Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan - of Planning Commission

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan - of Planning Commission
Evaluation Report
on
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Programme Evaluation Organisation
Planning Commission
Government of India
New Delhi-110001
May 2010
Evaluation Report
on
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Programme Evaluation Organisation
Planning Commission
Government of India
New Delhi-110001
May 2010
CONTENTS
Topic
Page No.
Preface
Executive Summary
List of Tables
List of Annexures
Chapter - 1
Introduction
i-xvii
1–2
3
4–6
− Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
− Features of interventions
− Limitations of the study
Chapter - 2
Objectives and Methodology
7 - 12
− Objectives for the study
− Methodology
− Selection of samples
Chapter - 3
Universal Access & Equity
13 - 30
− Unserved habitations
− Underserved habitations
− Distance from Schools
−
PRI participation
− Enrolment and Attendance
− Out of School Childen
− Bridging Gaps
Chapter - 4
Quality Of Education
−
−
−
−
−
Chapter - 5
Chapter - 6
31 – 45
Infrastructural Facilities
Teaching Material and Incentives
School indicators
Teacher Indicators
Learning Achievement
Financial Resources
−
−
−
−
Centre-State Shares
−
Utilisation of funds at district level
−
Expenditure on interventions
−
School level grants and expenditure
46 – 54
Release of funds
Utilisation of funds
Disbursement of funds to the Districts
Community Ownership and Development partners
− Community Participation
− Activities of Village Education Committees
− Parents Teachers Associations
55 – 66
− Participation by NGOs
− Block and Cluster Resource Centres
− Monitoring systems
Chapter - 7
Chapter - 8
67 – 86
Urban Findings
−
Selection Criteria
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
Accessibility
Underserved slums
Enrolment and Attendance
Out of school children
Gender and social gaps
Infrastructural facilities
School Indicators
Teaching learning material and Incentives
Learning achievement
Implementing Agencies
Town Committees
Slum committees
School Funds
Parents Teachers Associations
Urban and Cluster Resource Centres
87- 92
Constraints
− Constraints in implementation of the scheme
− Reasons for Poor Quality of Education
− Constraints in Implementation of SSA in Towns
Chapter - 9
Recommendations \ Suggestions
Annexures
Acronyms
Selected References
93 – 96
97 - 109
110
111
Executive Summary
Background
Despite decades of educational reform through various schemes
such as Operation Blackboard, District Primary Education Programme
(DPEP), it was realized that a vast majority of children were still out of
the educational stream and efforts made by the states were insufficient
to achieve universal elementary education.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) was conceived as a Centrally
sponsored scheme at the end of the Ninth Five Year Plan to improve the
educational status in the country through interventions designed to
improve accessibility, reduce gender and social gaps and improve the
quality of learning. The SSA laid down a framework for achieving the
goals of universal enrolment through time bound targets and was
conceived in a mission mode.
The objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan were:
¾ All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate
School, ‘Back-to-School' camp by 2003; extended to 2005.
¾ Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by
2007 and at elementary education level by 2010.
¾ Universal retention by 2010.
¾ Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with
emphasis on education for life.
In the initial years of the scheme beginning 2001 till 2003-2004, the
programme was under-resourced. In 2004-2005, a cess of 2% on all
Union taxes and duties was levied to earmark funds for the programme.
i
Evaluation study- objectives and methodology
The PEO undertook the evaluation study on SSA at the instance of
the Development Evaluation Advisory Committee and Ministry of Human
Resource Development. The survey was undertaken in eleven states
and two union territories beginning February 2008 . The reference period
for the study was 2003 to 2007.
The broad objectives of the evaluation study:
1. To assess the extent to which SSA has been able to achieve its
objectives and related targets and the factors determining the same.
2. To assess the extent to which the approach\ strategies adopted under
SSA to achieve the objectives were effective.
3. To identify constraints in the implementation of the scheme.
4. To suggest the way forward.
Methodology
A multistage stratified sampling was adopted with different
stratifying parameters for selection of sample units at different levels.
Selection of States
The States were classified on the basis of location in five zones ie.
North, West, East, South and North East. States in each zone were
stratified on the basis of percentage of expenditure incurred in the 10th
Five Year Plan. In every zone, two states were selected except in the
case of North Zone where three states and North East where one state
was selected. For urban samples, from each zone one state with the
highest slum population was selected. One Union Territory each for the
rural and urban samples was also selected. The States/ UT canvassed
were:
ii
Zone
North
West
East
South
North East
Union Territories
States selected for Rural
samples
1. Uttar Pradesh
2. Haryana
3. Himachal Pradesh
4. Rajasthan
5. Madhya Pradesh
States selected for Urban
samples
1. Uttar Pradesh
6. Bihar
7. West Bengal
8. Andhra Pradesh
9. Tamil Nadu
3. West Bengal
10. Assam
5. Assam
1. Chandigarh
1. Puducherry
2. Maharashtra
4. Andhra Pradesh
Selection of Districts
Depending on the total number of districts in the selected state, the
number of districts to be sampled in the state was fixed and districts
were selected on the basis of female literacy and availability of DISE
data for the year 2002–2003.For rural samples,29 districts were
canvassed and 12 districts were canvassed for the urban samples.
Selection of Blocks \ Villages \ schools
From each of the selected districts, two blocks were selected
randomly and from each block two villages were selected on the basis of
availability of schools i.e., one village with one primary school and
another village having more than two schools with atleast one upper
primary school. All the existing schools belonging to different category of
schools covered under SSA i.e. Govt., Govt. aided, and Local bodies\
EGS, A&IE centre from each of the two selected villages were
canvassed.
Selection of urban samples
Two towns were selected from each state with the highest slum
population.From each selected town, two slums were selected randomly.
Two towns were canvassed from the Union Territory i.e. Puducherry.
iii
Thus 12 towns and 24 slums were selected from five states and one UT
for the urban samples. However 13 towns and twenty two slums were
actually canvassed.
Types of schedules canvassed for the study.
Type of schedule
Number of schedules canvassed
State Level Schedule (SLS)
35
District Level Schedule (DLS)
41
Block Level Schedule
(BLS)\Town Level Schedule
(TLS)
Village Level Schedule
(VLS)\Slum Level Schedule
(SmLS)
School Level Schedule (ScLS)
71
137
Student Level Schedule (CLS)
2045
250
Household/Dwelling Level
1390
Schedule (HLS\DwLS)
Observation based check list at
249
school level (OBCL)
• Information was obtained from all states and UTs (35) on state level schedules,
though only selected states were canvassed.
Findings
1.
There has been significant progress in the attainment of
accessibility targets as the number of unserved habitations has declined
across all states as a result of opening up of new schools and setting up
of EGS (Education Guarantee Scheme) centres. Universal access has
not been achieved due to formation of new habitations over time, non
availability of land (forest areas), delays in construction, procedural
delays and lack of community involvement(Para 3.2,3.5).
2.
The availability of schools within close distance of habitations has
improved with more than 98% of the rural habitations having access to
elementary schools within 3 km. In the urban areas, 93% of the slum
children access neighborhood schools within 1km from their homes.
(Para 3.10 & 7.3).
iv
3.
There is no uniformity in the classification of primary schools and
upper primary schools as classes I-V are categorized as primary schools
in some states and class V as upper primary in other states. Due to the
existence of single primary and upper primary schools, composite
schools and upper primary sections in some secondary schools, the
SSA norm for ratio of primary schools \ sections to upper primary
schools\sections(2:1) could not be assessed in the selected samples.
However, the large number of habitations(50%) in Bihar, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan which have only primary schools
underscores the extent of underserved habitations in these states as a
cause for absenteeism as well as for dropout of girls as students have to
travel long distances to access upper primary schools. In urban
samples, few upper primary schools were available in Assam,
Puducherry, Uttar Pradesh in the neighborhood of the slums(Para
3.7,3.8 & 7.5)
4.
A majority of the schools in the villages(over 75%) are Government
schools(including Govt. aided and local body schools). The major
responsibility of providing education in villages in Bihar, Himachal
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh lies with the State
Education departments with the participation of local governing
institutions i.e., Panchayati Raj institutions in school management
noticeable only in Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
Government aided schools in West Bengal and private schools in
Chandigarh, Haryana and Rajasthan have a significant presence. In
urban slum areas,the participation by Govt institutions including schools
under the management of Municipal Corporations is 78% (Para 3.11 &
7.4)
5.
The overall gross enrolment ratio rose from 89% in 2003 to 93% in
2007. There was a rapid rise in the overall enrolment of children in
Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar
v
Pradesh. Some rural pockets in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh had
decreased enrolment due to decline in child population and outward
migration of families. In a few blocks in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar
Pradesh and West Bengal enrolment declined possibly due to shift to
private schools, decline in overaged students or dropouts. The
enrolment in Govt schools in urban slums increased by 18%, despite the
presence of private schools, except in the case of Puducherry and Uttar
Pradesh(Para 3.12,3.15, & 7.6)
6.
Student attendance rates improved with increased enrolment
ratios. 62% of the rural schools reported average attendance of more
than 75% as against
68% of urban schools. Average student
attendance rates continued to be poor in the educationally backward
states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and also in Assam. While all the
schools in Bihar and 82% in Uttar Pradesh reported less than 75%
attendance, in Assam 54% of the schools reported less than 75%
student attendance. The reasons for poor attendance were seasonal
migration, distance, ill health, festival, home chores, sibling care and
lack of parental motivation. Some schools (40%) in Assam and Bihar
were not providing midday meals to children. Work at home, sibling care
and ill health were reported as reasons for absenteeism in slum schools.
(Para 3.16, 3.17, 7.7)
7.
Interventions to mainstream out of school children and dropouts
have succeeded partially. Nearly 7% of the rural households and 20% of
the households in the urban slums had out of school children\dropouts
with more than 50% of such children from socially disadvantaged
groups(SC\STs). There were no out of school children in the selected
villages in Assam, Chandigarh and Tamil Nadu and in the urban slums
of Assam and Puducherry. It was observed that the existence of
EGS\AIE centres and of pre-primary component in primary schools were
vi
effective in reducing the number of out of school children in the rural
samples (Para 3.19,3.23 & 7.8, 7.9)
8.
70% of the out of school children in the villages and 84% in the
urban slums were willing to attend schools. Their expectations were free
uniforms, free textbooks, scholarships and no punishment. Gender bias
exists as 55% of the dropouts were girls. In urban areas too, the share of
girls in out of school children was 58%( Para 3.20, 3.21& 7.9, 7.10)
9.
All the states have adopted the Central Govt framework for
mainstreaming out of school children as enrolment drives and residential
and non residential bridge courses were organized. In rural areas, 38%
of the parents recalled enrolment drives had been undertaken whereas
in the urban slums, 54% reported that enrolment drives were held. 55%
of the parents in the rural areas and 45% of the urban parents were
aware of SSA interventions (Para 3.22, 6.12 & 7.46)
10.
Most states except Chandigarh and West Bengal did not follow a
policy of no detention in primary classes. Nearly 6% of the rural children
and 9% of urban children in Classes I & II were declared as “failed” and
retained in the same grade.Further, 6% of the rural students did not
appear for term end examinations indicating the incidence of seasonal
migration (Para 3.24 &7.29)
11.
The enrolment ratio of girls improved significantly resulting in
gender parity ratio of 0.89 in rural and 0.82 in urban schools. Gender
parity in enrolment had been achieved in the rural areas of Assam and
West Bengal and in urban slums of Assam and Puducherry. The
enrolment ratio of girls in the
educationally backward blocks in the
selected samples too increased specifically in Jalore, Rajasthan(26%)
and 14% in Kasba Nagar,Bihar. Improvement in girls’ enrolment was not
due to favourable female teacher ratios in schools. Girls enrolment
improved in schools in Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Rajasthan and West
vii
Bengal despite lower ratios of female teachers. Girls’ enrolment in all
male schools in Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh also improved. In
urban samples in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra too, the enrolment
share of girls improved considerably (Para 3.29, 3.30,3.31 & 7.11)
12.
The share of socially disadvantaged groups in school enrolment
was 32% in rural and 30% in urban areas which was higher than their
share in the population. The majority of the SC\ST children in Himachal
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan were enroled in government
schools (Para 3.34 & 7.12).
13.
An impressive increase was also observed in the enrolment of
differently abled children with their share rising from 0.43% of the total
enrolment in 2003 to1.17% in 2007 in rural areas. In urban schools, their
share declined during the reference period. Though the children were
provided financial and non financial incentives, few schools had
individualised education plans(Para 3.36 & 7.13)
14.
Though infrastructural facilities have improved in the schools,
some states continued to have infrastructural deficits. All schools have
blackboards (except a few schools in Himachal Pradesh), 88% are in
pucca (all weather) buildings and 90% of the schools provide drinking
water(except few schools in Rajasthan). Though common toilets were
available in 82% of the schools, only 50% of the schools had separate
toilets for girls. Infrastructural deficiencies exist in Assam, Bihar,
Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. In 82% of urban slum
schools, drinking water facilities were available but only 40% had
separate toilets for girls. Most rural schools (60%) are multigrade with all
schools in Madhya Pradesh and 90% of the schools in Tamil Nadu in the
selected villages multigrade. In urban areas, 32% are multigrade with
75% of these schools located in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
(Para 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.15 & 7.14, 7.15,7.18)
viii
15.
Lack of electricity in 60% of rural schools and non availability of
trained teachers for computer education deters computer aided learning
methods. Only 11% of the schools were provided with computers. Urban
slum schools were better placed with 86% having electricity and 62%
schools equipped with computers. The lack of electricity also prevents
some schools with good infrastructure from operating double shifts
(Para 4.7 & 7.16)
16.
In terms of the availability of teaching learning materials(TLMs)
such as posters, charts etc in classrooms, 93% of urban schools as
compared to 75% of rural schools had TLMs. The usage of TLMs was
also comparatively better in urban schools(91%) whereas only 77% of
the rural students reported its usage by teachers during teaching. In
rural areas of Bihar and Himachal Pradesh, teachers reported the lack of
guidance from the resource centres in preparation of TLMs. 31% of the
rural students and 66% in urban schools were able to access libraries
(Para 4.9,4.10,4.11, 4.12 & 7.25)
17.
Free textbooks were provided to Girls and SC\ST children under
SSA and non eligible children received free textbooks from state
grants\book banks in all states. 98% of the urban children received their
books in the beginning of the session as compared to 84% in the rural
schools. Late receipt of books (mid session) was reported from students
in rural schools of Bihar and Haryana and in urban schools of Andhra
Pradesh and Maharashtra (Para 4.13 & 7.24)
18.
60% of the rural schools had favorable Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTR)
(as per norms) as compared to 57% of urban schools and also had a
higher share of graduate teachers(56%) than urban schools(36%).
Female teacher ratio in schools was 43%- 44%, which is lower than the
SSA norm of 50%. 19% of the regular posts of teachers were vacant in
ix
2007 in rural areas as compared to 12% in urban schools. Despite the
two teacher minimum norm under SSA, 7% of the schools in rural areas
were single teacher schools and largely prevalent in Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh and Rajasthan (Para 3.31, 4.14, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18 & 7.17, 7.19,
7.20,7.21)
19.
There seem to be differences in the perception of students, village
members and implementing authorities on teacher attendance with
students and community members opining that teachers were regular
whereas state officials alleged that teachers were truant. In both rural as
well as urban schools, 96% of the students reported that teachers were
regular. 10% of the rural students reported physical punishment in
schools as compared to 15% of urban students. More than one-fourth of
the students in Himachal Pradesh(26%) and all the students in
Puducherry reported being punished often(Para 4.21 & 7.28)
20.
Motivation levels of teachers are low as they are involved in non
teaching activities and not consulted in the design of the curriculum.74%
of the teachers in the rural and 75% in the urban were involved in
census survey, election duties, pulse polio etc, with 54% teachers in the
rural schools and 76% in the urban schools disinterested in non teaching
activities. While 73% of the rural teachers were satisfied with their
salaries, only 46% of the urban teachers reported being satisfied with
their salaries(Para 4.20 & 7.23)
21.
The quality of learning varies considerably between states.
Achievement tests in English, Local language and Mathematics for
Class II(primary) and Class VI (upper primary) students revealed that
the performance of students in reading and verbal skills were better
than in writing skills. The mean scores (marks) of students of primary
classes (class II) in writing tests in urban schools was higher than in
rural schools. In comparison to mean marks of 54, 30 and 54 in writing
x
tests of
Arithmetic, English and local language respectively of rural
students, urban mean scores were 69, 35 and 74(Para 4.26,4.27 4.28,
4.29 & 7.31,7.32)
22.
In upper primary classes too(class VI), the mean scores of urban
students in writing tests were marginally better than their rural
counterparts. Amongst subjects, students fared well in the local
language than in Arithmetic or English(Para 4.30,4.31 & 7.33)
23.
The superior performance of students in the rural schools of
Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and in urban
slums of Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry, Maharashtra and West Bengal
indicates that a combination of factors such as better availability of
teachers, improved pedagogic practices such as use of TLMs, use of
libraries, lower participation in non teaching activities and motivated
teachers
does
impact
learning
outcomes.
Innovative
learning
technologies such as activity based learning cards have been used in
Tamil Nadu and grading of schools has been initiated in Andhra Pradesh
to motivate competition amongst schools and improve parental
involvement(Para 4.32,4.33,4.34 & 7.35)
24.
Most states (twenty two)were able to raise the matching resources
for the programme by the end of Tenth Five Year Plan. With the
exception of some North eastern states, Punjab, Gujarat, Madhya
Pradesh and West Bengal which favour lower state share, the remaining
states expressed satisfaction with the contribution policy of the Centre in
the Eleventh Five Year Plan(Para 5.4)
25.
The higher allocations for the programme were matched by the
steady increase in the flow of funds for the programme. The increase in
assistance (Central and state share) rose from 43% of allocation in
2003-2004 to 73% in 2006-2007. The utilization ratio also improved from
98% to 110% signifying greater absorptive capacity as unspent funds of
xi
the previous years were also utilized. The disbursements to districts from
the state implementing societies declined from 109% to 96% in 20062007(Para 5.5,5.6,5.7)
26.
It was observed that Daman, Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala and
Manipur spent a higher(more than 20%) proportion of their expenditures
on quality interventions than Bihar, Punjab and West Bengal which spent
more than 60% on civil works. In terms of expenditure on interventions,
districts were able to utilize 92% of the allocation in 2007 for civil works
and repair and maintenance. The utilization was only 50% in computer
education, innovative activities for improving quality(54%) and teachers
training (67%)(Para 5.9, 5.14)
27.
There was an improvement in the transfer of funds to district and
sub district levels. Most states were able to transfer the first installment
in April-June in 2007 and the second installment between September –
December. However, there was a delay in the transfer of funds to subblock level, as funds were disbursed at the end of the year in some
states(Para 5.10)
28.
Due to the increase in the pool of available resources, a larger
number of schools received grants in 2007 as compared to 2003. In
Andhra Pradesh and Assam, upper primary schools received as much
funds as primary schools. In urban samples, Puducherry reported the
poorest utilization of funds(Para 5.16,7.44)
29.
There were wide differences in the funds available to the schools in
the rural as compared to urban areas. Based on the reported
information, the average expenditure per student per year in 2007 was
highest in Bihar and lowest in Andhra Pradesh. The indicative average
expenditure was Rs.497 in rural schools as compared to Rs.35 in urban
schools in slum areas which underscores the need for appropriate
funding for urban slum schools(Para 5.17 &7.45)
xii
30.
Community ownership of schools which was envisaged to be the
backbone for the successful implementation of the programme at the
grassroots level has met with partial success as most village education
committees took a ringside view of school activities. While VECs in
Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh and Rajasthan reported that they were
involved in monitoring of schools, infrastructure improvement and
improving enrolment, meetings were held on quarterly basis. In
Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu meetings were not conducted on a
regular basis. None of the VECs were involved as much with appointing
para
teachers
(except
Andhra
Pradesh)
as
with
infrastructure
improvement(80%). More than half of the VECs were concerned about
fund matters. Parents role as primary stakeholders has been limited as
only 50% of the parents in the rural and 45% in the urban schools were
aware of the existence of PTA(Para 6.3,6.4,6.5,6.6,6.8,6.12,6.13&7.46)
31.
Institutional structures such as the Block resource center and
cluster resource centres which have been created to provide academic
guidance, conduct teacher training programmes and monitor the
functioning of the schools are challenged by manpower shortage and
poor communication linkages with schools. 77% of the BRCs and 45%
of the CRCs in rural areas were located more than 3 km from the
schools. In Assam, each CRC has a catchment area of 44 schools and
in urban slum areas in Uttar Pradesh each CRC caters to 48 schools.
Only 10% of the schools had received academic guidance from CRCs
located in the urban clusters. NGOs have been proactive at the district
level in setting up of AIE\ EGS centres, in providing assistance for
differently abled students, learning assessments etc, however a greater
role play by these institutions in generating awareness, vitalizing
communities need to be utilized with scope for scaling up of their
activities(Para 6.16,6.17,6.18 & 7.49)
xiii
32.
In seven states, state level monitoring committees have not been
constituted. District level teams were functioning in all the selected
districts but the norms governing the composition, functions and
frequency of visits were not clear. District education officials in Assam,
Bihar,
Haryana,
Himachal
Pradesh
and
Rajasthan
had
dual
responsibilities of SSA and state schemes. Most teams were involved
with monitoring schools with poor attention to school mapping or
achievement issues. Records of the visits of district teams\ BRCs\ CRCs
were not maintained in the schools(Para 6.21, 6.22)
33.
There is no involvement of the District Project Office in the transfer
of funds or in coordinating the activities of the schools under the
management of the Municipal Corporations in towns. The Municipal
Corporations draw their SSA funds directly from the State Project Office
and function independently of the District Authorities. Town level
committees which have been constituted were ineffective due to lack of
commitment and time from councilors\corporators to monitor the
activities of schools. Slum level committees or ward education
committees are partially effective, however the shortage of funds and
lack of separate plans for urban slum schools impacts their functioning
(Para 7.37,7.39)
Constraints
1.
Teacher shortages and single teacher schools have severely
undermined the achievement of quality education in most states. The
onus of involving teachers in non teaching activities such as census
survey, election duties, household surveys, supervision of midday meals
has been a demotivating factor as more than half of the teachers
expressed disinterest in such activities.
2.
Universal enrolment has been a challenging task due to seasonal
migration, illiteracy, economic backwardness and lack of awareness.
xiv
3.
Non availability of upper primary schools, multilingual schools and
uniform curriculum across states poses problems in achieving universal
retention.
4.
Monitoring and supervision linkages are weak as officials are
involved in implementing other state schemes. The responsibility for the
implementation is devolved to lower level officials with no accountability
and provided with (in)adequate fund or logistics support.
5.
The responsibility for effective implementation rests with the school
headmasters as community mobilization \ ownership has not gained
ground and involvement of Panchayati Raj institutions in management of
schools is prevalent only in a few states. The role of Village Education
Committees (VECs)\ Parents Teacher Associations (PTAs) are partial at
best and display disinterest in the non monetary school activities such as
improving
educational
quality,
monitoring
teacher
and
student
absenteeism.
6.
While there has been a vast improvement in addressing
infrastructural deficits, some states continue to face shortages in terms
of adequate number of classrooms, separate toilet facilities for girls,
blackboards, drinking water and electricity in most schools. The school
environment in urban schools in slum areas needs immediate attention.
Recommendations
1.
There is a need to open more upper primary schools and develop
stronger linkages of pre-primary schools with primary schools in villages
in order to improve retention and reduce girl dropouts. The problem of
dropouts\ out of school children due to seasonal migration needs to be
addressed by reforming the school curriculum to make it more child
friendly, multi-lingual schools with multi-graded textbooks and designing
academic calendar in sync with migratory seasons including realigning
vacations in migration prone communities.
xv
2.
No detention policy to be followed by all states at primary level and
examinations to be replaced by continous assessment .
3.
Transport facilities for children living in remote habitations or
unserved habitations in rural areas.
4.
Free uniforms and financial incentives should be provided to
students living and attending schools in urban slums.
5.
Introduction of biometric systems of recording teacher attendance
and monitoring by cluster resource officials.
6.
Individualised education plans for Children With Special Needs
(CWSN) to improve retention. Incentives for attendance should be
extended to disabled children.
7.
Extension of NPEGEL schemes in urban clusters to schools in
slums and vocational training programmes in upper primary schools to
address the problem of dropouts in urban areas.
8.
Non teaching activities of teachers to be reduced, recruitment of
trained teachers to reduce vacancies and unfavourable PTRs. Opinion
and views of teachers should be sought in curriculum construction and in
developing district plans.
9.
Teacher training to be reoriented towards use of improved
methods of teaching, multi-grade teaching, sensitivity towards children
with disabilities and to make punishment an exception rather than a rule
to discipline children.
10.
Improving linkages between cluster resource centres and teachers
for academic guidance and development and use of TLM in teaching
processes. Functional norms for CRCs to be specified and contingency,
travel allowance to be enhanced and telephone facilities to be provided
in BRCs and CRCs.
11.
Electricity to be made available to all upper primary schools to
ensure efficient use of expenditures on computers, EDUSAT facilities.
12.
Infrastructure shortages such as lack of blackboards, drinking
xvi
water, separate toilets for girls, shortage of classrooms, boundary
walls\fencing to be addressed. Government aided schools in rented
buildings to be funded for repair and maintenance to improve school
environment.
13.
Classroom libraries to be set up in all schools and reading habits
amongst students to be encouraged. Sports equipment to be provided in
all schools.
14.
Constitution of school management committees with parent and
student representatives. Greater involvement of NGOs in generation of
awareness and community ownership.
15.
District level monitoring committees to include members from
DIET,NGOs and subject experts. Monitoring of quality to be made
mandatory.
16.
Disbursement of funds to sub block levels to be accelerated
through quarterly releases. Districts must enhance spending on quality
interventions.
17. Display of receipt of funds on school notice boards to be made
mandatory and VECs to be funded for appointment of para teachers,
cleaners\ sweepers\ security staff in schools.
18.
Nodal agency for coordinating implementation, monitoring of SSA
activities of Municipal Corporations to be notified by all states. Slum
education committees to be set up in every slum.
19.
Accreditation for all schools based on school environment,
inclusive education, extra curricular activities and quality of learning.
20.
The Right to Education Act to be implemented by all states.
xvii
LISTS OF TABLES & CHARTS
No.
Subject
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.10
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
Criteria for selection of districts
Sample size for Rural and Urban Areas
Name of the Selected States & Districts (Rural samples)
Interventions for Improving Accessibility
Underserved habitations
Distance of Schools in Habitations
Schools by type of management
Gross Enrolment Ratio
Decline in child population in selected blocks
Student attendance rates & midday meals
Out of School Children
Pass percentage of children in Class I & II
Enrolment share of Girls, SC\STs and CWSN
Enrolment of Girls in schools in Educationally Backward Blocks
Share of female teachers and SC\ST teachers in schools.
Infrastructural Facilities in Schools
Students Responses on Incentives and use of teaching tools
School Indicators
Teachers Trained
Involvement of teachers in non teaching activities & motivational levels
Student responses on teachers’ attendance and punishment
Performance of students in reading test in Class II
Performance of students in written test in Class II
Chart on Performance of students in written test for Class II
Chart on Performance of students in reading tests for Class VI
Performance of upper primary students in written tests (Class VI)
Chart on Performance of upper primary students in written tests (Class VI)
Flow of funds
Chart on Flow of Funds
Chart on Fund flow in selected districts
Expenditures on major interventions
Chart on Expenditures on major interventions
Indicative Average Expenditure per Student
Activities of Village Education Committee
Frequency of Meetings held by VECs
Major issues discussed in meetings of VEC\SMCs
Page
No
9
10
12
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
26
27
29
32
35
36
38
39
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
48
49
51
52
53
54
56
57
58
1
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
Training of community members
Parents’ responses on PTA and SSA
Effectiveness of BRCs\ CRCs
Effectiveness of the District Level Monitoring teams
Frequency of meetings of Block level monitoring teams
URBAN FINDINGS
Names of selected States(UT), Towns and Districts (Urban samples)
Accessibility and availability of schools in urban slum areas.
Accessibility to upper primary schools
Enrolment and student attendance rates
Dropouts and Out of School children in urban slums
Share of enrolment of Girls, SC\STs and CWSN
Incentives for CWSN
Infrastructural facilities
School and Teacher indicators
Teachers responses to non teaching activities and motivational levels
Student responses on incentives and use of Teaching Tools
Student responses on Teacher Attendance and punishment
Performance of children in Classes I & II
Performance of students in verbal and reading tests-Class II
Performance of students in written tests-Class II
Students performance (Class VI) in passage reading
Performance of students in written tests-Class VI
Utilisation of school grants
Indicative Average Expenditure per student
Responses of parents on SSA and PTA
Effectiveness of CRCs
60
61
63
65
66
67
68
69
69
70
71
72
73
74
76
76
77
78
79
79
80
80
83
84
84
86
2
LIST OF ANNEXURES
No.
Subject
Page No.
3.1
Unserved Habitations
97
3.2
Innovative activities for mainstreaming Out of School
Children
98
3.3
Activities under NPEGEL
99
3.4
Innovative Activities for Children With Special Needs
100
4.1
Innovative Activities for Improving Quality of Education
101
5.1
Centre State Ratio (CSR)
102
5.2
Allocation of Funds & Utilisation
5.3
Expenditure of States on Infrastructure, Quality and
Administration
105
6.1
Activities of NGOs’
106
7.1
Comparative Indicators in Rural and Urban Areas
7.2
Effectiveness of SECs\WECs \ Slum Education Committees
103-104
107-108
109
3
Chapter - 1
INTRODUCTION
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme aimed at Universal Elementary
Education was launched in January 2001 to provide useful and relevant
education for all children in the age group of 6-14 years by 2010. It is an
attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all
children, with special focus on bridging social, regional and gender gaps,
through the active participation of the community in the management of
schools.
1.1 Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
¾ All children in School, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School,
‘Back-to-School' camp by 2003; extended to 2005.
¾ Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007.
and at elementary education level by 2010.
¾ Universal retention by 2010.
¾ Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis
on education for life.
1.2 The objectives are expressed nationally though it is expected that
various districts and states would achieve universalisation in their own
respective contexts and in their own time frame. 2010 is the outer limit for
such achievements. The emphasis is on mainstreaming out-of-school
children through diverse strategies and on providing eight years of
schooling for all children in 6-14 age groups. Within this framework it is
expected that the education system will be made relevant so that children
and parents find the schooling system useful and absorbing according to
their natural and social environment.
4
1.3
The programme covers the entire country and all schools except
private unaided schools. Under the scheme, regular schools \alternative
schooling facilities are to be provided within one km of every habitation,
strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional
classrooms, toilets, drinking water, to improve teacher strength through
recruitment of
additional teachers, capacity building of teachers
by
extensive training, provision of grant for developing teacher-learning
material and development of academic support infrastructure.
Features of interventions
1.4 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is moulded within a fixed framework from
planning and implementation of specific interventions and actions to
financial provisions for elementary education.
Major interventions
1. Provision for opening of new schools or for setting up EGS (Education
Guarantee Scheme) centres in unserved habitations.
2. Opening of Upper primary schools
3. Interventions to mainstream out of school children, dropouts.
4. Inclusive education and other activities.
5. Block resource\ cluster resource centres
6.Innovative activity for girls’ education, early childhood care and
education.
7.Capacity building for teachers, training, teacher grant, recruitment of
teachers
8. Civil works, additional classrooms, maintenance grant, school grant.
9. Management cost, research &evaluation, community training
5
Limitations of the study
1.5 Some limitations were encountered that may have impacted the
findings of the study.
1. Inadequate quantitative information on enrolment of dropouts and out
of school children to assess the effectiveness of strategies to
mainstream these children.
2. Sample size variations across states
a) Evaluation teams in villages with high density of schools
canvassed more schools than in those which were underserved.
b) One additional town (Secunderabad) was canvassed in Andhra
Pradesh but dwellings in the slums in this town were not
canvassed.
c) Upper primary students in slum schools in West Bengal and Uttar
Pradesh were not canvassed.
3. Weak linkages between urban local bodies and nodal agencies
resulting in poor availability of data for urban slum samples.
6
Chapter - 2
Objectives and Methodology
The Development Advisory Evaluation Committee under the chairmanship
of the Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission had directed the PEO to
conduct an evaluation on the performance of the SSA scheme. The study
was designed in consultation with MHRD and the field survey was
conducted over a period of four months beginning from Feb 2008.In some
states the survey was completed in June 2008 as schools had closed for
summer vacations.
2.1
The broad objectives for the study:
1. To assess the extent to which SSA has been able to achieve its
objectives and related targets and the factors determining the same.
2. To assess the extent to which the approach\strategies adopted under
SSA to achieve the objectives were effective.
3. To identify constraints in the implementation of the scheme.
4. To suggest the way forward.
Keeping in view the broad objectives of “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan”, the
specific objectives of this Evaluation Study were grouped in three
categories:
2.2
ACCESS
1. To assess the extent of attendance and enrolment of children in the
relevant age group and to analyze the reasons thereof.
2. To assess the extent to which unserved and underserved villages \
habitations have been provided access to schooling through formal
schools.
3. To study the strategies adopted for bringing the dropout and out of
school children into school and retaining them.
7
2.3 EQUITY
1. To assess the equity maintained through the programme with respect
to social groups, gender and children with special needs.
2.4 QUALITY
1. To assess quality indicators such as PTR, achievement level of
children, attendance of teachers etc.
2. To examine the availability and adequacy of the infrastructural facilities
in the schools.
3. To assess the level and nature of partnership between central, state
and local self government and to examine their role in school
management.
4. To assess the financial aspects of SSA in terms of center-state
contributions, timeliness of transfer of funds, utilization etc and the role
of development partners.
5. To identify constraints in the implementation of the scheme and
suggest remedial measures.
Methodology
2.5
Sampling Method
A multistage stratified sampling was adopted for selection of samples at
State and district levels.
Criteria for selection of samples
2.6
Selection of States
The States were classified on the basis of location in five zones ie., North,
West, East, South and North East . States in each zone were stratified on
the basis of percentage expenditure incurred in the 10th Five Year Plan.
Data on rural samples were collected through sample surveys conducted in
ten states and one UT and data for urban samples from twelve towns in
8
five states and one UT. However all the states and UTs(35) were requested
to fill in the State level\UT level schedules.
2.7
Selection of Districts
Districts were selected on the basis of female literacy and availability of
DISE data for the year 2002 – 2003. The criteria used for the selection of
the number of districts was based on the total number of districts in the
selected states(Table 2.1).The names of the selected districts for rural
samples are indicated in Table 2.3.
Table 2.1 Criteria for selection of districts.
States with number of districts—selected states
No. of Districts selected in
each state
< 20 ------- Haryana , Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal
2
20-50 ------- Assam , Andhra Pradesh, Bihar , Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu
3
> 5 -------- Uttar Pradesh
4
2.8
Selection of Blocks\ Villages
From each district, two blocks were selected randomly while ensuring that
they were not adjacent to each other. From each selected block the list of
all revenue villages in that block and number with types of schools (only
primary and upper-primary and funded under SSA) in those villages were
obtained. From this list two villages were selected using following criteria:
(i)One village having more than two schools and with at least one upper
primary school under SSA and (ii)One village having only one primary
school under SSA.
2.9
Selection of Schools\Students
In each selected village all the existing schools belonging to different
category of schools covered under SSA i.e. Govt., Govt. aided and Local
bodies\EGS \A&IE centre were selected. From each school, eight students
were randomly selected (four from Class II and four from class VI) and
9
answers to a set of questions in English, Local language and Mathematics
were solicited to assess their learning achievement levels.
2.10 Selection of Households
In each village ten households having children in the age group of 6-14
years were selected through snowball sampling.
2.11 Sample size and selection of urban samples
The sample size for rural and urban areas is indicated in Table 2.2. For
selection of urban samples, from each zone one state with highest slum
population was selected and two towns were selected from that state. Two
towns from Puducherry (UT) were also selected. Two slums were selected
from each selected town. The names of the selected towns is indicated in
Table 7.1.
Table 2.2 Sample Size for rural and urban areas
S.No.
Sample Units
Sample size canvassed(rural + urban)
1
States \ UTs
35
2
Districts
29 +(12 districts) = 41
3
Blocks + towns
58 +([email protected])
= 71
4
Villages + slums
5
Schools
115 + ( 22*)
222 +(28)
= 137
= 250
6
Students
1790^ + 255
= 2045
7
Household + dwellings
1150 + 240#
= 1390
8
Observation based checklist for
schools (OBCL)
**221+28
= 249
^ Additional students canvassed in A.P.
* 2 slum schedules not canvassed each in A.P and U.P
** 1 OBCL not canvassed in Haryana.
@ 3 towns canvassed in A.P
# slum dwellings not canvassed in addnl. town of A.P.
2.12 Selection of Focus Groups
From each sample village one Focus Group Discussion was organized
consisting of parents (8-10 persons) each belonging to (a) SC and\or ST
(depending upon their availability and concentration),(b)Non-SC\ST(c)
10
parents of out of school children and dropouts and other knowledgeable
persons of the village.
2.13 Instruments
Structured questionnaires were prepared at various levels to generate
primary and secondary information. The following instruments were used
for collection of quantitative and qualitative information.
1 State Level Schedule (SLS)
2 District Level Schedule (DLS)
3 Block Level Schedule (BLS)\ Town Level Schedule (TLS)
4 Village Level Schedule (VLS)\ Slum Level Schedule (SmLS)
5 School Level Schedule (ScLS)
6 Student Level Schedule (CLS)
7 Observation based check list at school level (OBCL)
8 Household \ Dwelling Level Schedule (HLS\ DwLS)
9 Focus Group Discussions at Village level.
2.14 Reference period
The reference period of the study was from 2003 to 2007.
11
Table 2.3
Zone
Name of selected States and Districts (Rural samples)
Selected States
Uttar Pradesh
North
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Selected Districts
Shrawasti, Bulandshahar, Bareilly and Kanpur
Dehat
Kaithal and Mahendragarh
Hamirpur and Chamba
Rajasthan
Jalore, Baran and Kota
Madhya Pradesh
Jhabua, Bhind and Ujjain
Bihar
Purnia, Muzzafarpur and Munger
West Bengal
Siliguri and Nadia
Andhra Pradesh
Mahbubnagar, Chitoor and East Godavari
Tamil Nadu
Dharmapuri, Ramanathapuram and Kanyakumari
Assam
Dhubri, Morigaon and Goalpara
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
West
East
South
North East
U. T.
12
Chapter - 3
Universal Access and Equity
3.1
In recognition of the right of every child to access schooling facilities
within his\her neighborhood one of the key interventions of SSA to provide
universal access is to extend coverage to unserved and underserved
locations by providing a primary school within 1 km of the habitation and
an upper primary school within 3 kms of the habitation.
Unserved habitations
3.2 The Seventh All India Educational Survey (2002) identified 147928
habitations (13% of total habitations at that time) with no primary schools
within 1 km or any alternative schools (Annexure 3.1). In 2007, the number
of unserved habitations had declined considerably across all states though
Andhra Pradesh(2234),Bihar(2903),Chattisgarh(3741), Rajasthan (3121)
and Uttar Pradesh(9897) had a large number of habitations without access
to primary schools or Education Guarantee Schemes(EGS) centres.
3.3
Most states used a two pronged strategy by opening new primary
schools and setting up EGS centres in unserved habitations. New primary
schools were opened in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. No new schools were
opened in Assam, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal as these states
either reported that adequate number of schools were within accessible
distance or that the state norms for schooling facilities were different
(Himachal Pradesh-1.5 km).
3.4
EGS centres\Alternative and Innovative education centres(AIE)
were opened in all states to mainstream out of school children and in small
habitations that did not qualify for a regular school. Even in these cases
13
distance, population norms(separately for tribal and non tribal areas) and\or
enrolment norms(minimum of 15\10 children) were followed. Except in
Assam, Chandigarh and West Bengal, in other states EGS centres which
were functioning for more than two years were upgraded into regular
schools. Some EGS centres in Andhra Pradesh were closed down due to
non functioning centres and in Himachal Pradesh due to insufficient
enrolment. Assam, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West
Bengal continued to have a large number of EGS\AIE centres.
3.5 There were intra-district variations in the provision of access to
schools. In Chitoor district of Andhra Pradesh, Madanpalle block had
schooling facilities in all villages whereas in Pakal block there were 161
habitations without any schooling facilities. Similarly in Binnabari Gram
Panchayat of Khoribari block, Siliguri district(West Bengal)90 habitations(in
tea gardens, forest areas) were without any schooling facilities. Formation
of new habitations over time, non availability of land for construction, poor
community involvement, procedural delays(sanction not received for
opening primary schools),lack of skill at the village level for undertaking
construction of civil works, inadequate funds(cost norms) has impeded
universal access.
3.6
At the village level, the most number of new primary schools (opened
within the preceding five years) could be surveyed in Haryana, Madhya
Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In Assam and West Bengal all sampled
schools were more than 20 years old. In Rajasthan, 47% of the schools
were less than 10 years but more than 5 years old. Though a large number
of EGS centres have been opened in Assam, no EGS centre were found in
the selected villages. AIE centres were functioning in Chandigarh, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. In terms of new
investments in infrastructure, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil
14
Nadu and Uttar Pradesh did considerably better than Andhra Pradesh,
Assam, Himachal Pradesh and W. Bengal. The Table3.1 indicates some of
the interventions for improving accessibility.
Table 3.1: Interventions for improving accessibility ( Numbers )
Accessibility
Interventions
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Tamil
Nadu
Uttar
Pradesh
West
Bengal
Opening of
new
Pry.School
0
0
151
6
18
0
1597
29
37
85
0
Upgradation
of Pry to
U.Pry school
0
0
87
0
0
0
160
0
68
16
0
Construction
of school
building
14
16
30
6
14
0
421
59
131
62
4
Construction
of Additional
Classroom
84
687
413
26
145
283
504
603
122
607
368
Upgradation
of EGS/AIE
centres into
regular
schools
333
0
63
0
1168
126
336
961
1
10
0
EGS centres
functioning
in the
block.(2007)
18
819
29
176
48
28
118
43
12
118
87
Pry:primary U.Pry:Upper primary
Data in the selected blocks
Underserved habitations
3.7
The SSA norm stipulates that as per requirement based on the
number of children completing primary education, up to a ceiling of one
upper primary school\section for every two primary school\sections may be
opened. It was observed that the classification of primary schools is not
uniform as some states classify primary as classes I-IV and some states
consider class V to be a part of the primary school. Further, while states
such as Assam and Madhya Pradesh had a large number of single primary
and upper primary schools, in Bihar, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu, there were
composite schools as well(primary integrated with upper primary).Some
secondary schools too had upper primary sections. Thus no definitive
conclusions could be reached on the ratio of upper primary to primary
schools in the selected samples. However, the ratio of upper primary to
15
primary schools in most states was unfavorable (as per the state report
cards)(Table 3.2)
Table 3.2: Underserved Habitations
Number of villages
% of villages with no
Ratio of upper primary to
sampled
upper primary school
primary.(State report cards)
Andhra Pradesh
12
0
1:2.4
Assam
12
41.6
1:3.6
Bihar
12
50
1:2.9
Chandigarh
2
0
1:1.1
Haryana
8
50
1:2.5
Himachal Pradesh
8
50
1:1.9
Madhya Pradesh
12
50
1:2.7
Rajasthan
12
50
1:2.3
Tamil Nadu
12
25
1:2.4
Uttar Pradesh
17
41.1
1:2.8
West Bengal
8
37.5
1:5.4
All states\UT
115
38.2
States\UT
(* information as per state report cards 2006-07).
3.8
In terms of accessibility to upper primary schools in the neighborhood
of habitations, it was observed that 50% of villages in Bihar, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan had only single
primary schools and no upper primary schools. Even though a number of
primary schools were reported to have been upgraded into upper primary
schools in the selected blocks in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, the fact that
there are a large number of underserved villages indicates the need for
providing access to upper primary schools\sections in close proximity to
habitations to reduce absenteeism and dropouts.
Distance from Schools
3.9
To ascertain accessibility in terms of the distance of the school from
the habitation, the students’ responses to ‘how far is your school from your
house’ were analysed. Table 3.3 provides details of student responses to
the school distance from their habitations.
16
Table- 3.3: Distance of schools in habitations –student responses
States \ UT
Andhra Pradesh
N=273
Assam
N=186
Bihar
N=200
Chandigarh
N=24
Haryana
N=103
Himachal Pradesh
N=93
Madhya Pradesh
N=144
Rajasthan
N=151
Tamil Nadu
N=211
Uttar Pradesh
N=246
West Bengal
N=159
All states \UT
N=1790
School Distance within 1km
School Distance (1-3 km)
220 (81)
49(18)
177 (95)
6 (3)
182 (91)
18 (9)
24 (100)
0
93 (90)
9(9)
78 ( 84)
15(16)
133 (92)
10(7)
143 (95)
8(5)
178 (84)
31(15)
226 (92)
20(8)
113 (71)
37(23)
1567(87.5)
203(11.3)
N= no. of students, data in parenthesis indicates percentages
3.10 More than 98% of the habitations had access to elementary schools
within 3 kms of their habitations and 88% of the students were attending
elementary schools located within 1 km of their homes. In Andhra Pradesh,
Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and
West Bengal a few children in the selected villages travel more than 3 kms
to their schools which is consistent with the observation that the villages
had few upper primary schools. In Haryana, one AIE centre set up recently
for primary students was located more than one km away from the village.
Transportation facilities need to be provided for children living in remote
habitations as has been done in Andhra Pradesh. In Haryana and Madhya
Pradesh, bicycles are provided to girls enroled in upper primary sections
outside the village.
17
PRI Participation
3.11 The availability of schools by type of management indicates that the
majority of the schools in the villages are Government schools (including
Govt aided and local body schools). In the selected villages more than 90%
of the schools were Govt schools. At the block level, 75% of the schools
were Govt schools. The participation of local governing bodies (Panchayati
Raj Institutions) in school management which is perceived to provide a
better interface with the community and improve decentralized planning
and implementation was predominant in the southern states of Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and to some extent in Rajasthan. In Assam,
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal there were few local body schools in
the selected blocks implying that these schools are not widely prevalent
and may be available in some pockets \ villages. In Rajasthan, the PRI
participation was better in the non selected villages in the block.
Interestingly, in the villages in Haryana and Rajasthan private schools have
a visible presence.Table3.4 indicates the availability of schools by type of
management in the selected villages and in the block.
Table 3.4: Schools by type of management.
% of schools in selected villages.
% of schools in the selected blocks
Local
Body
schools
Govt
aided
Schools
Private
schools
Govt
schools
Local
body
schools
Govt
aided
schools
Private
schools
Govt
schools
EGS
centres
Andhra Pradesh
81
0
0
19
69.34
2.33
24.84
1.16
2.33
Assam
0
39
4
57
3.23
15.75
15.17
38.29
27.56
Bihar
0
5
0
95
4.46
3.34
0.11
92.08
0.00
Chandigarh
0
0
75
25
0.00
29.26
18.75
1.99
50.0
Haryana
0
0
24
76
0.00
0.38
42.70
52.40
4.52
Himachal Pradesh
0
0
12
88
0.00
0.00
15.93
79.82
4.25
Madhya Pradesh
0
0
0
100
0.00
2.76
1.23
90.98
5.02
Rajasthan
0
0
13
87
20.80
0.05
30.57
46.41
2.18
Tamil Nadu
38
18
0
44
59.14
12.74
9.08
17.53
1.51
Uttar Pradesh
15
0
0
85
7.14
2.75
11.65
76.08
2.38
West Bengal
0
96
4
0
0.60
57.29
24.75
0.00
17.37
All States \UT
17.9
14.4
6.1
61.5
12.27
7.48
16.31
55.04
8.90
States\ UT
18
Enrolment and Attendance
3.12 The enrolment rates increased sharply as a result of the efforts to
provide more primary schools, upper primary schools, EGS centres in
unserved habitations and AIE centres for out of school children. Other
interventions such as enrolment drives, improvement in infrastructure in
schools, incentives such as free books, free uniforms, midday meals also
contributed to the improvement in enrolment ratios from 89.5% in 2003 to
92.9% in 2007 in the selected samples. Table 3.5 indicates the gross
enrolment ratios in 2003 and 2007.
Table 3.5: Gross Enrolment Ratio*
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Tamil
Nadu
Uttar
Pradesh
West
Bengal
All
states\UT
GER-(%)2003
98.3
99.2
87.8
60.8
98.2
98.1
99.3
83.7
99.1
68.6
97.8
89.5
GER-(%)2007
99.6
103.4
94.5
107.6
97.9
94.1
101.5
102.7
99.6
77.1
79.1
92.9
*(in the selected blocks)
3.13 Across states, the enrolment rates increased rapidly in Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, remained
stagnant in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and declined in Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal.
3.14 Enrolment declined in five of the selected blocks as a result of the
decline in child population of 6-14 years and\or possibly due to outward
migration. Guhala and Mahendragarh (Haryana) reported a decline of
35.8% and 10.7% in child population in 2007 as compared to 2003 (Table
3.6). Bharmour, Bijhari and Nadaun (Himachal Pradesh) reported decline in
child population of 6.2%, 7.8% and 1.3% respectively in 2007. In nine
blocks, child population was reported to have declined but enrolment
increased and in three blocks though child population declined there was
no impact on enrolment.
19
Table 3.6: Decline in child population (6-14 years) in selected blocks
States \ UT
Andhra Pradesh
Chandigarh
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
District
Block
Decline in child
population ( %)
Chitoor
Madanpalle
Chitoor
Pakala
Mahboobnagar
GER(%)
17.0
2003
99.2
2007
99.2
8.1
97.9
107.6
Amangal
30.9
97.2
98.6
Mahboobnagar
Manopad
11.4
92.4
93.5
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
26.8
60.9
112.9
Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
10.7
98.3
95.9
Kaithal
Guhala
35.8
99.3
97.2
Chamba
Bharmour
6.2
99.4
95.9
Hamirpur
Bijhari
7.8
98.3
91.7
Hamirpur
Nadaun
1.3
98.4
90.9
Ujjain
Ujjain
33.5
100.3
102.0
Jalore
Jalore
20.0
65.8
124.5
Baran
Shahbad
1.4
97.1
111.6
Bareilly
Fatehganj
10.4
42.9
53.3
Kanyakumari
Thovalai
0.4
100
100
Kanyakumari
Kiliyur
2.3
100
100
Dharmapuri
Nalampalli
4.9
97.2
98.4
3.15 Enrolment declined in six other blocks but was not caused by decline
in child population. In Khairabad(Rajasthan),Palacode(Tamil Nadu), Baheri
and Malasa(Uttar Pradesh),Matigara and Haringhata-I(West Bengal)
though child population registered an increase, enrolment ratios declined
either due to shift to private schools, decline in overaged children enroled in
the schools or children dropping out due to lack of upper primary schools.
In West Bengal, the decline in enrolment in Khoribari block was recorded
due to administrative reasons ie., the division of the block into two circles.
3.16 Improved access to schools had a positive impact on school
attendance as 62% of the schools reported student attendance of more
than 75%. However, student absenteeism was high in Assam, Bihar and
Uttar Pradesh. In Chandigarh, poor attendance was reported from AIE
centres. Table 3.7 indicates the observed student attendance rates.
20
Table 3.7: Student attendance rates & midday meals
% of schools serving
Midday meals
% of schools with attendance rates
States \ UT
90-100%
75-90%
45-75%
<45%
Andhra Pradesh
66.68
29.16
4.16
0
100
Assam
20.87
25.00
45.80
8.33
62.5
0
0
72.00
28.00
60.0
Chandigarh
33.30
33.30
0
33.30
100
Haryana
30.72
53.80
15.30
0
69.2
Himachal Pradesh
46.10
46.21
7.69
0
69.2
Madhya Pradesh
5.50
50.00
44.40
0
83.3
Rajasthan
10.56
73.65
15.77
0
100
Uttar Pradesh
3.12
15.60
50.60
31.20
93.7
Tamil Nadu
96.66
3.33
0
0
100
West Bengal
42.86
38.09
9.52
9.52
100
All states\UT
33.30
28.80
27.90
9.90
85.6
Bihar
3.17 Students reported distance from school, work at home (sibling care),
helping parents, ill health, festival and seasonal migration as some of the
reasons for irregular attendance. Though 85% of the students mentioned
they would continue coming to school even if midday meals were stopped
and 86% of the parents reported that they would continue to send their
children to schools even if midday meal were withdrawn,40% of the schools
in Assam and Bihar did not provide midday meals(Table 3.7).AIE centres in
Narnaul(Haryana) and in few centres in West Bengal also did not provide
CMDM. In a research study by IIT Guwahati , lack of adequate recreational
facilities in schools in Assam and poor parental motivation were identified
as causal factors for absenteeism. In Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh,
improved enrolment rates were not reflected in better attendance rates.
21
Out of School Children
3.18 Notwithstanding the improvement in enrolment ratios, villages in
Bihar and Uttar Pradesh had a large number of out of school children as
indicated in Table 3.8.
Table 3.8: Out of School Children.
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
N=( 120 ,24)
Assam
N=( 120,24 )
Bihar
N=( 120,25 )
Chandigarh
N=( 20,3)
Haryana
N= (80,14 )
Himachal
Pradesh
N=( 70,13)
Madhya
Pradesh
N=( 130,18 )
Rajasthan
N=( 120 ,19)
Tamil Nadu
N=( 120,30 )
Uttar Pradesh
N=( 170,32)
West Bengal
N=( 80,20 )
All States\UT
N=(1150,222 )
Number of
Households
with OOSC
Total No.
of OOSc
(of which
Dropouts)
SC/ST
OBC
4(3.3)
4(50)
2(50)
0
0
20( 16.6)
General
Of which
female
children
Schools with
pre-primary
component
2(50)
0
3(75)
0
0
0
0
0
18 ( 75)
20(85)
4(20)
13(65)
3(15)
11(55)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3 ( 100)
5 (6.25)
5(60)
5(100)
0
0
2(40)
7 ( 50)
3 (4.2)
4(75)
4(100)
0
0
3(75)
0
4(3.0)
6(66.6)
6(100)
0
0
3(50)
0
11(9.1)
11(81.8)
7(63.6)
4(36.4)
0
10(90.9)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
29(17.0)
45(75.5)
25(55.5)
16(35.5)
4(8.9)
20(44.4)
0
7 (8.7)
8(87.5)
2(28.5)
1
5(71.4)
5(62.5)
1
83 (7.2)
103(76.6)
56(54.3)
34(33.0)
13(12.6)
57(55.3)
30( 13.5)
OOSC by category
(N1,N2) – (number of households, number of schools)
Data in parenthesis indicate percentages.
3.19 7.2% of the sampled households had dropouts or out of school
children(OOSC) and more than half of these children belong to socially
disadvantaged groups(SC\ST). In Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Madhya
Pradesh all the out of school children were from SC\ST households.
Dropouts accounted for 76.6% of the children remaining out of school.
3.20 Gender disparity exists as 55% of the dropouts\ OOSCs were Girls. A
majority of the out of school children in Rajasthan were girls. Among the
major reasons for being out of school were “work at home” in Bihar,
22
Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal and sibling care in Rajasthan and Uttar
Pradesh. In Haryana and Uttar Pradesh a larger share of dropouts were
boys for reasons reported as “outside work”. In a household survey
conducted by state government of Tamil Nadu in 2005, migration, earning
compulsion, household work and failure were reported to be causes for
children remaining out of schools.
3.21 70% of the out of school children were willing to attend schools and
their expectations from school, teachers and parents were free uniforms,
good infrastructure in schools, scholarship, good quality teaching(Uttar
Pradesh, West Bengal), no punishment (Bihar, Rajasthan), teachers being
punctual (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh) and parents to refrain from
giving work at home (Bihar, W.Bengal).
3.22 Enrolment drives combined with awareness generation need to be
undertaken on a more regular and systematic basis as only 38% of the
parents could recall that enrolment drives were undertaken in the recent
years. Awareness regarding SSA schemes was lacking in 45% of the
households(Table 6.5).The largest numbers of households which were
aware of SSA were in Tamil Nadu (96%), Assam (90.8%) and Bihar (80%).
The least aware were in Uttar Pradesh(18%),Rajasthan (33%), Haryana
(36%), Himachal Pradesh (41%) and Madhya Pradesh (44%).
3.23 The presence of pre-primary component in schools affects the
incidence of out of school children as girls are freed from the burden of
looking after siblings. It was observed that in the selected villages in Bihar,
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh with a large number of dropouts, there were
no pre-primary sections attached to primary schools. On the other hand,
75% of the schools in Assam and all the schools in Chandigarh had
23
primary schools with pre-primary sections and no dropouts and out of
school children were reported in the selected villages in these states.
3.24 A ‘no detention” policy for children in the primary sections was
adopted only in Chandigarh and West Bengal. Failure rates in 2007 in the
primary sections (Class I & II) in schools was high in Assam and Madhya
Pradesh and children not appearing in exams was high in Haryana,
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh(Table 3.9).Failure rates may be high on
account of poor quality of teaching in single teacher schools (Assam),
multi-grade schools (Madhya Pradesh) while seasonal migration as in the
case of Haryana and Rajasthan prevents a large number of children from
appearing in term end examinations. A child friendly curriculum and liberal
assessment mechanisms(instead of several unit tests and examinations)
can help to promote a culture of learning. Devising of the academic
calendar in sync with migratory seasons in migration prone areas,
migratory cards and establishment of seasonal hostels can lead to
improvement in retention rates.
Table 3.9 Pass percentage of children in Class I & II.
Pass percentage
Children failed
Children not appeared
(%)
(%)
(%)
Andhra Pradesh
91.68
6.55
1.77
Assam
90.95
13.46
0.00
Bihar
93.85
3.15
2.99
100
0.00
0.00
Haryana
71.28
7.91
20.80
Himachal Pradesh
88.67
2.52
8.81
Madhya Pradesh
68.34
17.21
14.32
Rajasthan
83.01
0.00
16.19
Tamil Nadu
93.56
3.89
0.57
Uttar Pradesh
90.40
5.67
2.47
West Bengal
100
0.00
0.00
88.34
5.49
6.17
States\ UT
Chandigarh
All States \ UT
3.25 All the states follow the same set of activities as set out in the
Central Govt. framework for mainstreaming out of school children such as
24
setting up EGS\AIE centres, residential or non residential bridge courses,
vocational camps for girls, mobile schools etc. In many states, seasonal
schools such as sakhar schools for sugarcane workers in Maharashtra or
boat schools, sand schools etc in Andhra Pradesh were opened to cater to
the needs of migrant labourers. In Bihar, vidyalay chalo kendras were
functional in most schools which appear to have attracted many dropouts
and out of school children. Annexure 3.2 provides details of innovative
activities undertaken by district authorities for mainstreaming dropouts.
Best Practices
1. Orissa has a project named AAROHANA for mainstreaming drop outs and out of
school children. At every block and village level, data on out of school children in various age
groups including their name/guardian wise detail is prepared and each block resource centre
has been entrusted the responsibility to mobilize the parents and enrol the children. The novelty
of project AAROHANA is the mainstreaming of children after the course completion and follow
up action to retain them in formal school. This is being done through appointment of resource
persons who will ensure the regular attendance of each and every child enroled in the bridge
courses, will conduct weekly evaluation of each child, map the extra curricular activities of the
children and act as a remedial teacher when mainstreaming them in a school.
2. In Gujarat, migratory cards are issued to students along with progress card .Based on
information in the migration card and progress card, the child is enroled in a suitable class by
the school in the village the child migrates to. At the end of the migration period she\he returns
with her\his parents to the original school to continue the education in the same class and also
appears in annual examination for the same.
Bridging Gaps
3.26 To bring about an improvement in gender parity ratio and social parity
ratio SSA laid a strong focus on equity with all interventions providing for
an inclusive approach.
3.27 The education system has been made responsive to the needs of the
girls through targeted interventions which serve as a pull factor to enhance
access and retention of girls in schools and on the other hand to generate a
25
community demand for girls education through training and mobilisation.
This was to be achieved through recruitment of female teachers to achieve
a 50% female teacher ratio as they play role models for young girls,
separate toilets for girls in schools, incentives such as free textbooks,
scholarships and uniforms.
3.28 In addition to the above, the National Programme for Education of
Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL), a special component of SSA was
started in 2003 in 2600 educationally backward blocks with interventions
focused on gender sensitization, opening of model schools, provision of
escort services, stationary and intensive community mobilisation efforts.
3.29 As a result of these interventions, the overall Gender Parity ratio
improved from 0.87 in 2003 to 0.89 in 2007.Except in Andhra Pradesh,
Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, the enrolment ratios of girls had
risen across most states. Gender Parity ratio in Assam, Uttar Pradesh and
West Bengal was more than 0.90. Table 3.10 indicates the enrolment share
of Girls, SC\STs and Children with Special Needs.
Table 3.10: Enrolment share of Girls, SC\STs and CWSN(% share in total enrolment)
Girls
enrolment
(2003)
Girls
enrolment
(2007)
SC\ST
enrolment
( 2003)
SC\ST
enrolment
( 2007)
CWSN
enrolment
( 2003)
CWSN
enrolment
( 2007)
Andhra Pradesh
47.07
45.35
35.1
36.6
0.55
0.49
Assam
47.84
49.76
24.0
17.8
0.26
1.69
Bihar
44.77
45.79
18.4
22.4
0.29
0.96
Chandigarh
44.97
44.69
37.2
31.8
0.35
3.57
Haryana
47.29
49.08
40.3
40.4
0.62
1.37
Himachal Pradesh
48.02
45.65
55.8
54.2
1.81
1.20
Madhya Pradesh
48.34
46.51
68.6
69.5
0.26
0.34
Rajasthan
40.06
44.31
53.8
56.4
0.67
1.74
Tamil Nadu
47.8
47.12
15.4
14.4
0.56
0.85
Uttar Pradesh
45.77
48.23
38.0
34.1
0.33
0.66
West Bengal
49.5
50.10
50.1
41.8
0.34
0.67
All states\UT
46.4
47.10
32.9
31.8
0.43
1.17
States \UT
26
3.30 In the educationally backward blocks , the rate of increase in the girls’
enrolment was significant. The enrolment of girls in Jalore (Rajasthan) rose
by 25% and in Kasba Nagar block of Bihar, by 14%.The Table3.11
indicates the increase in enrolment in the selected educationally backward
blocks. The NPEGEL schemes were in operation in all the EBBs in the
selected districts except in Andhra Pradesh(137 out of 146 blocks),Bihar(32
out of 35 blocks) and West Bengal (2 out of 5 blocks). In Haryana, bicycles
and school bags had been distributed to deserving beneficiaries.
Hobby\Vocational and remedial classes were organized at cluster centres
in Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Annexure-3.3 indicates the list
of activities under NPEGEL.
Table 3.11: Enrolment of Girls in Schools in Educationally Backward Blocks.
Percentage of Total Enrolment
States
EBB block
2003
2007
Difference in
enrolment
Andhra Pradesh
Amangal
41.16%
46.21%
5.05%
Andhra Pradesh
Manopad
43.09%
44.87%
1.78%
Andhra Pradesh
Amlapu
47.93%
47.07%
-0.86%
Bihar
Kurhani
44.25%
44.85%
0.61%
Bihar
Bochahan
46.55%
48.25%
1.70%
Bihar
Kasba Nagar
28.33%
42.22%
13.89%
Bihar
Bariyarpur
37.23%*
40.49%
3.26%
Haryana
Kalayat
47.11%
45.79%
-1.32%
Himachal Pradesh
Bharmour
49.12%
46.73%
-2.39%
Madhya Pradesh
Thandla
45.68%
47.54%
1.86%
Madhya Pradesh
Alirajpur
39.52%
43.63%
4.11%
Rajasthan
Raniwara
33.42%
41.02%
7.60%
Rajasthan
Anta
45.93%
47.57%
1.64%
Rajasthan
Shahbad
40.85%
49.16%
8.32%
Rajasthan
Jalore
25.72%
51.37%
25.65%
Tamil Nadu
Palacode
45.95%
45.05%
-0.90%
Uttar Pradesh
Fateh ganj(w)
20.22%
27.58%
7.36%
Uttar Pradesh
Baheri
25.05%
25.51%
0.46%
Uttar Pradesh
Jamunha
39.60%
42.73%
3.13%
Uttar Pradesh
Ikauna
25.35%
32.73%
7.38%
EBBS as in selected samples.* Data for 2005.
3.31 Schools in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal had lower ratios of
27
female teachers than the SSA norm(Table 3.12). All male teacher schools
were prevalent in Assam(62%), Bihar(32%), Madhya Pradesh(44%)
Rajasthan(47%) and Uttar Pradesh(21.9%)(Table4.3).Girls’ enrolment in all
male teacher schools increased in Assam, Bihar and in Madhya Pradesh
and declined in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. This indicates that though
there are regional variations, improvement in girls’ enrolment cannot be
attributed to induction of more female teachers in schools.
3.32 In addition to free textbooks, other incentives such as free uniforms
and scholarships of small amounts ie.,Rs 15 per month has been provided
to SC\ ST girls in primary schools in Madhya Pradesh, scholarships in few
schools in Himachal Pradesh, for all primary level girl children in Uttar
Pradesh and attendance incentives to girl students in Maharashtra.
3.33 Innovative state schemes are also in operation for improving
education of girls. In Madhya Pradesh under Kanya Shaksharta Yojana,
SC\ST girls enroled in class VI were provided an incentive of Rs.500. Some
states also have fixed deposit schemes and the amount is paid to the girl
child on completion of her education.
3.34 The share of socially disadvantaged children (SC\ST) did not show
any improvement(Table 3.10).However, it was considerably higher than
their share in the population due to a large number of overaged children
enroled in the schools. The enrolment share in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh and Rajasthan indicate that the majority of the SC\ST children
were enroled in Govt. schools.
3.35 The share of SC\ST teachers in schools was 21%. Madhya Pradesh
and Rajasthan which had significant ratios of enrolment of the children of
these categories had SC\ST teacher ratios of 39% and 13% respectively
(Table 3.12). Schools in Haryana had a large share of SC\ST teachers at
28
63%, West Bengal (30%), Assam(17%), Bihar (17%) as compared to Uttar
Pradesh(13%).
Table 3.12: Share of female teachers and SC\ ST teachers in schools.
States\UT
% of Female teachers
% of SC\ST teachers
Andhra Pradesh
43.9
21.3
Assam
25.0
17.5
Bihar
33.3
17.4
Chandigarh
70.4
24.1
Haryana
34.1
63.6
Himachal Pradesh
22.4
23.7
Madhya Pradesh
36.0
38.7
Rajasthan
30.1
13.2
Tamil Nadu
66.1
6.5
Uttar Pradesh
53.3
12.7
West Bengal
38.5
30.0
All states\UT
42.7
21.0
3.36 The enrolment of CWSN rose from 0.43% of the total children enroled
in 2003 to 1.17% in 2007 with improved ratios in Assam, Chandigarh and
Rajasthan(Table3.10).Under the scheme, Integrated education for Disabled
(IED), training was provided to teachers on teaching techniques and for
preparation of individualized education plans, children were provided
assistive devices such as hearing aids, spectacles, wheelchairs, braille kits
etc., In some states, surgical operations were carried out for children with
severe disabilities. Home based education is also provided by some NGOs’
in Chandigarh. No individualized plans were formulated in all the schools
which had CWSN. Retention rates for such children are known to be poor
in the absence of supportive academic and school environment. In terms of
utilization of funds under IED, Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and
Rajasthan utilized over 90% of their allocation in 2007 on interventions for
CWSN
whereas
Andhra
Pradesh
(44.4%),
Bihar(41.3%)
and
Chandigarh(27.1%) could not utilize the funds available for IED. Annexure
29
3.4 provides details of activities undertaken by states under the scheme for
Integrated Education for Disabled children.
Best Practices
Goa has a voucher scheme for disabled children which includes Rs.800/- for
uniforms,Rs.500/- for textbooks,Rs.2000/-for travelling allowance and Rs.2000/- for
escort allowance. The financial assistance is paid to the schools which are
implementing IED.
30
Chapter - 4
Quality Of Education
4.1
In the initial years of SSA, the thrust was on closing the infrastructural
gaps as it was recognized that an enabling environment aids learning and
can lead to improvement in quality of education imparted by government
schools.
4.2
The states were to formulate strategies for improving the quality of
education also through recruitment of teachers for ensuring the norm of
one teacher for every forty children, expansion of school facilities, provision
of free textbooks, regular inservice training to teachers and school grants
for repair and maintenance and teaching learning materials.
Infrastructural Facilities
4.3
Most (88%) schools have pucca (all weather) school building. The
condition of school buildings was reported to be very poor in Assam as all
the schools were more than 20 years old and few schools were functioning
from makeshift and temporary (kutcha) buildings. Himachal Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu too had a lower percentage of pucca school buildings. Table
4.1provides the details of the infrastructural facilities available in schools.
4.4
In the selected samples, 55% of the schools had less than three
classrooms and 25% had four to six classrooms. A few had more than six
classrooms. Schools in Chandigarh and Haryana have better infrastructure
with pucca buildings, boundary walls and more than three classrooms. In
some schools without boundary walls in Andhra Pradesh, teachers
reported thefts of computers and animal grazing.
31
Table 4.1 Infrastructural facilities in schools( % of schools)
With
Pucca
building
With
Boundary
wall
With
Drinking
water
With
Common
toilet
With
toilets
for girls
With
Blackboard
With
Electricity
With
Computer
centre
With
TLM
With 1-3
classrooms
Andhra
Pradesh
91.6
58.3
87.5
79.1
41.6
100.0
41.6
12.5
100.0
54
Assam
62.5
33.3
95.8
83.3
41.6
100.0
8.3
4.1
91.6
79
Bihar
100.0
52.0
84.0
64.0
40.0
92.0
4.0
8.0
8.0
36
Chandigarh
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.6
100.0
100.0
66.6
66.6
0
Haryana
92.3
92.3
84.6
84.6
61.5
92.3
76.9
7.6
38.4
15
Himachal
Pradesh
69.2
46.1
84.6
76.9
46.1
84.6
69.2
15.3
38.4
46
Madhya
Pradesh
100.0
11.1
94.4
77.7
33.3
100.0
16.6
5.5
100.0
83
Rajasthan
100.0
47.37
73.6
84.2
57.8
100.0
5.2
0.0
84.2
68
Tamil Nadu
73.3
70.0
96.6
83.3
40.0
96.6
62.5
33.3
93.3
50
96.8
59.3
100.0
93.7
87.5
100.0
15.6
3.1
90.6
53
95.0
40.0
95.0
90.0
45.0
90.0
35.0
10.0
70.0
65
88.2
52.0
90.9
82.3
50.6
96.3
40.0
11.3
74.6
55
States\UT
Uttar
Pradesh
West
Bengal
All
states\UT
4.5
There has been a significant improvement in schools with drinking
water facilities for students. 91% of the schools provide drinking water
facility either from taps, tubewells, handpumps and stored containers. In
Rajasthan 26% of the schools were not providing drinking water and
children were visiting their homes during school hours.
4.6
With regard to the availability of common toilets in schools, 82% of
the schools had toilet facilities and separate toilets for girls were available
in 51% of the schools. As compared to the Northern States\UT of
Chandigarh, Haryana
and Uttar Pradesh where separate toilets
were
available in more than 60% of the schools, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Madhya Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu had a lower percentage of schools
(40%) with separate toilets for girls. Separate toilets for girls in upper
primary schools can reduce dropouts, absenteeism and ensure hygiene
amongst adolescent girls.
32
4.7
Few schools in Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar
Pradesh are provided with electricity. Even though 77% of schools in
Haryana and 70% in Himachal Pradesh had electricity, less than 8%
schools in Haryana and 16% in Himachal Pradesh had computer centres in
schools. In Bihar, computers had been provided to schools without
electricity. The non availability of trained teachers to impart computer
education was also reported as one of the reasons for low computer usage
in schools.
Teaching Material and Incentives
4.8
More than 95% of the schools had a blackboard with the exception of
a few schools in Himachal Pradesh. (Table4.1).The condition of
blackboards was reported to be very poor in Bihar. In terms of usage of
blackboard by teachers, 96% of the students reported that blackboards
were used during teaching(Table 4.2).
4.9
The use of Teaching Learning Materials (TLMs) by teachers during
teaching enhances interest in learning. All schools in Andhra Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh had TLMs whereas only 8% of the schools in Bihar and
38% of the schools in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh displayed various
types of teaching learning material i.e. charts, maps, posters, etc in the
classrooms(Table4.1).The most common form of TLMs were charts\posters
which were available in 73% of schools while 18% had reading material.
Some schools in Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh provide
educational toys,puzzles and games. Schools in all states except Bihar and
Chandigarh (which have only charts\posters) had a combination of charts,
reading material, puzzles and educational toys.
4.10 Students in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu mentioned that TLMs
were used most of the time(Table4.2).However 60% of the students in
Chandigarh, Haryana and an equal number in Himachal Pradesh and
33
Madhya Pradesh and 50% in Bihar reported that TLMs were rarely or never
used. In Assam, Rajasthan and West Bengal, the responses on usage of
TLMs was more than 90%.
4.11 While all teachers are provided grants of Rs. 500 per year to prepare
TLMs, the grants were utilized for purchase of stationary such as books
and pencils in Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. Teachers reported lack
of adequate guidance from the cluster resource centres on the preparation
of teaching aids.
4.12 Student responses on the existence of libraries in schools indicated
that many schools do not have libraries and reading habits were not being
inculcated amongst children(Table4.2).The states where maximum number
of students were aware of the existence of libraries was in Andhra
Pradesh(94%),Tamil Nadu(87%) and Chandigarh(67%) and the awareness
was least in Madhya Pradesh (0.7%).
4.13 Girls and SC\ST children were provided free textbooks under SSA.
Non eligible children were provided free textbooks from state grants\book
banks in all states. 84.4% of the students reported that they received
textbooks in the beginning of the session(Table4.2).Upper Primary students
in Bihar and Himachal Pradesh reported receiving books in the middle and
end of the session and some children in upper primary schools in Haryana
did not receive the complete set of books. Among the canvassed schools,
Girl and SC\ST students in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu received
monetary incentives and few children in Haryana and Rajasthan. In Bihar
SC \ST students are provided with scholarships.
34
Table 4.2 Responses on Incentives and use of teaching tools.
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
(%) Students
receiving
books at start
of session
(%) Students
reporting
use of
blackboard
% of students
reporting
schools
with library
100
100
93.7
100
% of students
reporting use of
TLMs
% of schools
which reported
providing
scholarships
58.3
100
100
1.1
98
54.2
Bihar
25
85
2.0
51
100.0
Chandigarh
71
92
66.6
42
33.3
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
63
90
10.6
41
21.4
54
94
53.7
41
7.7
97
91
0.7
40
50.0
100
100
8.6
98
10.5
Tamil Nadu
96
97
87.2
99
66.7
Uttar Pradesh
98
96
1.6
71
40.6
West Bengal
97
99
10.1
92
25.0
All states\UT
84.4
96
31.1
77
47.7
School Indicators
4.14 An important indicator of classroom transaction is the Pupil Teacher
Ratio. Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
had the most number of schools with PTRs less than 40 while schools in
Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal had high PTRs. With the improved
enrolment in the schools, the norm of one teacher for forty children was not
maintained as less number of teachers were recruited. Table 4.3 indicates
some of the school level ratios.
4.15 Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu had a large number of
multi-grade schools. In these states though a number of primary schools
were upgraded to upper primary schools or a large number of EGS centres
upgraded to primary schools, however schools did not have adequate
number of classrooms. 83% of the schools in Madhya Pradesh,68% of the
schools in Rajasthan and 50% of the schools in Tamil Nadu had less than
three classrooms. It is evident that children of different grades were being
taught in the same classroom. In the short term, teachers should be trained
35
in multi-grade teaching methods and multi-graded books introduced. In the
long term construction of additional classrooms will reduce the proportion of
multi-graded schools.
4.16 Despite the SSA norms of atleast two teachers per school, 7.2 % of
the schools were single teacher schools and nearly 30% of the schools did
not
have
more
than
two
teachers.
Rajasthan(21%),
Himachal
Pradesh(15%), Haryana (14%), Assam and Uttar Pradesh(12.5%) have the
maximum number of single teacher schools.
Table 4.3 School Indicators
States\UT
%
schools
with only
male
teachers
%
Schools
with
PTR
< 40
% Multigrade
schools
%Single
teacher
schools
%Schools
with
Graduate
teachers
Average
number
of
teachers
per
school
Teacher
Vacancies
in schools
(% of
posts)
Teachers
recruited
under
SSA
(% of total
teachers)
Andhra Pradesh
20.83
83.3
45.8
4.1
78.0
4.0
2.1
128.8
Assam
62.50
41.6
16.6
12.5
25.8
4.0
15.4
10.2
Bihar
32.00
24.0
44.0
0.0
35.8
4.5
31.6
78.0
Chandigarh
0.00
100.0
33.3
0.0
63.6
17.6
18.9
18.8
Haryana
15.38
78.5
53.8
14.2
77.2
3.0
36.2
29.7
21.43
92.3
61.5
15.3
50.0
3.6
21.3
31.9
44.44
61.1
100.0
0.0
68.0
3.2
38.0
43.1
Rajasthan
47.37
68.4
78.9
21.0
73.6
3.5
0
7.5
Tamil Nadu
10.00
93.3
90.0
0.0
44.0
5.9
6.8
5.6
Uttar Pradesh
21.88
31.2
62.5
12.5
70.7
3.0
46.0
69.3
West Bengal
20.00
40.0
55.0
0.0
61.2
6.2
13.0
29.8
All states\UT
28.83
59.4
59.7
7.21
56.0
4.4
18.8
41.6
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
4.17 Non availability of adequate number of teacher training institutions
has been recognized to be one of the reasons for shortage of teachers in
rural areas. At the time of canvassing, 19% of the regular posts of teachers
were vacant in schools. The largest number of vacant posts were in
Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh though para teachers under
SSA were inducted as the recruitment process for such teachers\ contract
teachers \ education volunteers was more liberal and educational
36
qualifications for such teachers were lowered. In Andhra Pradesh, even
though teacher vacancies were less than 3%, VECs recruited a large
number of para teachers.
Teacher indicators
4.18 It is widely perceived that better qualified teachers can have a
significant effect on quality of education imparted. Nearly 56% of the
teachers
were
graduates
with
some
possessing
post
graduate
qualifications (Table 4.3).Schools in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan
and Uttar Pradesh had a high number of graduate teachers compared to
schools in Assam, Bihar and Tamil Nadu.
4.19 As part of capacity building for teachers, an induction training of 20
days in a year are provided to new teachers and in service training is also
provided.(Table 4.4). Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal had provided
training to fewer teachers than other states. It was reported that teachers
do not take the training seriously in Himachal Pradesh and that master
trainers were not well prepared in Haryana. The feedback from the
teachers on the usefulness of the training on the classroom practices
needs to be incorporated and training should be reoriented to include more
innovative methods of teaching including multi-graded teaching methods,
individualized education plans, sharing of best practices of other states
rather than emphasis on quality monitoring, familiarization of new syllabus
etc.,
37
Table 4.4 Teachers trained (%)
States\UT
Andhra Pradesh
Teachers
trained
94.7
An evaluation study by Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata
in 2005 on assessment of in service teachers training programme
Assam
98.1
Bihar
70.5
Chandigarh
100
Haryana
99.3
Himachal Pradesh
99.6
modern pedagogical tools, they have not been effective in
Madhya Pradesh
Rajasthan
95.6
orienting teachers with regard to inter-group disparities. A
Tamil Nadu
83.3
99.2
Uttar Pradesh
69.5
West Bengal
41.2
All States\UT
63.8
has revealed that though the training programmes have been
successful in sensitising the teachers about the need for learning
substantial number of teachers say that gender issues and issues
related to disabled children have not been adequately focused in
the training programmes.
In the selected districts
4.20 Involvement of teachers in non teaching activities is rampant with
74% of the teachers involved in election duties, census survey, pulse polio
programmes with 54% of the teachers expressing their unwillingness to
non teaching activities. In Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Himachal
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu fewer teachers
were assigned for such duties and were among the most satisfied with their
salaries(satisfaction levels of salaries taken as a rough indicator for
motivation)(Table 4.5). It was observed that in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh,
more than 90% of the teachers were involved in non teaching activities with
teachers in Uttar Pradesh also involved in supervision of school civil works
and cattle survey. The proportion of graduate teachers too was higher in
these states and were among the least satisfied with their salaries. Though
West Bengal appears as an outlier, teachers should not be utilized for non
teaching activities and ought to be consulted in curriculum design to
improve motivation levels.
38
Table 4.5 Involvement of teachers in non teaching activities and motivation levels
States\UT
(%) of schools in
which teachers are
involved in non
teaching activities.
Andhra Pradesh
62.5
(%) of schools in
which teachers are
disinterested in
non teaching
activities
62.50
Assam
75.0
75.00
33.3
75.0
Bihar
88.0
68.00
44.0
80.0
Chandigarh
33.3
33.33
0.0
66.6
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
92.8
85.71
78.5
14.3
61.5
38.46
15.3
76.9
55.5
50.00
33.3
72.2
42.1
21.05
10.5
73.6
Tamil Nadu
66.7
46.67
53.3
80.0
Uttar Pradesh
93.7
53.13
25.0
65.6
West Bengal
100.0
35.00
10.0
90.0
31.1
72.9
All states\UT
74.3
53.60
Responses of the school headmasters \ senior teachers.
(%) schools in
which teachers
are consulted
in curriculum
design.
12.5
% of schools
with teachers
satisfied with
salaries.
83.3
4.21 Students reported that teachers were regular in Assam, Bihar,
Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu(Table 4.6). However in Uttar Pradesh and
Chandigarh only 88% of the students mentioned that teachers were
regular.
4.22 Punishment in any form, physical or verbal abuse generates fear
amongst children resulting in poor attendance as well as impacting interest
in learning. 26% of the students in Himachal Pradesh mentioned that
teachers often resorted to physical punishment. Teachers in Andhra
Pradesh Bihar, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal also resorted
to physical punishment.
39
Table 4.6 Student responses on teachers’ attendance and punishment
% of students who reported
% of students who reported
teachers attend regularly.
punishment by teachers
Andhra Pradesh
97.4
16.1
Assam
99.4
0
Bihar
99.5
14.0
Chandigarh
87.5
12.5
Haryana
97.0
9.6
Himachal Pradesh
91.4
26.2
Madhya Pradesh
92.3
0.01
Rajasthan
100.0
0
Tamil Nadu
100.0
0
Uttar Pradesh
88.0
16.2
West Bengal
96.3
11.3
All states\UT
96.5
9.49
States\UT
4.23 Generally,84% of the parents of school going children were satisfied
with the teachers. The reasons for dissatisfaction were
poor quality of
teaching (6.52%) in Munger, Muzzarfarpur, Purnea (Bihar), Mahendragarh
(Haryana)
and
Jhabua(Madhya
Pradesh),
teachers
remaining
absent(3.82%) in Mahboobnagar(Andhra Pradesh), Jhabua (Madhya
Pradesh), Muzzarfarpur (Bihar) and Chandigarh. A few (2%) disliked that
teachers resorted to physical punishment (Andhra Pradesh).
Learning Achievement
4.24 Simple tests based on grade appropriate NCERT curriculum on
reading, writing and verbal skills in English, Local Language and Arithmetic
were given to students in Class II (primary level). Similarly tests based on
reading and writing skills in English, Local language and problem solving
tests in Mathematics were designed for Class VI (upper primary students).
The question sets were the same for all states and for rural and urban
schools.
4.25 Students performance in English and Local Language achievement
tests were graded into four categories such as “not at all”(unable to narrate
\ read or write anything), “poor”( able to narrate upto 40% or write 12 words
40
correctly), “partial” ( able to narrate 40-80% or write 13-25 words correctly)
and “complete” (ability to narrate more than 80% without any help and write
25 words correctly without any help). In Mathematics, marks were provided
for the number of correct questions answered.
4.26 It was observed that quality of education varies across states and age
groups. The performance of children in Class II was better in verbal tests
as 86% were able to narrate numbers completely, 61% were able to
narrate local language alphabets and 60% English alphabets(Table 4.7). In
reading tests, 42% of the children were able to read local language
alphabets correctly, 80% could identify numbers but only 6% could identify
English alphabets.
Table 4.7 Performance of students in reading tests- Class II
States \UT
Verbal (narration) Test
Reading Tests
(% of student with complete answers)
(% of student with complete answers)
Local
English
Local language
Numbers
English
Andhra Pradesh
43.2
90.4
93.8
4.1
61.0
88.7
Assam
70.8
33.3
90.6
0
34.1
84.1
Bihar
54.3
24.4
62.5
1.4
9.0
61.0
Chandigarh
65.0
30.0
95.0
0
52.6
95.0
Haryana
83.1
78.9
97.2
1.8
47.2
94.4
Himachal Pradesh
75.0
35.0
91.7
6.4
62.3
91.5
Madhya Pradesh
55.8
71.8
88.5
0
2.9
71.8
Rajasthan
47.2
55.1
81.9
0.8
15.0
61.4
Tamil Nadu
80.8
92.9
92.3
14.7
87.2
98.1
Uttar Pradesh
38.3
57.4
81.0
18.0
26.8
65.8
West Bengal
78.0
61.9
93.2
10.1
70.9
94.9
All states \UT
59.6
60.5
86.1
6.0
41.7
79.8
language
Numbers
4.27 The results from the written tests in Arithmetic, Local Language and
English underlines the fact that the system of education is characterized by
rote learning and places less emphasis on writing skills(Table 4.8). The
average marks in writing tests in Local language and Arithmetic was 54 and
that in English was 30.
41
Table 4.8 Performance of students in written tests - Class II
States\UT
Arithmetic
Mean
Coeff of
Marks
variation
Mean
marks
English
Coeff of
variation
Local language
Mean
Coeff of
Marks
variation
Andhra Pradesh
82
36
5
387
71
44
Assam
48
47
29
63
50
60
Bihar
22
146
14
147
17
160
Chandigarh
72
37
61
57
87
23
Haryana
54
63
35
95
57
66
Himachal Pradesh
70
46
46
62
69
51
Madhya Pradesh
49
57
11
119
20
97
Rajasthan
21
163
4
417
29
139
Tamil Nadu
84
30
49
70
93
16
Uttar Pradesh
38
91
44
100
40
105
West Bengal
69
40
58
47
81
34
All States\UT
54
69
30
102
54
75
4.28 The performance of students of Class II in oral, reading and writing
tests of local language was comparatively better in Andhra Pradesh,
Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. In Arithmetic too, the
performance of students in Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu and
West Bengal was better than their peers in other states. In English,
performance of students in writing tests was better in Chandigarh and West
Bengal. The performance of students in Class II in Assam, Bihar, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh was lower than the overall average.
42
Chart 4.8 Performance of students in written test for Class II
4.29 Upper primary level (Class VI) students were tested for passage
reading and writing in English and local language. Writing tests included
comprehension and essay. In local language tests of reading, 82% were
able to read a passage correctly. In English however only 26% were able to
read correctly(Chart 4.9).
Chart 4.9 Performance of students in reading tests for Class VI
.
4.30 In written tests in English Essay, local language and problem solving
in Mathematics, the performance of students in local language was better
43
than English or Mathematics(Table 4.10).The gap in performance between
English and local language was wide. The performance of students in
mathematics was extremely poor, probably due to differences in states’
syllabus and the NCERT curriculum.
Table- 4.10 —Performance of upper primary students in written tests.(Class VI)
Local language
Subjects
Mathematics
English essay
Essay
Comprehension
Mean
Coeff of
Mean
Coeff of
Mean
Coeff of
Mean
Coeff of
Marks
variation
marks
variation
marks
variation
marks
variation
Andhra Pradesh
55
63
79
38
68
49
39
78
Assam
31
53
94
15
88
21
43
57
Bihar
38
63
66
48
29
103
42
79
Chandigarh
19
173
91
18
69
45
72
23
Haryana
46
62
87
21
61
37
50
52
Himachal Pradesh
36
78
81
30
71
39
30
72
Madhya Pradesh
53
60
75
36
66
53
33
64
Rajasthan
51
75
76
38
78
43
28
104
Tamil Nadu
60
60
93
16
85
23
69
39
Uttar Pradesh
8
196
57
70
26
148
21
147
West Bengal
51
42
95
14
87
29
55
32
All States\UT
43
76
80
36
66
56
42
73
States\UT
4.31 The performance of students both at primary and upper primary level
was better in Local language than English or Mathematics.
4.32 The performance of students in Class VI in Mathematics was better in
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh ,Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. In local
language and in English, the average marks of students in Chandigarh,
Tamil Nadu and West Bengal were better than their counterparts in other
states. In Class VI the performance of students in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
was lower than the overall average.
44
Chart- 4.10 —Performance of upper primary students in written tests (Class VI).
4.33 In general, the performance of students in Andhra Pradesh,
Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal indicates that a combination of
factors such as teacher availability(average number of teachers per
school),better pedagogic practices such as use of TLMs in teaching,
access and use of libraries, greater teaching time(less of non teaching
activities) and higher motivation levels improves the quality of education as
reflected in the learning outcomes of students.
4.34 Several states have implemented innovative techniques and
programs to improve the quality of teaching. In Andhra Pradesh, schools
are graded as ‘A”,“B”,“C”,“D” based on their performance which improves
teacher accountability .In Arunachal Pradesh, “ hole in the wall” schools
have been opened and computers are provided on the school walls for
easy accessibility. Tamil Nadu uses Activity Based Learning cards for
children in primary age groups and Activity Learning Methodology for upper
primary children. In Haryana and Puducherry EDUSAT facilities have been
provided in some primary schools and in block resource centres. Annexure
4.1 provides the details of some of the innovative activities undertaken by
the selected districts to improve the quality of education.
45
Chapter - 5
Financial Resources
5.1 As SSA was launched towards the end of the Ninth Five Year Plan
(2001-02), the outlay and the expenditure on the scheme was nominal with
the total allocation for the programme at Rs.500 crores only. The total
expenditure in 2001-02 incurred by all the states was Rs.499.9 crores.
5.2
During the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007), the initial total outlay
was Rs 17,000 crores with the centre-state sharing pattern in resources at
75:25.Though the scheme was under-resourced during the first few years
of the Tenth Five Year Plan, with the levy of a 2% cess in 2004-05 more
resources were earmarked to fund the programme. The expenditure during
2003-04 to 2006-07 as reported by the states was Rs. 36,367 crore. This
may include advances by some of the implementing agencies.
5.3
During the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012), the outlay is
Rs.71,000 crores. The centre state sharing pattern is variable during the
Plan with 65:35 in the first phase (2007-2009), 60:40 in 2009-2010, 55:45
in 2010-2011 and 50:50 in 2011-2012. The Northeastern States have a
special dispensation that the centre-state ratio would be 90:10. During the
first two years of the Eleventh Plan, the expenditure on the programme was
reported to be Rs.24,136 crores.
Centre-State Shares
5.4
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme is based on the premise that
financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. In
2007, twenty two of the thirty five States (and UTs) were able to maintain
the funding patterns as envisaged in the Tenth Five Year Plan. With the
exception of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh and
Punjab, all the remaining states were able to raise more resources in
nominal terms in 2007 than in 2003. Annexure 5.1 indicates the share of
46
central and state shares in 2003-04 and 2006-07. Arunachal Pradesh,
Punjab,Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal reported dissatisfaction
with the centre state contribution policy in the Eleventh Five Year Plan.
5.5
The total allocation for the programme steadily increased from Rs.
8,371 crores in 2003-04 to Rs. 20,691 crores in 2006-07. With the increase
in allocation, assistance to state implementing societies by way of releases
of central and the state share also increased significantly. In 2003-04
assistance was 43.17% of the allocation which rose to 73.06% of the
allocation in 2006-07(Table5.1).Central assistance as percentage of
allocation declined in relative terms in the case of Gujarat and Kerala
(Annexure 5.1 & 5.2) while state assistance as a percentage of allocation
declined in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Release of funds
5.6
It was observed that though more funds were released by the states
to the implementing societies, the disbursements by the state implementing
societies to the districts declined from 109% in 2003-04 to 96% in 2006-07.
States \UTs which disbursed more than 98% of the assistance in 2006-07
were Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Dadra Nagar
Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Maharashtra,
Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Puducherry, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and
West Bengal. A small portion of the funds were utilized by the state
implementing societies in some states for purchase of
textbooks,
computers etc and sometimes retained due to the untimely receipt of
utilization certificates from the districts.
47
Utilisation of funds
5.7
The utilisation ratio at state level (expenditure to assistance)
increased from 98% in 2003-04 to 110% in 2006-07 indicating better
absorptive capacity. Expenditures were reported to be higher as unspent
balances in the previous years were also utilized. As against 13 states
which were able to utilize more than 100 % of the funds (including unspent
balances of previous years) in 2003-04,19 states including UTs were able
to utilize more than 100% in 2006-07.Thus in terms of the expenditure on
available funds, there was an improvement in 2006-07.
Table 5.1 Flow of funds -All India
Funds
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
837107.84
996586
1359872
2069168.8
Total Assistance ( Rs. lakhs)
361390
671530
799181
1511834
Expenditure (Rs.lakhs)*
353415
650361
969377
1663610
43.17
67
59
73.06
98
97
121
110
394103
633331
956718
1457514
109
94
120
96.4
Allocation (Rs.lakhs)
% of Total Assistance to Allocation
% of Expn to Total Assistance
Disbursements to districts
( Rs.lakhs)
% of Disbursements to Assistance
*- The expenditure reported is much higher than the M\HRD data of Rs. 27896 crores during the
Tenth Five Year Plan.
48
Chart 5.1 Flow of Funds - All India
data
5.8
States which utilized more than 90% of the allocation in 2006-07 were
Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland
and Tripura. Assam, Puducherry and West Bengal reported poor utilization
of funds due to delay in receipt of funds possibly on account of late
submission of utilization certificates.
5.9
It was observed that Daman Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala and Manipur
spent a higher proportion of the funds on quality interventions such as
teacher training, innovative activities, teacher grant etc than other states.
Andaman Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Punjab and West Bengal spent 60% of
the total expenditure on civil works and maintenance. Chandigarh,
Chattisgarh and Puducherry spent more relatively on administration such
as MIS and management, community training etc. The expenditure incurred
on civil works, quality interventions and administration in all the states is
indicated at Annexure 5.3.
49
Disbursements of funds to the Districts
5.10 There was an improvement in the flow of funds as districts except
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Nadia(West Bengal)reported that they
received their first installment of funds between April to May as compared
to September-December in the early years of SSA. In Himachal Pradesh
and Haryana, delays were reported in the receipt of first instalment
(June\July\August) and Nadia district (West Bengal) reported that they
received the first installment only in August \September. Though the time
gap for transfer from the districts to the blocks was only a month the
transfer from the block to the VECs(village education committees)varies
with some states making monthly disbursements and some transferring the
second installment as late as March.
5.11 The disbursements to the districts was not based on any criteria of
educational backwardness\low female literacy or higher percentage of
socially disadvantaged groups (tribal areas) but on the number of schools,
unspent balances, utilization etc., In Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and
West Bengal, districts with more number of educationally backward blocks
were disbursed less funds than other districts with less number of
backward blocks. In 2003-04, East Godavari district (Andhra Pradesh)
which has only one backward block received Rs 29.5 crores as compared
to Chitoor with 20 backward blocks which received Rs. 15.09 crores. Nadia
(West Bengal) which has no backward block received Rs.42.04 crores
whereas Siliguri which has two backward blocks received Rs.12.2 crores.
The low prioritisation for educationally backward areas continued in 2007
though the differences in the allocations between the districts had
narrowed. Further, district authorities in Nadia reported that the flow of
funds from the State was irregular. Lack of flexibility to the district
authorities to reallocate resources between heads was reported from
Haryana and Nadia(West Bengal).
50
Utilisation of funds at district level
5.12 Utilization of funds at the district level in the selected samples too
improved in 2006-07 as compared to 2003-04. As against fourteen districts
which reported expenditure of more than 100% (use of unspent balances),
twenty three districts reported expenditures of more than 100% in 2006-07.
Further, in comparison to seven districts which spent less than 80% in
2003-2004, only two districts spent less than 80% in 2006-07.
5.13 It was observed that in the selected districts, expenditures matched
the funds released and in a few cases, unspent funds, interest earned on
deposits were also utilized. Most district authorities did not report any
inadequacy of funds except Chitoor and
Jorhat,
Kamrup,
Morigaon
in
Kurnool
Assam,
Pune
in Andhra Pradesh,
in
Maharashtra,
Karaikal(Puducherry) and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and Nadia, Burdwan
in West Bengal. Chart 5.2 depicts the fund flows at the district level in the
selected samples.
Chart 5.2 Fund Flow in the selected
districts.
51
Expenditure on interventions
5.14 In terms of utilization of funds against the budgeted outlays
(allocation) , the maximum share of funds were spent on “Civil Works” and
“Repair & Maintenance”. The average utilization on these two components
relative to allocation was 92%(Table 5.3).Utilisation on computer education
(50%), innovative activities for improving quality (54%) and teachers
training (67%) were lower indicating that districts were unable to utilize the
funds on interventions as planned.
Table 5.3 Expenditures on major interventions.
Interventions
Civil works
Repair & maintenance
Teachers grant
Free textbooks
Teacher learning equipment
School Grant
Teaching learning material
Teachers training
Research, Evaluation & monitoring
Computer education
Innovative activity
ECCE
IED
Block resource centres
Cluster resource centres
Community training
Management costs\Miscellaneous
Total
% of Expenditure to
% of Expenditure to Released
Allocation(2006-07)
funds(2006-07)
90.3
96.6
85.1
70.5
89.7
88.4
80.8
66.5
176.6
49.7
53.7
75.3
71.1
69.5
75.9
63.4
55.9
86.2
224.13
11.91
7.11
14.54
5.22
5.07
3.79
2.87
4.21
0.31
2.17
2.55
5.87
2.14
1.63
0.31
5.60
304.80
5.15 The share of civil works and repair and maintenance in total
expenditures in 2006-07 was 77% as compared to expenditures on Quality
interventions (6.21%) comprising teachers’ grant, teacher learning material,
teachers training and teaching learning equipment. Chart 5.4 indicates the
component wise expenditure at district level.
52
Chart 5.4 Expenditures on major interventions (% of total expenditure)
School level grants and expenditure
5.16 With the increase in grants, the unevenness in the distribution of
funds amongst schools
was reduced with more schools provided with
grants in 2006-2007. The number of schools that did not receive grants
declined from 17% in 2003-04 to 7% in 2006-07 and the funds allocated
increased by more than six times. In Andhra Pradesh, primary and upper
primary schools continued to receive a fixed amount of Rs. 2000-Rs.3000
per year during the reference period. In Assam, the average amount
allocated per school in 2007 was Rs.7000 per year. In Andhra Pradesh and
Assam, upper primary schools received almost the same outlays as much
as primary schools.
5.17 All Govt. schools are provided with school grants, teacher grants and
funds for civil works. More than 95% of the schools were able to utilize
completely the grants provided to them except in Bihar, a few in Uttar
53
Pradesh which were unable to utilise the grants as they did not receive it in
time or the sanction for work was not available. Govt. aided schools in
rented buildings do not receive funds for repair and maintenance. At school
level, excluding teacher salaries, the average expenditure incurred per
student per year improved from Rs.94 in 2003-04 to Rs.497 in 2006-07.
(Table 5.5).Expenditures of more than Rs.500 per student per year were
incurred in Assam(Rs.678), Bihar(Rs.910), Haryana(Rs.738), Madhya
Pradesh(Rs.663) and Uttar Pradesh(Rs.538).The lowest spending was
reported from Andhra Pradesh. The average expenditures in Bihar were
higher due to the large expenditures on civil works.
Table-5.5 Indicative average expenditure per student
Indicative Average expenditure per student (in Rs)
States\UT
2003
2007
Andhra Pradesh
11
12
Assam
85
678
Bihar
63
910
Chandigarh
44
372
Haryana
428
738
Himachal Pradesh
94
363
Madhya Pradesh
26
663
Rajasthan
111
346
Tamil Nadu
141
245
Uttar Pradesh
81
538
West Bengal
19
282
All states\UT
94
497
Source: school level schedules
5.18 As the expenditures incurred by the sampled schools are funded
entirely by the grants of the government (centre and the state),there
appears to be a need for improved spending on elementary education in
Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
and West Bengal.
54
Chapter - 6
Community Ownership and Role of Development partners
Community participation
One of the salient features of the SSA is its emphasis on decentralized
implementation. The programme calls for community ownership of school
based interventions by involvement of Women’s groups, Village Education
Committee members, Mother Teacher Associations\Parent Teacher
Associations and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.
Activities of Village Education committees
6.1
The Village Education Committees (VECs) have an essential role in
monitoring and supervision of schools, appointment of para teachers,
mainstreaming dropouts by carrying out campaigns, generating awareness
for improving enrolment besides repair and maintenance of schools. To
empower these decentralized bodies funds for upgradation, maintenance,
repair of schools and Teaching Learning equipment are transferred to
VECs\ equivalent bodies such as School management committees\gram
panchayat or any other school level arrangement for decentralized
implementation.
6.2
In the selected villages 80% of the VECs were involved in civil work
including repair and maintenance related activities in schools (Table 6.1). In
Assam,
Bihar,
Chandigarh,
Haryana
and
Rajasthan
VECs
were
predominantly involved in infrastructure improvement and management of
funds. In Chandigarh their functioning is reportedly limited to the issue of
grants for school improvement.
6.3
VECs have been effective in improving enrolment and in reducing out
of school children by carrying out enrolment drives, organizing awareness
55
campaigns. In Madhya Pradesh, school management committees are
involved in implementation of SSA interventions at the grassroot level.
Table 6.1 Activities of VEC (% of VECs)
States\UT
Monitoring &
supervision
Appointment
of teachers
Infrastructure
improvement
Maintenance
of record of
children
enroled in
school
Improving
enrolment
Reducing
out of
school
children
Andhra
Pradesh
91.67
100.00
83.33
16.67
100.00
100.00
Assam
100.00
0.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
Bihar
100.00
8.33
100.00
0.00
100.00
100.00
Chandigarh
100.00
0.00
100.00
50.00
100.00
100.00
Haryana
87.50
25.00
100.00
50.00
100.00
62.50
Himachal
Pradesh
87.50
25.00
87.50
12.50
100.00
37.50
Madhya
Pradesh
16.67
8.33
25.00
8.33
83.33
58.33
Rajasthan
0.00
8.33
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
Tamil Nadu
91.67
58.33
75.00
100.00
75.00
66.67
Uttar Pradesh
47.06
52.94
64.71
0.00
94.12
64.71
West Bengal
100.00
37.50
75.00
37.50
87.50
75.00
All States\UT
69.57
33.04
80.00
41.74
93.91
78.26
6.4
In monitoring and supervision of schools i.e., monitoring teacher and
student absenteeism, availability of books etc., SECs in Madhya Pradesh
and VECs in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh were the least active compared
to the VECs in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu
and West Bengal.
6.5
To overcome the shortage of teachers VECs were empowered to
appoint para teachers. VECs in Andhra Pradesh were the most involved as
has been observed in the appointment of para teachers in the schools.
Only 8% of the VECs in Bihar and 25% in Himachal Pradesh and Haryana
claimed to have appointed teachers.
6.6
Though all schools in Bihar maintain records of children enroled in
schools, very few VECs maintain records of fund receipt and utilization.
56
The records of the meetings conducted by VECs indicate that periodicity of
the meetings were not fixed(Table 6.2).In Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, meetings were reportedly held on monthly
basis. In Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, VECs were ineffective as
regular meetings were not being held.
Table 6.2 Frequency of meetings held by VECs
Frequency of Meetings (%)
States\UT
Monthly
Quarterly \ Half Yearly
Annually
Andhra Pradesh
33.3
58.3
0
8.3
Assam
0.0
91.7
0
8.3
Bihar
100
0
0
0
Chandigarh
0.0
100.0
0
0
Haryana
0
50
0
50
Himachal Pradesh
0
25.0
12.5
62.5
Madhya Pradesh
50
16.7
0
33.3
58.3
41.7
0
0
0
8.30
0
91.7*
Uttar Pradesh
47.10
0
5.9
47.1
West Bengal
37.5
12.5
0
50
All states\UT
34.8
30.4
1.7
33.0
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Not Fixed/No response
In Tamil Nadu it has been reported that though periodicity of meetings is not fixed, they meet as and when
necessary.
6.7
The major issues discussed in the meetings pertained to delay in
receipt of funds, infrastructure issues pertaining to poor construction of
buildings, lack of toilets, furniture in schools, shortage of teachers\
absenteeism, students’ attendance and timely availability of books. Table
6.3 indicates some of the issues raised during meetings.
57
Table 6.3 Major issues discussed in meetings of VEC\SMCs
Financial
Infrastructure
issues
matters
8.33
75.00
Assam
58.33
Bihar
Teachers
(% of VECs \ SMCS)
Student
Students
Availability
Community
absenteeism
Achievement
of books
participation
0.00
8.33
0.00
8.33
33.33
91.67
41.67
66.67
50.00
50.00
25.00
66.67
75.00
16.67
75.00
66.67
58.33
58.33
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12.50
0.00
12.50
87.50
62.50
37.50
62.50
50.00
37.50
75.00
83.33
83.33
41.67
66.67
16.67
75.00
83.33
Rajasthan
58.33
83.33
16.67
41.67
16.67
66.67
83.33
Tamil Nadu
83.33
100.00
16.67
25.00
50.00
25.00
75.00
70.59
76.47
11.76
47.06
52.94
23.53
41.18
37.50
62.50
0.00
12.50
25.00
0.00
37.50
58.26
73.04
18.26
41.74
34.78
35.65
52.17
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
Chandigarh
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Uttar
Pradesh
West Bengal
All
States\UT
6.8
Shortage\
absenteeism
All the village committees in Tamil Nadu were most concerned about
infrastructure issues such as shortage of classrooms, drinking water and
toilet facilities in schools. Inadequate funds and\ or delay in receipt of funds
were major issues in the village meetings in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, student absenteeism a major concern in Assam,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, whereas teachers
shortage\absenteeism were major matters in Assam and Madhya Pradesh.
Since fund matters is the predominant issue in VECs meetings, quarterly
disbursements from the block to the VECs may need to be considered.
VECs also need to be provided with funds for appointment of para
teachers, sweepers\security staff in schools.
6.9
The capacity building of VEC members is undertaken by the block
resource centres as they are the vital intermediaries between the schools
58
and the implementing agencies. The VEC members are sensitized about
interventions under SSA, on their role as development partners,
organization of mobilization campaigns, school management, civil works
etc., to improve their participation in the school ownership system. The
training is provided to eight to ten community and women members of the
VEC for a period of two\three days in a year(Table 6.4).The majority of the
members in Assam, Bihar, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu underwent training.
6.10 Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan spent
more than 95% of the allocation on training for community members in
2006-07. Chandigarh spent less than 16%, though training was not
conducted for any of the members in the selected villages. Bihar could
utilize only 56% while Uttar Pradesh spent 89% of its allocation. The fact
that few schools in the selected villages (except in Assam and Himachal
Pradesh) displayed the receipt of funds or attendance of teachers on the
notice board and the non maintenance of records suggests that the training
of VEC members fell short of inculcating a sense of responsibility and
ownership which needs to be strengthened through involvement of parents
and awareness generation through NGOs.
6.11 VECs in turn impart training to parents\mothers\community leaders
over a period of one or two days for 7-10 members every year (Table 6.4).
None of the VECs had imparted any training to its members in Chandigarh
and Rajasthan.
59
Table 6.4 Training of community members
% of VECs whose
% of VECs that have
Expenditure incurred as %
members underwent
imparted training to
of allocation on community
training
community members
training( 2007)
Andhra Pradesh
75.0
83
59.0
Assam
91.6
40
285.4*
Bihar
83.3
83
55.9
Chandigarh
0.0
0
15.6
Haryana
75.0
37
67.2
Himachal Pradesh
50.0
50
96.9
Madhya Pradesh
33.3
42
100
Rajasthan
83.3
0
109.4
Tamil Nadu
83.3
92
92.3
Uttar Pradesh
41.8
42
89.0
West Bengal
37.5
37
87.4
All States\UT
64.3
49.5
100.84
States\UT
*Funds spent on additional programs such as Meena Manch for SC\ST and Tea garden children.
Parents Teachers Associations
6.12
Parents Teachers Associations, the primary stakeholders can play a
prominent role in the overall governance of school education. However,
only 50% of the parents were aware of PTA\ MTAs in schools (Table 6.5).
Even though parents were regular visitors to the schools as none of the
schools display the list of members of PTAs, awareness regarding the
existence of these associations was poor except in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,
Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. In these states, parents
were reported to be involved in supervision of meals and provided
assistance in teaching.
60
Table 6.5 Parents’ responses on PTA and SSA.
Willing to
% of parents who
Aware of
Members of
PTA
PTAs
(%)
(%)
Andhra Pradesh
62.5
20.0
60.8
60.8
82.5
Assam
55.8
9.17
90.8
90.8
91.6
Bihar
85.0
26.7
80.8
80.8
16.7
Chandigarh
25.0
10.0
45.0
45.0
55.0
Haryana
22.5
5.0
41.4
41.4
40.0
Himachal Pradesh
40.0
17.1
36.2
36.2
41.3
Madhya Pradesh
60.0
33.8
44.6
44.6
18.5
Rajasthan
43.3
9.2
33.3
33.3
1.6
Tamil Nadu
77.5
25.0
96.7
96.7
50.0
Uttar Pradesh
7.6
2.4
18.2
18.2
24.7
West Bengal
60.0
15.0
58.7
58.7
15.0
All States
50.3
16.2
55.4
55.4
38.4
States
become
Aware of SSA
members of
(%)
PTA (%)
recalled enrolment
drives in the recent
times in the village.
6.13 In Uttar Pradesh, fewer parents were aware of PTAs\ SSA and were
not inclined in becoming members of the PTAs. In Chandigarh and
Haryana too, the awareness of PTA and SSA was lower than in other
states. States in which parents reported lower awareness of PTAs also
reported poor awareness of SSA interventions.
6.14 Awareness regarding SSA interventions were better in Assam and
Tamil Nadu which probably led to the lower incidence of out of school
children.. In Bihar, even though awareness of PTA\SSA was reported to be
high, enrolment drives had not been conducted in the recent years. In
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal too, fewer parents could
recall that enrolment drives had been conducted. With average awareness
about PTA and SSA being only 50% and 55% respectively and
membership being as low as 16%, PTAs need to be made more effective.
VECs in these states must make efforts to conduct awareness campaigns
as well as organise enrolment drives for out of school children.
6.15 In terms of the involvement of the community, the participation of
VECs is apparently far better than the involvement of parents associations
61
across most states. In Assam and Bihar, parents as well as the VECs were
actively involved in school affairs whereas in Chandigarh, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, the involvement of
parents in school activities needs to be encouraged.
Best Practices
In Karnataka, it is reported that School Management committees have been constituted with
student representatives on the committees. The SMCs have also been provided training at the
nearest Cluster Resource Centers. Teachers have been made accountable as each teacher
adopts 80 households in the school catchment area to monitor the progress of the school going
children in their adopted households.
In Haryana, the Village Education Committees which ensure no out of school children in their
villages are motivated through trophies\ mementos.
Participation by NGOs
6.16 The involvement of NGOs at the grassroots level has been crucial for
extending the reach of the interventions specifically in the area of inclusive
education for disabled by supporting initiatives for identification, medical\
health check up camps, home education, sensitizing teachers as also to
schools in providing assistance in teaching, quality improvement
techniques, material supplies, teaching aids and assessing student
performance. NGOs were involved in implementation of SSA in all the
selected districts except Baran, Goalpara, Jalore, Kanpur Dehat, Munger,
Muzaffarpur and Morigaon. AIE centres were operated by NGOs in
Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.
Andhra Pradesh has encouraged some industrial houses and well known
NGOs’ to adopt schools, in setting up of EGS\AIE centres for
mainstreaming dropouts and providing computer education Annexure 6.1
indicates some of the activities undertaken by NGOs in the districts.
62
Block and Cluster Resource Centres
6.17 The Block resource centres have been set up in every block
headquarter to provide teacher assistance, organising seminars and
teacher training, syllabus designing, distribution of textbooks, monitor the
performance of the schools, receive funds from the district authorities and
distribute it amongst schools. Block resource centres were functional in all
blocks except in Mayong and Kapili (Assam).In Khoribari, (West Bengal),
the BRC(CLRC) was reported to be non functional with the VECs receiving
the funds directly from the district authorities.
6.18 Cluster resource centres have been set up at the sub block levels.
However 77% of the block resource centres and 45% of the cluster
resource centres were located more than 3 kilometres from the schools.
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and
Rajasthan had the most number of CRCs
located at far distances from the schools.(Table 6.6).
Table 6.6 Effectiveness of BRCs\ CRCs
Average
Awareness of
BRCs \ CRCs
States\UT
Distance from the
Academic
Financial
number of
School
guidance(%)
Support(%)
schools for
( % of
respondents)
each CRC.*
BRCs
CRCs
BRCs
CRCs
BRCs
CRCs
88
88
88
88
42
13
42
58
67
63
79
42
44
92
40
60
80
76
32
24
18
67
100
33
67
100
67
0
0
14
100
100
79
43
57
100
100
100
100
20
Himachal Pradesh
92
69
54
54
46
85
69
46
15
4
Madhya Pradesh
100
100
67
56
44
89
94
83
61
18
Rajasthan
100
89
79
42
58
100
79
58
5
26
Tamil Nadu
90
97
73
67
33
73
73
57
33
13
Uttar Pradesh
100
100
72
91
9
84
78
47
22
21
West Bengal
100
100
60
95
5
100
100
0
0
22
All States\UT
98
94
77
55
45
85
81
57
32
18
Within 3
>3
km
km
BRCs
CRCs
>3 km
Andhra Pradesh
100
100
100
12
Assam
96
88
75
Bihar
100
92
Chandigarh
100
Haryana
Responses of the school authorities, * calculated figures.
63
6.19 All the respondents were aware of the existence of BRCs and CRCs
in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West
Bengal. The coordination between CRCs and school headmasters was
weak in Assam, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh. In Assam, too many
schools in the catchment area of each CRC impacted effective academic
guidance, in Chandigarh, most CRCs were located at far distances. In
Himachal Pradesh, though there were more number of CRCs, the school
headmasters reported that there had been no visits of BRC or CRC
members in several years as the Block Education officers had dual
responsibilities of the implementation of SSA as well as state schemes.
While Block resource centre officials mentioned that they held monthly
meetings there was no system of maintaining records of visits of
BRCs\CRCs to schools. The functioning of the BRCs was reportedly better
than the CRCs in most blocks.
6.20 Staff
constraints(Himachal
Pradesh,
West
Bengal),
poor
infrastructure (Chandigarh, Siliguri), a tight budget for contingency funds
and the distance from the schools results in weak linkages in monitoring
and supervision. Duties and performance indicators for cluster resource
centre personnel should also be clearly specified so as to ensure statutory
accountability. CRCs need to be revitalized for providing academic support,
guidance in the preparation of TLMs, monitoring quality and teacher and
student attendance.
Monitoring systems
6.21 The monitoring systems under SSA envisage the constitution of state
level, district level and block level monitoring committees. State level
monitoring committees have been constituted in all states except in Goa,
Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh
and in UTs such as Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar haveli, Lakshadweep
and Puducherry. The state teams were reportedly meeting regularly and
64
involved in monitoring the implementation of all SSA interventions and civil
works. The monitoring team in Rajasthan had also carried out inspection of
schools.
6.22 District level monitoring teams had been constituted in all the districts
but the norms governing the composition of teams, their functions and
frequency of visits were not clear. The main activity of most district teams
were monitoring schools(Table 6.7).School mapping was carried out only in
one district of Assam, one in Uttar Pradesh and in all the districts in Tamil
Nadu. As most district educational officers hold multiple charges (SSA as
well as other state schemes), there is lack of time and attention to SSA
interventions.All the district teams in Tamil Nadu were reported to be
effective.
Table 6.7 Effectiveness of the District Level Monitoring teams.
States\UT
Number of
districts
with DEO
holding
Addnl
charge
Monitoring
Schools
Classroom
observation
School
Mapping
Andhra Pradesh
1
3
1
n=3
Assam
2
3
1
n=3
Bihar
3
2
1
n=3
Chandigarh
1
1
n=1
Haryana
2
2
2
n=2
Himachal
Pradesh
2
2
n=2
Madhya Pradesh
2
3
2
n=3
Rajasthan
3
3
1
n=3
Tamil Nadu
0
3
3
3
n=3
Uttar Pradesh
1
4
1
1
n=4
West Bengal
1
2
n=2
Avg (All states)
18
28
11
5
N=29
N=number of districts. Multiple responses of the district monitoring teams.
Learning
Achievement of
children
Fund
related
issues
2
Management
issues
Civil
Work
Meal
issues
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
2
1
8
2
9
5
5
6.23 In thirteen districts(44%), meetings were reported to be conducted on
monthly basis, fortnightly meetings were reported to be conducted in six
districts, weekly meetings in six other districts, only quarterly in Baran
district and on half yearly basis in Ujjain and Mahendragarh.
65
6.24 Block level teams had been constituted in all blocks except
Mahendragarh (Haryana), Chamba and Baijhari(Himachal Pradesh), Ater,
Thandla and Alirajpur (Madhya Pradesh) and in Haringhata(one of the two
blocks), Matigara and Khoribari(West Bengal).The frequency of meetings \
monitoring of activities was claimed to be rather regular with 55% of the
monitoring teams meeting on monthly basis(Table 6.8).While there were no
NGOs assisting monitoring teams in Andhra Pradesh, in Chandigarh and in
Tamil Nadu they were involved in monitoring in the selected districts.
Table 6.8 Frequency of meetings of Block level monitoring teams
Number of
States\UT
Number
block
of Blocks
monitoring
Participation of
Frequency of visits of block monitoring teams to schools
teams
Weekly
Andhra
Pradesh
6
6
Assam
6
6
Bihar
6
6
Chandigarh
1
1
Haryana
4
3
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
4
6
6
Tamil Nadu
6
6
8
8
West Bengal
5
2
All States\UT
58
49
Uttar
Pradesh
Monthly
2
4
0
4
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
yearly
1
Yearly
1
1
2
3
1
3
3
1
4
3
6
4
7(14.3%)
6
4
11
4
1
1
3
6
Half
Fortnightly
2
Rajasthan
NGOs in
monitoring*
4
1
1
27(55%)
3
4
1
30
* number of blocks
6.25 Community participation and parents’ involvement are vital for
effecting better linkages with support centres. Monitoring activities (school
mapping and achievement) of district level monitoring teams need to be
strengthened.
66
Chapter - 7
Urban Findings
7.1
For the purpose of assessing the implementation of SSA in towns,
urban samples were also selected.
Selection Criteria
7.2 From each zone, one state with highest slum population was selected
and two towns were selected from that state. Two towns from Puducherry
(UT) were also selected. Two slums were selected from each selected
town. Though 12 towns and 24 slums were selected from five states and
one UT for the study, however 13 towns and 22 slums were actually
canvassed. The names of the selected states \ towns is indicated in Table
7.1.
Table 7.1 Name of selected States\UT, Towns and Districts (urban samples)
Zone
States
Selected towns( Districts)
North
Uttar Pradesh
Agra & Kanpur City (Kanpur Nagar, Agra)
West
Maharashtra
Navi Mumbai & Pune (Thane & Pune)
East
West Bengal
Kolkata & Raniganj (Kolkata & Burdwan)
South
North East
UT
Andhra Pradesh
Yemmiganur, Hyderabad & Secunderabad
(Kurnool & Hyderabad)
Assam
Jorhat & Guwahati urban(Jorhat & Kamrup)
Puducherry
Karaikal & Ozhukarai (Karaikal & Puducherry)
Accessibility
7.3
Though 93% of children in slums access neighborhood elementary
schools which are within walking distance (1 km) from the slum more than
half do not have access to schools within slums. A few children in
Hyderabad and Navi Mumbai travel more than 1 km from their slums to
67
reach their schools. Table 7.2 indicates the accessibility to schools by
distance and management.
Table-7.2 Accessibility and availability of schools in urban slum areas
States\UT
Andhra Pradesh
Accessibility to schools by distance
(%)student responses
Within
slum
37.5
< 1 km
1-3 km
Govt.
50
12.5
66
Availability of schools
(% of schools) by
Management
Govt.
Local
aided
body
0
22
Private
12
Assam
50
50
0
25
0
50
25
Maharashtra
0
75
25
0
23
42
35
Puducherry
50
50
0
100
0
0
0
Uttar Pradesh
100
0
0
100
0
0
0
West Bengal
25
75
0
25
75
0
0
All States\UT
46.4
46.4
7.1
31
16
31
22
7.4
The Government, Government aided and schools under the
management of the town local body (Municipal Corporation) constitute
around 78% of the educational facilities in urban slum areas. In towns of
Karaikal and Ozhukarai in Puducherry and in Agra and Kanpur Nagar in
Uttar Pradesh, Government schools were predominant whereas in towns of
Hyderabad and Yemmiganur in Andhra Pradesh, Jorhat in Assam, Pune
and Navi Mumbai in Maharashtra, there were schools under the
management of the municipal corporation. In Kolkata and Burdwan, there
was a predominance of Govt. aided schools.
Underserved Slums
7.5
In terms of accessibility to upper primary schools, students in slums
were able to access upper primary schools in their neighborhood in
Hyderabad and Yemmiganur (Andhra Pradesh) as well as in Pune and
Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra). In Assam and Puducherry, upper primary
schools were available in only one of the four slums(Table 7.3).In West
Bengal, it was reported that none of the slums canvassed had upper
primary schools in their neighborhood. It was also observed that except in
Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, no new schools were opened for slum
children within the last ten years. Except Andhra Pradesh and
68
Maharashtra, the urban slums are underserved in terms of the availability
of upper primary schools in close proximity to the slums.
Table 7.3 Accessibility to upper primary schools
Number of schools more than
20 years old.
4 (50%)
Number of schools opened
within the last 10 years.
3 (37.5%)
Number of slums without
upper primary schools
0
Assam
4 (100%)
-
1
Maharashtra
1 (25%)
1 (25%)
0
Puducherry
4 (100%)
-
3
Uttar Pradesh
3 (75%)
-
1
West Bengal
4 (100%)
-
4
All States\UT
20 (71.4%)
4 (14.2%)
9 (40.9% )
States\UT
Andhra Pradesh
A few schools (14.2%) are between 10-20 years old.
Enrolment and Attendance
7.6
Despite the presence of private schools, enrolment in Government
schools and schools operated by Municipal corporations (local governing
bodies) increased substantially by 18%(Table 7.4) especially in Andhra
Pradesh and Maharashtra. Enrolment also improved in West Bengal in
Govt. and Govt. aided schools. Free books, midday meals and availability
of multilingual schools in towns as in Maharashtra contributed to improved
enrolment ratios.
Table 7.4 Enrolment and Student Attendance Rates
States \UT
% difference in enrolment
(2007 as compared to 2003)
Student Attendance rates (% of schools)
% of schools
with Midday
meals
100
90-100%
75-90%
45-75%
<45%
Andhra Pradesh
16.7
87.5
12.5
n=8
Assam
50
1.1
50
50
n=4
Maharashtra
100
41.6
50
50
n=4
Puducherry
100
-20.0
100
n=4
Uttar Pradesh
100
-11.0
50
25
25
n=4
West Bengal
75
43.5
50
50
n=4
All States \UT
89.2
17.9
53.5
14.2
25
3.57
n=28
N= Number of schools. Gross enrolment ratios could not be calculated as child population data for 2003 was not available.
7.7
In the selected schools,68% of the schools reported student
attendance of more than 75%. Student absenteeism was high in Uttar
Pradesh while all schools in Puducherry reported 100% attendance. The
69
reasons for absenteeism in schools in Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and
West Bengal were “work at home”, ill health and taking care of siblings.
Out of School Children
7.8
The largest number of out of school children were in the slum
households in Pune, Kanpur, Agra and Kolkata. In the selected samples,
20% of the slum households had children who were out of school (Table
7.5). The poor economic condition of the migrants, lack of parental
attention, use of child labour in households and commercial establishments
were the main causes for children remaining out of school.
Table 7.5 Dropouts and Out of School children in slums
States\UT
Andhra Pradesh
N=40
Assam
N=40
Maharashtra
N=40
Puducherry
N=40
Uttar Pradesh
N=40
West Bengal
N=40
All States\UT
N=240
No of dropouts\OOSC
belonging to
General
Female
dropouts
/ OOSC(%)
Schools
having pre
primary
sections(%).
1
0
50
13
0
0
0
0
50
30
15
1
14
70
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
50
33
28
4
1
52.1
0
20
12
1
0
11
40
25
49(20.4%)
77
45(58%)
6
26
57.5
42
HHs with
OOSc
( nos)
Number of
dropouts/
(OOsc)
SC/ST
OBC
2
2
1
0
0
47.5
N=number of households surveyed in slum areas
7.9
More than half of the out of school children belong to socially
disadvantaged groups(SC\STs).While Uttar Pradesh had the majority of out
of school children in the selected samples, 70% of these children in
Maharashtra were girls. It is observed that pre-primary sections in primary
schools were non existent in Uttar Pradesh or few in Andhra Pradesh and
West Bengal. Better availability of pre-primary sections\upper primary
schools\NPEGEL schools within the neighborhood of the slums could lead
to a significant reduction in the number of girls dropping out of schools.
70
7.10 Financial incentives and uniforms need to be provided to slum
children to improve enrolment. 84% of the out of school children were
willing to attend schools and their expectations were free uniforms,
textbooks and scholarships. Greater awareness needs to be generated as
55% of the parents were unaware of SSA interventions(Table7.20).
Best Practices
PAHAL- It is an innovative programme by state government of Uttarakhand to provide
school education to children of rag pickers, scavengers, orphans etc., in the slums in
three districts of the state. It is implemented through PPP mode under SSA. The private
school\school where the children are enrolled is paid Rs.3000/- per child and internal
monitoring of enrolment, attendance and achievement level of these children is carried
out by CRC, BRC, etc.
Gender and Social Gaps
7.11 There was a substantial improvement in enrolment of girls resulting
in gender parity ratio of 0.82 in 2007(Table7.6). While Assam and
Puducherry achieved gender parity, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
reported a significant rise in enrolment of girls resulting in improved gender
parity ratios.
Table 7.6 Share of enrolment of Girls \ SC &STs and CWSN
States\UT
% enrolment of girls
Andhra Pradesh
2003
45.9
2007
48.5
% enrolment of SC/ ST
children
2003
2007
36.8
27.0
% of CWSN
Assam
50.5
50.8
33.5
30.3
0.29
0.13
Maharashtra
30.6
40.4
22.0
33.2
6.54
3.90
Puducherry
49.8
49.7
32.6
32.5
2.06
1.85
Uttar Pradesh
51.0
46.1
36.8
39.7
NA
NA
West Bengal
51.9
45.5
22.3
17.1
1.95
1.04
2003
0.01
2007
0.01*
All States\UT
42.4
45.1
30.1
30.3
Data on girls and SC\ST from School Level Schedules: Data on CWSN from Town Level Schedules
*Data on CWSN available only for Yemmiganur.
7.12 The share of socially disadvantaged groups in school enrolment
remained stagnant(30%) with large variations between states. In
Maharashtra, the improvement in overall enrolment resulted in improved
gender and social parity ratio. In West Bengal, overall enrolment increased
71
by 43%, but share of girls’ enrolment and of SC\STs declined and in Uttar
Pradesh, the decline in enrolment also resulted in decline in gender parity.
7.13 The share of differently abled children in school enrolment declined.
Slum schools in Assam, Puducherry and Uttar Pradesh reportedly did not
provide any incentives to students and there were no ramps in
schools(Table 7.7). Only a few schools had individualised education plans
or had provided incentives. In Uttar Pradesh, though it was claimed that
funds had been spent on IED, it was reported that none of the disabled
children had received any incentives in the selected schools.
Table 7.7 Incentives for CWSN
(%) Schools
with disabled
children
(%) Schools in
which IEP has been
prepared
(%) Schools in which
incentives are
provided
62.5
20
60
25
0
0
68.40
Maharashtra
75
0
100
96.11
Puducherry
50
0
0
56.93
Uttar Pradesh
25
0
0
NA
West Bengal
50
50
0
82.22
14.3
42.8
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
All states\UT
50
Allocation data not available in Uttar Pradesh
(%) of expenditure
of allocation(06-07)on
IED
46.84
Infrastructural facilities
7.14 The availability of infrastructure in urban slum schools indicates
(Table7.8) that though 93% of the schools were located in pucca (all
weather) buildings, these are often in rented premises and do not receive
repair & maintenance grant. In Assam and West Bengal, only 50% of the
schools had boundary walls. Thefts of fans and roof (asbestos sheets)
were reported from one of the schools in Navi Mumbai and use of school
toilets by slum people from Yemmiganur. Few schools had facilities for
playground but limited space for activities within the classrooms. The
limited area in the schools leaves no scope for construction of ramps to
make schools disabled friendly.
72
Table 7.8 Infrastructural facilities ( % of schools)
With
With
Pucca
boundary
bldg
Wall
87.5
62.5
Assam
100
Maharashtra
Puducherry
With
With
With
Drinking
Common
Water
Toilet
12
62.5
75
50
75
100
100
75
0
75
75
Uttar Pradesh
100
West Bengal
All States\UT
States \UT
Andhra
Pradesh
With
with
with
With
electri
Computer
Black
-city
Centre
Board
12.5
87.5
12.5
100
100
100
25
75
0
100
100
100
100
100
100
75
100
75
50
100
100
100
100
25
100
100
75
25
75
50
25
50
0
100
100
100
50
25
75
75
0
100
0
100
75
93
64
29
82
82
39.2
85.7
62
100
93
1-3
classrooms
Toilet
for
girls
With
TLMs
7.15 Drinking water facilities were available in 82% of the schools except
some schools in Yemmiganur( Andhra Pradesh),in Kolkata (West Bengal)
and due to non functional handpumps in Uttar Pradesh. Water from stored
containers were provided in Andhra Pradesh and Puducherry, from
tubewells in Jorhat and handpumps in Kanpur and Agra. Though toilets
were available in 82% of the schools, separate toilets for girls were
available in only 40% of the schools. None of the selected schools in West
Bengal had toilets for girls. The sanitation facilities in urban slum schools
were in neglect and funds for maintenance need to be provided to improve
school environment.
7.16 In 86% of urban slum schools electricity was available. Though all the
selected slum schools in Maharashtra, Puducherry and West Bengal had
electricity in schools, computers were not provided to any of the schools in
West Bengal and were available in only one school in Puducherry and
three schools in Maharashtra. Annexure 7.1 indicates some of the
important indicators in rural and urban schools.
73
School Indicators
7.17 As per computed pupil teacher ratio (Table7.9),57% of the schools
had PTR ratios of less than 40. In Uttar Pradesh, it was reported that two
government primary schools had PTR ratios of 70 and 107.
Table 7.9 School and Teacher indicators
% of
SC/ST
teachers
Average
number
of
teachers
per
school
% of
Teacher
Vacancy
positions
% of
Teachers
appointed
under
SSA.
40
44.1
5.7
4.3
58.6
25
48
12.0
6.5
3.8
38.4
27
0
37.5
7.8
16.0
1.5
1.5
11
0
50
22.2
11.2
2.2
6.6
25
25
75
41
0
4.7
68.4
21.1
West Bengal*
50
52
50
47
4.8
3.7
40.9
9.1
All states\UT
57.5
36
32
44
20.8
7.7
12.1
21.2
%
Schools
with
PTR<40
%
Schools
with
graduate
teachers
%
Schools
with
Multigrade
classes
% of
Female
teachers
50
46
75
100
52
Maharashtra
0
Puducherry*
100
Uttar Pradesh
States\UT
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
*Primary schools only.
7.18 The increase in enrolment led to high PTR ratios in all the schools in
Maharashtra. Though all schools had upper primary sections, they operate
in double shifts resulting in few or no multigrade classes. The enrolment in
schools in Andhra Pradesh too improved substantially, PTRs were high
(50% of the schools have PTRs of more than 40) and as some schools
have few classrooms(1-3 classrooms), 75% of the schools had multi-grade
classes. Primary schools in West Bengal too had multi-grade classes. In
Uttar Pradesh, PTRs were very high despite the fact that para teachers had
been appointed under SSA. To improve PTR ratios, teachers need to be
appointed and schools should operate double shifts. Teachers should be
trained in multi-graded teaching techniques to improve the quality of
education in these schools.
7.19 Teacher vacancy positions in 2007 (during the period of canvassing),
were high in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal as recruitment of new
74
teachers had not taken place for several years in these states. However
under SSA, para teachers were appointed in all schools. In the urban towns
in Andhra Pradesh, more para teachers had been appointed than in other
towns.
7.20 The proportion of female teachers in Puducherry was closest to the
desirable norm of 50% of female teachers in schools. In Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra, share of girls’ enrolment increased despite the low
proportion of female teachers in schools.
7.21 Schools in Puducherry, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh had fewer
graduate teachers which reflects the lack of interest amongst qualified
people to take up teaching jobs in government schools. However teacher
availability position was better in Puducherry and Maharashtra, with an
average of 11 and 16 teachers per school respectively.
7.22 In service teacher training and induction training had been organized
by the town authorities. In Maharashtra only 74 % of the teachers were
provided in service training whereas in Puducherry 90.1 % of the teachers
had attended in service training.
7.23 In 75% of the schools, teachers were involved in non teaching
activities such as census survey and election duties(Table7.10).In Assam,
fewer teachers were involved with non teaching activities and were among
the most satisfied with their level of salaries. In Maharashtra and Uttar
Pradesh, teachers in all the schools were engaged in non teaching
activities, the least interested in performing non teaching activities and
among the least satisfied. In Puducherry, though teachers were involved in
non teaching activities, 50% of the schools reported that teachers were
consulted in curriculum design. In general, teachers who are not assigned
any non teaching activity or are consulted in preparation of school
education plans can be expected to report higher levels of satisfaction.
75
Higher motivation level of teachers can contribute to improvement in the
quality of teaching.
Table 7.10 Teachers responses to non teaching activities and motivation levels.
% of schools
% of schools
with teachers
with teachers
States\UT
involved in
not interested
Non teaching
in non teaching
activities
activity.
Andhra Pradesh
62.5
75
Assam
25.0
0
Maharashtra
100
100
Puducherry
100
0
Uttar Pradesh
100
100
West Bengal
75
75
All states \UT
75
76.2
Responses of the school headmasters\senior teachers
% of schools in
which teachers
are consulted in
curriculum design
% of schools
with teachers
satisfied with
salaries
37.5
25.0
0.0
50.0
25.0
25.0
28.6
12.5
75.0
25.0
100.0
50.0
50.0
46.4
Teaching learning material and Incentives
7.24 All Girl students and SC\ST children were provided free textbooks.
(Table7.11) Other non eligible children were provided free textbooks from
state grants or through book banks. 98% of the students received their
textbooks in the beginning of the session and with some delays in Andhra
Pradesh and Maharashtra reportedly due to the unanticipated increase in
enrolment in these states.
Table 7.11 Student responses on incentives and use of teaching tools
% Students
receiving
textbooks at
start of session
% students
reporting library
facilities in
schools &
(use%)
% students
reporting use
of TLMs by
teachers
% students
reporting use
of blackboard
by teachers
% of schools
providing
scholarships
Andhra Pradesh
98
100 (71%)
98
100
12.5
Assam
100
25.8 (25%)
96
100
0.0
Maharashtra
84.3
100 (16%)
96
100
25.0
Puducherry
100
75 (0)
100
100
100.0
Uttar Pradesh
100
3.1 (0)
66
100
75.0
West Bengal
100
25.8 (0)
74
96.8
0.0
All states \UT
97.6
66.5 (35.6%)
91
99.6
32.1
States \UT
7.25 Teaching Learning materials were available in 93% of the urban slum
schools. Only one school in Navi Mumbai and one school in Kolkata did not
have any TLMs. As per students perception, 91% reported that TLMs were
76
used frequently by the teachers. TLMs were frequently used for teaching by
teachers in Puducherry and the least utilized in Uttar Pradesh.
7.26 Though 66% of the schools had libraries, only 35% of the students
were utilising them. Reading habits were better amongst students in
Andhra Pradesh as 71% of the students made use of the libraries. In
Puducherry, 75% of the schools had library facilities but were not utilised by
the students. Earmarking of funds for purchase of library books and greater
access to libraries can improve reading habits.
7.27 Incentives in the form of scholarships were provided to SC\ST girls in
Puducherry and Uttar Pradesh and to meritorious SC\ST girl students in
Navi Mumbai. Midday meals were provided to all students in all schools
except two schools in Assam and one school in Kolkata. The Education
department in Puducherry was reportedly providing breakfast, noon meal,
note books, uniforms, raincoats, stationery to students to improve retention.
7.28 Students reported that teachers were regular, though in Uttar
Pradesh and West Bengal the percentages were lower than the overall
average(Table7.12). All the students in Puducherry,18.7% of students in
Uttar Pradesh and 3.23% in West Bengal also reported being physically
punished by their teachers frequently.
Table 7.12 Student responses on teacher attendance and punishment
Student responses
Andhra
( %)
Pradesh
West.
All
Bengal
states\UT
93.7
80.6
96.4
18.7
3.23
15.35
Assam
Maharashtra
Puducherry
Uttar Pradesh
98.9
100
100
100
0
0
0
100
Teachers attend
school regularly.
Physically
punished by
teachers
frequently.
Learning achievement.
7.29 In the selected schools, the percentage of children who had been
retained in classes I and II was high except Uttar Pradesh(Table7.13),
77
Though it was reported in West Bengal that the state follows a policy of no
detention in primary classes, children had been retained in primary classes
in urban schools. Since most of the slum children are first generation
learners with poor educational backgrounds, a no failure policy can provide
a supportive learning environment and improve retention.
Table 7.13 Performance of children in Classes I & II
Pass percentage
( %)
Failed
(%)
Not appeared
(%)
Andhra Pradesh
92.57
7.43
0
Assam
91.36
4.94
3.7
Maharashtra
89.13
10.87
0
Puducherry
95.15
4.85
0
Uttar Pradesh
95.58
0
4.42
West Bengal
80.89
17.45
1.66
All states \UT
90.19
9.16
0.65
States \UT
7.30 Primary and upper primary students in the selected schools were
tested in verbal, reading and writing skills in English, Local language, and
Arithmetic.
In tests of verbal ability(Table 7.14), the performance of
children in primary classes(Class II) to narrate numbers, English alphabets
and local language alphabets was better than their rural counterparts. 65%
of the students were able to narrate English alphabets correctly,80% could
narrate the alphabets in local language correctly and 95% of the students
could narrate numbers 1-20 in the local language completely.
7.31 The performance of students of class II in reading tests (Table7.14) in
local language revealed that 58% were able to read more than 80% of the
words correctly. In English only 7% were able to read more than 80%
words correctly and 88% were able to identify numbers correctly. State
wise performance in local language reading tests revealed better
performance by students in Puducherry (100%) and Maharashtra (69%). In
78
identification of numbers, the performance was better in Assam (100%),
Maharashtra(94%), Puducherry(93%) and Andhra Pradesh (92%).
Table 7.14. Performance of students in verbal and reading tests -Class II
Narration tests( % students with 80%
Reading Tests( % students with 80%
correct answers)
correct answers)
States\ UT
Local
English
Andhra
language
Numbers
English
Local
Language
Numbers
34
92
92
3
55
92
Assam
25
88
100
0
56
100
Maharashtra
38
63
81
0
69
94
Puducherry
100
100
100
9
100
93
Uttar Pradesh
72
72
97
0
28
69
West Bengal
84
52
100
19
55
87
All states \UT
65
80
95
7
58
88
Pradesh
7.32 The results from the written tests (Table7.15) in Arithmetic, English
and local language revealed that the students were able to perform better
in their own mother tongue than in English. The average marks in Local
language, Arithmetic and English was 74, 69 and 35 respectively. The
coefficient of variation indicates that performance of students in Assam,
Puducherry, Maharashtra and West Bengal were better than the overall
average.
Table 7.15 Performance of students in written tests- Class II.
Arithmetic
States\UT
English
Mean
Coeff of
Mean
marks
variation
marks
Andhra Pradesh
78
297
6
Assam
61
29
Maharashtra
66
Puducherry
Local Language
Mean
Coeff of
marks
variation
324
78
35
20
87
73
29
46
3
388
80
25
88
16
71
20
99
4
Uttar Pradesh
38
90
na
na
29
125
West Bengal
69
43
51
54
85
24
All states\UT
69
46
35
100
74
45
Coeff of variation
79
7.33 In achievement test for class VI (upper primary), 87% of the students
were able to read passages correctly in local language in comparison to
16% in English. Students in Maharashtra (38%) and Puducherry (25%) did
well in English Passage reading than the overall average. In passage
reading skills in local language(Table7.16) performance of students in
Maharashtra (100%) and Assam (88 %) was better than the overall
average.
Table 7.16 Students performance in passage reading - ( Class VI)
Reading tests
% of students able to read English
% of students able to read L. language
passage correctly ( more than 80% words
passage correctly.( more than 80% of the
correctly)
words correctly)
Andhra Pradesh
9
81
Assam
6
88
Maharashtra
38
100
Puducherry
25
75
All states\UT
16
87
States\UT
Students of Class VI were not canvassed in slum schools in U.P and W. Bengal
7.34 In writing tests of English and local language and problem solving in
Mathematics(Table7.17),the performance of the students in Local language
was better than English and Mathematics.
Table 7.17 Performance of students in written tests- Class VI
Local language
States\UT
Mathematics
English
Essay
Essay
Comprehension
Mean
marks
Coeff of
variation
Mean
marks
Coeff of
variation
Mean
marks
Coeff of
variation
Mean
marks
Coeff of
variation
Andhra
Pradesh
63
65
74
29
66
54
37
97
Assam
5
265
75
26
70
33
38
74
Maharashtra
45
76
84
26
73
38
44
76
Puducherry
53
51
81
18
63
35
56
19
All States\UT
44
92
77
27
69
45
40
82
.
7.35 Across states, performance of primary students in Andhra Pradesh,
Puducherry, Maharashtra and West Bengal (Class II) and of upper primary
80
students in Assam, Puducherry and Maharashtra was better than other
states. Though no single factor could be identified for the superior
performance of students in some states, the availability of teachers(more
teachers per school, low vacancies) and use of TLMs in teaching appears
to impact learning outcomes in Government schools.
Implementing Agencies
7.36 The nodal agency for implementation of SSA is the Education
department in Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Yemmiganur (Andhra Pradesh),
Guwahati and Jorhat ( Assam), Karaikal and Ozhukarai ( Puducherry) and
Agra City (Uttar Pradesh).In Pune, Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra) and in
Kolkata, Raniganj (West Bengal), the scheme is implemented through
Municipal corporations and in Kanpur through the
Slum Development
Authority.
7.37 The funds for implementation of the SSA interventions were
transferred by the state implementing societies directly to the Municipal
Corporations for schools under its management and to the School
Management Committee in aided schools, the School Management
committees in Guwahati and Slum Education Committee in Jorhat and
Puducherry. There was no involvement of the District project office in
transfer of funds or in coordinating the activities of the different Municipal
Corporations within the towns.
Town Committees
7.38 Town committees were assigned the task of conducting training
programmes for teachers, community members in wards\ slums, monitor
the performance of schools, organize awareness campaigns and
coordinate with urban resource centres and cluster resource centres.
Training for teachers and community members were conducted in Agra
City, Guwahati , Pune ,Navi Mumbai and Raniganj but not in Andhra
81
Pradesh, Jorhat, Kolkata, Kanpur and Karaikal. Though Karaikal is a
separate town, the town level committee in Puducherry was implementing
the SSA interventions.
7.39 Town monitoring committees in Agra City, Kanpur Nagar and
Puducherry reported that meetings with WECs\SECs\schools on issues
related to funds, enrolment of dropouts were held regularly on monthly
basis whereas only annually in Pune and Navi Mumbai. In other towns
there was no record of meetings held with WECs or school management
committees.
7.40 For mainstreaming dropouts in urban areas, the town authorities in
Hyderabad had organised vocational courses for girls, bridge courses of
short duration, mobile learning centres and arranged for distance education
programmes. In Puducherry, night schools had been opened for slow
learners and in Maharashtra, enrolment drives and bridge courses had
been conducted. In Jorhat, “Jyoti kendras” were set up to mainstream out
of school children. NPEGEL schemes or AIE centres were not in operation
in any of the slums.
Slum committees
7.41 The Slum \ Ward \ School Education Committees were reported to
be effective with greater involvement in monitoring SSA interventions,
school infrastructure improvement, in seeking funds, organizing awareness
campaigns for enrolling children in the slums etc.(Annexure7.2). In
comparison, the town committees were constrained by lack of interest of
the officials (Councilors\ Corporators) and non existence of plans for
schools in urban slums.
7.42 The slum level committees in Puducherry were most effective as
they held monthly meetings, conducted door to door campaigns for
82
enrolling children and reducing out of school children, training had been
provided to the community members and also maintained data on
enrolment. WECs in Assam, Maharashtra and slum committees in West
Bengal were partially effective. The major constraints faced by the slum
committees pertained to shortage or delay in receipt of funds resulting in
poor condition of school infrastructure.
School Funds
7.43 As all schools in the slums in Puducherry and Uttar Pradesh are Govt
schools, grants for civil works, maintenance and repair were provided from
SSA funds. In Maharashtra and West Bengal, Govt aided schools in rented
buildings did not receive grants for civil works or maintenance.
7.44 There was an overall improvement in the allocation and utilization of
school funds. All schools were able to utilize more than 95% of the grants
released to them in 2006-07. The poor utilization of funds in Puducherry
was due to the delay in receipt of funds (Table7.18). The marginal
improvement in the grants available to the schools in 2007 reflects the fact
that the majority of funds were disbursed to schools in the rural areas.
Table 7.18 Utilisation of school grants* ( in Rs.)
States\UT
Funds
received
Expenditure
% utilisation
2003-04
Funds
Expenditure
received
2006-07
% utilisation
Andhra Pradesh
14000
14000
100
16000
16000
100
Assam
42000
42000
100
41000
41000
100
Maharashtra
35000
27000
77.1
50170
50170
100
Puducherry
113600
106163
93.4
139820
118515
84.7
Uttar Pradesh
20500
17500
85.3
47970
47970
100
West Bengal
15500
15500
100
15500
36500
243.3
All states\UT
240600
222163
92.3
310460
*As reported by selected schools. Data for schools in Jorhat not available.
310155
99.9
7.45 The indicative average expenditure incurred on students (Table 7.19)
revealed wide differences amongst states. In Maharashtra the town
authorities reported that funds provided to schools were not adequate.
83
Table 7.19 Indicative Average Expenditure per student*
States\UT
Indicative Average Expenditure per student( in Rs)
2003
2007
Andhra Pradesh
5.42
6.19
Assam
119.32
115.17
Maharashtra
10.74
14.08
Puducherry
96.42
134.83
Uttar Pradesh
23.81
73.69
West Bengal
27.72
52.22
All States\UT
29.47
35.52
* school level schedules.
Parents Teachers Associations
7.46 School level officials reported that PTA \ MTAs had been constituted
in all the schools and parents assist school authorities in meal preparation,
in distribution and render
assistance in teaching. However, awareness
amongst parents regarding the functioning\ existence of PTAs & MTAs was
only 45%.(Table7.20). In Yemmiganur, it was reported that school management committees and PTAs had been disbanded. Greater awareness of
SSA interventions as in Assam and Puducherry led to the lower incidence
of dropouts in these towns.
Table 7.20 Responses of parents on SSA and PTA.
% aware of enrolment
% aware of SSA
% aware of PTA \MTA
Andhra Pradesh
40
45
55
Assam
65
52.5
47.5
Maharashtra
30
20
57.5
Puducherry
100
92.5
100
Uttar Pradesh
7.5
7.5
12.5
West Bengal
30
55.4
55
All States\UT
45.4
45.4
54.6
States\UT
drives in the slum
84
7.47 NGOs were reportedly involved in setting up of AIE centres,
conducting
learning
enhancement
programmes,
implementing
IED
programmes for CWSN children in Pune, Navi Mumbai, Hyderabad and
Raniganj ,though no NGO was functioning in any of the selected slums. In
other towns their presence was reported to be negligible.
Urban and Cluster Resource Centres
7.48 Institutions such as the Urban Resource Centres equivalent of block
resource centres were existent and functional in Agra, Guwahati, Pune,
Navi Mumbai, Raniganj and Secunderabad and engaged in conducting
survey \awareness campaigns and enroling CWSN children. The URCs
were not maintaining any data on the number of children enroled in
schools.
7.49 Cluster Resource Centres have been set up in the towns. 71.4% of
the respondents (School headmasters) were aware of the existence of
CRCs. 10% of the CRCs were within school premises and 80% within
3km. In Assam and Maharashtra, two CRCs were reported to be located
more than 3 kms from the schools. Only few schools had received
academic support and 65% reported that CRCs had provided training to
teachers(Table7.21).CRCs in Assam and Uttar Pradesh were also involved
in monitoring and in textbook distribution in Maharashtra. Though all the
CRCs in Puducherry were located within 3 kms, none of them had provided
academic support to the schools.
85
Table 7.21 Effectiveness of CRCs.
No. of
States\UT
Location of CRC from
school
(No of CRCs)
Support provided by CRCs to schools
(No of schools)
respondents
aware of
CRCs(%)
Within
school
1-3
km
3-5
km
Academic
guidance
Andhra
Pradesh
4(50%)
2
2
Assam
4(100%)
-
3
1
1
Maharashtra
4(100%)
-
3
1
1
Puducherry
4(100%)
-
4
-
Uttar Pradesh
2( 50%)
-
2
-
West Bengal
2 (50%)
-
2
-
Quality
monitoring
Text book
distribution
2
3
Training
to
teachers
3
27
3
15
2
3
4
3
1
Avg for all
20(71.4%)
10%
80%
10%
10%
15%
states\UT (%)
*-calculated. Other responses from school headmasters or senior teachers.
Number
of
schools
per
CRC*
48
5%
7.50 Given the tough socioeconomic condition in the slums,
1
3
65%
16
a cramped
living environment and poor sanitation facilities, it is necessary to provide a
congenial environment in schools by earmarking funds for repair and
maintenance in Govt. aided schools functioning from rented buildings.
Since the district authorities have limited jurisdiction over Municipal
schools, there is no nodal agency for monitoring the implementation of SSA
in municipal and Govt. aided schools in the towns. A separate nodal
agency needs to be constituted for monitoring the activities of the schools
in the urban slums with separate plans that provides for scholarships,
uniforms to all children living and attending schools in slum areas, setting
up of education monitoring committees at slum level and NPEGEL
schemes and vocational schools in every cluster. CRCs need to be set up
in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and in general need to be
strengthened for more effective exchange with teachers and entrusted with
providing academic guidance, organizing awareness camps alongwith
enrolment drives.
86
Chapter - 8
Constraints in Implementation
Shortage of teachers \ Absenteeism
1.
Teacher vacancies were high at 19% in rural schools and 12% in
the urban schools ( at the time of canvassing) . While some states such as
Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal had not recruited regular teachers for
several years ( due to court cases , weak state finances), lack of adequate
number of teacher training institutions in rural areas was reported to be one
of the reasons for teacher shortages.
2.
Teacher motivation is low on account of non teaching activities such
as pulse polio, supervision of civil works, household surveys. Teachers are
not consulted in curriculum construction or in the preparation of district
education plans.
3.
Teachers are unwilling to be posted to remote areas.
4.
Separate teachers for Maths \ science \ computers are not available.
Inadequate Support Manpower
1.
No separate\ permanent staff for SSA implementation at district and
sub district levels. Most district level staff(in Assam, Bihar, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan) held additional charges.
2.
Inadequate manpower in Block resource centres and cluster resource
centres for monitoring and capacity building.
Children out of schools \ Student absenteeism
1.
Universal enrolment is a difficult challenge due to seasonal migration,
illiteracy, sibling care and economic backwardness.
2.
Non availability of multilingual schools, no uniform curriculum across
states and non availability of multilingual textbooks poses problems in
87
achieving universal retention. School academic year is not in sync with
migratory seasons.
3.
Student absenteeism was high in Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
due to seasonal migration and work at home. Parental negligence and lack
of midday meals in schools also contributed to absenteeism.
Inadequate funds\ untimely release of funds
1.
Quarterly disbursements at sub block levels could lead to better
utilization as second installment was disbursed as late as January \ March
of the financial year.
2.
No allocation of budgetary funds for karaikal district (Puducherry)
separately.
3.
Late receipt of funds in Assam, Haryana, Rajasthan and West
Bengal. Monthly disbursements to Village\School education committees
desirable.
4.
Districts get funds under rigid heads, non flexibility in deployment of
resources.
5.
Inadequate funds for schools in urban slum areas.
Community ownership \ participation weak.
1.
Though community initiatives are vital to strengthen implementation,
responsibility lies entirely on headmaster of schools.
2.
Training imparted for members of VECs not reflected in greater sense
of ownership, transparency in usage of funds (display on notice board
largely absent in schools) or maintenance of records. School management
committees appear to be more effective.
3.
Awareness of SSA interventions and PTAs are generally poor.
88
Weak linkages in Monitoring and Supervision
1.
Composition of district level monitoring teams restricted to a few
members including accountants, data entry operators. Most do not have
representatives of DIET or NGOs. No records available at school level of
visits by block or district teams.
2.
No clarity on roles, responsibilities of BRCs\CRCs. Very few CRCs
functioning from schools.
3.
No nodal agency for implementation of SSA in urban areas. Each
municipal corporation handles schools within its jurisdiction, independent of
the district authority. Town level committees lack commitment.
4.
Involvement of NGOs limited to a few activities and at district or block
level. No presence at village level.
89
2. Constraints in the implementation of the scheme (as reported by
implementing authorities)
Constraints
States\UTs
Assam, Bihar, Daman & Diu, Goa, Haryana, J&K,
1.Shortage of Teachers
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar
Pradesh
2.Inadequate manpower in
supporting institutions
Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Jharkhand,
Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, West
Bengal
Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chattisgarh,
3.Delay in receipt of funds\
shortage of funds
Dadra Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh ,J & K, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram,
Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, West
Bengal
Andhra Pradesh, A & N islands, Bihar, Chandigarh,
4.Weak linkages in Monitoring
Chattisgarh, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Goa, Haryana,
and supervision
Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Puducherry, Punjab,
Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
5.Large number of schools\
Tamil Nadu, Chattisgarh-too many schools for every
(sparsely populated habitations)
cluster center,(Uttarakhand)
Chandigarh, Chattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat,
6.Seasonal Migration\ (Low
Maharashtra, Manipur, Mizoram, Rajasthan.
community participation)
(Chandigarh, Delhi, Jharkhand, Punjab, Puducherry,
Maharashtra)
7.Poor infrastructural facilities
( lack of toilets, classrooms, drinking
water, lack of roads, etc)
Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh,
Chattisgarh, Dadra, Nagar-Haveli, Jharkhand,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Manipur, Mizoram, Orissa ,Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
90
8.Lack of clarity of procedures
amongst officials/( rigidity of
planning manuals)
Bihar, Daman & Diu,(Kerala), Jharkhand,Madhya
Pradesh, Orissa, Sikkim, West Bengal
The list of constraints is not in any order of significance.
3. Reasons mentioned by State \UT officials for poor quality of education in
their states.
States\UTs
Reasons
Lack of monitoring\ supervision, Non teaching tasks given to
Chattisgarh
Haryana
teachers.
Quality of teachers training needs improvement.
Lack of academic support by BRCs, frequent transfer of State
Himachal Pradesh
project director, lack of monitoring at CRC level.
Funds not released on time, Lack of adequate resource support for
Jammu & Kashmir
implementation.
Shortage of teachers, Teacher absenteeism, Lack of quality
Jharkhand
training
Lack of academic resource institutions, teacher training difficult on
Lakshadweep
account of transportation problems.
Lack of funds, shortage of teachers, student absenteeism.
Madhya Pradesh
multigrade classes
Manipur
Teachers not qualified, not punctual, lack of fund, weak monitoring
Meghalaya
Teachers not qualified, not punctual
Teachers not qualified, no technical and management institution in
Mizoram
Orissa
the state.
Teachers not qualified, lack of awareness amongst parents.
91
Punjab
Poor awareness amongst parents
Sikkim
Lack of trained, qualified teachers.
Tripura
Teacher shortage.
Shortage of teachers, student absenteeism, low motivation of
Uttar Pradesh
teachers.
Uttarakhand
Teachers absenteeism
UT of Dadra
,Nagar Haveli
No DIET,SCERT etc
4. Constraints in implementation of SSA in Towns
States\UT
Towns
Hyderabad
Secunderabad
Andhra
Pradesh
Yemmiganur
Guwahati
Assam
Jorhat
Pune
Maharashtra
Navi Mumbai
Karaikal
Puducherry
Constraints
• Shortage of
teaching staff
• Illiteracy
• Lack of
monitoring
• Inadequate
release of
funds
• Poor
infrastructure
• Poor financial
condition
• No
coordination
between SSA
and Municipal
corporation
• Shortage of
teaching staff
• Inadequate
funds
• Poor
infrastructure
• Shortage of
teaching staff
• Lack of
Suggestions
For restructuring
For better
the scheme
implementation
Slum specific
More
planning
involvement of
community \PRI
Emphasis on
infrastructure
Better
coordination or
nodal agency for
implementation
in slums
Slum specific
planning
Active
involvement of
NGOs.
Better funding
for infrastructure
A sub plan for
Karaikal.
More
awareness of
PTA \MTA
Better
inspection and
monitoring
Emphasis for
effective slum
education
committees.
Vacant posts in
district office to
be filled up.
92
parental care
Uttar
Pradesh
Ozhukarai
• Shortage of
teaching staff
ABL and ALM in
schools
Kanpur nagar
• Lack of
monitoring
• Shortage of
teaching staff
• Poor
infrastructure
• illiteracy
Slum specific
planning
Agra City
Raniganj
West Bengal
Kolkata
• Shortage of
non teaching
staff
• Poor financial
condition of
slum dwellers
• Poor
infrastructure
• Illiteracy of
town
dwellers.
Free education
for economically
backward
children
Town level
planning for
urban slum
areas.
More funds for
operating night
schools.
Better
monitoring and
inspection
More emphasis
on infrastructure
More
involvement of
municipality
Chapter - 9
Recommendations \ Suggestions
A. To reduce Dropouts \ Out of school children
1. Need to make upper primary-primary school ratio more favourable at
village level and in urban slums by opening more upper primary
schools or composite schools.
2. Pre-primary sections linked to primary schools more effective in
reducing dropouts.
3. Reform schooling system with multilingual schools \ multigrade
textbooks .
4. Involvement of NGOs and CRCs to be sought for promoting
awareness amongst parents of dropouts \ out of school children.
93
5. Transport facilities to be provided to bring children from remote
habitations to schools.
6. No detention policy to be followed by all states at primary levels.
7. District officials to devise academic calendar in sync with migratory
seasons for improving retention rates amongst migratory students.
8. Migratory cards \ seasonal hostels \ resource persons to be
appointed for mainstreaming out of school children.
9. NPEGEL schemes \ vocational schools in Urban slums.
10. Free uniforms and financial incentives for children living in urban
slums.
B. To Improve Teacher and student attendance
1. Introduction of Biometric systems of recording teacher attendance.
2. Non teaching activities to be reduced, teachers not to supervise civil
works, cattle surveys.
3. Midday meals to be provided in all schools in Bihar and Assam to
improve student attendance. Schools in Puducherry provide
breakfast to children which have improved retention.
4. Sports equipment need to be provided in schools.
5. Punishment to be avoided to discipline students.
6. Individualised education plans necessary for all differently abled
children. Incentives for attendance to be extended to these children.
C. To improve the Quality of Education
1. Recruitment of teachers to fill vacancies, reduce high PTRs as well
as different teachers for each subject at upper primary level.
2. A child friendly curriculum and system of assessment to move from
examination based to continous appraisal.
3. Improved pedagogic practices such as use of ABL and ALM
methodologies.
94
4. Emphasis on writing skills rather than on rote learning. Workbooks to
be provided to all children to make learning interesting.
5. Teachers to be consulted \ opinion sought in curriculum construction.
6. Textbooks made available to all children in the beginning of the
session irrespective of caste\ gender.
7. Teacher training programmes to be redesigned for multigrade
teaching methods. Use of TLMs to be mandatory in teaching
processes.
8. CRCs to be set up closer to the schools and catchment area for each
CRC to be fixed. Academic guidance by CRC to include preparation
of TLMs.
9. School libraries to be set up in all schools and reading habits to be
encouraged.
10. Spending on quality interventions at district level to be improved.
11. VECs to be provided funds for appointment of para teachers to
overcome teacher shortage.
D. To improve school environment.
1. Separate toilet for Girls in all upper primary schools and ramps in all
schools.
2. Drinking water to be provided in all schools.
3. Electricity to be provided in all schools to make effective use of
computers.
4. Boundary walls \ fencing in all schools to avoid straying of cattle,
thefts of computers \ fans etc.
5. Government aided schools in rented buildings to be provided
maintenance \ repair grant to provide better infrastructure .
6. Appropriate funding for schools in urban slum areas.
7. Accreditation of schools based on school environment, inclusive
education, extra curricular activities and quality of learning.
95
E. To improve monitoring \ supervision.
1. School coordinators to be appointed in CRCs for monitoring teacher
attendance and PTA\ MTA meetings.
2. School management committees to have student representatives to
inculcate leadership skills.
3. District level monitoring committees to have representatives from
DIET, NGOs and subject experts. Monitoring of quality including
school mapping to be made mandatory and report to be sent on
quarterly basis to State project directors.
4. Display of receipt of funds on school notice boards to be made
mandatory and VECs to be funded for appointment of cleaners\
sweepers\ security staff in schools.
5. Contingency\ travel allowance at block level to be enhanced.
Telephone facilities to be provided in BRCs and CRCs.
6. Regular monitoring at different levels and by different agencies can
energise the community to accept more responsibility towards their
schools. NGOs to be utilised for improving stakeholder participation.
7. Nodal agency for urban schools and separate plans formulated for
urban slum schools.
F. The Right to Education Act to be implemented by all states.
96
Unserved Habitations
Annexure 3.1
No of unserved
habitations (2002)*
No. of unserved habitations
(2007)**
Andhra Pradesh
4216
2234
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
244
2
Arunachal Pradesh
2043
1328
Assam
9651
1661
Bihar
7014
2903
5
0
Chhattisgarh
3103
3741
Daman & Diu
12
0
Delhi
36
0
Goa
62
67
1800
NA
Haryana
732
0
Himachal Pradesh
9369
0
Jammu & Kashmir
4175
1981
Jharkhand
11470
0
Karnataka
7221
0
Kerala
1353
0
0
0
3788
0
States\UTs
Chandigarh
Gujarat
Lakshadweep
Madhya Pradesh
97
Maharashtra
6454
219
Manipur
791
187
Meghalaya
1043
851
Mizoram
77
22
Nagaland
71
0
14528
797
12
10
Punjab
1118
0
Rajasthan
9846
3121
Orissa
Puducherry
Sikkim
317
9
Tamil Nadu
6505
380
Tripura
1180
508
52
26
Uttar Pradesh
27427
9897
Uttarakhand
4568
909
West Bengal
7645
969
UT of Dadra & Nagar Haveli
147928
*The Seventh All India Educational Survey ( 2002).
**-State responses. Goa and Himachal Pradesh have reported that as per their state norms, all eligible
habitations have been provided with schools\EGS centres.
98
Innovative activities for mainstreaming OOSC
S.
No
Activities
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Y
Y
Chand
-igarh
Annexure 3.2
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Tamil
Nadu
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
1
Special camps
Y
2
RBC
Y
3
NRBC
Y
Y
Y*
Y
4
5
Vocational
courses for
Girls
Health
checkup
camps
6
Learning thru
fun / nature / IT
7
Residential.
/migratory
Hostels/KGBVs
8
Misc. activities.
9
Bicycle
( girls)
10
Mobile
schools*\boat \
sand\sakhar
schools.
11
AIE centres
12
Door to door
campaigns
13
14
15
Involvement of
communitymeena
manch,Ma-beti
melas
Distance
learning
(urban areas)
Y
Y
Y
Y
Uttar
Pradesh
Puducherry
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y(EGS)
Y
Y
*Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y*
Y
West
Bengal
Y
Y
Y
Y
*
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
*
Night Schools
( urban areas)
*
*- in urban areas
a. RBC-Residential Bridge courses/ Non residential bridge courses
b. Activities mentioned by block authorities.
c. No projects undertaken in Munger, Dhubri, Morigaon, Goalpara, karaikal, Kanpur Nagar and kanpur Dehat
99
Activities under NPEGEL.
S.
No
Activities
1
Gender
sensitization of
teachers
Development of
gender sensitive
Learning
material
Early child care
2
3
4
5
6
7
a
Provision
escorts
Provision
stationary
workbooks
Provision
uniforms
Others
Andhra
Pradesh
of
of
&
of
d
Vocational
training
Remedial
teaching
Community
mobilisation
Teacher awards
e
Judo / karate
f
Bicycles/
scholarships
Sports material/
libraries
b
c
g
Annexure-3.3
Bihar
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Tamil
Nadu
Y
Uttar
Pradesh
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
West
Bengal
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y-Activities mentioned by district authorities.
No NPEGEL activities in the selected districts in Assam, Chandigarh.
100
Innovative Activities for Children With Special Needs
S.No
Activities
Andhra
Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Y
Y
Y
1
Bridge courses
2
Special training at
resource centre
for teachers
3
Aids
& appliances
4
Home based
education
Y
5
Others( ramps) etc
Y
6
Teachers training
for preparation of
Indiv.Edcn. plans
Y
Y
7
Health checkup
camps.
Y
Y
8
Daycare centres
9
Community
training
10
Life skill training /
vocational
training.
% of expenditure
of allocation on
IED in 2007
Y
Y
Y
Chandigarh
92.12
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
41.33
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Tamil
Nadu
Uttar
Pradesh
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Maharashtra
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
27.14
95.55
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
98.67
West
Bengal
Y
Y
Y
44.45
Annexure-3.4
Y
Y
57.54
96.11
90.03
83.98
69.40
80.81
Y- Activities mentioned by district authorities.
101
Innovative activities for improving the Quality of Education
States\UTs
Andhra Pradesh
Andaman Islands
Arunachal Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh
Chhattisgarh
Daman & Diu
Delhi
Goa
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Jharkhand
Karnataka
Kerala
Lakshadweep
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland
Orissa
Puducherry
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
UT of Dadra &
Nagar Haveli
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Annexure 4.1
As reported by state\(UT) authorities
CLAPS-Children learning acquisition programme for sustainability,
Wall magazines, classroom libraries, district specific children literature
development
Multigrade, multilevel methodology
Pratibha Khoj( talent search) , “ Hole in the wall ’’ schools
CALIES- Computers in elementary schools (smart schools)\Nava-Padakkhep
schools
Interactive Radio instruction programme ( IRP)
Reading English and Acquisition programme, reading corners in schools,
remedial classes.
ADEPTS-Advancement of educational performance through teacher support.
CALP-Computer aided learning programme.
CALP, textual material converted to animated lessons.
CALP, Multigrade, multilevel methodology, maths\science kits in schools
CALP \ \BaLA\migratory cards.
EDUSAT in primary and upper primary schools, Use of CAL in Up.Pry schools.
BaLA ( Building as Learning AID) programme , Aadhar ,CAL
CALP –computer aid learning.
Buniyaad, Child tracking, LOK WACHAN
External evaluation of schools, EDUSAT,RADIO PROGRAMMES
Learning enhancement through Easy Maths, Easy English
Formation of State resource groups.
HEADSTART-computer enabled self learning approach, EDUSAT
Education Quality Improvement Programme,CALP,maths kits\Shikshan mitras
Pictorial charts in local dialects, residential camps & Games and sports
Implementation of State Eligibility test for appointment of teachers
CAL , sports academies
Involvement of PRATHAM
CAL- Computer aided learning.
CAL \ SMART Schools \ Night schools
Computer Aided learning, Launching of “Parho “ programme .
Quality assurance based programme for learning\activity based learning.
Computer education
Activity Based Learning and Activity Learning Methodology programmes
PEER learning system, Computer aided learning etc.
Remedial teaching, Educational tour ,computer education etc.,
Telecast of educational programmes on TV, CALP in upper primary schools.
CALP (computer aided learning programme)
Integrated Learning Improvement Programme, School Level IP, ADEPTS
UNDER EDUSAT ,the educational institutions are provided VSAT connectivity to a Teaching Studio at the State Capital. The remote
school ends are provided two kinds of equipments – Satellite Interactive Terminal (SIT) for two-way interaction, and Receive Only
Terminal (ROT) where the programme can be received only (as in DTH).
The Headstart is a move from computer education to computer-enabled education.
102
Centre-State Ratios (CSR)
Sr.
No.
State\UT
Annexure 5.1
2003-2004 (Rs. in Lakhs)
CentralStateRelease
Release
9578.90
4383.70
CSR
2006-2007 (Rs. in Lakhs)
CentralStateRelease
Release
38861.78
12953.93
CSR
1
Andhra Pradesh
69
31
75
25
2
A & N Islands
283.90
214.00
57
43
519.00
175.00
75
25
3
Arunachal Pradesh
675.30
470.60
59
41
10627.80
400.00
96
4
4
Assam
10798.94
2238.00
83
17
51814.82
19530.60
73
27
5
Bihar
19448.77
6482.93
75
25
102629.00
53850.00
66
34
6
Chandigarh
224.54
49.00
82
18
300.00
290.63
51
49
7
Chattisgarh
7616.00
2538.60
75
25
51182.00
16057.00
76
24
8
Daman, Diu
0.00
5.00
0
100
0.00
34.00
0
100
9
Delhi
1652.60
183.80
90
10
4230.20
1199.30
78
22
10
Goa
0.00
0.00
0
0
724.00
498.00
59
41
11
Gujarat
11660.10
2158.00
84
16
15133.70
8100.00
65
35
12
Haryana
6895.55
2298.51
75
25
25683.68
9125.49
74
26
13
Himachal Pradesh
5462.17
985.67
85
15
6250.75
2083.59
75
25
14
Jammu & Kashmir
5272.80
1969.70
73
27
22083.30
5989.00
79
21
15
Jharkhand
11388.90
3718.90
75
25
48303.00
8739.00
85
15
16
Karnataka
12399.20
1398.60
90
10
54207.00
15741.00
77
23
17
Kerala
4966.00
2280.00
69
31
4382.00
3650.00
55
45
18
Lakshadweep
0.00
0.00
0
0
87.50
21.50
80
20
19
Madhya Pradesh
35237.91
13352.43
73
27
110879.68
66936.59
62
38
20
Maharashtra
20526.67
7963.45
72
28
52268.25
28639.07
65
35
21
Manipur
500.00
0.00
100
0
1924.20
727.00
73
27
22
Meghalaya
1537.10
391.90
80
20
4306.50
1121.40
79
21
23
Mizoram
1182.40
154.60
88
12
4330.00
465.00
90
10
24
Nagaland
25
Orissa
26
Puducherry
27
28
29
Sikkim
30
31
0.00
500.00
0
100
2315.20
1548.00
60
40
13669.80
1886.20
88
12
46125.04
16742.00
73
27
116.46
192.42
38
62
0.00
100.00
0
100
Punjab
6476.00
3083.00
68
32
12879.90
2626.60
83
17
Rajasthan
15252.00
6255.00
71
29
75138.00
29046.00
72
28
269.70
140.20
66
34
462.30
330.10
58
42
Tamil Nadu
10563.00
3522.00
75
25
39888.00
18214.00
69
31
2752.40
563.40
83
17
5461.40
2249.30
71
29
447.40
0.00
100
0
100.00
0.00
100
0
33
Tripura
UT of Dadra Nagar
Haveli
Uttar Pradesh
34043.30
11347.77
75
25
211912.43
70101.22
75
25
34
Uttarakhand
5633.40
1877.80
75
25
19747.30
6373.20
76
24
35
West Bengal
16690.00
5563.33
75
25
63062.34
20355.60
76
24
Total
273221.21
88168.51
76
24
1058437.03
453396.16
70
30
32
103
Allocation and Utilisation of Funds
State\UT Name
Annexure 5.2
Flow of funds under SSA (Rs. In
Lakhs)
Allocation
Allocation
Flow of funds under SSA (Rs. In Lakhs)
Total
Assistance
(centre
+state)
Andhra Pradesh
37905.76
13962.6
16221.1
13962.5
116.2
117630.0
51815.7
48230.8
57917.7
93.1
Andaman Islands
757.23
498
371.4
210.86
74.6
1350.0
694
548
149.9
79
Arunachal
Pradesh
3841.97
1146
1334.7
1840.1
116.5
10139.2
11027.8
10140
10428.6
91.9
Assam
41136.93
13036.9
22336.1
13208.5
171.3
104790.5
71345.5
44046.9
32754.9
61.7
Bihar
Expendi
-ture
Disbursements
to Districts
% of Expn
to
Assistance
2003-04 (as on 31.03.2004)
Total
Assistance
( centre
+state)
Expendi
-ture
Disburse
ments to
Districts
% of Expn
to
Assistance
2006-07 (as on 31.03.2007)
76476.6
25931.7
24689.4
24689.4
95.2
234015.7
156479
154959
154958.5
99
Chandigarh
648.2
273.5
166.4
166.4
60.8
1453.2
590.6
708.8
708.8
120
Chhattisgarh
23483.64
10154.8
7559.2
7475
74.4
83824.4
67239.4
64341.5
62482.1
95.7
Daman & Diu
5.0
5.0
0.8
5.0
16
260.8
34
30.2
34
88.9
Delhi
5225.65
1836.5
540.6
499.8
29.4
8456.5
5429.5
4953.3
4866.6
91.2
Goa
0
0
0
0
0
2096.4
1222
1772.6
1222
145.1
Gujarat
23492.94
13818.1
14717.1
13818.1
106.5
40169.2
23233.7
28430.5
23233.7
122.4
Haryana
15093.87
9194.06
9118.4
8649
99.2
36550.7
34809.2
30396.9
31212.5
87.3
Himachal Pradesh
10976.6
6447.8
6331.7
6434.2
98.2
12117.8
8334.3
10182.1
9504
122.2
Jammu & Kashmir
16693.04
7242.6
3606.8
7187.8
49.8
32991.8
28072.3
198813
21002
708.2
Jharkhand
32125.07
15107.9
11094.8
16165.8
73.4
98196.3
57042
61293.5
59569.7
107.5
Karnataka
31467.82
13797.9
16050
14673.6
116.3
74215.1
69948.1
70854.1
66515.2
101.3
12742
7246
6078
7246
83.9
17154.0
8032
10400
8032
129.5
69.4
Kerala
Lakshadweep
137.71
0
7.1
7.1
0
516.6
109
75.7
75.7
Madhya Pradesh
84428.22
48590.3
37796
48612.9
77.8
186987.6
177816.3
148922
151092.7
83.8
Maharashtra
76476.92
28490.1
32538.2
33298.1
114.2
101696.9
80907.3
102821
81085.5
127.1
3160
500
0
491.7
0
6205.1
2650.8
2290
1783.1
86.4
4028.27
1929.1
1027
2239.9
53.2
9153.5
5427.9
6561.6
5334.9
120.9
Manipur
Meghalaya
104
Flow of funds under SSA (Rs. In
Lakhs)
Disburseme
nts to
Districts
Total
Assistance
Mizoram
3152.75
1337
1178.1
865.8
88.1
4607.3
4795.2
4697.5
3866
98
Nagaland
2951.51
500
1015.2
964.1
203
6203.9
3863.2
3899.8
3820.4
100.9
Orissa
47197.47
15556
15792.8
17656.9
101.5
98880.5
62867
65635.5
65044.3
104.4
730.92
308.9
140.6
140.6
45.5
942.0
100
410.4
410.4
410.4
20145.748
9559
4449.8
8110.9
46.6
23278.1
15506.6
15769.5
14067.4
101.7
Rajasthan
32384.5
21507
22029
26033.6
102.4
123531.0
104184
110632
106255.2
106.2
Sikkim
1096.6
410
672.7
404.5
164.1
2089.3
792.3
836.1
688
105.5
Tamil Nadu
40493.03
14085.1
23272.3
23477.2
165.2
75466.8
58102.8
56685.1
53766.4
97.6
Tripura
5116.95
3315.8
4598.2
3165.1
138.7
9085.2
7710.8
8943.8
7290.1
116
UT of Dadra &
Nagar Haveli
1193.1
447.4
1.2
1.2
0.3
830.5
100
309.7
309.7
309.7
Uttar Pradesh
109513.51
45391.1
47649.1
55459.3
105
375742.8
282013.7
284458
300627.4
100.9
Uttarakhand
12488.22
7511.3
6659.6
7511.3
88.7
24469.7
26120.5
18579.9
24469.7
71.1
West Bengal
60340.09
22253.33
14371.7
29431.3
64.5
144070.4
83417.94
91983
92935.3
110.2
All States &UTs
837107.84
361390.8
353415.1
394103.56
97.7
2069168.8
1511834
1663611
1457515
110.03
State\UT Name
Allocation
Allocation
Flow of funds under SSA (Rs. In Lakhs)
Total
Assistance
Expenditure
Disburse
ments to
Districts
% of Expn
to
Assistance
(centre
+state)
2003-04 (as on 31.03.2004)
Puducherry
Punjab
Expendi
ture
% of Expn
to
Assistance
(centre
+state)
2006-07 (as on 31.03.2007)
Source: Based on information provided in state schedules
105
Annexure 5. 3
Expenditures of the States\UTs on Infrastructure, Quality and Administration
(% of total Expenses)
(States \UTs arranged in the order of spending on infrastructure)
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Note:
State
% of
Expenditure on
Infrastructure
% of Expenditure
on Quality
% of Expenditure on
Administration &
others
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
68
1
31
Punjab
65
17
18
West Bengal
60
2
38
Bihar
59
2
39
Andhra Pradesh
57
12
31
Jharkhand
56
3
41
Orissa
55
18
27
Manipur
54
33
13
Nagaland
54
4
42
Karnataka
54
7
39
Uttar Pradesh
51
3
46
Assam
50
5
45
Meghalaya
50
4
46
Delhi
49
12
39
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
49
7
44
Gujarat
48
20
32
Himachal Pradesh
48
9
43
Madhya Pradesh
47
7
46
Haryana
47
15
38
Tripura
47
5
48
Arunachal Pradesh
46
13
40
Uttarakhand
46
5
49
Rajasthan
44
6
50
Jammu & Kashmir
43
4
53
Tamil Nadu
43
16
41
Goa
38
41
21
Maharashtra
34
9
57
Kerala
33
27
40
Mizoram
21
6
73
Sikkim
19
2
79
Daman & Diu
6
30
64
Chandigarh
2
4
94
Chhattisgarh
1
6
93
Lakshadweep
1
4
95
Puducherry
0
9
91
1.
Infrastructure includes: Civil Work, School Grant & Maintenance Grant.
2.
Quality includes: Teaching Learning Equipments, Free Textbooks, Teachers Training,
Teachers Grant, Expenses for CWSN, Innovative activity, Research & Evaluation etc.
3.
Administration includes: Teachers Salary, MIS & Management Costs, BRC/CRC
Expenses, NPEGEL & KGBV, Community Training and other miscellaneous
Expenses.
Source: State Level Schedule
106
Activities of NGOs
S.
No
Activities
Annexure-6.1
Andhra
Pradesh
1
Monitoring/
supervision
2
AIE/EGS
centres
Y
3
Awareness
Programmes
Y
4
Teaching
assistance
Y
5
Development
/ use of TLMs
6
Health
checkup
camps
7
Fund
assistance
8
KGBV
a
Non teaching
activities
b
Life skill
training/
vocational
trg.
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh
Haryana
Himachal
Pradesh
Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtra
Y
Y
Y
Y
Tamil
Uttar
West
Nadu
Pradesh
Bengal
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Rajasthan
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Activities mentioned by district authorities.
107
Comparative Indicators in Rural and Urban Areas
Annexure – 7.1
108
109
Effectiveness of SECs \WECs\ School level committees
S.
No
1
Effectiveness of
SECs\WECs
No of Slums with SECs
\WECs
Andhra
Pradesh
4 - No SEC
\ WEC in
Annexure 7.2
Assam
Maharashtra
Puducherry
4
4( WECs)
4
Uttar
Pradesh
d
3
a
b
c
d
4
a
b
c
5
a
b
c
d
6
a
b
7
8
a
b
c
d
9
10
11
a
b
c
d
e
Launched campaigns
Door to door visits
Special incentives for
enrolling
Convince guardians
4
2
2
Inspection of school
Inspect quality of civil
works
Monitoring funds
Regular meetings
2
Monitor civil works
Prepare devt. plan
Request NGOs for
funds
2
1
Launched campaigns
Door to door visits
Incentives for Dropout
Sports \music activities
1
Monitoring SSA
1
2
2
1
3
Reducing OOSC
2
2
4
2
Appointing teachers
1
1
2
36.36
40.91
13.64
2
2
31.82
2
31.82
13.64
1
4.54
13.64
1
27.37
31.82
18.18
2
2
2
2
22.73
63.64
9.09
4.54
9.09
1
4
Frequency of meetings
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
3
4
2
2
SEC\WEC)
1
3
1
3
1
Infrastructure improvement
4
2
1
22
(% of
1
1
1
Forwarded application
Demanded adhoc
teachers
Data collection on
enrolment
Monthly
Quarterly
Annually
Not fixed
Training provided to
community members
Members of
SEC\WEC have
undergone training
Constraints faced
Inadequate Funds
\Delay
Management related
issues
Community
participation
Lack of knowledge
\awareness
Lack of toilet
\classrooms
Non availability of
books \delay
Improving enrolment
4
3
1
1
2
All states
4( SEC in
Raniganj & WEC
in Kolkata)
Yemmiganur
2
a
b
c
West Bengal
2
2
36.36
2
40.91
13.64
4.54
27.27
27.27
2
1
40.91
2
2
2
27.27
2
2
2
27.27
2
18.18
2
2
36.36
1
1
18.18
2
1
2
3
Number of Slums canvassed-22
110
ACRONYMS
1.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
AIE
ABL
ALM
BRC
CRC
CWSN
CEO
DEO
DIET
DPEP
DPO
ECCE
EGS
EDUSAT
IED
MIS
MTA
NCERT
NGO
NPEGEL
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
OOSC
PRI
PTA
PTR
SEC
SMC
SC\ST
TLM
URC
UT
VEC
WEC
Alternative and Innovative Education
Activity Based Learning
Activity Learning Methodology
Block Resource Centres
Cluster Resource Centres
Children with Special Needs
Chief Executive Officer
District Education officer
District Institute of Education Training
District Primary Education Programme
District Project Officer
Early Childhood and Care
Education Guarantee Scheme
Educational Satellite
Integrated Education for Disabled
Management Information System
Mother Teacher Association
National Council of Educational Research & Training
Non Government Organisation
National Programme for Education of Girls at
Elementary Level
Out of School Children
Panchayati Raj Institution
Parent Teacher Association
Pupil Teacher Ratio
Slum Education Committee
School Management Committee
Schedule Caste\Schedule Tribe
Teaching Learning Material
Urban Resource Centre
Union Territory
Village Education Committee
Ward Education Committee
111
Selected References
Alston, Philip and Nehal Bhuta(2005),”Human Rights and Public Goods:
Education as a Fundamental Right in India” The Center for Human Rights and
Global Justice.
Banerjee, Abhijit, Shawn Cole, E.Duflo and Leigh Linden( 2006), “ Remedying
education: Evidence from two randomized experiments in India,” Quarterly
Journal Of Economics,Vol.122(3)
Dhir, Jhingran and Deepa Sankar (2006) “Orienting outlays towards needs: An
evidence based equity focused approach to SSA,” mimeo
Mehta, Arun.C, (2002). “Can there be alternative indicators of enrolment : A
critical review of frequently used indicators.”Journal of Educational Planning &
Administration Vol XVI.No.4
Mehta, Arun.C (2006), “Progress towards UEE-Analytical Report 2005-06.
Mehta, Arun.C (2004),’Where do we Stand?”, Elementary Education in India,
Analytical Report 2004.
Mukherjee,N Anit, and Tapas Sen,(2007) “Universalising Elementary Education:
An assessment of the role of SSA,” NIPF-Policy Brief
MHRD(2003-04), Annual Report .
Pratham Organisation.”Annual Status of Education Report.”( Pratham Resource
center: Mumbai), 2006,2007.
Planning Commission, Report of the Steering Committee on Education, “Tenth
Five Year Plan”( 2002-2007) and “Eleventh Five Year Plan”(2007-2012)
112
Project Team
Project Director:
Smt. Usha Suresh
Director, REO, Mumbai
Study Design:
1. Shri K. N. Pathak
2. Smt. Deepti Srivastava
Field Investigation:
Deputy Advisor, (SD & TC, PEO)
Sr. Research Officer, PEO, H.Q.
Officers & Staff of all REOs \ PEOs
Data Entry & Tabulation:
1
2
3
4
Smt. Deepti Srivastava
Shri Vipin Kumar
Shri Bhuvan Chander
Officers & Staff of
all REOs \ PEOs
Sr. Research Officer, PEO, H.Q.
Economic Officer, PEO, H.Q.
Economic Investigator, PEO H.Q
Date Analysis and Report Writing:
1.
2.
3.
4
Shri S. Bhattacharyya
Shri P. G. Kulkarni
Shri Manish M. Gade
Shri Neeraj Kumar Karn
Sr. Research Officer, REO, Mumbai.
Economic Officer, REO, Mumbai.
Economic Investigator, REO, Mumbai
Stenographer, REO, Mumbai
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