap is generated when the GGSN response to an ECHO message request is delayed more than a configured
amount of time and for a configured number of consecutive responses. When this occurs, the GGSN will be flagged as
experiencing delay.
A clear delay trap is generated when successive ECHO Response (number of successive responses to detect a delay
clearance is configurable), are received from a GGSN previously flagged as experiencing delay.
This functionality can assist with network maintenance, troubleshooting, and early fault discovery.
GTP-C Path Failure Detection and Management
The SGSN now provides the ability to manage GTP-C path failures detected as a result of spurious restart counter
change messages received from the GGSN.
Previous Behavior: The old default behavior was to have the Session Manager (SessMgr) detect GTP-C path failure
based upon receiving restart counter changes in messages (Create PDP Context Response or Update PDP Context
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Response or Update PDP Context Request) from the GGSN and immediately inform the SGTPC Manager (SGTPCMgr)
to pass the path failure detection to all other SessMgrs so that PDP deactivation would begin.
New Behavior: The new default behavior has the SessMgr inform the SGTPCMgr of the changed restart counter value.
The SGTPCMgr now has the responsibility to verify a possible GTP-C path failure by issuing an Echo Request/Echo
Response to the GGSN. Path failure will only be confirmed if the Echo Response contains a new restart counter value.
Only after this confirmation of the path failure does the SGTPCMgr inform all SessMgrs so that deactivation of PDP
contexts begins.
GTPv0 Fallback, Disabling to Reduce Signalling
GTPv0 fallback can cause unnecessary signaling on the Gn/Gp interface in networks where all the GGSNs support
GTPv1.
By default, the SGSN supports GTPv0 fallback and uses either GTPv1 or GTPv0. After exhausting all configured retry
attempts for GTPv1, the SGSN retries the GTP-C Request using GTPv0. This fallback is conditional and is done only
when the GTP version of a GGSN is unknown during the first attempt at activating a PDP context with the GGSN.
It is possible for the operator to disable the GTPv0 fallback for requests to GGSNs of specific APNs. Disabling the
fallback function is configured under the APN profile and is applicable for GGSNs corresponding to that APN. If
GTPv1 only is enabled in the APN profile, then the SGSN does not attempt fallback to GTPv0 (towards GGSNs
corresponding to that APN) after all GTPv1 retries have been attempted. If more than one GGSN address is returned by
the DNS server during activation, then the SGSN attempts activation with the next GGSN after exhausting all the
GTPv1 retry attempts. If only one GGSN address is returned, then the SGSN rejects the activation after exhausting all
the configured GTPv1 retries.
This change enables the operator to prevent unnecessary signaling on the Gn/Gp interface in networks where all the
GGSNs support GTPv1. For example, if all the home GGSNs in an operator’s network support GTPv1, then the
unnecessary GTPv0 fallabck can be avoided by enabling this feature for the APNs associated with home GGSNs.
Handling Multiple MS Attaches All with the Same Random TLLI
Some machine-to-machine (M2M) devices from the same manufacturer will all attempt PS Attaches using the same
fixed random Temporary Logical Link Identifier (TLLI).
The SGSN cannot distinguish between multiple M2M devices trying to attach simultaneously using the same random
TLLI and routing area ID (RAI). As a result, during the attach process of an M2M device, if a second device tries to
attach with the same random TLLI, the SGSN interprets that as an indication that the original subscriber moved during
the Attach process and the SGSN starts communicating with the second device and drops the first device.
The SGSN can be configured to allow only one subscriber at a time to attach using a fixed random TLLI. While an
Attach procedure with a fixed random TLLI is ongoing (that is, until a new P-TMSI is accepted by the MS), all other
attaches sent to the SGSN with the same random TLLI using a different IMSI will be dropped by the SGSN’s Linkmgr.
To limit the wait-time functionality to only the fixed random TLLI subscribers, the TLLI list can be configured to
control which subscribers will be provided this functionality.
HSPA Fallback
Besides enabling configurable support for either 3GPP Release 6 (HSPA) and 3GPP Release 7 (HSPA+) to match
whatever the RNCs support, this feature enables configurable control of data rates on a per RNC basis. This means that
operators can allow subscribers to roam in and out of coverages areas with different QoS levels.
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The SGSN can now limit data rates (via QoS) on a per-RNC basis. Some RNCs support HSPA rates (up to 16 Mbps in
the downlink and 8 Mbps in the uplink) and cannot support higher data rates - such as those enabled by HSPA+
(theoretically, up to 256 Mbps both downlink and uplink). Being able to specify the QoS individually for each RNC
makes it possible for operators to allow their subscribers to move in-and-out of coverage areas with different QoS
levels, such as those based on 3GPP Release 6 (HSPA) and 3GPP Release 7 (HSPA+).
For example, when a PDP context established from an RNC with 21 Mbps is handed off to an RNC supporting only 16
Mbps, the end-to-end QoS will be re-negotiated to 16 Mbps. Note that an MS/UE may choose to drop the PDP context
during the QoS renegotiation to a lower value.
This data rate management per RNC functionality is enabled, in the radio network controller (RNC) configuration
mode, by specifying the type of 3GPP release specific compliance, either release 7 for HSPA+ rates or pre-release 7 for
HSPA rates.
Ignore Context-ID during 4G/3G Handovers
HSS and HLR, when operating as separate network nodes, are required to use the same context-ID for a given APNconfiguration of a subscriber. During inter-RAT cell reselections and handovers between 2G/3G and 4G, if the SGSN
does not find a matching APN-configuration for the given context-ID learnt from the peer node, then the PDP does not
get established. This could result in SRNS relocation failures when none of the PDP's learnt from the SGSN has a
matching context-ID in the HLR.
New commands have been added to enable the operator to configure the SGSN to ignore the context-ID provided by the
peer and to use the PDP- type and address information to search through HLR subscription and to update the context-ID
information within the PDP. For details, refer to the description for the rau-inter command under the Call-Control
Profile Configuration Mode Commands section of the Command Line Interface Reference.
Interface Selection Based on UE Capability
The SGSN selects S6d/Gr interface based on whether hss-peer-service or map service is associated with the SGSN or
GPRS service. If both the services are associated, then the selection is made based on configuration of the CLI
command prefer subscription-interface under the Call Control Profile mode. With this feature enhancement,
the SGSN now allows selection of S6d/ Gr interface only if the UE is EPC capable. A new CLI option epc-ue is added
to the command prefer subscription-interface under the Call Control Profile mode for this enhancement. If
this keyword is configured the S6d/Gr interface is selected only if UE is EPC capable. If this keyword is not configured
the SGSN selects the S6d/Gr interface based on whether hss-peer-service or map service is associated with the SGSN or
GPRS service (this is also the default behavior). The interface selection based on UE capability is done only at the time
of Attach / new SGSN RAU / SRNS. Interface selected during Attach / new SGSN RAU / SRNS may change while
doing inter PLMN RAU (intra SGSN) procedures.
Intra- or Inter-SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation (3G
only)
Implemented according to 3GPP standard, the SGSN supports both inter- and intra-SGSN RNS relocation (SRNS) to
enable handover of an MS from one RNC to another RNC.
The relocation feature is triggered by subscribers (MS/UE) moving from one RNS to another. If the originating RNS
and destination RNS are connected to the same SGSN but are in different routing areas, the behavior triggers an intraSGSN Routing Area Update (RAU). If the RNS are connected to different SGSNs, the relocation is followed by an
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inter-SGSN RAU. This feature is configured through the Call-Control Profile Configuration Mode which is part of the
feature set.
Lawful Intercept
The Cisco Lawful Intercept feature is supported on the SGSN. Lawful Intercept is a license-enabled, standards-based
feature that provides telecommunications service providers with a mechanism to assist law enforcement agencies in
monitoring suspicious individuals for potential illegal activity. SGSN supports use of IP Security (a separate licenseenabled, standards-based feature) for the LI interface; for additional information on IPSec, refer to the Cisco StarOS IP
Security (IPSec) Reference. For additional information and documentation on the Lawful Intercept feature, contact your
Cisco account representative.
Lawful Interception Capacity Enhanced
In a full ASR5K chassis with PSC2 cards the maximum number of attached users is about “4” million. In previous
releases, it was possible to configure and intercept 20000 camp-on users on the chassis. With this feature enhancement
the lawful interception capacity of has been increased to 4% of the maximum number of attached users, that is 160,000
camp-on users (4% of 4 million subscribers). It is now possible to configure and intercept 160000 camp-on users on the
chassis.
Link Aggregation - Horizontal
The SGSN supports enhanced link aggregation (LAG) within ports on different XGLCs. Ports can be from multiple
XGLCs. LAG works by exchanging control packets (Link Aggregation Control Marker Protocol) over configured
physical ports with peers to reach agreement on an aggregation of links. LAG sends and receives the control packets
directly on physical ports attached to different XGLCs. The link aggregation feature provides higher aggregated
bandwidth, auto-negotiation, and recovery when a member port link goes down.
Local DNS
Previously, the SGSN supported GGSN selection for an APN only through operator policy, and supported a single pool
of up to 16 GGSN addresses which were selected in round robin fashion.
The SGSN now supports configuration of multiple pools of GGSNs; a primary pool and a secondary. As part of DNS
resolution, the operator can use operator policies to prioritize local GGSNs versus remote ones. This function is built
upon existing load balancing algorithms in which weight and priority are configured per GGSN, with the primary
GGSN pool used first and the secondary used if no primary GGSNs are available.
The SGSN first selects a primary pool and then GGSNs within that primary pool; employing a round robin mechanism
for selection. If none of the GGSNs in a pool are available for activation, then the SGSN proceeds with activation
selecting a GGSN from a secondary pool on the basis of assigned weight. A GGSN is considered unavailable when it
does not respond to GTP Requests after a configurable number of retries over a configurable time period. Path failure is
detected via GTP-echo.
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Local Mapping of MBR
The SGSN provides the ability to map a maximum bit rate (MBR) value (provided by the HLR) to an HSPA MBR
value.
The mapped value is selected based on the matching MBR value obtained from the HLR subscription. QoS negotiation
then occurs based on the converted value.
This feature is available within the operator policy framework. MBR mapping is configured via new keywords added to
the qos class command in the APN Profile configuration mode. A maximum of four values can be mapped per QoS
per APN.
Important: To enable this feature the qos prefer-as-cap, also a command in the APN Profile configuration
mode, must be set to either both-hlr-and-local or to hlr subscription.
Local QoS Capping
The operator can configure a cap or limit for the QoS bit rate.
The SGSN can now be configured to cap the QoS bit rate parameter when the subscribed QoS provided by the HLR is
lower than the locally configured value.
Depending upon the keywords included in the command, the SGSN can:
 take the QoS parameter configuration from the HLR configuration.
 take the QoS parameter configuration from the local settings for use in the APN profile.
 during session establishment, apply the lower of either the HLR subscription or the locally configured values.
Location Change Reporting on the S4-SGSN
3G/2G Location Change Reporting on the SGSN facilitates location-based charging on the P-GW by providing the UE’s
location information when the UE is in connected mode.
The Gn-SGSN supports 2G and 3G location change reporting via user location information (ULI) reporting to the
GGSN. For details, see the feature section 3G-2G Location Change Reporting.
With Release 16.0, the S4-SGSN also supports 2G and 3G location change reporting per 3GPP 29.274 release 11.b, if
the P-GW requests it. With this feature enhancement configured, the S4-SGSN is ready to perform ULI reporting per
PDN connection via GTPv2. Reporting only begins after the S4-SGSN receives a reporting request from the P-GW. The
P-GW generates a request based on charging enforcement and policy enforcement from the policy and charging rules
function PCRF. Location Change Reporting is configured and enabled/disabled per APN.
The S4-SGSN’s version of Location Change Reporting has been further enhanced with a network sharing option. If the
network sharing license is installed and if the network sharing feature is enabled, then the operator can configure which
PLMN information the SGSN sends to the P-GW in the ULI or Serving Network IEs.
Important: The S3/S4 license is required to enable S4 functionality. The new "Location-reporting in connectedmode" license is required to enable Location Change Reporting functionality for the S4-SGSN. This new license is now
required for Location Change Reporting on the Gn-SGSN.
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Location Services
LoCation Services (LCS) on the SGSN is a 3GPP standards-compliant feature that enables the SGSN to collect and use
or share location (geographical position) information for connected UEs in support of a variety of location services,
such as location-based charging and positioning services.
The SGSN uses the Lg interface to the gateway mobile location center (GMLC), which provides the mechanisms to
support specialized mobile location services for operators, subscribers, and third party service providers. Use of this
feature and the Lg interface is license controlled. This functionality is supported on the 2G and 3G SGSN.
For details about basic location services and its configuration, refer to the Location Services section of the SGSN
Administration Guide.
With Release 15.0, supported functionality has expanded to include:
 Mobile terminating deferred location requests are now supported
 Mobile originating requests are now supported, both immediate and deferred
 Differences between 2G and 3G LCS call flows are eliminated
Important:
With this release, expanded functionality for this feature is qualified for lab and field trials only.
Lock/Shutdown the BSC from the SGSN
When the SGSN returns to Active state, after scenarios such as rebooting or reloading, all the BSCs that had been
connected to the SGSN would attempt to re-establish connections. This could result in two serious problems for
operators:
1. High CPU usage in the SGSN where too many BSC/RNCs were connected.
2. Network overload when other network nodes cannot match the SGSN's capacity.
The SGSN now supports a Lock/Shutdown feature that provides a two prong solution. CPU Usage Solution: Staggering
the BSC auto-learning procedures when the SGSN re-loads will help to reduce the high CPU usage. This can be
achieved by the operator locking the NSE/BSCs from the SGSN before reboot/reload and then unlocking them one-byone to avoid high CPU usage.
Network Overload Solution: A new timer, SNS-GUARD, has been added to clean-up resources if the SNS procedure
does not complete properly, whether or not the BSC is administratively locked. Now the SGSN starts this timer after
sending SNS-SIZE-ACK and the BSC information will be removed, if the auto-learning clean-up procedure does not
complete before the timer expires.
A series of new commands and keywords has been added to enable the operator to configure this new administrative
Lock/Shutdown the BSC functionality as part of 'interface management' configuration. For details, refer to the SGSN
Global Interface Management section of the Command Line Interface Reference.
Management System Overview
The system's management capabilities are designed around the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)
model for management - focusing on providing superior quality network element (NE) and element management system
(Web Element Manager) functions. The system provides element management applications that can easily be integrated,
using standards-based protocols (CORBA and SNMPv1, v2), into higher-level management systems - giving wireless
operators the ability to integrate the system into their overall network, service, and business management systems. In
addition, all management is performed out-of-band for security and to maintain system performance.
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The Operation and Maintenance module of the system offers comprehensive management capabilities to the operators
and enables them to operate the system more efficiently. There are multiple ways to manage the system either locally or
remotely using its out-of-band management interfaces.
These include:
 Using the command line interface (CLI)
 Remote login using Telnet, and Secure Shell (SSH) access to CLI through SPIO card's Ethernet management
interfaces
 Local login through the Console port on SPIO card using an RS-232 serial connection
 Using the Web Element Manager (WEM) application (requires a separate license)
 Supports communications through 10 Base-T, 100 Base-TX, 1000 Base-TX, or 1000
 Base-SX (optical gigabit Ethernet) Ethernet management interfaces on the SPIO
 Client-Server model supports any browser (i.e. Microsoft Internet Explorer v5.0 and above or Netscape v4.7 or
above, and others)
 Supports Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocol and Simple Network Management
Protocol version 1 (SNMPv1) for fault management
 Provides complete Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) capabilities
 Can be easily integrated with higher-level network, service, and business layer applications using the Object
Management Group's (OMG’s) Interface Definition Language (IDL)
The following figure demonstrates these various element management options and how they can be utilized within the
wireless carrier network.
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Figure 5.
Element Management Methods
Important:
By default, SGSN management functionality is enabled for console-based access.
Multiple PLMN Support
With this feature, the 2.5G and 3G SGSNs now support more than one PLMN ID per SGSN. Multiple PLMN support
facilitates MS handover from one PLMN to another PLMN.
Multiple PLMN support also means an operator can 'hire out' their infrastructure to other operators who may wish to use
their own PLMN IDs. As well, multiple PLMN support enables an operator to assign more than one PLMN ID to a cellsite or an operator can assign each cell-site a single PLMN ID in a multi-cell network (typically, there are no more than
3 or 4 PLMN IDs in a single network).
This feature is enabled by configuring, within a single context, multiple instances of either an IuPS service for a single
3G SGSN service or multiple GPRS services for a 2.G SGSN. Each IuPS service or GPRS service is configured with a
unique PLMN ID. Each of the SGSN and/or GPRS services must use the same MAP, SGTPU and GS services so these
only need to be defined one-time per context.
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Network Sharing
In accordance with 3GPP TS 23.251, the 2G and 3G SGSN provides an operator the ability to share the RAN and/or the
core network with other operators. Depending upon the resources to be shared, there are 2 network sharing modes of
operation: the Gateway Core Network (GWCN) and the Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN).
Benefits of Network Sharing
Network sharing provides operators with a range of logistical and operational benefits:
 Enables two or more network operators to share expensive common network infrastructure.
 A single operator with multiple MCC-MNC Ids can utilize a single physical access infrastructure and provide a
single HPLMN view to the UEs.
 Facilitates implementation of MVNOs.
GWCN Configuration
For the 3G SGSN with a gateway core network configuration, the complete radio access network and part of the core
network are shared (for example, MSC/SGSN) among different operators, while each operator maintains its own
separate network nodes (for example, GGSN/HLR).
Figure 6.
GWCN-type Network Sharing
With the GWCN configuration, the SGSN supports two scenarios:
 GWCN with non-supporting UE
 GWCN with supporting UE
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MOCN Configuration
In the multi-operator core network configuration, the complete radio network is shared among different operators, while
each operators maintains its own separate core network. This functionality is available for both 2G and 3G SGSN.
Figure 7.
MOCN-type Network Sharing
With the MOCN configuration, the SGSN supports the following scenarios:
 MOCN with non-supporting UE
 MOCN with supporting UE
Important: The MOCN network sharing functionality now requires a separate feature license for both 2G and
3G scenarios. Contact your Cisco representative for licensing information.
Implementation
To facilitate network sharing, the SGSN implements the following key features:
 Multiple virtual SGSN services in a single physical node.
 Sharing operators can implement independent policies, such as roaming agreements.
 Equivalent PLMN configuration.
 RNC identity configuration allows RNC-ID + MCC-MNC instead of just RNC-ID.
Configuration for network sharing is accomplished by defining:
 NRI in the SGSN service configuration mode
 PLMN IDs and RNC IDs in the IuPS configuration mode
 Equivalent PLMN IDs and configured in the Call-Control Profile configuration mode.
 IMSI ranges are defined in the SGSN-Global configuration mode
 The Call-Control Profile and IMSI ranges are associated in the configuration mode.
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NRI-FQDN based DNS resolution for non-local RAIs (2G subscribers)
The SGSN now supports use of NRI-RAI based address resolution which includes both local lookup as well as DNS
Query for non-local RAIs when selection of the call control profile is based on the old-RAI and the PLMN Id of the
BSC where the subscriber originally attached. This feature was formerly supported only for 3G subscribers and is now
extended to 2G subscribers. The command enables the SGSN to perform address resolution for peer SGSN with an NRI
when an unknown PTMSI (Attach or RAU) comes from an SGSN outside the pool. The SGSN uses NRI-RAI based
address resolution for the non-local RAIs for 2G subscribers in place of RAI based address resolution.
This functionality is applicable in situations for either inter- or intra-PLMN when the SGSN has not chosen a local NRI
value (configured with SGSN Service commands) other than local-pool-rai or nb-rai. This means the RAI
(outside pool but intra-PLMN) NRI length configured here will be applicable even for intra-PLMN with differently
configured NRI lengths (different from the local pool). This functionality is not applicable to call control profiles with
an associated MSIN range as ccprofile selection is not IMSI-based.
NRI Handling Enhancement
The SGSN's DNS lookup for SGSN pooling is supported in the call control profile. Previously, the SGSN's complete Gn
DNS database had to be configured in the call control profile. If there was more than one SGSN in the local pool, then
there would be multiple instances for every SGSN in the pool.
By using just the NRI value, this enhancement facilitates lookup for a peer SGSN in the local pool.
NRPCA - 3G
The SGSN supports the Network Requested Primary PDP Context Activation (NRPCA) procedure for 3G attachments.
There are no interface changes to support this feature. Support is configured with existing CLI commands (networkinitiated-pdp-activation, location-area-list) in the call control profile configuration mode and timers ( T3385-timeout
and max-actv-retransmission) are set in the SGSN service configuration mode.
NRSPCA Support for S4-SGSN
The SGSN supports Secondary PDP context activation by the network. 3GPP TS 23.060 specifies two procedures for
GGSN-initiated PDP Context Activation:
 Network Requested PDP Context Activation (NRPCA) - the SGSN already supports this but only for 3G access,
and
 Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation (NRSPCA) Procedure.
NRSPCA allows the network to initiate Secondary PDP context activation if the network determines that the service
requested by the user requires activation of an additional secondary PDP context. Network requested bearer control
makes use of the NRSPCA procedure.
Network requested bearer control functionality is mandatory in EPC networks, requiring use of NRSPCA. The P-GW
supports only the NRSPCA procedure. With this release, now the S4-SGSN supports network requested bearer control.
For a complete description of this feature and its configuration requirements, refer to the Network Requested Secondary
PDP Context Activation chapter in the Serving GPRS Support Node Administration Guide
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Operator Policy
This non-standard feature is unique to the StarOS. This feature empowers the carrier with unusual and flexible control to
manage functions that are not typically used in all applications and to determine the granularity of the implementation of
any: to groups of incoming calls or to simply one single incoming call. For details about the feature, its components, and
how to configure it, refer to the Operator Policy section in this guide.
Important: SGSN configurations created prior to Release 11.0 are not forward compatible. All
configurations for SGSNs, with -related configurations that were generated with software releases prior to Release 11.0,
must be converted to enable them to operate with an SGSN running Release 11.0 or higher. Your Cisco Representative
can accomplish this conversion for you.
Some Features Managed by Operator Policies
The following is a list of some of the features and functions that can be controlled via configuration of Operator
Policies:
 APN Aliasing
 Authentication
 Direct Tunnel - for feature description and configuration details, refer to the Direct Tunnel section in this guide
 Equivalent PLMN
 IMEI Override
 Intra- or Inter-SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation (3G only)
 Network Sharing
 QoS Traffic Policing per Subscriber
 SGSN Pooling - Gb/Iu Flex
 SuperCharger
 Subscriber Overcharging Protection - for feature description and configuration details for Gn-SGSN, refer to the
Subscriber Overcharging Protection section in this guide.
Overcharging Protection
Overcharging Protection enables the Gn-SGSN to avoid overcharging the subscriber if/when a loss of radio coverage
(LORC) occurs in a UMTS network. For details and configuration information, refer to the Subscriber Overcharging
Protection section in this book.
QoS Traffic Policing per Subscriber
Traffic policing enables the operator to configure and enforce bandwidth limitations on individual PDP contexts for a
particular traffic class.
Traffic policing typically deals with eliminating bursts of traffic and managing traffic flows in order to comply with a
traffic contract.
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The SGSN conforms to the DiffServ model for QoS by handling the 3GPP defined classes of traffic, QoS negotiation,
DSCP marking, traffic policing, and support for HSDPA/HSUPA.
QoS Classes
The 3GPP QoS classes supported by the SGSN are:
 Conversational
 Streaming
 Interactive
 Background
The SGSN is capable of translating between R99 and R97/98 QoS attributes.
QoS Negotiation
On PDP context activation, the SGSN calculates the QoS allowed, based upon:
 Subscribed QoS - This is a per-APN configuration, obtained from the HLR on an Attach. It specifies the highest
QoS allowed to the subscriber for that APN.
 Configured QoS - The SGSN can be configured with default and highest QoS profiles in the configuration.
 MS requested QoS - The QoS requested by the UE on pdp-context activation.
DSCP Marking
The SGSN performs diffserv code point (DSCP) marking of the GTP-U packets according to allowed-QoS to PHB
mapping. The default mapping matches that of the UMTS to IP QoS mapping defined in 3GPP TS 29.208.
The SGSN also supports DSCP marking of the GTP control plane messages on the Gn/Gp interface. This allows QoS to
be set on GTP-C messages, and is useful if Gn/Gp is on a less than ideal link. DSCP marking is configurable via the
CLI, with default = Best Effort Forwarding.
Traffic Policing
The SGSN can police uplink and downlink traffic according to predefined QoS negotiated limits fixed on the basis of
individual contexts - either primary or secondary. The SGSN employs the Two Rate Three Color Marker (RFC2698)
algorithm for traffic policing. The algorithm meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets either green, yellow, or
red depending upon the following variables:
 PIR - Peak Information Rate (measured in bytes/second)
 CIR - Committed Information Rate (measured in bytes/second)
 PBS - Peak Burst Size (measured in bytes)
 CBS - Committed Burst Size (measured in bytes)
The following figure depicts the working of the TCM algorithm:
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Figure 8.
TCM Algorithm Logic for Traffic Policing
VPC-DI platform support for SGSN
The traditional proprietary hardware platforms like ASR5K and ASR5500 provide carrier class hardware redundancy
and have limited scalability. The VPC-SI model separates the StarOS from the proprietary hardware. It consists of the
StarOS software running within a single VM. This provides the end user with low entry cost (software licenses and
commodity hardware), simplified setup, and well-defined interfaces. The VPC-SI is ideally suited for small carriers,
remote locations, lab testing, trials, demos, and other models where full functionality is needed. The Cisco VPCDistributed Instance (VPC-DI) platform allows multiple VMs to act as a single StarOS instance with shared interfaces,
shared service addresses, load balancing, redundancy, and a single point of management. The VPC-DI offers enhanced
hardware capabilities, the SGSN is enhanced to support the VPC-DI platform.
Reordering of SNDCP N-PDU Segments
The SGSN fully supports reordering of out-of-order segments coming from the same SNDCP N-PDU. The SGSN waits
the configured amount of time for all segments of the N-PDU to arrive. If all the segments are not received before the
timer expiries, then all queued segments are dropped.
RAN Information Management (RIM)
RAN information is transferred from a source RAN node to a destination RAN node in a RIM container. This is a
mechanism for the exchange of information between applications belonging to RAN nodes, for example two BSCs. The
RIM container is transparent to the SGSN.
Support for RIM procedures is optional for both the SGSN and other RAN nodes (e.g., RNC). When the SGSN supports
RIM procedures, the SGSN provides addressing, routing and relay functions. All RIM messages are routed
independently by the SGSN. The SGSN performs relaying of RIM messages between BSSGP, RANAP, and GTP in
accordance with 3GPP TS 48.018, TS25.413, and TS29.060 respectively.
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On the Gb (BSSGP) interface, RIM procedures are negotiated at the start/restart of a Gb link as part of the signaling
BVC reset procedure. On the Iu (RANAP) interface, there is no negotiation for using RIM procedures. Support for RIM
procedures enhances the subscriber’s user experience by minimizing the service outage during cell re-selection.
S4 Support on the SGSN
The SGSN can provide an interface between UMTS (3G) and/or GPRS (2.5G) networks and the evolved packet core
(EPC) network. This functionality requires a special S4 feature license. Throughout the documentation the SGSN with
this additional functionality is referred to as an S4-SGSN.
To facilitate communication with GPRS, UMTS, and EPC networks, the SGSN is configured with standard 2.5G SGSN,
3G SGSN or dual access SGSN services, and then configured with additional enhancements to enable communication
with the EPC network.
The S4-SGSN communicates with other UMTS and GPRS core networks elements via the GTPv1 protocol, and
communicates with EPC network elements and peer S4-SGSNs via the GTPv2 protocol. The S4-SGSN communicates
with the UMTS (3G) / GPRS (2.5G) radio access network elements in the same manner as an SGSN.
Depending on the configured SGSN service type, the S4-SGSN can interface with some or all of the following
UMTS/GPRS and EPC network elements:
 Serving Gateway (S-GW)
 Mobility Management Entity (MME)
 Peer S4-SGSN (2.5G or 3G with S4 support)
 Peer dual access S4-SGSN
 Peer SGSN (2.5G or 3G)
 Peer dual access SGSN
 GGSN
The S4-SGSN includes the following S4-SGSN specific functionality and features:
 S3 and S4 Interface Support
 S4-SGSN Support For Higher Bit Rates than 16 MbpsFlag
 S6d / Gr Interface Support
 Configurable Pacing of PDP Deactivations on the S4-SGSN
 DNS SNAPTR Support
 S4-SGSN Specific Bulk Statistics Support
 S13’ Interface Support
 Idle Mode Signaling Reduction
 ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
 ISD DSD Message Handling and HSS Initiated Bearer Modification
 UMTS-GSM AKA Support on the S4-SGSN
 3G and 2G SGSN Routing Area Update
 IPv4 and IPv6 PDP Type Override
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 NAPTR-based Dynamic HSS Discovery
 P-GW Initiated PDP Bearer Deactivation
 S-GW and P-GW Tunnel and EPS Subscription Recovery
 Local Configuration of S-GW and S4-SGSN per RAI
 Configurable GUTI to RAI Conversion Mapping
 S4-SGSN Support for Fallback to V1 Cause Code in GTPv2 Context Response
 S4-SGSN Support for Mobility Management Procedures
 QoS Mapping Support
 MS Initiated Primary and Secondary Activation
 Deactivation Procedure Support
 MS, PGW and HSS Initiated PDP Modification Procedure Support
 Fallback from the S4 Interface to the Gn Interface
 Operator Policy Selection of S4 or Gn Interface
 IDFT Support During Connected Mode Handovers
 Disassociated DSR Support
 SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation Support
 Support for Gn Handoff from S4-SGSN to 2G-3G Gn SGSN
 Suspend-Resume Support on the S4-SGSN
 Flex Pooling (Iu Gb over S16) Support on the S4-SGSN
 LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection on S4SGSN
 Summary of Functional Differences between an SGSN and an S4-SGSN (Gn/Gp)
S3 and S4 Interface Support
S3 and S4 interface support is a license-enabled feature that enables 2G and 3G networks to interface with the 4G
evolved packet core (EPC) network. The S3/S4 functionality ensures session continuity on handovers between 2G/3G
subscribers and 4G LTE subscribers. S3/S4 functionality simplifies core network operations the following ways:
 Replaces the GGSN in the network with the P-GW
 Replaces the need for an HLR by providing connectivity to the HSS
 Optimized idle mode signaling during 3G/2G to 4G handovers (when the ISR feature is enabled)
The S3 and S4 interfaces provide control and bearer separation, and offload the backward compatibility requirement
from the mobility management entity (MME) and serving gateway (S-GW) EPC elements to the UMTS core.
 S3 Interface: Provides a GTPv2-C signaling path connection between the MME and the SGSN (MPC). The S4SGSN to MME RAU/TAU context handovers are supported via the S3 interface.
 S4 Interface: Provides a data and signaling interface between the S-GW and the S4-SGSN (MPC) for bearer
plane transport (GTPv2-U). The S4-SGSN communicates with the P-GW via the S-GW.
With support for S3/S4 interface, soft-handoffs between 2G/3G and the EPC networks are possible for multi-mode UEs.
Without this functionality, the Gn/Gp SGSN can still inter-work with the EPC core using GTPv1, but soft-handoffs
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cannot be achieved. Note that GTPv2 to GTPv1 conversions (for QoS and Context IDs) are lossy data conversions, so a
subscriber doesn’t encounter a similar type of network behavior while in 2G/3G and 4G networks.
S4-SGSN Support for “Higher Bit Rates than 16 Mbps”Flag
As per 3GPP R9 specifications, the SGSN can now be aware if the UE is capable of supporting extended R7 bit rates.
The “higher bit rates than 16 Mbps” flag is used for this purpose. This flag is sent by the RNC in the Initial UE message
or Re-location Complete message or by Peer S4-SGSN / MME in Forward Relocation Request / Context Response
message. The SGSN also supports sending "higher Bit Rates than 16 Mbps flag" as part of MM Context in Context
response/Forward Relocation request/Identification request during Old ISRAU/SRNS handover procedures.The SGSN
stores the UE capability in the MM-context. During PDP context activation, the per bearer bit rate or APN-AMBR is
capped based on the flag's value. If the RNC is not 3GPP R9 compliant, the SGSN does not receive this flag. A new CLI
keyword sm ue-3gpp-compliance-unknown restrict-16mbps is introduced under the sgsn-service to support
this functionality. When the CLI is configured, the SGSN caps the APN-AMBR for non-GBR bearers to “16” Mbps and
rejects activation of GBR bearers with GBR higher than “16” Mbps. If not, APN-AMBR and GBR higher than “16”
Mbps are allowed.
Consider the scenarios where UE 3GPP compliance is not known and the CLI is configured to restrict bitrate to 16
Mbps or it is known that UE is not capable of supporting bitrates higher than 16Mbps; the Session Manager uses the
flag to perform the following actions:
1. The APN-AMBR is restricted to “16” Mbps during PDP activation of non-GBR bearers, particularly the default
bearer.
2. If the PGW upgrades the APN-AMBR in Create Session Response during non-GBR bearer activation, then the
APN-AMBR is retained as “16” Mbps and same is indicated to the UE in an Activate Accept.
3. If the PGW upgrades APN-AMBR in Update Bearer Request for non-GBR bearer, then the APN-AMBR is
restricted to “16” Mbps and only if the APN-AMBR changes, the PGW init bearer modification procedure is
continued. In case APN-AMBR does not change, then Update Bearer Response is sent immediately.
4. For GBR bearers, Update Bearer Request with GBR/MBR higher than “16” Mbps is rejected with “No resources
available”.
5. Activation of GBR bearers with MBR/GBR higher than “16” Mbps in Create Bearer Request is rejected with
cause “No resources available”.
6. After S3 SRNS, Modify Bearer Command is initiated to modify the APN-AMBR to “16” Mbps for Non-GBR
bearers having bitrates higher than 16 Mbps.
7. After S3 SRNS, GBR bearers having bitrates higher than “16” Mbps are de-activated.
For more information on the CLI command see, Command Line Interface Reference.
S6d and Gr Interface Support
The S4-SGSN supports the Diameter based S6d interface to the HSS, in addition to the legacy Gr interface to the HLR
(used by an SGSN configured to use the Gn/Gp interfaces). This is a license-enabled feature.
The S6d / Gr interface enhancements allow operators to consolidate the HLR/HSS functions into a single node, which
improves operational efficiency and other overhead. With the deployment of the EPC core, many operators may
consolidate the HLR/HSS functions into a single node. Until then, the S4-SGSN still supports the MAP-based Gr and
the Diameter based S6d interfaces.
The SGSN selects the Gr interface / S6d interface based on the MAP or HSS service associated with the configured
SGSN and/or GPRS services. If both the services are associated, then SGSN will use the following order of selection:
1. Select the appropriate interface based on any operator policy preference for S6d / Gr.
2. If no operator policy is present, then by use the Gr interface by default.
The S4-SGSN sets the following initiate UGL messages on a change of HSS service:
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 Initial attach indicator bit in Update GPRS Location message, ISR information IE, if the UGL is sent for an
initial attach or for a inbound routing area update without ISR activation and the selected interface is Gr.
 Initial attach indicator bit in Update Location Request message, ULR flags, if the ULR is sent for an initial attach
or for a inbound routing area update without ISR activation and the selected interface is S6d.
Configurable Pacing of PDP Deactivations on the S4-SGSN
The S4-SGSN now supports configurable pacing of PDP de-activations towards UEs due to path failures. Previously in
the S4-SGSN, the pacing of path failure delivery was started by the EGTP application and it used the generic session
manager pacing mechanism. The generic pacing mechanism performed 1000 path failure initiated PDP de-activations
per second per session manager. Since this may not be desirable for many operators based on their RAN's capability, the
S4-SGSN now supports the configurable pacing of PDP deactivations via the SGSN application (the same mechanism
used in the Gn/Gp SGSN).
The existing pdp-activation-rate command in SGSN Global Configuration Mode can be used to configure the
pacing of PDP de-activations for both the connected-ready state and the idle-standby state.
This feature is included with the SGSN S3/S4 license. No additional feature license is required.
DNS SNAPTR Support
By default, the S4-SGSN supports the initiation of a DNS query after APN selection using a S-NAPTR query. The
SGSN resolves a P-GW by sending an APN-FQDN query to the DNS client. Similarly, the SGSN resolves the S-GW by
sending a RAI-FQDN query to the DNS client. The DNS Client then sends a query to the DNS server to retrieve
NAPTR/SRV/A records and return the S-GW or P-GW IP address to the SGSN.
On the S4-SGSN, an additional configurable is available that identifies the context where DNS lookup for EPC-capable
UEs must occur. This is accomplished by creating a call control profile that directs the system’s DNS client to perform
the lookup in the context where the SGSN’s DNS client is configured.
If the CLI configurable is not used, or removed, the S4-SGSN chooses the DNS client from the context where the EGTP
service is configured for performing P-GW DNS resolution, if the EGTP service is associated for a EPC capable UE.
If the EGTP service is not present and the UE is EPC-capable, and if apn-resolve-dns-query snaptr is
configured in an APN profile, then the S4-SGSN uses the DNS client in the context where the SGTP service is present
for resolving a co-located P-GW/GGSN and selects the Gn interface.
S4-SGSN Statistics Support
Statistics have been added to provide information on S4-SGSN functionality.
The statistics added track information related to:
 SGW Relocations
 ISR Deactivations
 Number of active PDPs using the S4 interface in 3G
 S3 Interface Selection Statistics
 Procedure Abort Statistics
 GTPU Statistics
 IDFT Statistics
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In addition, support for EGTPC schema bulk statistics is implemented to provide information on communication
between the S4-SGSN and the EPC S-GW over the S4 interface.
S13’ Interface Support
In addition to the MAP-based Gf interface, the S4-SGSN supports the Diameter-based S13’ (S13 prime) interface
towards the equipment identify registry. The S13’ interface support enables operators to consolidate the EIR functions
into a single node, which increases operational efficiency. S13’ interface support is a license-enabled feature.
The S13’ interface enables the S4-SGSN to perform the ME Identity Check procedure to validate the IMEI with the
EIR. The S4-SGSN selects Gf or S13’ interface based on which interface is configured and the type of service (MAP or
HSS) is associated with the SGSN and/or the GPRS service. If both services are associated, then the S4-SGSN will
select the appropriate interface based on the following sequence:
1. An operator policy preference is configured for Gf or S13’
2. If no operator policy preference is set, then by default the S4-SGSN uses the Gf interface
By default, the IMSI is sent to the EIR as part of the IMEI Check procedure over the S13’ interface.
Idle Mode Signaling Reduction
The Idle mode signaling reduction (ISR) feature on the S4-SGSN provides a mechanism to optimize and/or reduce
signaling load during inter-RAT cell-reselection in idle mode (that is, in the ECM-IDLE, PMM-IDLE, and GPRSSTANDBY states). It is a mechanism that allows the UE to remain simultaneously registered in a UTRAN/GERAN
Routing Area (RA) and an E-UTRAN Tracking Area (TA) list. This allows the UE to make cell reselections between EUTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN without having to send any TAU or RAU requests, as long as the UE remains within the
registered RA and TA list.
ISR is a feature that reduces the mobility signalling and improves the battery life of UEs. Also reduces the unnecessary
signalling with the core network nodes and air interface. This is important especially in initial deployments when EUTRAN coverage will be limited and inter-RAT changes will be frequent.
The benefit of the ISR functionality comes at the cost of more complex paging procedures for UEs, which must be
paged on both the registered RA and all registered TAs. The HSS also must maintain two PS registrations (one from the
MME and another from the SGSN).
ISR support for 3G subscribers was introduced in release 14.0. ISR support for 2G subscribers is available in 15.0 and
later releases.
ISR is not supported on the Gn/Gp SGSN.
For a detailed description of this feature, refer to the Idle Mode Signaling Reduction on the S4-SGSN chapter in this
guide.
Important:
ISR is a license enabled feature. Contact your Cisco representative for details on licensing
information.
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) is an alternative solution to using IMS and SRVCC to provide voice services to
users of LTE. The IMS is not part of the solution, and voice calls are never served over LTE. Instead, the CSFB relies
on a temporary inter-system that switches between LTE and a system where circuit-switched voice calls can be served.
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The LTE terminals 'register' in the circuit switched domain when powered and attaching to LTE. This is handled
through an interaction between the MME and the MSC-Server in the circuit-switched network domain over the SGs
interface.
Consider the following scenarios:
 Voice calls initiated by the mobile user: If the user makes a voice call, the terminal switches from a LTE system
to a system with circuit-switched voice support. Depending on where the UE latches on after completion of the
voice call:
 The packet-based services that are active on the end-user device at this time are handed over and
continue to run in a system with circuit-switched voice support but with lower data speeds.
OR
 The packet-based services that are active on the end-user device at this time are suspended until the
voice call is terminated and the terminal switches back to LTE again and the packet services are
resumed.
 Voice calls received by the mobile user: If there is an incoming voice call to an end-user that is currently
attached to the LTE system, the MSC-Server requests a paging in the LTE system for the specific user. This is
done through the SGs interface between the MSC Server and the MME. The terminal receives the page, and
temporarily switches from the LTE system to the system with circuit-switched voice support, where the voice
call is received. Once the voice call is terminated, the terminal switches back to the LTE system.
For a detailed feature description of this feature refer to the chapter “ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback” in this
document.
ISD / DSD Message Handling and HSS Initiated Bearer Modification
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) / Home Location Register (HLR) maintains the subscriber database. Insert
Subscriber Data (ISD) and Delete Subscriber Data (DSD) messages are generated by the HSS/HLR. These messages are
used to communicate the subscribers current subscription data to the S4-SGSN. The subscription data for a subscriber
can include one of the following:
 GPRS subscription data.
 EPS subscription data.
 Both GPRS and EPS subscription data.
The PDP is either modified or deleted based on the subscription data received by the S4-SGSN.
The S4-SGSN deletes the PDP context if any form of barring is detected or if the APN-name or PDP-type of the PDP
address is changed. The S4-SGSN modifies the PDP if QoS is changed or APN-AMBR is changed (in case of EPS
subscription).
If a PDP modification is required based on the subscription data received but the associated UE is disconnected or in an
inactive state, such PDP contexts are deleted by the S4-SGSN.
If the UE is connected or in a ready state, the S4-SGSN sends an updated bearer command (with subscribed QoS) to the
S-SGW or P-GW and the P-GW initiates a PDP modify procedure.
HSS initiated bearer modification
The Modify bearer command is a notification sent to the S-GW/P-GW which notifies a change in the subscribed QoS.
The message is sent to S-GW/P-GW if the UE is in ready or connected state. Modify Bearer command is not sent when
the PDP is in preserved state and when ISR is active, in such cases the S4-SGSN initiated modify request using Modify
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Bearer Request updates the QoS to the S-GW/P-GW after the PDP is active or UE activity is detected on S4-SGSN
respectively.
UMTS-GSM AKA Support on the S4-SGSN
The S4-SGSN provides support for the following UMTS/GSM Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) procedures:
 SRNS relocation
 Attach
 PTMSI attach (foreign/local)
 Service Request
 Inter SGSN RAU
 Timers Handling
 Re-use of Vectors
 Using the Peer SGSN/MME vectors (ISRAU/PTMSI attach) in the same or different PLMN
3G and 2G SGSN Routing Area Update
The S4-SGSN supports outbound Routing Area Update (RAU) procedures for a subscriber already attached on that
SGSN (that have PDP contexts anchored through S4 interface) and inbound RAU procedures for an EPC capable UE.
The RAU procedures are required to enable mobility across the UMTS and EPC core network coverage areas using the
S3 interface for context transfers.
The S4-SGSN determines if the old peer node is an MME or SGSN based on the most significant bit of the LAC. If the
most significant bit of the LAC is set then the old peer node is an MME (and the RAI is mapped from GUTI). If the bit
is not set then the old RAI represents an SGSN.
However, some operators have already used LAC values greater than 32768 (most significant bit set) for their existing
UMTS / GPRS networks. For such operators identification of a peer node through MSB bit of LAC will not work. In
these cases, operators can use the Configurable GUTI to RAI Conversion Mapping feature.
The following RAU procedures are supported for both 2G and 3G services:
 2G and 3G Intra-SGSN RAU with and without S-GW relocation
 2G and 3G Inter-SGSN/SGSN-MME RAU with and without S-GW relocation across S16 and S3 interfaces
 Intra-SGSN Inter-RAT RAU with and without S-GW relocation
2G and 3G Intra RAU with and without S-GW Relocation
The S4-SGSN supports the intra-SGSN routing area update (ISRAU), which can occur in the following scenarios:
 The MS changes its routing area
 The periodic RAU timer expires for the MS
 The MS changes its network capability
The S4-SGSN also supports intra SGSN, inter PLMN RAU requests. However, if the new PLMN’s operator policy is
configured to use the Gn interface, the PDP contexts are not transferred from the S4 interface to the Gn interface.
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Important:
The S4-SGSN currently does not support the association of a different EGTP service for each
PLMN.
2G and 3G Inter-SGSN and Inter SGSN-MME RAU with and without S-GW Relocation Across S16
and S3 Interfaces
The S4-SGSN supports both Inter-SGSN RAU and SGSN-MME RAU, which will be triggered when a UE sends
Routing Area Update (RAU) request to a new SGSN in the following scenarios:
 The serving RAI changes from one SGSN coverage area to another SGSN coverage area
 During a handover from a E-UTRAN coverage area to a UMTS coverage area
Intra-SGSN Inter-RAT RAU with and without S-GW Relocation
The S4-SGSN supports intra-SGSN 3G to 2G routing area updates (RAU) and supports the handover of MM and PDP
contexts from the SGSN service to the GPRS service. Similarly, it supports intra-SGSN 2G to 3G RAUs and supports
the handover of MM and PDP contexts from the GPRS service to the SGSN service.
Important: Currently, the S4-SGSN expects that both the SGSN and GPRS services will be associated with the
same EGTP service for successful intra-SGSN inter-RAT handovers.
IPv4 and IPv6 PDP Type Override
The S4-SGSN supports the override of the IPv4/IPv6 PDP type by either IPv4 or IPv6 when the dual PDP feature is
enabled. This is controlled via a call control profile, and is configured independently for 2G GPRS and 3G UMTS
access.
Statistics are maintained to track successes and failures for IPv4 and IPv6 PDP activations with override.
NAPTR-based Dynamic HSS Discovery
In releases prior to R15.0, the SGSN could contact a HSS only through static configuration of the HSS peer end point
through the HSS service. From Release R15.0 onwards, dynamic peer discovery is supported. The HSS address will be
resolved using NAPTR based DNS request-response method. The following commands have to be enabled for dynamic
peer discovery:
 In the Context Configuration Mode, the command diameter endpoint < endpoint_name > has to be
enabled.
 In the Diameter Endpoint Configuration Mode, the command dynamic-peer-discovery [ protocol {
sctp | tcp } ] has to be enabled.
 In the Diameter Endpoint Configuration Mode, the command dynamic-peer-realm < realm_name > has to
be enabled.
 In the Diameter Endpoint Configuration Mode, the command dynamic-peer-failure-retry-count <
no_of_retries > has to be enabled.
The “realm name” is used for dynamic peer discovery. The “dynamic-peer-failure-retry-count” is used to configure the
number of re-tries in peer discovery.
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P-GW Initiated PDP Bearer Deactivation
The S4-SGSN supports the P-GW initiated PDP deactivation procedure in addition to the legacy MS initiated
deactivation procedure.
The S4-SGSN processes Delete Bearer Requests received from the S-GW (sent by the P-GW) and deactivates the
requested bearers (PDP contexts) by sending a Deactivate PDP Context Request to the UE and then deactivates the PDP
context. If the S4-SGSN receives a Delete Bearer Request from the S-GW and the subscriber is in the PMM-IDLE /
GPRS-STANDBY state, it pages the UE before deactivating the PDP context request.
In the case of 3G, the S4-SGSN will initiate RAB release procedures for the deactivated bearers. For 2G there is no
RAB release procedure.
S-GW and P-GW Tunnel and EPS Subscription Recovery
The S4-SGSN supports session recovery procedures and recovers the S4 tunnel created for each subscriber assigned
PDP contexts through S4 interface. This functionality is part of session recovery procedures and allows sessions to be
reconstructed when the system recovers from a card-level software fault.
The SGSN side TEID and the S-GW side TEID for the S4 tunnel are check-pointed and recovered during session
recovery. The S4-SGSN also recovers every PDN connection and their corresponding P-GW-side TEID.
The S4-SGSN session recovery procedures have been enhanced to support recovery of EPS subscription data received
from the HLR / HSS. The EPS subscription information may contain a maximum of 50 APN profiles and each APN
profile contains an APN name string and a PDN GW FQDN string, which is check-pointed and recovered as part of the
enhanced session recovery procedures.
Local Configuration of S-GW and S4-SGSN per RAI
The SGSN already supports selection of the S-GW using DNS SNAPTR queries for the RAI FQDN. The S4-SGSN now
provides the option to configure a local S-GW address for a RAI (LAC, RAC MCC and MNC). This functionality
enhances the S-GW selection logic to allow the call to continue even if DNS lookup fails for any reason.
The S4-SGSN will select this local S-GW address based on the configured local policy. The local policy also can be
configured to allow the selection of the locally configured S-GW address when the DNS lookup fails.
Local selection of the S-GW address applies in the following scenarios:
 First PDP context activation for a subscriber
 Intra SGSN routing area update
 New SGSN routing area update
 Intra SGSN inter RAT handover
Configurable GUTI to RAI Conversion Mapping
The S4-SGSN allows operators to configure mapping to an EPC MME for networks that already use LAC ranges
between 32768 and 65535.
LAC ranges between 32768 to 65535 are currently being used in some UMTS/GPRS deployments although 3GPP TS
23.003 indicates that a UMTS / GPRS network should not use LACs in that range. This range is reserved for the MME
group code.
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In an LTE network, the MME group code is mapped to the LAC and therefore the LAC and MME group code should be
separate. The S4-SGSN provides a customized solution for this problem by identifying the valid MME group codes,
which it uses to identify whether the received LAC is a native LAC or a LAC mapped from GUTI (i.e., an MME group
code part of GUTI).
S4-SGSN Support for Fallback to V1 Cause Code in GTPv2 Context Response
As per revised 3GPP TS 29.274 v8.6.0, the Context Response message received from a peer SGSN can have a cause
code “Fallback to GTP-V1”, if the peer SGSN had provided a Gn interface for a subscriber due to local policy. When a
new SGSN receives a Context Response with cause code as “Fallback to GTP-v1” it performs a GTP-v1 SGSN Context
Request, Context Response and Context Ack with the peer SGSN to obtain the subscribers MM and PDP contexts.
S4-SGSN Support for Mobility Management Procedures
To support the S6d/Gr interface, the S4-SGSN supports the following mobility management procedures over the those
(HSS/HLR) interfaces:
 Attach
 Service request
 Detach
 Iu-Release procedures
 Operator policy override for the Gn/S4 interface for EPC subscribers
 Zone code
 ARD
 ADD
 Operator policy-based Mobility Management context handling
QoS Mapping Support
The S4-SGSN supports the configuration of QoS parameters to ensure proper QoS parameter mapping between the S4SGSN and EPC S-GWs, P-GWs, and UEs.
The S4-SGSN communicates QoS parameters towards the S-GW and P-GW in EPC QoS. However, it sends QoS
towards the UE in the QoS format defined in the GMM/SM specification (TS 24.008). 3GPP defines a mapping for EPS
QoS to pre-release 8 QoS in TS 23.401, Annex E. On the S4-SGSN, operators can configure the quality of service
(QoS) parameters as call-control-profiles that will ensure proper QoS mapping between the S4-SGSN and the EPC
gateways (P-GW and S-GW) and UEs.
The configured call-control-profiles will be used if the S4 interface is chosen for PDP activation, but the subscription
does not have an EPS subscription. Therefore, GPRS subscription data (which uses QoS in pre-release 8 format), will be
mapped to EPS QoS behavior. The Allocation and Retention policy will be mapped to EPS ARP using the configured
call control profiles.
If the QoS mapping configuration is not used, the following default mappings are used:
 Default ARP high-priority value = 5
 Default ARP medium-priority value = 10
 Default pre-emption capability = shall-not-trigger-pre-emption
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 Default pre-emption vulnerability = not pre-emptable
MS Initiated Primary and Secondary Activation
The S4-SGSN supports default and dedicated bearer activation for:
 Default and dedicated activation - secondary PDP procedure trigger from MS).
 Lawful Intercept for activation rejects and failures
 Dual stack PDP handling
 APN-selection as per annex A.2/Spec 23.060 rel-9
Deactivation Procedure Support
The S4-SGSN supports the following deactivation procedures:
 3G / 2G MS initiated bundle deactivation
 3G / 2G MS initiated dedicated bearer deactivation
 3G / 2G P-GW initiated dedicated bearer deactivation
 3G / 2G P-GW initiated PDN deactivation
MS, PGW and HSS Initiated PDP Modification Procedure Support
The S4-SGSN supports the following packet data protocol (PDP) modification procedures:
 2G and 3G MS initiated PDP modification procedures
 2G and 3G P-GW Initiated PDP modification procedures
 2G and 3G HSS initiated PDP modification procedures
The PDP context modification procedures are invoked by the network or by the MS to modify the parameters that were
negotiated under the following conditions:
 During the PDP context activation procedure
 During the secondary PDP context activation procedure
 At a previously performed PDP context modification procedure
Depending on the selected Bearer Control Mode, the MS or the network may also create and delete a traffic flow
template (TFT) in an active PDP context. The procedure can be initiated by the network or the MS at any time when a
PDP context is active. Only the network may modify or delete a TFT packet filter that the network has created.
Conversely, only the MS may modify or delete a TFT packet filter that the MS has created.
MS-Initiated PDP Context Modification
The Mobile Station (MS) initiated PDP context modification procedure MS allows for a change in negotiated QoS, the
radio priority level, or the TFT negotiated during the PDP context activation procedure.
E-UTRAN capable MSs will not modify the QoS of the first PDP context that was established within the PDN
connection.
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The MS initiates the Modification procedure by sending a MODIFY PDP CONTEXT REQUEST message to the SGSN.
The SGSN validates the received message and sends out a BEARER RESOURCE COMMAND message to the S-GW
with a valid PTI value which is then sent to the PGW. On accepting the modification, the P-GW sends out an Update
Bearer Request with the PTI copied from the received BEARER RESOURCE COMMAND message. Upon successful
completion of the modification, the SGSN replies with the MODIFY PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT message.
P-GW-Initiated PDP Context Modification
The Packet Data Node Gateway (P-GW) initiated PDP context modification procedure is used in cases when:
 One or several of the EPS Bearer QoS parameters are to be modified
 To add/modify/delete the TFT related to the PDP Context or BCM-Mode change
 To modify the APN-AMBR
The P-GW can request the modification procedure by sending an UPDATE BEARER REQUEST message without a
PTI field to the S-GW, and the S-GW will forward the request to SGSN. The SGSN validates the request and initiates a
MODIFY PDP CONTEXT REQUEST message to the MS. On successful completion of the procedure, the SGSN will
send an UPDATE BEARER RESPONSE with an appropriate cause value.
HSS Initiated PDP Context Modification
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) initiated PDP context modification procedure is used when the HSS decides to
modify the subscribed QoS, where typically QoS related parameters are changed. The parameters that may be modified
are UE-AMBR, APN-AMBR QCI and Allocation/Retention Policy.
The HSS initiates the modification by sending an Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, Subscription Data) message to the
SGSN. The Subscription Data includes EPS subscribed QoS (QCI, ARP) and the subscribed UE-AMBR and APN
AMBR.
The S4-SGSN then updates the stored Subscription Data and acknowledges the Insert Subscriber Data message by
returning an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) message to the HSS and sends the Modify Bearer Command (EPS
Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN AMBR) message to the S-GW. The S-GW forwards the Modify Bearer
Command (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN AMBR) message to the P-GW. Note that the EPS Bearer QoS
sent in the Modify Bearer Command does not modify the per bearer bit-rate. It is sent to carry only a change in the ARP
/ QCI received from subscription. Also, the Modify Bearer Command can be sent only for the default bearer (primary
PDP) in a PDN connection.
The P-GW modifies the default bearer of each PDN connection corresponding to the APN for which subscribed QoS
has been modified. If the subscribed ARP parameter has been changed, the P-GW shall also modify all dedicated EPS
bearers having the previously subscribed ARP value unless superseded by PCRF decision. The P-GW then sends the
Update Bearer Request (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS [if QoS is changed], TFT, APN AMBR) message to the
S-GW.
The S-GW sends the Update Bearer Request (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS [if QoS is changed] APN-AMBR,
TFT) message to the SGSN. On completion of modification S4-SGSN acknowledges the bearer modification by sending
the "Update Bearer Response (EPS Bearer Identity)" message to P-GW via S-GW. If the bearer modification fails, the
P-GW deletes the concerned EPS Bearer.
Fallback from the S4 Interface to the Gn Interface
The S4-SGSN supports fallback the S4 interface and selects the Gn interface for the 1st PDP context activation if the
APN DNS-SNAPTR resolution returns only a Gn address. This functionality allows the PDP context request to be
completed when DNS resolution returns a GGSN address instead of a P-GW address.
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This mechanism is applicable in the following cases:
 The UE is EPC-capable
 The UE’s subscription has a GPRS subscription only (and not an EPS subscription)
If the subscription has an EPS subscription for an APN, then it is assumed that the P-GW addresses are configured in
the DNS for that APN.
Operator Policy Selection of S4 or Gn Interface
The S4-SGSN supports Operator Policy selection of either the S4 or the Gn interface for PDP context operations. This
feature allows flexible operator control over interface selection for operational or administrative reasons.
This functionality overrides any other criteria for selection of the P-GW or the GGSN for PDP contexts. This feature is
applicable only for EPC-capable UEs.
IDFT Support During Connected Mode Handovers
The S4-SGSN supports the setup of indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between the eNodeB and the RNC via the
SGW during connected mode handovers. This allows the S4-SGSN to support connected mode handovers between the
UTRAN and E-UTRAN networks across the S3 interface.
Once enabled, IDFT is employed under the following conditions:
 If the SGSN is the old node participating in the connected mode handover, then indirect data forwarding
tunnels is used if:
 The target node to which the connected mode handover is initiated should be an eNodeB (i.e., the
SGSN performs the handover to the MME).
 The enb-direct-data-forward CLI setting is not configured as the source RNC configuration (in
RNC Configuration Mode).
 If the SGSN is the new node participating in the connected mode handover, then indirect data forwarding
tunnels is employed if:
 The source node from which connected mode handover is initiated is an eNodeB (i.e., the MME is
performing a handover to the SGSN).
 The enb-direct-data-forward setting is not configured in the source RNC configuration (in RNC
Configuration Mode).
 The source MME indicated that it does not support direct forwarding via a Forward Relocation Request.
Important: If the target SGSN did not relocate to a new SGW, IDFT does not apply. The target SGSN sets up an
indirect data forwarding tunnel with SGW only if the SGW is relocated. If the SGW is not relocated, then it is the
source MME that sets up the indirect data forwarding tunnel between source the eNodeB and target RNC through the
SGW.
Disassociated DSR Support
The S4-SGSN supports the disassociation of the SGSN and EGTP applications for a Delete Session Request in a certain
scenario. In this scenario, the SGSN application instructs the EGTP facility to send the Delete Session Request to the
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SGW and not respond back to the SGSN application to confirm the action. In effect, the SGSN application disassociates
itself from the EGTP facility. Since the SGSN application is no longer waiting for a response from the EGTP facility,
there will be reduced internal communication between the SGSN and EGTP. The the EGTP facility will handle
retransmissions of the DSR request, thereby eliminating the possibility of hanging sessions at the SGSN.
The behavior of the disassociated DSR feature for each of the applicable scenarios follows:
1. The SGSN / MME wants to send a DSR with OI=0 and SI=1 to an old SGW during SGW relocation.
2. The SGSN application instructs the EGTP facility to inform the old SGW of the DSR and the SGSN doesn't
expect any response from EGTP.
3. The EGTP facility handles retransmissions of this DSR request.
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem (SRNS) Relocation Support
SRNS relocation is the method defined in 3GPP TS 23.401 for connected mode inter-RAT handovers from E-UTRAN
to UTRAN or UTRAN to E-UTRAN networks. The SGSN already supports SRNS relocation across the Gn interface.
The SGSN now also supports SRNS relocation with the following cases across the S3 (S4-SGSN to MME) and S16
(S4-SGSN to S4-SGSN) interfaces:
 Intra-SGSN SRNS relocation
 Inter-SGSN SRNS relocation over the S16 interface
 UTRAN-to-E-UTRAN connected mode Inter-RAT handover over the S3 interface
 UTRAN-to-E-UTRAN connected mode Inter-RAT handover over the S3 interface
The relocation feature is triggered by subscribers (MS/UE) moving between an eNodeB and an RNC. If the originating
and destination nodes are connected to the same S4-SGSN but are in different routing areas, the behavior triggers an
intra-SGSN Routing Area Update (RAU). If the nodes are connected to different S4-SGSNs, the relocation is followed
by an inter-SGSN RAU.
As part of the SRNS relocation feature implementation on the S4-SGSN, the SGSN application also supports the gtpv2
(egtp) protocol for:
 Inter-SGSN SRNS relocations over the S16 interface
 MME - SGSN SRNS relocations over the S3 interface
A command is available to enable the SGSN to support SRNS relocation when the source RNC is behaving as the target
RNC.
Configuration and Maintenance
The existing srns-inter and srns-intra commands in Call Control Profile Configuration Mode are used to enable
this feature.
In addition, the enb-direct-data forward command in RNC Configuration Mode can be used to enable the S4SGSN to apply direct forwarding tunnels or indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between a particular eNodeB and
RNC.
Statistics are also available with the show s4-sgsn statistics all command that enable operators to track SGW
relocations and SRNS procedure aborts.
E-UTRAN Service Handover Support
The SGSN supports configuration-based enabling of the E-UTRAN Service Handover Information Element, which is
optional in the following RANAP messages used during SRNS relocation:
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 RAB Assignment Request
 Relocation Request
This feature is useful in the following scenarios:
1. A UE is E-UTRAN capable, the PLMN is E-UTRAN capable, but the UE has not subscribed to EPS services (no
4G subscription available).
2. The VPLMN is E-UTRAN-capable, and the UE of an inbound roamer is E-UTRAN capable, but the UE has
only a UTRAN/GERAN roaming agreement in place.
The feature ensures that an SRNS relocation handover to E-UTRAN is not allowed for E-UTRAN capable UEs that
have only a UTRAN/GERAN roaming agreement. This results in an elimination of potential service denial or disruption
issues, and unnecessary signaling.
To implement this feature, CLI commands have been implemented so that the SGSN can be configured to:

Override the "eutran-not-allowed" flag received from the HLR/HSS in the ISD/ULA request for the Access Restriction
Data (ARD) parameter (for scenario #2 above).

Enable the inclusion of the E-UTRAN Service Handover IE in RAB Assignment Request and Relocation Request
RANAP messages for scenarios #1 and #2 above).
Important: SRNS relocation must be configured via the srns-inter and/or srns-intra commands in Call
Control Profile Configuration Mode before configuring E-UTRAN Service Handover Support.
Support for Gn Handoff from S4-SGSN to 2G/3G Gn SGSN
The S4-SGSN supports handoffs from the S4-SGSN to a 2G/3G peer Gn/Gp SGSN as follows:
 An EPC capable UE is attached to an S4-SGSN and has PDP contexts towards the EPC core using the S4
interface.
 When the UE hands off to a Gn/Gp SGSN, the S4-SGSN transfers the PDP contexts to the peer SGSN using the
GTPv1 protocol.
No CLI commands are require to implement this functionality.
Suspend/Resume Support on the S4-SGSN
The S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume feature provides support for suspend/resume procedures from the BSS and a peer S4SGSN.
When a UE is in a 2G coverage area wants to make a circuit switched voice call but the Class A mode of operation is
not supported by the network, then the packet switched data session (PDP contexts) must be suspended before the voice
call can be made. In this case, the BSS sends a Suspend Request to the SGSN. If the UE is already attached at that
SGSN then the suspend request is handled via an intra-SGSN suspend/resume procedure. If the UE is not attached at the
SGSN then the Suspend Request is forwarded to a peer SGSN/MME through GTPv2 and an inter-SGSN/SGSN-MME
suspend procedure occurs. Once the UE completes the voice call, either the BSS sends a resume request to resume the
suspended PDPs or the UE directly sends a Routing Area Update Request (RAU) in 2G which will be treated as an
implicit resume.
The ability for a GPRS user to access circuit-switched services depends on the subscription held, the network
capabilities, and the MS capabilities.
For detailed information on this feature, refer to the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature chapter in this guide.
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Flex Pooling (Iu / Gb over S16) Support on the S4-SGSN
This feature adds the SGSN Pooling functionality across S16 (peer S4-SGSN) interface, so that the default SGSN can
forward the received Context Requests from the non-Pooled SGSN to the right pooled SGSN, based on the NRI in PTMSI. Flex pooling provides better scalability and load balancing. A new CLI command for pooling has been provided
under eGTP Service Configuration to enable S4-SGSN pooling across the S16 interface. For more information on the
command, refer to the Command Line Interface Reference Manual.
This feature requires the SGSN S3/S4 license and Flex feature license - no additional feature licenses are required.
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection on S4-SGSN
With Release 17.0, the S4-SGSN now supports Subscriber Overcharging Protection to prevent both 2G and 3G
subscribers from being overcharged when a loss of radio coverage (LORC) occurs over the S4 interface.
As a part of this functionality, the operator must configure all cause codes on the SGSN. If the SGSN receives a cause
code via Iu/Gb interfaces that matches one of the cause codes configured on the SGSN, then the SGSN includes the
ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in the Release Access Bearer Request.
This feature ensures more accurate billing by protecting the subscriber from overcharging in instances where abnormal
radio resource release occurs. For more information about this feature, refer to the feature chapter LORC Subscriber
Overcharging Protection on S4-SGSN in this Guide.
Summary of Functional Differences between an S4-SGSN and an SGSN (Gn/Gp)
Since the S4-SGSN is configured with 2G, 3G, and/or dual access SGSN services before being configured with
enhancements to enable communication with the EPC network, it shares similarities with a Gn/Gp SGSN. But, the S4SGSN also contains a number of functional differences. The following table summarizes these differences.
Table 1. Summary of Functional Differences between SGSN and S4-SGSN
Procedure
Gn/Gp SGSN
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
Procedure
MS Initiated First Primary
PDP Context Activation
Gn/Gp SGSN
1.
The requested QoS is negotiated with
the subscribed QoS. The negotiated
QoS is sent in the Create PDP
Context Request.
S4-SGSN
1.
2.
MS Initiated Secondary PDP
Context Activation
1.
2.
The requested QoS is ignored if UE
has EPS subscription. If EPS
subscription is available SGSN always
uses the subscribed EPS QoS to send
in the Create Session Request. If there
is no EPS subscription but the UE is
still granted access to the S4 interface,
then the system negotiates the
requested QoS with the subscribed
GPRS QoS. The S4-SGSN maps the
negotiated QoS to EPS QoS as per as
per the mapping table given in TS
23.203 Table 6.1.7 and TS 23.401
Annex E. and sends the Create Session
Request. If the requested traffic class is
conversational / streaming, then the
system maps it to the interactive class
as a primary PDP context. In S4-SGSN
if QoS is downgraded by RNC during
RAB establishment, then by default the
PDP activation is rejected. This is as
per section 9.2.2.1A of 23.060 step A
below figure 64b. But S4-SGSN
provides a CLI to locally accept the
RAB negotiated QoS to override this
spec defined behavior.
Two primary PDP contexts are for the
same APN must be selected for the
same P-GW.
Secondary PDP context’s requested
QoS will be capped to the subscribed
QoS.
Since the Create PDP Context is the
message also used for creating the
Secondary PDP context, ARP also is
sent for secondary PDP context.
1.
ARP is not sent in the Bearer Resource
command. But it is sent by the P-GW
in the Create Bearer Request.
MS Initiated PDP Context
Deactivation
1.
Both single and bundle deactivation
is allowed.
1.
If a primary PDP context must be
deactivated, only bundle deactivation
is allowed.
GGSN/P-GW Initiated PDP
Context Deactivation
1.
The GGSN can deactivate the
primary PDP context alone without
initiating a bundle deactivation.
1.
If the P-GW deactivates the primary
PDP context (default bearer), it is
treated as a bundle deactivation.
PDP Context Preservation for
conversational/streaming
class.
1.
The SGSN sends the Update PDP
Context Request to the GGSN with
0kbps as the Maximum Bit Rate
value.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
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▀ Features and Functionality
Procedure
PDP Context Preservation for
interactive/background class.
Gn/Gp SGSN
1.
The SGSN preserves the PDP context
as it is.
S4-SGSN
1.
2.
The S4-SGSN preserves the PDP
context as it is.
If a direct tunnel was established, or if
ISR is active, then the S4-SGSN sends
a Release Access Bearer Request to the
S-GW.
RNC Initiated QoS
Modification
1.
The SGSN initiates the PDP Context
Modification procedure.
1.
The S4-SGSN ignores the RAB
Modify Request received from the
RNC.
Intra-SGSN Routing Area
Update in PMM-Idle Mode
1.
The SGSN sends the Update PDP
Context Request to the GGSN if the
PLMN changes.
1.
An intra-SGSN RAU may involve a
change of S-GW.
An S4-SGSN sends a Modify Bearer
Request to the S-GW/P-GW if the
RAU involves a change of PLMN and
if the S-GW doesn’t change.
The SGSN sends the Update PDP
Context Request to the GGSN if the
PLMN changes or if QoS changed
due to an RNC release change.
1.
Intra SGSN RAU in PMMCONNECTED Mode
1.
2.
2.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
An intra-SGSN RAU may involve a
change of the S-GW. In 16.0 if QoS is
changed during inter RNC handover
(due to new RNC supporting a lower
QoS range), then S4-SGSN internally
caps the QoS towards RNC for non
GBR bearers alone (interactive /
background class). The changed QoS is
not signalled to SGW / PGW. If there
are GBR bearers (conversational /
streaming class) that have a higher
guaranteed bit rate than that can be
supported by the target RNC, then such
GBR bearers are deactivated.
However, in an S4-SGSN, the SGSN
initiated modification procedure is
defined only for changing of APNAMBR. A change of RNC release will
initiate a per bearer QoS change. There
is no way to communicate this to the SGW / P-GW.
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
Procedure
Gn/Gp SGSN
S4-SGSN
Old - Inter-SGSN RAU with
no change in interface type
across SGSNs.
Where both “old” and “new” refer to SGSNs
(Gn/Gp):
1. The old SGSN orders the PDP
contexts as per priority in the SGSN
Context Response message. If the UE
is PMM-CONNECTED in the old
SGSN, then the old SGSN initiates an
SRNS Context Transfer before
sending the SGSN context response.
In addition, the old SGSN initiates an
SRNS Data Forward Command to the
SRNS to transfer the unsent data
from the old SRNS to the old SGSN.
Where both “old” and “new” refer to S4SGSNs.
1. If the new S4-SGSN indicated that the
S-GW has changed in the Context Ack
message, then the old S4-SGSN has to
initiate a Delete Session Request to the
old S-GW with Scope Indication bit
set. This Delete Session Request is
locally consumed at old SGW and will
not be forwarded to PGW.
2. The S4-SGSN does not support
lossless PDCP for inter-SGSN
handovers. If the UE was PMMCONNECTED in the old S4-SGSN,
then it will not initiate an SRNS
Context Transfer before sending the
Context Response. The assumption is
that the SRNS relocation procedure
had occurred prior to the inter-SGSN
RAU for CONNECTED subscribers.
3.
Old - Inter SGSN RAU with
change in interface across
SGSN
Where “old” is SGSN (Gn/Gp) and “new” is
S4-SGSN:
1. The old SGSN sends a SGSN context
response with PDP contexts in
prioritized order.
2. If the MS is in PMM-CONNECTED
state in the old SGSN, it will initiate
an SRNS Context Transfer towards
the old SRNS and will initiate SRNS
Data Forward Command to transfer
unsent packets from old SRNS back
to old SGSN. In the new SGSN, the
PDPs will continue to use Gn
interface. Promotion of PDPs to S4
post handover from a Gn SGSN is
not yet supported.
For inter S4-SGSN context transfers
the Context Ack message doesn’t carry
any data TEID. That is, the GTPv2
protocol doesn’t define any interSGSN data tunnel. Therefore, during
connected mode, a RAU between two
S4-SGSN without an SRNS relocation
will result in packet losses. It is
assumed that SRNS relocation is
enabled in the UTRAN.
Where “old” is S4-SGSN and “new” is SGSN
(Gn/Gp):
1. The old S4-SGSN receives a GTPv1
SGSN Context Request and it converts
the EPS bearer information to PDP
contexts and responds with a SGSN
Context Response towards the new
SGSN.
2. The old S4-SGSN prioritizes the PDP
contexts as per ARP. PDP
prioritization for EPS bearers is not
supported.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
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▀ Features and Functionality
Procedure
New Inter SGSN RAU for a
PMM-IDLE subscriber
without a change of interface
Gn/Gp SGSN
1.
2.
Uses the PDP context prioritized
order in the SGSN Context Response
to select high priority PDP contexts
in the case of resource limitations at
the new SGSN.
The SGSN ends the UPCQ to GGSN.
S4-SGSN
1.
2.
3.
Performs the S-GW selection
procedure.
Uses ARP to prioritize EPS bearers. In
GTPv1 the PDP contexts sent in SGSN
context response will be in prioritized
order. But such an order is not defined
for sending EPS bearers in Context
Response. The idea is to use to ARP
for prioritization. PDP prioritization
for EPS bearers is not supported.
The new S4-SGSN alerts of any
change in S-GW through the Context
Ack to the old S4-SGSN. The PMM
module will wait until the S-GW
selection procedure is complete at the
new S4-SGSN to alert of the context
ack.
New Inter SGSN RAU for a
PMM-CONNECTED
subscriber
Where “old” is S4-SGSN and “new” is SGSN
(Gn/Gp):
1. The new SGSN receives PDP
contexts in the SGSN Context
Response in prioritized order.
2. RABs will be established at the new
SGSN based on the ASI bit value for
each PDP.
Where “new” is S4-SGSN and “old” is SGSN
(Gn/Gp):
1. The new S4-SGSN receives PDP
contexts in the Context Response.
There is no prioritized order. ARP is
used to prioritize. PDP prioritization
for EPS bearers is not supported.
2. New S4-SGSN performs S-GW
selection.
3. The new S4-SGSN cannot establish
RAB as there is no ASI bit in the
GTPv2 Context Response. The
assumption is that the Context Req /
Response is used only for IDLE mode
handover, and that for connected mode
handover, the SRNS relocation
procedure should be used.
New – SGSN PMMCONNECTED / PMM-IDLE
subscriber handover with
interface change
Where “old” is S4-SGSN and “new” is SGSN
(Gn/Gp):
1. The new S4-SGSN sends a GTPv1
SGSN Context Request and receives
the PDP contexts mapped from EPS
bearers in the SGSN context
response.
2. The old SGSN will establish an interSGSN tunnel for transferring queued
packets.
Where “old” is SGSN (Gn/Gp) and “new” is
S4-SGSN:
1. The new S4-SGSN sends a GTPv1
SGSN context request, after learning
that the old SGSN is an SGSN
(Gn/Gp) based on a DNS S-NAPTR
response.
2. The new S4-SGSN will continue to use
the Gn interface for the PDPs.
Conversion of PDPs to S4-SGSN is not
supported at this time.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
Procedure
Gn/Gp SGSN
S4-SGSN
APN Selection Logic
1.
No concept of subscribed default
APN.
1.
One among the subscribed APN will
be indicated as a default APN by the
HSS. That APN will be used under the
following cases: 1) No requested APN,
2) The requested APN is not in the
subscription but the requested PDP
type matches with default APN’s PDP
type.
DNS Queries
1.
APN FQDN, RAI FQDN and RNCID FQDN are formed with a .gprs
extension.
DNS A/AAAA records are queried.
Optionally, also uses S-NAPTR
queries for EPC-capable UEs to
select a co-located P-GW/GGSN
1.
APN FQDN, RAI FQDN, RNC-ID
FQDN are formed with a
.3gppnetwork.org extension.
DNS S-NAPTR records are queried
3.
If DNS SNAPTR response returns only
Gn address, S4-SGSN will use Gn
interface for selecting a PGW/GGSN.
2.
3.
2.
Path Failure Detection
1.
Can be echo-based or non-echobased.
1.
Echo-based only.
Charging
1.
Applicable.
1.
Charging for PDP contexts applicable
only if CAMEL is used. However, the
S4-SGSN will continue to generate MCDRs. Also CAMEL is not supported
in S4-SGSN now. Hence S4-SGSN
only generates M-CDRs. PDP related
CDRs are generated by SGW.
Intra-SGSN Inter System
Handover (2G to 3G or 3G to
2G Inter RAT handovers)
1.
For 2G to 3G handovers, the RABs
are not established in 3G after
handover. It is the function of the UE
to initiate Service Request procedure
to setup RAB.
For 3G to 2G handovers, the QoS is
capped to 472 Kbps in 2G and the
Update PDP Context Request
initiated from 2G will carry the
capped QoS to GGSN.
1.
For 2G to 3G handovers, the RABs
are not established in 3G after the
handover. The S4-SGSN preserves the
PDP without deactivation. For 3G to
2G handover, the QoS is not capped to
472 Kbps in 2G. The reason is that in
GTPv2 the Modify Bearer Request
initiated from S4-SGSN upon 3G to
2G RAU is defined only for informing
S-GW / P-GW of a switch in tunnel
IDs and change in RAT type. This
message doesn’t carry QoS. The S4SGSN relies on the P-GW + PCRF to
decide the best QoS for the informed
RAT type and lets the P-GW initiate a
separate modification procedure to set
the right QoS. In 16.0, during 3G to
2G handover, SGSN internally caps the
APN-AMBR to 472 kbps and post
handover, it initiates a Modify Bearer
Command message to SGW/PGW. If
there are any GBR bearers
(conversational / streaming class) with
bit rate greater than 472 kbps then
those GBR bearer PDPs will be
deactivated.
2.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ Features and Functionality
Procedure
Gn/Gp SGSN
S4-SGSN
Direct Tunnel (DT)
Activation
Configuration enabling DT is accomplished at
various levels - the Call Control Profile level,
the RNC level, and at the APN Profile level
for DT per APN/GGSN.
For a given UE, it is possible that one PDN
connection to an APN to a GGSN uses DT
while another PDN connection to a different
APN to a different GGSN does not use DT. It
all depends upon whether or not the target
GGSN supports DT.
Configuration for DT is only available at Call
Control Profile and RNC levels as the S4SGSN’s DT is between an SGW and an RNC.
In an S4-SGSN, either all PDPs of a given UE
use DT or none of them use DT. So,
combinations of some PDPs using DT and some
PDPs not using DT is not possible.
Handling Suspend from BSS
/ peer SGSN
PDPs are suspended at SGSN. Any downlink
data received at this point will be queued by
the SGSN.
PDPs are suspended at SGSN. Downlink data
buffering happens at the PGW and not the
SGSN because the PDP suspension is carried
via a GTPv2 Suspend Notification message
from the SGSN to the SGW to the PGW.
Session Recovery
Session recovery provides a seamless failover and reconstruction of subscriber session information in the event of a
hardware or software fault that prevents a fully attached user session from having the PDP contexts removed or the
attachments torn down.
Session recovery is performed by mirroring key software processes (e.g., session manager and AAA manager) within
the system. These mirrored processes remain in an idle state (in standby-mode) until they may be needed in the case of a
software failure (e.g., a session manager task aborts). The system spawns new instances of “standby mode” session and
AAA managers for each active control processor (CP) being used.
As well, other key system-level software tasks, such as VPN manager, are performed on a physically separate packet
processing card to ensure that a double software fault (e.g., session manager and VPN manager fail at the same time on
the same card) cannot occur. The packet processing card used to host the VPN manager process is in active mode and is
reserved by the operating system for this sole use when session recovery is enabled.
The additional hardware resources required for session recovery include a standby System Management Card and a
standby packet processing card.
There are two modes for Session Recovery.
 Task recovery mode: One or more session manager failures occur and are recovered without the need to use
resources on a standby packet processor card. In this mode, recovery is performed by using the mirrored
“standby-mode” session manager task(s) running on active packet processor cards. The “standby-mode” task is
renamed, made active, and is then populated using information from other tasks such as AAA manager.
 Full packet processing card recovery mode: Used when a packet processing card hardware failure occurs, or
when a packet processor card migration failure happens. In this mode, the standby packet processor card is
made active and the “standby-mode” session manager and AAA manager tasks on the newly activated packet
processor card perform session recovery.
Session/Call state information is saved in the peer AAA manager task because each AAA manager and session manager
task is paired together. These pairs are started on physically different packet processor cards to ensure task recovery.
When session recovery occurs, the system reconstructs the following subscriber information:
 Data and control state information required to maintain correct call behavior
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
 Subscriber data statistics that are required to ensure that accounting information is maintained
 A best-effort attempt to recover various timer values such as call duration, absolute time, and others
For more information on session recovery use and session recovery configuration, refer to the Session Recovery section
in the System Administration Guide.
SGSN Pooling and Iu-Flex / Gb-Flex
This implementation allows carriers to load balance sessions among pooled SGSNs, to improve reliability and
efficiency of call handling, and to use Iu-Flex / Gb-Flex to provide carriers with deterministic failure recovery.
The SGSN, with its high capacity, signaling performance, and peering capabilities, combined with its level of fault
tolerance, delivers many of the benefits of Flex functionality even without deploying SGSN pooling.
As defined by 3GPP TS 23.236, the SGSN implements Iu-Flex and Gb-Flex functionality to facilitate network sharing
and to ensure SGSN pooling for 2.5G and 3G accesses as both separate pools and as dual-access pools.
SGSN pooling enables the following:
 Eliminates the single point of failure between an RNC and an SGSN or between a BSS and an SGSN.
 Ensures geographical redundancy, as a pool can be distributed across sites.
 Minimizes subscriber impact during service, maintenance, or node additions or replacements.
 Increases overall capacity via load sharing across the SGSNs in a pool.
 Reduces the need/frequency for inter-SGSN RAUs. This substantially reduces signaling load and data transfer
delays.
 Supports load redistribution with the SGSN offloading procedure.
Gb/Iu Flex Offloading
The SGSN supports Gb/Iu Flex subscriber offloading from one SGSN to another specific SGSN in a 2G/3G pool.
In addition, the operator can configure the offloading Target NRI in P-TMSI, and the quantity to offload to the Target.
This can be used to provide load balancing, or to offload a single node in pool, take it out of service for whatever reason
(e.g., maintenance).
SGSN Support for RAI Based Query
The SGSN now supports a RAI based query when NRI based query fails. A new CLI option rai-fqdn-fallback is
provided in the peer-nri-length CLI under the Call Control Profile Configuration, which allows the operator to
configure the SGSN's support to fallback on RAI based query when NRI based query fails.
This feature is not supported in the following scenarios:
 2G Context Request and Identification Request messages are not supported.
 S4 support of this extensions for all applicable scenarios is not supported.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
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▀ Features and Functionality
SGSN Support For Sending Extended Bits Bi-directionally
The SGSN now supports sending extended bitrates in both uplink and downlink directions. Extended bitrates are
included in both uplink and downlink direction when the negotiated birate indicates that extended birates should be
included in one direction. A new CLI ranap bidirectional-always ext-mbr-ie is added under the RNC
Configuration mode to enable sending extended bitrates bi-directionally.
SGSN support to Ignore PDP Data Inactivity
The SGSN supports options to configure PDP Data Inactivity detection duration and actions to be performed on timeout
under the APN-Profile. The following configurable actions are supported under APN-Profile in case of PDP Data
Inactivity detection in the PDP context:
1. De-activate all PDPs of the subscriber
2. De-activate all PDPs of the bundle (all linked PDPs)
3. Detach the subscriber. This action is triggered when:
 Data in-activity is detected for all PDPs
 Data in-activity is detected for any of the PDPs
On the Detection of the PDP Data Inactivity, depending on the configuration option the SGSN either de-activates the
PDP or detaches the subscriber.
A new CLI ignore-pdp-data-inactivity is added to provide an option under the IMEI-Profile to ignore PDP Data
Inactivity configuration for one or more IMEIs. On configuring this CLI, the SGSN ignores the application of in-activity
configuration (configured in the APN-Profile) for a specified set of IMEI's.
Short Message Service (SMS over Gd)
The SGSN implements a configurable Short Message Service (SMS) to support sending and receiving text messages up
to 140 octets in length. The SGSN handles multiple, simultaneous messages of both types: those sent from the MS/UE
(SMS-MO: mobile originating) and those sent to the MS/UE (SMS-MT: mobile terminating). Short Message Service is
disabled by default.
After verifying a subscription for the PLMN’s SMS service, the SGSN connects with the SMSC (short message service
center), via a Gd interface, to relay received messages (from a mobile) using MAP-MO-FORWARD-REQUESTs for
store-and-forward.
In the reverse, the SGSN awaits messages from the SMSC via MAP-MT-FORWARD-REQUESTs and checks the
subscriber state before relaying them to the target MS/UE.
The SGSN will employ both the Page procedure and MNRG (mobile not reachable for GPRS) flags in an attempt to
deliver messages to subscribers that are absent.
The SGSN supports
 charging for SMS messages, and
 lawful intercept of SMS messages
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
SMS Authentication Repetition Rate
The SGSN provides an authentication procedures for standard GMM events like Attach, Detach, RAU, and ServiceRequest, and SMS events such as Activate, all with support for 1-in-N Authenticate functionality. The SGSN did not
provide the capability to authenticate MO/MT SMS events.
Now, the authentication functionality has been expanded to the Gs interface where the SGSN now supports
configuration of the authentication repetition rate for SMS-MO and SMS-MT, for every nth event. This functionality is
built on existing SMS CLI, with configurable MO and/or MT. The default is not to authenticate.
SMSC Address Denial
Previously, the SGSN supported restricting MO-SMS and MT-SMS only through SGSN operator policy configuration.
Now, the SGSN can restrict forwarding of SMS messages to specific SMSC addresses, in order to allow operators to
block SMS traffic that cannot be charged for. This functionality supports multiple SMSCs and is configurable per
SMSC address with a maximum of 10 addresses. It is also configurable for MO-SMS and/or MT-SMS messages.
Status Updates to RNC
During MMGR recovery due to memory overload or demux migration leads to missing status updates for RNC.As the
result RNC status remains unavailable even when links towards RNC are up. The Session Controller allows the Standby
Session Managers along with Active Session Managers to fetch the status updates.
Topology-based Gateway (GW) Selection
Topology-based gateway selection is a mechanism defined by 3GPP to choose a gateway based on the geographical
(topological) proximity of the GGSN to the SGSN or the P-GW to the S-GW. The two being co-located would have the
highest priority. Topology-based selection is not allowed for roamers connected to HPLMN access points (Home
Routed Scenario).
DNS S-NAPTR returns a candidate list of GW nodes for each of the DNS queries. 3GPP TS 29.303 provides an
algorithm to feed these candidate lists and choose the topologically closer nodes among them. S-NAPTR DNS query is
supported by default on the S4-SGSN and, with Release 16, can be enabled for the Gn/Gp-SGSN.
The SGSN’s Topology-based GW Selection feature supports two levels of sorting, first level is degree and second level
is order/priority, where order is for NAPTR records and priority is for SRV Records. Degree has the highest preference.
For details on the use and configuration of this feature, refer to the Topology-based Gateway Selection section in the
SGSN Administration Guide.
Threshold Crossing Alerts (TCA) Support
Thresholding on the system is used to monitor the system for conditions that could potentially cause errors or outage.
Typically, these conditions are temporary (i.e high CPU utilization, or packet collisions on a network) and are quickly
resolved. However, continuous or large numbers of these error conditions within a specific time interval may be
indicative of larger, more severe issues. The purpose of thresholding is to help identify potentially severe conditions so
that immediate action can be taken to minimize and/or avoid system downtime.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
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▀ Features and Functionality
The system supports Threshold Crossing Alerts for certain key resources such as CPU, memory, number of sessions etc.
With this capability, the operator can configure threshold on these resources whereby, should the resource depletion
cross the configured threshold, a SNMP Trap would be sent.
The following thresholding models are supported by the system:
 Alert: A value is monitored and an alert condition occurs when the value reaches or exceeds the configured high
threshold within the specified polling interval. The alert is generated then generated and/or sent at the end of
the polling interval.
 Alarm: Both high and low threshold are defined for a value. An alarm condition occurs when the value reaches
or exceeds the configured high threshold within the specified polling interval. The alert is generated then
generated and/or sent at the end of the polling interval.
Thresholding reports conditions using one of the following mechanisms:
 SNMP traps: SNMP traps have been created that indicate the condition (high threshold crossing and/or clear) of
each of the monitored values.
Generation of specific traps can be enabled or disabled on the chassis. Ensuring that only important faults get displayed.
SNMP traps are supported in both Alert and Alarm modes.
 Logs: The system provides a facility called threshold for which active and event logs can be generated. As with
other system facilities, logs are generated Log messages pertaining to the condition of a monitored value are
generated with a severity level of WARNING.
Logs are supported in both the Alert and the Alarm models.
 Alarm System: High threshold alarms generated within the specified polling interval are considered
“outstanding” until a the condition no longer exists or a condition clear alarm is generated. “Outstanding”
alarms are reported to the system's alarm subsystem and are viewable through the Alarm Management menu in
the Web Element Manager.
The Alarm System is used only in conjunction with the Alarm model.
Important: For more information on threshold crossing alert configuration, refer to the Thresholding
Configuration Guide.
Tracking Usage of GEA Encryption Algorithms
GPRS encryption algorithm (GEA) significantly affects the SGSN processing capacity based on the GEAx level used GEA1, GEA2, or GEA3.
Operators would like to be able to identify the percentages of their customer base that are using the various GEA
encryption algorithms. The same tool can also track the migration trend from GEA2 to GEA3 and allow an operator to
forecast the need for additional SGSN capacity.
New fields and counters have been added to the output generated by the show subscribers gprs-only|sgsnonly summary command. This new information enables the operator to track the number of subscribers capable of
GEA0-GEO3 and to easily see the number of subscribers with negotiated GEAx levels.
VLR Pooling via the Gs Interface
VLR Pooling, also known as Gs Pooling, helps to reduce call delays and call dropping, when the MS/UE is in motion,
by routing a service request to a core network (CN) node with available resources.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Features and Functionality ▀
VLR pools are configured in the Gs Service, which supports the Gs interface configuration for communication with
VLRs and MSCs.
A pool area is a geographical area within which an MS/UE can roam without the need to change the serving CN node.
A pool area is served by one or more CN nodes in parallel. All the cells, controlled by an RNC or a BSC belong to the
same one (or more) pool area(s).
VLR hash is used when a pool of VLRs is serving a particular LAC (or list of LACs). The selection of VLR from this
pool is based on the IMSI digits. From the IMSI, the SGSN derives a hash value (V) using the algorithm: [(IMSI div 10)
modulo 1000]. Every hash value (V) from the range 0 to 999 corresponds to a single MSC/VLR node. Typically many
values of (V) may point to the same MSC/VLR node.
Synchronization of Crash Events and Minicores between Management Cards
The crashlog is unique to each of the management cards, so if a crash occurs when card the “8” is active it will be
logged on card “8”. A subsequent switchover would no longer display the crash in the log. To retrieve this crash, a
switch back over to card “8” has to be done. The crash event log and dumps are unique to active and standby
management cards, so if a crash occurs on an active card then the crash event log and related dumps will be stored on an
active card only. This crash information is not available on the standby card. Whenever the cards switchover due to a
crash in the active card, and crash information is no longer displayed on the card which takes over. Crash information
can be retrieved only from the current active card. To retrieve the crash list of the other card a switchover is required
again. To avoid this switchover and to obtain the crash information from the standby card, synchronization between two
management cards and maintaining latest crash information is required.
The arriving crash event will be sent over to the standby SMC/MMIO and saved in the standby’s crashlog file in the
similar manner. Minicore, NPU or kernel dumps on flash of active SMC/MMIO needs to be synchronized to standby
SMC/MMIO using the ‘rsync’ command. When a crashlog entry or the whole list is deleted through the CLI command,
it should be erased on both active and standby SMCs/MMIOs. There is no impact on memory. All the crash related
synchronization activity will be done by the evlogd of standby SMC/MIO card, as the standby evlogd is less loaded and
the standby card has enough room for synchronization activity. Therefore the performance of the system will not be
affected.
Zero Volume S-CDR Suppression
This feature is developed to suppress the CDRs with zero byte data count, so that the OCG node is not overloaded with
a flood of CDRs. The CDRs can be categorized as follows:
 Final-cdrs: These CDRs are generated at the end of a context.
 Internal-trigger-cdrs: These CDRs are generated due to internal triggers such as volume limit, time limit, tariff
change or user generated interims through the CLI commands.
 External-trigger-cdrs: These CDRs are generated due to external triggers such as QoS Change, RAT change and
so on. All triggers which are not considered as final-cdrs or internal-trigger-cdrs are considered as externaltrigger-cdrs.
The customers can select the CDRs they want to suppress. A new CLI command [no] [default] gtpp suppresscdrs zero-volume { external-trigger-cdr | final-cdr | internal-trigger-cdr }is developed to
enable this feature. This feature is disabled by default to ensure backward compatibility. For more information see,
Command Line Interface Reference and Statistics and Counters Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ How the SGSN Works
How the SGSN Works
This section illustrates some of the GPRS mobility management (GMM) and session management (SM) procedures the
SGSN implements as part of the call handling process. All SGSN call flows are compliant with those defined by 3GPP
TS 23.060.
First-Time GPRS Attach
The following outlines the setup procedure for a UE that is making an initial attach.
Figure 9.
Simple First-Time GPRS Attach
This simple attach procedure can connect an MS via a BSS through the Gb interface (2.5G setup) or it can connect a UE
via a UTRAN through the Iu interface in a 3G network with the following process:
Table 2. First-Time GPRS Attach Procedure
Step
Description
1
The MS/UE sends an Attach Request message to the SGSN. Included in the message is information, such as:

Routing area and location area information

Mobile network identity

Attach type
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
How the SGSN Works ▀
Step
Description
2
Authentication is mandatory if no MM context exists for the MS/UE:

The SGSN gets a random value (RAND) from the HLR to use as a challenge to the MS/UE.

The SGSN sends a Authentication Request message to the UE containing the random RAND.

The MS/UE contains a SIM that contains a secret key (Ki) shared between it and the HLR called a Individual
Subscriber Key. The UE uses an algorithm to process the RAND and Ki to get the session key (Kc) and the signed
response (SRES).

The MS/UE sends a Authentication Response to the SGSN containing the SRES.
3
The SGSN updates location information for the MS/UE:
a) The SGSN sends an Update Location message, to the HLR, containing the SGSN number, SGSN address, and IMSI.
b) The HLR sends an Insert Subscriber Data message to the “new” SGSN. It contains subscriber information such as IMSI
and GPRS subscription data.
c) The “New” SGSN validates the MS/UE in new routing area:
If invalid: The SGSN rejects the Attach Request with the appropriate cause code.
If valid: The SGSN creates a new MM context for the MS/UE and sends a Insert Subscriber Data Ack back to the HLR.
d) The HLR sends a Update Location Ack to the SGSN after it successfully clears the old MM context and creates new one
4
The SGSN sends an Attach Accept message to the MS/UE containing the P-TMSI (included if it is new), VLR TMSI, PTMSI Signature, and Radio Priority SMS.
At this point the GPRS Attach is complete and the SGSN begins generating M-CDRs.
If the MS/UE initiates a second call, the procedure is more complex and involves information exchanges and validations
between “old” and “new” SGSNs and “old” and “new” MSC/VLRs. The details of this combined GPRS/IMSI attach
procedure can be found in 3GPP TS23.060.
PDP Context Activation Procedures
The following figure provides a high-level view of the PDP Context Activation procedure performed by the SGSN to
establish PDP contexts for the MS with a BSS-Gb interface connection or a UE with a UTRAN-Iu interface connection.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ How the SGSN Works
Figure 10.
Call Flow for PDP Context Activation
The following table provides detailed explanations for each step indicated in the figure above.
Table 3. PDP Context Activation Procedure
Step
Description
1
The MS/UE sends a PDP Activation Request message to the SGSN containing an Access Point Name (APN).
2
The SGSN sends a DNS query to resolve the APN provided by the MS/UE to a GGSN address.
The DNS server provides a response containing the IP address of a GGSN.
3
The SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request message to the GGSN containing the information needed to authenticate
the subscriber and establish a PDP context.
4
If required, the GGSN performs authentication of the subscriber.
5
If the MS/UE requires an IP address, the GGSN may allocate one dynamically via DHCP.
6
The GGSN sends a Create PDP Context Response message back to the SGSN containing the IP Address assigned to the
MS/UE.
7
The SGSN sends a Activate PDP Context Accept message to the MS/UE along with the IP Address.
Upon PDP Context Activation, the SGSN begins generating S-CDRs. The S-CDRs are updated periodically based on
Charging Characteristics and trigger conditions.
A GTP-U tunnel is now established and the MS/UE can send and receive data.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
How the SGSN Works ▀
Network-Initiated PDP Context Activation Process
In some cases, the GGSN receives information that requires it to request the MS/UE to activate a PDP context. The
network, or the GGSN in this case, is not actually initiating the PDP context activation -- it is requesting the MS/UE to
activate the PDP context in the following procedure:
Figure 11.
Network-Initiated PDP Context Activation
The table below provides details describing the steps indicated in the graphic above.
Table 4. Network Invites MS/UE to Activate PDP Context
Step
Description
1
The GGSN receives a PDU with a static PDP address that the GGSN ‘knows’ is for an MS/UE in its PLMN.
2
The GGSN uses the IMSI in place of the PDP address and sends an SRI (send routing information for GPRS) to the HLR.
The HLR sends an SRI response back to the GGSN. The response may include the access of the target SGSN and it may
also indicate it the MS/UE is not reachable, in which case it will include the reason in the response message.
3
The GGSN sends a PDU Notification Request to the SGSN (if the address was received). If the address was not received or
if the MS/UE continues to be unreachable, the GGSN sets a flag marking that the MS/UE was unreachable.
The notified SGSN sends a PDU Notification Response to the GGSN.
4
The SGSN determines the MS/UE’s location and sets up a NAS connection with the MS/UE. The SGSN then sends a
Request PDP Context Activation message to the MS/UE.
5
If the MS/UE accepts the invitation to setup a PDP context, the MS/UE then begins the PDP context activation process
indicated in the preceding procedure.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ How the SGSN Works
MS-Initiated Detach Procedure
This process is initiated by the MS/UE for a range of reasons and results in the MS/UE becoming inactive as far as the
network is concerned.
Figure 12.
MS-Initiated Combined GPRS/IMSI Detach
The following table provides details for the activity involved in each step noted in the diagram above.
Table 5. MS-Initiated Combined GPRS/IMSI Detach Procedure
Step
Description
1
The UE sends a Detach Request message to the SGSN containing the Detach Type, P-TMSI, P-TMSI Signature, and
Switch off indicator (i.e. if UE is detaching because of a power off).
2
The SGSN sends Delete PDP Context Request message to the GGSN containing the TEID.
The GGSN sends a Delete PDP Context Response back to the SGSN.
The SGSN stops generating S-CDR info at the end of the PDP context.
3
The SGSN sends a IMSI Detach Indication message to the MSC/VLR.
4
The SGSN sends a GPRS Detach Indication message to the MSC/VLR.
The SGSN stops generating M-CDR upon GPRS Detach.
5
If the detach is not due to a UE switch off, the SGSN sends a Detach Accept message to the UE.
6
Since the UE GPRS Detached, the SGSN releases the Packet Switched Signaling Connection.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Supported Standards ▀
Supported Standards
The SGSN services comply with the following standards for GPRS/UMTS and EPC wireless data services.
IETF Requests for Comments (RFCs)
 RFC-1034, Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities, November 1987; 3GPP TS 24.008 v7.8.0 (2007-06)
 RFC-1035, Domain Names - Implementation and Specification, November 1987; 3GPP TS 23.003 v7.4.0
(2007-06)
 RFC-2960, Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), October 2000; 3GPP TS 29.202 v6.0.0 (2004-12)
 RFC-3332, MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA), September 2002; 3GPP TS 29.202 v6.0.0 (2004-12)
 RFC-4187, Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for 3rd Generation Authentication and Key Agreement
(EAP-AKA), January 2006
 RFC-4666, Signaling System 7 (SS7) Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3) - User Adaptation Layer (M3UA),
September 2006; 3GPP TS 29.202 v6.0.0 (2004-12)
3GPP Standards
3GPP Release 6 and higher is supported for all specifications unless otherwise noted. Support for higher releases is
indicated below, in relation to current and planned development, including support for IEs and messages determined by
supported functionality. Product development is aiming ultimately towards full compliance with the releases listed
below:
Table 6. 3GPP Standards Supported
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 9.60, 3rd Generation Partnership Project;
Technical Specification Group Core Network;
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS
Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp
Interface (R98).
v7.10.0 (2002-12)
v7.10.0 (2002-12)
v7.10.0 (2002-12)
3GPP TS 22.041, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Operator Determined Barring
(ODB)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 22.042, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Network Identity and
Timezone (NITZ); Service description, Stage 1
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ Supported Standards
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 23.003, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Numbering, addressing
and identification
v10.5.0 (2012-03)
v10.5.0 (2012-03)
v10.5.0 (2012-03)
3GPP TS 23.007, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Restoration procedures
v9.10.0 (2011-12)
v11.8.0 (2014-03)
v11.8.0 (2014-03)
3GPP TS 23.015, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Technical realization of Operator
Determined Barring (ODB)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 23.016, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Subscriber data management; Stage 2
v9.1.0 (2010-03)
v9.1.0 (2010-03)
v9.1.0 (2010-03)
3GPP TS 23.040, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Technical realization of
the Short Message Service (SMS)
v9.3.0 (2010-09)
v9.3.0 (2010-09)
v9.3.0 (2010-09)
3GPP TS 23.060, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS); Service description; Stage 2
v10.12.0 (2013-06)
v11.8.0 (2013-12)
v11.8.0 (2013-12)
3GPP TS 23.078, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Customized Applications for Mobile
network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3 Stage 2 (Release 4)
v4.11.1 (2004-04)
v4.11.1 (2004-04)
v4.11.1 (2004-04)
3GPP TS 23.107, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Quality of Service (QoS)
concept and architecture
v9.3.0 (2011-12)
v9.3.0 (2011-12)
v9.3.0 (2011-12)
3GPP TS 23.236, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Intra-domain connection of
Radio Access Network (RAN) nodes to multiple
Core Network (CN) nodes
v11.0.0(2012-09)
v11.0.0(2012-09)
v11.0.0(2012-09)
3GPP TS 23.251, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Network Sharing;
Architecture and functional description
v10.5.0 (2012-12)
v10.5.0 (2012-12)
v10.5.0 (2012-12)
3GPP TS 23.271, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Functional stage 2 description
of Location Services (LCS) (Release 9)
v9.6.0 (2011-03)
v9.6.0 (2011-03)
v9.6.0 (2011-03)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Supported Standards ▀
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 23.401, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
access (Release 9)
v10.10.0 (2013-03)
v11.8.0 (2013-12)
v11.8.0 (2013-12)
3GPP TS 24.007, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Mobile radio interface signalling layer 3;
General aspects
v10.0.0 (2011-03)
v10.0.0 (2011-03)
v10.0.0 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 24.008, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Mobile radio interface
Layer 3 specification; Core network protocols;
Stage 3
v9.10.0 (2012-03)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
3GPP TS 24.011, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Point-to-Point (PP) Short
Message Service (SMS) support on mobile radio
interface (Release 7)
v7.1.0 (2009-2006)
v7.1.0 (2009-2006)
v7.1.0 (2009-2006)
3GPP TS 24.030, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
access (Release 9)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
3GPP TS 24.080, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Mobile radio interface
layer 3 supplementary services specification;
Formats and coding (Release 9)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
v10.0.0 (2011-04)
3GPP TS 25.410, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu Interface: general
aspects and principles
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 25.411, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu interface layer 1
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 25.412, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu interface signaling
transport
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 25.413, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu interface RANAP
signalling (Release 9)
v10.10.0 (2013-06)
(sections 8.19.2 and
8.20.2)
v10.10.0 (2013-06)
(sections 8.19.2 and
8.20.2)
v10.10.0 (2013-06)
(sections 8.19.2 and
8.20.2)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ Supported Standards
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 25.414, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu interface data
transport and transport signaling
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 25.415, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
Access Network; UTRAN Iu interface user plane
protocols
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
v9.0.1 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 29.002, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Mobile Application Part
(MAP) specification
v10.10.0 (2013-09)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
3GPP TS 29.016, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) - Visitors
Location Register (VLR); Gs interface network
service specification
v8.0.0 (2008-12)
v8.0.0 (2008-12)
v8.0.0 (2008-12)
3GPP TS 29.018, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS); Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN) - Visitors Location Register (VLR) Gs
interface layer 3 specification
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
3GPP TS 29.060,3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP)
across the Gn and Gp interface
v10.9.0 (2013-09)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
v11.8.0 (2013-09)
3GPP TS 29.078, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network; Customized Applications for Mobile
network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3;
CAMEL Application Part (CAP) specification
(Release 4)
v4.9.0 (2009-2009)
v4.9.0 (2009-2009)
v4.9.0 (2009-2009)
3GPP TS 29.202, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; SS7 Signalling Transport
in Core Network; Stage 3
v8.0.0 (2007-06)
v8.0.0 (2007-06)
v8.0.0 (2007-06)
3GPP TS 29.272, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Evolved Packet System
(EPS); Mobility Management Entity (MME) and
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) related
interfaces based on Diameter protocol (Release 9)
v10.8.0 (2013-06)
v11.9.0 (2013-12)
v11.9.0 (2013-12)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Supported Standards ▀
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 29.274, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; 3GPP Evolved Packet
System (EPS); Evolved General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for Control
plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3 (Release 9)
v10.12.0 (2013-12)
v11.9.0 (2013-12)
v11.9.0 (2013-12)
3GPP TS 29.303, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Domain Name System
Procedures; Stage 3 (Release 9)
v10.4.0 (2012-09)
v10.4.0 (2012-09)
v10.4.0 (2012-09)
3GPP TS 32.215, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Telecommunication
management; Charging management; Charging
data description for the Packet Switched (PS)
domain
v5.9.0 (2007-10)
v5.9.0 (2007-10)
v5.9.0 (2007-10)
3GPP TS 32.251, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Telecommunication
management; Charging management; Packet
Switched (PS) domain charging
v9.8.0
v9.8.0
v9.8.0
3GPP TS 32.298, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Service and
System Aspects; Telecommunication management;
Charging management; Charging Data Record
(CDR) parameter description
v8.7.0 (2009-2012)Fully compliant
v9.6.0 ( 2010-2012) Partially complaint
(IMSI unAuth and
CSG Information not
supported)
v8.7.0 (2009-2012)Fully compliant
v9.6.0 ( 2010-2012) Partially complaint
(IMSI unAuth and
CSG Information not
supported)
v8.7.0 (2009-2012)Fully compliant
v9.6.0 ( 2010-2012) Partially complaint
(IMSI unAuth and
CSG Information not
supported)
3GPP TS 32.406, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Telecommunication
management; Performance Management (PM);
Performance measurements Core Network (CN)
Packet Switched (PS) domain
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 32.410, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; Telecommunication
management; Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
for UMTS and GSM
v9.0.0 (2009-09)
v9.0.0 (2009-09)
v9.0.0 (2009-09)
3GPP TS 33.102, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; 3G Security; Security
architecture
v9.4.0 (2010-12)
v9.4.0 (2010-12)
v9.4.0 (2010-12)
3GPP TS 33.106, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; 3G security; Lawful
Interception requirements
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
▀ Supported Standards
3GPP Standard
R16.0
R17.0
R18.0
3GPP TS 33.107, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; 3G security; Lawful
interception architecture and functions
v9.4.0 (2011-03)
v9.4.0 (2011-03)
v9.4.0 (2011-03)
3GPP TS 33.108, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; 3G security; Handover
interface for Lawful Interception (LI) (Release 7)
v7.10.0 (2010-2012)
v7.10.0 (2010-2012)
v7.10.0 (2010-2012)
3GPP TS 44.064, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Mobile Station - Serving
GPRS Support Node (MS-SGSN); Logical Link
Control (LLC) layer specification
v9.1.0 (2011-12)
v9.1.0 (2011-12)
v9.1.0 (2011-12)
3GPP TS 44.065, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Core
Network and Terminals; Mobile Station (MS) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN); Subnetwork
Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 48.014, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group GSM
EDGE Radio Access Network; General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System (BSS)
- Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface;
Gb interface Layer 1
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 48.016, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group GSM
EDGE Radio Access Network; General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System (BSS)
- Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface;
Network Service
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
v9.0.0 (2009-12)
3GPP TS 48.018, 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group
GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network; General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System
(BSS) - Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN);
BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) (Release 7)
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
v10.7.0 (2012-09)
ITU Standards
 Q711; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
 Q712; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
 Q713; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Overview
Supported Standards ▀
 Q714; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
 Q715; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
 Q716; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010), 3GPP TS 29.016 v7.0.0 (2007-08), and 3GPP TS 25.410 v7.0.0
(2006-03)
 Q771; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010)
 Q772; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010)
 Q773; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010)
 Q774; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010)
 Q775; 3GPP TS 29.002 v7.15.0 (2006-2010)
Object Management Group (OMG) Standards
 CORBA 2.6 Specification 01-09-35, Object Management Group
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 2
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
This chapter outlines the basic configuration and operation of the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) in 2.5G GPRS
wireless data networks.
The simplest configuration that can be implemented on the system to support SGSN functionality in a 2.5G network
requires one context but we recommend a minimum of two: one for the SGSN service (required) and another for the
charging context.
The service context organizes the following:
 GPRS service configuration
 MAP (Mobile Application Part) configuration
 DNS (Domain Naming System) configuration for resolution of APN (Access Point Name) domain names
 SGTP (SGSN GPRS Tunneling Protocol) configuration
The charging context facilitates the following:
 Configuration of connectivity to the CGF (Charging Gateway Function)
The following functionality is configured at the global or system level in the local management context:
 NSEI (Network Service Entity Identity) configuration
 SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part) network configuration
 SS7 (Signaling System 7) connectivity configuration
 GTT (Global Title Translation) configuration
To simplify configuration management, more contexts can be created to categorize the service configuration. Each
context can be named as needed. The contexts listed above can be configured as illustrated in the figure on the next
page.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
▀ 2.5G SGSN Configuration Components
2.5G SGSN Configuration Components
In order to support 2.5G SGSN functionality, the system must be configured with at least one context for the GPRS
service (2.5G SGSN service). In the example below, the required context has been named “SGSN_Ctx”.
Figure 13.
Sample 2.5G SGSN Configuration
The SGSN_Ctx
As indicated, there must be at least one context to contain the service and routing configurations.
Although multiple context can be created, our example configuration uses only one context, named “SGSN_Ctx”, to
contain all of the following configurations:
 SS7 Routing Domain - SS7 routing is facilitated through the configuration and use of SS7 routing domains. SS7
routing domains group SS7-related configuration parameters. Depending on the SS7 signalling method, an SS7
routing domain may be configured with one of the following:
 Linksets - Used for broadband SS7 signalling, linksets are comprised of link ids that specify point
codes for SCCP endpoints. It is important to note that SCCP endpoints are further defined through the
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
2.5G SGSN Configuration Components ▀
configuration of SCCP Networks which are associated with the SS7 routing domain in which the
linkset is configured.
 Application Server Processes (ASPs) / Peer Server Processes (PSPs) - Used for IP (SIGTRAN),
M3UA ASPs and PSPs dictate the IP address and port information used to facilitate communication
between network endpoints. ASPs refer to the local endpoints.
 GTT - Global Title Translation (GTT) configuration consists of defining GTT associations, defining GTT
address maps, and referring to these in an SCCP network configuration.The GTT Associations define GTT
rules. The GTT Address Maps define a GTT database. These are configured in the Global Configuration mode
and are available to all SCCP networks configured in the system.
 SCCP Network - SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part) networks are a concept specific to this platform.
SCCP networks apply only to SS7 applications using SCCP. The purpose of an SCCP network is to isolate the
higher protocol layers above SCCP and the application itself from SS7 connectivity issues, as well as, to
provide a place for global SCCP configuration specific to SGSN services. Use the following example
configuration to specify a global SCCP configuration specific to SGSN services.
 MAP Service - The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol which provides an application layer for
the various nodes in GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and GPRS core networks to communicate with
each other in order to provide services to mobile phone users. MAP is the application-layer protocol used to
access the Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Mobile Switching Center (MSC),
Equipment Identity Register (EIR), Authentication Center (AUC), Short Message Service Center (SMSC) and
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).
The primary facilities provided by MAP are:
 Mobility Services: location management (when subscribers move within or between networks),
authentication, managing service subscription information, fault recovery.
 Operation and Maintenance: subscriber tracing, retrieving a subscriber's IMSI.
 Call Handling: routing, managing calls while roaming, checking that a subscriber is available to receive
calls.
 Supplementary Services.
 SMS
 Packet Data Protocol (PDP) services for GPRS: providing routing information for GPRS connections.
 Location Service Management Services: obtaining the location of subscribers.
 SGTP Service- The SGSN GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) service specifies the GTP settings for the SGSN.
At a bare minimum, an address to use for GTP-C (Control signaling) and an address for GTP-U (User data)
must be configured.
 GPRS Service- All of the parameters needed for the system to perform as a an SGSN in a GPRS network are
configured in the GPRS service. The GPRS service uses other configurations such as SGTP and MAP to
communicate with other network entities and setup communications between the BSS and the GGSN.
 NSEI (Network Service Entity Instance)- This identifies the NSEI to use and associates it with a Network
Service Virtual Connection Identifier.
 DNS- DNS Client configurations provide DNS configuration in a context to resolve APN domain names.
The Accounting_Ctx
If no context is defined for GTPP configuration, the SGSN automatically generates an accounting context with default
GTPP configurations. The context, from our example, contains the following configuration:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
▀ 2.5G SGSN Configuration Components
 GTPP Configuration - This configuration specifies how to connect to the GTPP charging servers.
 Ga Interface - This is an IP interface.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
How the 2.5G SGSN Works ▀
How the 2.5G SGSN Works
In compliance with 3GPP specifications, the 2.5G SGSN supports standard operational procedures such as: attach,
detach, PDP activation.
For GPRS and/or IMSI Attach
The following illustrates the step-by-step call flow indicating how the 2.5G SGSN handles a GPRS/IMSI attach
procedure.
Figure 14.
GPRS/IMSI Attach Procedure
1. An Attach Request message is sent from the UE to the SGSN by the BSS over the Gb interface. This is Typically
a Frame Relay connection.
2. The SGSN identifies UE and determines IMSI. Depending on whether or not the UE is already attached, this
could be a simple database lookup or it could require the SGSN to communicate with an SGSN that may have
been previously handling the call.
3. The SGSN communicates with the HLR to authenticate the UE.
4. Once the UE has been authenticated, the SGSN communicates with the EIR to verify that the equipment is not
stolen.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
▀ How the 2.5G SGSN Works
5. Once equipment check is complete, the SGSN communicates with the HLR to update UE location information.
6. The SGSN then sends an Attach Complete message to UE.
7. SGSN begins sending M-CDR data to the CG.
For PDP Activation
The following provides a step-by-step illustration indicating how the 2.5G SGSN handles a PDP activation procedure.
Figure 15.
PDP Activation Procedure
1. A PDP Activation Request message is sent from the UE to the SGSN by the BSS over the Gb interface. This
request includes the Access Point Name (APN) the UE is attempting to connect to. This is typically a Frame
relay connection.
2. The SGSN queries the DNS server to resolve the APN to the IP address of the GGSN to use to establish the PDP
context.
3. The SGSN sends a Create PDP Context Request message to the GGSN. This message identifies the APN the UE
is attempting to connect to and other information about the subscriber.
4. The GGSN performs its processes for establishing the PDP context. This may include subscriber authentication,
service provisioning, etc. The GGSN eventually sends an affirmative create PDP context response to the SGSN
containing the IP address assigned to the UE.
5. The SGSN sends an Activate PDP Context Accept message back to the UE. The subscriber can now begin
sending/receiving data.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
How the 2.5G SGSN Works ▀
6. The SGSN begins generating S-CDR data that will be sent to the CG.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
▀ Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN
Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN
This section describes the minimum amount of information required to configure the SGSN to be operational in a 2.5G
GPRS network. To make the process more efficient, we recommend that this information be collected and available
prior to configuring the system.
There are additional configuration parameters that deal with fine-tuning the operation of the SGSN in the network.
Information on these parameters is not provided here but can be found in the appropriate configuration command
chapters in the Command Line Interface Reference.
Global Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to be configured in Global Configuration mode.
Table 7. Required Information for Global Configuration
Required
Information
Description
NSEI (Network Service Entity)
NSVL Instance ID
A unique ID number to identify the NSVL instance
Peer Network
Service Entity
The name or NSEI index number of a peer NSE.
SS7 Routing Domain For Broadband SS7 Signaling
SS7 Routing
Domain ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 12 to identify the SS7 Routing Domain.
SS7 Routing
Domain Variant
The network variant for the SS7 Routing Domain.
Sub Service Field
The Sub Service Field selector that this SS7 Routing Domain should use.
Linkset ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 49 to identify the linkset.
Linkset Self Point
Code
A point code for the specified network variant that will identify the system when using this linkset.
Adjacent Point
Code
The pointcode of the entity that the system will use to communicate for SS7 signaling when this linkset is
used.
Link ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 16 that identitfies the MTP3 link.
Priority
An MTP3 priority number from 0 through 15 for the link.
Signaling Link
Code
A number from 0 through 15 that is unique from all other SLCs in the linkset.
Arbitration
Whether the link will use passive or active arbitration.
SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP SS7 Signaling for SIGTRAN
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN ▀
Required
Information
Description
SS7 Routing
Domain ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 12 to identify the SS7 Routing Domain.
SS7 Routing
Domain Variant
The network variant for the SS7 Routing Domain.
Sub Service Field
The Sub Service Field selector that this SS7 Routing Domain should use.
ASP Instance ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 4 to use for the M3UA ASP instance.
ASP Instance
Endpoint
The IP address and Port if needed of an interface that will be used as this ASP instance end point. If the
interface was created in a context other than the current context, that context name is also needed.
Peer Server ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 49 to use for the M3UA peer server configuration.
Peer Server Name
A name for the Peer Server configuration. Usually this is the name of the SS7 network entity that this
instance is configured to communicate with. HLR, VLR, or EIR for example.
Routing Context ID
The ID of the M3UA routing context used to reach this peer server.
Peer Server Process
ID
A unique number from 1 through 4 used to identify each PSP process for the current peer server.
Peer server selfpoint-code
The point code to identify the peer server process being configured.
PSP Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will be used to communicate with the peer server in client or server
mode.
Exchange Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will use double or single-ended mode for exchanges with the peer
server.
SCTP End Point
Address
A local SCTP end point address configured in an ASP instance that this peer server process will use.
ASP Association
The ID of a configured ASP instance that this peer server process will be associated with.
GTT
GTT Association
There are many different ways to configure a GTT Association and the needs of every network are
different. Please refer to the Global Title Translation Association Configuration Mode chapter in the
Command Line Interface Reference for the commands available.
GTT Address Map
There are many different ways to configure a GTT Address Map and the needs of every network are
different. Please refer to the Global Title Translation Address Map Configuration Mode chapter in the
Command Line Interface Reference for the commands available.
SCCP Network
SCCP Network ID
A unique number from 1 through 12 with which to identify the SCCP configuration.
SCCP Variant
The network variant for the SCCP network configuration.
Self Point Code
The point code that the system will use to identify itself when using this SCCP configuration.
SS7 Routing
Domain
Association
The ID number of the SS7 routing Domain with which to associate this SCCP network configuration.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
▀ Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN
Required
Information
Description
GTT Association
The ID number of the GTT Association to use with this SCCP network configuration.
GTT Address Map
The ID number of the GTT Address Map to use with this SCCP network configuration.
SCCP Destination
The point code, version, and susbsystem number of the SCCP entity with which to communicate.
SGSN Context Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to configure the SGSN context.
Table 8. Required Information for SGSN Context Configuration
Required Information
Description
SGSN context name
An identification string from 1 to 79 characters (alpha and/or numeric) by which the SGSN context will
be recognized by the system.
MAP service Configuration
MAP Service name
A unique name with which to identify an individual MAP service.
SCCP Network ID
The ID of the SCCP network configuration to use for SS7 connectivity for SCCP applications.
EIR Address
The ISDN or point code of the EIR.
HLR Mapping
The IMSI prefixes and associated HLR point codes and the point code for the default HLR.
SGTP Service
SGTP Service Name
A unique alpha and /or numeric name for the SGTP service configuration.
GTPC Address
An IP address that is associated with an interface in the current context. This is used for GTP-C.
GTPU Address
An IP address that is associated with an interface in the current context. This is used for GTP-U.
GPRS Service
GPRS Service Name
a unique name to identify this GPRS service.
PLMN ID
The MCC and MNC for the SGSN service to use to identify itself in the PLMN.
Core Network ID
The core Network ID for this SGSN service to use to identify itself on the core network.
SGSN Number
The E.164 number to use to identify this SGSN.
MAP Service Name
The name of a MAP service that this SGSN service will use for MAP. If the MAP service is not in the
same context, the context name of the MAP service must also be specified.
Network Service Entity
Identifier
The ID of a configured Network Service Entity Identifier (NSEI) and the RAC and LAC that this SGSN
should use.
DNS Client
Name Server
Addresses
The IP addressees of Domain Naming Servers i n the network.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN in a 2.5G GPRS Network
Information Required for the 2.5G SGSN ▀
Required Information
Description
DNS CLient Name
A unique name for the DNS client.
DNS Client Address
The IP address of an Interface in the current context that the DNS is bound to.
Accounting Context Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to configure the Charging Context.
Table 9. Required Information for Accounting Context Configuration
Required
Information
Description
Context name
An identification string from 1 to 79 alphanumeric characters by which the SGSN context will be recognized
by the system. Our example uses the name Accounting_Ctx.
GTPP Charging
GTTP Group
Name
If you are going to configure GTTP accounting server groups, you will need to name them.
Charging Agent
Address
The IP address of an interface in the current context that to use for the Ga interface to communicate with the
CGFs.
GTTP Server
The IP address and priority to use to contact the GTTP server.
GTTP Dictionary
Name
The name of the GTTP dictionary to use.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 3
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
This chapter outlines the basic deployment, configuration, and operation of the system to function as a Serving GPRS
Support Node (SGSN) in 3G UMTS wireless data networks.
The simplest configuration that can be implemented on the system to support SGSN functionality in a 3G network
requires one context but we recommend a minimum of two: one for the SGSN service (required) and another for the
charging context.
The SGSN context facilitates the following:
 SGSN service configuration
 Mobile Application Part (MAP) configuration
 IuPS (Iu Packet Switched) interface configuration for communication with the RAN (Radio Access Network)
 DNS (Domain Naming System) Client configuration for resolution of APN domain names
 SGTP (SGSN GPRS Tunneling Protocol) configuration
The charging context facilitates the following:
 Configuration of connectivity to the CGF (Charging Gateway Function)
The following functionality is configured at the global system level:
 SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part) network configuration
 SS7 (Signaling System 7) connectivity configuration
 GTT (Global Title Translation) configuration
To simply configuration management, more contexts can be created and used and all context can be named as needed.
The contexts listed above can be configured as illustrated in the figure on the next page.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
▀ 3G SGSN Configuration Components
3G SGSN Configuration Components
In order to support 3G SGSN functionality, the system must be configured with at least one context for the SGSN
(UMTS) service . In the example below, the required context has been named “SGSN_Ctx”.
Figure 16.
Sample 3G Network Configuration
This configuration uses two contexts:
 SGSN Context containing:
 Contains SGSN and related services
 DNS Configuration
 Accounting Context containing:
 GTPP configuration
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
3G SGSN Configuration Components ▀
For GPRS and/or IMSI Attach
Figure 17.
GPRS/IMSI Attach Procedure
1. An Attach Request message is sent from the UE to the SGSN by the RNC over the IuPS interface.
2. The SGSN identifies UE and determines IMSI. Depending on whether or not the UE is already attached, this
could be a simple database lookup or it could require the SGSN to communicate with an SGSN that may have
been previously handling the call.
3. The SGSN communicates with the HLR to authenticate the UE.
4. Once the UE has been authenticated, the SGSN communicates with the EIR to verify that the equipment is not
stolen.
5. Once equipment check is complete, the SGSN communicates with the HLR to update UE location information.
6. The SGSN then sends an Attach Complete message to UE.
7. SGSN begins sending M-CDR data to the CG.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
▀ Information Required for 3G Configuration
Information Required for 3G Configuration
The following sections describe the minimum amount of information required to configure and make the SGSN
operational on the network. To make the process more efficient, it is recommended that this information be available
prior to configuring the system.
There are additional configuration parameters that are not described in this section. These parameters deal mostly with
fine-tuning the operation of the SGSN in the network. Information on these parameters can be found in the appropriate
sections of the Command Line Interface Reference.
Global Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to be configured in Global Configuration mode.
Table 10. Required Information for Global Configuration
Required Information
Description
SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP SS7 Signaling for SIGTRAN for the IuPS Interface
SS7 Routing Domain ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 12 to identify the SS7 Routing Domain.
SS7 Routing Domain
Variant
The network variant for the SS7 Routing Domain.
Sub Service Field
The Sub Service Field selector that this SS7 Routing Domain should use.
ASP Instance ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 4 to use for the M3UA ASP instance.
ASP Instance Endpoint
The IP address and port (if needed) of an interface that will be used as this ASP instance end point.
ASP Instance Endpoint
Context
The name of the context in which the interface associated with this routing domain is configured
Peer Server ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 49 to use for the M3UA peer server configuration.
Peer Server Name
A name for the Peer Server configuration. Usually this is the name of the SS7 network entity that this
instance is configured to communicate with. HLR, VLR, or EIR for example.
Peer Server Mode
The mode of operation for the peer server.
Routing Context ID
The ID of the M3UA routing context used to reach this peer server.
Self Point Code
The point code that the peer server will be routed to for its destination.
Peer Server Process
(PSP) ID
A unique number from 1 through 4 used to identify each PSP process for the current peer server.
PSP Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will be used to communicate with the peer server in client or
server mode.
Exchange Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will use double or single-ended mode for exchanges with the
peer server.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
Information Required for 3G Configuration ▀
Required Information
Description
SCTP End Point Address
A local SCTP end point address configured in an ASP instance that this peer server process will use.
For the IuPS service, this is the address of the RNC.
ASP Association
The ID of a configured ASP instance that this peer server process will be associated with.
SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP SS7 Signaling for SIGTRAN for the Gr Interface
SS7 Routing Domain ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 12 to identify the SS7 Routing Domain.
SS7 Routing Domain
Variant
The network variant for the SS7 Routing Domain.
Sub Service Field
The Sub Service Field selector that this SS7 Routing Domain should use.
ASP Instance ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 4 to use for the M3UA ASP instance.
ASP Instance Endpoint
The IP address and Port (if needed) of an interface that will be used as this ASP instance end point.
ASP Instance Endpoint
Context
The name of the context in which the interface associated with this routing domain is configured
Peer Server ID
A unique ID number from 1 through 49 to use for the M3UA peer server configuration.
Peer Server Name
A name for the Peer Server configuration. Usually this is the name of the SS7 network entity that this
instance is configured to communicate with. HLR, VLR, or EIR for example.
Peer Server Mode
The mode of operation for the peer server.
Routing Context ID
The ID of the M3UA routing context used to reach this peer server.
Self Point Code
The point code that the peer server will be routed to for its destination.
Peer Server Process ID
A unique number from 1 through 4 used to identify each PSP process for the current peer server.
PSP Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will be used to communicate with the peer server in client or
server mode.
Exchange Mode
Specify whether this peer server process will use double or single-ended mode for exchanges with the
peer server.
SCTP End Point Address
A local SCTP end point address configured in an ASP instance that this peer server process will use.
For the IuPS service, this is the address of the HLR.
ASP Association
The ID of a configured ASP instance that this peer server process will be associated with.
SCCP Network for the IuPS Interface
SCCP Network ID
A unique number from 1 through 12 with which to identify the SCCP configuration.
SCCP Variant
The network variant for the SCCP network configuration.
Self Point Code
The point code that the system will use to identify itself when using this SCCP configuration.
SS7 Routing Domain
Association
The ID number of the SS7 routing Domain with which to associate this SCCP network configuration.
SCCP Destination Point
Code
The point code for the SCCP destination entity. For the IuPS interface, this is the RNC’s point code
SCCP Destination Name
The name by which the SCCP destination will be known by the system
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
▀ Information Required for 3G Configuration
Required Information
Description
SCCP Destination
Version
The SCCP variant.
SCCP Destination
Subsystem Number
The subsystem number (SSN) of the SCCP destination.
SCCP Network for the Gr Interface
SCCP Network ID
A unique number from 1 through 12 with which to identify the SCCP configuration.
SCCP Variant
The network variant for the SCCP network configuration.
Self Point Code
The point code that the system will use to identify itself when using this SCCP configuration.
SS7 Routing Domain
Association
The ID number of the SS7 routing Domain with which to associate this SCCP network configuration.
SCCP Destination Point
Code
The point code for the SCCP destination entity. For the IuPS interface, this is the RNC’s point code
SCCP Destination Name
The name by which the SCCP destination will be known by the system
SCCP Destination
Version
The SCCP variant.
SCCP Destination
Subsystem Number
The subsystem number (SSN) of the SCCP destination.
Port Configuration
Bind-to Interface Name
The name of the logical interface to bind the port to.
Bind-to Interface Context
Name
The name of the context in which the logical interface is configured.
SGSN Context Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to configure the SGSN context.
Table 11. Required Information for SGSN Context Configuration
Required
Information
Description
SGSN context
name
An identification string from 1 to 79 characters (alpha and/or numeric) by which the SGSN context will be
recognized by the system.
Logical Interface
Name
The name by which the logical interface will be known by the system.
Logical Interface
Addresses
IP addresses and subnets are assigned to the logical interface(s) which are then associated with physical
ports.
MAP service Configuration
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
Information Required for 3G Configuration ▀
Required
Information
Description
MAP Service
name
A unique name with which to identify an individual MAP service.
SCCP Network ID
The ID of the SCCP network configuration to use for SS7 connectivity for SCCP applications.
HLR IMSI
Mapping
The IMSI prefixes for the HLR associated with this service.
HLR Point Code
The point code of the HLR to map to the IMSIs
Iu-PS Service
IuPS Service
Name
A unique name to identify the IuPS service.
SCCP Network ID
The ID of the SCCP network configuration to use for SS7 connectivity for SCCP applications.
GTPU Address
The address of an IP interface defined in the current context to use for GTPU connections to the RNC.
RNC ID
A unique ID number from 0 through 4095 for this RNC configuration and the MCC and MNC associated
with the RNC.
RNC MCC
The mobile country code (MCC) associated with the RNC.
RNC MNC
The mobile network code (MNC) associated with RNC.
RNC Point Code
The SS7 point code for the specified RNC.
LAC ID
The location area code (LAC) ID associated with the RNC.
RAC ID
The routing area code (RAC) ID associated with the RNC.
SGTP Service
SGTP Service
Name
A unique alpha and /or numeric name for the SGTP service configuration.
GTP-C Address
An IP address that is associated with an interface in the current context. This is used for GTP-C over the Gn
and/or Gp interface.
GTP-U Address
An IP address that is associated with an interface in the current context. This is used for GTP-U over the Gn
and/or Gp interface.
SGSN Service
SGSN Service
Name
a unique name to identify this SGSN service.
Core Network ID
The core Network ID for this SGSN service to use to identify itself on the core network.
SGSN Number
The E.164 number to use to identify this SGSN.
MAP Service
Name
The name of a MAP service that this SGSN service will use for MAP.
MAP Service
Context
The context in which the MAP service is configured.
Maximum PDP
Contexts
The maximum number of contexts each UE can establish at one time.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
▀ Information Required for 3G Configuration
Required
Information
Description
IuPS Service
Name
The name of a configured IuPS service to use with the SGSN configuration. If the IuPS service is not in the
same context, the context name of the IuPS service must also be specified.
IuPS Service
Context
The context in which the IuPS service is configured.
SGTP Service
Name
The name of the SGTP service that this SGSN service will use to for GTP.
SGTP Service
Context
The context in which the SGTP service is configured.
Accounting
Context Name
By default, the SGSN service looks for the GTPP accounting configuration in the same context as the SGSN
service. If GTPP accounting is configured in a different context the context name must be specified.
DNS Client Configuration
Name Server
Addresses
The IP addresses of Domain Name Service (DNS) servers in the network.
DNS CLient Name
A unique name for the DNS client configured on the system.
DNS Client
Address
The IP address of an Interface in the current context that the DNS is bound to.
DNS Client Port
The UDP port to use for DNS communications.
Accounting Context Configuration
The following table lists the information that is required to configure the Accounting Context.
Table 12. Required Information for Accounting Context Configuration
Required Information
Description
Accounting Context
Name
An identification string from 1 to 79 characters (alpha and/or numeric) by which the context will be
recognized by the system.
Ga Interface Name
The name by which the logical interface used as the Ga interface will be known by the system.
Ga Interface Address
The IP address and subnet for the Ga interface.
GTPP Charging
GTTP Group Name
If you are going to configure GTTP accounting Server groups, you will need to name them.
Charging Agent
Address
The IP address of an interface in the current context that to use for the Ga interface to communicate
with the CGFs.
GTTP Server
The IP address and priority to use to contact the GTTP server.
GTTP Dictionary
Name
The name of the GTTP dictionary to use.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN 3G UMTS Configuration
Information Required for 3G Configuration ▀
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 4
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
This chapter provides configuration instructions to enable the SGSN to function in GPRS (2.5G), UMTS (3G), or LTE
(4G) networks. The System Administration Guide provides interface and system-level configuration details and the
Command Line Interface Reference provides additional command information.
Important:
Please note that LTE (4G) support is only available in releases 14.0 an higher.
High level step-by-step service configuration procedures are provided for the following:
 2.5G SGSN Service Configuration
 3G SGSN Service Configuration
 Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration
 Configuring the S4-SGSN
Important: At least one packet processing card must be activated prior to configuring the first service.
Procedures for configuring the packet processing card can be found in the System Administration Guide.
Detailed procedures are provided for the following:
 Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain
 Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support Broadband SS7 Signaling
 Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP Signaling for SIGTRAN
 Configuring GTT
 Configuring an SCCP Network
 Configuring a MAP Service
 Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only)
 Configuring an SGTP Service
 Configuring a Gs Service
 Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only)
 Configuring an SGSN Service (3G only)
 Configuring a Network Service Entity
 Configure a Network Service Entity for IP
 Configure a Network Service Entity for Frame Relay
 Configuring DNS Client
 Configuring GTPP Accounting Support
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Information Required for 3G Configuration
 Configuring and Associating the EGTP Service (S4 Only)
 Configuring DNS for APN Resolution (S4 Only)
 Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only)
 Configuring the Diameter Endpoint for the S6d Interface
 Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S6d Interface
 Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the S6d Interface
 Configuring Operator Policy-Based S6d Interface Selection (Optional)
 Configuring the Subscription Interface Preference for the S6d Interface (Optional)
 Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only)
 Configure a Diameter Endpoint for the S13’ Interface
 Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S13’ Interface
 Associate the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN Service for the S13’ Interface
 Configuring Operator Policy-Based S13’ Interface Selection
 Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4 Interface (S4 Only)
 Configuring the Peer SGSN Interface Type (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring Operator Policy-Based Gn Interface Selection (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring the Selection of an SGW for RAI (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring a Local PGW Address (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring the Peer MME Address (S4 Only, Optional)
 Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional)
 Creating and Configuring ATM Interfaces and Ports (3G only)
 Creating and Configuring Frame Relay Ports (2.5G only)
 Configuring APS/MSP Redundancy
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
2.5G SGSN Service Configuration ▀
2.5G SGSN Service Configuration
The following configuration steps must be completed to allow the system to operate in a 2.5G GPRS network.
The service handling the GPRS or 2.5G functions in the SGSN is called the “gprs-service”.
Step 1
Create all the contexts you will use in your configuration. Refer to the “System Element Configuration Procedures”
chapter in the System Administration Guide.
Step 2
Create and configure the Frame Relay interface(s) and Ethernet interface(s). Refer to the “System Element
Configuration Procedures” chapter in the System Administration Guide.
Step 3
Configure SS7 routing domains. Use the procedure in Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain . The concept of an SS7
routing domain is not a standard SS7 concept. It is a concept specific to this platform which groups a set of SS7 feature
configuration together to facilitate the management of the SS7 connectivity resources for an SGSN service.
Step 4
Configure GTT. The GTT configuration is used to set rules for GTT and define the GTT databases. Follow the
procedure in Configuring GTT.
Step 5
Configure SCCP-Networks. The purpose of an SCCP network is to isolate the higher protocol layers above SCCP and
the application itself from SS7 connectivity issues, as well as, to provide a place for global SCCP configuration specific
to SGSN services. Use the procedure in Configuring an SCCP Network.
Step 6
Configure MAP services. The MAP service configuration is used by the SGSN service to communicate with many of
the nodes on the narrow band-SS7 network part of the network such as HLR, EIR, GSM-SCF, GMLC and SMSGMSC/SMS-IWMSC. The purpose of having an isolated map configuration is to enable different application services to
use the map service to communicate with other map entities in the network. Use the procedure in Configuring a MAP
Service.
Step 7
Configure SGTP. The SGTP service configures the parameters used for GTP Tunneling. At the minimum, interfaces for
GTP-C and GTP-U must be configured. Use the procedure in Configuring an SGTP Service.
Step 8
Configure the SGSN service. All the parameters specific to the operation of an SGSN are configured in the SGSN
service configuration mode. SGSN services use other configurations like MAP and IuPS to communicate with other
elements in the network. The system can support multiple gprs-services.
Step 9
Configure the GPRS service. All of the parameters needed for the system to perform as a an SGSN in a GPRS network
are configured in the GPRS service. The GPRS service uses other configurations such as SGTP and MAP to
communicate with other network entities and setup communications between the BSS and the GGSN. Use the
procedure in Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only).
Step 10
Configure the Network Service Entity Instance. This identifies the NSEI to use and associates it with a Network Service
Virtual Connection Identifier. Use the procedure in Configuring a Network Service Entity.
Step 11
Configure DNS. This configuration enables domain name resolution and specifies the DNSs to use for lookup. Use the
procedure in Configuring DNS Client.
Step 12
Configure GTPP Accounting. This configures GTPP-based accounting for subscriber PDP contexts. Use the procedure
in Configuring GTPP Accounting Support.
Step 13
Configure Frame Relay DLCI paths and bind them to NSEI links as needed. Refer to Creating and Configuring Frame
Relay Interfaces and Ports in the System Administration Guide.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ 2.5G SGSN Service Configuration
Step 14
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide and the Command Line Interface Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
3G SGSN Service Configuration ▀
3G SGSN Service Configuration
The following configuration steps must be completed to allow the system to operate in a 3G network.
Step 1
Create the contexts needed. Refer to the System Element Configuration Procedures chapter in the System
Administration Guide.
Step 2
Create any interfaces needed in the appropriate context. Refer to the System Element Configuration Procedures chapter
in the System Administration Guide for IP (broadcast Ethernet) interfaces and for ATM interfaces.
Step 3
Configure SS7 routing domains. The SS7 routing domain is proprietary concept to provide a combined configuration
for the SS7 links, linksets, and related parameters. SS7 routing domain configurations are common to both SIGTRAN
and MTP3-B networks. Use the procedure in Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain.
Step 4
Configure global title translations (GTT). The GTT configuration is used to set rules for GTT and to define the GTT
databases. Follow the procedure in Configuring GTT.
Step 5
Configure SCCP networks. The SCCP network (layer) provides services to protocol layers higher in the SS7 protocol
stack, for example RANAP and TCAP. The SCCP layer is also responsible for GTT. As well, all the SS7 routing
domains (created in step 3) will be associated with an SCCP network. Use the procedure in Configuring an SCCP
Network.
Step 6
Configure MAP services. The MAP service configuration is used by the SGSN service to communicate with many of
the nodes in the SS7 network, such as the HLR, EIR, GSM-SCF, GMLC and SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC. Having an
isolated MAP configuration enables different application services to use the MAP service to communicate with other
MAP entities in the network. Use the procedure in Configuring a MAP Service.
Step 7
Configure IuPS services. A set of parameters define the communication path between the SGSN service and radio
network controllers (RNCs) in a UMTS IuPS service. Use the procedure in Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only).
Step 8
Configure SGTP services. The SGTP service configures the parameters used for GTP Tunneling. At a minimum,
interfaces for GTP-C and GTP-U must be configured. Use the procedure in Configuring an SGTP Service.
Step 9
Configure the SGSN service. All the parameters specific to the operation of an SGSN are configured in the SGSN
service configuration mode. SGSN services use other service configurations like MAP (map-service) and IuPS (iupsservice) to communicate with other elements in the network.
Step 10
Configure DNS clients. This configuration enables domain name resolution and specifies the DNSs to use for lookup.
Use the procedure in Configuring DNS Client.
Step 11
Optional: Configure operator policies. Operator policies are not required for SGSN operation, however, they provide
the operator with a powerful method for determining call handling. SGSN operator policies specify rules governing the
services, facilities and privileges available to a single subscriber or groups of subscribers. Use the procedure in
Configuring SGSN Operator Policies.
Step 12
Configure GTPP Accounting. This configures GTPP-based accounting for subscriber PDP contexts. Use the procedure
in Configuring GTPP Accounting Support.
Step 13
Configure ATM PVCs and bind them to interfaces or SS7 links as needed. Refer to Creating and Configuring ATM
Interfaces and Ports in the System Administration Guide.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ 3G SGSN Service Configuration
Step 14
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide and the Command Line Interface Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration ▀
Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration
The following configuration steps must be completed to allow the SGSN to operate in both GPRS (2.5G) and UMTS
(3G) networks. This type of co-location is referred to as dual access.
To configure dual access requires a combination of steps from both the 2.5G and 3G configuration procedures:
Step 1
Create the contexts needed. Refer to the System Element Configuration Procedures chapter in the System
Administration Guide.
Step 2
Create any interfaces needed in the appropriate context refer to the System Element Configuration Procedures chapter in
the System Administration Guide.
Step a
For IP (broadcast Ethernet) interfaces, refer to Creating and Configuring Ethernet Interfaces and
Ports in the System Administration Guide.
Step b
For ATM interfaces (3G) refer to Creating and Configuring ATM Interfaces and Ports in the
System Administration Guide.
Step c
For Frame Relay interfaces (2.5G) refer to Creating and Configuring Frame Relay Interfaces and
Ports in the System Administration Guide.
Step 3
Configure SS7 routing domains. The SS7 routing domain is a non-standard, proprietary SS7 concept specific to this
platform. SS7 routing domains provide a combined configuration for the SS7 links, linksets, and related parameters for
SS7 connectivity resources for an SGSN service. SS7 routing domain configurations are common to both SIGTRAN
and MTP3-B networks. Use the procedure in Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain.
Step 4
Configure global title translations (GTT). The GTT configuration is used to set rules for GTT and to define the GTT
databases. Follow the procedure in Configuring GTT.
Step 5
Configure SCCP networks. The SCCP network (layer) provides services to protocol layers higher in the SS7 protocol
stack, for example RANAP and TCAP. The SCCP layer is also responsible for GTT (step 4) and every SS7 routing
domain (step 3) will be associated with an SCCP network. Use the procedure in Configuring an SCCP Network.
Step 6
Configure MAP services. The MAP service configuration is used by the SGSN service to communicate with many of
the nodes in the SS7 network, such as the HLR, EIR, GSM-SCF, GMLC and SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC. Having an
isolated MAP configuration enables different application services to use the MAP service to communicate with other
MAP entities in the network. Use the procedure in Configuring a MAP Service.
Step 7
Configure IuPS services. A set of parameters define the communication path between the SGSN service and radio
network controllers (RNCs) in a UMTS IuPS service. Use the procedure in Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only).
Step 8
Configure SGTP services. The SGTP service configures the parameters used for GTP Tunneling. At a minimum,
interfaces for GTP-C and GTP-U must be configured. Use the procedure in Configuring an SGTP Service.
Step 9
Configure the GPRS service. All of the parameters needed for the system to perform as a an SGSN in a GPRS network
are configured in the GPRS service. The GPRS service uses other service configurations, such as SGTP (sgtp-service)
and MAP (map-service) to communicate with other network entities and setup communications between the BSS and
the GGSN. Use the procedure in Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only).
Step 10
Configure the Network Service Entity Instance. This identifies the NSEI to use and associates it with a Network Service
Virtual Connection Identifier. Use the procedure in Configuring a Network Service Entity.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration
Step 11
Configure DNS. This configuration enables domain name resolution and specifies the DNSs to use for lookup. Use the
procedure in Configuring DNS Client.
Step 12
Configure GTPP Accounting. This configures GTPP-based accounting for subscriber PDP contexts. Use the procedure
in Configuring GTPP Accounting Support.
Step 13
Configure ATM PVCs and bind them to interfaces or SS7 links as needed. Refer to Creating and Configuring ATM
Interfaces and Ports in the System Administration Guide.
Step 14
Configure Frame Relay DLCI paths and bind them to NSEI links as needed. Refer to Creating and Configuring Frame
Relay Interfaces and Ports in the System Administration Guide.
Step 15
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide and the Command Line Interface Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S4-SGSN ▀
Configuring the S4-SGSN
The following configuration steps comprise the required and optional tasks for configuring the S4-SGSN to provide an
interface between GPRS (2.5G) / UMTS (3G) networks and EPC (4G) networks via the EPC S4 interface. This is
referred to as an S4-SGSN.
Caution: The S4-SGSN cannot operate until after 2G, 3G or dual access SGSN service is configured. Do not
begin S4-SGSN configuration until one of those services is configured and operational. Refer to the 2.5G SGSN Service
Configuration , 3G SGSN Service Configuration , or Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration sections in this chapter
for details on configuring those services.
Before you begin the configuration procedure, note the following:
 Configuration steps 1 through 5 are mandatory for the S4-SGSN to operate properly.
 Configuration steps 6 through 15 are optional. They can be used to configure or enable various optional
functionality and features, including:
 Bypass DNS resolution for various network elements
 Configure GUTI-to-RAI mapping
 Configure operator-specific QoS mapping values
 Configure the S13’ interface for the Mobile Equipment Identity (MEI) check
 Configure the license-enabled Idle Mode Signaling Reduction feature
 Configure the Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel feature
Step 1
Configure, 2G, 3G or Dual Access SGSN service support. Refer to the 2.5G SGSN Service Configuration , 3G SGSN
Service Configuration , or Dual Access SGSN Service Configuration sections in this chapter for the configuration
Step 2
Configure and associate the EGTP service. The EGTP service is required to support communication between the SGSN
and the EPC SGW over the S4 interface using the GTPv2 protocol. Refer to the Configuring and Associating the EGTP
Service (S4 Only) procedure.
Step 3
Configure and associate the GTPU service. The GTPU service supports the configured EGTP service by enabling the
sending and receiving of GTP bearer packets from the EPC SGW over the S4 intereface. Refer to the Configuring and
Associating the GTPU Service (S4 Only) procedure.
Step 4
Configure DNS for APN resolution. Configurables must be set to enable the default DNS client on the SGSN to resolve
EPC PGW and SGW addresses. Refer to the Configuring the DNS Client Context for APN and SGW Resolution
procedure.
Step 5
Configure the S6d Diameter Interface. The S6d interface is used by the SGSN to communicate with the HSS. The HSS
is a master user database that contains all subscription related information, Refer to the Configuring the S6d Diameter
Interface (S4 Only) procedure.
Step 6
Optional. Configure the S13’ (S13 prime) interface. This interface is used to perform Mobile Equipment (ME) identity
check procedure between the SGSN and Equipment Identity Registry. Refer to the Configuring the S13 Interface (S4
Only, Optional) procedure.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the S4-SGSN
Step 7
Optional. Configure operator-specific QoS mapping between EPC elements and the SGSN. The S4-SGSN
communicates QoS parameters towards the SGW/ PGW and EPC UEs in different formats. Operators must configure
the SGSN quality of service (QoS) parameters as a call-control-profile that will ensure proper QoS mapping between
the S4-SGSN, SGW/PGW and UEs. Refer to the Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4
Interface (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 8
Optional. Configure the interface type used by the S4-SGSN to communicate with the peer SGSN. Refer to the
Configuring the Peer SGSN Interface Type (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 9
Optional. Configure Gn interface selection for EPC-capable UEs based on an operator policy. When the EGTP service
is configured, the SGSN, by default, selects the S4 interface for 1) EPC capable UEs and 2) non-EPC capable UEs that
have an EPS subscription only. However, operators have the option to forcefully select the Gn interface for both types
of UEs. Refer to the Configuring Gn Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 10
Optional. Configure a custom MME group ID. For operators who are using LAC ranges between 32768 and 65535 in
UMTS/GPRS deployments, rather than for MMEs in LTE deployments, the SGSN provides a workaround to ensure
backward compatibility. Refer to the Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 11
Optional. Configure the S-GW for a RAI. If operators wish to bypass DNS resolution for obtaining the EPC S-GW
address, the S4-SGSN can select a locally configured S-GW by performing a local look-up for the current RAI. Refer to
the Configuring the Selection of an SGW for RAI (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 12
Optional. Configure a Local PGW Address. For operators who wish to bypass DNS resolving an EPC P-GW address,
the SGSN can be configured with a local P-GW address as part of an APN profile. Refer to the Configuring a Local
PGW Address (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 13
Optional. Configure the peer MME address. If operators wish to bypass DNS to resolve the peer MME address, the
SGSN supports the local configuration of a peer MME address for a given MME group (LAC) and MME code (RAC).
Refer to Configuring the Peer MME Address (S4 Only, Optional) procedure.
Step 14
Optional. Configure the Idle Mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) feature. The ISR is a license-enabled feature allows the
UE to roam between LTE and 2G/3G networks while reducing the frequency of TAU and RAU procedures due to the
UE selecting E-UTRAN or UTRAN networks. Refer to the Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional)
procedure.
Step 15
Optional. Enable the setup of indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between the eNodeB and the RNC via the SGW
during connected mode handovers. This allows for connected mode handovers between the UTRAN and E-UTRAN
networks across the S3 (S4-SGSN-to-MME) interface. Refer to Configuring IDFT for Connected Mode Handover (S4
Only, Optional) .
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain ▀
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain
The SGSN supports both SS7- and IP-based routing. IP-based routing is provided through the use of contexts. SS7
routing is facilitated through the configuration and use of SS7 routing domains. SS7 routing domains group SS7-related
configuration parameters. Depending on the SS7 signaling method, an SS7 routing domain may be configured with one
of the following:
 Linksets: Used for broadband SS7 signaling, linksets are comprised of link ids that specify point codes for
SCCP endpoints. It is important to note that SCCP endpoints are further defined through the configuration of
SCCP Networks (refer to Configuring an SCCP Network) which are associated with the SS7 routing domain in
which the linkset is configured.
 Application Server Processes (ASPs) / Peer Server Processes (PSPs): Used for IP (SIGTRAN), M3UA ASPs
and PSPs dictate the IP address and port information used to facilitate communication between network
endpoints. ASPs refer to the local endpoints.
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support Broadband SS7 Signaling
Step 1
In global configuration mode, create a new SS7 routing domain, give it a unique ID and specify the network variant that
SS7 communications through this routing domain use.
Step 2
In SS7 routing domain configuration mode, configure the MTP-3 sub-service field (SSF).
Step 3
Create an SS7 linkset with a unique ID.
Step 4
In linkset configuration mode, specify the self point code - this is the point code of the SGSN.
Step 5
Specify the adjacent point code to communicate with another SS7 node, e.g., an RNC.
Step 6
Configure individual links, identified with link IDs.
Step 7
In link configuration mode, specify the MTP3 link priority.
Step 8
Specify the Signaling Link Code (SLC) for this link. This must be unique to this link within the current linkset. Note
that SLCs must match, one-to-one, with those defined for the peer nodes.
Step 9
Configure this link to use either passive or active arbitration.
Step 10
In SS7 routing domain configuration mode, configure SS7 routes by specifying destination point codes and associated
linkset IDs.
Example Configuration
configure
ss7-routing-domain <id> variant <variant>
ssf <subsvc>
linkset id <id>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain
self-point-code <#.#.#>
adjacent-point-code <#.#.#>
link id <id>
priority <pri>
signaling-link-code <code>
arbitration <arbitration>
exit
exit
route destination-point-code <dpc> linkset-id <id>
end
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain to Support IP Signaling for SIGTRAN
To configure IP, the SS7 routing domain must be configured in a specific way as described below:
Step 1
In Global configuration mode, create a new SS7 routing domain, give it a unique ID and specify the network variant
that SS7 communications through this routing domain use.
Step 2
In SS7 Routing Domain configuration mode, configure the MTP-3 subservice field.
Step 3
Create an ASP (Application Service Part) instance for M3UA ASP configuration and give it a unique ID.
Step 4
Specify the local SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) end-point IP address and the name of the context where
the IP interface associated with the address is configured.
Important:
At least one address needs to be configured before the end-point can be activated.
Step 5
Specify the end-point SCTP port address to be used. Default port address is 2905.
Step 6
Bind the end-point to the application server process (ASP) instance to activate it.
Step 7
In SS7 routing domain configuration mode, create a peer server configuration with a unique ID.
Step 8
Name the peer server configuration. Usually this is the name of the SS7 network entity that this instance is configured
to communicate with, for example an HLR, an STP, or an RNC.
Step 9
Specify the M3UA routing context ID.
Step 10
Create a PSP instance and give it a unique ID.
Step 11
In PSP configuration mode, specify the PSP mode in which this PSP instance should operate.
Step 12
Specify the communication mode this PSP instance should use as client or server.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring an SS7 Routing Domain ▀
Step 13
Configure the exchange mode this PSP instance should use. Generally this is not configured for IPSP-SG configuration,
e.g., SGSN and STP.
Step 14
Configure the IP address of the peer node SCTP end-point for this PSP instance. At least one address needs to be
configured before the end-point can be activated. Up to two addresses can be configured.
Step 15
Specify the ID of the ASP instance with which to associate this PSP instance.
Step 16
Configure SS7 routes, in SS7 routing domain configuration mode, by specifying destination point codes and peer server
IDs. Routes are configured if the destination point code (DPC) is at least a hop away from the SGSN or when the DPC
is not the same as the peer server. For example, the route is configured between the SGSN and the HLR which
communicates through STPs or signaling gateways. In this case, the signaling gateways are configured as the peer
server on the SGSN.
Example Configuration
configure
ss7-routing-domain <id> variant <variant>
ssf <subsvc>
asp instance <instance_id>
end-point address <address> context <ctxt_name>
end-point bind
exit
peer-server id <id>
name <name>
routing-context <ctxt_id>
psp instance <id>
psp-mode <mode>
exchange-mode <mode>
end-point address <address>
associate asp instance <id>
exit
exit
route destination-point-code <dpc> peer-server-id <id>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring GTT
Configuring GTT
Global Title Translation (GTT) configuration consists of defining GTT associations, defining GTT address maps, and
referring to these in an SCCP network configuration. The GTT Associations define GTT rules applicable to a specific
GT format. The GTT Address Maps define a global title address to be routed to using a specific routing indicator. These
are configured in the global configuration mode and are available to all SCCP networks configured in the system.
Step 1
In global configuration mode, create a GTT association with a unique name.
Step 2
In GTT association configuration mode, define the type of digit analysis to be used; “fixed” is the generally used digit
analysis and if specified, also define the length of the digits to be analyzed. This is represented using action IDs.
Step 3
In GTT association configuration mode, define the GT format (1 to 4) for which the analysis needs to be applied.
Step 4
In the GT format configuration mode, specify the numbering plan and the nature of address to be used. Note that a
separate GTT association needs to be created for a combination of numbering plan, nature of address, and GT format.
Important: There are many different ways to configure a GTT association and the needs of every
network are different. Please refer to the Global Title Translation Association Configuration Mode chapter in
the Command Line Interface Reference for the commands available.
Step 5
In global configuration mode, create a GTT address map, with a unique name, for a specific global title address.
Step 6
In GTT address map configuration mode, associate a specific GTT association and the action ID.
Step 7
In GTT address map configuration mode, define the routing indicator to be included in the Called-party Address in the
out-going SCCP message along with the destination of the message using the option out-address.
Important: There are many different ways to configure a GTT Address Map and the needs of every
network are different. Please refer to the GTT Address Map Configuration Mode chapter in the Command
Line Interface Reference for the commands available.
Example Configuration
configure
global-title-translation association instance <inst#>
action id <id> type <action_type> start-digit <num> end-digit <num>
gt-format <format_num>
exit
global-title-translation address-map instance <inst#>
associate gtt-association <assoc#> action id <id>
gt-address <gt_addr_prefix>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring GTT ▀
out-address <name>
ssf <sub_svc_fld>
routing-indicator <route_ind>
ni-indicator <addr_ind>
ssn <sub_sys_num>
point-code <pt_code>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring an SCCP Network
Configuring an SCCP Network
SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part) networks are a concept specific to this platform. The SCCP network
provides services to protocol layers higher in the SS7 protocol stack, e.g., RANAP and TCAP. This layer is also
responsible for GTT. Every SS7 routing domain will be associated with an SCCP network. Use the following example
configuration to specify a global SCCP configuration specific to SGSN services.
Important:
A total of 12 SCCP networks can be configured.
To configure an SCCP network:
Step 1
In global configuration mode, specify an identification number for this SCCP network configuration and the signaling
variant.
Step 2
Specify the self point code of the SGSN.
Step 3
Specify the SS7 routing domain with which to associate this SCCP network configuration.
Step 4
If using GTT (Global Title Translation), specify the name of a GTT address map to use.
Step 5
Configure a destination point code and give it a name.
Step 6
Configure the destination point code version.
Step 7
Configure the destination point code subsystem number.
Example Configuration
configure
sccp-network <id_number> variant <v_type>
self-pointcode <sp_code>
associate ss7-routing-domain <rd_id>
global-title-translation address-map <map_name>
destination dpc <dp_code> name <name>
destination dpc <dp_code> version <ver_type>
destination dpc <dp_code> ssn <ss_number>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring a MAP Service ▀
Configuring a MAP Service
The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol which provides an application layer for the various nodes in
GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and GPRS core networks to communicate with each other in order to provide
services to mobile phone users. MAP is the application-layer protocol used to access the Home Location Register
(HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Mobile Switching Center (MSC), Equipment Identity Register (EIR),
Authentication Center (AUC), Short Message Service Center (SMSC) and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).
The primary facilities provided by MAP are:
 Mobility Services: location management (when subscribers move within or between networks), authentication,
managing service subscription information, fault recovery.
 Operation and Maintenance: subscriber tracing, retrieving a subscriber's IMSI.
 Call Handling: routing, managing calls while roaming, checking that a subscriber is available to receive calls.
 Supplementary Services.
 Short Message Service (SMS)
 Packet Data Protocol (PDP) services for GPRS: providing routing information for GPRS connections.
 Location Service Management Services: obtaining the location of subscribers.
Important:
A maximum of 12 MAP services can be configured on the system.
To configure MAP services:
Step 1
In the context config mode, create a MAP service and give it a name.
Step 2
In MAP Service configuration mode, configure the SCCP network that defines SS7 connectivity for SCCP applications.
Step 3
Configure the parameters to contact the HLR.
Step 4
In HLR configuration mode, specify the HLR pointcodes that should be associated with specific IMSI prefixes.
Step 5
Configure the HLR pointcode to use as the default.
Step 6
Optional: Enable the Short Message Service functionality.
Step 7
Optional: Configure the SMS routing.
Example Configuration
configure
context <context_name>
map-service <map_name>
access-protocol sccp-network <sccp_network_id>
equipment-identity-register point-code <pnt_code>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring a MAP Service
hlr
imsi any point-code
default policy routing
exit
short-message-service
smsc-routing imsi-starts-with <prefix> point-code <sms_pc>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only) ▀
Configuring an IuPS Service (3G only)
A set of parameters, in the IuPS service configuration mode, define the communication path between the SGSN service
and the RNC. These configured parameters pertain to the RANAP layer of the protocol stack. IuPS services must be
configured in the same context as the SGSN service that will use them.
To configure an IuPS service:
Step 1
In context configuration mode for the SGSN service, create an IuPS service and give it a unique name.
Step 2
In IuPS service configuration mode, specify the ID of the SCCP network to use for access protocol parameters.
Step 3
Bind an address of an IP interface defined in the current context to use for GTPU connections to the RNC.
Step 4
Specify an RNC to configure with a unique ID and the MCC and MNC associated with the RNC.
Step 5
In RNC configuration mode, specify the RNCs point code.
Step 6
Specify the LAC ID and RAC ID associated with the RNC.
Important: Appropriate interfaces (i.e., physical, loopback, secondary) must be defined prior to
configuring the IuPS service or the GTP-U IP address will decline to bind to the service.
Example Configuration
configure
context <context_name>
iups-service <iups_name>
access-protocol sccp-network <sccp_network_id>
gtpu bind address <ip_address>
rnc id <rnc_id> mcc <mcc_num> mnc <mnc_num>
pointcode <rnc_pc>
lac <lac_id> rac <rac_id>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring an SGTP Service
Configuring an SGTP Service
This section provides instructions for configuring GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) settings for the SGSN. At a bare
minimum, an address to use for GTP-C (Control signaling) and an address for GTP-U (User data) must be configured.
To configure the SGTP service:
Step 1
Create an SGTP service and give it a unique name, in context configuration mode.
Step 2
Specify the IP address of an interface in the current context to use for GTP-C.
Step 3
Specify the IP address of an interface in the current context to use for GTP-U.
Important: Appropriate interfaces (i.e., physical, loopback, secondary) must be defined prior to
configuring the SGTP service or the GTP-U IP address will decline to bind to the service.
Example Configuration
configure
context <name>
sgtp-service <name>
gtpc bind address <address>
gtpu bind address <address>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring a Gs Service ▀
Configuring a Gs Service
This section provides instructions for creating and configuring a Gs interface used by the SGSN to communication with
an MSC or VLR. The Gs interface is defined as a Gs service which handles the configuration for the MSC/VLR.
The Gs interface parameters are configured within a Gs service in a context. Then the Gs service is referred to in a
GPRS service, an SGSN service, or an Call-Control Profile. The Gs service does not need to be in the same context as
the SGSN service, GPRS service, or a Call-Control Profile.
To configure the Gs service:
Step 1
In context configuration mode, create a Gs service and give it a unique name. Usually Gs service is defined in the same
context in which MAP service is defined because the MSC/VLR, HLR, EIR, and SMS-C are reachable via the STP or
SGW connected to the SGSN.
Step 2
Specify the name of the SCCP network that identifies the SS7 access protocols.
Step 3
Specify the target SS7 sub-system number (SSN), of the Base Station System Application Part (BSSAP), for
communication. Without this bit of configuration, the Gs service can not start.
Step 4
Identify a location area code, in either a pooled or non-pooled configuration, relevant to the MSC/VLR. This step can be
repeated as needed.
Step 5
Define the MSC/VLR by identifying its ISDN number, its SS7 point code, and the BSSAP SSN used to communicate
with it. Repeat this step to define multiple MSC/VLRs. (Note: SSN only needs to be defined if the routing defined is to
the MSC/VLR is PC+SSN.)
Example Configuration
configure
context <name>
gs-service <name>
associate-sccp-network <id>
bssap+ ssn <ssn>
non-pool-area <id> use-vlr <vlr_id> lac <lac_id>
vlr <vlr_id> isdn-number <isdn_number> bssap+ ssn <ssn> point-code <vlr_pt_code>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring an SGSN Service (3G only)
Configuring an SGSN Service (3G only)
All the parameters specific to the operation of an SGSN in a UMTS network are configured in an SGSN service
configuration. SGSN services use other service configurations like MAP (map-service) and IuPS (iups-service) to
communicate with other elements in the network.
To configure an SGSN service:
Step 1
In Context configuration mode, create an SGSN service and give it a unique name.
Step 2
Specify the Core Network (CN) ID that will identify this SGSN service on the CN.
Step 3
Specify the E.164 number to identify this SGSN service.
Step 4
Configure the maximum number of PDP contexts that a UE can establish.
Step 5
Specify the MAP service and the context in which it is configured that this SGSN service should use.
Step 6
Specify the IuPS service name and the context in which it is configured for the SGSN service to use for RAN protocol
settings.
Important: If a direct tunnel is to be established, GTP-U direct tunneling must be enabled in both the
IuPs service and in the call-control-profile. For the IuPS service, the DT must be enabled per RNC; DT is
enabled by default on RNCs.
Step 7
Specify the SGTP service and the context in which it is configured for this SGSN service to use for GTP configuration.
Step 8
Specify the CDR types that the SGSN service should generate.
Step 9
Specify the context in which GTPP accounting is configured. If the accounting context is not specified the current
context is assumed.
Step 10
Configure the charging characteristics profile. (Number of buckets for the max change condition, volume limit, time
limit, and tariff time switch values should be defined individually according to requirements for each of the charging
characteristics profiles.
Step 11
Optional: Specify the Gs service name and the context in which it is configured.
Important: Session Management (SM) and GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) settings can be
configured as needed using the SGSN configuration mode commands; <keyword> and <keyword. Refer to
the SGSN Service Configuration Mode chapter in the GPRS/UMTS Command Line Interface Reference.
Example Configuration
configure
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <svc_name>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring an SGSN Service (3G only) ▀
core-network id <cn_id>
sgsn-number <sgsn_number>
max-pdp-contexts per-ms <max_number>
{ mobile-application-part-service | associate map-service } <map_name> context
<map_context>
ran-protocol iups-service <iups_svc_name> context <iups_context>
{ sgtp-service | associate sgtp-service } <svc_name> context <name>
accounting cdr-types [ mcdr | scdr ]
accounting context <acct_context>
cc profile <profile_number> interval <seconds>
{ gs-service context
| associate gs-service } <ctxt> service <gs_service_name>
end
Notes:
 For releases 12.2 and earlier, use mobile-application-part-service <map_name> context <map_context>
command. For releases 14.0 and later, use the associate map-service <map_name> context <map_context>
command.
 For releases 12.2 and earlier, use the sgtp-service <svc_name> context <name> command. For releases 14.0
and later, use associate sgtp-service <svc_name> context <name> command.
 For releases 12.2 and earlier, use the gs-service context <ctxt> service <gs_service_name> command. For
releases 14.0 and later, use the associate gs-service context <ctxt> service <gs_service_name> command.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only)
Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only)
All the parameters specific to the operation of an SGSN in a GPRS network are configured in a GPRS service
configuration. GPRS services use other configurations like MAP and SGTP to communicate with other elements in the
network. The system can support multiple GPRS services.
To configure a GPRS service:
Step 1
In Context configuration mode, create a GPRS service instance and give it a unique name.
Step 2
Specify the context in which the accounting parameters have been configured.
Step 3
Create a PLMN definition for the GPRS service to include the identity of the mobile country code (MCC) and the
mobile network code (MNC).
Step 4
Associate other services (such as a MAP or Gs or SGTP service) and their configurations with this GPRS service. This
command should be repeated to associate multiple service types and/or multiple instances.
Step 5
Define the network service entity identifier (NSEI) of one or more remote SGSNs with their location area code (LAC)
and routing area code (RAC). This step can be repeated to associate multiple peer-NSEIs.
Step 6
Specify the E.164 number to identify this SGSN.
Step 7
Configure the charging characteristic(s).
Step 8
Specify the types of CDRs to generate.
Example Configuration
configure
context <context_name>
gprs-service <gprs_service_name>
accounting <ctxt>
plmn id mcc <mcc_num> mnc <mnc_num>
{ service | associate service | }<service_type> <service_name> context
<service_ctxt>
peer-nsei <peer_nsei_id> lac <lac_id> rac <rac_id>
sgsn-number <sgsn_isdn_number>
cc profile <id> buckets <value>
cc profile <id> interval <value>
accounting cdr-types <cdr_type>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring a GPRS Service (2.5G only) ▀
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring a Network Service Entity
Configuring a Network Service Entity
Configure a Network Service Entity for IP
Prior to implementing this configuration, the IP interfaces should have been defined in the same context as the GPRS
service.
Step 1
In Global configuration mode, create a network service entity (NSE) for IP. The resulting prompt will appear as:
[local]<hostname>(nse-ip-local)#
Step 2
In the Network Service Entity - IP local configuration mode, create up to four virtual links (NSVLs) for this entity each with a unique NSVL Id. The resulting prompt will appear as:
[local]<hostname>(nse-ip-local-nsvl-<id>)#
Step 3
Configure the link access information: IP address, context name, and port number.
Step 4
Configure the links signaling characteristics.
Example Configuration for a Network Service Entity for IP
config
network-service-entity ip-local -n
nsvl instance <id>
nsvl-address ip-address <ip_addr> context <ctxt> port <num>
signaling-weight <num> data-weight <num>
end
Configure a Network Service Entity for Frame Relay
Step 1
In Global configuration mode, create a network service entity (NSE) for Frame Relay. The resulting prompt will appear
as:
[local]<hostname>(nse-fr-peer-nsei-id)#
Step 2
In the Peer NSEI configuration mode, create a virtual connection instance for this entity. The resulting prompt will
appear as:
[local]<hostname>(nse-fr-peer-nsei-<id>-nsvci-<id>)#
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring a Network Service Entity ▀
Example Configuration for a Network Service Entity for IP
config
network-service-entity peer-nsei <id> frame-relay
ns-vc id <id> -n
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring DNS Client
Configuring DNS Client
DNS client services can be configured for a context.
Step 1
In context configuration mode, enable DNS lookup.
Step 2
Specify the DNS to use for lookups; maximum of two DNS addresses can be used.
Step 3
Create a DNS client with a unique name.
Step 4
In DNS Client configuration mode, bind the DNS client to the IP address of an interface in the current context.
Example Configuration
configure
context <context_name>
ip domain-lookup
ip name-servers <ip_address>
dns-client <name>
bind address <ip_address>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring GTPP Accounting Support ▀
Configuring GTPP Accounting Support
This section provides instructions for configuring GTPP-based accounting which allows the SGSN to send M-CDR
and/or S-CDR accounting data to the Charging Gateways (CGs) over the Ga interface.
The Ga interface and GTPP functionality are typically configured within a separate charging context.
The SGSN begins to generate M-CDR data upon GPRS/IMSI attach. S-CDR data generation begins upon PDP context
activation.
Accounting servers can be configured individually or as GTPP accounting server groups. GTPP accounting server
groups can each have completely different GTPP settings configured. Although a GTTP server can be included in
multiple GTPP groups.
Any GTPP accounting servers configured at the context level that are not specifically configured as part of a GTPP
group, are automatically assigned to be part of the GTPP server group called default that is part of every context.
A maximum of 8 GTPP named server groups can be configured across all contexts. A maximum of 4 CGFs can be
configured in each GTPP server group. A total of total 32 CGFs can be configured across all server groups, including
the server group called default, in one context. Each GTPP group must have unique GTPP charging agents (CGFs)
configured.
Important: The system supports the specification of the UDP port number for the charging agent function on the
system and for the CG. The default charging agent port is 49999. The default CG Server port is (3386). If an SGSN
service and a GGSN service are both configured on this system be sure that the UDP ports are unique for each type of
service. Refer to the Command Line Interface Reference for information on changing the ports used.
To configure the GTPP accounting support for a SGSN service:
Step 1
Create the GTPP group in accounting context by applying the example configuration in the Creating GTPP Group
section.
Step 2
Configure the charging agent and GTPP server (CGF) related parameters for the GTPP accounting support by applying
the example configuration in the Configuring GTPP Group section.
Step 3
Verify your GTPP group and accounting configuration by following the steps in the Verifying GTPP Group
Configuration section.
Step 4
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide and the Command Line Interface Reference.
Creating GTPP Group
Use the following example to create the GTPP group to support GTPP accounting:
configure
context <vpn_ctxt_name>
gtpp group <gtpp_group_name> -noconfirm
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring GTPP Accounting Support
end
Notes:
 In addition to one default GTPP group “default” a maximum of 8 GTPP groups can be configured with this
command in a context.
 In case no GTPP group is configured in this context, system creates a default GTPP group named “default” and
all the CGF servers and their parameters configured in this context are applicable to this “default” GTPP group.
Configuring GTPP Group
Use the following example to configure the GTPP server parameters, GTPP dictionary, and optionally CGF to support
GTPP accounting:
configure
context <vpn_ctxt_name>
gtpp group <gtpp_group_name>
gtpp charging-agent address <ip_address> [ port <port> ]
gtpp server <ip_address> [ max <msgs >] [ priority <priority>]
gtpp dictionary <dictionaries>
gtpp max-cdrs <number_cdrs> [ wait-time <dur_sec> ]
gtpp transport-layer { tcp | udp }
end
Notes:
 In addition to one default GTPP group “default” a maximum of 8 GTPP groups can be configured with this
command in a context.
 In case no GTPP group is configured in this context, system creates a default GTPP group named “default” and
all the CGF servers and their parameters configured in this context are applicable to this “default” GTPP group.
 Command for CGF gtpp charging-agent is optional and configuring gtpp charging-agent on port 3386 may
interfere with ggsn-service configured with the same ip address. Multiple interfaces can be configured within a
single context if needed.
 For more information on GTPP dictionary encoding, if you are using StarOS 12.3 or an earlier release, refer to
the AAA and GTPP Interface Administration and Reference. If you are using StarOS 14.0 or a later release,
refer to the GTPP Interface Administration and Reference.
 For better performance, it is recommended to configure maximum number of CDRs as 255 with gtpp maxcdrs command.
 You can select transport layer protocol as TCP or UDP for Ga interface with gtpp transport-layer
command. By default it is UDP.
 Multiple GTPP server can be configured using multiple instances of this command subject to following limits:
 Total 4 GTPP server in one GTPP group
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring GTPP Accounting Support ▀
 Total 32 GTPP server in one context
 Total 9 GTPP groups (1 default and 8 user defined GTPP groups) can be configured in one context.
Number of CGFs in 1 GTPP group is limited to 4 and a total of 32 CGF servers across all GTPP
groups in one context are configurable.
Verifying GTPP Group Configuration
Step 1
Verify that your CGFs were configured properly by entering the following command in Exec Mode:
show gtpp accounting servers
This command produces an output similar to that displayed below:
context: source
Preference
IP
Port
Priority
State
Group
------
----------
---------------
----
--------
-------
Primary
192.168.32.135
3386
1
Active
default
Primary
192.168.89.9
3386
100
Active
default
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring and Associating the EGTP Service (S4 Only)
Configuring and Associating the EGTP Service (S4 Only)
This section describes how to configure and associate the EGTP service to support S4-SGSN functionality.
The SGSN communicates with the EPC network SGW via the GTPv2 protocol over the S4 interface. GTPv2 is
configured on the chassis as part of an EGTP service. Once configured, the EGTP service then must be associated with
the configured UMTS (3G) and/or GPRS (2G) service configured on the system to provide access to the EPC network.
Once the EGTP service is associated with the UTRAN and/or GERAN service, then the S4-SGSN will be chosen for
PDP context activation in the following cases:
 If the last known capability of the UE indicates that it is EPC-capable.
 If the last known capability of the UE indicates it is non-EPC capable but has an EPS subscription only.
 If a PDP context is already activated for the UE, and the S4 interface is already selected for the UE.
Important:
The S4 feature license must be enabled on the S4-SGSN to configure the EGTP service.
Important: S4 support for the SGSN requires the presence of an SGTP service, even though S4 support is being
configured for the SGSN to use the S4 interface. The SGTP service is required to interface with non-EPC capable
roaming partners via the Gn interface. SGTP is also required for subscribers using mobile phones that are not EPCcapable in an EPC network.
Important: Currently, the S4-SGSN does not support the transfer of PDP contexts from the S4 interface to the
Gn interface within the same S4-SGSN.
Use the following procedure to configure and associate the EGTP service to for S4 functionality on the SGSN:
Step 1
Access Context Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Create and configure the EGTP service in the desired context.
Step 3
Configure the interface type for the EGTP service.
Step 4
Configure the validation mode for the EGTP service. The default and recommened setting is standard.
Step 5
Associate the EGTP service with the configured 2.5G service (if configured).
Step 6
Associate the EGTP service with the configured 3G service (if configured).
Example Configuration
config
context <context_name>
egtp-service <service_name>
gtpc
bind ipv4-address
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
<ipv4_address>
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring and Associating the EGTP Service (S4 Only) ▀
interface-type interface-sgsn
validation-mode standard
end
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <gprs_service_name>
associate egtp-service <egtp_service_name> context <context_name>
end
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <sgsn_service_name>
associate egtp-service <egtp_service_name> context <context_name>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring and Associating the GTPU Service (S4 Only)
Configuring and Associating the GTPU Service (S4 Only)
This section describes how to configure and associate the GTPU service on the S4-SGSN.
The GTPU service is required to support the EGTP service for the sending and receiving of GTP bearer packets to and
from the EPC SGW.
Use the following procedure to configure and associate the GTPU service:
Step 1
Access Context Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Create the GTPU service in the same context where the egtp-service is configured.
Step 3
Bind the GTPU service to the IP address to be used for GTP-U (the S4-SGSN side IP address for GTP-U packets).
Step 4
Associate the GTPU service with the configured egtp-service.
Example Configuration
config
context <context_name>
gtpu-service <service_name>
bind ipv4-address <ipv4_address>
end
config
context <egtp-service_context_name>
egtp-service <egtp-service_name>
associate gtpu-service <egtp_service_name>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the DNS Client Context for APN and SGW Resolution (Optional) ▀
Configuring the DNS Client Context for APN and SGW
Resolution (Optional)
This section describes how to configure the context from which DNS client has to be selected for performing an APN
FQDN query for resolving a PGW address (S4-SGSN) or a co-located PGW / GGSN address (Gn SGSN), and the
context from which DNS client has to be selected for performing an RAI FQDN query for resolving an SGW address
(S4-SGSN).
By default, the S4-SGSN supports the initiation of a DNS query after APN selection using a S-NAPTR query for EPCcapable subscribers. The S4-SGSN resolves a PGW/GGSN by sending an APN-FQDN query to the DNS client.
Similarly, the S4-SGSN resolves the SGW by sending a RAI-FQDN query to the DNS client. The DNS Client then
sends a query to the DNS server to retrieve NAPTR/SRV/A records and return the SGW or PGW IP address to the
SGSN.
Important:
For non-EPC capable subsribers, the S4-SGSN initiates only a DNS A query.
The Gn SGSN supports selecting a co-located PGW/GGSN node for EPC capable UEs by performing a DNS SNAPTR
lookup for APN FQDN for the service parameter”x-3gpp-pgw:x-gn" / "x-3gpp-pgw:x-gp”. Note that in addition to
these parameters, the service parameters In addition to these interfaces "x-3gpp-ggsn:x-gn" & "x-3gpp-ggsn:x-gp"
are used for selecting standalone GGSNs.
For performing a DNS SNAPTR query, the SGSN requires an additional, optional, configuration that identifies the
context where DNS lookup for EPC-capable UEs must occur. This is accomplished by creating a call-control-profile
that specifies the context from which the DNS client should be used for resolving a co-located PGW/GGSN address on
a Gn SGSN as well.
Use the following procedure to configure and associate the configure DNS for APN resolution to support S4
functionality:
Step 1
Access Call Control Profile Configuration Mode and create a call control profile.
Step 2
Configure the DNS client context to resolve PGW UEs via the context the DNS client is configured.
Step 3
Configure the DNS client context to resolve SGW UEs via the context where the DNS client is configured.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <name>
dns-pgw context <dns_client_context_name>
dns-sgw context <dns_client_context_name>
end
Notes:
 dns-pgw context is valid for selecting a PGW (in an S4-SGSN) as well as a co-located PGW/GGSN (in a Gn
SGSN). If the interface selected for a UE is S4 and if there is no dns-pgw context configured under the Call
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the DNS Client Context for APN and SGW Resolution (Optional)
Control Profile, then by default it will look for the DNS client in the context where the EGTP service is
defined. If the interface selected for a UE is gn-gp, and if there is no dns-pgw context configured under the
Call Control Profile, then by default the system will look for the DNS client in the context where the SGTP
service is configured for selecting co-located PGW/GGSNs if:
 The UE is EPC capable and,
 apn-resolve-dns-query snaptr is configured under an APN Profile.
 dns-sgw context specifies the name of the context where the DNS client is configured and that will be used for
DNS resolution of SGWs. If dns-sgw is not configured, the S4-SGSN uses the DNS client configured in the
context where EGTP service is configured to query the SGW DNS address.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only) ▀
Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only)
This section describes how to configure the S6d Diameter interface to support S4 functionality.
The S6d interface is a Diameter-based interface used to support S4 functionality by enabling the S4-SGSN to
communicate with the HSS. The HSS is a master user database that contains all subscription related information, and
performs the following functions:
 Authentication and authorization of the user
 Provides the subscribers location information
 Provides the subscribers IP information
To support the S6d interface, an HSS Peer Service must be configured and associated with a Diameter endpoint. This
HSS Peer Service is then associated with the configured SGSN and/or GPRS services to enable communication with the
HSS via the S6d interface. Optionally, operators can configure an operator policy-based interface selection.
Configuring the S6d interface consists of the following procedures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Configuring a Diameter Endpoint for the S6d interface
Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S6d interface
Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the S6d interface.
Optional. Configuring operator policy-based interface selection for the S6d interface.
Configuring the Diameter Endpoint for the S6d Interface
Use the following procedure to configure the Diameter endpoint for the S6d interface:
Step 1
Configure a port that will be bound to an interface (at step 3) to be used as the S6d interface.
Step 2
Configure an Ethernet interface to be used as a diameter endpoint.
Step 3
Configure a Diameter endpoint to be used as the S6d interface.
Step 4
Specify the origin host address and the IP address of the Ethernet interface to be used as the S6d interface.
Step 5
Specify the origin realm. The realm is the Diameter identity. The originator’s realm is present in all Diameter messages
and is typically the company or service provider’s name.
Step 6
Specify the peer name, peer realm name, peer IP address and port number. The peer IP address and port number are the
IP address and port number of the HSS.
Step 7
Specify the route entry peer. This parameter is optional. The route entry peer parameter is required if multiple HSS
peers are configured under a Diameter point and operators want to associate a routing weight to each HSS peer so that
the S4-SGSN contacts each HSS based on the weight distribution.
Step 8
Optional. Enable or disable the watchdog-timeout parameter.
Step 9
The use-proxy keyword can be specified in the diameter-endpoint command to enable the proxy mode. The usage
of proxy mode depends on the operator’s HSS capabilities.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only)
Example Configuration
config
port ethernet <slot number/port number>
no shutdown
bind interface <s6d_interface_name> <context_name>
end
config
context <context_name>
interface <s6d_interface_name>
ip address <s6d_interface_ip_address> <subnet_mask>
exit
diameter endpoint <endpoint_name>
origin host <host_name> address <s6d_interface_ip_address>
origin realm <realm_name>
peer <peer_name> realm <realm_name> address <hss_ip_address>
route-entry peer <route_entry_name>
use-proxy
no watchdog-timeout
end
Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S6d
Interface
Use the following procedure to configure the HSS Peer Service and interface association for the S6d interface:
Step 1
Configure a Diameter endpoint. If not already configured, refer to the Configuring the Diameter Endpoint for the S6d
Interface procedure. Then specify the IP address of the Ethernet interface configured in Step 1 as the Diameter endpoint
address.
Step 2
Associate the Diameter endpoint with an HSS peer service.
Step 3
Specify the Diameter dictionary to be used for the HSS Peer Service. The standard-r9 dictionary must be used for
the S6d interface.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only) ▀
Example Configuration
config
context <sgsn_context_name>
hss-peer-service <hss_peer_service_name>
diameter hss-endpoint <hss_endpoint_name>
diameter hss-dictionary standard_r9
end
Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the
S6d Interface
Use this procedure to association the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services:
Step 1
Access Context Configuration Mode and create an SGSN service.
Step 2
Associate the HSS peer service name with the SGSN service.
Step 3
Access Context Configuration Mode and create a GPRS service.
Step 4
Associate the HSS peer service name with the GPRS service.
Example Configuration
config
context <context name>
sgsn-service <sgsn-service-name>
associate hss-peer-service <hss-peer-service-name>
end
config
context <context name>
gprs-service <gprs-service-name>
associate hss-peer-service <hss-peer-service-name>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only)
Configuring Operator Policy-Based S6d Interface Selection (Optional)
It is mandatory for the SGSN and GPRS services to have either a MAP service association or an HSS-Peer-Service
association.
 If no MAP service is associated with the SGSN or GPRS services, and only the HSS service is associated with
the SGSN or GPRS services, then the S6d interface is selected.
 If both the MAP service and the HSS-Peer-Service are associated with the SGSN or GPRS service, by default
the Gr interface is selected. To override the default use of the Gr interface, configure the operator policy to
select the s6d-interface.
 Once the interface selection is configured, the call-control-profile is first checked to determine whether to select
the MAP-interface or HSS-interface. If neither the MAP nor HSS is configured under the call control profile,
then the system checks the configured SGSN or GPRS-services.
Step 1
Access Call Control Profile Configuration Mode and create a call-control-profile.
Step 2
Associate the configured HSS peer service with the S6d interface. The s6d-interface option must be selected.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <name>
associate hss-peer-service <name> s6d-interface
end
Configuring the Subscription Interface Preference for the S6d Interface
(Optional)
The S4-SGSN provides a mechanism to associate a MAP service with call-control-profile. In some situations, it is
possible that both the MAP service and the HSS peer service are associated with the Call Control Profile. In these cases,
operators can configure the preferred subscription interface.
Step 1
Access Call Control Profile Configuration Mode and create a call-control-profile.
Step 2
Specify the preference of the subscription-interface. Selecting the hlr option will cause the MAP protocol to be used to
exchange messages with the HLR. The hss option causes the Diameter-protocol to be used to exchange messages with
the HSS.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <name>
prefer subscription-interface { hlr | hss }
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional)
The S13' (S13 prime) interface is a Diameter-based interface that is used to perform the Mobile Equipment (ME)
identity check procedure between the SGSN and EIR. Configuring the S13’ interface is optional.
The SGSN performs ME identity check to verify the Mobile Equipment’s identity status.
The S13‘interface uses the Diameter protocol. An HSS Peer Service must be configured and associated with a Diameter
endpoint. It is not mandatory to configure the HSS Peer Service under the SGSN or the GPRS service. By configuring
the HSS Peer Service in Call Control Profile Configuration Mode, the S13‘interface can be used.
In the absence of an operator policy, the HSS Peer Service must be associated with the configured SGSN or GPRS
service to be able to utilize the S13‘interface. In the presence of an operator policy, the operator policy configured
overrides the service configured in the SGSN or GPRS service.
Important: The S13’ interface can only be configured after the S6d interface has been configured. Refer to
Configuring the S6d Diameter Interface (S4 Only) procedure for information on configuring the S6d interface.
Configuring the S13’ interface consists of the following procedures;
Step 1
Configure a Diameter Endpoint for the S13’ interface.
Step 2
Configure the HSS Peer Service and Interface association for the S13’ interface.
Step 3
Associate the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS services for the S13’ interface.
Step 4
Optional. Configure an operator policy S13-based interface selection call control profile for the S13’ interface.
Configuring a Diameter Endpoint for the S13’ Interface
Use this procedure to configure a Diameter endpoint for the S13’ interface:
Step 1
Access Context Configuration Mode and create a Diameter endpoint.
Step 2
Specify the origin host address and the IP address of the S13‘interface.
Step 3
Specify the origin realm. The realm is the Diameter identity. The originator’s realm is present in all Diameter messages
and is typically the company or service name.
Step 4
Specify the peer name, peer realm name, peer IP address and port number. The peer IP address and port number are the
IP address and port number of the HSS.
Step 5
Specify the route entry peer (optional). The route entry peer parameter is required if multiple HSS or EIR peers are
configured under a Diameter point and operators wish to associate a routing weight to each HSS or EIR peer so that
SGSN contacts each HSS or EIR based on the weight distribution.
Step 6
The user can optionally enable or disable the parameter watchdog-timeout.
Step 7
The use-proxy keyword can be specified in the diameter-endpoint command to enable the proxy mode. The usage of
proxy mode depends on the operator’s EIR capabilities.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional)
Example Configuration
config
port ethernet <s13’_interface_name>
no shutdown
bind interface s13’_interface_name> <sgsn_context_name>
end
config
context <context_name>
interface s13’_interface_ip> <subnet_mask>
exit
diameter endpoint <s13’_endpoint_name>
origin host <host_name> address <host_address>
origin realm <realm_address>
peer <peer_name> realm <realm_name > address <hss_ip_address>
route-entry peer <route_entry_name>
use-proxy
no watchdog-timeout
exit
hss-peer-service <hss_peer_service_name>
diameter hss-endpoint <s6d_endpoint_name> eir-endpoint <s13’_endpoint_name>
end
Configuring the HSS Peer Service and Interface Association for the S13’
Interface
Use the following procedure to configure the HSS Peer Service and Interface association:
Step 1
Configure an Ethernet interface to be used as a Diameter endpoint.
Step 2
Configure a Diameter endpoint and specify the IP address of the Ethernet interface configured in Step 1 as the Diameter
endpoint address.
Step 3
Configure an HSS peer service and associate it with the Diameter endpoint configured for the S6d and S13’ interfaces.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
Step 4
Specify the Diameter dictionary to be used for the HSS-Peer-Service. The standard-r9 option must be selected for
the SGSN.
Example Configuration
config
port ethernet <slot_number/port_number>
no shutdown
bind interface <s6d_interface_name> <sgsn_context_name>
end
config
context <sgsn_context_name>
interface <s6d_interface_name>
ip address <s6d_interface_ip_address> <subnetmask>
exit
diameter endpoint <s6d-endpoint_name>
origin realm <realm_name>
origin host
<name> address <s6d_interface_address>
peer <peer_name> realm <realm_name> address <hss_ip_address>
exit
diameter endpoint <s13’_endpoint_name>
origin realm <realm_name>
origin host <name> address <s13’_interface_address>
peer <peer_name> realm <realm_name> address <eir_ip_address>
exit
hss-peer-service <hss_peer_service_name>
diameter hss-endpoint <hss_endpoint_name> eir-endpoint <eir_endpoint_name>
diameter hss-dictionary standard-r9
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional)
Associating the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS Services for the
S13’ Interface
Use this procedure to associate the HSS Peer Service with the SGSN and GPRS services.
Step 1
In Context Configuration Mode create a SGSN service.
Step 2
Associate the HSS peer service with SGSN service, if configured, and provide the HSS peer service name and context
name.
Step 3
Associate the HSS peer service with GPRS service, if configured, and provide the HSS peer service name and context
name.
Example Configuration
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <sgsn_service_name>
associate hss-peer-service <hss-peer-service-name>
end
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <gprs_service_name>
associate hss-peer-service <hss-peer-service-name>
end
Configuring S13’ Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy
It is mandatory for the SGSN and GPRS service to have either a MAP service association or an HSS Peer Service
association.
 In the absence of a MAP service association with SGSN or GPRS service, and if the HSS service is associated
with the SGSN or GPRS service then the S13‘ interface is selected.
 If both the MAP service and the HSS-Peer-Service are associated with the SGSN or GPRS service, by default
the Gf interface is selected. To override this default, operators can configure an operator policy to configure
behavior for the S13’ interface selection.
 Once configured, the behavior is as follows:
 First, the call control profile is checked to determine on whether a MAP or HSS interface is configured.
 If neither A MAP or HSS is configured under the call control profile, then the system uses the
configuration in the SGSN or GPRS service.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the S13’ Interface (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
Use this procedure to configure an operator policy used for S13’ interface selection.
Step 1
Access Call Control Configuration Mode and configure a call-control-profile.
Step 2
Associate the HSS Peer Service with the s13-prime-interface.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <name>
associate hss-peer-service <name> s13-prime-interface
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4 Interface (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4
Interface (S4 Only, Optional)
An S4-SGSN communicates QoS parameters towards the SGW and PGW in EPC QoS. However, it sends QoS towards
the UE in the QoS format defined in the GMM/SM specification (TS 24.008). 3GPP defines a mapping for EPS QoS to
pre-release 8 QoS in TS 23.401, Annex E. On the S4-SGSN, operators can configure the quality of service (QoS)
parameters as Call Control Profiles that will ensure proper QoS mapping between the S4-SGSN and the EPC gateways
(PGW and SGW) and UEs. However, such configurations are optional. If no mapping is configured, then the S4-SGSN
uses the default mapping.
The configured Call Control Profiles also will be used if the S4 interface is chosen for PDP activation, but the
subscription does not have an EPS subscription. Therefore, GPRS subscription data (which uses QoS in pre-release 8
format), will be mapped to EPS QoS behavior. The allocation and retention policy will be mapped to EPS ARP using
the configured Call Control Profiles. Specifically, the configuration provided in this section enables the S4-SGSN to:
 Map EPC ARP (allocation and retention priority) parameters to pre-release 8 ARP (Gn/Gp ARP) parameters
during S4-SGSN to Gn SGSN call handovers.
 Map ARP parameters received in a GPRS subscription from the HLR to EPC ARP parameters if the S4 interface
is selected for an EPC capable UE that has only a GPRS subscription (but no EPS subscription) in the HLR /
HSS.
If the QoS mapping configuration is not used, the following default mappings are used:
 Default ARP high-priority value = 5
 Default ARP medium-priority value = 10
 Default pre-emption capability = shall-not-trigger-pre-emption
 Default pre-emption vulnerability = pre-emptable
Use this procedure to configure QoS mapping for EPC Gateways and UEs:
Step 1
Access Call Control Profile Configuration Mode and create a call-control-profile.
Step 2
Configure the QoS ARP settings.
Step 3
Exit back to the Local prompt.
Step 4
Access the call-control profile you just configured.
Step 5
Configure the QoS pre-emption or vulnerability capabilities.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
qos gn-gp arp high-priority <hi_prior_value> medium-priority <med_prior_value>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring QoS Mapping for EPC-Capable UEs using the S4 Interface (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
config
call-control-profile <cc-profile-name>
qos gn-gp pre-emption { capability { may-trigger-pre-emption | shall-not-triggerpre-emption } | vulnerability { not-pre-emptable | pre-emptable } }
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the Peer SGSN Interface Type (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring the Peer SGSN Interface Type (S4 Only, Optional)
Operators can specify the type of interface the S4-SGSN will use to communicate with the peer SGSN in a call control
profile.
Use the following procedure to configure the peer SGSN interface type:
Step 1
Access the Call Control Profile configuration for the peer SGSN.
Step 2
Configure the interface type to be used for communication between the S4-SGSN and the peer SGSN. s16 must be
specified if the peer SGSN is an S4-SGSN.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
sgsn-address { rac <rac value> lac <lac value> | rnc_id rnc_id } prefer { local |
fallback-for-dns } address ipv4 <ipv4 address> interface { gn | s16 }
end
Notes:
 The rnc_id parameter can be used instead of the rac and lac values if operators wish to configure the target
RNC ID that maps to the address of the peer SGSN via the S16 interface. The RNC ID is used by the S4-SGSN
for inter-SGSN SRNS relocation. Configuration of the rnc_id is optional, and valid only if SRNS relocation
first has been configured in Call Control Profile Configuration Mode using the srns-inter and/or srnsintra commands.
 The fallback-for-dns option is under development for future use, and is not currently supported on the S4SGSN.
 NRI-based validation is not supported on the S4-SGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring Gn Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
Configuring Gn Interface Selection Based on an Operator Policy
(S4 Only, Optional)
The S4-SGSN uses the S4 interface to communicate with EPC-capable UEs. However, operators have the to option to
create a call-control-profile that enables the S4-SGSN to forcefully select the Gn interface for EPC-capable UEs.
Use this procedure to forcefully select the Gn interface for EPC-capable UEs:
Step 1
Access Call Control Profile Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Create a call-control-profile.
Step 3
Configure the SGSN to forcefully select the Gn interface.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
sgsn-core-nw-interface { gn | s4 }
end
Notes:
 sgsn-core-nw-interface specifies the interface that EPC-capable UEs will use to communicate with the packet
core gateways (GGSN/SGW). The default setting for EPC-capable UEs is s4.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional)
3GPP specifications define how a GUTI allocated by an MME is translated into an old P-TMSI and old RAI when a UE
hands over to an SGSN. 3GPP specifications state that when a GUTI is mapped to an old RAI, the MME group ID
portion of the GUTI will be mapped to a Location Area Code (LAC). MME group IDs are 16-bit numbers which always
have their most significant bit set. As a result, their range is 32768 - 65535.
However, some operators may have already configured their networks with LACs for UTRAN and GERAN coverage in
the 32768 - 65535 range. To provide backward compatibility for such deployments, a custom list of MME group IDs
must be configured for use by both the S4-SGSN and MME products for UTRAN/GERAN and E-UTRAN handovers.
Once the custom MME Group IDs have been configured, operators then can configure the S4-SGSN to use the available
custom MME Group IDs configured for both GPRS (2G) and UTRAN (3G) network services.
Use the following procedure to configure the SGSN to use the custom MME Group IDs:
Step 1
Access LTE Network Global MME ID Management Database Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Specify the PLMN MCC and MNC values.
Step 3
Configure the low and high end values of the LAC range to be used.
Step 4
Access the context in which the SGSN (3G) service is configured.
Step 5
Associate the 3G service (if configured), with the MME’s Network Global MME ID Management Database that
contains the custom list of MME Group IDs.
Step 6
Access the context in which the 2G GPRS service is configured.
Step 7
Associate the 2G service, if configured, with the MME’s Network Global MME ID Management Database that contains
the custom list of MME Group IDs.
Example Configuration
config
lte-policy
network-global-mme-id-mgmt-db
plmn mcc <mcc_value> mnc <mnc_value> mme-group-id-range first
<low_end_of_range> last <high_end_of_range>
exit
exit
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <sgsn_service_name>
associate network-global-mme-id-mgmt-db
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring a Custom MME Group ID (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
end
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <gprs_service_name>
associate network-global-mme-id-mgmt-db
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring and Associating the Selection of an SGW for RAI (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring and Associating the Selection of an SGW for RAI
(S4 Only, Optional)
If operators wish to bypass DNS resolution of RAI FQDN for obtaining the S-GW address, the SGSN can select an SGW by performing a local configuration look-up for the current Routing Area Instance (RAI). This is accomplished by
configuring the TAI Management Database (tai-mgmt-db) of the SGSN to select an S-GW address and its associated
RAI. In addition, the TAI Management Database must be associated with the 2G and/or 3G services configured on the
SGSN. The TAI Management Database can also be associated with a call-control-profile for RAI-to-SGW address
mapping.
Use the following procedure to configure the selection of an SGW for RAI:
Step 1
Access Global Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Access LTE Policy Configuration Mode.
Step 3
Create a TAI Management Database and enter TAI Management Database Configuration Mode.
Step 4
Create a TAI Management Object and enter TAI Management Object Configuration Mode.
Step 5
Configure the RAI. Specify the RAI MCC, MNC, LAC and RAC values.
Step 6
Configure the SGW address serving the RAI. Specify the IPv4 address, the S5-to-S8 protocol as GTP, and the load
balancing Weight for this SGW. On the S4-SGSN, only GTP is supported as the protocol option.
Step 7
Access SGSN Service Configuration Mode and associate the configured UTRAN (3G) service with the S-GW addresses
and their associated RAIs.
Step 8
Access GPRS Service Configuration Mode and associate the configured GERAN (2G) and service with the S-GW
addresses and their associated RAIs.
Step 9
Optional. Associate the SGW address-to-RAI mapping with a call-control-profile.
Example Configuration
config
lte-policy
tai-mgmt-db <tai_mgmt_db_name>
tai-mgmt-ojb <obj_name>
rai mcc <mcc_value> mnc <mnc_value> lac <lac_value> rac <rac_value>
sgw-address <ipv4_addr> | <ipv6_addr> s5-s8-protocol gtp weight <number>
end
config
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring and Associating the Selection of an SGW for RAI (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <sgsn_service_name>
associate tai-mgmt-db <tai_mgmt_db_name>
end
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <gprs_service_name>
associate tai-mgmt-db <tai_mgmt_db_name>
end
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
associate tai-mgmt-db <tai_mgmt_db_name>
end
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring a Local PGW Address (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring a Local PGW Address (S4 Only, Optional)
If operators wish to bypass DNS resolution of APN FQDN on the S4-SGSN for obtaining a PGW address, the S4-SGSN
can be configured to use a locally configured PGW IPv4 address in an APN profile.
Use the following procedure to configure the local PGW address:
Step 1
Access APN Profile Configuration Mode and create an APN profile.
Step 2
Specify the address resolution mode for the PGW as local.
Step 3
Configure the P-GW address.
Step 4
Configure the load balancing weight preference for the P-GW.
Example Configuration
config
apn-profile <apn_profile_name>
address-resolution-mode local
pgw-address <ipv4_address | ipv6_address> weight <weight_preference>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the Peer MME Address (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
Configuring the Peer MME Address (S4 Only, Optional)
For operators wishing to bypass DNS resolution to obtain the peer EPC MME address, the SGSN supports the local
configuration of a peer MME address for a given MME group (LAC) and MME code (RAC).
Use the following procedure to configure the peer MME address:
Step 1
Access Call Control Configuration Mode and create a call-control-profile.
Step 2
Configure the peer MME Group ID LAC and RAC values or the TAC.
Step 3
Specify a local preference for selection of the peer MME address.
Step 4
Specify the local MME address to use for lookup instead of a DNS query.
Step 5
Specify the interface type to use when communicating with the peer MME. The interface must be s3.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <cc-profile-name>
peer-mme { mme-groupid <lac_value> mme-code <rac_code> | tac tac } prefer local
address <ipv4_address | ipv6_address> interface { gn [ s3 ] | s3 [ gn ] }
end
Notes:
 The tac keyword can be used instead of the mme-groupid and mme-code parameters to configure the Tracking
Area Code (TAC) of the target eNodeB that maps to the peer MME address. The TAC is used by the S4-SGSN
for UTRAN to E-UTRAN (SGSN to MME) SRNS relocation across the S3 interface. Configuration of the tac
is valid only if SRNS relocation first has been configured in Call Control Profile Configuration Mode via the
srns-inter and/or srns-intra commands.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional)
Idle Mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) is a license-enabled feature that allows the UE to roam between LTE and 2G/3G
networks while reducing the frequency of TAU and RAU procedures due to the UE selecting E-UTRAN or UTRAN
networks. ISR reduces the signaling between the UE and the network, and also reduces the signaling between the EUTRAN and UTRAN networks.
Use the following procedure to configure the ISR feature:
Step 1
Access Call Control Configuration Mode.
Step 2
Create a call-control-profile.
Step 3
Enable the Idle Mode Signaling Reduction feature for 3G (UMTS) network access
Step 4
Set the T3323 timeout value that the configured SGSN service will send to the UE in Attach Accept and RAU Accept
messages.
Step 5
Enable the ISR feature for 2G network access
Step 6
Configure the implicit detach timer for 2G subscribers.
Example Configuration
config
call-control-profile <cc-profile-name>
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts
end
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <sgsn_service_name>
gmm T3323-timeout <dur_mins>
end
config
call-control-profile name
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type gprs
end
config
context plmn_name
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring the ISR Feature (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
gprs-service gprs_service_name
gmm implicit-detach-timeout secs
end
Notes:
 idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts enables ISR for 3G network access.
 gmm T3323-timeout dur_mins is the amount of time, in minutes, the UE should wait after the Periodic RAU
timer (T3312 timer) expiry before deactivating ISR for the 3G subscriber. Valid entries are from 1 to 186. The
default is 54.
 idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts enables ISR for 2G network access.
 gmm implicit-detach-timeout secs specifies the implicit detach timeout value to use for 2G ISR. Valid
entries are from 240 to 86400 seconds. The default value is 3600 seconds.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring IDFT for Connected Mode Handover (S4 Only, Optional)
Configuring IDFT for Connected Mode Handover (S4 Only,
Optional)
The S4-SGSN supports the setup of indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between the eNodeB and the RNC via the
SGW during connected mode handovers. This allows the S4-SGSN to support connected mode handovers between the
UTRAN and E-UTRAN networks across the S3 interface.
Once enabled, IDFT is employed under the following conditions:
 If the SGSN is the old node participating in the connected mode handover:
 The target node to which the connected mode handover is initiated should be an eNodeB (i.e., the
SGSN performs the handover to the MME.
 The enb-direct-data-forward CLI setting is not configured in the target RNC configuration (in
RNC Configuration Mode).
 If the SGSN is the new node participating in the connected mode handover:
 The source node from which connected mode handover is initiated is an eNodeB (i.e., the MME is
performing a handover to the SGSN).
 The enb-direct-data-forward CLI setting is not configured in the target RNC configuration (in RNC
Configuration Mode).
 The source MME indicated that it does not support direct forwarding via a Forward Relocation Request.
Important: If the target SGSN did not relocate to a new SGW, then IDFT does not apply. The target SGSN sets
up an indirect data forwarding tunnel with the SGW only if the SGW is relocated. If the SGW is not relocated, then the
source MME sets up the indirect data forwarding tunnel between the source eNodeB and the target RNC through the
SGW.
Important:
By default, indirect data forwarding is enabled, and direct forwarding is disabled.
To configure IDFT for connected mode inter RAT handovers:
Step 1
Enter the context where the IuPS service is configured.
Step 2
Enter IuPS Service Configuration Mode and enter the configured IuPS service.
Step 3
Enter the RNC ID of the IuPS service for which you want to enable IDFT.
Step 4
Disable direct data forwarding for connected mode inter RAT handovers.
Example Configuration
config
context <context_name>
iups-service <iups_service_name>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Configuring IDFT for Connected Mode Handover (S4 Only, Optional) ▀
rnc id <rnc_id>
no enb-direct-data-forward
end
Where:
 no enb-direct-data-forward enables the setup of IDFT between the eNodeB and the RNC via the SGW
for connected mode inter RAT handovers. If IDFT is enabled, the SGSN/MME will send the IDFT request
towards the SGW. Once enabled, the SGSN/MME will send IDFT requests towards the SGW.
 To disable IDFT, enter the enb-direct-data-forward command.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Creating and Configuring ATM Interfaces and Ports (3G only)
Creating and Configuring ATM Interfaces and Ports (3G only)
ATM ports and their associated PVCs can be configured for use with point-to-point interfaces and defined in a context
or they can be bound to link IDs defined in SS7 routing domains.
Refer to the chapter titled System Element Configuration Procedures in the System Administration Guide for
information on configuring ATM interfaces.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
Creating and Configuring Frame Relay Ports (2.5G only) ▀
Creating and Configuring Frame Relay Ports (2.5G only)
Frame Relay ports and their associated DLCIs can be configured for communication with 2G Base Station subsystem
(BSS) for an SGSN implementation.
Refer to the chapter titled System Element Configuration Procedures in the System Administration Guide for
information on configuring Frame Relay ports.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Service Configuration Procedures
▀ Configuring APS/MSP Redundancy
Configuring APS/MSP Redundancy
ASP/MSP redundancy is only available for the OLC2 and CLC2 line cards. It is setup per linecard -- all ports share the
same setup.
APS is enabled with the redundancy command in the Card configuration mode.
Important: At this time the aps command in the Card Configuration Mode chapter is still in development and
should not be used. The parameters are all set by default and cannot be changed or disabled.

Related configuration for signal degrade and signal failure bit error rate thresholds for high path, low path, and transport
overhead - use the commands in the Port Channelized configuration mode.
For command details, refer to the Card Configuration Mode Commands chapter and the Port Configuration Mode
Commands chapter in the Cisco UMTS Command Line Interface Reference.
Step 1
Configure a line card for either SONET or SDH.
Step 2
Configure APS for a SONET line card or MPS for an SDH line card.
Use the configuration example below:
Example Configuration
Use the following example (replacing specific values) to setup a CLC2 (Frame Relay) line card:
config
card 27
framing sdh e1
header-type 4-byte
initial-e1-framing standard
redundancy aps-mode
service-type frame-relay
no shutdown
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 5
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
3G/2G Location Change Reporting on the SGSN facilitates location-based charging on the GGSN by providing the
UE’s location information when it is in connected mode.
Important: With Release 16, the new "Location-reporting in connected-mode" license is required to enable
Location Change Reporting functionality. For details, contact your Cisco Account Representative.
The SGSN notifies the GGSN whenever one of the following changes:
 the serving cell global identity (CGI), or
 the service area identity (SAI), or
 the routing area identity (RAI).
Contents
This document contains the following sections:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Location Change Reporting
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The 3G/2G Location Change Reporting feature enables the operator to charge the user for location-based services.
Location-based charging is a values-added function that ensures subscribers pay a premium for operator-determined
location-based services, such as service in a congested area.
This optional feature functions in accordance with 3GPP TS 23.060, Release 9, sections 12.7.5 and 15.1.3 and requires
an additional license - the Location Reporting License. With the license, the operator uses the CLI to enable the feature
independently for each access type: GPRS (2G) or UMTS (3G).
Relationships
The SGSN works with the GGSN for this feature. The GGSN must send subscription information to the SGSN for the
3G/2G Location Change Reporting feature to work.
This feature is independent of user location information (ULI) configuration, which allows GTP-C messages to be used
for carrying user location information to the GGSN.
License
A feature-specific license is required. Please consult your Cisco Account Representative for information about the
specific license. For information on installing and verifying licenses, refer to the “Managing License Keys” section of
the Software Management Operations chapter in the System Administration Guide.
Standards Compliance
The SGSN 3G/2G Location Change Reporting feature complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.060 Release 9
 3GPP TS 29.060 Release 9.7.0
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
How it Works ▀
How it Works
When the Location Change Reporting feature is enabled, the SGSN advertizes support for location change reporting to
the GGSN by including an extension header - MS-Info-Change-Reporting indication - in the Create-PDP-ContextRequest (CPCQ) or the Update-PDP-Context-Request (UPCQ) GTP-C messages (as specified in section 6.1.5 of TS
23.060, R9).
The SGSN initiates the process to report the UE location when subscription information is received from the GGSN.
The SGSN decodes the MS-Info-Change-Reporting-Action IE in the CPCR, the UPCQ, and the UPCUPCR messages
received from the GGSN that request the SGSN to check user locations.
The SGSN uses cell update procedures, location reporting procedures, and routing area update (RAU) procedures to
identify changes in the serving cell (2G), or in the service area (3G), or in the routing area respectively to identify
location changes. In a 2G network, the SGSN sends location information to the GGSN when it receives a cell update
from a BSC. In a 3G network, the SGSN sends information to the GGSN when it receives location reports from the
RNC. If the GGSN subscribes to the RAI changes and the UE performs an RAU, then the SGSN informs the GGSN of
the new RAI.
Call Flows
The following call flows illustrate system behavior when the feature is enabled.
Figure 18.
2G Subscription
1. Subscription is created.
2. Determines if subscription is present.
3. Location is sent to all GGSNs to which the UE subscribes.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
▀ How it Works
Figure 19.
3G Subscription
Figure 20.
Delete Subscription
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
Configuring Location Change Reporting ▀
Configuring Location Change Reporting
By default, Location Change Reporting is disabled. Reporting to the GGSN is easily enabled in the Call Control Profile
configuration mode.
The following configuration enables this feature:
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
location-reporting { gprs | umts }
exit
Notes:
 The command can be repeated to enable location change reporting for GPRS (2G) and UMTS (3G).
The following configuration disables this feature:
config
call-control-profile <cc_profile_name>
remove location-reporting { gprs | umts }
exit
Notes:
 Using the remove keyword with the command disables the feature.
Verifying the Location Change Reporting Configuration
This section explains how to display the configuration after saving it in the .cfg file as described in the System
Administration Guide.
Verification for the call control profile configuration is accomplished via the corresponding show command in Exec
Mode:
show call-control-profile
[local]S4SGSN_Sim# show call-control-profile full name ccprof1
Call Control Profile Name = ccprof1
Accounting Mode (SGW)
: None
GPRS Attach All
: Allow
GPRS Attach All Failure Code
: 14
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
3G-2G Location Change Reporting
▀ Configuring Location Change Reporting
UMTS Attach All
: Allow
UMTS Attach All Failure Code
: 14
. . .
. . .
Location Reporting for UMTS
: Enabled
Location Reporting for GPRS
: Enabled
EPS Attach Restrict
Voice Unsupported
IMSI Attach Fail
CSFB Restrictions
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
: FALSE
: FALSE
Chapter 6
APN Restriction
This chapter describes the APN Restriction feature and provides detailed information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring APN Restriction
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the APN Restriction
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
APN Restriction
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The reception, storage, and transfer of APN Restriction values is used to determine whether a UE is allowed to establish
PDP Context or EPS bearers with other APNs. This feature is supported by both the Gn/Gp-SGSN and the S4-SGSN.
During default bearer activation, the SGSN sends the current maximum APN restriction value for the UE to the
GGSN/P-GW in a Create PDP Context Request/ Create Session Request(CSR). The GGSN/P-GW will have an APN
restriction value for each APN. The UE’s APN Restriction value determines the type of application data the subscriber
is allowed to send. If the maximum APN restriction of the UE (received in the CSR) and the APN Restriction value of
the APN (for which activation is being requested) do not concur, then the GGSN/P-GW rejects activation. The
maximum APN restriction for a UE is the most restrictive based on all already active default EPS bearers. The purpose
of enabling APN Restriction in S4-SGSN is to determine whether the UE is allowed to establish EPS Bearers with other
APNs based on the Maximum APN Restriction value associated with that UE.
This feature provides the operator with increased control to restrict certain APNs to UEs based on the type of APN. This
feature requires no special license.
APN Restriction for SGSN is enabled/ disabled in the Call-control-profile configuration mode using the apnrestriction command.
Relationships to Other Features
APN Restriction value corresponding to each APN is known by the GGSN/P-GW. The Gn/S4-SGSN sends the
Maximum APN Restriction of the UE to the GGSN/P-GW in a Create PDP Context Request/ Create Session Request.
The GGSN/P-GW accepts or rejects the activation based on the Maximum APN Restriction of UE and APN Restriction
value of that APN which is sent the Create PDP Context Request/ Create Session Request
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
APN Restriction
How it Works ▀
How it Works
During default bearer activation the Gn/S4-SGSN sends the current Maximum APN Restriction value for the UE to the
GGSN/ P-GW in the Create PDP Context Request/ Create Session Request (if it is the first activation for that UE or if
the APN Restriction is disabled, Maximum APN restriction will be "0" in the Create PDP Context Request/ Create
Session Request). The GGSN/P-GW has an APN restriction value for each APN. If the Maximum APN Restriction for
the subscriber is received in the Create PDP Context Request/ Create Session Request and APN Restriction value of the
APN to which activation is being requested do not concur then the GGSN/P-GW rejects the activation by sending a
Create PDP Context / Create Session Response failure message to the G/S4-SGSN with EGTP cause
"EGTP_CAUSE_INCOMPATIBLE_APN_REST_TYPE (0x68)".
If the Maximum APN Restriction of the subscriber and APN Restriction of the APN to which activation is ongoing
agree as per APN Restriction rules, the GGSN/P-GW sends the APN Restriction value of the APN in the Create PDP
Context / Create Session Response as success during activation. The Gn/S4-SGSN updates the APN restriction value of
that PDN connection with the value received from GGSN/P-GW in the Create PDP Context/ Create Session Response.
The APN restriction value can be received by a new SGSN through context response and forward re-location request
messages.
The combination of APN Restriction values of all the PDN connections of a particular UE should be valid and the
maximum APN restriction value of the UE should be updated whenever the APN restriction value of a PDN connection
is updated.
Table below displays the valid combinations of APN restriction values:
Table 13. APN restriction values
Maximum APN Restriction
Value
Type of
APN
Application Example
APN Restriction Value allowed to be
established
0
No Existing Contexts or Restriction
All
1
Public-1
WAP or MMS
1, 2, 3
2
Public-2
Internet or PSPDN
1, 2
3
Private-1
Corporate (for example MMS
subscribers)
1
4
Private-2
Corporate (for example non-MMS
subscribers)
None
The valid combination of APN restriction values is achieved in the Gn/ S4-SGSN based on the APN restriction value of
the most restrictive PDN connection. If the bearer with the most restrictive APN restriction value gets de-activated, the
maximum APN restriction value is re-calculated from among the remaining active default bearers.
In the Create PDP Context /Create Session Request during default bearer activation, the Gn/S4-SGSN sends the
Maximum APN Restriction Value for the UE. If no value is available (if this default bearer is the first activation) then,
the Maximum APN restriction value will be "0" in Create Session Request. A value of "0" in the Create PDP Context /
Create Session Request for Maximum APN restriction indicates there are no other existing PDN connections for the UE
or APN restriction is disabled.
If the APN restriction value received in the Create PDP Context / Create Session Response during activation violates the
current Maximum APN restriction, then the SGSN rejects the activation and also de-activates any other PDN connection
to the same APN. The SGSN considers the APN restriction received in latest Create PDP Context / Create Session
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
APN Restriction
▀ How it Works
Response as the latest value of the APN restriction associated with that APN. If there are any other PDN connections to
this APN, the SGSN updates the APN restriction associated with those PDN connections. If the APN restriction value is
not violated then the SGSN updates the APN restriction value for that PDN connection and any other PDN connection
to the same APN with the value received in the Create PDP Context / Create Session Response and re-calculates the
Maximum APN restriction value for MS.
If APN restriction is enabled, but the SGSN does not receive any APN restriction value in the Create PDP Context /
Create Session Response and if another PDN connection exists to the same APN, the value of APN restriction is copied
from that APN. If no value is available, the APN restriction value is assumed to be "0".
If the current Maximum APN restriction value for the UE is present and the SGSN receives a new default bearer
activation request to another APN, while the APN restriction feature is enabled, the activation is rejected with the
appropriate sm cause.
If the Gn/ S4-SGSN receives a Create PDP Context/ Create Session Response as failure from the P-GW with EGTP
cause "EGTP_CAUSE_INCOMPATIBLE_APN_REST_TYPE (0x68)", then the Gn/ S4-SGSN sends an activate reject
to the MS with SM cause "(112) APN restriction value incompatible with active PDP context". Any de-activate request
sent to the MS due to APN Restriction violation also has the same SM cause.
For every new activation request, the SGSN re-calculates the Maximum APN Restriction from among other currently
active PDN connections (excluding those PDNs for which any de-activation is ongoing.)
The APN restriction values are recovered during session recovery. In old SGSN ISRAU, the APN restriction associated
with each PDN is sent to the peer in Context Response. In old SGSN SRNS re-location, the APN restriction associated
with each PDN connection is sent to the peer in Forward Re-location Request.
In IRAT procedures, the APN restriction for each PDN connection is transferred internally during IRAT and these
values are used for subsequent activations after IRAT.
In new SGSN ISRAU, the APN restriction values received in context response are used in the subsequent activations
after ISRAU.
In new SGSN SRNS, the APN restriction values received in the forward re-location are used in subsequent activations
after SRNS re-location.
Limitations
Consider the scenario where APN restriction is enabled, but no value for APN restriction is received in the Create PDP
Context / Create Session Response and no other PDN connections exists to the same APN. An APN restriction value of
"0" is assigned to that PDN connection to denote that APN restriction value is invalid for that PDN. During subsequent
activations for the subscriber, if the SGSN receives a valid APN Restriction corresponding to the same APN, then the
APN Restriction value will be updated for the existing PDNs as well. If not, when a subsequent activation happens with
an APN for which SGSN receives valid APN Restriction value, the existing PDNs with invalid (that is "0") APN
Restriction values will be de-activated. This behaviour is also observed when the subscriber changes from one PLMN to
another PLMN, where the APN Restriction is enabled in the new PLMN but disabled in the old PLMN.
The SGSN does not support APN Restriction if it is enabled during an ongoing call. For APN Restriction to be applied
correctly for a subscriber, all the PDP contexts of the subscriber should be created after the APN Restriction is enabled.
Standards Compliance
The APN Restriction feature complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.060 (version 10)
 3GPP TS 29.274 (version 10)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
APN Restriction
Configuring APN Restriction ▀
Configuring APN Restriction
This section describes how to configure the APN Restriction feature. The following command is used to configure the
APN restriction feature:
config
call-control-profileprofile_name
apn-restriction update-policy deactivate { least-restrictive | most-restrictive }
exit
Notes:
 The least or most restrictive values of the APN restriction are applicable only for the Gn SGSN, as the APN
restriction can be present in UPCQ/UPCR for Gn SGSN and this configuration is required to determine the
PDN to be de-activated when an APN restriction violation occurs during modification procedures in the Gn
SGSN. In the case of S4-SGSN, the APN restriction value is received by the S4-SGSN only in Create Session
Response during activation. During activation in S4-SGSN, a PDN connection that violates the current
Maximum APN restriction is always de-activated. Therefore in the case of S4-SGSN, this CLI is used only for
enabling or disabling APN restriction.
For more information on this CLI refer to the Command Line Interface Reference manual.
Verifying the APN Restriction Configuration
The show configuration command is used to verify the configuration of the APN Restriction feature. Listed below
is an example of the show configuration command where APN restriction is configured:
[local]asr5000# show configuration config
call-control-profile test
apnrestriction update-policy deactivate least-restrictive
exit end[local]asr5000#
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
APN Restriction
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the APN Restriction
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the APN Restriction
This section provides information on how to monitor APN restriction and to determine that it is working correctly. The
following show commands support the monitoring and trouble shooting of the APN restriction feature:

The show subscribers SGSN-only full and show subscribers gprs-only full commands display the APN
Restriction value of each PDP Context.

The session-disconnect reason for APN Restriction is sgsn-apn-restrict-vio.

The show gmm-sm statistics verbose command displays following counters related to the cause "APN restriction
value incompatible with active PDP context":

Deactivation Causes Tx

3G-APN Restr val Incomp With Ctx

2G-APN Restr val Incomp With Ctx

Activate Primary PDP Context Denied

3G-APN-Restriction Incompatible

2G-APN-Restriction Incompatible
For detailed parameter descriptions see the Statistics and Counters Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 7
Attach Rate Throttling
This chapter describes the Attach rate throttling feature and includes the following topics:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring the Attach Rate Throttling Feature
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Attach Rate Throttling Feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Attach Rate Throttling
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The SGSN is located at the core of the GPRS Network. It is connected to several nodes in the network like the HLR,
GGSN, MSC/VLR, and RNC/BSC so on.
The diagram below depicts the SGSN and its network connections in a GPRS Network.
Figure 21.
SGSN in a GPRS Network.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Attach Rate Throttling
How it Works ▀
How it Works
Attach Rate Throttling Feature
The Mobile Stations access the services of a GPRS Network by attaching themselves to the network through SGSN
nodes. The SGSN can process more than “5000” such attach requests per second. In a typical network the SGSN can be
connected to other network elements over a narrow band link and these network elements may not able to process
requests at high rates such as the SGSN. This may lead to an overload condition in other network elements. To prevent
such scenarios, the Attach Rate throttling feature is designed, this feature limits the rate at which the SGSN processes
requests.
The diagram below depicts the high level software architecture in a SGSN node:
Figure 22.
Software architecture in a SGSN node.
In a SGSN node the Link Manager/Gb Managers and the IMSI Manager perform the following tasks:
1.
2.
Link Manager/GbManager:Manages the links towards different network elements such as RNC, HLR so on. The
Attach requests and ISRAU requests received on the Link Manager/Gb Manager are sent to the IMSI Manager.
IMSI Manager: The IMSI Manager assigns the new connection requests to the various Session Managers. The
assignment is done after verifying the load on the Session Managers. The Attach Rate Throttling feature is implemented
at the IMSI Manager.
The IMSI manager is responsible for identifying the Session Manager to handle the incoming requests. The requests are
then queued for the identified Session Manager. These queues are processed at the maximum possible rate. With the
introduction of Attach Rate Throttling feature, an intermediary queue is introduced which buffers the incoming requests
and processes these requests at the rate configured by the operator. The requests from the intermediary queue are
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Attach Rate Throttling
▀ How it Works
processed at the configured attach rate and then forwarded to the identified Session Manager queue for normal
processing. This allows the operator to cap the rate at which new requests are accepted by the SGSN. An overload
scenario can be prevented with the introduction of the Attach Rate Throttling feature. The intermediary queues are
operational only when the Attach Rate Throttling feature is enabled. If the feature is disabled, attach requests are
directly queued for processing at the identified Session Manager.
Limitations
The operator must ensure that an optimal attach rate must be configured based on the network conditions:
1.
2.
If the incoming requests arrive at a very high rate and the attach rate configured to a very low rate, the requests will be
dropped from the intermediary queue once the queue is full. The IMSI Manager can send a reject response with the
appropriate reject cause codes for such all dropped requests or silently drop the requests.
If the configured attach rate is very low, the requests waiting time in the queue increases. The "t3310" timer at the MS
expires and the MS will have to re-transmit the request. The IMSI Manager drops all requests which have waited in the
queue for more than the configured wait time.
The configured Attach rate must have an optimal processing rate and waiting time.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Attach Rate Throttling
Configuring the Attach Rate Throttling Feature ▀
Configuring the Attach Rate Throttling Feature
The following command is used to configure the Attach Rate Throttling feature, this command configures an attach rate
throttle mechanism to control the number of new connections (attaches or inter-SGSN RAUs), through the SGSN, on a
per second basis:
config
network-overload-protection sgsn-new-connections-per-second #_new_connections action {
drop | reject with cause { congestion | network failure } } [ queue-size queue_size ] [
wait-time wait_time ]
default network-overload-protection sgsn-new-connections-persecond
exit
Notes:
 The default mode of the command disables the Attach Rate Throttling feature.
 For detailed information on the command see, Cisco ASR 5x00 Command Line Interface Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Attach Rate Throttling
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Attach Rate Throttling Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Attach Rate Throttling
Feature
Attach Rate Throttling Show Commands and Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the Attach Rate
Throttling feature.
The counters for this feature are available under the show command show gmm-sm statistics, as a part of the
Network Overload Protection counters.

Network Overload Protection

Number of valid packets processed in the last sec.

Number of packets in Q in the last tick

Packets to be dequeued in the last tick

Number of new requests processed from the pacing queue in the last tick

Number of requests dropped from the pacing queue in the last tick

Average Number of requests processed per min (1 min)

Average Number of requests processed per min (5 min)

Average Number of requests processed per min (10 min)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 8
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
This feature allows the back up of a small set of SGSN key KPI counters for recovery of the counter values after a
session manager (SessMgr) crash.
This section includes the following information:
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring Backup Statistics Feature
 Managing Backedup Statistics
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
Before the Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics feature was implemented, statistics were not backed up and
could not be recovered after a SessMgr task restart. Due to this limitation, monitoring the KPI was a problem as the
SGSN would loose statistical information whenever task restarts occurred.
KPI calculation involves taking a delta between counter values from two time intervals and then determines the
percentage of successful processing of a particular procedure in that time interval. When a SessMgr crashes and then
recovers, the SGSN loses the counter values - they are reset to zero. So, the KPI calculation in the next interval will
result in negative values for that interval. This results in a dip in the graphs plotted using the KPI values, making it
difficult for operations team to get a consistent view of the network performance to determine if there is a genuine issue
or not.
This feature makes it possible to perform reliable KPI calculations even if a SessMgr crash occurs.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
How It Works ▀
How It Works
A key set of counters, used in KPI computation will be backed up for recovery if a SessMgr task restarts. The counters
that will be backed up are determined by the KPIs typically used in several operator networks.
The backup of counters is enabled or disabled via configuration. The configuration specifies the product (currently only
supported by the SGSN) for which counters will be backed up and also a time interval for the back up of the counters.
The backed up counters can be identified via CLI generated displays or via display of the four SGSN-specific backup
statistics schemas: iups-bk, gprs-bk, map-bk, and sgtp-bk. The operator can use these schemas to compute the KPI as
statistics will have the recovered counters. During the display and the backup processes, both the normal counters and
backed-up counters are cumulatively displayed or backed up.
 iups-bk schema - This schema is used for 3G GMM-SM counters which are backed up. The counters in this
schema are pegged per IuPS service. Each line of output is per IuPS service. Additionally, there will be one set
of consolidated counters for all IuPS services which is displayed with the SGSN service name.
 gprs-bk schema - This schema is used for 2G GMM-SM counters which are backed up. The counters in this
schema are pegged per GPRS service. Each line of output is per GPRS service. Additionally, there will be one
set of consolidated counters for all GPRS services which is displayed with the SGSN service name.
 map-bk schema - This schema is used for MAP and SMS counters which are backed up. The counters in this
schema are pegged per MAP service. Each line of output is per MAP service.
 sgtp-bk schema - This schema is used for GTPU counters which are backed up. The counters in this schema are
pegged per IuPS and SGTP service, one per line. Additionally, there will be one line of output which represents
the counters consolidated for all IuPS and SGTP services.
Architecture
When this feature is enabled (see Configuring Backup Statistics Feature below), the SGSN only backs up the counters
maintained at the SessMgr. Counters maintained by other managers, such as the LinkMgr or SGTPMgr, are not backed
up. The recovery function does not need to be configured or ‘started’ as it occurs automatically as needed when the
feature is enabled.
The counters are backed up to the AAAMgr that is paired with the SessMgr. They are recovered from the AAAMgr
after a SessMgr task is killed. This feature makes use of the session recovery framework to backup and retrieve the
counters.
The following diagram depicts how backed-up statistics are maintained separately at the SessMgr and how the
cumulative values are backed up and recovered from the AAAMgr after SessMgr task recovery completes.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
▀ How It Works
Figure 23.
Back Up and Recovery of Statistics for SGSN
Limitations
 A backup interval must be specified and counters are backed up only at the specified interval. For example, if the
backup interval is specified as 5 minutes, then counters are backed up every 5 minutes. Suppose backup
happened at Nth minute and the configured backup interval is for every 5 minutes, then if a task crash happens
at N+4 minutes, the SGSN recovers only the values backed up at Nth minute and the data for the past 4
minutes is lost.
 Only service level statistics are backed up and recovered. Any KPI that is monitored per other granularity, such
as per RA or per RNC, is not supported.
 Only statistics maintained at the SessMgr are backed up. Statistics at other managers, such as LinkMgr and
GbMgr are not backed up.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
Configuring Backup Statistics Feature ▀
Configuring Backup Statistics Feature
For the Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics feature to work, it must be enabled by configuring the backup of
statistics for the SGSN.
Configuration
The following CLI commands are used to manage the functionality for the backing up of the key KPI statistics feature
Enabling
The following configures the backup of statistics for the SGSN and enables the Backup and Recovery of Key KPI
Statistics feature.
configure
statistics-backup sgsn
exit
Setting the Backup Interval
The following command configures the number of minutes (0 to 60) between each backup of the statistics. When the
backup interval is not specified a default value of 5 minutes is used as the backup interval
configure
statistics-backup-interval minutes
exit
Disabling
The following configures the SGSN to disable the backing up of statistics for the SGSN.
configure
no statistics-backup sgsn
exit
Notes:
 When the new keyword is used, only the recovered values will be displayed.
 If no session manager crash has occurred, the above commands output displays with the normal counter values.
 If a session manager crash has happened, the above commands display the cumulative value so far (including the
backed up value).
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
▀ Configuring Backup Statistics Feature
 The display of the counters will be similar to the show sgsn-service statistics command output with
respect to naming and indentation. Only the subset of counters which are backed up will be displayed with the
recovered-values option.
Verifying the Backup Statistics Feature Configuration
Use either the show configuration command or the show configuration verbose command to display the
feature configuration.
If the feature was enabled in the configuration, two lines similar to the following will appear in the output of a show
configuration [ verbose ] command:
statistics-backup mme
statistics-backup-interval 5
Notes:
 The interval displayed is 5 minutes. 5 is the default. If the statistics-backup-interval command is
included in the configuration, then the 5 would be replaced by the configured interval number of minutes.
 If the command to disable the feature is entered, then no statistics-backup line is displayed in the output
generated by a show configuration [ verbose ] command.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
Managing Backed-up Statistics ▀
Managing Backed-up Statistics
A new keyword, recovered-values, is used with existing show and clear commands to either generate a display of
the backed-up statistics or to clear the backed-up statistics.
Displaying Backed-up Statistics
Use one of the following commands to generate a display of the backed up statistics:
 show gmm-sm statistics [ recovered-values ] [ verbose ]
 show gmm-sm statistics sgsn-service sgsn_service_name [ recovered-values ] [
verbose ]
 show gmm-sm statistics gprs-service gprs_service_name [ recovered-values ] [
verbose ]
 show gmm-sm statistics iups-service iups_service_name [ recovered-values ] [
verbose ]
 show map-statistics [ recovered-values ]
 show map statistics map-service map_service_name [ recovered-values ]
 show sms statistics [ recovered-values ]
 show sms statistics name map_service_name [ recovered-values ]
 show sms statistics [ gprs-only | sgsn-only ] [ recovered-values ]
 show sgtpu statistics [ recovered-values ]
 show sgtpu statistics iups-service iups_service_name [ recovered-values ]
 show sgtpu statistics sgtp-service sgtp_service_name [ recovered-values ]
Notes:
 When the recovered-values keyword is used, output includes both current + recovered backed-up
statistical values.
 If no SessMmgr crash has occurred, then the recovered values in the output of the above commands will be 0
(zero).
Clearing Backed-up Statistics
Use one of the following commands to clear (delete) the backed-up statistics. Note that the order entry for the service
name identification varies in some of the commands. As well, the verbose keyword is not used with the clear
commands.
 clear gmm-sm statistics [ recovered-values ]
 clear gmm-sm statistics [ recovered-values ] sgsn-service sgsn_service_name
 clear gmm-sm statistics [ recovered-values ] gprs-service gprs_service_name
 clear gmm-sm statistics [ recovered-values ] iups-service iups_service_name
 clear map-statistics [ recovered-values ]
 clear map statistics name map_service_name [ recovered-values ]
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Backup and Recovery of Key KPI Statistics
▀ Managing Backed-up Statistics
 clear sms statistics [ recovered-values ]
 clear sms statistics name map_service_name [ recovered-values ]
 clear sms statistics [ gprs-only | sgsn-only ] [ recovered-values ]
 clear sgtpu statistics [ recovered-values ]
 clear sgtpu statistics iups-service iups_service_name [ recovered-values ]
 clear sgtpu statistics sgtp-service sgtp_service_name [ recovered-values ]
Notes:
 When the recovered-values keyword is used, only the recovered values will be cleared.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 9
Cause Code Mapping
Local Cause Code Mapping provides the operator with the flexibility to configure a preferred GMM cause code to be
sent to the UE in response to various failures, such a MAP failures. This section identifies the various cause code
mapping optionsand how they are configured.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Cause Code Mapping
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
This feature enables the operator to configure (map) preferred failure code information to send to the UE in reject
messages.
Prior to release 16, the operator could map a preferred GMM reject cause code for the SGSN to send to a UE in place of
MAP cause ‘roaming not allowed’ for MAP failures and to map a preferred GMM reject cause code to be sent in a RAU
Reject for inbound peer SGSN address resolution failures.
Beginning with release 16, additional local cause code mapping is possible:
 Mapping GSM-MAP cause code “unknown-subscriber” to GMM cause code “gprs-service-not-allowed” if a
response message comes without diagnostic information.
 Mapping GSM-MAP cause code ¡§unknown-subscriber¡¨ with diagnostic information indicating ¡§gprssubscription-unknown¡¨ to a preferred GMM cause code.
 Mapping GSM-MAP cause code ¡§unknown-subscriber¡¨ with diagnostic information indicating ¡§imsiunknown¡¨ to a preferred GMM cause code.
 Override the GMM cause sent to the MS in a RAU Reject during context transfer failure.
 Override the cause sent in a Deactivate Request, to an MS, due to the GGSN becoming unreachable.
 Mapping an SM cause code for Deactivate PDP Requests during a path failure towards the GGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Cause Code Mapping
Configuring Cause Code Mapping ▀
Configuring Cause Code Mapping
Each mapping of a cause code is configured slightly differently. Each is illustrated below.
Configuring GMM Cause Codes to Replace MAP Cause Codes
The following configures the SGSN to include a preferred GMM cause code, in Reject messages to the UE, in place of
MAP failure cause 'unknown-subscriber' for MAP failures and inbound RAU context transfer failures. Optionally, the
Operator can map a specific GMM cause code if the SGSN receives additional MAP failure diagnostic information.
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
local-cause-code-mapping map-cause-code { roaming-not-allowed gmm-cause-code gmmcause | unknown-subscriber { gmm-cause-code gmm-cause | map-diag-info { gprssubscription-unknown gmm-cause-code gmm_cause | imsi-unknown gmm-cause-code gmm_cause } }
}
end
Notes:
 unknown-subscriber Instructs the SGSN to send a different GPRS mobility management (GMM) cause code
to a UE when the UE’s access request is rejected due to map cause ‘unknown-subscriber’.
 gmm-cause-code gmm_cause identifies the replacement GMM cause code; options include:
 gprs-serv-and-non-gprs-serv-not-allowed
 gprs-serv-not-allowed
 gprs-serv-not-in-this-plmn
 location-area-not-allowed
 network-failure
 no-suitable-cell-in-this-la
 plmn-not-allowed
 roaming-not-allowed-in-this-la
 map-diag-info gprs-subscription-unknown gmm-cause-code gmm_cause identifies a replacement
GMM cause code if additional ‘gprs-subscription-unknown’ diagnostic MAP failure information is received
when the UE’s access request is rejected due to map cause ‘unknown-subscriber’.
 map-diag-infoimsi-unknown gmm-cause-code gmm_cause identifies a replacement GMM cause code if
additional ‘imsi-unknown’ diagnostic MAP failure information is received when the UE’s access request is
rejected due to map cause ‘unknown-subscriber’.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Cause Code Mapping
▀ Configuring Cause Code Mapping
Verifying Configuration to Replace MAP Cause Codes
Mapping is performed in the call control profile.
Run the show call-control-profile full name profile_name command and review the output. Look for the
following lines to confirm the mapping configuration
Mapped Gmm Cause code for MAP cause Unknown Subscriber : <gmm-cause-if-configured>
MAP cause Unknown Subscriber with Diag Info Gprs Subscription Unknown : <gmm-cause-ifconfigured>
MAP cause Unknown Subscriber with Diag Info Imsi Unknown : <gmm-cause-if-configured>
Configuring GMM Cause Code for RAU Reject due to Context Transfer Failure
This configuration uses the existing rau-inter command in the call control profile configuration mode. There is a
new keyword configures a GMM failure cause code to be sent in a RAU Reject to the UE due to context transfer
failures.
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
rau-inter ctxt-xfer-failure failure-code fail_code
end
Notes:
 fail_code enter value from 2 to 111 to identify the TS 124.008 GMM failure cause code for the ctxt-xferfailure keyword.
For more information about these commands, refer to the Command Line Interface Reference.
Verifying Configuration for Context Transfer Failures
Mapping is performed in the call control profile.
Run the show call-control-profile full name profile_name command and review the output. Look for the
following lines to confirm the mapping configuration
RAU Inter- Failure Code For Peer Sgsn Address Resolution : <gmm-cause>
RAU Inter- Failure Code For Context Transfer : <gmm-cause>
Configuring SM Cause Codes
The following procedures illustrates the commands used to configure SM cause codes to override the default cause
codes sent in Deactivate PDP Request due to GTPC path failure. It is up to the person entering the configuration to
determine which of the 4 cause codes should be the new cause code.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Cause Code Mapping
Configuring Cause Code Mapping ▀
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
local-cause-code-mapping path-failure sm-cause-code { insufficient-resources |
network-failure | reactivation-requested | regular-deactivation }
end
Verifying Configuration for SM Cause Codes
Mapping is performed in the call control profile.
Run the show call-control-profile full name profile_name command and review the output. Look for the
following lines to confirm the mapping configuration
Mapped SM Cause Code For Path Failure : <sm-cause>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 10
Direct Tunnel
This chapter briefly describes the 3G/4G UMTS direct tunnel (DT) feature, indicates how it is implemented on various
systems on a per call basis, and provides feature configuration procedures.
Products supporting direct tunnel include:
 3G devices (per 3GPP TS 23.919 v8.0.0):
 the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
 the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
 LTE devices (per 3GPP TS 23.401 v8.3.0):
 Serving Gateway (S-GW)
 PDN Gateway (P-GW)
Important: Direct tunnel is a licensed Cisco feature. A separate feature license is required for configuration.
Contact your Cisco account representative for detailed information on specific licensing requirements. For information
on installing and verifying licenses, refer to the Managing License Keys section of the Software Management
Operations chapter in the System Administration Guide.
The SGSN determines if setup of a direct tunnel is allowed or disallowed. Currently, the SGSN and S-GW are the only
products that provide configuration commands for this feature. All other products that support direct tunnel do so by
default.
This chapter provides the following information:
 Direct Tunnel Feature Overview
 Direct Tunnel Configuration
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Feature Overview
Direct Tunnel Feature Overview
The direct tunnel architecture allows the establishment of a direct user plane (GTP-U) tunnel between the radio access
network equipment (RNC) and the GGSN/P-GW.
Once a direct tunnel is established, the SGSN/S-GW continues to handle the control plane (RANAP/GTP-C) signaling
and retains the responsibility of making the decision to establish direct tunnel at PDN context activation.
Figure 24.
GTP-U Direct Tunneling
A direct tunnel improves the user experience (for example, expedites web page delivery, reduces round trip delay for
conversational services) by eliminating switching latency from the user plane. An additional advantage, direct tunnel
functionality implements optimization to improve the usage of user plane resources (and hardware) by removing the
requirement from the SGSN/S-GW to handle the user plane processing.
A direct tunnel is achieved upon PDN context activation in the following ways:
 3G network: The SGSN establishes a user plane (GTP-U) tunnel directly between the RNC and the GGSN,
using an Updated PDN Context Request toward the GGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnel
Direct Tunnel Feature Overview ▀
1. Direct Tunneling - 3G Network
 LTE network: When Gn/Gp interworking with pre-release 8 (3GPP) SGSNs is enabled, the GGSN service on
the P-GW supports direct tunnel functionality. The SGSN establishes a user plane (GTP-U) tunnel directly
between the RNC and the GGSN/P-GW, using an Update PDN Context Request toward the GGSN/P-GW.
2. Direct Tunneling - LTE Network, GTP-U Tunnel
 LTE network: The SGSN establishes a user plane tunnel (GTP-U tunnel over an S12 interface) directly between
the RNC and the S-GW, using an Update PDN Context Request toward the S-GW.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Feature Overview
3. Direct Tunneling - LTE Network, S12 Interface
A major consequence of deploying a direct tunnel is that it produces a significant increase in control plane load on both
the SGSN/S-GW and GGSN/P-GW components of the packet core. Hence, deployment requires highly scalable
GGSNs/P-GWs since the volume and frequency of Update PDP Context messages to the GGSN/P-GW will increase
substantially. The SGSN/S-GW platform capabilities ensure control plane capacity will not be a limiting factor with
direct tunnel deployment.
The following figure illustrates the logic used within the SGSN/S-GW to determine if a direct tunnel will be setup.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnel
Direct Tunnel Feature Overview ▀
Figure 25.
Direct Tunneling - Establishment Logic
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Configuration
Direct Tunnel Configuration
The following configurations are provided in this section:
 Configuring Direct Tunnel Support on the SGSN
 Configuring S12 Direct Tunnel Support on the S-GW
The SGSN/S-GW direct tunnel functionality is enabled within an operator policy configuration. One aspect of an
operator policy is to allow or disallow the setup of direct GTP-U tunnels. If no operator policies are configured, the
system looks at the settings in the system operator policy named default.
By default, direct tunnel support is
 disallowed on the SGSN/S-GW
 allowed on the GGSN/P-GW.
Important: If direct tunnel is allowed in the default operator policy, then any incoming call that does not have
an applicable operator policy configured will have direct tunnel allowed.
For more information about operator policies and configuration details, refer to Operator Policy.
Configuring Direct Tunnel Support on the SGSN
The following is a high-level view of the steps, and the associated configuration examples, to configure the SGSN to
setup a direct tunnel.
Before beginning any of the following procedures, you must have completed (1) the basic service configuration for the
SGSN, as described in the Cisco ASR Serving GPRS Support Node Administration Guide, and (2) the creation and
configuration of a valid operator policy, as described in the Operator Policy chapter in this guide.
Step 1
Configure the SGSN to setup GTP-U direct tunnel between an RNC and an access gateway by applying the example
configuration presented in the Enabling Setup of GTP-U Direct Tunnels section below.
Step 2
Configure the SGSN to allow GTP-U direct tunnels to an access gateway, for a call filtered on the basis of the APN, by
applying the example configuration presented in the Enabling Direct Tunnel per APN section below.
Important: It is only necessary to complete either step 2 or step 3 as a direct tunnel can not be setup
on the basis of call filtering matched with both an APN profile and an IIMEI profile.
Step 3
Configure the SGSN to allow GTP-U direct tunnels to a GGSN, for a call filtered on the basis of the IMEI, by applying
the example configuration presented in the Enabling Direct Tunnel per IMEI section below.
Step 4
Configure the SGSN to allow GTP-U direct tunnel setup from a specific RNC by applying the example configuration
presented in the Enabling Direct Tunnel to Specific RNCs section below.
Step 5
(Optional) Configure the SGSN to disallow direct tunnel setup to a single GGSN that has been configured to allow it in
the APN profile. This command allows the operator to restrict use of a GGSN for any reason, such as load balancing.
Refer to the direct-tunnel-disabled-ggsn command in the SGTP Service Configuration Mode chapter of the
Command Line Interface Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnel
Direct Tunnel Configuration ▀
Step 6
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide and the Command Line Interface Reference.
Step 7
Check that your configuration changes have been saved by using the sample configuration found in the Verifying the
SGSN Direct Tunnel Configuration section in this chapter.
Enabling Setup of GTP-U Direct Tunnels
The SGSN determines whether a direct tunnel can be setup and by default the SGSN doesn’t support direct tunnel.
Example Configuration
Enabling direct tunnel setup on an SGSN is done by configuring direct tunnel support in a call-control profile.
config
call-control-profile <policy_name>
direct-tunnel attempt-when-permitted
end
Notes:
 A call-control profile must have been previously created, configured, and associated with a previously created,
configured, and valid operator policy. For information about operator policy creation/configuration, refer to the
Operator Policy chapter in this guide.
 Direct tunnel is now allowed on the SGSN but will only setup if allowed on both the destination node and the
RNC.
Enabling Direct Tunnel per APN
In each operator policy, APN profiles are configured to connect to one or more GGSNs and to control the direct tunnel
access to that GGSN based on call filtering by APN. Multiple APN profiles can be configured per operator policy.
By default, APN-based direct tunnel functionality is allowed so any existing direct tunnel configuration must be
removed to return to default and to ensure that the setup has not been restricted.
Example Configuration
The following is an example of the commands used to ensure that direct tunneling, to a GGSN(s) identified in the APN
profile, is enabled:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
remove direct tunnel
end
Notes:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Configuration
 An APN profile must have been previously created, configured, and associated with a previously created,
configured, and valid operator policy. For information about operator policy creation/configuration, refer to the
Operator Policy chapter in this guide.
 Direct tunnel is now allowed for the APN but will only setup if also allowed on the RNC.
Enabling Direct Tunnel per IMEI
Some operator policy filtering of calls is done on the basis of international mobile equipment identity (IMEI) so the
direct tunnel setup may rely upon the feature configuration in the IMEI profile.
The IMEI profile basis its permissions for direct tunnel on the RNC configuration associated with the IuPS service.
By default, direct tunnel functionality is enabled for all RNCs.
Example Configuration
The following is an example of the commands used to enable direct tunneling in the IMEI profile:
config
imei-profile <profile_name>
direct-tunnel check-iups-service
end
Notes:
 An IMEI profile must have been previously created, configured, and associated with a previously created,
configured, and valid operator policy. For information about operator policy creation/configuration, refer to the
Operator Policy chapter in this guide.
 Direct tunnel is now allowed for calls within the IMEI range associated with the IMEI profile but a direct tunnel
will only setup if also allowed on the RNC.
Enabling Direct Tunnel to Specific RNCs
SGSN access to radio access controllers (RNCs) is configured in the IuPS service.
Each IuPS service can include multiple RNC configurations that determine communications and features depending on
the RNC.
By default, direct tunnel functionality is enabled for all RNCs.
Example Configuration
The following is an example of the commands used to ensure that restrictive configuration is removed and direct tunnel
for the RNC is enabled:
config
context <ctx_name>
iups-service <service_name>
rnc id <rnc_id>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnel
Direct Tunnel Configuration ▀
default direct-tunnel
end
Notes:
 An IuPS service must have been previously created, and configured.
 An RNC configuration must have been previously created within an IuPS service configuration.
 Command details for configuration can be found in the Command Line Interface Reference.
Verifying the SGSN Direct Tunnel Configuration
Enabling the setup of a GTP-U direct tunnel on the SGSN is not a straight forward task. It is controlled by an operator
policy with related configuration in multiple components. Each of these component configurations must be checked to
ensure that the direct tunnel configuration has been completed. You need to begin with the operator policy itself.
Verifying the Operator Policy Configuration
For the feature to be enabled, it must be allowed in the call-control profile and the call-control profile must be associated
with an operator policy. As well, either an APN profile or an IMEI profile must have been created/configured and
associated with the same operator policy. Use the following command to display and verify the operator policy and the
association of the required profiles:
show operator-policy full name <policy_name>
The output of this command displays profiles associated with the operator policy.
[local]asr5x00# show operator-policy full name oppolicy1
Operator Policy Name = oppolicy1
Call Control Profile Name
Validity
: ccprofile1
: Valid
IMEI Range 99999999999990 to 99999999999995
IMEI Profile Name
Validity
: imeiprofile1
: Invalid
APN NI homers1
APN Profile Name
Validity
: apnprofile1
: Valid
APN NI visitors2
APN Profile Name
Validity
: apnprofile2
: Invalid
Notes:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Configuration
 Validity refers to the status of the profile. Valid indicates that profile has been created and associated with the
policy. Invalid means only the name of the profile has been associated with the policy.
 The operator policy itself will only be valid if one or more IMSI ranges have been associated with it - refer to the
Operator Policy chapter, in this guide, for details.
Verifying the Call-Control Profile Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration for the call-control profiles:
show call-control-profile full name <profile_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified call-control
profile.
Call Control Profile Name = ccprofile1
...
Re-Authentication
: Disabled
Direct Tunnel
: Not Restricted
GTPU Fast Path
: Disabled
..
Verifying the APN Profile Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration in the APN profile:
show apn-profile full name <profile_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified APN profile.
Call Control Profile Name = apnprofile1
...
IP Source Validation
: Disabled
Direct Tunnel
: Not Restricted
Service Restriction for Access Type > UMTS
: Disabled
..
Verifying the IMEI Profile Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration in the IMEI profile:
show imei-profile full name <profile_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified IMEI profile.
IMEI Profile Name = imeiprofile1
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnel
Direct Tunnel Configuration ▀
Black List
: Disabled
GGSN Selection
: Disabled
Direct Tunnel
: Enabled
Verifying the RNC Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration in the RNC configuration:
show iups-service name
<service_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified IuPS service.
IService name
: iups1
...
Available RNC:
Rnc-Id
: 1
Direct Tunnel
: Not Restricted
Configuring S12 Direct Tunnel Support on the S-GW
The example in this section configures an S12 interface supporting direct tunnel bypass of the S4 SGSN for inter-RAT
handovers.
The direct tunnel capability on the S-GW is enabled by configuring an S12 interface. The S4 SGSN is then responsible
for creating the direct tunnel by sending an FTEID in a control message to the MME over the S3 interface. The MME
forwards the FTEID to the S-GW over the S11 interfaces. The S-GW responds with it’s own U-FTEID providing the
SGSN with the identification information required to set up the direct tunnel over the S12 interface.
Use the following example to configure this feature:
configure
context <egress_context_name> -noconfirm
interface <s12_interface_name>
ip address <s12_ipv4_address_primary>
ip address <s12_ipv4_address_secondary>
exit
exit
port ethernet <slot_number/port_number>
no shutdown
bind interface <s12_interface_name> <egress_context_name>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnel
▀ Direct Tunnel Configuration
exit
context <egress_context_name> -noconfirm
gtpu-service <s12_gtpu_egress_service_name>
bind ipv4-address <s12_interface_ip_address>
exit
egtp-service <s12_egtp_egress_service_name>
interface-type interface-sgw-egress
validation-mode default
associate gtpu-service <s12_gtpu_egress_service_name>
gtpc bind address <s12_interface_ip_address>
exit
sgw-service <sgw_service_name> -noconfirm
associate egress-proto gtp egress-context <egress_context_name> egtp-service
<s12_egtp_egress_service_name>
end
Notes:
 The S12 interface IP address(es) can also be specified as IPv6 addresses using the ipv6 address command.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 11
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
This chapter describes S4-SGSN support for Direct Tunnel (DT) funtionality over the S12 interface to optimize packet
data traffic. Included information for this feature are:
Important: This feature is present in the code base, but is not fully qualified and is recommended for Lab and
Field trials only. This feature will be qualified in the next planned release.
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring Direct Tunnel on an S4-SGSN
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting Direct Tunnel
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The amount of user plane data will increase significantly during the next few years because of High Speed Packet
Access (HSPA) and IP Multimedia Subsystem technologies. Direct tunnelling of user plane data between the RNC and
the S-GW can be employed to scale UMTS system architecture to support higher traffic rates.
DT offers a solution that optimizes core architecture without impact to UEs and can be deployed independently of the
LTE/SAE architecture.
S4-SGSN now supports establishment of a GTP-U direct tunnel between an RNC and the S-GW under the scenarios
listed below:
 Primary PDP activation
 Secondary PDP activation
 Service Request Procedure
 Intra SGSN Routing Area Update without S-GW change
 Intra SGSN Routing Area Update with S-GW change
 Intra SGSN SRNS relocation without S-GW change
 Intra SGSN SRNS relocation with S-GW change
 New SGSN SRNS relocation with S-GW change
 New SGSN SRNS relocation without S-GW relocation
 E-UTRAN-to-UTRAN Iu mode IRAT handover with application of S12U FTEID for Indirect Data Forwarding
Tunnels as well
 UTRAN-to-E-UTRAN Iu mode IRAT handover with application of S12U FTEID for Indirect Data Forwarding
Tunnels as well
 Network Initiated PDP Activation
Scenarios that vary at S4-SGSN when direct tunneling is enabled, as compared to DT on a 2G or 3G SGSN using the
Gn interface, include:
 RAB Release
 Iu Release
 Error Indication from RNC
 Downlink Data Notification from S-GW
 Downlink Data Error Indication from S-GW
 MS Initiated PDP Modification
 P-GW Initiated PDP Modification while the UE is IDLE
 HLR/HSS Initiated PDP Modification
 Session Recovery with Direct Tunnel
The above scenarios exhibit procedural differences in S4-SGSN when a direct tunnel is established.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
Feature Description ▀
DT functionality enables direct user plane tunnel between RNC and SGW within the PS domain. With direct tunneling
the SGSN provides the RNC with the TEID and user plane address of the S-GW, and also provides the S-GW with the
TEID and user plane address of the RNC.
The SGSN handles the control plane signaling and makes the decision when to establish the direct tunnel between RNC
and S-GW, or use two tunnels for this purpose (based on configuration).
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
How It Works
Establishment of Direct Tunnel
The S4-SGSN uses the S12 interface for DT.
Direct Tunnel Activation for Primary PDP Context
For the PDP Context Activation procedure this solution uses new information elements (IEs) for the GPRS Tunnelling
Protocol v2 (GTPv2) as defined in TS 29.274. SGSN provides the user plane addresses for RNC and S-GW as S12U
FTEIDs as illustrated in the figure below.
The sequence for establishing a direct tunnel between the RNC and S-GW during PDP activation is as follows:
 SGSN sends a Create Session Request to the S-GW with the indication flag DTF (direct tunnel flag) bit set
 In its Create Session Response, the S-GW sends the SGSN an S12U FTEID (Fully Qualified Tunnel Endpoint
Identifier).
 The SGSN forwards the S-GW S12U to the RNC during the RAB Assignment Request.
 In its RAB Assignment Response, the RNC sends the SGSN its transport address and Tunnel Endpoint ID
(TEID).
 The SGSN forward the RNC S12 U FTEID o the S-GW via a Modify Bearer Request.
Figure 26.
Primary PDP Activation with Direct Tunnel
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Direct Tunnel Activation for UE Initiated Secondary PDP Context
The following is the general sequence for establishing a direct tunnel for a Secondary PDP Context Activation:
 The SGSN sends a Bearer Resource Command to the S-GW with no flags set. (S-GW already knows Direct
Tunnel is enabled for primary.)
 The S-GW sends a Create Bearer Response that includes the S12U FTEID to the SGSN.
 The SGSN forwards the S-GW S12U to RNC via a RAB Assignment Request.
 In its RAB Assignment Response, the RNC sends its transport address and TEID to the SGSN.
 The SGSN forwards the S12U TEID received from the RNC to the S-GW via a Create Bearer Response.
Figure 27.
Secondary PDP Activation with Direct Tunnel
RAB Release with Direct Tunnel
If the SGSN receives a RAB Release Request from the RNC for bearer contexts activated with Direct Tunnel, it sends a
Release Access Bearer Request to the S-GW.
Upon receiving the Release Access Bearer Request, the S-GW removes the S12 U RNC FTEID. If any downlink data
appears, the S-GW sends a Downlink Data Notification because it does not have a user plane FTEID with which to
forward data.
Bearers with a streaming or conversational class will not be included in the Release Access Bearer Request because
these bearers should be deactivated. However, S4-SGSN currently does not support deactivation of
streaming/conversational bearers upon RAB release.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 28.
RAB Release Procedure with Direct Tunnel
Important:
Operators should not use conversational or streaming class bearers in S4-SGSN.
Iu Release with Direct Tunnel
If the SGSN receives an Iu Release and bearers are activated with direct tunneling, it sends a Release Access Bearer
Request to the S-GW.
Bearers with a streaming or conversational class will not be included in the Release Access Bearer Request because
these bearers should be deactivated. However, S4-SGSN currently does not support deactivation of streaming or
conversational bearers upon Iu release.
Important:
Figure 29.
Operators should not use conversational or streaming class bearers in S4-SGSN.
Iu Release Procedure with Direct Tunnel
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Service Request with Direct Tunnel
When a UE is Idle and wants to establish a data or signaling connection, it sends a Service Request for data.
Alternatively a UE can also send a Service Request to the SGSN when it is paged by the SGSN.
Upon receiving a Service Request for data, the SGSN establishes RABs and sends a Modify Bearer Request to the SGW with the 12U FTEID received from the RNC.
Figure 30.
Service Request Procedure with Direct Tunnel
Downlink Data Notification with Direct Tunnel when UE in Connected State
When RABs are released (but UE retains an Iu connection with the SGSN), the SGSN notifies the S-GW to release the
RNC side TEIDs via a Release Access Bearer Request.
If the S-GW receives any downlink GTPU data from the P-GW after receiving the Release Access Bearer Request, it
knows neither the RNC TEID nor SGSN user plane TEID to which to forward the data. So it signals the SGSN to
establish the RABs. This signaling message is a Downlink Data Notification message from the S-GW.
If the Downlink Data Notification is received from the S-GW, all of the missing RABs are established and a Modify
Bearer Request is sent to the S-GW with the RNC S12U FTEID
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 31.
Downlink Data Notification with Direct Tunnel
Downlink Data Notification with Direct Tunnel when UE in Idle State
When an Iu is released the UE goes IDLE. The SGSN informs the S-GW to release the RNC side TEIDs by sending a
Release Access Bearer Request. After this point if the S-GW receives any downlink GTPU data from the P-GW, it
knows neither the RNC TEID nor SGSN user plane TEID to which to forward the data.
If the S-GW receives any downlink GTPU data after receiving the Release Access Bearer Request, it knows neither the
RNC TEID nor SGSN user plane TEID to which to forward the data. So it signals the SGSN to establish the RABs. This
signaling message is a Downlink Data Notification from the S-GW. If a Downlink Data Notification is received from SGW when the UE is idle, the SGSN pages the UE before establishing the RABs. The SGSN sends a Modify Bearer
Request to the S-GW with the RNC S12U FTEID.
Figure 32.
Downlink Data Notification when UE in Idle State
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Intra SGSN Routing Area Update without SGW Change
For a Routing Area Update without an S-GW change with Direct Tunnel, the SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request to
the S-GW with the RNC FTEID. The SGSN will establish RABs with the target RNC only if the RABs were present
with the source RNC.
Figure 33.
Routing Area Update Procedure without SGW Change
The table below includes detailed behaviors for a Routing Area Update without S-GW change.
Table 14.
Routing Area Update without S-GW Change Behavior Table
Scenario
Old
RNC
Status
Old
RNC
RAB
Old RNC
DT Status
PLMN
Change
NEW RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Change
SGSN Action
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Supported
No
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC. No
Modify Bearer Request to S-GW
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Supported
No
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC. No
Modify Bearer Request to S-GW
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
RABs
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
No
Only the present RABs are established. MBR
sent to S-GW with the bearers with RABs that
are be modified and the rest released. The
bearers without RABs will be deactivated post
RAU. If PLMN changed then MBR will carry
the new PLMN ID.
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Yes
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC. MBR
is sent with only PLMN change. Bearer
Context will not carry any TEID.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Yes
Supported
No
Same as above.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Scenario
Old
RNC
Status
Old
RNC
RAB
Old RNC
DT Status
PLMN
Change
NEW RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Change
SGSN Action
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
No
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC.
Modify Bearer Request to S-GW with DTF set
and no user FTEID.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
No
Supported
No
Same as above.
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
RABs
Not
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
No
Only the present RABs are established. MBR
sent to S-GW with the bearers with RABs to
be modified and the rest to be released. The
bearers without RABs will be deactivated post
RAU. If PLMN changed then MBR will carry
the new PLMN ID.Modify Bearer.
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
Yes
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC. MBR
is sent with only PLMN change. SGSN will
page / Service req / establish RABs when a
downlink data notification is received.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
Yes
Supported
No
Same as above.
Intra RAU: New RNC does not support Direct Tunnel. No SGW relocation
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
Not
Supported
No
No RAB establishment with new RNC. SGSN
sends Modify Bearer Request to S-GW with
S4U TEID. If there is change in PLMN ID,
then new PLMN ID will be carried.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
No
Supported
No
Same as above.
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
RABs
Supported
Do not
care
Not
supported
No
Only the present RABs are established. MBR
sent to S-GW with all bearers having S4U
TEID. If there is change in PLMN ID, the new
PLMN ID will be carried.
Routing Area Update with S-GW Change
In a Routing Area Update with an S-GW change, the SGSN sends a Create Session Request with DTF flag set and no
user plane FTEID. In its Create Session Response,. the S-GW sends an S12U FTEID which is forwarded to the RNC via
a RAB Assignment Request.
The SGSN sends the RNC FTEID received in the RAB Assignment Response to the S-GW in a Modify Bearer Request.
There are many scenarios to consider during Intra SGSN RAU.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Figure 34.
Routing Area Update Procedure with SGW Change
The table below includes detailed behaviors for a Routing Area Update with S-GW change.
Table 15.
Scenario
Old
RNC
Status
Routing Area Update with S-GW Change Behavior Table
Old
RNC
RAB
Old RNC
DT Status
PLMN
Change
NEW RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Change
SGSN Action
Intra RAU: Both RNCs support Direct Tunnel. SGW relocation
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Send CSR request to new S-GW with DTF flag
but no S4U / S12U FTEID. S-GW will send its
S12U TEID that SGSN stores as part of DP's
remote TEID. SGSN will not initiate any MBR
request to S-GW since no RABs are established
with new RNC. If S-GW subsequently gets
downlink data, SGSN will get DDN and
establish RABs and send MBR.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Same as above.
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
RABs
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Send CSR request to new S-GW with DTF flag
but no S4U / S12U FTEID. S-GW sends its
S12U TEID. RABs that are present will be
established with new RNC. MBR will be
initiated only with those RABs that are present;
rest of bearers to be removed.
Intra RAU: Old RNC does not support Direct Tunnel. SGW relocation
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Scenario
Old
RNC
Status
Old
RNC
RAB
Old RNC
DT Status
PLMN
Change
NEW RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Change
SGSN Action
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Send CSR request to new S-GW with DTF flag
but no S4U / S12U FTEID. S-GW sends its
S12U TEID that SGSN stores as part of our
DP's remote TEID. SGSN will not initiate any
MBR request to S-GW since no RABs are
established with new RNC. If S-GW
subsequently gets downlink data, SGSN gets
DDN and establishes RABs and sends MBR.
Intra
RAU
present
No
RAB
Not
Supported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Same as above.
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
RABs
Not
SUpported
Do not
care
Supported
Yes
Send CSR request to new S-GW with DTF flag
but no S4U / S12U FTEID. S-GW sends its
S12U TEID. RABs that are present will be
established with new RNC and MBR will be
initiated only with those RABs that are present
and the rest as bearers to be removed.
Intra RAU: New RNC does not support Direct Tunnel. SGW relocation
Intra
RAU
Not
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
Not
Supported
Yes
CSR request without DTF flag and with S4U
FTEID.
Intra
RAU
Present
No
RAB
Supported
Do not
care
Not
Supported
Yes
CSR request without DTF flag and with S4U
FTEID.
Intra
RAU
Present
Some
rABs
Supported
Do not
care
Not
Supported
Yes
CSR request without DTF flag and with S4U
FTEID. No deactivation of PDPs.
Intra SRNS with S-GW Change
In Intra SRNS (Serving Radio Network Subsystem) with S-GW change, the SGSN sends a Create Session Request with
DTF flag set and no user plane FTEID. The Create Session Response from the new S-GW contains the SGW S12U
FTEID which the SGSN forwards to the Target RNC in a Relocation Request.
The SGSN sends the RNC S12U FTEID to the new S-GW in a Modify Bearer Request.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Figure 35.
Intra SRNS with S-GW Change
The table below includes detailed behaviors for intra SRNS scenarios.
Intra SRNS without S-GW Change
In Intra SRNS without S-GW change, a Relocation Request is sent with SGW S12U FTEID.The RNC S12U FTEID
received is forwarded to the S-GW in a Modify Bearer Request.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 36.
Intra SRNS without S-GW Change
The table below includes detailed behaviors for intra SRNS scenarios.
Table 16.
Intra SRNS Behaviors
Old RNC DT
Status
New RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Relocation
Behavior
Supported
Supported
No
Relocation Request to Target RNC is sent with S-GW S12 U FTEID. Modify Bearer
Request to S-GW is sent with RNC S12 U FTEID.
Supported
Not
Supported
No
Relocation Request to Target RNC is sent with SGSN S4 U FTEID. Modify Bearer
Request to S-GW is sent with SGSN S4 U FTEID
Not
Supported
Supported
No
Relocation Request to Target RNC is sent with S-GW S12U FTEID. Modify Bearer
Request to S-GW is sent with RNC S12 U FTEID.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Old RNC DT
Status
New RNC
DT Status
S-GW
Relocation
Behavior
Not
Supported
Supported
Yes
Create Session Request to new S-GW is sent with DTF flag set and no user plane
FTEID. Even if S-GW sent S4U FTEID in CSR Response SGSN internally treats that
as an S12U FTEID and continues the relocation. Relocation Request to Target RNC is
sent with S12 U FTEID received in Create Session Response. Modify Bearer Request
to new S-GW is sent with RNC S12U FTEID
Supported
Not
Supported
Yes
Create Session Request to new SGW is sent with S4 U FTEID. Relocation Request to
Target RNC is sent with SGSN U FTEID.Modify Bearer Request is sent with SGSN
S4U FTEID.
Supported
Supported
Yes
SGSN sends a Create Session Request to new SGW with DTF flag set and no user
plane FTEID.Even if S-GW sent S4U FTEID in CSR Response, SGSN will internally
treat that as S12U FTEID and continue the relocation. Relocation Request to the
Target RNC is sent with the S12 U FTEID received in the Create Session Response.
Modify Bearer Request to new S-GW is sent with RNC U FTEID.
New SRNS with S-GW Change and Direct Data Transfer
The new SGSN sends a Create Session Request with DTF flag set and no user plane FTEID to the new S-GW. The new
SGSN sends the SGW S12U FTEID received in the Create Session Response in Relocation Request to the Target RNC.
The new SGSN sends the RNC S12U FTEID received in a Relocation Request Ack to the new S-GW in a Modify
Bearer Request.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 37.
New SRNS with S-GW Change with Data Transfer
The table below includes detailed behaviors for New SRNS scenarios.
New SRNS with S-GW Change and Indirect Data Transfer
Indirect Data Transfer (IDFT) during a new SGSN SRNS happens during E-UTRAN-to-UTRAN connected mode
IRAT handover. See the figure below for a detailed call flow.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Figure 38.
New SRNS with S-GW Change and Indirect Data Transfer
The table below includes detailed behaviors for New SRNS scenarios.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Table 17.
New SRNS Behaviors
Target RNC
DT Status
Direct
Forwarding
S-GW
Relocation
Behavior
Supported
No
No
Relocation Request with SGW S12U FTEID received in Forward Relocation Request.
SGSN includes RNC U FTEID in Forward Relocation Response. RNC U FTEID is
also sent in Modify Bearer Request with DTF flag set.
Supported
Yes
No
Relocation Request with SGW S12U FTEID received in Forward Relocation Request.
In Forward Relocation Response RNC U FTEID is included. And in Modify Bearer
Request RNC U FTEID is sent and DTF flag is set.
Supported
No
Yes
Create Session Request with DTF flag set and no user plane FTEID. Relocation
Request is sent is SGW S12U FTEID received in Create Session Response. Even if
SGW sent S4U FTEID in CSR Response we will internally treat that as S12U FTEID
and continue the relocation. Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request is sent
with RNC FTEID received in Relocation Request Acknowledge.In Forward
Relocation Response SGW DL U FTEID received in Create IDFT response is sent.
Modify Bearer Request is send with DTF set and RNC U FTEID.
Supported
Yes
Yes
Create Session Request with DTF flag set and no user plane FTEID. Relocation
Request is sent with SGW S12U FTEID received in Create Session Response. Even if
SGW sent S4U FTEID in CSR Response we will internally treat that as S12U FTEID
and continue the relocation. In Forward Relocation Response RNC FTEID is sent and
Modify Bearer Request is sent with DTF flag set and RNC U FTEID
Old SRNS with Direct Data Transfer
This scenario includes SRNS relocation between two SGSNs and hence IDFT is not applicable. Data will be forwarded
between the source and target RNCs directly. Forward Relocation Request is sent with S12U FTEID.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Figure 39.
Old SRNS with Direct Data Transfer
The table below includes detailed behaviors for Old SRNS.
Old SRNS with Indirect Data Transfer
Indirect Data Transfer (IDFT) during Old SGSN SRNS happens during UTRAN-to-E-UTRAN connected mode IRAT
handover. A Forward Relocation Request is sent with SGW S12U FTEID.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 40.
Old SRNS with Indirect Data Transfer
Table 18.
Old SRNS Behaviors
Source RNC
DT Status
Direct
Forwarding
S-GW
Relocation
Behavior
Supported
No
No
Forward Relocation Request is send with SGW S12 U FTEID. If peer is MME, IDFT
is applied. Then a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request is sent with User
plane FTEID received in the Forward Relocation Response. This will be the eNB
user plane FTEID. The SGW DL forwarding user plane FTEID received in the Create
Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response is sent in the Relocation Command.
Supported
Yes
No
Forward Relocation Request is sent with SGW S12 U FTEID. The eNB / RNC user
plane FTEID received in the Forward Relocation Response is sent in the Relocation
Command.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Source RNC
DT Status
Direct
Forwarding
S-GW
Relocation
Behavior
Supported
No
Yes
Forward Relocation Request is sent with SGW S12 U FTEID. If peer is MME, IDFT
is applied. Then Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request is sent with eNB
User plane FTEID received in the Forward Relocation Response. The SGW DL
forwarding user plane FTEID received in the Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel
Response is sent in the Relocation Command.
Supported
Yes
Yes
Forward Relocation Request is sent with SGW S12 U FTEID. The eNB / RNC use
plane FTEID received in the Forward Relocation Response is sent in the Relocation
Command.
Network Initiated Secondary PDP Context Activation
The S-GW sends a Create Bearer Request for Network Initiated Secondary PDP Context Activation with the SGW
S12U FTEID. This FTEID is sent in a RAB Assignment Request to the RNC. The RNC S12U FTEID received in the
RAB Assignment Response is sent to the S-GW in a Create Bearer Response.
Figure 41.
Network Initiated Secondary PDP Context Activation
PGW Init Modification when UE is Idle
If UE is in IDLE state and PGW Init Modification is received, the SGSN sends the first MBR. Upon getting PGW Init
Modification in Idle State, the SGSN queues the PGW Init Modification and feeds a Downlink Data Notification
internally. This sets up all RABs (using old QoS) and sends a Modify Bearer Request. When the Downlink Data
Procedure is completed, the queued PGW Init Modification is processed.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
Figure 42.
PGW Init Modification when UE in Idle State
Limitations
During an intra RAU, intra SRNS or Service Request triggered by RAB establishment, if a few RABs fail the Modify
Bearer Request the SGSN will mark those RABs as bearers to be removed. Under current specifications, it is not
possible to send a Modify Bearer Request with a few bearers having S12U U-FTEIDs and a few bearers not having UFTEIDs.
There is an ongoing CR at 3GPP to allow such Modify Bearer Requests and the S-GW should send DDN when it gets
downlink data for the bearers that did not have U-FTEIDs. If this CR is approved, the SGSN will support (in a future
release) sending a partial set of bearers with S12U FTEID and some bearers without any U-FTEID.
Standards Compliance
The Direct Tunnel complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.060 version 10 sec 9.2.2 – General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description
 3GPP TS 29.274 v10.5.0 – 3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2-C)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
Configuring Direct Tunnel on an S4-SGSN ▀
Configuring Direct Tunnel on an S4-SGSN
Configuration of a GTP-U direct tunnel (DT) requires enabling DT both in a call control profile and for the RNC.
Important:
Direct tunneling must be enabled at both end points to allow direct tunneling for the MS/UE.
Enabling Setup of GTP-U Direct Tunnel
The SGSN determines whether a direct tunnel can be setup and by default the SGSN does not support direct tunnel. The
following configuration enables a GTP-U DT in a call control profile:
config
call-control-profile <profile_name>
direct-tunnel attempt-when-permitted
end
Enabling Direct Tunnel to RNCs
SGSN access to radio access controllers (RNCs) is configured in the IuPS service. Each IuPS service can include
multiple RNC configurations that determine communications and features depending on the RNC. By default, DT
functionality is enabled for all RNCs.
The following configuration sequence enables DT to a specific RNC that had been previously disabled for direct
tunneling:
config
context <ctxt_name>
iups-service <service_name>
rnc id <rnc_id>
default direct-tunnel
end
Notes:
 An IuPS service must have been previously created, and configured.
 An RNC configuration must have been previously created within an IuPS service configuration.
 Command details for configuration can be found in the Command Line Interface Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ Configuring Direct Tunnel on an S4-SGSN
Verifying the Call-Control Profile Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration for the call-control profiles:
show call-control-profile full name <profile_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified call-control
profile.
Call Control Profile Name = ccprofile1
...
Re-Authentication
: Disabled
Direct Tunnel
: Not Restricted
GTPU Fast Path
: Disabled
..
Verifying the RNC Configuration
Use the following command to display and verify the direct tunnel configuration in the RNC configuration:
show iups-service name
<service_name>
The output of this command displays all of the configuration, including direct tunnel for the specified IuPS service.
IService name
: iups1
...
Available RNC:
Rnc-Id
: 1
Direct Tunnel
: Not Restricted
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Direct Tunnel ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Direct Tunnel
show subscribers sgsn-only
The output of this command indicates whether. Direct Tunnel has been established.
show subscribers sgsn-only full all
Username: 123456789012345
Access Type: sgsn-pdp-type-ipv4
Network Type: IP
Access Tech: WCDMA UTRAN
|
|
NSAPI: 05
Context Type: Primary
Context initiated by: MS
Direct Tunnel : Established
show gmm-sm statistics sm-only
The output of this command indicates the number of total active PDP contexts with direct tunnels.
show gmm-sm statistics sm-only
Activate PDP Contexts:
Total Actv PDP Ctx:
3G-Actv Pdp Ctx:
1
2G-Avtv Pdp Ctx:
0
Gn Interface:
1
Gn Interface:
0
S4 Interface:
1
S4 Interface:
0
Total Actv Pdp Ctx:
with Direct Tunnel:
1
Direct Tunnel Bulk Statistics
Currently there are no bulk statistics available to monitor the number of PDP contexts with Direct Tunnel.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Direct Tunnelling for the S4-SGSN
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting Direct Tunnel
Bulk statistics under the EGTPC schema are applicable for both Direct Tunnel and Idle Mode Signalling Reduction
(ISR) [3G and 2G]. The following statistics track the release access bearer request and response messages which are
sent by the SGSN to the S-GW upon Iu or RAB release when either a direct tunnel or ISR is active:
 tun-sent-relaccbearreq
 tun-sent-retransrelaccbearreq
 tun-recv-relaccbearresp
 tun-recv-relaccbearrespDiscard
 tun-recv-relaccbearrespaccept
 tun-recv-relaccbearrespdenied
The following bulkstats under EGTPC schema track Downlink Data Notification (DDN) Ack and failure messages
between the S-GW and the SGSN when either direct tunnel or ISR is active:
 tun-recv-dlinknotif
 tun-recv-dlinknotifDiscard
 tun-recv-dlinknotifNorsp
 tun-recv-retransdlinknotif
 tun-sent-dlinknotifackaccept
 tun-sent-dlinknotifackdenied
 tun-sent-dlinkdatafail
For complete descriptions of these variables, see the EGTPC Schema Statistics chapter in the Statistics and Counters
Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 12
GMM-SM Event Logging
With the introduction of this feature, the SGSN now supports limited use of event data records (EDRs). This chapters
details the SGSN’s event logging feature, with the use of EDRs, which is intended to facilitate subscriber-level
troubleshooting. This feature is relevant for StarOS™ Release 12.0 (and higher) software supporting SGSN services
within GPRS and UMTS networks.
This chapter provides the following information:
 Feature Description
 Feature Overview
 Events to be Logged
 Event Record Fields
 EDR Storage
 Architecture
 Limitations
 Configuration
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
GMM-SM Event Logging
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
Feature Overview
At any one time, the SGSN handles a large number of mobile stations (MS). In order to efficiently troubleshoot any
issue for a single subscriber, it is necessary to know the events that have happened for that subscriber. Prior to this event
logging feature, the SGSN did not support a debugging method that was event-based per subscriber.
The debugging framework will allow operators to troubleshoot problems related to a particular IMSI. The event logging
feature will capture procedure-level information per subscriber. Upon completing a procedure, either successfully or
unsuccessfully, the SGSN generates a procedure-summary or event report logging the event.
The SGSN uses the event reports to generate event data record (EDR) files comprised of logged information in commaseparated ASCII values - CSV format. The SGSN sends one ASCII formatted CSV record per line. The CSV records
are stored in a file and are optionally compressed before sending to an external server. The storage space in the ASR5K
is limited so the CSV records need to be SFTed to an external server periodically. The transfer of the CSV record file
from the SGSN and to the external server can be based on configurable PULL or PUSH models. In case of PUSH, the
time-interval can be configured at the SGSN.
Events to be Logged
The following subscriber events will be logged:
 Attaches
 Activation of PDP Context
 Routing Area Update (RAU)
 Inter-SGSN RAU (ISRAU)
 Deactivation of PDP Context
 Detaches
 Authentications
 PDP Modifications
Event Record Fields
The EDRs include the following information in CSV format.
Important:
If particular information is not relevant or is unavailable for the procedure being logged, then the
field is left blank.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
GMM-SM Event Logging
Feature Description ▀
Table 19.
Event Record Fields for GMM/SM Event Logging
Field
#
Field Content
Field Information
1
header-field-1
Number from 1 to 512.
2
header-field-2
Number from 0 to 4294967295.
3
time
Format: YYYY-MMM-DD+HH:MM:SS
4
event-identity
Enumeration: Attach(0); Activate(1); LOCAL-RAU (2); NEW-ISRAU (3); OLD-ISRAU (4);
Deactivation (5); Detach (6); Authentication (7); Modification (8).
5
result
Enumeration: Success (0); Reject (1); Aborted (2).
6
radio type
Enumeration: UTRAN (0); GERAN (1).
7
ATT type
Enumeration: GPRS-only; Comb.
8
RAU type
Enumeration: GPRS-only (0); Comb (1); Comb-IMSI-Attach(2); Periodic (3).
9
intra-RAU type
Enumeration: 2G -> 3G (-); 3G -> 2G (1); 2G -> 2G [Diff Serv] (2); 3G -> 3G [Diff Serv] (3);
Local 2G (4); Local 3G (5).
10
origin-of-deactivation
Enumeration: HLR (0); GGSN (1); LOCAL (2); MS (3) .
11
cause-prot-indicator
Enumeration: GMM(0); GSM(1).
12
gmm-cause/gsmcause
Number between 0 and 255 to identify failure cause code. Refer to the 3GPP TS 24.008
specification, sections 10.5.5.14 (GMM cause codes) and 10.5.6.6 (SM cause codes) for an upto-date listing.
13
disc-reason
Number 0 to 500 identifies Cisco proprietary detailed reason for session failure. To see the
explanation for the SGSN-only disconnect reasons, see Cisco ASR 5000 Series Statistics and
Counters Reference.
14
RAI
Routing area identifier in the format: ddd-ddd-xxxx-xx (d = decimal; x = hex).
15
Cell ID or SAI
One or the other, depends whether the event is generated in 3G or 2G. An integer between 0 and
65535.
16
SAC
Service area code, an integer between 0 and 65535.
17
MSISDN
Mobile subscriber’s ISDN number consisting of 7 to 16 digits.
18
IMSI
Unique international mobile subscriber identity comprised of 1 to 15 digits.
19
P-TMSI
The packet-temporary mobile subscriber identity, an integer between 1 and 4294967295.
20
IMEISV
Unique 16 digit integer that indicates the IMEI with the software version to identify the
equipment identity retrieval type.
21
HLR-number
16 digit integer that identifies a specific HLR.
22
APN-size
Number 1 to 128.
23
APN
Dotted alphanumeric string, typically includes the network identifier or the operator identifier to
identify the access point node (APN).
24
GGSN IP
dotted string
25
Old SGSN IP
dotted string
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
GMM-SM Event Logging
▀ Feature Description
Field
#
Field Content
Field Information
26
Old RAI
Routing area identifier in the format: ddd-ddd-xxxx-xx (d = decimal; x = hex)
27
Number of PDP
contexts transferred
Number from 1 to 11.
28
Number of PDP
contexts dropped
Number from 1 to 11.
29
Requested QoS
Hex-digits. Refer to TS 24.008 for encoding.
30
Negotiated QoS
Hex-digits. Refer to TS 24.008 for encoding.
31
SGSN-IP-address
dotted string
The following table contains the availability of each field in each of the different event types:
 Type 1 - Attach
 Type 2 - Activate
 Type 3 - Local RAU
 Type 4 - New-ISRAU
 Type 5 - Old-ISRAU
 Type 6 - Deactivation
 Type 7 - Detach
 Type 8 - Authentication
 Type 9 - Modification
Table 20.
Occurrence of Fields in Various Event Types
Field
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
Type 5
Type 6
Type 7
Type 8
Type 9
SMGR_NUMBER
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
SEQUENCE_NO
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TIME
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
EVENT-IDENTITY
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
RESULT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
RADIO-TYPE
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
ATT-TYPE
X
RAU-TYPE
X
X
INTRA-RAU TYPE
X
ORIGIN-OF-DEACTIVATION
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
X
X
GMM-SM Event Logging
Feature Description ▀
Field
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
Type 5
Type 6
Type 7
Type 8
Type 9
CAUSE-PROT-INDICATOR
C4
C5
C4
C4
C4
C5
C4
C4
C5
GMM-CAUSE / GSM-CAUSE
C4
C5
C4
C4
C4
C5
C4
C4
C5
DISC-REASON
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
C1
RAI
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CELL-ID
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
SAC
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
C2
MSISDN
C3
X
X
C3
X
X
C3
X
X
IMSI
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(PTMSI)
C3
X
X
C3
X
X
C3
C3
X
IMEISV
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
C3
HLR-NUMBER
C3
X
X
X
X
X
C3
C3
X
APN-SIZE
X
X
X
APN
X
X
X
GGSN-IP
C3
X
OLD-SGSN-IP
X
X
OLD-RAI
X
X
X
NO-OF-PDP-TRANSFERRED
X
NO-OF-PDP-DROPPED
X
Requested-QoS
X
X
Negotiated-QoS
X
X
Self SGSN IP
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Notes:
 C1:
 event disc-reason will be empty for successful attach/new-rau/local-rau/activation/modification
procedures.
 disc-reason will be included for all old-rau/detach/deactivation.
 disc-reason will be available for rejected/aborted attach/new-rau/local-rau/activation/modification
procedures.
 C2: cell ID for 2G, SAC for 3G
 C3: information provided if available
 C4:
 attach/new-rau/local/rau/detach will have reject case if an attach-reject or accept was sent with the
cause value.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
GMM-SM Event Logging
▀ Feature Description
 for authentication, only sync and mac failures will be logged if they are present - otherwise, the value
will be left blank.
 C5:
 cause is present only for activate-reject or modify-reject
 deactivation will always have a cause
 activate-accept might have a cause sent (e.g., single address bearers only allowed)
EDR Storage
The EDRs are stored in CSV format on an external server. The external server relieves the SGSN of the storage
overhead and the post-processing overhead while the SGSN continues to perform call processing.
Architecture
The primary components of the feature architecture include:
 Session Manager (SessMgr) - reports events to the CDRMOD
 CDRMOD - stores EDR file in RAMDisk
 HardDisk Controller - transfers EDR files from RAMDisk to hard disk
Limitations
The reliability of event generation is limited by the CDRMOD framework, specifically:
 Any SessMgr death will result in the loss of event records that are not yet released to the CDRMOD.
 Any death of the CDRMOD proclet will result in the loss of records that are not yet written to the RAMDisk.
 Any reboot of the chassis will result in the loss of records that are not yet flushed to the hard disk or to an
external server.
 In the case of overload of the CDRMOD, the SessMgr will ignore event records when its queue is full.
 The IMSI of the subscriber should be available while generating the EDR. Procedures which couldn't be
associated with any particular IMSI will not generate EDRs, for example, the inter-SGSN-RAU being rejected
because of its inability to contact the old-SGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
GMM-SM Event Logging
Configuration ▀
Configuration
The following commands enable the SGSN to log GMM/SM events in EDR files for 3G services:
configure
context <ctx_name>
sgsn-service <srvc_name>
[ default | no ] reporting-action event-record
Where:
 [ default | no ] - disables the logging function.
The following commands enable the SGSN to log GMM/SM events in EDR files for 2G services:
config
context <ctx_name>
gprs-service <srvc_name>
[ default | no ] reporting-action event-record
Where:
 [ default | no ] - disables the logging function.
The following commands access the EDR module configuration mode commands to enable the operator to configure
logging and file parameters and to configure file-transfer parameters.
config
context <ctx_name>
[ no ] edr-module active-charging-service
Where:
 no - disables the configured EDR logging and file parameters for the services in the context.
[ default | no ] cdr [ push-interval | push-trigger | remove-file-aftertransfer | transfer-mode | use-harddisk ]
Where:
 cdr - configures the EDR transfer parameters
 default - restores default parameter values
 no - disables the configuration
[ default | no ] file [ charging-service-name | compression | currentprefix | delete-timeout | directory | edr-format-name | exclude-checksum-record |
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
GMM-SM Event Logging
▀ Configuration
field-separator | file-sequence-number | headers | name | reset-indicator |
rotation | sequence-number | storage-limit | time-stamp | trailing-text | trapon-file-delete | xor-final-record
Where:
 file - configures file creation properties for the records
 default - restores the default file creation properties
 no - disables the configuration
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 13
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
This chapter describes the Idle Mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) feature and its implementation and use on the ASR
5000 S4-SGSN.
 Feature Description
 How ISR Works
 Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the ISR Feature
Important: A separate feature license is required to enable the ISR feature. Contact your Cisco representative for
licensing information.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The Idle mode signaling reduction (ISR) feature on the S4-SGSN provides a mechanism to optimize and/or reduce
signaling load during inter-RAT cell-reselection in idle mode (that is, in the ECM-IDLE, PMM-IDLE, and GPRSSTANDBY states). It is a mechanism that allows the UE to remain simultaneously registered in a UTRAN/GERAN
Routing Area (RA) and an E-UTRAN Tracking Area (TA) list. This allows the UE to make cell reselections between EUTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN without having to send any TAU or RAU requests, as long as the UE remains within the
registered RA and TA list.
ISR is a feature that reduces the mobility signalling and improves the battery life of UEs. ISR also reduces the
unnecessary signalling with the core network nodes and air interface. This is important especially in initial deployments
when E-UTRAN coverage will be limited and inter-RAT changes will be frequent.
The benefit of the ISR functionality comes at the cost of more complex paging procedures for UEs, which must be
paged on both the registered RA and all registered TAs. The HSS also must maintain two PS registrations (one from the
MME and another from the SGSN).
Important:
The Gn/Gp SGSN does not support ISR functionality.
Relationships
The ISR feature on the S4-SGSN is related to:
 ISR must be enabled on the peer MME and SGW nodes.
 The SGSN must be configured with the following:
 2G Service + S4 Support
 3G Service + S4 Support
 2G + 3G Services + S4 Support
Important: If the S4-SGSN is configured to support both 3G and 2G services, it is recommended to enable both
2G and 3G ISR functionality. This ensures that for the ISR activated subscribers, inter-RAT routing area updates
between 2G and 3G preserve the ISR status if there is no SGW relocation.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
How ISR Works ▀
How ISR Works
ISR requires special functionality in both the UE and the network (i.e. in the SGSN, MME, SGW and HSS) to activate
ISR for a UE. The network can decide for ISR activation individually for each UE. ISR support is mandatory for EUTRAN UEs that support GERAN and/or UTRAN and optional for the network. Note that the Gn/Gp SGSN does not
support ISR functionality.
ISR is not activated on Attach. ISR can only be activated when a UE first registers in a RA on an SGSN and then
registers in a TA on an MME or vice-versa. It is an inherent functionality of the mobility management (MM) procedures
to enable ISR activation only when the UE is able to register via E-UTRAN and via GERAN/UTRAN. For example,
when there is no E-UTRAN coverage there will be also no ISR activation. Once ISR is activated it remains active until
one of the criteria for deactivation in the UE occurs, or until the SGSN or the MME indicate ISR is no longer activated
during an update procedure, i.e. the ISR status of the UE has to be refreshed with every update.
When ISR is activated this means the UE is registered with both the MME and the SGSN. Both the SGSN and the MME
have a control connection with the SGW. The MME and the SGSN are both registered at the HSS. The UE stores
mobility management parameters from the SGSN (for example, P-TMSI and RA) and from the MME (for example,
GUTI and TAs). The UE stores session management (bearer) contexts that are common for E-UTRAN and
GERAN/UTRAN accesses. In an idle state the UE can reselect between E-UTRAN and GERAN/UTRAN (within the
registered RA and TAs) without any need to perform TAU or RAU procedures with the network. the SGSN and MME
store each other's address when ISR is activated.
The S4 SGSN supports the following scenarios for 2G ISR:
 ISR activation by SGSN on new SGSN RAU from MME
 ISR activation on SGSN in old SGSN RAU to MME
 Ready to standby state transition triggered Release Access Bearer Request to SGW
 Downlink data notification from SGW:
 Downlink data notification UE responds to SGSN
 Downlink data notification no response from UE
 Stop paging indication
 UE initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber under GERAN
 UE initiated detach under EUTRAN/MME initiated detach or Detach notification from MME
 SGSN initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber
 HSS/HLR initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber
 ISR deactivation due to delete bearer request with ISR deactivation cause
 ISR deactivation due to last PDN connection deletion (SGSN/UE/PGW/HSS/HLR-initiated)
 ISR deactivation due to SGW change
 ISR-deactivation due to context transfer between same Node types(S4 SGSN to and from S4 SGSN)
 Intra-RAU without SGW change for ISR-activated subscriber
 Inter-GPRS service RAU without SGW change for ISR-activated subscriber
 Intra-SGSN inter-system handover from 2G to 3G without SGW change for ISR activated subscriber
 Intra-SGSN inter-system handover from 3G to 2G without SGW change for ISR activated subscriber
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ How ISR Works
The following scenarios are supported for 3G ISR:
 ISR activation by 3G SGSN on new 3G SGSN RAU from MME
 ISR activation by 3G SGSN on old 3G SGSN RAU to MME
 ISR activation by 3G SGSN on new 3G SGSN SRNS relocation from MME (Connected mode IRAT handover
from MME to SGSN)
 ISR activation by 3G SGSN on old 3G SGSN SRNS relocation to MME (Connected mode IRAT handover from
SGSN to MME)
 Iu release triggered Release Access Bearer Request to SGW
 Downlink data notification from SGW:
 Downlink data notification UE responds to SGSN
 Downlink data notification no response from UE
 Stop paging indication
 UE initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber under UTRAN
 UE initiated detach under EUTRAN/MME initiated detach or Detach notification from MME
 SGSN initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber
 HSS/HLR initiated detach for ISR activated subscriber
 ISR deactivation due to delete bearer request with ISR deactivation cause
 ISR deactivation due to last PDN connection deletion (SGSN/UE/PGW/HSS/HLR-initiated)
 ISR deactivation due to SGW change
 ISR-deactivation due to context transfer between same Node types (S4 SGSN to and from S4 SGSN)
 Intra-RAU without SGW change for ISR-activated subscriber
 Intra-SRNS without SGW change for ISR activated subscriber
Limitations
There are no known limitations to the 2G ISR feature.
For the 3G SGSN, if an ISR is already active between the SGSN and an MME and the system receives a relocation
required towards an eNodeB served by the same ISR associated with the MME, the S4-SGSN first tears down the
existing S3 tunnel and will initiate a forward relocation request on a new tunnel. If the procedure completes
successfully, ISR association would be continued on the new tunnel. However, if the relocation is cancelled then the
tunnel is lost and the ISR is deactivated.
Call Flows
This section provides various call flows that illustrate the primary procedures used for the ISR feature:
2G ISR Activation by the S4-SGSN
The following illustration shows the ISR activation procedure when initiated by the S4-SGSN for a 2G subscriber.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
How ISR Works ▀
Note the following major procedural functions:
 E-URTRAN attach at the MME.
 A Routing Area Update is sent to the SGSN.
 The SGSN sends a Context Request to the MME upon receiving the RAU Request. If the MME supports ISR, it
will set the ISRSI bit in the Context Response message.
 Upon receiving the Context Response from the MME, the GMM sets the ISRAI flag if ISR is already activated
for the subscriber or if all of following conditions are satisfied:
 The UE is EPC-capable.
 ISR is enabled in the configuration.
 The peer node is the MME.
 The peer node has indicated that ISR is supported in the Context Response message.
 The SGSN will not activate ISR if there is change in SGW. So, the SGSN will be setting the 'ISRAI' bit in the
Modify Bearer Request/Context Ack message provided there is no change in SGW and all of above conditions
in the previous bullet point are satisfied.
 If the SGSN also monitors the SGSN-MME-Separated flag in the Update location Response or the Separation
Indicator in Update Location Ack - ULA Flags IE to activate ISR for subscriber and ISR status is marked
deactivated if not indicated by HLR/HSS.
 The SGSN sends a RAU accept with update type RA updated and ISR activated or combined RA/LA updated and
ISR activated depending on the update request.
 The SGSN sends a Periodic RAU timer to the UE in a RAU accept message and also a GERAN/UTRAN
Deactivate ISR timer (T3323) timer value to the UE. Parallel to the periodic RAU timer, the SGSN starts its
mobile reachability timer (MNR timer) which is configurable. The default is 4 minutes greater than the
periodic RAU timer. The UE is expected to contact the SGSN again within the mobile reachability timer
duration either by sending a periodic RAU or some other signalling. If the UE fails to contact the SGSN during
this timer, SGSN will start the implicit detach timer which by default is 4 minutes greater than T3323 timer.
The implicit detach timer value is also configurable at the SGSN. If the UE fails to contact even within this
implicit detach timer, then the SGSN will locally detach the UE and will send a Detach Notification with cause
Local detach to the MME so that ISR gets deactivated at the MME.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ How ISR Works
Figure 43.
ISR Activation on the S4-SGSN
2G ISR Activation by the MME
The following illustration shows the ISR activation procedure when initiated by the MME for a 2G subscriber.
Note the following major procedural functions:
 Context request from MME.
 The SGSN sends a Context Response to the MME with the 'ISRSI' bit set provided all of following conditions
are satisfied:
 The UE is EPC-capable.
 The UE is ISR-capable.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
How ISR Works ▀
 The ISR is enabled by configuration.
 The peer node is an MME.
 If the old node is an old S4-SGSN, the MME sends a Context Acknowledge (ISR Activated) message to the old
SGSN.
 Unless ISR Activated is indicated by the MME, the old S4-SGSN marks in its context that the information in the
Gateways is invalid. This ensures that the old S4-SGSN updates the Gateways if the UE initiates a RAU
procedure back to the old S4-SGSN before completing the ongoing TAU procedure. If ISR Activated is
indicated to the old S4-SGSN, this indicates that the old S4-SGSN shall maintain its UE context including
authentication quintets and stop the inter-SGSN handover procedure guard timer (2G).When the UE is initially
attached, the SGSN started the Mobile Reachability Timer (MNR timer). This timer value is slightly larger
than the Periodic RAU Timer value given to the UE by SGSN. The default is 4 minutes longer. The UE is
expected to contact SGSN through a periodic RAU or some other signalling message within this timer. If the
UE did not contact SGSN within this timer, the S4-SGSN shall start the implicit detach timer with a slightly
larger value than the UE's GERAN/UTRAN Deactivate ISR timer (T3323). The implicit detach timer value is
also configurable at the SGSN. If the UE fails to contact even within this implicit detach timer, then the SGSN
will locally detach the UE and will send a Detach Notification with cause Local detach to the MME so that ISR
is deactivated at the MME.
 When ISR Activated is not indicated and an inter-SGSN handover procedure guard timer expires, the old SGSN
deletes all bearer resources of that UE. As the Context Acknowledge from the MME does not include any SGW change, the S4 SGSN does not send any Delete Session Request message to the S-GW.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ How ISR Works
Figure 44.
2G ISR Activation by the MME
Standards Compliance
The 2G ISR feature complies with the following standards:
 TS 23.060 version 10: 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Services and System
Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2.
 TS 23.401 version 10: 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Services and System
Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Network (E-UTRAN) access.
 TS 23.272 version 10: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 3GPP Evolved Packet
System (EPS); Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2C); Stage 3.
 TS 29.274 version 10: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 3GPP Evolved Packet
System (EPS); Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2C); Stage 3.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction ▀
Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction
This section describes how to configure ISR on the S4-SGSN.
Configuring 2G ISR
Configuring 2G ISR includes creating a call-control-profile with ISR enabled for GPRS, and configuring an implicitdetach-timeout in the configured GPRS service on the S4-SGSN.
config
call-control-profile name
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type gprs
end
config
context plmn_name
gprs-service gprs_service_name
gmm implicit-detach-timeout value
end
Notes:
 Where call-control-profile name specifies the name of the call-control-profile tin which 2G ISR
functionality is to be configured.
 gprs enables 2G ISR functionality.
 Alternatively, remove idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type gprs can be used to disable 2G
ISR functionality.
 context plmn_name is the name of the public land mobile network context in which the GPRS (2G) service is
configured.
 gprs-service gprs_service_name specifies the name of the configured GPRS (2G) service for which you
want to configure the implicit-detach-timeout value.
 gmm implicit-detach-timeout value specifies the implicit detach timeout value to use for 2G ISR. Valid
entries are from 240 to 86400 seconds. The default value is 3600 seconds.
Verifying the 2G ISR Configuration
This section describes how to verify the 2G ISR configuration.
To verify that 2G ISR and the gmm implicit-detach-timeout is configured:
show configuration
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction
...
call-control-profile name
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type gprs
....
context context_name
gmm T3323-timeout value
gmm implicit-detach-timeout value
To verify that 2G ISR is enabled in the call-control-profile:
show call-control-profile full name cc-profile-name
...
Treat as PLMN
:Disabled
Idle-Mode-Signaling-Reduction (ISR) for UMTS
:Disabled
Idle-Mode-Signaling-Reduction (ISR) for GPRS
:Enabled
Location Reporting for UMTS
:Disabled
...
Configuring 3G ISR
Configuring 3G ISR includes creating a call-control-profile with ISR enabled for UMTS, and configuring an implicitdetach-timeout in the configured SGSN service on the S4-SGSN.
config
call-control-profile cc-profile-name
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts
end
config
context context_name
sgsn-service sgsn_service_name
gmm T3323-timeout mins
end
Notes:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
Configuring Idle-Mode-Signaling Reduction ▀
 idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts enables 3G ISR in the call-control-profile.
 gmm t3323-timeout mins specifies the amount of time, in minutes, the UE should wait after the Periodic
RAU timer (t3312 timer) expiry before deactivating ISR. Valid entries are from 1 to 186. The default is 54.
Verifying the 3G ISR Configuration
This section describes how to verify the 3G ISR configuration.
To verify that 3G ISR is enabled and the gmm T3323 timeout is configured:
show configuration
...
call-control-profile name
idle-mode-signaling-reduction access-type umts
....
context context_name
gmm T3323-timeout value
...
To verify that 3G ISR is enabled in the call-control-profile:
show call-control-profile full name cc-profile-name
...
Treat as PLMN
:Disabled
Idle-Mode_Signaling-Reduction (ISR) for UMTS
:Enabled
...
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the ISR Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the ISR Feature
This section provides information on how to monitor the ISR feature and to determine that it is working correctly.
ISR Show Command(s) and Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the ISR feature.
show subscribers gprs-only full
This command provides information that indicates whether ISR is activated for 2G subscribers, provides the MME
tunnel endpoint ID being used for the ISR-activated 2G subscriber, and the IP address of the MME associated with the
ISR-activated 2G subscriber.
 ISR-Activated: (True or False)
 MME Ctrl Teid: (MME Control Tunnel Endpoint Identifier)
 MME IP Address: (IP address of MME)
show subscribers sgsn-only full
This command provides information that indicates whether ISR is activated for 3G subscribers, provides the specific S3
tunnel on the MME being used for this ISR-activated subscriber, and the IP address of the MME associated with the
ISR-activated 3G subscriber.
 ISR-Activated: (True or False)
 MME Ctrl Teid: (MME Control Tunnel Endpoint Identifier)
 MME IP Address: (IP address of MME)
show s4-sgsn statistics (2G ISR)
The output of this command provides information on the various reasons for deactivations of ISR-activated 2G
subscribers:
 2G Intra RAU with SGW Relocation
 Detach Notification from MME to 2G
 2G MS Initiated Detach
 2G Cancel Location from HSS/HLR
 2G Local Admin Detach
 2G Implicit Detach Timer Expiry
show s4-sgsn statistics (3G ISR)
The output of this command tracks the number of ISR deactivations due to various reasons for a 3G ISR-activated
subscriber:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Idle Mode Signalling Reduction on the S4-SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the ISR Feature ▀

3G Intra RAU with SGW Relocation

3G NW Initiated Detach

3G MR IDT Expiry

3G MS Initiated Detach

3G Cancel Location from HSS/HLR

3G SRNS Abort

3G Local Admin Detach

3G SGW Change During SRNS
show gmm statistics (2G ISR)
The output of this command indicates the total of currently activated 2G ISR subscribers:
 ISR Activated Subscribers:
 2G Intra RAU with SGW Relocation
show gmm statistics (3G ISR)
The output of this command tracks the number of currently ISR-activated 3G subscribers:
 ISR Activated Subscribers:
 3G-ISR-Activated
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 14
InTracer Support for SGSN
This chapter describes the Intracer support for SGSN and includes the following topics:
 InTracer Support for SGSN
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring IPMS Server Address
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
InTracer Support for SGSN
▀ InTracer Support for SGSN
InTracer Support for SGSN
Cisco InTracer is a high-performance troubleshooting and monitoring solution for subscribers. It performs call tracing,
control data acquisition, processing and analysis of both active and historical subscriber sessions.
Cisco InTracer provides a framework for operators to analyze and investigate call flows and call events for subscriber
sessions in real time.
Cisco InTracer consists of two modules:
 The InTracer Client module: Enables and configures on the Cisco gateway (to start sending subscriber traces
(control plane information for sessions) to InTracer Server module
 The InTracer Server module: The InTracer Server module runs on an external box sitting close to the gateway
to process and store subscriber traces
Nodal Trace
The following figure shows a high level view of architecture of InTracer with other components in a deployment
scenario.
Figure 45.
Nodal Trace
For Nodal trace, the communication between the Gateway and the R-InTracer / R-TCE happens over a proprietary
protocol on top of UDP.
3GPP Trace
In 3GPP Trace communication happens through XML files being FTP pushed from the gateway to the R-TCE. R-TCE
receives the FTP pushed files from the gateway and parses them to store their data into the database.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
InTracer Support for SGSN
InTracer Support for SGSN ▀
Figure 46.
3GPP Trace
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
InTracer Support for SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The IPMS (Intelligent Packet Monitoring System) solution provides a framework for operators to analyze and
investigate call related events for various platforms. The signaling messages related to 2G calls on SGSN are traced
through the IPMS. These include the message exchanges between SGSN and other peer entities like GGSN, HLR, EIR
and BSC.
A client server mechanism is implemented, where the IPMS client runs on the SGSN and copies the signaling packets
related to a 2G subscriber and then ships them to the IPMS server. This data can be used by operators in numerous ways
including debugging. Some identities like the IMSI, MSISDN, IMEI, APN, PDP addresses that are sent to the IPMS
server as and when they are learnt by the SGSN as standalone messages (TLVs) without any PDU. For example, during
a PTMSI attach procedure after the identity response from MS, the SGSN learns about the subscriber's IMSI and
communicates this identity with the IPMS server in the form a standalone IPMS message with IMSI TLV in it. The
different identities of MS are learned by SGSN during a call in several signaling message.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
InTracer Support for SGSN
How it Works ▀
How it Works
Architecture
The figure below depicts different signaling messages exchanged between SGSN and the IPMS server during a GMM
attach procedure.
Figure 47.
GMM Attach Request message from MS
The GMM attach request received by the SGSN via the BSC is sent from the BSSGP stack to the IPMS server along
with identities like call-id. As and when the SGSN learns about the subscriber's IMSI, it is communicated to the server
along with call-id as a standalone message but the PDU will be absent in the message.
Identities in Signaling Messages
This section describes how the SGSN obtains knowledge of different subscribers and MS identities from various
signaling messages.
1. IMSI: The SGSN obtains the subscriber's IMSI from:
 IMSI attach request from the MS.
 Identity response for IMSI from the MS during the local or non-local PTMSI-Attach procedure.
 GTP identification procedure for IMSI during a non-local PTMSI-Attach procedure.
 SGSN Context Response during an Inter SGSN RAU procedure.
2. IMEI/IMEISV: The SGSN obtains mobile station's IMEI/IMEISV from:
 Authentication response with IMEI/IMEISV from MS during Attach or RAU procedure.
 Identification procedure for IMEI/IMEISV from MS during the Attach or RAU procedure.
 SGSN Context response during inter SGSN RAU procedure.
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InTracer Support for SGSN
▀ How it Works
3. MSISDN: The SGSN obtains the subscriber's MSISDN from:
 Insert Subscription Data (ISD) from HLR during Attach or RAU procedure.
4. APN and PDP address: The SGSN obtains the APN in Activate PDP Context Request from the MS and PDPaddress in GTP Create PDP Context Response for GGSN. After the CPC response the SGSN mirrors the APN
and PDP address both as single IPMS event to the IPMS server for both Primary PDP activation and Secondary
PDP activation utmost once.
Intracer support 2G and 3G
Intracer support for 2G and 3G calls uses the same framework. An increase in the call-processing time is observed as the
activities like duplicating the signaling PDU, generating the TLVs, constructing the IPMS event and packet, and
shipping it to IPMS server are done on every signaling message.
Relationships to Other Features
 The IPMS payload is an encoded message from the corresponding layer that generated the IPMS packet.
Therefore the IPMS server needs to possess the decoding capabilities.
 In a 2G scenario, the SGSN does not send the Ciphered LLC packets to IPMS server.
 It is possible that the IPMS servers can change their IPMS version which is communicated between the IPMS
client and IPMS server through heart-beat request and response.
 According to the version change in the header, the IPMS packets header and number of TLVs supported per
packet also change, this requires a decoding change over on either parties (client and server).
 In version-1 support, the SGSN does not generate any correlation-id and the reason being that utmost one packet
per call can be without a call-id. So, investing memory and CPU for the correlation-id is not advisable. Hence
the IPMS-server should not expect the Correlation-id TLV in the version-1 IPMS packets generated by the
SGSN.
Limitations
 For some initial messages like Attach request, Inter SGSN RAU request and so on, the stack will not have the
call ID and IPMS-client has to buffer IPMS event until a call-id is allocated.
 SMS signaling messages contain data and they can be ciphered. It will be an overhead and costly effort to
decipher the packet at SGSN and to mirror the SMS event onto the IPMS server. Hence, SMS is not supported.
 TOM8 signaling also involves ciphering, decoding every packet at SGSN and sending the corresponding event
to the Intracer is expensive. Hence, TOM8 is not supported.
 All the signaling packets are mirrored to the IPMS server through IPMS events whose creation consumes CPU
and memory for a short duration increasing the call-processing time.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
InTracer Support for SGSN
Configuring IPMS Server Address ▀
Configuring IPMS Server Address
The following command is used to configure Intelligent Packet Monitoring System (IPMS) server address and ports on
which the IPMS client on the SGSN communicates. This is the IP address and port range of the IPMS server.
config
context context_name
ipms
server address ip_address [ seconary ] [ start-port start_port [ end-port
end_port ]][ secondary ]
no server address ip_address
exit
Notes:
 Only when there is an active IPMS server the SGSN generates IPMS events and communicates them to server.
The following command is configured suppress or allow the IPMS-event reporting to Intracer for the specified RAT.
This CLI command helps the operator to change the IPMS-event reporting and manage network load or congestion on
the fly.
config
sgsn-global
ipms-suppress [ gprs | umts ]
no ipms-suppress [ gprs | umts ]
exit
Notes:
 By default the IPMS event reporting will be done by both the services, provided there is a valid IPMS-context
and IPMS-server configured.
 IPMS suppression can be enabled on both the services (GPRS and UMTS service) at the same time. This
provides independent control on the suppression of ipms-events from the GPRS and UMTS services.
Verifying Intracer Support
The show command show ipms status [all | server address] is executed to verify Intracer support. On
executing the command the following parameters are displayed:

BSSGP msg

LLC msg

GMM/SM msg
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
InTracer Support for SGSN
▀ Configuring IPMS Server Address

Sccp CR (This parameter is applicable only in a 3G scenario)

Sccp Msg (This parameter is applicable only in a 3G scenario)

Tcap Msg

Gtpc Msg
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 15
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
This chapter describes the ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback feature (CSFB), and provides detailed information on the
following:
 ISR with CSFB - Feature Description
 Call Flows
 Relationships to Other Features
 Relationships to Other Products
 How it Works
 ISR CSFB Procedures
 Standards Compliance
 Configuring ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
 Monitoring and trouble-shooting the CSFB feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ ISR with CSFB - Feature Description
ISR with CSFB - Feature Description
Idle-mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) feature allows the UE to move between LTE and 2G/3G without performing
Tracking Area (TA) or Routing Area (RA) updates once it has been activated. A pre-requisite for ISR activation is that
the UE, SGSN, MME, Serving GW and HSS all support ISR. At the first attach to the network, ISR is not activated. ISR
can only be activated when the UE has first been registered in an RA on 2G/3G and then registers in a TA or vice versa.
If the UE first registers on GERAN/UTRAN and then moves into an LTE cell, the UE initiates a TA update procedure.
In the TA update procedure, the SGSN, MME and Serving GW communicate their capabilities to support ISR, and if all
the nodes support ISR, the MME indicates to the UE that ISR is activated in the TAU accept message.
Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) is an alternative solution to using IMS and SRVCC to provide voice services to
users of LTE. The IMS is not part of the solution, and voice calls are never served over LTE. Instead, the CSFB relies
on a temporary inter-system that switches between LTE and a system where circuit-switched voice calls can be served.
The ISR feature must be enabled for the CSFB feature to work, the ISR feature is a license controlled feature.
The LTE terminals 'register' in the circuit switched domain when powered and attaching to LTE. This is handled
through an interaction between the MME and the MSC-Server in the circuit-switched network domain over the SGs
interface.
Consider the following scenarios:
 Voice calls initiated by the mobile user: If the user makes a voice call, the terminal switches from a LTE system
to a system with circuit-switched voice support. Depending on where the UE latches on after completion of the
voice call:
 The packet-based services that are active on the end-user device at this time are handed over and
continue to run in a system with circuit-switched voice support but with lower data speeds.
OR
 The packet-based services that are active on the end-user device at this time are suspended until the
voice call is terminated and the terminal switches back to LTE again and the packet services are
resumed.
 Voice calls received by the mobile user: If there is an incoming voice call to an end-user that is currently
attached to the LTE system, the MSC-Server requests a paging in the LTE system for the specific user. This is
done through the SGs interface between the MSC Server and the MME. The terminal receives the page, and
temporarily switches from the LTE system to the system with circuit-switched voice support, where the voice
call is received. Once the voice call is terminated, the terminal switches back to the LTE system.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
Call Flows ▀
Call Flows
To support CS fallback, existing procedures are modified and some additional CS fallback specific procedures added to
the EPS. Additions are done to the "Attach" and "TA update" procedures which activate an interface called the SGs.
This interface is between the MME and MSC. It is used by the MSC to send paging messages for CS calls to the UE on
the LTE system.
Example of a CS fallback call
Figure 48.
CS Fallback Call
Table 21. Steps in a CS fallback call
Step
Description
1.
The MSC receives an incoming voice call and sends a CS page to the MME over a SGs interface.
2.
The MME uses the TMSI (or IMSI) received from the MSC to find the S-TMSI (which is used as the paging address on the
LTE radio interface).
3.
The MME forwards the paging request to the eNodeB in the TAs where the UE is registered. The eNodeBs perform the
paging procedures in all the cells in the indicated TAs.
4.
The paging message includes a special CS indicator that informs the UE that the incoming paging is for a terminating CS
call.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ Call Flows
Step
Description
5.
On receiving the paging message, the UE performs a service request procedure which establishes the RRC connection and
sends a Service Request to the MME. The Service Request message includes a special CS Fall-back indicator that informs
the MME that the CS fallback is required.
6.
This triggers the MME to activate the bearer context in the eNodeB with an indication to perform fallback to GERAN or
UTRAN.
7.
The eNodeB selects a suitable target cell, by triggering the UE to send measurements on the neighbour cells, and initiates a
handover or cell change procedure. The selection between handover or cell change procedure is based on the target cell
capabilities and is configured in the eNodeB.
8.
After a handover or cell change procedure, the UE detects the new cell and establishes a radio connection and sends a page
response to the MSC, through the target RAN.
9.
When the page response arrives at the MSC, a normal mobile terminated call setup continues and CS call is activated
towards the UE.
The CS fallback is primarily supports voice calls but it also supports other CS services. In the case of SMS services the
UE need not switch to other radio interfaces. The UE can remain on LTE and still send and receive SMSes. The SMS
messages are tunnelled between the UE and the MSC through the MME NAS signalling and the SGs interface.
When ISR is activated the UE is simultaneously registered at both SGSN and MME. So any paging for CS services
occurs at both the SGSN and the MME. In a network if ISR is activated for an UE and CSFB is used in the network, the
SGSN has to support additional call flows.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
Relationships to Other Features ▀
Relationships to Other Features
The CS Fallback feature is inter-works with the Idle Mode Signaling Reduction (ISR) feature. The CS Fallback feature
is primarily for the EPS, but at the SGSN, it plays a role in deciding when the ISR feature should be activated or deactivated at the SGSN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ Relationships to Other Products
Relationships to Other Products
To enable ISR for subscriber peer nodes, the MME and SGW must support ISR functionality.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
How it Works ▀
How it Works
Listed below are the scenarios where ISR with CSFB is impacted by the SGSN, these scenarios are applicable to both
2G and 3G when ISR is enabled:
1.
2.
The ISR is de-activated (by not sending ISR active status indication in RAU Accept message sent to UE) in the following
cases:

The SGSN will not sent the ISR activated indication at combined RAU/LAU procedure (As per 3GPP TS23.272,
section 4.3.5 ,release 11.2)

When the UE sends a combined RAU and LAU to a S4-SGSN, the SGSN checks the "Combined EPS/IMSI
Attach Capability" bit in the "MS Network Capability" IE received. If that bit indicates CSFB and/or SMS over
SGs is enabled for this UE, then the SGSN de-activates the ISR by not indicating the "ISR Activated" status in
RAU Accept message sent to the UE. The SGSN in a CSFB/SMS over SGs configuration never indicates "ISR
Activated" in combined RAU procedures for CSFB/SMS over SGs enabled UEs.
If CS Paging Indication is received from MME for an ISR activated subscriber, the SGSN pages to the subscriber
indicating that the paging is for a CS call. When a Mobile Terminating call arrives at the MSC/VLR (via the G-MSC) for
a UE that is camped on an E-UTRAN (ISR is active and the SGs interface is active between MSC and MME), the
MSC/VLR sends a Page Request (SGsAP-PAGING-REQUEST) to the MME.
As ISR is active and the UE is in ECM_IDLE state, the MME forwards the CS paging message received from the
MSC/VLR to the associated SGSN. The MME gets the SGSN information in the regular ISR activation process. The
MME builds a "CS Paging Indication" message, which is a GTPv2 message, from the SGsAP-PAGING_REQUEST to
the correct SGSN. The SGSN receives the CS Paging Indication message from the MME, and sends paging messages to
RNS/BSSs. This information is described in detail in 3GPP TS 23.060.
3.
4.
5.
In Receive and handle "Alert MME Notification" and send "Alert MME "Acknowledge" scenarios.
When the SGSN sends an UE Activity Notification message over the S3 interface, if the MME sends an Alert MME
Notification earlier for the same subscriber and the SGSN detects any UE activity (like Iu connection established and so
on).
Handling the problem of Mobile Terminated voice calls getting dropped due to NULL SGs or SGs association at
MSC/VLR, when the implicit detach timer expires at MME. In this case, the flag "EMM Combined UE Waiting" is set at
the SGSN, this ensures waiting for a combined procedure (Combined RAU). A Combined RAU is forced if we receive a
normal periodic RAU (non-combined) by sending an IMSI Detach request to UE. When a MME detaches the UE locally
from E-UTRAN (due to PTAU timer expiry and no contact with UE at E-UTRAN till the implicit detach timer expiry at
MME) it sends a Detach Notification with cause "local detach" to the SGSN. The SGSN sets the "EMM Combined UE
Waiting" flag if UE is CSFB capable and this flag will be reset only after combined RAU is received.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ ISR CSFB Procedures
ISR CSFB Procedures
CS Paging Procedure
The call flow below depicts a CS Paging example:
Figure 49.
CS Paging
Table 22. Steps in a CS Paging Procedure
Step
Description
1.
A Mobile Terminating call arrives at MSC/VLR (via the G-MSC) for a UE which is camped on E-UTRAN.
2.
If the ISR is active and the SGs interface is active between MSC and MME, then the MSC/VLR sends a Page Request
(SGsAP-PAGING-REQUEST) to the MME.
3.
As ISR is active and the UE is in ECM_IDLE state, the MME forwards the CS paging message received from the
MSC/VLR to the associated SGSN. The MME receives the SGSN information in the regular ISR activation process. The
MME builds a "CS Paging Indication" message, which is a GTPv2 message, from the SGsAP-PAGING_REQUEST to the
correct SGSN.
4.
The SGSN receives the CS Paging Indication message from the MME, and sends paging messages to RNS/BSSs.
5.
The RNS/BSS forwards the CS Paging Indication message to the UE.
6.
The CS fallback or Cell re-selection process progresses.
7.
Once the process is complete, the UE sends a CS Paging response to the RNS/BSS.
8.
The RNS/BSS forwards the CS Paging Response to the MSC/VLR.
For detailed information on CS paging procedure refer to 3GPP TS 23.060.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
ISR CSFB Procedures ▀
Alert and UE Notification Procedure
The call flow below depicts an Alert and UE Notification scenario:
Figure 50.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Alert and UE Notification Procedure
The MSC/VLR requests the MME to report activity from a specific UE. The MSC/VLR sends a SGsAP Alert Request
(IMSI) message to the MME where the UE is currently attached to an EPS network. On receiving the SGsAP Alert
Request (IMSI) message, the MME sets a Non-EPS Alert Flag (NEAF). If NEAF is set for an UE, the MME informs the
MSC/VLR of the next activity from that UE (and the UE is both IMSI and EPS attached) and clears the NEAF.
If ISR is activated for this UE, an "Alert MME Notification" message (GTPv2) is created based on above SGs message
and sent on the S3 interface by the MME to the associated SGSN, in order to receive a notification when any activity
from the UE is detected.
The SGSN sends an "Alert MME Acknowledge" and sets the SSAF flag, the "Alert MME Acknowledge" is a GTPv2
message to the MME in response to the Alert MME Notification message.
If any UE Activity is detected (UE is active, after an Iu connection is established), the SGSN sends a "UE Activity
Notification message" to the MME over the S3 interface.
ISR De-activation Procedure
When the UE wants to perform a combined RAU/LAU, the SGSN verifies the "combined EPS/IMSI attach capability"
bit in MS Network Capability and if it indicates that CSFB and/or SMS over SGs is enabled, then the SGSN deactivates ISR. The SGSN does not indicate that ISR is activated in the RAU Accept message.
Detach Procedures for CSFB Capable UEs
If the MME clears a subscriber then SGs association with the MSC is closed and leads to a drop of voice calls from the
MSC. To avoid this issue a few changes are done in SGSN to establish the Gs association between the MSC and the
SGSN on ISR de-activation.
If "Detach Notification" is received from the MME with Detach Type set as "Local Detach" and if the UE supports
EMM Combined procedures then, the SGSN sends an IMSI Detach request to the UE and sets the "EMM Combined UE
Waiting" flag.
If the SGSN then receives a Periodic RAU Request and the flag "EMM Combined UE Waiting" is set, an IMSI Detach
is sent to the UE in order to ensure that next time the UE performs a Combined RAU. This enables Gs association
between the SGSN and the MSC/VLR and the MT voice calls are not lost.
If the SGSN receives a Combined RAU Request when the flag "EMM Combined UE Waiting" is set, then this flag is
cleared and Gs association is activated.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ ISR CSFB Procedures
MS Initiated Last PDN De-activation Procedure
The MS initiated last PDN de-activation procedure is listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The SGSN sends a DSR with OI=1, the cause not set to ISR deactivated.
PDP is deleted from the SGW and the PGW.
In SGSN all PDPs are de-activated. The S4 association is cleared.
In SGW all PDPs are de-activated. Both the S4 and S11 associations at the SGW are cleared.
The MME continues to retain the S11 tunnel.
Both the SGSN and MME retain the ISR and S3 tunnel active. The active S3 tunnel serves incoming voice calls if SGs
association is retained at the MME.
If MME has a SGs association and if periodic TAU timer from UE expires, the MME performs the following actions:

The MME starts an implicit detach timer. If voice call is received at MSC/VLR when this timer is running then:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The MSC/VLR sends a SGs page to the MME.
The MME sends an S3 page to the SGSN.
The SGSN pages the UE with the "CN Domain Indicator = CS domain", and if the UE responds to the
page by doing a cell re-selection to CS domain, the MSC/VLR stops paging.
The voice call is completed.
If the implicit detach timer expires:

The MME sends an EPS Detach Notification (IMSI detach) to the MSC/VLR.

The MME sends a Detach Notification with cause "Local detach" to the SGSN (Refer to 3GPP TS
23.272v10.08, section 5.3.2 point no. 3).

If the UE is "combined EPS/IMSI attach capable" (as derived from MS Network capability) and if ISR
is active, the SGSN sends an IMSI detach request to the UE on receiving Detach Notification with
cause "local detach".

The SGSN sets a flag called "EMM Combined UE waiting" (Refer to 3GPP TS 23.272v10.08, section
5.5)

If the IMSI detach request reaches the UE, the UE performs a Combined RAU, the "EMM Combined
UE waiting" flag is cleared at the SGSN and Gs association is established between SGSN and
MSC/VLR. ISR is deactivated at the UE.

If the IMSI detach request does not reach the UE, then on next signaling from the UE based on the
"EMM Combined UE waiting" flag being set, following action is taken:
If an UE performs a periodic RAU or NAS Service Request, then the UE is forced to do an IMSI detach
so that the UE does a Combined RAU again to establish Gs association.
PGW Initiated Last PDN De-activation Procedure
Listed below are the sequence of events which occur, if an UE is "combined EPS/IMSI attach capable" and the last PDN
is de-activated due to PGW initiated de-activation or HSS initiated de-activation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The SGW forwards the DBR to both the SGSN and the MME.
Both MME and SGSN de-activate the PDN, and locally de-activate ISR (Refer to 3GPP TS 23.401 v10.08, section
5.4.4.1 (Note 2 and 3) and 3GPP TS 23.060 v10.801, section 9.2.4.3B).
The MME need not send a Detach Notification to the SGSN.
Consider the scenario, where the SGSN is aware that it is a PGW initiated last PDN de-activation, the UE is "combined
EPS/IMSI attach capable" (as derived from MS Network capability) and ISR was active earlier, the SGSN performs the
following actions:

If the UE is in a PMM-CONNECTED state at the SGSN, then SGSN sends an IMSI detach request. The SGSN
sets a flag called "EMM Combined UE waiting". If the UE receives this IMSI detach request, it performs a
combined RAU into SGSN and at that point the Gs association is established and the "EMM Combined UE
Waiting" flag is cleared by the SGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
ISR CSFB Procedures ▀

5.
6.
If the UE is in an E-UTRAN coverage area then, the MME detaches the UE and the UE is re-attached to the network. If
the UE is not in an UTRAN/GERAN coverage area, then the SGSN pages the UE prior to sending IMSI detach. This
paging request fails.
If the UE does not receive an E-UTRAN detach request or a paging request from the SGSN, and at a later point if the UE
returns to the SGSN with a periodic RAU / NAS Service Request, then the SGSN performs the following:

7.
If the UE is in an IDLE state at the SGSN, then the SGSN pages the UE to deliver the PDP de-activation request.
If paging fails, the SGSN sets the "EMM Combined UE Waiting" flag. When this UE performs a combined
RAU to SGSN at a later time or attaches to the SGSN, this flag is cleared.
The "EMM Combined UE waiting" flag is set, this forces the UE to perform a IMSI detach so that the UE does a
Combined RAU again to establish a Gs association.
If the UE receives the IMSI detach request sent in step (4), the UE performs a Combined RAU to establish Gs
association. On receiving a Combined RAU, the SGSN clears the "EMM Combined UE waiting" flag.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ Standards Compliance
Standards Compliance
The Idle mode signaling reduction complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.060, version 10
 3GPP TS 23.401, version 10
 3GPP TS 23.272, version 10
 3GPP TS 29.274, version 10
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
Configuring ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback ▀
Configuring ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
The following commands are used to configure 3G paging cause for CSFB:
config
context <context_name>
iups-service <iups_service_name>
rnc id <rnc_id>
[default | no ] ranap paging-cause-ie mme-signalling < paging_cause_value >
end
Where:
 The command ranap paging-cause-ie mme-signalling < paging_cause_value > is used to set the
Paging Cause IE value for paging from MME due to Circuit Switch Fallback (CSFB). Listed below are the
paging cause values which can be set:
 0 - Terminating conversational call
 1 - Terminating streaming call
 2 - Terminating interactive call
 3 - Terminating background call
 4 - Terminating low priority signaling
 5 - Terminating high priority signaling
 The default command resets the specific parameters value to default. In this case it is set to “5 - Terminating high
priority signaling”.
 The no form of the command suppresses the Paging Cause IE so that it is not included in responses to Paging
Requests.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
ISR with Circuit Switched Fallback
▀ Monitoring and trouble-shooting the CSFB feature
Monitoring and trouble-shooting the CSFB feature
The configuration can be verified by executing the show command show iups-service, the following parameter is
displayed on executing the command:
 MME-Signalling : Terminating Low Priority Signalling (4)
The show command show subscriber sgsn-only full all has been updated to include a display for “SSAF”
and “Emm_combined_ue_waiting” flags. The new parameters are displayed as below:
 SSAF : False
 EMM Combined UE Waiting Flag : False
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 16
Location Services
LoCation Services (LCS) on the MME and SGSN is a 3GPP standards-compliant feature that enables the system (MME
or SGSN) to collect and use or share location (geographical position) information for connected UEs in support of a
variety of location services.
This chapter describes the basic LCS functions available on the SGSN and include:
 Location Services - Feature Description
 How Location Services Works
 Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the LCS on the SGSN
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ Location Services - Feature Description
Location Services - Feature Description
The Location Services (LCS) feature enables the EPC MME and the GPRS/UMTS SGSN to use the SLg (MME) or Lg
(SGSN) interface which provides the mechanisms to support specialized mobile location services for operators,
subscribers, and third party service providers. Use of this feature and the SLg/Lg interface is license controlled.
The location information is reported in standard geographical co-ordinates (longitude and latitude) together with the
time-of-day and the estimated errors (uncertainty) of the location of the UE. For external use, the location information
may be requested by and reported to a client application associated with the UE, or a client within or attached to the core
network. For internal use, the location information can be utilized by the SGSN for functions such as location assisted
handover or to support other features.
Location information is intended to be used for
 location-based charging (e.g., home-location billing, roaming-location billing),
 location-based services (e.g., lawful interception, emergency calls),
 positioning services offered to the subscribers (e.g., mobile yellow pages, navigation applications on mobiles),
and
 by the operator for service provider services such as network planning and enhanced call routing.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Location Services
How Location Services Works ▀
How Location Services Works
The SGSN LCS responsibilities center around UE subscription authorization and managing LCS positioning requests.
The LCS functions of the SGSN are related to charging and billing, LCS co-ordination, location request, authorization
and operation of the LCS services.
When using the Iu interface, before the SGSN can request location information of a target UE from the radio access
network (RAN), an Iu signaling connection must have been established between the SGSN and the RAN. The SGSN
sends a Location Request message to the RAN. The RAN determines the location of the target UE related to this Iu
signaling connection and sends a Location Report to the SGSN over the same Iu signaling connection. On the Iu
interface, only one location request for a geographic location estimate can be ongoing at any time.
Only one location request can be ongoing at any time.
The operation begins with a LCS Client requesting location information for a UE from the LCS server. The LCS server
will pass the request to the LCS functional entity (SGSN) in the core network. The LCS functional entitiy (SGSN) in the
core network then:
1.
2.
3.
4.
verifies that the LCS Client is authorized to request the location of the UE or subscriber;
verifies that location services are supported by the UE;
establishes whether it (the MME/SGSN) is allowed to locate the UE or subscriber, for privacy or other reasons;
establishes which network element in the radio access network ( GERAN or UTRAN or E-UTRAN ) should
receive the Location Request;
5. requests the access network (via the A, Gb, Iu or S1 interface) to provide location information for an identified
UE, with indicated QoS;
6. receives information about the location of the UE from the Access Network and forward it to the Client;
7. sends appropriate accounting information to an accounting function.
Relationship to Other SGSN Functions
The Location Services feature utilizes several of the existing SGSN functionalities:
 Mobility Management module
 MAP Service module
Architecture
The MME is accessible to the Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC) via the SLg interface.
The SGSN is accessible to the GMLC via the Lg interface.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ How Location Services Works
Figure 51.
LCS Architecture
The SGSN informs the HLR/HSS regarding the LCS capabilities of UE in GPRS (2G) or UMTS (3G) networks. The
SGSN may include the IP address of the V-GMLC associated with the SGSN in the
MAP_UPDATE_GPRS_LOCATION message during Attach and ISRAU procedures.
Limitations
Currently, SGSN support is limited to:
1. A single location request at a time for the target UE. Concurrent location requests are not supported.
2. Only Provide Subscriber Location messages with the id as IMSI are supported.
Flows
Flows
Location Services call flows are standards compliant for the SGSN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Location Services
How Location Services Works ▀
SGSN
Figure 52.
2G Mobile Terminating Location Request
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ How Location Services Works
Figure 53.
3G Mobile Terminating Location Request
Standards Compliance
The SGSN’s Location Services feature complies with the following standards:
 TS 3GPP 23.271, v9.6.0
 TS 3GPP 24.030, v9.0.0
 TS 3GPP 24.080, v9.2.0
 TS 3GPP 25.413, v9.8.0 (sections 8.19.2 and 8.20.2)
 TS 3GPP 29.002, v9.7.0
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Location Services
Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN ▀
Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN
This section provides a high-level series of steps and the associated configuration examples to configure Location
Services on the 2G or 3G SGSN -- or for both.
The commands could be issued in a different order, but we recommend that you follow the outlined order for an initial
LCS configuration. All listed configuration steps are mandatory unless otherwise indicated.
Important: For all the required configuration commands to be available and to implement the configuration, the
SGSN must have loaded the license for the Lg interface.
Step 1
Enable Location Services on the SGSN.
Step 2
Identify the GMLC (in the MAP service) to which the SGSN connects for LCS access to the external LCS client.
Step 3
Configure the MAP service’s M1 timer.
Important:
Step 3 is not mandatory but it is recommended.
Step 4
Create a location services configuration and associate the MAP service.
Step 5
Fine-tune LCS configuration per UE by defining LCS-related restrictions.
Step 6
Associate the location services configuration with the appropriate SGSN - GPRS (2G) service and/or UMTS (3G)
service.
Step 7
Associate the location services configuration with an operator policy.
Step 8
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide.
Step 9
Verify the configuration for each component by following the instructions provided in the Verifying the Feature
Configuration section.
Enabling LCS
Location Services functionality is enabled globally for the SGSN.
config
sgsn-global
location-services
end
Notes:
 This command enables and ‘starts’ LCS on the SGSN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN
 This command also enables support for the Lg interface on the SGSN.
 Using the ‘no’ keyword stops LCS.
Identifying the GMLC
Use the MAP service configuration to identify the GMLC to which the SGSN connects for LCS access to the external
LCS client. We recommend that you also configure the MAP service’s M1 timer, however, this is option.
config
context <context_name>
map-service <map_service_name>
gmlc { isdn E.164# | point-code <point_code> } gsn-address <ipv4_address> [
source-ssn <ssn> ]
timeout m1 seconds
end
Notes:
 Only one GMLC can be configured per MAP service.
 isdn is the 1-15 digit E.164 number that identifies the GMLC.
 point-code is the address for the GMLC in dotted-decimal ###.###.### or decimal ######## SS7 point-code
format
 gsn-address is the IPv4 address for the GMLC
 source-ssn optionally identifies the source SSN value to be used.
Creating the Location Service Configuration
This set of configuration commands creates a location service configuration and associates the MAP service with the
location service. Up to 16 separate location services can be created.
config
context context_name
location-service loc_serv_name
associate map-service map_serv_name
end
Notes:
 The SGSN supports a maximum of 16 location service configuration. It should be noted that this number, 16, is
not part of the SGSN’s service configuration limit of 256.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Location Services
Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN ▀
 Associate the MAP Service configuration in which the GMLC is defined.
Fine-tuning the Location Service Configuration
Fine-tune the location service configuration per UE by defining LCS-related restrictions. The following commands will
be used to configure the LCSN timer (location notification invoke procedures timer). Configuring the timer value is
optional.
config
context context_name
location-service loc_serv_name
timeout lcsn seconds
Notes:
LCSN timer range is 10 - 20 with a default of 15. seconds.
The following command is used to configure the UE available guard timer. Configuring this timer is optional.
config
context context_name
location-service loc_serv_name
timeout ue-available-guard-timer ueagtimer_seconds
Notes:
This timer, set in seconds, is used to guard the packet-switched deferred location request (UE available event)
procedures. It is an integer from 10 to 600. Default is 600.
The following command is used to configure area event invoke procedure timer. Configuring this timer is optional.
config
context context_name
location-service loc_serv_name
timeout area-event-invoke-timer aietimer_seconds
Notes:
This timer, set in seconds, is used to guard the area event invoke procedure. It is an integer from 10 through 20. Default
is 15.
The following command is used to configure periodic event invoke procedure timer. Configuring this timer is optional.
config
context context_name
location-service loc_serv_name
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN
timeout periodic-event-invoke-timer peitimer_seconds
Notes:
This timer, set in seconds, is used to guard the period location invoke procedure.. It is an integer from 10 through 20.
Default is 15.
Associating the Location Service Config with the SGSN
Location service functionality can be associated with either the 3G SGSN via commands in the SGSN Service
configuration mode or with the 2G SGSN via commands in the GPRS Service configuration mode.
The following associates the location service configuration with a 3G SGSN:
config
context context_name
sgsn-service service-name
associate location-service loc_serv_name
Notes:
 To associate with a 2G SGSN, enter the GPRS service configuration mode in place of the SGSN service
configuration mode.
Associating the Location Service Config with an Operator Policy
Location service functionality can be associated with an operator policy to provide granular control.
The following associates the location service configuration with a call-control profile by IMSI and these CLIs will
disable/enable Mobile Terminating, Mobile Originating and/or Network Induced location requests by access-type.
config
call-control-profile ccprofile_name
lcs-mt { allow | restrict } access-type { gprs | umts }
Notes:
 lcs-mt enables mobile-terminating location requests.
 replace lcs-mt with lcs-mo to enable the mobile-originating location requests, lcs-ni is not supported by
SGSN.
 Default for the 3 lcs commands is allow
Verifying the LCS Configuration for the SGSN
View the location service configuration to verify the configurations created for the Location Service functionality, by
using the following commands:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Location Services
Configuring Location Services (LCS) on the SGSN ▀
show location-service service { all | name loc_serv_name
View the MAP configuration to verify the MAP configurations created for the Location Service functionality, by using
the following commands:
show map-service { all | name map_serv_name }
View the call-control profile configuration to verify the configurations created for the Location Service functionality, by
using the following commands:
show call-control-profile full name ccprof_name
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Location Services
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the LCS on the SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the LCS on the SGSN
Use the commands listed below to monitor and/or troubleshoot the operation of the Location Services on the SGSN.
 show map statistics name map-service-name
 clear map statistics name map-service-name
 show gmm-sm statistics
 show subscribers sgsn-only summary
 show subscribers gprs-only summary
 show location-service service {all | name location-service-name }
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 17
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
The SGSN’s Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature has been enhanced and now extends to the S4-SGSN to
prevent both 2G and 3G subscribers from being overcharged when a loss of radio coverage (LORC) occurs over the S4
interface.
As part of this functionality, the operator configures all cause codes on the SGSN. If the SGSN receives a cause code,
via Iu/Gb interfaces, that matches one of the cause codes configured on the SGSN, then the SGSN includes the ARRL
(Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in the Release Access Bearer Request.
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
Subscriber Overcharging Protection prevents subscribers from being overcharged when a loss of radio coverage
(LORC) occurs.
Important: In order for the Subscriber Overcharge Protection feature to be most effective, the SGSN supports
initiation of Release Access Bearer Request on Iu-Release for all subscribers (even for non-ISR and non-DT cases).
Refer to the section on Release Access Bearer Requests below for details.
LORC Subscriber Overcharge Protection on the S4-SGSN
LORC is standardized in 3GPP release 12.0 specifications. According to 3GPP TS 23.401, the SGSN includes the
ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) Indication in Release Access Bearer Request messages if the Iu-Release
procedure is due to an abnormal release of the radio link.
It should be noted that 3GPP has not defined LORC for UMTS / GPRS access in an EPS network. Currently, it is
defined only for E-UTRAN access. However, the SGSN can use the defined 3GPP mechanism to achieve PDN pause of
charging in UMTS / GPRS access as well.
With this feature the S4-SGSN should include the ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in indication flags IE of
Release Access Bearer Request when Iu-Release occurs due to the cause 'Radio Connection With UE Lost (46)' in 3G.
Also the S4-SGSN should include the ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in indication flags IE of Release
Access Bearer Request when Radio Status Bad ia received in 2G.
The operator configures all cause codes on the SGSN so if the SGSN receives a cause code via Iu/Gb interfaces that
matches one of the cause codes configured on the SGSN, then the SGSN includes the ARRL bit in the Release Access
Bearer Request.
Release Access Bearer Requests
3G (UMTS):
Upon RNC failure or Iu-Release, the SGSN preserves non-GBR (i.e., non-guaranteed bit rate) PDPs (interactive /
background) by default. From release 15.0 onwards, for DT and ISR cases the SGSN supports sending Release Access
Bearer Request on Iu-Release. In accordance with TS 23.060 v11.7.0, the SGSN can optionally send a Release Access
Bearers Request to the S-GW to remove the downlink user plane on S4 for non-DT and non-ISR subscribers.
As part of this feature, the operator can configure the S4-SGSN to send Release Access Bearer Request on Iu-Release
for non-DT and non-ISR subscribers. For DT and ISR subscribers, Release Access Bearer Initiation functions as it has
done prior to this feature’s implementation.
2G (GPRS):
Upon Ready-to-Standby, the SGSN preserves non-GBR (i.e., non-guaranteed bit rate) PDPs (interactive / background)
by default. From release 15.0 onwards, for ISR cases the S4-SGSN supports sending Release Access Bearer Request on
Ready-to-Standby state transition. In accordance with 3GPP TS 23.060 v11.7.0, the SGSN optionally sends a Release
Access Bearers Request to the S-GW to remove the downlink user plane on S4 for non-ISR subscriberes.
As part of this feature, the operator can configure the S4-SGSN to send Release Access Bearer Request on Ready-toStandby or Radio Status Bad for non-ISR subscribers. For ISR subscribers, Release Access Bearer Initiation is
independent and functions as it has done prior to this feature’s implementation.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
Feature Description ▀
Relationships
 The S-GW should support receiving ARRL bit on S4 interface.
 For this feature to function effectively, the S-GW and P-GW also be configured to support the "PGW Pause of
Charging” procedure.
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LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
How It Works
The S4-SGSN handles LORC-based subscriber overcharging protection functionality in accordance with 3GPP
specifications as described below.
3G Iu-Release Procedure and Overcharge Protection over S4
The following call flow is derived from section 12.7.3.2 of TS 23.060 v11.7.0 and it illustrates how the S4-SGSN
handles the Iu-Release procedure due to LORC with the overcharging protection functionality enabled.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
Figure 54.
Iu-Release and Overcharging Protection on the S4
If the cause in the Iu-Release Request matches with the cause code configured under the LTE Policy and if overcharge
protection is enabled under the SGSN-service, then the S4-SGSN includes ARRL (i.e., Abnormal Release of Radio
Link) bit in the Release Access Bearer Request. For configuration details, refer to the section on Configuring Subscriber
Overcharging Protection
2G Ready-to-Standby State Transition and Overcharge Protection over S4
The following flow is derived from section 8.1.3a of TS 23.060 v11.7.0 and it illustrates how the S4-SGSN handles the
state transiton with regard to the overcharging protection functionality.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
▀ How It Works
When idle mode packet buffering is performed on the S-GW, the SGSN needs to inform the S-GW each time that the
MS changes from Ready state to Standby state. The following figure illustrates the procedure between the SGSN and
the S-GW.
Figure 55.
2G Ready-to-Standby State Transition Using S4
If the BSSGP radio-cause code that is configured by the operator matches with the radio cause code received in the
RADIO STATUS message and if the overcharge protection functionality is enabled under GPRS-service, then the
SGSN includes the ARRL bit in Release Access Bearer Request. For configuration details, refer to the section on
Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection.
Standards Compliance
Overcharging protection complies with the following standards:
 TS 23.060 version 11
 TS 23.401 version 11
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
How It Works ▀
 TS 29.274 version 11
 TS 25.413 version 11
 TS 48.018 version 11
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
▀ Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection
Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection
Important: In order for the Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature to be most effective, the operator should
first enable sending the Release Access Bearer Request and next configure the cause codes for the SGSN for matching
with received codes which enables the SGSN to include the Abnormal Release of Radio Link (ARRL) bit in the Release
Access Bearer Request.
Important: For details about all the commands listed in the Configuration sections below, refer to the Command
Line Interface Reference, StarOS Release 17.
Enabling Release Access Bearer Request
The operator can control the sending of Release Access Bearer Request on Iu-Release for non-DT and non-ISR
subscribers in 3G and on Ready-to-Standby or Radio-Status-Bad for non-ISR subscribers in 2G.
Use commands similar to those illustrated below to enable sending of the Release Access Bearer Request:
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
release-access-bearer [ on-iu-release | on-ready-to-standby ]
remove release-access-bearer [ on-iu-release | on-ready-to-standby ]
end
Notes:
 on-iu-release: This optional keyword instructs the SGSN to send Release Access Bearer upon Iu-Release in
a 3G network so that Release Access Bearer will be initiated for non-ISR and non-DT subscribers upon IuRelease. For ISR and DT subscribers, Release Access Bearer will be initiated unconditionally.
 on-ready-to-standby: This optional keyword instructs the SGSN to send Release Access Bearer on Readyto-Standby transition in a 2G network so that Release Access Bearer will be initiated for non-ISR subscribers
on Ready-to-Standby transition. For ISR subscribers, Release Access Bearer will be initiated unconditionally.
 If no optional keywords are included with the release-access-bearer command, then the S4-SGSN applies
Release Access Bearer for both 2G and 3G networks.
Configuring the Causes to Include ARRL in Release Access Bearer Request
In support of the subscriber overcharging protection functionality, the operator must configure all cause codes on the
SGSN. If the SGSN receives a cause code via Iu/Gb interfaces that matches one of the cause codes configured on the
SGSN, then the SGSN includes the ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in the Release Access Bearer Request.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection ▀
Configuring the Causes for 2G
Use the following configuration commands to define the cause codes received over the Gb interface for GPRS 2G
service (BSSGP) when the SGSN initiates Release Access Bearer Request with ARRL bit set.
configure
lte-policy
cause-code-group group_name protocol bssgp
radio-cause cause_code
end
Notes:
 Under LTE Policy, the maximum number of cause code groups supported is 4. Note that this means that the total
number of cause code groups available across all the services (SGSN+GPRS+MME) is 4.
 group_name: Enter an alphanumeric string up to 16 characters long.
 bssgp:
 Accesses BSSGP Cause Code Group configuration mode for the commands to define the cause codes
for the 2G service
 Presents a prompt similar to the following: [local]sgsn-test(bssgp-cause-code)#
 radio-cause: A maximum of 16 BSSGP protocol radio cause codes can be defined per group. This
command, in the new BSSGP Cause Code Group configuration mode, enables the operator to define
multiple cause codes for the 2G service so that
 if the BSSGP radio cause code configured by the operator matches with the radio cause
received in the Radio Status message, and
 if the Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature is enabled for 2G service in the GPRSService configuration (see command information above),
 then the S4-SGSN includes ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in Release Access
Bearer Request message Initiated on Ready-to-Standby state transition.
 Under each cause code group the maximum number of cause codes (ranap+bssgp+s1ap) that can be
supported is 16.
 cause_code : Enter an integer from 0 to 255 to identify a BSSGP protocol radio cause code, as
defined in the Radio Cause section of the 3GPP TS 48.028 specification.
Important: The SGSN does not support Enhanced Radio Status functionality; therefore, the SGSN treats cause
code values 0x03 and 0x04 as “Radio contact lost with MS”. Therefore, the valid configurable cause codes values are 0,
1, and 2.
Configuring the Causes for 3G
Use the following configuration commands to define the cause codes received over the the Iu interface for UMTS 3G
service (RANAP) when the SGSN initiates Release Access Bearer Request with ARRL bit set.
configure
lte-policy
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LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
▀ Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection
cause-code-group group_name protocol ranap
cause cause_code
end
Notes:
 Under LTE Policy, the maximum number of cause code groups supported is 4. Note that this means that the total
number of cause code groups available across all the services (SGSN+GPRS+MME) is 4.
 group_name: Enter an alphanumeric string up to 16 characters long.
 ranap:
 Accesses the RANAP Cause Code Group configuration mode for the commands to define the cause
codes for the 3G service
 Presents a prompt similar to the following: [local]sgsn-test(ranap-cause-code)#
 cause: A maximum of 16 RANAP protocol cause codes can be defined per group. This command, in
the new RANAP Cause Code Group configuration mode, enables the operator to define multiple
cause codes for the 3G service so that
 if the RANAP cause code configured by the operator matches with the radio cause received in
the Iu-Release Request message, and
 if the Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature is enabled for 3G service in the SGSNService configuration,
 then the S4-SGSN includes ARRL (Abnormal Release of Radio Link) bit in Release Access
Bearer Request message Initiated on Ready-to-Standby state transition.
 Under each cause code group the maximum number of cause codes (ranap+bssgp+s1ap) that can be
supported is 16.
 cause_code : Enter an integer from 1 to 512 to identify a cause code. Valid options are listed in 3GPP
TS 25.413 v11.5.0 (or later version), subsection on Cause in subsection for Radio Network Layer
Related IEs.
Enabling Subscriber Overcharging Protection on S4
Configuring for 3G
Use commands similar to those illustrated below to
 enable or disable Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature for the S4-SGSN in the 3G network.
 associate a cause code group with the SGSN Service configuration.
configure
context context_name
sgsn-service service_name
s4-overcharge-protection ranap-cause-code-group group_name
no s4-overcharge-protection
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LORC Subscriber Overcharging Protection for S4-SGSN
Configuring Subscriber Overcharging Protection ▀
end
Notes:
 group_name: Enter an alphanumeric string up to 16 characters long to identify the cause code group.
Important: This CLI does not have any control over Release Access Bearer Initiation. If Release Access Bearer
is going out of the S4-SGSN, the ARRL bit will be included if this CLI is enabled and if LORC (loss of radio coverage)
is detected.
Configuring for 2G
Use commands similar to those illustrated below to
 enable Subscriber Overcharging Protection feature for the S4-SGSN in the 2G network.
 associate a cause code group with the GPRS Service configuration.
configure
context context_name
gprs-service service_name
s4-overcharge-protection bssgp-cause-code-group group_name
end
Notes:
 group_name: Enter an alphanumeric string up to 16 characters long to identify the cause code group.
Important: This CLI does not have any control over release access bearer initiation. If Release Access Bearer is
going out of the S4-SGSN, the ARRL bit will be included if this CLI is enabled and if LORC (loss of radio coverage) is
detected.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
The SGSN has long supported Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN) network sharing operations for the 3G SGSN.
With Release 15.0, the SGSN now supports MOCN operations for 2G scenarios.
Important: The MOCN network sharing functionality now requires a feature license for both 2G and 3G
network sharing scenarios. Contact your Cisco representative for licensing information.
This section includes the following 2G MOCN information:
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring 2G MOCN
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is uniquely identified by the combination of a mobile country code and a
mobile network code (the PLMN-Id). Sharing of radio resource and network nodes requires a PLMN network to support
more than one than one PLMN-Id.
GPP defines two different configurations for supporting network sharing based on the resources being shared.
Gate Core Network (GWCN) Configuration
In this configuration, the radio access network and some core network services are shared among different operators.
Each operator has its own network node for GGSN, HLR etc, while sharing SGSN and MSC with the rest of the radio
network. The figure below depicts a GWCN configuration.
Figure 56.
GWCN Configuration for Network Sharing
Multi Operator Core Network (MOCN) Configuration
In this configuration, the radio network is shared among different operators, while each operator maintains its separate
core network. The figure below depicts a MOCN configuration.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
Feature Description ▀
Figure 57.
MOCN Configuration
Relationships to Other Features
SGSN supports both MOCN and GWCN in 3G. GPRS. The MOCN feature can work with 3G network sharing. InterRAT from 3G to 2G in shared to non-shared area, and non-shared area to shared are supported.
To enable GPRS MOCN, the BSC also needs to support the GPRS MOCN. For “Supporting-MS”, the MS shall have
the capability to select the network from the PLMN details shared by the BSC. Currently, the SGSN supports only “nonsupporting MS”, thus the MS always selects the common PLMN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ How It Works
How It Works
Automatic PLMN Selection in Idle Mode
This section briefly describes the normal PLMN selection procedure performed by MS along with modifications for
network sharing.
Whenever MS is switched on or has just returned to network coverage after being out of coverage, it tries to select a
network to register itself and receive network services. Traditionally, each network broadcasts its own PLMN-Id on
common broadcast channels that are visible to all MSs in that area.
The MS starts by scanning for all the available radio networks in that area and creating an Available PLMN list. It then
refers to the Equivalent PLMN list and Forbidden PLMN list (stored on its SIM) to prioritize the Available PLMN list.
Once this prioritized PLMN list is available, the MS attempts registration with a PLMN based on priority.
With network sharing a single radio network is shared by more than one network operator. Information about the
availability of multiple operators must be propagated to the MS so that it can correctly select a home or equivalent
network from all available networks.
To advertise availability of multiple core network operators on a single radio network, broadcast information has been
modified to contain a list of PLMN-Ids representing core network operators sharing the particular radio network. The
traditional PLMN-Id broadcast by a radio network before network sharing support was available is known as a
“common PLMN Id”.
An MS that does not support network sharing (a non-supporting MS) sees only the “common PLMN Id”, while an MS
supporting network sharing (a supporting MS) is able to see the list of PLMN-Ids along with “common PLMN Id”.
A supporting MS is responsible for selecting an appropriate core network, while the RNC and SGSN will help select an
appropriate core network for a non-supporting MS.
MOCN Configuration with Non-supporting MS
In this scenario, only the radio network is shared by different network operators while each operator manages its own
SGSN and the rest of the core network. The MS does not support network sharing – it is unable to understand the
modified broadcast information and would always choose the PLMN based on the advertised “common PLMN-Id”.
The SGSN performs the following steps:
1. Extract the subscriber’s IMSI.
 If it is available, use IMSI in a BSSGP UL-UNITDATA message.
 For inter-SGSN RAU and a P-TMSI Attach Request, retrieve the IMSI from the old SGSN or the MS
by doing an Identity Procedure.
2. Based on the MCC-MNC from the IMSI, apply roaming control.
3. If the subscriber can be admitted in the SGSN, send a response message (Attach-Accept or RAU-Accept) with
an Redirection-Completed IE via BSSGP UL-UNITDATA.
4. If the subscriber cannot be admitted in the SGSN, send a BSSGP DL-UNITDATA message to the BSC with a
redirection indication flag set containing the reject cause, the attach reject message, and the original attach
request message received from the UE. The IMSI is also included in the message.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
How It Works ▀
Architecture
Redirection in GERAN with MOCN Configuration
The figure below illustrates the information flow for this configuration.
Figure 58.
1
Information Flow for Redirection in GERAN (PS Domain)
Establish the TBF (Temporary Block Flow).
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MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ How It Works
2
The BSC receives the LLC frame with foreign [or random] TLLI =X.
The BSC works in a Shared RAN MOCN, and, therefore, forwards the message in a BSSGP ULUNITDATA message with
an additional redirect attempt flag set. The flag indicates that the SGSN shall respond to the attach request with a BSSGP DLUNITDATA message providing when relevant a redirection indication flag set to inform the BSC that a redirection to
another CN must to be performed. The selection of a CN node is based on NRI (valid or invalid) or random selection. The
mechanism defined for Gb-Flex in TS 23.236 [8] is used.
3
The SGSN receives the BSSGP UL-UNITDATA message with the redirect attempt flag set. It then knows it may have to
provide the BSC with a redirection indication flag set or a redirection completed flag set.
4
The SGSN needs the IMSI of the UE retrieves it either from the old SGSN or from the UE as in this example. By comparing
the IMSI with the roaming agreements of the CN operator, SGSN A discovers that roaming is not allowed or that roaming is
allowed but CS/PS coordination is required. The Attach procedure is aborted.
5
5a) A BSSGP DL-UNITDATA message is sent back to the BSC with a redirection indication flag set containing the reject
cause, the attach reject message, and the original attach request message received from the UE. The V(U) shall also be
included in the message. The IMSI is also included in the message. The BSC selects a SGSN B in the next step. The already
tried SGSN A is stored in the BSC during the redirect procedure so that the same node is not selected twice.
5b) The BSC makes a short-lived binding between the TLLI =X and SGSN ID so that it points to SGSN B.
6
The BSC sends a new BSSGP UL-UNITDATA to the next selected SGSN B with the original attach request message (for
CS/PS coordination the BSSGP UL-UNITDATA may also be sent back to the first SGSN depending on the outcome of the
coordination). Redirect attempt flag is set and IMSI is included to avoid a second IMSI retrieval from the UE or old SGSN
and to indicate that PS/CS domain coordination has been done in BSC (if enabled in BSC). The V(U) shall also be included
in the message. The SGSN B receiving the message starts its attach procedure.
7
SGSN B does support roaming for the HPLMN of the IMSI; authentication is done and RAN ciphering is established. The
value of V(U) in SGSN-B is set according to the received value from BSC. Uplink LLC frames are routed to SGSN B despite
the NRI of the TLLI=X pointing to SGSN A.
8
SGSN B updates the HLR and receives subscriber data from HLR Subscriber data allows roaming, and the SGSN B
completes the attach procedure.This includes the assignment of a new P-TMSI with an NRI that can be used by BSC to route
subsequent signalling between UE and the correct SGSN (Gb-Flex functionality).
9
A BSSGP DL-UNITDATA Attach accept message is sent to BSC with the Redirection Completed flag set. The BSC knows
that the redirect is finished and can forward the Attach Accept message to the UE and clean up any stored redirect data.
SGSN B is allowed to reset the XID parameter only after the Attach Request is accepted.
10
The Attach Accept is forwarded to the UE. The UE stores the P-TMSI with the Gb-Flex NRI to be used for future signalling,
even after power off.
11
UE responds with an Attach Complete message (P-TMSI [re-]allocation if not already made in Attach Accept). The Attach
Complete uses the new TLLI. After this, the BSS releases the binding between TLLI=X and SGSN B.
If the BSC finds no SGSNs to redirect to after receiving a BSSGP DL-UNITDATA message with the Redirection
Indication flag set, it compares the cause code with cause codes from other BSSGP DL-UNITDATA messages it has
previously received for this UE. A cause code ranking is done and the “softest” cause code is chosen. The corresponding
saved Attach Reject message is returned to the UE.
Each CN node that receives a BSSGP UL-UNITDATA, runs its own authentication procedure. This may in some rare
situations cause the UE to be authenticated more than once. However, the trust-model used is that one CN operator shall
not trust an authentication done by another CN operator. This is not an optimal usage of radio resources, but given the
rare occurrence of this scenario, the increased signalling is insignificant.
During the redirect procedure the BSC keeps a timer, which corresponds to the UE timer for releasing the RR
connection (20 seconds). If the BSC when receiving a BSSGP DL-UNITDATA message with the Redirection
Indication flag set finds that there is insufficient time for another redirect, further redirect attempts are stopped (for this
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
How It Works ▀
Attach Request message). The UE will repeat its Attach Request four times (each time waiting 15 seconds before it reestablishes the RR connection for another try).
Standards Compliance
Support for 2G MOCN functionality on the SGSN complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.251 – Network Sharing: Architecture and functional description
 3GPP TS 40.018 version 10.7.0 Release 10 – BSSGP layer specification
 3GPP TS 44.064 – Mobile Station - Serving GPRS Support Node (MS-SGSN); Logical Link Control (LLC)
Layer Specification
 3GPP TS 24.008 – Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core network protocols
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ Configuring 2G MOCN
Configuring 2G MOCN
For details about the commands listed below, refer to the Cisco ASR 5000 Command Line Interface Reference for the
appropriate release.
GPRS MOCN Configuration
gprs-mocn
The SGSN mode gprs-mocn command enables or disables 2G MOCN support.
config
sgsn-global
gprs-mocn
end
Verifying gprs-mocn Configuration
From the Exec mode, run the show sgsn-mode command and look for the line:
Multi Operator Core NW (MOCN)
: Enabled
Common PLMN-Id and List of PLMN Ids Configuration
plmn id
The following command sequence configures the common PLMN-Id and an optional list of dedicated PLMN-Ids in the
GPRS service.
config
context
ctxt_name
gprs-service
gprs_srvc_name
plmn id mcc mcc_id mnc mnc_id [ network-sharing common-plmn mcc mcc_id mnc
mnc_id [ plmn-list mcc mcc_id mnc mnc_id [ mcc mcc_id mnc mnc_id ] + ] ]
end
Notes:
 + in the syntax above indicates that the mcc/mnc combination can be repeated as often as needed to define all
PLMN-Ids needed in the list.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
Configuring 2G MOCN ▀
Verifying plmn id Configuration
From the Exec mode, run the show gprs-service command, including the name keyword to identify the specific
GPRS service you configured above, and check the output for the following lines:
Network Sharing
: <Enabled/Disabled>
Common Plmn-id
: MCC: <mcc_id>, MNC: <mnc_id>
Local PLMNS:
PLMN
: MCC: <mcc_id>, MNC: <mnc_id>
Network Sharing Configuration
network-sharing cs-ps-coordination
Next, the operator should configure cs-ps-coordination checking explicitly for homer or roamer subscribers and for the
failure-code to be sent when the SGSN asks the BSC to perform CS-PS coordination.
The network-sharing command enables or disables the cs-ps coordination check for homer or roamer. It is also
used to set the failure code that will be sent while the SGSN is requesting the BSC to provide CS-PS coordination.
config
context <ctxt_name>
gprs-service <gprs_srvc_name>
network-sharing cs-ps-coordination [ roamer | homer | failure-code gmm-cause ]
end
Notes: Variations of the network sharing command can be used to adjust the CS-PS configuration.
 [ no ] network-sharing cs-ps-coordination roamer – enables/disables the cs-ps-coordination
check for a roamer.
 [ no ] network-sharing cs-ps-coordination homer – enables/disables the cs-ps-coordination check
for a homer.
 network-sharing cs-ps-coordination failure-code gmm-cause – sets the gmm cause value to be
sent while cs-ps-coordination is required. This setting applies to both homer and roamer.
 default network-sharing cs-ps-coordination – sets the cs-ps-coordination parameters to default. By
default, checking for cs-ps-coordination is enabled for homer and roamer. The default failure code is 0xE.
Verifying network-sharing Configuration
From the Exec mode, run the show gprs-service command, including the name keyword, and check the output for
the following lines:
CS/PS Co-ordination homer
: <Enabled/Disabled>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ Configuring 2G MOCN
CS/PS Co-ordination roamer
: <Enabled/Disabled>
CS/PS Co-ordination failcode : <valid gmm cause>
network-sharing failure-code
The following command sequence sets the failure code that is used by GPRS MOCN if no failure cause is available
when the SGSN sends an Attach/RAU Reject message
config
context ctxt_name
gprs-service gprs_srvc_name
network-sharing failure-code gmm-cause
end
Default network sharing failure-code is 7.
Verifying Failure Code Configuration
From the Exec mode, run the show gprs-service name command and look for the following line:
Network-sharing Failure-code : <gmm-cause>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support
The output generated by the following show commands will assist you in monitoring and troubleshooting 2G SGSN
MOCN support.
show sgsn-mode
From the Exec mode, run the show sgsn-mode command and look for the following line:
Multi Operator Core NW (MOCN)
: <Enabled/Disabled>
This line indicates whether or not MOCN has been enabled.
show gprs-service name
From the Exec mode, run show gprs-service name gprs-service-name and check the output for the following
lines:
CS/PS Co-ordination homer
: <Enabled/Disabled>
CS/PS Co-ordination roamer
: <Enabled/Disabled>
CS/PS Co-ordination failcode : <valid gmm cause>
The above lines display details regarding cs/ps coordination for homer and roamer, as well as the GMM cause to be sent
in the Reject message when cs/ps coordination is required.
Network-sharing Failure-code : <gmm-cause>
The above line displays the GMM cause to be sent as a Reject cause only when no valid cause code was derived while
sending the Reject message. This gmm-cause is used for non-cs/ps coordination Rejects.
Network Sharing
: <Enabled/Disabled>
Common Plmn-id
: MCC: <mcc_id>, MNC: <mnc_id>
Local PLMNS:
PLMN
: MCC: <mcc_id>, MNC: <mnc_id>
The above lines display details about the GPRS service with MOCN enabled, including the configured common PLMNid and the list of local PLMN Ids.
show gmm-sm statistics verbose
From the Exec mode, run show gmm-sm statistics verbose and look for the following lines:
GPRS MOCN Attach Statistics
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MOCN for 2G SGSN
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support
Total Redirection Attempts Rcvd:
Redirection attempts rcvd with bsgp imsi:
<value>
Redirection attempts rcvd without bssgp imsi:
<value>
Total Redirection Completes Sent:
<value>
Successful Redirection completes sent:
<value>
Failure Redirection completes sent:
<value>
Total Redirection Indications Sent:
<value>
Illegal PLMN:
<value>
Illegal LA:
<value>
No roaming:
<value>
No gprs PLMN:
<value>
No cell in LA:
<value>
CS/PS Coord Rqrd:
<value>
Others:
<value>
GPRS MOCN RAU Statistics
Total Redirection Attempts Rcvd:
<value>
Redirection attempts rcvd with bssgp imsi:
<value>
Redirection attempts rcvd without bssgp imsi:
<value>
Total Redirection Completes Sent:
<value>
Successful Redirection completes sent:
<value>
Failure Redirection completes sent:
<value>
Total Redirection Indications Sent:
<value>
Illegal PLMN:
<value>
Illegal LA:
<value>
No roaming:
<value>
No gprs PLMN:
<value>
No cell in LA:
<value>
CS/PS Coord Rqrd:
<value>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MOCN for 2G SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting 2G SGSN MOCN Support ▀
Others:
<value>
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 19
MTC Congestion Control
The SGSN’s MTC (mobile type communications) Congestion Control feature implements General NAS-level
congestion control and APN-based congestion control for both Session Management (SM) and Mobility Management
(MM) in the SGSN. As well, the functionality associated with this feature also provides support for configuring and
sending an Extended T3312 timer value to the MS.
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring MTC Congestion Control
 Monitoring MTC Congestion Control
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
Congestion is detected based on various threshold-configurable parameters, such as (but not limited to) system CPU
utilization, system memory utilization, service CPU utilization. This feature enables the operator to determine the
SGSN’s response to various congestion scenarios.
The MTC Congestion Control functionality gives the operator control over the congestion threshold settings and the
actions taken in response to congestion. The operator defines a set of congestion actions in a congestion-action-profile.
The selected actions are executed when congestion is detected.
Congestion control can be enabled as:
 General congestion control - applicable only for Mobility Management messages.
 APN-based congestion control for Mobility Management
 APN- based congestion control for Session Management
There are three levels of system-detected congestion: critical, major, and minor. The percentage at which these levels
are hit is controlled via threshold configuration.
The operator defines the SGSN’s congestion response actions for new calls, active calls, and SM-messages in
congesetion-action-profiles and association those congestion-action-profiles with the various congestion level.
In addition to system-detected congestion, the SGSN also provides a management option to trigger congestion. This
option can be useful when testing system readiness and response.
Relationships
Other SGSN Features: Low Access Priority Indicator (LAPI) in S-CDRs. The SGSN allows for the use of the LAPI
bit in S-CDRs of the custom24 dictionary. Use of this functionality is CLI controlled. For details about this
functionality, refer to the GTPP Interface Administration and Reference for StarOS™ Release 17.
Other Products:While specific operations may vary, MTC Congestion Control functionality is also supported by the
MME. For details, refer to the MME Administration Guide for StarOS™ Release 17
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
How It Works ▀
How It Works
SGSN Congestion Control
The deciding parameter for triggering congestion control in the SGSN will be the overall system CPU utilization,
service CPU utilization, and system memory utilization. This information will be periodically monitored by the resource
manager (ResMgr) which will informed the SGSN’s IMSIMgr.
Mobility Management (MM) Congestion Control - For congestion control of MM messages, system-detected
congestion is based on
 system CPU utilization,
 service CPU utilization
 system memory utilization
Session Management (SM) Congestion Control - For congestion control of session management messages, systemdetected congestion is based only on system CPU utilization.
The MTC Congestion Control functionality enables the operator to configure different congestion-action-profiles, which
applies at different threshold levels.
APN-level Congestion Control for MM
APN-level congestion control for mobility management (MM) is applied to those UEs that have subscribed for APNs
configured for congestion control.
During system-level congestion, if the chosen congestion-action-profile has the "apn-based" parameter configured as
enabled, then APN-based congestion control is applied.
Once the SGSN receives the subscription for a subscriber, if any of the subscribed APNs are configured for congestion
control, then the call is rejected with a backoff timer value sent to the UE in the Reject message according to the
following scenario:
 A random MM backoff timer (T3346) value, derived from the selected min-max range configured for that APN,
is sent to the UE in Reject messages.
1. The minimum and maximum range for the MM backoff timer value is selected from the APN Profile
configuration.
2. If the timer is not configured at the APN Profile level, then the SGSN takes the MM backoff timer as
configured at either the GPRS or SGSN service level.
3. If timer is not configured at the service level, then the default values (min-15 max-4320) are applied.
 If the subscriber retries Attach when the backoff timer is running, then the SGSN rejects the Attach, sending the
remaining time for backoff in the Reject message.
 If the subscriber retries Attach with a change in signaling priority when the backoff timer is running, then the
SGSN accepts the Attach, based on configuration; for example,
1. if Reject is associated with LAPI and APN-based parameters,
2. then subscriber sends a message without LAPI
3. then the Attach is accepted.
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MTC Congestion Control
▀ How It Works
 If the subscriber retries Attach while backoff timer is running and the SGSN is not under congestion, then the
backoff timer is cleared and the call Accepted.
 If the subscriber retries Attach after backoff timer expires, and if the SGSN continues under congestion, then a
new backoff timer value is assigned and sent in the Attach Reject message.
APN-level Congestion Control for SM
APN-level congestion control for session management (SM) is applicable to both activation and modification types of
SM messages. Detection of SM APN-based congestion is determined according to system utilization or O&M
(triggered) congestion at any one of three levels: critical, major, minor with the following possible reponses:
If congested:
 If the configured response action indicates the low access priority indicator (LAPI), then only SM messages with
LAPI are rejected during congestion. If LAPI is not configured then all SM messages are rejected.
 A random SM backoff timer (T3396) value, derived from the selected min-max range configured for that APN,
is sent to the UE in Reject messages.
1. The minimum and maximum range for the SM backoff timer value is selected from the APN Profile
configuration.
2. If the timer is not configured at the APN Profile level, then the SGSN takes the SM backoff timer as
configured at either the GPRS or SGSN service level.
3. If timer is not configured at the service level, then the default values (min-15 max-4320) are applied.
 If the UE attempts to retry before expiry of the SM backoff timer and if the SGSN is still congested, then a new
random value is included in the rejection message.
 A UE that is attached as a LAPI device may override its priority for PDN activation / secondary PDP activation
(if the UE is a dual access priority device). SGSN will only consider the value of LAPI received in PDP
Activation message for applying congestion control on activation procedure.
 If a LAPI UE has activated a PDN without LAPI (i.e., the UE is dual access priority capable) but is sending PDP
Modification Request with LAPI bit, then the SGSN will apply congestion control for the modification
procedure if LAPI-based APN congestion control for SM messages is configured.
 Dual access priority devices can send PDN Activation with LAPI but subsequent SM procedures without LAPI.
In this scenario, SGSN does not apply congestion based on LAPI.
 For LAPI devices, the SGSN sends LAPI indication to the AAA module for inclusion in S-CDRs if the
appropriate GTPP dictionary is configured.
Support for the Extended T3312 Timer
The SGSN supports sending the Extended T3312 timer value for Attach Accept and/or RAU Accept messages if the MS
indicates support for extended periodic timer in the MS Network Feature Support.
Important:
The SGSN will not send an Extended T3312 value if offloading is enabled for that subscriber.
For both Gn-SGSN and S4-SGSN, a longer periodic RAU timer can be assigned to the M2M UEs based on
subscription. The Subscribed-Period-RAU-TAU-Timer AVP is supported for the “Subscribed Period TAU/RAU
Timer”via the SGSN’s S6d interface. The Subscribed Period TAU/RAU Timer value can be included in the ISD (Insert
Subscriber Data) from the HLR or in the ULA (Update Location Answer) from the HSS.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
How It Works ▀
The maximum value for a standard T3312 timer value is 186 minutes and the new Extended T3312 timer maximum
value is 18600 minutes. Using the longer value for routing area updates reduces network load from periodic RAU
signaling.
Important: Now, despite enabling the Extended T3312 timer in the SGSN’s configuration, the SGSN may be
prevented from sending the Extended T3312 timer value in messages as the SGSN also supports the “Subscribed
Periodic TAU/RAU Timer Withdrawn" flag .
The SGSN also supports the Subscribed Periodic TAU-RAU Timer Withdrawn Flag in MAP DSD messages. When the
flag is set in MAP DSD messages, it indicates to the SGSN that the subscriber no longer has a subscription for the
“subscribed periodic RAU/TAU timer” (Extended T3312 timer) value, so
 the SGSN will delete any subscribed periodic RAU/TAU timer value information when it is received from the
HLR, and
 the SGSN will no longer send Extended T3312 in Attach/RAU Accept messages for that subscriber even if the
sending of the Extended T3312 is configured.
Limitations
The following resources for congestion detection are not yet supported:
 License utilization
 Max session count
Flows for SGSN Congestion Control
New Call Policy for Congestion
The following flowchart explains how new calls are handled, during congestion, based on configuration.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ How It Works
Figure 59.
New Call Handling during Congestion
Active Call Policy for Congestion
The following flowchart explains how active calls are handled, during congestion, based on configuration.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
How It Works ▀
Figure 60.
Active Call Handling during Congestion
Flows for APN-level Congestion Control for MM
The following flow chart illustrates the APN-level congestion control for mobility management.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ How It Works
Figure 61.
APN-level Congestion Control for MM
Flows for APN-level Congestion Control for SM
The following flow chart illustrates the APN-level congestion control for session management.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
How It Works ▀
Figure 62.
APN-level Congestion Control for SM
Handling Value for Extended T3312 Timer
The following flow chart explains how and when t3312 extended value will be sent in attach and rau accepts
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ How It Works
Figure 63.
Handling Value for Extended T3312 Timer
Standards Compliance
The MTC Congestion Control feature only implements some of the MTC overload control mechanisms
defined by the 3GPP but for those it implements, they are in compliance with the 3GPP TS23.060 R10
specification.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Configuring MTC Congestion Control
This section illustrates the required and optional configuration steps for setting up MTC Congestion Control on the
SGSN.
The following is broken into the following configuration components:
 Enabling Globallevel Congestion Control
 Configuring System-detected Congestion Thresholds
 Configuring SGSN Congestion Control
 Configuring APN-based Congestion Control
 Configuring Extended T3312 Timer
 Configuring Backoff Timers
 Configuring O&M Triggered Congestion
Important: Remember: details for each of the commands listed below are available in the Command Line
Interface Reference, StarOS Release 17.
Enabling Global-level Congestion Control
The following configuration is mandatory to enable congestion control on the SGSN.
The following configuration accomplishes several tasks, all of which must be performed to enable congestion control on
the SGSN.
1. Enables or disables global-level congestion control for the SGSN and the IMSIMgr.
2. Associates the SGSN’s congestion-response action-profile with each of the three possible levels of congestion critical, major, and minor.
configure
congestion-control
congestion-control policy { critical | major | minor } sgsn-service action-profile
action_profile_name
end
Notes:
 sgsn-service: Identifies the StarOS service type; in this case, the SGSN (Gn-SGSN and/or S4-SGSN).
 action_profile_name: Enter a string of 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters to identify the congestion-actionprofile to associate with the congestion-control policy. We recommend that you remember the name(s) that you
assign so that you will have them when you actually create and configure your congestion-action-profiles.
 Repeat the congestion-control policy command as needed to associate one or more congestion-actionprofile(s) with each congestion level.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Configuring MTC Congestion Control
Verifying the Global-level Congestion Control Configuration
Use the command illustrated below to verify that congestion control has been enabled and to view the SGSN’s
congestion-control policy with the congestion-action-profile names association with the level of congestion severity.
The following command is entered from the Exec mode:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show congestion-control configuration
The following provides a sample of the display generated by the command illustrated above:
[local]R16sgsn-Sim# show congestion-control configuration
Congestion-control: enabled
Congestion-control Critical threshold parameters
system cpu utilization: 80%
...
...
Congestion-control Policy
...
sgsn-service:
Minor Action-profile : ActProf6
Configuring System-detected Congestion Thresholds
The following configuration accomplishes several tasks, all of which are optional:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Associates utilization threshold(s) with a congestion severity level - critical, major, minor.
Enables detection based on System CPU Usage.
Enables detection based on System Memory Utilization.
Enables detection based on Service Control CPU Utilization
configure
congestion-control threshold system-cpu-utilization { critical | major | minor }
threshold_value
congestion-control threshold system-memory-utilization { critical | major | minor }
threshold_value
congestion-control threshold service-control-cpu-utilization { critical | major | minor
} threshold_value
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Notes:
 threshold_value: Enter an integer from 1 to 100 to define a percentage threshold value.
 For congestion control of mobility management messages, any of the above parameters can be configured.
 For congestion control of session management messages, only "system-cpu-utilization" is supported.
 At present, only APN-based congestion control is applicable for session management messages.
Verifying System-detected Congestion Thresholds Configuration
Use the command illustrated below to verify thresholds you may have configured with the commands illustrated above.
The display will include a section for Critich threshold parameters, Major threshold parameters, and Minor threshold
parameters. The following display only illustrates samples for Critical threshold parameters.
The following command is entered from the Exec mode:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show congestion-control configuration
The following provides a sample of the display generated by the command illustrated above:
[local]R16sgsn-Sim# show congestion-control configuration
Congestion-control: enabled
Congestion-control Critical threshold parameters
system cpu utilization:
80%
service control cpu utilization: 80%
system memory utilization: 80%
message queue utilization: 80%
message queue wait time: 5 seconds
port rx utilization: 80%
port tx utilization: 80%
license utilization: 100%
max-session-per-service utilization: 80%
tolerance limit: 10%
Notes:
 At this time, you are only setting the values for the first three displayed parameters.
Configuring SGSN Congestion Control
The following configuration is mandatory to enable congestion control on the SGSN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Configuring MTC Congestion Control
Important: Remember, congestion control must also be enabled with the congestion-control command
in the Global Configuration mode. The following is not sufficient to enable congestion control on the SGSN.
The following configuration accomplishes several tasks, all of which must be performed to enable congestion control on
the SGSN.
1. Enables or disables SGSN-level congestion control.
2. Creates and configures congestion-action-profiles.
configure
sgsn-global
congestion-control
congestion-action-profile action_profile_name
active-call-policy { rau | service-req } { drop | reject } [ low-priority-indue ]
new-call-policy { drop | reject } [ low-priority-ind-ue ] [ apn-based ]
sm-messages reject [ low-priority-ind-ue ] [ apn-based ]
end
Notes:
 congestion-control: Opens the Congestion-Control configuration mode, in which the congestion control
action-profile can be created.
 congestion-action-profile action_profile_name: Enter a string of 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters to
create or identify a congestion-action-profile and/or to open the Congestion-Action-Profile configuration mode,
which accesses the commands that define the congestion responses for:
 active calls
 new calls
 SM messages
 A maximum of 16 action-profiles can be defined.
 active-call-policy: This command instructs the SGSN to drop or reject any active call messages when
congestion occurs during an active call. The active call instructions in the congestion-action-profile can be
refined to only drop or reject active call messages with LAPI.
 new-call-policy: This command instructs the SGSN to drop or reject any new calls (Attach Request
messages or new Inter SGSN RAU messages) if new call messages are received during congestion. The new
call instructions in the congestion-action-profile can be refined to only drop or reject new call messages with
low access priority indicator (LAPI).
 sm-messages: This command instructs the SGSN to reject any SM signaling messages (activation or
modification) during congestion. The congestion-action-profile parameter can be refined to only reject SM
signaling messages with LAPI.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Important: For SM congestion to work, the apn-based option must be configured with the
sm-messages reject command .
 rau | service-req : Defines congestion response for Routing Area Update messages or Service Request
messages.
 drop | reject: Defines the congestion response action, drop or reject, to be taken when RAU or Service
Request messages are received during an active call.
 low-priority-ind-ue: Instructs the SGSN to only take defined action if messages include LAPI.
 apn-based: Instructs the SGSN to reject a new call based on the subscribed APN if congestion control is
configured for that APN under an applicable Operator Policy.
 If both the LAPI and APN-based options are included in the action-profile, then the call event will only be
rejected if both conditions are matched.
Verifying the SGSN Congestion Control Configuration
Use the command illustrated below to verify the configuration created with the commands in the Configuring SGSN
Congestion Control section above.
The following command is entered from the Exec mode. NOTE that the entire command must be typed, tabbing does
not function for this command.
[local]SGSN1-NH# show sgsn-mode
The following provides a sample of the display generated by the command illustrated above:
[local]R16sgsn-Sim# show sgsn-mode
Congestion Action Profile
------------------------Congestion Action Profile Name:profile1
New Call Policy :Reject only LAPI devices
Active Call Policy :
Routing Area Update :Not configured
Service Request :Reject
APN Based Congestion Control :
MM messages :Not configured
SM messages :Reject
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Configuring MTC Congestion Control
Configuring APN-based Congestion Control
The following configuration associates congestion control functionality with a specific APN so that congestion
responses can be applied per APN.
configure
operator-policy name op_policy_name
apn network-identifier apn_name congestion-control
end
Notes:
 op_policy_name: Enter a string of 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters to create or identify an operator policy.
 apn_name: Enter a string of 1 to 63 characters, including dots (.) and dashes (-), to identify a specific APN
network ID.
 congestion-control: Including this keyword associates congestion control functionality with the identified
APN.
 During an Attach Request, new Inter SGSN RAU, or when receiving sm-messages, all subscribed APNs for
mobility management (MM) or selected APNs for session management (SM) will be checked to determine if
any of them is configured for congestion control, in which case the new call or sm-messages would be rejected.
Verifying the APN-based Congestion Control Configuration
Use the command illustrated below to verify the configuration created with the commands in the Configuring APNbased Congestion Control section above.
The following is entered from the Exec mode.
[local]SGSN1-NH# show operator-policy full all
The following provides a sample of the display generated by the command illustrated above:
...
APN NI internet.com
APN Profile Name
:
Congestion-control
: Yes
...
Configuring Extended T3312 Timer
The Extended T3312 timer can be configured at two different levels: Call-Control Profile or Service-level (GPRS or
SGSN).
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Extended T3312 Timer Values for a 2G GPRS Network
Use the following configuration to enable Extended T3312 timer values in a 2G GPRS network environment.
configure
context context_name
gprs-service service_name
gmm Extended-T3312-timeout { value exT3312_minutes | when-subscribed } [ lowpriority-ind-ue ]
end
Notes:
 value : This keyword instructs the SGSN to send the defined Extended T3312 timer value in Attach or RAU
Accept messages to the MS if the subscriber has a subscription for the Extended T3312 timer (Subscribed
Periodic RAU/TAU Timer in ISD) and indicates support for the extended periodic timer via the MS Network
Feature Support.
 exT3312_minutes : Enter an integer from 0 to 18600 to identify the number of minutes for the timeout;
default is 186 minutes.
 when-subcribed: This keyword instructs the SGSN to only send the Extended T3312 period RAU timer value
in Attach or RAU Accept messages if the SGSN receives the timeout value in an ISD (Insert Subscriber Data)
when the MS has indicated support in “MS Network Feature Support”.
 low-priority-ind-ue: This keyword instructs the SGSN to include the Extended T3312 timer value only if
the Attach/RAU Request messages include a LAPI (low access priority indicator) in the “MS Device
Properties”.
Extended T3312 Timer Values for a 3G GPRS Network
Use the following configuration to enable Extended T3312 timer values in a 3G UMTS network environment.
configure
context context_name
sgsn-service service_name
gmm Extended-T3312-timeout { value exT3312_minutes | when-subscribed } [ lowpriority-ind-ue ]
end
Notes:
 value : This keyword instructs the SGSN to send the defined Extended T3312 timer value in Attach or RAU
Accept messages to the MS if the subscriber has a subscription for the Extended T3312 timer (Subscribed
Periodic RAU/TAU Timer in ISD) and indicates support for the extended periodic timer via the MS Network
Feature Support.
 exT3312_minutes : Enter an integer from 0 to 18600 to identify the number of minutes for the timeout;
default is 186 minutes.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Configuring MTC Congestion Control
 when-subcribed: This keyword instructs the SGSN to only send the Extended T3312 period RAU timer value
in Attach or RAU Accept messages if the SGSN receives the timeout value in an ISD (Insert Subscriber Data)
when the MS has indicated support in “MS Network Feature Support”.
 low-priority-ind-ue: This keyword instructs the SGSN to include the Extended T3312 timer value only if
the Attach/RAU Request messages include a LAPI (low access priority indicator) in the “MS Device
Properties”.
Extended T3312 Timer Values in the Call-Control Profile
(Reminder: a configuration in the Call-Control Profile would override an Extended-T3312-timeout configuration
done for either the GPRS or SGSN services. As well, a Call-Control Profile configuration enables the operator to
finetune for Homers and Roamers.)
Use the following configuration to enable Extended T3312 timer values for all subscribers:
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
gmm Extended-T3312-timeout { value exT3312_minutes | when-subscribed } [ lowpriority-ind-ue ]
end
Notes:
 value : This keyword instructs the SGSN to send the defined Extended T3312 timer value in Attach or RAU
Accept messages to the MS if the subscriber has a subscription for the Extended T3312 timer (Subscribed
Periodic RAU/TAU Timer in ISD) and indicates support for the extended periodic timer via the MS Network
Feature Support.
 exT3312_minutes : Enter an integer from 0 to 18600 to identify the number of minutes for the timeout;
default is 186 minutes.
 when-subcribed: This keyword instructs the SGSN to only send the Extended T3312 period RAU timer value
in Attach or RAU Accept messages if the SGSN receives the timeout value in an ISD (Insert Subscriber Data)
when the MS has indicated support in “MS Network Feature Support”.
 low-priority-ind-ue: This keyword instructs the SGSN to include the Extended T3312 timer value only if
the Attach/RAU Request messages include a LAPI (low access priority indicator) in the “MS Device
Properties”.
Verifying the Extended T3312 Configurations
To verify the configuration for the 2G network environment, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show gprs-service name service_name
To verify the configuration for the 3G network environment, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show sgsn-service name service_name
To verify the configuration for the Extended T3312 in the Call-Control Profile, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show call-control-profile full name profile_name
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Configuring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Configuring Backoff Timers
There are two backoff timers and they can each be configured at two different levels: Call-Control Profile or Servicelevel (GPRS or SGSN).
 T3346 MM Backoff Timer
 T3349 SM Backoff Time
T3346Timer Values at the Service Level
Use the following configuration to enable T3346 timer values for a 2G GPRS-service or for a 3G SGSN-service.
configure
context context_name
( gprs-service | sgsn-service } service_name
gmm t3346 min minimum_minutes max maximum_minutes
end
Notes:
 minimum_minutes: Enter an integer from 1 to 15 to identify the minimum number of minutes; default is 15
minutes.
 maximum_minutes: Enter an integer from 1 to 30 to identify the maximum number of minutes; default is 30
minutes.
 If an Attach Request or RAU Request or Service Request is rejected due to congestion, then the T3346 value
will be included in the reject message with GMM cause code 22 (congestion). The MM backoff timer value
sent will be chosen randomly from within the configured T3346 timer value range.
 The timer will be ignored if an Attach Request or RAU Request is received after congestion has cleared.
 If T3346 timer value is configured in a Call-Control Profile then that value will override the backoff timer values
defined for this GPRS Service configurations.
T3346Timer Values at the Call-Control Profile Level
Use the following configuration to enable T3346 timer values in a the Call-Control Profile.
configure
call-control-profile ccpolicy_name
gmm t3346 min minimum_minutes max maximum_minutes
end
Notes:
 minimum_minutes: Enter an integer from 1 to 15 to identify the minimum number of minutes; default is 15
minutes.
 maximum_minutes: Enter an integer from 1 to 30 to identify the maximum number of minutes; default is 30
minutes.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Configuring MTC Congestion Control
 If an Attach Request or RAU Request or Service Request is rejected due to congestion, then the T3346 value
will be included in the reject message with GMM cause code 22 (congestion). The backoff timer value sent
will be chosen randomly from within the configured T3346 timer value range.
 If T3346 timer value is configured in a Call-Control Profile then it will override the backoff timer values defined
for either the SGSN Service or GPRS Service configurations.
 The timer will be ignored if an Attach Request or RAU Request is received after congestion has cleared.
Verifying the T3346 Configurations
To verify the configuration for the 2G service, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show gprs-service name service_name
To verify the configuration for the 3G service, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show sgsn-service name service_name
To verify the configuration for the in the Call-Control Profile, use the following command:
[local]SGSN1-NH# show call-control-profile full name profile_name
Configuring O&M Triggered Congestion
Enabling Congestion
For operations and maintenance purposes (e.g., testing), this command triggers a congestion state at the global level.
sgsn trigger-congestion level { critical | major | minor }
Notes:
 critical | major | minor: Selecting one of the three congestion severity levels indicates the associated
congestion-action-profile to be chosen and applied. Reminder: the profile is associated with the severity level
with the congestion-control policy command.
Disabling Congestion
For operations and maintenance purposes (e.g., testing), this command clears congestion triggered using the sgsn
trigger congestion command.
sgsn clear-congestion
Notes:
 If the command is applied then the SGSN resumes normal operations and does not apply any congestion control
policy.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
MTC Congestion Control
Monitoring MTC Congestion Control ▀
Monitoring MTC Congestion Control
The commands and displays illustrated below are additional commands that can be used to monitor the operations of the
MTC Congestion Control functionality.
show session disconnect-reasons
The following disconnect reason pegs calls (Attach and new Inter SGSN RAU) rejected due to APN-based congestion
control. The following display is an example of what you might see when you issue the show command:
[local]bngnc3# show session disconnect-reasons
Session Disconnect Statistics
Total Disconnects: 1
Disconnect Reason
Num Disc
Percentage
---------------------------------------------------------------------mm-apn-congestion-control
1 100.00000
show congestion-control statistics imsimgr all full
The following illustrates the fields for statistics generated if congestion control is engaged.
show congestion-control statistics imsimgr all full
Current congestion status: Cleared
Current congestion Type : None
Congestion applied: 0 times
Critical Congestion Control Resource Limits
system cpu use exceeded:
service cpu use exceeded:
system memory use exceeded:
…
SGSN Congestion Control:
MM Congestion Level: None
Congestion Resource: None
SM Congestion Level: None
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
MTC Congestion Control
▀ Monitoring MTC Congestion Control
O&M Congestion Level: None
…
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 20
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
This chapter describes SGSN support for the Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation (NRSPCA)
feature.
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring NRSPCA
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The SGSN supports Secondary PDP context activation by the network - NRSPCA.
3GPP TS 23.060 specifies two procedures for GGSN-initiated PDP Context Activation:
 Network Requested PDP Context Activation (NRPCA) is supported by SGSN but only for 3G access
 Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation (NRSPCA) is now supported by both Gn/Gp and S4
type SGSNs.
P-GW supports only the NRSPCA procedure. Network requested bearer control, uesed by P-GW and the SGSN, makes
use of the NRSPCA procedure.
Benefits
NRSPCA allows the network to initiate secondary PDP context activation if the network determines that the service
requested by the user requires activation of an additional secondary PDP context.
Network requested bearer control functionality is mandatory in EPC networks, requiring use of NRSPCA. With this
feature S4-SGSN now supports network requested bearer control.
Relationships to Other Features
For NRSPCA on Gn/Gp SGSN, the sgtp-service configuration must include common IE flags in GTP messages.
Network requested activation must be enabled in the call-control profile.
NRSPCA must be supported on the GGSN used for the PDP session. SGSN indicates support of NRSPCA by setting
the NRSN flag in the common flags IE of the Create PDP Context Request and the Update PDP Context
Request/Response messages to GGSN.
For S4-SGSN, network requested activation must be enabled in the call-control profile.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
How It Works ▀
How It Works
Gn/Gp SGSN
During PDP Context Activation Procedure the Bearer Control Mode (BSM) is negotiated. BCM is applicable to all PDP
Contexts within the activated PDP Address/APN pair. It is either “MS_only” or “MS/NW”.
For “MS/NW” both the MS and the GGSN may request the creation of additional PDP contexts for the PDP
Address/APN pair. The MS uses the Secondary PDP Context Activation Procedure, whereas the GGSN uses NRSPCA.
When BCM is “MS_only”, the GGSN does not initiate NRSPCA.
The MS indicates support of Network Requested Bearer control through the Network Request Support UE (NRSU)
parameter. Using the PCO IE during Primary PDP context Activation, NRSU is applicable to all PDP contexts within
the same PDP address/APN pair. The SGSN indicates support of the Network Requested Bearer control to the GGSN
through the Network Request Support Network (NRSN) parameter in common flags of the Created PDP Context
Request during PDP activation.
During a new SGSN RAU, the new SGSN indicates the support by means of the NRSN parameter in Update PDP
Context Request. If common flags are not included in the Update PDP Context Request message, or the SGSN does not
indicate support of the Network Requested Bearer control (NRSN flag is not set), the GGSN, following a SGSNInitiated PDP Context Modification (triggered by SGSN change), performs a GGSN-Initiated PDP Context
Modification to change the BCM to “MS-Only” for all PDP-Address/APN-pairs for which the current BCM is
“MS/NW”.
When BCM is “MS/NW”, the GGSN may trigger activation of secondary PDP context based on local configuration or
on PCRF/PCEF direction.
Successful Activation for Gn/Gp SGSN
The call flow below illustrates the NRSPCA procedure for a successful activation.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ How It Works
Figure 64.
Call Flow: Successful Network Requested Secondary Activation (Gn.Gp)
GGSN initiates secondary PDP activation by sending an Initiate PDP Context Activation Request (linked NSAPI,
requested Qos, TFT, PCO, correlation-Id) to SGSN. The SGSN sends a Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
(linked Ti, Ti, Qos Requested, TFT, PCO) message to MS. The QoS Requested, TFT and PCO are transparently passed
through the SGSN.
The TFT sent by the GGSN contains the uplink packet filters to be applied at the MS. The GGSN uses the CorrelationId is to correlate the subsequent Secondary PDP Context Activation procedure with the Initiate PDP Context Activation
Request. The SGSN includes this correlation-Id in the subsequent Create PDP Context Request to GGSN.
The MS sends an Activate Secondary PDP Context Request (linked Ti, Ti, NSAPI, PCO, QoS Requested). Linked Ti,
Ti, Qos Requested will be the same as received in a previous message from SGSN. The TFT sent by the MS will
contain the downlink packet filters to be applied at GGSN.
On receiving a successful response (Activate Secondary PDP Context Request), the SGSN sends an Initiate PDP
Context Activation Response with cause as Accepted to the GGSN. Additionally the SGSN sends a Create PDP Context
Request (correlation-Id, linked NSAPI, NSAPI, TFT, PCO) to the GGSN. After the GGSN responds with a Create PDP
Response with cause Accepted, the SGSN completes the procedure by sending an Activate Secondary PDP Context
Accept to the MS.
Unsuccessful Activation for Gn/Gp SGSN
After sending a Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation to the MS, the SGSN starts the T3385 radio interface
retransmission timer. Upon expiry the SGSN resends the message a maximum of four retries. Upon the fifth expiry, the
SGSN releases all allocated resources and sends an Initiate PDP Context Activation Response to the GGSN with cause
as “MS is not GPRS responding”.
The MS may choose to reject the Secondary Activation by the network. In such cases, the MS sends a Requested
Secondary PDP Context Activation Reject message with appropriate cause. The SGSN informs the GGSN by sending it
an Initiate PDP Context Activation Response with an appropriate GTP cause mapped from SM (Session Management)
cause. SM-to-GTP cause mapping is listed in the table below.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
How It Works ▀
Table 23.
SM-to-GTP Cause Mapping
SM Cause
GTP Cause
#26, Insufficient resources
#199, No resources available
#31, activation rejected, unspecified
#197, MS refuses
#40, feature not supported
#200, Service not supported
#41, semantic error in TFT operation
#215, semantic error in TFT operation
#42, syntactical error in TFT operation
#216, syntactical error in TFT operation
#43, unknown PDP context
#210, Context not found
#44, semantic error in packet filter(s)
#217, semantic error in packet filter(s)
#45, syntactical error in packet filter(s)
#218, syntactical error in packet filter(s)
#46, PDP context without TFT already activated
#221, PDP context without TFT already activated
#48, activation rejected, BCM violation
#227, BCM violation
#95 - protocol error
#197, MS refuses
Upon receipt of an Activate Secondary PDP Context Request or Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation Reject
message, the SGSN stops the T3385 timer.
Figure 65.
Call Flow: Unsuccessful Network Requested Secondary Activation (Gn/Gp)
The SGSN will reject the IPCA for the following conditions:
 Subscriber has switched to CS call with cause “GPRS connection suspended”.
 Old SGSN RAU/SRNS is ongoing with cause “MS is not GPRS responding”.
 IPCA Request is received when BCM is MS only with “BCM mode violation”.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ How It Works
 The received Correlation Id is the same as that for another ongoing NRSPCA request for the same bundle with
“Invalid Correlation Id”.
 Linked context is in deactivating state (collision case), with “context not found”.
 Failure conditions such as “memory allocation failure” are encountered with “No resources available”.
 An operator policy restriction causes IPCA Req to be rejected with the configured cause under the call-control
profile.
The following table lists the GTP causes in the Initiate PDP Context Activation Response that will initiate SGSN
rejects.
Table 24.
SGSN GTP Reject Causes
GTP Cause
Scenario
#225, Invalid Correlation Id
SGSN stores the Correlation Id until completion of Activation. It rejects the newer NRSPCA
activation if the GGSN uses the same value for two NRSPCA activations (uniquely identified by
sequence number).
#199, No resources available
Rejection is due to insufficient memory, the maximum number of temporary Ti allocations has
been reached, or the NRSPCA procedure collides with a new SGSN RAU procedure.
#210, Context not found
Rejection occurs because the PDP bundle identified by a linked NSAPI does not have any active
PDP context.
#197, GPRS connection
Suspended
MS is in suspended state (CS call active).
#196, MS is not GPRS
responding
Rejection occurs if the Request Secondary PDP Context Activation message times out (T3385
timer), no response to Paging, PPF flag is set to 0, or the NRSPCA procedure collides with an old
SGSN RAU/SRNS, intra-SGSN intersystem/RAT RAU.
Configured GTP cause, or
#200, Service not supported
(default)
Rejection is based on operator policy.
#227, BCM violation
IPCA Request is received for a bundle with BCM set to MS only.
S4-SGSN
Successful Activation for S4-SGSN
A P-GW initiates a Secondary PDP activation by sending a Create Bearer Request (linked Bearer Identity, Bearer
Ctx(s), PCO etc) to the S-GW. The S-GW then forwards the request to the S4-SGSN.
The Bearer Contexts contain Bearer level parameters such as TFT, Bearer level QoS, S5/8-U PGW FTeid, PCO, etc.
The S-GW includes the S12-U SGW FTeid or S4-U SGW FTeid depending on whether an S12 or S4 interface is used.
The S4-SGSN sends the Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation (linked Ti, Ti, Qos Requested, TFT, and PCO)
message to MS.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
How It Works ▀
The QoS Requested, TFT and PCO are transparently passed through the S4-SGSN. The MS sends an Activate
Secondary PDP Context Request (linked Ti, Ti, NSAPI, PCO, and QoS Requested). Linked Ti, Ti, Qos Requested will
be as same as received in a previous message from the S4-SGSN. The TFT sent to MS may contain both the uplink and
downlink packet filters.
On receiving a successful response (Activate Secondary PDP Context Request) in UMTS access, the S4-SGSN
establishes RAB with the serving RNC and then sends a Create Bearer Response with Accepted cause to S-GW. For
GPRS access, the RAB establishment is skipped.
The S4-SGSN includes the S4-U SGW FTeid (received in Create Bearer Request) in the Create Bearer Response to SGW. S-GW uses this to correlate the Bearer Contexts in Response with that of Request. The S4-SGSN completes the
procedure by sending an Activate Secondary PDP Context Accept to the MS.
A successful Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation Procedure is illustrated in the figure below.
Figure 66.
Call Flow: Successful Network Requested Secondary Activation (S4-SGSN)
Unsuccessful Activation for S4-SGSN
After sending a Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation to the MS, the S4-SGSN starts the T3385 radio interface
retransmission timer. Upon expiry the S4-SGSN resends the message, a maximum of four retries. Upon the fifth expiry,
the S4-SGSN releases all allocated resources and sends a Create Bearer Response to the S-GW/P-GW with cause as
“UE not responding”.
The MS may choose to reject a Secondary Activation by network. In such cases, the MS sends a Requested Secondary
PDP Context Activation Reject message with an appropriate cause. S4-SGSN informs the SGW/PGW by sending a
Create Bearer Response with an appropriate GTPv2 cause mapped from an SM cause as shown in the table below.
Table 25.
SM Cause to GTPv2 Cause Mapping
SM Cause
GTPv2 Cause
#26, Insufficient resources
#73, No resources available
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ How It Works
SM Cause
GTPv2 Cause
#31, activation rejected, unspecified
#88, UE refuses
#40, feature not supported
#68, service not supported
#41, semantic error in TFT operation
#74, semantic error in TFT operation
#42, syntactical error in TFT operation
#75, syntactic error in TFT operation
#43, unknown PDP context
#64, context not found
#44, semantic error in packet filter(s)
#76, semantic error in packet filter(s)
#45, syntactical error in packet filter(s)
#77, syntactic error in packet filter(s)
#46, PDP context without TFT already activated
#85, UE context without TFT already activated
#48, activation rejected, BCM violation
#88, UE refuses
#95 - protocol error
#88, UE refuses
Upon receipt of an Activate Secondary PDP Context Request or Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation Reject
message, the S4-SGSN stops the T3385 timer.
The S4-SGSN will reject a Create Bearer Request for the following conditions:
 Subscriber has switched to CS call with cause “Unable to page UE due to suspension”.
 A collision occurs with an old SGSN RAU/SRNS with cause “Temporarily rejected due to handover procedure
in progress“.
 Linked context is in deactivating state (collision case) with “context not found”.
 A failure conditions such as ‘memory allocation failure” is encountered with “No resources available”.
 Operator policy restriction rejects the CBR Req with the configured cause under the call-control profile.
 PPF flag is cleared with cause “Unable to Page UE”.
 Paging failure or Request Secondary PDP activation request times out with cause “UE not responding”.
An unnecessarily NRSPCA procedure is illustrated in the figure below.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
How It Works ▀
Figure 67.
Call Flow: Unsuccessful Network Requested Secondary Activation (S4-SGSN)
Limitations
Security function during NRSPCA procedure is not supported.
Standards Compliance
The NRSPCA feature complies with the following standards:

3GPP TS 23.060 version 10 – General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

3GPP TS 24.008 version 10 – Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core network protocols

3GPP TS 29.060 version 10 – General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn
and Gp interface

3GPP TS 29.278 version 10 – Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL); CAMEL
Application Part (CAP) specification for IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ Configuring NRSPCA
Configuring NRSPCA
Configuration of the NRSPCA feature requires:
 Enabling the common flags IE in SGTP service
 Including the NRSPCA feature in a specific call control profile
Sample NRSPCA Configuration
The first set of commands enables the common flags IE:
config
context <context-name>
sgtp-service <sgtp-service-name>
gtpc send common-flags
end
The second set of commands includes a new keyword ( secondary) to configure NRSPCA in a call control profile.
config
call-control-profile <profile_name>
network-initiated-pdp-activation secondary access-type <gprs|umts> { all failurecode <failure_code> | location-area-list instance <instance> failure-code <failure_code>
}
end
NOTES:
 remove added to the command disables NRSPCA by removing the network-initiated-pdp-activation definition
from the configuration.
 There is no default form of the command.
Verifying the NRSPCA Configuration
show sgtp-service name <sgtp-service-name>
Service name
: <sgtp-service-name>
Service-Id
: 3
Context
: source
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
Configuring NRSPCA ▀
Status
: STARTED
Sending RAB Context IE
: Enabled
Sending Common Flags IE
Sending Target Identification Preamble
: Enabled
: Disabled
show call-control-profile full name <cc-profile-name>
Call Control Profile Name = <cc-profile-name>
Accounting Mode (SGW)
: None
Accounting stop-trigger (SGW)
: Not configured
UMTS Secondary PDP Context Activation All
: Allow
UMTS PDP Context Activation All Failure Code
: 8
GPRS Nw Init Primary PDP Context Activation All
: Allow
GPRS Nw Init Primary PDP Ctxt Activation All Failure Code : 200
GPRS Nw Init Secondary PDP Context Activation All
: Allow
GPRS Nw Init Secondary PDP Ctxt Activation All Failure Code : 200
UMTS Nw Init Primary PDP Context Activation All
: Allow
UMTS Nw Init Primary PDP Ctxt Activation All Failure Code : 200
UMTS Nw Init Secondary PDP Context Activation All
: Allow
UMTS Nw Init Secondary PDP Ctxt Activation All Failure Code : 200
SRNS Intra All
: Allow
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature
 The show subscriber sgsn-only/gprs-only full command indicates whether or not the Secondary PDP context
was network initiated. The last received BCM from the GGSN (applicable for Gn/Gp only) is also be
displayed.
 Two new disconnect reasons have been introduced:
 sgsn-nrspca-actv-rej-by-ms – MS sends a Request Secondary PDP Context Activation Reject message
 sgsn-nrspca-actv-rej-by-sgsn – For all other cases where NRSPCA context activation does not complete
successfully
 Additional counters have been added to session management statistics in the output of the show gmm-sm
statistics command to represent the session management messages used by NRSPCA. Similarly, counters have
been added to the tunnel management statistics in the output of the show sgtpc statistics command. These
counters are described in the next section.
 For NRSPCA activation failures, the Abort statistics in the verbose mode of the show gmm-sm statistics or
show gmm-sm statistics sm-only command outputs provide reasons for the failure. The various counters are
described in next section.
 Network initiated flag in SCDRs will be set for NRSPCA PDP contexts. Note that network initiated flag is
present in only a few dictionaries, such custom24, custom13, and custom6.
NRSPCA show Commands
The following show commands are available in support of the NRSPCA feature:
 show gmm-sm statistics sm-only – displays the Session Management messages exchanged for NRSPCA
activation.
 show sgtpc statistics – displays the GTPC messages exchanged for NRSPCA activation.
 show subscribers sgsn-only/gprs-only full – indicates whether or not the Secondary PDP context was network
initiated. Displays the last received BCM from the GGSN (applicable for Gn/Gp only).
show gmm-sm statistics sm-only
The following counters are included in the show gmm-sm statistics sm-only command output to support the NRSPCA
feature. For detailed descriptions of these statistics, refer to the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
Table 26.
NRSPCA SM Statistics
NRSPCA SM Statistics
Activate Context Request
Actv-Request-Nrspca
3G-Actv-Request-Nrspca
2G-Actv-Request-Nrspca
Activate Context Request Retransmitted
3G-Secondary-Actv-Drop-Nrspca
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
2G-Secondary-Actv-Drop-Nrspca
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature ▀
NRSPCA SM Statistics
Activate Context Accept
Actv-Accept-Nrspca
3G-Actv-Accept-Nrspca
2G-Actv-Accept-Nrspca
Activate Context Reject
Actv-Reject-Nrspca
3G-Actv-Reject-Nrspca
2G-Actv-Reject-Nrspca
Network Initiated Secondary Activation Aborted (verbose only)
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-GTP-Suspend
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Max-Retry-Attempts
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Paging-Expiry
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Deactv
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Detach
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Inter-RAT-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Iu-release
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-SRNS-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-RAU
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-SRNS
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-RAB-Failure
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Ctx-Deactv
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-GTP-Suspend
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Handoff
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-T3385-Expiry
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Paging-Expiry
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Deactv
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Detach
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Inter-RAT-Handoff
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-RAU
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Ready-Tmr-Expiry
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Radio-Status
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-BVC-Block-Or-Reset
Request Secondary Pdp Context Activation
Total-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
3G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
2G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
Retransmission
Total-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
3G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
2G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Req
Request Secondary Pdp Context Activation Reject
Total-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Reject
3G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Reject
2G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Reject
Request Secondary Pdp Context Activation Denied (verbose only)
3G-Insufficient Resources
3G-Actv Rej Unspecified
3G-Feature Not Supported
3G-Sem Err in TFT OP
3G-Syntactic Err in TFT OP
3G-Unknown Ctx
3G-Sem Err in Pkt Filter
3G-Syntactic Err in Pkt Filter
3G-Ctx No-Tft Already Activated
3G-Actv Rej BCM violation
3G-Proto Err Unspecified
2G-Insufficient Resources
2G-Actv Rej Unspecified
2G-Feature Not Supported
2G-Sem Err in TFT OP
2G-Syntactic Err in TFT OP
2G-Unknown Ctx
2G-Sem Err in Pkt Filter
2G-Syntactic Err in Pkt Filter
2G-Ctx No-Tft Already Activated
2G-Actv Rej BCM violation
2G-Proto Err Unspecified
Request Secondary Pdp Context Activation Rejects Dropped
3G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Rej-Dropped
2G-Request-Sec-Pdp-Ctxt-Rej-Dropped
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature
NRSPCA SM Statistics
Request Secondary Pdp Context Activation Aborted
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Subs-Detach
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Deactv
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Max-Retry-Attempts
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Paging-Expiry
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Subs-Suspend
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Inter-RAT-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-RAU
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Iu-release
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-SRNS-Handoff
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-SRNS
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-RAB-Failure
3G-NRSPCA-Abort-Ctx-Deactv
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Subs-Detach
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Linked-Ctx-Deactv
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Max-Retry-Attempts
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Paging-Expiry
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Subs-Suspend
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Handoff
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Inter-RAT-Handoff
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Intra-RAU
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Ready-Tmr-Expiry
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-Radio-Status
2G-NRSPCA-Abort-BVC-Block-Or-Reset
Secondary Pdp Context Activation Request Ignored (verbose only)
Total-Actv-Request-Nrspca-Ignored
3G-Actv-Request-Nrspca-Ignored
2G-Actv-Request-Nrspca-Ignored
show sgtpc statistics
The following counters are included in the show sgtpc statistics command output to support the NRSPCA feature. For
detailed descriptions of these statistics, refer to the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
Table 27.
NRSPCA SGTPC Statistics
NRSPCA SGTC Statistics
Initiate PDP Context Activation Request
Total IPCA Req
Initial IPCA Req
Retrans IPCA Req
Initiate PDP Context Activation Response:
Total Accepted
Initial IPCA Rsp
Total Denied
Initial IPCA Rsp
Retrans IPCA Rsp
Retrans IPCA Rsp
Initiate PDP Context Activation Response Not Sent (verbose only)
Linked PDP deact coll
Retrans IPCA Req bef MS rsp
Initiate PDP Context Activation Request Denied (verbose only)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Network Requested Secondary PDP Context Activation
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the NRSPCA Feature ▀
NRSPCA SGTC Statistics
IPCA Req Denied
No Resources Available
System Failure
Mandatory IE Mis
Invalid Message Format
Semantic Error in TFT
Semantic Error in Pkt Fltr
MS Not GPRS Responding
Invalid Correlation Id
BCM Violation
Unknown cause
Service Not Supported
Mandatory IE Incorrect
Optional IE Incorrect
Context not Found
Syntactic Error in TFT
Syntactic Error in Pkt Fltr
MS Refuses
PDP without TFT already Active
MS GPRS Suspended
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 21
Operator Policy
The proprietary concept of an operator policy, originally architected for the exclusive use of an SGSN, is non-standard
and currently unique to the ASR 5x00. This optional feature empowers the carrier with flexible control to manage
functions that are not typically used in all applications and to determine the granularity of the implementation of any
operator policy: to groups of incoming calls or to simply one single incoming call.
The following products support the use of the operator policy feature:
 MME (Mobility Management Entity - LTE)
 SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node - 2G/3G/LTE)
 S-GW (Serving Gateway - LTE)
This document includes the following information:
 What Operator Policy Can Do
 The Operator Policy Feature in Detail
 Call Control Profile
 APN Profile
 IMEI-Profile (SGSN only)
 APN Remap Table
 Operator Policies
 IMSI Ranges
 How It Works
 Operator Policy Configuration
 Verifying the Feature Configuration
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ What Operator Policy Can Do
What Operator Policy Can Do
Operator policy enables the operator to specify a policy with rules governing the services, facilities and privileges
available to subscribers.
A Look at Operator Policy on an SGSN
The following is only a sampling of what working operator policies can control on an SGSN:
 APN information included in call activation messages are sometimes damaged, misspelled, missing. In such
cases, the calls are rejected. The operator can ensure calls aren't rejected and configure a range of methods for
handling APNs, including converting incoming APNs to preferred APNs and this control can be used in a
focused fashion or defined to cover ranges of subscribers.
 In another example, it is not unusual for a blanket configuration to be implemented for all subscriber profiles
stored in the HLR. This results in a waste of resources, such as the allocation of the default highest QoS setting
for all subscribers. An operator policy provides the opportunity to address such issues by allowing fine-tuning
of certain aspects of profiles fetched from HLRs and, if desired, overwrite QoS settings received from HLR.
A Look at Operator Policy on an S-GW
The S-GW operator policy provides mechanisms to fine tune the behavior for subsets of subscribers. It also can be used
to control the behavior of visiting subscribers in roaming scenarios by enforcing roaming agreements and providing a
measure of local protection against foreign subscribers.
The S-GW uses operator policy in the SGW service configuration to control the accounting mode. The default
accounting mode is GTTP, but RADIUS/Diameter and none are options. The accounting mode value from the call
control profile overrides the value configured in SGW service. If the accounting context is not configured in the call
control profile, it is taken from SGW service. If the SGW service does not have the relevant configuration, the current
context or default GTPP group is assumed.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
The Operator Policy Feature in Detail ▀
The Operator Policy Feature in Detail
This flexible feature provides the operator with a range of control to manage the services, facilities and privileges
available to subscribers.
Operator policy definitions can depend on factors such as (but not limited to):
 roaming agreements between operators,
 subscription restrictions for visiting or roaming subscribers,
 provisioning of defaults to override standard behavior.
These policies can override standard behaviors and provide mechanisms for an operator to circumvent the limitations of
other infrastructure elements such as DNS servers and HLRs in 2G/3G networks.
By configuring the various components of an operator policy, the operator fine-tunes any desired restrictions or
limitations needed to control call handling and this can be done for a group of callers within a defined IMSI range or per
subscriber.
Re-Usable Components - Besides enhancing operator control via configuration, the operator policy feature minimizes
configuration by drastically reducing the number of configuration lines needed. Operator policy maximizes
configurations by breaking them into the following reusable components that can be shared across IMSI ranges or
subscribers:
 call control profiles
 IMEI profiles (SGSN only)
 APN profiles
 APN remap tables
 operator policies
 IMSI ranges
Each of these components is configured via a separate configuration mode accessed through the Global Configuration
mode.
Call Control Profile
A call control profile can be used by the operator to fine-tune desired functions, restrictions, requirements, and/or
limitations needed for call management on a per-subscriber basis or for groups of callers across IMSI ranges. For
example:
 setting access restriction cause codes for rejection messages
 enabling/disabling authentication for various functions such as attach and service requests
 enabling/disabling ciphering, encryption, and/or integrity algorithms
 enabling/disabling of packet temporary mobile subscriber identity (P-TMSI) signature allocation (SGSN only)
 enabling/disabling of zone code checking
 allocation/retention priority override behavior (SGSN only)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ The Operator Policy Feature in Detail
 enabling/disabling inter-RAT, 3G location area, and 4G tracking area handover restriction lists (MME and SGW only)
 setting maximum bearers and PDNs per subscriber (MME and S-GW only)
Call control profiles are configured with commands in the Call Control Profile configuration mode. A single call control
profile can be associated with multiple operator policies
For planning purposes, based on the system configuration, type of packet services cards, type of network (2G, 3G, 4G,
LTE), and/or application configuration (single, combo, dual access), the following call control profile configuration
rules should be considered:
 1 (only one) - call control profile can be associated with an operator policy
 1000 - maximum number of call control profiles per system (e.g., an SGSN).
 15 - maximum number of equivalent PLMNs for 2G and 3G per call control profile
 15 - maximum number of equivalent PLMNs for 2G per ccprofile.
 15 - maximum number of supported equivalent PLMNs for 3G per ccprofile.
 256 - maximum number of static SGSN addresses supported per PLMN
 5 - maximum number of location area code lists supported per call control profile.
 100 - maximum number of LACs per location area code list supported per call control profile.
 unlimited number of zone code lists can be configured per call control profile.
 100 - maximum number of LACs allowed per zone code list per call control profile.
 2 - maximum number of integrity algorithms for 3G per call control profile.
 3 - maximum number of encryption algorithms for 3G per call control profile.
APN Profile
An APN profile groups a set of access point name (APN)-specific parameters that may be applicable to one or more
APNs. When a subscriber requests an APN that has been identified in a selected operator policy, the parameter values
configured in the associated APN profile will be applied.
For example:
 enable/disable a direct tunnel (DT) per APN. (SGSN)
 define charging characters for calls associated with a specific APN.
 identify a specific GGSN to be used for calls associated with a specific APN (SGSN).
 define various quality of service (QoS) parameters to be applied to calls associated with a specific APN.
 restrict or allow PDP context activation on the basis of access type for calls associated with a specific APN.
APN profiles are configured with commands in the APN Profile configuration mode. A single APN profile can be
associated with multiple operator policies.
For planning purposes, based on the system configuration, type of packet processing cards and 2G, 3G, 4G, and/or dual
access, the following APN profile configuration rules should be considered:
 50 - maximum number of APN profiles that can be associated with an operator policy.
 1000 - maximum number of APN profiles per system (e.g., an SGSN).
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
The Operator Policy Feature in Detail ▀
 116 - maximum gateway addresses (GGSN addresses) that can be defined in a single APN profile.
IMEI-Profile (SGSN only)
The IMEI is a unique international mobile equipment identity number assigned by the manufacturer that is used by the
network to identify valid devices. The IMEI has no relationship to the subscriber.
An IMEI profile group is a set of device-specific parameters that control SGSN behavior when one of various types of
Requests is received from a UE within a specified IMEI range. These parameters control:
 Blacklisting devices
 Identifying a particular GGSN to be used for connections for specified devices
 Enabling/disabling direct tunnels to be used by devices
IMEI profiles are configured with commands in the IMEI Profile configuration mode. A single IMEI profile can be
associated with multiple operator policies.
For planning purposes, based on the system configuration, type of packet processing cards, type of network (2G, 3G,
4G, LTE), and/or application configuration (single, combo, dual access), the following IMEI profile configuration rules
should be considered:
 10 - maximum number of IMEI ranges that can be associated with an operator policy.
 1000 - maximum number of IMEI profiles per system (such as an SGSN).
APN Remap Table
APN remap tables allow an operator to override an APN specified by a user, or the APN selected during the normal
APN selection procedure, as specified by 3GPP TS 23.060. This atypical level of control enables operators to deal with
situations such as:
 An APN is provided in the Activation Request that does not match with any of the subscribed APNs; either a
different APN was entered or the APN could have been misspelled. In such situations, the SGSN would reject
the Activation Request. It is possible to correct the APN, creating a valid name so that the Activation Request
is not rejected.
 In some cases, an operator might want to force certain devices/users to use a specific APN. For example, all
iPhone4 users may need to be directed to a specific APN. In such situations, the operator needs to be able to
override the selected APN.
An APN remap table group is a set of APN-handling configurations that may be applicable to one or more subscribers.
When a subscriber requests an APN that has been identified in a selected operator policy, the parameter values
configured in the associated APN remap table will be applied. For example, an APN remap table allows configuration
of the following:
 APN aliasing - maps incoming APN to a different APN based on partial string match (MME and SGSN) or
matching charging characteristic (MME and SGSN).
 Wildcard APN - allows APN to be provided by the SGSN when wildcard subscription is present and the user has
not requested an APN.
 Default APN - allows a configured default APN to be used when the requested APN cannot be used – for
example, the APN is not part of the HLR subscription.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ The Operator Policy Feature in Detail
APN remap tables are configured with commands in the APN Remap Table configuration mode. A single APN remap
table can be associated with multiple operator policies, but an operator policy can only be associated with a single APN
remap table.
For planning purposes, based on the system configuration, type of packet processing cards, type of network (2G, 3G,
4G, LTE), and/or application configuration (single, combo, dual access), the following APN remap table configuration
rules should be considered:
 1 – maximum number of APN remap tables that can be associated with an operator policy.
 1000 – maximum number of APN remap tables per system (such as an SGSN).
 100 – maximum remap entries per APN remap table.
Operator Policies
The profiles and tables are created and defined within their own configuration modes to generate sets of rules and
instructions that can be reused and assigned to multiple policies. An operator policy binds the various configuration
components together. It associates APNs, with APN profiles, with an APN remap table, with a call control profile,
and/or an IMEI profile (SGSN only) and associates all the components with filtering ranges of IMSIs.
In this manner, an operator policy manages the application of rules governing the services, facilities, and privileges
available to subscribers.
Operator policies are configured and the associations are defined via the commands in the Operator Policy configuration
mode.
The IMSI ranges are configured with the command in the SGSN-Global configuration mode.
For planning purposes, based on the system configuration, type of packet processing cards, type of network (2G, 3G,
4G, LTE), and/or application configuration (single, combo, dual access), the following operator policy configuration
rules should be considered:
 1 – maximum number of call control profiles associated with a single operator policy.
 1 – maximum number of APN remap tables associated with a single operator policy.
 10 – maximum number of IMEI profiles associated with a single operator policy (SGSN only)
 50 – maximum number of APN profiles associated with a single operator policy.
 1000 – maximum number of operator policies per system (e.g., an SGSN); this number includes the single
default operator policy.
 1000 – maximum number of IMSI ranges defined per system (e.g., an SGSN).
Important: SGSN operator policy configurations created with software releases prior to Release 11.0 are not
forward compatible. Such configurations can be converted to enable them to work with an SGSN running Release 11.0
or higher. Your Cisco Account Representative can accomplish this conversion for you.
IMSI Ranges
Ranges of international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) numbers, the unique number identifying a subscriber, are
associated with the operator policies and used as the initial filter to determine whether or not any operator policy would
be applied to a call. The range configurations are defined by the MNC, MCC, a range of MSINs, and optionally the
PLMN ID. The IMSI ranges must be associated with a specific operator policy.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
The Operator Policy Feature in Detail ▀
IMSI ranges are defined differently for each product supporting the operator policy feature.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ How It Works
How It Works
The specific operator policy is selected on the basis of the subscriber’s IMSI at attach time, and optionally the PLMN ID
selected by the subscriber or the RAN node's PLMN ID. Unique, non-overlapping, IMSI + PLMN-ID ranges create call
filters that distinguish among the configured operator policies.
The following flowchart maps out the logic applied for the selection of an operator policy:
Figure 68.
Operator Policy Selection Logic
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
Operator Policy Configuration ▀
Operator Policy Configuration
This section provides a high-level series of steps and the associated configuration examples to configure an operator
policy. By configuring an operator policy, the operator fine-tunes any desired restrictions or limitations needed to
control call handling per subscriber or for a group of callers within a defined IMSI range.
Most of the operator policy configuration components are common across the range of products supporting operator
policy. Differences will be noted as they are encountered below.
Important: This section provides a minimum instruction set to implement operator policy. For this feature to be
operational, you must first have completed the system-level configuration as described in the System Administration
Guide and the service configuration described in your product’s administration guide.
The components can be configured in any order. This example begins with the call control profile:
Step 1
Create and configure a call control profile, by applying the example configuration presented in the Call Control Profile
Configuration section.
Step 2
Create and configure an APN profile, by applying the example configuration presented in the APN Profile
Configuration section.
Important: It is not necessary to configure both an APN profile and an IMEI profile. You can
associate either type of profile with a policy. It is also possible to associate one or more APN profiles with an
IMEI profile for an operator policy (SGSN only).
Step 3
Create and configure an IMEI profile by applying the example configuration presented in the IMEI Profile
Configuration section (SGSN only).
Step 4
Create and configure an APN remap table by applying the example configuration presented in the APN Remap Table
Configuration section.
Step 5
Create and configure an operator policy by applying the example configuration presented in the Operator Policy
Configuration section.
Step 6
Configure an IMSI range by selecting and applying the appropriate product-specific example configuration presented in
the IMSI Range Configuration sections below.
Step 7
Associate the configured operator policy components with each other and a network service by applying the example
configuration in the Operator Policy Component Associations section.
Step 8
Save your configuration to flash memory, an external memory device, and/or a network location using the Exec mode
command save configuration. For additional information on how to verify and save configuration files, refer to the
System Administration Guide .
Step 9
Verify the configuration for each component separately by following the instructions provided in the Verifying the
Feature Configuration section of this chapter.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ Operator Policy Configuration
Call Control Profile Configuration
This section provides the configuration example to create a call control profile and enter the configuration mode.
Use the call control profile commands to define call handling rules that will be applied via an operator policy. Only one
call control profile can be associated with an operator policy, so it is necessary to use (and repeat as necessary) the range
of commands in this mode to ensure call-handling is sufficiently managed.
Configuring the Call Control Profile for an SGSN
The example below includes some of the more commonly configured call control profile parameters with sample
variables that you will replace with your own values.
configure
call-control-profile <profile_name>>
attach allow access-type umts location-area-list instance <list_id>
authenticate attach
location-area-list instance <instance> area-code <area_code>
sgsn-number <E164_number>
end
Notes:
 Refer to the Call Control Profile Configuration Mode chapter in the Command Line Interface Reference for
command details and variable options.
 This profile will only become valid when it is associated with an operator policy.
Configuring the Call Control Profile for an MME or S-GW
The example below includes some of the more commonly configured call control profile parameters with sample
variables that you will replace with your own values.
configure
call-control-profile <profile_name>>
associate hss-peer-service <service_name> s6a-interface
attach imei-query-type imei verify-equipment-identity
authenticate attach
dns-pgw context <mme_context_name>
dns-sgw context <mme_context_name>
end
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
Operator Policy Configuration ▀
Notes:
 Refer to the Call Control Profile Configuration Mode chapter in the Command Line Interface Reference for
command details and variable options.
 This profile will only become valid when it is associated with an operator policy.
APN Profile Configuration
This section provides the configuration example to create an APN profile and enter the apn-profile configuration mode.
Use the apn-profile commands to define how calls are to be handled when the requests include an APN. More than
one APN profile can be associated with an operator policy.
The example below includes some of the more commonly configured profile parameters with sample variables that you
will replace with your own values.
configure
apn-profile <profile_name>
gateway-address 123.123.123.1 priority <1>(SGSN only)
direct-tunnel not-permitted-by-ggsn (SGSN only)
idle-mode-acl ipv4 access-group station7 (S-GW only)
end
Notes:
 All of the parameter defining commands in this mode are product-specific. Refer to the APN Profile
Configuration Mode chapter in the Command Line Interface Reference for command details and variable
options.
 This profile will only become valid when it is associated with an operator policy.
IMEI Profile Configuration - SGSN only
This section provides the configuration example to create an IMEI profile and enter the imei-profile configuration mode.
Use the imei-profile commands to define how calls are to be handled when the requests include an IMEI in the
defined IMEI range. More than one IMEI profile can be associated with an operator policy.
The example below includes some of the more commonly configured profile parameters with sample variables that you
will replace with your own values.
configure
imei-profile <profile_name>
ggsn-address 211.211.123.3
direct-tunnel not-permitted-by-ggsn (SGSN only)
associate apn-remap-table remap1
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ Operator Policy Configuration
end
Notes:
 It is optional to configure an IMEI profile. An operator policy can include IMEI profiles and/or APN profiles.
 This profile will only become valid when it is associated with an operator policy.
APN Remap Table Configuration
This section provides the configuration example to create an APN remap table and enter the apn-remap-table
configuration mode.
Use the apn-remap-table commands to define how APNs are to be handled when the requests either do or do not
include an APN.
The example below includes some of the more commonly configured profile parameters with sample variables that you
will replace with your own values.
configure
apn-remap-table <table_name>
apn-selection-default first-in-subscription
wildcard-apn pdp-type ipv4 network-identifier <apn_net_id>
blank-apn network-identifier <apn_net_id> (SGSN only)
end
Notes:
 The apn-selection-default first-in-subscription command is used for APN redirection to provide
“guaranteed connection” in instances where the UE-requested APN does not match the default APN or is
missing completely. In this example, the first APN matching the PDP type in the subscription is used. The firstin-selection keyword is an MME feature only.
 Some of the commands represented in the example above are common and some are product-specific. Refer to
the APN-Remap-Table Configuration Mode chapter in the Command Line Interface Reference for command
details and variable options.
 This profile will only become valid when it is associated with an operator policy.
Operator Policy Configuration
This section provides the configuration example to create an operator policy and enter the operator policy configuration
mode.
Use the commands in this mode to associate profiles with the policy, to define and associate APNs with the policy, and
to define and associate IMEI ranges. Note: IMEI ranges are supported for SGSN only.
The example below includes sample variable that you will replace with your own values.
configure
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
Operator Policy Configuration ▀
operator-policy <policy_name>
associate call-control-profile <profile_name>
apn network-identifier <apn-net-id_1> apn-profile <apn_profile_name_1>
apn network-identifier <apn-net-id_2> apn-profile <apn_profile_name_1>
imei range <imei_number> to <imei_number> imei-profile name <profile_name>
associate apn-remap-table <table_name>
end
Notes:
 Refer to the Operator-Policy Configuration Mode chapter in the Command Line Interface Reference for
command details and variable options.
 This policy will only become valid when it is associated with one or more IMSI ranges (SGSN) or subscriber
maps (MME and S-GW).
IMSI Range Configuration
This section provides IMSI range configuration examples for each of the products that support operator policy
functionality.
Configuring IMSI Ranges on the MME or S-GW
IMSI ranges on an MME or S-GW are configured in the Subscriber Map Configuration Mode. Use the following
example to configure IMSI ranges on an MME or S-GW:
configure
subscriber-map <name>
lte-policy
precedence <number> match-criteria imsi mcc <mcc_number> mnc <mnc_number> msin
first <start_range> last <end_range> operator-policy-name <policy_name>
end
Notes:
 The precedence number specifies the order in which the subscriber map is used. 1 has the highest precedence.
 The operator policy name identifies the operator policy that will be used for subscribers that match the IMSI
criteria and fall into the MSIN range.
Configuring IMSI Ranges on the SGSN
The example below is specific to the SGSN and includes sample variables that you will replace with your own values.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ Operator Policy Configuration
configure
sgsn-global
imsi-range mcc 311 mnc 411 operator-policy oppolicy1
imsi-range mcc 312 mnc 412 operator-policy oppolicy2
imsi-range mcc 313 mnc 413 operator-policy oppolicy3
imsi-range mcc 314 mnc 414 operator-policy oppolicy4
imsi-range mcc 315 mnc 415 operator-policy oppolicy5
end
Notes:
 Operator policies are not valid until IMSI ranges are associated with them.
Associating Operator Policy Components on the MME
After configuring the various components of an operator policy, each component must be associated with the other
components and, ultimately, with a network service.
The MME service associates itself with a subscriber map. From the subscriber map, which also contains the IMSI
ranges, operator policies are accessed. From the operator policy, APN remap tables and call control profiles are
accessed.
Use the following example to configure operator policy component associations:
configure
operator-policy <name>
associate apn-remap-table <table_name>
associate call-control-profile <profile_name>
exit
lte-policy
subscriber-map <name>
precedence match-criteria all operator-policy-name <policy_name>
exit
exit
context <mme_context_name>
mme-service <mme_svc_name>
associate subscriber-map <name>
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Operator Policy
Operator Policy Configuration ▀
end
Notes:
 The precedence command in the subscriber map mode has other match-criteria types. The all type is
used in this example.
Configuring Accounting Mode for S-GW
The accounting mode command configures the mode to be used for the S-GW service for accounting, either GTPP
(default), RADIUS/Diameter, or None.
Use the following example to change the S-GW accounting mode from GTPP (the default) to RADIUS/Diameter:
configure
context <sgw_context_name>
sgw-service <sgw_srv_name>
accounting mode radius-diameter
end
Notes:
 An accounting mode configured for the call control profile will override this setting.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Operator Policy
▀ Verifying the Feature Configuration
Verifying the Feature Configuration
This section explains how to display the configurations after saving them in a .cfg file as described in the System
Administration Guide .
Important:
Step 1
All commands listed here are under Exec mode. Not all commands are available on all platforms.
Verify that the operator policy has been created and that required profiles have been associated and configured properly
by entering the following command in Exec Mode:
show operator-policy full name oppolicy1
The output of this command displays the entire configuration for the operator policy configuration.
[local]asr5x00# show operator-policy full name oppolicy1
Operator Policy Name = oppolicy1
Call Control Profile Name
: ccprofile1
Validity
: Valid
APN Remap Table Name
: remap1
Validity
IMEI Range 711919739
IMEI Profile Name
: Valid
to
711919777
: imeiprof1
Include/Exclude
: Include
Validity
: Valid
APN NI homers1
APN Profile Name
Validity
: apn-profile1
: Valid
Notes:
 If the profile name is shown as “Valid”, the profile has actually been created and associated with the policy. If
the Profile name is shown as “Invalid”, the profile has not been created/configured.
 If there is a valid call control profile, a valid APN profile and/or valid IMEI profile, and a valid APN remap
table, the operator policy is valid and complete if the IMSI range has been defined and associated.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 22
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
This chapter describes the Support for Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature, and provides detailed
information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
If the RA is configured in both 2G and 3G, the SGSN now supports paging in both the RATs. In previous releases
common Routing Area across 2G and 3G was not supported completely. Paging was done only in the last known RAT
and power-off detach from other RAT was not supported.
With the introduction of this feature, the following enhancements have been made:
1. If paging has to be done in RA which is common across the RATs, the SGSN supports paging initiation in both
the RATs.
2. The SGSN accepts power-off detach from the common RA.
3. If the MS is in STANDBY or PMM-IDLE state and a downlink packet arrives at the SGSN, paging is done. This
is applicable for both A/Gb and Iu modes.
GPRS detach (power-off) may be initiated by the MS, but as the request is received in switched off mode the core
network does not send a Detach Accept. When the Routing Area is shared across (Iu/Gb), the Detach Request is
accepted at any of the modes and the subscriber details are cleared.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
How it Works ▀
How it Works
This section describes the support for common Routing Area (RA) for 2G and 3G in detail. Consider the following 2G
and 3G scenarios:
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G subscriber
The Subscriber is attached in 2G and is in Standby state. Downlink data is received at the SGSN and it starts paging in
both 3G and 2G as the RA is shared.
Scenario-1:

A detach request (power off) is sent in 3G, stop paging in 2G

Handle the detach request (power off).
Scenario-2:

If detach request (power off) is sent in 3G, stop paging in 3G

Indicate to the 2G network
Scenario-3:

If page response arrives in 2G, stop paging in 3G

Handle the page response in 2G.
Scenario-4:

If service request arrives in 3G, drop the packet.
Any packet other than RAU, Attach and Detach (power off) as page response will be dropped in the other RAT.
In paging policy has to be RA based under GPRS service to initiate common RA paging.
To enable common Routing Area paging, the configured paging-policy under the GPRS service must be Routing Area
based. If the paging-policy configuration is not Routing Area based BSSGP paging, this feature will not be supported
though the Routing Area is shared.
Paging in Common Routing Area for 3G subscriber
The Subscriber is attached in 3G and is in an IDLE state. Downlink data is received at the SGSN and it starts paging in
both 3G and 2G as the RA is shared.
Scenario-1:

If a detach request (power off) is sent in 3G, stop paging in 2G.

Handle detach request (power off).
Scenario-2:

If a detach request (power off) is sent in 2G, stop paging in 2G.

Indicate to 3G network.
Scenario-3:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
▀ How it Works

If service request is sent in 3G, stop paging in 2G.

Handle the page response in 3G.
Scenario-4:

If a page response (LLC PDU) arrives in 2G, drop the packet.
Any packet other than RAU, Attach and Detach (power off) as page response will be dropped in the other RAT.
The paging algorithm under GPRS service will be applicable if a BSSGP page is done for 3G subscriber. If the pagingpolicy configuration is not Routing Area based BSSGP paging, this feature will not be supported though the Routing
Area is shared.
Once a valid response arrives, both the RANAP page and BSSGP page will be stopped. However, in case of expiry the
other RAT will not be informed it will continue to page.
Standards Compliance
Support for Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G complies with the following standard:
 3GPP TS 23.060 (version 10.0)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
Configuring Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G ▀
Configuring Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
The following command is configured to enable support for this feature:
config
sgsn-global
no common-ra-paging
exit
This command enables paging across common Routing Area (RA) for 2G and 3G. For more information on this
command see, Cisco ASR 5X00 Command Line Interface Reference.
Verifying the Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Configuration
Execute the following command to verify the configuration of this feature:
show sgsn-mode
The following parameter indicates if common Routing Area paging is “Enabled” or “Disabled”:
 Common RA Paging
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing
Area for 2G and 3G feature
This section provides information on the show commands and bulk statistics available to support this feature.
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Show Command(s) and/or
Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the Paging in Common
Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature:
show gmm-sm statistics
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
Paging Statistics

Total-CRA-Page-Req-Same-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Req

Total-CRA-Page-Ret-Same-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Ret-Req-in-2G

Total-CRA-Page-Req-Other-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Req-in-2G

Total-CRA-Page-Ret-Other-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Ret-Req

Total-CRA-Page-Rsp-Same-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Rsp

Total-CRA-Page-Rsp-Other-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Attach-from-2G

3G-PS-CRA-RAU-from-2G

3G-PS-CRA-Power-Off-from-2G

Total-CRA-Page-TO-Other-RAT

3G-PS-CRA-Timeout-in-2G

Total-CRA-Page-Stop

3G-PS-CRA-Page-Stop

2G-PS-CRA-Page-in-3G

2G-PS-CRA-Page-Ret-Req-in-3G
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature ▀

2G-PS-CRA-Page-Req

2G-PS-CRA-Page-Ret-Req

2G-PS-CRA-Page-Rsp

2G-PS-CRA-Attach-from-3G

2G-PS-CRA-RAU-from-3G

2G-PS-CRA-Power-Off-from-3G

2G-PS-CRA-Timeout-in-3G

2G-PS-CRA-Page-Stop
Non-Paging Statistics

3G-CRA-Attach

3G-CRA-RAU

3G-CRA-Power-Off

2G-CRA-Attach

2G-CRA-RAU

2G-CRA-Power-Off
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G Bulk Statistics
The following statistics are included in the SGSN Schema in support of this feature:
SGSN Schema

common-ra-3g-page-req-same-rat

common-ra-2g-page-req-same-rat

common-ra-3g-page-req-ret-same-rat

common-ra-2g-page-req-ret-same-rat

common-ra-3g-page-req-other-rat

common-ra-2g-page-req-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-req-ret-other-rat

common-ra-2g-page-req-ret-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-rsp-same-rat

common-ra-2g-page-rsp-same-rat

common-ra-3g-page-rsp-attach-other-rat

common-ra-2g-page-rsp-attach-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-rsp-rau-other-rat

common-ra-2g-page-rsp-rau-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-rsp-power-off-other-rat
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting Paging in Common Routing Area for 2G and 3G feature

common-ra-2g-page-rsp-power-off-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-timeout-other-rat

common-ra-2g-page-timeout-other-rat

common-ra-3g-page-stop

common-ra-2g-page-stop

common-ra-3g-attach-other-rat

common-ra-2g-attach-other-rat

common-ra-3g-rau-other-rat

common-ra-2g- rau-other-rat

common-ra-3g-power-off-other-rat

common-ra-2g-power-off-other-rat
For descriptions of these variables, see “SGSN Schema Statistics“ in the Statistics and Counters Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 23
Page Throttling
This chapter describes the Page Throttling feature, and provides detailed information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Page Throttling
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Page Throttling feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The Page Throttling feature limits the number of paging messages going out of the SGSN. It provides flexibility and
control to the operator who can now reduce the number of paging messages going out from the SGSN based on the
network conditions. In some of the customer locations, the amount of paging messages initiated from the SGSN is very
high due to the bad radio conditions. A higher number of paging messages results in the consumption of bandwidth in
the network. This feature provides a configurable rate-limit, in which the paging message gets throttled at:
 Global level for both 2G and 3G accesses
 NSE level for 2G only
 RNC level for 3G only
This feature improves the bandwidth consumption on the radio interface.
Relationships to Other SGSN Features
The Page Throttling feature inter-works with common RA paging, in which paging messages are initiated from both 2G
and 3G accesses or vice versa.
Introduction of the Page Throttling feature does not result in any changes to the existing paging procedures.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Page Throttling
How it Works ▀
How it Works
The Rate Limiting Function (RLF) framework is used to limit the paging load sent from the SGSN. The Rate Limiting
function is a generic framework which provides the rate-limiting functionality using the Token Bucket algorithm to
achieve rate-limiting.
Page Throttling in a GPRS Scenario
The diagram below represents the design of the Page Throttling feature in a 2G scenario:
Figure 69. Paging Process in 2G with Rate Limiting
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ How it Works
The following modules inter-work with each other to achieve page throttling in a GPRS scenario:
1. The Session Manager
2. The GPRS Application
3. The GMM Layer
4. The GPRS Stack
5. RLF Module
Consider the following GPRS scenario, where the SGSN wants to send downlink data or signalling messages to a
subscriber and the subscriber is in a STAND-BY state:
1. The SGSN initiates a paging message to identify the subscriber's current location.
2. The GPRS application sends an indication to the GMM layer whenever it wants to page the MS either for
signalling or data packets. Throttling of paging messages for GPRS is performed at the GMM layer in the
Session Manager (SESSMGR). Throttling can be performed either at the Global or NSE level.
3. For throttling at the global level, the RLF context is created at the Session Manager level and is maintained in the
GMM Control block in the GMM layer.
4. For throttling at the NSE level, the RLF context is created at the Session Manger level for each NSE and is
maintained in the NSE control block in the GMM layer.
5. The GMM layer collects the information about the subscriber to be paged and sends it to the RLF module for
throttling. The RLF template is configurable, and the RLF module performs the throttling function based on the
thresholds configured in the template.
6. The RLF module applies the rate limiting algorithm based on the configured limits. It sends or queues paging
message based on the configured limits, once the maximum rate or the configured threshold is reached the
paging messages are dropped by the RLF module.
7. The GMM layer registers the call-back functions which are used by RLF module to send the paging messages
out of SGSN.
Page Throttling in an UMTS Scenario
The diagram below represents the design of the Page Throttling feature in a 3G scenario:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Page Throttling
How it Works ▀
Figure 70. Paging Process in 3G with Rate Limiting
The following modules inter-work with each other to achieve page throttling in a UMTS scenario:
1. The Session Manager
2. The PMM Application
3. The Access Layer
4. The RANAP Stack
5. RLF Module
Consider the following UMTS scenario, where the SGSN wants to send downlink data or signalling messages to a
subscriber and the subscriber is in a STAND-BY state:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ How it Works
1. The SGSN initiates a paging message to identify the subscriber's current location.
2. The PMM application sends an indication to the Access layer whenever it wants to page the MS either for
signalling or data packets. Throttling of paging messages for UMTS is performed at the Access layer in the
Session Manager (SESSMGR). Throttling can be performed either at the Global or NSE level.
3. For throttling at the global level, the RLF context is created at the Session Manager level and is maintained in the
Access layer.
4. Currently, the SGSN does not allow configuring the same RA in different RNCs across the IuPS services,
instead it allows only within the same IuPS service. For throttling at the RNC level, the RLF context is created
for each RNC and is maintained in the RNC control block of the Access layer in the Session Manager.
5. The Access layer collects the information about the subscriber to be paged and sends it to the RLF module for
throttling. The RLF template is configurable, and the RLF module performs the throttling function based on the
thresholds configured in the template.
6. The RLF module applies the rate limiting algorithm based on the configured limits. It sends or queues paging
message based on the configured limits, once the maximum rate or the configured threshold is reached the
paging messages are dropped by the RLF module.
7. The Access layer registers the call-back functions which are used by RLF module to send the paging messages
out of SGSN.
Limitations
Listed below are the known limitations of the Page Throttling feature:
 In the SGSN Global configuration mode "interface" command, the NSE-NAME (already existing) and RNCNAME (added as part of this feature) are not validated against the configuration under GPRS-SERVICE or
IuPS-SERVICE. This configuration is used only for the purpose of associating the paging-rlf-template for the
peer entity (either NSE/BSC or RNC). It is possible to change the ID to NAME mapping of both BSC and
RNC. The BSC/RNC ID is used for associating the paging-rlf-template as well as throttling the paging
messages internally even though the user can associate the paging-rlf-template using NAME explicitly.
 The rate limiting parameters for the rlf-template associated at global level should be configured in such a way
that it applies to all configured NSE and RNC's. The SGSN does not guarantee a uniform distribution of
message rate for each NSE/RNC while throttling at a global level.
 Page throttling is applicable to all RNC's whenever the operator configures the same RNC-ID with different
PLMN-ID in different IuPS services. If the operator associates the Paging RLF template for that RNC-ID, the
SGSN starts page throttling for both the RNC's irrespective of the PLMN.
 No mechanism is present to identify if the operator associates the paging-rlf-template by either configured RNC
name or RNC identifier while generating the CLI for "show/save configuration". The paging-rlf-template CLI
is always generated with the RNC name if the operator configured the name mapping even though the
association is done using the RNC-ID otherwise the output is always generated with the RNC-ID.
 Currently, the show output "show sgsn mode interface-mgmt-status" displays a maximum of "32" characters
(truncated value) of the name configured for both NSE/RNC and the RLF template name.
 The SGSN does not support paging load limitation to the common RA paging initiated in the other access.
 Whenever the operator removes the association of paging-rlf-template from a particular NSE/RNC and if the
page-limiting is already enabled at global level, all the queued messages in RLF context maintained for that
NSE/RNC will be flushed out by RLF and it does not accept any new paging messages for throttling. The RLF
context for that NSE/RNC will be cleaned up after all the messages in the queue flushed out. All the new
paging messages for that NSE/RNC will use the global RLF context for further rate-limiting.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Page Throttling
How it Works ▀
 Currently, the paging message initiated for both signalling and data packets are treated with same priority as the
generic RLF framework does not support priority for throttling.
 Run time association of Paging RLF template to global or per entity level (NSE/RNC) results in statistics
discrepancy (when it gets associated during re-transmission of paging messages already in progress).
 This feature results in a performance impact whenever the GPRS service is configured with many NSE's and
when the service is stopped or removed.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ Configuring Page Throttling
Configuring Page Throttling
The following commands are used to configure the Page Throttling feature. These CLI commands are used to
associate/remove the RLF template for Page Throttling at the Global level, NSE level and RNC level at the SGSN.
To map RNC Name to RNC Identifier
The interface command is used to configure the mapping between the RNC Id and the RNC name. The operator can
configure the paging-rlf-template either by RNC name or RNC identifier.
config
sgsn-global
interface-management
[ no ] interface {gb peer-nsei | iu peer-rnc} {name <value> | id <value>}
exit
Notes:
The no form of the command removes the mapping and other configuration associated for the RNC paging-rlf-template
configuration from the SGSN and resets the behavior to default for that RNC.
Example configurations:
[local]asr5000# configure
[local]asr5000(config)# sgsn-global
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-global)# interface-management
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# interface iu peer-rnc id 250 name
bng_rnc1
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# end
[local]asr5000#
To associate a paging RLF template
This command allows the SGSN to associate a RLF template either at the global level which limits the paging messages
initiated across both 2G (NSE level) and 3G (RNC level) access or at the per entity level either at RNC level for 3G
access or at NSE level for 2G access.
config
sgsn-global
interface-management
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Page Throttling
Configuring Page Throttling ▀
[no] paging-rlf-template {template-name <template-name>} {gb peer-nsei | iu
peer-rnc} {name <value> | id <value>}
exit
Notes:
If there no rlf-template is associated for a particular NSE/RNC then the paging load is limited based on the global rlftemplate associated (if present). If no global rlf-template associated then, no rate-limiting is applied on the paging load.
[local]asr5000(config)# sgsn-global
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-global)# interface-management
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# paging-rlf-template template-name
rlf1
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# end
[local]asr5000#
[local]asr5000# configure
[local]asr5000(config)# sgsn-global
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-global)# interface-management
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# paging-rlf-template template-name
rlf2 gb peer-nsei id 1
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# end
[local]asr5000#
[local]asr5000# configure
[local]asr5000(config)# sgsn-global
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-global)# interface-management
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# paging-rlf-template template-name
rlf2 iu peer-rnc name bng_rnc1
[local]asr5000(config-sgsn-interface-mgmt)# end
[local]asr5000#
For more information on the CLI commands see, Command Line Interface Reference.
The RLF template can be configured under the global configuration mode which provides the option to configure the
message-rate, burst-size, threshold and delay-tolerance for throttling or rate-limiting. To Configure the RLF template
see, Command Line Interface Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ Configuring Page Throttling
Verifying the Page Throttling Configuration
The Page Throttling feature configuration can be verified by executing the following show commands:
 show configuration
Listed below are the parameters added for the Page Throttling feature:
 paging-rlf-template template-name
 paging-rlf-template template-name gb peer-nsei id
 paging-rlf-template template-name iu peer-rnc id
 interface iu peer-rnc id rnc_id name name
 show sgsn-mode interface-mgmt-status
Listed below are the parameters added for the Page Throttling feature:
 Global Paging RLF template
 Paging RLF Template
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Page Throttling
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Page Throttling feature ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Page Throttling feature
This section provides information on the show outputs updated with new statistics to support the Page Throttling
feature.
Page Throttling Show Command(s) and/or Outputs
Listed below are the show outputs and new statistics added for the Page Throttling feature:
show gmm-sm statistics verbose
The following new statistics are added in the show gmm-sm statistics verbose status command to support the
Page Throttling feature:
 3G Page Throttling statistics
 PS-Page-Req sent by RLF
 Ret-PS-Page-Req sent by RLF
 PS-Page-Req dropped by RLF
 Ret-PS-Page-Req dropped by RLF
 PS-Page-Req dropped due to no memory
 2G Page Throttling statistics
 Paging Request sent out by RLF
 Total-Page-Req sent
 Ret-Total-Page-Req sent
 Page-Requests-LA
 Ret-Page-Requests-LA
 Page-Requests-RA
 Ret-Page-Requests-RA
 Page-Requests-BSS
 Ret-Page-Requests-BSS
 Page-Requests-Cell
 Ret-Page-Requests-Cell
 Paging Request dropped by RLF
 Total-Page-Req dropped
 Ret-Total-Page-Req dropped
 Page-Requests-LA
 Ret-Page-Requests-LA
 Page-Requests-RA
 Ret-Page-Requests-RA
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Page Throttling
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Page Throttling feature
 Page-Requests-BSS
 Ret-Page-Requests-BSS
 Page-Requests-Cell
 Ret-Page-Requests-Cell
 PS-Page-Req dropped due to no memory
For detailed information and description of the parameters see, Statistics and Counters Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 24
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
This chapter describes the PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN and includes the following topics:
 Feature Description
 Overview
 How it Works
 Configuring PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting PRN support in S4-SGSN
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The purpose of enabling PGW Restart Notification (PRN) in S4-SGSN is to provide a simple and optimized solution for
handling the signaling overload on the SGSN when a PGW failure occurs. Until release 10, the SGW used to send
Delete Bearer Request for every PDN connection activated through the failed PGW. This results in signaling overload
on the SGSN. From 3GPP Release 10 specifications onwards it is possible for a SGW to indicate a PGW failure through
a single PRN message to the SGSN.
When the SGW detects that a peer PGW has restarted or it is not reachable, it deletes all the PDN connections
associated with that peer node and releases all the internal resources associated with those PDN connections.
The SGW sends a PGW Restart Notification only to the SGSNs that have configured advertisement of PGW restart
notification in echo request/response messages. When the S4-SGSN receives this message, according to the control
plane IP address of the restarted PGW and the control plane IP address of the SGW on the S4 interface included in the
message, the S4-SGSN deletes all PDN connections associated with the SGW and the restarted PGW. The SGSN also
releases any internal resources associated with those PDN connections.
The S4-SGSN sends a PGW Restart Notification Acknowledge message in response to the PGW Restart Notification
message sent by the SGW.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
Overview ▀
Overview
Listed below is an overview of the PRN feature in the S4-SGSN:
 When the PGW Restart Notification is enabled at the S4-SGSN, the PRN bit in Node Features IE in Echo
Request message is set. This indicates to the SGW that the S4-SGSN supports PGW Restart Notification
message (PRN).
 The SGW sends the PRN message to the S4-SGSN in case of PGW node restart or if a path failure occurs. In
case of PGW node restart the PRN arrives without any cause, but if a path failure has occurred the PRN is
received with cause “PGW not responding”.
 The S4-SGSN on receiving the PRN, deletes all PDN connections associated with the SGW and the restarted
PGW. It also releases the internal resources associated with those PDN connections.
 The S4-SGSN prioritizes the PDN connections to be restored based on subscribed APN restoration priority (if
received from the HSS). A locally configured value as default restoration priority shall be used for a user's
PDN connection if it is not received from the HSS. Restoration priority value received in subscription record
from HSS value has more priority over locally configured default value.
 If the S4-SGSN wants to restore the PDN connections, it does so by using the “reactivation requested” cause if
restoration priorty value is available irrespective of whether UE is in CONNECTED or IDLE state.
 Deactivation is performed with cause “regular deactivation” if the UE is in CONNECTED state and restoration
priority is not available. If the UE is in IDLE state and restoration priority value is not available, then local
deactivation is done.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
▀ How it Works
How it Works
Listed below is a detailed description of how the PGW restart notification feature in S4-SGSN works:
1. The PRN support should be enabled through the gtpc command in egtp-service configuration mode.
2. If PRN is received and support for PRN is not configured then the S4-SGSN sends PRN Acknowledge message
with EGTP_CAUSE_SERVICE_DENIED cause code.
3. If PRN is received and support for PRN is configured then S4-SGSN responds with PRN Acknowledge message
with cause code EGTP_CAUSE_REQ_ACCEPTED.
4. When PRN is enabled at the S4-SGSN, the PRN bit in Node Features IE in Echo Request message is set. This
indicates to the SGW that the S4-SGSN supports PGW Restart Notification message.
5. The SGW sends the PRN to the S4-SGSN in case of PGW node restart or path failure. In case of PGW node
restart, PRN arrives without any cause. In case of path failure, PRN is received with cause specified as “PGW
not responding”. The behavior of S4-SGSN on receiving PRN is same in both scenarios.
6. When a PRN is received, the PDN connections are deleted based on SGW and PGW address received in PRN
message.
7. The S4-SGSN restores the PDN connections by sending Deactivate Request to UE using sm cause “reactivation
required”.
8. Restoration will be done only when the restoration priority is received from the HSS subscription for that PDN
or when the default apn-restoration priority is configured locally under the apn-profile.
Limitations
The PRN feature in S4-SGSN supports either IPv4 or IPv6 but not both at the same time.
Standards Compliance
The PRN feature in S4-SGSN complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.007 version 11
 3GPP TS 29.274 version 11
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
Configuring PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN ▀
Configuring PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
The following commands are used to configure the PGW restart notification support in the S4-SGSN:
Configure Node IE For PRN Advertisement
The following CLI command configures advertisement of PGW Restart Notification in echo request/response messages.
This is an existing CLI command under the EGTP Service Configuration mode which has to be configured in order to
inform SGW that S4-SGSN supports receiving PRN. The command option node-feature pgw-restartnotification has to be configured in order to inform SGW that S4-SGSN supports receiving PRN.
configure
context context_name
egtp_service service_name
gtpc { allow-on-congestion { apn-name apn_name | arp priority_level } | bind {
ipv4-address ipv4_address [ ipv6-address ipv6_address ] | ipv6-address ipv6_address [
ipv4-address ipv4_address ] } | echo-interval seconds [ dynamic [ smooth-factor
multiplier ] ] | echo-retransmission-timeout seconds | error-response-handling | ip qosdscp { forwarding_type } | max-retransmissions num | node-feature pgw-restartnotification | path-failure detection-policy echo | private-extension overchargeprotection | retransmission-timeout seconds }
exit
Configure Default APN Restoration Priority
The following CLI command configures APN restoration priority for an APN profile:
configure
apn-profile profile_name
apn-restoration priority priority_value
exit
Notes:
 The PGW Restart Notification (PRN) message is sent by the S-GW when it detects a peer P-GW has re-started.
The S4-SGSN on receiving the PRN message, uses the default apn-restoration priority value, if priority value is
not available in HSS Subscription to prioritize the affected PDN connections for restoration. To restore PDN it
is mandatory to get priority value from HSS in subscription record or default value must be configured under
apn-profile.
 The priority value is an integer value from 1 through 16. Where “1” is the highest priority and “16” is the lowest
priority.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
▀ Configuring PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
Verifying the PRN Configuration in S4-SGSN
Execute the command show egtp-service all to verify the PRN support configuration in S4-SGSN:
show egtp-service all
The output of this command displays if the PRN support has been configured:
...
GTPC Node Feature
PGW Restart Notification
..
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
: Enabled
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
Monitoring and Troubleshooting PRN support in S4-SGSN ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting PRN support in S4-SGSN
This section provides information on the show commands and disconnect reasons available to support this feature.
PGW Restart Notification Show Command(s) and/or Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the PRN feature in S4SGSN:
show s4-sgsn statistics
The following PDP Deletion Statistics have been added to the show s4-sgsn statistics command:
 PDP Deletion Statistics
 3G S4 PDPs Deleted due to PGW Restart Notification
 2G S4 PDPs Deleted due to PGW Restart Notification
show egtpc statistics
The following PGW Restart Notification statistics have been added to show egtpc statistics :
 PGW Restart Notification Request
 Total RX
 Initial RX
 Retrans RX
 PGW Restart Notification Ack
 Total TX
 Initial TX
 Accepted
 Denied
 Discarded
Notes:
 When APN Restoration priority value is available, either through local configuration or through subscription
received from HSS, then the SGSN sends Deactivation Request with SM Cause "Reactivation Required"
towards MS after PGW Restart Notification Request from SGW.
 When APN Restoration priority value is not available and the subscriber is in Idle/Standby state, the SGSN
deletes the affected bearers locally and does not trigger Paging Request towards the MS to send Deactivation
Request.
 When APN Restoration priority value is not available and the subscriber is in Connected/Ready state, the SGSN
will send Deactivation Request.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
PGW Restart Notification in S4-SGSN
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting PRN support in S4-SGSN
show session disconnect-reasons verbose
The following disconnect reason is used to track both PGW Restart or path failure and SGW path failure:
 sgsn-gtpc-path-failure(267)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 25
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
This chapter describes the implementation of Quality of Service (QoS) related features and functionali ties in SGSN.
 SGSN Quality of Service Management
 Quality of Service Attributes
 Quality of Service Attributes in Release 9798
 Quality of Service Attributes in Release 99
 Quality of Service Management in SGSN
 QoS Features
 QoS Management When UE is Using S4-interface for PDP Contexts
 QoS Handling Scenarios
 QoS Handling During Primary PDP Activation
 QoS Handling During Secondary PDP Activation
 MS Initiated QoS Modification
 HSS Initiated PDP Context Modification
 PGW Initiated QoS Modification
 ARP Handling
 Handling of ARP Values in Various Scenarios
 Mapping EPC ARP to RANAP ARP
 ARP configured in CC Profile
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
▀ Quality of Service Management
Quality of Service Management
The network associates a certain Quality of Service (QoS) with each data transmission in the GPRS packet mode. The
QoS attributes are collectively termed as a “QoS Profile”. The PDP context stores the QoS Profile information. The QoS
management is performed by using the PDP context management procedures, such as PDP context activation,
modification and de-activation. QoS enables the differentiation between services provided.
SGSN Quality of Service Management
The SGSN applies an admission control function on each PDP context activation request. The function results in further
processing of the request; that is, either negotiation of the QoS with the Mobile Subscriber (MS), or rejection of the PDP
context activation request. The SGSN negotiates QoS with the MS when the level requested by the subscriber cannot be
supported or when the QoS level negotiated from the previous SGSN cannot be supported at an inter-SGSN routing area
update. The response to the mobile subscriber depends on the provisioned subscription data, the requested QoS, the QoS
permitted by the Gateway node and the QoS permitted by the Radio Access Network.
Quality of Service Attributes
In an End-to- End Service the network user is provided with a certain Quality of Service, which is specified by a set of
QoS attributes or QoS profile. The first list of attributes was defined in Release 97/98 of the 3GPP recommendations but
these are now replaced by Release 99 3GPP recommendations. Many QoS profiles can be defined by the combination of
these attributes. Each attribute is negotiated by the MS and the GPRS/UMTS/LTE network. If the negotiated QoS
profiles are accepted by both parties then the network will have to provide adequate resources to support these QoS
profiles.
In Release 97/98 recommendations, the PDP context is stored in the MS, SGSN and GGSN. It represents the relation
between one PDP address, PDP type (static or dynamic address), the address of a GGSN that serves as an access point
to an external PDN, and one Quality of Service (QoS) profile. PDP contexts with different QoS parameters cannot share
the same PDP address. In Release 99 recommendations a subscriber can use more than one PDP contexts with different
QoS parameters and share the same PDP address.
Quality of Service Attributes in Release 97/98
In Release 97/98 of the 3GPP recommendations, QoS is defined according to the following attributes:
 Precedence Class: This attribute indicates the packet transfer priority under abnormal conditions, for example
during a network congestion load.
 Reliability Class: This attribute indicates the transmission characteristics. It defines the probability of data loss,
data delivered out of sequence, duplicate data delivery, and corrupted data. This parameter enables the
configuration of layer “2” protocols in acknowledged or unacknowledged modes.
 Peak Throughput Class: This attribute indicates the expected maximum data transfer rate across the network
for a specific access to an external packet switching network (from 8 Kbps up to 2,048 Kbps).
 Mean Throughput Class: This attribute indicates the average data transfer rate across the network during the
remaining lifetime of a specific access to an external packet switching network (best effort, from 0.22 bps up to
111 Kbps).
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
Quality of Service Management ▀
 Delay Class: This attribute defines the end-to-end transfer delay for the transmission of Service Data Units
(SDUs) through the GPRS network. The SDU represents the data unit accepted by the upper layer of GPRS
and conveyed through the GPRS network.
Quality of Service Attributes in Release 99
The attributes of GPRS QoS were modified in Release 99 of the 3GPP recommendations in order to be identical to the
ones defined for UMTS.
The quality of service is a type “4” information element with a minimum length of “14” octets and a maximum length of
“18” octets.
The Release 99 of 3GPP recommendations defines QoS attributes such as Traffic class, Delivery order, SDU format
information, SDU error ratio, Maximum SDU size, Maximum bit rate for uplink, Maximum bit rate for downlink,
Residual bit error ratio, Transfer delay, Traffic-handling priority, Allocation/retention priority, and Guaranteed bit rate
for uplink and Guaranteed bit rate for downlink. The attributes are listed below:
 Traffic Class: Indicates the application type (conversational, streaming, interactive, background). Four classes
of traffic have been defined for QoS:
 Conversational Class: These services are dedicated to bi-directional communication in real time (for
example, voice over IP and video conferencing).
 Streaming Class: These services are dedicated to uni-directional data transfer in real time (for
example, audio streaming and one-way video).
 Interactive Class: These services are dedicated to the transport of human or machine interaction with
remote equipment (for example, Web browsing, access to a server and access to a database).
 Background Class: These services are dedicated to machine-to-machine communication; this class of
traffic is not delay sensitive (for example, e-mail and SMS).
 Delivery Order: Indicates the presence of an in-sequence SDU delivery (if any).
 Delivery of Erroneous SDUs: Indicates if erroneous SDUs are delivered or discarded.
 SDU Format Information: Indicates the possible exact sizes of SDUs.
 SDU Error Ratio: Indicates the maximum allowed fraction of SDUs lost or detected as erroneous.
 Maximum SDU Size: Indicates the maximum allowed SDU size (from “10” octets up to “1,520” octets).
 Maximum Bit Rate for Uplink: Indicates the maximum number of bits delivered to the network within a period
of time (from “0” up to “8,640” Kbps).
 Maximum Bit Rate for Downlink: Indicates the maximum number of bits delivered by the network within a
period of time (from “0” up to “8,640” Kbps).
 Residual Bit Error Ratio:Indicates the undetected bit error ratio for each sub-flow in the delivered SDUs.
 Transfer Delay: Indicates the maximum time of SDU transfer for 95th percentile of the distribution of delay for
all delivered SDUs.
 Traffic-Handling Priority: Indicates the relative importance of all SDUs belonging to a specific GPRS bearer
compared with all SDUs of other GPRS bearers.
 Allocation/Retention Priority:Indicates the relative importance of resource allocation and resource retention for
the data flow related to a specific GPRS bearer compared with the data flows of other GPRS bearers (this
attribute is useful when resources are scarce).
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
▀ Quality of Service Management
 Guaranteed Bit Rate for Uplink: Indicates the guaranteed number of bits delivered to the network within a
period of time (from “0” up to “8,640” Kbps).
 Guaranteed Bit Rate for Downlink: Indicates the guaranteed number of bits delivered to the network within a
period of time (from “0” up to “8,640” Kbps).
 Maximum Bit Rate for Uplink (extended, octet 17): This field is an extension of the Maximum bit rate for
uplink in octet “8”. The coding is identical to that of the Maximum bit rate for downlink (extended). It is used
to signal extended Maximum bit rates in uplink (up to “256” Mbps)
 Maximum Bit Rate for Downlink (extended, octet 15): Used to signal extended bit rates for downlink
delivered by the network (up to “256” Mbps). This attribute is supported in 3GPP Release 6 and beyond.
 Guaranteed Bit Rate for Uplink (extended, octet 18): This field is an extension of the Guaranteed bit rate for
uplink in octet “12”. The coding is identical to that of the guaranteed bit rate for downlink (extended). Used to
signal extended Guaranteed bit rates in uplink (up to “256” Mbps)
 Guaranteed Bit Rate for Downlink (extended, octet 16): Used to signal extended Guaranteed bit rates in
downlink (up to “256” MBps). This attribute is supported in 3GPP Release 6 and beyond.
Quality of Service Management in SGSN
QoS management comprises of approximately “23” individual parameters. As part of QoS Management, the SGSN
negotiates the MS requested QoS with the following during PDP context Activation and Modification procedures:
 Subscribed QoS
 Local QoS capping limit (if configured)
 QoS sent by GGSN in tunnel management messages
 QoS sent by RNC in RAB assignment messages (UMTS only)
Each negotiation is between QoS parameters of the two sets, and the resulting negotiated QoS will be the lower of the
two. QoS negotiation for Secondary PDP contexts is same as Primary PDP context.
For more information see, 3GPP TS 24.008 (section 10.5.6.5 “Quality of Service”.
QoS Negotiation During an Activation Procedure
During an Activation procedure the MS requested QoS is negotiated with the subscribed QoS. Higher values are not
valid in case of GPRS access, the SGSN restricts some of the QoS parameters during PDP activation in GPRS access.
Listed below are the QoS parameters which are restricted in GPRS access:
 Maximum Bitrate (MBR) DL is capped to “472” kbps.
 Maximum Bitrate (MBR) UL is capped to “472” kbps.
 Peak Throughput (PR) is capped to “6” (“32000” octets/sec).
 Reliability class (RC) of “0x2”, “Unacknowledged GTP; Acknowledged LLC and RLC, Protected data” is not
supported. In such cases, RC is over-ridden as “0x3”, “Unacknowledged GTP and LLC; Acknowledged RLC,
Protected data”
The SDU Error ratio is capped in following cases:
 For Reliability Class “0x3”, the SDU error ratio is capped to “4” (1x10) if it exceeds a value of “4”, a value
greater than “4” represents stringent error ratios.
 For Reliability Class greater than “0x3”, the SDU error ratio capped to “3” (1x10) if the value provided exceeds
“4”.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
Quality of Service Management ▀
For more information see, 3GPP TS 23.107 (Table 6 “Rules for determining R99 attributes from R97/98 attributes”).
The QoS parameters are sent to GGSN in the Create PDP Context Request. On receiving a Create PDP Context
Response, the QoS sent by GGSN is negotiated with the one sent by SGSN to GGSN. For GPRS access, this negotiated
QoS is sent to the MS in Activate PDP Context Accept.
If the UE requests a subscribed traffic class, the SGSN defaults it to “Interactive” traffic class regardless of the
configuration in the HLR subscription.
In a UMTS access scenario, the negotiated QoS is sent to RNC in RAB Assignment Request. By default, the SGSN
includes Alternative Max Bit Rate with type set to “Unspecified”. This indicates to the RNC that it can further negotiate
the QoS downwards if either the RNC/UE cannot support the QoS value sent. The RNC may downgrade the QoS based
on its current load/capability and include it in RAB Assignment Response. The SGSN does QoS negotiation once more
with received QoS from the RNC. This is used as the negotiated QoS of PDP context and is sent to the MS in Activate
PDP context Accept. If the RNC has downgraded the QoS, the same will be informed to GGSN by means of an Update
PDP context procedure.
QoS Negotiation During a Modification Procedure
The PDP Context Modification procedure can be MS initiated or Network initiated, it is used to change the current
negotiated QoS. If it is a MS initiated PDP Context Modification procedure the QoS negotiation is similar to the QoS
negotiation followed during an Activation procedure. The HLR or GGSN or SGSN (RNC in case of UMTS access) can
perform a Network Initiated QoS modification.
For more information on “PDP Context Modification Procedure” see, 3GPP TS 24.008 section 6.1.3.3
HLR Initiated QoS Modification
The Subscription Information of a Subscriber may change due to the following:
 User action (The user may subscribe for a more premium service)
 Service provider action (The QoS is restricted on reaching download limits)
This change is relayed by the HLR to the SGSN through the Insert Subscription Data procedure. As per 3GPP TS
23.060 section 6.11.1.1 “Insert Subscriber Data procedure”, the SGSN negotiates the current QoS with new subscribed
QoS and initiates a Network Initiated PDP modification procedure only in case of QoS downgrade. As part of this
procedure, the GGSN (and RNC in case of UMTS access) is updated with the new negotiated QoS followed by the MS.
If a failure occurs or no response is received from the MS for the Modify Request, the PDP context is deactivated.
The SGSN is compliant with 3GPP TS 23.060 Release 7 version. The specifications Release 8 and above specify a
modified behavior when the UE is in a IDLE/STANDBY state. If the QoS is modified by the HLR when an UE is an
IDLE/STANDBY state the PDP is de-activated. The SGSN is made compliant with this change to align its behavior
with LTE elements like MME. Therefore the SGSN is compliant with both the Release 7 and Release 8 specifications.
GGSN Initiated QoS Modification
The GGSN may initiate a QoS Modification Request due to any of the following reasons:
 An External Trigger (PCRF)
 Current load or capability of the GGSN
 If the “No Qos negotiation” flag is set in the previous Tunnel Management Request from SGSN.
The SGSN negotiates this QoS with the subscription. The negotiated Qos is then sent to the UE in a Modify PDP
Request. In an UMTS access scenario, the SGSN updates the new negotiated QoS to the RNC. The new negotiated Qos
is then forwarded to the GGSN in response message.
SGSN Initiated QoS Modification
The SGSN initiated QoS Modification occurs during an Inter-RAT HO (2G to 3G / 3G or 2G), here the negotiated QoS
in new access is different from the negotiated QoS in old access. The SGSN QoS initiated QoS Modification can also
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
▀ Quality of Service Management
occur during a new SGSN ISRAU/SRNS procedure where the new negotiated QoS is different from the negotiated QoS
received from the peer SGSN.
Whenever a UE performs an Intra or Inter SGSN HO, the SGSN receives the requested QoS, subscribed QoS and the
negotiated QoS from the old access (during Intra SGSN HO ) or from peer SGSN (during Inter SGSN HO). This
requested QoS is then negotiated with the subscribed QoS. If the negotiated QoS is different from the received
negotiated QoS, the SGSN initiates a network initiated QoS modification procedure to update the new negotiated QoS
to the UE after completing the HO procedure.
RNC Initiated QoS Modification (UMTS access only)
In a RNC initiated QoS modification procedure the SGSN negotiates the QoS with the current negotiated QoS. In case
of a downgrade, the SGSN updates the GGSN and MS with the new negotiated QoS.
For more information see, 3GPP TS 23.060 section 9.2.3.6 on “RAN-initiated RAB Modification Procedure”
No QoS Negotiation Flag
When the ‘No QoS Negotiation’ flag is set, the SGSN indicates to the GGSN not to negotiate the QoS. The “No QoS
Negotiation” flag is set in the following scenarios:
 While sending Update PDP Context request during activation (Direct tunnel).
 During a service request for data with direct tunnel enabled for the subscriber, a UPCQ is initiated to inform the
GGSN with the teid and the address of the RNC. This Update PDP context request has no negotiation bit set.
 Update PDP context request sent during preservation procedures.
 UPCQ sent to indicate establishment / removal of direct tunnel.
 Intra SGSN SRNS.
 Downlink data for the subscriber without active RABs and direct tunnel enabled for the subscriber, UPCQ is
initiated to inform the GGSN of the teid and the address of the RNC. This Update PDP context request has “No
QoS Negotiation” flag set.
 In all modification procedures (HLR,RNC,MS) if any other node other than the modifying entity has
downgraded the QoS. For example, consider a HLR Initiated Modification procedure where the SGSN does the
following signalling:
 Initiates a UPCQ to inform the GGSN of the QOS change, GGSN sends a UPCR with same QOS as
UPCQ.
 Modify PDP context Request to MS, the MS sends a Modify PDP Accept.
 RAB establishment request to the RNC, the RNC downgrades the QoS in the RAB assignment
response.
 The SGSN initiates a UPCQ to inform the GGSN of the new QoS sent in the previous step. This UPCQ
will have no QoS negotiation bit set.
 If loss of Radio connectivity feature is enabled, then the Update PDP Context initiated to inform the GGSN that
the MS is back in Radio Coverage will have the “No Qos Negotiation” bit set.
QoS Features
Traffic Policing
The SGSN can police uplink and downlink traffic according to predefined QoS negotiated limits fixed on the basis of
individual contexts - either primary or secondary. The SGSN employs the Two Rate Three Color Marker (RFC2698)
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algorithm for traffic policing. The algorithm meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets either green, yellow, or
red depending upon the following variables:
 PIR: Peak Information Rate (measured in bytes/second)
 CIR: Committed Information Rate (measured in bytes/second)
 PBS: Peak Burst Size (measured in bytes)
 CBS: Committed Burst Size (measured in bytes)
The following figure depicts the working of the TCM algorithm:
Figure 71.
TCM Algorithm Logic for Traffic Policing
The policing function compares the data unit traffic with the related QoS attributes. Data units not matching the relevant
attributes will be dropped or marked as not matching, for preferential dropping in case of congestion.
Procedure To Configure Traffic Policing:
This procedure is used to configure the actions governing the subscriber traffic flow. That is, if the flow violates or
exceeds the configured, negotiated peak or committed data-rates. The SGSN performs traffic policing only if the
command qos rate-limit direction is configured.
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
qos rate-limit direction { downlink | uplink } [ burst-size { auto-readjust [
duration seconds ] | bytes } ] [ class { background | conversational | interactive
traffic_priority | streaming } ] [ exceed-action { drop | lower-ip-precedence | transmit
} ] [ gbr-qci [ committed-auto-readjust durarion seconds ] ] [ non-gbr-qci [ committedauto-readjust durarion seconds ] ] [ violate-action { drop | lower-ip-precedence |
transmit } ] +
exit
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This command can be entered multiple times to specify different combinations of traffic direction and class.
The remove keyword can be used with the qos rate-limit direction command to remove the qos rate-limit
direction entries from the configuration.
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
remove qos rate-limit direction { downlink | uplink } [ burst-size { auto-readjust
[ duration seconds ] | bytes } ] [ class { background | conversational | interactive
traffic_priority | streaming } ] [ exceed-action { drop | lower-ip-precedence | transmit
} ] [ gbr-qci [ committed-auto-readjust durarion seconds ] ] [ non-gbr-qci [ committedauto-readjust durarion seconds ] ] [ violate-action { drop | lower-ip-precedence |
transmit } ] +
exit
QoS Traffic Policing Per Subscriber
Traffic policing enables the operator to configure and enforce bandwidth limitations on individual PDP contexts for a
particular traffic class. It deals with eliminating bursts of traffic and managing traffic flows in order to comply with a
traffic contract.
The SGSN complies with the DiffServ model for QoS. The SGSN handles the 3GPP defined classes of traffic, QoS
negotiation, DSCP marking, traffic policing, and support for HSDPA/HSUPA.
The per Subscriber traffic policing can be achieved by creating an operator policy for required subscribers (IMSI range)
and associating the APN profile having the relevant qos-rate-limit configuration with the operator policy.
DSCP Marking and DSCP Templates
Differentiated Services Code Point specifies a mechanism for classifying and managing network traffic and providing
Quality of Service (QoS) on IP networks. DSCP uses the 6-bit Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) field in the IP
header for packet classification purposes. DSCP replaces the Type of Service (TOS) field.
The SGSN performs a DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) marking of the GTP-U packets according to the allowed-QoS to
PHB mapping. The default mapping matches that of the UMTS to IP QoS mapping defined in 3GPP TS 29.208.
DSCP is standardised by the RFCs 2474 and 2475. DSCP templates contain DSCP code points for specific traffic types.
DSCP is used to differentiate traffic types and the priority with which they should be allowed through the network. In
MPC, DSCP templates are created and applied for signalling (2G/3G) and data traffic, where signalling takes
precedence over the data plane. When signalling and data are sent through a single channel, critical signalling messages
are adversely affected due to the queueing created by large chunks of data. With DSCP it is possible to have separate
queues for signalling and data based on code point value and handle them based on relative precedence.
The SGSN supports DSCP marking of the GTP control plane messages on the Gn/Gp interface. This allows the QoS to
be set on GTP-C messages, and is useful if Gn/Gp is on a less than ideal link. DSCP can also be configured at the NSEI
level and this configuration has higher precedence over GPRS level configuration. DSCP marking is configurable
through the CLI, with default being “Best Effort Forwarding”.
The following configuration procedures are used to configure DSCP marking parameters:
1. The IP command
The ip command is used to configure DSCP Marking which is used for sending packets of a particular 3GPP
QoS class.
config
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apn-profile <profile_name>
ip { qos-dscp { { downlink | uplink } { background forwarding |
conversational forwarding | interactive traffic-handling-priority priority
forwarding | streaming forwarding } + } | source-violation { deactivate [
all-pdp | exclude-from accounting | linked-pdp | tolerance-limit } |
discard [ exclude-from-accounting ] | ignore }
exit
To reset the values to the default configuration, use the following procedure:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
default ip { qos-dscp [ downlink | uplink ] | source-violation }
exit
The following procedure is used to disable IP QoS-DSCP mapping:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
no ip qos-dscp { downlink | uplink } { background | conversational |
interactive | streaming } +
exit
2. DSCP template configuration mode commands
DSCP template configuration mode commands are used to configure DSCP marking for control packets and
data packets for Gb over IP. Any number of DSCP templates can be generated in the SGSN Global
configuration mode and then a template can be associated with one or more GPRS Services via the commands
in the GPRS Service configuration mode.
The following configuration procedure is used to configure DSCP value for 3GPP QoS class downlink control
packets:
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-global
dscp-template<template_name>
control-packet qos-dscp { af11 | af12 | af13 | af21 | af22 | af23
| af31 | af32 | af33 | af41 | af42 | af43 | be | cs1 | cs2 | cs3 | cs4 |
cs5 | cs6 | cs7 | ef }
exit
The following command is used to configure the QoS DSCP value to "BE" (Best Effort):
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config
context <context_name>
sgsn-global
dscp-template<template_name>
default control-packet
exit
The following configuration procedure is used to configure DSCP value for 3GPP QoS class downlink data
packets:
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-global
dscp-template<template_name>
data-packet { background | conversationa | interactive {
priority1 | priority2 | priority3 } | streaming } qos-dscp { af11 | af12 |
af13 | af21 | af22 | af23 | af31 | af32 | af33 | af41 | af42 | af43 | be |
cs1 | cs2 | cs3 | cs4 | cs5 | cs6 | cs7 | ef }
exit
The following command is used to configure the QoS DSCP value to “BE” (Best Effort):
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-global
dscp-template<template_name>
default data-packet { background | conversationa | interactive {
priority1 | priority2 | priority3 } | streaming }
exit
3. The associate-dscp-template command
To associate a specific DSCP template with a specific service configuration (for example GPRS Service, IuPS
Service, SGSN PSP Service) use the associate-dscp-template command.
GPRS Service Configuration Mode:
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <service_name>
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associate-dscp-template downlink template_name
exit
To disassociate a previously associated DSCP marking template:
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <service_name>
no associate-dscp-template downlink
exit
IuPS Service Configuration Mode:
config
context <context_name>
iups-service <service_name>
associate dscp-template downlink dscp_template_name
exit
To disassociate a previously associated DSCP marking template:
config
context <context_name>
iups-service <service_name>
no associate dscp-template downlink
exit
SGSN PSP Configuration Mode:
config
context <context_name>
ss7-routing-domain
<routing_domain_id> variant <variant_type>
associate { asp instance asp_num | dscp-template downlink
template_name }
exit
To disassociate a previously associated DSCP marking template:
config
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context <context_name>
ss7-routing-domain
<routing_domain_id> variant <variant_type>
no associate [ asp | dscp-template downlink ]
exit
4. The peer-nse command, to associate DSCP template for NSEI
By using this command, a specific DSCP marking template can be identified to be associated with the peerNSE. The DSCP template must first be created with SGSN Global configuration mode and then defined with
the commands in the DSCP Template configuration mode. The template provides a mechanism for
differentiated services code point (DSCP) marking of control packets and LLC signaling messages on Gb
interfaces. The DSCP marking feature enables the SGSN to perform classifying and managing of network
traffic and to determine quality of service (QoS) for the interfaces to an IP network.
To associate a peer (remote) network service entity (NSEI) for a BSS with this GPRS service:
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <service_name>
peer-nsei nse_id { associate dscp-template downlink template_name |
lac lac_id rac rac_id | name peer_nsei_name | pooled }
exit
To remove the specified configuration from this peer-nsei configuration:
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <service_name>
no peer-nsei nse_id [ associate dscp-template downlink
lac_id rac rac_id | name | pooled ]
| lac
exit
5. The gtpc command
To configure the DSCP marking to be used when sending GTP-C messages originating from the Session
Manager and the SGTPC manager, use the following procedure:
config
context <context_name>
sgtp-service <service_name>
gtpc { bind address ipv4_address | dns-sgsn context context_name |
echo-interval interval_seconds | echo-retransmission { exponential-backoff
[ [ min-timeout timeout_seconds ] [ smooth-factor smooth_factor ] + ] |
timeout timeout_seconds } | guard-interval interval_seconds | ignore
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response-port-validation | ip qos-dscp dscp_marking | max-retransmissions
max_retransmissions | retransmission-timeout timeout_seconds | send {
common flags | rab-context | target-identification-preamble } }
exit
To reset the values to the default configuration, use the following procedure:
config
context <context_name>
sgtp-service <service_name>
default gtpc { echo-interval | echo-retransmission | guard-interval
| ignore response-port-validation | ip qos-dscp | max-retransmissions |
retransmission-timeout | send { common-flags | rab-context | targetidentification-preamble } }
exit
The default value is “BE” (Best Effort).
Local QoS Capping
The QoS bit rate can be capped by the operator. The SGSN can be configured to limit the QoS bit rate parameter when
the subscribed QoS provided by the HLR is lower than the locally configured value. Based on the configuration
enabled, the SGSN can choose the QoS parameter configuration from the HLR configuration or from the local settings
used in the APN profile. During session establishment the SGSN applies the lower of the two, that is either the HLR
subscription or locally configured value.
The following procedure is used to configure the local Traffic Class (TC) parameters:
Important: To enable any of the values/features configured with this command, the qos prefer-as-cap
configuration (also in the APN profile configuration mode) must be set to either local or both-hlr-and-local.
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
qos class { background | conversational | interactive | streaming } [ qualif_option
]
exit
To remove the previously defined TC parameters, use the following procedure:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
remove qos class { background | conversational | interactive | streaming } [
qualif_option ]
exit
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To specify the operational preferences of QoS Parameters (specifically the QoS bit rates), use the following procedure:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
qos prefer-as-cap { both-hlr-and-local | both-hss-and-local { local-whensubscription-not-available | minimum | subscription-exceed-reject } | hlr-subscription |
local }
exit
To remove all the previous configurations and reset the values to default, use the following procedure:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
remove qos prefer-as-cap
exit
QoS Management When UE is Using S4-interface for PDP Contexts
The SGSN uses the S4 interface with EPC network elements S-GW or P-GW. The QoS parameters used in the EPC
network are different from the ones used in GPRS/UMTS network. For more information refer to the 3GPP TS 23.203
section 6.1.7.
EPC QoS Parameters
 QoS Class Identifier (QCI): The QCI is scalar that is used as a reference to node specific parameters that
control packet forwarding treatment (for example, scheduling weights, admission thresholds, queue
management thresholds, link layer protocol configuration and so on.) and that have been pre-configured by the
operator owning the node (for example, eNodeB). The standardized characters associated with a standard QCI
are listed below:
 Resource Type (GBR or Non-GBR)
 Priority
 Packet Delay Budget
 Packet Error Loss Rate
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1. QCI table
 APN AMBR: The APN-AMBR limits the aggregate bit rate that can be provided across all Non- GBR PDP
contexts of the same APN (for example, excess traffic may get discarded by a rate shaping function). Each of
those Non-GBR PDP contexts can potentially utilize the entire APN AMBR (for example, when the other NonGBR PDP contexts do not carry any traffic). The GBR PDP contexts are outside the scope of APN AMBR.
The PGW enforces the APN AMBR in downlink. Enforcement of APN AMBR in uplink may be done in the
UE and additionally in the PGW.
 UE AMBR: The UE AMBR limits the aggregate bit rate that can be provided across all Non-GBR PDP contexts
of a UE (for example, excess traffic may get discarded by a rate shaping function). Each of the Non-GBR PDP
contexts can potentially use the entire UE AMBR (for example, when the other Non-GBR PDP contexts do not
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carry any traffic). The GBR (real-time) PDP contexts are outside the scope of UE AMBR. The RAN enforces
the UE AMBR in uplink and downlink.
 E-ARP: The EPC uses Evolved ARP, which has priority level ranging from “1” up to “15”. Additionally,
evolved ARP comprises of pre-emption capability and pre-emption vulnerability. The preemption capability
information defines whether a bearer with a lower priority level should be dropped to free up the required
resources. The pre-emption vulnerability information indicates whether a bearer is applicable for such dropping
by a preemption capable bearer with a higher priority value.
For handover between UTRAN/GERAN and E-UTRAN, refer to 3GPP TS 24.101 “Annexure-E”. It defines
the mapping rule between ARP and Evolved ARP during R99 QoS to EPS bearer QoS mapping and vice versa.
 MBR: Maximum Bit Rate indicates the maximum number of bits delivered to the network or by the network
within a period of time. This parameter is as defined in GMM QoS Parameters. In EPC, these values are
encoded as a “5” octet linear value but in GMM QoS it is a single octet or a two octet step wise value.
 GBR: Guaranteed Bit Rate indicates the guaranteed number of bits delivered to the network or by the network
within a period of time. This parameter is as defined in GMM QoS Parameters. In EPC, these values are
encoded as a “5” octet linear value but in GMM QoS it is a single octet or a two octet step wise value.
Subscription Types Supported by S4-SGSN
1. EPC Subscription: If a subscriber has an EPC subscription, the QoS in subscription data is sent in the EPC
format.
2. GPRS Subscription: If the subscriber does not have an EPC subscription, the QoS in subscription data is sent in
R99/R5/R7 format.
QoS Mapping
The S4-SGSN communicates the QoS parameters towards the S-GW and P-GW in EPC QoS.In UTRAN / GERAN
access, the QoS carried over NAS messages to UE are in legacy GMM QoS R99/R5/R7 format (Refer to, 3GPP TS
24.008 section 10.5.6.5). However on the S4 / S5 / S16 / S3 interfaces the QoS is carried in EPC format (APN-AMBR,
E-ARP and so on). A mapping is required between EPC QoS and GMM QoS, this mapping for EPS QoS to pre-release
8 QoS is defined in 3GPP TS 23.401, Annexure E.
Mapping Details
Information on the parameters mapped is listed below:
 APN-AMBR is mapped to MBR for non-GBR bearers.
 Per bearer MBR and GBR is mapped to MBR and GBR towards UE for GBR bearers.
 For information on other mapping values refer to, 3GPP TS 23.203, table 6.1.7.
Mapping is performed during the following scenarios:
 During Activate Accept (EPC QoS to GMM QoS)
 During Activation initiated Create Session Request (if GPRS subscription is used – GMM QoS to EPC QoS
mapping)
 During S4-SGSN to Gn SGSN handover (EPC QoS to GMM QoS)
 During HLR / HSS initiated QoS modification (if GPRS subscription is used – GMM to EPC QoS towards
SGW/PGW; towards UE EPC to GMM QoS – for both types of subscription)
Calculation on UE-AMBR
The S4-SGSN sets the value of UE-AMBR as follows:
Value of used UE-AMBR = Sum of APN-AMBRs of all active PDN connections for the given UE, limited or
capped by the subscribed UE-AMBR.
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For more information refer to, 3GPP TS 23.401, section 4.7.3.
To obtain E-ARP when GPRS subscription is used
To obtain E-ARP, configure ARP high and medium priority values at the Call Control Profile through the CLI
command listed below:
qos gn-gp { arp high-priority priority medium-priority priority | pre-emption { capability { maytrigger-pre-emption | shall-not-trigger-pre-emption } | vulnerability { not-pre-emptable | preemptable }
For more information refer to, 3GPP TS 23.401, Annexure E
To obtain QCI when GPRS subscription is used
The mapping information on obtaining QCI when GPRS subscription is used is listed in 3GPP TS 23.401 (table E.3)
and 3GPP TS 23.203 (table 6.1.7).
QoS Mapping from SGSN to SGW/PGW
The QoS Mapping from SGSN to SGW/PGW can be depicted as follows:
Figure 72.
QoS Mapping from SGSN to SGW/PGW
QoS Mapping from SGSN to UE/RNC
The QoS Mapping from SGSN to UE/RNC can be depicted as follows:
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Figure 73.
QoS Mapping from SGSN to UE/RNC
QoS Handling Scenarios
Listed below are various QoS handling scenarios and QoS Mapping for each of the scenarios:
Scenario-1:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE.
2. The HLR subscription does not have EPS subscription data. Only GPRS subscription is present.
3. Activate a PDP context with all QoS parameters set to “subscribed”.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
If S4 is the selected interface, then the subscribed MBR is mapped to APN AMBR. The EPS bearer QoS MBR is set to
subscribed MBR (for conversational and streaming class bearers). For non-GBR bearers the EPS bearer QoS MBR is set
to “0”. If the traffic class is conversational or streaming, then the EPS bearer QoS GBR is set to subscribed GBR.
A detailed list of mapping:
1. APN AMBR = Subscribed MBR
2. Bearer QoS – PVI = Taken from local policy [use call-control-profile qos gn-gp config]
3. Bearer QoS – PCI = Taken from local policy [use call-control-profile qos gn-gp config]
4. Bearer QoS – PL = Taken from local policy [use call-control-profile qos gn-gp config]
5. Bearer QoS – QCI = Mapped from subscribed traffic class
6. Bearer QoS – MBR UL and DL = Mapped from subscribed MBR + MBR-Extended for UL and DL
7. Bearer QoS – GBR UL and DL = Zero for interactive or background traffic. For streaming or conversational it is
mapped from subscribed GBR + Ext.GBR UL / DL
References:
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3GPP TS 23.401 Annexure E and 3GPP TS 29.274 section 8.15.
Scenario-2:
Description of the scenario:
The scenario is same as Scenario-1 described above, the only change being inclusion of sending activate accept to UE.
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE.
2. The HLR subscription does not have EPS subscription data. Only GPRS subscription is present.
3. Activate a PDP context with all QoS parameters set to “subscribed”.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
After the create session response is received from the S-GW, the following mapping shall be used to send the QoS
towards UE:
1. Traffic Class = Mapped from QCI based on Table E.3 in 3GPP TS 23.401.
2. Delivery Order = Taken from local configuration [apn-profile --> qos --> class [traffic class] --> sdu --> delivery
order]
3. Delivery of erroneous SDU = Taken from local configuration [apn-profile --> qos --> class [traffic class] --> sdu
--> erroneous]
4. Maximum SDU Size = [apn-profile --> qos --> class [traffic class] --> sdu --> max size]
5. MBR Uplink = APN-AMBR-UL (if traffic class = interactive /background) or Bearer MBR-UL (if TC =
streaming / conversational)
6. MBR DL = APN-AMBR-DL (if traffic class = interactive /background) or Bearer MBR-DL (if TC = streaming /
conversational)
7. Residual BER = Taken from local config [apn-profile-->qos-->class [tc] --> residual-bit-error-rate
8. SDU error ratio = Mapped based on Table 6.1.7 in 3GPP TS 23.203
9. Transfer delay = Mapped based on Table 6.1.7 in 3GPP TS 23.203
10.THP = Mapped from QCI based on Table E.3 in 3GPP TS 23.401
11.GBR UL = “0” for interactive or background class traffic. Mapped from Bearer QoS GBR UL for conversational
or streaming traffic.
12.GBR DL = “0” for interactive or background class traffic. Mapped from Bearer QoS GBR DL for conversational
or streaming traffic.
13.Signalling Indication = Mapped from QCI as per Table E.3 3GPP TS 23.401
14.Extended bit rates will be present if the mapped MBR / GBR exceeds “8640” Kbps
Scenario-3:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription does not have EPS subscription data. Only GPRS subscription data is present.
3. A primary PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to some requested values.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
1. Negotiate the requested QoS with subscribed QoS. Map the negotiated QoS as described in Scenario-1.
2. After receiving a Create Session Response, map the accepted EPS QoS to R99+ QoS as described in Scenario-2
and send the Activate accept.
Scenario-4:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription has EPS subscription data.
3. A PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to “Subscribed” values or some requested values.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
1. For every primary PDP context to an APN, the EPS subscribed QoS is used as is.
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2. Once the EPS bearer is activated, the Activate PDP Accept is sent by mapping the accepted QoS value as
described in Scenario-2.
Scenario-5:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription has EPS subscription data.
3. A secondary PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to “Subscribed” values.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
The SGSN sends a Bearer Resource Command with the following parameters:
1. Linked EPS Bearer ID = EPS bearer ID of linked Primary PDP
2. PTI = Transaction ID received from the MS (In MME, the received PTI is used in the NAS message as the PTI
towards S-GW. But for the SGSN PTI is not there in the NAS message. The 3GPP TS is not clear on what the
SGSN should send as PTI, therefore TI is sent.
Flow QoS:
1. QCI = Mapped from requested Traffic Class, if TC= conversational / streaming
2. MBR UL = APN-AMBR last received from P-GW for primary PDP activation
3. MBR DL = APN-AMBR last received from P-GW for primary PDP activation
4. GBR UL = APN-AMBR last received from P-GW for primary PDP activation
5. GBR DL = APN-AMBR last received from P-GW for primary PDP activation
6. Else, the values will be MBR UL = “0”, BR DL =“0”, GBR UL = “0”, GBR DL = “0”
References:
3GPP TS 23.401 Annexure E and 3GPP TS 29.274 (sections 8.15 and 8.16).
Scenario-6:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription has EPS subscription data.
3. A secondary PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to specified values.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
The SGSN sends a Bearer Resource Command with the following parameters:
1. Linked EPS Bearer ID = EPS bearer ID of linked Primary PDP
2. PTI = Transaction ID received from the MS (In MME, the received PTI is used in the NAS message as the PTI
towards S-GW. But for the SGSN PTI is not there in the NAS message. The 3GPP TS is not clear on what the
SGSN should send as PTI, therefore TI is sent.
Flow QoS:
1. QCI = Mapped from requested Traffic Class, if TC= conversational or streaming.
2. MBR UL = Requested MBR UL, MBR DL = Requested MBR DL
3. GBR UL = Requested GBR UL, GBR DL = Requested GBR DL or GBR UL = “0”, GBR DL = “0”
References:
3GPP TS 23.401 Annexure E and 3GPP TS 29.274 (sections 8.15 and 8.16)
Scenario-7:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription does not have EPS subscription data.
3. A secondary PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to “Subscribed”.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
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The SGSN sends a Bearer Resource Command with the following parameters:
1. Linked EPS Bearer ID = EPS bearer ID of linked Primary PDP
2. PTI = Transaction ID received from the MS (In MME, the received PTI is used in the NAS message as the PTI
towards S-GW. But for the SGSN PTI is not there in the NAS message. The 3GPP TS is not clear on what the
SGSN should send as PTI, therefore TI is sent.
Flow QoS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
QCI = Mapped from requested Traffic Class, if TC= conversational or streaming
MBR UL = APN-AMBR-UL last obtained from P-GW for primary
MBR DL = APN-AMBR-DL last obtained from P-GW for primary
GBR UL = APN-AMBR-UL last obtained from P-GW for primary
GBR DL = APN-AMBR-UL last obtained from P-GW for primary
Else, MBR UL = “0”, MBR DL = “0”, GBR UL = “0”, GBR DL = “0”
Scenario-8:
Description of the scenario:
1. Attach is received from an EPC capable UE
2. The HLR subscription does not have EPS subscription data.
3. A secondary PDP context is activated with all QoS parameters set to valid requested values.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
Cap the requested QoS with the subscribed QoS. Then use the negotiated QoS as described below, the SGSN sends a
Bearer Resource Command with the following parameters:
1. Linked EPS Bearer ID = EPS bearer ID of linked Primary PDP
2. PTI = Transaction ID received from the MS (In MME, the received PTI is used in the NAS message as the PTI
towards S-GW. But for the SGSN PTI is not there in the NAS message. The 3GPP TS is not clear on what the
SGSN should send as PTI, therefore TI is sent.
Flow QoS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
QCI = Mapped from requested Traffic Class, if TC= conversational or streaming
MBR UL = MBR-UL negotiated
MBR DL = MBR-DL negotiated
GBR UL = GBR-UL negotiated
GBR DL = GBR-DL negotiated
Else, MBR UL = “0”, MBR DL = “0”, GBR UL = “0”, GBR DL = “0”
Scenario-9:
Description of the scenario:
In-bound RAU or Forward Relocation Request for a subscriber, who was earlier attached on a Gn/Gp SGSN.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
1. APN-AMBR-UL = Subscribed MBR-UL
2. APN-AMBR-DL = Subscribed MBR-DL
3. Bearer QoS MBR = Negotiated MBR received from peer SGSNBearer QoS GBR = “0”, for Interactive or
Background traffic classes and it is Negotiated GBR value for Conversational or Streaming traffic classes.
4. Bearer QoS - PVI = Use from Local Policy (use call-control-profile qos gn-gp configuration)
5. Bearer QoS - PCI = Use from Local Policy (use call-control-profile qos gn-gp configuration)
6. Bearer QoS - PL = Use from Local Policy (use call-control-profile qos gn-gp configuration), based on the
negotiated ARP received.
7. Bearer QoS - QCI = Mapped from negotiated traffic class.
References:
3GPP TS 23.401 Annexure E and 3GPP TS 23.060 v8.9.0 (section 6.9.1.2.2.a)
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Scenario-10:
Description of the scenario:
Outbound RAU or Forward Re-location Request is sent towards a Gn/Gp SGSN.
QoS mapping for the scenario:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Subscribed QoS = Mapped from subscribed EPS QoS
Requested QoS = Return the MS requested value
Negotiated QoS = Mapped from the current EPS QoS
The mapping of EPS QoS to pre- release “8” QoS is as described in scenario-2.
When mapping subscribed EPS QoS to pre-release “8” MBR and GBR the following rules are applied:
 MBR-UL = APN-AMBR-UL
 MBR-DL = APN-AMBR-DL
 GBR-UL / DL = “0” (for TC = interactive / background)
 GBR-UL / DL = APN-AMBR-UL / DL (for TC = interactive / background)
Scenario-11:
Description of the scenario:
Initiating modify a PDP towards UE from SGSN (for instances of P-GW initiated QoS modification, HSS initiated
modification and so on.)
QoS mapping for the scenario:
The current EPS QoS at SGSN is mapped to pre-release “8” QoS as described in Scenario-2.
QoS Handling During Primary PDP Activation
QoS Handling When EPS Subscription is Available
1. The subscribed APN-AMBR and ARP values are sent in Create Session Request to SGW or PGW.
2. The PGW can change the APN-AMBR value in Create Session Response.
3. The SGSN accepts the APN-AMBR value sent by the PGW. No further negotiation happens as described in
3GPP TS 23.060 section 9.2.2.1A, list item “d”.
4. In most cases the S4-SGSN does not perform any further QoS negotiation. (However, there is a special case of
SGSN capping the bit rate sent to RAN at 16Mbps. This requirement will be supported in future releases).
5. The S4-SGSN maps the received APN-AMBR to MBR values as per the mapping table provided in 3GPP TS
23.203 Table 6.1.7 and 3GPP TS 23.401 Annex E.
6. The mapped MBR values are sent to the RNC in RAB assignment request and in Activate Accept to the UE.
7. In Release 14.0 local override of APN-AMBR / ARP based on CLI configuration is supported.
QoS Handling When Only GPRS Subscription is Available
1.
2. The requested QoS from UE and the subscribed QoS are negotiated, the SGSN chooses the least of the two
values as the negotiated output. If the requested QoS is the Subscribed QoS, the SGSN chooses the Subscribed
QoS as is. If any local QoS capping is configured, the Negotiated QoS is the least of Requested QoS or
Subscribed QoS capped by local values).
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3. The Negotiated QoS is mapped to EPC QoS as per the mapping table in 3GPP TS 23.203 Table 6.1.7 and 3GPP
TS 23.401 Annexure E.
4. The mapped values are sent in Create Session Request to the SGW or PGW.
5. The PGW is allowed to change the APN-AMBR value in Create Session Response.
6. The SGSN accepts the APN-AMBR value sent by the PGW. No further negotiation happens as described in
3GPP TS 23.060 section 9.2.2.1A, list item “d”.
7. The S4-SGSN maps the received the APN-AMBR to MBR value as per the mapping table described in 3GPP TS
23.203 table 6.1.7 and 3GPP TS 23.401 Annexure “E”.
8. The mapped MBR values are sent to the RNC in RAB assignment request and in Activate Accept to UE.
QoS Handling During Secondary PDP Activation
QoS Handling When EPS Subscription is Available
1. The Requested QoS is mapped to EPC QoS and sent in the Bearer Resource Command to the SGW or PGW.
2. If the traffic class requested is a non-GBR traffic class (interactive / background), the per bearer MBR / GBR
values sent in Bearer Resource Command will all be zeroes.
3. The PGW sends a Create Bearer Request to the SGW or SGSN.
4. The SGSN sends a RAB assignment request to the RNC by mapping QoS as follows:
• If the bearer is a non-GBR: The APN-AMBR is mapped to MBR values and GBR is set to “0”.
• If the bearer is GBR: The MBR / GBR values received in Create Bearer Request are sent to RNC / UE
in the Secondary Activate Accept.
QoS Handling When Only GPRS Subscription is Available
1. The Requested QoS from the UE and the Subscribed QoS are negotiated. The SGSN chooses the least of the two
values as the negotiated output. If the Requested QoS is mentioned as the Subscribed QoS, then the SGSN
chooses the Subscribed QoS as is, if local QoS capping is not configured.
2. The Requested QoS is mapped to the EPC QoS and sent in the Bearer Resource Command to the SGW or PGW.
3. If the traffic class requested is a non-GBR traffic class (interactive / background), the per bearer MBR / GBR
values sent in Bearer Resource Command will be all zeroes.
4. The PGW sends a Create Bearer Request to SGW or SGSN.
5. The SGSN sends a RAB assignment request to the RNC by mapping QoS as follows:
• If the bearer is non-GBR: The APN-AMBR is mapped to MBR values and the GBR value is set to “0”.
• If the bearer is GBR: The MBR / GBR values received in the Create Bearer Request will be sent to
RNC / UE in Secondary Activate Accept.
MS Initiated QoS Modification
 The MS sends a Modify PDP Context Request (TI, QoS Requested, TFT, and Protocol Configuration Options)
message to the SGSN. Either QoS Requested or TFT or both may be included. The QoS Requested indicates
the desired QoS profile, while the TFT indicates the TFT that is to be added or modified or deleted from the
PDP context. Protocol Configuration Options may be used to transfer optional PDP parameters and/or requests
to the PGW.
 The SGSN identifies the bearer modification scenario that applies and sends the Bearer Resource Command
(TEID, LBI, PTI, EPS Bearer QoS (excluding ARP), TFT, EBI, RAT type, Protocol Configuration Options,
serving network identity, CGI/SAI, User CSG Information, MS Info Change Reporting support indication, DL
TEID and DL Address, DTI) message to the selected Serving GW.
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 An S4-based SGSN applies the BCM 'MS/NW' whenever the S4 is selected for a certain MS. The
following table list the details of MS-initiated EPS bearer modification, MS/NW mode:
1. MS-initiated EPS bearer modification, MS/NW mode
Sl
No.
PDP context modification use case
Information provided by SGSN at S4 signalling
1.
Add TFT filters and increase QoS
QoS related to EPS Bearer, TFT filters added, TEID, EPS Bearer ID
2.
Increase of QoS related to one or more TFT
filter(s)
QoS related to EPS Bearer filters, Impacted TFT filters, TEID, EPS
Bearer ID
3.
Increase of QoS, TFT filters not specified
Not allowed in MS/NW mode
4.
Add/remove TFT filters, no QoS change
TFT filters added/removed, TEID, EPS Bearer ID
5.
Decrease QoS related to one or more TFT
filter(s)
QoS related to EPS Bearer filters, Impacted TFT filters, TEID, EPS
Bearer ID
6.
Remove TFT filters and decrease QoS
QoS related to EPS Bearer, TFT filters removed, TEID, EPS Bearer ID
7.
Decrease of QoS, TFT filters not specified
Not allowed in MS/NW mode
Note: Only the modified QCI and/or GBR parameters are forwarded by the SGSN.
 The S4-SGSN may assume that the BCM mode of a bearer is MS/NW there are instances where the BCM mode
negotiated between UE and PGW can be “UE only”. In such cases, a UE sends a Modify PDP Request to the
SGSN without a TFT. But SGSN cannot honor it in a R9 capable network since TAD is mandatory in BRC. In
a R10 network, TAD is conditional optional on the S4 interface. Once the EGTP stack is upgraded to R10
compliance, the S4-SGSN honors PDP modification without TFT. For release 14.0, the SGSN rejects such
PDP modifications.
 If the PDP modification is for non-GBR bearer, the SGSN sets the MBR and GBR values in Bearer Resource
Command to “0”. If the PDP modification is for GBR bearer, then SGSN sets the MBR and GBR values in
Bearer Resource Command to the requested values.
 The Serving GW Forwards the message to the PGW.
 If the request is accepted, the PGW Initiated Bearer Modification Procedure is invoked by the PGW to modify
the EPS Bearer indicated by the TEID.
 The PDN GW sends an Update Bearer Request (TEID, EPS Bearer Identity, PTI, EPS Bearer QoS,
APN-AMBR, TFT, Protocol Configuration Options, Prohibit Payload Compression, MS Info Change
Reporting Action, and CSG Information Reporting Action) message to the Serving GW. The
Procedure Transaction Id (PTI) parameter is used to link this message to the Request Bearer Resource
Modification message received from the Serving GW.
 The Serving GW sends an Update Bearer Request (PTI, EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, TFT, APN
AMBR, Protocol Configuration Options, Prohibit Payload Compression, MS Info Change Reporting Action,
CSG Information Reporting Action) message to the SGSN.
 In Iu mode, radio access bearer modification may be performed by the RAB Assignment procedure. If the radio
access bearer does not exist, the RAB setup is done by the RAB Assignment procedure.
 The SGSN acknowledges the bearer modification by sending an Update Bearer Response (TEID, EPS Bearer
Identity, DL TEID and DL Address, DTI) message to the Serving GW.
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 The Serving GW acknowledges the bearer modification by sending an Update Bearer Response (TEID, EPS
Bearer Identity) message to the PDN GW.
 The SGSN selects Radio Priority and Packet Flow Id based on QoS Negotiated, and returns a Modify PDP
Context Accept (TI, QoS Negotiated, Radio Priority, Packet Flow Id, and Protocol Configuration Options)
message to the MS.
HSS Initiated PDP Context Modification
 The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) initiated PDP context modification procedure is used when the HSS decides
to modify the subscribed QoS, where typically QoS related parameters are changed. The parameters that may
be modified are UE-AMBR, APN-AMBR QCI and Allocation/Retention Policy.
 The HSS initiates the modification by sending an Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI, Subscription Data) message to
the SGSN. The Subscription Data includes EPS subscribed QoS (QCI, ARP) and the subscribed UE-AMBR
and APN AMBR.
 The S4-SGSN then updates the stored Subscription Data and acknowledges the Insert Subscriber Data message
by returning an Insert Subscriber Data Ack (IMSI) message to the HSS and sends the Modify Bearer Command
(EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN AMBR) message to the S-GW. The S-GW forwards the Modify
Bearer Command (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN AMBR) message to the P-GW. Note that the
EPS Bearer QoS sent in the Modify Bearer Command does not modify the per bearer bit-rate. It is sent to carry
only a change in the ARP / QCI received from subscription. Also, the Modify Bearer Command can be sent
only for the default bearer (primary PDP) in a PDN connection.
 The P-GW modifies the default bearer of each PDN connection corresponding to the APN for which subscribed
QoS has been modified. If the subscribed ARP parameter has been changed, the P-GW shall also modify all
dedicated EPS bearers having the previously subscribed ARP value unless superseded by PCRF decision. The
P-GW then sends the Update Bearer Request (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS [if QoS is changed], TFT,
APN AMBR) message to the S-GW.
 The S-GW sends the Update Bearer Request (EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS (if QoS is changed) APNAMBR, TFT) message to the SGSN. On completion of modification S4-SGSN acknowledges the bearer
modification by sending the “Update Bearer Response (EPS Bearer Identity)” message to P-GW via S-GW. If
the bearer modification fails, the P-GW deletes the concerned EPS Bearer.
PGW Initiated QoS Modification
 The P-GW sends the Update Bearer Request (TEID, EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN-AMBR,
Prohibit Payload Compression, MS Info Change Reporting Action, CSG Information Reporting Action, TFT,
and Protocol Configuration Options) message to the S-GW.
 The TFT is optional and included in order to add, modify or delete the TFT related to the PDP Context.
Protocol Configuration Options is optional.
 The S- GW sends the Update Bearer Request (TEID, EPS Bearer Identity, EPS Bearer QoS, APN-AMBR,
Prohibit Payload Compression, MS Info Change Reporting Action, CSG Information Reporting Action, TFT,
and Protocol Configuration Options) message to the SGSN.
 In Iu mode, radio access bearer modification may be performed by the RAB Assignment procedure.
 The SGSN selects Radio Priority and Packet Flow Id based on the QoS Negotiated, and sends a Modify PDP
Context Request (TI, PDP Address, QoS Negotiated, Radio Priority, Packet Flow Id, TFT, and PCO) message
to the MS. The TFT is included only if it was received from the P-GW in the Update Bearer Request message.
Protocol Configuration Options are sent transparently through the SGSN.
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 The MS should accept the PDP context modification requested by the network if it is capable of supporting any
modified QoS Negotiated as well as any modified TFT. For a successful modification the MS acknowledges by
returning a Modify PDP Context Accept message. If the MS is incapable of accepting a new QoS Negotiated or
TFT it shall instead de-activate the PDP context with the PDP Context Deactivation Initiated by MS procedure.
 On receiving the Modify PDP Context Accept message, or on completion of the RAB modification procedure,
the SGSN returns an Update PDP Context Response (TEID, QoS Negotiated) message to the S-GW.
 The S-GW acknowledges the bearer modification to the P- GW by sending an Update Bearer Response (EPS
Bearer Identity) message.
ARP Handling
Difference between Gn SGSN and S4 SGSN
In Create PDP Context response the GGSN sends {1, 2, and 3} as ARP value whereas the S-GW sends “15” value ARP
in Create Session response. In Gn SGSN while sending the RAB assignment request, the Allocation retention priority
values {1, 2, and 3} are mapped to “15” values so there is need of conversion from “3” values to “15” values.
In S4 SGSN, since the P-GW sends ARP in the “15” value range there is no need for conversion.
ARP values in Gn SGSN
According to GTPv1 3GPP TS 29.060 clause 7.7.34 Allocation/ Retention priority encodes each priority level defined in
3GPP TS 23.107 as the binary value of the priority level.
Quality of Service (QoS) Profile
The Quality of Service (QoS) Profile includes the values of the defined QoS parameters.
Octet “4” carries the Allocation/Retention priority octet that is defined in 3GPP TS 23.107. The Allocation/Retention
priority octet encodes each priority level defined in 3GPP TS 23.107 as the binary value of the priority level.
The Allocation/Retention priority field is ignored by the receiver if:
 The QoS profile is pre-Release '99.
 The QoS profile IE is used to encode the Quality of Service Requested (QoS Req) field of the PDP context IE.
Octet “5” the QoS Profile Data Field is coded according to the 3GPP TS 24.008 [5] Quality of Service IE, octets 3-m.
The minimum length of the field QoS Profile Data is “3” octets, the maximum length is “254” octets.
The clause 11.1.6 “Error handling” defines the handling of the case when the sent QoS Profile information element has
a Length different from the Length expected by the receiving GTP entity.
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Figure 74.
Quality of Service (QoS) Profile Information Element
Figure 75.
Value Ranges for UMTS Bearer Service Attributes
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ARP values in S4 SGSN
The behavior of ARP values in S4 SGSN is according to GTPv2 3GPP TS 29.274 clause 8.15.
Bearer Quality of Service (Bearer QoS)
Bearer Quality of Service (Bearer QoS) is transferred through the GTP tunnels. The sending entity copies the value part
of the Bearer l QoS into the Value field of the Bearer QoS IE.
Figure 76.
Bearer Level Quality of Service (Bearer QoS)
Octet “5” represents the Allocation/Retention Priority (ARP) parameter. The meaning and value range of the parameters
within the ARP are defined in 3GPP TS 29.212 [29]. The bits within the ARP octet are:
 Bit 1 - PVI (Pre-emption Vulnerability), see 3GPP TS 29.212[29], clause 5.3.47 Pre-emption-Vulnerability
AVP.
 Bit 2 - Spare bit.
 Bits 3 up to 6 - PL (Priority Level), see 3GPP TS 29.212[29], clause 5.3.45 ARP-Value AVP. Priority Level
encodes each priority level defined for the ARP-Value AVP as the binary value of the priority level.
 Bit 7 - PCI (Pre-emption Capability), see 3GPP TS 29.212[29], clause 5.3.46 Pre-emption-Capability AVP.
 Bit 8 - Spare bit.
Priority-Level AVP (All access types)
The values “1” up to “15” are defined, with value “1” as the highest level of priority.
Values “1” up to “8” should only be assigned for services that are authorized to receive prioritized treatment within an
operator domain. Values “9” up to “15” can be assigned to resources that are authorized by the home network and thus
applicable when a UE is roaming.
Pre-emption-Capability AVP
PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_ENABLED (0)
This value indicates that the service data flow or bearer which is allowed to get resources that were already assigned to
another service data flow or bearer with a lower priority level.
PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_DISABLED (1)
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This value indicates that the service data flow or bearer is not allowed to get resources that were already assigned to
another service data flow or bearer with a lower priority level. This is the default value applicable if this AVP is not
supplied.
Pre-emption-Vulnerability AVP
PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_ENABLED (0)
This value indicates that the resources assigned to the service data flow or bearer which can be pre-empted and allocated
to a service data flow or bearer with a higher priority level. This is the default value applicable if this AVP is not
supplied.
PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_DISABLED (1)
This value indicates that the resources assigned to the service data flow or bearer which shall not be pre-empted and
allocated to a service data flow or bearer with a higher priority.
Handling of ARP Values in Various Scenarios
Gn + GPRS Subscription
The following CLI command is used to send RAB parameters in RAB Assignment request:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
ranap allocation-retention-priority-ie subscription-priority priority class { {
background | conversational | interactive | streaming } { not-pre-emptable | priority |
queuing-not-allowed | shall-not-trigger-pre-emptable } + }
exit
S4 + EPC subscription
For EPC subscription with S4 activation, ARP in RAB is filled from the Evolved ARP applied for the PDP context. The
Evolved ARP applied is:
 Subscribed Evolved ARP if P-GW does not send any evolved ARP in Create Session Response.
Or
 Evolved ARP supplied by the P-GW.
S4+GPRS Subscription
For GPRS subscription with S4 activation, the ARP in RAB is filled from the Evolved ARP applied for the PDP
context. The Evolved ARP applied is:
 Evolved ARP derived from the GPRS subscription using CLIs displayed below, when the P-GW does not send
any Evolved ARP in Create Session Response:
config
call-control-profile <profile_name>
qos { gn-gp | ue-ambr } qos gn-gp { arp high-priority priority medium-priority priority |
pre-emption { capability { may-trigger-pre-emption | shall-not-trigger-pre-emption } |
vulnerability { not-pre-emptable | pre-emptable }
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exit
Or
 Evolved ARP supplied by the P-GW.
The Evolved ARP applied is sent in RANAP towards the RNC.
Mapping EPC ARP to RANAP ARP
The ARP values are defined as per 3GPP TS 29.212 clause 5.3.46 and 5.3.47 for the Core Network Side.
The following values are defined:
 PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_ENABLED (0)
This value indicates that the service data flow or bearer which is allowed to get resources that were already
assigned to another service data flow or bearer with a lower priority level.
 PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_DISABLED (1)
This value indicates that the service data flow or bearer which is not allowed to get resources that were already
assigned to another service data flow or bearer with a lower priority level. This is the default value applicable if
this AVP is not supplied.
 PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_ENABLED (0)
This value indicates that the resources assigned to the service data flow or bearer which can be pre-empted and
allocated to a service data flow or bearer with a higher priority level. This is the default value applicable if this
AVP is not supplied.
 PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_DISABLED (1)
This value indicates that the resources assigned to the service data flow or bearer which shall not be preempted and allocated to a service data flow or bearer with a higher priority level.
For more information on ARP values and their definitions see, 3GPP TS 25.413 clause 9.2.1.3.
The ARP values defined are different on the RNC side and the Core Network side, the RAB assignment request is
mapped according to the following table:
Table 28. RAB Assignment Request Mapping
RAB parameters
(ARP)
ARP values received from SGW (According to 3GPP TS 29.212
clause5.3.46 and 5.3.47)
Mapping EPC ARP to RANAP ARP in RNC side
(According to RANAP 3GPP TS 25.413 clause
9.2.1.3)
Pre-emptionCapability
PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_ENABLED (0)
Pre-emption is triggered.
Pre-emptionCapability
PRE-EMPTION_CAPABILITY_DISABLED (1)
Pre-emption is not triggered.
Pre-emptionVulnerability
PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_ENABLED (0)
Pre-emption is triggered.
Pre-emptionVulnerability
PRE-EMPTION_VULNERABILITY_DISABLED (1)
Pre-emption is not triggered.
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ARP configured in CC Profile
The QoS configured in the Call Control Profile is used if the S4 interface is chosen for PDP activation, but the
subscription does not have an EPS subscription. Therefore, GPRS subscription data (which uses QoS in pre-release 8
format), will be mapped to EPS QoS. The Allocation and Retention policy will be mapped to EPS ARP using the
configuration in the Call Control Profile.
If the QoS mapping configuration is not used, the following default mappings are used:
 Default ARP high-priority value = 5.
 Default ARP medium-priority value = 10.
 Default pre-emption capability = shall-not-trigger-pre-emption.
 .Default pre-emption vulnerability = not pre-emptable
The mapping is configured through the following CLI command:
config
call-control-profile <profile_name>
qos { gn-gp | ue-ambr } qos gn-gp { arp high-priority priority medium-priority priority |
pre-emption { capability { may-trigger-pre-emption | shall-not-trigger-pre-emption } |
vulnerability { not-pre-emptable | pre-emptable }
exit
The mapping of these configured values to EPC ARP is given in below, this table is present 3GPP TS 23.401:
Table 29. Mapping of Release 99 bearer parameter ARP to EPS bearer ARP
Release 99 bearer parameter ARP value
EPS bearer ARP priority value
1
1
2
H+1
3
M+1
In the above table H = High-priority value configured and M = Medium-priority value.
ARP-RP Mapping for Radio Priority in Messages
The SGSN can choose a preferred radio priority according to the ARP values sent by the GGSN and HLR using the
ARP to RP mapping. These mappings will be used by the corresponding 2G and/or 3G services to choose the radio
priority value while triggering messages (such as those listed below) towards the MS/UE:

Activate PDP Accept.

Modify PDP Request during network-initiated PDP modification procedure.

Modify PDP Accept during MS-initiated PDP modification procedure provided the ARP has been changed by the
network.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
▀ Quality of Service Management
The following commands are used to create profiles for mapping ARP to RP values and associate the mapping with
SGSN (3G) and GPRS (2G) services.
Use the following command in the SGSN Global configuration mode to create an ARP-RP mapping profile:
configure
sgsn-global
qos-arp-rp-map-profile arp_profile_name
no qos-arp-rp-map-profile arp_profile_name
end
Notes:
 arp_profile_name - Enter a string of 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters to identify the mapping profile and
moves into the ARP-RP mapping profile configuration mode.
 no qos-arp-rp-map-profile - Removes the profile definition from the configuration.
When the ARP-RP mapping profile is created, the default ARP-RP mapping is automatically included (see default
values in the Notes section below). This arp command, in the ARP-RP mapping profile configuration mode, modifies
the ARP-RP mapping for the profile.
configure
sgsn-global
qos-arp-rp-map-profile arp_profile_name
arparp_value radio-priority rp_value
end
Notes:
 arp_value - Defines the allocation retention priority. Enter an integer from 1 to 3.
 rp_value - Defines the radio priority. Enter an integer from 1 to 4.
 Default ARP-RP mapping would be
 ARP1 RP4
 ARP2 RP4
 ARP3 RP4
 Use the show sgsn-mode command to display the ARP-RP profile and configuration.
The radio-priority keyword in the sm commands in both the GPRS-Service and SGSN-Service configuration
modes. This keyword is used to associate an ARP-RP mapping profile with a 2G and/or a 3G service.
configure
context context_name
gprs-service service_name
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Quality of Service (QoS) Management for SGSN
Quality of Service Management ▀
sm radio-priority from-arp arp_profile_name
no sm radio-priority from-arp arp_profile_name
end
Notes:
 This example illustrates the GPRS Service configuration mode, but either GPRS or SGSN Service configuration
modes could be entered. The command sequent would have to be repeated, once for each type of service, to
associate the ARP-RP profile with both types of services.
 no sm radio-priority from-arp - This command will remove the association from the configuration.
 Use the show configuration command to display the association.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 26
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
This chapters describes how the SGSN transfers RIM messages to/from an MME (eNodeB) via GTPv1 protocol.
This chapter provides details about RIM messages transferred to/from an MME (eNodeB):
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring RIM Msg Transfer to or from eNodeB
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting RIM Msg Transfer
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
RIM message transfer is one of the standards-based RAN Information Management procedures supported by the SGSN.
RAN Information Management (RIM)
RIM procedures provide a generic mechanism for the exchange of arbitrary information between RAN nodes. The RAN
information is transferred via the SGSN core network node(s). In order to make the RAN information transparent for the
core network, the RAN information is included in a RIM container that shall not be interpreted by the core network
nodes.
The RAN information is transferred in RIM containers from the source RAN node to the destination RAN node by use
of messages. The SGSN independently routes and relays each message carrying the RIM container.
In pre-15.0 releases, the SGSN supported RIM messages from BSS/RNC to another BSS/RNC belonging to a different
or the same SGSNover GTPv1 protocol. Now, the SGSN also supports transfer of RIM messages to/from an MME
(eNodeB) via GTPv1 protocol.
The SGSN uses existing CLI to enable the RIM transfer functionality. Whether or not the RIM message goes from/to
BSC/RNC to/from BSC/RNC or to/from eNodeB is determined by the addressing. To transfer RIM messages to the
MME (eNodeB),
 requires RIM functionality be enabled for the SGSN.
 requires the DNS server be configured to respond to a TAI-based DNS query
OR
 requires the MME (eNodeB) address be added to the SGSN¡¦s Call Control Profile
Relationships to Other Feature or Products
For this feature to work properly, the peer-MME for the eNodeB must also support RIM message handling.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
How It Works ▀
How It Works
RIM Addressing
All the messages used for the exchange of RAN information contain the addresses of the source and destination RAN
nodes. An eNodeB is addressed by tracking area identity (TAI) + eNodeB Identity (enbId).
The source RAN node sends a message to its SGSN including the source and destination addresses. From the
destination address, the SGSN shall decide whether or not it is connected to the destination RAN node. If the destination
address is that of an eNodeB, then the SGSN uses the destination address to route the message, encapsulated in a GTPv1
message, to the correct MME via the Gn interface.
The MME connected to the destination RAN node decides which RAN node to send the message based on the
destination address or the RIM routing address.
Call Flows - Transmitter of GTP RIM Msg
The following call flow illustrates how the SGSN behaves as the transmitter of GTP RIM messages.
Figure 77.
Transmitting RIM Message
In the above illustration, the RIM message is transferred to the peer SGSN as follows:
1. Upon receiving a RIM message from the network access BSS/RNC, the SGSN determines the RIM routing
address type. If the message indicates that the target is an eNodeB, then SGSN searches for a locally
configured MME address.
2. If a locally configured MME address is not available, then a DNS-SNAPTR query will be initiated to determine
the MME address.
3. On receiving the DNS response and upon getting a valid MME address, an appropriate GTP API would be
invoked.
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RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
▀ How It Works
4. On invocation of this API the GTP module will encode the RAN info relay message (as per TS 29.060) and
dispatch the PDU to the peer MME.
Call Flows - Receiver of GTP RIM Msg
The following call flow illustrates how the SGSN behaves as the receiver of GTP RIM messages.
Figure 78.
Receiving a GTP RIM Message
In this case, the SGSN has to decode the incoming GTP message correctly and forward the RIM message to the
destination RNC/BSS.
1. SGSN would decode the received GTP RAN info relay message and construct a RANAP or BSSGP RIM
message.
2. Appropriate actions would be taken to forward the RIM message to the destination RNC/BSS.
RIM Application
The RIM application processes the decoded RIM PDU from the access application. The routing area identifier (RAI) -comprised of the mcc, mnc, rac -- is extracted from the destination address and is used to decide if the target routing
area (RA) is local. If the RAI is locally available, the PDU is forwarded to either the RANAP or BSSGP stack based on
the RIM routing address discriminator field.
The SGSN has a global list of local RAs. Each RA in turn has a list of RNCs and NSEIs that control it. If the destination
RA is local, the list of NSEIs which serve the RAI is fetched. Each NSEI is searched for a matching cell id in the cellidlist. The PDU is then forwarded to the NSEI when signaling the BVCI.
If the RNC Id is in the destination cell identifier, then the IuPS service serving the local RAI is identified. The PDU is
encoded in a RIM container and forwarded to the corresponding RANAP stack instance of that IuPS service.
If the eNodeB Id is in the destination cell identifier, then the PDU will be sent to the GTP app using the appropriate
event.
The peer-MME address is resolved using the SGSN's local configuration or a DNS query for the TAI present in the
destination address. For a successful DNS response, the PDU is encoded in a GTP RIM container and forwarded to the
peer-MME. The SGTP service used will be the default SGTP service associated with the GPRS service or the SGSN
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
How It Works ▀
service under which the source BSS/RNC was present. The RIM app drops a PDU if the DNS response fails. There will
no retransmission or state-maintenance for the RIM PDU at the GTP-app.
Standards Compliance
The SGSN's RIM message transfer from/to eNodeB functionality complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 29.060 version 11
 3GPP TS 23.003 version 11
 3GPP TS 25.413 version 11
 3GPP TS 48.018 version 11
 3GPP TS 24.008 version 11
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
▀ Configuring RIM Msg Transfer to or from eNodeB
Configuring RIM Msg Transfer to or from eNodeB
To enable successful RIM message transfer to/from an eNodeB, the following must be included in the SGSN's
configuration:
 Configuring RIM functionality to work on SGSN
 Associating previously configured SGTP and IuPS services
 Configuring the peer-MME's address, in one or both of two ways
 Configuring the peer-MME address locally
 Configuring the DNS server
Configuring RIM Functionality
The following command sequences are used to enable RAN information management (RIM) functionality on the SGSN.
The order in which these two configurations are performed is not significant.
The first command sequence enables RIM for the entire SGSN (global level).
configure
sgsn-global
ran-information-management
end
The second command sequence associates the RNC configuration, the part of the IuPS service configuration governing
the SGSN communication with any RNC, needs to have the RIM functionality enabled.
configure
context context_name
iups-service service_name
rnc id rnc_id
ran-information-management
end
Associating Previously Configured SGTP and IuPS Services
The SGTP service configuration is a mandatory part of the SGSN's setup (refer to Configuring an SGTP Service in the
SGSN Administration Guide), so an SGTP service configuration must already exist. The SGTP service is needed to
send and/or receive GTPv1 protocol messages.
It is also a good idea to associate the IuPS service for the SGSN service to use for communication with the RAN.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
Configuring RIM Msg Transfer to or from eNodeB ▀
The following illustrates the minimum configuration required to associate the SGTP and IuPS services for the RIM
message transfers:
configure
context context_name
sgsn-service service_name
associate sgtp-service service_name context context_name
ran-protocol iups-service service_name
end
Configuring the peer-MME's address - Locally
Use the Call Control Profile to define the peer-MME address.
Use the tac keyword to configure the tracking area code (TAC) of the target eNodeB that maps to the peer-MME
address. For RIM message transfer, you also need to configure the Gn interface. The following is an example of the
configuration to use:
configure
call-control-profile profile_name
peer-mme tac tac_value prefer local address ip_address interface gn
end
Where:
 tac_value can be an entry from 1 to 65535.
 ip_address is the standard format address for either IPv4 or IPv6.
 gn is the interface selection used for RIM message transfer.
Configuring the peer-MME's address - for DNS Query
If using a DNS query to determine the peer-MME RIM address, then the DNS server must be pre-configured to respond
to a TAI-based DNS query in the following format: tac-lb<TAC-low-byte>.tac-hb<TAC-highbyte>.tac.epc.mnc<MNC>.mcc<MCC>.3gppnetwork.org
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting RIM Msg Transfer
Monitoring and Troubleshooting RIM Msg Transfer
The show command statistics illustrated below, can be used to monitor or troubleshoot this functionality. Note that the
selected output is only a portion of the information displayed by the command.
show gmm-sm statistics verbose
show gmm-sm statistics verbose
...
Ranap Procedures:
Direct Transfer Sent:
0
Direct Transfer Rcvd:
0
show gmm-sm statistics verbose | grep RIM
show gmm-sm statistics verbose | grep RIM
...
RIM Message Statistics:
RIM Messages dropped:
due to RIM disabled in SGSN:
0
due to RIM Routing Address not present:
due to RNC not Capable:
0
due to RNC does not exist:
show sgtpc statistics verbose
show sgtpc statistics verbose
...
RAN info Relay Msg:
Total messages received:
0 Total messages sent: 0
Total messages dropped:
0
due to DNS failure:
0
due to RIM disabled in SGSN:
0
due to Invalid Routing Addr:
0
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
0
0
RIM Message Transfer from BSC or RNC to eNodeB
Monitoring and Troubleshooting RIM Msg Transfer ▀
show bssgp statistics verbose
show bssgp statistics verbose
...
RIM Messages
RAN Information messages received
RAN Information messages transmitted
RAN Information Request messages received
RAN Information Request messages transmitted
RAN Information ACK messages received
RAN Information ACK messages transmitted
RAN Information Error messages received
RAN Information Error messages transmitted
RAN Information Appln Error messages received
RAN Information Appln Error messages transmitted
RIM messages dropped
due to RIM disabled in SGSN
due to destination BSC not RIM capable
due to destination cell does not exist
due to invalid destination address
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 27
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
This chapter describes the S4 interface support for Non-EPC capable devices and includes the following topics:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable Devices
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable devices
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The S4 interface support has been extended to Non-EPC capable devices. This support was only available for EPC
service capable devices or subscribers with EPS subscription. S4 interface support to Non-EPC devices allows more
control on interface selection and ability to handle QoS and legacy UE related behavior issues.
Overview
To enable S4 support for Non-EPC devices, interface selection options during first PDP activation have been added,
these options allow the following:
1. S4 interface selection based on UEs EPC capability alone.
2. S4 interface selection only for UEs that are EPC capable and those that have EPS subscription.
3. S4 interface selection for all UEs having EPS subscription.
4. An option to always select S4 interface.
When the S4 interface is used and a Non-E-UTRAN capable device requests for PDP de-activation of only the primary
PDP without de-activating the associated secondary PDP's (that is, without a teardown indicator), the SGSN deletes the
associated secondary PDP contexts locally without informing UE.
When a Non-E-UTRAN capable UE activates a PDP context with Conversational or Streaming class (GBR bearers) and
if Iu is released, the UE preserves the PDP with bit rate set to "0" kbps. However, when the S4-SGSN notices an IuRelease, it has to de-activate the GBR bearers. Currently the S4-SGSN does not support the de-activation of GBR
bearers. When S4-SGSN support for PDP context preservation procedures is added in a future release (for both EPC and
Non-EPC devices), GBR bearers will be de-activated without informing the UE.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
How it Works ▀
How it Works
Architecture
To implement S4 interface support for Non-EPC capable devices the existing CLI command sgsn-core-nwinterface under the Call-Control-Profile configuration has been enhanced with options for interface selection during
first PDP activation, the various options include:
1. Option to select the S4 interface based on UE's EPC capability alone.
2. Option to select the S4 interface only for UEs that are EPC capable and those that have EPS subscription.
3. Option to select the S4 interface for all UEs having EPS subscription
4. Option to select the S4 interface always.
Various combinations of the options listed above can be configured and the logic UE can use the S4 interface based on
the following logic:
Figure 79.
When the S4 interface is allowed, APN selection is performed based on the following logic:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
▀ How it Works
Figure 80.
For more information on the CLI commands see, Command Line Interface Reference.
Limitations
1. QoS modification of non-GBR bearer - A Non-E-UTRAN capable UE can request QoS bit rate modification
even for Non-GBR bearers. This functionality is currently not supported. The MS initiated QoS modification
for primary PDP is rejected and QoS modification for non-GBR secondary PDP is handled by sending BRC
with zero Flow QoS. The PGW can respond with UBR (with modified APN-AMBR) or DBR and both are
handled appropriately.
2. Restricting APN-AMBR to "472" Kbps after 3G to 2G IRAT - Restricting APN-AMBR to "472" Kbps after 3G
to 2G IRAT is based on the assumption that the PGW /PCRF decide on correct QoS based on RAT, hence
additional signaling can be avoided. However, upgrading of APN-AMBR after 2G to 3G IRAT is supported,
the SGSN can initiate bearer modification based on RNC / UE capabilities and same are honored by
PGW/PCRF.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
Configuring S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable Devices ▀
Configuring S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable Devices
This section describes how to configure S4 interface support for Non-EPC capable devices.
Configuring selection of the S4 interface
The command sgsn-core-nw-interface in the Call-Control-Profile configuration is enhanced with keywords to
support S4 interface selection:
config
call-control-profile cc-profile name
sgsn-core-nw-interface {gn | s4 [epc-ue {always | eps-subscribed} non- epc-ue
{never | always | eps-subscribed}]}
exit
Notes:
 When keywords or options are not selected with the selection of the S4 interface option, it implies that the SGSN
will apply S4 interface always for both EPC and Non- EPC devices. This is also synonymous to the CLI
command configured as sgsn-core-nw-interface s4 epc-ue always non-epc-ue always.
 To configure SGSN behavior supported in previous releases, the CLI is configured as sgsn-core-nwinterface s4 epc-ue always non-epc-ue eps-subscribed. This is also the default behaviour when
the CLI is not configured.
For more information on the CLI commands see, Command Line Interface Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4 interface Support For Non-EPC Devices
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC Capable devices
Monitoring and Troubleshooting S4 Interface Support for NonEPC Capable devices
This section provides information on how to monitor S4 interface support for Non-EPC capable devices and to
determine that it is working correctly.
S4 Interface Support for Non-EPC devices Show Command(s) and/or Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the S4 interface support
for Non-EPC devices.
show call-control-profile full name < >
This show command is updated with information about SGSN core network interface selection. The following new
fields have been added:

SGSN Core Network Interface Selection

SGSN Core Network Interface Type

S4 for EPC Capable Devices

S4 for Non-EPC Capable Devices
The field SGSN Core Network Interface Type displays interface selected as either Gn or S4.
The field S4 for EPC Capable Devices displays the configuration as either Always or When EPS
Subscription Available, based on the CLI configured in the command sgsn-core-nw-interface in the CallControl Profile.
The field S4 for Non-EPC Capable Devices displays the configuration as Never or Always or When EPS
Subscription Available, based on the CLI configured in the command sgsn-core-nw-interface in the CallControl Profile.
show subscribers sgsn-only full imsi < >
This show command is updated to display the subscription type being used for primary PDP activation. The field
Subscription Type is added to the show output. The subscription type is displayed as either EPS or GPRS.
show subscribers gprs-only full imsi < >
This show command is updated to display the subscription type being used for primary PDP activation. The field
Subscription Type is added to the show output. The subscription type is displayed as either EPS or GPRS.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 28
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
This chapter describes the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume feature and includes the following topics:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume feature provides support for suspend/resume procedures from the BSS and a peer S4SGSN.
When a UE is in a 2G coverage area wants to make a circuit switched voice call but the Class A mode of operation is
not supported by the network, then the packet switched data session (PDP contexts) must be suspended before the voice
call can be made. In this case, the BSS sends a Suspend Request to the SGSN. If the UE is already attached at that
SGSN then the suspend request is handled via an intra-SGSN suspend/resume procedure. If the UE is not attached at the
SGSN then the Suspend Request is forwarded to a peer SGSN/MME through GTPv2 and an inter-SGSN/SGSN-MME
suspend procedure occurs. Once the UE completes the voice call, either the BSS sends a resume request to resume the
suspended PDPs or the UE directly sends a Routing Area Update Request (RAU) in 2G which will be treated as an
implicit resume.
The ability for a GPRS user to access circuit-switched services depends on the subscription held, the network
capabilities, and the MS capabilities.
Suspension of GPRS Services
The MS sends a request to the network for the suspension of GPRS services when the MS or the network limitations
make it unable to communicate on GPRS channels in one or more of the following scenarios:
1. A GPRS-attached MS enters dedicated mode and the support of the Class A mode of operation is not possible
(for example, the MS only supports DTM and the network only supports independent CS and PS).
2. During CS connection, the MS performs a handover from Iu mode to A/Gb mode, and the MS or the network
limitations make it unable to support CS/PS mode of operation, (for example, an MS in CS/PS mode of
operation in Iu mode during a CS connection reverts to class-B mode of operation in A/Gb mode).
3. When an MS in class A mode of operation is handed over to a cell where the support of Class A mode of
operation is not possible (for example, a DTM mobile station entering a cell that does not support DTM).
Relationships to Other Features
One of the following configurations must exist on the SGSN for the Suspend Resume feature to work properly on the
S4-SGSN:
 2G SGSN Service + S4-SGSN Support
 3G SGSN Service + S4-SGSN Support
 2G SGSN Service + 3G SGSN Service + S4-SGSN Support
Configuration procedures for the above deployments are available in the ASR 5000 Serving GPRS Support Node
Administration Guide.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
How it Works
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
When a UE wants to make or receive a voice call via a GERAN circuit switched domain, and if the UE/BSS doesn't
support DTM mode, then the BSS sends a Suspend Request to the SGSN to suspend any packet data transmission. This
suspend request can be received on the same SGSN where a subscriber is already attached, or it can be received on an
SGSN where the subscriber is not yet attached.
SGSN where subscriber is attached: The SGSN initiates an intra-SGSN suspend procedure and will have to suspend
the data transmission all the way up to the PGW by sending a Suspend Request to the SGW/PGW. When the UE
completes the CS call, it will resume the packet transmission. The BSS will send a Resume request in this case.
SGSN where subscriber is not yet attached: The SGSN initiates an inter-SGSN suspend procedure by sending a
GTPv2 / GTPv1 Suspend Request to the peer SGSN/MME. The peer node will suspend the data transmission. When the
UE completes the CS call, it may directly send a Routing Area Update request to the 2G SGSN to handover the packet
switched contexts. i The 2G SGSN will do a Context Request / Context Response / Context Ack procedure with the peer
node and will send a Create Session Request (if SGW relocation occurs) or a Modify Bearer Request (if no SGW
relocation occurs) to the SGW. The Modify Bearer Request at the PGW will be treated as an implicit Resume.
Limitations
The following are the known limitations for the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume feature:
1. If a suspend request aborts an ongoing RAU triggered SGW relocation, the Create Session Request will be
aborted and the PDN will be cleaned up. This is to avoid complexities in the state machine. If the system
retained PDP, the system would have to recreate the tunnel towards the old SGW to PGW before sending the
Suspend Notification. This would delay the Suspend procedure.
2. A Suspend Request from the default SGSN in a pool to the SGSN serving the NRI of the given PTMSI is not
possible via the S16 interface due to a standards limitation. R10 specifications don't have a hop counter and
UDP source port IEs in the Suspend Notification message and hence this limitation. This is corrected in R11
specifications. TheS4-SGSN will support this call flow only in later releases.
3. HSS initiated modification will be queued, if the Suspend preempts an HSS initiated modification while pending
for an Update Bearer Request from the PGW. The queued procedure will be restarted in a subsequent
procedure (RAU / Resume). Queued information will not be transferred to another RAT type, if a subsequent
procedure changes the RAT type.
4. A Suspend Acknowledge with rejected cause will not be sent to the peer SGSN/MME when an inter-SGSN
Suspend procedure is preempted by procedures such as RAU, Context Request, and Detach Request at the old
SGSN. Suspend Acknolwedge is not sent because it is very complex on the PMM-side to distinguish between
two procedures as the PMM has the same state for both the inter-SGSN Suspend procedure and the inter-SGSN
RAU procedure.
Call Flows
This section includes various diagrams that illustrate the Suspend/Resume call flow procedures, and the interface
selection logic:
 Intra-SGSN Suspend Procedure with Resume as the Subsequent Procedure
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
 Intra-SGSN Suspend with Resume Procedure with Intra-RAU as Subsequent Procedure
 Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer S4-SGSNMME
 New Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure from BSS to 2G Gn-SGSN
 New SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer Gn-SGSN as Old SGSN
 Interface Selection Logic for Inter-SGSN Suspend (New SGSN) Procedure
 Intra-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure
 Inter-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure
Intra-SGSN Suspend Procedure with Resume as the Subsequent Procedure
The intra-SGSN Suspend procedure with Resume as the subsequent procedure is illustrated in the following diagram.
 When a 2G SGSN receives a Suspend Request from the BSS and if the subscriber is already attached to the 2G
SGSN, the PDPs shall be suspended. The SGSN then sends a Suspend Notification to the SGW, which
subsequently is sent to the PGW to stop all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
 When a 2G SGSN receives a Resume Request from the BSS, and if the subscriber that is already suspended is
attached to the 2G SGSN, the PDPs are resumed. The SGSN then sends a Resume Notification to the SGW,
which subsequently is sent to the PGW to resume all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
Figure 81.
Intra-SGSN Suspend Procedure with Resume as Subsequent Procedure
Intra-SGSN Suspend with Resume Procedure with Intra-RAU as Subsequent Procedure
An Intra-SGSN Suspend procedure call flow with an Intra-SGSN RAU procedure as the subsequent procedure is shown
in the following illustration.
 If there is no SGW change for the RAU request, then the 2G-SGSN sends a Resume Notification to the SGW
and the SGW then sends a Resume Notification to the PGW to resume all data transmissions.
 If there is a SGW change for the RAU request, then the 2G-SGSN sends a Create Session request to the SGW
and the SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request to the PGW to resume all data transmissions.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
Figure 82.
Intra-SGSN Suspend Procedure with Intra-RAU as Subsequent Procedure
Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer S4-SGSN/MME
The procedure for a new SGSN Suspend Request and Resume procedure with a peer S4-SGSN/MME is shown in the
following diagram.
 When an S4-SGSN receives a Suspend Request from the BSS and if the subscriber is not attached to the 2G
SGSN, the S4-SGSN will send a Suspend Notification to the peer S4-SGSN/MME.
 The new SGSN RAU is the Resume procedure after a new SGSN Suspend procedure has been completed. The
SGSN sends a Create Session Request / Modify Bearer Request to the SGW which subsequently is sent to the
PGW to resume all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
 When the Gn-SGSN receives a Suspend Request from the BSS and if the subscriber is not attached to the 2G
SGSN, it sends a Suspend Notification to the peer Gn-SGSN / S4-SGSN/MME.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
Figure 83.
Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer S4-SGSN/MME
New Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure from BSS to 2G Gn-SGSN
A new SGSN Suspend Request from the BSS to a 2G Gn-SGSN is shown in the following illustration.
 The new SGSN RAU is the Resume procedure after the new SGSN Suspend procedure has been completed. The
Gn-SGSN sends an Update PDP Context Request to the GGSN which subsequently is sent to PGW to resume
all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
 When the S4-SGSN receives a Suspend Request from the BSS and if the subscriber is not attached to the 2G
SGSN and the peer is a Gn-SGSN, it sends a Context Request with Suspend header (GTPv1 Suspend Request)
to the peer Gn-SGSN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
Figure 84.
New Inter-SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure from BSS to 2G Gn-SGSN
New SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer Gn-SGSN as Old SGSN
The new SGSN Suspend procedure with a peer Gn-SGSN as the old SGSN is shown in the following illustration.
 The new SGSN RAU is the Resume procedure after the new SGSN Suspend procedure is completed. The SGSN
sends a Create Session Request / Modify Bearer Request to the SGW which subsequently is sent to the PGW to
resume all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
Figure 85.
New SGSN Suspend and Resume Procedure with Peer Gn-SGSN as Old SGSN
Interface Selection Logic for Inter-SGSN Suspend (New SGSN) Procedure
Interface selection logic to find the peer address during the Inter SGSN Suspend (New SGSN Suspend) procedure is
explained in the flowing flow chart.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
Figure 86.
Interface Selection Logic for Inter-SGSN Suspend (New Suspend) Procedure
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
Intra-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure
The intra-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume procedure is shown in the following illustration. In this case, the
BSS sends a Suspend Request to the 2G part of the SGSN. The 2G SGSN will internally send the request to the 3G S4SGSN where the PDPs are anchored. The PDP contexts are then suspended by 3G S4-SGSN as shown in the diagram.
The RAU is the Resume procedure after the 2G-3G Inter-System Intra-SGSN Suspend procedure is completed. The
SGSN sends a Create Session Request / Modify Bearer Request / Resume Notification to the SGW which subsequently
is sent to PGW to resume all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
Figure 87.
Intra-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure
Inter-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume Procedure
The inter-SGSN inter-system Suspend and Resume procedure is shown in the following illustration. This describes the
scenario when the suspend message is received in an SGSN that is different from the SGSN currently handling the
packet data transmission and would be valid for at least the following cases:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
 MS performs inter-system handover from Iu mode to A/Gb mode during CS connection and the SGSN handling
the A/Gb mode cell is different from the SGSN handling the Iu mode cell, (that is. the 2G and 3G SGSNs are
separated).
The RAU is the Resume procedure after the 2G-3G Inter-System Inter-SGSN Suspend procedure has completed. The
SGSN sends a Create Session Request / Modify Bearer Request to the SGW which subsequently is sent to PGW to
resume all data transmissions on non-GBR bearers.
 If there is no SGW change for the RAU request, then the 2G-SGSN sends a Modify bearer request to the SGW.
The SGW then sends a MBR all the way up to the PGW if the RAT type / Serving network changes. Otherwise
it will send the Resume Request to the PGW to resume all data transmissions.
 If there is a SGW change for the RAU request, then the 2G-SGSN sends a Create Session Request to the SGW
and the SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request to the PGW to resume all data transmissions.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
How it Works ▀
Figure 88.
Suspend and Resume Procedure for Inter-SGSN Inter-System Suspend and Resume
Standards Compliance
The Suspend/Resume feature on the S4-SGSN complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.060 version 10.11.0 Release 10 - section 16.2.1; 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Services and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description;
Stage 2 (Release 10)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ How it Works
 3GPP TS 29.274 version 10.7.0 Release 10 - section 7.4; 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Core Network and Terminals; 3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3 (Release 10)
 3GPP TS 23.272 version 10.11.0 Release 10 - section 6.7 (No PS HO Support) 3rd Generation Partnership
Project; Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Circuit Switched (CS) fallback in
Evolved Packet System (EPS); Stage 2 (Release 10)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Configuring the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
Configuring the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
No configuration is required to enable the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume
Feature
This section provides information on the show commands and bulk statistics available to support the Suspend/Resume
feature.
S4-SGSN Suspend and Resume Feature Show Commands
This section provides information regarding show commands available in support of the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume
feature.
show subscriber gprs-only full all
If the state field in the output of this command reads Suspended, it indicates that a subscriber has been moved from
the Ready state to the Suspended state in 2G. Once this state change occurs, operators can use the show bssgp
statistics and show egtpc statistics commands to view information on whether the Suspend procedure was
successful or not.
Username: 123456789012345
Access Type: sgsn
Network Type: IP
Access Tech: GPRS GERAN
callid: 00004e25
msid: 262090426000193
state: Suspended
connect time: Mon Jun 17 02:27:40 2013
call duration: 00h00m14s
idle time: 00h00m14s
User Location (RAI): 26209-4369-19
Cell Global Identity: 3
IMEI(SV): n/a
If the state field in the output of this command reads Ready, it indicates that a subscriber has moved from the
Suspended state to the Ready state in 2G. For example:
Username: 123456789012345
Access Type: sgsn
Network Type: IP
Access Tech: GPRS GERAN
callid: 00004e25
msid: 262090426000193
state: Ready
connect time: Mon Jun 17 02:27:40 2013
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
call duration: 00h00m14s
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
idle time: 00h00m14s
User Location (RAI): 26209-4369-19
Cell Global Identity: 3
IMEI(SV): n/a
show subscriber sgsn-only full all
If the state field in the output of this command reads Idle, it indicates that a subscriber has moved from the
Connected state to the Idle state in 3G. For example:
Username: 123456789012345
Access Type: sgsn
Network Type: IP
Access Tech: GPRS GERAN
callid: 00004e25
msid: 262090426000193
state: Ready
connect time: Mon Jun 17 02:24:05 2013
call duration: 00h00m23s
idle time: 00h00m12s
User Location (RAI): 26209-4660-18
Serving PLMN:
Service Area Code : 1202
26209
IMEI(SV): n/a
Equipment Status
If the state field in the output of this command reads Idle, it indicates that a subscriber has moved from the
Connected state to the Idle state in 3G. For example:
Username: 123456789012345
Access Type: sgsn
Network Type: IP
Access Tech: GPRS GERAN
callid: 00004e25
msid: 262090426000193
state: Connected
connect time: Mon Jun 17 02:24:05 2013
call duration: 00h00m23s
idle time: 00h00m12s
User Location (RAI): 26209-4660-18
Serving PLMN:
IMEI(SV): n/a
Service Area Code : 1202
26209
Equipment Status
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
show bssgp statistics verbose
The output of this command tracks the number of BSSGP messages (BSS Suspend procedure) transmitted and received
at the SGSN. It does not track the number messages between the BSS and the peer S4-SGSN or peer MME. The show
egtpc statistics command is used to track EGTPC messages transmitted and received between the SGSN and a
peer S4-SGSN or peer MME. Operators can check number of suspend ack messages received to identify successful
suspend procedures. The number of suspend nack messages indicate unsuccessful suspend procedures.
Table 30.
show bssgp statistics verbose Command Output
suspend messages received:
Intra-Sgsn suspend message received:
Inter-Sgsn suspend message received:
Inter-System suspend message received:
suspend ack messages transmitted:
Intra-Sgsn suspend ack message transmitted:
Inter-Sgsn suspend ack message transmitted:
Inter-System suspend ack message transmitted:
suspend nack messages transmitted:
Intra-Sgsn suspend nack message transmitted:
Inter-Sgsn suspend nack message transmitted:
Inter-System suspend nack message transmitted:
resume messages received:
resume ack messages transmitted:
resume nack messages transmitted:
show egtpc statistics
The output of this command tracks the number of Suspend EGTPC messages transmitted and received from or to a peer
SGSN/ MME or SGW. The output also tracks the number of Resume EGTPC messages transmitted to SGW.
Detailed descriptions of these counters are available in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
Table 31.
show egtpc statistics Command Output for S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
CS Fallback Messages:
Suspend Notification:
Initial TX:
Initial RX:
Retrans TX
Discarded:
No Rsp RX:
Suspend Acknowledge:
Initial TX:
Initial RX:
Discarded:
Resume Notification
Initial TX:
Initial RX:
Retrans TX:
Discarded:
No Rsp RX
Resume Acknowledge:
Initial TX:
Initial RX:
Discarded:
show egtpc statistics verbose
The output of this command tracks the number of denied Suspend notification recived and transmitted procedures.
 Suspend Notification Denied TX means Suspend notification was denied due to any of errors listed in the
table that follows.
 Suspend Notification Denied RX means a Suspend notification was received incorrectly from the peer
S4-SGSN.
Detailed descriptions of these counters are available in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
Table 32.
show egtpc statistics verbose Command Output for S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
Suspend Notification Denied
Suspend Notification Denied TX
Suspend Notification Denied RX
Context not existent:
Context not existent:
Invalid message format:
Invalid message format:
Version not supported:
Version not supported:
Invalid length:
Invalid length:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
Service not supported:
Service not supported:
Mandatory IE incorrect:
Mandatory IE incorrect:
Mandatory IE missing:
Mandatory IE missing:
System failure:
System failure:
No resources available:
No resources available:
Semantic error in TFT:
Semantic error in TFT:
Syntactic error in TFT:
Syntactic error in TFT:
Semantic error in Pkt Fltr:
Semantic error in Pkt Fltr:
Syntactic error in Pkt Fltr:
Syntactic error in Pkt Fltr:
Missing or unknown APN
Missing or unknown APN
GRE key not found:
GRE key not found:
Reallocation failure:
Reallocation failure:
Denied in RAT:
Denied in RAT:
Pref. PDN type unsupported:
Pref. PDN type unsupported:
All dynamic addr occupied:
All dynamic addr occupied:
UE ctx w/o TFT activated:
UE ctx w/o TFT activated:
Prot type not supported:
Prot type not supported:
UE not responding:
UE not responding:
UE refuses:
UE refuses:
Service denied:
Service denied:
Unable to page UE:
Unable to page UE:
No Memory:
No Memory:
User Auth Failed:
User Auth Failed:
Apn Access Denied:
Apn Access Denied:
Request Rejected:
Request Rejected:
Semantic error in TAD:
Semantic error in TAD:
Syntactic error in TAD:
Syntactic error in TAD:
Collision with Nw init Req:
Collision with Nw init Req:
UE page unable due to Susp:
UE page unable due to Susp:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
Conditional IE missing:
Conditional IE missing:
Apn Restr Type Incompatible:
Apn Restr Type Incompatible:
Invalid len Piggybacked msg:
Invalid len Piggybacked msg:
Invalid remote Peer reply:
Invalid remote Peer reply:
PTMSI signature mismatch:
PTMSI signature mismatch:
IMSI not Known:
IMSI not Known:
Peer not responding:
Peer not responding:
Data Fwding not supported:
Data Fwding not supported:
Fallback to GTPV1:
Fallback to GTPV1:
Invalid Peer:
Invalid Peer:
Temp Rej due to HO in prog:
Temp Rej due to HO in prog:
Unknown:
Unknown:
Resume Notification Denied
Resume Notification Denied TX
Resume Notification Denied RX
Context not existent:
Context not existent:
Invalid message format:
Invalid message format:
Version not supported:
Version not supported:
Invalid length:
Invalid length:
Service not supported:
Service not supported:
Mandatory IE incorrect:
Mandatory IE incorrect:
Mandatory IE missing:
Mandatory IE missing:
System failure:
System failure:
No resources available:
No resources available:
Semantic error in TFT:
Semantic error in TFT:
Syntactic error in TFT:
Syntactic error in TFT:
Semantic error in Pkt Fltr:
Semantic error in Pkt Fltr:
Syntactic error in Pkt Fltr:
Syntactic error in Pkt Fltr:
Missing or unknown APN
Missing or unknown APN
GRE key not found:
GRE key not found:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
Reallocation failure:
Reallocation failure:
Denied in RAT:
Denied in RAT:
Pref. PDN type unsupported:
Pref. PDN type unsupported:
All dynamic addr occupied:
All dynamic addr occupied:
UE ctx w/o TFT activated:
UE ctx w/o TFT activated:
Prot type not supported:
Prot type not supported:
UE not responding:
UE not responding:
UE refuses:
UE refuses:
Service denied:
Service denied:
Unable to page UE:
Unable to page UE:
No Memory:
No Memory:
User Auth Failed:
User Auth Failed:
Apn Access Denied:
Apn Access Denied:
Request Rejected:
Request Rejected:
Semantic error in TAD:
Semantic error in TAD:
Syntactic error in TAD:
Syntactic error in TAD:
Collision with Nw init Req:
Collision with Nw init Req:
UE page unable due to Susp:
UE page unable due to Susp:
Conditional IE missing:
Conditional IE missing:
Apn Restr Type Incompatible:
Apn Restr Type Incompatible:
Invalid len Piggybacked msg:
Invalid len Piggybacked msg:
Invalid remote Peer reply:
Invalid remote Peer reply:
PTMSI signature mismatch:
PTMSI signature mismatch:
IMSI not Known:
IMSI not Known:
Peer not responding:
Peer not responding:
Data Fwding not supported:
Data Fwding not supported:
Fallback to GTPV1:
Fallback to GTPV1:
Invalid Peer:
Invalid Peer:
Temp Rej due to HO in prog:
Temp Rej due to HO in prog:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
Unknown:
Unknown:
show sgtpc statistics verbose
The output of this comnand tracks the number of SGSN Context Request transmitted and received message transmitted
from the peer Gn-SGSN. It also tracks the number of SGSN Context Response messages transmitted and received from
a peer Gn-SGSN.
Table 33.
show sgtpc statistics Command Output for S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
SGSN Context Request:
Total SGSN-Ctx-Req TX:
Total SGSN-Ctx-Req RX:
Initial SGSN-Ctx-Req TX:
Initial SGSN-Ctx-Req RX:
SGSN-Ctx-Req-TX(V1):
SGSN-Ctx-Req-RX(V1):
Suspend-Req-Hdr-TX:
Suspend-Req-Hdr-RX:
SGSN-Ctx-Req-TX(V0):
SGSN-Ctx-Req-RX(V0):
Retrans SGSN-Ctx-Req TX:
Retrans SGSN-Ctx-Req RX:
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Req-TX(V1):
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Req-RX(V1):
Ret-Suspend-Req-Header-TX:
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Req-TX(V0):
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Req-RX(V0):
SGSN Context Response:
Total SGSN-Ctx-Rsp TX:
Total SGSN-Ctx-Rsp RX:
Denied TX:
Denied RX:
Suspend-Rsp-Hdr-TX:
Suspend-Rsp-Hdr-Rx:
Accepted TX:
Accepted RX:
Initial SGSN-Ctx-Rsp TX:
Initial SGSN-Ctx-Rsp RX:
SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-TX(V1):
SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-RX(V1):
Suspend-Rsp-Hdr-TX:
Suspend-Rsp-Hdr-RX:
SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-TX(V0):
SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-RX(V0):
Retrans SGSN-Ctx-Rsp TX:
Retrans SGSN-Ctx-Rsp RX:
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-TX(V1):
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-RX(V1):
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-TX(V0):
Ret-SGSN-Ctx-Rsp-RX(V0):
Decode Failure RX:
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature
S4-SGSN Suspend and Resume Feature Bulk Statistics
The following statistics are included in various bulk statistics schema in support of the Suspend/Resume feature:
 SGSN Schema:
 2G-attach-fail-suspend-received
 2G-attach-fail-comb-suspend-received
For descriptions of these variables, see the SGSN Schema Statistics section in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters
Reference.
 GPRS Schema
 bssgp-suspend-msg-rcvd
 bssgp-suspend-ack-msg-sent
 bssgp-suspend-nack-msg-sent
 bssgp-resume-msg-rcvd
 bssgp-resume-ack-msg-sent
 bssgp-resume-nack-msg-sent
For descriptions of these variables, see GPRS Schema Statistics in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
 EGTPC Schema:
 csfb-sent-suspendnotf
 csfb-sent-retranssuspendnotf
 csfb-recv-suspendnotf
 csfb-recv-suspendnotfDiscard
 csfb-recv-suspendnotfNorsp
 csfb-recv-retranssuspendnotf
 csfb-sent-suspendack
 csfb-sent-suspendackaccept
 csfb-sent-suspendackdenied
 csfb-recv-suspendack
 csfb-recv-suspendackDiscard
 csfb-recv-suspendackaccept
 csfb-recv-suspenddenied
 csfb-sent-resumenotf
 csfb-sent-retransresumenotf
 csfb-sent-resumeack
 csfb-sent-resumeackaccept
 csfb-sent-resumeackdenied
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
S4-SGSN Suspend-Resume Feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the S4-SGSN Suspend/Resume Feature ▀
 csfb-recv-resumeack
 csfb-recv-resumeackDiscard
 csfb-recv-resumeackaccept
 csfb-recv-resumedenied
For descriptions of these variables, see EGTPC Schema Statistics in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
 SGTP Schema:
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-v1-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-v1-rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-accept-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-accept-rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-accept-v1-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-accept-v1-rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-denied-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-req-denied-rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-ack-accept-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-ack-accept-rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-ack-accept-v1-tx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-ack-accept-v1_rx
 sgtpc-sgsn-ctxt-ack-denied-tx
For descriptions of these variables, see SGTP Schema Statistics in the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 29
SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
This section describes Combo Optimization available for a co-located SGSN-MME node. It also provides detailed
information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How It Works
 Configuring the Combo Optimization
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The SGSN and MME can be enabled simultaneously in the same chassis and, though co-located, they each behave as
independent nodes. This Combo Optimization feature enables the co-located SGSN and MME to co-operate with each
other in order to achieve lower memory and CPU utilizations and to reduce signaling towards other nodes in the
network. When functioning as mutually-aware co-located nodes, the SGSN and the MME can share UE subscription
data between them.
Important: This feature is supported by both the S4-SGSN and the Gn-SGSN. For the feature to apply
to a Gn-SGSN, the Gn-SGSN must be configured to connect to an HSS. Combo Optimization for an SGSNMME node is a licensed Cisco feature. Contact your Cisco account representative for detailed information on
specific licensing requirements. For information on installing and verifying licenses, refer to the Managing
License Keys section of the Software Management Operations chapter in the System Administration Guide.
Overview
The load on S6d/S6a interfaces towards an HSS is reduced effectively by utilizing the resources in a co-located SGSNMME node scenario. Requests for subscription data in Update Location Request (ULR) are skipped by setting the 'skipsubscriber-data' bit in the ULR flags; this, in turn, reduces the load on the HSS. The Skip Subscriber Data AVP is used
and the subscriber data is shared across the SGSN and the MME services.
As per 3GPP TS 29.272, setting the 'skip-subscriber-data' bit in the ULR indicates that the HSS may skip sending
subscription data in Update Location Answer (ULA) to reduce signaling. If the subscription data has changed in the
HSS after the last successful update of the MME/SGSN, the HSS ignores this bit and sends the updated subscription
data. If the HSS skips sending the subscription data, then the GPRS-Subscription-Data-Indicator flag can be ignored.
Important: The SGSN supported the Skip-Subscription-Data bit prior to Release 18.0. Support for this
functionality was added to the MME in Release 18.0.
Ensuring that packets are routed internally reduces network latency for S3/Gn interface messages.This is achieved by
configuring the SGTP and EGTP services in the same context for the SGSN and the MME configurations.
For outbound Inter-RAT SRNS Relocations, the MME gives preference to the co-located SGSN, irrespective of the
order/priority or preference/weight configured for the SGSN entry in DNS Server. When Inter-RAT handovers take
place between the co-located MME and the SGSN, the new call arrives at the same Session Manager that hosted the call
in the previous RAT. If the subscription data is available for a given UE at the co-located SGSN, then the MME does
not need to request this data from the HSS and provides UE subscription data obtained from the SGSN. This optional
function can be turned on or off through the MME Service configuration.
Combo Optimization is available for subscribers with an EPC-enabled UE and an EPC subscription configured at the
HSS. During handoff from 4G to 3G or 4G to 2G, the EPC subscription will be copied from the MME. Combo
Optimization is also applicable for Non-EPC subscribers if core-network-interface is selected as S4 for the EPSsubscription.
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SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
How It Works ▀
How It Works
Subscriber Movement from MME to SGSN: Subscription information is first fetched by the MME. On subscriber
movement to a co-located SGSN, the SGSN sends a ULR with "skip-subscriber-data" flag set and the HSS sends a ULA
(with or without subscription data depending on time of MME update).
Subscriber Movement from SGSN to MME: Subscription information is first fetched by the SGSN. On subscriber
movement to a co-located MME, the MME sends a ULR with "skip-subscriber-data" flag set and the HSS sends a ULA
(with or without subscription data depending on time of SGSN update).
Architecture
Figure 89.
SGSN-MME Combo Node
The above diagram displays the interworking of various modules when the Combo Optimization feature is enabled in a
co-located SGSN-MME setup.
When the subscriber does RAU from MME to SGSN, or vice versa, a DNS query is initiated to fetch the address of the
peer node. Based on the IP address obtained, the peer MME or SGSN is selected. When a DNS response is received
with a list of peer SGSN addresses, the MME matches the configured EGTP/SGTP SGSN service address in the system
and uses it for the S3/Gn UE Context Transfer procedures. If a DNS response is not received and a locally configured
EGTP/SGTP SGSN service is present as a peer-SGSN, the peer-SGSN will be selected. Context transfer and copying of
subscription information happens internally between the SGSN and the MME nodes. The SGSN maintains the s6d
interface towards the HSS and the MME maintains the S6a interface towards the HSS. All network-initiated messages
are sent separately towards the SGSN and the MME nodes respectively.
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▀ How It Works
Flows
This section includes various diagrams that illustrate the session manager (SessMgr) selection logic during RAU, SRNS,
and Attach procedures:
Figure 90.
Selection of SessMgr Instance during RAU from MME to SGSN
Listed below is the SessMgr instance selection logic during a RAU procedure from the MME to SGSN:
1. A RAU request from UE is forwarded to the LinkMgr or GbMgr.
2. The LinkMgr identifies if the RAU is local and extracts the SessMgr instance from the PTMSI and forwards the
request to IMSIMgr.
3. The IMSIMgr tries to select the SessMgr instance extracted from the PTMSI and forwards the request to the
selected SessMgr.
Figure 91.
Selection of SessMgr Instance during SRNS
Listed below is the SessMgr instance selection logic during an SRNS procedure:
1. During an SRNS procedure, the MME service sends a Forward Relocation Request to the EGTPCMgr.
2. The EGTPCMgr forwards the request to the IMSIMgr.
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How It Works ▀
3. The IMSIMgr uses the IMSI received in the request message to identify the SessMgr instance and forwards the
request to the appropriate SessMgr instance.
Figure 92.
Selection of SessMgr Instance during Attach
Listed below is the SessMgr instance selection logic during an Attach procedure:
1. During Attach procedure, the LinkMgr/GbMgr forwards the request to the IMSIMgr.
2. The IMSIMgr first verifies if the IMSI is present in the SGSN’s IMSI table. If it is not present, the MME’s IMSI
table is verified. Once the entry is found the request is forwarded to the appropriate SessMgr.
3. If the entry is not found in either table, then an alternate SessMgr instance is used to process the call.
Limitations
Subscription information is shared between MME and SGSN only when both are connected to an HSS. Combo
Optimization is not be applicable if either the MME or the SGSN is connected to an HLR. Though the subscription
information is shared between the SGSN and MME services, a separate HSS service and diameter endpoint will be
maintained for both the SGSN and the MME. All network-initiated messages are received separately for both the MME
and the SGSN. Subscription data is copied based on time-stamp validation.
A small impact on the performance is observed during Inter-RAT handoffs as subscription data is exchanged between
the SGSN and the MME. This impact is a limited increase in the number of instructions per handoff per UE depending
on the number of APNs configured for the UE in the HSS.
It is necessary that the HSS honors the request from the MME/SGSN and not send subscription data when 'SkipSubscriber-Data' flag is set in the ULR. However, there are some known and valid cases where the HSS ignores this
flag; for example, if the UE's subscription data changed since the last time the UE attached in 4G. (Typically, UE
subscription data does not change frequently, therefore, HSS overrides are less frequent.)
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SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
▀ Configuring the Combo Optimization
Configuring the Combo Optimization
This section describes how to configure the Combo Optimization for an SGSN-MME combo node.
By default, Combo Optimization is not enabled. This command both enables or disables Combo Optimization on an
SGSN-MME combo node.
config
lte-policy
[ no ] sgsn-mme subscriber-data-optimization
end
Note:
 no as a command prefix disables Combo Optimization.
The following CLI (applicable only to the SGSN in the combo node), under the call-control profile configuration mode,
controls requests for GPRS subscription information from the HSS:
config
call-control-profile<profile_name>
hss message update-location-request gprs-subscription-indicator [ never | non- epcue ]
end
Verifying Combo Optimization Configuration
Execute the following command to verify the configuration of this feature:
show lte-policy sgsn-mme summary
The following field value indicates if data optimization on the SGSN-MME combo node is "Enabled" or "Disabled":
 subscriber-data-optimization
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SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization
This section provides information on the show commands and bulk statistics available to monitor and troubleshoot
Combo Optimization for the SGSN-MME combo node, and for each element separately.
Monitoring Commands for the SGSN-MME Combo Node
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the Combo Optimization
feature on the SGSN-MME Combo Node:
show hss-peer-service statistics all
The following new fields are added to the show output to display the subscription data statistics:
 Subscription-Data Stats
 Skip Subscription Data
 Subscription-Data Not Received
The Skip Subscription Data statistic is incremented when the ULR is sent with the skip-subscription-data flag set. The
Subscription-Data Not Received statistic is incremented if the HSS does not send the subscription data in the ULA when
skip-subscription-data flag is set in ULR. The difference between the Skip Subscription Data and Subscription-Data Not
Received gives us the number of times HSS does not honour the skip-subscription-data flag.
Monitoring Commands for the SGSN
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the Combo Optimization
feature on the SGSN:
show demux-mgr statistics imsimgr all sgsn
The following new fields are added in the show output to display the number of RAU, Attach, PTIMSI attach and
Forward relocation requests arriving from a subscriber attached with co-located MME:
 IMSI attach with context in co-located MME
 P-TMSI attach with mapped P-TMSI of co-located MME
 RAU with mapped P-TMSI of co-located MME
 Fwd reloc request from co-located MME
show subscribers sgsn-only summary
The following new field is added in the show output to display the number of subscribers currently sharing subscription
information with MME:
 Total HSS subscribers sharing subscription-info
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▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization
show subscribers gprs-only summary
The following new field is added in the show output to display the number of subscribers currently sharing subscription
information with MME:
 Total HSS subscribers sharing subscription-info
show subscribers sgsn-only full all
The STN-SR , ICS-indicator , Trace-Data and CSG subscription information is now displayed under the show
subscribers sgsn-only full all output. These AVPs are currently used by MME only .Values are displayed as
received from HSS without any format changes.
 Trace Data
 Trace Reference
 Trace Depth
 Trace NE Type List
 Trace Interface List
 Trace Event List
 OMC Id
 Trace Collection Entity
 STN-SR
 ICS-Indicator
 CSG Subscription
 CSG ID
 Expiration Date
show subscribers gprs-only full all
The STN-SR, ICS-indicator, Trace-Data and CSG subscription information is now displayed under the show
subscribers gprs-only full all output. These AVPs are currently used by MME only .Values are displayed as
received from HSS without any format changes.
 Trace Data
 Trace Reference
 Trace Depth
 Trace NE Type List
 Trace Interface List
 Trace Event List
 OMC Id
 Trace Collection Entity
 STN-SR
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SGSN-MME Combo Optimization
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization ▀
 ICS-Indicator
 CSG Subscription
 CSG ID
 Expiration Date
show session subsystem facility aaamgr instance <instance>
The following new fields are added in the show output to display the total number of CSG subscription records and
Trace data records:
 SGSN: Total Trace data records
 SGSN: Total CSG data records
Monitoring Commands for the MME
This section provides information regarding show commands and/or their outputs in support of the Combo Optimization
feature on the MME:
show mme-service statistics handover
The following new statistics are added to the show output to display the information about Inter-RAT Optimized
Handoffs between the co-located SGSN and MME:
 Inter-RAT Optimized Handoffs Between Co-located MME and SGSN
 Outbound MME to SGSN RAU procedure
 Attempted
 Success
 Failures
 Inbound SGSN to MME TAU procedure
 Attempted
 Success
 Failures
 Outbound MME to SGSN Connected Mode Handover
 Attempted
 Success
 Failures
 Inbound SGSN to MME Connected Mode Handover
 Attempted
 Success
 Failures
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▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting Combo Optimization
Bulk Statistics for Monitoring the MME in an SGSN-MME Combo Node
The following bulk statistics in the MME schema facilitate tracking MME optimization functionality for the SGSNMME nodes when co-located in the same chassis with the Combo Optimization functionality enabled:
 optimized-out-rau-ho-4gto2g3g-attempted
 optimized-out-rau-ho-4gto2g3g-success
 optimized-out-rau-ho-4gto2g3g-failures
 optimized-in-tau-ho-2g3gto4g-attempted
 optimized-in-tau-ho-2g3gto4g-success
 optimized-in-tau-ho-2g3gto4g-failures
 optimized-out-s1-ho-4gto2g3g-attempted
 optimized-out-s1-ho-4gto2g3g-success
 optimized-out-s1-ho-4gto2g3g-failures
 optimized-in-s1-ho-2g3gto4g-attempted
 optimized-in-s1-ho-2g3gto4g-success
 optimized-in-s1-ho-2g3gto4g-failures
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 30
SGSN Pooling
This chapter describes the SGSN Pooling feature and includes the following topics:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the SGSN Pooling feature
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SGSN Pooling
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
An SGSN pool is a collection of SGSNs configured to serve a common geographical area for a radio network. This
common part is referred to as the SGSN pool service. SGSN Pooling is also referred to as Iu/Gb flex support based on if
the access is 3G or GPRS respectively.
An SGSN pool provides a flexible and resource-efficient architecture with built-in network redundancy for the
GPRS/UMTS packet core network. Each BSC/RNC has the ability to connect to all SGSNs in the pool. If any SGSN
becomes unavailable, any terminal attached to that SGSN will be automatically re-routed to another SGSN in the pool
by the BSC/RNC. This implies that the SGSN pool provides network level redundancy. SGSN failure is discovered by
the BSCs/RNCs and the uplink traffic from the terminal is routed to another SGSN in the pool. The substituting SGSN
orders the terminal to re-attach and re-activate any PDP contexts. Therefore service availability is maintained. Please
note that all SGSNs in a pool are required to have the same capacity, feature sets and scalability and hence the same
vendor, failing which might lead to varying subscriber experience across SGSNs.
In a pooled network, Inter-SGSN routing area updates (RAUs) are avoided and this provides a faster response time,
compared to non-pooled networks. With SGSN pool for GPRS/UMTS, Inter-SGSN RAU is replaced by Intra-SGSN
RAU, for terminals moving within the pool area. Intra-SGSN RAU provides reduced interruption time for data transfer,
compared to Inter-SGSN RAU. Furthermore, due to the fewer Inter-SGSN RAUs, there is less signalling generated on
the Gr interface.
When an UE connects to an SGSN in the pool, by Attach or Inter-SGSN RAU (ISRAU) procedures, the UE is allocated
a Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) containing a Network Resource Identifier (NRI) identifying
the SGSN. The BSC/RNC then identifies the SGSN from the NRI, and routes the user data to the correct SGSN. Loadsharing between the SGSN pool members is thus based on the NRI routing algorithm in the BSC/RNC. UEs that have
not yet been assigned a P-TMSI, and MSs without matching NRI, are distributed among the pool members by the
BSC/RNC according to the traffic distribution procedure. Once a UE has been allocated a P-TMSI, it stays connected to
the same SGSN as long as it remains in the pool area. This period can be quite long, since MSs normally keep the PTMSI even after power off.
A Basic Pool Structure
A basic SGSN pool structure is depicted in the diagram below:
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SGSN Pooling
Feature Description ▀
Figure 93.
A basic pool structure

Multiple SGSNs form a single logical entity called SGSN pool.

SGSN pools service areas larger than stand-alone SGSN service areas.

This set up is compatible with non-pool aware nodes and is transparent to the end-user.
Benefits of SGSN Pooling
1.
2.
3.
Increased Availability: If one SGSN fails, another SGSN from the pool can substitute it. Any node can be taken out of a
pool during maintenance.
Increased Scalability: More number of SGSN nodes can be added to the pool.
Reduced Signalling: Number of inter-SGSN routing area updates is reduced.
Pooling Requirements
Listed below are the requirements to support pooling:
1.
2.
The SGSN should support configuration of NRI and use that NRI in all the PTMSI issued.
If the SGSN is configured as a default SGSN, it should relay SGSN Context Request / Identification request received
from peer SGSN (outside of pool) to SGSN (in pool) anchoring that subscriber anchoring SGSN in pool.
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▀ Feature Description
3.
Support of non-broadcast RAI, null-NRI configurations to allow off-loading of self-SGSN and handle the off-loading of a
peer SGSN.
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SGSN Pooling
How it Works ▀
How it Works
P-TMSI - NRI and Coding
Every SGSN is configured with one or several NRIs (O&M). One of these NRIs is part of every Packet temporary
Mobile Subscriber identity (P-TMSI) which the SGSN assigns to an UE for connecting via pooled BSC/RNC. For nonpooled BSC/RNC SGSN sets all NRI bits to “0”. The P-TMSI allocation mechanism in the SGSN generates P-TMSIs
which contain one of the configured NRIs in the relevant bit positions. A NRI has a flexible length up to "6" bits). The
maximum number of SGSNs in a pool is limited to “63” (One NRI value reserved for NULL-NRI).
P TMSI is of length “32” bits, where the two top most bits are reserved and always set to “11”. The NRI field is
included at the beginning of P TMSI starting at bit “23” and down up to bit “18”. The most significant bit of the NRI is
located at bit “23” of the P TMSI regardless of the configured length of the NRI
Once a subscriber attaches to a new SGSN, a new P-TMSI is allocated by the P-TMSI re-allocation procedure. That PTMSI contains the NRI of the SGSN. This is also the case when an Inter-SGSN RA update or an Inter-System Change
(IRAT) occurs.
Non-Broadcast LAC and RAC
The LAC and RAC information is made available by off-loading the SGSN to the UE in the
GMM_ATTCH_ACCEPT/GMM_RAU_ACCEPT message along with the NULL-NRI in the P-TMSI. This value is
different from the LAC and RAC that an UE receives from BSS/UTRAN as broadcast information. These parameters
are set unique per SGSN node.
SGSN Address Resolution
The following kinds of SGSN address resolution can be identified:
1.
2.
Address resolution with NRI.
Address resolution without NRI.
Address Resolution with NRI
A NRI based look-up occurs in the following scenarios:
1.
2.
3.
An Inter-SGSN RAU occurs within a pooled area. This could be due to one of the SGSNs offloading the subscribers or
due to a Gb/ Iu link failure on one of the SGSNs.
An Inter-SGSN RAU occurs from a pooled to a non-pooled SGSN. The GTP_SGSN_CONTEXT_REQUEST is routed to
the default SGSN in the pool. The default SGSN looks up for the Gn address of the member in the pool based on the NRI
retrieved from the P-TMSI in the GTP_SGSN_CONTEXT_REQUEST message received. A local configuration of these
entries has to be present in the SGSN Operator Policy.
When offloading is enabled, the nb-rai and null-nri of the SGSN which is being offloaded should be configured in the ccprofiles of other SGSN’s in the pool. Unless a entry is present, a periodic RAU will not be accepted in the other SGSN’s
carrying that nb-rai and null-nri.A local configuration of these entries has to be present in the SGSN Operator Policy.
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Address resolution without NRI
Address resolution without NRI is used for Inter-SGSN RAU between non-pooled areas or between multiple pools. In
this case the SGSN context request is routes towards the default SGSN, which in turn relays the GTP message to the
right SGSN based on the NRI value in the P-TMSI.
Refer to the configuration section for the procedure to “Configure an Operator Policy”.
Mobility Inside the Pool
The distribution of UEs in a pool is handled by the BSCs/RNCs.
1. The UE sends an Attach Request or a RA Update Request to a SGSN.
2. This request passes through the BSC/RNC.
3. The BSC/RNC uses the NRI to locate the SGSN.
4. Once the SGSN is located Gb/Iu connection is set up.
If the NRI from the UE is invalid or does not match any of the NRIs of the pool members, the request is directed to one
of the pool members by the BSC/RNC. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) attaches are also distributed
among the SGSN pool members by the BSCs.
Once a P-TMSI containing the NRI of a pool member has been assigned to an UE, the UE stays attached to that pool
member as long as it remains in that pool service area. The frequency of inter-SGSN RA updates decreases, as the UE
can move over a greater geographical area for one SGSN.
Figure 94.
Mobility inside the pool
Consider the scenario depicted in the diagram above:
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SGSN Pooling
How it Works ▀
1. A subscriber attached to SGSN-1 through RNC-1 moves under the coverage area of RNC-2, while being
attached to SGSN-1. This results only in an Intra-SGSN RAU.
2. A subscriber attached to SGSN-1 through BSC-1 moves under the coverage area of BSC-2, while being attached
to SGSN-1. This results only in an Intra-SGSN RAU.
Mobility Outside the Pool
When an UE leaves a pool service area and performs an Attach or a RA update to an SGSN outside the pool service
area, the new SGSN cannot identify the old SGSN based on the old Routing Area Identity (RAI). Finding the address of
the old SGSN is facilitated by a DNS query with RAI specified. First the new SGSN uses the RAI to identify the default
SGSN in the pool. The new SGSN then fetches the subscriber data from the old SGSN and continues with the routing
area update procedure.
Figure 95.
Mobility outside the pool.
Consider the scenario depicted in the diagram above:
The subscriber movement can be traced through the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the diagram.
1. The SGSN-X is not pooled. The SGSN-X queries the DNS to identify the source SGSN from where the UE
arrived to initiate a GTP_SGSN_CONTEXT_REQUEST.
2. The DNS responds back with the IP address of the default SGSN in the pool, which could be either SGSN-1 or
SGSN-2 or both.
3. The address resolution is performed based on the LAC and RAC similar to other Inter-SGSN RAU.
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4. The designated default SGSN relays the GTP message to the source SGSN in the pool, which is located using
the NRI in the P-TMSI and hence the DNS query with NRI, LAC and RAC.
5. In the implementation above both SGSN-1 and SGSN-2 are designated as default SGSNs to load share the GTP
signalling traffic.
6. For every LAC/RAC in the pooled areas the DNS resolves the query into two IP addresses pertaining to the Gn
loopback addresses of SGSN-1 and SGSN-2 respectively.
MS Offloading
MS offloading is a procedure of offloading the subscribers from one SGSN in the pool to another SGSN within the
same pool. Offloading is performed during the following scenarios:
1. The operator wants to carry out a scheduled maintenance.
2. The operator wants to perform a load re-distribution.
3. To avoid an overload.
Offloading has to be performed with minimum impact on the end users.
Types of MS Offloading:
1. Null-NRI based.
2. Target-NRI based.
3. IMSI based offloading
Null-NRI based Offloading
Null-NRI based offloading is carried out in the following three phases:
Phase - 1
1. UEs performing a RAU or Attach are moved to other SGSN in the pool.
2. When the SGSN receives the Routing Area Update or Attach request, it returns a new P-TMSI with the nullNRI, and non-broadcast LAC and RAC in the accept message.
3. A new Routing Area Update is triggered by setting the periodic routing area update timer to a sufficiently low
value in the accept message.
4. The UE sends a new Routing Area Update, the BSC then routes this RAU to a new SGSN due to the presence of
a null-NRI. The BSC uses a round robin mechanism to allocate an SGSN for this UE.
Phase - 2
1. All PDP context activation requests are rejected and the UEs are requested to detach and re-attach (Detach
request sent from the network with cause code “reattach required”).
2. When the UEs re-attach, the SGSN moves them as described above in “Phase 1”, that is, by sending the nullNRI and non-broadcast LAC and RAC and triggering a periodic RAU update.
Phase -3
This phase includes scanning through the remaining UEs and initiating a detach procedure for them. The UEs are
requested to detach and re-attach, this results in the UEs moving as described in “Phase 1”.
UEs being moved from one SGSN can be stopped from registering to the same SGSN again by issuing a CLI command
in BSCs connected to the pool. UEs moving into a pool area may also be stopped from registering into a SGSN being
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SGSN Pooling
How it Works ▀
off-loaded in the same manner. The move operation will not overload the network, as throttling is supported for both
Attach and Inter SGSN RAU procedures.
Target-NRI based offloading
Target NRI based offloading was primarily introduced so that subscribers can be offloaded to a chosen SGSN. In the
case of NULL-NRI based offloading there is no control on which SGSN the subscribers are offloaded to. SGSN
offloads subscribers by assigning NB-RAI, stamping Target-NRI in PTMSI and reducing periodic routing area update
timer during Attach/RAU accept messages.
IMSI-based offloading is carried in the following three phases:
IMSI based offloading
With Target-NRI based method of offloading though there is control on the SGSN to which the subscribers are
offloaded, there is no control on the subscribers being offloaded to the SGSN. IMSI-based offloading enhancement
allows the operator to choose the subscribers to be offloaded to a particular SGSN.
Phase -1
When a Attach accept or a RAU accept is issued, the offloading configuration is verified and if offloading is enabled,
the corresponding NRI is issued (if it is not issued earlier). In case the specific IMSI based offloading configuration is
configured, the configured target-nri is used. When offloading is enabled, if ptmsi allocation configuration is absent, a
ptmsi is allocated to the subscriber in Attach/RAU accept.
Phase -2
On receiving an activation trigger from the MS, the subscriber is detached and the re-attach required is set to true. The
MS will return an attach in due time, after which the MS is offloaded to another SGSN by setting the Target-NRI and
NB-RAI appropriately.
Phase -3
The subscriber is cleared unconditionally and a detach is sent by setting the re-attach required to true. The subscriber is
lost at this stage. In the next attach, the subscriber is offloaded to the configured SGSN.
For information on the procedure to configure MS-Offloading, refer to the section “Configuration of SGSN Pooling Procedure to configure MS-Offloading”.
Iu/Gb Flex support over S16/S3 interface
SGSN Pooling support has been extended to S16/S3 interface. The enhancement also includes support for default SGSN
functionality for S16/S3 interface as in the case of Gn interface. The peer SGSN in this case is a S4-SGSN. The
incoming message (EGTP_CONTEXT_REQ/IDENTIFICATION_REQ) is received from a non-pooled SGSN, it is
forwarded to the old-SGSN if the SGSN is configured as default SGSN. The SGSN in a pool is identified on the basis
on NRI value and OLD- RAI value. The NRI value is extracted from PTMSI.
Backward compatibility and default SGSN functionality
If a default SGSN that is serving a pool-area receives EGTP signaling it resolves the ambiguity of the multiple SGSNs
per RAI by deriving the NRI from the P-TMSI. The SGSN relays the EGTP signaling to the old SGSN identified by the
NRI in the old P-TMSI unless the default SGSN itself is the old SGSN. For default-SGSN functionality to work, static
IP address entries are mandatory in the call-control profile.
Messages are relayed by the Default-SGSN (Default SGSN functionality and pooling are enabled) in following cases:

Pooled local RAI and non-local NRI

Non-local RAI and Null-NRI
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Pooling
▀ How it Works

Non-local RAI and Target-NRI
For “Non-local RAI and Null-NRI” and “Non-local RAI and Target-NRI” options, the NB-RAI of other SGSN is
considered. It is non-local to the SGSN. No other configuration entries are present at the SGSN other than cc-profile
entries.
Mobility Management
The MS performs RA Updates and Attachments, which result in a change of the serving SGSN. In these procedures the
new SGSN requests MS specific parameters from the old SGSN. The default SGSN node uses the old RA together with
the NRI to derive the signalling address of the old SGSN from its configuration data.
Address and TEID for the Control Plane

The relaying SGSN forwards the Context Request message to the interface of the old SGSN. The incoming request can
arrive over a S3 interface in case of MME or S3 in case of S4-SGSN. However the old RAI interface will be always S16.

When the default-sgsn relays the message, if the UDP port number is absent in the request received, the default-sgsn adds
the “UDP source port number” IE while relaying. This is applicable for both Context Request and Identification Request
relay functionality.

If in an Identification request message, “Address for control plane” is an optional IE. A SGSN within the same SGSN
pool with the old SGSN receives the Identification request message it includes the old IP address of the received message
in this optional parameter if this IE is not present and relays the message to the old SGSN.

In cases where default-sgsn has to send a negative response, it sends the message to the IP as indicated in the “S3/S16
Address and TEID for Control Plane” IE and destination port set as indicated by “UDP source port number” IE.

If an SGSN within the same SGSN pool with the old SGSN receives this message, the SGSN decrements the Hop
Counter if this IE is present in the received message. Otherwise, the SGSN includes a Hop Counter with a configured
value and relays the message to the old SGSN. This is applicable for both Context Request and Identification Request
relay functionality.
For more information refer to 3GPP TS 29.274 (Table 7.3.5-1: Information Elements in a Context Request, Table 7.3.81: Information Elements in an Identification Request).
For information on procedure to configure Iu/Gb flex on S16/S3 interface refer to the section “Configuration of SGSN
Pooling - Procedure to configure default SGSN (S16/S3 interface)”.
Standards Compliance
The SGSN Pooling feature complies with the following standards:
 3GPP TS 23.236
 3GPP TS 29.274
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Pooling
Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature ▀
Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature
2G-SGSN pool configuration
Listed below are the pre-requisite CLI configurations that should be enabled to configure a 2G SGSN Pool:
1. 2G SGSN Pooling configuration is done under the GPRS service in the Gb context.
2. The NRI value, NRI length, Null-NRI value and non-broadcast LAC/RAC are configured for the GPRS service.
3. The GPRS service is capable of handling both pooled and non-pooled BSCs.
GPRS Service Configuration:
config
context <context_name>
gprs-service <service_name>
peer-nsei <nse_id> pooled
nri length nri_length { nri-value nri_value | null-nri-value null_nri_value non
broadcast-lac lac_id rac rac_id [ nri-value value ]}
exit
Notes:
 The above configuration must be repeated each time a BSC is added.
 The command peer-nsei is used to render a BSC as pooled or non-pooled.
3G-SGSN pool configuration
Listed below are the pre-requisite CLI configurations that should be enabled to configure a 3G SGSN pool:
1. 3G SGSN pooling configuration is done under the IuPS service in the Iu context.
2. The NRI value, NRI length, Null-NRI value and non-broadcast LAC/RAC are configured for the SGSN service.
3. The IuPS service is capable of handling both pooled and non-pooled RNCs.
IuPS Service Configuration
config
context <context_name>
iups-service <service_name>
rnc id <rnc_id>
pooled
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Pooling
▀ Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature
exit
SGSN Service Configuration
config
context <context_name>
sgsn-service <service_name>
nri length nri_length [ nri-value nri_value | null-nri-value null_nri_value nonbroadcast mcc mcc mnc mnc lac lac_id rac rac_id nri-value value ] default nrino nri
exit
To Configure a Default SGSN
This procedure is common to both 2G and 3G SGSN pooling configurations. The SGSN can be configured as a “default
SGSN” in the pool under the SGTP service in the Gn context. This configuration is to be performed only once to render
a SGSN as a “default SGSN".
config
context <context_name>
sgtp-service <service_name>
pool {default-sgsn | hop-counter count}
exit
Procedure to Configure a Default SGSN (S16/S3 interface)
The following CLI command under the eGTP Service Configuration mode is used to configure the default SGSN:
config
context <context_name>
egtp-service <service_name>
pool {default-sgsn | hop-counter count}
exit
The default SGSN receives inbound SGSN context request messages and forwards it to the correct SGSN in the pool
based on the NRI bits of the P-TMSI. If the incoming message EGTP_CONTEXT_REQ/ IDENTIFICATION_REQ has
the hop count IE, the default SGSN decrements the count by one and forwards it to the Old-SGSN. The hop count is not
over written even if it is configured. If the hop count IE is missing with incoming message then the then hop count
configured gets populated. If no value is configured the default value is chosen. The hop Counter prevents endless
relaying of context/identification request. Each relaying SGSN keeps decrementing the hop-counter value if received
from the peer-sgsn, otherwise the SGSN includes hop-counter IE. If default-sgsn receives request having hop counter
“0”, it does not relay the request.
Procedure to Configure an Operator Policy
Step 1:
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Pooling
Configuring the SGSN Pooling feature ▀
config
operator-policy (default | name policy_name) [-noconfirm]
Step 2:
config
call-control profile profile_name
sgsn-address { nri nri | rac rac-id lac lac_id | rnc_id rnc_id } [ nri nri ] prefer
{ fallback-for-dns | local } address { ipv4 ip_address | ipv6 ip_address } interface { gn
| s16 }
Procedure to Configure MS Offloading
The SGSN offload command is used to configure the MS offloading procedure.
The following CLI command (for phase 1 and phase 2 of offloading) is issued for each GPRS/SGSN service:
sgsn offload { gprs-service service_name | sgsn-service service_name } { activating [
imsi imsi | nri-value nri_value | stop [ imsi imsi | nri-value nri_value ] ] | connecting
[ nri-value nri_value | stop [ imsi imsi | nri-value nri_value | target-nri target_nri ]
| t3312-timeout seconds [ nri-value nri_value | target-nri target_nri ] | target-nri
target_nri [ imsi imsi | target-count num_to_offload ] }
Consider and SGSN node which was offloaded due to a maintenance requirement, once this SGSN is again operational
it will not recover the subscribers attached before the maintenance occurred. In due course this SGSN will be leveraged,
with subscribers moved from (partial offload) two or three most loaded SGSNs.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Pooling
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the SGSN Pooling feature
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the SGSN Pooling feature
SGSN Pooling Show Command(s) and/or Outputs
This section provides information regarding show commands and their outputs in support of the SGSN Pooling:
 show subscribers sgsn-only/gprs-only full all
 show sgsn-pool statistics sgsn-service
 show sgsn-pool statistics gprs-service
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 31
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
This chapter describes the SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation (SRNS) feature, and provides detailed
information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The SRNS relocation feature facilitates connected mode inter-RAT handovers between UTRAN (3G) networks or
between UTRAN and EUTRAN (LTE) networks. The advantage of this feature is that the radio bearer establishment
occurs before the actual handover at the target.
The Gn/Gp SGSN and S4-SGSN support inter- and intra-SGSN SRNS relocation to enable:
 Handovers of an MS from one RNC to another RNC
 Handovers of an MS from one RNC to an eNodeb
The S4-SGSN supports the optional setup of indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between the eNodeB and the RNC
via the SGW during connected mode handovers. This allows the S4-SGSN to support connected mode handovers
between the UTRAN and E-UTRAN networks across the S3 interface. IDFT is not supported on the SGSN across the
Gn interface.
The SRNS Relocation feature is included with the base SGSN license. It does not require an additional feature license.
Relationships to Other Features
This section describes how the SRNS Relocation feature relates to other SGSN features.
 For an SGSN operating via the Gn/Gp interfaces, a 3G service (sgsn-service) must be configured and enabled
before SRNS Relocation can be configured.
 For an S4-SGSN, both a 3G service (sgsn-service) and S4-SGSN support (egtp-service) must be configured
before SRNS Relocation can be configured.
 If operators are using non-standard LAC ranges, then a network-global-mme-id-mgmt-db must be configured
and associated with the sgsn-service.
For detailed instructions on configuring the above, refer to the Cisco ASR 5000 Serving GPRS Support Node
Administration Guide.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
How it Works
SRNS Relocation on the SGSN (Gn/Gp)
On the Gn/Gp SGSN, the SRNS relocation feature is triggered by subscribers (MS/UE) moving from one RNS to
another. If the originating RNS and destination RNS are connected to the same SGSN but are in different routing areas,
the behavior triggers an intra-SGSN Routing Area Update (RAU). If the RNSs are connected to different SGSNs, the
relocation is followed by an inter-SGSN RAU.
The following table describes the interface selection logic for the various types of SRNS relocation that can occur when
the interface used for a subscriber is Gn for PDP contexts. Note that the Gn/Gp SGSN SRNS relocation selection logic
is applicable in the following instances:
 An S4-SGSN is configured (both the S4 license and EGTP service are available), but a given subscriber uses the
Gn interface for PDP contexts.
 Only the Gn/Gp interfaces are utilized on the SGSN. S4 support is not configured.
Table 34.
Interface Selection Logic for SRNS Relocation on the SGSN Gn/Gp
SI.No
RNC
Release
Compliance
Target
Type
Sent in
Rel. Req.
LAC
Configured
as MME
Group ID?
LAC MSB
Set?
Peer Type?
DNS Query Type?
Interface
IP
Provided
by DNS?
Interface
Chosen?
1
R8+
eNodeB
Not
Applicable
Irrelevant
MME
When the Gn
interface is used, the
system maps the eNB
ID to the RNC ID as
follows: The MSB 12
bits of the 20 bit eNB
ID is mapped to RNC
ID. DSN A query
with RNC ID FQDN
is sent and Gn
address is selected.
Gn
Gn
2
R8+
RNC
Not
Applicable
Irrelevant
SGSN
DNS A Query with
RNC ID FQDN
Gn
Gn
3
Pre R8
RNC
Irrelevant
Irrelevant
It is not
important to a
Gn SGSN if the
peer is an MME
or an SGSN. For
a Gn SGSN, a
peer MME is
treated just like
an SGSN
DNS A Query with
RNC ID FQDN
Gn
Gn
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Call Flow Diagrams
This section provides call flow diagrams and process descriptions for the following SGSN Gn/Gp SRNS Relocation
scenarios:
 Inter-SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Call Flow
 Intra-SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Call Flow
The Inter-SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation procedure is illustrated in the following diagram.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Step
Figure 96.
Inter-SGSN Gn/Gp SRNS Relocation Call Flow
Table 35.
Inter-SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Process Description
Description
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Step
Description
1
The source SRNC decides to perform/initiate SRNS relocation.
2
The source SRNC sends a Relocation Required message (Relocation Type, Cause, Source ID, Target ID, Source RNC to
target RNC transparent container) to the old SGSN.
3
The old SGSN determines from the Target ID that an inter-SGSN SRNS relocation is required. A DNS A query is
performed for the target RNC ID FQDN to obtain the target SGSN IP address. The old SGSN then sends a Forward
Relocation Request to the new SGSN.
4
The new SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC. At this point, radio access bearers have been
established.
5
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Response message to the new SGSN.
6
When resources for the transmission of user data between the new RNC and the new SGSN have been allocated and the
new SGSN is ready for relocation of SRNS, the Forward Relocation Response message (Cause, RANAP Cause, and RAB
Setup Information) is sent from the new SGSN to the old SGSN.
7
The old SGSN continues the relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Command message to the old RNC. The old
SGSN sends the RAB setup information received in the Forward Relocation Response in a Relocation Command to the old
RNC. This enables the old RNC to establish a data path with new RNC so that it can forward the data packets.
8
The old SRNC may, according to the QoS profile, begin the forwarding of data for the RABs to be subject for data
forwarding.
9
Before sending the Relocation Commit the uplink and downlink data transfer in the source, the SRNC shall be suspended
for RABs, which require a delivery order. The source RNC starts the data-forwarding timer. When the old SRNC is ready,
the old SRNC triggers the execution of relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Commit message (SRNS Contexts) to
the new RNC over the Iur interface.
10
The target RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the new SGSN when the relocation execution trigger is received.
11
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
12
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Complete message to the new SGSN.
13
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete message.
14
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Acknowledgement to the new SGSN. to signal to the new SGSN the
completion of the SRNS relocation procedure.
15
Upon receipt of the Relocation Complete message, the CN switches the user plane from the old RNC to the new SRNC.
The new SGSN sends Update PDP Context Request messages to the GGSN.
16
The GGSN sends Update PDP Context Response messages to the new SGSN.
17
The old SGSN sends an Iu Release Command message to the old RNC.
18
The old RNC sends an Iu Release Complete message to the old SGSN.
19
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
The intra-SGSN Gn/Gp SRNS Relocation procedure is illustrated in the following figure.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Figure 97.
Intra-SGSN Gn/Gp SRNS Relocation Call Flow
Table 36.
Intra-SGSN (Gn/Gp) SRNS Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The source SRNC decides to perform/initiate SRNS relocation.
2
The old RNC sends a Relocation Required message to the SGSN.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Step
Description
3
The SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC. At this point, radio access bearers have been established.
4
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledgement message to the SGSN.
5
The SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC and the UE is detached from the old RNC and attached to the new
RNC.
6
The old SRNC may, according to the QoS profile, begin the forwarding of data for the RABs to be subject for data
forwarding.
7
Before sending the Relocation Commit the uplink and downlink data transfer in the source, the SRNC shall be suspended
for RABs, which require a delivery order. The source RNC starts the data-forwarding timer. When the old SRNC is ready,
the old SRNC triggers the execution of relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Commit message (SRNS Contexts) to
the new RNC over the Iur interface.
8
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
9
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
10
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the SGSN.
11
The SGSN sends a Relocation Complete message to the new RNC.
12
If Direct Tunnel was established during intra-SGSN SRNS relocation, the SGSN sends Update PDP Context Request
messages to the GGSN.
13
If Direct Tunnel was established during intra-SGSN SRNS relocation, the SGSN sends Update PDP Context Response
messages to the GGSN.
14
The SGSN sends an Iu Release Command to the old RNC.
15
The old RNC releases the Iu connection and sends a Release Complete message to the SGSN.
16
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
SRNS Relocation on the S4-SGSN
On the S4-SGSN, the SRNS relocation feature is triggered by subscribers (MS/UE) moving between an eNodeB and an
RNC or between two RNCs.
If the originating and destination nodes are connected to the same S4-SGSN but are in different routing areas, the
behavior triggers an intra-SGSN Routing Area Update (RAU).
If the nodes are connected to different S4-SGSNs, the relocation is followed by an inter-SGSN RAU. This RAU occurs
over a RANAP direct transfer. As a result, it does not trigger Context Request/Context Response/Context Ack
procedures with the old SGSN/MME. These procedures are otherwise performed during a normal SGSN RAU.
The GTPv2 protocol is used for SRNS relocation between two RNCs and between an eNodeB and an RNC.
In addition to supporting Inter-SGSN SRNS relocation across the Gn interface, the S4-SGSN supports SRNS relocation
for the following scenarios across the S3 (S4-SGSN to MME) and S16 (S4-SGSN to S4-SGSN) interfaces:
 Inter-SGSN SRNS relocation over the S16 interface
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
 UTRAN-to-E-UTRAN connected mode Inter-RAT handover over the S3 interface
 E-UTRAN-to-UTRAN connected mode Inter-RAT handover over the S3 interface
As part of the SRNS relocation feature implementation on the S4-SGSN, the SGSN application also supports the gtpv2
(egtp) protocol for:
 Inter-SGSN SRNS relocations over the S16 interface
 MME - SGSN SRNS relocations over the S3 interface
S4-SGSN SRNS relocation interface selection logic is based on the following assumptions:
 If the egtp-service is configured, it is assumed the network is EPC capable and therefore must require a DNS
SNAPTR.
 If the egtp-service is configured on the S4-SGSN, then for outbound SRNS relocation, the system always
performs a DNS SNAPTR as follows:
 x-S16 if the peer detected is another S4-GSN, or x-S3 if the peer detected is an MME (based on
whether the target is an eNodeB/the MSB of the target LAC being 1, or, if a local MME group ID is
configured).
 x-gn if a local configuration for a peer SGSN or MME exists with a Gn address, or, if DNS SNAPTR
returned a GN address.
If both DNS queries fail, the system rejects the SRNS relocation.
The following table describes the interface selection logic for the various types of SRNS relocation that can occur when
the interface used for a subscriber is S4 for PDP contexts.
Table 37.
Interface Selection Logic for S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation
SI.No
RNC
Release
Compliance
Target Type Sent
in Relocation
Request
LAC
Configured
as MME
Group ID?
LAC MSB
Set?
Peer
Type?
Type of DNS
Query?
Interface
IP
Provided
by DNS?
Interface Chosen?
1
R8+
eNodeB
n/a
n/a
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and TAC
FQDN
S3
S3
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
SI.No
RNC
Release
Compliance
Target Type Sent
in Relocation
Request
LAC
Configured
as MME
Group ID?
LAC MSB
Set?
Peer
Type?
Type of DNS
Query?
Interface
IP
Provided
by DNS?
Interface Chosen?
2
R8+
eNodeB
n/a
n/a
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and TAC
FQDN
Gn
When a TAC FQDN
is used to query the
MME address the
system expects that
the MME supports S3
interface. If this is the
case, the S3 interface
is chosen. If DNS
returns a Gn address,
then the system
rejects the
Relocation, and sends
a Relocation
Preparation Failure to
the source RNC.
3
R8+
RNC
n/a
n/a
SGSN
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppsgsn:x-s16
and RNC
ID FQDN
S16
S16
4
R8+
n/a
n/a
SGSN
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppsgsn:x-s16
and RNC
ID FQDN
Gn
Gn
Yes
Irrelevant
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and MME
GI + MME
Code
FQDN
S3
S3
RNC
5
Pre R8
RNC (A pre R8
RNC cannot send
eNB as the target
type. Currently,
operators
configure eNB ID
to RNC ID
mapping in such
these pre R8
RNCs so that the
SGSN receives an
RNC ID that is
actually mapped
from the eNB ID)
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
SI.No
RNC
Release
Compliance
Target Type Sent
in Relocation
Request
LAC
Configured
as MME
Group ID?
LAC MSB
Set?
Peer
Type?
Type of DNS
Query?
Interface
IP
Provided
by DNS?
Interface Chosen?
6
Pre R8
RNC
Yes
Irrelevant
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and MME
GI + MME
Code
FQDN
Gn
Gn
7
Pre R8
RNC
No
Yes
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and MME
GI + MME
Code
FQDN
S3
S3
8
Pre R8
RNC
No
Yes
MME
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppmme:x-s3
and MME
GI + MME
Code
FQDN
Gn
Gn
9
Pre R8
RNC
No
No
SGSN
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppsgsn:x-s16
and RNC
ID FQDN
S16
S16
10
Pre R8
RNC
No
No
SGSN
DNS
SNAPTR
w/ service
type x3gppsgsn:x-s16
and RNC
ID FQDN
Gn
Gn
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
IDFT Support During Connected Mode Handovers
The S4-SGSN supports the setup of indirect data forwarding tunnels (IDFT) between the eNodeB and the RNC via the
SGW during connected mode handovers.
Once enabled, IDFT is employed under the following conditions:
 If the SGSN is the old node:
 The target node to which the connected mode handover is initiated should be an eNodeB (i.e., the
SGSN performs the handover to the MME).
 The enb-direct-data-forward CLI setting is not configured as the source RNC configuration (in
RNC Configuration Mode).
 If the SGSN is the new node:
 The source node from which connected mode handover is initiated is an eNodeB (i.e., the MME is
performing a handover to the SGSN).
 The enb-direct-data-forward setting is not configured in the source RNC configuration (in RNC
Configuration Mode).
 The source MME indicated that it does not support direct forwarding via a Forward Relocation Request.
Important: If the target SGSN did not relocate to a new SGW, IDFT setup does not apply at the SGSN. The
target SGSN sets up an indirect data forwarding tunnel with the SGW only if the SGW is relocated. If the SGW is not
relocated, then it is the source MME that sets up the indirect data forwarding tunnel between source the eNodeB and
target RNC through the SGW.
The following diagram illustrates the interface selection logic for S4-SGSN connected mode handovers.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Figure 98.
Interface Selection Logic for S4-SGSN SRNS Connected Mode Handovers
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation Call Flow Diagrams
This section provides call flow diagrams for the following S4-SGSN SRNS relocation scenarios:
 Inter-S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation
 Inter-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation
 Intra-S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation
 Inter-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation
 S4-SGSN E-UTRAN to UTRAN Connected Mode Handover without SGW Relocation
 S4-SGSN UTRAN to E-UTRAN Connected Mode Handover with SGW Relocation Call Flow
 S4-SGSN Inter-SGSN SRNS Relocation with Hard Handover and SGW Relocation
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Figure 99.
S4 Inter-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation Call Flow
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Table 38.
Inter-S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The decision is made to perform SRNS relocation.
2
The old RNC sends a Relocation Required message to the old SGSN.
3
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Request to the new SGSN.
4
The new SGSN performs SGW selection, but does not select a new SGW, as the subscriber is anchored at the same SGW
as it was previously.
5
The new SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC. At this point, Radio Access Bearers are established.
6
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledgement to the new SGSN.
7
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Response to the old SGSN. In this message, the old SGSN sends the RAB
context information of the new RNC, which was obtained from the Relocation Request Ack message.
8
The old SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC. The old SGSN sends the new RNC RAB context information
to the old RNC in the Relocation Command message so that old RNC can forward packets to the new RNC.
9
The old SRNC may, according to the QoS profile, begin the forwarding of data for the RABs to be subject for data
forwarding.
10
Before sending the Relocation Commit the uplink and downlink data transfer in the source, the SRNC shall be suspended
for RABs, which require a delivery order. The source RNC starts the data-forwarding timer. When the old SRNC is ready,
the old SRNC triggers the execution of relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Commit message (SRNS Contexts) to
the new RNC over the Iur interface.
11
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the new SGSN.
12
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
13
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
14
The new RNC sends a Relocation Complete message to the new SGSN.
15
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Notification Complete message to the old SGSN.
16
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Ack message to the old SGSN.
17
The new SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request to the SGW.
18
The SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new SGSN.
19
The old SGSN sends an Iu Release Command message to the old RNC.
20
The old RNC sends an Iu Release Complete message to the old SGSN.
21
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Figure 100. Inter-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Table 39.
Inter-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The decision is made to perform SRNS relocation.
2
The old RNC informs the old SGSN that relocation is required by sending a Relocation Required message.
3
The old SGSN initiates the relocation resource allocation procedure by sending a Forward Relocation Request message to
the new SGSN.
4
The new SGSN performs SGW selection.
5
The new SGSN sends a Create Session Request to the new SGW with Indication Flags - Operations Indication bit = 0. The
new SGW will not send a Modify Bearer Request to the PGW at this time.
6
The new SGW sends a Create Session Response to the new SGSN.
7
The new SGSN sends a Relocation Request to the new RNC. At this point radio access bearers are set up between the new
RNC and the new SGSN.
8
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledge message to the new SGSN.
9
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Response message to the old SGSN. In this message, the old SGSN sends the
RAB context information of the new RNC, which was obtained from Relocation Request Acknowledge message.
10
The old SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC. The old SGSN sends the new RNC RAB context information
to the old RNC in the Relocation Command so that the old RNC can forward packets to the new RNC.
11
The old SRNC may, according to the QoS profile, begin the forwarding of data for the RABs to be subject for data
forwarding.
12
Before sending the Relocation Commit the uplink and downlink data transfer in the source, the SRNC shall be suspended
for RABs, which require a delivery order. The source RNC starts the data-forwarding timer. When the old SRNC is ready,
the old SRNC triggers the execution of relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Commit message (SRNS Contexts) to
the new RNC over the Iur interface.
13
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the new SGSN.
14
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
15
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
16
The new RNC sends a Relocation Complete message to the new SGSN.
17
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Notification message to the old SGSN.
18
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Ack message to the new SGSN.
19
The new SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the new SGW.
20
The SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the PGW.
21
The PGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new SGW.
22
The SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new SGSN.
23
The old SGSN sends a Delete Session Request to the old SGW.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Step
Description
24
The old SGW sends a Delete Session Response to the old SGSN.
25
The old SGSN sends an Iu Release Command message to the old RNC.
26
The old RNC sends an Iu Release Complete message to the old SGSN.
27
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
Figure 101. Intra-S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Table 40.
Intra-S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation without SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The decision is made to perform SRNS relocation.
2
The old RNC sends a Relocation Required message to the SGSN.
3
The SGSN performs SGW selection, but does not select a new SGW, as the subscriber is anchored at the same SGW as it
was previously.
4
The SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC. At this point, radio access bearers have been established.
5
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledgement message to the SGSN.
6
The SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC and the UE is detached from the old RNC and attached to the new
RNC.
7
The old SRNC may, according to the QoS profile, begin the forwarding of data for the RABs to be subject for data
forwarding.
8
Before sending the Relocation Commit the uplink and downlink data transfer in the source, the SRNC shall be suspended
for RABs, which require a delivery order. The source RNC starts the data-forwarding timer. When the old SRNC is ready,
the old SRNC triggers the execution of relocation of SRNS by sending a Relocation Commit message (SRNS Contexts) to
the new RNC over the Iur interface.
9
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
10
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
11
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the SGSN.
12
The SGSN sends a Relocation Complete message to the new RNC.
13
The SGSN sends an Iu Release Command to the old RNC.
14
The old RNC releases the Iu connection and sends a Release Complete message to the SGSN.
15
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Figure 102. Intra-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Table 41.
Intra-S4-SGSN Relocation with SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The decision is made to perform SRNS relocation.
2
The old RNC sends a Relocation Required message to the SGSN.
3
The SGSN selects a new SGW for the UE.
4
The SGSN sends a Create Session Request to the new SGW with Indication Flags - Operations Indication bit=0. The new
SGW does not send a Modify Beater Request to the PGW at this time.
5
The new SGW sends a Create Session Response to the SGSN.
6
The SGSN sends a Relocation Request to the new RNC. At this point, radio access bearers have been established.
7
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledge message to the SGSN.
8
The SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC.
9
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
10
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
11
The new RNC sends a RAN Mobility Information message. This message contains UE information elements and CN
information elements.
12
When the new SRNC receives the RAN Mobility Information Confirm message, i.e. the new SRNC—ID + S-RNTI are
successfully exchanged with the MS by the radio protocols, the target SRNC initiates the Relocation Complete procedure
by sending the Relocation Commit message to the new SGSN.
13
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the SGSN.
14
The new RNC sends a Relocation Complete message to the SGSN.
15
The SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the new SGW.
16
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request to the PGW.
17
The PGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new SGW.
18
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the SGSN.
19
The SGSN sends a Delete Session Request to the old SGW.
20
The old SGW sends a Delete Session Response to the SGSN.
21
The SGSN sends an Iu Release Command to the old RNC.
22
The old RNC sends an Iu Release Complete message to the SGSN.
23
After the MS has finished the RNTI reallocation procedure, and if the new Routing Area Identification is different from the
old one, the MS initiates the Routing Area Update procedure.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Figure 103. S4-SGSN E-UTRAN to UTRAN Connected Mode Handover without SGW Relocation Call Flow
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Table 42.
S4-SGSN E-UTRAN to UTRAN Connected Mode Handover without SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The eNodeB determines that relocation is required and sends a Relocation Required message to the old MME.
2
The old MME sends a Forward Relocation Request message to the new SGSN.
3
The new SGSN performs SGW selection for the UE.
4
The new SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC. At this time, radio access bearers are established.
5
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Ack message to the new SGSN.
6
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Response to the old MME.
7
The old MME sends a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request message to the SGW (if IDFT is configured on the
SGSN and MME).
8
The SGW sends a Create Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response message to the old MME (if IDFT is configured on
the SGSN and MME).
9
The old MME sends a Handover Command message to the eNodeB.
10
Downlink packets are sent from the SGW to the eNodeB.
11
Downlink packets are sent from the eNodeB to the SGW via Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel (if IDFT is configured on the
new SGSN and the old MME). Downlink packets then are sent from the SGW to the new SGSN, and finally, from the new
SGSN to the new RNC.
12
The new RNC sends a Relocation Detect message to the new SGSN.
13
The new RNC sends a Relocation Complete message to the new SGSN.
14
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Notification message to the old MME.
15
The old MME sends a Forward Relocation Complete Ack message to the new SGSN.
16
The new SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the SGW.
17
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the PGW.
18
The PGW sends a Modify Bearer Response message to the SGW.
19
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response message to the new SGSN.
20
After timer expiry, the old MME sends a Delete IDFT Tunnel Request to the SGW and deletes the IDFT tunnel.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Figure 104. S4-SGSN UTRAN to E-UTRAN Connected Mode Handover with SGW Relocation Call Flow
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Table 43.
S4-SGSN UTRAN to E-UTRAN Connected Mode Handover with SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The old RNC determines that relocation is required for a UE and sends a Relocation Required message to the old SGSN.
2
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Request message to the new MME.
3
The new MME performs the selection of a new SGW.
4
The new MME sends a Create Session Request message to the new SGW.
5
The new SGW sends a Create Session Response to the new MME.
6
The new MME sends a Handover Request message to the eNobeB. At this point radio access bearers are established.
7
The eNodeB sends a HaNdover Request Ack message to the new MME.
8
The MME sends an Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Request to the new SGW.
9
The new SGW sends an Indirect Data Forwarding Tunnel Response to the new MME. The new SGW sends the SGW DL
data forwarding TEID to the MME in this message.
10
The new MME sends a Forward Relocation Response message to the old SGSN. The new MME forwards the SGW DL
data forwarding TEID received in step 9 to the old SGSN in this message.
11
The old SGSN sends a Create IDFT Request to the old SGW. The old SGSN sends the SGW DL data forwarding TEID
received in step 10 to the old SGW in this request. This enables the old SGW to setup an indirect forwarding path towards
the new SGW.
12
The old SGW sends a Create IDFT Response to the old SGSN. The old SGW sends the SGW DL data forwarding TEID to
the SGSN in this message. The SGSN will forward the re-forwarded downlink packets back to the old SGW to this TEID.
13
The old SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC. Downlink packets are then routed through the architecture in
the following manner:

PGW to old SGW

Old SGW to old SGSN

Old SGSN to old RNC

Old RNC to old SGSN

Old SGSN to old SGW

Old SGW to new SGW

New SGW to eNodeB
14
The eNodeB sends a Handover Complete message to the new MME.
15
The new MME sends a Forward Relocation Complete message to the old SGSN.
16
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Notification message to the new MME.
17
The new MME sends a Modify Bearer Request to the new SGW.
18
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request to the PGW.
19
The PGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new SGW.
20
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response to the new MME.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Step
Description
21
After timer expiry, the old SGSN sends a Delete Session Request to the old SGW.
22
The old SGW sends a Delete Session Response to the old SGSN.
23
The old SGSN also sends a Delete IDFT Request to the old SGW.
24
Similar to the timer started at the old SGSN, the new MME also would have started a timer to guard the holding of the
IDFT tunnel created there. Upon expiry of this timer, the new MME sends a Delete IDFT Request to the new SGW.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Figure 105.
S4-SGSN Inter-SGSN Hard Handover and SGW Relocation (Part 1)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ How it Works
Figure 106. S4-SGSN Inter-SGSN Relocation with Hard Handover and SGW Relocation (Part 2)
Table 44.
S4-SGSN Inter-SGSN Hard Handover with SGW Relocation Process Description
Step
Description
1
The decision is made to initiate relocation.
2
The source RNC sends a Relocation Required message to the target RNC.
3
The old SGSN selects the new SGSN and sends a Forward Relocation Request message to the new SGSN.
4
The new SGSN sends a Create Session Request message to the new SGW.
5
The new SGW sends a Create Session Response back to the new SGSN.
6
The new SGSN sends a Relocation Request message to the new RNC.
7
The new RNC sends a Relocation Request Acknowledgement back to the new SGSN.
8
The new SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Response message to the old SGSN.
9
The old SGSN sends a Relocation Command to the old RNC.
10
The old RNC sends the RRC message to the UE. Upon reception of this message the UE will remove any EPS bearers for
which it did not receive the corresponding EPS radio bearers in the target cell.
11
The old RNC sends a Forward SRNS Context message to the old SGSN.
12
The old SGSN sends a Forward Access Context Notification message to the new SGSN.
13
The new SGSN sends a Forward Access Context Acknowledge message to the old SGSN
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
How it Works ▀
Step
Description
14
The new SGSN sends a Forward SRNS Context message to the new RNC. At this point, the UE detaches from the old RNC
and attaches to the new RNC.
15
The source RNC should start direct forwarding of downlink data from the source RNC towards the target RNC for bearers
subject to data forwarding.
16
The UE sends an RRC message to the new RNC. Downlink packets forwarded from the old RNC can be sent to the UE. In
addition, uplink packets can be sent from the UE, which are forwarded to the new SGW and then on to the PGW.
17
The new RNC sends a Relocation Complete message to the new SGSN.
18
The new SGSN then ends a Forward Relocation Complete Notification message to the old SGSN.
19
The old SGSN sends a Forward Relocation Complete Acknowledgement message to the new SGSN.
20
The new SGSN sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the new SGW for each PDN connection.
21
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Request message to the PGW.
22
The PGW sends a Modify Bearer Response message to the new SGW.
23
The new SGW sends a Modify Bearer Response message to the new SGSN. The PGW begins sending downlink packets to
the new SGW, which in turn sends them to the new RNC, and then to the UE.
24
The UE initiates a Routing Area Update procedure. This RAU occurs on a RANAP Direct Transfer and therefore does not
involve a Context transfer with the peer SGSN.
25
The old SGSN sends a Delete Session Request to the old SGW.
26
The old SGSN sends an Iu Release Command to the old RNC.
27
The old RNC then sends a Iu Release Complete message to the old SGSN.
28
The old SGW sends a Delete Session Response message to the old SGSN.
Standards Compliance
The SGSN SRNS Relocation feature complies with the following standards:
 SGSN Gn/Gp SRNS Relocation: 3GPP TS 23.060 V8.10.0 (2010-09): 3rd Generation Partnership Project;
Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
description; Stage 2 (Release 8)
 S4-SGSN (S3/S16) SRNS Relocation: 3GPP TS 23.060 V9.8.0 (2011-03): 3rd Generation Partnership Project;
Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service
description; Stage 2 (Release 9)
 MME to 3G SGSN Hard Handover and Relocation: LTE; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access (3GPP TS 23.401
version 9.8.0 Release 9)
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN
Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN
This section provides examples of how to configure the SRNS relocation feature on the SGSN. An optional
configuration example is also provided for enabling IDFT.
Configuring the SRNS Relocation Feature
Configuring the SRNS Relocation feature includes creating a call-control-profile and then enabling intra- and/or interSGSN SRNS relocation via the Command Line Interface (CLI).
config
call-control-profile cc-profile name
srns-intra all failure-code integer
srns-inter all failure-code integer
end
config
context <context_name>
iups-service iups_service_name
inter-rnc-procedures source-rnc-as-target
Notes:
 cc-profile-name is the name assigned to this call-control-profile
 srns-intra all enables intra-SGSN SRNS relocations for all location areas.
 srns-inter all enables inter-SGSN SRNS relocations for all location areas.
 failure-code integer specifies the failure code that applies to SRNS relocations.
 Optionally, operators can use the restrict and allow keywords to identify specific location areas where
SRNS relocation will, or will not, occur. For detailed information on these optional keywords, refer to the
Cisco ASR 5x00 Command Line Reference.
 inter-rnc-procedures source-rnc-as-target: Optional. Configures the SGSN to support SRNS
relocation for those scenarios where the source RNC is behaving as the target RNC. The default is not to allow
SRNS relocation in those scenarios.
Enabling IDFT (Optional, S4-SGSN Only)
To enable support of IDFT between the eNodeB and a specified RNC via the SGW during connected mode handovers
on the S4-SGSN:
config
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN ▀
context <context_name>
iups-service <iups_service_name>
rnc id <rnc_id>
no enb-direct-data-forward
end
Where:
 no enb-direct-data-forward enables the setup of IDFT between the eNodeB and the RNC via the SGW
for connected mode inter RAT handovers. If IDFT is enabled, the SGSN/MME will send the IDFT request
towards the SGW.
 To disable IDFT, enter the enb-direct-data-forward command.
Verifying the SRNS Feature Configuration
This section describes how to verify that SRNS feature configuration.
The following commands provide information on how the SRNS relocation feature is configured:
show call-control-profile full all
show call-control-profile full name cc-profile-name
The output of these commands includes the complete SRNS configuration for the specified Call Control Profile. For
example:
[local]asr5x00# show call-control-profile name cc-profile-name
...
...
...
SRNS Intra All
: Allow
SRNS Intra All Failure Code
: 10
SRNS Inter All
: Allow
SRNS Inter All Failure Code
: 15
...
...
...
The following command provides information on how IDFT is configured:
show iups-service name service_name
The output of this command indicates whether IDFT is enabled or disabled for the RNC configuration. If the E-Node
Direct Data Forwarding setting reads “Disabled,” then IDFT is enabled. If it reads “Enabled,” then IDFT is disabled.
[local]asr5x00# show iups-service name service-name
..
..
..
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ Configuring SRNS Relocation on the SGSN
Available RNC:
..
..
..
E-NodeB Direct Data Forwarding : Disabled
..
..
..
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation ▀
Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation
This section provides information that assists operators in monitoring and troubleshooting the SRSN Relocation feature.
SRNS Bulk Statistics
The following statistics are included in the SGSN Schema in support of the SRNS Relocation feature. For detailed
descriptions of these bulk statistics, refer to the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
Table 45.
SRNS Relocation Feature Bulk Statistics
Bulk Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation Feature
SRNS-ctxt-req-sent
srns-ctx-deny-ip-up-failure
SRNS-ctxt-rsp-rcvd
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-alloc-expiry
SRNS-ctxt-req-tmr-expired
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-failure-target-system
SRNS-ctxt-total-pdp-acc
srns-ctx-deny-invalid-rdb-id
SRNS-ctxt-total-pdp-rej
srns-ctx-deny-no-remaining-rab
SRNS-data-fwd-cmd-sent
srns-ctx-deny-interaction-with-other-proc
srns-ctx-deny-rab-preempt
srns-ctx-deny-integrity-check-fail
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-overall-tmr-exp
srns-ctx-deny-req-type-not-supported
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-prep-tmr-exp
srns-ctx-deny-req-superseeded
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-complete-tmr-exp
srns-ctx-deny-rel-due-to-ue-sig-con-rel
srns-ctx-deny-queuing-tmr-exp
srns-ctx-deny-res-optimization-reloc
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-triggered
srns-ctx-deny-req-info-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-unable-to-est-reloc
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-due-to-radio-reason
srns-ctx-deny-unknown-target-rnc
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-unsupport-target-sys
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-cancel
srns-ctx-deny-directed-retry
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-success
srns-ctx-deny-radio-con-with-ue-lost
srns-ctx-deny-cypher-algo-no-support
srns-ctx-deny-rnc-unable-to-estab-all-rfcs
srns-ctx-deny-conflict-cypher-info
srns-ctx-deny-deciphering-keys-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-failure-radio-if-proc
srns-ctx-deny-dedicated-assist-data-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-rel-utran-reason
srns-ctx-deny-reloc-target-not-allowed
srns-ctx-deny-utran-inactivity
srns-ctx-deny-location-reporting-congestion
srns-ctx-deny-time-crit-relocation
srns-ctx-deny-reduce-load-in-serving-cell
srns-ctx-deny-req-traffic-class-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-no-radio-res-avail-target-cell
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation
Bulk Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation Feature
srns-ctx-deny-invalid-rab-param-val
srns-ctx-deny-geran-iu-mode-failure
srns-ctx-deny-req-max-bit-rate-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-access-restrict-shared-nwtk
srns-ctx-deny-req-max-bit-rate-dl-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-in-reloc-nwt-support-puesbine
srns-ctx-deny-req-max-bit-rate-ul-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-traffic-target-more-src-cell
srns-ctx-deny-req-gbr-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-no-multicat-svc-for-ue
srns-ctx-deny-req-gbr-dl-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-unknown-ue-id
srns-ctx-deny-req-gbr-ul-unavail
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-sess-start-no-data-bearer
srns-ctx-deny-req-trans-delay-not-achieve
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-superseed-nnsf
srns-ctx-deny-inval-rab-param-combo
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-ue-linking-already-done
srns-ctx-deny-violation-for-sdu-param
srns-ctx-deny-mbms-ue-delinking-failure
srns-ctx-deny-violation-traffic-hanlde-prio
srns-ctx-deny-tmgi-unknown
srns-ctx-deny-violation-for-gbr
srns-ctx-deny-ms-unspecified-failure
srns-ctx-deny-usr-plane-ver-unsupported
srns-ctx-deny-no-response-from-rnc
Show Command Output Supporting the SRNS Relocation Feature
This section provides information regarding CLI show commands that provide output to support of the SRSN
Relocation feature.
The following show commands are available in support of the SRNS Relocation feature on the SGSN and the S4SGSN:
show s4-sgsn statistics all
show gmm-sm statistics
The following counters are included in the show gmm-sm statistics command output to support the SRNS Relocation
feature. These statistics provide information on RAN application messages and the total number of attempted and
successful SGSN Gn/Gp and S4-SGSN SRNS relocations. These totals are further subdivided by SRNS relocation type.
Note that these statistics apply to the SGSN (Gn/Gp) and the S4-SGSN on the SGSN-RNC-UE interface side. For
detailed descriptions of these statistics, refer to the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters Reference.
Table 46.
GMM SM Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation
GMM SM Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation
RANAP Procedures
Relocation Required
Relocation Request
Relocation Failure
Relocation Cancel
Relocation Detect
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Relocation Complete
Relocation Command
Relocation Request Ack
Relocation Prep Failure
Relocation Cancel Ack
SGSN Serving Radio Network Subsystem Relocation
Monitoring and Troubleshooting SRNS Relocation ▀
GMM SM Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation
3G-SRNS Stats
Attempted
Total SRNS
Intra-SGSN SRNS
Intra-SRNS UE involved
Intra-SRNS UE not involved
Inter-SGSN SRNS
Inter-SRNS UE involved (old SGSN)
Inter-SRNS UE not involved (old SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE involved (new SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (new SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE involved (old SGSN with MME)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (old SGSN with MME
Inter-SGSN UE involved (new SGSN with MME)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (new SGSN with MME)
Successful
Total SRNS
Intra-SGSN SRNS
Intra-SRNS UE involved
Intra-SRNS UE not involved
Inter-SGSN SRNS
Inter-SRNS UE involved (old SGSN)
Inter-SRNS UE not involved (old SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE involved (new SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (new SGSN)
Inter-SGSN UE involved (old SGSN with MME)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (old SGSN with MME
Inter-SGSN UE involved (new SGSN with MME)
Inter-SGSN UE not involved (new SGSN with MME)
The following counters are included in the show s4-sgsn statistics all command output in support of the
SRNS Relocation feature. These statistics apply to the S4 interface network level. They provide information on the
number and type of SRNS SGW relocations, SRNS procedure aborts, and IDFT packets and bytes sent to and from the
SGW (if IDFT is enabled). For detailed descriptions of these statistics, refer to the ASR 5x00 Statistics and Counters
Reference.
Table 47.
Statistics Supporting S4-SGSN SRNS Relocation
Statistics Supporting SRNS Relocation on the S4-SGSN
SGW Relocations
3G Intra SGSN SRNS Relocation
3G Inter SGSN SRNS Relocation (S16)
MME-SGSN SRNS Relocation (S3)
Procedure Abort Statistics
3G Intra SRNS Abort Due to Total CSR Failure
3G New SGSN SRNS Abort Due to Total CSR Failure
GTPU Statistics
IDFT packets to SGW
IDFT packets from SGW
IDFT bytes to SGW
IDFT bytes from SGW
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 32
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
The number of IMSI Managers supported is scaled up on ASR 5500 and a VPC-DI platforms, this chapter provides
detailed information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Support for Multiple IMSI Managers
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager Support
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The IMSI Manager is a de-multiplex process that selects the Session Manager instance based on the de-multiplex
algorithm logic to host a new session. The IMSI Manager process also maintains the mapping of IMSI/F-PTMSI (UE
identifier) to the Session Manager instance. Currently only a single instance of the IMSI Manager task is present on the
SGSN or SGSN and MME combo nodes. This feature is developed to increase the number of IMSI Manager Instances.
The maximum number of IMSI Managers supported on ASR5000 and SSI remains at “1”. This feature is only supported
on ASR5500 and VPC-DI platforms.
The IMSI Manager task is a bottleneck during single event performance testing, the Attach/RAU rates are restricted to a
lower value than desired on the ASR5000 /ASR5500 platforms. The IMSI Manager receives new session requests from
the Link Manager (3G) and Gb Manager (2G) processes in the SGSN. It also receives messages from the MME
Manager (12 instances) processes in the MME. The IMSI Manager task communicates with a maximum of “288”
Session Manager instances in a fully loaded chassis on ASR5000. On DPC2 the numbers of Session Manager Instances
are much more than on ASR5000, therefore one instance of IMSI Manager will not be sufficient to support the number
of Session Manager Instances on ASR5500 and VPC-DI platforms. Scaling up the number of IMSI Manager Instances
improves the single event performance numbers of SGSN and MME. It also helps in utilizing the full capability of the
ASR 5500 and VPC-DI platforms.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
How it Works ▀
How it Works
Detailed Description
The LINKMGR, GBMGR and the MMEMGR select an IMSIMGR instance that needs to be contacted for session
setup. Each subscriber session in the Session Manager maintains the IMSIMGR instance number that “hosts” the
mapping for this IMSI. This information is required while communicating during audit and session recovery scenarios.
When a single IMSI manager instance is present, there is only one centralized entry point for new calls into the system.
Network overload protection is configured using the command “network-overload-protection”, new call acceptance
rates are configured and controlled using this command. Once the configured rate is reached the new calls are dropped.
When there are multiple IMSI manager instances, the configured new call acceptance rate is distributed equally across
all IMSI Manager instances to throttle new calls.
The IMSI manager manages target (NRI and count) based offloading. Though number of IMSI Manager instances is
increased, only the first IMSI Manager instance is allowed to perform the target based offloading. It keeps track of the
total offloaded subscribers for every Target-NRI from all Session Managers and notifies all the Session Managers on
attaining Target-count for that Target-NRI.
Several race handling scenarios like ISRAU-Attach collision scenario, Inter-MME TAU attach (FGUTI) on attach
(IMSI) collision scenario and so on can occur, specific measures have been taken to ensure these race handling
scenarios are handled correctly in a multiple IMSI Manager instance scenario.
The control plane messaging throughput on the ASR5500 platform is increased, therefore Performance degradation or
congestion is not observed during multiple IMSI Manager instance recovery after a crash or an unplanned card
migration. Also mechanisms are devised to ensure there is no impact on Session Manager recovery and Session
Manager Thresholding.
The Monitor subscriber next-call option is used to trace the next incoming call into the system. With multiple IMSI
Manager instances, the Session Controller now sends the next-call details to IMSI manager instance 1. So the next
incoming call through IMSI manager instance “1” is monitored.
The IMSI managers are updated with information on critical parameters that lead to congestion control. The IMSI
managers have to inform the congestion status to all Link Managers and Gb Managers. In order to avoid multiple IMSI
managers sending information to all Link Managers and Gb Managers, only the first IMSI Manager instance informs the
congestion status to all Link Managers and Gb Managers. Also only the first IMSI Manager instance sends the traps
indicating congestion status; this reduces the number of traps to be sent.
From this release onwards, the Diameter Proxy Server queries the IMSI Manager instances to obtain
IMSI/IMEI/MSISDN to Session manager instance mapping information.
Relationships to Other Features
Many SGSN and MME features are based on the assumption that there is only one IMSI Manager and there is only one
centralized entry point to the system, this assumption now no longer holds good with multiple IMSI manager instances.
Workarounds have been arrived at to ensure there are no changes observed during such scenarios. Examples of such
scenarios are listed below:
 MME per service session limit: The per MME service session limits are enforced by each IMSI manager
instance. The per service session limit is configured by the command bind s1-mme max-subscribers
number.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
▀ How it Works
 MME traps generated by IMSI Manager: Each IMSI Manager instance generates traps for new call
allowed/disallowed independently. The trap information includes the IMSI Manager instance information
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
Configuring Support for Multiple IMSI Managers ▀
Configuring Support for Multiple IMSI Managers
The following configuration command is used to configure the number of IMSIMGR tasks that are required
in the system:
config
task facility imsimgr { avoid-sessmgr-broadcast | max <integer_value> | requiredsessmgr no_sess_mgrs | sessmgr-sessions-threshold high-watermark <high_value> lowwatermark <low_value> }
end
Notes:
 The keyword max denotes the number of IMSI managers spawned in the system. This keyword is supported only
on ASR5500 and VPC-DI platforms. A maximum of “4” IMSI Manager can be configured.
 The default number of IMSI Managers supported is “4” on ASR5500 and VPC-DI platforms.
 This is a boot-time configuration and should be added in the configuration file before any SGSN/MME related
configuration is created or any IMSI Manager is started. Run-time configuration of this CLI is not valid. Any
such attempt will result in the following error message being displayed:
New config requires system restart to be effective. Please save config and
restart
 This configuration should be added in the configuration file and the system should be re-loaded to apply this new
configuration.
The sgsn imsimgr command in the Exec mode initiates audit for managing the SGSN's IMSI manager's (IMSIMgr)
IMSI table. The command is updated with a new keyword instance to extend support for multiple IMSI Managers.
The audit is initiated from only one specified instance of IMSI Manager at a time.
sgsn imsimgr { instance instance_id }{ add-recordimsi sessmgr instance sessmgr# | auditwith sessmgr { all | instance sessmgr# } | remove-record imsi }
Verifying the Configuration
The feature configuration can be verified by executing the show configuration command, the number IMSI
Managers configured is displayed:
 task facility imsimgr max 4
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager Support
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager
Support
This section provides information on the show commands available to support this feature.
Multiple IMSI Managers Show Command(s) and/or Outputs
show linkmgr all
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 IMSIMGR Selection counters
 IMSIMGR 1
 IMSIMGR 2
 IMSIMGR 3
 IMSIMGR 4
show linkmgr instance parser statistics all
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 Messenger Counters
 IMSIMGR Selection counters
 IMSIMGR 1
 IMSIMGR 2
 IMSIMGR 3
 IMSIMGR 4
show gbmgr instance parser statistics all
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 Messenger Counters
 IMSIMGR Selection counters
 IMSIMGR 1
 IMSIMGR 2
 IMSIMGR 3
 IMSIMGR 4
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager Support ▀
show demuxmgr statistics imsimgr verbose
The following new parameter is added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 IMSIMGR instance number
show demux-mgr statistics sgtpcmgr instance < id >
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 Interactions with IMSI Manager
 Num requests sent to IMSIMgr
 Num requests not sent to IMSIMgr
 Num requests bounced from IMSIMgr
 Num responses received from IMSIMgr
 Num responses with unknown IMSI
 Num Forwarded Relocation Request forwarded
 Num Relocation Cancel Requests With IMSI forwarded
 Num Forward Relocation Requests rejected by IMSIMGR
 Num Relocation Cancel Requests rejected by IMSIMGR
show session subsystem facility mmemgr instance < id >
New counters are added in the MME manager to count the number of requests sent towards the IMSI managers:
 IMSIMGR Selection counters
 IMSIMGR 1
 IMSIMGR 2
 IMSIMGR 3
 IMSIMGR 4
show subscribers mme-only full all/ show mme-service session full all
The IMSI Manager instance holding the mapping entry for a subscriber session is displayed as part of the subscriber
session information:
 Imsimgr Instance
show mme-service db record call-id <id>
The following new parameters are added to this show command to display the statistics for this feature:
 Sessmgr Instance
 Imsimgr Instance
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for IMSI Manager Scaling
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Multiple IMSI Manager Support
 MME Service
 Lookup Keys
 IMSI
 Service-id
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 33
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
This chapter describes SGSN support for Peer-Server Blocking, and provides detailed information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Peer-Server Blocking
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Peer-Server Blocking
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The validity of SCTP redundancy has to be tested by simulating fail overs when new RNCs/STPs have to be
commissioned. Peer-Server Blocking support has been added to prevent any issues during commissioning of new
RNCs/STPs.
The Peer Server Blocking feature provides the following functionalities:
1. The SCTP association can be either brought up or down in order to test the redundancy of the same.
2. The PSPs can be brought down without removing the configuration.
3. The SGSN supports a new configuration command under the psp-instance to block/unblock peer endpoint and
this configuration is pushed to the Link Manager to achieve peer-server blocking.
4. The SGSN sends a SCTP Shutdown to the remote endpoint and marks the endpoint as LOCKED when the PSP
is configured as blocked and if the PSP is in ESTABLISHED state.
5. The SGSN initiates a SCTP INIT when a blocked PSP is un-blocked and if the SGSN is a client and is aspassociated.
6. The SGSN replies with an ABORT when the peer sends INIT in LOCKED state.
7. The SGSN marks the remote endpoint as LOCKED when the PSP is configured as blocked and if the PSP is in a
CLOSED state.
8. The PSP state is recovered in case of Link Manager death and no messages are initiated after recovery if the PSP
is in locked state.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
How it Works ▀
How it Works
The SCTP associations are between PSPs and ASPs. The control to bring down a SCTP association is added at the PSP
level. The option for shutdown/no shutdown is added under each PSP configuration. This information is stored in
SCT and is forwarded to the Session Controller.The Session Controller sends this configuration request to the Master
Link Manager via a messenger call. The Link Manager receives the configuration from the Master Manager. Based on
the current association state and the CLI (shutdown/no shutdown) issued the following actions are taken:
1. If the CLI shutdown is issued, the shutdown flag is set. When the association is in an ESTABLISHED state, the
Link Manager initiates a SCTP SHUTDOWN towards the peer and moves to the LOCKED state after
shutdown procedure is completed.
2. If the CLI no shutdown is issued, the shutdown flag is not set and this serves as a trigger to INIT towards the
peer, provided the PSP is already in LOCKED state and SGSN is configured as client. A SCTP INIT is
triggered towards the peer. If the association is in any state other than LOCKED state, the configuration is
ignored.
The following table provides information on various Peer Server blocking scenarios based on the CLI configuration:
CLI
configuration
Current
Association State
SGSN Action
Result Association
State
shutdown
LOCKED
1.
2.
No action taken.
Association remains in LOCKED state.
shutdown
CLOSED
1.
2.
Association is marked as LOCKED.
SCTP Abort is sent on receiving Init from peer, and the
Init is dropped.
LOCKED
shutdown
COOKIE-WAIT
1.
2.
Association is marked as LOCKED.
SCTP Abort is sent for every subsequent Init from peer.
LOCKED
shutdown
COOKIEECHOED
1.
2.
Association is marked as LOCKED.
SCTP Abort is sent on receiving Init from peer and the
Init is dropped.
LOCKED
shutdown
ESTABLISHED
1.
2.
SCTP SHUTDOWN is initiated
The association is moved to the LOCKED state after
SCTP shutdown procedure is complete
LOCKED
shutdown
SHUTDOWNPENDING
SHUTDOWNSENT
SHUTDOWNRECEIVED
SHUTDOWNACK SENT
Once the SCTP shutdown procedure is completed the association
is moved to the LOCKED state.
LOCKED
no shutdown
LOCKED
If SGSN is the client, an INIT is initiated and the association is
moved to COOKIE-WAIT state. If SGSN is the server the
association is moved to CLOSED state
COOKIE-WAIT (on
triggering
INIT)/CLOSED
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
▀ How it Works
CLI
configuration
Current
Association State
SGSN Action
Result Association
State
no shutdown
CLOSED
COOKIE-WAIT
COOKIEECHOED
ESTABLISHED
No action required.
No change in state
no shutdown
SHUTDOWNPENDING
SHUTDOWNSENT
SHUTDOWNRECEIVED
SHUTDOWNACK SENT
No action required, an Error is displayed until the shutdown
procedure completed and PSP is moved to either LOCKED state
(if the shutdown procedure is due to a previous “shutdown” on
PSP) or CLOSED state (if the shutdown is due to some other
reason).
No change in state
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
Configuring Peer-Server Blocking ▀
Configuring Peer-Server Blocking
The following command is used to configure the Peer-Server Blocking feature:
config
ss7-routing-domain routing_domain_id variant variant_type
peer-server id id
psp instance psp_instance
[no] shutdown
exit
Notes:
 On configuring shutdown, the PSP is brought down via a SCTP Shutdown procedure (if association is already
ESTABLISHED) or Abort (any other association state) and it is marked LOCKED. The SGSN does not initiate
any messages towards the peer and any message from the peer will be responded with a SCTP Abort, when the
PSP is in a LOCKED state.
 On configuring no shutdown, the PSP is marked unlocked and the SGSN initiates an association establishment
towards the peer. This is the default configuration for a PSP. The default is no shutdown.
Listed below are the error codes added to support the Peer-Server blocking feature:
 Once the CLI is configured if the operator tries to re-configure the same CLI again, a CLI failure is displayed.
This suppresses the Link Manager error logs while trying to push same configuration twice.
The error code displayed is:
Failure: PSP: Re-configuring same value
 During an ongoing shutdown procedure if the command no shutdown is executed, the execution of the
command will be unsuccessful and a CLI failure error message is displayed.
The error code displayed is:
Cannot unlock PSP during ongoing shutdown procedure
This ensures that the shutdown procedure is graceful. The command no shutdown can be configured only
when there is no ongoing shutdown procedure.
Verifying the Peer-Server Blocking Configuration
Use the following show command to verify the Peer-Server Blocking configuration:
show ss7-routing-domain num sctp asp instance num status peer-server id num peer-serverprocess instance num
The field Association State is displayed as LOCKED when the PSP is locked via the shutdown CLI.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
SGSN Support for Peer-Server Blocking
▀ Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Peer-Server Blocking
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Peer-Server Blocking
The following traps are generated on locking a PSP via shutdown CLI:
 SCTPAssociationFail
 M3UAPSPDown
 SS7PCUnavailable
 M3UAPSDown
The trap M3UAPSPDown additionally indicates the cause, the cause value indicated is Administrative-Shutdown.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Chapter 34
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF
This chapter describes the Support for QoS Upgrade feature and provides detailed information on the following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring Support for QoS upgrade from GGSNPCRF
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
The SGSN negotiates the Requested QoS with Subscribed QoS from HLR (the HLR Subscribed QoS can be over-ridden
by the local configuration). The SGSN includes this Negotiated QoS in Create PDP Context Request and Update PDP
Context Request messages to the GGSN, the negotiate QoS is capped to the Subscribed QoS and cannot exceed it. The
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set, and the GGSN cannot negotiate a QoS higher than that sent by the SGSN.
This feature enables the functionality, where the SGSN can set the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag within the common
flags IE in Tunnel management messages, Create PDP Context Request and Update PDP Context Request messages.
The SGSN accepts the QoS from GGSN in Create PDP Context Response, Update PDP Context Request/Response
messages as the Negotiated QoS for the PDP session.
In a 3G scenario, if QoS is downgraded by the RNC then SGSN sets the “No QoS negotiation” flag in the common
Flags IE of the corresponding Update PDP Context Request. The “QoS upgrade supported” flag is not set.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF
How it Works ▀
How it Works
A new configuration CLI is provided under the APN Profile configuration mode to support the QoS upgrade feature. If
this CLI is configured, the SGSN sets the “Upgrade QoS Supported” bit in the Common Flags IE in Create PDP Context
Request and Update PDP Context Request. The SGSN accepts the QoS from the GGSN in Create PDP Context
Response, Update PDP Context Request/Response as the Negotiated QoS for the PDP session.
A detail description of the implementation of the QoS upgrade feature in various 3G scenarios is provided below:
The “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag in Create PDP Context Request and Response messages
1. During the primary and secondary PDP context activation, if support to send “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is
configured under the APN-Profile, the SGSN sets the flag while sending the Create PDP Context Request.
2. The Create PDP Context Response arrives from the GGSN. If the configuration for “Upgrade QoS Supported”
flag is enabled under the APN-Profile, the GGSN requested QoS is handled.
A CLI option is provided to enable or disable the keyword prefer-as-cap subscription. Based on the
configuration of this keyword, the following QoS processing occurs:
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is disabled: The SGSN accepts the QoS in the Create PDP
Context Response as the negotiated QoS. This negotiated QoS can be downgraded by the RNC during RAB
assignment. If the RNC downgrades the QoS then “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set in the
corresponding Update PDP Context Request message.
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is enabled: The SGSN negotiates the QoS received in the
Create PDP Context Response with the Subscribed QoS. After negotiation if the QoS is downgraded, the
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag not set in the Update PDP Context Request message.
The “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag in Update PDP Context Request and Response messages
If support to send “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is configured under the APN-Profile and “No QoS negotiation' flag is
not set, the SGSN sets the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag while sending the Update PDP Context Request. The
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set in every Update PDP Context Request, for example, in preservation and direct
tunnel this flag is not set in Update PDP Context Request message. The relationship between the “No QoS negotiation”
flag and the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flags in Update PDP Context Request messages is summarized as:
 If “No QoS negotiation” flag is set, the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set.
 If “No QoS negotiation” flag is not set, the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is set.
A CLI option is provided to enable or disable the keyword prefer-as-cap subscription. Based on the
configuration of this keyword, the following QoS processing occurs:
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is disabled: The SGSN accepts the QoS in the Create PDP
Context Response as the Negotiated QoS. This Negotiated QoS can be downgraded by the RNC during RAB
assignment. If the RNC downgrades the QoS then “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set in the
corresponding Update PDP Context Request message.
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is enabled: The SGSN negotiates the QoS received in the
Create PDP Context Response with the Subscribed QoS. After negotiation if the QoS is downgraded, the
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag not set in the Update PDP Context Request message.
A detail description of the implementation of the QoS upgrade feature in various 2G scenarios is provided below:
The “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag for Create PDP Context Request and Response
1. During the primary and secondary PDP context activation, if support to send “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is
configured under the APN-Profile, the SGSN sets the flag while sending the Create PDP Context Request.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF
▀ How it Works
2. The Create PDP Context Response arrives from the GGSN. If the configuration for “Upgrade QoS Supported”
flag is enabled under the APN-Profile, the GGSN requested QoS is handled.
A CLI option is provided to enable or disable the keyword prefer-as-cap subscription. Based on the
configuration of this keyword, the following QoS processing occurs:
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is disabled: The SGSN accepts the QoS in the Create PDP
Context Response as the Negotiated QoS. In an ideal 2G scenario where all the parameters are configured
appropriately at the GGSN/PCRF, an upgrade beyond “472” kbps does not occur. If the GGSN sends QoS
greater than “472” kbps, this requested bitrate is capped to “472” kbps.
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is enabled: The SGSN negotiates the QoS received in the
Create PDP Context Response with the Subscribed QoS. After negotiation if the QoS is downgraded, the
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag not set in the Update PDP Context Request message.
The “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag for Update PDP Context Request and Response
If support to send “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is configured under the APN-Profile and “No QoS negotiation' flag is
not set, the SGSN sets the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag while sending the Update PDP Context Request. The
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set in every Update PDP Context Request, for example, in preservation and direct
tunnel this flag is not set in Update PDP Context Request message. The relationship between the “No QoS negotiation”
flag and the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flags in Update PDP Context Request messages is summarized as:
 If “No QoS negotiation” flag is set, the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set.
 If “No QoS negotiation” flag is not set, the “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is set.
A CLI option is provided to enable or disable the keyword prefer-as-cap subscription. Based on the
configuration of this keyword, the following QoS processing occurs:
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is disabled: The SGSN accepts the QoS in the Create PDP
Context Response as the Negotiated QoS. This Negotiated QoS can be downgraded by the RNC during RAB
assignment. If the RNC downgrades the QoS then “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is not set in the
corresponding Update PDP Context Request message.
 The keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is enabled: The SGSN negotiates the QoS received in the
Create PDP Context Response with the Subscribed QoS. After negotiation if the QoS is downgraded, the
“Upgrade QoS Supported” flag not set in the Update PDP Context Request message.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Support For QoS Upgrade From GGSN or PCRF
Configuring Support for QoS upgrade from GGSN/PCRF ▀
Configuring Support for QoS upgrade from GGSN/PCRF
The following command is used to configure the support for QoS upgrade from GGSN/PCRF:
config
apn-profile <profile_name>
qos allow-upgrade access-type { gprs | umts }[ prefer-as-cap subscription ]
remove qos allow-upgrade access-type { gprs | umts }
exit
Notes:
 The “Upgrade QoS Supported” flag is now set in “Create PDP Context” and “Update PDP Context” messages
sent by SGSN. The SGSN signals the availability of this functionality by use of the “Upgrade QoS Supported”
bit within the Common Flags IE. The SGSN sets the “Upgrade QoS Supported” bit within the Common Flags
IE to “1” within the “Create PDP Context” and “Update PDP Context”
 If keyword prefer-as-cap subscription is enabled, SGSN accepts a higher QoS in the Create/Update
PDP Context Response than sent in Create/Update PDP Context Request, but negotiates and restricts the value
within HLR/local subscribed QoS. If this keyword is disabled, the SGSN accepts the QoS in Create PDP
Context Response and Update PDP Context Response as the Negotiated QoS (this QoS may be downgraded by
the RNC in case of UMTS access).
For more information on the command, see Command Line InterfaceReference.
Verifying the QoS Upgrade Support Configuration
The configuration can be verified by executing the show command show apn-profile full name
<apn_profile_name>. The following parameters are displayed on executing the command:
1. Allow QoS Upgrade from GGSN
2. QoS Upgrade From GGSN (UMTS)
3. Capped with Subscribed QoS
4. QoS Upgrade From GGSN (GPRS)
5. Capped with Subscribed QoS
For description of the fields listed above see, Statistics and Counters Reference.
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Chapter 35
Support for SGSN QoS based on PLMN, RAT Type
This chapter describes the Support for SGSN QoS based on PLMN, RAT type and provides detailed information on the
following:
 Feature Description
 How it Works
 Configuring SGSN Support for RAT Type based QoS Selection
 Monitoring and Troubleshooting RAT Type Based QoS Selection
SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18 ▄
Support for SGSN QoS based on PLMN, RAT Type
▀ Feature Description
Feature Description
SGSN support for QoS selection based on RAT type is introduced through this feature, this functionality improves the
Operator Policy based QoS Control capabilities. Currently, the SGSN supports only PLMN based QoS selection. The
Operator policy on SGSN allows the operators to control QoS for visiting subscribers (National or International
roaming-in subscribers or MVNO subscribers) on an APN basis depending on the PLMN-ID or IMSI range. APN
profiles are configured under the Operator Policy as either default for all APN or specific profiles for particular APN.
The following limitations are encountered when only PLMN based QoS selection is supported:
1. When co-locating MME and SGSN into the same node, separate Operator Policy can be configured for EUTRAN on the MME and both GERAN/UTRAN on the SGSN but not for GERAN and UTRAN separately on
the SGSN.
2. The Operator policy currently allows to 'allow' or 'restrict' access to the network based on zone-code (set of
LA/SA for 2G/3G and TA for LTE) but does not allow restricting the QoS in specific area of the network
based on zone-code.
To overcome the limitations listed above, Operator Policy based QoS Control capabilities are introduced based on RATType or a combination of RAT-Type with PLMN-ID or IMSI range.
▄ SGSN Administration Guide, StarOS Release 18
Support for SGSN QoS based on PLMN, RAT Type
How it Works ▀
How it Works
With the introduction of QoS selection based on RAT type, several QoS p