Fixed-Point Blockset User's Guide

Fixed-Point Blockset User's Guide
Fixed-Point
Blockset
For Use with SIMULINK
®
Modeling
Simulation
Implementation
User’s Guide
Version 3
How to Contact The MathWorks:
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The MathWorks, Inc.
3 Apple Hill Drive
Natick, MA 01760-2098
Mail
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For contact information about worldwide offices, see the MathWorks Web site.
Fixed-Point Blockset User’s Guide
 COPYRIGHT 1995 - 2001 by The MathWorks, Inc.
The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. The software may be used
or copied only under the terms of the license agreement. No part of this manual may be photocopied or reproduced in any form without prior written consent from The MathWorks, Inc.
FEDERAL ACQUISITION: This provision applies to all acquisitions of the Program and Documentation by
or for the federal government of the United States. By accepting delivery of the Program, the government
hereby agrees that this software qualifies as "commercial" computer software within the meaning of FAR
Part 12.212, DFARS Part 227.7202-1, DFARS Part 227.7202-3, DFARS Part 252.227-7013, and DFARS Part
252.227-7014. The terms and conditions of The MathWorks, Inc. Software License Agreement shall pertain
to the government’s use and disclosure of the Program and Documentation, and shall supersede any
conflicting contractual terms or conditions. If this license fails to meet the government’s minimum needs or
is inconsistent in any respect with federal procurement law, the government agrees to return the Program
and Documentation, unused, to MathWorks.
MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks, and
Target Language Compiler is a trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.
Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Printing History: March 1995
April 1997
January 1999
September 2000
June 2001
First printing
Second printing
Third printing
Fourth printing
Online only
(Revised for MATLAB 5)
(Revised for MATLAB 5.3 (Release 11))
New for Version 3 (Release 12)
(Revised for Version 3.1 (Release 12.1))
Contents
Preface
What Is the Fixed-Point Blockset? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Exploring the Blockset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Associated Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Using This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expected Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learning the Fixed-Point Blockset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How This Book Is Organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvii
xvii
xvii
xviii
Installation Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Introduction
1
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Selecting a Measurement Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Example: Selecting a Measurement Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Why Use Fixed-Point Hardware? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Why Use the Fixed-Point Blockset? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
The Development Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
i
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Frame-based Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Matrix Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
How to Get Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Getting Started
2
An Overview of Blockset Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Configuring Fixed-Point Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Additional Features and Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Example: Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point . . . . . . 2-10
Block Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Basic Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Advanced Demos: Filters and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Data Types and Scaling
3
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fixed-Point Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Signed Fixed-Point Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Radix Point Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Range and Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Example: Fixed-Point Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Example: Constant Scaling for Best Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
ii
Contents
Floating-Point Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scientific Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The IEEE Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Range and Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exceptional Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-16
3-16
3-18
3-20
3-22
Arithmetic Operations
4
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Limitations on Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Rounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Padding with Trailing Zeros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Example: Limitations on Precision and Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Example: Maximizing Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Limitations on Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saturation and Wrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guard Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Limitations on Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-12
4-13
4-15
4-15
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling . . . . . . . . . .
Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-16
4-16
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-23
4-25
Parameter and Signal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Parameter Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Signal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Rules for Arithmetic Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
Computational Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
iii
Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35
Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
Shifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
Example: Conversions and Arithmetic Operations . . . . . . 4-46
Realization Structures
5
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Direct Form II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Series Cascade Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Parallel Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
6
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Simulink Model of a Feedback Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Idealized Feedback Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Digital Controller Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Simulation 1: Initial Guess at Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Simulation 2: Global Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Simulation 3: Automatic Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Simulation 4: Individual Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
iv
Contents
Building Systems and Filters
7
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Realizations and Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Realizations and Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Targeting an Embedded Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
Producing Lookup Table Data
8
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Worst Case Error for a Lookup Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Example: Square Root Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Parameters for fixpt_look1_func_approx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Example 1: Using errmax with Unrestricted Spacing . . . . . . . . 8-7
Example 2: Using nptsmax with Unrestricted Spacing . . . . . . . 8-9
Restricting the Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Example 3: Using errmax with Even Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Example 4: Using nptsmax with Even Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Example 5: Using errmax with Power of Two Spacing . . . . . . 8-13
Example 6: Using nptsmax with Power of Two Spacing . . . . . 8-15
Specifying Both errmax and nptsmax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Comparing the Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Summary of the Lookup Table Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage . . . 8-20
Data ROM Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
v
Determining Out-of-Range Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Location of the Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing Interpolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-22
8-22
8-24
8-26
Function Reference
9
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
autofixexp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
fixptbestexp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
fixptbestprec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
fixpt_convert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
fixpt_convert_prep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
fixpt_look1_func_approx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
fixpt_look1_func_plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
fixpt_restore_links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24
float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
fpupdate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
fxptdlg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
sfix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-31
sfrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-32
showfixptsimranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33
sint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-34
ufix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35
ufrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-36
uint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-37
Block Reference
10
The Block Reference Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
The Block Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
vi
Contents
Common Block Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Block Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Block Icon Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Port Data Type Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator Resettable Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bitwise Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare To Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare To Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion Inherited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cosine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Counter Free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Counter Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Type Duplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Type Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dead Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dead Zone Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decrement Real World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decrement Stored Integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decrement Time To Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decrement To Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Decrease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Fall Negative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Fall Nonpositive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Rise Nonnegative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detect Rise Positive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dot Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter Direct Form I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-12
10-22
10-23
10-25
10-27
10-29
10-30
10-31
10-35
10-36
10-37
10-40
10-42
10-44
10-45
10-46
10-47
10-49
10-58
10-60
10-61
10-62
10-63
10-64
10-65
10-67
10-68
10-69
10-70
10-71
10-72
10-73
10-74
10-76
10-78
vii
Filter Direct Form I Time Varying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-81
Filter Direct Form II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-83
Filter Direct Form II Time Varying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-85
Filter First Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-87
Filter Lead or Lag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-89
Filter Real Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-91
FIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-93
Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-97
Gateway In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-100
Gateway In Inherited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-105
Gateway Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-107
Increment Real World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-110
Increment Stored Integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-111
Integer Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-112
Integrator Backward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-113
Integrator Backward Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-115
Integrator Backward Resettable Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-117
Integrator Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-120
Integrator Forward Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-122
Integrator Forward Resettable Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-124
Integrator Trapezoidal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-127
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-130
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-133
Interval Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-136
Interval Test Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-138
Logical Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-139
Look-Up Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-141
Look-Up Table Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-146
Look-Up Table (2D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-150
Matrix Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-155
MinMax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-159
MinMax Running Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-162
MultiPort Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-163
Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-166
Rate Limiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-169
Rate Limiter Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-170
Relational Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-171
Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-173
Repeating Sequence Interpolated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-176
Repeating Sequence Stair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-178
viii Contents
Sample Time Multiply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saturation Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scaling Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State-Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tapped Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unary Minus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Enabled External IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay External IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay Resettable External IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External RV . . . . . . .
Wrap To Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zero-Order Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-181
10-184
10-185
10-186
10-187
10-188
10-189
10-192
10-195
10-197
10-199
10-200
10-202
10-204
10-206
10-208
10-210
10-211
10-213
10-215
10-217
10-219
10-222
10-224
10-226
10-227
Code Generation
A
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Code Generation Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Class of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Class of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rounding Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
ix
Overflow Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Generating Pure Integer Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Example: Generating Pure Integer Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Using the Simulink Accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Using External Mode or rsim Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
External Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Rapid Simulation Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Customizing Generated Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Macros Versus Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Bit Sizes for Target C Compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Selected Bibliography
B
x
Contents
Preface
What Is the Fixed-Point Blockset? . . . . . . . . . .
Exploring the Blockset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xii
xii
Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Associated Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Using This Guide . . . . . . .
Expected Background . . . . . .
Learning the Fixed-Point Blockset
How This Book Is Organized . . .
Installation Information
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Typographical Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
Preface
What Is the Fixed-Point Blockset?
The Fixed-Point Blockset includes a collection of blocks that extend the
standard Simulink® block library. With these blocks, you can create
discrete-time dynamic systems that use fixed-point arithmetic. As a result,
Simulink can simulate effects commonly encountered in fixed-point systems
for applications such as control systems and time-domain filtering. The
Fixed-Point Blockset includes these major features:
• Integer, fractional, and generalized fixed-point data types:
- Unsigned and two’s complement formats
- Word size from 1 to 128 bits
• Floating-point data types:
- IEEE-style singles and doubles
- A nonstandard IEEE-style data type, where the fraction (mantissa) can
range from 1 to 52 bits and the exponent can range from 1 to 11 bits
• Methods for overflow handling, scaling, and rounding of fixed-point data
types
• Tools are provided to facilitate:
- The collection of minimum and maximum simulation values
- The optimization of scaling parameters
- The display of input and output signals
• With the Real-Time Workshop®, you can generate C code for execution on a
fixed-point embedded processor; the generated code uses only integer types
and automatically includes all operations, such as shifts, needed to account
for differences in fixed-point locations
Exploring the Blockset
To open the Fixed-Point Blockset library, type
fixpt
at the MATLAB® command line, or right-click on the Fixed-Point Blockset
listing in the Simulink Library Browser. Double-click on any block icon in the
library to see its parameter dialog box. Press the Help button to view the
HTML-based help for that block.
xii
Related Products
Related Products
System Requirements
The Fixed-Point Blockset is a multiplatform product that you install on a host
computer running any of the operating systems supported by The MathWorks.
The Fixed-Point Blockset requires:
• MATLAB 6.0 (Release 12)
• Simulink 4.0 (Release 12)
In addition, if you want to modify the fixed-point blocks, you need one of the C
compilers supported by the mex utility. If you want to generate code from your
fixed-point models, you must have the Real-Time Workshop. If you want to
create an executable from the generated code, you must have the appropriate
C compiler and linker.
For the most up-to-date information about system requirements, see the
system requirements section, available in the support area of the MathWorks
Web site (http://www.mathworks.com/support).
Associated Products
The MathWorks provides several associated products that are especially
relevant to the kinds of tasks you can perform with the Fixed-Point Blockset.
For more information about any of these products, see either:
• The online documentation for that product, if it is installed or if you are
reading the documentation from the CD
• The products section of the MathWorks Web site (http://
www.mathworks.com/products)
Note The toolboxes listed below all include functions that extend MATLAB’s
capabilities. The blocksets all include blocks that extend Simulink's
capabilities.
xiii
Preface
xiv
Product
Description
Control System
Toolbox
Tool for modeling, analyzing, and designing
control systems using classical and modern
techniques
DSP Blockset
Simulink block libraries for the design,
simulation, and prototyping of digital signal
processing systems
Real-Time Workshop
Tool that generates customizable C code from
Simulink models and automatically builds
programs that can run in real time in a variety of
environments
Simulink
Interactive, graphical environment for modeling,
simulating, and prototyping dynamic systems
Simulink Report
Generator
Tool for documenting information in Simulink and
Stateflow in multiple output formats
Stateflow
Tool for graphical modeling and simulation of
complex control logic
Stateflow Coder
Tool for generating highly readable, efficient C
code from Stateflow diagrams
xPC Target
Tool for adding I/O blocks to Simulink block
diagrams and downloading the code generated by
Real-Time Workshop to a second PC that runs the
xPC Target real-time kernel, for rapid prototyping
and hardware-in-the-loop testing of control and
DSP systems
Using This Guide
Using This Guide
This guide describes how to use the Fixed-Point Blockset to emulate fixed-point
arithmetic when simulating discrete-time dynamic systems using Simulink. It
contains tutorial information that describes how to use the blockset features,
as well as a reference entry for each block and function in the blockset.
Expected Background
This guide assumes you are familiar with both MATLAB and Simulink. If you
are new to MATLAB, you should read Getting Started with MATLAB. If you
are new to Simulink, you should read Using Simulink.
You should also have a basic understanding of Boolean algebra and binary
word representations.
Learning the Fixed-Point Blockset
If You Are a New User
Start with Chapter 1, “Introduction,” which describes how the Fixed-Point
Blockset can help you bridge the gap between designing a dynamic system and
implementing it on fixed-point digital hardware. Then read Chapter 2,
“Getting Started,” which describes many Fixed-Point Blockset features and
provides a simple example. After reading this chapter, you should be able to
create simple fixed-point models. If you want detailed information about a
specific block, refer to Chapter 10, “Block Reference.” If you want detailed
information about a specific function, refer to Chapter 9, “Function Reference.”
If You Are an Experienced User
Start with Chapter 6, “Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation,” which
describes how to simulate a fixed-point digital controller design. You should
then read those parts of the guide that address the functionality that concerns
you. If you want detailed information about a specific block, refer to Chapter
10, “Block Reference.” If you want detailed information about a specific
function, refer to Chapter 9, “Function Reference.”
xv
Preface
How This Book Is Organized
The organization of this guide is described below.
xvi
Chapter Name
Description
Introduction
Describes how the Fixed-Point Blockset can help
you bridge the gap between designing a dynamic
system and implementing it on fixed-point digital
hardware
Getting Started
Shows you how to use many Fixed-Point Blockset
features. After reading this chapter, you should be
able to create simple fixed-point models.
Data Types and
Scaling
Describes fixed-point data types, floating-point
data types, and data type scaling.
Arithmetic
Operations
Describes fixed-point arithmetic and its
limitations.
Realization
Structures
Describes how to create fixed-point realization
structures using fixed-point blocks.
Tutorial: Feedback
Controller Simulation
Describes how to simulate a fixed-point digital
controller design.
Building Systems and
Filters
Describes how to create and use fixed-point
systems and filters.
Producing Lookup
Table Data
Describes how to create lookup table data using
the lookup table approximation functions
Function Reference
Describes MATLAB M-file scripts and functions
provided with the blockset.
Block Reference
Describes each fixed-point block in detail.
Code Generation
Describes the simulation features that are
available for code generation. Recommendations
for producing efficient code are provided.
Selected Bibliography
Provides a selected list of references.
Installation Information
Installation Information
To determine if the Fixed-Point Blockset is installed on your system, type
ver
at the MATLAB command line. When you enter this command, MATLAB
displays information about the version of MATLAB you are running, including
a list of installed add-on products and their version numbers. Check the list to
see if the Fixed-Point Blockset appears.
For information about installing the blockset, see the MATLAB Installation
Guide for your platform.
If you experience installation difficulties and have Web access, look for the
installation and license information at the MathWorks Web site (http://
www.mathworks.com/support).
xvii
Preface
Typographical Conventions
This manual uses some or all of these conventions.
Item
Convention Used
Example
Example code
Monospace font
To assign the value 5 to A,
enter
A = 5
Function names/syntax
Monospace font
The cos function finds the
cosine of each array element.
Syntax line example is
MLGetVar ML_var_name
Keys
Boldface with an initial capital
Press the Return key.
letter
Literal strings (in syntax
descriptions in reference
chapters)
Monospace bold for literals
f = freqspace(n,'whole')
Mathematical
expressions
Italics for variables
This vector represents the
polynomial
MATLAB output
Standard text font for functions,
operators, and constants
Monospace font
p = x2 + 2x + 3
MATLAB responds with
A =
5
Menu titles, menu items,
dialog boxes, and controls
Boldface with an initial capital
New terms
Italics
An array is an ordered
collection of information.
Omitted input arguments
(...) ellipsis denotes all of the
input/output arguments from
preceding syntaxes.
[c,ia,ib] = union(...)
String variables (from a
finite list)
Monospace italics
sysc = d2c(sysd,'method')
xviii
Choose the File menu.
letter
1
Introduction
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales . . . . . 1-2
Selecting a Measurement Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Example: Selecting a Measurement Scale . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Why Use Fixed-Point Hardware? . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Why Use the Fixed-Point Blockset?
. . . . . . . . . 1-10
The Development Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Frame-based Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Matrix Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
How to Get Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
1
Introduction
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales
A measurement of a physical quantity can take many numerical forms. For
example, the boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius, 212 degrees
Fahrenheit, 373 degrees Kelvin, or 671.4 degrees Rankine. No matter what
number is given, the physical quantity is exactly the same. The numbers are
different because four different scales are used.
Well known standard scales like Celsius are very convenient for the exchange
of information. However, there are situations where it makes sense to create
and use unique nonstandard scales. These situations usually involve making
the most of a limited resource.
For example, nonstandard scales allow map makers to get the maximum detail
on a fixed size sheet of paper. A typical road atlas of the USA will show each
state on a two-page display. The scale of inches to miles will be unique for most
states. By using a large ratio of miles to inches, all of Texas can fit on two pages.
Using the same scale for Rhode Island would make poor use of the page. Using
a much smaller ratio of miles to inches would allow Rhode Island to be shown
with the maximum possible detail.
Fitting measurements of a variable inside an embedded processor is similar to
fitting a state map on a piece of paper. The map scale should allow all the
boundaries of the state to fit on the page. Similarly, the binary scale for a
measurement should allow the maximum and minimum possible values to
“fit.” The map scale should also make the most of the paper in order to get
maximum detail. Similarly, the binary scale for a measurement should make
the most of the processor in order to get maximum precision.
Use of standard scales for measurements has definite compatibility
advantages. However, there are times when it is worthwhile to break
convention and use a unique nonstandard scale. There are also occasions when
a mix of uniqueness and compatibility makes sense.
Selecting a Measurement Scale
Suppose that measurements of liquid water are to be made, and suppose that
these measurements must be represented using 8-bit unsigned integers.
Fortunately, the temperature range of liquid water is limited. No matter what
scale is used, liquid water can only go from the freezing point to the boiling
point. Therefore, this range of temperatures must be captured using just the
256 possible 8-bit values: 0,1,2,...,255.
1-2
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales
One approach to representing the temperatures is to use a standard scale. For
example, the units for the integers could be Celsius. Hence, the integers 0 and
100 represent water at the freezing point and at the boiling point, respectively.
On the upside, this scale gives a trivial conversion from the integers to degrees
Celsius. On the downside, the numbers 101 to 255 are unused. By using this
standard scale, more than 60% of the number range has been wasted.
A second approach is to use a nonstandard scale. In this scale, the integers 0
and 255 represent water at the freezing point and at the boiling point,
respectively. On the upside, this scale gives maximum precision since there are
254 values between freezing and boiling instead of just 99. The units are
roughly 0.3921568 degrees Celsius per bit so the conversion to Celsius requires
division by 2.55, which is a relatively expensive operation on most fixed-point
processors.
A third approach is to use a “semi-standard” scale. For example, the integers 0
and 200 could represent water at the freezing point and at the boiling point,
respectively. The units for this scale are 0.5 degrees Celsius per bit. On the
downside, this scale doesn’t use the numbers from 201 to 255, which represents
a waste of more than 21%. On the upside, this scale permits relatively easy
conversion to a standard scale. The conversion to Celsius involves division by
2, which is a very easy shift operation on most processors.
Measurement Scales: Beyond Multiplication
One of the key operations in converting from one scale to another is
multiplication. The preceding case study gave three examples of conversions
from a quantized integer value Q to a real-world Celsius value V that involved
only multiplication.
 100°C
- ⋅ Q1
 --------------------100 bits

 100°C
V =  ---------------------- ⋅ Q 2
 255 bits
 100°C
 ---------------------- ⋅ Q 3
 200 bits
Conversion 1
Conversion 2
Conversion 3
Graphically, the conversion is a line with slope S, which must pass through the
origin. A line through the origin is called a purely linear conversion. Restricting
1-3
1
Introduction
yourself to a purely linear conversion can be very wasteful and it is often better
to use the general equation of a line.
V = SQ + B
By adding a bias term B, greater precision can be obtained when quantizing to
a limited number of bits.
The general equation of a line gives a very useful conversion to a quantized
scale. However, like all quantization methods, the precision is limited and
errors can be introduced by the conversion. The general equation of a line with
quantization error is given by
V = SQ + B ± Error
If the quantized value Q is rounded to the nearest representable number, then
S
S
– ---- ≤ Error ≤ ---2
2
That is, the amount of quantization error is determined by both the number of
bits and by the scale. This scenario represents the best case error. For other
rounding schemes, the error can be twice as large.
Example: Selecting a Measurement Scale
On typical electronically controlled internal combustion engines, the flow of
fuel is regulated to obtain the desired ratio of air to fuel in the cylinders just
prior to combustion. Therefore, knowledge of the current air flow rate is
required. Some manufacturers use sensors that directly measure air flow while
other manufacturers calculate air flow from measurements of related signals.
The relationship of these variables is derived from the ideal gas equation. The
ideal gas equation involves division by air temperature. For proper results, an
absolute temperature scale such as Kelvin or Rankine must be used in the
equation. However, quantization directly to an absolute temperature scale
would cause needlessly large quantization errors.
The temperature of the air flowing into the engine has a limited range. On a
typical engine, the radiator is designed to keep the block below the boiling point
of the cooling fluid. Let’s assume a maximum of 225o F (380o K). As the air flows
through the intake manifold, it can be heated up to this maximum
temperature. For a cold start in an extreme climate, the temperature can be as
1-4
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales
low as -60o F (222o K). Therefore, using the absolute Kelvin scale, the range of
interest is 222o K to 380o K.
The air temperature needs to be quantized for processing by the embedded
control system. Assuming an unrealistic quantization to 3-bit unsigned
numbers: 0,1,2,...,7, the purely linear conversion with maximum precision is
380°K
V = ----------------- ⋅ Q
7.5 bit
The quantized conversion and range of interest are shown below.
Visualization of Quantized Conversion
Quantized Value, Q (50.6667oK/bit) with Bias = 0oK
8
7
o
V = 222 K
6
5
4
3
2
V = 380oK
1
0
−1
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Real World Value, V (oK)
Notice that there are 7.5 possible quantization values. This is because only half
of the first bit corresponds to temperatures (real-world values) greater than
zero.
1-5
1
Introduction
The quantization error is
– 25.33 °K/bit ≤ Error ≤ 25.33°K/bit
The range of interest of the quantized conversion and the absolute value of the
quantized error are shown below.
Visualization of Quantized Conversion
Quantized Value, Q
400
350
300
250
200
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
340
360
380
Quantization Error (oK/bit)
Real World Value, V (oK)
40
30
20
10
0
240
260
280
300
320
o
Real World Value, V ( K)
As an alternative to the purely linear conversion, consider the general linear
conversion with maximum precision.
380°K – 222°K
380°K – 222°K
V =  -----------------------------------------  ⋅ Q + 222°K + 0.5 ⋅  -----------------------------------------




8
8
1-6
Physical Quantities and Measurement Scales
The quantized conversion and range of interest are shown below.
Visualization of Quantized Conversion
Quantized Value, Q (19.75oK/bit) with Bias = 231.875oK
8
7
o
V = 222 K
6
5
4
3
2
V = 380oK
1
0
−1
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
o
Real World Value, V ( K)
The quantization error is
– 9.875 °K/bit ≤ Error ≤ 9.875°K/bit
which is approximately 2.5 times smaller than the error associated with the
purely linear conversion.
1-7
1
Introduction
The range of interest of the quantized conversion and the absolute value of the
quantized error are shown below.
Visualization of Quantized Conversion
Quantized Value, Q
400
350
300
250
200
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
340
360
380
o
Quantization Error (oK/bit)
Real World Value, V ( K)
40
30
20
10
0
240
260
280
300
320
Real World Value, V (oK)
Clearly, the general linear scale gives much better precision than the purely
linear scale over the range of interest.
1-8
Why Use Fixed-Point Hardware?
Why Use Fixed-Point Hardware?
Digital hardware is becoming the primary means in which control systems and
signal processing filters are implemented. Digital hardware can be classified as
either off-the-shelf hardware (for example, microcontrollers, microprocessors,
general purpose processors, and digital signal processors) or custom hardware.
Within these two types of hardware, there are many architecture designs.
These designs range from systems with a single instruction, single data stream
processing unit to systems with multiple instruction, multiple data stream
processing units.
Within digital hardware, numbers are represented as either fixed-point or
floating-point data types. For both these data types, word sizes are fixed at a
set number of bits. However, the dynamic range of fixed-point values is much
less than floating-point values with equivalent word sizes. Therefore, in order
to avoid overflow or unreasonable quantization errors, fixed-point values must
be scaled. Since floating-point processors can greatly simplify the real-time
implementation of a control law or digital filter, and floating-point numbers
can effectively approximate real-world numbers, then why use a
microcontroller or processor with fixed-point hardware support? The answer to
this question in many cases is cost and size:
• Cost – Fixed-point hardware is more cost effective where price/cost is an
important consideration. When using digital hardware in a product,
especially mass-produced products, fixed-point hardware, costing much less
than floating-point hardware, can result in significant savings.
• Size – The logic circuits of fixed-point hardware are much less complicated
than those of floating-point hardware. This means the fixed-point chip size
is smaller with less power consumption when compared with floating-point
hardware. For example, consider a portable telephone where one of the
product design goals is to make it as portable (small and light) as possible. If
one of today’s high-end floating-point, general purpose processors is used, a
large heat sink and battery would also be needed resulting in a costly, large,
and heavy portable phone.
After making the decision to use fixed-point hardware, the next step is to
choose a method for implementing the dynamic system (for example, control
system or digital filter). Floating-point software emulation libraries are
generally ruled out because of timing or memory size constraints. Therefore,
you are left with fixed-point math where binary integer values are scaled.
1-9
1
Introduction
Why Use the Fixed-Point Blockset?
The Fixed-Point Blockset bridges the gap between designing a dynamic system
and implementing it on fixed-point digital hardware. To do this, the blockset
provides basic fixed-point Simulink building blocks that are used to design and
simulate dynamic systems using fixed-point arithmetic. With the Fixed-Point
Blockset, you can:
• Use fixed-point arithmetic to develop and simulate fixed-point Simulink
models.
• Change the fixed-point data type, scaling, rounding mode, or overflow
handling mode while the model is simulating. This allows you to explore
issues related to numerical overflow, quantization errors, and computational
noise.
• Generate fixed-point model code ready for execution on a floating-point
processor. This allows you to emulate the effects of fixed-point arithmetic in
a floating-point rapid prototyping system.
• Generate fixed-point model code ready for execution on a fixed-point
processor.
• Modify or add new fixed-point blocks. Source code is provided for all
fixed-point blocks; you will need one of the C compilers supported by the mex
utility.
The Fixed-Point Blockset addresses the issues related to using fixed-point
single instruction, single data stream processors. Extensions to multiple
instruction, multiple data stream processing units can be made. However,
hardware consisting of multiple instruction or multiple data streams generally
also has floating-point support.
1-10
The Development Cycle
The Development Cycle
The Fixed-Point Blockset provides tools that aid in the development and
testing of fixed-point dynamic systems. You directly design dynamic system
models in Simulink, which are ready for implementation on fixed-point
hardware. The development cycle is illustrated below.
Start
Model plant or
signal source
Simulink
Model fixed-point
controller or filter
Design
requirements
met?
no
yes
Use the model as a
specification for
creating production
code
1-11
1
Introduction
Using MATLAB, Simulink, and the Fixed-Point Blockset, the development
cycle follows these steps:
1 Model the system (plant or signal source) within Simulink using the built-in
blocks and double precision numbers. Typically, the model will contain
nonlinear elements.
2 Design and simulate a fixed-point dynamic system (for example, a control
system or digital filter) with the Fixed-Point Blockset that meets the design,
performance, and other constraints.
3 Analyze the results and go back to 1 if needed.
When the design requirements have been met, you can use the model as a
specification for creating production code using the Real-Time Workshop.
The above steps interact strongly. In steps 1 and 2, there is a significant
amount of freedom to select different solutions. Generally, the model is
fine-tuned based upon feedback from the results of the current implementation
(step 3). There is no specific modeling approach. For example, models may be
obtained from first principles such as equations of motion, or from a frequency
response such as a sine sweep. There are many controllers that meet the same
frequency-domain or time-domain specifications. Additionally, for each
controller there are an infinite number of realizations.
The Fixed-Point Blockset helps expedite the design cycle by allowing you to
simulate the effects of various fixed-point controller/digital filter structures.
1-12
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks
You can connect Simulink blocks directly to Fixed-Point Blockset blocks
provided the signals use built-in Simulink data types. The built-in data types
include uint8, uint16, uint32, int8, int16, int32, single, double, and
boolean. The Fixed-Point Blockset supports all built-in data types. However, a
fixed-point signal consisting of 8-, 16-, or 32-bit integers is compatible with
Simulink only when its scaling is given by a slope of 1 and a bias of 0.
Some Simulink blocks impose restrictions on the data type of the signals they
can handle. For example, some blocks accept only doubles. To incorporate these
blocks into your fixed-point model, you must configure the driving block(s) to
use doubles. Some Simulink blocks can accept signals of any data type. For
these blocks, you can input any of the built-in data types or any of the
blockset-specific data types. Examples of blockset-specific data types include
32-bit signed integers with a scaling of 2-8, and 18-bit unsigned integers with a
scaling of 20.
Note If you want to connect Simulink blocks to fixed-point blocks that output
blockset-specific data types, then you must use the fixed-point gateway or
data type conversion blocks to convert to a built-in data type.
Most Simulink blocks that accept any Fixed-Point Blockset data type have
these characteristics:
• Their only function is to rearrange the signal (for example, the Selector or
Mux blocks).
• They do not perform calculations such as addition or relational operations.
• They do not in general have initial conditions (for example, the Unit Delay
block). However, if a Simulink block supports fixed-point, both the Simulink
block and the Fixed-Point block permit the initial conditions to be set to any
value.
The Simulink blocks that can accept any Fixed-Point Blockset data type are
listed below.
1-13
1
Introduction
Simulink Blocks That Accept Any Fixed-Point Data Type
1-14
Continous
Description
Memory
Output the block input from the previous time step.
Discrete
Description
Unit Delay
Sample and hold with one sample period delay.
Zero Order Hold
Implement zero-order hold of one sample period.
Math
Description
Complex to
Real-Imag
Output the real and imaginary parts of a complex input
signal.
Real-Imag to
Complex
Output a complex signal from real and imaginary
inputs.
Nonlinear
Description
Manual Switch
Switch between two inputs. (Data types must be the
same.)
Multiport
Switch
Choose between block inputs. (The first port cannot be
fixed-point, but all others accept fixed-point)
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks
Signals &
Systems
Description
Bus Creator
Group signals into a single bus signal.
Bus Selector
Output selected input signals.
Demux
Separate a vector signal into output signals.
From
Accept input from a Goto block.
Goto
Pass block input to From blocks.
Goto Tag
Visibility
Define the scope of a Goto block tag.
Ground
Gound an unconnected input port.
Matrix
Concatenation
Concatenate array inputs.
Merge
Combine several input lines into a scalar line.
Mux
Combine several input lines into a vector line.
Probe
Output an input signal’s width, sample time, and/or
signal type.
Selector
Select or reorder the elements of the input vector.
Signal
Specification
Specify attributes of a signal. (The data type must be
set to auto, or use the data type propagation to force the
signal to the data type.)
Terminator
Terminate an unconnected output port.
Width
Output the width of the input vector.
1-15
1
Introduction
Subsystems
Description
Atomic Subsystem
Atomic subsystem.
Configurable
Subsystem
Represent any block from a specified library.
Subsystem
Subsystem.
Enabled
Enabled subsystem.
If
If block.
If Body
A conditionally executed subsystem that can be
connected to an If block.
Triggered
Triggered subsystem.
While Subsystem
While subsystem
Sinks
Description
Display
Sample and hold with one sample period delay.
Scope
Implement zero-order hold of one sample period.
To File
Write data to a file.
To Workspace
Write data to the workspace.
In some cases, fixed-point signals that are not built-in data types are converted
to a real-world value as it enters the block. For example, the To Workspace
block will output a 32-bit signed integer with a scaling of 2-8 as a double.
Refer to the Using Simulink guide for detailed information about the data
types handled by built-in blocks.
1-16
Compatibility with Simulink Blocks
Frame-based Signals
Signals in Simulink can be processed as frame-based signals. Most real-time
systems optimize throughput rates by processing data in “batch” or
“frame-based” mode, where each batch or frame is a collection of consecutive
signal samples that have been buffered into a single unit.
The DSP Blockset that also supports frame-based processing, can use blocks
from the Fixed-Point Blockset in models that process frame-based signals.
All Fixed-Point Blockset blocks accept frame-based signals for simulation and
code generation, except for the Dot Product and FIR blocks.
For further understanding of frame-based processing, refer to Working with
Signals in the DSP Blockset documentation.
Matrix Signals
The Simulink documentation refers to two-dimensional (2-D) signals as
matrices. Simulink blocks can output two-dimensional signals where a
two-dimensional (2-D) signal consists of a stream of two-dimensional arrays
emitted at a frequency of one 2-D array (or matrix) per sample time.
All Fixed-Point Blockset blocks support matrix-based signals for simulation
and code generation, except for the Dot Product and FIR blocks.
For further understanding of matrix-based processing, refer to Working with
Signals in the Simulink documentation.
1-17
1
Introduction
How to Get Online Help
The Fixed-Point Blockset provides several ways to get online help:
• Block, System, and Filter Help
Press the Help button in any block, system, or filter dialog box to view its
HTML-based documentation.
• Help Desk
Type helpdesk or doc at the MATLAB command line to load the main
MATLAB help page into the Help browser.
• Release Information
Type whatsnew fixpoint at the MATLAB command line to view information
related to the version of the Fixed-Point Blockset that you’re using.
1-18
2
Getting Started
An Overview of Blockset Features . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Configuring Fixed-Point Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Additional Features and Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Example: Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point . . 2-10
Block Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Basic Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Advanced Demos: Filters and Systems . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2
Getting Started
An Overview of Blockset Features
This section provides a brief overview of the most important Fixed-Point
Blockset features. After reading this section and “Example: Converting from
Doubles to Fixed-Point” on page 2-10, you should be able to configure simple
fixed-point models that suit your own application needs.
Configuring Fixed-Point Blocks
You configure fixed-point blocks with a parameter dialog box. Block
configuration consists of supplying values for parameters via editable text
fields, check boxes, and parameter lists. The dialog box for the Gateway In
block is shown below.
The parameters associated with this block are discussed below. For detailed
information about each fixed-point block, refer to Chapter 10, “Block
Reference.”
2-2
An Overview of Blockset Features
Real-World Values Versus Integer Values
You can configure the fixed-point gateway blocks to treat signals as real-world
values or as stored integers with the Treat input as parameter list. The
possible values are Real World Value and Stored Integer.
In terms of the variables defined in “The General Slope/Bias Encoding Scheme”
on page 2-5, the real-world value is given by V and the stored integer value is
given by Q. You may want to treat numbers as stored integer values if you are
modeling hardware that produces integers as output.
Selecting the Output Data Type
For many fixed-point blocks, you have the option of specifying the output data
type via the block dialog box, or inheriting the output data type from another
block. You control how the output data type is selected with the Output data
type and scaling parameter list. The possible values are Specify via dialog,
Inherit via internal rule, and Inherit via back propagation. Some
blocks support only two of these values.
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports several fixed-point and floating-point data
types. Fixed-point data types are characterized by their word size in bits and
radix (binary) point. The radix point is the means by which fixed-point values
are scaled. Additionally:
• Unsigned and two’s complement formats are supported.
• The fixed-point word size can range from 1 to 128 bits.
• The radix point is not required to be contiguous with the fixed-point word.
Floating-point data types are characterized by their sign bit, fraction
(mantissa) field, and exponent field. The Fixed-Point Blockset supports IEEE
singles, IEEE doubles, and a nonstandard IEEE-style floating-point data type.
Note You can create Fixed-Point Blockset data types directly in the MATLAB
workspace and then pass the resulting structure to a fixed-point block, or you
can specify the data type directly with the block dialog box.
Integers. You specify unsigned and signed integers with the uint and sint
functions, respectively.
2-3
2
Getting Started
For example, to specify a 16-bit unsigned integer via the block dialog box, you
configure the Output data type parameter as uint(16). To specify a 16-bit
signed integer, you configure the Output data type parameter as sint(16).
For integer data types, the default radix point is assumed to lie to the right of
all bits.
Fractional Numbers. You specify unsigned and signed fractional numbers with
the ufrac and sfrac functions, respectively.
For example, to configure the output as a 16-bit unsigned fractional number via
the block dialog box, you specify the Output data type parameter to be
ufrac(16). To configure a 16-bit signed fractional number, you specify Output
data type to be sfrac(16).
Fractional numbers are distinguished from integers by their default scaling.
Whereas signed and unsigned integer data types have a default radix point to
the right of all bits, unsigned fractional data types have a default radix point
to the left of all bits, while signed fractional data types have a default radix
point to the right of the sign bit.
Both unsigned and signed fractional data types support guard bits, which act
to “guard” against overflow. For example, sfrac(16,4) specifies a 16-bit signed
fractional number with 4 guard bits. The guard bits lie to the left of the default
radix point.
Generalized Fixed-Point Numbers. You specify unsigned and signed generalized
fixed-point numbers with the ufix and sfix functions. respectively.
For example, to configure the output as a 16-bit unsigned generalized
fixed-point number via the block dialog box, you specify the Output data type
parameter to be ufix(16). To configure a 16-bit signed generalized fixed-point
number, you specify Output data type to be sfix(16).
Generalized fixed-point numbers are distinguished from integers and
fractionals by the absence of a default scaling. For these data types, you must
explicitly specify the scaling with the Output scaling dialog box parameter, or
inherit the scaling from another block. Refer to “Selecting the Output Scaling”
on page 2-5 for more information.
Floating-Point Numbers. The Fixed-Point Blockset supports single-precision and
double-precision floating-point numbers as defined by the IEEE Standard
2-4
An Overview of Blockset Features
754-1985 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. You specify floating-point
numbers with the float function.
For example, to configure the output as a single-precision floating-point
number via the block dialog box, you specify the Output data type parameter
to be float('single'). To configure a double-precision floating-point number,
you specify Output data type to be float('double').
You can also specify a nonstandard floating-point number that mimics the
IEEE style. For this data type, the fraction (mantissa) can range from 1 to 52
bits and the exponent can range from 1 to 11 bits. For example, to configure a
nonstandard floating-point number having 32 total bits and 9 exponents bits,
you specify Output data type to be float(32,9).
Note These numbers are normalized with a hidden leading 1 for all
exponents except the smallest possible exponent. However, the largest
possible exponent might not be treated as a flag for infinity or NaNs.
Selecting the Output Scaling
Most data types supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset have a default scaling
that you cannot change. However, for generalized fixed-point data types, you
have the option of specifying the output scaling via the block dialog box, or
inheriting the output scaling from another block. You control how the output
scaling is selected with the Output data type and scaling parameter list.
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports two general scaling modes: radix point-only
scaling and slope/bias scaling. In addition to these general scaling modes, the
blockset provides you with additional block-specific scaling choices for constant
vectors and constant matrices. These scaling choices are based on radix
point-only scaling and are designed to maximize precision. Refer to “Example:
Constant Scaling for Best Precision” in Chapter 3 for more information.
To help you understand the supported scaling modes, the general slope/bias
encoding scheme is presented in the next section.
The General Slope/Bias Encoding Scheme. When representing an arbitrarily precise
real-world value with a fixed-point number, it is often useful to define a general
slope/bias encoding scheme
2-5
2
Getting Started
˜ = SQ + B
V≈V
where:
• V is the real-world value.
˜ is the approximate real-world value.
•V
• Q is an integer that encodes V.
• B is the bias.
• S = F2E is the slope.
The slope is partitioned into two components:
• 2E specifies the radix point. E is the fixed power-of-two exponent.
• F is the fractional slope. It is normalized such that 1 ≤ F < 2 .
Radix Point-Only Scaling. This is “powers-of-two” scaling since it involves moving
only the radix point. Radix point-only scaling does not require the radix point
to be contiguous with the data word. The advantage of this scaling mode is the
number of processor arithmetic operations is minimized.
You specify radix point-only scaling with the syntax 2^–E where E is
unrestricted. This creates a MATLAB structure with a bias B = 0 and a
fractional slope F = 1.0.
For example, if you specify the value 2^–10 for the Output scaling parameter,
then the generalized fixed-point number has a power-of-two exponent E = -10.
This value defines the radix point location to be 10 places to the left of the least
significant bit.
Slope/Bias Scaling. With this scaling mode, you can provide a slope and a bias.
The advantage of slope/bias scaling is that it typically provides more efficient
use of a finite number of bits.
You specify slope/bias scaling with the syntax [slope bias], which creates a
MATLAB structure with the given slope and bias.
For example, if you specify the value [5/9 10] for the Output scaling
parameter, then the generalized fixed-point number has a slope of 5/9 and a
bias of 10. The blockset would automatically store F as 1.1111 and E as -1 due
to the normalization condition 1 ≤ F < 2 .
2-6
An Overview of Blockset Features
Rounding
You specify how fixed-point numbers are rounded with the Round toward
parameter list. These rounding modes are supported:
• Zero – This mode rounds toward zero and is equivalent to MATLAB’s fix
function.
• Nearest – This mode rounds toward the nearest representable number, with
the exact midpoint rounded toward positive infinity. Rounding toward
nearest is equivalent to MATLAB’s round function.
• Ceiling – This mode rounds toward positive infinity and is equivalent to
MATLAB’s ceil function.
• Floor – This mode rounds toward negative infinity and is equivalent to
MATLAB’s floor function.
Overflow Handling
You control how overflow conditions are handled for fixed-point operations
with the Saturate to max or min when overflows occur check box.
If checked, then overflows saturate to either the maximum or minimum value
represented by the data type. For example, an overflow associated with a
signed 8-bit integer can saturate to -128 or 127. If unchecked, then overflows
wrap to the appropriate value that is representable by the data type. For
example, the number 130 does not fit in a signed 8-bit integer, and would wrap
to -126.
Locking the Output Scaling
If the output data type is a generalized fixed-point number, then you have the
option of locking its scaling by checking the Lock output scaling so
autoscaling tool can’t change it check box.
When locked, the automatic scaling script autofixexp will not change the
output scaling. Otherwise, the autofixexp is free to adjust the scaling.
Overriding with Doubles
By checking the Override data type(s) with doubles check box, you can
override any data type with doubles. This feature is useful when debugging a
simulation. For example, if you are simulating hardware that is constrained to
output integers, you can override the constraint to determine whether the
hardware warrants modification or replacement.
2-7
2
Getting Started
Logging Simulation Values
By checking the Log minimums and maximums check box, you can save the
maximum and minimum values encountered during a simulation to the
MATLAB workspace. You can then access these values with the automatic
scaling script autofixexp.
Additional Features and Capabilities
In addition to the features described in “Configuring Fixed-Point Blocks” on
page 2-2, the Fixed-Point Blockset provides you with these features and
capabilities:
• An automatic scaling tool
• Code generation capabilities
Automatic Scaling
You can use the autofixexp script to automatically change the scaling for each
block that has generalized fixed-point output and does not have its scaling
locked. The script uses the maximum and minimum values logged during the
last simulation run. The scaling is changed such that the simulation range is
covered and the precision is maximized.
As an alternative to (and extension of) the automatic scaling script, you can use
the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool. This tool allows you to easily control
the parameters associated with automatic scaling and display the simulation
results for a given model. Additionally, you can:
• Turn on or turn off logging for all blocks
• Override the output data type with doubles for all blocks
• Invoke the automatic scaling script
To learn how to use the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool, refer to Chapter 6,
“Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation.”
Code Generation
With the Real-Time Workshop, the Fixed-Point Blockset can generate C code.
The code generated from fixed-point blocks uses only integer types and
automatically includes all operations, such as shifts, needed to account for
differences in fixed-point locations.
2-8
An Overview of Blockset Features
You can use the generated code on embedded fixed-point processors or rapid
prototyping systems even if they contain a floating-point processor. The code is
structured so that key operations can be readily replaced by optimized
target-specific libraries that you supply. You can also use the Target Language
Compiler™ to customize the generated code. Refer to Appendix A for more
information about code generation using fixed-point blocks.
2-9
2
Getting Started
Example: Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point
The purpose of this example is to show you how to simulate a continuous realworld signal using a generalized fixed-point data type. The model used is the
simplest possible model and employs only two fixed-point blocks. Although
simple in design, the model gives you the opportunity to explore many of the
important features of the Fixed-Point Blockset including:
• Data types
• Scaling
• Rounding
• Logging minimum and maximum simulation values to the workspace
• Overflow handling
The model used in this example is given by the fxpdemo_dbl2fix demo. You
can launch this demo by typing its name at the MATLAB command line.
fxpdemo_dbl2fix
The model is shown below.
Signal
Generator
Zero−Order
Hold
In
Out
Dbl To FixPt1
FixPt to Dbl1
Mux
Mux
Scope
FixPt
GUI
Block Descriptions
The Signal Generator block is configured to output a sine wave with an
amplitude defined on the interval [-5 5]. It always outputs double-precision
numbers.
The Gateway In block is used as the interface between Simulink and the
Fixed-Point Blockset. Its function is to convert the double-precision numbers
from the Signal Generator block into one of the Fixed-Point Blockset data
types. For simplicity, its output signal is limited to 5 bits in this example.
2-10
Example: Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point
The Gateway Out block is used as the interface between the Fixed-Point
Blockset and Simulink. Its function is to convert one of the Fixed-Point
Blockset data types into a Simulink data type. In this example, it outputs
double-precision numbers.
The GUI block launches the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool, fxptdlg. This
tool provides convenient access to the global override and logging parameters,
the logged minimum and maximum simulation data, the automatic scaling
script, and the plot interface tool. It is not used in this example. However, if you
have many fixed-point blocks whose scaling must be optimized, you should use
this tool. Refer to Chapter 6, “Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation” for
more information.
Note As described in “Compatibility with Simulink Blocks” on page 1-13, you
can eliminate the gateway blocks from your fixed-point model if all signals use
built-in data types.
Simulation Results
The results of two simulation trials are given below. The first trial uses radix
point-only scaling while the second trial uses slope/bias scaling.
Trial 1: Radix Point-Only Scaling
When using radix point-only scaling, your goal is to find the optimal
power-of-two exponent E, as defined in “Selecting the Output Scaling” on
page 2-5. For this scaling mode, the fractional slope F is set to 1 and no bias is
required.
The Gateway In block is configured in this way:
• Output data type
The output data type is given by sfix(5). This creates a MATLAB structure
that is a 5-bit, signed generalized fixed-point number.
• Output scaling
The output scaling is given by 2^–2, which puts the radix point two places to
the left of the rightmost bit. This gives a maximum value of 011.11 = 3.75, a
minimum value of 100.00 = -4.00, and a precision of (1/2)2 = 0.25.
2-11
2
Getting Started
• Rounding
The rounding mode is given by Nearest. This rounds the fixed-point result to
the nearest representable number, with the exact midpoint rounded towards
positive infinity.
• Overflows
Fixed-point values that overflow will saturate to the maximum or minimum
value represented by the word.
The resulting real-world and fixed-point simulation results are shown below.
5
4
3
2
1
0
−1
−2
−3
−4
−5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
The simulation clearly demonstrates the quantization effects of fixed-point
arithmetic. The combination of using a 5-bit word with a precision of (1/2)2 =
0.25 produces a discretized output that does not span the full range of the input
signal.
If you want to span the complete range of the input signal with 5 bits using
radix point-only scaling, then your only option is to sacrifice precision. Hence,
the output scaling would be given by 2^–1, which puts the radix point one place
to the left of the rightmost bit. This scaling gives a maximum value of 0111.1 =
7.5, a minimum value of 1000.0 = -8.0, and a precision of (1/2)1 = 0.5.
2-12
Example: Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point
Trial 2: Slope/Bias Scaling
When using slope/bias scaling, your goal is to find the optimal fractional slope
F and fixed power-of-two exponent E, as defined in “Selecting the Output
Scaling” on page 2-5. No bias is required for this example since the sine wave
is defined on the interval [-5 5]. The Gateway In block configuration is the
same as that of the previous trial except for the scaling.
To arrive at a value for the slope, you can begin by assuming a fixed power-oftwo exponent of -2. In the previous trial, this value defined the radix point-only
scaling and resulted in a precision of 0.25. To find the fractional slope, you
divide the maximum value of the sine wave by the maximum value of the scaled
5-bit number. The result is 5.00/3.75 = 1.3333. The slope (and precision) is
1.3333.(0.25) = 0.3333. You specify this value as [0.3333] for the Output
scaling parameter.
Of course, you could have specified a fixed power-of-two exponent of -1 and a
corresponding fractional slope of 0.6667. Naturally, the resulting slope is the
same since E was reduced by one bit but F was increased by one bit. In this
case, the blockset would automatically store F as 1.3332 and E as -2 due to the
normalization condition of 1 ≤ F < 2 .
2-13
2
Getting Started
The resulting real-world and fixed-point simulation results are shown below.
5
4
3
2
1
0
−1
−2
−3
−4
−5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
This somewhat cumbersome process used to find the slope is not really
necessary. All that is required is the range of the data you are simulating and
the size of the fixed-point word used in the simulation. In general, you can
achieve reasonable simulation results by selecting your scaling based on the
formula
( max – min )
----------------------------------ws
2 –1
where:
• max is the maximum value to be simulated.
• min is the minimum value to be simulated.
• ws is the word size in bits.
• 2ws – 1 is the largest value of a word with whose size is given by ws.
For this example, the formula produces a slope of 0.32258.
2-14
Demos
Demos
To help you learn the Fixed-Point Blockset, a collection of demos is provided.
You can explore specific blockset features by changing block parameters and
observing the effects of those changes.
The demos are divided into two groups: basic demos that illustrate the basic
functionality of the Fixed-Point Blockset, and advanced demos that illustrate
the functionality of systems and filters built with fixed-point blocks. All demos
are located in the fxpdemos directory.
You can access the demos through MATLAB’s Demo browser. You launch the
Demo browser by opening the Demos block found in the Fixed-Point Blockset
library, or by typing
demo blockset 'Fixed Point'
at the command line. You can also type the name of a particular demo at the
command line.
Basic Demos
The basic demos are listed below.
Table 2-1: Basic Fixed-Point Blockset Demos
Demo Name
Description
Double to Fixed-Point
Conversion
Convert a double precision value to a
fixed-point value.
Fixed-Point to Fixed-Point
Conversion
Convert a fixed-point value to another
fixed-point value.
Fixed-Point to Fixed-Point
Inherited Conversion
Convert a fixed-point value to an inherited
fixed-point value.
Fixed-Point Sine
Add and multiply two fixed-point sine wave
signals.
2-15
2
Getting Started
Table 2-1: Basic Fixed-Point Blockset Demos (Continued)
Demo Name
Description
Scaling a Fixed-Point
Control Design
Simulate a fixed-point feedback design.
Generating Only
Fixed-Point Code
Generate pure integer code for a fixed-point
digital controller.
The Double to Fixed-Point Conversion demo is discussed in “Example:
Converting from Doubles to Fixed-Point” on page 2-10, while the Scaling a
Fixed-Point Control Design demo is the subject of Chapter 6, “Tutorial:
Feedback Controller Simulation.”
Advanced Demos: Filters and Systems
The filter and system demos are intended to be used as a design aid so you can
see how to build and test filters and systems suited to your particular needs.
The output of these demos is compared to the output of analogous built-in
Simulink blocks with identical input.
You can access the filter and system demos through the Filters & Systems:
Examples block, which is included with the Fixed-Point Blockset library.
Alternatively you can type
fixptsys
at the MATLAB command line. The advanced demos are listed below.
Table 2-2: Advanced Fixed-Point Blockset Demos
2-16
Demo Name
Description
Fixed-Point
Integrators
Compare output from the Integrator Trapezoidal,
Integrator Backward, and Integrator Forward blocks
to output from Simulink’s Discrete Integrator block.
Fixed-Point
Derivatives
Compare output from the Derivative and Derivative:
Filtered realizations to output from the Simulink
derivatives built using the Discrete Filter and Transfer
Fcn blocks.
Demos
Table 2-2: Advanced Fixed-Point Blockset Demos (Continued)
Demo Name
Description
Fixed-Point Lead
and Lag Filters
Compare output from the Lead and Lag Filter block to
output from analogous Simulink filters built using the
Discrete Filter block.
Fixed-Point
State Space
Compare output from the State-Space Realization
realization to output from the analogous built-in
Simulink State-Space and Discrete State-Space block.
You can invoke a filter or system demo by double-clicking the appropriate
subsystem. For example, to invoke the Fixed-Point Derivatives demo,
double-click the Demo: Derivative subsystem. For more information about
filters and systems, refer to Chapter 7, “Building Systems and Filters.”
Additional fixed-point demos exist for direct form II, series cascade form, and
parallel form realizations. These demos and realizations are discussed in
Chapter 5, “Realization Structures.”
2-17
2
Getting Started
2-18
3
Data Types and Scaling
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Fixed-Point Numbers . . . . . . . . .
Signed Fixed-Point Numbers . . . . . . .
Radix Point Interpretation . . . . . . . .
Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Range and Precision . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Fixed-Point Scaling . . . . . .
Example: Constant Scaling for Best Precision
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Floating-Point Numbers
Scientific Notation . . . .
The IEEE Format . . . .
Range and Precision . . .
Exceptional Arithmetic . .
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3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-8
3-10
3-12
3
Data Types and Scaling
Overview
In digital hardware, numbers are stored in binary words. A binary word is a
fixed-length sequence of binary digits (1’s and 0’s). The way in which hardware
components or software functions interpret this sequence of 1’s and 0’s is
described by a data type.
Binary numbers are represented as either fixed-point or floating-point data
types. A fixed-point data type is characterized by the word size in bits, the radix
(binary) point, and whether it is signed or unsigned. The radix point is the
means by which fixed-point values are scaled. Within the Fixed-Point Blockset,
fixed-point data types can be integers, fractionals, or generalized fixed-point
numbers. The main difference between these data types is their default radix
point. Floating-point data types are characterized by a sign bit, a fraction (or
mantissa) field, and an exponent field. The blockset adheres to the IEEE
Standard 754-1985 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (referred to simply as
the IEEE Standard 754 throughout this guide) and supports singles, doubles,
and a nonstandard IEEE-style floating-point data type.
When choosing a data type, you must consider these factors:
• The numerical range of the result
• The precision required of the result
• The associated quantization error (i.e., the rounding mode)
• The method for dealing with exceptional arithmetic conditions
These choices depend on your specific application, the computer architecture
used, and the cost of development, among others.
With the Fixed-Point Blockset, you can explore the relationship between data
types, range, precision, and quantization error in the modeling of dynamic
digital systems. With the Real-Time Workshop, you can generate production
code based on that model.
3-2
Fixed-Point Numbers
Fixed-Point Numbers
Fixed-point numbers are stored in data types that are characterized by their
word size in bits, radix point, and whether they are signed or unsigned. The
Fixed-Point Blockset supports integers, fractionals, and generalized
fixed-point numbers. The main difference between these data types is their
default radix point.
Note Fixed-point word sizes up to 128 bits are supported.
A common representation of a binary fixed-point number (either signed or
unsigned) is shown below.
b ws – 1
b ws – 2
…
b5
b4
•
b3
b2
b1
b0
LSB
MSB
radix point
where:
• bi are the binary digits (bits).
• The size of the word in bits is given by ws.
• The most significant bit (MSB) is the leftmost bit, and is represented by
location b ws – 1 .
• The least significant bit (LSB) is the rightmost bit, and is represented by
location b0.
• The radix point is shown four places to the left of the LSB.
Signed Fixed-Point Numbers
Computer hardware typically represent the negation of a binary fixed-point
number in three different ways: sign/magnitude, one’s complement, and two’s
complement. Two’s complement is the preferred representation of signed
fixed-point numbers and is supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
3-3
3
Data Types and Scaling
Negation using two’s complement consists of a bit inversion (translation into
one’s complement) followed by the addition of a one. For example, the two’s
complement of 000101 is 111011.
Whether a fixed-point value is signed or unsigned is usually not encoded
explicitly within the binary word (i.e., there is no sign bit). Instead, the sign
information is implicitly defined within the computer architecture.
Radix Point Interpretation
The radix point is the means by which fixed-point numbers are scaled. It is
usually the software that determines the radix point. When performing basic
math functions such as addition or subtraction, the hardware uses the same
logic circuits regardless of the value of the scale factor. In essence, the logic
circuits have no knowledge of a scale factor. They are performing signed or
unsigned fixed-point binary algebra as if the radix point is to the right of b0.
Within the Fixed-Point Blockset, the main difference between fixed-point data
types is the default radix point. For integers and fractionals, the radix point is
fixed at the default value. For generalized fixed-point data types, you must
explicitly specify the scaling by configuring dialog box parameters, or inherit
the scaling from another block. The supported fixed-point data types are
described below.
Integers
The default radix point for signed and unsigned integer data types is assumed
to be just to the right of the LSB. You specify unsigned and signed integers with
the uint and sint functions, respectively.
Fractionals
The default radix point for unsigned fractional data types is just to the left of
the MSB, while for signed fractionals the radix point is just to the right of the
MSB. If you specify guard bits, then they lie to the left of the radix point. You
specify unsigned and signed fractional numbers with the ufrac and sfrac
functions, respectively.
Generalized Fixed-Point Numbers
For signed and unsigned generalized fixed-point numbers, there is no default
radix point. You specify unsigned and signed generalized fixed-point numbers
with the ufix and sfix functions. respectively.
3-4
Fixed-Point Numbers
Scaling
The dynamic range of fixed-point numbers is much less than that of
floating-point numbers with equivalent word sizes. To avoid overflow
conditions and minimize quantization errors, fixed-point numbers must be
scaled.
With the Fixed-Point Blockset, you can select a fixed-point data type whose
scaling is defined by its default radix point, or you can select a generalized
fixed-point data type and choose an arbitrary linear scaling that suits your
needs. This section presents the scaling choices available for generalized
fixed-point data types.
A fixed-point number can be represented by a general slope/bias encoding
scheme
˜ = SQ + B
V≈V
where:
• V is an arbitrarily precise real-world value.
˜ is the approximate real-world value.
•V
• Q is an integer that encodes V.
• S = F.2E is the slope.
• B is the bias.
The slope is partitioned into two components:
• 2E specifies the radix point. E is the fixed power-of-two exponent.
• F is the fractional slope. It is normalized such that 1 ≤ F < 2 .
Note S and B are constants and do not show up in the computer hardware
directly – only the quantization value Q is stored in computer memory.
The scaling modes available to you within this encoding scheme are described
below. For detailed information about how the supported scaling modes effect
fixed-point operations, refer to “Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling”
on page 4-16.
3-5
3
Data Types and Scaling
Radix Point-Only Scaling
As the name implies, radix point-only (or “powers-of-two”) scaling involves
moving only the radix point within the generalized fixed-point word. The
advantage of this scaling mode is the number of processor arithmetic
operations is minimized.
With radix point-only scaling, the components of the general slope/bias formula
have these values:
•F = 1
• S = 2E
•B = 0
That is, the scaling of the quantized real-world number is defined only by the
slope S, which is restricted to a power of two.
Radix point-only scaling is specified with the syntax 2^–E where E is
unrestricted. This creates a MATLAB structure with a bias B = 0 and a
fractional slope F = 1.0. For example, the syntax 2^–10 defines a scaling such
that the radix point is at a location 10 places to the left of the least significant
bit.
Slope/Bias Scaling
When scaling by slope and bias, the slope S and bias B of the quantized
real-world number can take on any value. Scaling by slope and bias is specified
with the syntax [slope bias], which creates a MATLAB structure with the
given slope and bias. For example, a slope/bias scaling specified by [5/9 10]
defines a slope of 5/9 and a bias of 10. The slope must be a positive number.
Quantization
The quantization Q of a real-world value V is represented by a weighted sum
of bits. Within the context of the general slope/bias encoding scheme, the value
of an unsigned fixed-point quantity is given by
ws – 1
˜ = S⋅
V
∑
bi 2i + B
i=0
while the value of a signed fixed-point quantity is given by
3-6
Fixed-Point Numbers
ws – 2
∑
˜ = S⋅ –b
ws – 1 +
V
ws – 1 2
bi 2i + B
i=0
where:
• bi are binary digits, with b i = 1, 0.
• The word size in bits is given by ws, with ws = 1,2,3,...,128.
• S is given by F2E, where the scaling is unrestricted since the radix point does
not have to be contiguous with the word.
bi are called bit multipliers and 2i are called the weights.
Example: Fixed-Point Format
The formats for 8-bit signed and unsigned fixed-point values are given below.
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
•
•
0
1
0
1
Unsigned data type
0
1
0
1
Signed data type
Note that you cannot discern whether these numbers are signed or unsigned
data types merely by inspection since this information is not explicitly encoded
within the word.
The binary number 0011.0101 yields the same value for the unsigned and two’s
complement representation since the MSB = 0. Setting B = 0 and using the
appropriate weights, bit multipliers, and scaling, the value is
ws – 1
E
∑
E
˜ = ( F2 ) ⋅ Q = 2 ⋅
V
bi 2i
i=0
= 2
–4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
⋅ (0 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 )
= 3.3125
3-7
3
Data Types and Scaling
Conversely, the binary number 1011.0101 yields different values for the
unsigned and two’s complement representation since the MSB = 1.
Setting B = 0 and using the appropriate weights, bit multipliers, and scaling,
the unsigned value is
ws – 1
E
∑
E
˜ = ( F2 ) ⋅ Q = 2 ⋅
V
bi 2i
i=0
= 2
–4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
⋅ (1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 )
= 11.3125
while the two’s complement value is
ws – 2
˜ = ( F2 E ) ⋅ Q = 2 E ⋅ – b ws – 1 2 ws – 1 +
V
∑
bi 2 i
i=0
= 2
–4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
⋅ ( –1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 + 0 ⋅ 2 + 1 ⋅ 2 )
= – 4.6875
Range and Precision
The range of a number gives the limits of the representation while the precision
gives the distance between successive numbers in the representation. The
range and precision of a fixed-point number depends on the length of the word
and the scaling.
3-8
Fixed-Point Numbers
Range
The range of representable numbers for an unsigned and two’s complement
fixed-point number of size ws, scaling S, and bias B is illustrated below.
S.(2ws – 1) + B
B
positive numbers
S.(–2ws – 1) + B
negative numbers
0
S.(2ws – 1– 1) + B
positive numbers
For both the signed and unsigned fixed-point numbers of any data type, the
number of different bit patterns is 2ws.
For example, if the fixed-point data type is an integer with scaling defined as
S = 1 and B = 0, then the maximum unsigned value is 2ws – 1 since zero must
be represented. In two’s complement, negative numbers must be represented
as well as zero so the maximum value is 2ws – 1– 1. Additionally, since there is
only one representation for zero, there must be an unequal number of positive
and negative numbers. This means there is a representation for –2ws – 1 but not
for 2ws – 1.
Precision
The precision (scaling) of integer and fractional data types is specified by the
default radix point. For generalized fixed-point data types, the scaling must be
explicitly defined as either slope/bias or radix point-only. In either case, the
precision is given by the slope.
3-9
3
Data Types and Scaling
Fixed-Point Data Type Parameters
The low limit, high limit, and default radix point-only scaling for the supported
fixed-point data types are given below.
Table 3-1: Fixed-Point Data Type Range and Default Scaling
Name
Data Type
Low Limit
High Limit
Default Scaling
(~Precision)
Integer
uint
0
2ws – 1
1
sint
–2ws – 1
2ws – 1 – 1
1
ufrac
0
1 – 2–ws
2–ws
sfrac
–1
1 – 2–(ws – 1)
2–(ws – 1)
ufix
N/A
N/A
N/A
sfix
N/A
N/A
N/A
Fractional
Generalized
Fixed-Point
Example: Fixed-Point Scaling
The precision, range of signed values, and range of unsigned values for an 8-bit
generalized fixed-point data type with radix point-only scaling are given below.
Note that the first scaling value (21) represents a radix point that is not
contiguous with the word.
Table 3-2: Range of an 8-Bit Fixed-Point Data Type – Radix Point-Only Scaling
Scaling
2
2
2
2
2
2
3-10
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
Precision
Range of Signed
Values (low, high)
Range of Unsigned
Values (low, high)
2.0
-256, 254
0, 510
1.0
-128, 127
0, 255
0.5
-64, 63.5
0, 127.5
0.25
-32, 31.75
0, 63.75
0.125
-16, 15.875
0, 31.875
0.0625
-8, 7.9375
0, 15.9375
Fixed-Point Numbers
Table 3-2: Range of an 8-Bit Fixed-Point Data Type – Radix Point-Only Scaling
Scaling
2
2
2
2
-5
-6
-7
-8
Precision
Range of Signed
Values (low, high)
Range of Unsigned
Values (low, high)
0.03125
-4, 3.96875
0, 7.96875
0.015625
-2, 1.984375
0, 3.984375
0.0078125
-1, 0.9921875
0, 1.9921875
0.00390625
-0.5, 0.49609375
0, 0.99609375
The precision and range of signed and unsigned values for an 8-bit fixed-point
data type using slope/bias scaling are given below. The slope starts at a value
of 1.25 and the bias is 1.0 for all slopes. Note that the slope is the same as the
precision.
Table 3-3: Range of an 8-Bit Fixed-Point Data Type – Slope/Bias Scaling
Bias
Slope/Precision
Range of Signed
Values (low, high)
Range of Unsigned
Values (low, high)
1
1.25
-159, 159.75
1, 319.75
1
0.625
-79, 80.375
1, 160.375
1
0.3125
-39, 40.6875
1, 80.6875
1
0.15625
-19, 20.84375
1, 40.84375
1
0.078125
-9, 10.921875
1, 20.921875
1
0.0390625
-4, 5.9609375
1, 10.9609375
1
0.01953125
-1.5, 3.48046875
1, 5.98046875
1
0.009765625
-0.25, 2.240234375
1, 3.490234375
1
0.0048828125
0.375, 1.6201171875
1, 2.2451171875
3-11
3
Data Types and Scaling
Example: Constant Scaling for Best Precision
The Fixed-Point Blockset provides you with block-specific modes for scaling
constant vectors and constant matrices. These scaling modes are based on
radix point-only scaling and are described below:
• Constant Vector Scaling
Using this mode, you can scale a constant vector such that its precision is
maximized element-by-element, or a common radix point is found based on
the best precision for the largest value of the vector.
• Constant Matrix Scaling
Using this mode, you can scale a constant matrix such that its precision is
maximized element-by-element, or a common radix point is found based on
the best precision for the largest value of each row, each column, or the whole
matrix.
Constant matrix and constant vector scaling are available only for generalized
fixed-point data types. All other fixed-point data types use their default
scaling. The available constant matrix scaling modes are shown below for the
Matrix Gain block.
3-12
Fixed-Point Numbers
To understand how you might use these scaling modes, consider a 5 by 4 matrix
of doubles, M, defined as
3.3333e-005
3.3333e-004
3.3333e-003
3.3333e-002
3.3333e-001
3.3333e-006
3.3333e-005
3.3333e-004
3.3333e-003
3.3333e-002
3.3333e-007
3.3333e-006
3.3333e-005
3.3333e-004
3.3333e-003
3.3333e-008
3.3333e-007
3.3333e-006
3.3333e-005
3.3333e-004
Now suppose M is input into the Matrix Gain block, and you want to scale it
using one of the constant matrix scaling modes. The results of using these
modes are described below:
• Use Specified Scaling
Suppose the matrix elements are converted to a signed, 10-bit generalized
fixed-point data type with radix point-only scaling of 2-7 (that is, the radix
3-13
3
Data Types and Scaling
point is located seven places to the left of the rightmost bit). With this data
format, M becomes
0
0
0
3.1250e-002
3.3594e-001
0
0
0
0
3.1250e-002
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Note that many of the matrix elements are zero, and for the nonzero entries,
the scaled values differ from the original values. This is because a double is
converted to a binary word of fixed size and limited precision for each
element. The larger and more precise the conversion data type, the more
closely the scaled values match the original values.
• Best Precision: Element-wise
If M is scaled such that the precision is maximized for each matrix element,
you obtain
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
3.3340e-003
3.3325e-002
3.3301e-001
3.3304e-006
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
3.3340e-003
3.3325e-002
3.3341e-007
3.3304e-006
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
3.3340e-003
3.3295e-008
3.3341e-007
3.3304e-006
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
• Best Precision: Row-wise
If M is scaled based on the largest value for each row, you obtain
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
3.3340e-003
3.3325e-002
3.3301e-001
3.3379e-006
3.3379e-005
3.3569e-004
3.2959e-003
3.3203e-002
3.5763e-007
2.8610e-006
3.0518e-005
3.6621e-004
2.9297e-003
0
0
0
0
0
• Best Precision: Column-wise
If M is scaled based on the largest value for each column, you obtain
0
0
2.9297e-003
3.3203e-002
3.3301e-001
3-14
0
0
3.6621e-004
3.2959e-003
3.3325e-002
0
0
3.0518e-005
3.3569e-004
3.3340e-003
0
0
2.8610e-006
3.3379e-005
3.3379e-004
Fixed-Point Numbers
• Best Precision: Matrix-wise
If M is scaled based on its largest matrix value, you obtain
0
0
2.9297e-003
3.3203e-002
3.3301e-001
0
0
0
2.9297e-003
3.3203e-002
0
0
0
0
2.9297e-003
0
0
0
0
0
The disadvantage of scaling the matrix column-wise, row-wise, or matrix-wise
is reduced precision resulting from the use of a common radix point. The
advantage of using a common radix point is reduced code size and possibly
increased processor speed.
3-15
3
Data Types and Scaling
Floating-Point Numbers
Fixed-point numbers are limited in that they cannot simultaneously represent
very large or very small numbers using a reasonable word size. This limitation
is overcome by using scientific notation. With scientific notation, you can
dynamically place the radix point at a convenient location and use powers of
the radix to keep track of that location. Thus, a range of very large and very
small numbers can be represented with only a few digits.
Any binary floating-point number can be represented in scientific notation
±e
form as ± f × 2 where f is the fraction (or mantissa); 2 is the radix or base
(binary in this case); and e is the exponent of the radix. The radix is always a
positive number while f and e can be positive or negative.
When performing arithmetic operations, floating-point hardware must take
into account that the sign, exponent, and fraction are all encoded within the
same binary word. This results in complex logic circuits when compared with
the circuits for binary fixed-point operations.
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports single-precision and double-precision
floating-point numbers as defined by the IEEE Standard 754. Additionally, a
nonstandard IEEE-style number is supported. To link the world of fixed-point
numbers with the world of floating-point numbers, the concepts behind
scientific notation are reviewed below.
Scientific Notation
A direct analogy exists between scientific notation and radix point notation.
For example, scientific notation using five decimal digits for the fraction would
take the form
p
± d.dddd × 10 = ± ddddd.0 × 10
p–4
= ± 0 .ddddd × 10
p+1
where p is an integer of unrestricted range. Radix point notation using five bits
for the fraction is the same except for the number base
q
± b.bbbb × 2 = ± bbbbb.0 × 2
q–4
= ± 0.bbbbb × 2
q+1
where q is an integer of unrestricted range. The previous equation is valid for
both fixed- and floating-point numbers. For both these data types, the fraction
can be changed at any time by the processor. However, for fixed- point numbers
3-16
Floating-Point Numbers
the exponent never changes, while for floating-point numbers the exponent can
be changed any time by the processor.
For fixed-point numbers, the exponent is fixed but there is no reason why the
radix point must be contiguous with the fraction. For example, a word
consisting of three unsigned bits is usually represented in scientific notation in
one of these four ways.
bbb. = bbb. × 2
0
bb.b = bbb. × 2
–1
b.bb = bbb. × 2
–2
.bbb = bbb. × 2
–3
If the exponent were greater than 0 or less than -3, then the representation
would involve lots of zeros.
bbb00000. = bbb. × 2
bbb00. = bbb. × 2
2
.00bbb = bbb. × 2
–5
.00000bbb = bbb. × 2
5
–8
However, these extra zeros never change to ones so they don’t show up in the
hardware. Furthermore, unlike floating-point exponents, a fixed-point
exponent never shows up in the hardware, so fixed-point exponents are not
limited by a finite number of bits.
Note The restriction of the radix point being contiguous with the fraction is
unnecessary, and the Fixed-Point Blockset allows you to extend the radix
point to any arbitrary location.
3-17
3
Data Types and Scaling
The IEEE Format
The IEEE Standard 754 has been widely adopted, and is used with virtually all
floating-point processors and arithmetic coprocessors – with the notable
exception of many DSP floating-point processors.
Among other things, this standard specifies four floating-point number formats
of which singles and doubles are the most widely used. Each format contains
three components: a sign bit, a fraction field, and an exponent field. These
components, as well as the specific formats for singles and doubles, are
discussed below.
The Sign Bit
While two’s complement is the preferred representation for signed fixed-point
numbers, IEEE floating-point numbers use a sign/magnitude representation,
where the sign bit is explicitly included in the word. Using this representation,
a sign bit of 0 represents a positive number and a sign bit of 1 represents a
negative number.
The Fraction Field
In general, floating-point numbers can be represented in many different ways
by shifting the number to the left or right of the radix point and decreasing or
increasing the exponent of the radix by a corresponding amount.
To simplify operations on these numbers, they are normalized in the IEEE
format. A normalized binary number has a fraction of the form 1.f where f has
a fixed size for a given data type. Since the leftmost fraction bit is always a 1,
it is unnecessary to store this bit and is therefore implicit (or hidden). Thus, an
n-bit fraction stores an n+1-bit number. The IEEE format also supports
denormalized numbers, which have a fraction of the form 0.f. Normalized and
denormalized formats are discussed in more detail in next section.
The Exponent Field
In the IEEE format, exponent representations are biased. This means a fixed
value (the bias) is subtracted from the field to get the true exponent value. For
example, if the exponent field is 8 bits, then the numbers 0 through 255 are
represented, and there is a bias of 127. Note that some values of the exponent
are reserved for flagging infinity, NaN, and denormalized numbers, so the true
exponent values range from -126 to 127.
3-18
Floating-Point Numbers
Single Precision Format
The IEEE single-precision floating-point format is a 32-bit word divided into a
1-bit sign indicator s, an 8-bit biased exponent e, and a 23-bit fraction f. A
representation of this format is given below.
b31 b30
s
b0
b22
e
f
The relationship between this format and the representation of real numbers
is given by
s
e – 127
 ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2
) ⋅ ( 1.f )

s
e
–
126
value =  ( – 1 ) ⋅ ( 2
) ⋅ ( 0.f )

 exceptional value
normalized, 0 < e < 255
denormalized, e = 0, f > 0
otherwise
Denormalized values are discussed in “Exceptional Arithmetic” on page 3-22.
Double Precision Format
The IEEE double-precision floating-point format is a 64-bit word divided into
a 1-bit sign indicator s, an 11-bit biased exponent e, and a 52-bit fraction f. A
representation of this format is given below.
b63 b62
s
b0
b51
e
f
The relationship between this format and the representation of real numbers
is given by
s
e – 1023
 ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2
) ⋅ ( 1.f )

s
e
–
1022
value =  ( – 1 ) ⋅ ( 2
) ⋅ ( 0.f )

 exceptional value
normalized, 0 < e < 2047
denormalized, e = 0, f > 0
otherwise
Denormalized values are discussed in “Exceptional Arithmetic” on page 3-22.
3-19
3
Data Types and Scaling
Nonstandard IEEE Format
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports a nonstandard IEEE-style floating-point
data type. This data type adheres to the definitions and formulas previously
given for IEEE singles and doubles. You create nonstandard floating-point
numbers with the float function.
float(TotalBits,ExpBits)
TotalBits is the total word size and ExpBits is the size of the exponent field.
The size of the fraction field and the bias are calculated from these input
arguments. You can specify any number of exponent bits up to 11, and any
number of total bits such that the fraction field is no more than 53 bits.
When specifying a nonstandard format, you should remember that the number
of exponent bits largely determines the range of the result and the number of
fraction bits largely determines the precision of the result.
Note These numbers are normalized with a hidden leading one for all
exponents except the smallest possible exponent. However, the largest
possible exponent might not be treated as a flag for infinity or NaNs.
Range and Precision
The range of a number gives the limits of the representation while the precision
gives the distance between successive numbers in the representation. The
range and precision of an IEEE floating-point number depend on the specific
format.
Range
The range of representable numbers for an IEEE floating-point number with f
bits allocated for the fraction, e bits allocated for the exponent, and the bias of
e given by bias = 2e – 1– 1 is given below.
negative
overflow
3-20
negative numbers
negative
underflow
positive numbers
positive
underflow
positive
overflow
Floating-Point Numbers
where:
• Normalized positive numbers are defined within the range 21 – bias to
(2 – 2–f).2bias.
• Normalized negative numbers are defined within the range –21 – bias to
–(2 – 2–f).2bias.
• Positive numbers greater than (2 – 2–f).2bias, and negative numbers greater
than –(2 – 2–f).2bias are overflows.
• Positive numbers less than 21 – bias, and negative numbers less than –21 – bias
are either underflows or denormalized numbers.
• Zero is given by a special bit pattern, where e = 0 and f = 0.
Overflows and underflows result from exceptional arithmetic conditions.
Floating-point numbers outside the defined range are always mapped to ± inf .
Note You can use the MATLAB commands realmin and realmax to
determine the dynamic range of double-precision floating-point values for
your computer.
Precision
Due to a finite word size, a floating-point number is only an approximation of
the “true” value. Therefore, it is important to have an understanding of the
precision (or accuracy) of a floating-point result. In general, a value v with an
accuracy q is specified by v ± q . For IEEE floating-point numbers,
s
v = ( – 1 ) ⋅ ( 2 e – bias ) ⋅ ( 1.f ) and q = 2 – f ⋅ 2 e – bias. Thus, the precision is
associated with the number of bits in the fraction field.
Note In MATLAB, floating-point relative accuracy is given by the command
eps, which returns the distance from 1.0 to the next largest floating point
number. For a computer that supports the IEEE Standard 754, eps = 2-52 or
2.2204 510-16.
3-21
3
Data Types and Scaling
Floating-Point Data Type Parameters
The high and low limits, exponent bias, and precision for the supported
floating-point data types are given below.
Table 3-4: Floating-Point Data Type Parameters
Data Type
|Low Limit|
|High Limit|
Exponent
Bias
Precision
single
2 – 126 ≈ 10 – 38
2 128 ≈ 3 ⋅ 10 38
127
2 –23 ≈ 10 – 7
double
2 – 1022 ≈ 2 ⋅ 10 – 308
2 1024 ≈ 2 ⋅ 10 308
1023
2 – 52 ≈ 10 – 16
nonstandard
2
( 1 – bias )
–f
(2 – 2 ) ⋅ 2
bias
2
e–1
–1
2 –f
Due to the sign/magnitude representation of floating-point numbers, there are
two representations of zero, one positive and one negative. For both
representations e = 0 and 0.f = 0.0.
Exceptional Arithmetic
In addition to specifying a floating-point format, the IEEE Standard 754
specifies practices and procedures so that predictable results are produced
independent of the hardware platform. Specifically, denormalized numbers,
infinity, and NaNs are defined to deal with exceptional arithmetic (underflow
and overflow).
If an underflow or overflow is handled as infinity or NaN, then significant
processor overhead is required to deal with this exception. Although the IEEE
Standard 754 specifies practices and procedures to deal with exceptional
arithmetic conditions in a consistent manner, microprocessor manufacturers
may handle these conditions in ways that depart from the standard. Some of
the alternative approaches, such as saturation and wrapping, are discussed in
Chapter 4, “Arithmetic Operations.”
Denormalized Numbers
Denormalized numbers are used to handle cases of exponent underflow. When
the exponent of the result is too small (i.e., a negative exponent with too large
a magnitude), the result is denormalized by right-shifting the fraction and
leaving the exponent at its minimum value. The use of denormalized numbers
is also referred to as gradual underflow. Without denormalized numbers, the
3-22
Floating-Point Numbers
gap between the smallest representable nonzero number and zero is much
wider than the gap between the smallest representable nonzero number and
the next larger number. Gradual underflow fills that gap and reduces the
impact of exponent underflow to a level comparable with round off among the
normalized numbers. Thus, denormalized numbers provide extended range for
small numbers at the expense of precision.
Infinity
Arithmetic involving infinity is treated as the limiting case of real arithmetic,
with infinite values defined as those outside the range of representable
numbers, or – ∞ ≤ ( representable numbers ) < ∞ . With the exception of the
special cases discussed below (NaNs), any arithmetic operation involving
infinity yields infinity. Infinity is represented by the largest biased exponent
allowed by the format and a fraction of zero.
NaNs
A NaN (not-a-number) is a symbolic entity encoded in floating-point format.
There are two types of NaNs: signaling and quiet. A signaling NaN signals an
invalid operation exception. A quiet NaN propagates through almost every
arithmetic operation without signaling an exception. NaNs are produced by
these operations: ∞ – ∞ , – ∞ + ∞ , 0 × ∞ , 0 ⁄ 0 , and ∞ ⁄ ∞ .
Both types of NaNs are represented by the largest biased exponent allowed by
the format and a fraction that is nonzero. The bit pattern for a quiet NaN is
given by 0.f where the most significant number in f must be a one, while the
bit pattern for a signaling NaN is given by 0.f where the most significant
number in f must be zero and at least one of the remaining numbers must be
nonzero.
3-23
3
Data Types and Scaling
3-24
4
Arithmetic Operations
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Limitations on Precision . . . . . . .
Rounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Padding with Trailing Zeros . . . . . . .
Example: Limitations on Precision and Errors
Example: Maximizing Precision . . . . . .
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Limitations on Range . . .
Saturation and Wrapping . .
Guard Bits . . . . . . . .
Example: Limitations on Range
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Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4-3
4-3
4-9
4-10
4-11
Parameter and Signal Conversions . . . . . . . . . 4-26
Parameter Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Signal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Computational Units . . . . . .
Addition and Subtraction . . . .
Multiplication . . . . . . . . .
Division . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifts . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Example: Conversions and Arithmetic Operations . . . 4-46
4
Arithmetic Operations
Overview
When developing a dynamic system using floating-point arithmetic, you
generally don’t have to worry about numerical limitations since floating-point
data types have high precision and range. Conversely, when working with
fixed-point arithmetic, you must consider these factors when developing
dynamic systems:
• Overflow
Adding two sufficiently large negative or positive values can produce a result
that does not fit into the representation. This will have an adverse effect on
the control system.
• Quantization
Fixed-point values are rounded. Therefore, the output signal to the plant and
the input signal to the control system do not have the same characteristics
as the ideal discrete-time signal.
• Computational noise
The accumulated errors that result from the rounding of individual terms
within the realization introduces noise into the control signal.
• Limit cycles
In the ideal system, the output of a stable transfer function (digital filter)
approaches some constant for a constant input. With quantization, limit
cycles occur where the output oscillates between two values in steady state.
This chapter describes the limitations involved when arithmetic operations
are performed using encoded fixed-point variables. It also provides
recommendations for encoding fixed-point variables such that simulations and
generated code are reasonably efficient.
4-2
Limitations on Precision
Limitations on Precision
Computer words consist of a finite numbers of bits. This means that the binary
encoding of variables is only an approximation of an arbitrarily precise
real-world value. Therefore, the limitations of the binary representation
automatically introduce limitations on the precision of the value.
The precision of a fixed-point word depends on the word size and radix point
location. Extending the precision of a word can always be accomplished with
more bits although you face practical limitations with this approach. Instead,
you must carefully select the data type, word size, and scaling such that
numbers are accurately represented. Rounding and padding with trailing zeros
are typical methods implemented on processors to deal with the precision of
binary words.
Rounding
The result of any operation on a fixed-point number is typically stored in a
register that is longer than the number’s original format. When the result is
put back into the original format, the extra bits must be disposed of. That is,
the result must be rounded. Rounding involves going from high precision to
lower precision and produces quantization errors and computational noise.
The blockset provides four rounding modes, which are shown below.
4-3
4
Arithmetic Operations
The Fixed-Point Blockset rounding modes are discussed below. The data is
generated using Simulink’s Signal Generator block and doubles are converted
to signed 8-bit numbers with radix point-only scaling of 2-2.
Round Toward Zero
The computationally simplest rounding mode is to drop all digits beyond the
number required. This mode is referred to as rounding toward zero, and it
results in a number whose magnitude is always less than or equal to the more
precise original value. In MATLAB, you can round to zero using the fix
function.
Rounding toward zero introduces a cumulative downward bias in the result for
positive numbers and a cumulative upward bias in the result for negative
numbers. That is, all positive numbers are rounded to smaller positive
4-4
Limitations on Precision
numbers, while all negative numbers are rounded to smaller negative
numbers. Rounding toward zero is shown below.
Round Toward Zero
1
0.5
Positive numbers are rounded
to smaller positive numbers
0
Negative numbers are rounded
to smaller negative numbers
−0.5
−1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
An example comparing rounding to zero and truncation for unsigned and two’s
complement numbers is given in “Example: Rounding to Zero Versus
Truncation” on page 4-9.
Round Toward Nearest
When rounding toward nearest, the number is rounded to the nearest
representable value. This mode has the smallest errors associated with it and
these errors are symmetric. As a result, rounding toward nearest is the most
useful approach for most applications.
4-5
4
Arithmetic Operations
In MATLAB, you can round to nearest using the round function. Rounding
toward nearest is shown below.
Round Toward Nearest
1
0.5
All numbers are rounded to the
nearest representable number
0
−0.5
−1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
Round Toward Ceiling
When rounding toward ceiling, both positive and negative numbers are
rounded toward positive infinity. As a result, a positive cumulative bias is
introduced in the number.
4-6
Limitations on Precision
In MATLAB, you can round to ceiling using the ceil function. Rounding
toward ceiling is shown below.
Round Toward Ceiling
1
0.5
All numbers are rounded
toward positive infinity
0
−0.5
−1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
Round Toward Floor
When rounding toward floor, both positive and negative numbers are rounded
to negative infinity. As a result, a negative cumulative bias is introduced in the
number.
4-7
4
Arithmetic Operations
In MATLAB, you can round to floor using the floor function. Rounding toward
floor is shown below.
Round Toward Floor
1
0.5
All numbers are rounded
toward negative infinity
0
−0.5
−1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time
Rounding toward ceiling and rounding toward floor are sometimes useful for
diagnostic purposes. For example, after a series of arithmetic operations, you
may not know the exact answer because of word-size limitations, which
introduce rounding. If every operation in the series is performed twice, once
rounding to positive infinity and once rounding to negative infinity, you obtain
an upper limit and a lower limit on the correct answer. You can then decide if
the result is sufficiently accurate or if additional analysis is required.
4-8
Limitations on Precision
Example: Rounding to Zero Versus Truncation
Rounding to zero and truncation or chopping are sometimes thought to mean
the same thing. However, the results produced by rounding to zero and
truncation are different for unsigned and two’s complement numbers.
To illustrate this point, consider rounding a 5-bit unsigned number to zero by
dropping (truncating) the two least significant bits. For example, the unsigned
number 100.01 = 4.25 is truncated to 100 = 4. Therefore, truncating an
unsigned number is equivalent to rounding to zero or rounding to floor.
Now consider rounding a 5-bit two’s complement number by dropping the two
least significant bits. At first glance, you may think truncating a two’s
complement number is the same as rounding to zero. For example, dropping
the last two digits of -3.75 yields -3.00. However, digital hardware performing
two’s complement arithmetic yields a different result. Specifically, the number
100.01 = -3.75 truncates to 100 = -4, which is rounding to floor.
As you can see, rounding to zero for a two’s complement number is not the same
as truncation when the original value is negative. For this reason, the
ambiguous term “truncation” is not used in this guide, and four explicit
rounding modes are used instead.
Padding with Trailing Zeros
Padding with trailing zeros involves extending the least significant bit (LSB)
of a number with extra bits. This method involves going from low precision to
higher precision.
For example, suppose two numbers are subtracted from each other. First, the
exponents must be aligned, which typically involves a right shift of the number
with the smaller value. In performing this shift, significant digits can “fall off”
to the right. However, when the appropriate number of extra bits is appended,
the precision of the result is maximized. Consider two 8-bit fixed-point
numbers that are close in value and subtracted from each other
q
1.0000000 ⋅ 2 – 1.1111111 ⋅ 2
q–1
where q is an integer. To perform this operation, the exponents must be equal.
4-9
4
Arithmetic Operations
1.0000000 ⋅ 2
q
q
– 0.1111111 ⋅ 2
-------------------------------------------q
0.0000001 ⋅ 2
If the top number is padded by two zeros and the bottom number is padded with
one zero, then the above equation becomes
1.000000000 ⋅ 2
q
q
– 0.111111110 ⋅ 2
--------------------------------------------------q
0.000000010 ⋅ 2
which produces a more precise result. An example of padding with trailing
zeros using the Fixed-Point Blockset is illustrated in “Digital Controller
Realization” on page 6-7.
Example: Limitations on Precision and Errors
Fixed-point variables have a limited precision because digital systems
represent numbers with a finite number of bits. For example, suppose you must
represent the real-world number 35.375 with a fixed-point number. Using the
encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5, the representation is
˜ = 2 –2 Q + 32
V
The two closest approximations to the real-world value are Q = 13 and Q = 14.
˜ = 2 –2 ( 13 ) + 32 = 35.25
V
˜ = 2 –2 ( 14 ) + 32 = 35.50
V
In either case, the absolute error is the same.
E
F2
˜ – V = 0.125 = ---------V
2
For fixed-point values within the limited range, this represents the worst-case
error if round-to-nearest is used. If other rounding modes are used, the
worst-case error can be twice as large.
˜ – V < F2 E
V
4-10
Limitations on Precision
Example: Maximizing Precision
Precision is limited by slope. To achieve maximum precision, the slope should
be made as small as possible while keeping the range adequately large. The
bias will be adjusted in coordination with the slope.
Assume the maximum and minimum real-world value is given by max(V) and
min(V), respectively. These limits may be known based on physical principles
or engineering considerations. To maximize the precision, you must decide
upon a rounding scheme and whether overflows saturate or wrap. To simplify
matters, this example assumes the minimum real-world value corresponds to
the minimum encoded value, and the maximum real-world value corresponds
to the maximum encoded value. Using the encoding scheme described in
“Scaling” on page 3-5, these values are given by
E
max ( V ) = F2 ( max ( Q ) ) + B
E
min ( V ) = F2 ( min ( Q ) ) + B
Solving for the slope, you get
F2
E
max ( V ) – min ( V )
max ( V ) – min ( V )
= ------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------ws
max ( Q ) – min ( Q )
2 –1
This formula is independent of rounding and overflow issues, and depends only
on the word size, ws.
4-11
4
Arithmetic Operations
Limitations on Range
Limitations on the range of a fixed-point word occur for the same reason as
limitations on its precision. Namely, fixed-point words have limited size.
In binary arithmetic, a processor may need to take an n-bit fixed-point number
and store it in m bits, where m ≠ n . If m < n, the range of the number has been
reduced and an operation can produce an overflow condition. Some processors
identify this condition as infinity or NaN. For other processors, especially
digital signal processors (DSP’s), the value saturates or wraps. If m > n, the
range of the number has been extended. Extending the range of a word
requires the inclusion of guard bits, which act to “guard” against potential
overflow. In both cases, the range depends on the word’s size and scaling.
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports saturation and wrapping for all fixed-point
data types, while guard bits are supported only for fractional data types. As
shown below, you can select saturation or wrapping with the Saturate to max
or min when overflows occur check box, and you can specify guard bits with
the Output data type parameter.
36-bit signed fractional data type with 4
guard bits. The total word size is 40 bits.
Saturate overflows.
4-12
Limitations on Range
Saturation and Wrapping
Saturation and wrapping describe a particular way that some processors deal
with overflow conditions. For example, Analog Device’s ADSP-2100 family of
processors supports either of these modes. If a register has a saturation mode
of operation, then an overflow condition is set to the maximum positive or
negative value allowed. Conversely, if a register has a wrapping mode of
operation, an overflow condition is set to the appropriate value within the
range of the representation.
Example: Saturation and Wrapping
Consider an 8-bit unsigned word with radix point-only scaling of 2-5. Suppose
this data type must represent a sine wave that ranges from -4 to 4. For values
between 0 and 4, the word can represent these numbers without regard to
overflow. This is not the case with negative numbers. If overflows saturate, all
negative values are set to zero, which is the smallest number representable by
the data type. The saturation of overflows is shown below.
Overflows Saturate
8
6
4
Negative values
saturate to zero
Negative values
saturate to zero
2
0
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
Time
4-13
4
Arithmetic Operations
If overflows wrap, all negative values are set to the appropriate positive value.
The wrapping of overflows is shown below.
Overflows Wrap
8
6
4
2
Negative values
wrap to positive
values
Negative values
wrap to positive
values
0
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
Time
Note For most control applications, saturation is the safer way of dealing
with fixed-point overflow. However, some processor architectures allow
automatic saturation by hardware. If hardware saturation is not available,
then extra software is required resulting in larger, slower programs. This cost
is justified in some designs – perhaps for safety reasons. Other designs accept
wrapping to obtain the smallest, fastest software.
4-14
Limitations on Range
Guard Bits
You can eliminate the possibility of overflow by appending the appropriate
number of guard bits to a binary word.
For a two’s complement signed value, the guard bits are filled with either 0’s or
1’s depending on the value of the most significant bit (MSB). This is called sign
extension. For example, consider a 4-bit two’s complement number with value
1011. If this number is extended in range to 7 bits with sign extension, then the
number becomes 1111101 and the value remains the same.
Guard bits are supported only for fractional data types. For both signed and
unsigned fractionals, the guard bits lie to the left of the default radix point.
Example: Limitations on Range
Fixed-point variables have a limited range for the same reason they have
limited precision – because digital systems represent numbers with a finite
number of bits. As a general example, consider the case where an integer is
represented as a fixed-point word of size ws. The range for signed and unsigned
words is given by max ( Q ) – min ( Q ) where
 0
min ( Q ) =  ws – 1
 –2
ws
2 – 1
max ( Q ) = 
 2 ws – 1 – 1
unsigned
signed
unsigned
signed
Using the general slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on
page 3-5, the approximate real-world value has the range
˜ ) – min ( V
˜ ) where
max (V
B
˜ ) = 
min ( V
E ws – 1
)+B
 – F2 ( 2
E
ws
˜ ) =  F2 ( 2 – 1 ) + B
max ( V
 E ws – 1
 F2 ( 2
– 1) + B
unsigned
signed
unsigned
signed
If the real-world value exceeds the limited range of the approximate value,
then the accuracy of the representation can become significantly worse.
4-15
4
Arithmetic Operations
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
This section describes the relationship between arithmetic operations and
fixed-point scaling, and some basic recommendations that may be appropriate
for your fixed-point design. For each arithmetic operation:
• The general slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5 is
used.
• The scaling of the result is automatically selected based on the scaling of the
two inputs. In other words, the scaling is inherited.
• Scaling choices are based on:
- Minimizing the number of arithmetic operations of the result.
- Maximizing the precision of the result.
Additionally, radix point-only scaling is presented as a special case of the
general encoding scheme.
In embedded systems, the scaling of variables at the hardware interface (the
ADC or DAC) is fixed. However for most other variables, the scaling is
something you can choose to give the best design. When scaling fixed-point
variables, it is important to remember that:
• Your scaling choices depend on the particular design you are simulating.
• There is no best scaling approach. All choices have associated advantages
and disadvantages. It is the goal of this section to expose these advantages
and disadvantages to you.
Addition
Consider the addition of two real-world values.
Va = Vb + Vc
These values are represented by the general slope/bias encoding scheme
described in “Scaling” on page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
In a fixed-point system, the addition of values results in finding the variable
Qa.
4-16
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
F b Eb – Ea
Fc Ec – Ea
B b + B c – B a –Ea
Q a = ------ ⋅ 2
Q b + ------ ⋅ 2
Q c + --------------------------------- ⋅ 2
Fa
Fa
Fa
This formula shows:
• In general, Qa is not computed through a simple addition of Qb and Qc.
• In general, there are two multiplies of a constant and a variable, two
additions, and some additional bit shifting.
Inherited Scaling for Speed
In the process of finding the scaling of the sum, one reasonable goal is to
simplify the calculations. Simplifying the calculations should reduce the
number of operations thereby increasing execution speed. The following
choices can help to minimize the number of arithmetic operations:
• Set Ba = Bb + Bc. This eliminates one addition.
• Set Fa = Fb or Fa = Fc. Either choice eliminates one of the two constant times
variable multiplies.
The resulting formula is
Qa = 2
Eb – Ea
Fc Ec – Ea
Q b + ------ ⋅ 2
Qc
Fa
or
F b Eb – Ea
Ec – Ea
Qb + 2
Qc
Q a = ------ ⋅ 2
Fa
These equations appear to be equivalent. However, your choice of rounding and
precision may make one choice stand out over the other. To further simplify
matters, you could choose Ea = Ec or Ea = Eb. This will eliminate some bit
shifting.
Inherited Scaling for Maximum Precision
In the process of finding the scaling of the sum, one reasonable goal is
maximum precision. The maximum precision scaling can be determined if the
range of the variable is known. As shown in “Example: Maximizing Precision”
on page 4-11, the range of a fixed-point operation can be determined from
˜ ) . For a summation, the range can be determined from
˜ ) and min ( V
max ( V
a
a
4-17
4
Arithmetic Operations
˜ ) = min ( V
˜ ) + min ( V
˜ )
min ( V
a
b
c
˜ ) + max ( V
˜ )
˜ ) = max ( V
max ( V
a
b
c
The maximum precision slope can now be derived.
Fa 2
Ea
˜ ) – min ( V
˜ )
max ( V
a
a
= -----------------------------------------------------ws a
–1
2
Eb
ws b
Ec
ws c
– 1 ) + Fc 2 ( 2
– 1)
Fb 2 ( 2
= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ws a
–1
2
In most cases the input and output word sizes are much greater than one, and
the slope becomes
Fa 2
Ea
≈ Fb 2
E b + ws b – ws a
+ Fc 2
E c + ws c – ws a
which depends only on the size of the input and output words. The
corresponding bias is
˜ ) – F 2 E a ⋅ min ( Q )
B a = min ( V
a
a
a
The value of the bias depends on whether the inputs and output are signed or
unsigned numbers.
If the inputs and output are all unsigned, then the minimum value for these
variables are all zero and the bias reduces to a particularly simple form.
Ba = Bb + Bc
If the inputs and the output are all signed, then the bias becomes
Eb
Ba ≈ Bb + Bc + Fb 2 ( –2
ws b – 1
+2
ws b – 1
Ec
) + Fc 2 ( –2
ws c – 1
+2
ws c – 1
)
Ba ≈ Bb + Bc
Radix Point-Only Scaling
For radix point-only scaling, finding Qa results in this simple expression.
4-18
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
Qa = 2
Eb – Ea
Qb + 2
Ec – Ea
Qc
This scaling choice results in only one addition and some bit shifting. The
avoidance of any multiplications is a big advantage of radix point-only scaling.
Note The subtraction of values produces results that are analogous to those
produced by the addition of values.
Accumulation
The accumulation of values is closely associated with addition.
V a_new = V a_old + V b
Finding Qa_new involves one multiply of a constant and a variable, two
additions, and some bit shifting.
F b Eb – Ea
B b –Ea
Q b + ------- ⋅ 2
Q a_new = Q a_old + ------ ⋅ 2
F
F
a
a
The important difference for fixed-point implementations is that the scaling of
the output is identical to the scaling of the first input.
Radix Point-Only Scaling
For radix point-only scaling, finding Qa_new results in this simple expression.
Q a_new = Q a_old + 2
Eb – Ea
Qb
This scaling option only involves one addition and some bit shifting.
Note The negative accumulation of values produces results that are
analogous to those produced by the accumulation of values.
4-19
4
Arithmetic Operations
Multiplication
Consider the multiplication of two real-world values.
Va = Vb × Vc
These values are represented by the general slope/bias encoding scheme
described in “Scaling” on page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
In a fixed-point system, the multiplication of values results in finding the
variable Qa.
Fb F c Eb + Ec – Ea
F b B c Eb – Ea
Fc Bb Ec – Ea
Q b Q c + ------------- ⋅ 2
Q b + ------------- ⋅ 2
Qc
Q a = ------------- ⋅ 2
Fa
Fa
Fa
B b B c – B a –Ea
+ --------------------------- ⋅ 2
Fa
This formula shows:
• In general, Qa is not computed through a simple multiplication of Qb and Qc.
• In general, there is one multiply of a constant and two variables, two
multiplies of a constant and a variable, three additions, and some additional
bit shifting.
Inherited Scaling for Speed
The number of arithmetic operations can be reduced with these choices:
• Set Ba = BbBc. This eliminates one addition operation.
• Set Fa = FbFc. This simplifies the triple multiplication – certainly the most
difficult part of the equation to implement.
• Set Ea = Eb + Ec. This eliminates some of the bit-shifting.
The resulting formula is
Bb –Eb
B c –Ec
Q a = Q b Q c + ------ ⋅ 2 Q b + ------- ⋅ 2 Q c
Fc
Fb
4-20
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
Inherited Scaling for Maximum Precision
The maximum precision scaling can be determined if the range of the variable
is known. As shown in “Example: Maximizing Precision” on page 4-11, the
˜ ) and
range of a fixed-point operation can be determined from max ( V
a
˜
min ( V a ) .
For multiplication, the range can be determined from
˜ ) = min ( V , V , V , V
min ( V
LL
LH
HL
HH )
a
˜ ) = max ( V , V , V , V
max ( V
LL
LH
HL
HH )
a
where
˜ ) ⋅ min ( V
˜ )
V LL = min ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⋅ max ( V
˜ )
V LH = min ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⋅ min ( V
˜ )
V HL = max ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⋅ max ( V
˜ )
V HH = max ( V
b
c
Radix Point-Only Scaling
For radix point-only scaling, finding Qa results in this simple expression.
Qa = 2
Eb + Ec – Ea
Qb Qc
Gain
Consider the multiplication of a constant and a variable
Va = K ⋅ Vb
where K is a constant called the gain. Since Va results from the multiplication
of a constant and a variable, finding Qa is a simplified version of the general
fixed-point multiply formula.
4-21
4
Arithmetic Operations
 KF 2 Eb
 KB b – B a
b
Q a =  -------------------- ⋅ Q b +  -------------------------

Ea 
 F 2 Ea 
 Fa 2 
a
Note that the terms in the parentheses can be calculated offline. Therefore,
there is only one multiplication of a constant and a variable and one addition.
To implement the above equation without changing it to a more complicated
form, the constants need to be encoded using a radix point-only format. For
each of these constants, the range is the trivial case of only one value. Despite
the trivial range, the radix point formulas for maximum precision are still
valid. The maximum precision representations are the most useful choices
unless there is an overriding need to avoid any shifting. The encoding of the
constants is
 KF 2 Eb
b
 ------------------- = 2 EX Q
X
Ea 

 Fa 2 
 KB b – B a
EY
- = 2 Q Y
 -----------------------Ea
 F 2

a
resulting in the formula
Qa = 2
EX
QX QB + 2
EY
QY
Inherited Scaling for Speed
The number of arithmetic operations can be reduced with these choices:
• Set Ba = KBb. This eliminates one constant term.
• Set Fa = KFb and Ea = Eb. This sets the other constant term to unity.
The resulting formula is simply
Qa = Qb
If the number of bits is different, then either handling potential overflows or
performing sign extensions is the only possible operations involved.
4-22
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
Inherited Scaling for Maximum Precision
The scaling for maximum precision does not need to be different than the
scaling for speed unless the output has fewer bits than the input. If this is the
case, then saturation should be avoided by dividing the slope by 2 for each lost
bit. This will prevent saturation but will cause rounding to occur.
Division
Division of values is an operation that should be avoided in fixed-point
embedded systems, but it can occur in places. Therefore, consider the division
of two real-world values.
V a = V b /V c
These values are represented by the general slope/bias encoding scheme
described in “Scaling” on page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
In a fixed-point system, the division of values results in finding the variable Qa.
Eb
Ba –Ea
Fb 2 Qb + Bb
Q a = -------------------------------------------------------------------------- – ------- ⋅ 2
Ec + Ea
Ea F
a
Qc + Bc Fa ⋅ 2
Fc Fa 2
This formula shows:
• In general, Qa is not computed through a simple division of Qb by Qc.
• In general, there are two multiplies of a constant and a variable, two
additions, one division of a variable by a variable, one division of a constant
by a variable, and some additional bit shifting.
Inherited Scaling for Speed
The number of arithmetic operations can be reduced with these choices:
• Set Ba = 0. This eliminates one addition operation.
• If Bc = 0, then set the fractional slope Fa = Fb/Fc. This eliminates one
constant times variable multiplication.
The resulting formula is
4-23
4
Arithmetic Operations
Q b Eb – Ec – Ea ( B b ⁄ F b ) – Ec – Ea
Q a = ------- ⋅ 2
+ ----------------------- ⋅ 2
Qc
Qc
If B c ≠ 0 , then no clear recommendation can be made.
Inherited Scaling for Maximum Precision
The maximum precision scaling can be determined if the range of the variable
is known. As shown in “Example: Maximizing Precision” on page 4-11, the
˜ ) and
range of a fixed-point operation can be determined from max ( V
a
˜
min ( V a ) . For division, the range can be determined from
˜ ) = min ( V , V , V , V
min ( V
LL
LH
HL
HH )
a
˜ ) = max ( V , V , V , V
max ( V
LL
LH
HL
HH )
a
where for nonzero denominators
˜ ) ⁄ min ( V
˜ )
V LL = min ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⁄ max ( V
˜ )
V LH = min ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⁄ min ( V
˜ )
V HL = max ( V
b
c
˜ ) ⁄ max ( V
˜ )
V HH = max ( V
b
c
Radix Point-Only Scaling
For radix point-only scaling, finding Qa results in this simple expression.
Q b Eb – Ec – Ea
Q a = ------- ⋅ 2
Qc
Note For the last two formulas involving Qa, a divide by zero, and zero
divided by zero are possible. In these cases, the hardware will give some
default behavior but you must make sure that these default responses give
meaningful results for the embedded system.
4-24
Recommendations for Arithmetic and Scaling
Summary
From the previous analysis of fixed-point variables scaled within the general
slope/bias encoding scheme, you can conclude:
• Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be very involved
unless certain choices are made for the biases and slopes.
• Radix point-only scaling guarantees simpler math, but generally sacrifices
some precision.
• It is important to note that the previous formulas don’t show that:
- Constants and variables are represented with a finite number of bits.
- Variables are either signed or unsigned.
- The rounding and overflow handling schemes. These decisions must be
made before an actual fixed-point realization is achieved.
4-25
4
Arithmetic Operations
Parameter and Signal Conversions
The previous sections of this chapter, together with Chapter 3, “Data Types
and Scaling,” describe how data types, scaling, rounding, overflow handling,
and arithmetic operations are incorporated into the Fixed-Point Blockset. With
this knowledge, you can define the output of a fixed-point model by configuring
fixed-point blocks to suit your particular application.
However, to completely understand the results generated by the Fixed-Point
Blockset, you must be aware of these three issues:
• When numerical block parameters are converted from a double to a
Fixed-Point Blockset data type
• When input signals are converted from one Fixed-Point Blockset data type
to another (if at all)
• When arithmetic operations on input signals and parameters are performed
For example, suppose a fixed-point block performs an arithmetic operation on
its input signal and a parameter, and then generates output having
characteristics that are specified by the block. The following diagram
illustrates how these issues are related.
Fixed-Point Block
Parameter Value
Input
Operation
Output Data Type
Output Scaling
Rounding
Overflow Handling
Output
Parameter conversions and signal conversions are discussed below. Arithmetic
operations are discussed in “Rules for Arithmetic Operations” on page 4-30.
4-26
Parameter and Signal Conversions
Parameter Conversions
Block parameters that accept numerical values are always converted from a
double to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type. Parameters can be converted to the
input data type, the output data type, or to a data type explicitly specified by
the block. For example, the FIR block converts the Initial condition parameter
to the input data type, and converts the FIR coefficients parameter to a data
type you explicitly specify via the block dialog box.
Parameters are always converted before any arithmetic operations are
performed. Additionally, parameters are always converted offline using
round-to-nearest and saturation. Offline conversions are discussed below.
For information about parameter conversions for a specific block, refer to
Chapter 10, “Block Reference.”
Offline Conversions
An offline conversion is a conversion performed by your development platform
(for example, the processor on your PC), and not by the fixed-point processor
you are targeting. For example, suppose you are using a PC to develop a
program to run on a fixed-point processor, and you need the fixed-point
processor to compute
ab
y =  ------- ⋅ u = C ⋅ u
 c
over and over again. If a, b, and c are constant parameters, it is inefficient for
the fixed-point processor to compute ab/c every time. Instead, the PC’s
processor should compute ab/c offline one time, and the fixed-point processor
computes only C ⋅ u . This eliminates two costly fixed-point arithmetic
operations.
Signal Conversions
Consider the conversion of a real-world value from one Fixed-Point Blockset
data type to another. Ideally, the values before and after the conversion are
equal
Va = Vb
4-27
4
Arithmetic Operations
where Vb is the input value and Va is the output value. To see how the
conversion is implemented, the two ideal values are replaced by the general
slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
Solving for the output data type’s stored integer value, Qa
F b Eb – Ea
B b – B a –Ea
Q b + -------------------- 2
Q a = ------2
Fa
Fa
= Fs 2
Eb – Ea
Q b + B net
where Fs is the adjusted fractional slope and Bnet is the net bias. The offline
conversions and online conversions and operations are discussed below.
Offline Conversions
Both Fs and Bnet are computed offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Bnet is then stored using the output data type and Fs is stored using an
automatically selected data type.
Online Conversions and Operations
The remaining conversions and operations are performed online by the
fixed-point processor, and depend on the slopes and biases for the input and
output data types. The conversions and operations are given by these steps:
1 The initial value for Qa is given by the net bias, Bnet.
Q a = B net
2 The input integer value, Qb, is multiplied by the adjusted slope, Fs.
Q RawProduct = F s Q b
3 The result of step 2 is converted to the modified output data type where the
slope is one and bias is zero.
4-28
Parameter and Signal Conversions
Q Temp = convert ( Q RawProduct )
This conversion includes any necessary bit shifting, rounding, or overflow
handling.
4 The summation operation is performed.
Q a = Q Temp + Q a
This summation includes any necessary overflow handling.
Streamlining Simulations and Generated Code
Note that the maximum number of conversions and operations is performed
when the slopes and biases of the input signal and output signal differ (are
mismatched). If the scaling of these signals is identical (matched), the number
of operations is reduced from the worst (most inefficient) case. For example,
when an input has the same fractional slope and bias as the output, only step
3 is required.
Q a = convert ( Q b )
Exclusive use of radix point-only scaling for both input signals and output
signals is a common way to eliminate the occurrence of mismatched slopes and
biases, and results in the most efficient simulations and generated code.
4-29
4
Arithmetic Operations
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Fixed-point arithmetic refers to how signed or unsigned binary words are
operated on. The simplicity of fixed-point arithmetic functions such as addition
and subtraction allows for cost-effective hardware implementations.
This section describes the blockset-specific rules that are followed when
arithmetic operations are performed on inputs and parameters. These rules
are organized into four groups based on the operations involved: addition and
subtraction, multiplication, division, and shifts. For each of these four groups,
the rules for performing the specified operation are presented followed by an
example using the rules.
Computational Units
The core architecture of many processors contains several computational units
including arithmetic logic units (ALU’s), multiply and accumulate units
(MAC’s), and shifters. These computational units process the binary data
directly and provide support for arithmetic computations of varying precision.
The ALU performs a standard set of arithmetic and logic operations as well as
division. The MAC performs multiply, multiply/add, and multiply/subtract
operations. The shifter performs logical and arithmetic shifts, normalization,
denormalization, and other operations.
Addition and Subtraction
Addition is the most common arithmetic operation a processor performs. When
two n-bit numbers are added together, it is always possible to produce a result
with n + 1 nonzero digits due to a carry from the leftmost digit. For two’s
complement addition of two numbers, there are three cases to consider:
• If both numbers are positive and the result of their addition has a sign bit of
1, then overflow has occurred; otherwise the result is correct.
• If both numbers are negative and the sign of the result is 0, then overflow
has occurred; otherwise the result is correct.
• If the numbers are of unlike sign, overflow cannot occur and the result is
always correct.
4-30
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Fixed-Point Blockset Summation Process
Consider the summation of two numbers. Ideally, the real-world values obey
the equation
Va = ±Vb ± Vc
where Vb and Vc are the input values and Va is the output value. To see how
the summation is actually implemented, the three ideal values should be
replaced by the general slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on
page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
The solution of the resulting equation for the stored integer, Qa, is given by the
equation in “Addition” on page 4-16. Using shorthand notation, that equation
becomes
Q a = ± F sb 2
Eb – Ea
Q b ± F sc 2
Ec – Ea
Q c + B net
where Fsb and Fsc are the adjusted fractional slopes and Bnet is the net bias.
The offline conversions, and online conversions and operations are discussed
below.
Offline Conversions. Fsb, Fsc, and Bnet are computed offline using
round-to-nearest and saturation. Furthermore, Bnet is stored using the output
data type.
Online Conversions and Operations. The remaining operations are performed
online by the fixed-point processor, and depend on the slopes and biases for the
input and output data types. The worst (most inefficient) case occurs when the
slopes and biases are mismatched. The worst-case conversions and operations
are given by these steps:
1 The initial value for Qa is given by the net bias, Bnet.
Q a = B net
2 The first input integer value, Qb, is multiplied by the adjusted slope, Fsb.
4-31
4
Arithmetic Operations
Q RawProduct = F sb Q b
3 The previous product is converted to the modified output data type where
the slope is one and the bias is zero.
Q Temp = convert ( Q RawProduct )
This conversion includes any necessary bit shifting, rounding, or overflow
handling.
4 The summation operation is performed.
Q a = ± Q a + Q Temp
This summation includes any necessary overflow handling.
5 Steps 2 to 4 are repeated for every number to be summed.
It is important to note that bit shifting, rounding, and overflow handling are
applied to the intermediate steps (3 and 4) and not to the overall sum.
Streamlining Simulations and Generated Code
If the scaling of the input and output signals is matched, the number of
summation operations is reduced from the worst (most inefficient) case. For
example, when an input has the same fractional slope as the output, step 2
reduces to multiplication by one and can be eliminated. Trivial steps in the
summation process are eliminated for both simulation and code generation.
Exclusive use of radix point-only scaling for both input signals and output
signals is a common way to eliminate the occurrence of mismatched slopes and
biases, and results in the most efficient simulations and generated code.
Example: The Summation Process
Suppose you want to sum three numbers. Each of these numbers is represented
by an 8-bit word, and each has a different radix point-only scaling.
Additionally, the output is restricted to an 8-bit word with radix point-only
scaling of 2-3.
4-32
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
The summation is shown below for the input values 19.875, 5.4375, and
4.84375.
19.875 ufix8_En3
FixPt
Constant
Qb
5.4375 ufix8_En4
Qa
ufix8_En3
Qc
Out
30
double
Qd
FixPt
Constant1
FixPt
Sum
FixPt
Gateway Out
Display
4.8427 ufix8_En5
FixPt
Constant2
Applying the rules from the previous section, the sum follows these steps:
1 Since the biases are matched, the initial value of Qa is trivial.
Q a = 00000.000
2 The first number to be summed (19.875) has a fractional slope that matches
the output fractional slope. Furthermore, the radix points and storage types
are identical so the conversion is trivial.
Q b = 10011.111
Q Temp = Q b
3 The summation operation is performed.
Q a = Q a + Q Temp = 10011.111
4 The second number to be summed (5.4375) has a fractional slope that
matches the output fractional slope, so a slope adjustment is not needed. The
storage data types also match but the difference in radix points requires that
both the bits and the radix point be shifted one place to the right.
4-33
4
Arithmetic Operations
Q c = 0101.0111
Q Temp = convert ( Q c )
Q Temp = 00101.011
Note that a loss in precision of one bit occurs, with the resulting value of
QTemp determined by the rounding mode. For this example, round-to-floor is
used. Overflow cannot occur in this case since the bits and radix point are
both shifted to the right.
5 The summation operation is performed
Q a = Q a + Q Temp
10011.111
+ 00101.011
= -------------------------------------11001.010 = 25.250
Note that overflow did not occur, but it is possible for this operation.
6 The third number to be summed (4.84375) has a fractional slope that
matches the output fractional slope, so a slope adjustment is not needed. The
storage data types also match but the difference in radix points requires that
both the bits and the radix point be shifted two places to the right.
Q d = 100.11011
Q Temp = convert ( Q d )
Q Temp = 00100.110
Note that a loss in precision of two bit occurs, with the resulting value of
QTemp determined by the rounding mode. For this example, round-to-floor is
used. Overflow cannot occur in this case since the bits and radix point are
both shifted to the right.
7 The summation operation is performed.
4-34
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Q a = Q a + Q Temp
11001.010
+ 00100.110
= -------------------------------------11110.000 = 30.000
Note that overflow did not occur, but it is possible for this operation.
As shown below, the result of step 7 differs from the ideal sum.
10011.111
0101.0111
+ 100.11011
------------------------------------------= 30.125
11110.001
Blocks that perform addition and subtraction include the Sum, Matrix Gain,
and FIR blocks.
Multiplication
The multiplication of an n-bit binary number with an m-bit binary number
results in a product that is up to m + n bits in length for both signed and
unsigned words. Most processors perform n-bit by n-bit multiplication and
produce a 2n-bit result (double bits) assuming there is no overflow condition.
For example, the Texas Instruments TMS320C2x family of processors
performs two’s complement 16-bit by 16-bit multiplication and produces a
32-bit (double bit) result.
Fixed-Point Blockset Multiplication Process
Consider the multiplication of two numbers. Ideally, the real-world values obey
the equation
Va = Vb × Vc
where Vb and Vc are the input values and Va is the output value. To see how
the multiplication is actually implemented, the three ideal values should be
replaced by the general slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on
page 3-5.
4-35
4
Arithmetic Operations
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
The solution of the resulting equation for the output stored integer, Qa, is given
below.
F b F c Eb + Ec – Ea
F b B c Eb – Ea
F c B b Ec – Ea
Q b Q c + ------------- ⋅ 2
Q b + ------------- ⋅ 2
Qc
Q a = ------------- ⋅ 2
Fa
Fa
Fa
B b B c – B a –Ea
+ --------------------------- ⋅ 2
Fa
The worst-case implementation of this equation occurs when the slopes and
biases of the input and output signals are mismatched. This worst-case
implementation is permitted in simulation but is not always permitted for code
generation since it often requires more resources than is considered practical
for an embedded system. For code generation and bit-true simulations, the
biases must be zero and the fractional slopes must match for most blocks.
When these requirements are met, the implementation reduces to
Qa = 2
Eb + Ec – Ea
Qb Qc
The bit-true implementation of this equation is discussed below.
Offline Conversions. As shown in the previous section, no offline conversions are
performed.
Online Conversions and Operations. The online conversions and operations for
matched slopes and biases of zero are given by these steps:
1 The integer values, Qb and Qc, are multiplied together.
Q RawProduct = Q b Q c
To maintain the full precision of the product, the radix point of QRawProduct
is given by the sum of the radix points of Qb and Qc.
2 The previous product is converted to the output data type.
4-36
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Q a = convert ( Q RawProduct )
This conversion includes any necessary bit shifting, rounding, or overflow
handling. Conversions are discussed in “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27.
3 Steps 1 and 2 are repeated for each additional number to be multiplied.
Example: The Multiplication Process
Suppose you want to multiply three numbers. Each of these numbers is
represented by a 5-bit word, and each has a different radix point-only scaling.
Additionally, the output is restricted to a 10-bit word with radix point-only
scaling of 2-4. The multiplication is shown below for the input values 5.75,
2.375, and 1.8125.
5.75
ufix5_En2
FixPt
Constant
Qb
Qa
2.375
ufix5_En3
FixPt
Constant1
Qc
ufix10_En4
Qd
FixPt
Product
Out
24.6875
double
FixPt
Gateway Out
Display
1.8125 ufix5_En4
FixPt
Constant2
Applying the rules from the previous section, the multiplication follows these
steps:
1 The first two numbers (5.75 and 2.375) are multiplied.
4-37
4
Arithmetic Operations
Q RawProduct =
101.11
× 10.011
------------------------------------–3
101.11 ⋅ 2
101.11 ⋅ 2
–2
1
+ 101.11 ⋅ 2
------------------------------------01101.10101 = 13.65625
Note that the radix point of the product is given by the sum of the radix
points of the multiplied numbers.
2 The result of step 1 is converted to the output data type.
Q Temp = convert ( Q RawProduct )
= 001101.1010 = 13.6250
Conversions are discussed in “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27. Note that
a loss in precision of one bit occurs, with the resulting value of QTemp
determined by the rounding mode. For this example, round-to-floor is used.
Furthermore, overflow did not occur but is possible for this operation.
3 The result of step 2 and the third number (1.8125) are multiplied.
Q RawProduct =
01101.1010
× 1.1101
---------------------------------------------------–4
1101.1010 ⋅ 2
1101.1010 ⋅ 2
–2
1101.1010 ⋅ 2
–1
0
+ 1101.1010 ⋅ 2
---------------------------------------------------0011000.10110010 = 24.6953125
Note that the radix point of the product is given by the sum of the radix
points of the multiplied numbers.
4 The product is converted to the output data type.
4-38
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Q a = convert ( Q RawProduct )
= 011000.1011 = 24.6875
Conversions are discussed in “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27. Note that
a loss in precision of four bits occurred, with the resulting value of QTemp
determined by the rounding mode. For this example, round-to-floor is used.
Furthermore, overflow did not occur but is possible for this operation.
Blocks that perform multiplication include the Product, FIR, Gain, and Matrix
Gain blocks.
Division
As with multiplication, division with mismatched scaling is complicated.
Mismatched division is permitted for simulation only. For code generation and
bit-true simulation, the signals must all have zero biases and matched
fractional slopes.
Fixed-Point Blockset Division Process
Consider the division of two numbers. Ideally, the real-world values obey the
equation
Va = Vb ⁄ Vc
where Vb and Vc are the input values and Va is the output value. To see how
the division is actually implemented, the three ideal values should be replaced
by the general slope/bias encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5.
Ei
Vi = Fi 2 Qi + Bi
For the case where the slopes are one and the biases are zero for all signals, the
solution of the resulting equation for the output stored integer, Qa, is given
below.
Qa = 2
Eb – Ec – Ea
( Qb ⁄ Qc )
This equation involves an integer division and some bit shifts. If E a ≥ E b – E c,
then any bit shifts are to the right and the implementation is simple. However,
if E a < E b – E c , then the bit shifts are to the left and the implementation can
4-39
4
Arithmetic Operations
be more complicated. The essential issue is the output has more precision than
the integer division provides. To get full precision, a fractional division is
needed. The C programming language provides access to integer division only
for fixed-point data types. Depending on the size of the numerator, some of the
fractional bits may be obtained by performing a shift prior to the integer
division. In the worst case, it may be necessary to resort to repeated
subtractions in software.
In general, division of values is an operation that should be avoided in
fixed-point embedded systems. Division where the output has more precision
than the integer division (i.e., E a < E b – E c ) should be used with even greater
reluctance. Division of signals with nonzero biases or mismatched slopes is not
supported.
Example: The Division Process
Suppose you want to divide two numbers. Each of these numbers is
represented by an 8-bit word, and each has a radix point-only scaling of 2-4.
Additionally, the output is restricted to an 8-bit word with radix point-only
scaling of 2-4.
The division of 9.1875 by 1.5000 is shown below.
9.1875 ufix8_En4
Qb
FixPt
Constant
Qa
ufix8_En4
Out
double
6.125
Qc
1.5
ufix8_En4
FixPt
Product1
FixPt
Constant1
For this example,
Qa = 2
– 4 – ( –4 ) – ( –4 )
4
= 2 ( Qb ⁄ Qc )
4-40
( Qb ⁄ Qc )
FixPt
Gateway Out
Display
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
Assuming a large data type was available, this could be implemented as
4
( 2 Qb )
Q a = ------------------Qc
where the numerator uses the larger date type. If a larger data type was not
available, integer division combined with four repeated subtractions would be
used. Both approaches produce the same result, with the former being more
efficient.
Shifts
Nearly all microprocessors and digital signal processors support well-defined
bit-shift (or simply shift) operations for integers. For example, consider the
8-bit unsigned integer 00110101. The results of a 2-bit shift to the left and a
2-bit shift to the right are shown below.
Shift Operation
Binary Value
Decimal Value
No shift (original number)
00110101
53
Shift left by 2 bits
11010100
212
Shift right by 2 bits
00001101
13
You can perform a shift with the Fixed-Point Blockset using either the
Conversion block or the Gain block. The Conversion block shifts both the bits
and radix point while the Gain block shifts the bits but not the radix point.
These two modes of shifting as well as shifting to the right are discussed below.
Note Performing a “plain” or “raw” machine-level shift such as those given in
the example above with the Fixed-Point Blockset is complicated by the
available scaling options. Therefore, a single “Shift” block is not provided. For
more information about scaling, refer to “Scaling” on page 3-5.
4-41
4
Arithmetic Operations
Shifting to the Right
Shifts to the right can be classified as a logical shift right or an arithmetic shift
right. For a logical shift right, a 0 is incorporated into the most significant bit
for each bit shift. For an arithmetic shift right, the most significant bit is
recycled for each bit shift. With the Fixed-Point Blockset, shifting to the right
follows these rules:
• For signed numbers, an arithmetic shift right is performed. Therefore, the
most significant bit is recycled for each bit shift. For example, given the
signed fixed-point number 10110.101, a bit shift two places to the right with
the radix point unmoved yields the number 11101.101.
• For unsigned numbers, a logical shift right is performed. Therefore, the most
significant bit is a 0 for each bit shift. For example, given the unsigned
fixed-point number 10110.101, a bit shift two places to the right with the
radix point unmoved yields the number 00101.101.
Shifting Bits and the Radix Point
With the Conversion block, you can perform a shift operation on the input by
specifying the appropriate radix point-only scaling for the output. This block
shifts both the bits and the radix point.
In most cases, you will perform a “plain” or “raw” shift. To perform such a shift
using the Conversion block, you must configure the block’s dialog box this way:
• The output data type is identical to the input data type.
• The rounding mode is set to Floor. Therefore, bits simply fall off the left or
fall off the right when a shift occurs.
• Overflows wrap.
• The output scaling is specified to reflect the required shift.
For example, suppose you start with the fixed-point number 00110.101 (a
decimal value of 6.625), which is characterized by the blockset as an 8-bit
unsigned, generalized fixed-point number with radix point-only scaling of 2-3.
To shift the bits and radix point two places to the right, the input scaling of 2-3
is multiplied by 22, which yields a scaling of 2-1. To shift the bits and radix point
4-42
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
two places to the left, the input scaling of 2-3 is multiplied by 2-2, which yields
as scaling of 2-5. This situation is shown below.
Shift Operation
Scaling
Binary Value
Decimal Value
No shift (original number)
2-3
00110.101
6.625
Shift right by 2 bits
2-1
0000110.1
6.5
Shift left by 2 bits
2-5
110.10100
6.625
The figure below shows the fixed-point model used to generate the above data.
Convert
ufix8_En1
FixPt
Conversion
6.625
ufix8_En3
Out
6.5
double
FixPt
Gateway Out
Display
Shift bits and radix point
two places to the right
FixPt
Constant
Convert ufix8_En5
FixPt
Conversion1
Out
double
FixPt
Gateway Out1
6.625
Display1
Shift bits and radix point
two places to the left
Refer to Chapter 10, “Block Reference” for more information about the
Conversion block.
Shifting Bits but Not the Radix Point
With the Gain block, you can perform a shift operation on the input by
specifying the gain as a power of two. This block shifts only the bits and not the
radix point.
4-43
4
Arithmetic Operations
In most cases, you will perform a plain or raw shift. To perform such a shift
using the Gain block, you must configure the block’s dialog box this way:
• The output data type is identical to the input data type.
• The rounding mode is set to Floor. Therefore, bits simply fall off the left or
fall off the right when a shift occurs.
• Overflows wrap.
• The gain is specified as the appropriate power of 2 to reflect the required
shift.
For example, suppose you start with the same fixed-point number, 00110.101,
defined above. To shift the bits two places to the left, a gain of 4 is specified,
and to shift the bits two places to the right, a gain of 0.25 is specified. This
situation is shown below.
4-44
Shift Operation
Gain Value
Binary Value
Decimal Value
N/A (original number)
2-3
00110.101
6.625
Shift left by 2 bits
4
11010.100
26.5
Shift right by 2 bits
0.25
00001.101
1.625
Rules for Arithmetic Operations
The figure below shows the fixed-point model used to generate the above data.
4
ufix8_En3
double
FixPt
Gateway Out
FixPt
Gain
6.625 ufix8_En3
Out
26.5
Display
Shift bits two places to
the left but leave radix
point unchanged
FixPt
Constant
0.25
ufix8_En3
FixPt
Gain1
Out
double
FixPt
Gateway Out1
1.625
Display1
Shift bits two places to
the right but leave radix
point unchanged
Refer to Chapter 10, “Block Reference” for more information about the Gain
block.
4-45
4
Arithmetic Operations
Example: Conversions and Arithmetic Operations
This example uses the FIR block to illustrate when parameters are converted
from a double to a fixed-point number, when the input data type is converted
to the output data type, and when the rules for addition and subtraction, and
multiplication are applied. For details about conversions and operations, refer
to “Parameter and Signal Conversions” on page 4-26 and “Rules for Arithmetic
Operations” on page 4-30.
Note If a block can perform all four arithmetic operations, such as the FIR
block, then the rules for multiplication and division are applied first.
Suppose you configure the FIR block for two outputs (SIMO mode) where the
first output is given by
y 1 ( k ) = 13 ⋅ u ( k ) + 11 ⋅ u ( k – 1 ) – 7 ⋅ u ( k – 2 )
and the second output is given by
y2 ( k ) = 6 ⋅ u ( k ) – 5 ⋅ u ( k – 1 )
Additionally, the initial values of u ( k – 1 ) and u ( k – 2 ) are given by 0.8 and
1.1, respectively and all inputs, parameters, and outputs have radix point-only
scaling.
4-46
Example: Conversions and Arithmetic Operations
To configure the FIR block for this situation, you must specify the FIR
coefficient parameter as [13 11 -7; 6 -5 0] and the Initial condition
parameter as [0.8 1.1] as shown below in the dialog box below.
Parameter conversions and block operations are given below in the order in
which they are carried out by the FIR block.
1 The FIR coefficients parameter is converted from doubles to the
Parameter data type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
The Initial condition parameter is converted from doubles to the input data
type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
4-47
4
Arithmetic Operations
2 The coefficients and inputs are multiplied together for the initial time step
for both outputs. For y1(0), the operations 13 ⋅ u ( 0 ) , 11 ⋅ 0.8 , and – 7 ⋅ 1.1
are performed, while for y2(0), the operations 6 ⋅ u ( 0 ) and – 5 ⋅ 0.8 are
performed.
The results of these operations are then converted to the Output data type
using the specified rounding and overflow modes.
3 The sum is carried out for y1(0) and y2(0). Note that the rules for addition
and subtraction are satisfied since the coefficients and inputs are already
converted to the Output data type.
4 Steps 2 and 3 are repeated for subsequent time steps.
4-48
5
Realization Structures
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Direct Form II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Series Cascade Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Parallel Form
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
5
Realization Structures
Overview
This chapter investigates how you can realize digital filters using the
Fixed-Point Blockset.
The Fixed-Point Blockset addresses the needs of the control system and signal
processing fields, and other fields where algorithms are implemented on
fixed-point hardware. In signal processing, a digital filter is a computational
algorithm that converts a sequence of input numbers to a sequence of output
numbers. The algorithm is designed such that the output signal meets
frequency-domain or time-domain constraints (desirable frequency
components are passed, undesirable components are rejected). In general
terms, a discrete transfer function controller is a form of a digital filter.
However, a digital controller may contain nonlinear functions such as look-up
tables in addition to a discrete transfer function. In this guide, the term “digital
filter” is used when referring to discrete transfer functions.
The Fixed-Point Blockset does not attempt to standardize on one particular
fixed-point digital filter design method. For example, a design can be done in
continuous time and an “equivalent” discrete-time digital filter can be obtained
using one of many transformation methods. Alternatively, digital filters can be
directly designed in discrete time. After the digital filter is obtained, it can be
realized for fixed-point hardware using any number of canonical forms. Typical
canonical forms are the direct form, series form, and parallel form, all of which
are outlined in this chapter.
For a given digital filter, the canonical forms describe a set of fundamental
operations for the processor. Since there are an infinite number of ways to
realize a given digital filter, the best realization must be made on a per-system
basis. The canonical forms presented in this chapter optimize the
implementation with respect to some factor, such as minimum number of delay
elements. In general, when choosing a realization method, you must take these
factors into consideration:
• Cost
The cost of the realization might rely on minimal code and data size.
• Timing constraints
Real-time systems must complete their compute cycle within a fixed amount
of time. Some realizations might yield faster execution speed on different
processors.
5-2
Overview
• Output signal quality
The limited range and precision of the binary words used to represent
real-world numbers will introduce errors. Some realizations are more
sensitive to these errors than others.
The Fixed-Point Blockset allows you to evaluate various digital filter
realization methods in a simulation environment. Following the development
cycle outlined in “The Development Cycle” in Chapter 1, you can fine tune the
realizations with the goal of reducing the cost (code and data size) or increasing
signal quality. After the desired performance has been achieved, you can use
the Real-Time Workshop to generate rapid prototyping C code and evaluate its
performance with respect to your system’s real-time timing constraints. You
can then modify the model based upon feedback from the rapid prototyping
system.
The presentation of the various realization structures takes into account that
a summing junction is a fundamental operator; thus you may find that the
structures presented here look different from those in the fixed-point filter
design literature. For each realization form, an example is provided using the
transfer function shown below.
1 + 2.2z – 1 + 1.85z – 2 + 0.5z – 3
H ex ( z ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 – 0.5z – 1 + 0.84z –2 + 0.09z –3
( 1 + 0.5z – 1 ) ( 1 + 1.7z –1 + z –2 )
= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + 0.1z – 1 ) ( 1 – 0.6z – 1 + 0.9z – 2 )
3.4639
– 1.0916 + 3.0086z – 1
= 5.5556 – -------------------------- + -------------------------------------------------------1 + 0.1z – 1
1 – 0.6z – 1 + 0.9z – 2
5-3
5
Realization Structures
Direct Form II
In general, a direct form realization refers to a structure where the coefficients
of the transfer function appear directly as gain blocks. The direct form II
realization method is presented as using the minimal number of delay
elements, which is equal to n, the order of the transfer function denominator.
The canonical direct form II is presented as “Standard Programming” in
Discrete-Time Control Systems by Ogata. It is known as the “Control Canonical
Form” in Digital Control of Dynamic Systems by Franklin, Powell, and
Workman.
You can derive the canonical direct form II realization by writing the
discrete-time transfer function with input e(z) and output u(z) as
u(z) h(z)
u(z)
----------- = ----------- ⋅ ----------h(z) e(z)
e(z)
( b0 + b1 z –1 + … + bm z –m )
1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------–1
–2
1 + a1 z + a2 z + … + an z –n




























=
u(z)
----------h(z)
h(z)
----------e(z)
The block diagram for u(z)/h(z) is shown below.
b0
b1
h(z)
z
-1
z
-1
–1
–m
u(z)
----------- = b 0 + b 1 z + ... + b m z
h(z)
5-4
+z
-1
bm
+
u(z)
Direct Form II
The block diagrams for h(z)/e(z) is shown below.
e(z)
+
h(z)
z
-1
z
-1
z
-1
-a1
-a2
-an
1
h(z)
----------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------–1
–2
–n
e(z)
1 + a 1 z + a 2 z + ... + a n z
Combining these two block diagrams yields the direct form II diagram shown
below. Notice that the feedforward part (top of block diagram) contains the
numerator coefficients and the feedback part (bottom of block diagram)
contains the denominator coefficients.
b0
b1
bm
+
e(z)
+
h(z)
z
-1
z
-1
z
-1
z
u(z)
u(z)
----------e(z)
-1
-a1
-a2
-am
-an
5-5
5
Realization Structures
The direct form II example transfer function is given by
1 + 2.2z –1 + 1.85z – 2 + 0.5z – 3
H ex ( z ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 – 0.5z – 1 + 0.84z – 2 + 0.09z –3
The realization of Hex(z) using the Fixed-Point Blockset is shown below. You
can display this model by typing
fxpdemo_direct_form2
at the MATLAB command line.
b0
2.2
FixPtGain4
b1
1.85
FixPtGain5
b2
In
Input
Out
To FixPt
FixPtSum
1
1
1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay
z
FixPtUnit
Delay1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay2
0.5
FixPtGain3
a1
−0.84
FixPtGain2
a2
−0.09
FixPtGain1
a3
5-6
From FixPt
0.5
FixPtGain
b3
FixPtSum1
Output
Mux3 Comparison
Series Cascade Form
Series Cascade Form
In the canonical series cascade form, the transfer function H(z) is written as a
product of first-order and second-order transfer functions.
u(z)
H i ( z ) = ----------- = H 1 ( z ) ⋅ H 2 ( z ) ⋅ H 3 ( z )…H p ( z )
e(z)
This equation yields the canonical series cascade form shown below.
e(z)
H1 (z)
H2 (z)
H3 (z)
Hp (z)
u(z)
Factoring H(z) into Hi(z) where i = 1,2,3,...,p can be done in a number of ways.
Using the poles and zeros of H(z), you can obtain Hi(z) by grouping pairs of
conjugate complex poles and pairs of conjugate complex zeros to produce
second-order transfer functions, or by grouping real poles and real zeros to
produce either first-order or second-order transfer functions. You could also
group two real zeros with a pair of conjugate complex poles or vice versa. Since
there are many ways to obtain Hi(z), it is desirable to compare the various
groupings to see which produces the best results for the transfer function under
consideration.
For example, one factorization of H(z) might be
H ( z ) = H 1 ( z )H 2 ( z )…H p ( z )
j
=
∏
i=1
1 + bi z –1
----------------------1 + ai z –1
p
∏
i = j+1
1 + e i z –1 + f i z –2
------------------------------------------1 + c i z –1 + d i z –2
You must also take into consideration that the ordering of the individual Hi(z)’s
will lead to systems with different numerical characteristics. You may want to
try various orderings for a given set of Hi(z)’s to determine which gives the best
numerical characteristics.
5-7
5
Realization Structures
The first order diagram for H(z) is given below.
x(z)
+
z
-1
bi
+
y(z)
-ai
1 + b i z –1
y(z)
---------- = ----------------------x(z)
1 + ai z –1
The second order diagram for H(z) is given below.
ei
x(z)
+
z
-1
z
-1
fi
+
y(z)
-ci
-di
1 + e i z –1 + f i z –2
y(z)
---------- = ------------------------------------------x(z)
1 + c i z –1 + d i z –2
The series cascade form example transfer function is given by
( 1 + 0.5z –1 ) ( 1 + 1.7z – 1 + z – 2 )
H ex ( z ) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + 0.1z – 1 ) ( 1 – 0.6z –1 + 0.9z –2 )
5-8
Series Cascade Form
The realization of Hex(z) using the Fixed-Point Blockset is shown below. You
can display this model by typing
fxpdemo_series_cascade_form
at the MATLAB command line.
e
Input
In
1
To FixPt
z
FixPtUnit
Delay
FixPtSum
1.7
Out
FixPtGain4
From FixPt
0.5
1
1
FixPtGain1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay2
b
FixPtSum1
−0.1
0.6
FixPtGain
FixPtGain2
c
a
Output
Mux3 Comparison
f
1
FixPtGain5
FixPtSum2
−0.9
FixPtGain3
d
5-9
5
Realization Structures
Parallel Form
In the canonical parallel form, the transfer function H(z) is expanded into
partial fractions. H(z) is then realized as a sum of a constant, first-order, and
second-order transfer functions as shown below.
u(z)
H i ( z ) = ----------- = K + H 1 ( z ) + H 2 ( z ) + … + H p ( z )
e(z)
This expansion, where K is a constant and the H i ( z ) are the first and
second-order transfer functions, is shown below.
K
H1(z)
e(z)
H2(z)
+
u(z)
Hp(z)
As in the series canonical form, there is no unique description for the first-order
and second-order transfer function. Due to the nature of the Sum block, the
ordering of the individual filters doesn’t matter. However, because of the
constant K, the first-order and second-order transfer functions can be chosen
such that their forms are simpler than those for the series cascade form
described in the preceding section. This is done by expanding H(z) as
5-10
Parallel Form
j
H(z) = K +
∑ Hi ( z ) + ∑
i=1
j
= K+
p
∑
i=1
Hi ( z )
i = j+1
p
bi
----------------------- +
1 + a i z –1
∑
i = j+1
ei + fi z –1
------------------------------------------1 + ci z –1 + di z –2
The first order diagram for H(z) is shown below.
bi
x(z)
+
z
+
y(z)
-1
-ai
bi
y(z)
---------- = ----------------------x(z)
1 + ai z –1
The second order diagram for H(z) is shown below.
ei
fi
x(z)
+
z
-1
z
-1
+
y(z)
-ci
-di
ei + fi z –1
y(z)
---------- = ------------------------------------------x(z)
1 + ci z –1 + di z –2
5-11
5
Realization Structures
The parallel form example transfer function is given by
3.4639
– 1.0916 + 3.0086z – 1
H ex ( z ) = 5.5556 – -------------------------- + -------------------------------------------------------1 + 0.1z – 1
1 – 0.6z – 1 + 0.9z – 2
The realization of Hex(z) using the Fixed-Point Blockset is shown below. You
can display this model by typing
fxpdemo_parallel_form
at the MATLAB command line.
5.555
FixPtGain2
Input
In
1
To FixPt
z
FixPtUnit
Delay
FixPtSum
−3.463
Out
FixPtGain1
b
FixPt to Dbl
FixPtSum1
−0.1
FixPtGain
a
−1.09
FixPtGain5
e
3.01
FixPtGain6
f
FixPtSum2
1
1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay1
z
FixPtUnit
Delay2
0.6
FixPtGain3
c
−0.9
FixPtGain4
d
5-12
FixPtSum3
Output
Mux3 Comparison
6
Tutorial: Feedback
Controller Simulation
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Simulink Model of a Feedback Design
Idealized Feedback Design
. . . . . . . . 6-3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Digital Controller Realization . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Simulation Results . . . . . . .
Simulation 1: Initial Guess at Scaling
Simulation 2: Global Override . . .
Simulation 3: Automatic Scaling . .
Simulation 4: Individual Override . .
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. 6-9
. 6-9
. 6-12
. 6-15
. 6-18
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
Overview
The purpose of this tutorial is to show you how to use fixed-point blocks to
simulate a fixed-point feedback design using the Fixed-Point Blockset
Interface tool. In doing so, many of the essential blockset features are
demonstrated. These include:
• Output data type selection
• Output scaling
• Logging maximum and minimum simulation results
• The automatic scaling tool
• Overriding the output data type override for an entire model or an individual
block
6-2
Simulink Model of a Feedback Design
Simulink Model of a Feedback Design
You can run the Simulink model of the feedback design by launching the
MATLAB Demo browser and selecting the Scaling a Fixed-Point Control
Design demo. You can launch the browser by typing
demo blockset 'Fixed Point'
at the command line, or by opening the Demos block found in the Fixed-Point
Blockset library. Alternatively, you can access the model directly by typing its
name at the command line.
fxpdemo_feedback
The MDL-file automatically runs the M-file preload_feedback, which
populates the workspace with the required parameter values. The feedback
design model is shown below.
RefSignal
Plant Input
In
Reference
ZOH
In1
Out1
A2D
Analog to Digital
Interface
Out
D2A
Controller
Digital Controller
Software on
Fixed Point
Processor
pnum(s)
pden(s)
Plant Output
Analog Plant
Digital to Analog
Interface
FixPt
GUI
The model consists of these blocks:
• Reference
Simulink’s Signal Generator block generates a continuous-time reference
signal. It is configured to output a square wave.
6-3
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
• ZOH
Simulink’s Zero-Order Hold block samples and holds the continuous signal.
This block is configured so that it quantizes the signal in time by an amount
tsamp = 0.01 second.
• Analog to Digital Interface
The analog to digital (A/D) interface consists of a Gateway In block that
converts a Simulink double to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type. It represents
any hardware that digitizes the amplitude of the analog input signal. In the
real world, its characteristics are fixed.
• Digital Controller
The digital controller is a subsystem that represents the software running on
the hardware target. It is discussed in detail in “Digital Controller
Realization” on page 6-7.
• Digital to Analog Interface
The digital to analog (D/A) interface consists of a Gateway Out block that
converts a Fixed-Point Blockset data type into a Simulink double. It
represents any hardware that converts a digitized signal into an analog
signal. In the real world, its characteristics are fixed.
• Analog Plant
The analog plant is described by a transfer function, and is the object
controlled by the digital controller. In the real world, its characteristics are
fixed.
Simulation Setup
Setting up the fixed-point feedback controller simulation involves these steps:
1 Identify all design components
In the real world, there are design components with fixed characteristics
(the hardware) and design components with characteristics that you can
change (the software). The main components modeled in this feedback
design are the A/D hardware, the digital controller, the D/A hardware, and
the analog plant.
6-4
Simulink Model of a Feedback Design
2 Develop a theoretical model of the plant and controller
For the feedback design used in this tutorial, the plant is characterized by a
transfer function. The characteristics of the plant are unimportant for this
tutorial, and are not discussed.
The digital controller model used in this tutorial is described by a z-domain
transfer function and is implemented using a direct form realization.
3 Evaluate the behavior of the plant and controller
This is accomplished with a Bode plot. The evaluation is idealized since all
numbers, operations, and states are double precision.
4 Simulate the system
The feedback controller design is simulated using Simulink and the
Fixed-Point Blockset. Of course, in a simulation environment, you can treat
all components (software and hardware) as though their characteristics are
not fixed.
6-5
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
Idealized Feedback Design
Open loop (controller and plant) and plant-only Bode plots for the Scaling a
Fixed-Point Control Design demo are shown below. The open loop Bode plot
results from a digital controller described in the idealized world of continuous
time, and double precision coefficients, storage of states, and math operations.
The plant and controller design criteria are not important for the purposes of
this tutorial. The Bode plots were created using the workspace variables
produced by the preload_feedback M-file.
Magnitude
Bode Plots: Plant Only (dashed) and Open Loop (solid)
0
10
−5
10
−1
10
0
10
1
10
Freq (rad/sec)
2
10
3
10
0
Phase
−100
−200
−300
−400
−1
10
6-6
0
10
1
10
Freq (rad/sec)
2
10
3
10
Digital Controller Realization
Digital Controller Realization
The digital controller is implemented using a fixed-point direct form
realization. The target is a 16-bit processor. Variables and coefficients are
generally represented using 16 bits, especially if these quantities are stored in
ROM or global RAM. Use of 32-bit numbers is limited to temporary variables
that exist briefly in CPU registers or in a stack. The realization is shown below.
1
In1
Convert
Up Cast
Numerator Terms
Convert from
A2D Type
to BaseType
Multiply and accumulate
most recent inputs and
numerator coefficients
in the accumulator
1
Convert
Combine Terms
Combine numerator
and denominator
contributions to TF
in accumulator
1
z
Prev Out
Store most
recent output
in memory for
one sample time
Out1
Down Cast
Reduce output from
accumulator size to
base memory size
Denominator Terms
Multiply and accumulate
most recent outputs and
denominator coefficients
in accumulator
The realization consists of these blocks:
• Conversion
The Up Cast block connects the A/D hardware with the digital controller. It
pads the output word of the A/D hardware with trailing zeros to a 16-bit
number (the base data type). The Down Cast block represents taking the
number from the CPU and storing it in RAM. The word size and precision
are reduced to half that of the accumulator when converted back to the base
data type.
• FIR
These blocks represent a weighted sum carried out in the CPU target. The
word size and precision used in the calculations reflect those of the
accumulator. The Numerator Terms block multiplies and accumulates the
6-7
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
most recent inputs with the FIR numerator coefficients. The Denominator
Terms block multiples and accumulates the most recent delayed inputs with
the FIR denominator coefficients. The coefficients are stored in ROM using
the base data type. The most recent inputs are stored in global RAM using
the base data type.
• Sum
The Combine Terms block represents the accumulator in the CPU. Its word
size and precision are twice that of the RAM (double bits).
• Unit Delay
The Prev Out block delays the feedback signal in memory by one sample
period. The signals are stored in global RAM using the base data type.
Direct Form Realization
The controller directly implements this equation
N
y(k) =
N
∑ bi u ( k – 1 ) – ∑ ai y ( k – 1 )
i=0
i=1
where:
• u(k – 1) represents the input from the previous time step.
• y(k) represents the current output, and y(k – 1) represents the output from
the previous time step.
• bi represents the FIR numerator coefficients.
• ai represents the FIR denominator coefficients.
The first summation in y(k) represents multiplication and accumulation of the
most recent inputs and numerator coefficients in the accumulator. The second
summation in y(k) represents multiplication and accumulation of the most
recent inputs and denominator coefficients in the accumulator. Since the FIR
coefficients, inputs, and outputs are all represented by 16-bit numbers (the
base data type), any multiplication involving these numbers produces a 32-bit
output (the accumulator data type).
6-8
Simulation Results
Simulation Results
Using Simulink and the Fixed-Point Blockset, you can easily transition from a
digital controller described in the ideal world of double precision numbers to
one realized in the world of fixed-point numbers. The simulation approach used
in this tutorial follows these steps:
1 Take an initial guess at the scaling. For this tutorial, an initial “proof of
concept” simulation using a reasonable guess at the fixed-point word size
and scaling is the first step in simulating the digital controller. This step is
included only to illustrate how difficult it is to guess the best scaling.
2 Perform a global override of the fixed-point data types and scaling using
double precision numbers. The maximum and minimum simulation values
for each digital controller block are logged to the workspace.
3 Use the automatic scaling procedure. This procedure uses the doubles
simulation values previously logged to the MATLAB workspace, and
changes the scaling for each block that does not have its scaling fixed.
4 Perform a simulation on the “fixed” hardware block by overriding the data
type with doubles. This simulation determines whether the A/D hardware
warrants modification or replacement.
The feedback controller simulation is performed with the Fixed-Point Blockset
Interface tool. You launch the Interface tool by selecting the GUI block within
the fxpdemo_feedback model, by selecting Fixed-Point from the Tools menu
in the model window, or by typing
fxptdlg('fxpdemo_feedback')
at the command line. The four simulation trials are described in the following
sections. The quality of the simulation results is determined by examining the
input and output of the analog plant.
Simulation 1: Initial Guess at Scaling
The first simulation uses guesses for the scaling. In general, you won’t need to
perform this step, and this simulation is included to illustrate the difficulty of
guessing at scaling.
6-9
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
After you launch the Interface tool, press the Run button to run the simulation.
When the simulation is finished, the interface displays the block name, the
maximum and minimum simulation results, the data type, and the scaling for
each block. You can then easily plot the results by pressing the Plot button,
which launches the Plot System interface. The procedure for this simulation,
and the simulation results are shown below.
1 Run the simulation
Launch the Plot System
2 interface
The display shows that the Up Cast block saturated 23 times, indicating a poor
guess for the scaling. Refer to “Logging Simulation Results” on page 10-9 to
learn about logging overflow information to the workspace.
The Plot System interface is shown below. This interface displays all MATLAB
variable names that contain Scope block data for the current model. You
configure the variable name with the Scope block’s Properties dialog box,
which you launch by choosing the Properties toolbar button.
6-10
Simulation Results
To plot the simulation results, select one or more variable names, and then
select the appropriate plot button. This simulation plots the fixed-point signals
for the plant input and the plant output.
1
Select both the plant
input signal and the
plant output signal
2 Plot both signals
The plant input signal and plant output signals are shown below. These signals
reflect the initial guess at scaling.
Fixed-point plant
input signal
Fixed-point plant
output signal
6-11
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
The Bode plot design sought to produce a well behaved linear response for the
closed loop system. Clearly, the response is nonlinear. The nonlinear features
are due to significant quantization effects. An important part of fixed-point
design is finding scalings that reduce quantization effects to acceptable levels.
Simulation 2: Global Override
Prior to using the automatic scaling tool, a global override with doubles of the
fixed-point data type is performed for every block. Using this feature, you can
obtain ideal simulation limits. Additionally, you must log maximum and
minimum simulation values for all blocks that are to be scaled. This is
accomplished by checking the Log minimums and maximums check box for
the relevant blocks, and accepting the Log Min, Max default value Use block
params.
Global override with doubles is accomplished by configuring Datatype
Override to Doubles override ON, and then running the simulation by
selecting the Run button. The ideal and fixed-point plant output signals are
then compared using the Plot System interface. The procedure for this
simulation, and the simulation results are shown below.
6-12
Simulation Results
1
Configure all blocks
to output doubles
2
Run the simulation
3
Launch the Plot System
interface
The Plot System interface is shown below. This simulation plots both the
fixed-point and ideal (double precision) signals for the plant output.
6-13
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
1
Select the plant output
signal
2 Plot both the ideal and fixed-point signals
The ideal and fixed-point plant output signals are shown below. The ideal
signal is produced by overriding the block output scaling.
Ideal plant output
signal
Fixed-point plant
output signal
6-14
Simulation Results
Simulation 3: Automatic Scaling
Using the automatic scaling procedure, you can easily maximize the precision
of the output data type while spanning the full simulation range. For a complex
model, the absence of such a procedure can make achieving this goal tedious
and time consuming.
Automatic scaling is performed for the Controller block. This block is a
subsystem representing software running on the target, and requires
optimization. Automatic scaling consists of these steps:
1 Configure Autoscale % Safety Margin to 20. This sets scaling so that the
largest simulation value seen is at least 20% smaller than the maximum
value allowed.
The Autoscale % Safety Margin parameter value multiplies the “raw”
simulation values by a factor of 1.2. Configuring this parameter to a value
greater than 1 guarantees the simulation covers the largest possible range,
although it does not necessarily mean the resolution improves. Since there
is always some uncertainty when representing a real-world value with a
fixed-point number with only a few simulations, using this parameter is
recommended.
2 Run the autofixexp M-file script by selecting the Autoscale button. This
script automatically changes the scaling on all fixed-point blocks that do not
have their scaling locked, and that have their output data type specified as
a generalized fixed-point number. It uses the minimum and maximum data
logged from the previous simulation. The scaling changes such that the
precision is maximized while the full range of simulation values are spanned
for each block.
3 Turn off the global override with doubles by configuring Datatype Override
to Use block params.
4 Run the simulation by selecting the Run button. The automatic scaling
results generated by step 2 are captured from the MATLAB workspace and
applied to the simulation.
5 Launch the Plot System interface and plot the plant output signal.
The procedure and results for this simulation are shown below.
6-15
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
1 Specify an additional
range of at least 20%
3
Turn off global overide
4 Run the simulation
Run the automatic scaling
2 script
5 Launch the plot system
Each block is scaled based on its own maximum and minimum values obtained
from the previous simulation using double-precision numbers. As shown above,
the interface displays the new scaling for each block that had its scaling
changed. This scaling is based on the raw simulation values multiplied by 1.2.
Note that no saturations or overflows are reported.
6-16
Simulation Results
A close-up of the plant output signal is shown below. Note that a steady-state
has been achieved, but a small limit cycle is present in the steady state due to
poor A/D design.
Limit cycles produced
by the A2D block
As shown below, the scaling of the A2D did not change because it was locked.
Scaling is unchanged by
the autoscaling script
6-17
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
Simulation 4: Individual Override
The previous simulation optimized results for the fixed-point digital controller.
In this simulation, the A2D block is configured so that it feeds the digital
controller with doubles. This represents overriding the A/D hardware
constraints, and is accomplished by checking the Override with doubles check
box as shown below as shown below.
Override the output data
type with doubles
Note You can display the A2D dialog box, by double-clicking on the A2D
entry in the interface.
The procedure and results for this simulation are shown below.
6-18
Simulation Results
1
Select the A2D
block, and override
the output data type
with doubles
2 Run the simulation
3 Launch the Plot System
A close-up of the plant output signal is shown below. The limit cycle is no longer
present in the steady state – confirmation of a poor A/D design. This means you
6-19
6
Tutorial: Feedback Controller Simulation
should replace the hardware, amplify the signal, or do some digital processing
to better condition the signal.
Limit cycles removed
6-20
7
Building Systems and
Filters
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Realizations and Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Realizations and Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Targeting an Embedded Processor
Size Assumptions . . . . . . . .
Operation Assumptions . . . . . .
Design Rules . . . . . . . . . .
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7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
7
Building Systems and Filters
Overview
The Fixed-Point Blockset provides several fixed-point filter and system
realizations. These realizations are intended to be used as design templates so
you can easily see how to build filters and systems that suit your particular
application needs. Realizations are provided for state-space, integrator,
derivative, and lead or lag systems. For more information about realization
structures, refer to Chapter 5, “Realization Structures” or the references
included in Appendix B.
Realizations and Data Types
In an ideal world where numbers, calculations, and storage of states have
infinite precision and range, there are virtually an infinite number of
realizations for the same system. In theory, these realizations are all identical
to each other.
In the more realistic world of double-precision numbers, calculations, and
storage of states, small nonlinearities are introduced due to the finite precision
and range of floating-point data types. Therefore, each realization of a given
system will produce different results. In most cases however, these differences
are small.
In the world of fixed-point numbers where precision and range are limited, the
differences in the realization results can be very large. Therefore, you must
carefully select the data type, word size, and scaling for each realization
element such that results are accurately represented. To assist you with this
selection, design rules for modeling dynamic systems with fixed-point math are
provided in “Targeting an Embedded Processor” on page 7-3.
Realizations and Scaling
As with all Fixed-Point Blockset models, you must select a scaling that gives
the best precision, range, and performance for your specific fixed-point design.
The scaling for each filter and system demo is based on the default parameters.
If these parameters are changed (for example, the magnitude of the input
signal is increased), or if you are creating a new realization, you must define an
appropriate scaling. For each system or filter, you can adjust the scaling
manually with the dialog box, or automatically as illustrated in “Simulation
Results” on page 6-9.
7-2
Targeting an Embedded Processor
Targeting an Embedded Processor
This section describes issues that often arise when targeting a fixed-point
design for use on an embedded processor. Rather than describe a specific
microprocessor (micro) or digital signal processor (DSP), this section describes
some general assumptions about integer sizes and operations available on
embedded processors. These assumptions lead to design issues and design
rules that may be useful for your specific fixed-point design.
Size Assumptions
Embedded processors are typically characterized by a particular bit size. For
example, the terms “8-bit micro,” “32-bit micro,” or “16-bit DSP” are common.
It is generally safe to assume that the processor is predominantly geared to
processing integers of the specified bit size. Integers of the specified bit size are
referred to as the base data type. Additionally, the processor typically provides
some support for integers that are twice as wide as the base data type. Integers
consisting of double bits are referred to as the accumulator data type. For
example a 16-bit micro has a 16-bit base data type and a 32-bit accumulator
data type.
Although other data types may be supported by the embedded processor, this
section describes only the base and accumulator data types.
Operation Assumptions
The embedded processor operations discussed in this section are limited to the
needs of a basic simulation diagram. Basic simulations use multiplication,
addition, subtraction, and delays. Fixed-point models also need shifts to do
scaling conversions. For all these operations, the embedded processor should
have native instructions that allow the base data type as inputs. For
accumulator-type inputs, the processor typically supports addition,
subtraction, and delay (storage/retrieval from memory), but not multiplication.
Multiplication is typically not supported for accumulator-type inputs due to
complexity and size issues. A difficulty with multiplication is that the output
needs to be twice as big as the inputs for full precision. For example,
multiplying two 16-bit numbers requires a 32-bit output for full precision. The
need to handle the outputs from a multiply operation is one of the reasons
embedded processors include accumulator-type support. However, if
multiplication of accumulator-type inputs is also supported, then there is a
7-3
7
Building Systems and Filters
need to support a data type that is twice as big as the accumulator type. To
restrict this additional complexity, multiplication is typically not supported for
inputs of the accumulator type.
Design Rules
The important design rules that you should be aware of when modeling
dynamic systems with fixed-point math are given below.
Design Rule 1: Only Multiply Base Data Types
It is best to multiply only inputs of the base data type. Embedded processors
typically provide an instruction for the multiplication of base-type inputs but
not for the multiplication of accumulator-type inputs. If necessary, a
multiplication of accumulator-type inputs could be handled by combining
several instructions. However, this can lead to large, slow embedded code.
Blocks to convert inputs from the accumulator-type to the base-type can be
inserted prior to multiply or gain blocks if needed.
Design Rule 2: Delays Should Use the Base Data Type
There are two general reasons why a unit delay should use only base-type
numbers. First, the unit delay essentially stores a variable’s value to RAM, and
one time step later, retrieves that value from RAM. Because the value must be
in memory from one time step to the next, the RAM must be exclusively
dedicated to the variable and can’t be shared or used for another purpose.
Using accumulator-type numbers instead of the base data type doubles the
RAM requirements, which can significantly increase the cost of the embedded
system. The second reason is that the unit delay typically feeds into a gain
block. The multiplication design rule requires that the input (the unit delay
signal) use the base data type.
Design Rule 3: Temporary Variables Can Use the Accumulator Data Type
Except for unit delay signals, most signals are not needed from one time step
to the next. This means that the signal values can be temporarily stored in
memory that is shared and reused. This shared and reused memory can be
RAM or it can simply be registers in the CPU. In either case, storing the value
as an accumulator data type is not much more costly than storing it as a base
data type.
7-4
Targeting an Embedded Processor
Design Rule 4: Summation Can Use the Accumulator Data Type
Addition and subtraction can use the accumulator data type if there is
justification. The typical justification is reducing the buildup of errors due to
round-off or overflow. For example, a common filter operation is a weighted
sum of several variables. Multiplying a variable by a weight will naturally
produce a product of the accumulator type. Before summing, each product
could be converted back to the base data type. This approach introduces
round-off error into each part of the sum. Alternatively, the products can be
summed using the accumulator data type, and the final sum can be converted
to the base data type. Round-off error is introduced in just one point and the
precision will generally be better. The cost of doing an addition or subtraction
using accumulator-type numbers is slightly more expensive, but if there is
justification, it is usually worth the cost.
7-5
7
Building Systems and Filters
7-6
8
Producing Lookup Table
Data
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Worst Case Error for a Lookup Table . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Example: Square Root Function . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function . .
Parameters for fixpt_look1_func_approx . . . . . .
Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table . .
Example 1: Using errmax with Unrestricted Spacing .
Example 2: Using nptsmax with Unrestricted Spacing
Restricting the Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Using errmax with Even Spacing . . . .
Example 4: Using nptsmax with Even Spacing . . .
Example 5: Using errmax with Power of Two Spacing .
Example 6: Using nptsmax with Power of Two Spacing
Specifying Both errmax and nptsmax . . . . . . .
Comparing the Examples . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
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.
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. 8-5
. 8-5
. 8-6
. 8-7
. 8-9
. 8-10
. 8-11
. 8-12
. 8-13
. 8-15
. 8-16
. 8-17
Summary of the Lookup Table Functions . . . . . . . 8-19
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage
Data ROM Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining Out-of-Range Inputs . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Location of the Input . . . . . . . . .
Performing Interpolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 8-20
. 8-21
. 8-22
. 8-22
. 8-24
. 8-26
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Overview
A function lookup table is a method of approximating a function by a table with
a finite number of points (X,Y). Function lookup tables are essential to many
fixed-point applications. The function you want to approximate is called the
ideal function. The X values of the lookup table are called the breakpoints. You
approximate the value of the ideal function at a point by linearly interpolating
between the two adjacent breakpoints closest to the point.
In creating the points for a function lookup table, you generally want to achieve
one or both of the following goals:
• Minimize the worst case error for a specified maximum number of
breakpoints
• Minimize the number of breakpoints for a specified maximum allowed error
This tutorial shows you how to create function lookup tables using the function
fixpt_look1_func_approx. You can optimize the lookup table to minimize the
number of data points, the error, or both. You can also restrict the spacing of
the breakpoints to be even or even powers of two, in order to speed up
computations using the table.
This tutorial also explains how to use the function fixpt_look1_func_plot to
find the worst case error of a lookup table and plot the errors at all points.
The tutorial covers the following topics:
• “Worst Case Error for a Lookup Table” on page 8-3 explains how to use the
function fixpt_look1_func_plot to find the worst case error and plot the
fixed point approximation and the errors.
• “Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function” on page 8-5 presents several
examples that illustrate how to use the function fixpt_look1_func_approx
to create lookup tables.
• “Summary of the Lookup Table Functions” on page 8-19
• “Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage” on page 8-20
explains how restricting the spacing affects computational speed and
memory usage.
8-2
Worst Case Error for a Lookup Table
Worst Case Error for a Lookup Table
This section explains the worst case error of a lookup table, and how to find the
worst case error using the function fixpt_look1_func_plot. It gives a simple
example of the worst case error of a lookup table for the square root function.
The error at any point of a function lookup table is the absolute value of the
difference between the ideal function at the point and the corresponding Y
value found by linearly interpolating between the adjacent breakpoints. The
worst case error, or maximum absolute error, of a lookup table is the maximum
absolute value of all errors in the interval containing the breakpoints.
For example, if the ideal function is the square root, and the breakpoints of the
lookup table are 0, .25 and 1, then in a perfect implementation of the lookup
table, the worst case error is 1/8 = .125, which occurs at the point 1/16 = .0625.
In practice, the error could be greater, depending on the fixed point
quantization and other factors.
Example: Square Root Function
This example shows how to use the function fixpt_look1_func_plot to find
the maximum absolute error for the simple lookup table whose breakpoints are
0, .25, and 1. The corresponding Y data points of the lookup table, which you
find by taking the square roots of the breakpoints, are 0, .5 and 1.
To use the function fixpt_look1_func_plot, you need to first define its
parameters. To do so, type the following at the MATLAB prompt.
funcstr='sqrt(x)'; %Define the square root function
xdata=[0;.25;1]; %Set the breakpoints
ydata=sqrt(xdata); %Find the square root of the breakpoints
xmin = 0; %Set the minimum breakpoint
xmax = 1; %Set the maximum breakpoint
xdt = ufix(16); %Set the x data type
xscale = 2^-16; %Set the x data scaling
ydt = sfix(16); %Set the y data type
yscale = 2^-14; %Set the y data scaling
rndmeth = 'Floor'; %Set the rounding method
8-3
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Next, type
errworst=fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth)
This returns the worst case error of the lookup table as the variable errworst.
errworst =
0.1250
It also generates the plots shown below.
The upper box (Outputs) displays a plot of the square root function, and a plot
of the fixed-point lookup approximation underneath. The approximation is
found by linear interpolating between the breakpoints. The lower box (Absolute
Error) displays the errors at all points in the interval from 0 to 1. Notice that
the maximum absolute error occurs at .0625. The error at the breakpoints is 0.
8-4
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
This section explains how to use the function fixpt_look1_func_approx to
create lookup tables. It gives examples that show how to create lookup tables
for the function sin(2 πx) on the interval from 0 to .25. The section covers:
• “Parameters for fixpt_look1_func_approx” on page 8-5
• “Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6
• “Example 1: Using errmax with Unrestricted Spacing” on page 8-7
• “Example 2: Using nptsmax with Unrestricted Spacing” on page 8-9
• “Restricting the Spacing” on page 8-10
• “Example 3: Using errmax with Even Spacing” on page 8-11
• “Example 4: Using nptsmax with Even Spacing” on page 8-12
• “Example 5: Using errmax with Power of Two Spacing” on page 8-13
• “Example 6: Using nptsmax with Power of Two Spacing” on page 8-15
• “Specifying Both errmax and nptsmax” on page 8-16
• “Comparing the Examples” on page 8-17
Parameters for fixpt_look1_func_approx
To use the function fixpt_look1_func_approx, you must first define its
parameters. The required parameters for the function are:
• funcstr – The ideal function
• xmin – The minimum input of interest
• xmax – The maximum input of interest
• xdt – The x data type
• xscale – The x data scaling
• ydt – The y data type
• yscale – The y data scaling
• rndmeth – The rounding method
In addition there are three optional parameters:
• errmax – The maximum allowed error of the lookup table
• nptsmax – The maximum number of points of the lookup table
8-5
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
• spacing – The allowed spacing between breakpoints
You must use at least one of the parameters errmax and nptsmax. Typical
settings for these parameters are given in the next section “Setting Function
Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6.
Using Only errmax
If you use only the errmax parameter, without nptsmax, the function creates a
lookup table with the fewest points, for which the worst case error is at most
errmax. See “Example 1: Using errmax with Unrestricted Spacing” on page 8-7.
Using Only nptsmax
If you use only the nptsmax parameter, without errmax, the function creates a
lookup table with at most nptsmax points, which has the smallest worse case
error. See “Example 2: Using nptsmax with Unrestricted Spacing” on page 8-9.
The section “Specifying Both errmax and nptsmax” on page 8-16 describes how
the function behaves when you specify both errmax and nptsmax.
Spacing
You can use the optional spacing parameter to restrict the spacing between
breakpoints of the lookup table. The options are:
• 'unrestricted' – The default.
• 'even' – The distance between any two adjacent breakpoints is the same.
• 'pow2' – The distance between any two adjacent breakpoints is the same and
the distance is a power of two.
The section “Restricting the Spacing” on page 8-10 and the examples that
follow it explain how to use the spacing parameter.
Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table
To do the examples in this section, you must first set parameter values for the
fixpt_look1_func_approx function. To do so, type the following at the
MATLAB prompt.
funcstr = 'sin(2*pi*x)'; %Define the sine function
xmin = 0; %Set the minimum input of interest
xmax = 0.25; %Set the maximum input of interest
8-6
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
xdt = ufix(16); %Set the x data type
xscale = 2^-16; %Set the x data scaling
ydt = sfix(16); %Set the y data type
yscale = 2^-14; %Set the y data scaling
rndmeth = 'Floor'; %Set the rounding method
errmax = 2^-10; %Set the maximum allowed error
nptsmax = 21; %Specify the maximum number of points
If you exit MATLAB after typing these commands, you must retype them
before trying any of the other examples in this section.
Example 1: Using errmax with Unrestricted Spacing
The first example shows how to create a lookup table that has the fewest data
points for a specified worst case error, with unrestricted spacing. Before trying
the example, enter the same parameter values given in the section “Setting
Function Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6, if you have not
already done so in this MATLAB session.
You specify the maximum allowed error by typing
errmax = 2^-10;
Creating the Lookup Table
To create the lookup table, type
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax);
Note that the nptsmax and spacing parameters are not specified.
The function returns three variables:
• xdata, the vector of breakpoints of the lookup table
• ydata, the vector found by applying ideal function, sin(2 πx), to xdata
• errworst, which specifies the maximum possible error in the lookup table.
The value of errworst is less than or equal to the value of errmax.
You can find the number of X data points by typing
length(xdata)
8-7
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
ans =
16
This means that 16 points are required to approximate sin(2 πx) to within the
tolerance specified by errmax.
You can display the maximum error by typing errworst. This returns
errworst =
9.7656e-004
Plotting the Results
You can plot the output of the function fixpt_look1_func_plot by typing
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth);
The resulting plots are shown below.
The upper plot shows the ideal function, sin(2πx) and the fixed-point lookup
approximation between the breakpoints. In this example, the ideal function
8-8
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
and the approximation are so close together that the two graphs appear to
coincide. The lower plot displays the errors.
In this example, the Y data points, returned by the function
fixpt_look1_func_approx as ydata, are equal to the ideal function applied to
the points in xdata. However, you can define a different set of values for ydata
after running fixpt_look1_func_plot. This can sometimes reduce the
maximum error.
You can also change the values of xmin and xmax in order to evaluate the lookup
table on a subset of the original interval.
To find the new maximum error after changing ydata, xmin or xmax, type
errworst=fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,...
xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth)
Example 2: Using nptsmax with Unrestricted
Spacing
The next example shows how to create a lookup table that minimizes the worst
case error for a specified maximum number of data points, with unrestricted
spacing. Before starting the example, enter the same parameter values given
in the section “Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6,
if you have not already done so in this MATLAB session.
Setting the Number of Breakpoints
You specify the number of breakpoints in the lookup table by typing
nptsmax = 21;
Creating the Lookup Table
Next, type
[xdata,ydata,errworst]= fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,[],nptsmax);
The empty brackets, [], tell the function to ignore the parameter errmax, which
is not used in this example. Omitting errmax causes the function
fixpt_look1_func_approx to return a lookup table of size specified by
nptsmax, with the smallest worst case error.
8-9
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
The function returns a vector xdata, with 21 points. You can find the maximum
error for this set of points is given by typing errworst at the MATLAB prompt.
This returns
errworst =
5.1139e-004
Plotting the Results
To plot the lookup table along with the errors, type
fixpt_look1_func_plot(funcstr,xdata,xdt,xscale,ydata,ydt,...
yscale,rndmeth);
The resulting plots are shown below.
Restricting the Spacing
In the previous two examples, the function fixpt_look1_func_approx creates
lookup tables with unrestricted spacing between the breakpoints. You can
8-10
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
restrict the spacing to improve the computational efficiency of the lookup table,
using the spacing parameter.
The options for spacing are:
• 'unrestricted' – The default.
• 'even' – The distance between any two adjacent breakpoints is the same.
• 'pow2' – The distance between any two adjacent breakpoints is the same and
is a power of two.
Both power of two and even spacing increase the computational speed of the
lookup table and use less command ROM. However, specifying either of the
spacing restrictions along with errmax usually requires more data points in the
lookup table than does unrestricted spacing, in order to achieve the same
degree of accuracy. The section “Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory
Usage” on page 8-20 discusses the trade-offs between different spacing options.
Example 3: Using errmax with Even Spacing
The next example shows how to create a lookup table that has evenly spaced
breakpoints and a specified worst case error. To try the example, you must first
enter the enter the parameter values given in the section “Setting Function
Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6, if you have not already done so
in this MATLAB session.
Next, at the MATLAB prompt type
spacing = 'even';
[xdata ydata errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,[],spacing);
You can find the number of points in the lookup table by typing length(xdata).
ans =
20
To plot the lookup table along with the errors, type
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth);
This produces the following plots.
8-11
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Example 4: Using nptsmax with Even Spacing
The next example shows how to create a lookup table that has evenly space
breakpoints and minimizes the worst case error for a specified maximum
number of points. To try the example, you must first enter the parameter
values given in the section “Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table”
on page 8-6, if you have not already done so in this MATLAB session.
Next, type at the MATLAB prompt.
spacing='even';
[xdata ydata errworst]= fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,[],nptsmax,spacing);
The result requires 21 evenly spaced points to achieve a maximum absolute
error of 2^-10.2209.
8-12
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
To plot the lookup table along with the errors, type
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth);
Example 5: Using errmax with Power of Two
Spacing
The next example shows how to construct a lookup table that has power of two
spacing and a specified worst case error. To try the example, you must first
enter the enter the parameter values given in the section “Setting Function
Parameters for the Lookup Table” on page 8-6, if you have not already done so
in this MATLAB session.
Next, at the MATLAB prompt type
spacing ='pow2';
[xdata ydata
errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,[],spacing);
8-13
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
To find out how many points are in the lookup table, type length(xdata).
ans =
33
This means that 33 points are required to achieve the worst case error specified
by errmax. To verify that these points are evenly spaced, type
widths=diff(xdata)
This generates a vector whose entries are the differences between consecutive
points in xdata. Every entry of widths is 2-7.
To find the maximum error for the lookup table, type errworst.
errworst =
3.7209e-004
This is less than the value of errmax.
To plot the lookup table data along with the errors, type
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth);
This displays the plots shown below.
8-14
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
Example 6: Using nptsmax with Power of Two
Spacing
The next example shows how to create a lookup table that has power of two
spacing and minimizes the worst case error for a specified maximum number
of points. To try the example, you must first enter the enter the parameter
values given in the section “Setting Function Parameters for the Lookup Table”
on page 8-6, if you have not already done so in this MATLAB session.
spacing ='pow2';
[xdata, errworst]= fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,[],nptsmax,spacing);
The result requires 17 points to achieve a maximum absolute error of
2^-9.6267.
To plot the lookup table along with the errors, type
8-15
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
fixpt_look1_func_plot(funcstr,xdata,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmet
h);
This produces the plots shown below.
Specifying Both errmax and nptsmax
If you include both the errmax and the nptsmax parameters, the function
fixpt_look1_func_approx tries to find a lookup table with at most nptsmax
data points, whose worst case error is at most errmax. If it can find a lookup
table meeting both conditions, it uses the following order of priority for spacing:
1 Power of two
2 Even
3 Unrestricted
8-16
Creating Lookup Tables for a Sine Function
If the function cannot find any lookup table satisfying both conditions, it
ignores nptsmax and returns a lookup table with unrestricted spacing, whose
worst case error is at most errmax. In this case, the function behaves the same
as if the nptsmax parameter were omitted.
Using the parameters described the section “Setting Function Parameters for
the Lookup Table” on page 8-6, the following examples illustrate the results of
using different values for nptsmax when you enter
[xdata ydata errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,numptsmax);
The results for three different settings for nptsmax are as follows:
• numptsmax=33 – The function creates the lookup table with 33 points having
power of two spacing as in Example 3.
• numptsmax=21 – Since the errmax and numptsmax conditions cannot be met
with power of two spacing, the function creates the lookup table with 20
points having even spacing, as in Example 5.
• numptsmax=16 – Since the errmax and numptsmax conditions cannot be met
with either power of two or even spacing, the function creates the lookup
table with 16 points having unrestricted spacing, as in Example 1.
Comparing the Examples
The following table summarizes the results for the examples.
Table 8-1: Summary of Results for the Examples
Example
Options
Worst Case Error
Number of Points in Table
1
errmax=2^-10
'unrestricted'
2^-10
16
2
nptsmax=21
'unrestricted'
2^-10.933
21
3
errmax=2^-10
'even'
2^-10.0844
20
4
nptsmax=21
'even'
2^-10.2209
21
5
errmax=2^-10
'pow2'
2^-11.3921
33
6
nptsmax=21
'pow2'
2^-9.627
17
8-17
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Note that when you specify errmax, even spacing requires more data points
than unrestricted, and power of two spacing requires more points than even
spacing.
8-18
Summary of the Lookup Table Functions
Summary of the Lookup Table Functions
The following summarizes how to use the lookup table approximation
functions.
1 Define:
• The ideal function to be approximated
• The range, xmin to xmax, over which to find X and Y data
• The fixed-point implementation: data type, scaling, and rounding method
• The maximum acceptable error, the maximum number of points, and the
spacing.
2 Run the fixpt_look1_func_approx function to generate X and Y data.
3 Use the fixpt_look1_func_plot function to plot the function and error
between the ideal and approximated function using the selected X and Y
data, and to calculate the error and the number of points used.
4 Vary input criteria, such as errmax, nptsmax and spacing, to produce sets of
X and Y data that generate functions with varying worst-case error, number
of points required, and spacing.
5 Compare results of the number of points required and maximum absolute
error from various runs to choose the best set of X and Y data.
8-19
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage
This section compares the implementations of lookup tables that use
breakpoints whose spacing is uneven, even, and power of two. This comparison
is only valid when the breakpoints are not tunable. If the breakpoints can be
tuned in the generated code, then all three cases generate the same code. The
comparison will focus on the amount of read only memory (ROM) used for data,
the amount of ROM used for commands, and the speed with which the
commands are executed.
As a specific example, this comparison uses the demo fxpdemo_approx_sin.
There are three fixed-point lookup tables in this model. All three lookup tables
approximate the function sin(2*pi*u) over the first quadrant. All three
achieve a worst case error of less than 2^-8. However, they have different
restrictions on their breakpoint spacing.
You can use the model fxpdemo_approx, which this demo opens, to generate
code with Real-Time Workshop. This section presents several segments of the
generated code. These segments of code were edited and arranged for clarity
and to emphasize key differences.
This section covers the following topics:
• “Data ROM Required” on page 8-21
• “Determining Out-of-Range Inputs” on page 8-22
• “Determining the Location of the Input” on page 8-22
• “Performing Interpolation.” on page 8-24
• “Conclusion” on page 8-26
To open the demo, type at the MATLAB prompt
fxpdemo_approx_sin
This opens the model shown below.
8-20
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage
Data ROM Required
This section looks at the data ROM required by each of the three spacing
options.
Uneven Case
Uneven spacing requires both Y data points and breakpoints.
int16_T yuneven[8];
uint16_T xuneven[8];
The total bytes used is 32.
Even Case
Even spacing requires only Y data points.
int16_T yeven[10];
The total bytes used is 20. The breakpoints are not explicitly required. The code
will use the spacing between the breakpoints, and may use the smallest and
largest breakpoint. At most three values related to the breakpoints are needed.
8-21
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
Power of Two Case
Power of two spacing requires only Y data points.
int16_T ypow2[17];
The total bytes used is 34. The breakpoints are not explicitly required. The code
will use the spacing between the breakpoints, and may use the smallest and
largest breakpoint. At most three values related to the breakpoints are needed.
Determining Out-of-Range Inputs
In all three cases you have to guard against the possibility that the input is less
than the smallest breakpoint or greater than the biggest breakpoint. There
may be differences in how occurrences of these possibilities are handled.
However, the differences are generally minor and are normally not a key factor
in deciding to use one spacing method over another. The subsequent sections
assume that out-of-range inputs are impossible or have already been handled.
Determining the Location of the Input
This section describes how the three fixed point lookup tables determine where
the current input is relative to the breakpoints.
Uneven Case
Unevenly spaced breakpoints require a general-purpose algorithm such as a
binary search to determine where the input lies in relation to the breakpoints.
The following code provides an example.
iLeft = 0;
iRght = 7; /* number of breakpoints minus 1 */
while ( ( iRght - iLeft ) > 1 )
{
i = ( iLeft + iRght ) >> 1;
if ( uAngle < xuneven[i] )
{
iRght = i;
}
else
{
8-22
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage
iLeft = i;
}
}
The while loop executes up to log2(N) times where N is number of breakpoints.
Even Case
Evenly spaced breakpoints require only one step to determine where the input
lies in relation to the breakpoints.
iLeft = uAngle / 455U;
The divisor 455U represents the spacing between breakpoints. In general, the
dividend would be (uAngle - SmallestBreakPoint). In this example, the
smallest breakpoint was zero, so the subtraction was optimized out.
Power of Two Case
Power of two spaced breakpoints require only one step to determine where the
input lies in relation to the breakpoints.
iLeft = uAngle >> 8;
The number of shifts is 8 because the breakpoints have spacing 2^8. The
smallest breakpoint was zero, so uAngle replaced the general case of (uAngle
- SmallestBreakPoint).
Comparison
To determine where the input is located with respect to the breakpoints, the
unevenly spaced case clearly requires much more code than the other two
cases. This code requires additional command ROM. This ROM penalty can be
reduced if many lookup tables share the binary search algorithm as a function.
Even if the code is shared, the number of clock cycles required to determine the
location of the input is much higher for the unevenly spaced cases than the
other two cases. If the code is shared, then function call overhead decreases the
speed of execution a little more.
In the evenly spaced case and the power of two spaced case, you can determine
the location of the input with a single line of code. The evenly spaced cased uses
a general integer division. The power of two case uses a shift instead of general
division because the divisor is an exact power of two. Without knowing the
8-23
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
specific processor to be used, you cannot be certain that a shift is better than
division.
Many processors can implement division with a single assembly language
instruction, so the code will be small. However, this instruction often takes
many clock cycles to complete. Quite a few processors do not provide a division
instruction. Division on these processors is implemented via repeated
subtractions. This is slow and requires a fair amount of machine code, but this
code can be shared.
Most processors provide a way to do logical and arithmetic shifts left and right.
A distinguishing difference is whether the processor can do N shifts in one
instruction (barrel shift) or requires N instructions that shift one bit at a time.
The barrel shift will require less code. Whether or not the barrel shift also
increases speed depends on the hardware that supports the operation.
The compiler can also complicate the comparison. In the previous example, the
command uAngle >> 8 essentially takes the upper 8 bits in a 16 bit word. The
compiler may detect this and replace the bit shifts with an instruction that
takes the bits directly. If the number of shifts is some other value, such as 7,
this optimization would not occur.
Performing Interpolation.
In theory, you can calculate the interpolation with the following code.
y = ( yData[iRght] - yData[iLeft] ) * ( u - xData[iLeft] )
/ ( xData[iRght] - xData[iLeft] ) + yData[iLeft]
The term (xData[iRght] - xData[iLeft]) is the spacing between
neighboring breakpoints. If this value is constant, i.e., even spacing, some
simplification is possible. If spacing is not just even but also a power of two,
then very significant simplifications are possible for fixed-point
implementations.
Uneven case
For the uneven case, one possible implementation of the ideal interpolation in
fixed point is as follows.
xNum = uAngle
- xuneven[iLeft];
xDen = xuneven[iRght] - xuneven[iLeft];
yDiff = yuneven[iRght] - yuneven[iLeft];
8-24
Effect of Spacing on Speed, Error, and Memory Usage
MUL_S32_S16_U16( bigProd, yDiff, xNum );
DIV_NZP_S16_S32_U16_FLOOR( yDiff, bigProd, xDen );
yUneven = yuneven[iLeft] + yDiff;
The multiplication and division routines are not shown here. These can be
somewhat involved and depend on the target processor. For example, these
routines look quite different for a 16-bit processor than for a 32-bit processor.
Even Case
Evenly spaced breakpoints implement interpolation using just slightly
different calculations than the uneven case. The key difference is that the
calculations do not directly use the breakpoints. This means the breakpoints
are not required in ROM, which can be a very significant savings.
xNum
= uAngle - ( iLeft * 455U );
yDiff = yeven[iLeft+1] - yeven[iLeft];
MUL_S32_S16_U16( bigProd, yDiff, xNum );
DIV_NZP_S16_S32_U16_FLOOR( yDiff, bigProd, 455U );
yEven = yeven[iLeft] + yDiff;
Power of Two Case
Power of two spaced breakpoints implement interpolation using very different
calculations than the other two cases. Like the uneven case, breakpoints are
not used in the generated code and therefore not required in ROM.
lambda = uAngle & 0x00FFU;
yPow2 = ypow2[iLeft)+1] - ypow2[iLeft];
MUL_S16_U16_S16_SR8(yPow2,lambda,yPow2);
yPow2 += ypow2[iLeft];
8-25
8
Producing Lookup Table Data
This implementation has very significant advantages over the uneven and
even implementations. The key difference is that a subtraction and a division
are replaced by a bitwise-AND combined with a shift right at the end of the
multiply. Another advantage is that the term (u - xData[iLeft] ) / (
xData[iRght] - xData[iLeft]) is computed with no loss of precision, because
the spacing is a power of two. In contrast, the uneven and even cases usually
introduce rounding error in this calculation.
Conclusion
The number of Y data points follows the expected pattern. For the same worst
case error, unrestricted spacing (uneven) requires the fewest data points, and
power of two spaced breakpoints requires the most. However, the
implementation for the evenly spaced and the power of two cases does not need
the breakpoints in the generated code. This reduces their data ROM
requirements by a half. As a result, the evenly spaced case actually uses less
data ROM than the unevenly spaced case. Also, the power of two case requires
only slightly more ROM than the uneven case. Changing the worst case error
can change these rankings. Nonetheless, when you compare data ROM usage,
you should always take into account the fact that the evenly spaced and power
of two spaced cases do not require their breakpoints in ROM.
The effort of determining where the current input is relative to the breakpoints
strongly favors the evenly spaced and power of two spaced cases. With uneven
spacing, you use a binary search method that loops up to log2(N) times. With
even and power of two spacing, you can determine the location with the
execution of one line of C code. But you cannot decide the relative advantages
of power of two versus evenly spaced without detailed knowledge of the
hardware and the C compiler.
The effort of calculating the interpolation favors the power of two case, which
uses a bitwise AND operation and a shift to replace a subtraction and a
division. The amount of advantage provided by this depends on the specific
hardware, but you would expect an advantage in code size, speed, and also in
accuracy. The evenly space case calculates the interpolation with a minor
improvement in efficiency over the unevenly spaced case.
8-26
9
Function Reference
9
Function Reference
Overview
This chapter contains reference pages for the Fixed-Point Blockset M-file
functions. In some cases, you will not call these functions from the MATLAB
command line. Instead, they are automatically called when you specify certain
parameter values via block dialog boxes or via the Fixed-Point Blockset
Interface tool. The functions are listed below.
Table 9-1: Fixed-Point Blockset Functions
9-2
Function
Description
autofixexp
Automatically change the scaling for each
fixed- point block that does not have its
scaling locked.
fixptbestexp
Determine the exponent that gives the best
precision fixed-point representation of a
value.
fixptbestprec
Determine the maximum precision
available for the fixed-point representation
of a value.
fixpt_convert
Convert Simulink models and subsystems
to fixed-point equivalents.
fixpt_convert_prep
Prepare a Simulink model for more
complete conversion to fixed point.
fixpt_look1_func_approx
Optimize for a fixed-point function, the x
values that are generated for a lookup table.
fixpt_look1_func_plot
Plot a function with x values generated by
the fixpt_look1_func_approx function.
fixpt_restore_links
Restore links for fixed-point blocks.
float
Create a MATLAB structure describing a
floating-point data type.
Overview
Table 9-1: Fixed-Point Blockset Functions (Continued)
Function
Description
fpupdate
Update obsolete fixed-point blocks from
previous Fixed-Point Blockset releases to
current fixed-point blocks.
fxptdlg
Launch the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface
tool.
sfix
Create a MATLAB structure describing a
signed generalized fixed-point data type.
sfrac
Create a MATLAB structure describing a
signed fractional data type.
showfixptsimranges
Display the logged maximum and minimum
values from the last simulation.
sint
Create a MATLAB structure describing a
signed integer data type.
ufix
Create a MATLAB structure describing an
unsigned generalized fixed-point data type.
ufrac
Create a MATLAB structure describing an
unsigned fractional data type.
uint
Create a MATLAB structure describing an
unsigned integer data type.
9-3
autofixexp
Purpose
9autofixexp
Automatically change the scaling for each fixed-point block that does not have
its scaling locked
Syntax
autofixexp
Description
The autofixexp script automatically changes the scaling for each block that
does not have its scaling locked. This script uses the maximum and minimum
data obtained from the last simulation run to log data to the workspace. The
scaling is changed such that the simulation range is covered and the precision
is maximized. The script follows these steps:
1 The global variable FixPtTempGlobal is created to “steal” parameters (such
as data type) from variables not known in the base workspace. For example,
assume the Sum block has its output data type specified as DerivedVar.
DerivedVar is derived in the mask initialization based on mask parameters
and the block is under a mask.
The value of the parameter DerivedVar is retrieved by temporarily
replacing DerivedVar with stealparameter(DerivedVar) in the block
dialog. A model update is then forced. When stealparameter(DerivedVar)
is evaluated, it returns the value of DerivedVar without modification and
stores the value in FixPtTempGlobal. The stolen value is immediately used
by this procedure and is not needed again. Therefore, the procedure can
move from one block to the next using the same global variable.
2 The RangeFactor variable allows you to specify a range differing from that
defined by the maximum and minimum values logged in FixPtSimRanges.
For example, a RangeFactor value of 1.55 specifies that a range at least 55
percent larger is desired. A value of 0.85 specifies that a range up to 15
percent smaller is acceptable.
You should be aware that the scaling is not exact for the radix point-only
case since the range is given (approximately) by a power of two. The lower
limit is exact, but the upper limit is always one bit below a power of two.
For example, if the maximum logged value is 5 and the minimum logged
value is -0.5, then any RangeFactor from 4/5 to slightly under 8/5 would
produce the same radix point since these limits are less than a factor of two
from each other. The radix point selected will produce a range from -8 to +8
(minus a bit).
9-4
autofixexp
3 The global variable FixPtSimRanges is retrieved from the workspace. This
is the variable that holds the maximum and minimum simulation values.
4 The workspace is searched for the variables SlopeBits and BiasBits, which
specify the number of bits to use in representing slopes and biases. If these
variables are not found, then they are automatically created with default
values of 7 and 8, respectively.
5 All blocks that logged maximum and minimum simulation data are
processed.
6 All blocks that do not have their scaling locked are automatically scaled. If
the data type class is FIX, then radix point-only scaling is performed. If the
data type class is INT, then slope/bias scaling is performed. To find out a
data type’s class, refer to its reference page in this chapter.
See Also
fxptdlg, showfixptsimranges
9-5
fixptbestexp
Purpose
9fixptbestexp
Determine the exponent that gives the best precision fixed-point
representation of a value
Syntax
out = fixptbestexp(RealWorldValue,TotalBits,IsSigned)
out = fixptbestexp(RealWorldValue,FixPtDataType)
Description
out = fixptbestexp(RealWorldValue,TotalBits,IsSigned) determines the
exponent that gives the best precision for the fixed-point representation of the
real world value specified by RealWorldValue. You specify the number of bits
for the fixed-point number with TotalBits, and you specify whether the
fixed-point number is signed with IsSigned. If IsSigned is 1, the number is
signed. If IsSigned is 0, the number is not signed. The exponent is returned to
out.
out = fixptbestexp(RealWorldValue,FixPtDataType) determines the
exponent that gives the best precision based on the data type specified by
FixPtDataType.
Example
The following command returns the exponent that gives the best precision for
the real world value 4/3 using a signed, 16-bit number.
out = fixptbestexp(4/3,16,1)
out =
-14
Alternatively, you can specify the fixed-point data type.
out = fixptbestexp(4/3,sfix(16))
out =
-14
This value means that the maximum precision representation of 4/3 is obtained
by placing 14 bits to the right of the binary point.
01.01010101010101
You would specify the precision of this representation in fixed-point blocks by
setting the scaling to 2^-14 or 2^fixptbestexp(4/3,16,1).
See Also
9-6
fixptbestprec, sfix, ufix
fixptbestprec
Purpose
9fixptbestprec
Determine the maximum precision available for the fixed-point representation
of a value
Syntax
out = fixptbestprec(RealWorldValue,TotalBits,IsSigned)
out = fixptbestprec(RealWorldValue,FixPtDataType)
Description
out = fixptbestprec(RealWorldValue,TotalBits,IsSigned) determines
the maximum precision for the fixed-point representation of the real world
value specified by RealWorldValue. You specify the number of bits for the fixedpoint number with TotalBits, and you specify whether the fixed-point number
is signed with IsSigned. If IsSigned is 1, the number is signed. If IsSigned is
0, the number is not signed. The maximum precision is returned to out.
out = fixptbestprec(RealWorldValue,FixPtDataType) determines the
maximum precision based on the data type specified by FixPtDataType.
Example
The following command returns the maximum precision available for the real
world value 4/3 using a signed, 8-bit number.
out = fixptbestprec(4/3,8,1)
out =
0.015625
Alternatively, you can specify the fixed-point data type.
out = fixptbestprec(4/3,sfix(8))
out =
0.015625
This value means that the maximum precision available for 4/3 is obtained by
placing six bits to the right of the binary point since 2-6 equals 0.015625.
01.010101
You can use the maximum precision as the scaling parameter in fixed-point
blocks.
See Also
fixptbestexp, sfix, ufix
9-7
fixpt_convert
Purpose
9fixpt_convert
Convert Simulink models and subsystems to fixed-point equivalents
Syntax
res
res
res
res
Description
res = fixpt_convert converts the Simulink model or subsystem specified by
bdroot. res is a structure that contains lists of blocks handled during
=
=
=
=
fixpt_convert
fixpt_convert('SystemName')
fixpt_convert('SystemName','Display')
fixpt_convert('SystemName','Display','AutoSave')
conversion. The fields of this structure are given below.
Output Field
Description
replaced
Blocks that are replaced with fixed-point equivalents or
with other blocks from a user-specified replacement list.
skipped
Blocks that are skipped because they are fixed-point
compatible. Some of these blocks can cause errors if used
in certain ways. For example, the Mux block can create
lines that give different data types at down stream input
ports.
encapsulated
Structure containing lists of blocks grouped by type that
are encapsulated between fixed-point gateway blocks. The
encapsulated versions are not truly fixed point, but they
will function within a fixed-point model.
res = fixpt_convert('SystemName') converts the Simulink model or
subsystem specified by SystemName.
res = fixpt_convert('SystemName','Display') returns information
associated with the conversion according to the method specified by Display.
The Display methods are given below.
9-8
Display Method
Description
on
Display detailed block information.
outline
Display the conversion process outline.
fixpt_convert
Display Method
Description
off
Do not display block information.
filename
Write detailed block information to the specified file.
on+filename
Display detailed block information, and write
detailed block information to the specified file.
outline+filename
Display the conversion process outline, and write
detailed block information to the specified file.
res = fixpt_convert('SystemName','Display','AutoSave') determines
the state of the converted model or subsystem. If AutoSave is on, then the
converted model or subsystem is saved and closed. If AutoSave is off, then the
converted model or subsystem is unsaved and left open.
Remarks
If your Simulink model references blocks from a custom Simulink library, then
these blocks are encapsulated upon conversion. A block is encapsulated when
it cannot be converted to an equivalent fixed-point block. Encapsulation
involves associating a Gateway In or a Gateway Out block with the Simulink
block. To reduce the number of blocks that are encapsulated, you should
convert the entire library by passing the library name to fixpt_convert, and
then convert the model.
To create a custom list of blocks to convert, you should use the
fixpt_convert_userpairs script. To learn how to use this script, read the
comments included in the M-file.
The data types for fixed-point outputs taking Boolean values are specified by
the variable LogicType. The data types of all other fixed-point outputs and
parameters are specified by the variable BaseType. You can change these
variables to any data type. For example, in the MATLAB workspace you can
type
BaseType = sfix(16)
LogicType = uint(8)
The converted model will not work if these variables are not defined.
Best precision mode is used when available. Otherwise, the precision is set to
20, which means that the binary point is to the right of all bits.To automatically
9-9
fixpt_convert
set the scaling, run a simulation with doubles override on and then invoke the
automatic scaling script, autofixexp. You can run autofixexp directly, or in
conjunction with the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface, fxptdlg.
Example
This example uses fixpoint_convert to convert a Simulink model of a direct
form II realization to its fixed-point equivalent. This realization is discussed in
“Direct Form II” on page 5-4. The simulink model shown below,
fxpdemo_preconvet, is included as a demo with the blockset.
b0
2.2
Gain
b1
Input Zero−Order
Hold
1.85
Gain1
b2
1
1
1
z
Unit Delay
z
Unit Delay1
z
Unit Delay2
0.5
Output
Comparison
Gain2
b3
0.5
Gain5
a1
−0.84
Gain4
a2
−0.09
Gain3
a3
The following command converts this model to its fixed-point equivalent,
suppresses the display of detailed block information, and does not save the
model after conversion.
res = fixpt_convert('fxpdemo_preconvert','off','off')
The built-in blocks that are replaced by fixed-point equivalent blocks are given
by the replaced field.
res.replaced
ans =
UnitDelay: {3x1 cell}
ZeroOrderHold: {[1x40 char]}
Gain: {6x1 cell}
9-10
fixpt_convert
Sum: {2x1 cell}
The built-in blocks that are skipped since they are compatible with the
Fixed-Point Blockset are given by the skipped field.
res.skipped
ans =
Mux: {'fxpdemo_preconvert_fixpt/Mux'}
The built-in blocks that are encapsulated by fixed-point gateway blocks so that
they are made compatible with the Fixed-Point Blockset are given by the
encapsulated field.
res.encapsulated
ans =
Scope: {[1x42 char]}
SignalGenerator: {'fxpdemo_preconvert_fixpt/Input'}
Note that the initial class of the base data type is double.
BaseType =
Class: 'DOUBLE'
You can now run the simulation for the converted model.
sim fxpdemo_preconvert_fixpt
9-11
fixpt_convert
The output from the simulation is shown below. You should compare this
output to the output produced by the fixed-point direct from II model,
fxpdemo_direct_form2.
10
8
6
4
2
0
−2
−4
−6
−8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Next, define a fixed-point base data type.
BaseType = sfix(16)
Follow the automatic scaling procedure described in the autofixexp reference
pages with 20% safety margin, and then run the simulation.
sim fxpdemo_preconvert_fixpt
The simulation now produces an error. This is because the vector signal leading
into the scope is not homogeneous with regard to data type and scaling.
In general, solving the problem of nonhomogeneous signals requires that you
analyze how the signal is being used. If the distinct scaling and data type
properties are important, then you must fully or partially unvectorize the
relevant part of the model. Alternatively, you can force the signals to be
homogenous using the Gateway Out block. Since this example plots real world
values in the Scope, inserting gateway blocks on the signals leading into the
Scope is an adequate solution.
See Also
9-12
autofixexp, fixpt_convert_prep, fxptdlg
fixpt_convert_prep
Purpose
9fixpt_convert_prep
Prepare a Simulink model for more complete conversion to fixed point
Syntax
fixpt_convert_prep('SystemName')
Description
fixpt_convert_prep('SystemName') prepares the Simulink model or
subsystem specified by SystemName for more complete conversion (less
encapsulation) to fixed point using the fixpt_convert function. It does so by
replacing this select set of blocks:
• Old style Latch blocks
Old style Latch blocks are replaced with a version contained in the
fixpt_convert_lib library. The old style Latch block contains a Transport
Delay block, which is a very inefficient implementation for both floating
point and fixed point.
• Function blocks acting like selectors
Function blocks acting like selectors are replaced with the Selector block.
Function blocks acting like selectors require that you specify the width of the
input. To get this information, the model must be put into compile mode,
which is inefficient.
• A select set of additional function blocks
You can replace function blocks that have replacements in the
fixpt_convert_lib library. Alternatively, you can use fixpt_convert_prep
as a prototype for creating a customized list of function blocks to be replaced.
To do this, copy the function and the library to another directory, and then
customize the library to include function blocks that you commonly
encounter when converting models from floating point to fixed point.
Note This function is meant to be a starting point for customizing the
Simulink to Fixed-Point Blockset conversion process.
See Also
fixpt_convert
9-13
fixpt_look1_func_approx
Purpose
Syntax
9fixpt_look1_func_approx
Optimize for a fixed-point function, the x values, or breakpoints, that are
generated for a lookup table
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax)
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,[],nptsmax)
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,nptsmax)
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,nptsmax,spacing)
Description
fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,
rndmeth,errmax) optimizes the breakpoints of a lookup table over a specified
range. The lookup table satisfies the maximum acceptable error, maximum
number of points, and spacing requirements given by the optional parameters.
The breakpoints refer to the x values of the lookup table. The command
[xdata,ydata,errworst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx('funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax)
returns the X and Y coordinates of the lookup table as vectors xdata and ydata,
respectively. It also returns the maximum absolute error of the lookup table as
a variable errworst.
The fixed-point approximation is found by interpolating between the lookup
table data points. The required input parameters are as follows.
9-14
Input
Value
'funcstr'
Function of x funcstr is the function for
which breakpoints are approximated.
xmin
Minimum value of x
xmax
Maximum value of x
xdt
Data type of x
fixpt_look1_func_approx
Input
Value
xscale
Scaling for the x values
ydt
Data type of y
yscale
Scaling for the y values
rndmeth
Rounding mode supported by the blockset:
'Toward Zero', 'Nearest', 'Floor'
(default value), 'Ceiling'
• xmin and xmax specify the range over which the breakpoints are
approximated.
• xdt, xscale, ydt, yscale, and rndmeth follow conventions used by the
Fixed-Point Blockset.
• rndmeth has a default value listed in the input table.
In addition to the required parameters, there are three optional inputs, as
follows.
.
Input
Value
errmax
Maximum acceptable error
nptsmax
Maximum number of points
spacing
Spacing: 'even', 'pow2' (even power of 2),
'unrestricted' (default value)
Of these, you must use at least one of the parameters errmax and nptsmax. If
you omit one of these, use brackets, [], in place of the omitted parameter. The
function will then ignore that requirement for the lookup table.
9-15
fixpt_look1_func_approx
The outputs of the function are as follows.
Output
Value
xdata
The breakpoints for the lookup table
ydata
The ideal function applied to the
breakpoints
errworst
The worst case error, which is the
maximum absolute error between the ideal
function and the approximation given by
the lookup table
Criteria For Optimizing the Breakpoints: errmax, nptsmax, and spacing
The approximation produced from the lookup table must satisfy the
requirements for the maximum acceptable error, errmax, the maximum
number of points, nptsmax, and the spacing, spacing. The requirements are:
• The maximum absolute error is less than errmax.
• The number of points required is less than nptsmax.
• The spacing is specified as unrestricted, even or even power of 2.
Modes for errmax, nptsmax, and spacing
• If both errmax and nptsmax are specified.
The returned breakpoints will meet both criteria if possible. The errmax
parameter is given priority, and nptsmax is ignored, if both criteria cannot be
met with the specified spacing.
• If only errmax is specified.
The breakpoints that meet the error criteria, and have the least number of
points are returned.
• If only nptsmax is specified.
The breakpoints that require nptsmax or fewer, and give the smallest worst
case error are returned
• If more than one spacing method meets the criteria, power of 2 spacing is
chosen over even spacing, which in turn is chosen over uneven spacing. This
9-16
fixpt_look1_func_approx
case occurs when the errmax and nptsmax are both specified, but does not
typically occur when only one is specified.
If unrestricted is entered, the function chooses the spacing that provides
the best optimization.
If even is entered, the function chooses an evenly spaced set of points,
including the pow2 spacing.
If pow2 spacing is entered, the function chooses an even power of 2 spaced set
of points.
Note The global optimum may not be found. The worst case error can depend
on fixed-point calculations, which are highly nonlinear. Furthermore, the
optimization approach is heuristic.
Remarks
Using the Approximation Function
1 Choose a function and use the eval('funcstr'); command to view the
function before creating the lookup table.
2 Define the remaining inputs.
3 Run the fixpt_look1_func_approx function.
4 Use the fixpt_look1_func_plot to plot the function from the selected
breakpoints, and to calculate the error and the number of points used.
5 Vary the inputs to produce sets of breakpoints that generate functions with
varying number of points required and worst case error.
6 Compare the number of points required and worst case error from various
runs to choose the best set of breakpoints.
Calculating the Output Function
To calculate the function, use the returned breakpoints with:
• The eval function
• A function lookup table. The x values are the breakpoints from the
fixpt_look1_func_approx function, and the y values can be supplied using
the eval function.
9-17
fixpt_look1_func_approx
Selecting Spacing to Optimize Speed, Error, ROM, and RAM
The spacing you choose depends on the parameters you want to optimize:
execution speed, function approximation error, ROM usage, and RAM usage.
• The execution speed depends on the bisection search, and the interpolation
method.
• The error depends on how accurately the method approximates the
nonuniform curvature of the function.
• The ROM usage depends on the amount of data and command ROM used.
• The RAM usage depends on how much global and stack RAM is used
When the lookup table has even power of two spacing, division is replaced by a
bit shift. As a result, the execution speed is faster than for evenly spaced data.
See the chapter Chapter 8, “Producing Lookup Table Data” for a tutorial on
using fixpt_look1_func_approx.
9-18
fixpt_look1_func_approx
The following table summarizes the effect of spacing on the execution speed,
error, and memory used.
Table 9-2: Comparison of the Spacing Options
Parameter
Even Power of Two
Spaced Data
Evenly Spaced Data
Unevenly Spaced Data
Execution
Speed
The execution speed is
the fastest. The position
search and
interpolation are the
same as for evenly
spaced data. However,
to increase the speed
more, the position
search is replaced by a
bit shift, and the
interpolation is
replaced with a bit
mask.
The execution speed is
faster then that for
unevenly spaced data
because the position
search is faster and the
interpolation requires a
simple division.
The execution speed is the
slowest of the different
spacings because the
position search is slower,
and the interpolation
requires more operations.
Error
The error can be larger
than that for unevenly
spaced data because
approximating a
function with
nonuniform curvature
requires more points to
achieve the same
accuracy.
The error can be larger
than that for unevenly
spaced data because
approximating a
function with
nonuniform curvature
requires more points to
achieve the same
accuracy.
The error can be smaller
because approximating a
function with nonuniform
curvature requires fewer
points to achieve the same
accuracy.
ROM
Usage
Uses less command
ROM, but more data
ROM.
Uses less command
ROM, but more data
ROM.
Uses more command ROM,
and less data ROM.
RAM
Usage
Not significant.
Not significant.
Not significant.
9-19
fixpt_look1_func_approx
Example
The next example produces a lookup table for a sine function. The inputs for
the example are as follows.
funcstr = 'sin(2*pi*x)';
xmin = 0;
xmax = 0.25;
xdt = ufix(16);
xscale = 2^-16;
ydt = sfix(16);
yscale = 2^-14;
rndmeth = 'Floor';
errmax = 2^-10;
spacing = 'pow2';
To create the lookup table, type
[xdata, ydata, errWorst]=fixpt_look1_func_approx(funcstr,
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth,errmax,[],spacing);
The brackets [ ] are a place holder for the nptsmax parameter, which is not used
in this example.
You can then plot the ideal function, the approximation, and the errors by
typing
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,funcstr,xmin,xmax,xdt,...
xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth);
The fixpt_look1_func_plot function produces a plot of the fixed-point sine
function, using these breakpoints, and a plot of the error between the ideal
function and the fixed-point function. The maximum absolute error and the
number of points required are listed with the plot. The error drops to zero at a
breakpoint, and increases between breakpoints due to the difference in
curvature of the ideal function and the line drawn between breakpoints.
The resulting plots are shown below.
9-20
fixpt_look1_func_approx
The lookup table requires 33 points to achieve a maximum absolute error of
2^-11.3922
See Also
fixpt_look1_func_plot
9-21
fixpt_look1_func_plot
Purpose
Syntax
Description
9fixpt_look1_func_plot
Plot a function with x values generated by the fixpt_look1_func_approx
function
errworst=fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,'funcstr',...
xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,ydt,yscale,rndmeth)
fixpt_look1_func_plot(xdata,ydata,'funcstr',xmin,xmax,xdt,xscale,
ydt,yscale,rndmeth) plots a lookup table approximation function and its
error from the ideal function. You can use the fixpt_look1_func_approx
function to generate xdata and ydata, the X and Y data points for the lookup
table. The function returns the maximum absolute error as a variable
errworst. The inputs are as follows.
Input
Value
xdata
x values for the lookup table
ydata
y values for the lookup table
'funcstr'
Function of x
xmin
Minimum input of interest
xmax
Maximum input of interest
xdt
Data type of x
xscale
Scaling for the x values
ydt
Data type of y
yscale
Scaling for the y values
rndmeth
Rounding mode supported by the blockset:
'Toward Zero', 'Nearest', 'Floor',
'Ceiling'
The fixpt_look1_func_approx function applies the ideal function to the
points in xdata to produce ydata. While this is is the easiest way to generate
ydata, you are not required to use these values for ydata as input for the
9-22
fixpt_look1_func_plot
fixpt_look1_func_approx function. Choosing different values for ydata can,
in some cases, produce a lookup table with a smaller maximum absolute error.
See Chapter 8, “Producing Lookup Table Data” for a tutorial on using the
function fixpt_look1_func_plot. For an example of the function, see the
reference page for the function fixpt_look1_func_approx on page 9-14.
See Also
fixpt_look1_func_approx
9-23
fixpt_restore_links
Purpose
9fixpt_restore_links
Restore links for fixed-point blocks
Syntax
res = fixpt_restore_links
res = fixpt_restore_links('SystemName')
res = fixpt_restore_links('SystemName','AutoSave')
Description
res = fixpt_restore_links restores broken links for the fixed-point blocks
contained in the model or subsystem specified by bdroot. By default, the
models and libraries containing restored block links are left open and unsaved.
res contains the names of the blocks that had broken links restored.
res = fixpt_restore_links('SystemName') restores links for the fixed-point
blocks contained in the model or subsystem specified by SystemName.
res = fixpt_restore_links('SystemName','AutoSave') determines the
state of the models or subsystems containing restored block links. If AutoSave
is on, the models or subsystems are saved and closed. If AutoSave is off, the
models or subsystems are unsaved and left open.
Remarks
9-24
Breaking library links to fixed-point blocks will almost certainly produce an
error when you attempt to run the model. If broken links exist, you will likely
uncover them when upgrading to the latest release of the Fixed Point Blockset.
float
Purpose
9float
Create a MATLAB structure describing a floating-point data type
Syntax
a = float('single')
a = float('double')
a = float(TotalBits, ExpBits)
Description
float('single') returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
an IEEE single (32 total bits, 8 exponent bits).
float('double') returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
an IEEE double (64 total bits, 11 exponent bits).
float(TotalBits, ExpBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes a
nonstandard floating-point data type that mimics the IEEE style. That is, the
numbers are normalized with a hidden leading one for all exponents except the
smallest possible exponent. However, the largest possible exponent might not
be treated as a flag for Inf’s and NaN’s.
float is automatically called when a floating point number is specified in a
block dialog box.
Note Unlike fixed-point numbers, floating point numbers are not subject to
any specified scaling.
Example
Define a nonstandard, IEEE-style, floating-point data type with 31 total bits
(excluding the hidden leading one) and 9 exponent bits.
a = float(31,9)
a =
Class: 'FLOAT'
MantBits: 21
ExpBits: 9
See Also
sfix, sfrac, sint, ufix, ufrac, uint
9-25
fpupdate
Purpose
9fpupdate
Update obsolete fixed-point blocks from previous Fixed-Point Blockset releases
to current fixed-point blocks
Syntax
fpupdate('model')
fpupdate('model',blkprompt)
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt)
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt,muxprompt)
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt,muxprompt,message)
Description
fpupdate('model') replaces all obsolete fixed-point blocks contained in model
with current fixed-point blocks. The model must be opened prior to calling
fpupdate.
fpupdate('model',blkprompt) prompts you for replacement of obsolete
blocks. If blkprompt is 0 (the default), you will not be prompted. If blkprompt
is 1, you will have these three options:
• y (default) replaces the block.
• n does not replace the block.
• a replaces all blocks without further prompting.
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt) gives you the option of updating
variables which appear in each block’s dialog box with their actual numerical
values. Note that such an update is possible only if the variables can be
evaluated in the MATLAB workspace. If varprompt is 1 (the default), you are
prompted for each variable found in the block diagram. If varprompt is 0, all
variables are automatically updated without prompting.
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt, muxprompt) allows you to update
the input size parameters of the Mux and Demux blocks found in model. The
input sizes of these blocks may need to be updated to account for the mismatch
between the old and new fixed-point data representations. In the old
representation, each number had a width of 2. In the new representation, each
number has a width of 1. To update Mux and Demux blocks that have only
fixed-point inputs, the vector that specifies the input size should be divided by
2. If muxprompt is 1 (the default), each Mux and Demux block found in model is
updated. If muxprompt is 0, the Mux and Demux blocks are automatically
updated without prompting.
9-26
fpupdate
fpupdate('model',blkprompt,varprompt,muxprompt,message) allows you to
show or suppress any warning or update messages generated during the
update process. If message is 1 (the default), all messages are displayed. If
message is 0, all messages are suppressed.
fpupdate calls addterms to terminate any unconnected input or output ports
by attaching Ground or Terminator blocks, respectively.
Example
To see how fpupdate works, convert the obsolete model fixpoint/obsolete/
fpex1.mdl.
fpex1
fpupdate('fpex1')
9-27
fxptdlg
Purpose
9fxptdlg
Launch the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool
Syntax
fxptdlg('model')
Description
fxptdlg('model') launches the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool for the
fixed-point MDL-file model. The interface provides convenient access to the
global overrides and min/max logging settings, the logged min/max data, the
automatic scaling script, and the plot interface tool. You can launch the
Interface tool for as many different MDL-files as you want, and the tool
controls only the specified model. You can also invoke the Interface tool from
the Tools menu in the model window, or with the Fixed-Point GUI block, which
is included with all blockset demos.
For each block in the model that logs data, the Interface tool displays the block
names, the minimum simulation value, the maximum simulation value, the
data type, and the scaling. Additionally, if a signal saturates or overflows, then
a message is displayed for the associated block indicating how many times
saturation or overflow occurred. You can display a block’s dialog box by
double-clicking on the appropriate entry.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
9-28
fxptdlg
The Log Min/Max
This menu controls which blocks log data. All logs min/max data for all
blocks, None doesn’t log any min/max data, and Use block params logs min/
max data for all blocks that have the Log minimums and maximums
check box checked.
Log Mode
This menu controls how the log file is updated when multiple simulations
are run. Override log updates all logged values for each simulation run.
Merge log keeps the highest and lowest logged values across multiple
simulations.
Autoscale % Safety Margin
This parameter multiplies the simulation values by the specified factor,
and allows you to specify a range differing from that defined by the
maximum and minimum values logged to the workspace. For example, a
value of 55 specifies that a range at least 55 percent larger is desired. A
value of -15 specifies that a range up to 15 percent smaller is acceptable.
The Autoscale % Safety Margin parameter is used as part of the
automatic scaling procedure. Before automatic scaling is performed, you
must run the simulation to collect min/max data.
Data Type Override
This menu controls overriding the output data type for all blocks in a
system. Doubles override on overrides for all blocks the integer part of
the fixed-point number with doubles. Doubles override off turns off the
Override data type(s) with doubles for all blocks, so that the data type
cannot be overwritten with doubles if the check box is checked. Use block
params overrides the output data type with doubles for blocks that have the
Override data type(s) with doubles check box checked. True doubles
overrides for all blocks the output data type with doubles. True singles
overrides for all blocks the data type with singles for all blocks.
Block path
Displays the path for each selected block. The block path is described in
terms of the blockset model name and, if required, the subsystem names.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool contains six buttons: Run, Stop,
Autoscale, Plot, Help, and Close. The Run button runs the model and updates
9-29
fxptdlg
the display with the latest simulation information. The Stop button stops the
simulation from running. The Autoscale button invokes the automatic scaling
script autofixexp. The Plot button invokes the Plot System interface, which
displays any To Workspace, Outport, or Scope blocks found in the model. The
Help button displays the HTML-based help. The Close button closes the
Interface tool.
The Plot System interface is shown below. It is displaying Scope block output
from the fxpdemo_feedback demo.
To plot the simulation results, select one or more variable names, and then
select the appropriate plot button. You plot the raw signal data with the Plot
Signals button. Raw signal data is generated when the global override switch
is off. You plot doubles with the Plot Doubles button. Doubles are generated
when the global override switch is on. You can plot both raw signal data and
doubles with the Plot Both button. Note that the doubles override does not
overwrite the raw data.
Example
To learn how to use the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool, refer to
“Simulation Results” on page 6-9.
See Also
autofixexp, showfixptsimranges
9-30
sfix
Purpose
9sfix
Create a MATLAB structure describing a signed generalized fixed-point data
type
Syntax
a = sfix(TotalBits)
Description
sfix(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
a signed generalized fixed-point number with a word size given by TotalBits.
sfix is automatically called when a signed generalized fixed-point data type is
specified in a block dialog box.
Note A default radix point is not included in this data type description.
Instead, the scaling must be explicitly defined in the block dialog box.
Example
Define a 16-bit signed generalized fixed-point data type.
a = sfix(16)
a =
Class: 'FIX'
IsSigned: 1
MantBits: 16
See Also
float, sfrac, sint, ufix, ufrac, uint
9-31
sfrac
Purpose
9sfrac
Create a MATLAB structure describing a signed fractional data type
Syntax
a = sfrac(TotalBits)
a = sfrac(TotalBits, GuardBits)
Description
sfrac(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type
of a signed fractional number with a word size given by TotalBits.
sfrac(TotalBits, GuardBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes
the data type of a signed fractional number. The total word size is given by
TotalBits with GuardBits bits located to the left of the sign bit.
sfrac is automatically called when a signed fractional data type is specified in
a block dialog box.
The default radix point for this data type is assumed to lie immediately to the
right of the sign bit. If guard bits are specified, they lie to the left of the radix
point in addition to the sign bit.
Example
Define an 8-bit signed fractional data type with 4 guard bits. Note that the
range of this number is -24 = -16 to (1 – 2(1 - 8)).24 = 15.875.
a = sfrac(8,4)
a =
Class:
IsSigned:
MantBits:
GuardBits:
See Also
9-32
'FRAC'
1
8
4
float, sfix, sint, ufix, ufrac, uint
showfixptsimranges
Purpose
9showfixptsimranges
Description
The showfixptsimranges script displays the logged maximum and minimum
values from the last fixed-point simulation. Data is logged only from blocks
where the Log minimums and maximums check box is checked.
Display the logged maximum and minimum values from the last fixed-point
simulation.
The logged data is stored in the FixPtSimRanges cell array, which can be
accessed by the autofixexp automatic scaling script.
See Also
autofixexp, fxptdlg
9-33
sint
Purpose
9sint
Create a MATLAB structure describing a signed integer data type
Syntax
a = sint(TotalBits)
Description
sint(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
a signed integer with a word size given by TotalBits.
sint is automatically called when a signed integer is specified in a block dialog
box.
The default radix point for this data type is assumed to lie to the right of all
bits.
Example
Define a 16-bit signed integer data type.
a = sint(16)
a =
Class: 'INT'
IsSigned: 1
MantBits: 16
See Also
9-34
float, sfix, sfrac, ufix, ufrac, uint
ufix
Purpose
9ufix
Create a MATLAB structure describing an unsigned generalized fixed-point
data type
Syntax
a = ufix(TotalBits)
Description
ufix(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
an unsigned generalized fixed-point data type with a word size given by
TotalBits.
ufix is automatically called when an unsigned generalized fixed-point data
type is specified in a block dialog box.
Note The default radix point is not included in this data type description.
Instead, the scaling must be explicitly defined in the block dialog box.
Example
Define a 16-bit unsigned generalized fixed-point data type.
a = ufix(16)
a =
Class: 'FIX'
IsSigned: 0
MantBits: 16
See Also
float, sfix, sfrac, sint, ufrac, uint
9-35
ufrac
Purpose
9ufrac
Create a MATLAB structure describing an unsigned fractional data type
Syntax
a = ufrac(TotalBits)
a = ufrac(TotalBits, GuardBits)
Description
ufrac(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type
of an unsigned fractional number with a word size given by TotalBits.
ufrac(TotalBits, GuardBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes
the data type of an unsigned fractional number. The total word size is given by
TotalBits with GuardBits bits located to the left of the radix point.
ufrac is automatically called when an unsigned fractional data type is
specified in a block dialog box.
The default radix point for this data type is assumed to lie immediately to the
left of all bits. If guard bits are specified, then they lie to the left the default
radix point.
Example
Define an 8-bit unsigned fractional data type with 4 guard bits. Note that the
range of this number is from 0 to (1 – 2-8).24 = 15.9375.
a = ufrac(8,4)
a =
Class:
IsSigned:
MantBits:
GuardBits:
See Also
9-36
'FRAC'
0
8
4
float, sfix, sfrac, sint, ufix, uint
uint
Purpose
9uint
Create a MATLAB structure describing an unsigned integer data type
Syntax
a = uint(TotalBits)
Description
uint(TotalBits) returns a MATLAB structure that describes the data type of
an unsigned integer with a word size given by TotalBits.
uint is automatically called when an unsigned integer is specified in a block
dialog box.
The default radix point for this data type is assumed to lie to the right of all
bits.
Example
Define a 16-bit unsigned integer.
a = uint(16)
a =
Class: 'INT'
IsSigned: 0
MantBits: 16
See Also
float, sfix, sfrac, sint, ufix, ufrac
9-37
uint
9-38
10
Block Reference
The Block Reference Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
The Block Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Common Block Features
Block Parameters . . . .
Block Icon Labels . . . .
Port Data Type Display . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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. 10-4
. 10-4
10-10
10-10
. . . . . . . . 10-12
10
Block Reference
The Block Reference Pages
Fixed-Point Blockset block reference pages appear in alphabetical order and
contain some or all of this information:
• The block name and icon
• The purpose of the block
• A description of the block
• Additional remarks about block usage
• The block parameters and dialog box including a brief description of each
parameter
• The rules for some or all of these topics, as they apply to the block:
- Converting block parameters from double precision numbers to
Fixed-Point Blockset data types
- Converting the input data type(s) to the output data type
- Performing block operations between inputs and parameters
• An example using the block
• The block characteristics, including some or all of these, as they apply to the
block:
- Input Port(s) – the data type(s) accepted by the block and whether the
inputs can be a scalar or vector
- Output Port – the data type(s) produced by the block and whether the
outputs can be a scalar or vector
- Direct Feedthrough – whether the block or any of its ports has direct
feedthrough
- Sample Time – how the block’s sample time is determined, whether by the
block itself or inherited from the block that drives it or is driven by it
- Scalar Expansion – whether or not scalars are expanded to vectors
- States – the number of discrete states
- Vectorized – whether or not the block accepts and/or generates vector
signals
10-2
The Block Dialog Box
The Block Dialog Box
You configure Fixed-Point Blockset blocks with a parameter dialog box. The
parameter dialog box provides you with:
• The name and block type at the top of the dialog box
• A brief description of the block’s behavior below the title
• Zero or more editable parameter fields, check boxes, or parameter lists below
the description. You specify the parameter values using valid MATLAB
expressions.
• A row of four buttons labeled OK, Cancel, Help, and Apply at the bottom of
the dialog box. The OK button sets the current parameter values and closes
the dialog box. The Cancel button reverts all the parameter values back to
their values at the time the dialog box was opened, losing any changes you
made. The Help button displays the HTML-based reference information.
The Apply button sets the current parameter values and but does not close
the dialog box.
Simulink stores the strings entered in these fields and passes them to
MATLAB for evaluation when a simulation is started. If MATLAB variables
are used, the simulation uses the values that exist in the workspace at the start
of the simulation. These variables are not necessarily the same as when the
variables are entered into the dialog box fields. If a simulation is running when
a parameter is changed, MATLAB evaluates the parameter as soon as you
press the OK or Apply button.
10-3
10
Block Reference
Common Block Features
For convenience, all the common block features are described in this section.
These common features include:
• Block parameters
• Block icon labels
• Port data type display
Block Parameters
Many Fixed-Point Blockset blocks use the same parameters, which you
configure through the block dialog box. The common block parameters are
associated with these blockset features:
• Parameter and output data type selection
• Parameter and output scaling selection
• Rounding
• Overflow handling
• Overriding the output data type with doubles
• Logging simulation results
Block-specific parameters are described in the block reference pages.
Selecting the Data Type
For many fixed-point blocks, you need to associate data type information with
numerical parameters and the output. You can associate data type information
in these ways:
• Parameters
The numerical parameter values of some fixed-point blocks inherit the data
type of an input signal or the output signal. Other blocks require that you
specify the parameter data type explicitly with the Parameter data type
parameter.
• Output
The output of some fixed-point blocks inherits the data type of the input
signal. Other blocks require that you specify the output data type with the
Output data type parameter. Still other blocks provide you with the option
10-4
Common Block Features
of inheriting the output data type (and scaling) information from a driving
block, or specifying the data type.
For the latter case, you control how the output data type (and scaling) is
specified with the Output data type and scaling parameter list. This list
supports three choices: Specify via dialog, Inherit via internal rule,
and Inherit via back propagation. The parameter choices involving data
type inheritance are designed to minimize specification burden. Note that
some fixed-point blocks support only two of the three choices.
If you select Specify via dialog, you must explicitly specify the output data
type with the Output data type parameter.
If you select Inherit via internal rule, the output data type is inherited
from the input(s). The goal of the inheritance rule is to select the “natural”
data type and scaling for the output. The specific rule that is used depends
on the block operation. For example, if you are multiplying two signed 16-bit
signals, the Product block produces the natural output of a signed 32-bit data
type. An “unnatural” output is produced if the inputs have different signs
and different sizes. In this case, some trial and error may be required to
achieve satisfactory results. If you are adding signals, two natural choices for
the output data type and scaling are possible: to preserve the precision or to
prevent overflow. However, blocks only support one rule. For example, the
Sum block preserves precision. If your goal is to prevent overflow, then you
should manually configure the data type and scaling.
If you select Inherit via back propagation, the output data type is
inherited by back propagation. In many cases, you will find that the Data
Type Propagation block provides you with the most flexibility when back
propagating the data type.
The supported data types and default scaling are shown below.
Table 10-1: Output Data Types and Default Scaling
Data Type
Description
Default Scaling
float
Floating-point number
None
ufix
Unsigned generalized fixed-point
number
None
10-5
10
Block Reference
Table 10-1: Output Data Types and Default Scaling (Continued)
Data Type
Description
Default Scaling
sfix
Signed generalized fixed-point number
None
uint
Unsigned integer
Right of the least
significant bit
sint
Signed integer
Right of the least
significant bit
ufrac
Unsigned fractional number
Left of the most
significant bit
sfrac
Signed fractional number
Right of the sign bit
The word size (in bits) of fixed-point data types is given as an argument to the
data type. For example, sfix(16) specifies a 16-bit signed generalized
fixed-point number. Word sizes from 1 to 128 bits are supported.
Floating-point data types are IEEE-style and are specified as
float('single') for single-precision numbers and float('double') for
double-precision numbers. Nonstandard IEEE-style numbers are specified as
float(TotalBits,ExpBits) where TotalBits is the total number of physical
bits and ExpBits is the number of exponent bits.
Note A default radix point is not included with the generalized fixed-point
data type. Instead, the scaling must be explicitly specified as described below.
For more information about supported data types and their default scaling,
refer to Chapter 3, “Data Types and Scaling.”
Selecting the Scaling
For generalized fixed-point data types, you need to associate scaling
information with numerical parameters and the output. You can associate
scaling information in these ways:
10-6
Common Block Features
• Parameters
The numerical parameter values of some fixed-point blocks inherit the
scaling of an input signal or the output signal. Other blocks require that you
specify the parameter scaling explicitly with the Parameter scaling
parameter.
• Output
The output of some fixed-point blocks inherits the scaling of the input signal.
Other blocks require that you specify the output scaling with the Output
scaling parameter. Still other blocks provide you with the option of
inheriting the output scaling (and data type) information from a driving
block, or specifying the scaling.
For the latter case, you control how the output scaling (and data type) is
specified with the Output data type and scaling parameter list. This list
supports three choices: Specify via dialog, Inherit via internal rule,
and Inherit via back propagation. Note that some fixed-point blocks
support only two of the three choices.
If you select Specify via dialog, you must explicitly specify the output
scaling with the Output scaling parameter. If you select Inherit via
internal rule, the output scaling is inherited from the input(s). If you select
Inherit via back propagation, the output scaling is inherited by back
propagation; typically from the Data Type Propagation block. For
information about the inheritance rules, refer to the description in “Selecting
the Data Type” on page 10-4.
10-7
10
Block Reference
The supported scaling modes for generalized fixed-point data types are given
below. Default scaling is used for all other fixed-point data types.
Table 10-2: Scaling Modes for Generalized Fixed-Point Data Types
Scaling mode
Description
Radix point-only
Specify radix point-only (powers-of-two) scaling. For
example, a scaling of 2^–10 (or pow2(–10)) places the
radix point at a location 10 places to the left of the least
significant bit.
Slope/bias
Specify slope/bias scaling. For example, a scaling of
[5/9 10] specifies a slope of 5/9 and a bias of 10. When
using this mode, you must specify a positive slope.
Note that some blocks provide a form of radix point-only scaling for constant
vectors and constant matrices. Refer to “Example: Constant Scaling for Best
Precision” on page 3-12 for more information.
Locking the Output Scaling
If the Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it check box is
checked, then the automatic scaling tool autofixexp will not change the
Output scaling parameter value. Otherwise, the automatic scaling tool is free
to adjust the scaling. You can run autofixexp directly from the command line,
or through the Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool, fxptdlg.
Rounding
You can choose the rounding mode for the block operation with the Round
toward parameter list. The available rounding modes are shown below.
Table 10-3: Rounding Modes
10-8
Rounding Mode
Description
Zero
Round the output towards zero.
Nearest
Round the output towards the nearest representable
number, with the exact midpoint rounded towards
positive infinity.
Common Block Features
Table 10-3: Rounding Modes (Continued)
Rounding Mode
Description
Ceiling
Round the output towards positive infinity.
Floor
Round the output towards negative infinity.
Handling Overflows
Overflow handling for fixed-point numbers is specified with the Saturate to
max or min when overflows occur check box. If checked, fixed-point overflow
results saturate. Otherwise, overflow results wrap. Whenever a result
saturates, a warning is displayed.
Overriding with Doubles
If the Override data type(s) with doubles check box is checked, then the
Parameter data type and Output data type parameter values are ignored.
Instead, parameters and outputs are represented using double-precision
floating-point numbers. Also, any calculations are performed using
floating-point arithmetic.
An exception to this rule is when parameters or outputs contain a bias. In this
case, the bias is not ignored in subsequent fixed-point operations.
If the parameter and output data types are both floating-point, the check box
is not available.
Logging Simulation Results
The minimum and maximum values produced by the simulation are logged if
the Log minimums and maximums check box is checked. The logged values
are stored in the FixPtSimRanges global cell array in the MATLAB workspace.
You can access these values with the showfixptsimranges script or with the
Fixed-Point Blockset Interface tool, fxptdlg.
In addition to logging the minimum and maximum simulation values, overflow
information is also logged. If an overflow occurs, then a warning, an error, or
nothing occurs depending on how the Data Overflow parameter of Simulink’s
Simulation Parameters dialog box is configured.
10-9
10
Block Reference
Block Icon Labels
Many blockset icons look like those of built-in Simulink blocks. For this reason,
all fixed-point icons have an “F” (for “Fixed-Point”) associated with them. An
“F” in the lower right (upper left) corner of the icon means the block output
(input) is a Fixed-Point Blockset data type.
The Gateway In, Gateway In Inherited, and Gateway Out blocks have
additional labels, which reflect how the input and output signals are treated.
If the block input or output is treated as a real-world value, then a “V” appears
by the relevant port. If the block input or output is treated as a stored integer,
then an “I” appears by the relevant port.
Many blocks have additional labels that indicate logical operations, arithmetic
operations, numerical values, and so on. These labels will help you to quickly
understand the behavior of fixed-point models without examining individual
block dialog boxes.
Port Data Type Display
To display the data types of ports in your model, select Port Data Types from
Simulink's Format menu.
The port display for fixed-point signals consists of three parts: the data type,
the number of bits, and the scaling. The data type and number of bits reflect
the block’s Output data type parameter value or the data type that is
inherited from the driving block. The scaling reflects the block’s Output
scaling parameter value or the scaling that is inherited from the driving block.
For example, the data type displays for the Fixed-Point Sine demo are shown
below.
double
Sine Wave
2 rad/sec
double
Sine Wave
1 rad/sec
10-10
In
sfix16_Sp2_B10
sfix16_En2
Out
double
summed signal
To FixPt1
FixPt Sum
In
To FixPt2
sfix16_En6
From FixPt1
Scope
sfix16_En8
FixPt Product
Out
double
muliplied signal
From FixPt2
Common Block Features
The data type display associated with the To FixPt1 block indicates that the
output data type is sfix(16) (a signed 16-bit generalized fixed-point number)
with slope/bias scaling of [1/5, 10]. Note that this scaling is not the block’s
default scaling. The data type display associated with the To FixPt2 block
indicates that the output data type is sfix(16) with radix point-only scaling of
2^-6.
10-11
10
Block Reference
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
To open the main Fixed-Point library, at the MATLAB prompt type
fixpt
This opens the main library window as shown below.
The main library contains twelve sublibraries. To open a sublibrary,
double-click on its icon. The following table describes how the Fixed-Point
Blockset blocks are grouped into the sublibraries.
Bits
Bit Clear
10-12
Set the specified bit of the stored integer to zero.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
Bits
Bit Set
Set the specified bit of the stored integer to one.
Bitwise Operator
Perform the specified bitwise operation on the
inputs.
Calculus
Accumulator
Compute a cumulative sum.
Accumulator
Resettable
Compute a cumulative sum with external
Boolean reset.
Accumulator
Resettable Limited
Compute a limited cumulative sum with
external Boolean reset.
Derivative
Compute a discrete time derivative.
Difference
Calculate the change in a signal over one time
step.
Integrator Backward
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the backward method.
Integrator Backward
Resettable
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the backward method, with external
Boolean reset.
Integrator Backward
Resettable Limited
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a
signal using the backward method, with
external Boolean reset.
Integrator Forward
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the forward method.
Integrator Forward
Resettable
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the forward method, with external
Boolean reset.
10-13
10
Block Reference
Calculus
Integrator Forward
Resettable Limited
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a
signal using the forward method, with external
Boolean reset.
Integrator Trapezoidal
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the trapezoidal method.
Integrator Trapezoidal
Resettable
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal
using the trapezoidal method, with external
Boolean reset.
Integrator Trapezoidal
Resettable Limited
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a
signal using the trapezoidal method, with
external Boolean reset.
Sample Time Multiply
Support calculations involving sample time.
Data Type
10-14
Conversion
Convert from one Fixed-Point Blockset data type
to another.
Conversion Inherited
Convert from one Fixed-Point Blockset data type
to another, and inherit the data type and
scaling.
Data Type Duplicate
Set all inputs to the same data type.
Data Type Propagation
Configure the data type and scaling of the
propagated signal based on information from the
reference signals.
Gateway In
Convert a Simulink data type to a Fixed-Point
Blockset data type.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
Data Type
Gateway In Inherited
Convert a Simulink data type to a Fixed-Point
Blockset data type, and inherit the data type
and scaling.
Gateway Out
Convert a Fixed-Point Blockset data type to a
Simulink data type.
Scaling Strip
Remove scaling and map to a built in integer.
Delays & Holds
Integer Delay
Delay a signal N sample periods.
Tapped Delay
Delay a scalar signal multiple sample periods
and output all the delayed versions.
Unit Delay
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay Enabled
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay Enabled
External IC
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay Enabled
Resettable
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay Enabled
Resettable External IC
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay External IC
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay Resettable
Delay a signal one sample periodt.
Unit Delay Resettable
External IC
Delay a signal one sample period.
Unit Delay With
Preview Enabled
Support calculations that have feedback and
depend on the current input.
10-15
10
Block Reference
Delays & Holds
Unit Delay With
Preview Enabled
Resettable
Support calculations that have feedback and
depend on the current input.
Unit Delay With
Preview Enabled
Resettable External
RV
Support calculations that have feedback and
depend on the current input.
Unit Delay With
Preview Resettable
Support calculations that have feedback and
depend on the current input.
Unit Delay With
Preview Resettable
External RV
Support calculations that have feedback and
depend on the current input.
Zero-Order Hold
Implement a zero-order hold of one sample
period.
Edge Detect
10-16
Detect Change
Detect a change in a signal’s value.
Detect Decrease
Detect a decrease in a signal’s value.
Detect Fall Negative
Detect a falling edge when the signal’s value
decreases to a strictly negative value, and its
previous value was nonnegative.
Detect Fall Nonpositive
Detect a falling edge when the signal’s value
decreases to a nonpositive value, and its
previous value was strictly positive.
Detect Increase
Detect an increase in a signal’s value.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
Edge Detect
Detect Rise Nonnegative
Detect a rising edge when a signal’s value
increases to a nonnegative value, and its
previous value was strictly negative.
Detect Rise Positive
Detect a rising edge when a signal’s value
increases to a strictly positive value, and its
previous value was nonpositive.
Filters
Filter Direct Form I
Implement a Direct Form I realization of a filter.
Filter Direct Form I
Time Varying
Implement a time varying Direct Form I
realization of a filter.
Filter Direct Form II
Implement a Direct Form II realization of a
filter.
Filter Direct Form II
Time Varying
Implement a time varying Direct Form II
realization of a filter.
Filter First Order
Implement a discrete-time first order filter.
Filter Lead or Lag
Implement a discrete-time lead or lag filter.
Filter Real Zero
Implement a discrete time filter that has a real
zero and no pole.
FIR
Implement a fixed-point finite impulse response
(FIR) filter.
State-Space
Implement discrete-time state space.
10-17
10
Block Reference
Logic & Comparison
Compare to Constant
Determine if a signal is equal to the specified
constant.
Compare To Zero
Determine if a signal is equal to zero.
Interval Test
Determine if a signal is in a specified interval.
Interval Test Dynamic
Determine if a signal is in a specified interval.
Logical Operator
Perform the specified logical operation on the
inputs.
Relational Operator
Perform the specified relational operation on the
inputs.
LookUp
10-18
Cosine
Implement a cosine function in fixed-point using
a lookup table approach that exploits quarter
wave symmetry.
Look-Up Table
Approximate a one-dimensional function using a
selected look-up method.
Look-Up Table
Dynamic
Provide a region of zero output.
Look-Up Table (2-D)
Approximate a two-dimensional function using a
selected look-up method.
Sine
Implement a sine function in fixed-point using a
lookup table approach that exploits quarter
wave symmetry.
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
Math Blocks
Abs
Output the absolute value of the input.
Decrement Real World
Decrease the real world value of the signal by
one
Decrement Stored
Integer
Decrease the stored value of a signal by one
Decrement Time To
Zero
Decrease the real world value of the signal by
the sample time, but only to zero.
Decrement To Zero
Decrease the real world value of a signal by one,
but only to zero.
Gain
Multiply the input by a constant.
Increment Real World
Increase the real world value of the signal by one.
Increment Stored
Integer
Increase the stored integer value of a signal by
one.
Matrix Gain
Multiply the input by a constant matrix.
MinMax
Determine the minimum or maximum input
value.
MinMax Running
Resettable
Determine the minimum or maximum of a
signal over time.
Product
Multiply or divide inputs.
Sum
Add or subract inputs.
Unary Minus
Negate the input.
10-19
10
Block Reference
Nonlinear Blocks
Dead Zone
Provide a region of zero output.
Dead Zone Dynamic
Set the input within the bounds to zero.
Rate Limiter
Limit the rising and falling rates of the signal.
Rate Limiter Dynamic
Limit the rising and falling rates of the signal.
Relay
Switch output between two constants.
Saturation
Bound the range of the input.
Saturation Dynamic
Bound the range of the input.
Sign
Indicate the sign of the input.
Wrap To Zero
Set output to zero if input is above threshold.
Select
10-20
MultiPort Switch
Switch output between different inputs based on
the value of the first input
Switch
Switch output between the first input and the
third input based on the value of the second
input
The Fixed-Point Blockset Libraries
Sources
Constant
Generate a constant value
Counter Free
Count up and overflow back to zero after the
maximum value possible is reached for the
specified number of bits
Counter Limited
Count up, and wrap back to zero after
outputting the specified upper limit.
Repeating Sequence
Interpolated
Output a discrete-time sequence and repeat,
interpolating between data points
Repeating Sequence
Stair
Output a discrete time sequence and repeat.
10-21
Abs
Purpose
10Abs
Library
Math
Description
The Abs block is a masked S-function that outputs the absolute value of the
input.
Output the absolute value of the input
For signed data types, the absolute value of the most negative value is
problematic since it is not representable by the data type. In this case, the
behavior of the block is controlled by the Saturate to max or min when
overflows occur check box. If checked, the absolute value of the data type
saturates to the most positive value. If not checked, the absolute value of the
most negative value has no effect.
For example, suppose the block input is an 8-bit signed integer. The range of
this data type is from -128 to 127, and the absolute value of -128 is not
representable. If the Saturate to max or min when overflows occur check
box is checked, then the absolute value of -128 is 127. If it is not checked, then
the absolute value of -128 remains at -128.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Characteristics
10-22
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
Accumulator
Purpose
10Accumulator
Library
Calculus
Description
At time step n, the Accumulator block computes a cumulative sum of all input
values u up to time n and outputs the sum.
Compute a cumulative sum
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
10-23
Accumulator
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
10-24
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Accumulator Resettable
Purpose
10Accumulator Resettable
Library
Calculus
Description
The Accumulator Resettable block computes a cumulative sum, based on the
values of an external Boolean reset signal.
Compute a cumulative sum with external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two input ports, one for the input signal u, and another for the reset signal R.
When the reset is false at time n, the block adds the current value of the input
signal u to the sum at time n-1. When the reset is true at time n, the block
resets the sum to the value of the Initial condition for previous output
parameter, and outputs the sum.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
10-25
Accumulator Resettable
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-26
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Accumulator, and related blocks
Accumulator Resettable Limited
Purpose
10Accumulator Resettable Limited
Library
Calculus
Description
The Accumulator Resettable Limited block computes a cumulative sum, based
on the values of an external Boolean reset signal.
Compute a limited cumulative sum with external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
cumulative sum reaches one of the limits given by the Upper limit and Lower
limit parameters, the sum saturates to that limit.
The block has two input ports, one for the input signal u, and another for the
reset signal R. When the reset R is false at time n, the block adds the current
value of the input signal u to the sum at time n-1. When the cumulative sum is
outside the limits given by the Upper limit and Lower limit parameters, the
sum saturates to one of the bounds.
When the reset R is true at time n, the block resets the sum to the value of the
Initial condition for previous output parameter, and outputs the sum.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
10-27
Accumulator Resettable Limited
Upper limit
The upper limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Lower limit
The lower limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-28
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Accumulator, and related blocks
Bit Clear
Purpose
10Bit Clear
Library
Bits
Description
The Bit Clear block is a masked block that sets the specified bit, given by its
index, of the stored integer to zero. Scaling is ignored.
Set the specified bit of the stored integer to zero
You can specify the bit to be set to zero with the Index of bit parameter, where
bit zero is the least significant bit.
True floating-point data types are not supported.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Index of bit
Index of bit where bit 0 is the least significant bit.
Example
If the Bit Clear is turned on for bit 2, bit 2 is set to 0. A vector of constants
2.^[0 1 2 3 4] is represented in binary as [00001 00010 00100 01000 10000].
With bit 2 set to 0, the result is [00001 00010 00000 01000 10000], which is
represented in decimal as [1 2 0 8 16].
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset, except a
true floating-point data type
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-29
Bit Set
Purpose
10Bit Set
Library
Bits
Description
The Bit Set block is a masked block that sets the specified bit of the stored
integer to one. Scaling is ignored.
Set the specified bit of the stored integer to one
You can specify the bit to be set to one with the Index of bit parameter, where
bit zero is the least significant bit.
True floating-point data types are not supported.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Index of bit
Index of bit where bit 0 is the least significant bit.
Example
If the Bit Set is turned on for bit 2, bit 2 is set to 1. A vector of constants
2.^[0 1 2 3 4] is represented in binary as [00001 00010 00100 01000 10000].
With bit 2 set to 1, the result is [00101 00110 00100 01100 10100], which is
represented in decimal as [5 6 4 12 20].
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset, except a
true floating-point data type
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
See Also
10-30
Bit Clear
Bitwise Operator
Purpose
10Bitwise Operator
Library
Bits
Description
The Bitwise Operator block is a masked S-function that performs the specified
bitwise operation on its operands.
Perform the specified bitwise operation on the inputs
Unlike the logic operations performed by the Logical Operator block, bitwise
operations treat the operands as a vector of bits rather than a single number.
You select the bitwise Boolean operation with the Operator parameter list.
The supported operations are given below.
Operation
Description
AND
TRUE if the corresponding bits are all TRUE
OR
TRUE if at least one of the corresponding bits is TRUE
NAND
TRUE if at least one of the corresponding bits is FALSE
NOR
TRUE if no corresponding bits are TRUE
XOR
TRUE if an odd number of corresponding bits are TRUE
NOT
TRUE if the input is FALSE (available only for single input)
Unlike Simulink’s Bitwise Logical Operator block, the Bitwise Operator block
does not support shift operations. Refer to “Shifts” on page 4-41 to learn how to
perform shift operations with the Fixed-Point Blockset.
The size of the output depends on the number of inputs, their vector size, and
the selected operator:
• The NOT operator accepts only one input, which can be a scalar or a vector.
If the input is a vector, the output is a vector of the same size containing the
bitwise logical complements of the input vector elements.
• For a single vector input, the block applies the operation (except the NOT
operator) to all elements of the vector. If a bit mask is not specified, then the
output is a scalar. If a bit mask is specified, then the output is a vector.
10-31
Bitwise Operator
• For two or more inputs, the block performs the operation between all of the
inputs. If the inputs are vectors, the operation is performed between
corresponding elements of the vectors to produce a vector output.
When configured as a multi-input XOR gate, this block performs an additionmodulo-two operation as mandated by the IEEE Standard for Logic Elements.
If the Use bit mask check box is not checked, then the block can accept multiple
inputs. You select the number of input ports with the Number of input ports
parameter. The input data types must be identical.
If the Use bit mask check box is checked, then a single input is associated with
the bit mask you specify with the Bit mask parameter. You specify the bit
mask using any valid MATLAB expression. For example, you can specify the
bit mask 00100101 as 2^5+2^2+2^0. Alternatively, you can use strings to
specify a hexadecimal bit mask such as {'FE73','12AC'}. If the bit mask is
larger than the input signal data type, then it is ignored.
Note The output data type, which is inherited from the driving block, should
represent zero exactly. Data types that satisfy this condition include signed
and unsigned integers and any floating-point data type.
The Treat mask as parameter list controls how the mask is treated. The
possible values are Real World Value and Stored Integer. In terms of the
general encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5, Real World Value
treats the mask as V = SQ + B where S is the slope and B is the bias. Stored
Integer treats the mask as a stored integer, Q. For more information about
this parameter list, refer to the Gateway In block.
Remarks
You can use the bit mask to perform a bit set or a bit clear on the input. To
perform a bit set, you configure the Operator parameter list to OR and create a
bit mask with a 1 for each corresponding input bit that you want to set to 1. To
perform a bit clear, you configure the Operator parameter list to AND and
create a bit mask with a 0 for each corresponding input bit that you want to set
to 0.
For example, suppose you want to perform a bit set on the fourth bit of an 8-bit
input vector. The bit mask would be 00010000, which you can specify as 2^4 in
10-32
Bitwise Operator
the Bit mask parameter. To perform a bit clear, the bit mask would be
11101111, which you can specify as 2^7+2^6+2^5+2^3+2^2+2^1+2^0 in the Bit
mask parameter.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operator
The bitwise logical operator associated with the specified operands.
Use bit mask
Specify if the bit mask is used (single input only).
Number of input ports
The number of inputs.
Bit mask
The bit mask to associate with a single input.
Treat mask as
Treat the mask as a real-world value or as an integer.
Conversions
The Bit mask parameter is converted from a double to the input data type
offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter
Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
10-33
Bitwise Operator
Example
To help you understand the Bitwise Operator block logic operations, consider
the fixed-point model shown below.
The Constant blocks are configured to output an 8-bit unsigned integer
(uint(8)). The results for all logic operations are shown below.
Characteristics
10-34
Operation
Binary Value
Decimal Value
AND
00101000
40
OR
11111101
253
NAND
11010111
215
NOR
00000010
2
XOR
11111000
248
NOT
N/A
N/A
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs
Compare To Constant
Purpose
10Compare To Constant
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Compare To Constant block is a masked block that determines if a signal
is equal to the specified constant where:
Determine if a signal is equal to the specified constant
• The output is true (not 0) when the input signal is equal to the specified
constant.
• The output is false (equal to 0) when the input signal is not equal to the
specified constant.
You enter the constant with the Constant value parameter.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operator
Specify how the input is compared to the constant value.
Constant value
Specify the constant value that the input is compared with.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-35
Compare To Zero
Purpose
10Compare To Zero
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Compare To Zero block is a masked block that determines if a signal is
equal to zero where:
Determine if a signal is equal to zero
• The output is true (not 0) when the input signal is equal to zero.
• The output is false (equal to 0) when the input signal is not equal to zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operator
Specify how the input is compared to zero.
Characteristics
See Also
10-36
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
Compare To Constant
Constant
Purpose
10Constant
Library
Sources
Description
The Constant block is a masked S-function that generates a constant value.
Generate a constant value
You specify constants with the Constant value parameter. A constant can be
a scalar or a vector.
You specify the output scaling with the Output scaling parameter. Note that
there are two dialog box parameters that control the output scaling: one
associated with an edit field, and one associated with a parameter list. If
Output data type is a generalized fixed-point number such as sfix(16), the
Output scaling parameter list provides you with these scaling modes:
• Use Specified Scaling – This mode uses the slope/bias or radix point-only
scaling specified for the editable Output scaling parameter (for example,
2^-10).
• Best Precision: Vector-wise – This mode produces a common radix point
for each element of the Constant value vector based on the best precision for
the largest value of the vector.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-37
Constant
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Constant value
Constant value output by the block. It can be a scalar or vector. All
members of the output vector must be the same data type.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling via back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. Additionally, if Constant value is
specified as a vector, it can be scaled using the constant vector scaling
modes for maximizing precision. These scaling modes are available only for
generalized fixed-point data types.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
10-38
Constant
Interpret vectors as 1-D
If checked, a column or row matrix value for the Constant value
parameter results in a vector output whose elements are the elements of
the row or column.
Conversions
The Constant value parameter is converted from a double to the specified
output data type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to
“Parameter Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about parameter
conversions.
Characteristics
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
No – the output is always the same size as Constant
value
10-39
Conversion
Purpose
10Conversion
Library
Data Type
Description
The Conversion block is a masked S-function that converts from one
Fixed-Point Blockset data type to another.
Convert from one Fixed-Point Blockset data type to another
This block requires that you specify the data type and scaling for the
conversion. If you want to inherit this information from an input signal, you
should use the Conversion Inherited block.
For a detailed description of all block parameters, refer to “Block Parameters”
on page 10-4. For more information about converting from one Fixed-Point
Blockset data type to another, refer to “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Input and Output to have equal
Specify the type of value of the input and output that are to be equal.
10-40
Conversion
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling via back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
Conversion Inherited
10-41
Conversion Inherited
Purpose
10Conversion Inherited
Library
Data Type
Description
The Conversion Inherited block is a masked S-function that forces dissimilar
data types to be the same. The first (top) input is used as the reference signal
and the second (bottom) input is converted to the reference type by inheriting
the data type and scaling information. Either input will be scalar expanded
such that the output has the same width as the widest input.
Convert from one Fixed-Point Blockset data type to another, and inherit the
data type and scaling
If you want to specify the data type and scaling when converting from one
Fixed-Point Blockset data type to another, you should use the Conversion
block.
For a detailed description of all block parameters, refer to “Block Parameters”
on page 10-4. For more information about converting from one Fixed-Point
Blockset data type to another, refer to “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27.
Remarks
Inheriting the data type and scaling provides these advantages:
• It makes reusing existing models easier.
• It allows you to create new fixed-point models with less effort since you can
avoid the detail of specifying the associated parameters.
10-42
Conversion Inherited
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Input and Output to have equal
Specify the type of value of the input and output that are to be equal.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the inherited data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Conversion
10-43
Cosine
Purpose
10Cosine
Library
LookUp
Description
The Cosine block implements a cosine function using a lookup table that
exploits quarter wave symmetry. The output is normally a signed 16 bit
number with 14 bits to the right of the binary point.
Implement a cosine function in fixed-point using a lookup table approach that
exploits quarter wave symmetry
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Number of data points for lookup table
The number of data points in the lookup table
Characteristics
10-44
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
Counter Free
Purpose
10Counter Free
Library
Sources
Description
The Free Counter block is a masked block that counts up until the maximum
possible value, 2Nbits - 1, is reached, where Nbits is the number of bits. Then
the counter overflows to zero, and restarts counting up. The counter is always
initialized to zero.
Count up, and overflow back to zero after the maximum value possible is
reached for the specified number of bits
You can specify the number of bits with the Number of Bits parameter.
You can specify the sample time with the Sample time parameter.
The output is an unsigned integer. If the global doubles override is selected, the
Free Counter does not wrap back to zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Number of Bits
Specified number of bits.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
Output Port
Unscaled integer or a floating-point data type
Scalar Expansion
No
Vectorized
No
10-45
Counter Limited
Purpose
10Counter Limited
Library
Sources
Description
The Limited Counter block is a masked block that counts up until the specified
upper limit is reached. Then the counter wraps back to zero, and restarts
counting up. The counter is always initialized to zero.
Count up, and wrap back to zero after outputting the specified upper limit
You can specify the upper limit with the Upper limit parameter.
You can specify the sample time with the Sample time parameter. A Sample
time of -1 means that the sample time is inherited.
The output is an unsigned integer of 8, 16, or 32 bits, with the smallest number
of bits needed to represent the upper limit.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Upper limit
Upper limit.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
10-46
Output Port
Unscaled integer or a floating-point data type
Scalar Expansion
No
Vectorized
No
Counter Free
Data Type Duplicate
Purpose
10Data Type Duplicate
Library
Data Type
Description
The Data Type Duplicate block is a masked S-function that forces all inputs to
have exactly the same data type. Other attributes of input signals, such as
dimension, complexity, and sample time, are completely independent.
Set all inputs to the same data type
You can use the Data Type Duplicate block to check for consistency of data
types among blocks, where if all signals do not have the same data type, the
block returns an error message.
You set the number of input ports with the Number of input ports parameter.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Number of input ports
Number of input ports.
Characteristics
Remarks
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Scalar Expansion
Yes
States
0
Vectorized
Yes
The Data Type Duplicate block is typically used such that one signal to the
block controls the data type for all other blocks. The other blocks are set to
inherit their data types via back propagation.
The block is also used in a user created library. These library blocks can be
placed in any model, and the data type for all library blocks are configured
10-47
Data Type Duplicate
according to the usage in the model. To create a library block with more
complex data type rules than duplication, use the Data Type Propagation
block.
10-48
Data Type Propagation
Purpose
10Data Type Propagation
Library
Data Type
Description
The Data Type Propagation block allows you to control the data type and
scaling of signals in your model. You can use this block in conjunction with
fixed-point blocks that have their Specify data type and scaling parameter
configured to Inherit via back propagation.
Configure the data type and scaling of the propagated signal based on
information from the reference signals
The block has three inputs: Ref1 and Ref2 are the reference inputs, while the
Prop input back propagates the data type and scaling information gathered
from the reference inputs. This information is then passed on to other
fixed-point blocks.
The block provides you with many choices for propagating data type and
scaling information. For example, you can:
• Use the number of bits from the Ref1 reference signal, or use the number of
bits from widest reference signal.
• Use the range from the Ref2 reference signal, or use the range of the
reference signal with the greatest range.
• Use a bias of zero, regardless of the biases used by the reference signals.
• Use the precision of the reference signal with the least precision.
You specify how data type information is propagated with the Propagated
data type parameter list. If the parameter list is configured as Specify via
dialog, then you manually specify the data type via the Propagated data type
edit field. Refer to “Selecting the Data Type” on page 10-4 to learn how to
specify the data type. If the parameter list is configured as Inherit via
propagation rule, then you must use the parameters described in “Inheriting
Data Type Information” on page 10-52.
You specify how scaling information is propagated with the Propagated
scaling parameter list. If the parameter list is configured as Specify via
dialog, then you manually specify the scaling via the Propagated scaling edit
field. Refer to “Selecting the Scaling” on page 10-6 to learn how to specify the
scaling. If the parameter list is configured as Inherit via propagation rule,
then you must use the parameters described in “Inheriting Scaling
Information” on page 10-54.
10-49
Data Type Propagation
Remarks
After you use the information from the reference signals, you can apply a
second level of adjustments to the data type and scaling by using individual
multiplicative and additive adjustments. This flexibility has a variety of uses.
For example, if you are targeting a DSP, then you can configure the block so
that the number of bits associated with a MAC (multiply and accumulate)
operation is twice as wide as the input signal, and has a certain number of
guard bits added to it.
The Data Type Propagation block also provides a mechanism to force the
computed number of bits to a useful value. For example, if you are targeting a
16-bit micro, then the target C compiler is likely to support sizes of only 8 bits,
16 bits, and 32 bits. The block will force these three choices to be used. For
example, suppose the block computes a data type size of 24 bits. Since 24 bits
is not directly usable by the target chip, the signal is forced up to 32 bits, which
is natively supported.
There is also a method for dealing with floating-point reference signals. This
makes it easier to create designs that are easily retargeted from fixed-point
chips to floating-point chips or visa versa.
The Data Type Propagation block allows you to set up libraries of useful
subsystems that will be properly configured based on the connected signals.
Without this data type propagation process, a subsystem that you use from a
library will almost certainly not work as desired with most integer or
fixed-point signals, and manual intervention to configure the data type and
scaling would be required. This block can eliminate the manual intervention in
many situations.
Precedence Rules
The precedence of the dialog box parameters decreases from top to bottom.
Additionally:
• Double-precision reference inputs have precedence over all other data types.
• Single-precision reference inputs have precedence over integer and
fixed-point data types.
• Multiplicative adjustments are carried out before additive adjustments.
• The number of bits is determined before the precision or positive range is
inherited from the reference inputs.
10-50
Data Type Propagation
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-51
Data Type Propagation
Propagated data type
Use the parameter list to propagate the data type via the dialog box, or
inherit the data type from the reference signals. Use the edit field to specify
the data type via the dialog box.
Propagated scaling
Use the parameter list to propagate the scaling via the dialog box, or
inherit the scaling from the reference signals. Use the edit field to specify
the scaling via the dialog box.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the data type is overridden with doubles.
Inheriting Data Type Information
If the Propagated data type parameter is Inherit via propagation rule,
then these dialog box parameters are available to you.
The If any reference input is single, output is parameter list can be single
or double. This parameter makes it easier to create designs that are easily
retargeted from fixed-point chips to floating-point chips or visa versa.
The Is-Signed parameter list specifies the sign of Prop. The parameter values
are described below.
10-52
Parameter
Value
Description
IsSigned1
Prop is a signed data type if Ref1 is a signed data type.
IsSigned2
Prop is a signed data type if Ref2 is a signed data type.
Data Type Propagation
Parameter
Value
Description
IsSigned1 or
IsSigned2
Prop is a signed data type if either Ref1 or Ref2 are signed
data types.
TRUE
Ref1 and Ref2 are ignored, and Prop is always a signed
data type.
FALSE
Ref1 and Ref2 are ignored, and Prop is always an
unsigned data type.
For example, if the Ref1 signal is ufix(16), the Ref2 signal is sfix(16), and
the Is-Signed parameter is IsSigned1 or IsSigned2, then Prop is forced to be
a signed data type.
The Number-of-bits: base parameter list specifies the number of bits used by
Prop for the base data type. The parameter values are described below.
Parameter Value
Description
NumBits1
The number of bits for Prop is given by the number
of bits for Ref1.
NumBits2
The number of bits for Prop is given by the number
of bits for Ref2.
max([NumBits1
NumBits2])
The number of bits for Prop is given by the
reference signal with largest number of bits.
min([NumBits1
NumBits2])
The number of bits for Prop is given by the
reference signal with smallest number of bits.
NumBits1+NumBits2
The number of bits for Prop is given by the sum of
the reference signal bits.
Refer to “Targeting an Embedded Processor” in Chapter 7 for more information
about the base data type.
The Number-of-bits: Multiplicative adjustment parameter allows you to
adjust the number of bits used by Prop by including a multiplicative
10-53
Data Type Propagation
adjustment. For example, suppose you want to guarantee that the number of
bits associated with a multiply and accumulate (MAC) operation is twice as
wide as the input signal. To do this, you configure this parameter to the value 2.
The Number-of-bits: Additive adjustment parameter allows you to adjust the
number of bits used by Prop by including an additive adjustment. For example,
if you are performing multiple additions during a MAC operation, the result
may overflow. To prevent overflow, you can associate guard bits with the
propagated data type. To associate four guard bits, you specify the value 4.
The Number-of-bits: Allowable final values parameter allows you to force the
computed number of bits used by Prop to a useful value. For example, if you are
targeting a processor that supports only 8, 16, and 32 bits, then you configure
this parameter to [8,16,32]. The block always propagates the smallest
specified value that fits. If you want to allow all fixed-point data types, you
would specify the value 1:128.
Inheriting Scaling Information
If the Propagated scaling parameter is Inherit via propagation rule, then
these dialog box parameters are available to you.
The Slope: Base parameter list specifies the slope used by Prop for the base
data type. The parameter values are described below.
10-54
Parameter Value
Description
Slope1
The slope of Prop is given by the slope of Ref1.
Slope2
The slope of Prop is given by the slope of Ref2.
Data Type Propagation
Parameter Value
Description
max([Slope1
Slope2])
The slope of Prop is given by the maximum slope
of the reference signals.
min([Slope1
Slope2])
The slope of Prop is given by the minimum slope
of the reference signals.
Slope1*Slope2
The slope of Prop is given by the product of the
reference signal slopes.
Slope1/Slope2
The slope of Prop is given by the ratio of the Ref1
slope to the Ref2 slope.
PosRange1
The range of Prop is given by the range of Ref1.
PosRange2
The range of Prop is given by the range of Ref2.
max([PosRange1
PosRange2])
The range of Prop is given by the maximum
range of the reference signals.
min([PosRange1
PosRange2])
The range of Prop is given by the minimum range
of the reference signals.
PosRange1*PosRange2
The range of Prop is given by the product of the
reference signal ranges.
PosRange1/PosRange2
The range of Prop is given by the ratio of the Ref1
range to the Ref2 range.
You control the precision of Prop with Slope1 and Slope2, and you control the
range of Prop with PosRange1 and PosRange2. Additionally, PosRange1 and
PosRange2 are one bit higher than the maximum positive range of the
associated reference signal.
The Slope: Multiplicative adjustment parameter allows you to adjust the
slope used by Prop by including a multiplicative adjustment. For example, if
you want 3 bits of additional precision (with a corresponding decrease in
range), the multiplicative adjustment is 2^-3.
The Slope: Additive adjustment parameter allows you to adjust the slope
used by Prop by including an additive adjustment. An additive slope
adjustment is often not needed. The most likely use is to set the multiplicative
10-55
Data Type Propagation
adjustment to 0, and set the additive adjustment to force the final slope to a
specified value.
The Bias: Base parameter list specifies the bias used by Prop for the base data
type. The parameter values are described below.
Parameter Value
Description
Bias1
The bias of Prop is given by the bias of Ref1.
Bias2
The bias of Prop is given by the bias of Ref2.
max([Bias1 Bias2])
The bias of Prop is given by the maximum bias of
the reference signals.
min([Bias1 Bias2])
The bias of Prop is given by the minimum bias of
the reference signals.
Bias1*Bias2
The bias of Prop is given by the product of the
reference signal biases.
Bias1/Bias2
The bias of Prop is given by the ratio of the Ref1
bias to the Ref2 bias.
Bias1+Bias2
The bias of Prop is given by the sum of the
reference biases.
Bias1-Bias2
The bias of Prop is given by the difference of the
reference biases.
The Bias: Multiplicative adjustment parameter allows you to adjust the bias
used by Prop by including a multiplicative adjustment.
The Bias: Additive adjustment parameter allows you to adjust the bias used
by Prop by including an additive adjustment.
If you want to guarantee that the bias associated with Prop is zero, you should
configure both the multiplicative adjustment and the additive adjustment to 0.
10-56
Data Type Propagation
If the Propagated scaling parameter is Obtain via best precision, then the
following dialog box parameters are available to you.
You specify any values, such as the upper and lower limits on the propagated
input, for the Values used to determine best precision scaling, which
constrains the precision chosen to apply to those limits. Based on the data type,
the scaling will automatically be selected such that these values can be
represent with no overflow error and minimum quantization error.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-57
Dead Zone
Purpose
10Dead Zone
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Dead Zone block is a masked S-function that generates zero output within
a specified region, called its dead zone. The lower limit of the dead zone is
specified with the Start of dead zone parameter, while the upper limit of the
dead zone is specified with the End of dead zone parameter. The block output
depends on the input and dead zone:
Provide a region of zero output
• If the input is within the dead zone (greater than the lower limit and less
than the upper limit), the output is zero.
• If the input is greater than or equal to the upper limit, the output is the input
minus the upper limit.
• If the input is less than or equal to the lower limit, the output is the input
minus the lower limit.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Start of dead zone
The lower limit of the dead zone.
End of dead zone
The upper limit of the dead zone.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
10-58
Dead Zone
Example
Consider the model shown below, which compares a fixed-point signal and the
output generated by the Dead Zone block. The signal source is a sine wave with
unit amplitude.
The Start of dead zone parameter is configured to -0.5 and the End of dead
zone parameter is configured to 0.5.
The resulting output is shown below.
1
0.8
Original fixed-point signal
0.6
0.4
Dead Zone signal
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4
−0.6
−0.8
−1
0
Characteristics
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes, of parameters
10-59
Dead Zone Dynamic
Purpose
10Dead Zone Dynamic
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Dead Zone Dynamic block is a masked block that dynamically bounds the
range of the input signal, providing a region of zero output. The bounds change
according to the upper and lower limit input signals where:
Set inputs within the bounds to zero
• The input within the bounds is set to zero.
• The input below the lower limit is shifted down by the lower limit.
• The input above the upper limit is shifted down by the upper limit.
The input for the upper limit is the up port, and the input for the lower limit is
the lo port.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-60
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Dead Zone
Decrement Real World
Purpose
10Decrement Real World
Library
Math
Description
The Decrement Real World block is a masked block that decreases the real
world value of the signal by one. Overflows always wrap.
Decrease the real world value of the signal by one
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
10-61
Decrement Stored Integer
Purpose
10Decrement Stored Integer
Library
Math
Description
The Decrement Stored Integer block is a masked block that decreases the
stored integer value of a signal by one.
Decrease the stored integer value of a signal by one
Floating-point signals are also decreased by one, and overflows always wrap.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-62
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Decrement Real World, and related blocks
Decrement Time To Zero
Purpose
10Decrement Time To Zero
Library
Math
Description
The Decrement Time To Zero block is a masked block that decreases the real
world value of the signal by the sample time, Ts. The output will never go below
zero.
Decrease the real world value of the signal by the sample time, but only to zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Decrement Real World, and related blocks
10-63
Decrement To Zero
Purpose
10Decrement To Zero
Library
Math
Description
The Decrement To Zero block is a masked block that decreases the real world
value of the signal by one. The output will never go below zero.
Decreases the real world value of a signal by one, but only to zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-64
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Decrement Real World, and related blocks
Derivative
Purpose
10Derivative
Library
Calculus
Description
The Derivative block computes a discrete time derivative, by subtracting the
input value at the previous time step from the current value, and dividing by
the sample time.
Compute a discrete time derivative
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous weighted input K*u/Ts
Set the initial condition for the previous scaled input.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
10-65
Derivative
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
10-66
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Detect Change
Purpose
10Detect Change
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Change block is a masked block that determines if an input does
not equal its previous value where:
Detect a change in a signal’s value
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal does not equal its previous
value.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal equals its previous
value.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
10-67
Detect Decrease
Purpose
10Detect Decrease
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Decrease block is a masked block that determines if an input is
strictly less than its previous value where:
Detect a decrease in a signal’s value
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is less than its previous
value.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal is greater than or equal
to its previous value.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-68
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
Detect Fall Negative
Purpose
10Detect Fall Negative
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Fall Negative block is a masked block that determines if the input
is less than zero, and its previous value was greater than or equal to zero
where:
Detect a falling edge when the signal’s value decreases to a strictly negative
value, and its previous value was nonnegative
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is less than zero, and its
previous value was greater than or equal to zero.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal is greater than or equal
to zero, or if the input signal is nonnegative, its previous value was positive
or zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
10-69
Detect Fall Nonpositive
Purpose
10Detect Fall Nonpositive
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Fall Nonpositive block is a masked block that determines if the
input is less than or equal to zero, and its previous value was positive where:
Detect a falling edge when the signal’s value decreases to a nonpositive value,
and its previous value was strictly positive
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is less than or equal to zero,
and its previous value was greater than zero.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal is greater than zero,
or if it is nonpositive, its previous value was nonpositive.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-70
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
Detect Increase
Purpose
10Detect Increase
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Increase block is a masked block that determines if an input is
strictly greater than its previous value where:
Detect an increase in a signal’s value
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is greater than its previous
value.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal is less than or equal to
its previous value.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
10-71
Detect Rise Nonnegative
Purpose
10Detect Rise Nonnegative
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Rise Nonnegative block is a masked block that determines if the
input is greater than or equal to zero, and its previous value was less than zero
where:
Detect a rising edge when a signal’s value increases to a nonnegative value,
and its previous value was strictly negative
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is greater than or equal to
zero, and its previous value was less than zero.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input signal is less than zero, or if
nonnegative, its previous value was greater than or equal to zero.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-72
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
Detect Rise Positive
Purpose
10Detect Rise Positive
Library
Edge Detect
Description
The Detect Rise Positive block is a masked block that determines if the input
is strictly positive, and its previous value was nonpositive where:
Detect a rising edge when a signal’s value increases to a strictly positive value,
and its previous value was nonpositive
• The output is true (not 0), when the input signal is greater than zero, and its
previous value was less than zero.
• The output is false (equal to 0), when the input is negative or zero, or if the
input is positive, its previous value was also positive.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
An 8-bit unsigned integer
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Vectorized
Yes
Detect Change, and related blocks
10-73
Difference
Purpose
10Difference
Library
Calculus
Description
The Difference block outputs the current input value minus the previous input
value.
Calculate the change in a signal over one time step
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
10-74
Difference
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
10-75
Dot Product
Purpose
10Dot Product
Library
Math
Description
The Dot Product block is a masked S-function that generates the dot product of
its two input vectors. The scalar output, y, is equal to the MATLAB operation
Generate the dot product
y = sum(conj(u1).* u2)
where u1 and u2 represent the inputs. If both inputs are vectors, they must be
the same length.
For a detailed description of all block parameters, refer to “Block Parameters”
on page 10-4. For more information about converting from one Fixed-Point
Blockset data type to another, refer to “Signal Conversions” on page 4-27.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
10-76
Dot Product
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-77
Filter Direct Form I
Purpose
10Filter Direct Form I
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Direct Form I block implements a Direct Form I realization of the
filter specified by the Numerator coefficients and the Denominator
coefficients excluding lead parameters. The block only supports single
input-single output filters.
Implement a Direct Form I realization of a filter
The block automatically selects the data types and scalings of the output, the
coefficients, and any temporary variables.
10-78
Filter Direct Form I
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Numerator coefficients
Coefficients for the numerator of the filter.
Denominator coefficients excluding lead
Coefficients for the denominator of the filter, excluding the leading
coefficient, which must be 1.0.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
10-79
Filter Direct Form I
Initial condition for previous input
Set the initial condition for the previous input.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-80
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter Direct Form I Time Varying
Purpose
10Filter Direct Form I Time Varying
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Direct Form I Time Varying block implements a Direct Form I
realization of the specified filter. The block only supports single input-single
output filters.
Implement a time varying Direct Form I realization of a filter
The block automatically selects the data types and scalings of the output, the
coefficients, and any temporary variables.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-81
Filter Direct Form I Time Varying
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Initial condition for previous input
Set the initial condition for the previous input.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-82
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Input Port Num
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Input Port Den No
Lead
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter Direct Form II
Purpose
10Filter Direct Form II
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Direct Form II block implements a Direct Form II realization of the
filter specified by the Numerator coefficients and the Denominator
coefficients excluding lead parameters. The block only supports single
input-single output filters.
Implement a Direct Form II realization of a filter
The block automatically selects the data types and scalings of the output, the
coefficients, and any temporary variables.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-83
Filter Direct Form II
Numerator coefficients
Coefficients for the numerator of the filter.
Denominator coefficients excluding lead
Coefficients for the denominator of the filter, excluding the leading
coefficient, which must be 1.0.
Initial condition
Set the initial condition.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-84
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter Direct Form II Time Varying
Purpose
10Filter Direct Form II Time Varying
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Direct Form II Time Varying block implements a Direct Form II
realization of the specified filter. The block only supports single input-single
output filters.
Implement a time varying Direct Form II realization of a filter
The block automatically selects the data types and scalings of the output, the
coefficients, and any temporary variables.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Set the initial condition.
10-85
Filter Direct Form II Time Varying
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-86
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Input Port Num
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Input Port Den No
Lead
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter First Order
Purpose
10Filter First Order
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter First Order block implements a discrete-time first order filter of the
input. The filter has a unity DC gain.
Implement a discrete-time first order filter
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Pole of filter (in Z plane)
Set the pole of the filter.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
10-87
Filter First Order
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-88
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter Lead or Lag
Purpose
10Filter Lead or Lag
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Lead or Lag block implements a discrete-time lead or lag filter of the
input. The instantaneous gain of the filter is one, and the DC gain is equal to
(1-z)/(1-p), where z is the zero and p is the pole of the filter.
Implement a discrete-time lead or lag filter
The block implements a lead filter when 0 < z < p < 1, and implements a lag
filter when 0 < p < z < 1.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Pole of filter (in Z plane)
Set the pole of the filter.
Zero of filter (in Z plane)
Set the zero of the filter.
10-89
Filter Lead or Lag
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Initial condition for previous input
Set the initial condition for the previous input.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-90
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
Filter Real Zero
Purpose
10Filter Real Zero
Library
Filters
Description
The Filter Real Zero block implements a discrete-time filter that has a real zero
and effectively has no pole.
Implement a discrete-time filter that has a real zero and no pole
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Zero of filter (in Z plane)
Set the zero of the filter.
Initial condition for previous input
Set the initial condition for the previous input.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
10-91
Filter Real Zero
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-92
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
FIR, and related blocks
FIR
Purpose
10FIR
Description
The FIR block is a masked S-function that samples and holds the N most recent
inputs, multiplies each input by a specified value (its FIR coefficient), and
stacks them in a vector. This block supports both single-input/single-output
(SISO) and single-input/multi-output (SIMO) modes.
Implement a fixed-point finite impulse response (FIR) filter
For the SISO mode, the FIR coefficients parameter is specified as a row
vector. For the SIMO mode, the FIR coefficients are specified as a matrix
where each row corresponds to a separate output.
The Initial condition parameter provides the initial values for all times
preceding the start time in the FIR realization. You specify the time interval
between samples with the Sample time parameter.
You specify the scaling for the FIR coefficients with the Parameter scaling
parameter. Note that there are two dialog box parameters that control the FIR
coefficient scaling: one associated with an edit field, and one associated with a
parameter list. If Parameter data type is a generalized fixed-point number
such as sfix(16), the Parameter scaling list provides you with these scaling
modes:
• Use Specified Scaling – This mode uses the slope/bias or radix point-only
scaling specified for the editable Parameter scaling parameter (for
example, 2^-10).
• Best Precision: Element-wise – This mode produces radix points such
that the precision is maximized for each element of the FIR coefficients
parameter.
• Best Precision: Row-wise – This mode produces a common radix point for
each element of the FIR coefficients row based on the best precision for the
largest value of that row.
• Best Precision: Column-wise – This mode produces a common radix point
for each element of the FIR coefficients column based on the best precision
for the largest value of that column.
• Best Precision: Matrix-wise – This mode produces a common radix point
for each element of the FIR coefficients matrix based on the best precision
for the largest value of the matrix.
10-93
FIR
If the FIR coefficients are specified as a row vector, then scaling element-wise
and column-wise produce the same result, while scaling matrix-wise and
row-wise produce the same result.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
FIR coefficients
FIR coefficients. One row per output.
Initial condition
Initial values for all times preceding the start time.
10-94
FIR
Sample time
Sample time.
Parameter data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Parameter scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. Additionally, the FIR coefficients
vector or matrix can be scaled using the constant vector or constant matrix
scaling modes for maximizing precision. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
10-95
FIR
Conversions
The FIR coefficients parameter is converted from doubles to the specified data
and Operations type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.The Initial condition
parameter is converted from doubles to the input data type offline using
round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter Conversions” on
page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
The FIR block first multiplies its inputs by the FIR coefficients parameter,
converts those results to the output data type using the specified rounding and
overflow modes, and then carries out the summation. Refer to “Rules for
Arithmetic Operations” on page 4-30 for more information about the rules this
block adheres to when performing operations.
Example
Suppose you want to configure this block for two outputs (SIMO mode) where
the first output is given by
y1 ( k ) = a1 ⋅ u ( k ) + b1 ⋅ u ( k – 1 ) + c1 ⋅ u ( k – 2 )
the second output is given by
y2 ( k ) = a2 ⋅ u ( k ) + b2 ⋅ u ( k – 1 )
and the initial values of u(k – 1) and u(k – 2) are given by ic1 and ic2,
respectively. To configure the FIR block for this situation, you must specify the
FIR coefficient parameter as [a1 b1 c1; a2 b2 c2] where c2 = 0, and the
Initial condition parameter as [ic1 ic2].
Characteristics
10-96
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
Gain
Purpose
10Gain
Description
The Gain block is a masked S-function that multiplies the input by a constant
value (referred to as the gain). To multiply the input by a constant matrix, use
the Matrix Gain block.
Multiply the input by a constant
You specify the gain with the Gain value parameter. The gain can be a scalar
or a vector. You specify the scaling for the gain with the Parameter scaling
parameter. Note that there are two dialog box parameters that control the gain
scaling: one associated with an edit field, and one associated with a parameter
list. If Parameter data type is a generalized fixed-point number such as
sfix(16), the Parameter scaling list provides you with these scaling modes:
• Use Specified Scaling – This mode uses the slope/bias or radix point-only
scaling specified for the editable Parameter scaling parameter (for
example, 2^-10).
• Best Precision: Element-wise – This mode produces radix points such
that the precision is maximized for each element of the Gain value vector.
• Best Precision: Vector-wise – This mode produces a common radix point
for each element of the Gain value vector based on the best precision for the
largest value of the vector.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-97
Gain
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify as a vector or scalar.
Parameter data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Parameter scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. Additionally, if Gain value is
specified as a vector, it can be scaled using the constant vector scaling
modes for maximizing precision. These scaling modes are available only for
generalized fixed-point data types.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
10-98
Gain
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Parameter data type and Output data type values are
overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Conversions
The Gain value parameter is converted from doubles to the specified data type
offline
using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter
and Operations
Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
The Gain block first multiples its inputs by the Gain value parameter, and
then converts those results to the output data type using the specified rounding
and overflow modes. Refer to “Rules for Arithmetic Operations” on page 4-30
for more information about the rules this block adheres to when performing
operations.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
10-99
Gateway In
Purpose
10Gateway In
Library
Data Type
Description
The Gateway In block is a masked S-function that converts a built-in Simulink
data type to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type.
Convert a Simulink data type to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type
The Input and Output to have equal parameter list controls how the input is
processed. The possible values are Real World Value and Stored Integer. In
terms of the general encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5, Real
World Value treats the input as V = SQ + B where S is the slope and B is the
bias. V is used to produce Q = (V - B)/S, which is stored in the output. Stored
Integer treats the input as a stored integer, Q. The value of Q is directly used
to produce the output. In this mode, the input and output are identical except
that the input is a raw integer lacking proper scaling information. In both
modes, the output data type includes the scaling information needed to
correctly interpret the signal as a real-world value.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-100
Gateway In
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Input and Output to have equal
Specify the type of value that the input and output are to have equal.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
10-101
Gateway In
Round toward
Rounding mode for fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Example
This example uses the Gateway In block to help you understand the difference
between a real-world value and a stored integer. Consider the two fixed-point
models shown below.
In the top model, the Gateway In block treats the input as a real-world value,
and maps that value to an 8-bit signed generalized fixed-point data type with
a scaling of 2-2. If the value is output from the Gateway Out block as a
10-102
Gateway In
real-world value, then the scaling and data type information is retained and
the output value is 001111.00, or 15. If the value is output from the Gateway
Out block as a stored integer, then the scaling and data type information is not
retained and the stored integer is interpreted as 00111100, or 60.
In the bottom model, the Gateway In block treats the input as a stored integer,
and the data type and scaling information is not applied. If the value is output
from the Gateway Out block as a real-world value, then the scaling and data
type information is applied to the stored integer, and the output value is
000011.11, or 3.75. If the value is output from the Gateway Out block as a
stored integer, then you get back the original input value of 15.
The model shown below illustrates how a summation operation applies to
real-world values and stored integers, and how scaling information is dealt
with in generated code.
Note that the summation operation produces the correct result when the
Gateway Out block outputs a real-world value. This is because the specified
scaling information is applied to the stored integer value. However, when the
Gateway Out block outputs a stored integer value, then the summation
10-103
Gateway In
operation produces an unexpected result due to the absence of scaling
information.
If you generate code for the above model, then the code captures the
appropriate scaling information. The code for the Sum block is shown below.
The inputs to this block are tagged with the specified scaling information so
that the necessary shifts are performed for the summation operation.
/* Sum Block: <Root>/Sum
*
* y = u0 + u1
*
* Input0 Data Type: Fixed Point
* Input1 Data Type: Fixed Point
* Output0 Data Type: Fixed Point
*
* Round Mode: Floor
* Saturation Mode: Wrap
*
*/
sum = ((in1) << 3);
sum += ((in2) << 1);
Characteristics
10-104
S16
S16
S16
2^-2
2^-4
2^-5
Input Port
Any built-in Simulink data type
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Gateway In Inherited
Purpose
10Gateway In Inherited
Library
Data Type
Description
The Gateway In Inherited block is a masked S-function that converts a built-in
Simulink data type to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type.
Convert a Simulink data type to a Fixed-Point Blockset data type, and inherit
the data type and scaling
The block requires two inputs. The first (top) input provides the data type and
scaling information. The second (bottom) input passes through to the output,
and inherits the data type and scaling of the first input. If you want to explicitly
specify the output data type and scaling, use the Gateway In block.
The Input and Output to have equal parameter list controls how the input is
processed. The possible values are Real World Value and Stored Integer. In
terms of the general encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5, Real
World Value treats the input as V = SQ + B where S is the slope and B is the
bias. Stored Integer treats the input as a stored integer, Q. For more
information about this parameter list, refer to the Gateway In block.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Remarks
Inheriting the data type and scaling provides these advantages:
• It makes reusing existing models easier.
• It allows you to create new fixed-point models with less effort since you can
avoid the detail of specifying the associated parameters.
10-105
Gateway In Inherited
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Input and Output to have equal
Specify the type of value that the input and output are to have equal.
Round toward
Rounding mode for fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-106
Input Port
Any built-in Simulink data type
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Gateway In, and related blocks
Gateway Out
Purpose
10Gateway Out
Library
Data Type
Description
The Gateway Out block is a masked S-function that converts any data type
supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset to a Simulink data type.
Convert a Fixed-Point Blockset data type to a Simulink data type
The Output and Input to have equal parameter list controls how the output
is treated. The possible values are Real World Value and Stored Integer. In
terms of the general encoding scheme described in “Scaling” on page 3-5, Real
World Value treats the output as V = SQ + B where S is the slope and B is the
bias. Stored Integer treats the output as a stored integer, Q. Selecting Stored
Integer may be useful in these circumstances:
• If you are generating code for a fixed-point processor, the resulting code only
uses integers and does not use floating-point operations.
• If you want to partition your model based on hardware characteristics. For
example, part of your model may involve simulating hardware that produces
integers as output.
Note If the fixed-point signal is a true integer such as sint(8) or uint(16),
then Real World Value and Stored Integer produce identical output values.
For more information about this parameter list, refer to the Gateway In block
description.
The Output data type parameter list specifies the Simulink data type to use
for the output. All built-in data types are supported as well as the boolean data
type. auto indicates the Fixed-Point Blockset data type is converted to
whatever data type Simulink back propagates.
Remarks
MATLAB’s built-in integer data types are limited to 32 bits. If you want to
output fixed-point numbers that range between 33 and 53 bits without loss of
precision or range, you should use the Gateway Out block to store the value
inside a double.
10-107
Gateway Out
If you want to output fixed-point numbers with more than 53 bits without loss
of precision or range, then you must break the number into pieces using the
Gain block, and then output the pieces using the Gateway Out block.
For example, suppose the original signal is an unsigned 128-bit value with
default scaling. You can break this signal into four pieces using four parallel
Gain blocks configured with the gain and output settings shown below.
Piece
Gain
Output Data Type
1
2^0
uint(32) – Least significant 32 bits
2
2^-32
uint(32)
3
2^-64
uint(32)
4
2^-96
uint(32) – Most significant 32 bits
For each Gain block, you must also configure the Round toward parameter to
Floor, and the Saturate to max or min when overflows occur check box
must be unchecked.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-108
Gateway Out
Output and Input to have equal
Specify the type of value the input and output are to have equal.
Output data type
Any built-in data type supported by Simulink.
Round toward
Rounding mode for fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any built-in Simulink data type
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
Gateway In, and related blocks
10-109
Increment Real World
Purpose
10Increment Real World
Library
Math
Description
The Increment Real World block is a masked block that increases the real
world value of the signal by one. Overflows always wrap.
Increase the real world value of the signal by one
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
10-110
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Increment Stored Integer
Purpose
10Increment Stored Integer
Library
Math
Description
The Increment Stored Integer block is a masked block that increases the stored
integer value of a signal by one.
Increase the stored integer value of a signal by one
Floating-point signals are also increased by one, and overflows always wrap.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
Increment Real World
10-111
Integer Delay
Purpose
10Integer Delay
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Integer Delay block delays its input by N sample periods.
Delay a signal N sample periods
The block accepts one input and generates one output, both of which can be
scalar or vector. If the input is a vector, all elements of the vector are delayed
by the same sample period.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
The initial output of the simulation.
Sample time
Sample time.
Number of delays
The number of periods to delay the input signal.
Conversions
The Initial condition parameter is converted from a double to the input data
type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Of input or initial conditions
10-112
Integrator Backward
Purpose
10Integrator Backward
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Backward block performs a discrete-time integration of a signal
using the backward method. The block multiplies the input by the weighted
sample time and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time zero. The
block outputs the sum up to the nth time step at time n.
Remarks
The output of the Integrator Backward block differs from the output of the
Integrator Forward block only by the first and last terms in the cumulative
sum.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the backward method
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
10-113
Integrator Backward
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
10-114
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward Resettable
Purpose
10Integrator Backward Resettable
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Backward Resettable block performs a discrete-time
integration of a signal using the backward method.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the backward method with
external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
reset signal R is false, the block multiplies the input by the weighted sample
time and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time zero.
When the reset signal R is true, the block outputs the Initial condition for
previous output parameter.
Remarks
The output of the Integrator Backward Resettable block differs from the output
of the Integrator Forward Resettable block only by the first and last terms in
the cumulative sum.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
10-115
Integrator Backward Resettable
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-116
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
Integrator Backward Resettable Limited
Purpose
10Integrator Backward Resettable Limited
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Backward Resettable Limited block performs a discrete-time
integration of a signal using the backward method.
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a signal using the backward
method, with external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
cumulative sum reaches one of the limits given by the Upper limit and Lower
limit parameters, the sum saturates to that limit.
When the reset signal R is false, the block multiplies the input by the weighted
sample time and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time zero.
When the reset signal R is true, the block outputs the Initial condition for
previous output parameter.
Remarks
The output of the Integrator Backward Resettable Limited block differs from
the output of the Integrator Forward Resettable Limited block only by the first
and last terms in the cumulative sum.
10-117
Integrator Backward Resettable Limited
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Upper limit
The upper limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Lower limit
The lower limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
10-118
Integrator Backward Resettable Limited
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
10-119
Integrator Forward
Purpose
10Integrator Forward
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Forward block performs a discrete-time integration of a signal
using the forward method. The block multiplies the input by the weighted
sample time and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time zero. The
block outputs the sum up to the nth time step at time n+1. The first term of the
sum is the Initial condition for previous output parameter.
Remarks
The output of the Integrator Forward block differs from the output of the
Integrator Backward block only by the first and last terms in the cumulative
sum.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the forward method
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
10-120
Integrator Forward
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
10-121
Integrator Forward Resettable
Purpose
10Integrator Forward Resettable
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Forward Resettable block performs a discrete-time integration
of a signal using the forward method. When the external reset signal R is false,
the block multiplies the input by the weighted sample time and adds the result
to the cumulative sum since time zero.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the forward method, with
external Boolean reset
When the external reset signal R is true, the block outputs the Initial
condition for previous output parameter.
Remarks
The output of the Integrator Forward Resettable block differs from the output
of the Integrator Backward Resettable block only by the first and last terms in
the cumulative sum.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
10-122
Integrator Forward Resettable
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
10-123
Integrator Forward Resettable Limited
Purpose
10Integrator Forward Resettable Limited
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Forward Resettable Limited block performs a discrete-time
integration of a signal using the forward method. When the cumulative sum
reaches one of the limits given by the Upper limit and Lower limit
parameters, the sum saturates to that limit.
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a signal using the forward method,
with external Boolean reset
When the external reset signal R is false, the block multiplies the input by the
weighted sample time and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time
zero.
When the external reset signal R is true, the block outputs the Initial
condition for previous output parameter.
The first term of the sum is the product of the weighted sample time and the
value of the Initial condition for previous input parameter.
Remarks
10-124
The output of the Integrator Forward Resettable Limited block differs from the
output of the Integrator Backward Resettable Limited block only by the first
and last terms in the cumulative sum.
Integrator Forward Resettable Limited
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Upper limit
The upper limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Lower limit
The lower limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
10-125
Integrator Forward Resettable Limited
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-126
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
Integrator Trapezoidal
Purpose
10Integrator Trapezoidal
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Trapezoidal block performs a discrete-time integration of a
signal using the trapezoidal method. At time step k, the block computes the
average of the inputs at times k-1 and k, multiplies the average by the
weighted sample time, and adds the result to the cumulative sum since time
zero. The block outputs the sum up to the k’th time step at time.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the trapezoidal method
The block calculates the output at time k by the rule
y(k) = y(k – 1) + w(k) + w(k – 1)
where u ( k ) is the input at time k and
K ⋅ Ts
w ( k ) = ---------------- ⋅ u ( k )
2
At the first time step, y(0) is set to the value of Initial condition for previous
output, and w(0) is set to the value of Initial condition for previous
weighted input K*Ts*u/2.
10-127
Integrator Trapezoidal
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Initial condition for previous weighted input K*Ts*u/2
Set the initial condition for the previous weighted input.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
10-128
Integrator Trapezoidal
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
10-129
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable
Purpose
10Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable block performs a discrete-time
integration of a signal using the trapezoidal method.
Perform discrete-time integration of a signal using the trapezoidal method,
with external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
reset signal R is false at time k, the block calculates the output at time k by the
rule
y(k) = y(k – 1) + w(k) + w(k – 1)
where u ( k ) is the input at time k and
K ⋅ Ts
w ( k ) = ---------------- ⋅ u ( k )
2
When the reset signal R is true at time k, the block resets the output y(k) to the
value of the Initial condition for previous output parameter, and resets w(k)
to the value of the Initial condition for previous weighted input K*Ts*u/2
parameter.
10-130
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Initial condition for previous weighted input K*Ts*u/2
Set the initial condition for the previous weighted input.
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
10-131
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
10-132
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited
Purpose
10Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited
Library
Calculus
Description
The Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable block performs a discrete-time
integration of a signal using the trapezoidal method.
Perform discrete-time limited integration of a signal using the trapezoidal
method, with external Boolean reset
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
cumulative sum reaches one of the limits given by the Upper limit and Lower
limit parameters, the sum saturates to that limit.
When the reset signal R is false at time step k, the block calculates the output
at time k by the rule
y(k) = y(k – 1) + w(k) + w(k – 1)
where u ( k ) is the input at time k and
K ⋅ Ts
w ( k ) = ---------------- ⋅ u ( k )
2
When the reset signal R is true at time k, the block resets the output y(k) to the
value of the Initial condition for previous output parameter. The block also
resets w(k) to the value of the Initial condition for previous weighted input
K*Ts*u/2 parameter.
10-133
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain value
Specify the weight by which the sample time is multiplied.
Initial condition for previous output
Set the initial condition for the previous output.
Initial condition for previous weighted input K*Ts*u/2
Set the initial condition for the previous weighted input.
Upper limit
The upper limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
Lower limit
The lower limit for saturation of the cumulative sum.
10-134
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited
Output data type and scaling
The options are:
• Specify via dialog
• Inherit via internal rule
• Inherit via back propagation
When Specify via dialog is selected, you can specify the Output data type
and Output scaling parameters.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the input and reset source ports
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs and gain
Integrator Backward, and related blocks
10-135
Interval Test
Purpose
10Interval Test
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Interval Test block outputs TRUE if the input is between the values
specified by the Lower limit and Upper limit parameters. The block outputs
FALSE if the input is outside those values. The output of the block when the
input is equal to the Lower limit or the Upper limit is determined by whether
the boxes next to Interval closed on left and Interval closed on right are
checked in the dialog box.
Determine if a signal is in a specified interval
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Interval closed on right
When the box is checked, the Upper limit is included in the interval for
which the block outputs TRUE.
Upper limit
The upper limit of the interval for which the block outputs TRUE.
Interval closed on left
When the box is checked, the Lower limit is included in the interval for
which the block outputs TRUE.
Lower limit
The lower limit of the interval for which the block outputs TRUE.
10-136
Interval Test
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-137
Interval Test Dynamic
Purpose
10Interval Test Dynamic
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Interval Test Dynamic block outputs TRUE if the input is between the
values of the external signals up and lo. The block outputs FALSE if the input
is outside those values. The output of the block when the input is equal to the
signal up or the signal lo is determined by whether the boxes next to Interval
closed on left and Interval closed on right are checked in the dialog box.
Determine if a signal is in a specified interval
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Interval closed on right
When the box is checked, the Upper limit is included in the interval for
which the block outputs TRUE.
Interval closed on left
When the box is checked, the Lower limit is included in the interval for
which the block outputs TRUE.
Characteristics
See Also
10-138
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as output
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Interval Test
Logical Operator
Purpose
10Logical Operator
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Logical Operation block is a masked S-function that performs the specified
logical operation on its inputs. An input value is TRUE (1) if it is nonzero and
FALSE (0) if it is zero.
Perform the specified logical operation on the inputs
You select the Boolean operation connecting the inputs with the Operator
parameter list. The supported operations are given below.
Operation
Description
AND
TRUE if all inputs are TRUE
OR
TRUE if at least one input is TRUE
NAND
TRUE if at least one input is FALSE
NOR
TRUE when no inputs are TRUE
XOR
TRUE if an odd number of inputs are TRUE
NOT
TRUE if the input is FALSE
The number of input ports is specified with the Number of input ports
parameter. The output type is specified with the Logical output data type
parameter. An output value is 1 if TRUE and 0 if FALSE.
Note The output data type should represent zero exactly. Data types that
satisfy this condition include signed and unsigned integers, and any
floating-point data type.
The size of the output depends on the number of inputs, their vector size, and
the selected operator:
• The NOT operator accepts only one input, which can be a scalar or a vector.
If the input is a vector, the output is a vector of the same size containing the
logical complements of the input vector elements.
10-139
Logical Operator
• For a single vector input, the block applies the operation (except the NOT
operator) to all elements of the vector. The output is always a scalar.
• For two or more inputs, the block performs the operation between all of the
inputs. If the inputs are vectors, the operation is performed between
corresponding elements of the vectors to produce a vector output.
When configured as a multi-input XOR gate, this block performs an additionmodulo-two operation as mandated by the IEEE Standard for Logic Elements.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operator
Logical operator used to connect the inputs.
Number of input ports
Number of inputs.
Logical output data type
Output data type. You should only use data types that represent zero
exactly.
Characteristics
10-140
Input Port(s)
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset that can
exactly represent zero
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs
Look-Up Table
Purpose
10Look-Up Table
Library
Lookup
Description
The Look-Up Table block is a masked S-function that computes an
approximation to some function y=f(x) given x, y data vectors. The look-up
method can use interpolation, extrapolation, or the original values of the input.
Approximate a one-dimensional function using a selected look-up method
The length of the x and y data vectors provided to this block must match. Also,
the x data vector must be strictly monotonically increasing after conversion to
the input’s fixed-point data type. Note that due to quantization, the x data
vector may be strictly monotonic in doubles format, but not so after conversion
to a fixed-point data type. To map two inputs to an output, use the Look-Up
Table (2D) block.
You define the table by specifying the Vector of input values parameter as a
1-by-n vector and the Vector of output values parameter as a 1-by-n vector.
The block generates output based on the input values using one of these
methods selected from the Method parameter list:
• Interpolation-Extrapolation – This is the default method; it performs
linear interpolation and extrapolation of the inputs.
- If a value matches the block’s input, the output is the corresponding
element in the output vector.
- If no value matches the block’s input, then the block performs linear
interpolation between the two appropriate elements of the table to
determine an output value. If the block input is less than the first or
greater than the last input vector element, then the block extrapolates
using the first two or last two points.
• Interpolation-Use End Values – This method performs linear
interpolation as described above but does not extrapolate outside the end
points of the input vector. Instead, the end-point values are used.
• Use Input Nearest – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate.
Instead, the element in x nearest the current input is found. The
corresponding element in y is then used as the output.
• Use Input Below – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the element in x nearest and below the current input is found. The
10-141
Look-Up Table
corresponding element in y is then used as the output. If there is no element
in x below the current input, then the nearest element is found.
• Use Input Above – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the element in x nearest and above the current input is found. The
corresponding element in y is then used as the output. If there is no element
in x above the current input, then the nearest element is found.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Remarks
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-142
To avoid parameter saturation errors, the automatic scaling script autofixexp
employs a special rule for the Look-Up Table block. autofixexp modifies the
scaling by using the output look-up values in addition to the logged minimum
and maximum simulation values. This prevents the data from being saturated
to different values. The look-up values are given by the Vector of output
values parameter (the YDataPoints variable).
Look-Up Table
Vector of input values
The vector of input values must be the same size as the output vector and
strictly monotonically increasing.
Vector of output values
The vector of output values must be the same size as the input vector.
Look-up method
Look-up method.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Conversions
The Vector of input values parameter is converted from doubles to the input
data type. The Vector of output values parameter is converted from doubles
to the output data type. Both conversion are performed offline using
10-143
Look-Up Table
round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter Conversions” on
page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
Example
Suppose the Look-Up Table block is configured to use a vector of input values
given by [-5:5], and a vector of output values given by sinh([-5:5]). Using
the model shown below,
the following results were generated.
Look-Up Method
Input
Output
Comment
InterpolationExtrapolation
1.4
2.153
N/A
5.2
83.59
N/A
1.4
2.153
N/A
5.2
74.2
The value for sinh(5.0) was used.
Use Input
Nearest
1.4
1.175
The value for sinh(1.0) was used.
Use Input
Below
1.4
1.175
The value for sinh(1.0) was used.
-5.2
-74.2
The value for sinh(-5.0) was used.
1.4
3.627
The value for sinh(2.0) was used.
5.2
74.2
The value for sinh(5.0) was used.
InterpolationUse End Values
Use Input
Above
Characteristics
10-144
Input Port(s)
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Look-Up Table
Direct Feedthrough Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
10-145
Look-Up Table Dynamic
Purpose
10Look-Up Table Dynamic
Library
LookUp
Description
The Look-Up Table Dynamic block is a masked S-function that computes an
approximation to some function y=f(x) given x, y data vectors. The look-up
method can use interpolation, extrapolation, or the original values of the input.
Approximate a one-dimensional function using a selected look-up method and
a dynamically specified table
The x data vector must be strictly monotonically increasing after conversion to
the input’s fixed-point data type. Note that due to quantization, the x data
vector may be strictly monotonic in doubles format, but not so after conversion
to a fixed-point data type.
Note Unlike the Look-Up Table block, the Look-Up Table Dynamic block
allows you to change the table data without stopping the simulation. For
example, you may want to automatically incorporate new table data if the
physical system you are simulating changes.
You define the look-up table by inputting the x and y table data to the block as
1-by-n vectors. To help reduce the ROM used by the code generated for this
block, you can use different data types for the x table data and the y table data.
However, these restrictions apply:
• The y table data and the output vector must have the same sign, the same
bias, and the same fractional slope.
• The x table data and the x data vector must have the same sign, the same
bias, and the same fractional slope. Additionally, the precision and range for
the x data vector must greater than or equal to the precision and range for
the x table data.
The block generates output based on the input values using one of these
methods selected from the Look-up method parameter list:
• Interpolation-Extrapolation – This is the default method; it performs
linear interpolation and extrapolation of the inputs.
10-146
Look-Up Table Dynamic
- If a value matches the block’s input, the output is the corresponding
element in the output vector.
- If no value matches the block’s input, then the block performs linear
interpolation between the two appropriate elements of the table to
determine an output value. If the block input is less than the first or
greater than the last input vector element, then the block extrapolates
using the first two or last two points.
• Interpolation-Use End Values – This method performs linear
interpolation as described above but does not extrapolate outside the end
points of the input vector. Instead, the end-point values are used.
• Use Input Nearest – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate.
Instead, the element in x nearest the current input is found. The
corresponding element in y is then used as the output.
• Use Input Below – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the element in x nearest and below the current input is found. The
corresponding element in y is then used as the output. If there is no element
in x below the current input, then the nearest element is found.
• Use Input Above – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the element in x nearest and above the current input is found. The
corresponding element in y is then used as the output. If there is no element
in x above the current input, then the nearest element is found.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-147
Look-Up Table Dynamic
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Look-up method
Look-up method.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
10-148
Look-Up Table Dynamic
Override with data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Conversions
The table data is converted from doubles to the x data type. This conversion is
performed offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter
Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
Example
For an example that illustrates the look-up methods supported by this block,
see the example included in the Look-Up Table block reference pages.
Characteristics
Input Port(s)
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough Yes
Scalar Expansion
See Also
No
Look-Up Table, and related blocks
10-149
Look-Up Table (2D)
Purpose
10Look-Up Table (2D)
Library
LookUp
Description
The Look-Up Table (2-D) block is a masked S-function that computes an
approximation to some function z=f(x,y) given x, y, z data points. The look-up
method can use interpolation, extrapolation, or the original values of the
inputs. Also, the x and y data vectors must be strictly monotonically increasing
as described in the Look-Up Table reference pages.
Approximate a two-dimensional function using a selected look-up method
The Row parameter is a 1-by-m vector of x data points, the Col parameter is a
1-by-n vector of y data points, and the Table parameter is an m-by-n matrix of
z data points. Both the row and column vectors must be strictly monotonically
increasing. The block generates output based on the input values using one of
these methods selected from the Method parameter list:
• Interpolation-Extrapolation – This is the default method; it performs
linear interpolation and extrapolation of the inputs.
- If the inputs match row and column parameter values, the output is the
value at the intersection of the row and column.
- If the inputs do not match row and column parameter values, then the
block generates output by linearly interpolating between the appropriate
row and column values. If either or both block inputs are less than the first
or greater than the last row or column values, the block extrapolates from
the first two or last two points.
• Interpolation-Use End Values – This method performs linear
interpolation as described above but does not extrapolate outside the end
points of the input vector. Instead, the end-point values are used.
• Use Input Nearest – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate.
Instead, the elements in x and y nearest the current inputs are found. The
corresponding element in z is then used as the output.
• Use Input Below – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the elements in x and y nearest and below the current inputs are found. The
corresponding element in z is then used as the output. If there are no
elements in x or y below the current inputs, then the nearest elements are
found.
10-150
Look-Up Table (2D)
• Use Input Above – This method does not interpolate or extrapolate. Instead,
the elements in x and y nearest and above the current inputs are found. The
corresponding element in z is then used as the output. If there are no
elements in x or y above the current inputs, then the nearest elements are
found.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Remarks
To avoid parameter saturation errors, the automatic scaling script autofixexp
employs a special rule for the Look-Up Table (2D) block. autofixexp modifies
the scaling by using the output look-up values in addition to the logged
minimum and maximum simulation values. This prevents the data from being
saturated to different values. The look-up values are given by the Table
parameter (the TableDataPoints variable).
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-151
Look-Up Table (2D)
Row
Input row vector. It must be strictly monotonically increasing.
Col
Input column vector. It must be strictly monotonically increasing.
Table
Output vector. It must match the size defined by the Row and Col
parameters.
Look-up method
Look-up method.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it.
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
10-152
Look-Up Table (2D)
Conversions
The Row parameter is converted from doubles to the first input’s data type.
The Col parameter is converted from doubles to the second input’s data type.
The Table parameter is converted from doubles to the output data type. All
conversion are performed offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer
to “Parameter Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about
parameter conversions.
Example
Suppose the Look-Up Table (2D) block is configured to use input row and
column vectors given by [1:3], and a look-up table given by
[4 5 6; 16 19 20; 10 18 23]. Using the model shown below,
the following results were generated.
Look-Up Method
Input [x y]
Output
Comment
InterpolationExtrapolation
[1.6 2.5]
13.9
N/A
[1.6 4.0]
15.4
N/A
[1.6 2.5]
13.9
N/A
[1.6 4.0]
14.4
The value for [1.6 3] was used.
[1.6 2.3]
19
The value for [2 2] was used.
InterpolationUse End Values
Use Input
Nearest
10-153
Look-Up Table (2D)
Look-Up Method
Input [x y]
Output
Comment
Use Input
Below
[1.6 2.3]
5
The value for [1 2] was used.
[1.6 0.5]
4
The value for [1 1] was used.
[1.6 2.3]
20
The value for [2 3] was used.
[1.6 3.5]
20
The value for [2 3] was used.
Use Input
Above
Characteristics
See Also
10-154
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of one input if the other is a vector
Look-Up Table, and related blocks
Matrix Gain
Purpose
10Matrix Gain
Library
Math
Description
The Matrix Gain block is a masked S-function that multiplies the input by a
constant matrix (referred to as the matrix gain). The block generates its output
by multiplying the input by a specified matrix
Multiply the input by a constant matrix
y = Ku
where K is the matrix gain and u is the input. If the matrix has m rows and n
columns, then the input to this block should be a vector of length n. The output
is a vector of length m.
You specify the matrix gain with the Gain matrix value parameter. You
specify the scaling for the matrix gain with the Parameter scaling parameter.
Note that there are two dialog box parameters that control the matrix gain
scaling: one associated with an edit field, and one associated with a parameter
list. If Parameter data type is a generalized fixed-point number such as
sfix(16), the Parameter scaling list provides you with these scaling modes:
• Use Specified Scaling – This mode uses the slope/bias or radix point-only
scaling specified for the editable Parameter scaling parameter (for
example, 2^-10).
• Use Best Precision: Element-wise – This mode produces radix points such
that the precision is maximized for each element of the Gain matrix value
matrix.
• Use Best Precision: Row-wise – This mode produces a common radix point
for each element of a Gain matrix value row based on the best precision for
the largest value of that row.
• Use Best Precision: Column-wise – This mode produces a common radix
point for each element of a Gain matrix value column based on the best
precision for the largest value of that column.
• Use Best Precision: Matrix-wise – This mode produces a common radix
point for each element of the Gain matrix value matrix based on the best
precision for the largest value of the matrix.
10-155
Matrix Gain
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Gain matrix value
Specify as a scalar or vector.
Gain data type and scaling
Set the data type and scaling of the gain.
Parameter data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Parameter scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. Additionally, the gain can be scaled
using the constant matrix scaling modes for maximizing precision. These
scaling modes are available only for generalized fixed-point data types.
10-156
Matrix Gain
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data types(s) with doubles
If checked, the Parameter data type and Output data type values are
overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Conversions
The Gain matrix value parameter is converted from doubles to the specified
and Operations data type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter
Conversions” on page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
The Matrix Gain block first multiples its inputs by the Gain matrix value
parameter, converts those results to the output data type using the specified
rounding and overflow modes, and then performs the summation. Refer to
“Rules for Arithmetic Operations” on page 4-30 for more information about the
rules this block adheres to when performing operations.
10-157
Matrix Gain
Characteristics
10-158
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
MinMax
Purpose
10MinMax
Library
Math
Description
The MinMax block is a masked S-function that outputs either the minimum or
the maximum element of the inputs. You can choose which function to apply
with the Function parameter list.
Output the minimum or maximum input value
You specify the number of input ports with the Number of input ports
parameter. If the block has one input port, the input must be a scalar or a
vector. The block outputs a scalar equal to the minimum or maximum element
of the input vector.
If the block has multiple input ports, the non-scalar inputs must all have the
same dimensions. The block expands any scalar inputs to have the same
dimensions as the non-scalar inputs. The block outputs a signal having the
same dimensions as the input. Each output element equals the minimum or
maximum of the corresponding input elements.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-159
MinMax
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Function
The function to apply to the input.
Number of input ports
The number of inputs to the block.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
10-160
MinMax
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-161
MinMax Running Resettable
Purpose
10MinMax Running Resettable
Library
Math
Description
The MinMax Running Resettable block outputs the minimum or maximum of
all past inputs u. You specify whether the block outputs the minimum or the
maximum with the Function parameter.
Determine the minimum or maximum of a signal over time
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
reset signal R is TRUE, the block resets the output to the value of the Initial
condition parameter.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Function
Specify whether the block outputs the minimum or the maximum.
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Characteristics
See Also
10-162
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
MinMax
MultiPort Switch
Purpose
10MultiPort Switch
Library
Select
Description
The MultiPort Switch block is a masked S-function that passes through the
data input specified by the first (top) input. The first input is called the control
input, while the rest of the inputs are called data inputs.
Switch output between different inputs based on the value of the first input
If the control input is an integer value, then the specified data input is passed
through to the output. For example, if the control input is 1, then the first data
input is passed through to the output. If the control input is not an integer
value, the block truncates the value to an integer by rounding to floor. If the
truncated control input is less than 1 or greater than the number of input ports,
an out-of-bounds error is returned.
The block inputs can be scalar or vector. You specify the number of data inputs
with the Number of input ports parameter. The block output is determined by
these rules:
• If you specify only one data input and that input is a vector, the block
behaves as an “index selector,” and not as a multi-port switch. The block
output is the vector element that corresponds to the value of the control
input.
• If you specify more than one data input, the block behaves like a multi-port
switch. The block output is the data input that corresponds to the value of
the control input. If at least one of the data inputs is a vector, the block
output is a vector. Any scalar inputs are expanded to vectors.
• If the inputs are scalar, the output is a scalar.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Note The output data type is determined by the data input with the largest
positive range.
The Index Vector block, also in the Select library, is another implementation of
the MultiPort Switch block having different parameter settings.
10-163
MultiPort Switch
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Number of input ports
The number of data inputs to the block.
Use zero based indexing
Controls whether the first item has index zero or index one.
Output data type and scaling
Inherit the output data type and scaling from the driving block or by back
propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output. This parameter does not apply
to an integer control input.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap. This
parameter does not apply to an integer control input.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
10-164
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
MultiPort Switch
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-165
Product
Purpose
10Product
Library
Math
Description
The Product block is a masked S-function that performs multiplication or
division of its inputs.
Multiply or divide inputs
You specify the operations with the Enter */ characters or the number of
inputs parameter. Multiply-divide characters indicate which operations are to
be performed:
• If there are two or more inputs, then the number of multiply-divide
characters must equal the number of inputs. For example, '*/*' requires
three inputs and configures the block to divide the first (top) input by the
second (middle) input, and then and multiply the third (bottom) input. If the
first character is '/', then the first input is inverted.
• If only multiplication of inputs is required, then a numeric parameter value
equal to the number of inputs can be supplied instead of multiply-divide
characters.
• If only one vector is input, then a single '*' or '/' will collapse the vector
using the specified operation.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
The Math library contains the following implementations, which are all linked
to the Product block but have different parameter settings:
• Multiply
• Divide
• Product of Elements
• Product of Elements Inverted
• Multiply Matrix
10-166
Product
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Enter */ characters or the number of inputs
Enter as many multiply or divide characters as there are inputs. For
multiplication only, you can enter the number of inputs since this is the
default operation.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
10-167
Product
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Operations
The Product block first performs the specified multiply or divide operations on
the inputs, and then converts the results to the output data type using the
specified rounding and overflow modes. Refer to “Rules for Arithmetic
Operations” on page 4-30 for more information about the rules this block
adheres to when performing operations.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-168
Rate Limiter
Purpose
10Rate Limiter
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Rate Limiter block is a masked block that limits the rising and falling rates
of the signal.
Limit the rising and falling rates of the signal
Use the Rising slew rate parameter to set the limit on the rising rate of the
signal.
Use the Falling slew rate parameter to set the limit on the falling rate of the
signal.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Rising slew rate
Limit on the rising rate of the signal.
Falling slew rate
Limit on the falling rate of the signal.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-169
Rate Limiter Dynamic
Purpose
10Rate Limiter Dynamic
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Rate Limiter Dynamic block is a masked block that limits the rising and
falling rates of the signal.
Limit the rising and falling rates of the signal
The external signal up sets the upper limit on the rising rate of the signal.
The external signal lo sets the lower limit on the falling rate of the signal.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
10-170
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same data type as input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Rate Limiter
Relational Operator
Purpose
10Relational Operator
Library
Logic & Comparison
Description
The Relational Operator block is a masked S-function that performs a
comparison of its two inputs. The first (top) input is converted to the data type
of the second (bottom) input prior to comparison.
Perform the specified relational operation on the inputs
The operator connecting the two inputs is selected with the Operator
parameter list. The supported relational operators are given below.
Operation
Description
==
TRUE if the first input is equal to the second input
~=
TRUE if the first input is not equal to the second input
<
TRUE if the first input is less than the second input
<=
TRUE if the first input is less than or equal to the second
input
>=
TRUE if the first input is greater than or equal to the
second input
>
TRUE if the first input is greater than the second input
The output is specified with the Logical output data type parameter. The
output equals 1 for TRUE and 0 for FALSE.
Note The output data type selected should represent zero exactly. Data types
that satisfy this condition include signed and unsigned integers and any
floating-point data type.
10-171
Relational Operator
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operator
Relational operator used to compare the two inputs.
Logical output data type
Output data type. You should only use data types that can represent zero
exactly.
Conversions
The input with the smallest positive range is converted to the data type of the
other input offline using round-to-nearest and saturation. This conversion is
performed prior to comparison. Refer to “Parameter Conversions” on page 4-27
for more information about parameter conversions.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset that can
exactly represent zero
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of inputs
10-172
Relay
Purpose
10Relay
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Relay block is a masked S-function that allows the output to switch
between two specified values. When the relay is on, it remains on until the
input drops below the value of the Switch off point parameter. When the relay
is off, it remains off until the input exceeds the value of the Switch on point
parameter. The block accepts one input and generates one output.
Switch output between two constants
The Switch on point value must be greater than or equal to the Switch off
point. Specifying a Switch on point value greater than the Switch off point
value models hysteresis, whereas specifying equal values models a switch with
a threshold at that value.
You specify the output scaling with the Output scaling parameter. Note that
there are two dialog box parameters that control the output scaling: one
associated with an edit field, and one associated with a parameter list. If
Output data type is a generalized fixed-point number such as sfix(16), the
Output scaling parameter list provides you with these scaling modes:
• Use Specified Scaling – This mode uses the slope/bias or radix point-only
scaling specified for the editable Output scaling parameter (for example,
2^-10).
• Best Precision: Vector-wise – This mode produces the best precision
based on the Output when on and Output when off parameters.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
10-173
Relay
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Switch on point
The “on” threshold for the relay.
Switch off point
The “off” threshold for the relay.
Output when on
The output when the relay is on.
Output when off
The output when the relay is off.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset. If you specify ufix,
the Output Scaling field appears in the dialog box. If you then select Use
Specified Scaling in the Output Scaling field, you can enter the scaling
for the output in the Output Scaling: Slope or [Slope Bias] field.
10-174
Relay
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Conversions
Both the Switch on point and Switch off point parameters are converted to
the input data type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-175
Repeating Sequence Interpolated
Purpose
10Repeating Sequence Interpolated
Library
Sources
Description
The Repeating Sequence Interpolated block outputs a discrete-time sequence
and then repeats it. Between data points, the block uses the method specified
by the Look-up Method parameter to determine the output.
Output discrete-time sequence and repeat, interpolating between data points
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Vector of output values
Column vector containing output values of the discrete time sequence.
Vector of time values
Column vector containing time values. The time values must be a strictly
increasing and the vector must have the same size as the vector of output
values.
10-176
Repeating Sequence Interpolated
Look-up Method
Specify the lookup method to determine the output between data points.
Sample time
Sample time.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or by inheriting
the data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the blockset.
Output scaling
Select the scaling method using the specified scaling or using the best
precision.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If the box is checked, output scaling is locked.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Characteristics
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-177
Repeating Sequence Stair
Purpose
10Repeating Sequence Stair
Output and repeat the discrete time sequence
Library
Sources
Description
The Repeating Sequence Stair block is a masked block that outputs and
repeats a discrete time sequence.
You can specify the stair sequence with the Vector of output values
parameter. For example, the vector can be specified as [3 1 2 4 1]', producing
the stair sequence shown in the plot.
You can specify the sample time with the Sample time parameter.
You can select the output data type and scaling with the Output data type and
scaling parameter, and set the output data type with the Output data type
parameter.
For fixed-point data types, you can set the output scaling with the Output
scaling parameter, and, below that parameter, select the method for scaling
the output with the Output scaling parameter.
For a detailed description of all block parameters, refer to “Block Parameters”
on page 9-4. For more information about converting from one Fixed-Point
Blockset data type to another, refer to “Signal Conversions” on page 4-26.
10-178
Repeating Sequence Stair
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Vector of output values
Vector containing values of the repeating stair sequence.
Sample time
Sample time.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or by inheriting
the data type and scaling by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the blockset.
Output scaling
Slope or slope/bias scaling.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If the box is checked, output scaling is locked.
10-179
Repeating Sequence Stair
Output scaling
Select the scaling method using the specified scaling or using the best
precision.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Characteristics
See Also
10-180
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Scalar Expansion
No
Vectorized
No
Repeating Sequence Interpolated
Sample Time Multiply
Purpose
10Sample Time Multiply
Library
Calculus
Description
The Sample Time Multiply block is a masked S-function that adds, subtracts,
multiplies, or divides the input signal, u, by a weighted sample time Ts.
Support calculations involving sample time
You specify the math operation with the Operation parameter. Additionally,
you can specify to use only the weight with either the sample time or its
inverse.
Enter the weighting factor with the Weight value. If the weight is 1, w is
removed from the equation.
For a detailed description of all block parameters, refer to “Block Parameters”
on page 9-4. For more information about converting from one Fixed-Point
Blockset data type to another, refer to “Signal Conversions” on page 4-26.
The Calculus library contains the following implementations, which are all
linked to the Sample Time Multiply block but have different parameter
settings:
• Sample Time Divide
• Sample Time Add
• Sample Time Subtract
• Sample Time Probe
• Sample Rate Probe
10-181
Sample Time Multiply
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Operation
Specify operation to use: +, -, *, /, Ts only, 1/Ts only.
Weight value
Enter weight of sample time.
Implement using
Specify online calculations or offline scaling adjustment.
Output data type and scaling
Specify whether the output data type and scaling are inherited by an
internal rule or by back propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the output data type is overridden with doubles.
10-182
Sample Time Multiply
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workshops.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
For all math operations options except Ts and 1/Ts
Scalar Expansion
No, the weight is always a scalar
10-183
Saturation
Purpose
10Saturation
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Saturation block is a masked S-function that limits the input signal to
upper and lower saturation values.
Bound the range of the input
You specify the upper bound of the input with the Upper limit parameter and
the lower bound of the input with the Lower limit parameter. If the input
signal is outside these limits, the output saturates to one of the bounds.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Upper limit
The upper bound on the input signal.
Lower limit
The lower bound on the input signal.
Conversions
Both the Upper limit and Lower limit parameters are converted to the input
data type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as input data type
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of input and limits
10-184
Saturation Dynamic
Purpose
10Saturation Dynamic
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Saturation Dynamic block is a masked block that bounds the range of the
input signal to upper and lower saturation values. The input signal outside of
these limits saturates to one of the bounds where:
Bound the range of the input
• The input below the lower limit is set to the lower limit.
• The input above the upper limit is set to the upper limit.
The input for the upper limit is the up port, and the input for the lower limit is
the lo port.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Saturation
10-185
Scaling Strip
Purpose
10Scaling Strip
Library
Data Type
Description
The Scaling Strip block strips the scaling off a fixed point signal. It maps the
input data type to the smallest built in data type that has enough data bits to
hold the input. The stored integer value of the input is the value of the output.
The output always has nominal scaling (slope = 1.0 and bias = 0.0), so the
output does not make a distinction between real world value and stored integer
value.
Remove scaling and map to a built in integer
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
10-186
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Sign
Purpose
10Sign
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Sign block is a masked S-function that indicates the sign of the input:
Indicate the sign of the input
• The output is 1 when the input is greater than zero.
• The output is 0 when the input is equal to zero.
• The output is -1 when the input is less than zero.
The output is a signed data type with the same number of bits as the input, and
with nominal scaling (a slope of one and a bias of zero).
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
A signed Fixed-Point Blockset data type
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
10-187
Sine
Purpose
10Sine
Library
Lookup
Description
The Sine block is a masked block that implements a sine wave in fixed-point
using a lookup table method that exploits quarter wave symmetry.
Implement a sine wave in fixed-point using a lookup table approach that
exploits quarter wave symmetry
You can set the number of data points to retrieve from the lookup table with
the Number of data points for lookup table parameter.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Number of data points for lookup table
Number of data points to retrieve from the lookup table.
Characteristics
10-188
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
N/A
State-Space
Purpose
10State-Space
Library
Filters
Description
The State-Space block implements the system described by
Implement discrete-time state space
y(n) = Cx(n) + Du(n)
x(n+1) = Ax(n) + Bu(n)
where u is the input, x is the state, and y is the output. Both equations have
the same data type.
The matrices A, B, C and D have the following characteristics:
• A must be an n-by-n matrix, where n is the number of states.
• B must be an n-by-m matrix, where m is the number of inputs.
• C must be an r-by-n matrix, where r is the number of outputs.
• D must be an r-by-m matrix.
In addition:
• The state x must be a n-by-1 vector
• The input u must be a m-by-1 vector
• The output y must be a r-by-1 vector
The block accepts one input and generates one output. The input vector width
is determined by the number of columns in the B and D matrices. The output
vector width is determined by the number of rows in the C and D matrices.
10-189
State-Space
Parameters
and Dialog Box
State Matrix A
Matrix of states.
Input Matrix B
Column vector of inputs.
Output Matrix C
Column vector of outputs.
Direct Feedthrough Matrix D
Matrix for direct feedthrough.
10-190
State-Space
Initial condition for state
Initial condition for the state.
Data type for internal calculations
Data type for internal calculations. Some examples are sfix(16), unit(8),
and float('single').
Scaling for State Equation AX+BU
Scaling for state equations.
Scaling for Output Equation CX+DU
Scaling for output equations.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If the box is checked, the output scaling is locked.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset – it must be
a scalar
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Of initial conditions
Vectorized
No
10-191
Sum
Purpose
10Sum
Library
Math
Description
The Sum block is a masked S-function that performs addition or subtraction on
its inputs.
Add or subtract inputs
You specify the operations with the Enter +- characters or the number of
inputs parameter. Plus-minus characters indicate the operations to be
performed on the inputs:
• If there are two or more inputs, then the number of plus-minus characters
must equal the number of inputs. For example, '+-+' requires three inputs
and configures the block to subtract the second (middle) input from the first
(top) input, and then add the third (bottom) input.
• If only addition of inputs is required, then a numeric parameter value equal
to the number of inputs can be supplied instead of plus-minus characters.
• If only one vector is input, then a single '+' or '-' will collapse the vector
using the specified operation.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
The Math Library contains the following implementations, which are all linked
to the Sum block but have different parameter settings:
• Add
• Subtract
• Sum of Elements
• Sum of Elements Negated
10-192
Sum
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Enter +- characters or the number of inputs
Enter as many plus or minus characters as there are inputs. For addition
only, you can enter the number of inputs since this is the default operation.
Output data type and scaling
Specify the output data type and scaling via the dialog box, or inherit the
data type and scaling from the driving block or by back propagation.
Output data type
Any data type supported by the Fixed-Point Blockset.
Output scaling
Radix point-only or slope/bias scaling. These scaling modes are available
only for generalized fixed-point data types.
Lock output scaling so autoscaling tool can’t change it
If checked, Output scaling is locked. This feature is available only for
generalized fixed-point output.
10-193
Sum
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Override data type(s) with doubles
If checked, the Output data type is overridden with doubles.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Operations
The Sum block first converts the input data type(s) to the output data type
using the specified rounding and overflow modes, and then performs the
specified operations. Refer to “Rules for Arithmetic Operations” on page 4-30
for more information about the rules this block adheres to when performing
operations.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
10-194
Switch
Purpose
10Switch
Library
Select
Description
The Switch block is a masked S-function that passes through the first (top)
input or the third (bottom) input based on the value of the second (middle)
input. The second input is called the control input.
Switch output between the first input and the third input based on the value
of the second input
The first input is passed through when the second input is greater than or
equal to the value of the Threshold parameter. Otherwise, it passes the third
input through. The threshold value is converted to the second input’s data type.
For a detailed description of all other block parameters, refer to “Block
Parameters” on page 10-4.
Note The output data type is determined by the input with the largest
positive range. If the first input has a larger positive range than the third
input, then it specifies the output data type. Otherwise, the third input
specifies the output data type.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Threshold
Switch threshold that determines which input is passed to the output.
10-195
Switch
Output data type and scaling
Inherit the output data type and scaling from the driving block or by back
propagation.
Round toward
Rounding mode for the fixed-point output.
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Log minimums and maximums
If checked, minimum and maximum simulation values are logged to the
workspace.
Conversions
The Threshold parameter is converted offline to the second input’s data type
using round-to-nearest and saturation. Refer to “Parameter Conversions” on
page 4-27 for more information about parameter conversions.
Characteristics
Input Ports
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as input port one
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
See Also
10-196
MultiPort Switch
Tapped Delay
Purpose
10Tapped Delay
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Tapped Delay block delays its input by the specified number of sample
periods, and outputs all the delayed versions.
Delay a scalar signal multiple sample periods and output all the delayed
versions
This block provides a mechanism for discretizing a signal in time, or
resampling the signal at a different rate. You specify the time between samples
with the Sample time parameter. You specify the number of delays with the
Number of delays parameter. A value of -1 instructs the block to inherit the
number of delays by back propagation. Each delay is equivalent to the z-1
discrete-time operator, which is represented by the Unit Delay block.
The block accepts one scalar input and generates an output for each delay. The
input must be a scalar. You specify the order of the output vector with the
Order output vector starting with parameter list. Oldest orders the output
vector starting with the oldest delay version and ending with the newest delay
version. Newest orders the output vector starting with the newest delay
version and ending with the oldest delay version.
The block output for the first sampling period is specified by the Initial
condition parameter. Careful selection of this parameter can minimize
unwanted output behavior.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-197
Tapped Delay
Initial condition
The initial output of the simulation.
Sample time
Sample time.
Number of delays
The number of discrete-time operators.
Order output vector starting with
Specify whether the oldest delay version is output first, or the newest delay
version is output first.
Conversions
The Initial condition parameter is converted from a double to the input data
type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Yes – of initial conditions
10-198
Unary Minus
Purpose
10Unary Minus
Library
Math
Description
The Unary Minus block is a masked S-function that negates the input. The
block accepts only signed data types.
Negate the input
For signed data types, you cannot accurately negate the most negative value
since the result is not representable by the data type. In this case, the behavior
of the block is controlled by the Saturate to max or min when overflows
occur check box. If checked, the most negative value of the data type wraps to
the most positive value. If not checked, the operation has no effect. If an
overflow occurs, then a warning is returned to the MATLAB command line.
For example, suppose the block input is an 8-bit signed integer. The range of
this data type is from -128 to 127, and the negation of -128 is not representable.
If the Saturate to max or min when overflows occur check box is checked,
then the negation of -128 is 127. If it is not checked, then the negation of -128
remains at -128.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Saturate to max or min when overflows occur
If checked, fixed-point overflows saturate. Otherwise, they wrap.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input (a nonzero bias is negated offline)
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Of input or initial conditions
10-199
Unit Delay
Purpose
10Unit Delay
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay block is a masked S-function that delays its input by the
specified sample period. This block is equivalent to the z-1 discrete-time
operator. The block accepts one input and generates one output, both of which
can be scalar or vector. If the input is a vector, all elements of the vector are
delayed by the same sample period.
Delay a signal one sample period
You specify the block output for the first sampling period with the Initial
condition parameter. Careful selection of this parameter can minimize
unwanted output behavior. The time between samples is specified with the
Sample time parameter. A setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Note The Unit Delay block accepts continuous sample times. When it has a
continuous sample time, the block is equivalent to the built-in Memory block.
Remarks
This block provides a mechanism for discretizing one or more signals in time,
or resampling the signal at a different rate. If your model contains multirate
transitions, then you must add Unit Delay blocks between the slow to fast
transitions. The sample rate of the Unit Delay must be set to that of the slower
block.
For fast to slow transitions, use the Zero Order Hold block. For more
information about multirate transitions, refer to Using Simulink or the
Real-Time Workshop User’s Guide.
10-200
Unit Delay
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
The initial output of the simulation.
Sample time
Sample time.
Conversions
The Initial condition parameter is converted from a double to the input data
type offline using round-to-nearest and saturation.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Of input or initial conditions
10-201
Unit Delay Enabled
Purpose
10Unit Delay Enabled
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Enabled block is a masked block that delays a signal by one
sample period when the external enable signal E is on. While the enable is off,
the block is disabled. It holds the current state at the same value and outputs
that value. The enable signal is on when E is not 0, and off when E is 0.
Delay a signal one sample period
You specify the block output for the first sampling period with the value Initial
condition parameter.
The output data type is the same as the input u data type. The data type of the
input u and the enable E can be any data type.
You input the sample time with the Sample time parameter. A setting of -1
means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
10-202
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Unit Delay Enabled
See Also
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
No
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-203
Unit Delay Enabled External IC
Purpose
10Unit Delay Enabled External IC
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Enabled block is a masked block that delays a signal by one
sample period when the enable signal E is on. While the enable is off, the block
holds the current state at the same value and outputs that value. The enable
E is on when E is not 0, and off when E is 0.
Delay a signal one sample period, if the enable is on
The blocks initial condition is given by the signal IC.
The input u and IC data types must be the same, and are any data type. The
output data type is the same as u and IC. The enable E is any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
10-204
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port IC
Same as the input u
Output Port
Same as the input u
Unit Delay Enabled External IC
See Also
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, of the reset input port
No, of the enable input port
Yes, of the external IC port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-205
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable
Purpose
10Unit Delay Enabled Resettable
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Enabled Resettable block combines the features of the Unit
Delay Enabled and Unit Delay Resettable blocks.
Delay a signal one sample period
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
enable signal E is on and the reset signal R is false, the block outputs the input
signal delayed by one sample period.
When the enable signal E is on and the reset signal R is true, the block resets
the current state to the initial condition, specified by the Initial condition
parameter, and outputs that state delayed by one sample period.
When the enable signal is off, the block is disabled, and the state and output do
not change except for resets. The enable signal is on when E is not 0, and off
when E is 0.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial Condition
The initial output of the simulation.
10-206
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable
Sample Time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
No, of the input port
No, of the enable port
Yes, of the reset port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-207
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC
Purpose
10Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC block combines the features of
the Unit Delay Enabled, Unit Delay External IC, and Unit Delay Resettable
blocks.
Delay a signal one sample period, if the enable is on
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. When the
enable signal E is on and the reset signal R is false, the block outputs the input
signal delayed by one sample period.
When the enable signal E is on and the reset signal R is true, the block resets
the current state to the initial condition given by the signal IC, and outputs
that state delayed by one sample period.
When the enable signal is off, the block is disabled, and the state and output do
not change except for resets. The enable signal is on when E is not 0, and off
when E is 0.
The output data type is the same as the input u and the initial condition IC
data type, which can be any data type, but must be the same. The enable E and
reset R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-208
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port IC
Same as the input u
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
No, of the input port
No, of the enable port
Yes, of the enable port
Yes, of the external IC port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-209
Unit Delay External IC
Purpose
10Unit Delay External IC
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay block is a masked block that delays its input by one sample
period. This block is equivalent to the z-1 discrete-time operator. The block
accepts one input and generates one output, both of which can be scalar or
vector. If the input is a vector, all elements of the vector are delayed by the
same sample period.
Delay a signal one sample period
The block’s output for the first sample period is equal to the signal IC.
The input u and initial condition IC data types must be the same, and are any
data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
10-210
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port IC
Same as the input u
Output Port
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
No, of the input port
Yes, of the external IC port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay Resettable
Purpose
10Unit Delay Resettable
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Resettable block delays a signal one sample period.
Delay a signal one sample period
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two input ports, one for the input signal u and the other for the external reset
signal R. When the reset signal is false, the block outputs the input signal
delayed by one time step. When the reset signal is true, the block resets the
current state to the initial condition, specified by the Initial condition
parameter, and outputs that state delayed by one time step.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial Condition
The initial output of the simulation.
Sample Time
Sample time.
Characteristics
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input u
10-211
Unit Delay Resettable
See Also
10-212
Direct Feedthrough
No, of the input port
Yes, of the reset port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
Unit Delay Resettable External IC
Purpose
10Unit Delay Resettable External IC
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay Resettable External IC block delays a signal one sample period.
Delay a signal one sample period, with reset and external initial condition
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two input ports, one for the input signal u and the other for the reset signal R.
When the reset signal is false, the block outputs the input signal delayed by one
time step. When the reset signal is true, the block resets the current state to
the initial condition given by the signal IC and outputs that state delayed by
one time step.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Sample Time
Sample time.
Characteristics
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port IC
Same as the input u
Output Port
Same as the input u
10-213
Unit Delay Resettable External IC
See Also
10-214
Direct Feedthrough
No, of the input port
Yes, of the reset port
Yes, of the external IC port
Sample Time
Inherited
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled
Purpose
10Unit Delay With Preview Enabled
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay With Preview Enabled block supports calculations that have
feedback and depend on the current input.
Support calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input
The block has two output ports. When the external enable signal E is on, the
upper port outputs the signal and the lower port outputs the signal delayed by
one sample period. The block has two input ports, one for the input signal u and
the other for the enable signal E.
When the enable signal E is off, the block is disabled, and the state and output
values do not change, except for resets. The enable signal is on when E is not
0, and off when E is 0.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
10-215
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
10-216
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Ports
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, to upper output port
No, to lower output port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable
Purpose
10Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable block supports calculations
that have feedback and depend on the current input.
Support calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two output ports. When the external enable signal E is on and the reset R is
false, the upper port outputs the signal and the lower port outputs the signal
delayed by one sample period. The block has two input ports, one for the input
signal u and the other for the enable signal E.
When the enable signal E is on and the reset R is true, the block resets the
current state to the initial condition given by the Initial condition parameter.
The block outputs that state delayed by one sample time through the lower
output port, and outputs the state without a delay through the upper output
port.
When the Enable signal is off, the block is disabled, and the state and output
values do not change, except for resets. The enable signal is on when E is not
0, and off when E is 0.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
10-217
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
10-218
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Ports
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, to upper output port
No, to lower output port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV
Purpose
10Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV block supports
calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input.
Support calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two output ports. When the external enable signal E is on and the reset R is
false, the upper port outputs the signal and the lower port outputs the signal
delayed by one sample period. The block has two input ports, one for the input
signal u and the other for the enable signal E.
When the enable signal E is on and the reset R is true, the upper output signal
is forced to equal the external reset signal RV. The lower output signal is not
affected until one time step later, at which time it is equal to the external reset
signal RV at the previous time step. The block uses the internal Initial
condition only when the model starts or when a parent enabled subsystem is
used. The internal Initial condition only affects the lower output signal. The
first output is only affected through feedback.
When the Enable signal is off, the block is disabled, and the state and output
values do not change, except for resets. The enable signal is on when E is not
0, and off when E is 0.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
10-219
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
10-220
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port E
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port RV
Same as the input u
Output Ports
Same as the input u
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable External RV
See Also
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, to upper output port
No, to lower output port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-221
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable
Purpose
10Unit Delay With Preview Resettable
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay With Preview Resettable block supports calculations that have
feedback and depend on the current input.
Support calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two output ports. When the reset R is false, the upper port outputs the signal
and the lower port outputs the signal delayed by one sample period.
When the reset R is true, the block resets the current state to the initial
condition given by the Initial condition parameter. The block outputs that
state delayed by one sample time through the lower output port, and outputs
the state without a delay through the upper output port.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
10-222
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Ports
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, to upper output port
No, to lower output port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-223
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External RV
Purpose
10Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External RV
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External RV block supports
calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input.
Support calculations that have feedback and depend on the current input
The block can reset its state based on an external reset signal R. The block has
two output ports. When the external reset R is false, the upper port outputs the
signal and the lower port outputs the signal delayed by one sample period.
When the external reset R is true, the upper output signal is forced to equal the
external reset signal RV. The lower output signal is not affected until one time
step later, at which time it is equal to the external reset signal RV at the
previous time step. The block uses the internal Initial condition only when the
model starts or when a parent enabled subsystem is used. The internal Initial
condition only affects the lower output signal. The first output is only affected
through feedback.
The input u and initial condition IC must be the same data type, but can be any
data type. The output is the same data type as the inputs u and IC. The reset
R can be any data type.
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
10-224
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External RV
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Initial condition
Initial condition.
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
See Also
Input Port u
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port R
Any data type supported by the blockset
Input Port RV
Same as the input u
Output Ports
Same as the input u
Direct Feedthrough
Yes, to upper output port
No, to lower output port
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Unit Delay, and related blocks
10-225
Wrap To Zero
Purpose
10Wrap To Zero
Library
Nonlinear
Description
The Wrap To Zero block sets the output to zero if the input is above the value
set by the Threshold parameter, and outputs the input if the input is less than
or equal to the Threshold.
Set output to zero if input is above threshold
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Threshold
When the input exceeds the threshold, the output is set to zero.
Characteristics
10-226
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Ports
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
Yes
Zero-Order Hold
Purpose
10Zero-Order Hold
Library
Delays & Holds
Description
The Zero-Order Hold block is a masked S-function that samples and holds its
input for the specified sample period. The block accepts one input and
generates one output, both of which can be scalar or vector. If the input is a
vector, all elements of the vector are held for the same sample period.
Implement a zero-order hold of one sample period
You specify the time between samples with the Sample time parameter. A
setting of -1 means the Sample time is inherited.
Remarks
This block provides a mechanism for discretizing one or more signals in time,
or resampling the signal at a different rate. If your model contains multirate
transitions, you must add Zero-Order Hold blocks between the fast to slow
transitions. The sample rate of the Zero-Order Hold must be set to that of the
slower block.
For slow to fast transitions, use the Unit Delay block. For more information
about multirate transitions, refer to Using Simulink or the Real-Time
Workshop User’s Guide.
Parameters
and Dialog Box
Sample time
Sample time.
Characteristics
Input Port
Any data type supported by the blockset
Output Port
Same as the input
Direct Feedthrough
Yes
Scalar Expansion
No
10-227
Zero-Order Hold
10-228
A
Code Generation
Overview
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Code Generation Support
Languages . . . . . . .
Storage Class of Variables .
Storage Class of Parameters
Rounding Modes . . . . .
Overflow Handling . . . .
Blocks . . . . . . . . .
Scaling . . . . . . . . .
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A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
Generating Pure Integer Code . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Example: Generating Pure Integer Code . . . . . . . . . A-5
Using the Simulink Accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Using External Mode or rsim Target . . . . . . . . . A-12
External Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Rapid Simulation Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Customizing Generated Code . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Macros Versus Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Bit Sizes for Target C Compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
A
Code Generation
Overview
With the Real-Time Workshop, the Fixed-Point Blockset can generate C code.
The code generated from fixed-point blocks uses only integer types and
automatically includes all operations, such as shifts, needed to account for
differences in fixed-point locations. You can use the generated code on
embedded fixed-point processors or rapid prototyping systems even if they
contain a floating-point processor. The code is structured so that key operations
can be readily replaced by optimized target-specific libraries that you supply.
You can also use the Target Language Compiler to customize the generated
code. For more information about code generation, refer to the Real-Time
Workshop User’s Guide and the Target Language Compiler Reference Guide.
You can also generate code for testing on a rapid prototyping system such as
xPC, the Real-Time Windows Target, or dSPACE. The target compiler and
processor may support floating-point operations in software or in hardware. In
any case, the fixed-point blocks will generate pure integer code and will not use
floating-point operations. This allows valid bit-true testing even on a
floating-point processor.
You can also generate code for non real-time testing. For example, code can be
generated to run in non real-time on computers running any supported
operating system. Even though the processors have floating-point hardware,
the code generated by fixed-point blocks is pure integer code. The Generic
Real-Time Target (GRT) and the Simulink Accelerator are examples of where
non real-time code is generated and run.
A-2
Code Generation Support
Code Generation Support
All fixed-point blocks support code generation, but not every simulation feature
is supported. The code generation support is described below.
Languages
• C support only
• No Ada support
Storage Class of Variables
• Fixed-Point Blockset code generation handles variables that do not match
the target compiler’s sizes for char, short, int, or long. Code generation
supports any variable having a width less than or equal to a long, either
signed or unsigned. For example, the C40 compiler defines a long to be 32
bits. Therefore, the allowable sizes for variables range between 1 and 32 bits.
This capability is particularly useful if you want to:
- Prototype on one target chip, but use a different target chip for production.
- Provide bit-true simulation in a rapid prototyping environment for odd
data type sizes used by FPGA’s, ASIC’s, 24-bit DSP’s, and so on.
• No floating-point support except for the fixed-point gateway blocks.
Storage Class of Parameters
• The Real-Time Workshop external mode support requires that parameters
be 1 to 32 bits, either signed or unsigned. The parameter size must also be
compatible with the target C compiler.
• No floating-point support
Rounding Modes
• All four rounding modes are supported.
• Rounding to floor generates the most efficient code for most cases.
A-3
A
Code Generation
Overflow Handling
• Saturation mode is supported.
• Wrapping mode is supported and generates the most efficient code.
• Automatic exclusion of saturation code when hardware saturation is
available is currently not supported. Wrapping must be selected for the
Real-Time Workshop to exclude saturation code.
Blocks
All blocks generate code for all operations with a few exceptions:
• The Look-Up Table, Look-Up Table (2D), and Dynamic Look-Up Table blocks
generate code for all look-up methods except extrapolation.
• A few combinations of scaling and operations lead to highly inefficient code.
These few cases are described in the next section.
Scaling
• Radix point-only scaling is supported.
• Slope/bias scaling is supported for all blocks except when it leads to highly
inefficient code. All blocks except four support all cases of slope/bias scaling.
The Gain, Matrix Gain, and FIR blocks support matched slope/bias scaling
where the block input signals and output signals have the same slopes and
biases, but not mismatched slope/bias scaling. The Product block supports
mismatched slope, but not mismatched bias. For more information about
matched and mismatched slope/bias scaling, refer to “Signal Conversions” on
page 4-27.
It is generally recommended that signals with slope/bias scaling (such as a
sensor input) are immediately converted to radix point-only scaling. This will
typically produce more efficient code.
A-4
Generating Pure Integer Code
Generating Pure Integer Code
All blocks generate pure integer code except for the Gateway In, Gateway In
Inherited, and Gateway Out blocks. These blocks must generate floating-point
code when handling floating-point input or output. However, if the input or
output is an integer and the block is configured to treat the input or output as
a stored integer, then these blocks will also generate pure integer code.
Example: Generating Pure Integer Code
This example outlines the steps you should take when generating pure integer
code for your Fixed-Point Blockset model. The steps follow the description in
the fxpdemo_code_only demo, which includes the model shown below.
1 int8
In0
In
sfix8_En4
In1
Out1 sfix16_En12
Tag
Out
int16
1
Out1
UnTag
Controller
Root level
Inport
FixPt Gateway
In
FixPt Gateway
Out
Digital controller
software on
fixed−point processor
Root level
Outport
Note This example generates code using the Embedded C Real-Time Target
(ERT), whch is available with the RTW Production Coder. If your version of
the Real-Time Workshop does not support ERT code generation, then you may
want to select the Generic Real-Time Target (GRT). Using GRT, all
Fixed-Point Blockset blocks (except the gateway blocks) will generate pure
integer code. However, the code related to the GRT infrastructure is not
generated to exclude floating-point operations. For example, GRT may decide
when to execute blocks based on a floating-point counter.
1 Copy the fixed-point portion of your model to a new model.
If your original model includes blocks that represent hardware, analog
systems, and other blocks not related to embedded software, then you must
A-5
A
Code Generation
create a new model. This new model contains only the fixed-point portion,
which represents the software that will be running on the fixed-point
processor. For example, the digital controller subsystem shown above
contains the fixed-point blocks from the fxpdemo_feedback model used for
code generation.
2 Insert Gateway In blocks, as needed.
- Change the Treat input as: parameter from Real World Value to Stored
Integer. This does not change the signal’s value, but it is needed to "tag"
integers with fixed point scaling information. The Gateway In block dialog
box for this configuration is shown below.
- Precede all Gateway In blocks with root level Inport blocks, and configure
the blocks to use the appropriate integer data type. For example, the
Inport block shown above is configured to use the built-in int8 data type.
3 Insert Gateway Out Blocks, as needed.
- Change the Treat input as: parameter from Real World Value to Stored
Integer. This does not change the signal’s value, but it is needed to "strip"
fixed-point scaling information from the integer. Also, configure the
A-6
Generating Pure Integer Code
Output date type: parameter to use the appropriate integer data type.
The Gateway Out block dialog box for this configuration is shown below.
- Follow all Gateway Out blocks with root level Outport blocks.
4 Configure the simulation parameters.
- Launch Simulink’s Simulation Parameter’s dialog box by selecting
Parameters under the Simulation menu.
- In the Solver window, configure Solver options: to Fixed-step and
discrete (no continuous states), and configure Fixed step size: to the
required value. The Solver window for this configuration is shown below.
- Select the Real-Time Workshop window in the Simulation Parameters
dialog box. Configure the System target file parameter to ert.tlc. The
A-7
A
Code Generation
Template makefile and Make command parameters are automatically
updated. This configuration is shown below.
Launch the System Target File Browser by selecting the Browse button in
the Configuration panel. If it is available, select Embedded-C Real-Time
A-8
Generating Pure Integer Code
Target as the system target file and hit the OK button. The System Target
File Browser for this configuration is shown below.
The Fixed-Point Blockset supports all targets except those that generate
Ada code. Note that you may not have ERT code generation capability. If
this is the case, you should select the Generic Real-Time Target.
- To configure the code generation parameters, select ERT code generation
options from the Category parameter list. Select the Integer code only
check box and any other options you may require. To configure additional
code generation optimizations such as inlining, select General code
generation options from the Category parameter list. The ERT code
A-9
A
Code Generation
generation options for this configuration are shown below. If you are using
GRT, the dialog box choices are slightly different.
Note that all fixed-point blocks except gateway blocks produce pure
integer code for all supported targets.
- Build the code by selecting the Generate code button.
A-10
Using the Simulink Accelerator
Using the Simulink Accelerator
You can use the Simulink Accelerator with your Fixed-Point Blockset model if
the model meets the code generation restrictions.
The Simulink Accelerator can drastically increase the speed of some
fixed-point models. This is especially true for models that execute at a very
large number of time steps. The time overhead to generate code for a
fixed-point model will generally be larger than the time overhead to set up a
model for simulation. As the number of time steps increases, the relative
importance of this overhead decreases.
Refer to the Using Simulink guide for more information about the Simulink
Accelerator.
A-11
A
Code Generation
Using External Mode or rsim Target
If you are using the Real-Time Workshop external mode or rsim (rapid
simulation) target, there are situations where you may get unexpected errors
when tuning block parameters.
These errors can arise when you use blocks that support constant scaling for
best precision and you use the "best precision" scaling option. To avoid these
errors, you should use the Use Specified Scaling parameter value. Refer to
“Example: Constant Scaling for Best Precision” on page 3-12 for a description
of the constant scaling feature. Refer to Chapter 10, “Block Reference” for a
description of blocks that support this feature.
For more information about external mode or rapid simulation target, refer to
the Real-Time Workshop User’s Guide.
External Mode
If you change a fixed-point block parameter by a sufficient amount
(approximately a factor of two), the radix point changes. If you change a
parameter such that the radix point moves during an external mode simulation
(or during graphical editing) and you reconnect to the target, a checksum error
occurs and you must rebuild the code.
For example, suppose a block has a parameter value of -2. You then build the
code and connect in external mode. While connected, you change the parameter
to -4. If the simulation is stopped and then restarted, this parameter change
causes a radix point change. In external mode, the radix point is kept fixed. If
you keep the parameter value of -4 and disconnect from the target, then when
you reconnect, a checksum error occurs and you must rebuild the code.
Rapid Simulation Target
If a parameter change is great enough, and you are using the best precision
mode for constant scaling, then you cannot use the rapid simulation target.
If you change a block parameter by a sufficient amount (approximately a factor
of two), the best precision mode changes the radix point. Any change in the
radix point requires the code to be rebuilt since the model checksum is changed.
This means that if best precision parameters are changed over a great enough
range, you cannot use the rapid simulation target and a checksum error
message occurs when you initialize the rsim executable.
A-12
Customizing Generated Code
Customizing Generated Code
You can customize generated code by directly modifying the TLC file
fixpttarget.tlc, which is located in the fixpoint directory. The two most
important customizations are described below.
Macros Versus Functions
You can modify the TLC file to generate macros or C functions calls. With
macros, you can avoid the overhead of a function call. With function calls, you
can significantly reduce the overall code size for large routines. Additionally,
many debuggers will not allow you to single-step through macros. This is not
the case with function calls. The factory default setting is to generate macros.
Bit Sizes for Target C Compiler
You can modify the TLC file to accommodate custom target sizes by explicitly
specifying the number of bits defined for char, short, int, or long data types.
If you do not manually override these sizes, then the sizes for the MATLAB
host computer are automatically selected. For example, if you are running
MATLAB under the Windows operating system, then char, short, int, and long
default to 8, 16, 32, and 32 bits, respectively. Most other supported operating
systems use the same data type sizes. However, DEC Alpha for example,
defines a long as 64 bits.
A-13
A
Code Generation
A-14
B
Selected Bibliography
B
Selected Bibliography
1 Burrus, C. S., J.H. McClellan, A.V. Oppenheim, T.W. Parks, R.W. Schafer,
and H.W. Schuessler, Computer-Based Exercises for Signal Processing
Using MATLAB, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1994.
2 Franklin, G.F., J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital Control of Dynamic
Systems, Second Edition; Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading,
Massachusetts, 1990.
3 Handbook For Digital Signal Processing, edited by S.K. Mitra and J.F.
Kaiser; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1993.
4 Hanselmann, H., “Implementation of Digital Controllers — A Survey”;
Automatica, vol. 23, no. 1, pp 7-32, 1987.
5 Jackson, L.B., Digital Filters and Signal Processing, Second Edition;
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Seventh Printing, Norwell, Massachusetts,
1993.
6 Middleton, R. and G. Goodwin, Digital Control and Estimation – A Unified
Approach; Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifs, New Jersey. 1990.
7 Moler, C., "Floating points: IEEE Standard unifies arithmetic model",
Cleve’s Corner, The MathWorks, Inc., 1996. You can find this article at
http://www.mathworks.com/company/newsletter/clevescorner/
cleve_toc.shtml
8 Ogata, K., Discrete-Time Control Systems, Second Edition; Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1995.
9 Roberts, R.A. and C.T. Mullis, Digital Signal Processing; Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1987.
B-2
Index
A
accumulation
scaling recommendations 4-19
using slope/bias encoding 4-19
accumulator data type 7-3
and feedback controller demo 6-8
addition 10-192
blockset rules 4-30
scaling recommendations 4-17
using slope/bias encoding 4-16
ALU’s 4-30
arithmetic shift 4-42
autofixexp 9-4
automatic scaling
and feedback controller demo 6-15
and FixPt Look-Up Table (2D) block 10-151
and percent safety margin 9-4, 9-29
interface 9-28
script 9-4
B
back propagation
Data Type Propagation block 10-49
FixPt Gateway Out block 10-107
FixPt Tapped Delay block 10-197
base data type 7-3
and feedback controller demo 6-8
binary point 3-3
bit
clear 10-32
hidden 3-18
mask 10-32
multipliers 3-7
set 10-32
shifts 4-41
bits 3-3
block configuration 2-2
selecting a data type 2-3
selecting a scaling 2-5
block icon labels 10-10
block parameters 10-4
blocks
Abs 10-22
Accumulator 10-23
Accumulator Resettable 10-25
Accumulator Resettable Limited 10-27
Bit Clear 10-29
Bit Set 10-30
Bitwise Operator 10-31
Compare To Constant 10-35
Compare To Zero 10-36
Constant 10-37
Conversion 4-43, 10-40
Conversion Inherited 10-42
Cosine 10-44
Counter Free 10-45
Counter Limited 10-46
Data Type Duplicate 10-47
Data Type Propagation 10-49
Dead Zone 10-58
Dead Zone Dynamic 10-60
Decrement Real World 10-61
Decrement Stored Integer 10-62
Decrement Time To Zero 10-63
Decrement To Zero 10-64
Derivative 10-65
Detect Change 10-67
Detect Decrease 10-68
Detect Fall Negative 10-69
Detect Fall Nonpositive 10-70
Detect Increase 10-71
Detect Rise Nonnegative 10-72
I-1
Index
Detect Rise Positive 10-73
Difference 10-74
Dot Product 10-76
Filter Direct Form I 10-78
Filter Direct Form I Time Varying 10-81
Filter Direct Form II 10-83
Filter Direct Form II Time Varying 10-85
Filter First Order 10-87
Filter Lead or Lag 10-89
Filter Real Zero 10-91
FIR 4-47, 10-93
Free Counter 10-97
Gain 4-45, 10-97
Gateway In 2-2, 10-100
Gateway In Inherited 10-105
Gateway Out 10-107
Increment Real World 10-110
Increment Stored Integer 10-111
Integer Delay 10-112
Integrator Backward 10-113
Integrator Backward Resettable 10-115
Integrator Backward Resettable Limited
10-117
Integrator Forward 10-120
Integrator Forward Resettable 10-122
Integrator Forward Resettable Limited
10-124
Integrator Trapezoidal 10-127
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable 10-130
Integrator Trapezoidal Resettable Limited
10-133
Interval Test 10-136
Interval Test Dynamic 10-138
Logical Operator 10-139
Look-Up Table 10-141
Look-Up Table (2-D) 10-150
Look-Up Table Dynamic 10-146
I-2
Matrix Gain 3-12, 10-155
MinMax 10-159
Multiport Switch 10-163
Product 4-37, 4-40, 10-166
Rate Limiter 10-169
Rate Limiter Dynamic 10-170
Relational Operator 10-171
Relay 10-173
Repeating Sequence Interpolated 10-176
Repeating Sequence Stair 10-178
Sample Time Multiply 10-181
Saturation 10-184
Saturation Dynamic 10-185
Scaling Strip 10-186
Sign 10-187
Sine 10-188
State-Space 10-189
Sum 4-33, 10-192
Switch 10-195
Tapped Delay 10-197
Unary Minus 10-199
Unit Delay 10-200
Unit Delay Enabled 10-202
Unit Delay Enabled External IC 10-204
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable 10-206
Unit Delay Enabled Resettable External IC
10-208
Unit Delay External IC 10-210
Unit Delay Resettable 10-211
Unit Delay Resettable External IC 10-213
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled 10-215
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable
10-217
Unit Delay With Preview Enabled Resettable
External RV 10-219
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable 10-222
Index
Unit Delay With Preview Resettable External
RV 10-224
Wrap To Zero 10-226
Zero-Order Hold 10-227
blockset library 10-12
Bode plot 6-6
boolean operation
logical 10-139
broken links 9-24
built-in data types 1-13
C
ceil 4-7
chopping 4-9
clearing bits 10-32
code generation 2-8, A-2
and multiplication 4-36
and scaling 10-104
and signal conversions 4-29
and stored integer output 10-107
and summation 4-32
computational noise 4-2
and rounding 4-3
computational units 4-30
constant scaling for best precision 3-12
limitations for code generation A-12
contiguous bits 3-17
conversions
parameter
signal 4-27
See also online conversion, offline conversion
converting old models 9-26
built-in 1-13
display 10-10
fractional numbers 2-4
generalized fixed-point numbers 2-4
IEEE numbers 2-4
inherited 10-5
integers 2-3
overriding with doubles 10-9
propagation 10-49
selecting 10-4
dead zone 10-58
demos 2-15
denormalized numbers 3-22
development cycle 1-12
dialog box parameters 10-4
data type 10-4
lock output scaling 10-8
logging min/max data 10-9
overflow handling 10-9
overriding with doubles 10-9
rounding 10-8
scaling 10-6
digital controller 6-7
digital filter 5-2
direct form realization 5-4
and feedback controller demo 6-8
division 10-166
blockset rules 4-39
scaling recommendations 4-23, 4-24
using slope/bias encoding 4-23
dot product 10-76
double bits 4-35, 7-3
double-precision format 3-19
doubles override 9-29
D
data types 2-3, 3-10
I-3
Index
E
Embedded-C Real-Time Target A-8
encapsulation 9-9
encoding scheme 3-5
eps 3-21
examples
constant scaling for best precision 3-12
conversions and arithmetic operations 4-46
converting a built-in model to fixed-point
9-10
converting from doubles to fixed-point 2-10
division process 4-40
fixed-point format 3-7
fixed-point scaling 3-10
FixPt Bitwise Operator 10-34
FixPt FIR 10-96
FixPt Gateway In 10-102
FixPt Look-Up Table 10-144
FixPt Look-Up Table (2D) 10-153
generating pure integer code A-5
limitations on precision and errors 4-10
limitations on range 4-15
maximizing precision 4-11
multiplication process 4-37
saturation and wrapping 4-13
selecting a measurement scale 1-4
shifting bits and the radix point 4-42
shifting bits but not the radix point 4-44
summation process 4-32
exceptional arithmetic 3-22
exponent for IEEE numbers 3-18
external mode A-12
F
feedback design 6-3
filter
I-4
digital 5-2
fix 4-4
fixed-point interface tool 9-28
and feedback controller demo 6-9
fixed-point numbers
general format 3-3
scaling 3-5
fixpt_convert 9-8
fixpt_convert_prep 9-13
fixptbestexp 9-6
fixptbestprec 9-7
FixPtSimRanges 10-9
float 9-24, 9-25
floating-point numbers 3-18
floor 4-8
fpupdate 9-26
fraction for IEEE numbers 3-18
fractional numbers 2-4
and guard bits 4-15
fractional slope 3-5
frame-based signals 1-17
fxptdlg 9-28
G
gain 10-97
matrix gain 10-155
scaling recommendations 4-22, 4-23
using slope/bias encoding 4-21
gateway
fixed-point to Simulink 10-107
Simulink to fixed-point 10-100
Simulink to fixed-point, inherited 10-105
generalized fixed-point numbers 2-4
Generic Real-Time Target A-5
global override with doubles 6-12
guard bits 4-15, 9-32, 9-36
Index
GUI
block 9-28
See also fixed-point interface tool
H
help 1-18
hidden bit 3-18
I
icon labels 10-10
IEEE floating-point numbers
format
double precision 3-19
exponent 3-18
fraction 3-18
nonstandard 3-20
sign bit 3-18
single precision 3-19
precision 3-21
range 3-20
infinity 3-23, 4-12
inherited
data types 10-5
by back-propagation 10-49
scaling 10-7
by back-propagation 10-49
Simulink to fixed-point conversion 10-105
installation xvii
integer delay 10-112
integers 2-3
and code generation A-5
outputting large values 10-107
interface
L
least significant bit 3-3
library 10-12
limit cycles 4-2
and feedback controller demo 6-17
lock output scaling 10-8
and feedback controller demo 6-17
logging
large integer values 10-107
overflows 10-9
simulation results 9-29, 10-9
logical operation 10-139
logical shift 4-42
look-up table
1-D 10-141
2-D 10-150
LSB. See least significant bit
M
MAC’s 4-30
propagating data type information for 10-54
masking bits 10-32
matrix gain 10-155
matrix signals 1-17
maximum value 10-159
logging 10-9
measurement scales 1-2
mex xiii
minimum value 10-159
logging 10-9
modeling the system 1-12
most significant bit 3-3
MSB 3-3
multiplication 10-166
blockset rules 4-35
scaling recommendations 4-20, 4-21
I-5
Index
using slope/bias encoding 4-20
multiport switch 10-163
NaNs 3-23, 4-12
nonstandard IEEE format 3-20
precision
best 9-6
maximum 9-7
of fixed-point numbers 3-9
of IEEE floating-point numbers 3-21
prerequisites xviii
propagation of data types 10-49
O
Q
N
offline conversion 4-27
for addition and subtraction 4-31
for multiplication 4-36
for signals 4-28
online conversion
for addition and subtraction 4-31
for multiplication 4-36
for signals 4-28
online help 1-18
overflow 3-21, 4-2, 4-12
and code generation A-4
handling by fixed-point blocks 10-9
logging 6-10, 10-9
overriding with doubles 9-29, 10-9
global override 6-12
individual override 6-18
P
padding with trailing zeros 4-9
and feedback controller demo 6-7
parallel form realization 5-10
parameter conversion 4-27
See also conversions
percent safety margin 9-29
plot system interface 9-30
port data type display 10-10
I-6
quantization 4-2
and feedback controller demo 6-12
and rounding 4-3
of a real-world value 2-12, 3-6
R
radix point 3-3
radix point-only scaling 3-6
range
of fixed-point numbers 3-9
of IEEE floating-point numbers 3-20
RangeFactor 9-4
rapid simulation target A-12
realizations
and data types 7-2
and scaling 7-2
design constraints 5-2
direct form 5-4
parallel form 5-10
series cascade form 5-7
Real-Time Workshop
ERT A-8
external mode A-12
GRT A-5
Production Coder A-5
rapid simulation target A-12
Index
Target Language Compiler A-13
real-world value 3-5
as block input 10-100
relational operation 10-171
relay 10-173
release information 1-18
restoring broken links 9-24
round 4-6
rounding modes 4-3, 10-8
and code generation A-3
toward ceiling 4-6
toward floor 4-7
toward nearest 4-5
toward zero 4-4
rsim A-12
RTW Production Coder A-5
S
saturation 4-13, 10-184
and feedback controller demo 6-10
scaling 2-5, 10-6
and accumulation 4-19
and addition 4-16
and code generation A-4
and division 4-23
and gain 4-21
and multiplication 4-20
constant scaling for best precision 3-12
inherited 10-7
locking 10-8
radix point-only 2-6, 3-6
slope/bias 2-6, 3-6
scientific notation 3-16
series cascade form realization 5-7
setting bits 10-32
sfix 9-31
sfrac 9-32
shifts 4-41
using the FixPt Conversion block 4-42
using the FixPt Gain block 4-43
showfixptsimranges 9-33, 10-9
sign
extension 4-15
of input signal 10-187
sign bit for IEEE numbers 3-18
signal conversions 4-27
Simulink
built-in data types 1-13
converting built-in data types to fixed-point
10-100
converting built-in models to fixed-point 9-8
converting fixed-point data types to built-in
10-107
Simulink Accelerator A-11
single-precision format 3-19
sint 9-34
slope/bias scaling 3-6
stored integer 2-3
as block input 10-100
as block output 10-107
subtraction 10-192
See also addition
switch 10-195
multiport 10-163
T
tapped delay 10-197
Target Language Compiler A-13
targeting an embedded processor 7-3
design rules 7-4
operation assumptions 7-3
size assumptions 7-3
I-7
Index
TLC file A-13
truncation 4-9
two’s complement 3-3
typographical conventions xviii
typographical conventions (table) xviii
U
ufix 9-35
ufrac 9-36
uint 9-37
unary minus 10-199
underflow 3-21
unit delay 10-200
updating old models 9-26
W
wrapping 4-13
Z
zero order hold 10-227
I-8
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