Digital Oscilloscope HMO series 72x...202x 70

Digital Oscilloscope HMO series 72x...202x 70
Benutzerhandbuch / User Manual
Digital Oscilloscope
HMO series 72x...202x
70-200 MHz
User Manual
General information regarding the CE marking
General information regarding the CE marking
KONFORMITÄTSERKLÄRUNG
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
DECLARATION DE CONFORMITE
DECLARACIÓN DE CONFORMIDAD
Hersteller / Manufacturer / Fabricant / Fabricante:
HAMEG Instruments GmbH · Industriestraße 6 · D-63533 Mainhausen
Die HAMEG Instruments GmbH bescheinigt die Konformität für das Produkt
The HAMEG Instruments GmbH herewith declares conformity of the product
HAMEG Instruments GmbH déclare la conformite du produit
HAMEG Instruments GmbH certifica la conformidad para el producto
Bezeichnung: Oszilloskop
Product name: Oscilloscope
Designation:Oscilloscope
Descripción:Osciloscopio
Typ / Type / Type / Tipo:
HMO722/-24, HMO1022/-24,
HMO1522/-24, HMO2022/-24
mit / with / avec / con:
HO720
Optionen / Options /
Options / Opciónes: HO730, HO740
mit den folgenden Bestimmungen / with applicable regulations /
avec les directives suivantes / con las siguientes directivas:
EMV Richtlinien / EMC Directives / Directives CEM / Directivas IEM:
2004/108/EG;
Niederspannungsrichtlinie / Low-Voltage Equipment Directive / Directive des
equipements basse tension / Directiva de equipos de baja tensión:
2006/95/EG
Angewendete harmonisierte Normen / Harmonized standards applied /
Normes harmonisées utilisées / Normas armonizadas utilizadas:
Sicherheit / Safety / Sécurité / Seguridad:
DIN EN 61010-1; VDE 0411-1: 07/2011
Überspannungskategorie / Overvoltage category / Catégorie de surtension /
Categoría de sobretensión: II
Verschmutzungsgrad / Degree of pollution / Degré de pollution /
Nivel de polución: 2
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit / Electromagnetic compatibility /
Compatibilité électromagnétique / Compatibilidad electromagnética:
EMV Störaussendung / EMI Radiation / Emission CEM / emisión IEM:
DIN EN 61000-6-3: 09/2007 (IEC/CISPR22, Klasse / Class / Classe / classe B)
VDE 0839-6-3: 04/2007
Störfestigkeit / Immunity / Imunitee / inmunidad:
DIN EN 61000-6-2; VDE 0839-6-2: 03/2006
Oberschwingungsströme / Harmonic current emissions / Émissions de courant
harmonique / emisión de corrientes armónicas:
DIN EN 61000-3-2; VDE 0838-2: 06/2009
Spannungsschwankungen u. Flicker / Voltage fluctuations and flicker /
Fluctuations de tension et du flicker / fluctuaciones de tensión y flicker:
DIN EN 61000-3-3; VDE 0838-3: 03/2010
Datum / Date / Date / Fecha
08. 04. 2013
2
Unterschrift / Signature / Signatur / Signatura
Holger Asmussen
General Manager
The instruments fulfill the regulations of the EMC directive. The conformity
test based on the actual generic- and product standards. In cases where
different limit values are applicable, the instrument applies the severer standard. For emission the limits for residential, commercial and light industry
are applied. Regarding the immunity (susceptibility) the limits for industrial
environment have been used.
The measuring- and data lines of the instrument have much influence on
emission and immunity and therefore on meeting the acceptance limits.
For different applications the lines and/or cables used may be different. For
measurement operation the following hints and conditions regarding emission and immunity should be observed:
1. Data cables
For the connection between instrument interfaces and external devices,
(computer, printer etc.) sufficiently screened cables must be used. Without
a special instruction in the manual for a reduced cable length, the maximum cable length of a dataline must be less than 3 meters and not be used
outside buildings. If an interface has several connectors only one connector
must have a connection to a cable.
Basically interconnections must have a double screening.
2. Signal cables
Basically test leads for signal interconnection between test point and
instrument should be as short as possible. Without instruction in the manual
for a shorter length, signal lines must be less than 3 meters and not be used
outside buildings.
Signal lines must screened (coaxial cable - RG58/U). A proper ground connection is required. In combination with signal generators double screened
cables (RG223/U, RG214/U) must be used.
General information regarding the CE
marking
3. Influence on measuring instruments
Under the presence of strong high frequency electric or magnetic fields, even
with careful setup of the measuring equipment, influence of such signals is
unavoidable.
This will not cause damage or put the instrument out of operation. Small
deviations of the measuring value (reading) exceeding the instruments specifications may result from such conditions in individual cases.
4. RF immunity of oscilloscopes.
4.1 Electromagnetic RF field
The influence of electric and magnetic RF fields may become visible (e.g. RF
superimposed), if the field intensity is high. In most cases the coupling into
the oscilloscope takes place via the device under test, mains/line supply, test
leads, control cables and/or radiation. The device under test as well as the
oscilloscope may be effected by such fields.
Although the interior of the oscilloscope is screened by the cabinet, direct radiation can occur via the CRT gap. As the bandwidth of each amplifier stage
is higher than the total –3dB bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the influence of
RF fields of even higher frequencies may be noticeable.
4.2 Electrical fast transients / electrostatic discharge
Electrical fast transient signals (burst) may be coupled into the oscilloscope
directly via the mains/line supply, or indirectly via test leads and/or control
cables. Due to the high trigger and input sensitivity of the oscilloscopes,
such normally high signals may effect the trigger unit and/or may become
visible on the TFT, which is unavoidable. These effects can also be caused by
direct or indirect electrostatic discharge.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Content
Content
1
Installation and safety instructions. . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Setting up the instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Correct operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Ambient conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
1.6 Warranty and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.7Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.8 CAT 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.9 Mains voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.10 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells . . . . . . 6
1.11 Product Disposal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 Rear view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6 General concept of instrument operation . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Basic settings and integrated help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.8 Bus Signal Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.9 Updates for the firmware, the help functions
and languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.10 Upgrade with software options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.11 Self Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3
A quick introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on. . . . . . . . 14
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture . . . . . . 14
3.3 Display of signal details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4 Cursor measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.5 Automatic measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6 Mathematical functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.7 Storing data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4
Vertical system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion. . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.4 Probe attenuation selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.5 Level Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.6 Name a channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5
Horizontal System (Time Base) . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.1 Capturing modes RUN and STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.2 Time base adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3 Capture modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.4 Interlace Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.5 ZOOM function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.6 Navigation Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.7 Marker Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.8 Search Function
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6
Trigger System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1 Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.2 Trigger sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.3 Slope trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.4 Pulse trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.5 Logic trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.6 Video trigger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7
Display of signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.1 Display settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.2 Use of the virtual screen area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.3 Signal intensity and persistence functions . . . . . . . 30
7.4 XY display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.1 Cursor measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.2 Auto measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
9Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9.1 Mathematical Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.3 Quick View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10 Documentation, storing and recalling. . . . . . . 41
10.1 Instrument settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
10.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
10.3Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
10.4Screenshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.5 Formula Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11 Component test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.1General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.2 In-circuit tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
12 Mixed Signal Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
12.1 Logik trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
12.2 Display functions of the logic channels . . . . . . . . 46
12.3 Cursor measurements for the logic channels . . . . . 47
12.4. Auto measurements for logic channel. . . . . . . . . . . 48
13 Serial bus analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13.1 The options HOO10, HOO11 and HOO12. . . . . . . . . 48
13.2 Serial Bus Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13.3 Parallel BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.4I2C BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.5 SPI / SSPI BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
13.6 UART/RS-232 BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
13.7 CAN BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
13.8 LIN BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14 Remote control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.1 RS-232. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.2USB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14.3 Ethernet (Option HO730) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740): . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
15 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
16.1 List of figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
16.2Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3
Installation and safety instructions
1 Installation and
safety
instructions
dard EN 61010-1 and the international standard IEC 10101. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation,
the user must observe all instructions and warnings given
in this operating manual. Casing, chassis and all measuring
ports/terminals are connected to a protective earth conductor/safety ground of the mains. The instrument is designed in compliance with the regulations of protection
class I. The exposed metal parts have been tested against
the main poles with 2200 VDC voltage.
1.1 Symbols
For safety reasons, the instrument may only be connected
to properly installed safety socket outlets. The power plug
must be inserted before signal circuits may be connected.
Separating the grounds is prohibited. If it is assumed that
a safe operation is no longer possible, the instrument
must be shut down and secured against any unintended
operation.
(1)
(5)
(2)
(3)
(6)
(4)
(7)
(8)
Symbol 1: Caution, general danger zone –
Refer to product documentation
Symbol 2: Risk of electric shock
Symbol 3: Ground
Symbol 4: Stop! – Risk harm to instrument
Symbol 5: PE terminal
Symbol 6: ON/OFF supply voltage
Symbol 7: Stand by display
Symbol 8: Ground terminal
1.2 Setting up the instrument
As you can see from the picture, there are small feets on
the bottom which can be folded out. Please make sure you
have fully folded out the feet‘s in order to ensure stability
of the instrument.
Safe operation can no longer be assumed:
❙❙ If the instrument shows visible damage,
❙❙ If the instrument includes loose parts,
❙❙ If the instrument no longer functions properly,
❙❙ After an extended period of storage under unfavorable
conditions (e.g. outdoors or in damp rooms),
❙❙ After rough handling during transport (e.g. packaging that
does not meet the minimum requirements by post office,
railway or forwarding agency).
1.4 Correct operation
Please note: This instrument is only destined for use by
personnel well instructed and familiar with the dangers of
electrical measurements. For safety reasons the oscilloscope may only be operated from mains outlets with safety
ground connector. It is prohibited to separate the safety
ground connection. The plug must be inserted prior to connecting any signals. The oscilloscope is destined for operation in industrial, business, manufacturing, and domestic sites. The instrument is destined for in door use only.
1.5 Ambient conditions
Operating ambient temperature: +5 °C to +40 °C. During
transport or storage the temperature may be –20 °C to
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
Fig. 1.1: Operating positions
The instrument must be installed in a way, that at any time
the disconnection of the power line is not restricted.
1.3Safety
This instrument was built in compliance with VDE 0411
part 1, safety regulations for electrical measuring instruments, control units and Iaboratory equipment. It has been
tested and shipped from the plant in safe condition. It is
in compliance with the regulations of the European stan4
+70°C. Please note that after exposure to such temperatures or in case of condensation, proper time must be allowed until the instrument has reached the permissible temperature, and until the condensation has evaporated before it may be turned on! Ordinarily this will be the case after 2 hours. The oscilloscope is destined for use in clean
and dry environments. Do not operate in dusty or chemically aggressive atmosphere or if there is danger of explosion. The any operating position may be used, however,
sufficient ventilation must be ensured. Prolonged operation requires the horizontal or inclined position.
The max. operating altitude of the instrument is 2000 m
above sea level. Specifications are valid after a 30 minute
warm-up period at 23 degr. C (tolerance ±2 degr. C). Specifications without tolerances are average values.
Installation and safety instructions
Differences within the HMO series 72x...202x:
unit
bandwidth
vertical settings at 1MOhm
input impedance
offset range
HMO72x
170 MHz
1 mV...10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
HMO102x
100 MHz
1 mV...10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
HMO152x
150 MHz
1 mV…5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0,2…±20 V
HMO202x
200 MHz
1 mV…5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0,2…±20 V
For the complete and latest technical data of each oscilloscope of the HMO series please refer to
www.hameg.com.
1.6 Warranty and repair
Our instruments are subjected to a strict quality control.
Prior to leaving the factory, each instrument is burnt in for
10 hours. By intermittent operation during this period almost all defects are detected. Following the burn in, each
instrument is tested for function and quality, the specifications are checked in all operating modes; the test gear is
calibrated to national standards.
The warranty standards applicable are those of the country
in which the instrument was sold. Reclamations should be
directed to the dealer.
nal test). This helps to ensure the continued safety of the
product.
Only valid in EU countries
In order to speed claims, customers in EU countries may
also contact HAMEG directly. Also, after the warranty expired, the HAMEG service will be at your disposal for any
repairs.
The display can be cleaned using water or a glass cleaner
(but not with alcohol or other cleaning agents). Thereafter
wipe the surfaces with a dry cloth. No fluid may enter the
instrument. Do not use other cleaning agents as they may
adversely affect the labels, plastic or lacquered surfaces.
Return material authorization (RMA):
Prior to returning an instrument to HAMEG, ask for a
RMA number either by internet (http://www.hameg.com)
or fax (+49 (0) 6182 800 501). If you do not have an original shipping carton, you may obtain one by calling the
HAMEG service dept (+49 (0) 6182 800 500) or by sending an email to [email protected]
1.8 CAT 0
This oscilloscope is destined for measurements in circuits
not connected to the mains or only indirectly. The instrument complies with measuring category I; make sure that
the input voltage does not exceed 200 V peak, 150 VRMS
at 1 MΩ input impedance and 5 VRMS at 50 Ω input impedance. Transient overvoltages must not exceed 200 V
peak. When performing measurements in circuits with
transient overvoltages higher than category I, make sure
that no such overvoltages reach the instrument input.
To ensure this, use only probes that comply with DIN EN
61010-031. When performing measurements in category
II, III or IV circuits, it is mandatory to insert a probe that
appropriately reduces the voltage so that no overvoltages
higher than category I are applied to the instrument.
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Service Departement
Industriestr. 6
D-63533 Mainhausen Telefon: +49 (0) 6182 800 500
Telefax: +49 (0) 6182 800 501
E-Mail: [email protected]
The product may only be opened by authorized and qualified personnel. Before any work is performed on the
product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
Any adjustments, replacements of parts, maintenance or
repair may be carried out only by authorized HAMEG technical personnel. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g. power switches, power
transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation resistance
measurement, leakage current measurement, functio-
1.7Maintenance
❙❙ Clean the outer case of the oscilloscope at
regular intervals, using a soft, lint-free dust cloth.
❙❙ Before cleaning the instrument, please make sure that it
has been switched off and disconnected from all power
supplies.
❙❙ No instrument parts may be cleaned with alcohol or other
cleaning agents!
Direct measurements, i.e. with a galvanic connection to
circuits corresponding to the categories II, III, or IV are
prohibited! The measuring circuits are considered not
connected to the mains if a suitable isolation transformer fulfilling safety class II is used. Measurements on the
mains are also possible if suitable probes like current probes are used which fulfill the safety class II. The measurement category of such probes must be checked and observed. The measurement categories were derived corresponding to the distance from the power station and
the transients hence to be expected. Transients are short,
very fast voltage or current excursions which may be periodic or not.
5
Installation and safety instructions
Measurement Categories
The measurement categories refer to transients from the
power system. Transients are short, very fast (steep) current and voltage variations which may occur periodically
and non-periodically. The level of potential transients increases as the distance to the source of the low voltage installation decreases.
Measurement CAT IV: Measurements at the source of
the low voltage installations (e.g. meters)
Measurement CAT III: Measurements in building installations (e.g. power distribution installations, power switches,
firmly installed sockets, firmly installed engines etc.).
Measurement CAT II: Measurements on circuits electronically directly connected to the mains (e.g. household appliances, power tools, etc.)
Measurement category 0 (previously Measurement
CAT I): Electronic devices and fused circuits in devices.
1.9 Mains voltage
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 100
to 240 V (±10%), 50 or 60 Hz. There is hence no line voltage selector. The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel
and part of the line input connector. Prior to exchanging a
fuse, the line cord must be pulled out. Exchange is only allowed if the fuse holder is undamaged. It can be taken out
using a screwdriver put into the slot. The fuse can be pushed out of its holder and must be exchanged with the
identical type (type informations below). The holder with
the new fuse can then be pushed back in place against the
spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to bridge
the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
Type of fuse: IEC 60127 - T2H 250V, Size 5 x 20 mm.
1.10 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/
cells is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire.
Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided. Keep cells
and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors
using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or
batteries must not be stored in a box or in a drawer
where they can short-circuit each other, or where they
can be short-circuited by other conductive materials.
6
Cells and batteries must not be removed from their
original packaging until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If
a cell or a battery has been swallowed, seek medical
aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed
to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If contact
occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water
and seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that
contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells) can
cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with
the identical type in order to ensure the safety of the
product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate
from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium
are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations
regarding waste disposal and recycling.
1.11 Product Disposal
Fig. 1.2:
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG)
Act is an implementation of the following EC directives:
❙❙ 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE) and
❙❙ 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain
hazardous substances in electrical and electronic
equipment (RoHS).
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product
must not be disposed of in the standard domestic refuse.
Even disposal via the municipal collection points for waste
electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted. For
the environmental-friendly disposal or recycling of waste
material we fully assumes its obligation as a producer to
take back and dispose of electrical and electronic waste in
accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose
of the product.
Introduction
2 Introduction
Area A
This area encompasses these three portions: Cursor/Menu
– Analyze – General.
3
2.1 Front view
On the instrument frontside you can find the power key
1 , in order to switch on the instrument or enter stand by
mode. If the instrument is in stand by mode, this key light
up red. If the instrument is switched off using the main po-
2.2 Control panel
The controls on the front panel allow direct access to
the most important functions; all extended functions are
available via the menu structure by using the grey soft
keys. The power key 1 is clearly set apart by its design.
The most important controls are backlighted by coloured
LEDs in order to immediately indicate the actual settings.
The panel is subdivided in these four areas:
53
52
51 50
10 12
13
15 16
Fig. 2.2:
Area A of
8
5
11
14
the control
17
panel.
In the portion Cursor/Menu you find the cursor functions
8 , the general cursor select and adjustment knob 4 , the
Intensity/Persistence key 7 , the key to call a virtual keyboard 6 , the key for switching between fine and coarse
resolution of the universal knob 3 and the key for the selection of virtual screen 5 .
The portion Analyze allows direct selection of FFT 9 displays, the Quick-view mode 10 (all important parameters of
the actual signal display), and the automeasure function 11
for the automatic measurement of parameters.
The portion headed General comprises the Save/Recall 12
button for saving and recalling instrument settings, reference signals, signals, screen displays, and sets of formulae, HELP 16 , DISPLAY 14 for access to the general display
settings, AUTOSET 15 , SETUP 13 for access to the general
settings (e.g. the language), FILE/PRINT 17 .
1
55
54
7 9
6
A
Please note, the connector for the active logic probes HO3508 53
are solely for these probe. Connecting anything else could destroy the inputs!
wer switch on the backside, the red light will also switch
off (this will take some seconds). Furthermore you find on
the front panel the control panel 2 , A , B , C , D , the BNC
connectors of the analog inputs 45 to 48 , the probe adjustment output 51 , the bus signal source 50 ,the connectors for the optional logic probe HO3508 53 , a USB port for
USB sticks 54 , the TFT screen 55 , the inputs for the component tester 52 and the LED 49 for showing activity on
the remote interface. At the two channel versions there is
the external trigger at right side.
4
49
48
A
2
47
B
46
C
45
D
Fig. 2.1: Frontview of the HMO2024
7
Introduction
Area B
In the area VERTICAL you find all controls of the analog
channels such as the position control knob 18 , the XY or
component tester mode select key 19 , the vertical gain adjustment knob 20 , the extended menu functions key 21 ,
the channel select keys 22 to 25 , (the two-channel versions
have only 22 23 ) which also serve as the selection keys for
the optional logic probes 24 25 . There are also the mathematics function 26 , the reference signal settings and bus
signal settings key 27 .
Area C
This area Trigger of the control panel offers all functions for
the adjustment of the trigger level 28 , the selection of auto
or normal trigger 29 , the trigger type 31 , the trigger source
B
32 , single sweep 33 , the trig22
ger slope 34 , the trigger sig18
nal filters 36 . In addition, there
23
are status indicators show19
ing whether a signal fulfills
24
the trigger conditions 30 and
which slope was selected 34 .
25
20
26
27
21
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
D
37
38
37
41
42
Area D
The keys 37 38 39 on this control panel area Horizontal allow to shift the trigger position horizontally, either stepby-step or using the smaller
one of the knobs. In addition
this menu allow to manually
set marker and set search criterias for events. The backlighted key 39 controls the run or
stop modes; the key will light
up red in stop mode. The key
40 activates the zoom function, the key 44 the selection
of the acquisition modes, the
key 42 the access to the time
base menus. The knob 43 allows to adjust the time base
speed.
To the left of the control panel there are the soft keys
2 which control the menu
functions.
Fig. 2.4: Screen view
nus are shown, this will be reduced to 10 divisions. On
the left of the screen area little arrows [1] indicate the reference potentials of the channels. The line above the graticule contains status and settings information such as the
time base speed, the trigger delay and other trigger conditions, the actual sampling rate, and the acquisition mode
[2]. On the right of the graticule a short menu is shown
which contains the most important settings of the channel actually being displayed; these may be selected using
the soft keys [3]. At the lower part of the screen, measurement results of parameters and cursors, the settings of the
activated vertical channels, of the reference signal, and of
the mathematically derived curves [4] are shown. Within
the graticule, the signals of the selected channels are displayed. Normally, 8 vertical divisions are shown; it can be
virtually extended to 20 divisions which can be displayed
using the Scroll Bar knob 5 .
2.4 Rear view
On the rear panel there are the main power switch [1], the
receptacle for the interface modules [2] (USB / RS-232,
USB/Ethernet, IEEE-488), the standard DVI connector [3]
for the connection of external monitors and projectors, the
BNC connector for the Y output [4] (of the channel selected for triggering) and the external trigger input [5]. With
the two-channel models this connector is located on the
[1]
[2]
39
43
40
44
Fig. 2.3: Section B, C and D of
the control panel
8
2.3Screen
The HMO is equipped with a
6.5“ (16.5 cm) LED backlighted colour TFT display with
VGA resolution (640 x 480 pixels). In normal mode (no menus shown) there are 12 divisions in X direction. If me-
[5] [4]
Fig. 2.5: Rear panel of the HMO2024
[3]
[6][7]
Introduction
front panel. Also here you can find an additional USB port
[6] and the main power input [7]. At the two channel instrument there is the the external trigger BNC connector at
the front of the instrument.
2.4.1DVI Connector
The rear panel of the oscilloscope includes a standard DVID connector to connect external monitors and projectors. The DVI-D connector can only send digital signals.
This means it is impossible to connect monitors or beamers via their analog inputs. The HMO series yields a DVI
signal with VGA resolution (640x480). This design enables
connectivity with all standard TFT monitors. Modern flat
screens extrapolate the signal, allowing users to see a full
screen.
Beamers can also be connected to the HMO. Ideal beamers in this case are those designed to be connected to
computers / notebooks as these are also able to process a
640x480 pixel resolution.
Y-Output connector
DVI VGA or DVI composite adapters are not supported. To connect to current HDTVs via HDMI adapter is problematic as most
The
outputsets
signal
of the
television
expect
anHMO702x...202x
HDTV signal of atseries
least shows
720p asa small
input
timeshift
in
the
lower
nano-seconds
time
domain.
signal.
All HMO-series oscilloscopes have an additional BNC connector (Y-Output) on the rear panel which is used to passthrough and output the analog signal of the triggered
channel on the one hand or to send alarm pulses when errors occur during mask tests (PASS / FAIL) on the other
hand (see chapter 9).
This can be very useful for longterm data-logging or if you
want to trigger mask-fails during automated production or
testing processes.
The level of that analog output signal is based on 200 mV/
DIV (100 mV/DIV at 50 Ω) of the ADC (analog-digital-converter). The following screenshot will show a 15 kHz sine
wave with a 2 V amplitude: CH1 (yellow) original signal,
CH2 (blue) Y-Out signal.
Fig. 2.6: Y-Out signal
2.5Options
The HMO series instruments offer some options which allow you to extend the areas of application considerably.
The following interface modules are available and may be
installed by the customer in the rear receptacle:
❙❙ HO740 (IEEE-488, GPIB, galvanically isolated)
❙❙ HO730 (combination of Ethernet and USB with integrated
web server)
All HMO series instruments are prepared for mixed-signal operation and have the appropriate connectors on the
front panel. Connecting an 8-channel logic probe HO3508
equips the scope with 8 logic channels. Further options
are the passive 500 MHz Slimline 10:1 probes of the type
HZ355, passive 1000:1 probes with up to 4000 V of the
type HZO20, active 10:1 probes with <1 pF input capacity of the type HZO30, active difference amplifier probes HZ100, HZ109 and HZ115 with up to 1000 Vrms and
40 MHz, active high speed differential probes HZO40 and
HZO41 with 200 or 800 MHz bandwidth, the current probes HZO50 and HZO51 with up to 100 kHz bandwidth and
up to 1000 A, the 19“ rack-mount set HZO91 and the type
HZO90 transport bag for the protection of the instruments.
The options HOO10/11 and 12 make the analysis of serial
protocols available, more informations you can find in chapt.
2.10.
2.6 General concept of instrument operation
Our oscilloscopes are renowned for easy operation, based
on a few basic principles which repeat with the diverse
settings and functions.
❙❙ Such keys which do not open a soft menu (e.g.
quickview) switch a function on, pushing the key again
will switch the function off.
❙❙ Such keys which call a specific function (e.g. FFT) which
in turn can call or require more settings will activate the
function upon the first touch. Pushing the key a second
time will call the soft menu (sub menu) for the settings.
Pushing the key a third time will deactivate the function.
❙❙ Such keys which open a soft menu upon the first touch
will close it upon pushing a second time.
❙❙ The universal knob is used in the diverse menus either for
selecting numbers or submenus and to enter values by
pushing. The universal knob in cursor measurement is
used for selecting and moving the cursor.
❙❙ The key Menu OFF below the soft menu keys closes the
present menu or it switches to the next higher level.
❙❙ If a channel is deactivated, pushing the respective channel
key will switch it on. If a channel was already activated
earlier, selecting another channel will change operation to
the channel whose key was pushed (its LED lights up). If a
channel is already selected, pushing its lighted key will
deactivate the channel and select the next channel
according to this sequence: CH1 > CH2 > CH3 > CH4.
❙❙ The COARSE/FINE key is used to switch betwen coarse
and fine resolution of the universal knob. If the key is light
up white, the FINE resolution is active.
9
Introduction
The following describes some frequently used navigation elements in the soft menus.
Fig. 2.7 shows, there are two basic soft menu parts for
choosing. To select from the three elements above you
just need to press the soft key BESIDE and the element is
active (shown as blue color). A second kind of selecting
is shown on the lower two menu entries. Pressing the respective soft key toggles between the two choices, again
the active selection is marked blue.
Fig. 2.9: Menu for basic settings
Fig. 2.7: Selection of basic soft
Fig. 2.8: Basic soft menu elements
menu elements
for settings and navigation
The menus are used as shown in Fig. 2.8 if they concern
functions which have either to be switched on or where
values have to set. The choice is between OFF and the value presented. The round arrow in the right corner of the
menu window points to the universal knob which is to be
used for selecting the value. If there is a lower menu level,
this will be indicated by a small triangle in the right lower
corner of the respective menu point.
If there are further pages on the same level, the lowest
menu point will be used for navigation. It shows the number of menu pages on this level as well as the activated
number of pages.Pushing the respective soft menu key
will advance by one page, after the last page the first one
will follow.
2.7 Basic settings and integrated help
Basic settings like language for user interface and help,
miscellaneous settings and interface settings can be set
using the menu which opens after pressing the SETUP
key in the GENERAL area of the control panel. On the first
page you can set the user interface and help language by
pressing the soft key LANGUAGE and select German or
English.
The soft key beside MISC opens a menu with the following
selections:
❙❙ MENU OFF (choose manual or automatic with time limit
of 4 s up to 30 s for closing soft menus)
10
❙❙ TIME REFERENCE (position for reference of the trigger
time, choose from –5/DIV up to +5/DIV, 0/DIV is in the
middle of the screen and set as standard)
❙❙ DATE & TIME (opens menu to set date and time)
❙❙ SOUND (opens menu to set any combination of beep for
control, error and/or trigger)
❙❙ DEVICE NAME (menu to set a name for the HMO,
maximum of 19 characters are allowed, the name will
appear in Screenshot‘s)
❙❙ LOGO IN SCREENSHOT (here you can setup, whether a
logo will be inserted into the screenshot or not.)
The next menu entry INTERFACE lets you select the interface you are using (USB and RS-232 are standard) and
possible settings for that interface.
The menu item PRINTER contains settings for POSTSCRIPT printers. Pushing this softkey will open a submenu
in which you can select the paper format and the colour
mode. If you choose the top menu item PAPER FORMAT
with the associated soft menu key, a window will open
which offers the selection of A4, A5, B5, B6, and Executive
letter and legal in portrait or landscape. Use the universal
knob to select the desired format which will then be indicated on the soft menu key.
The next lower menu item COLOR MODE allows the selection of the modes Greyscale, Color, and Inverted following
the same procedure. The Greyscale mode converts a color display to a greyscale display which can be printed on a
Black-and-White Postscript printer. The Color Mode will print
the display in colour as it is shown on the screen (black background). In the Inverted Mode the color display will be printed in colour with a white background on a color Postscript
printer in order to save toner and ink.
When using the INVERTED mode, you should set the intensity of
the signals to about 70% to allow a high contrast print.
If you are using inverted mode, you should set the intensity of the curves to about 70% in order to get a high contrast print out.
Introduction
Press the key SETUP in the general area of the front panel for entry into the bus signal source menu, select the
page 2 and press the soft menu key next to PROBE COMP.
Now you can select the operational mode for the bus signal source. For each mode a picture with the corresponding pattern of signals on the contacts is displayed. Pressing a soft menu key will open a submenu for choosing the
speed of the mode selected.
Signal
S1
SQUARE WAVE no signal
Fig: 2.10: Updating menu and information window
The last menu DEVICE INFORMATION open a window
with all informations about hard- and softwarestatus of
your HMO. You should have these information on hand
whenever you have questions about your HMO.
At the second page of the basic menu you find the menu
for firmware and help update, which is explained in detail in the next chapter. The last menu item is the PROBE
ADJUST. Pressing the soft key leads you to the menu
where you can set whether the probe adjust output generates a rectangular signal with 1 kHz or 1 MHz frequency.
There is a setting AUTOMATIC which means, that for time
base settings up to and including 50 µs/DIV the probe adjust output is 1 MHz, from 100 µs/DIV on it is switched to
1 kHz.
The integrated help function can be activated by pressing
the key HELP in the GENERAL area of the control panel. A
window will open and the text inside is dynamically updated depending on the key (including softmenu key’s) you
are pushing or the knob you are turning. If you do not need
the help anymore, you can switch off the help window by
pushing the HELP-key. The backlight of the key and the
text window will be switched off.
2.8 Bus Signal Source
The HMO series features 4 contacts left of the channel 1
which provide the following signals according to the respective settings:
❙❙ Square wave signal for probe compensation (standard
setting), frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz.
❙❙ SPI signal, data rates 100 kbits/s, 250 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
❙❙ I2C signal, data rates 100 kbits/s, 400 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
❙❙ UART signal, data rates 9600 bits/s, 115.2 kbits/s or 1
Mbits/s
❙❙ parallel stochastic bit pattern, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
❙❙ parallel counter signal, frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
The contact at the top left is always ground, the signal levels are around 1 V. The following table shows the use
of the 4 outputs S1, S2, S3 and
corresponding to the
signal.
S2
S3
no signal
no signal
Square wave
SPI
Chip Select clock,
Low aktiv rising edge
data,
high active
no signal
I2C
no signal
Clock SCL
data SDA
no signal
UART
no signal
no signal
data
no signal
Pattern
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
Counter
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
The square wave signal for probe compensation is available with 1 kHz for the low frequency compensation and
with 1 MHz for the high frequency compensation, also AUTOMATIC (standard setting) may be selected. In the automatic mode, the output will provide 1 kHz at sweep speeds
from 100 µs/div, at faster sweep speeds 1 MHz will be
available. These signals allow to learn and check the settings for the parallel and optional serial bus analysis.
2.9 Updates for the firmware, the help functions
and languages
The HMO series is being improved continuously. You are
invited to download the most recent firmware under www.
hameg.com. Firmware and help are packed into one ZIP
data packet. After downloading the ZIP data unpack it into
an USB stick’s basic directory. Thereupon insert the stick
into the USB port of the oscilloscope and push the key SETUP in the GENERAL area of the front panel. Choose page
2 in the menu, if this has not been opened already. Here
you shall find the menu item UPDATE.
After selecting this menu item a window will open which
displays the actual firmware version indicating the version
number, the date and build information.
Fig: 2.11: Menu and information window for help udates
11
Introduction
Now choose which to update: the instrument firmware
or the language. After you selected firmware updating by
pushing the appropriate key the respective date will be
searched on the stick, the information of the firmware to
be updated from the stick will be displayed below the line
NEW. In case the new firmware should be identical to the
existing one, the number of the version will be shown in
red, otherwise it will be shown in green; only then should
you activate the updating by pushing the soft key EXECUTE. If you intend to update the language (including the
help) or add a language choose Language in the updating
menu.
Up to 4 languages can be installed on the HMO. If four language
places are assigned and you wish to install another one, you first
need to delete one language.
The information window will now display the languages installed, the date, and the information about the languages
available on the stick. With the soft menu, languages may
be added, removed or updated. Please note the format of
the date:YYYY-MM-DD according to the multi language
norm of ISO 8601.
There are two methods for employing the key to use the
desired option: the automatic or the manual input.
The fastest and simplest method is the automatic input:
first store the file on an USB memory stick, then install the
stick into the front panel FRONT USB port of your HMO
and press the key SETUP in the „General“ area of the HMO
front panel. The SETUP menu will open. Select page 2 by
pressing the respective soft menu key, the upgrade-menu
will open (ref. to fig. 2.12).
Now open the UPGRADE menu by pressing the respective soft menu key. Then press the soft menu key next to
„Read Licence file“ which will open the data manager. Use
the universal knob to select the correct file and then press
the soft menu key next to LOAD. This will load the licence
key; the option will be ready to use immediately after a
fresh start of the instrument.
The alternative method is the manual input of the licence
key: select the menu UPGRADE and press the soft menu
key next to „Manual key input“. This will open an input
window, use the universal knob and the ENTER-key to input the licence key.
2.10 Upgrade with software options
The HMO may be upgraded with options which will become accessible after inputting a licence key. At this time,
the options HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 are available. The
HOO10 allows triggering and decoding of up to two of the
serial buses I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 on the digital channels (with option HO3508) and or the analog channel. The
HOO11 can only use the analog channel. The HOO12 allows triggering and decoding of up to two of the serial buses CAN, LIN on the digital channels (with option HO3508)
and or the analog channel.
The licence key will be sent to you by email as an appended data file (name: SERIAL NUMBER.hlk). This file is an
ASCII file and may be opened with an editor, then the true
key can be read.
Fig. 2.13: Manual licence key input.
After entering the complete key please press the soft
menu key ACCEPT in order to input the key into the system. The option will be activated after restarting the
instrument.
2.11 Self Alignment
The instrument must have reached the required operating temperature (switched on for at least 20 minutes) and all inputs must
be unused, in other words all cables and probes must be removed
from the inputs.
The HMO72x...202x series has an internal self alignment in
order to achieve highest accuracy possible.
Fig. 2.12: „UPGRADE“ menu.
12
During the standard self alignment the HMO adjusts vertical accuracy, offset, time base and several trigger settings
and saves the identified correction data internally.
Introduction
To start the self alignment in the SETUP menu, go to page
2|2, press the soft menu key SELF ALIGNMENT and press
the START key. The procedure will run for about 5-10 minutes. Each step and its corresponding progress will be
shown in a bar display. After completion of a successful
self alignment, you will see a similar message as shown in
Fig 2.14.
2.12 Logic Probe Self Alignment
The self alignment for the logic probe primarily aligns the
switching levels.
If an error occurs during the self alignment although it has been
carried out as described, please send the exported .log file (see
Self Alignment menu) to [email protected] You can save the
.log file to a USB stick..
To start the self alignment for the logic probe, it is necessary that the logic probe type HO3508 is connected to the
HMO. It is imperative that the bit connectors are not connected. To start the process, select the menu item LOGIC PROBE SELF ALIGNMENT. The process is similar to
the basic instrument alignment but it only takes a few
seconds.
Fig. 2.14: Successful self alignment
Press the soft menu key EXIT to close the Self Alignment
menu. Abort the self alignment by pressing the soft menu
key ABORT. Aborting the self alignment procedure should
be the exception, e.g. if you failed to remove all probes
from the inputs. Once the procedure has been aborted, it
is important to carry out a complete self alignment.
Fig. 2.15: Logic probe self alignment
13
A quick introduction
3 A quick introduction
The following chapter is intended to introduce you to the
most important functions and settings of your new oscilloscope in order to allow you to use the instrument immediately. The internal calibrator signal output is used as the signal source, so you will not need any additional instruments
for the first steps.
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on
Fold out the feets completly so the display will be inclined
slightly upwards. (See chapter 1.2 for positioning) Plug the
power cord into the rear panel connector. The instrument
will be turned on by switching on the main power switch
on the back and pushing the key On/Off 1 on the front panel. After a few seconds the display appears, and the oscilloscope is ready for measurements. Now press the key
AUTOSET 15 for at least 3 seconds.
3
4
7 9
6
10 12
13
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe
appropriate vertical, horizontal time base and trigger settings. You will see now a square wave signal.
15 16
A
Fig. 3.1:
Control
5
8
11
14
17
panel A of
the HMO
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture
Passive probes be compensated prior to first use. Please refer to
the probe manual for the proper compensation procedure. Place
the probe in the appropriate position on the ADJ. output such
that the tip will be accepted by the hole of the right output while
the ground connection is made to the left output, as shown in
Fig. 4.3 in chapter 4.
Take one of the probes delivered with the instrument, detach the protective cap from the top. Apply the compensation box to the BNC connector of channel 1 and turn the
black knob CW until it latches positively.
Active settings are marked in blue!
On the right hand side of the screen you will see a short
menu of channel 1, the soft keys allow you to select frequently used settings. Press the top soft key once to change
the input coupling to DC.
Now press the key AUTOSET 15 once shortly, after a few
seconds the oscilloscope will have automatically selected
14
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
3.3 Display of signal details
With the knob 43 you can change the displayed time window: turning it CCW will slow the time base. The memory
depth of 1 MB per channel allows you to capture wide time
windows with high resolution. Continue to turn the knob
CCW until you read „TB:5ms“ in the top left corner. Now
press the ZOOM key 40 .
A quick introduction
You see now a two-window
display: the display will show
in the top area the complete
captured signal, below an enlarged portion. Use the time
base knob to select the zoom
factor and the small knob for
horizontal positioning.
By pressing the ZOOM key 40
again the zoom mode be will
be deactivated.
D
37
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
Fig. 3.5: Area of the control panel
containing the ZOOM knob
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
Your oscilloscope offers these possibilities:
❙❙ the definition of the display of 6 parameters which may
come from different sources
❙❙ a quick view of all important parameters of one source
using the Quick View function.
Please change the time base to 100 µs per scale division
and press the QUICKVIEW 10 key. You will see the following display:
Fig. 3.6: ZOOM function
3.4 Cursor measurements
After displaying the signal and its details we now proceed
to measuring it using the cursor functions. Press again
shortly AUTOSET 15 and then the CURSOR/MEASURE key
8 . Now the cursor menu will open up, and you can select the kind of cursor. Press the top soft key in order to
open the appropriate menu. Use the knob in the CURSOR/
MENU area for the selection by turning it CCW until the Vmarker is underlined, press the universal button or wait for
some seconds in order to accept the selection. Now two
cursors will be displayed along with the signal, and the
measurement results in the bottom area of the grid. Select
the active cursor by pushing the universal knob and position it by turning the knob.
Fig. 3.8: Quick View parameter measurement
The following list features the most important parameters
of a signal:
❙❙ positive and negative peak voltages,
❙❙ rise and fall times,
❙❙ mean voltage.
The cursor measurement results will be displayed at the
bottom of the grid. In this case the V-marker has selected the voltages at the two cursor positions, their difference, and the time difference between the positions will
be shown. The cursors will be switched off by pressing the
CURSOR/MEASURE key and the associated Cursors off
soft key.
10 additional parameters are shown below the grid:
❙❙ RMS, peak-peak voltage,
❙❙ frequency, period,
❙❙ amplitude, number of rising edges,
❙❙ pos. pulse width, neg. pulse width,
❙❙ pos. duty cycle, neg. duty cycle.
3.5 Automatic measurements
In addition to cursor measurements the most important
signal parameters can be displayed.
Thus by simply pressing a key you see 14 parameters at a
glance which characterize the signal. This function applies
always to the acutal active channel.
15
A quick introduction
You may also display up to six parameters of different signals. In order to achieve this deactivate the Quick View
function by pressing the key again, then activate channel
2 by pressing the CH2 key. Open the following menu by
pressing AUTOMEASURE 11 :
Fig. 3.11: Measuring the parameters of two sources
Fig. 3.9: Auto Measure menu
Press the softmenu key beside MEAS. PLACE and choose
the number you want using the universal knob. You may
define the parameter measurement using this menu. After switching on the MEASUREMENTS with the appropriate softkey’s the parameter measurements are displayed
below the grid. If you press the softkey beside TYPE you
can choose the parameter you want from the list using the
general knob. This procedure is used in all menus where
choices are available. Please press the key TYPE and
choose rise time.
3.6 Mathematical functions
In addition to cursor and automatic measurements, your
HMO can also apply mathematical operations to the signals. Pressing the MATH 26 key and the QM resp. the
MENU key in the VERTICAL section opens a quick math
Choose MEAS. PLACE 1 and use „mean“ and source CH1.
Afterwards choose MEAS. PLACE 2 and „rms“ from CH2.
On page 2 of this menu you can switch on a complete staFig. 3.12: Formula editor
menu (QM) enabling you to apply addition, subtraction,
multiplication or division to two analog channels. This also
displays the mathematical graph. The top soft menu key
allows you to select the first operand. With the key below,
you can select the operator (in quick mathematics you can
choose between addition, subtraction, multiplication or division). The soft menu key below that allows you to select
the second operand. Only activated and displayed channels are available for the operands. Press the bottom soft
menu key FORMULARY. This opens the formula editor to
select and define 5 potential sets of formulas with up to 5
mathematical functions each.
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameters
tistic of these measurements, containing the actual value,
the smallest, the largest, the mean, the standard deviation
and the number of used measurements for that statistic.
After the menu has been closed, the parameters can be
identified by the colours of the respective channels, (here
yellow for channel 1 and blue for channel 2.)
16
To change the settings, use the soft menu keys and the
universal knob 4 . Here you can define and store the most
frequently used formulas. After selecting the desired formula and pressing the soft menu key EDIT, you can edit
individual formula functions. Once a mathematical function has been defined and activated by pressing the soft
menu key VISIBLE (ON), the short menu for the mathema-
A quick introduction
tical functions will display this function. The graph will be
marked in the short menu by a red dot. The sources selected in the function must be activated so that the mathematical graph can be calculated and the result signals can be
displayed.
3.7 Storing data
Your HMO can store 5 different kinds of data:
❙❙ Instrument settings
❙❙ Reference signals
❙❙ Signals (up to 24000 points)
❙❙ Screen displays
❙❙ Sets of formulae
soft menue (You can change the destination by opening
the respective menu if you press the softkey next to STORAGE). You can now save a screenshot if you press the
softkey next to SAVE using the predefined name written
in the menu below FILE NAME. You may name the destination memory with up to 8 characters; in order to do this
select the menu item File name and define the name by
using the universal knob (selecting a character by turn the
knob and enter by pushing the knob .
Fig. 3.15: Defining a file name
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
Signals and screen displays can only be stored on USB
sticks. All other data can be stored either on a USB stick
or in the instrument’s non-volatile memories. In order to
store data you have to define the kind of data and the destination. First attach a USB stick to the front panel connector. Press SAVE/RECALL 12 in order to call the respective menu. Select the kind of data by pressing the respective soft key (in this example Screenshots) in order to access the settings menu.
After the soft key next to ACCEPT was pressed the oscilloscope will have stored the name and return to the settings
menu. Here you can now store the actual screen display
by pressing the Store soft key. Alternatively, you can return
to a lower menu level (by pressing the lowest Menu OFF
key) and select the menu item key FILE/PRINT. In the following menu press the soft menu key next to Screenshots:
this will assign the function screenshot to the key FILE/
PRINT with the settings chosen. This enables you to store
a bit map file on your USB stick by just pressing FILE/
PRINT 17 at any time and in any menu.
Please verify that the USB connector into which you
plugged the USB stick (front or rear) is written in the top
Fig. 3.14: Menu Screenshots
17
Vertical system
SCROLL
BAR
4 Vertical system
For the vertical settings there
are the knobs for the vertical
position and the sensitivity, an
always visible short menu and
an extended menu.
can be measured with probes (up to 40 kVp). For general
applications the probes supplied with the instrument will
be used. They are specified for the 1 MΩ input. With the
HMO72x and HMO102x are the HZ154 delivered, which
offer a 10:1 / 1:1 switchable attenuation. Therefore the
attenuation setting must be done manually in the channel
menu. The HMO152x and HMO202x are delivered with
the HZO10 a 10:1 probe with automatic attenuation read
out, which will be read from the probe and factored in.
B
22
18
23
19
The passive probes must be adjusted to the inputs to which
they are connected. See the probe manual for the adjustment
procedure.
24
VERTICA
POSITION
XY
VOLTS/DIV
11
By pushing the respective key
COARSE/FINE
25
the channel will be selected
20
62-K304for which these controls will
The PROBE ADJUST output of the HMO oscilloscope is only sui26
be activated, this will be inditable for 1:1 and 1:10 probes. 100:1 or 1000:1 probes require specated by the key lighting up in
cial generators! Use the shortest possible ground connection to
27
21
the color of the channel. Adthe PROBE ADJUST output as shown in Fig. 4.3.
ditionally, the channel number
on the screen will be framed
Fig. 4.1: Front panel area with
MENU
and displayed lighter than the
vertical system controls
channels not activated. The
appropriate short menu is always visible, the extended
ADJ.
CH 2
REM
CH 1
LOGIC CHANNELS
USB STICK
menu will be shown uponPOD
pushing
2 (15..8)the key MENU 21 . POD 1 (7..0)
1MΩ II 13pF
90 -1.0
max.
Fig. 4.3: Correct 200 Vp
Made in Germany
!
Use recommended probes only!
!
S1 S2 S3
Bus Signal
Source
connection of the
probe to the probe
adjust output
The coupling is selected in the short menu: by just pushing
the appropriate key the coupling is chosen, also the signal
may be inverted. The menu is valid for the activated channel as indicated by the channel key light up. The channel
number will be shown in the top of the menu. By pushing
the respective key of another channel the menu will transfer to this channel.
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for the vertical settings
4.1Coupling
The first item to be selected is the input impedance:
1 MΩ or 50 Ω. (only at the HMO152x and HMO202x, the
HMO72x and 102x does not offer 50 Ω inputs).
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset
The sensitivity of the analog inputs can be selected with
the large knob in the VERTICAL section of the front panel in 1-2-5 steps from 1 mV/div to the respective maximal setting independent of the 50 Ω (only available at the
HMO152x and HMO202x) or 1 MΩ selection. The knob is
Do not connect the 50 Ω inputs to effective voltage higher than 5
volts!
The 50 Ω input impedance should only be selected if the
signal source is 50 Ω, such as a generator with a 50 Ω
output where the termination within the scope is to be
used. In all other cases 1 MΩ is to be selected. Next DC
or AC coupling has to be selected: with DC coupling all
components of the signal will be displayed, with AC
coupling the DC content will be removed, the lower
bandwidth is 2 Hz. Up to 200 Vrms may be applied directly
to the vertical inputs if 1 MΩ is selected. Higher voltages
18
Fig. 4.4: Vertical offset in the extended menu
Vertical system
associated with the channel selected by pushing the respective key. The sensitivity can be changed to continuous
control by pushing the knob once. The smaller one of the
knobs is used for vertical positioning.
By pushing the MENU key the extended menu is called.
On page 2 of this menu at the HMO152x and HMO202x
a DC offset can be added to the signal. In order to switch
this offset in the respective soft key must be pushed. The
settings window will be backlit in blue, and the activity indicator next to the general knob will light up; the offset can
now be adjusted with the knob. The offset voltage will be
added to the signal at the vertical amplifier input offsetting it by that amount from the zero position. The possible amount of offset depends on the Volts/div setting chosen. The offset function being activated will be indicated
by two channel markers on the left of the display, also visible if the menu was closed. One marker indicates the position, the other the offset (refer to Fig. 4.4). The offset is individually adjustable for each channel.
Each analog channel may also be shifted in time by ±15 ns.
This adjustment is selected in the same menu and according to the same method as the DC offset; it is used for
compensating for the different signal delays of voltage and
current probes and different cable lengths.
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
An analog 20 MHz low pass can be inserted in the signal
path in either the short or extended menu. This will eliminate all higher frequency interference. The filter is activated in the short menu by pushing the respective soft key;
the information field will be backlit in blue, BW will be displayed in the channel information window.
Signal inversion is available in the short and the extended
menus. If it is activated the information field will be backlit
in blue, and there will be a bar above the channel number.
4.5 Level Setting
In this menu a level can be set. This level define the
threshold for detecting a HIGH or a LOW if the analog
channel are used as source for the serial bus analysis or logic trigger. After choosing the softmenu, the level can be
set by turning the universal knob.
Fig. 4.5: Threshold setting and name allocation
4.6 Name a channel
The last entry of the channel menu open a submenu in order to allocate a name for a channel. This name will be
shown at the display and at a print out. First of all you can
switch on or off the display of the name. Below that softmenu button you find the soft button LIBRARY. After selecting this button you can choose a name from several different suggestions using the universal knob. After
pushing NAME you can edit the pre-choosen name or enter a complete new name using up to 8 characters. This
will be done by selecting the character from the virtual
keypad using turning the universal knob and selecting by
pushing the knob. Pushing the ACCEPT button switch on
the name display on the right side of the grid. The name is
fixed to the channel and will move over the screen whenever the channel will be moved.
4.4Probe attenuation selection
The HZO10 or optinal HZ355 probes are recognized by the
instrument which automatically selects the appropriate
factor. If any other probe without automatic recognition of
the attenuation ratio or just a cable is connected to the instrument, the attenuation factor can be set manually in the
extended menu. This is possible for x 1, x 10, x 100 x 1000
or as defined by the user from x 0.001 to x 1000.
In addition you can select the unit AMPERE in case you
are using a current probe or measure current via a shunt.
If you select A the menu shows the most common factors
(1 V/A, 100 mV/A, 10 mV/A, 1 mV/A). Again you can also select any value between defined by the user. Doing so the
measurements are always displayed with the correct unit
and scale.
Fig. 4.6: Name selection
19
Horizontal System (Time Base)
5 Horizontal System (Time Base)
As well as time base settings,
the horizontal system comprises the selection of the trigger position, the zoom functions and the available modes
of signal capture, the control
for the marker function and
the search fcuntions.
The knobs are used for the
adjustment of the time base
speed and the trigger position. The signal capture modes are selected in the respective menus. There is a key provided for activating the zoom
function.
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the
horizontal system
5.1 Capturing modes RUN and STOP
The capturing modes can be selected with the key RUN/
STOP. In RUN mode signals will be continuously captured; depending on the trigger conditions selected, and displayed, erasing the previously captured ones. If it is desired to store and further analyze a signal and to prevent it
being overwritten, capture must be stopped by pushing
the RUN/STOP key. While in STOP mode capture is disabled and the key will light up red.
5.2 Time base adjustments
The large knob in the Horizontal section of the control panel is used for the selection of the time base speed. The
time base speed is displayed in the upper left hand corner
above the graticule. (e.g. „TB:500 ns“) To the right there is
the display of the trigger time position with respect to the
normal position. The normal trigger position is in the center of the graticule such that 50 % of the signal display is
before and 50 % is after this trigger position. The X Position knob allows continuous adjustment of the X position.
The available maximum values depend on the time base
setting. By pushing the key SET/CLR the value will be re37 allow
set to its reference position. The arrow keys
you to change the X position by a fixed amount of 5 divisions in the respective direction. If marker or search function
is chosen the arrow keys together with the SET/CLR button are used to navigate through and set/clear marker. The
key menu opens a menu which allows you to set the X position to its minimum and maximum positions or chose the
marker function by just a key touch. In addition, there is a
submenu NUMER.INPUT which allows entry of an arbitrary X position. Within this menu the search functions can
be activated and set. In addition the time reference can
be set here (position for the trigger point in time, from -5
20
5.3 Capture modes
The capture modes are selected by pushing the key ACQUIRE, this opens a display menu which offers the basic
modes of capture:
5.3.1 Refresh
In this mode the signals are captured and displayed.
D
37
38
to +5 divisions, 0 is the middle of the screen and the standard setting).
5.3.2 Roll
This acquisition mode is intended specifically for very
slow signals, with the untriggered signal „rolling“ across
the screen from right to left (requires signals slower than
200 kHz). The HMO uses a ring buffer to store the signal
values in roll mode. Simply put, the instrument writes the
first division to the first storage space, the second division
to the second storage space, etc. Once the storage is full,
the instrument overwrites the first storage space with the
data of the most recent measurement value. This creates a
„ring“ or cycle run, similar to a ticker.
The ZOOM feature is not available in the roll mode (also refer to Chap.
5.5 ZOOM Function)
5.3.3: ENVELOPE
In this mode, the display includes the normal capture of
each signal and the maximum as well as the minimum values of each capture. Over time, this creates an envelope
surrounding the signal.
5.3.4: AVERAGE
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the Cursor/
Menu section of the control panel to set the number of signal periods for averaging, available in powers of 2 from 2
to 1024 (requires repetitive signals).
5.3.5: FILTER
In this mode, you can activate a low pass filter with adjustable cut off frequency to suppress unwanted high frequency interferences. The cut off frequency can be set
based on the sampling frequency. The minimum setting is
1/100 of the sampling frequency and the maximum value
is 1/4 of the sampling rate. You can select this setting with
the universal knob.
The second menu page is accessed by pushing the soft
key next to the menu „Page 1I2“, here, extended functions are available:
5.3.6 Peak Detect
This mode is used for very large time base settings to detect even short signal changes. You can also deactivate
this function within the menu or you can select the automatic switching mode. The following conditions must be
met to activate the PEAK DETECT mode:
❙❙ Function HIGH RESOLUTION is deactivated
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
Horizontal System (Time Base)
During peak detection, the oscilloscope distinguishes between two types: Acquisition peak detection and memory
peak detection.
Each A/D converter converts at the full sampling rate (no
Interlace mode), even if results have not been written to
the acquisition memory at full sampling rate (for slow time
bases, for instance). If peak detection is activated, unused
converter values will be evaluated to detect minimum and
maximum amplitudes. During this process, the identified
minimum and maximum values including sampling interval are written to the acquisition memory. As a result, the
acquisition memory stores data pairs representing the signal sequence according to the sampling interval. The smallest detectable pulse is the period of the maximum sampling rate (no Interlace mode). This describes the so-called
acquisition peak detection.
A hardware peak detection is not available if data is written
to the acquisition memory at the ADC‘s maximum sampling rate. For slow time bases and a repeat rate set to automatic or maximum value, not all data from the acquisition memory will display on the screen. With peak detection activated when reading out, skipped data will be used
to create a minimum and maximum value. The smallest
detectable pulse is the period of the sampling rate used
to write to the acquisition memory. This describes the socalled memory peak detection.
If one of the peak detection modes or a combination of
the two are used, the corresponding detection mode is
marked with „PD“ in the upper right of the display.
5.3.7 High Resolution
This mode uses Boxcar Averaging via adjacent detection
points (i.e. the converter runs at the maximum sampling
rate) to increase the vertical resolution to up to 10 bit. You
can deactivate this function within the menu or you can
select the automatic switching mode.
Averaging several adjacent sampling rates creates a value
with a higher degree of accuracy than the input data. The
resulting data is called high resolution data. The process of
merging multiple sampling rates to one new value only allows a sampling rate that is smaller than the maximum value. If the HIGH RESOLUTION mode is activated and the
current instrument setting allows the use of the HIGH RESOLUTION mode, the detection mode is marked with
„HR“ in the upper right of the display.
The following requirements must be met to activate the
HIGH RESOLUTION mode:
❙❙ Sampling rate is smaller than the maximum sampling rate
(no Interlace mode)
❙❙ Peak detection is deactivated
❙❙ No active logic pod (POD)
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
By default, all functions listed above are deactivated.
5.3.8 Waveform Rate
This soft menu item provides the following functions:
5.3.8.1 MAX. WFM RATE
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and sampling rate
to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate
When using the MAX. WAVEFORM RATE mode, the oscilloscope is set to display the maximum amount of captures
per second in the signal window. Each column in the signal window displays a captured date. When peak detection is activated, each column displays a pair of min/max
values.
The HMO oscilloscope displays a signal window of
600x400 pixels (Yt without zoom). This translates into 600
data points per detection. When peak detection is activated, 600 pairs of min/max values or 1,200 data values are
displayed. The memory depth corresponds to at least the
displayed time window (time base x signal window grid
section in horizontal direction) multiplied by the current
sampling rate. The minimum value is determined by the
maximum sampling rate and the maximum signal repeat
rate of the oscilloscope. The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided by the amount
of data skipped while reading out from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate.
5.3.8.2 MAX. SAMPL. RATE
If this function is activated, the instrument always sets the
maximum sampling rate while using the maximum memory
available.
The MAX. SAMPL. RATE function always uses the maximum sampling rate and displays the maximum amount of
data. Each column in the signal window displays up to 40
detected data values (limited by processor performance).
How much data is currently displayed depends on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate. If peak
detection is activated, each column displays up to 20 pairs
of min/max values.
The memory depth always corresponds to the maximum
acquisition memory. The displayed sampling rate is identi21
Horizontal System (Time Base)
Fig.5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum sampling rate
cal with the current sampling rate. Peak detection is used
if the displayed time window contains more data than 40 *
signal window columns in the acquisition memory or min/
max data in the acquisition memory.
The entire oscilloscope memory can only be read out by interface if the maximum sampling rate has been activated (refer
also to the HMO SCPI Manual).
5.3.8.3 AUTOMATIC
This mode is the standard mode: the instrument always selects
the optimum combination of capturing and sampling rates (memory length used).
Each column in the signal window displays up to 10 captured data values. How much data is currently displayed depends on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate. When peak detection is activated, each column
displays up to 5 pairs of min/max values.
The memory depth is at least twice as much as the storage capacity set for the maximum repeat rate (limited by
the maximum acquisition memory). The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided
by the amount of data skipped while loading from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling
rate.
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting
All settings apply the identical current sampling rate
(sampling rate used to write to the acquisition memory). In STOP mode it is also possible to change menu
items. This does not impact the current memory depth
but the amount of displayed data will be adjusted. Peak
detection is also activated in STOP mode (time base in
microseconds).
In time bases displaying each sampling point, all three settings behave identically (except used memory depth and
signal update rate). Table 5.1 displays advantages and disadvantages of each setting.
Finally, it needs to be mentioned that this menu replaces
the adjustable memory depth, a standard for other manufacturers. An adjustable memory depth is intended to allow users to understand the relation between memory
depth, time base and sampling rate and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages. With this option, the oscilloscope always captures signals with the maximum sampling rate. This allows users in STOP mode to zoom in retrospectively, even at the maximum repeat rate. It is also possible to zoom out at the maximum repeat rate if the STOP
mode was run at fast time bases. If a high repeat rate can
only be attained by means of low memory depth (as is the
case with other manufacturers) it is nearly impossible to
zoom in retrospectively in STOP mode.
Setting
Advantages
Disadvantages
Application
Max. Repeat Rate
ıı Many captures in one image
ıı Rare events can be detected more
quickly in connection with persistence
ıı Quick response to Operation or
change in signal
ıı Low noise band
ıı High aliasing risk
ıı Low accuracy of details
ıı Low accuracy of measurements
due to reduced amount of data
ıı Search for rare events
ıı Displaying modulated signals
Maximum Sampling Rate
ıı Maximum accuracy of details
ıı Lowest aliasing risk
ıı High accuracy of measurements
ıı Slow response to operation or
change in signal
ıı Low signal update rate
ıı Higher visibility of noise
ıı For signals with high frequency
parts
ıı Assessment of small signal
details
Automatic:
ıı Average signal update rate
ıı Reasonably smooth operation
ıı Good accuracy of measurements
ıı Low noise band
ıı Possible aliasing
ıı Default application
Tab. 5.1: Vor- und Nachteile Softmenü Wiederholrate
22
Horizontal System (Time Base)
The last menu INTERPOLATION allow the selection of
Sinx/x, linear or Sample-Hold as interpolation type for
displaying the aquired data points. Standard setting is
Sinx/x and the best setting for display of analogue signals. At the linear interpolation there is a straight line
used to connect the points. Using sample-hold type of interpolation allow the exact examination of the position of
the the aquired data points within the signal.
5.4 Interlace Mode
In interlace mode, converters (ADC) and storage units of
two channels within the same interlaced group are connected. This doubles the sampling rate and the acquisition
memory. Interlace groups are channels 1 and 2 and channels 3 and 4. If an interlace group is not interlace-capable,
the non-interlace mode is also applied to the related group.
A channel is considered active even if it has been deactivated while still serving as the trigger source. If a channel
is activated, the respective LED next to the input connector is illuminated.
The following conditions must be met to activate the Interlace mode:
❙❙ No active logic pod
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
❙❙ Logic trigger not active
If the interlace mode is possible, it will be activated automatically. The following table displays channel configurations that allow the operation in interlace mode.
Interlace group 1
Interlace group 2
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
ON
Off
ON
Off
Off
ON
ON
Off
Off
ON
Off
ON
Tab. 5.2: Channel configuration in interlace mode
5.5 ZOOM function
The HMO series features a memory depth of 2 MB per
channel. This allows the user to record long and complex
signals which can be analyzed in full detail with the Zoom
function. To activate this feature, press the ZOOM key 40 .
The screen will be divided into two sections. The upper
window displays the entire time base window whereas
the lower graticule shows an enlarged section of the upper window. The enlarged signal section is marked by two
blue cursors in the original signal (upper window). If several channels are activated in Zoom mode, all displayed
channels will be zoomed simultaneously by the same factor and at the identical position.
Fig. 5.5 displays the Zoom window with 100 µs per division. The signal was captured within a time window of
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
12 ms. The zoom area (lower grid) also displays the parameter for zoom time base whereas time is displayed above
the zoom window. Z indicates the zoom time base (zoom
factor) and determines the width of the zoom area displayed in the zoom window (12 divisions x scaling per division). Tz indicates the zoom time and determines the position of the zoom area.
Important: The ZOOM function is not available in ROLL mode.
The time base setting in the upper right of the display is
highlighted in gray while the zoom time base above the
zoom window is marked in white. The large knob in the
horizontal menu is used to change the zoom factor. You
can also press this knob. If the knob is pushed, the time
base setting is highlighted in white and the zoom time
base in gray. Now the knob is available to select the time
base setting. This allows you to change time base settings without having to leave the zoom mode. Pressing
the knob again will highlight the cursors limiting the zoom
area in white, allowing you to use the knob to change the
zoom area. Now you can use the small knob in the horizontal area of the control panel to move the position of
the zoomed section across the entire signal. As described
above, pressing the large knob enables you to set the time
base but not the zoom factor. This in turn enables the small
knob to move the trigger position to define the relationship
of pre- and post captures/records.
In the acquisition mode ROLL, it is generally not possible
to zoom in on the memory because the signal values of
the X axis are always captured with the maximum memory depth. The acquisition mode NORMAL always includes
more samples in the memory than what can be shown in
the display. That explains why in this mode you are able
to zoom in on the memory. The same does not apply to
the values in the Y axis (amplitude). These values apply to
a specified axis and can therefore also be scaled in ROLL
mode.
5.6 Navigation Function
The Navigation function offers easy trigger time handling and allows it to be entered numerically. The soft menu
keys allow you to set the trigger time to the minimum or
23
Horizontal System (Time Base)
the maximum value, for instance. You can use the soft
menu key TIME REFERENCE to define where in the signal window to find the trigger point value “0”. The signal
is scaled by this reference point. You can use the universal knob in the Cursor/ Menu section to select the desired
setting.
5.7 Marker Function
Markers allow you to highlight specific positions on the
screen, e.g. a rising or falling slope, an unexpected signal
value or a search result. Markers can be used to identify
specific signal sections to zoom in on and to analyze the
data more closely.
Use the soft menu to activate the marker function. Press
the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the control
panel to open the soft menu. Use the universal knob in the
menu to select MARKER. Once this mode is activated, you
can press the SET/CLR key to set a time marker at the 6th
time unit (the menu in the center of the grid must be deactivated). The time markers are marked by a vertical line in
gray-blue. The knob X Position allows you to move the signal including the set marker. After identifying an important
signal position and setting it to the center of the screen
using the position knob, you can set an additional marker.
This procedure allows you to mark up to 8 interesting positions within the signal. You can toggle between markers
37 . These keys also allow
by pressing the arrow keys
you to center the markers in the middle of the screen. This
feature enables you to quickly compare marked signal sections in ZOOM mode.
To delete a marker, center it in the middle of the screen
and press the SET/CLR key once again. You can also delete
all time markers simultaneously in the marker soft menu.
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
5.8 Search Function
The search function in the HMO series enables you to
search for all slopes, pulse widths, peaks or additional
events in the detection mode that match the manually specified search criteria. Specific settings are available for
each search type. Searches can be performed on any ana24
log channel or mathematical signal. The searched time
base section can be restricted by defining a level.
Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the
control panel to activate the search function in the soft
menu. Use the universal knob to select the menu item
SEARCH. Once this mode is activated, you can define
events, e.g. a rise time with specific attributes, such as
<12 ns. The search function will then look for these events
in STOP mode in the most current capture. Press the menu
item SEARCH TYPE and use the universal knob to select
the desired search criteria.
The following functions are available:
❙❙ Slope: Comparable to the slope trigger; this function
searches for slopes in the signal. The point in time of a
detected slope corresponds to the point in time when the
signal leaves the set hysteresis. The soft key LEVEL
selects a level for the slope detection of the search
function. The search function level matches the trigger
level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level and hysteresis
will display in the signal window. The hysteresis
determines the area that the signal has to pass until a
valid slope is detected. This area also defines the rise time
of the slope. It is recommended to select a sufficiently
large hysteresis to reduce noise on the signal slope.
❙❙ Pulse width: Comparable to the pulse width trigger; this
function searches for pulses with a predetermined pulse
width. A pulse always consists of a rising and a falling
slope. Leaving the hysteresis defines the start and end time
of the pulse. The level for the search function corresponds
to the trigger level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level
and hysteresis will display in the signal window. The
adjustable comparison type is a search criterium for the
detected time event width. The pulse width is the time
period between start and stop slope of the pulse.
❙❙ Peak: The peak search function searches for pulses
within the signal. The time of the event is the maximum
value of the peak.
❙❙ Rise time / fall time: This function searches for slopes
with a specific rise/fall time within the signal. The point in
time of a detected slope corresponds to the point in time
when the signal leaves the set hysteresis. The upper and
lower level define the upper/lower position of the
hysteresis. The adjusted level will display in the signal
window. The adjustable comparison type is a search
criterium for the detected time event width.
❙❙ Runt: A runt is an aborted pulse within a signal. This
occurs when the rise times of the system are greater than
necessary for the desired pulse width. A positive runt
exceeds the lower level of the hysteresis, for instance, but
does not reach the upper level. The analyzing digital
circuits of this signal fail to detect the pulse which leads to
transmission errors. The pulse width of the runt is defined
by the entry and exit point from the hysteresis (duration
between start and stop slope of the pulse). The adjustable
comparison type is a search criterium for the detected
time event width. The difference defines the maximum
time range by which the specified event width may vary.
Trigger System
Once you have selected the appropriate search type, you
can choose the desired SOURCE (choose from any of the
activated analog channels including mathematical channels). Use the menu item SETUP to open a submenu
where you can choose the settings for the selected search
criterium (e.g. greater than a specific pulse width). Some
of the adjustable parameters may be dependent on the
time base (for a time base of 100 μs/Div the smallest time
is 2 μs, for 1 μs/Div the corresponding time value is 20 ns).
If events match the search criterium, they will be highlighted. The soft menu VIEW EVENT TABLE allows you to display the search results in a table format. Use the arrow
keys or the universal knob to navigate the events in STOP
mode. The Select option allows you to center the selected
event. When the zoom function is activated, the selected
event will automatically be centered in the zoom window.
6 Trigger System
The trigger system of the
HMO is easy to handle by just
observing the concept of instrument operation.
There are 4 keys destined for
frequently used functions:
❙❙ TYPE: selection of trigger
type EDGE (EDGE A/B),
PULSE, LOGIC and VIDEO
❙❙ SLOPE: type of slope
❙❙ SOURCE: determines the
triggers source
❙❙ FILTER: determines the
exact trigger conditions
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
Fig. 6.1: Front panel control
area of the trigger system
Additional keys are provided
for the selection of the trigger modes: (AUTO. NORMAL,
SINGLE).
6.1 Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single
The basic trigger modes are directly selectable with the
key AUTO NORM. In AUTO mode the key will not be lit. If
the key is pushed it will light up red indicating NORMAL
mode. The oscilloscope always presents a signal in AUTO
mode and a signal will automatically yield a stable display
if it fulfills the trigger conditions.
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
In NORMAL mode the signal will be displayed if it fulfills
the trigger conditions, if it fails to do so the last stable triggered display will remain on the screen.
If it is desired to record a signal which fulfills the trigger
conditions only once, the key SINGLE must be pushed,
it will light up white. This indicates that the single trigger
mode is active, the RUN/STOP key will blink. The next return of the signal will cause a single capture, the oscilloscope then goes into the STOP mode, indicated by the
RUN/STOP key lighting up in red.
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
25
Trigger System
6.2Trigger sources
Trigger sources are the 2 or 4 analog channels and the external trigger input. If the optional logic probe HO3508
with 8 or 16 logic channels is connected, also those up to
16 digital channels can serve as trigger sources. The soft
menu key AC LINE enables you to trigger the trigger at
system frequency. The trigger signal is extracted internally
from the power supply.
6.3 Slope trigger
The easiest and by far the most frequently used trigger is
the slope trigger. The oscilloscope triggers if slopes that
were set with the SLOPE key occur within the signal selected in the SOURCE menu. The signal slope has to pass
through the set trigger level.
level. For the trigger type NORM (AUTO/NORM key), the
Peak-Peak mode is deactivated, allowing the trigger level
to be moved past the peak values of the signal.
❙❙ DC: The trigger signal is coupled to the trigger circuit with
all signal portions (AC and DC voltage). This has no
impact on the triggering signal.
❙❙ HF: The trigger signal is routed via a 30 kHz (-3 dB) high
pass filter. The trigger level is no longer adjustable. This
mode should only be used with very high frequency
signals.
❙❙ LP (low pass): The trigger signal is coupled via low pass
with a maximum cut-off frequency of 5 kHz. This filter
removes high frequencies and is available with AC and DC
coupling.
❙❙ NR (noise reduction): A low pass filter with a maximum
cut-off frequency of 100 MHz will improve the noise
performance for the trigger amplifier. This filter removes
high frequencies and is available with AC and DC
coupling.
The coupling types low pass and noise reduction may not be activated simultaneously.
The slope trigger can be coupled with a so called „B Trigger“. This option is available after pushing TYPE. This function allows you to adjust the trigger such that first condition „A“ must be met and then another condition „B“ before the trigger will respond (refer to Fig. 6.3).
Fig. 6.3: The type B-Trigger
The trigger type Slope Trigger is selected in the Autosetup
mode (AUTOSET key). If, for instance, you select the pulse
trigger and press the AUTOSET key the setting will switch
to Slope Trigger. The TYPE 31 key in the trigger control
panel allows you to set the trigger type. This opens a menu
with corresponding options. If the SLOPE type is not active (highlighted in blue), you can press the respective soft
menu key to select this type. The slope type (rising, falling
or both) can be set directly with the SLOPE key 35 . This will
shift the setting forward by one, i.e. from rising to falling
slope, to both slopes, and pressing the key yet one more
time will trigger another rising slope. The center of the status line on the top of the display and the display above the
SLOPE key 35 show which slope type has been selected.
The FILTER 36 key allows you to select how to couple the
signal for the trigger circuit:
❙❙ AUTO LEVEL: Automatic filter setting (default setting).
❙❙ AC: The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency of 5 Hz which suppresses the
DC portion of the triggering signal. With a changing DC
portion, the trigger level remains at the set point in the AC
signal. The trigger type AUTO (AUTO/NORM key) includes
the Peak-Peak mode which sets limits for the trigger in the
AC signal. This setting means that the trigger condition
will be met for any applied signal without having to set the
26
E.g. it is possible to define a source (channel) and a level
of 120 mV on the rising slope of that signal and for the second condition a level of 80 mV on the falling slope. Additionally, it is possible to define whether the B event should
occur a time (min. 32 ns, max. 10 s) or a number (min. 1,
max. 216) of times after the A event. The level or time or
the number of events can be entered numerically with the
universal knob or in a submenu. In order to do this first select the setting, then push the soft key next to NUMERIC
INPUT. In the window which will open, you can enter numbers and units with the universal knob or numerical with
KEYPAD button.
6.4 Pulse trigger
The pulse trigger allows triggering for specific pulse widths
of positive or negative pulses or for pulse width ranges. The
oscilloscope triggers if a pulse occurs within the signal selected in the SOURCE menu that matches the properties
set in the FILTER menu. If a pulse fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope triggers on the trailing slope, i.e. for
a positive pulse it triggers on the falling slope and for a negative pulse on a rising slope.
Activate the pulse trigger by pressing the TYPE key 31 in
the trigger control panel. Press the FILTER key 36 , then you
can select additional settings for the pulse trigger in the
soft menu.
There are 6 different options:
❙❙ ti ≠ t:The pulse width ti is unequal to the reference
width t.
Trigger System
Fig. 6.4: Pulse trigger menu
❙❙ ti = t:The pulse width ti is equal to the reference width t.
❙❙ ti < t:The pulse width ti is smaller than the reference
width t.
❙❙ ti > t:The pulse width ti is greater than the reference
width t.
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti, is smaller than the reference
width t2 and greater than the reference width t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width ti, is greater than the
reference width t2 and smaller than the reference width t1.
The comparison time can be set anywhere between 8 ns
to 134.217 ms. For any value up to 1 ms the resolution is
8 ns and for any value greater than 1 ms the resolution is
1 µs. The deviation can be set anywhere between 4ns to
262.144 µs with a resolution of 4 ns.
Select the desired function and then adjust the desired reference time. If you select “ti ≠ t“ or “ti = t“ you can use
the soft menu key TIME and the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU control panel to set a reference time. Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows you to use
the universal knob to define a tolerance zone. Selecting
“t1<ti<t2“ or “Not(t1<ti<t2)“ allows you to define both reference times with the menu items TIME 1 and TIME 2. Selecting „ti < t“ or „ti > t“ allows you to define only one limit. Selecting the corresponding soft menu item allows
you to set any of these settings for positively or negatively
polarized pulses. For the associated positive pulse, you define the width from rising to falling slopes, and accordingly
for the associated negative pulse from falling to rising slopes. As is consistent with the principle, triggering always
occurs on the second slope of the pulse.
6.5 Logic trigger
You may test all the settings without a logic probe connected,
however, the functions will only be effective with a HO3508
probe connected.
Selecting the logic trigger in the soft menu after pressing
the TYPE key 31 will switch the trigger source to the digital inputs. Pressing the SOURCE key 32 after selecting
this trigger type displays a soft menu for additional set-
Fig. 6.5: Logic trigger menu
tings and a window to list these settings (see Fig. 6.5).
The top soft menu key enables you to select a logic channel for which you wish to determine the trigger condition. Use the universal knob for this purpose. In the general menu, the selected digital input is marked with a
blue background. In the field, the trigger level is marked
as High (H), Low (L) or (X). Use the corresponding soft
menu key to select the trigger level. As before, the selected level will be marked in the soft menu with a blue
background. Another soft menu item allows the logic
combination of the digital channels. They can be combined by logic AND or OR. If AND is selected, the set
conditions of all channels must be met simultaneously for
the input signal so that the combination produces a logic High (H) as a result. If OR is selected, at least one of
the defined level conditions must be met. The last item in
this menu is the option TRIGGER ON. Use the soft menu
key to select TRUE or FALSE. This allows you to preselect
whether the trigger will be generated at the beginning
(TRUE) or the end of the logic condition (FALSE).
After selecting the desired set of conditions, you can use
the FILTER key 36 for additional settings. A soft menu will
open allowing you to add a time limit to the TRIGGER ON
option (this menu shows the condition selected in the
SOURCE menu). Press the top soft menu key to add a time
limit. This option compares the duration of the output signal for the combination of the logic conditions to the set
duration ti. If the duration is identical or not identical, you
can set the deviation ∆t. If t is within these parameters, the
trigger condition has been met. The menu field below allows the selection of the comparison criteria.
These 6 criteria are available:
❙❙ ti ≠ t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is unequal to the reference time.
❙❙ ti = t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is equal to the reference time.
❙❙ ti < t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is smaller than the reference time.
❙❙ ti > t: The duration of the bit pattern which will generate
the trigger is greater than the reference time.
27
Trigger System
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The duration of the bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is smaller than the reference width t2
and greater than the reference width t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The duration of the bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is greater than the reference width t2
and smaller than the reference width t1.
key RESET POS. & SIZE activates the display for all digital channels of the selected group by using default values
for the vertical position and size. You may also define the
name for the current signal by using the soft menu NAME.
A library provides a list of predefined names. The name
can be activated, deactivated or edited.
By the same procedure as with pulse trigger the reference
time is adjusted with ti ≠ t and ti = t by turning the universal
knob after pushing the soft key next to TIME. By selecting
DEVIATION the universal knob allows you to define a tolerance interval. If ti < t or ti > t was chosen only one limit
may be set. Both options with two references (t1 and t2)
can be set due to pressing the respective soft key and turning the universal knob.
6.6 Video trigger
The video trigger allows you to trigger on PAL, NTSC
SECAM standard video signals or on HDTV signals. Select
the video trigger mode by pressing the key TYPE 31 in the
trigger section of the control panel. Select the source by
pressing the SOURCE 32 key. The FILTER 36 menu allows
As with the pulse trigger, for ti ≠ t or ti = t you can set a reference time with the soft menu key TIME and the universal knob. Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows
you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU control panel to set the deviation ∆t which defines the tolerance between set reference time t and valid and real
pulse width ti (permissible tolerance range). Selecting
“t1<ti<t2“ or “not(t1<ti<t2)“ allows you to set both comparison times (time interval limits) with the soft menu items
TIME 1 and TIME 2. For ti < t or ti > t, only one limit can be
defined. Time and deviation can be set with the universal
knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU control panel.
Fig. 6.7: Video trigger menu
To change the threshold values for the logic states “one”
and “zero”, it is necessary to use settings in the channel menu (MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel). Select the POD (POD or CH3/POD 24 button). If logic mode
is already activated, the digital channels will be displayed
in the channel display section of the display (framed and
marked with “POD:xxxV“). Pressing the MENU key 21 in
the VERTICAL section of the control panel allows you to
activate one of five predefined logic levels. Three of these
are fixed for TTL, CMOS and ECL. After pressing the respective menu item, two customized logic levels may be
set from –2 V to 8 V with the universal knob. The soft menu
Fig. 6.6: Logic channels’ settings display
28
you to define additional settings. The oscilloscope triggers
if the CVBS signal (Color Video Baseband Signal) selected
in the SOURCE menu features the attributes set in the FILTER menu.
Select the desired standard by pressing the respective
soft menu key STANDARD. Use the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU control panel or press the soft menu key
again to select the desired standard. The second setting
will apply to the polarity of the sync pulse (may be positive
or negative). With positive video modulation (the highest
brightness is represented in the image by the maximum
signal voltage), the synchronization pulses are negative,
with negative modulation they are positive. The slopes of
the synchronization pulses are used for triggering which
explains why a faulty polarity setting causes irregular triggering by image information. Next you can select between
frame triggering (FRAME) and line triggering (LINE). Selecting LINE allows you to define the exact line between
1 and 625 via universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the
CURSOR/MENU control panel.
The soft menu item ALL LINES enables the oscilloscope to
trigger on the start of the lines in the video signal. This key
selects all lines i.e. even when other trigger conditions are
met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each line. If FRAME
is selected for frame triggering, the lower menu items
will allow to trigger on ODD or only EVEN half frames. In
Display of signals
this case, the oscilloscope will trigger on the start of the
half frames in the video signal. The respective key will select the odd (even) half frames, i.e. even if the other trigger
conditions are met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each
odd (even) half frame.
The following modes are available:
❙❙ PAL
❙❙ NTSC
❙❙ SECAM
❙❙ PAL-M
❙❙ SDTV 576i Interlaced
❙❙ HDTV 720p Progressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080p Progressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080i Interlaced
7 Display of
signals
The following chapter describes the selection and display of
signals from various sources and the available display modes.
7.1 Display settings
The HMO72x...202x series features a high quality TFT display with VGA (640x480 pixels resolution) including LED
backlighting. Basic display settings can be defined by
pressing the DISPLAY 14 key in the GENERAL control panel. When the soft menu item VIRTUAL SCREEN is activated, a scroll bar will display to the right of the display graticule. Use the universal knob to upload and download
the display window within the 20 divisions of the virtual
screen. You will find a detailed description of the VIRTUAL
SCREEN option in the next chapter.
The following settings can be selected:
❙❙ DOTS ONLY:
If this option is activated (ON), only the acquired data
points will be shown. This means that the data points of
all signals will not be connected by vertical lines. If this
option is deactivated (OFF), interpolated data points will
also be shown.
❙❙ INVERSE BRIGHTN.:
This setting inverts the brightness of the displayed signals.
Normally, frequently captured dots will be displayed more
brightly than rare dots. The INVERSE BRIGHTNESS option
reverses the circumstances. Rare events display a higher
brightness compared to frequent events. To capture rare
events in a signal, this setting can be used in combination
with persistence.
❙❙ FALSE COLORS:
This setting converts the brightness levels of the displayed
signals to a color scale (ranging anywhere from blue,
magenta, red and yellow to white). Thanks to the higher
contrast, users can view signal details more easily. This
setting applies to all signals simultaneously.
❙❙ GRID:
This soft menu allows you to display the graticule as
LINES (the graticule is divided into horizontal and vertical
divisions), as CENTER CROSS (displays one horizontal and
one vertical zero line, showing the divisions as dots) or as
OFF (the entire graticule will include no dots or lines).
❙❙ INFO WINDOWS:
Selecting this soft menu item will open a submenu which
allows you to set the transparency for the info windows.
Info windows are small windows that appear on the
screen depending on the particular application (e.g. values
are displayed when offset is changed). A transparency
value of 0% to 100% is selectable. Use the universal knob
4 to define this setting. Additional menu items allow you
to activate or deactivate the info windows for POSITION
and TRACE BRIGHTN.. If POSITION is activated and the
29
Display of signals
vertical position is changed, the respective value on the
zero line will be displayed. Depending on the selected
trigger type, the user will see specific information about
the acquisition status. This information will only be
displayed if the signal changes on the screen can persist
over a longer period. If the trigger condition has been
met, the information window shows a progress display for
the post-trigger and pre-trigger. If the trigger condition
has not been met, the information window shows the
time of the last trigger event (Trig?). If the trigger type
AUTOMATIC is selected, the instrument will switch to
non-triggered acquisition mode in case of a non-triggered
condition over an extended period of time. This
acquisition mode does not display an info window as the
data currently captured is displayed.
❙❙ AUX. CURSORS:
This soft menu allows you to define the settings for
auxiliary cursors. Pressing the function keys enables you
to activate or deactivate the cursors. The menu item
DEFAULTS resets the default settings.
7.2 Use of the virtual screen area
The graticule for the HMO series includes 8 vertical divisions but also has a virtual range of 20 divisions. These 20
divisions may be used entirely by the optional digital channels D0 to D15, the mathematical channels and the references signals. The analog channels may use up to ±5 divi-
Fig. 7.2: Menu for setting the signal display intensities
tence mode may be selected for the display of varying
signals: this is a storage mode such that several curves
may be written to remain on the screen. Also the so called
„Variable Persistence“ may be selected: in this mode the
persistence can be changed from 50 ms to infinity; this
will cause the most recent portion of the signal to appear
bright while the preceeding portions will fade in proportion to the time elapsed. This mode can be selected in the
soft menu which will open upon pushing the key INTENS/
PERSIST; the signal intensity can be changed also in this
menu.
Two more menu items are available: GRID and BACKLIGHT
by pushing the respective soft menu keys; the intensities
can be changed with the universal knob. The soft menu
key next to the lowest menu item toggles between High
and LOW of the LED’s of all backlit keys and all other LED
displays on the front panel.
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area and an example
sions from the center.
After selecting the menu items PERSISTENCE and ADJUST the persistence function can be defined: there are
3 choices for the duration of the persistence: OFF, AUTOMATIC and MANUAL. In MANUAL operation, the duration
can be changed with the universal knob from 50 ms to infinity. If a finite time was selected, the signal periods will be
written on top of each other such that the brightness will
diminish from recent to oldest. If e.g. 300 ms is selected,
Fig. 7.1 illustrates the functionality of the virtual screen.
The display includes a section of 8 vertical divisions in
gray. This section enables you to display analog signals.
The small bar next to the graticule indicates the position of
the 8 visible divisions within the available 20 divisions. By
pressing the SCROLL BAR 5 the bar will be activated and
displayed in blue and you can use the universal knob to
shift the 8 visible divisions (gray section) within the available 20 divisions. This allows a simple and clear display of
many individual signal portions.
7.3Signal intensity and persistence functions
In the standard mode, the key INTENS/PERSIST will light
up white: the intensity of the signal display can be changed with the universal knob from 0 to 100 %. The persis30
Fig. 7.3: Persistence function
Display of signals
the signal curves will become darker in 50ms steps and
erased after 300 ms. In this soft menu the function BACKGROUND may be activated in addition: then all signal curves ever displayed will be shown in the darkest colour.
This kind of display is for example very useful for the analysis of extreme values of different signals.
7.4 XY display
The HMO series features a key that allows you to switch
directly to the XY display. Two signals will be displayed simultaneously, one in Y direction and one in X direction.
This implicates that the time base X will be replaced by
amplitude values of a secondsource. The resulting signal
curves for harmonic signals are known as Lissajous figures
and allow the analysis of frequency and phase position for
these two signals. In case of a nearly identical frequency
the figure will rotate. If the frequency is exactly identical,
the figure will stand still and the phase position can be deduced from its shape. You can activate the XY display by
pressing the XY key 19 in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel. The key will be illuminated and the display
will divided into one large and three small display areas.
nal. This can be static or dynamic, by setting an adjustable
threshold or by modulating the brightness with the amplitude change of the Z input. In the MODULATION setting,
large amplitudes of the Z source will display the XY points.
The transition is continuous. The setting On|Off displays
values below the selected threshold of the Z source and
the XY points with the lowest brightness (ON/OFF). Values
exceeding the threshold will be displayed with the selected brightness. There is no transition between the two states. You can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD button
to select the threshold.
The XY display will be deactivated by pressing the XY key
in the VERTICAL section of the control panel if the XY settings are activated. If you wish to show no menu or a different menu, press the XY key twice to deactivate the XY
display.
The following settings apply exclusively to the four
channel instruments. The two channel instruments
only supports the simple XY display.
The large grid shows the XY display while the small grids
show the source for X, Y1, Y2 and Z. The small windows
feature the classical signal display as Y vs. time. It is possible to define two signals as the Y input and display this
vs. the x input to perform a comparison. It is necessary
to show the menu to determine which input signal is defined as X, Y1, Y2 or Z. To do so, press the XY key again.
The menu that opens allows you to assign X, Y1 and Y2
accordingly.
Press the soft menu key Z SETTINGS to determine the settings for the Z input. The function SOURCE Z allows you to
use any of the analog channels as source for the Z input.
Use the universal knob to select the desired setting. The
Z input allows you to control the brightness of the XY sig-
Fig. 7.4: Settings for the Z input
31
Display of signals
8 Measurements
There are two different kinds of measurements on signals: cursor measurements and automatic measurements. All results
are stored in a buffer memory which is larger than the display
memory. The QuickView mode delivers all available parameters
of a signal curve. The integrated hardware counter shows the
count results on the selected channel.
8.1 Cursor measurements
The most frequently used measurement method with an oscilloscope is the cursor measurement. This concept is oriented
towards the expected results and thus provides not only one or
two but in some modes, three cursors. Cursor measurements
are controlled by the keys: CURSOR MEASURE and the universal knob. The kind of measurement can be defined in the menu
which will open upon pushing the key CURSOR MEASURE.
voltages. The values V1 and V2 represent the voltages differences between the zero base line and the actual positions
of the two cursors on the selected signal curve. ΔV represents the voltage difference between the cursors.
TIME
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure 3 different
times and an equivalent frequency. The values t1 and t2 represent the times between the trigger and the position of the
cursors. Δt represents the time between the cursors.
RATIO X
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to measure ratios in X
direction (e.g. a duty cycle) between the first and the second
and between the first and the third cursors. The values will
be presented in 4 different formats: floating point, percent,
degrees, radians.
RATIO Y
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to measure ratios in
Y-direction (e.g. an overshoot) between the first and the second and between the first and the third cursors. The results
will be presented in 2 formats: floating point, percent.
COUNT
This mode provides 3 cursors in order to count signal crossings of a level which can be set with the third cursor for a
time span as defined by the distance between the first and
the second cursors. The result will be presented in 4 different versions: number of rising and falling level crossings,
number of positive and negative pulses.
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurements selection menu
The menu CURSOR MEASURE allows you to select cursor-based measurements for an activated signal source on
the oscilloscope. The measurement source is indicated by
the font color of the respective result. The results are displayed at the bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed,
the measurement is not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case for a voltage measurement
on a POD because only logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?” is displayed, the display
does not show a complete measurement result. For instance, the period to be measured may not display completely and can consequently not be identified.
As shown above, the selection of the kind of measurement
can be done by pushing the respective soft menu key and
selecting the kind of cursor measurement with the universal
knob. The results will be displayed below the graticule. In order to move a cursor, select the desired cursor by pushing
the universal knob and position the cursor with the universal
knob. The kinds of measurements are:
VOLTAGE
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure 3 different
32
PEAK LEVELS
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the minimum and maximum values of a signal within the time span
as defined by the two cursors. The values Vp- and Vp+ represent the minimum and maximum values of the voltage.
The peak-to-peak value (Vpp) is equal to the difference between the minimum and maximum values.
RMS, MEAN, Standard deviation, σ
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to calculate the rms,
the mean and the standard deviation σ values of a signal
between the two cursors.
Duty cycle
This mode provides three cursors in order to calculate the
duty cycle of the signal between the two horizontal cursors. The third vertical cursor will set the level at which the
duty cycle is determined.
Rise time 90%
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the rise
and fall times between the two cursors. The rise and fall time
are measured between 10% to 90% of the signal amplitude.
Rise time 80%
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure the rise
and fall times between the two cursors. The rise and fall
Measurements
time are measured between 20% to 80% of the signal
amplitude.
V MARKER
This mode provides 2 cursors in order to measure two different voltages and a time span. The values V1 and V2 represent the voltages between the zero base line and the respective cursor. ΔV represents the voltage difference between the two cursors. Δt represents the time difference between them.
If the function AUTOM. SOURCE is activated (On), the
currently targeted channel will be used as source for the
measurement. If the setting is deactivated (Off), the channel set under SOURCE will be applied even if it is not targeted. The soft menu key SOURCE allows you to select a source for the measurement by using the universal
knob. Pressing the soft menu key SET TO TRACE places
the selected cursors in their optimal position on the signal curve. This allows very fast and typically optimal automatic positioning of the cursors. For the most part, only
fine tuning is required at this point and the tedious major adjustments to the cursors will no longer be necessary. As previously described, the cursors can also be selected by pressing the universal knob and may be positioned by turning the universal knob. In case the automated function SET TO TRACE does not provide the anticipated results due to complex signals, you can press the key
SET TO TRACE to position the cursors in a predefined starting position. This allows you to return distant cursors to
the screen.
The soft menu key GLUE TO TRACE allows cursors to stay
on the selected data point without changing the position
in the measurement signal even if the scaling is modified
(cursors will be „glued“ to the signal). This function can be
activated or deactivated. If this mode is deactivated, the
cursor stays in position on the screen if scaling occurs.
With GLUE TO TRACE deactivated, the measured value
changes while it remains unmodified when the mode is
activated.
Pushing again the button CURSOR MEASURE switch off
al cursors.
8.2 Auto measurements
The HMO series features cursor measurements and also
various automatic measurements. These may be activated
by pressing the key AUTO MEASURE 11 in the section ANALYZE of the control panel.
This menu allows you to select up to six automatic measurement functions by using the soft menu key MEAS.
PLACE and the universal knob. A maximum of two measurements are possible simultaneously. These may originate from two different sources. The measurement source
(soft menu SOURCE) is indicated by the font color of the
respective result. The results are displayed at the bottom
of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is not
Fig. 8.2: Menu for the automatic measurements settings
applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case
for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic
states without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?”
is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement result. For instance, the period to be measured
may not display completely and can consequently not be
identified.
The list of available sources only includes displayed channels (possible sources are analog, digital and mathematical
channels).
The following kinds of measurement are available:
MEAN
This mode measures the mean value of the signal amplitude. If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left of
the screen will be used for the measurement. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
RMS
This mode identifies the effective value from the displayed
view of the signal. If the signal is periodic, the first period
on the left of the screen will be used for the measurement.
The effective value is not applied to a sine signal will be
calculated directly (so-called TrueRMS). The measurement
will only be applied to the selected channel.
PEAK–TO–PEAK
This mode measures the difference in voltage between
the maximum and the minimum peak value of the signal
within the displayed view.
PEAK +
This mode measures the maximum voltage value in the
displayed view of the screen. The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel.
PEAK –
This mode measures the minimum voltage value in the displayed view of the screen. The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel.
33
Measurements
FREQUENCY
This mode identifies the frequency of the signal from the
reci-procal value of the first signal period T. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
PERIOD
This mode measures the duration of the signal period T.
The period identifies the duration between two equal values of one periodically repeated signal.
AMPLITUDE
This mode measures the amplitude of a square wave signal. This mode calculates the difference in voltage between the upper and the lower level (Vbase and Vtop). The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel
and requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal.
UPPER LEVEL
This mode measures the mean voltage level of an upper
square wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
DUTY RATIO –
This mode measures the negative duty ratio. In this mode,
positive negative portions are identified over a specific period and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one complete period
of a triggered signal.
RISE TIME 90%
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90%
of its amplitude.
FALL TIME 90%
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies the time in which the signal falls from 90% to 10% of
its amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%
This mode measures the rise time of the first rising slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80%
of its amplitude.
LOWER LEVEL
This mode measures the mean voltage level of the lower
square wave. This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
FALL TIME 80%
This mode measures the fall time of the first falling slope
in the displayed view of the screen. The fall time identifies the time in which the signal falls from 80% to 20% of
its amplitude.
PULSE WIDTH +
This mode measures the width of the positive pulse. A
positive pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a falling slope. This measurement type identifies the two slopes
and calculates the pulse width from their time difference.
The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
σ-STD. DEVIATION
This mode measures the standard deviation of the signal
amplitude in the displayed view of the screen. The standard deviation is the measurement for the deviation of a
signal from its mean value. A low result indicates that the
values are close to the mean value. A higher result illustrates that on average the difference between the values is
greater.
PULSE WIDTH –
This mode measures the width of the negative pulse. A
negative pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a rising slope. This measurement type identifies the two slopes
and calculates the pulse width from their time difference.
The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
DELAY
This mode measures the time delay between the set measurement source and the reference source. This mode
searches for the slope of the measurement source that is
closest to the time reference. Then, beginning from this
point, it searches for the nearest slope of the reference
source. This time difference indicates the measurement result. A submenu (DELAY SETTINGS) allows you to select
the setting for measurement source, reference source and
slopes.
DUTY RATIO +
This mode measures the positive duty ratio. In this mode,
positive signal portions are identified over a specific period and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one complete period
of a triggered signal.
34
PHASE
This mode measures the phase between two slopes of
two channels in the displaced view of the screen. This
mode measures the relation of the time delay between
the set sources to the signal period of the measurement
source. This mode searches for the slope of the measurement source that is closest to the time reference. Then, be-
Measurements
ginning from this point, it searches for the nearest slope
of the reference source. The time difference and the signal
period indicate the measurement result in degrees. A submenu (MEASUREMENT SOURCE/ REFERENCE SOURCE)
allows you to select the measurement source and the reference source.
COUNT +
This mode counts positive pulses in the displayed view of
the screen. A positive pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a falling slope. The mean value is calculated from
the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be
counted if the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse
that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
The results (current value, minimum, maximum, mean
value, standard deviation and number of measurements)
are shown in table format in the display window. Statistics are available for up to 1,000 captures, and you can define the desired number with the universal knob. The mean
value and the standard deviation are identified by means of
the most current n values where n corresponds to the set
captures (soft menu key NO. OF AVERAGES). Minimum
and maximum of the measurement value applies to the total number of measurements. The total number of measurements will be displayed in the statistics. The key RESET STATISTIC resets the statistics. All recorded values are
erased. This function can be used to restart the statistics
at a defined point. The key CLEAR MEASUREMENTS deactivates the automatic measurements.
COUNT –
This mode counts negative pulses in the displayed view of
the screen. A negative pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a rising slope. The mean value is calculated from
the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be
counted if the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse
that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT +/
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from Low
Level to High Level in the displayed view of the screen.
The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the
measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel.
Fig. 8.3: Statistic for Automeasurements
COUNT –/
This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from High
Level to Low Level in the displayed view of the screen.
The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the
measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal
runs through the mean value. The measurement will only
be applied to the selected channel.
TRIGGER FREQUENCY
This mode measures the frequency of the trigger signal
bases on the period duration. The source for the measurement is the currently set trigger source. The frequency will
be determined with a hardware counter with a high accuracy of 6 digits.
TRIGGER PERIOD
This mode measures the duration of periods of the trigger
signal (with a hardware counter).
8.2.1Statistics for Automatic Measurements
If automatic measurement functions are defined, you can
view statistics for these parameters on page 2|2 of the
AUTO MEASURE menu. The statistics allow you to evaluate a periodic signal over a number of measurements.
35
Analysis
9 Analysis
The HMO series oscilloscopes features an analysis function for the collected data records which are displayed on
the screen. Simple mathematical functions can be performed with the function “Quick mathematics” while more
complex functions and the linking of functions can be accomplished with the formula editor. The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track the changes of the
included signals and only apply to the visible area. You can
also activate the frequency analysis (FFT) by pressing the
respective key. The function QUICKVIEW provides a quick
overview for the signal properties. A masked-based PASS/
FAIL test allows you to monitor signals automatically.
9.1 Mathematical Functions
The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the
recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track
the changes of the included signals and only apply to the
visible area of the screen. If a signal is cut off at the edge
of the screen may indicate that the corresponding mathematical curve is also truncated. The DIV encoder can be
used to scale an activated mathematical curve.
The soft menu keys in the QM menu allow you to configure the Quick Mathematics function. With the first and
the third soft menu key, you can choose the respective
channel (source) for the Quick Mathematics calculation.
You may only choose activated analog channels. The central soft menu key allows you to select the calculation type
Fig. 9.2: Quick mathematics menu
addition (ADD), subtraction (SUB), multiplication (MUL) or
division (DIV). Pressing the MENU key in the VERTICAL
control panel will switch you to a more detailed display of
the QM menu. You can use the universal knob to select
operands and operators.
9.1.2Formula editor
The formula editor menu (soft menu key MA) allows you
to activate and deactivate mathematical equations that are
defined and displayed within the selected formula set. The
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
The MATH menu is divided into Quick Mathematics and
formula sets. Quick Mathematics is designed for simple
and quick calculations. The formula sets, however, allow
more complicated links.
9.1.1Quick mathematics
Pressing the MATH key 26 in the VERTICAL control panel will activate a short menu. The lowest soft menu key
QM/MA activates Quick Mathematics or the formula editor. QM stands for Quick Mathematics and MA for die Mathematics Advanced (formula editor). You can toggle between the two mathematical functions by pressing this soft
menu key.
36
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
list only includes visible equations. Four out of five functions from the current formula set can be displayed simultaneously. The 5th curve may be used as operand for one
of the four mathematical curves. It will be calculated, but
will not be included in the display. The MENU key in the
VERTICAL control panel opens a menu to select the formula set and its corresponding formulas. You can also
choose a NAME with a maximum of 8 characters, load a
formula set (from the internal memory or from a USB stick)
Analysis
or save a formula set (internally or on a USB stick). You can
use the universal knob to enter the name of your choice
and you can save it by using the ACCEPT key. The name
will now be displayed Instead of the generic labels MA1…
MA5. You can specify the names for all equations separately. Once all equations, constants and names have been
entered, you may also choose a name for this formula set
by pressing the NAME key in the formula set menu and
entering the name of your choice.
The HMO series includes five mathematical formula sets.
Each of these formula sets contains five formulas which
may be edited with a formula editor to also define linked
mathematical functions. These are labeled MA1 to MA5.
You can use the universal knob to select the formula set.
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
The formula set editor (soft menu key EDIT FORMULARY)
lists all existing equations which may be edited. A blue bar
indicates that an equation is selected. It is important to
distinguish between editing the display and editing the
parameters. Use the universal knob to select the respective equation and activate it by pressing the soft menu
key VISIBLE. An activated, visible equation is marked by a
filled-in eye symbol in the formula editor and is listed in the
short menu.
In the soft menu UNIT you can use the universal knob to
select from the following units:V (Volt)
❙❙ V(Volt)
❙❙ y
(Yokto, 10 -24)
❙❙ A(Ampere)
❙❙ K
(Kilo, 103)
❙❙ Ω
(Ohm)
❙❙ M (Mega, 106)
❙❙ V/A (Volt per Ampere)
❙❙ G
(Giga, 109)
❙❙ W(Watt)
❙❙ T
(Tera, 1012)
❙❙ VA (Volt Ampere)
❙❙ P
(Peta, 1015)
❙❙ VAr (reactive power)
❙❙ E
(Exa, 1018)
❙❙ dB(decibel)
❙❙ Z
(Zetta 1021)
❙❙ m (Milli, 10-3)
❙❙ Y
(Yotta, 1024)
-6
❙❙ µ
(Mikro, 10 )
❙❙ dBm (decibel milliwatt)
❙❙ n
(Nano 10 -9)
❙❙ dBV (decibel Volt)
❙❙ p
(Piko, 10 -12)
❙❙ s(second)
❙❙ f
(Femto, 10 -15)
❙❙ Hz (Hertz)
❙❙ a
(Atto, 10 -18)
❙❙ F(Farad)
-21
❙❙ z
(Zepto 10 )
❙❙ H(Henry)
❙❙ %(percent)
❙❙ º(degree)
❙❙ π
(Pi)
❙❙ Pa(Pascal)
❙❙ m(meter)
❙❙ g(Acceleration)
❙❙ ºC (Degress Celsius)
❙❙ K(Kelvin)
❙❙ ºF (Degrees Fahrenheit)
❙❙ N(Newton)
❙❙ J(Joule)
❙❙ C(Coulomb)
❙❙ Wb(Weber)
❙❙ T(Tesla)
❙❙ (dez) (decimal)
❙❙ (bin)(binary)
❙❙ (hex)(hexadecimal)
❙❙ (oct)(octal)
❙❙ DIV (Division, division)
❙❙ px(pixel)
❙❙ Bit(Bit)
❙❙ Bd(Baud)
❙❙ Sa(Sample)
The unit selected for the equation will be applied to the
channel description, cursor types and automatic measurement types. The equation name is listed in the formula set
editor and is used as label in the curve window. The soft
menu key DELETE removes the equation from the formula
set.
An equation consists of an operator (mathematical function) and up to two operands. You can use the universal
knob to choose one of the following operators:
❙❙ Neg. Wave
❙❙ AAddition
❙❙ Reciprocal
❙❙ Subtraction
❙❙ Inverted
❙❙ Multiplication
❙❙ Common logarithm
❙❙ Division
❙❙ Natural logarithm
❙❙ Maximum
❙❙ Derivation
❙❙ Minimum
❙❙ Integral
❙❙ Square
❙❙ IIR Low Pass Filter
❙❙ Root
❙❙ IIR High Pass Filter
❙❙ Amount
❙❙ Pos. Wave
For each corresponding equation, the input channels CH1,
CH2, CH3, CH4 and an adjustable constant are allowed as
OPERAND (sources). For the formula MA2, MA1 is added
as source, for MA3 the added source is MA2, for MA4 it is
MA3 and finally for MA5 the added source is MA4. From
these five equations, you can create, save and retrieve a
total of five different sets. New equations can be added by
using the universal knob to select the menu item NEW in
the formula set editor. Pressing the soft menu key ADD allows you to edit the new equation.
Fig. 9.4 illustrates how in formula MA1 channel 1 is added with 100 µA. Press the key EDIT CONSTANT in the
menu for entering constants and use the universal knob to
choose from the following constants:
❙❙ Pi
❙❙ 2x Pi
❙❙ 0,5 x Pi
❙❙ User 1 . . . 10
(up to 10 customized constants are available)
For instance, if you select USER1 as constant, you can
press the soft menu key VALUE and use the universal knob
to select a numeric value. You can apply the same method
to set a DECIMAL POINT and enter an additional S pre37
Analysis
fix (soft menu key PREFIX). You may choose a UNIT from
the same SI prefixes as those that are available in the soft
menu EDIT. Press SAVE to store these settings as USER 1
and return to the menu to edit the equation. You can store
up to 10 of these customized constants. When saving a
formula set, you may also add a comment (soft menu key
COMMENT). Press the key SAVE to save this formula set
with the determined name and comment to the selected
location.
Stored formula sets may be reloaded at any time. Press
the MATH key to activate the Mathematics menu and then
press the MENU key below the SCALE VOLTS/DIV key.
This menu displays the menu item LOAD. This will start
the file manager which will display the internal memory or
the connected USB stick as possible storage location. Select the respective formula set file and press the key LOAD
to load the file.
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
In general, the FFT in an oscilloscope works differently
than in a spectrum analyzer and is affected not only by the
time base setting, but also by the available number of used
acquired data points when calculating the FFT. The HMO
series allows you to include up to 65k point in the FFT resulting in a very high resolution for this price bracket.
data points. Additional points at a consistent span result in
a smaller frequency increment of the FFT. The number of
points for the output data is half the size of that of the input data.
The upper left of the display shows information about the
settings in the time range, the area between the upper and
the lower window shows details about zoom and position, and the section below the large FFT display window
indicates the settings (Span and Center) in the frequency
range. The lower FFT display window will be outlined in
white when the FFT is activated. This means that the large
knob in the time range section is used to select the span.
The span is specified in the unit Hz (Hertz) and identifies
the width of the shown frequency range. The span position can be determined by selecting the Center value. You
may use the horizontal encoder X Position for this purpose.
The shown frequency range ranges from (Center - Span/2)
to (Center + Span/2).
The minimum increment depends on the time base. The greater
the time base, the smaller the span. Another important element
for the FFT is the setting “Max. Sampling Frequency” in the ACQUIRE menu of the HMO instrument.
The soft menu key MODUS allows you to choose from the
following display types:
Refresh
This mode calculates and displays the FFT without additional evaluation or editing of the captured data. The new
input data is captured, displayed and overwrites previously
stored and displayed values.
Fig. 9.5: FFT illustration
Envelope
In the Envelope mode, the maximum deflections of all
spectra will be stored separately in addition to the current spectrum and will be updated with each new spectrum. These maximum values will be displayed with the input data and create an envelope curve. The spectrum is located within the envelope limits. This forms an area or a
sleeve including all occurrences of FFT signal values. With
The FFT menu allows a quick Fourier transformation which
displays the frequency spectrum of the measured signal.
The changed display allows you to determine the most
frequent frequencies in the signal and the corresponding
amplitude.
The FFT is not suitable for the analysis of very slow signals (Hzrange); this type of analysis requires a classic oscilloscope mode.
You can activate the frequency analysis by pressing the
FFT key 9 in the ANALYZE section of the control panel.
Once the key was pressed, it will be illuminated in white
and the screen will be divided into two graticules. The upper section displays the voltage time curve whereas the
lower section lists the results of the Fourier analysis. The
FFT is calculated including a maximum of 65,536 acquired
38
Fig. 9.6: Advanced FFT menu
Analysis
each signal parameter change the envelope curve will be
reset.
Average
This mode calculates the mean value from several spectra.
It is applicable for noise reduction. The soft menu key AVERAGES allows you to select the number of spectra used to
calculate the mean value by setting the universal knob in
the power of 2 from 2 to 512.
The menu entry POINTS allows you to select the maximum number of capture points to be included in the calculation by using the universal knob. The possible settings
are 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536 points.
The soft menu WINDOWS allows you to improve the FFT
display in case of irregularities at the margins of the measurement interval. Irregularities are calculated as a leap
by a computing algorithm and interfere with the measurement result. In the event of a bell-shaped window function,
the margins with lower values are multiplied and the impact is damped. The soft menu item WINDOW allows you
to choose from the following window functions:
Hanning
The Hanning window function is bell-shaped. In contrast
to the Hamming window function, it is equal to zero at the
margin of the measurement interval. Therefore the noise
level is reduced in the spectrum and the width of the spectral lines is increased. This function is useful for a precise
amplitude measurement of a period signal, for instance.
Hamming
The Hamming window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to the Hanning and Blackman window function, it is
not equal to zero at the margin of the measurement interval. Therefore the height of the noise level in the spectrum
is greater than with the Hanning and Blackman window
function but less than with the square wave window function. However, the spectral lines not as wide as in other
bell-shaped functions. This function is useful for a precise
amplitude measurement of a period signal, for instance.
Blackman
The Blackman window function is bell-shaped and its
waveform features the steepest fall-off among the available functions. Is is zero at both ends of the measurement
interval. The Blackman window function allows you to
measure the amplitudes with high accuracy. However, it is
more difficult to determine the frequency due to the wide
spectral lines. This function is useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal, for instance.
Square wave
The square wave window function multiplies all points by
1. This results in a high frequency accuracy with narrow
spectral lines and increased noise. This function can be
used for pulse response tests with start and end values of
zero.
The menu item Y-SCALE allows you to scale the FFT in the
amplitude logarithmically (dBm / dBV) or linear (Veff). The
unit dBm (Decibel-Milliwatt) refers to 1 mW. The unit dBV
(Decibel-Volt) refers to 1 Veff. The displayed values refer to
a 50 Ohm terminating resistor. You can either use an internal resistor or connect an external terminating resistor parallel to the high impedance input.
Pressing the respective channel key allows you to activate
a different channel as source for the FFT. You can deactivate the FFT function by pressing the soft menu key FFT
OFF or pressing the FFT key on the control panel again.
9.3 Quick View
The QUICK VIEW function allows a quick overview of the
typical signal size. Pressing the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the
ANALYZE section of the control panel activates several basic automatic measurements. Measurement results are
displayed at the bottom of the screen and with a cursor on
the signal. The following five measurement values are displayed directly in the signal:
❙❙ Maximum voltage
Rise time
❙❙ Mean voltage
Fall time
❙❙ Minimum voltage
The following ten measurement values are displayed at the
bottom of the screen:
❙❙ RMS value
Period
❙❙ Peak to peak voltage Frequency
❙❙ Amplitude Number of positive /slopes
❙❙ Pos. pulse width Neg. pulse width
❙❙ Pos. duty ratio
Neg. duty ratio
Pressing the AUTO MEASURE key allows you to change
the six measurement parameters on the bottom right. You
may undo these changes by choosing RESET or restore
the default setting. Only one channel can be active in the
Quickview mode. All measurements will be performed on
the active channel.
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
The Pass/Fail test allows you to evaluate if a signal is located within defined limits. This limits are set by a socalled mask. If the signal exceeds the mask, there is an error. These errors will be displayed together with successful sweeps and the total of all sweeps at the bottom of the
screen. It is also possible to perform certain actions if errors are discovered.
Press the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section of
the control panel and press the soft menu key PASS/FAIL
to activate the mode which opens a menu to set and use
the mask test. Prior to starting the test by pressing the top
soft menu key TEST ON/OFF, it is necessary to generate
or load a mask and to select an action. To generate a new
mask, press the soft menu key NEW MASK. Masks are
displayed as light gray curves/waveforms on the screen. If
39
Analysis
a mask was copied or loaded, you can use menu items to
change the expansion of the signal form and consequently
the limits for the test.
In the menu that opens you can use the key COPY CHANNEL to copy the current signal into a mask memory. The
mask displays in white and appears as an overlay of the
output signal. The menu keys Y-POSITION and STRECH
Y enable you to shift this curve vertically or to enlarge it.
The two menu items WIDTH Y and WIDTH X allow you
to set the tolerance for the mask. The universal knob or
the KEYPAD button are used to enter values with a resolution of 1/100 division. A mask includes a minimum and
a maximum value for each captured data value. The minimum and maximum value for a source curve with only one
value per data are identical. The width indicates the distance between the peripheral points and the original point.
The greater the selected value is, the greater are the potential curve deviations in the amplitude. The tolerance mask
is displayed in white in the background. The generated and
edited mask can be used immediately for the test, however, it is only saved temporarily in the instrument storage.
The soft menu key SAVE can be used to store the mask
permanently to a USB stick or to the internal memory.
Press the key MENU OFF to return to the start menu.
Press the soft menu key LOAD MASK to open a file
browser which allows you to load previously stored masks
for the test (file extension .HMK). A loaded mask can be
changed in the menu NEW MASK. Changes will be applied to the file when the mask is edited and saved.
Pressing the soft menu key ACTIONS in the PASS/FAIL
main menu opens a menu with the available actions. The
following four actions can be performed:
❙❙ Audio signal if the tolerance limits have been exceeded
❙❙ Stop for first-time failure (number is adjustable)
❙❙ Pulse for first-time failure (emits a pulse at the Y output in
case of failure, only for instruments with bus signal
source)
❙❙ Screen dump for first-time failure
An action is performed if the respective condition is met
(e.g. a specific number of mask failures). Each action is assigned a unique condition which can be defined separately from the other actions. The respective condition can
be defined in the menu for the corresponding action. Select the respective action by pressing the appropriate soft
menu key; the corresponding soft menu item will be highlighted in blue. Press the MENU OFF key to return to the
main menu and to start the mask test.
On the right below the display window you can view the
total number and the total duration of the tests (in brackets) in white. The number of successful tests and their percentage (in brackets) are displayed in green, and the number of failures and their percentage (in brackets) are displayed in red. If a test has been started, the previously unavailable soft menu key PAUSE is now activated. Press40
ing the PAUSE key will interrupt the test while the acquisition of signals and the total duration are continued. If you
press the PAUSE key again, the test will be resumed and
all event counters continue to be incremented. If you deactivate a test by pressing the soft menu key Stop the event
and time counters will be stopped. If a new test is started
by pressing the soft menu key TEST activated (Run), all
counters will be reset and resume at zero.
The PASS/FAIL mode is deactivated by pressing the soft
menu key PASS/FAIL OFF.
Fig. 9.7: PASS/FAIL mask test.
Documentation, storing and recalling
10 Documentation,
storing and
recalling
The oscilloscope allows you to store and recall all screen displays, user defined settings (e.g. the trigger conditions and
time base settings), reference curves, simple curves and sets
of formulas. There is an internal memory for reference curves, instrument settings, and sets of formulas. These data, copies of screen displays and curve data can also be stored on an
USB stick.
you can choose the HDS (binary data) or the SCP (plain
text) format. In contrast to the HDS format device settings
in the SCP mode can be also loaded after firmware update. Instrument settings in the HDS format from a previous firmware version cannot be loaded with a new firmware version.
The option SAVE allows you to store the settings. To reload
stored preference files, press the respective soft menu key
to open the soft menu LOAD. This opens the file manager
where you can use the universal knob to select the respective file.
The USB stick should not exceed 4GB and must be FAT formatted (FAT32). It should be avoided to store a large number of files
on the USB stick.
You can access the main menu to store and load functions
by pressing the SAVE/RECALL key.
10.1 Instrument settings
The soft menu DEVICE SETTINGS allows you to save current instrument settings load saved settings and import or
export instrument settings.
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
Once the storage location and the respective settings file
has been selected, you can load the file by pressing the
soft menu key LOAD. To remove files that are no longer required you can use the universal knob to select the respective settings file and remove it by pressing the soft menu
key REMOVE FILE. If a USB stick is connected, you can
also change and delete directories. Use the soft menu key
SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type,
size or date.
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
Press the soft menu key SAVE to open the SAVE menu.
You can use the soft menu key STORAGE to select a possible location (internal memory, front or back USB connection) where you would like to save the instrument settings.
Pressing this key opens the file manager. The FILE NAME
can be changed or adjusted to the corresponding setDeveice settings in the SCP format can be also loaded after firmware update.
ting (SET is the default label). You can use the soft menu
key COMMENT to enter a comment which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a file has been selected. With the soft key FORMAT and the universal knob
Fig. 10.3: Recalling instrument settings
The soft menu IMPORT/EXPORT allows you to copy a file
from an internal memory to an external storage medium
(USB stick) or vice versa. Source (SOURCE FILE) and target (DEST. PATH) must be selected for copying. Use the
41
Documentation, storing and recalling
menu for the file manager opens which allows you to copy
references between the internal memory and the external
USB stick (description see Chap. 10.1.).
Fig. 10.4: Import/Export menu for instrument settings
universal knob to select a storage location which will open
a file manager. Pressing the IMPORT/EXPORT key by default will copy the selected settings file. If two USB sticks
are connected (front and back) this will also work between
the two USB sticks.
To import or export instrument settings, you must have a USB
stick connected, otherwise the menu cannot be selected.
The menu item DEFAULT SETT. also allows you to load the
factory default settings.
10.2References
References are data sets which consist of settings information and A/D converter data. These may be stored and
reloaded internally or externally. Data can be reloaded into
one of the 4 reference memories (RE1 to RE4) which can
also be displayed. The main feature of references is the
fact that all information (e.g. vertical gain, time base setting, A/D converter data) is included when saving or reloading, enabling a comparison between the original signal
and its corresponding values.
The soft menu REFERENCES only allows you to import or
export references (IMPORT/EXPORT). The transfer of references to other instruments is possible. The standard
An additional menu is opened for storing and loading references. Press the REF/BUS key in the VERTICAL section of
the control panel to open a quick menu. The bottom menu
key is divided into RE (reference) and BU (bus). The current
setting is highlighted in white. The soft menu key RE allows
you to activate each of the four possible reference curves
“RE1…RE4”. This is done by pressing the respective soft
menu key. The selected reference will be displayed and
highlighted in the quick menu. If the reference memory is
empty, a file dialog opens to load a reference curve from
the internal memory.
Open the menu to store and load by pressing the MENU
key in the VERTICAL section of the control panel. The top
soft menu SOURCE allows you to use the universal knob to
select the source for the reference to be saved. You can select from the activated channels and mathematical curves.
Press the soft menu key DISPLAY to display the selected
reference curve or to update the current reference curve.
To load a reference from a USB stick or the internal memory, open the soft menu LOAD. This shows a window displaying the internally stored references. You can select the
desired target reference curve in the top menu item and
by pressing LOAD in the file manager. To complete loading and displaying the reference, press LOAD in the file
manager menu again. To save a reference, press the SAVE
key, determine the source, storage location, file name and
curve, and press the soft menu key SAVE (with the disk
icon). The FILE NAME can be changed or adjusted to the
corresponding setting (REF ist the default label). You can
use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a
file has been selected.
10.3Traces
In addition to references, you can also store A/D converter
data. A maximum of 24,000 measured samples (expanded
display memory) can be stored on a USB stick. Curves
can only be stored to externally connected USB sticks (not
internally).
The maximum of 24,000 measured value points can only be read
out with the maximum sampling rate (ACQUIRE menu). For the
AUTOMATIC setting (repeat rate), the maximum amount of measured value points is limited to 6,000 (default setting).
Fig. 10.5: Loading and storing of references
42
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection on the front or back of the instrument as storage
location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB stick has been recognized. If a USB stick
is connected, you can also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type, size or date. Press ACCEPT
Documentation, storing and recalling
DIR. to confirm the target directory and you will automatically return to the curve main menu.
The soft menu CURVE allows you to use the universal
knob to select a channel which will be saved as a curve.
You may only select channels that have been activated via
channel keys. You can also save all visible channels simultaneously. The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu
for the name entry, where you can use the universal knob
to enter a name and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (TRC is the default name). The curve main menu will
display automatically.
Example:
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
❙❙ HRT (HAMEG Reference Time): Files with this extension
are reference curves of the time domain. If the displayed
curve is saved in this format, it can be used in the
reference menu. The HRT format also allows you to
generate files that can be reloaded into the oscilloscope
via reference menu.
After you made all entries, press the menu key STORE to
save the selected curve(s) according to the settings.
Please note that the repeat rate has to be set to the maximum
sampling rate via ACQUIRE key when reading out the entire acquisition memory. The entire acquisition memory can only be
read out in STOP mode.
10.4Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an
image file which shows the current screen content at the
time that storage takes place.
Fig. 10.6: Menu for storing curves
You can open a selection window by pressing the soft
menu key FORMAT to determine the file format. The universal knob allows you to select the desired format.
The soft menu STORAGE allows you to use the USB connection on the front or back of the instrument as storage
location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB stick has been recognized. If a USB stick
is connected, you can also change, create or delete directories. Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by name, type, size or date. Press ACCEPT
DIR. to confirm the target directory and you will automatically return to the screenshot main menu.
You can choose from the following formats:
❙❙ BIN: A binary file may contain any type of Byte value. The
captured curve data will be stored without any time
information.
❙❙ CSV (Comma Separated Values): In CSV files, curve data
is stored in table format. Each table row is separated by a
comma.
If you define the WAVEFORM RATE as “Max. Sampling Rate” in
the ACQUIRE menu, two rows will be affixed with a time stamp
during the CSV export because a minimum and a maximum value must be assigned to this time value. To acquire an amplitude
value per time stamp, activate the WAVEFORM RATE “Automatic” in the ACQUIRE menu.
Example: Curve with all visible channels
[s],CH1[V],CH2[V],CH3[V],CH4[V]
-4.99500E-07,-2.601E-03,2.566E-02,-1.003E-04,1.139E-04
-4.99000E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,-1.003E-04,-8.611E-05
-4.98500E-07,-6.012E-04,-5.434E-02,9.973E-05,-8.611E-05
-4.98000E-07,1.399E-03,-5.434E-02,2.997E-04,-8.611E-05
❙❙ TXT: TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude
values (no time values). Amplitude values are separated by
a comma. The value pairs are listed as single values
without identification.
The soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the
name entry where you can use the universal knob to enter
a name and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR
is the default name). The screenshot main menu will display automatically.
The file format of a graphics file determines the color
depth and the type of compression. The quality of the various formats is identical for the oscilloscope graphics.
You can choose from the following file formats in the soft
menu FORMAT:
❙❙ BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
❙❙ GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
❙❙ PNG = Portable Network Graphic
Press the soft menu key COLOR MODE to to choose from
GRAYSCALE, COLOR or INVERTED with the universal
knob. If GRAYSCALE is selected, the colors are converted to gray scales when the data is stored, if COLOR is selected, the data is stored as it displays in the screen, and if
INVERTED is activated, data will be stored in color with a
white background.
If you press the key SAVE, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected name and format.
43
Documentation, storing and recalling
If you press the respective soft menu key to activate the
required operation, the corresponding menu will be displayed with a blue background. Press the MENU OFF key
to quit the selection menu. If you press the FILE/PRINT
key, the selected function will be performed.
Fig. 10.7: Menu for screenshots
The soft menu key PRINT allows you to print a screenshot
immediately to a connected printer (e.g. PCL or PCLX as
„printer language“). If a printer is detected, the soft menu
To achieve prints with well-defined contrasts when using the
color mode INVERTED, you should set the curve intensity (via
INTENS/PERSIST and universal knob) to approximately 70%.
key PRINT will no longer be grayed out.
Press the RUN/STOP key to stop acquisition prior to printing
which will allow a correct printout.
The free software HMScreenshot (software module of the
HMExplorer software) enables the transfer of screenshots
in bitmap, GIF or PNG format from a HMO series oscilloscope via RS-232 or USB interface to a connected PC
where the screenshots may then be saved or printed. For
additional information on the software, refer to the internal HMExplorer help at www.hameg.com.
10.5 Formula Sets
In the soft menu FORMULARIES you can import or export
formula sets. This allows the data exchange between different storage media (internal memory / external USB sticks).
The exact procedure is described in chapter 9.2.
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
The FILE/PRINT key in the GENERAL control panel allows
you to save instrument settings, curves, screenshots and
screenshot settings simultaneously with just one key. As
described in previous chapters, you must first select the
corresponding settings for storage location, name etc.
The soft menu key FILE/PRINT in the SAVE/RECALL main
menu opens the setup menu for the FILE/PRINT key.
You may choose from the following actions:
❙❙ DEVICE SETTINGS: Stores settings
❙❙ TRACES: Stores curves
❙❙ SCREENSHOTS: Stores screenshots
❙❙ SCREEN & SETUP: Stores screenshots and settings
❙❙ PRINT: Prints directly to a compatible printer (Postscript,
some PCL and PCLX capable printer)
44
Fig. 10.8: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
Component test
11 Component test
11.1General
The oscilloscopes HMO72x...HMO202x have a built-in
component tester. This can be activated by pushing the
XY/CT mode button and switch on CT at the upcoming
menu at the top. The unit under test is connected to the
two contacts below the screen. After switch on the comAs outlined in the chapter Safety, all measurement connectors
are connected to the mains safety earth (in proper operation).
This implies also the COMP.TESTER contacts. As long as individual components are tested, this is of no consequence because
these components are not connected to the mains safety earth.
ponent tester mode, the Y preamplifiers and the time base
are disconnected. While using the component tester, signals may be present at the inputs as long as the unit under test is not connected to any other circuit. It is possible
to test components remaining in their circuits, but in such
cases all signals must be disconnected from the front panel BNC connectors! (See the following paragraph: „Test
in circuits“). Two cables with 4 mm plugs are necessary to
connect the unit under test to the component tester. After
completion of the component test pushing the lower soft
key COMP. TEST OFF leave the component tester mode
and resume normal scope operation.
If components are to be tested which are located in circuits or
instruments, these circuits resp. instruments must be disconnected first under all circumstances! If they are operated from the
mains, the mains plug of the test object has to be pulled out. This
ensures that there will be no loops between the scope and the
test object via the safety earth which might cause false results.
The test principle is a generator within the HMO generates
a 50 Hz or 200 Hz (±10 %) sine wave which feeds the series
connection of the test object and a sense resistor.
Only discharged capacitors may be tested!
If the test object has only a real part such as a resistor,
both voltages will be in phase; the display will be a straight
line, more or less slanted. Is the test object short-circuited,
the line will be vertical (no voltage, current maximum). If
the test object is open-circuited or missing a horizontal line
will appear (voltage, but no current). The angle of the line
with the horizontal is a measure of the resistance value, allowing for measurements of resistors between Ω and kΩ.
Capacitors and inductors cause phase shift between voltage and current and hence between the voltages. This
will cause displays of ellipses. The location and the form
factor of the ellipse are determined by the apparent impedance at 50 Hz (resp. 200 Hz). Capacitors can be measured
between µF and mF.
❙❙ An ellipse with its longer axis horizontal indicates a high
impedance (small capacitance or large inductance)
❙❙ An ellipse with its longer axis vertical indicates a low
impedance (large capacitance or small inductance)
❙❙ An ellipse with its longer axis slanted indicates a relatively
large resistive loss in series with the impedance of the
capacitor or inductor.
With semiconductors the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting state will be indicated in their characteristic. As far as is possible with the available voltages
and currents the forward and backward characteristics are
displayed (e.g. with zener diodes up to 9 V). Because this is
a two-pole measurement, the gain of a transistor can not
be determined, however, the B-C, B-E, C-E diodes can be
measured.
Please note that most bipolar transistors can only take an E-B
voltage of approx. 5 V and may be damaged if this is exceeded,
sensitive hf transistors take even much less!
With this exception the diodes can be measured without
fear of destruction as the maximum voltage is limited to
9 V and the current to a few mA. This implies, however,
that a measurement of breakdown voltages > 9 V is not
possible. In general this is no dis-advantage because, if
there is a defect in a circuit, gross deviations are to be expected which will point to the defective component.
Rather exact results may be achieved if the measurements
are compared to those of intact components. This is especially true for semiconductors. The polarity of diodes or
transistors can thus be identified if the lettering or marking
is missing.
Please note that with semiconductors changing the polarity (e.g. by exchanging the COMP.TESTER and ground terminals) will cause the display to rotate 180 degrees around
the screen center. More important in practice is the quick
determination of plain shorts and opens which are the
most common causes of requiring service.
It is highly recommended to observe the necessary precautions
when handling MOS components which can be destroyed by
static charges and even tribo electricity.
11.2 In-circuit tests
They are possible in many cases but deliver rarely clear results. By paralleling of real or complex impedances – especially if those are fairly low impedance at 50 Hz/200 Hz
– there will be mostly great differences compared to individual components. If circuits of the same type have to be
tested often (service), comparisons with intact circuits may
help again. This is also quickly done because the intact circuit has not to be functional, also it should not be energized. Just probe the various test points with the cables
of the component tester of the unit under test and the intact unit and compare the screen displays. Sometimes the
45
Component test
12 Mixed Signal
Operation
Fig. 11.1: Component tester at short
unit under test may already contain an intact portion of
the same type, this ist e.g. the case with stereo circuits,
push-pull circuits or symmetrical bridge circuits. In cases
of doubt one side of the dubious component can be unsoldered, and this free contact should then be connected
to the COMP.TESTER contact which is not identified as the
ground contact. This will reduce hum pick-up. The contact
with the ground symbol is connected to the scope chassis
and is thus not susceptible to hum pick-up.
All HMO series instruments are provided with the connector for the HO3508 logic probe necessary to add 8 digital logic channels. The firmware required for Mixed Signal operation is already contained in each HMO, only the
HO3508 active logic probe need to be bought and connected. With the 4-channel oscilloscope activation of the Pod
will deactivate the analog channel 3. Therefore at the MSO
mode are 3 analog channels plus 8 digital logic channels
available.
12.1 Logik trigger
The logic trigger also for the digital channel is described in chapter 6.5.
12.2 Display functions of the logic channels
With the four channel HMO the short menu in the channel settings is used to switch an analog channel to a digital channel. If you find there data belonging to the analog channels 3 and 4, press the key next to the lowest soft
Fig. 12.1: Logic channels’ settings display
menu entry. This is a double key: the upper designation CH
stands for channel, the lower one PO for pod. Pressing this
key will alternate between those two modes. The mode
which is presently active will have its background shown in
the colour of the respective channel. Activate the Pod here.
At the two channel units you can activate the logic channel
simply by pressing the POD button.
With the logic channels, a logic ONE will be indicated by
a bar of two pixels width, a logic ZERO will be one pixel
wide. The information field in the lower left corner of the
screen will show the actual logic levels selected next to
the name POD.
The Y positions and the size of the logic channel displays
can be chosen as customary and known from analog
46
Mixed Signal Operation
You must always set the level to indicate a High and a Low. If a
POD is activated, press the MENU button 21 in the VERTICAL
section of the control panel to display the menu. This will allow
you to set the level to distinguish between the logic states. For
each POD, you can activate one of five predefined logic level settings (TTL, CMOS, ECL), and two of these may be user-defined
(USER 1, USER 2).
channel operation with the appropriate knobs Y-POSITION
and SCALE VOLTS/DIV (provided the soft menu key „0/7“
was selected as indicated by a blue background). If less
than 8 logic channels are to be displayed, or if the position
of individual channels is to be changed, this can be done
in the short menu in conjunction with the soft menu keys
and the Y POSITION and SCALE VOLTS/DIV controls. In
order to do this, push the soft menu key next to CTRL: this
will allow you to control the Y position and the size of the
logic channel display with the knobs. The name of which
will be shown above the menu entry (in this example number 0). The selection of the channels is done with the soft
keys Arrow Up and Arrow Down. By this method all channels may be individually positioned and sized.
universal knob. The soft menu keys PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT
allow you to move the position of the selection bar for the
source of the individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted
in blue. The left side of the table contains the bits in fixed
sequence, beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows you to assign a real logic channel to the
selected BUS bit. The allocation is not subject to restrictions; you can also use partially identical logic channels in
the two possible buses.
If you select PARALLEL + CLOCK as BUS TYPE, you can
also use the bottom soft menu key CONTROL WIRES to
select sources for CHIP SELECT, and you can use the universal knob to select the settings for CLOCK. The soft
menu key ACTIVE is used to determine if the chip select
signal High or Low Active is selected.
The soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and both slopes. The active selection is always
highlighted in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the
bit source window. Press the MENU OFF button to return
to the BUS main menu.
You can reset the position and size of the individual logic
channels on page 2|2 of the POD menu. You also have
the option to label the individual bits of the logic channel
by using the soft menu NAME. The procedure to assign
names is identical to the one described in chapter 4.6). The
option NAME On/Off activates or deactivates the name for
the individual bits D0 to D7. The name is displayed to the
right of the logic channels.
The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP opens a menu to select
the display format and its extent. The universal knob in the
submenu allows you to choose the format to decode the
bus values. You can choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
You also have the option to combine digital channels to
form buses which will then be displayed on the screen as a
cell in a table. Basically, two independent buses are possible. For instance, it would be possible to combine an 8 bit
address bus and an 8 bit data bus. To select the settings for
the buses, press the REF/BUS button and then the MENU
button in the VERTICAL section of the control panel.
The decoded values will be shown in the cells/tables of
the buses according to the selected format. The next soft
menu key BITS can also be used to activate or deactivate
the table display for the individual bus bits.
In the menu that opens you can press the top soft menu
key BUS to select which BUS you want to define, B1 or
B2. The active BUS is indicated in blue.
You can use the soft menu key BUS TYPE to choose the
BUS type for the display and the analysis. The BUS type
determines the bus structure and is organized differently
depending on serial vs. parallel or the number of data and
clock signals. The universal knob allows you to select the
BUS type PARALLEL or PARALLEL + CLK. Select CONFIGURATION to determine the bus source and structure. The
contents of the menu change with the selected BUS type.
After pressing the top soft menu key BUS WIDTH, you can
use the universal knob to select a bus width from 1-16 bits.
The table displaying the bit assignments will be adjusted
dynamically depending on your choice. Each bit of the displayed bus has a source. The source refers to the individual POD bits. Based on the measurement setup, the sources can be assigned via soft menu key SOURCE and the
A white dot in the short menu indicates that a BUS is activated. You can now use the position control knob to determine the position of the bus display on the screen. The
VOLT/DIV knob allows you to determine the size of the table display. This may be particularly useful for the binary
display as it allows the display of the complete value in up
to 4 rows even for short tables.
12.3 Cursor measurements for the logic channels
If the logic channels were activated, some parameters may
be measured with the cursors. For all activated logic channels of a POD these measurements are available: TIME,
RATIO X, V MARKER. The results will be as follows:
TIME:
The time position of both cursors relative to the trigger
time position will be indicated; also the time difference
between the two cursor positions from which the frequency is calculated.
RATIO X:
In this mode 3 cursors are used. The time ratios between
47
Mixed Signal Operation
the first and the second and between the first and the third
will be shown. The presentation will be in floating point
format, in percent, in degrees, and in radians.
V MARKER:
With the logic channels the logic value of the selected
POD will be measured at the position of the respective cursor and shown in hexadecimal and decimal formats.
12.4.Auto measurements for logic channel
If the logic channels are switched on, you can use the automeasure function to measure some parameters. These
parameters can be chosen from FREQUENCY, PERIOD,
PULSWIDTH +/–, DUTYCYCLE +/–, DELAY, PHASE,
BURSTWIDTH, NUMBER PULSE +/– and NUMBER EDGE
pos. / neg. . Like all auto-measurements you can switch on
statistic on page two of the automeasure menu.
13 Serial
bus analysis
13.1 The options HOO10, HOO11 and HOO12
The HMO series can be equipped with three options to
trigger and decode serial buses.
The option HOO10 can be used to trigger and decode
I2C, SPI and UART/RS-232 buses on the digital channels (option logic probe HO3508) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the decoding of two serial buses
simultaneously.
The option HOO11 can be used to trigger and decode I2C,
SPI and UART/RS-232 buses on analog inputs only and it
only allows the decoding of one serial bus at a time.
The option HOO12 can be used to trigger and decode CAN
and LIN bus es on the digital channels (option logic probe
HO3508) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the
decoding of two serial buses simultaneously.
The options are activated by a software licence key. This
key will either be installed at the time of manufacturing or
it will be loaded to the instrument via USB stick when the
user installs an update as described in chapter 2.10.
The analysis of parallel and serial data consists of the following three basic steps:
❙❙ Protocol configuration: (BUS type / protocol-specific
settings)
❙❙ Decoding: (Display of decoded data / Zoom / BUS table)
❙❙ Trigger: (Start / Stop / serial samples)
The serial bus analysis is performed with 1/8 of the sampling
rate.
13.2 Serial Bus Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter 4.5). The default setting for both is
500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure decoding works properly. The zoom function allows you to view details for any specific message.
It is necessary to define a BUS before you can determine
the settings for the serial trigger and decoding functions.
A maximum of two buses, B1 and B2, may be defined.
Press the BUS/REF button in the VERTICAL section of the
control panel. This will open a short menu where you can
press the bottom soft menu key BU (BUS). Use the MENU
button in the VERTICAL section of the control panel and
48
Serial bus analysis
the top soft menu key to define the respective BUS (B1 or
B2).
Use the soft menu key BUS TYPE and the installed options
HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 to choose from the following BUS
types:
❙❙ ParallelStandard
❙❙ Parallel + Clock Standard
❙❙ SSPI (2 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
❙❙ SPI (3 wire)
HOO10/HOO11
2
❙❙ I CHOO10/HOO11
❙❙ UARTHOO10/HOO11
❙❙ CANHOO12
❙❙ LINHOO12
Use the soft menu key BITS to activate or deactivate the
display of individual bit lines (above the table display). The
soft menu key NAME allows you to rename a bus (see
chapter 4.6.
13.2.1 BUS Table
The soft menu BUS TABLE allows you to configure / export a list of all decoded messages in storage. The table
content is protocol specific and the table display can be
activated for each individual BUS type. The top soft menu
key BUS TABLE allows you to activate or deactivate the list
view. By default, the table is displayed at the bottom of the
screen. Generally, a complete message of a protocol is displayed in a row. The columns include important information, e.g. address and date of the message. The number
of rows in the table is identical to the number of complete
message frames in storage. The decoding results may be
saved as CSV file by using the soft menu key SAVE (e.g.
save to a USB stick).
Fig. 13.1: Bus definition menu
The soft menu key CONFIGURATION allows you to invoke
a menu corresponding to the selected bus type. A menu
description can be found in the chapters of the respective
BUS configuration. The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP is identical for all buses and allows you to select the decoding
format.
You may choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
Fig. 13.2: Menu for the selection of the decoding format
Fig. 13.3: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
Example of a I2C BUS table:
„Bus table: BUS1 (I2C: Clock SCL = D0, Data SDA = D1)“
Frame,Mark,Start time[s],Typ,ID,Lenght,Date,Condition
1,,-197.89200e-6,Read,0x2D,5,0xF110E55D31,OK
2,,28.00000e-9,Write,0x42,8,0xEB8DC599AE5D6FC0,OK
3,,217.74000e-6,Write,0x3B,6,0xA113B7263E5B,OK
4,,376.07200e-6,Read,0x0E,6,0x55C3EB71D9E8,OK
5,,613.58000e-6,Write,0x66,8,0x91B86EE6655E2300,Data
Error
The soft menu key TRACK FRAME allows you to scroll
through the BUS table and simultaneously jump to the corresponding position in the memory via universal knob to
display details on the screen. However, this is only possible
if acquisition has been stopped. This option is also available in the short menu BUS via soft menu key Trk (= Track).
If you activate the soft menu key FRAME TIME DIFFERENCE (highlighted in blue), the time difference to the previous frame (data packet) will be displayed in the BUS table. This column will be labeled in the table as “Time diff.“.
If this function is deactivated, the absolute time in relation
to the trigger point will be displayed in the column “Start
49
Serial bus analysis
time”. The soft menu key Tab in the BUS short menu allows you to activate or deactivate the BUS table without
opening a menu.
You can use the soft menu item POSITION to move the table to the top or bottom of the screen. In addition, it is possible to display the BUS table in full screen. Select the position via universal knob in the BUS menu or directly via
soft menu key Pos in the BUS short menu.
A BUS table can only be stored if the STOP mode is active..
13.3 Parallel BUS
The HMO series is able to analyze up to 7 bit lines. The
soft menu key BUS WIDTH and the universal knob allow
you to select the number of bit lines. You can use the soft
menu keys PREV. BIT and NEXT BIT (or the universal knob)
to move the position of the SOURCE selection bar for individual BUS bits. The selected bit is highlighted in blue. To
trigger on parallel buses, it is recommended to use the logic trigger (see chapter 6.5).
13.4 I2C BUS
The I2C bus is a two-wire bus which was developed by
Philips (today known as NXP Semiconductor). The HMO
series supports the following bit rates (for measurements
without measuring object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE):
❙❙ 100 kBit/s (Standard Mode)
❙❙ 400 kBit/s (Fast Mode)
❙❙ 1000 kBit/s (Fast Mode Plus).
❙❙ Read/Write bit: Master reads data (=1) or writes data (=0)
❙❙ Acknowledge: issued after each byte
The format of a simple I2C message (frame) with an address length of 7 bit is structured as follows:
❙❙ Start condition: Falling slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
❙❙ 7 bit address: write or read slave
❙❙ Read/Write bit (R/W): Indicates, if the data is to be
written or read out from the slave
❙❙ Acknowledge bit (ACK): Is issued by the recipient of
the previous byte if transmission was successful
(exception: for read access, the master terminates the
data transmission with a NACK bit after the last byte)
❙❙ Data: a series of data bytes with a ACK bit after each byte
❙❙ Stop condition: rising slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH.
Fig. 13.5: I2C 7 bit address
13.4.1 I2C BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter 4.5). The default setting for both is
500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always
displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any specific message.
To decode the I2C bus it is necessary to determine during
the bus configuration which logic channel will be connected to the clock and which one to the data line. This setting is selected after choosing the BUS TYPE I2C in the
Fig. 13.4: I2C BUS signal source
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE
to select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu
(page 2|2).
A I2C BUS has the following properties:
❙❙ Two wire bus (2-wire): Clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
❙❙ Master-Slave Communication: the master provides the
clock pulse and selects the slave
❙❙ Addressing: Each slave can be addressed via unique
address; multiple slaves can be linked with each other and
can be addressed by the same master
50
Fig. 13.6: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
Serial bus analysis
BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu, choose the top soft menu key CLOCK
SCL and use the universal knob to select the source channel. You can define the data channel by pressing the soft
menu key DATA SDA. A small window provides information about the current settings. Press the MENU OFF button twice to close all menus.
If the option HOO11 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source. If the option HOO10 is installed, both
analog and digital channels are available as source.
Certain portions of the I2C messages will be displayed in
color to distinguish between the different elements. If the
data lines are selected with the table display, the respective sections will also be displayed in color. These are
described as follows:
❙❙ Read address:
Yellow
❙❙ Write address:Magenta
❙❙ Data:Cyan
❙❙ Start:White
❙❙ Stop:White
❙❙ No acknowledge: Red
❙❙ Acknowledge:Green
Fig. 13.7: I2C message decoded with hexadecimal values
13.4.2I2C
Bus Triggerung
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and choose I2C Bus. This will only be available
if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the
TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available I2C
trigger conditions.
Fig. 13.8: I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
start signal is a repeated start signal) or on a NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE condition. The NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE bit is
the 9th bit in a data or address unit of the SDA line. For
NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE, the Acknowledge bit is on SDA
high, although it should be low.
The soft menu key READ/WRITE offers additional trigger
options. You can use the soft menu key MASTER to toggle
the trigger condition between read and write access. The
8th bit of the first data unit (depending on the address
length) is used to distinguish between read and write access. The selected condition is displayed in the I2C settings
window and is highlighted by the menu key in blue.
The address length (in bit) defines the maximum number of slave addresses to be used with the bus. For a 7 bit
address length, the maximum number of available addresses is 112. The 10 bit addressing mode is downward compatible with the 7 bit addressing mode by using 4 of 16 reserved addresses and can be used simultaneously. For a
10 bit address length, a total of 1136 addresses (1024 +
128 - 16) is available. The highest 10 bit address is 1023
(0x3FF). The selected address length is displayed in the
I2C settings window and is highlighted by the menu key in
blue.
The SLAVE ADDRESS is the address used on the BUS to
distinguish which slave the master communicates with.
The decoding of the address is performed as a 7 bit value. The
8th bit for the write/read distinction will be decoded in color,
not in the HEX value of the address.
You can trigger on the START signal (the start signal is the
falling slope on SDA when SCL is high), and the STOP signal (the start signal is the rising slope on SDA when SCL
is high) of all messages as well as on a RESTART (the new
Fig. 13.9: I2C data trigger menu
51
Serial bus analysis
Use the universal knob to select the address for the observing bus participant to be triggered
slave are present, the select line may be deleted. This type of
line is also called SSPI (Simple SPI) (2-wire).
The soft menu DATA enables you to enter specific data in
addition to the address. With this menu, you can trigger on
clearly defined data bytes (color cyan) within the transmission, allowing you to filter out irrelevant transmissions.
The HMO series supports the following bit rates (for measurements without measuring object via BUS SIGNAL
SOURCE):
❙❙ 100 kBit/s,
❙❙ 250 kBit/s and
❙❙ 1 MBit/s.
You can trigger on up to 24 bit (3 byte) of data. An offset
of 0 to 4095 to the address is allowed. Select BYTE OFFSET which defines the distance between the bytes relevant for the trigger condition and the address. In most cases, the byte offset is zero if the trigger is to occur on the
maximum first 24 bits after the address. The soft menu key
NUMBER OF BYTES allows you to define how many bytes
are to be analyzed for the trigger condition. The input may
be binary or hexadecimal (PATTERN INPUT). If binary input is selected, the individual bits can be assigned to any
condition via soft menu key SELECT BIT and the universal
knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you to set the state
H (=1), L (=0) or X (don’t care) for each bit. The state X defines any state. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire
byte can be set to X.
Fig. 13.11: SPI BUS signal source
Use the soft menu PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE
to select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu
(page 2|2). A SPI BUS has the following properties:
❙❙ Master-slave communication
❙❙ No instrument addressing
❙❙ No acknowledge to confirm data reception
❙❙ Duplex capability
Fig. 13.10: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
If you choose the hexadecimal input, use the soft menu
key VALUE and the universal knob to set the respective
byte value. The soft menu key SELECT BYTE allows you to
edit the different bytes (byte 1 to byte 2 to byte 3 etc.) sequentially (depending on the defined NUMBER OF BYTES).
The active byte will be marked with a green border in the
display window of the trigger condition (see fig. 13.9).
Press the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set address
and data.
Most SPI buses have 4 common lines, 2 data lines and 2
control lines:
❙❙ Clock to all slaves (SCLK)
❙❙ Slave select or chip select lines (SS or CS)
❙❙ Master-Out-Slave-In, Slave-Data-Input (MOSI or SDI)
❙❙ Master-In-Slave-Out, Slave-Data-Output (MISO or SDO)
If the master generates a clock pulse and selects a slave,
data can be transmitted in either one direction or simultaneously in both directions.
Fig. 13.12: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
13.5 SPI / SSPI BUS
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used to communicate
with slow peripheral devices, in particular for the transfer of
data streams. The SPI bus was developed by Motorola (today known as Freescale); however, it has not been formally
standardized. Generally, this is a bus with clock and data
lines and a select line (3-wire). If only one master and one
52
13.5.1 SPI / SSPI BUS Konfiguration
Certain settings are necessary to guarantee that a SPI bus
is decoded correctly. First, you have to determine if a SPI
system with or without chip select is available (2-wire or
3-wire SPI). This can be done in the BUS setup menu when
selecting the BUS type. For a 2-wire SPI system, select the
option SSPI; for a 3-wire SPI system, select the option SPI.
Serial bus analysis
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter 4.5).
The default setting for both is 500 mV. For the two channel instruments, the CS (chip select) must be connected to the external
trigger input; the level can be set at the setup menu of the bus
under CONFIGURATION > EXTERNAL LEVEL.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always
displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any specific message.
Then press the CONFIGURATION button to open the setup
menu for SPI.
Use the top soft menu key SOURCE to select the respective channel for chip select (CS), clock (Clk) and data. Select the respective soft menu key CS, Clk or Data (key will
be highlighted in blue) and then use the soft menu key
DATA and the universal knob to the select the respective source channel. For the 2-wire SPI, select the possible TIME OUT instead of a chip select source. During the
time out, data and clock line are at Low. When the time
out has been reached, a new frame begins. If the time intervals between the data packets are shorter than the time
out, these packets belong to the same frame. You can select the dead time via universal knob or via numeric input
(KEYPAD button). A small window provides information
about the current settings (see fig. 13.13).
If the option HOO10 is installed, it is possible to select analog
and digital channels as source. For the installed option HOO11,
only the analog channels are available as source. For two channel instruments and a 3-wire SPI, the chip select signal has to be
connected to the external trigger input.
You can use the soft menu key BIT ORDER to determine if
the data of each message starts with the MSB (most significant bit) or the LSB (least significant bit). The soft menu
key WORD SIZE allows you to select via universal knob
how many bits are included per message. You may select
any value between 1 and 32 bits.
13.5.2 SPI / SSPI BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and choose SPI Bus. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
SPI trigger conditions.
Fig. 13.14: SPI trigger menu
In addition to assigning the source, the soft menu key ACTIVE allows you to select the following settings:
CS:Chip select high or low active (low active is the default setting)
CLK:Data will be stored with rising or falling slope (rising slope is the default setting)
DATA:Data high or low active (high active is the default
setting)
The option FRAME START sets the trigger event on the
start of the frame. The frame starts when the chip select
(CS) signal switches to the selected active mode. By contrast, FRAME ENDE sets the trigger event on the end of
the frame. The frame ends when the chip select (CS) signal switches from the selected active to the inactive mode.
The soft menu key BIT and the universal knob allow you to
select the trigger time to the set bit within the set bit sequence. You can also enter a numeric value to determine
the desired bit number (KEYPAD button).
Fig. 13.13: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
Fig. 13.15: SPI data trigger menu
53
Serial bus analysis
Use the soft menu SER. PATTERN to define a specific bit
sequence within the frame which start the trigger event.
The soft menu key BIT OFFSET allows you to select the
first bit of the predefined bit sequence within the frame.
The bits in front of it have no impact on the trigger event
(for instance, if the bit offset = 2, bit 0 and bit 1 after CS
will be ignored and the pattern begins with bit 2). You can
select a value between 0 and 4095 via universal knob or
enter it numerically (KEYPAD button). The soft menu key
NUMBER OF BITS allows you to select how many bits will
be analyzed for the trigger condition. You can select a value between 1 and 32 bit via universal knob. The serial bit
sequence (PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary or
hexadecimal value.
If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key SELECT
BIT and the universal knob allow you to select which individual bits within the data are to be edited. The option STATE
allows you to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H =
1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any
state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu
key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value for the respective nibble (4 bit). If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire nibble can be set to X. Use the soft
menu key SELECT NIBBLE to toggle between nibbles. The
active nibble will be marked with a green border in the display window of the trigger condition (see fig. 13.15). Press
the MENU OFF button three times to close all menus, and
the oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit sequence.
13.6 UART/RS-232 BUS
The UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)
bus is a general bus system and the base for many protocols. One example is the RS-232 protocol. It consists of a
frame with a start bit, 5 to 9 data bits, one parity bit and a
stop bit. The stop bit can assume the single length, or 1.5
or twice the length of a normal bit.
The HMO series supports bit rates of 9600 bit/s, 115.2
kBit/s and 1 MBit/s (for measurements without measuring object via BUS SIGNAL SOURCE). Use the soft menu
PROBE COMP & BUS SIGNAL SOURCE to select the respective clock rate in the SETUP menu (page 2|2).
Fig. 13.16: UART bit sequence
13.6.1 UART/RS-232 BUS Configuration
To decode the UART BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting is selected after choosing the bus type UART in the
BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can press the top soft
menu key DATA SOURCE to select the desired channel via
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog
channels (see chapter 4.5). The default setting for both is 500 mV.
54
universal knob. If the option HOO10 is installed, each analog and digital channel is available as source. If the option HOO11 is installed, it is only possible to select analog
channels as source.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always
displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any specific message.
The soft menu key ACTIVE can be used to determine if the
data transfered to the BUS are active high (High = 1) or
active low (Low = 1), (for RS-232, choose Low). Use the
soft menu key SYMBOL SIZE and the universal knob to
select a value between 5 bit to 9 bit for the bits that form a
symbol. Another setting can be selected via soft menu key
PARITY. Parity bits are used to detect errors during a
transmission.
Fig. 13.17: Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
The soft menu PARITY offers the following options:
❙❙ None: Use no parity bits
❙❙ Even: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is uneven (without parity bit)
❙❙ Odd: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is even (without parity bit)
The bottom soft menu key STOP BITS allows you to define the length of the stop bit (1 = single, 1.5 = 1 1/2 or 2 =
double).
On page 2|2 of the UART BUS setup menu, you can select
the BIT RATE (symbol rate) via universal knob. The bit rate
defines how many bits are sent per second. The soft menu
key BIT RATE allows you to select standard numeric values. Press the soft menu key USER if you wish to define
customized rates via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
The IDLE TIME describes the minimum time between the
stop bit of the last data and the start bit of the new data.
The sole purpose of the idle time is to define the start of a
transmission and consequently the exact start of a frame
(one or more symbols, most commonly bytes). Only this
information can guarantee correct decoding and triggering
Serial bus analysis
lect the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit
(High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the
soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to
set the value for the respective symbol. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire symbol can be set to X. Use
the soft menu key SELECT SYMBOL to toggle between
symbols.
Fig. 13.18: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
(regardless of the trigger type). A start bit within the idle
time will not be recognized. You can enter the value via
universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
The soft menu PATTERN offers additional options for UART
trigger settings. The soft menu key SYMBOL OFFSET and
the universal knob are used to select the number of
irrelevant symbols that proceed the pattern within the
frame that are relevant for the trigger event. Any value
between 0 to 4095 symbols after the start bit may be
entered. Use the soft menu key NUMB. OF SYMB. to select
the number of relevant symbols as 1, 2 or 3. The number of
symbol defines the pattern size. The symbol length (5 to 9
bit) was configured at the time of the bus definition and will
be observed accordingly in the trigger menu.
13.6.2 UART/RS-232 BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu
key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in
the TRIGGER section and choose UART. This will only be
available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all
available UART trigger conditions.
The trigger condition START BIT sets the start bit as trigger event. The start bit is the first 0 bit that succeeds a
stop bit or idle time. The soft menu key FRAME START defines the first start bit after idle time. The soft menu key
SYMBOL<N> assigns a predefined Nth symbol as trigger
event. The soft menu ANY SYMBOL allows you to define
any symbol to trigger on. The symbol can be located anywhere within a frame. The serial bit sequence (PATTERN
INPUT) can be entered as binary or hexadecimal value. If
you choose the binary input, the soft menu key
SELECT BIT and the universal knob allow you to select
which individual bits within the data are to be edited. Se-
Fig. 13.19: Trigger menu UART data
Fig. 13.20: UART trigger menu page 2
The value input for the symbols may be binary or hexadecimal (as described above). Use the soft menu key PATTERN INPUT for this selection. If binary input is selected, the individual bits can be assigned via soft menu key
SELECT BIT and the universal knob. The soft menu key
STATE allows you to determine the state for each bit (1, 0
or X). If you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu
key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value for the respective symbol. Use the soft menu key SELECT SYMBOL to toggle between symbols. The active
byte will be marked with a green border in the display window of the trigger condition. Press the MENU OFF button
twice to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger
on the set data.
Use the respective soft menu key on page 2|2 of the UART
trigger filter menu to select a PARITY ERROR (trigger with
a parity filter), a FRAME ERROR (trigger with a frame error) or a BREAK (trigger with a break) as the desired trigger condition. The BREAK condition is fulfilled if a stop bit
does not succeed a start bit within a specified time period.
The stop bits low are active during the break.
55
Serial bus analysis
13.7 CAN BUS
The CAN (Controller Area Network) BUS is a bus system primarily developed for automotive applications and
is used for the data exchange between controller units
and sensors. It can be found increasingly in the aviation, healthcare, and general automation industries. At the
physical level, CAN is a differential signal, therefore a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) is recommended for decoding, although standard probes are equally suitable to capture the signals. The standard data rates range between 10
kBit/s and 1 MBit/s. A CAN message primarily consists of
a start bit, the Frame ID (11 or 29 bit), the data length code
DLC, the data, a CRC, acknowledge and an end bit.
13.7.1 CAN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter 4.5). The default setting for both is
500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function
properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any
specific message.
To decode the CAN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting is selected after choosing the bus type CAN in the
BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can press the top soft
menu key DATA to select the desired channel via universal knob. An analog or a digital channel can be connected
to CAN-High or CAN-Low. In addition, it is possible to connect a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) to an analog channel.
When using a differential probe, select CAN High if the positive input of the probe is connected to CAN-H and the
negative input to CAN L. If the probe is connected with reversed polarity, you must select CAN L.
fines how many bits are transmitted per second and allows you to select default data rates (10 / 20 / 33.333 / 50 /
83.333 / 100 / 125 / 250 / 500 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s) via universal knob. Use the soft menu key USER to specify userdefined bit rates. You can enter the value via universal
knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
13.7.2 CAN BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key
SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the
TRIGGER section and choose CAN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
CAN trigger conditions.
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the first slope
of the SOF bit (synchronizing bit). The function END OF
FRAME triggers on the end of the frame. The soft menu
FRAME offers the following options:
❙❙ ERROR: General frame error
❙❙ OVERLOAD: Trigger on CAN Overload frames
❙❙ DATA: Trigger on data frames; select the correct identifier
type via universal knob
❙❙ READ DATA: Trigger on read frames; select the correct
identifier type via universal knob
❙❙ DATA|READ: Trigger on read and data frames; select the
correct identifier type via universal knob
❙❙ ID TYPE: Identifier type (11 bit, 29 bit or any)
The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a frame.
This menu allows you to choose one or several error message types as trigger condition:
❙❙ STUFF BIT: Individual frame segments (e.g. frame start
etc.) are coded during the bit stuffing procedure. The
transmitter automatically adds a complimentary bit to the
bit stream if it detects 5 consecutive bits with identical
value in the bit stream to be transmitted. A “stuff” error
occurs if the 6th identical bit level is detected in the
specified sections.
❙❙ FORM: A form error occurs if a fixed bit field contains
one or several invalid bits.
Fig. 13.21: Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the CAN configuration
The soft menu key SAMPLE POINT allows you to specify
the exact point within the bit at which the value for the
current bit is sampled. You can select a value in percent
(25% to 90%) via universal knob. The option BIT RATE de56
Fig. 13.22: CAN data trigger menu
Serial bus analysis
❙❙ ACKNOWLEDGE: An authentication error occurs if the
transmitter receives no authentication (acknowledge).
❙❙ CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check): CAN BUS applies a
complex checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy
Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits
the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the
CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the
calculated result deviates from the received CRC
sequence.
The soft menu key IDENTIFIER identifies the priority and
the logical address of a message. In the menu that opens
you can press the top soft menu key to select the FRAME
TYPE (general data, read data or read/write data) via universal knob. The soft menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below allows you to specify the length of the identifier type via soft
menu key ID TYPE and universal knob (11 bit base or 29
bits for extended CAN frames). The soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care), it is possible to trigger on a
value equal or not equal to the specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible to trigger on an area
greater than or less than the specified value. The PATTERN
INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal. If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key BIT and the universal knob
allow you to select which individual bits within the data are
to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit
(High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input, the
soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow you to
set the value for the respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. Use the soft
menu key BYTE to toggle between bytes.
A LIN BUS has the following properties:
❙❙ Serial single-wire communication protocol (byte-oriented)
❙❙ Master-slave communication (generally up to 12 knots)
❙❙ Master-controlled communication (master initiates /
coordinates communication)
The data is transmitted in bytes without parity (based on
UART). Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 data bits and a
stop bit.
Fig. 13.23: Layout LIN byte structure
13.8.1 LIN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level for the digital channels (see chapter 11.2) or the analog channels (see chapter 4.5). The default setting for both is
500 mV.
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function
properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any
specific message.
To decode the LIN BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting is selected after choosing the bus type LIN in the BUS
menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION.
In the menu that opens you can press the top soft menu
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA includes the same
settings as the soft menu IDENTIFIER. In the menu that
opens you can select the FRAME TYPE (general data or
read data) via top soft menu key and universal knob. In the
menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below you can enter the address
of the respective pattern. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows you to specify the data bit pattern or HEX values for
up to 8 bytes (only available if DATA was selected as frame
type). Available comparisons for address and data values
are GREATER, EQUAL OR LESS, EQUAL and NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
13.8 LIN BUS
The LIN (Local Interconnect Network) BUS is a simple
master/slave bus system for automotive applications and
is used for the data exchange between controller units and
sensors or actuators. The signal is transmitted on one line
with ground reference to the vehicle mass. The standard
data rates range between 1.2 kBit/s and 19.2 kBit/s. A LIN
message consists of a header and the data.
Fig. 13.24: Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
key DATA to select the desired channel via universal knob.
The soft menu key POLARITY allows you to toggle between High and Low; the active function will be highlighted in blue. An analog or a digital channel can be connected to LIN-High or LIN-Low. You can select any version for
the LIN standard (version 1x, version 2x, J2602 or any) via
If LIN standard VERSION J2602 is selected, you may only choose
from the predefined standard data rates via bottom menu item
and universal knob.
57
Serial bus analysis
soft menu key VERSION and universal knob. The option
BIT RATE allows you to specify the number of transmitted
bits per second. You can use the universal knob to choose
from predefined standard data rates (1.2 / 2.4 / 4.8 / 9.6 /
10.417 and 19.2 KBit/s) and user-defined data rates (USER).
The highest possible user-defined data rate is 4MBit/s. You
can enter the user-defined value via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
soft menu IDENTIFIER. The soft menu DATA SETUP allows
you to specify the data bit pattern or HEX values for up to
8 bytes. Available comparisons for address and data values
are EQUAL and NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button twice or three times to close
all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data.
13.8.2 LIN BUS Triggerung
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key
SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the
TRIGGER section and choose LIN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
CAN trigger conditions.
The function START OF FRAME triggers on the stop bit of
the synchronizing field. The function WAKE UP triggers after a wake-up frame. The soft menu ERROR identifies various errors in a frame.
This menu allows you to choose one or several error message types as trigger condition:
❙❙ CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check): LIN BUS applies a
complex checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy
Check). The transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits
the result in a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the
CRC in the same manner. A CRC error occurs if the
calculated result deviates from the received CRC
sequence.
❙❙ PARITY: Triggering occurs on a parity error. Parity bits
are bit 6 and bit 7 of the identifier. The correct transfer of
the identifier is verified.
❙❙ SYNCHRONISATION: Triggering occurs if the
synchronizing field indicates an error.
With the soft menu key IDENTIFIER you can set the trigger to a specific identifier or a specific identifier range. The
soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care), it is
possible to trigger on a value equal or not equal to the specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible
to trigger on an area greater than or less than the specified
value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal.
If you choose the binary input, the soft menu key BIT and
the universal knob allow you to select which individual bits
within the data are to be edited. Select the option STATE
to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L
= 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If you
choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE
and the universal knob allow you to set the value for the
respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. Use the soft menu key BYTE to
toggle between bytes.
The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA and the soft menu
key IDENTIFIER SETUP include the same settings as the
58
Fig. 13.25: LIN data trigger menu
Remote control
14 Remote control
The HMO series is equipped with the interface card
HO720, which have an RS-232 and USB connection on
board as a standard.
To make any communication possible, the chosen interface and
it’s correcponding settings must be the same in the PC as in the
oscilloscope. Only exception is the virtual COM port, which is
described under the USB section.
14.1RS-232
The RS-232 interface is made as a 9 pole D-SUB connecter. Over this bi directional interface you can transfer settings, data and screen dumps from an external device
(PC) to the oscilloscope or vice versa. The direct physical
link between oscilloscope and serial port of the PC can be
done via an 9 pole cable with shielding (1:1 wired). The
maximal length must below 3 meter. The exact pinning oft
he plug is as follow:
Pin
2 Tx Data (data from oscilloscope to external device)
3 Rx Data (data from external device to oscilloscope)
7 CTS ready for sending
8 RTS ready for receiving
5 ground (ground reference, due to oscilloscope
- category 0 - and power plug connected to earth)
9 +5 V supply voltage for external devices (max. 400 mA)
The description how to install the driver you can find in the
HO720/730 manual.
14.3 Ethernet (Option HO730)
The optional interface card HO730 does have a USB and
Ethernet connection. The settings of the parameter at the
If DHCP is used and the HMO does not get any IP adress (f.e. if
no ethernet cable is connected to the scope or the network does
not support DHCP) it may take up to three minutes until a time
out make the interface available again for configuration.
oscilloscope are done after selecting ETHERNET as the interface and the soft key PARAMETER is chosen. You can
set anything including a fix IP adress. Alternative you can
chose a dynamic IP setting via the DHCP function. Please
ask your IT department for the correct setting at your network. If the oscilloscope does have an IP Adress you can
open your web browser and put this IP adress into the adress line (http//xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx). Since the HO730 does
have a webserver integrated it will open a site with informations about the scope, the interface and it’s setting.
On the left side there are links to „Screen Data“ which
make it possible to transfer a screen dump to the PC.
(Using the right mouse click this can be transferred to the
clip board for further use. The link „ SCPI Device Control“
open a site with a console to send remote SCPI commands
to the oscilloscope.
Further information you can find at the manual of the
HO730 at the download area a tour homepage www.
hameg.com.
The maximal amplitude at Tx, Rx, RTS und CTS is 12 Volt.
The standard RS-232 settings are: 8-N-2 (8 data bits, no
parity bits, 2 stop bits); RTS/CTS-Hardware-protocol: none.
In order to set these parameter at the HMO, please press
the button SETUP at the front panel in the area GENERAL
and hit the soft key INTERFACE at the opened soft menu.
Make sure the RS-232 interface is chosen (blue backlighted) and then hit the button PARAMETER. This opens a
menu where you can set and save all parameter for the
RS-232 communication.
14.2USB
All descriptions regarding the USB interface are true for the
HO720 interface card as well as for the optional HO730 USB part.
All currently available USB driver are fully tested, functional and
released for Windows XP™ 32 Bit, Windows Vista™ or Windows
7™ both as 32 Bit or 64 Bit versions.
The USB interface must be chosen in the oscilloscope and
does not need any setting. At the first connection Windows™ ask for a driver. The driver you can find on the deIf the virtual COM port will be used, you must set USB as interface at the oscilloscope.
livered CD or in the internet at www.hameg.com at the
download area for the HO720/HO730. The connection can
be done via the normal USB or via the virtual COM port.
Fig. 14.1: web server with device data
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740):
The optional interface card HO740 does have a IEEE488.2
connection. The settings of the interface can be done in
the oscilloscope after chose the IEEE488 as interface and
hitting the soft key PARAMETER.
Further information you can find at the manual of the
HO740 at the download area a tour homepage www.hameg.com.
59
Specifications
15 Specifications
HMO2022 series 2 Channel Digital Oscilloscope
HMO2024 series 4 Channel Digital Oscilloscope
Firmware: ≥ 4.522
All data valid at 23 °C after 30 minutes warm-up.
Display
Triggering
Analog Channels:
Automatic:
Linking of peak detection and trigger level
Min. signal height:
0,8 Div; 0,5 Div typ. (1,5 Div at ≤2 mV/Div)
Frequency range:
5 Hz to 250 MHz (5 Hz to 120 MHz at ≤2 mV/Div)
Level control range:
from peak– to peak+
Normal (without peak):
Min. signal height:
0,8 Div; 0,5 Div typ. (1,5 Div at ≤2 mV/Div)
Frequency range:
0 Hz to 250 MHz (0 Hz to 120 MHz at ≤2 mV/Div)
Level control range:
-10...+10 Div from center of the screen
Display:
16,5 cm (6,5") VGA Color TFT
Operating modes:
Slope/Video/Logic/Pulses/Buses optional
Resolution:
640 x 480 Pixel
Slope:
Rising, falling, both
Backlight:
LED 400 cd/m2
Sources:
CH 1, CH 2, Line, Ext., LCH 0…7
[CH 1...CH 4, Line, Ext., LCH 0…7]
without menu
400 x 600 Pixel (8 x 12 Div)
with menu
400 x 500 Pixel (8 x 10 Div)
Vertical System
Coupling (Analog Channel)
AC:
DC:
HF:
HF:
Noise Rejection:
Channels:
Video:
Display area for traces:
Color depth:
256 colors
Intensity steps per trace:
0…31
DSO mode
CH1, CH2 (CH2); CH1 to CH4 (CH4)
MSO mode
Auxiliary input:
Function
5 Hz to 250 MHz
0…250 MHz
30 kHz to 250 MHz
0...5 kHz
selectable
Standards:
CH1, CH2, LCH 0 to 7 Logic Channels (CH2)
CH1, CH2, LCH 0 to 7, CH4 (CH4)
with option HO3508
PAL, NTSC, SECAM, PAL-M, SDTV 576i,
HDTV 720p, HDTV 1080i, HDTV 1080p
Fields:
Field 1, field 2, both
Line:
all, selectable line number
Frontpanel (4CH); Rearpanel (2CH)
Sync. Impulse:
positive, negative
External Trigger
Sources:
CH1, CH2, Ext. (CH2); CH1 to CH4 (CH4)
Logic:
AND, OR, TRUE, FALSE
Impedance
1 MΩ || 14 pF ±2 pF
Coupling
DC, AC
Sources:
LCH0 to 7, CH1, CH2 (CH2); CH1 to CH4 (CH4)
Max. input voltage
100 V (DC + peak AC)
State:
LCH0 to 7 X, H, L
Duration:
8 ns to 2,147 s, resolution 8 ns
XYZ mode:
all analog channels (alternatively)
Invert:
CH 1, CH 2 [CH1...CH4]
Y-bandwidth (-3 dB):
200 MHz (5 mV to 10 V)/Div
100 MHz (1mV, 2 mV)/Div
Modes:
equal, unequal, less than, greater than,
within/without a range
Lower AC bandwidth:
2 Hz
Range:
Min. 32 ns, max. 17,179 s, resolution min. 1 ns
Sources:
CH1, CH2, Ext. (CH2); CH1 to CH4 (CH4)
Pulse:
positive, negative
Bandwidth limiter
(switchable):
ca. 20 MHz
Indicator for trigger action: LED
Rise time (calculated):
<0,75 ns
Ext. Trigger via:
DC gain accuracy:
2%
2nd Trigger:
Input sensitivity:
13 calibrated steps
Slope:
rising, falling, both
CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1...CH 4]
1 mV/Div to 10 V/Div (1–2–5 sequence)
Min. signal height:
0,8 Div; 0,5 Div typ. (1,5 Div at ≤2 mV/Div)
Variable
between calibrated steps
Frequency range:
0 Hz…250 MHz (0 Hz...120 MHz at ≤2 mV/Div)
Level control range:
-10 to +10 Div
Inputs CH 1, CH 2 [CH 1…CH 4]
Auxiliary input 0,3 V to 10 VSS
Operating modes
Impedance:
1 MΩ II 14 pF ±2 pF (50 Ω switchable)
Coupling:
DC, AC, GND
time based
32 ns to 17,179 s, resolution 8 ns
max. input voltage:
200 V (DC + peak AC), 50 Ω <5 Vrms
event based
1 to 216
Serial Buses:
Measuring circuits:
Measuring Category 0
Position range:
±10 Divs
Option HOO10:
I2C/SPI/UART/RS-232 on Logic Channels and
Analog Channels
1 mV, 2 mV
±0,2 V - 10 div x sensitivity
Option HOO11:
I2C/SPI/UART/RS-232 on Analog Channels
5…50 mV
±1 V - 10 div x sensitivity
100 mV
±2,5 V - 10 div x sensitivity
Option HOO12:
CAN/LIN on Logic Channels and Analog
Channels
200 mV …2 V
±40 V - 10 div x sensitivity
Horizontal system
5 V…10 V
±100 V - 10 div x sensitivity
Domain representation:
Offset control:
Time, Frequency (FFT), Voltage (XY)
with option HO3508
Representation Time Base: maincreen, main- and zoom-window
Thresholds:
TTL, CMOS, ECL, 2 x User -2V…+8 V
Memory Zoom:
up to 50.000:1
Impedance:
100 kΩ || <4 pF
Accuracy:
50 ppm
Coupling
DC
Time Base:
2 ns/Div to 50 s/Div
40 V (DC + peak AC)
Roll mode:
50 ms/Div to 50 s/Div
Logic channels:
Max. input voltage:
2
60
Specifications
Digital Storage
Functions:
Sampling rate (real time):
2 x 2 GSa/s, 1 x 2 GSa/s (CH2)
4 x 1 GSa/s, 2 x 2 GSa/s (CH4)
Logic Channels: 8 x 1 GSa/s
ADD, SUB, 1/X, ABS, MUL, DIV, SQ, POS,
NEG, INV, INTG, DIFF, SQR, MIN, MAX,
LOG, LN, Low-, High-pass filter
Display:
up to 4 math. memories with label
Resolution (vertical):
8 Bit, HiRes 10 Bit
Pass/Fail functions
Resolution (horizontal):
40 ps
Sources:
analog channels
Memory:
2 x 1 MPts, 1 x 2 MPts (CH2)
4 x 1 MPts, 2 x 2 MPts (CH4)
Type of test:
Mask around a signal, userdefined tolerance
Functions:
Stop, Beep, screen shot (screen print-out)
and/or output to printer for pass or fail, event
counting up to 4 billion, including the
number and the percentage of pass and fail
events
Operation modes:
Refresh, Average, Envelope, Peak-Detect,
Filter, Roll: free run/triggered, HiRes
Interpolation:
Sinx/x, linear, sample-hold
Persistence:
Off, 50 ms...∞
General Information
Delay pretrigger:
0 to 8 million x (1/samplerate)
Component tester:
Posttrigger
0 to 2 million x (1/samplerate)
Test voltage:
10 VP (open) typ.
Display refresh rate:
up to 2,000 waveforms/s
Test current:
10 mAP (short) typ.
Display:
dots, vectors, ‘persistence’
Test frequency:
50 Hz/200 Hz typ.
Reference memories:
typ. 10 traces
Reference Potential:
Ground (safety earth)
Probe ADJ Output:
1 kHz/1 MHz square wave signal ~1Vpp
(ta <4 ns)
Bus Signal Source:
SPI, I2C, UART, Parallel (4 Bit)
Internal RTC (Realtime
clock):
Date and time for stored data
Operation/Measuring/Interfaces
Operation:
Save/Recall memories:
Menu-driven (multilingual), Autoset,
help functions (multilingual)
typ. 10 complete instrument settings
Frequency counter:
0,5 Hz to 250 MHz
6 digit resolution
Line voltage:
100 to 240 V, 50 to 60 Hz, CAT II
Accuracy
50 ppm
Power consumption:
max. 45 W, typ. 25 W (CH2)
max. 55 W, typ. 35 W (CH4)
Protective system:
Safety class I (EN61010-1)
Operating temperature:
+5 to +40 °C
Auto measurements:
Amplitude, standard deviation,
Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vavg, Vtop, Vbase,
frequency, period, pulse count,
twidth+, twidth-, tdutycycle+, tdutycycle-,
tRise10_90, tFall10_90, tRise20_80, tFall20_80,
pos. edge count, neg. edge count,
pos. pulse count, neg. pulse count,
trigger frequency, trigger period, phase, delay
Measurement statistic:
Min., max., mean, standard deviation, number
of measurements for up to 6 Functions
Cursor measurements:
∆V, ∆t, 1/∆t (f), V to Gnd, Vt related to Trigger point, ratio X and Y, pulse count,
peak to peak, peak+, peak-, mean value,
RMS value, standard deviation
Search functions:
Search- and Navigation functions for specfic
signal parameter
Interface:
Dual-Interface USB type B/RS-232 (HO720),
2 x USB type A (front-/rear panel each 1 x) max. 100 mA, DVI-D for ext. Monitor
Optional:
IEEE-488 (GPIB) (HO740),
Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB (HO730)
Display functions
Marker:
up to 8 user definable marker for easy
navigation;
automatic marker using search criteria
Virtual Screen:
virtual Display with 20 div. vertical for all
Math-, Logic-, Bus- and Reference Signals
Bus display:
up to 2 busses, user definable, parallel or
serial busses (option), decode of the bus
value in ASCII, binary, decimal or
hexadecimal, up to 4 lines; Table view of the
decoded data
Mathematic functions
Number of formula sets:
5 formula sets with up to 5 formulas each
Sources:
all channels and math. memories
Targets:
Math. memories
Storage temperature:
-20 to +70 °C
Rel. humidity:
5 to 80 % (without condensation)
Theft protection:
Kensington Lock
Theft protection:
285 x 175 x 140 mm
Weight:
<2.5 kg
Accessories supplied: Line cord, Operating manual, 2 [4] Probes, 10:1
with attenuation ID (HZO10), CD, Software
Recommended accessories:
HOO10 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
HOO11
HO3508
HO730
HO740
HZO91
HZO90
HZO20
HZO30 Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode, I2C, SPI,
UART/RS-232 on Analog Channels
Serial bus trigger and hardware accelerated decode,
CAN, LIN on Logic Channels and Analog Channels
Active 8 Channel Logic Probe
Dual-Interface Ethernet/USB
Interface IEEE-488 (GPIB) galvanically isolated
4RU 19” Rackmount Kit
Carrying Case for protection and transport
High voltage probe 1,000:1 (400 MHz, 1,000 Vrms)
Active probe 1 GHz (0.9 pF, 1 MΩ, including many accessories) HZO40 HZO41 HZO50
HZO51
Active differential Probe 200 MHz (10:1, 3.5 pF, 1 MΩ) Active differential Probe 800 MHz (10:1, 1 pF, 200 kΩ) AC/DC Current probe 30 A, DC…100 kHz
AC/DC Current probe 100/1,000 A, DC…20 kHz
HOO12
61
3
Appendix
16 Appendix
16.1 List
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 1.2: Fig. 2.1: Fig. 2.2: Fig. 2.3: Fig. 2.4: Fig. 2.5: Fig. 2.6: Fig. 2.7: Fig. 2.8: of figures
Operating positions
4
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419 6
Frontview of the HMO2024
7
Area A of the control panel.
7
Section B, C and D of the control panel
8
Screen view
8
Rear panel of the HMO2024
8
Y-Out signal
9
Selection of basic soft menu elements
10
Basic soft menu elements for settings and
navigation10
Fig. 2.9: Menu for basic settings 10
Fig: 2.10: Updating menu and information window
11
Fig: 2.11: Menu and information window for help udates11
Fig. 2.12: „UPGRADE“ menu.
12
Fig. 2.13: Manual licence key input.
12
Fig. 2.14: Successful self alignment
13
Fig. 2.15: Logic probe self alignment
13
Fig. 3.1: Control panel A of the HMO
14
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe 14
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling 14
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
14
Fig. 3.5: Area of the control panel containing the
ZOOM knob
15
Fig. 3.6: ZOOM function
15
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
15
Fig. 3.8: Quick View parameter measurement
15
Fig. 3.9: Auto Measure menu
16
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameters
16
Fig. 3.11: Measuring the parameters of two sources
16
Fig. 3.12: Formula editor
16
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
17
Fig. 3.14: Menu Screenshots
17
Fig. 3.15: Defining a file name
17
Fig. 4.1: Front panel area with vertical system controls 18
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for the vertical settings 18
Fig. 4.3: Correct connection of the probe to the
probe adjust output
18
Fig. 4.4: Vertical offset in the extended menu
18
Fig. 4.5: Name selection
19
Fig. 4.6: Threshold setting and name allocation
19
Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the horizontal system
20
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum
repeat rate
21
Fig. 5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum
sampling rate
22
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting 22
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
23
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
24
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
25
Fig. 6.1: Front panel control area of the trigger system 25
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
25
Fig. 6.3: The type B-Trigger 26
Fig. 6.4: Pulse trigger menu
27
62
Fig. 6.5: Fig. 6.6: Fig. 6.7: Fig. 7.1: Logic trigger menu
27
Logic channels’ settings display
28
Video trigger menu
28
Drawing of the virtual screen area and an
example30
Fig. 7.2: Menu for setting the signal display intensities 30
Fig. 7.3: Persistence function
30
Fig. 7.4: Settings for the Z input
31
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurements selection menu
32
Fig. 8.2: Menu for the automatic measurements
settings33
Fig. 8.3: Statistic for Automeasurements
35
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
36
Fig. 9.2: Quick mathematics menu
36
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
36
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
37
Fig. 9.5: FFT illustration
38
Fig. 9.6: Advanced FFT menu
38
Fig. 9.7: PASS/FAIL mask test.
40
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for instrument settings
41
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
41
Fig. 10.3: Recalling instrument settings
41
Fig. 10.4: Import/Export menu for instrument settings 42
Fig. 10.5: Loading and storing of references
42
Fig. 10.6: Menu for storing curves
43
Fig. 10.7: Menu for screenshots
44
Fig. 10.8: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
44
Fig. 11.1: Component tester at short
46
Fig. 12.1: Logic channels’ settings display
46
Fig. 13.1: Bus definition menu
49
Fig. 13.2: Menu for the selection of the decoding format49
Fig. 13.3: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
49
2
Fig. 13.4: I C BUS signal source
50
Fig. 13.5: I2C 7 bit address
50
Fig. 13.6: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
50
Fig. 13.7: I2C message decoded with hexadecimal
values 51
2
Fig. 13.8: I C READ/WRITE trigger menu
51
Fig. 13.9: I2C data trigger menu 51
Fig. 13.10: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
52
Fig. 13.11: SPI BUS signal source
52
Fig. 13.12: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
52
Fig. 13.13: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
53
Fig. 13.14: SPI trigger menu
53
Fig. 13.15: SPI data trigger menu
53
Fig. 13.16: UART bit sequence
54
Fig. 13.17: Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
54
Fig. 13.18:Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
55
Fig. 13.19: Trigger menu UART data
55
Fig. 13.20: UART trigger menu page 2
55
Fig. 13.21: Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the
CAN configuration
56
Fig. 13.22: CAN data trigger menu
56
Fig. 13.23: Layout LIN byte structure
57
Fig. 13.24: Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
57
Fig. 13.25: LIN data trigger menu
58
Fig. 14.1: web server with device data
59
Appendix
16.2Glossary
A
AC coupling: 18
acquisition memory: 23
acquisition mode: 8, 20, 23, 30
acquisition modes: 8
ADJ. output: 14
amplitude: 15
analog channel: 12, 19, 24, 46, 56
attenuation: 18, 19
automatic measurement: 7, 33, 35, 37
automatic measurements: 16, 32, 33, 35, 39
AUTOMATIK: 22
AUTOSET: 7, 14, 15, 26
Average: 20, 22, 39
H
half frame: 29
Hamming: 39
Hanning: 39
High Pass Filter: 37
HMScreenshot: 44
hysteresis: 24
B
bandwidth: 2, 9, 18
Bandwidth Limit: 19
Blackman: 39
BNC connector: 8, 9, 14
brightness: 28, 29, 30, 31
BUS configuration: 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58
bus signal source: 7, 11, 40
bus type: 47, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57
L
language: 7, 10, 12, 44
licence key: 12, 48
LIN bus: 48, 57, 58
Lissajous figure: 31
logic channel: 27, 46, 47, 48, 50
logic level: 47, 48, 50, 53, 54, 56, 57
logic pod: 23
logic probe: 7, 9, 13, 26, 27, 46, 48
logic trigger: 19, 27, 46, 50
Low Pass Filter: 37
C
CAN Bus: 56
capacitor: 45
component tester: 7, 8, 45
COM port: 59
coupling: 14, 18, 26
cursor measurements: 9, 15, 32, 33
CVBS signal: 28
D
DC coupling: 14, 18, 26
DC offset: 19
duty cycle: 15, 32
DVI-D connector: 9
E
ENVELOPE: 20
ethernet: 59
F
fall time: 24, 32, 34, 39
FILE NAME: 17, 41, 42, 43
FILE/PRINT: 7, 17, 44
formula editor: 16, 36, 37
Fourier analysis: 38
FRAME ERROR: 55
frequency: 2, 11, 15, 19, 20, 22, 26, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38,
39, 47
frequency analysis: 36, 38
G
general settings: 7
grid: 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 24, 31
I
I2C BUS: 49, 50, 52
IEEE-488: 8, 9
inductance: 45
Instrument settings: 17, 41
intensity: 2, 10, 30, 44
interlace mode: 23
M
marker function: 20, 24
mask test: 39, 40
mathematical functions: 16, 36, 37
mathematical graph: 16, 17
mean value: 33, 34, 35, 39
mean voltage: 34
memory depth: 14, 21, 22, 23
Minimum voltage: 39
mixed-signal operation: 9
N
nibble: 54
NTSC: 28, 29
O
offset: 12, 18, 19, 29, 52, 54
offset voltage: 19
P
PAL: 28, 29
parity: 54, 55, 57, 58, 59
Parity bits: 54, 58
PARITY ERROR: 55
Pass/Fail test: 39
Peak Detect: 20
PEAK LEVELS: 32
peak value: 32, 33
peak voltage: 15, 39
period: 4, 5, 15, 21, 24, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 55
persistence: 29, 30
63
Appendix
polarity: 28, 45, 56
PROBE ADJUST: 11
pulse trigger: 26, 28
pulse width: 15, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 34, 39
Q
Quick mathematics: 36
Quick View: 15, 16, 39
universal knob: 7, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26,
27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43,
44, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58
USB connector: 17
USB/Ethernet: 8
USB interface: 44, 59
USB port: 7, 9, 11, 12
USB stick: 7, 11, 13, 17, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49
R
ratio: 19, 32, 34, 39
reference curves: 41, 42, 43
reference signal: 8, 17
reference time: 27, 28
remote interface: 7
Rise time: 24, 32, 34, 39
RMS: 32, 33, 39
roll mode: 20
RS-232 interface: 59
runt: 24
V
video modulation: 28
video trigger: 28
virtual screen: 7, 29, 30
V MARKER: 33, 47, 48
S
sampling rate: 8, 20, 21, 22, 23, 42, 43, 48
Save/Recall: 7, 17
screen display: 17
screenshot: 9, 10, 17, 43, 44
Scroll Bar: 8
self alignment: 12, 13
sensitivity: 2, 18, 19
serial bus analysis: 11, 19, 48
signal source: 7, 11, 14, 18, 32, 50
slope trigger: 24, 25, 26
soft menu keys: 9, 23, 30, 36, 47, 50
source: 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31,
32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 50, 51, 53, 54
source curve: 40
square wave signal: 11, 14, 34
square wave window function: 39
standard deviation: 16, 32, 34, 35
start signal: 51
sweep: 8, 11
Z
Z input: 31
zoom: 8, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 38, 48, 50, 53, 54, 56,
57
zoom function: 8, 20, 25, 48
T
termination: 18
TFT display: 8, 29
threshold: 19, 28, 31
time base: 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 38,
41, 42, 45
trigger conditions: 8, 20, 25, 26, 28, 29, 41, 51, 53, 56, 58
trigger input: 8, 26, 53
trigger level: 8, 24, 26, 27
trigger settings: 12, 14, 55
trigger signal: 8, 26, 35
trigger source: 8, 27, 35
trigger type: 8, 25, 26, 27, 30, 55
two-window display: 15
U
UART/RS-232 Bus: 54
64
W
Warranty: 5
Y
Y-Output: 9
Appendix
65
Appendix
66
Appendix
67
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