Wiki Tools Deployment Guide - Old Saybrook Public Schools

Wiki Tools Deployment Guide - Old Saybrook Public Schools
Mac OS X Server
Wiki Tools Deployment Guide
Version 10.6 Snow Leopard
KKApple Inc.
© 2009 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling
copies of this publication or for providing paid-for
support services.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate. Apple Inc. is not
responsible for printing or clerical errors.
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019-1405/2009-08-01
Contents
7
7
8
9
9
10
Preface:  About This Guide
What’s in This Guide
Documentation Map
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
Printing PDF Guides
Getting Additional Information
Part I:  Wiki Tools Walkthrough
12
12
12
13
13
14
Chapter 1:  Overview of Wiki Tools
15
16
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
Chapter 2:  Using My Page
23
23
24
25
26
26
Chapter 3:  Creating Wikis and Blogs
Browser Requirements
About Wikis
About Blogs
About Web Calendars
About Mailing Lists
About My Page
Logging In and Logging Out
Changing My Page Settings
Changing Account Settings
Changing Your Password
Changing Your Mail Rules
Setting Up Vacation Notices
Customizing Your Personal Blog
Choosing Who Can View Your Blog and Add Comments
About Administrators
Creating a Wiki
Deleting Wikis
Changing Wiki Settings
Changing General Wiki Settings
3
27
28
30
30
31
31
Enabling and Disabling Wiki Services
Choosing Who Can Access a Wiki and Setting Access Permissions
Adding a Custom Sidebar to the Wiki Homepage
Changing Advanced Wiki Settings
Creating a Personal Blog
Deleting a Personal Blog
32
32
33
34
34
35
35
35
36
37
39
39
40
41
41
42
Chapter 4:  Working with Content
43
43
44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
50
Chapter 5:  Navigating Wiki Tools
51
51
52
53
55
Chapter 6:  Keeping Up to Date
4
Creating Wiki Pages and Blog Posts
Deleting Wiki Pages or Blog Posts
Editing Wiki or Blog Content
Renaming Wiki Pages or Blog Posts
Changing Paragraph Styles
Changing List Styles and Indentation
Changing Text Styles
Adding or Removing Links to Other Pages
Inserting Media
Attaching Files
Inserting and Editing Tables
Viewing and Editing HTML Source
Using a Blog Editing Application
Viewing or Restoring Older Versions of a Page
Adding or Removing Comments
Understanding Access Control
About Searching
Searching Across a Single Wiki
Searching Across Multiple Wikis
Saving Your Search
About Tags
Adding or Removing Tags
Viewing All Tags Used in a Wiki
Editing and Removing Tags from a Wiki
Viewing Favorite Pages
Previewing Attachments with Quick Look
Viewing Updates on My Page
Watching Wikis and Blogs
About RSS
Subscribing to an RSS Feed
Contents
57
57
58
58
59
59
59
60
60
60
61
62
62
62
63
64
Chapter 7:  Using the Web Calendar
65
65
65
66
67
67
67
68
68
Chapter 8:  Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
Navigating through the Web Calendar
Working with Calendars
Creating and Deleting Calendars
Renaming Calendars
Applying Calendar Colors
Showing and Hiding Calendars
Working with Events
Creating, Editing and Deleting Events
Sending, Viewing, and Accepting or Rejecting Invitations
Changing Event Details
Changing Event Notes
Rescheduling Events
Viewing and Previewing Events
Changing Calendar Settings
Working with Web Calendars in iCal
About Using Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
Viewing My Page on iPhone or iPod touch
Viewing Wikis and Blogs on iPhone or iPod touch
Viewing Group Calendar Events on iPhone or iPod touch
Searching on iPhone or iPod touch
Adding or Removing Tags on iPhone or iPod touch
Adding or Removing Comments on iPhone or iPod touch
Marking Pages with a Star on iPhone or iPod touch
Part II:  Deploying Wiki Tools
70
70
72
73
74
74
75
75
76
Chapter 9:  Streamlining Projects
77
77
79
Chapter 10:  Improving Internal Documentation
Project Wiki Blueprint
Creating Navigable Wikis
Eliminating Duplicate Versions of Content
Managing Project Personnel
Parallelizing Effort
Creating High-Level Views
Reusing Information
Keeping Interested Parties Aware of Project Updates
Internal Documentation Wiki Blueprint
Choosing Which Documents to Convert to Wiki Format
Contents
5
79
80
Reducing the Need for Single Ownership
Maintaining Documents in Wikis Instead of Word Processor Files
82
83
84
85
86
86
Chapter 11:  Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
87
87
92
92
92
93
93
94
Chapter 12:  Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
Classroom Wiki Blueprint
Preventing Misinformation
Creating Wiki Yearbooks
Posting Assignments on a Wiki
Posting Additional Information on a Wiki
Using Wikis for Group Sign Up
Using Wikis for Persistent Projects
95
Index
6
Choosing the Right Method of Communication
Problems with Email
Eliminating Response Threads
Reducing Spam
Creating Navigable Information
Contents
Preface
About This Guide
This guide provides a starting point for using wiki tools.
Mac OS X Server includes several web-based tools including wikis, blogs, web
calendars, and mailing list archives. Collectively, these are referred to as wiki tools.
You can use wiki tools to streamline projects, coordinate teams, and improve
communication.
What’s in This Guide
This guide includes the following two parts:
ÂÂ Part I, “Wiki Tools Walkthrough” describes everything you need to know about how
to use wiki tools. You’ll learn how to create wikis and blogs, edit them, use tags, and
browse wikis on your iPhone.
ÂÂ Part II, “Deploying Wiki Tools” provides tips, strategies, and examples for using wiki
tools to streamline projects, coordinate teams, and improve communication.
Note: Because Apple periodically releases new versions and updates to its software,
images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen.
7
Documentation Map
Mac OS X Server v10.6 has a suite of guides that cover managing web services used by
wiki tools. The documentation map below shows some related documentation that you
need to set up web services for wiki tools. You can get these guides in PDF format from
the Mac OS X Server Resources website at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
Getting Started
Explains how to
set up collaboration
services using
Server Preferences.
Wiki Tools
Deployment Guide
Introduction to
Command-Line
Administration
Describes wiki tools
and concepts, and
explains how to
deploy wiki tools in
your environment.
Explains how to use
UNIX shell commands to
configure and manage
servers and services.
Wiki Help
Provides onscreen
instructions and
answers when you’re
using wiki tools.
iCal Server
Administration
Explains how to
set up and customize
iCal service, which
is used for web
calendars.
Wiki Server
Administration
Explains how to
set up wiki services
using Server Admin, and
how to customize and
extend the services.
8
Preface    About This Guide
iPhone Wiki Help
Provides onscreen
instructions and
answers when
you’re using
iPhone wiki tools.
Viewing PDF Guides Onscreen
While reading this PDF:
ÂÂ Show bookmarks to see the guide’s outline, and click a bookmark to jump to the
corresponding section.
ÂÂ Search for a word or phrase to see a list of places where it appears in the guide.
Click a listed place to see the page where it occurs.
ÂÂ Click a cross-reference to jump to the referenced section. Click a web link to visit the
website in your browser.
Printing PDF Guides
If you want to print this guide, you can take these steps to save paper and ink:
ÂÂ Save ink or toner by not printing the cover page.
ÂÂ Save color ink on a color printer by looking in the panes of the Print dialog for an
option to print in grays or black and white.
ÂÂ Reduce the bulk of the printed document and save paper by printing more than
one page per sheet of paper. In the Print dialog, change Scale to 115%. Then choose
Layout from the untitled pop-up menu. If your printer supports two-sided (duplex)
printing, select one of the Two-Sided options. Otherwise, choose 2 from the Pages
per Sheet pop-up menu, and optionally choose Single Hairline from the Border
menu. (If you’re using Mac OS X v10.4 or earlier, the Scale setting is in the Page
Setup dialog and the Layout settings are in the Print dialog.)
You may want to enlarge the printed pages even if you don’t print double sided,
because the PDF page size is smaller than standard printer paper. In the Print dialog
or Page Setup dialog, try changing Scale to 115%.
Preface    About This Guide
9
Getting Additional Information
For more information, consult these resources:
ÂÂ Apple Support website (support.apple.com/)—access hundreds of articles from
Apple’s support organization.
ÂÂ Apple Discussions website (discussions.apple.com/)—share questions, knowledge,
and advice.
ÂÂ Apple Mailing Lists website (www.lists.apple.com/)—subscribe to mailing lists so
you can communicate using email.
ÂÂ Mac OS X Server website (www.apple.com/server/macosx/)—enter the gateway
to extensive information about Mac OS X Server.
10
Preface    About This Guide
Part I:  Wiki Tools Walkthrough
Find out about wiki tools and how to use them.
Chapter 1
Overview of Wiki Tools
Chapter 2
Using My Page
Chapter 3
Creating Wikis and Blogs
Chapter 4
Working with Content
Chapter 5
Navigating Wiki Tools
Chapter 6
Keeping Up to Date
Chapter 7
Using the Web Calendar
Chapter 8
Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
I
Overview of Wiki Tools
1
Learn about wiki tools.
Mac OS X Server v10.6 includes several web-based wiki tools that allow users to
express themselves or to easily form, coordinate, and organize teams.
Browser Requirements
Wiki content can be viewed in any web browser. However, to take advantage of certain
features, such as editing wiki pages and viewing the updates list, your browser must
support modern web technologies. Examples of modern browsers include:
ÂÂ Safari 3 or later
ÂÂ Firefox 3 or later
ÂÂ Internet Explorer 7 or later
About Wikis
A wiki is a web-based, collaborative editing environment for groups. Depending on
how the wiki administrator sets permissions, anyone who can view wiki content can
also add or edit content.
Wikis have several advantages over other tools:
12
Advantage
Description
Fast and easy
To edit wiki pages, click the Edit (pencil) button on a page you
want to edit. Add content and use a simple toolbar to apply styles,
add links to other sites, attach files, or insert media. You don’t need
to learn additional tools.
Streamlined
If you see a page you’d like to correct or add content to, you can
change it yourself. With other tools, you’d need to find the owner
of the content and describe the issue to the owner, and then the
owner would need to change the content.
Customizable
It’s easy to change how users navigate to information, through a
broad or deep navigational hierarchy, or through tags.
Advantage
Description
Dynamic
Because wiki content can be updated by a large group of people,
it is much more dynamic than a static medium like PDF.
Parallel content creation
Multiple people can edit wiki content on different pages
simultaneously.
Cross-reference information
It’s easy to link together information within and outside of the wiki.
About Blogs
A blog is like an online journal. Entries are arranged chronologically with the newest
entries listed first.
The blog and the wiki share the same simple editing toolbar and thus share a lot of
the same advantages. The biggest difference between a blog and a wiki is that the
blog has a sense of time, but the wiki doesn’t. In a blog, new content is found more
easily than older content. In a wiki, content is found by need or by navigation, rather
than by time.
Blogs are available for users and groups. Users can edit their own blog as well as group
blogs they have access to.
About Web Calendars
Users and groups can have web calendars. User web calendars let you schedule
private events or send event invitations to other users. Other users can’t see your web
calendar.
A group web calendar is like a hallway calendar—it’s a very visible calendar that
everyone in a group can edit. It’s very good for highlighting important dates. However,
you can’t send invitations through group calendars.
Because the web calendar uses iCal server, all users who have set up their server
account in iCal will have synced calendars. Event changes made in the web calendar
are reflected in iCal, and event changes in iCal are reflected in the web calendar.
If you sync group web calendars, the local iCal version of the calendars are read-only.
Any changes you make to the group web calendars are synced with iCal but you can’t
edit the calendars in iCal.
The web calendar simplifies creating events and sending invitations. Web calendars
don’t allow dependencies, so it’s not good for project management where milestones
often depend on each other. It also doesn’t allow delegates, so you should use iCal if
you want to use delegates.
Chapter 1    Overview of Wiki Tools
13
About Mailing Lists
Every wiki group can have a logged mailing list. All mail sent to the group’s email
address is archived in the mailing list. Unlike the wiki and blog, content in logged
mailing lists can’t be changed or commented on. However, logged mail can be
tagged, and because they each have a URL, you can link to them.
The group email address is [email protected]
For example, if your group’s name is Aardvark and the URL of your wiki server is
www.example.com, the group email address is [email protected]
14
Chapter 1    Overview of Wiki Tools
Using My Page
2
Learn about My Page, a personalized hub for wiki tools.
Mac OS X Server v10.6 wiki tools include My Page, a personalized hub that makes it
easy to get updates on pages you’re interested in, access available wikis and blogs,
view your personal calendar, access webmail, and change your personal settings.
15
About My Page
My Page is a personalized central hub for wiki tools.
My page
Updates
Wikis list
Group wikis
Wiki pages
Blog
Blog posts
Calendar
Events
Blogs list
Personal calendar
User blogs
Mailing list archive
Mailing list entries
Blog
Blog posts
My Page gives you quick access to:
ÂÂ Updates
View and filter content updates and comments on wiki pages and blog posts.
See “Viewing Updates on My Page” on page 51.
ÂÂ Wikis
Navigate to wikis or create a new wiki. See “Creating a Wiki” on page 24.
ÂÂ Blogs
Navigate to personal blogs or create your own blog. See “Creating a Personal
Blog” on page 31.
ÂÂ Calendar
View a personal calendar that you can use to send and receive invitations to events.
See Chapter 7, “Using the Web Calendar,” on page 57.
16
Chapter 2    Using My Page
ÂÂ Mail
Access webmail. For information, click Help in webmail.
ÂÂ Search
Search content across all wikis and blogs you have access to. See “About
Searching” on page 44.
ÂÂ Settings
Change account and personal blog settings. See “Changing My Page Settings” on page 18.
Logging In and Logging Out
If you’re not logged in, you only have access to publicly accessible wikis and blogs. You
can search content across all publicly accessible wikis, but not private wikis or blogs.
Depending on the wiki or blog you’re viewing, unauthenticated users might not be able
to add content or create pages, perform administrative functions, or add comments. The
wiki or blog can also moderate comments from unauthenticated users. Unmoderated
comments are invisible until they are approved.
In My Page, you can tell if you’re logged in because your account name appears at the
upper left. If it says “Log in to my page,” you’re not logged in.
In a public wiki or blog, you can tell you’re logged in if a link named “Log Out (account
name)” appears. If it says “Log In,” you’re not logged in.
When you access private wikis or blogs, you’re prompted to log in if you’re logged out
or if the account you’re logged in as doesn’t have access to the wiki or blog.
To log in:
1 In My Page, click “Log in to my page.”
In a public wiki or blog, click Log In.
If you open a private wiki, you’re prompted to log in.
2 Enter your user name and password.
3 If you want to remain logged in after you close your browser, select “Remember Me.”
4 Click Log In.
To log out:
mm In My Page, click “log out.”
mm In a wiki or blog, click “Log Out (account name).”
Chapter 2    Using My Page
17
Changing My Page Settings
When you’re logged in to My Page, you can change your settings. My Page settings are
grouped into several categories:
Category
Settings
Account
ÂÂ
Password
ÂÂ
Password Change
Mail Rules
ÂÂ
Rules
Vacation Notice
ÂÂ
Profile Image
ÂÂ Preferred Email
Notification Status
Vacation Begins and Ends
ÂÂ Email Subject
ÂÂ Vacation Message
ÂÂ
Blog
Blog Name
Theme
ÂÂ Podcasting
ÂÂ iTunes Category
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Blog Access
Public or Private
Comments
ÂÂ Comment Moderation
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Password settings are available only if the server is configured to allow online
password changing. Mail rules and vacation notice settings are available only if the
server is configured to support server-side mail rules. The blog and blog access
settings are available if you have a personal blog.
To change My Page settings:
1 While viewing My Page, click "settings.”
2 Click a settings category on the left and then change settings as desired.
3 Click Save.
18
Chapter 2    Using My Page
Changing Account Settings
Account Preferences settings include:
Setting
Description
Profile Image
Displayed in the upper left corner of My Page, as the default
image of your blog, and when you leave comments.
Preferred Email
Email is sent to this address when:
Someone creates a wiki or gives you access to an existing wiki
and decides to notify you
ÂÂ Mailing lists you belong to receive mail
ÂÂ
If you don’t set a preferred email address, the wiki uses the
address found in your directory record.
To view account settings:
1 While viewing My Page, click “settings.”
2 Select Account.
To change your profile image:
1 While viewing account settings, click the current profile image next to “Profile Image.”
2 Click Choose File, choose a file, click Choose, and then click OK.
3 Click Save.
To change your preferred email address:
1 While viewing account settings, enter an email address in the Preferred Email field.
2 Click Save.
Changing Your Password
If your server supports online password changing, you can change your password in
My Page settings.
To change your password:
1 While viewing My Page, click “settings.”
2 Select Password.
If there is no Password pane in settings, your server doesn’t support online password
changing.
3 Enter your current password in the Old Password field and your new password in the
New Password field, and then confirm your password in the Confirm Password field.
Chapter 2    Using My Page
19
Changing Your Mail Rules
If your server is configured to support server-side mail rules, you can create mail rules
to filter or transfer mail. For example, if you subscribe to mailing lists, you can have
emails from them transfer into their own mail folder. You’ll still receive mailing list
messages, but they won’t clutter your inbox.
To view mail rules:
1 While viewing My Page, click “settings.”
2 Select Mail Rules.
To add mail rules:
1 While viewing mail rules settings, use the If pop-up menus to choose criteria for
transferring or filtering received emails.
2 Choose a destination for the email from the “Transfer Email to” pop-up menu.
3 Click Add New Rule.
4 Click Save.
To delete mail rules:
1 While viewing mail rules settings, click Delete next to rules you want to delete.
If no rules are shown, you don’t have mail rules.
2 Click Save.
Setting Up Vacation Notices
If your server is configured to support server-side mail rules, you can set up vacation
notices. If you enable vacation notices, if someone sends you an email during a
specified period of time, an email is automatically sent to them. If they send you
multiple emails in a day, they are sent a single vacation notice email that day.
If you’re away from your email for an extended period of time, setting up a vacation
notice is a good way to inform people of your unavailability and your expected
return date.
To set up a vacation notice:
1 While viewing My Page, click “settings.”
2 Select Vacation Notice.
3 To enable vacation notices, for Enabled, select On; to disable vacation notices,
select Off.
4 Click the date next to Vacation Begins and then select the date when notifications will
start being sent.
5 Click the date next to Returning On and then select the date when notifications will
stop being sent.
20
Chapter 2    Using My Page
6 In the Email Subject field, enter the subject line of the email that will be sent.
7 In the Vacation Message area, enter the body of the email that will be sent.
8 Click Save.
Customizing Your Personal Blog
If you’ve already created a personal blog, you can use settings to change its name or
theme and to enable podcasting.
To view blog settings:
mm While viewing My Page, click “settings” and then select Blog.
mm While viewing your blog’s homepage, click Settings.
To change your blog’s name:
1 While viewing blog settings, edit the Blog Name field.
2 Click Save.
To change your blog’s theme:
1 While viewing blog settings, click Change Theme.
2 Select a theme from the list.
3 If the theme includes a banner, you can upload a new banner by choosing Upload
New from the Banner Image pop-up menu, then click Choose File, choose a file, and
click Choose.
4 Click OK.
5 Click Save.
To enable podcasting:
1 While viewing blog settings, select Enabled next to Podcasting.
2 Choose a category from the iTunes Category pop-up menu.
Categorized podcasts are more likely to be found than podcasts without a category.
3 Click Save.
Choosing Who Can View Your Blog and Add Comments
If you’ve already created a personal blog, you can choose whether to make it publicly
or privately accessible. If you make it publicly accessible, you can allow anyone to view
it or restrict access to anyone who logs in. If you make it privately accessible, you can
choose specific users or groups who are allowed to view it.
You can restrict who is allowed to add comments: anyone, authenticated users (anyone
with an account on the server), or no one. You can also enable comment moderation
for all comments or for anonymous comments. If comment moderation is enabled,
unmoderated comments aren’t shown unless you approve the comments.
Chapter 2    Using My Page
21
To view blog access settings:
1 While viewing My Page, click “settings.”
2 Select Blog Access.
To make your blog publicly accessible:
1 While viewing blog access settings, select “This blog can be read by anyone.”
2 If you want to restrict access to only those with accounts on the server, select “Users
must log in to read.”
3 Click Save.
To make your blog privately accessible:
1 While viewing blog access settings, select “This blog can only be read by the following
people and groups.”
2 For every person or group who you want to view your blog, enter their name in the
field.
While you’re entering a name, the server checks for matching people or groups. If a
match is found, select the match from the menu that appears. If no match is found,
make sure you entered the name of the person or group correctly.
3 If you want to remove someone from the access list, hold the cursor over the name of
the person or group and click Delete (X).
4 Click Save.
To enable comments:
1 While viewing blog access settings, choose who is allowed to add comments in the
Comment pop-up menu.
2 Click Save.
To enable comment moderation:
1 While viewing blog access settings, choose which type of comments should be
moderated in the Comment Moderation pop-up menu.
2 Click Save.
22
Chapter 2    Using My Page
Creating Wikis and Blogs
3
Learn how to create and delete wikis and personal blogs.
Creating wikis and a personal blog is easy in wiki tools. After creating a wiki, you can
choose who can view or edit it, and customize it to suit your team’s needs.
About Administrators
People who can access a wiki or a blog fall into two categories: administrators and
users. Each wiki or blog can have different access permissions, so you might be an
administrator for a few wikis and a user for other wikis.
An administrator (also known as an admin) has privileges that users don’t. For example,
an administrator can:
ÂÂ Change wiki settings such as:
ÂÂ Changing the wiki image (displayed at the upper left)
ÂÂ Renaming the wiki
ÂÂ Describing the wiki
ÂÂ Setting a contact email
ÂÂ Changing the wiki theme
ÂÂ Change which services are available
ÂÂ Enabling podcasting
ÂÂ Choosing who has access to the wiki and what level of access they have
ÂÂ Changing who can comment or moderate comments
ÂÂ Adding a sidebar to the homepage
ÂÂ Choosing which server address the wiki appears under
ÂÂ Edit the tags list
ÂÂ Remove other people’s comments
ÂÂ Permanently delete wiki pages or blog posts
23
There are two types of administrators: server administrator and individual wiki or
blog administrator. A server administrator has administrative privileges for all wikis
and blogs on the server. An individual wiki or blog administrator has administrative
privileges for a specific wiki or blog.
Creating a Wiki
Your wiki server can allow anyone who has an account on the wiki server to create a
wiki. It can also restrict who can create wikis to a specific group of people.
When you create a wiki, you become an administrator for that wiki and can then
customize the wiki to suit your needs.
To create a wiki:
1 While viewing My Page, click Wikis.
2 Click “Create a new Wiki.”
If this button isn’t shown, you can’t create a wiki on the server.
3 Enter a name and description for the wiki and click Create.
The line under the Wiki Name field shows a preview of the URL for the wiki. You can’t
change this URL later, but you can rename the wiki. If you want a specific URL, enter a
name that gives you the URL you want and rename the wiki later.
The description appears under the name of the wiki in the wiki list on My Page.
4 When prompted to choose a theme, select a theme and then click Next.
You can change the theme after creating the wiki.
24
5 When prompted to set wiki access, select one of the following and then click Next:
Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
Option
Who can access the wiki
Options
Public
Depending on how you set
the the options, anyone who
has access to the wiki server or
anyone with an account
If you want to restrict access
to only those with accounts on
the server, and require them to
log in, select “Users must log in
to read.”
If you want to allow everyone to
read content, but require people
to log in to create or edit wiki
content, select “Users must log
in to write.”
Private
A specific group of people who
has access to the wiki server
You can enter the names of
users or groups to give access
to, whether they can read and
write or only read the wiki,
and select whether to send a
welcome email to new wiki
members.
The welcome email includes a
URL link to the new wiki.
6 Click Done to create your wiki.
You can also click Wiki Settings to view your wiki’s settings.
Deleting Wikis
A wiki administrator can delete the wiki. When you delete a wiki, all content in the wiki,
blog, calendar, and mailing list is destroyed.
WARNING: Deleting a wiki is permanent. Make sure you back up all critical data
stored in the wiki before deleting it.
To delete a wiki:
1 While viewing My Page, click Wikis.
2 Hold the pointer over the link to the wiki and then click the Delete (X) link.
If the Delete (X) link doesn’t appear, you don’t have administrator access to the wiki
and you can’t delete it.
3 When prompted to confirm, click Delete.
Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
25
Changing Wiki Settings
A wiki administrator can change wiki settings. Wiki settings are grouped into several
categories:
Category
Settings
General
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Services
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Change the wiki icon (displayed in the top left)
Rename the wiki
Describe the wiki
Set a contact email
Change the wiki theme
Change which services are available
Enable blog podcasts
Choose who has access to the wiki and what level of access
they have
ÂÂ Choose who can comment and which comments are moderated
Permissions
ÂÂ
Sidebar
ÂÂ
Add a sidebar to the home page
Advanced
ÂÂ
Choose which server addresses the wiki appears under
Advanced wiki settings are available only for server administrators.
To change wiki settings:
1 While viewing a wiki, click the name of the wiki at the upper-left of the page to view
the wiki’s homepage.
2 Click Settings under “Admin functions” on the right side of the page.
If you don’t see “Admin functions,” you’re not an administrator for the wiki and can’t
change wiki settings.
3 Click a settings category on the left and change settings as needed.
4 Click “save.”
The following topics describe specific settings and how to change them.
Changing General Wiki Settings
A wiki administrator can change general wiki settings such as the wiki icon and title
shown at the top of the wiki and the text shown when viewing the list of wikis in My
Page. The image and title are shown in both locations, but the description and contact
email are shown only when viewing the list of wikis in My Page.
Wiki icons are resized to 52 x 52 on the wiki server.
You can also apply a wiki theme, which affects the following:
ÂÂ Background design
ÂÂ Color scheme
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Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
ÂÂ Font type, size, and spacing
ÂÂ Button and toolbar design
ÂÂ Layout
ÂÂ Banner image
Themes are separate from content. When you change a theme, you only change how
content looks—not the content itself.
To view general wiki settings:
mm While viewing a wiki’s settings, click General.
To change a wiki’s icon:
1 While viewing a wiki’s general settings, click the image next to Wiki Icon.
2 Click Choose File, choose a file, click Choose, and then click OK.
3 Click Save.
To change a wiki’s name, description, or contact email:
1 While viewing a wiki’s general settings, edit the Wiki Name, Description, or Contact
Email fields.
2 Click Save.
To change themes:
1 While editing a wiki’s general settings, click Change Theme.
2 Select a theme, and click OK.
3 Click Save.
Enabling and Disabling Wiki Services
A wiki administrator can change whether the blog, web calendar, and mailing list
archive services are enabled or disabled for a wiki. You can’t disable the wiki service.
If you disable a service and later reenable it, your content is still there.
You can also enable podcasts for the wiki’s blog. Podcasts are downloadable radioand TV-style shows. You can enable podcasts so that whenever you attach an audio or
movie file to a new blog entry, it becomes available as a podcast. Any blog post with
media can be subscribed to in iTunes.
To enable or disable wiki services:
1 While viewing a wiki’s settings, click Services.
2 Select the services listed under “Group services” to enable them.
To disable them, deselect the services.
3 Click Save.
Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
27
To enable blog podcasts:
1 While editing a wiki’s settings, click Services.
2 Select “Blog.”
3 Select “Create a podcast for this wiki’s blog.”
4 In iTunes Category, choose the category for these podcasts in iTunes.
5 Click Save.
Choosing Who Can Access a Wiki and Setting Access Permissions
A wiki administrator can control access to a wiki by making it publicly or privately
accessible.
ÂÂ If you make it publicly accessible, you can allow it to be viewed by anyone who can
access the wiki server or only people who have a wiki server account. You can also
allow pages to be created or edited by everyone with wiki server accounts or only
specific people.
ÂÂ If you make a wiki privately accessible, you can allow particular individuals or groups
to view your wiki content, and read or write content.
You can add users or groups as wiki administrators. Wiki administrators are allowed to
read and write wiki content and change wiki settings.
You can restrict who is allowed to add comments: anyone, authenticated users (those
with an account on the server), or no one. You can also enable comment moderation
for all comments, or for anonymous comments. If you enable comment moderation,
unmoderated comments aren’t shown unless a wiki administrator approves them.
To view wiki permissions:
mm While viewing a wiki’s settings, click Permissions.
To make a wiki publicly accessible:
1 While viewing the wiki’s permissions settings, select “This wiki can be read and edited
by anyone.”
2 If you want to restrict access to only those with accounts on the server and require
them to log in, select “Users must log in to read.”
3 If you want to restrict content creation and editing to only those with accounts on the
server, select “Users must log in to write.”
ÂÂ If you want to allow everyone with accounts on the server to create or edit wiki
content, select “All authenticated users can write.”
ÂÂ If you want to restrict content creation and editing to specific people, select “Only
the following users and groups can write.”
In the Public field, enter the name of each person or group who you want to be able
to view or edit the wiki.
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Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
When you enter a name, the server checks for matching people or groups. If a
match is found, select the match from the menu that appears. If no match is found,
make sure you entered the name correctly.
If you want to remove a person or group from the access list, hold the cursor over
the name and click Delete (X).
4 Click Save.
To make a wiki privately accessible:
1 While viewing the wiki’s permissions settings, select “This wiki can be read and edited
by only the following users and groups.”
2 In the Private field, enter the name of each person or group who you want to be able
to view or edit the wiki.
When you enter a name, the server checks for matching people or groups. If a match is
found, select the match from the menu that appears. If no match is found, make sure
you entered the name correctly.
3 After adding a person or group to the access list, click the pop-up menu at the right
of a name in the list and choose whether the person or group can read and write wiki
content or only read wiki content.
4 If you want to remove a person or group from the access list, hold the cursor over the
name and click Delete (X).
5 If you want the server to send an email notification to everyone with access to the
wiki, select “Send welcome email to new members.”
6 Click Save.
To make someone a wiki administrator:
1 While viewing the wiki’s permissions settings, enter in the Admins field the name of
each person or group who you want to be able to view or edit your wiki.
When you enter a name, the server checks for matching people or groups. If a match is
found, select the match from the menu that appears. If no match is found, make sure
you entered the name correctly.
2 If you want to remove a person or group from the admin list, hold the cursor over the
name and click Delete (X).
3 Click Save.
To enable comments on a wiki:
1 While viewing the wiki’s permissions settings, choose from the Comment pop-up
menu who is allowed to add comments.
2 Click Save.
Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
29
To enable comment moderation on a wiki:
1 While viewing the wiki’s permissions settings, choose from the Comment Moderation
pop-up menu which type of comments should be moderated.
2 Click Save.
Adding a Custom Sidebar to the Wiki Homepage
Sidebars are lists of recently updated pages shown on the wiki’s homepage.
The default sidebars include:
Sidebar
Description
What’s Hot
Lists the most recently updated or new pages that are tagged
with “hot,” in reverse chronological order.
Recent Changes
Lists the most recently updated or new pages, in reverse
chronological order.
A wiki administrator can add a custom sidebar that shows pages tagged with a
specific tag, in reverse chronological order of when the pages were last edited. For
example, you could create a custom sidebar named “Status Reports” of all pages
tagged with “status.” Whenever someone creates or updates a page tagged with
“status,” the sidebar lists the page.
To add a custom sidebar:
1 While editing a wiki’s settings, click Sidebar.
2 In the Sidebar Title field, name the sidebar.
3 In the Search Tag field, enter the tag required for pages listed in the sidebar.
4 Click Save.
Changing Advanced Wiki Settings
If your server supports multiple host names and you’re a server administrator, you can
choose which host name your wiki responds to and whether it responds to multiple
hostnames simultaneously.
For example, a server might support wikis at the urls www.example.com,
wiki.example.com, and intranet.example.com. You can configure the wiki so it
responds to any, all, or any combination of those URLs.
If you don’t choose a specific host name for the wiki, all eligible host names are used.
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Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
To choose specific host names used by the wiki:
1 While editing a wiki’s settings, click Advanced.
2 Choose “Specific host names” from the Virtual Hosts pop-up menu.
3 For every host name, enter it in the field.
4 If you want to remove a host name from the list, hold the cursor over the host name
and click Delete (X).
You can’t delete the virtual host you’re currently using to access the wiki.
5 Click Save.
Creating a Personal Blog
Your wiki server can allow anyone who has an account on the wiki server to create a
personal blog. It can also restrict who can create blogs to a specific group of people.
When you create a blog, you become the administrator for that blog and can then
customize it to suit your needs.
To create a personal blog:
1 While viewing My Page, click Blogs.
2 Click “Create my Blog.”
If a My Blog link appears on the right side of the page, you’ve already created a blog.
If neither the button nor the My Blog link is shown, you can’t create a blog on the
server.
Deleting a Personal Blog
You can delete your own blog. When you delete your blog, all content in the blog is
destroyed.
WARNING: Deleting a blog is permanent. Make sure you back up all critical data
stored in the blog before deleting it.
To delete a personal blog:
1 While viewing My Page, click Blogs.
2 Hold the pointer over the link to the blog and then click the Delete (X) link.
If the Delete (X) link doesn’t appear, you don’t have administrator access to the blog,
and you can’t delete it.
3 When prompted to confirm, click Delete.
Chapter 3    Creating Wikis and Blogs
31
Working with Content
4
Learn how to create content in wikis and blogs.
Wikis and blogs are powerful tools because they allow many users to contribute
content. These tools have a simple yet full-featured toolbar that allows users of
all skills to create rich, dynamic pages. After pages are created, other readers can
add comments.
Creating Wiki Pages and Blog Posts
You can create wiki pages and blog posts using the same toolbar.
When creating wiki pages, be aware of whether you’re creating orphan pages or linked
pages. When possible, create linked pages because they are easier for users to navigate
to and find.
An orphan page is a wiki page that isn’t linked to from any other page. Because they’re
not linked to, the only way you can navigate to these pages is to search for them. Blog
entries that aren’t linked to from other pages aren’t considered orphan pages, because
when you view the blog, you can see all of its entries with the newest entry first.
32
To create an orphan wiki page:
1 While viewing a wiki page, click the Create Page (+) button in the toolbar.
2 Enter the name of the new page and click Create.
To create a linked wiki page:
1 While viewing a wiki page from which you want to link to a new page, click the
Edit (pencil) button in the toolbar.
2 Position the insertion point where you want the link to appear on the page.
3 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button and choose New Page.
4 Enter the name of the new page and click Create.
5 Click “save.”
To create a blog entry:
1 When viewing the blog, click the Create Page (+) button in the toolbar.
2 Enter the name of the new entry and click Create.
Deleting Wiki Pages or Blog Posts
When you delete a wiki page or blog post, the page remains on the server but its
content is removed so the page doesn’t show up in search results. Because they stay
on the server, you can restore deleted pages.
When you delete a page, the links to that page from other pages are not updated.
When you navigate to a deleted page, the message “This page has been deleted”
appears.
To delete a wiki page or blog post:
1 While viewing a page, click the “Delete this page” (–) button.
2 If you’re an administrator for the wiki or blog, select Permanently Delete to
permanently delete the page.
If you select Permanently Delete, the wiki page can’t be restored.
3 Click Delete.
To view a deleted page:
1 While in a wiki, search for anything.
You can view deleted wiki pages and blog posts for the wiki you’re currently viewing.
If you search while viewing My Page you can’t view deleted wiki pages and blog posts.
2 Click the Find Deleted Entries link on the right.
This lists all deleted pages.
3 Click the page you’d like to view.
4 Click the View Document History (>) button at the upper-left of the page, and
select an entry.
If you restore the page, the most recent entry is the version of the page that will
be restored.
To restore a deleted wiki page:
mm While viewing a deleted page, click the “Undelete page” link.
Chapter 4    Working with Content
33
Editing Wiki or Blog Content
Wiki pages and blog entries share the same editing toolbar.
A
B
C
D E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Element Action
A
Renames wiki page or blog post
B
Changes paragraph style
C
Changes list style or indentation
D
Changes text style
E
Adds links to other pages
F
Inserts media
G
Attaches files
H
Inserts tables
I
Shows the HTML source so you can edit it
J
Cancels changes
K
Saves changes
To edit a wiki page or blog entry:
1 When viewing a wiki page, click the Edit Page (pencil) button in the toolbar.
When viewing a blog, click the title of a blog entry and then click the Edit Page (pencil)
button in the toolbar.
2 Add text or use the editing toolbar to change content.
3 Optionally, in the Comment field, enter a short description of changes you made to
the page.
This text is added to the page history for the current page revision. Adding text here
helps people track page changes.
4 Click “save.”
Renaming Wiki Pages or Blog Posts
You initially give a wiki page or a blog post its name when you create it. You can later
change this name using the editing toolbar.
To rename a wiki page or blog post:
mm While editing a page, replace the current name of the page in the field on the left side
of the toolbar with a new page name.
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Chapter 4    Working with Content
Changing Paragraph Styles
A paragraph style includes font and spacing settings applied to an entire paragraph,
not a text selection.
To apply a paragraph style:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point anywhere within a paragraph you’d
like to apply a paragraph style to.
You can also select multiple paragraphs. The selection can start anywhere in one
paragraph and end anywhere in another.
2 Click the Paragraph Style (paragraph mark) button and then choose a paragraph style
from pop-up menu.
After choosing a paragraph style, the selected paragraph changes to that style.
Changing List Styles and Indentation
A list style includes whether a paragraph is in a bulleted or numbered list and whether
it is indented. List styles apply to an entire paragraph, not a text selection.
To apply a list style or indent:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point anywhere in a paragraph you’d like
to apply a list style to.
You can also select multiple paragraphs. The selection can start anywhere in one
paragraph and end anywhere in another.
2 Click the List Style (bulleted list) button and then choose a list style from
pop-up menu.
After choosing a list style, the selected paragraph changes to that style.
To remove a list style:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point anywhere in a list.
You can also select multiple list paragraphs. The selection can start anywhere in one
paragraph and end anywhere in another.
2 Click the List Style (bulleted list) button, and then choose the current style of the list
you’re viewing.
For example, to change a bulleted list to a regular paragraph, you’d choose Bullets.
Changing Text Styles
A text style specifies whether a selection of text is:
ÂÂ Plain (no style applied)
ÂÂ Bold
ÂÂ Italicized
ÂÂ Underlined
Chapter 4    Working with Content
35
ÂÂ Colored
ÂÂ Highlighted
To apply a text style:
1 While editing a page, select the text you want to style.
2 Click the Text Style (A) button and then choose a text style from the pop-up menu.
After choosing a text style, the selected text changes to that style.
To remove a text style:
1 While editing a page, select the text you want to remove the style from.
2 Click the Text Style (A) button and then choose Plain.
After choosing Plain, all text styles applied to the selection are removed.
Adding or Removing Links to Other Pages
The editing toolbar allows you to easily add links to wiki pages, web pages, and
email addresses.
After you link to a page, if that page’s URL changes, the link to the page doesn’t
change with it.
To create a wiki page and link to it:
1 While editing a page, either select text that you want to link to the new page, or
position the insertion point where you’d like to add the link.
If you select text, the selected text becomes the default name of the new page. If you
don’t select text, the link to the page shows the page name.
2 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button and then choose New Page.
3 Enter the name of the new page and click Create.
The new page is created with placeholder text. While viewing the page that has the
link, click the link to view.
To link to an existing wiki page on the same wiki:
1 While editing a page, either select text that you want to link to the page, or position
the insertion point where you’d like to add the link.
If you don’t select text, the link to the page shows the page name.
2 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button.
3 If the name of the page that you want to link to is located under the divider, choose it
to create the link.
The pages you’ve most recently edited are listed under the divider.
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Chapter 4    Working with Content
4 If the name of the page isn’t listed under the divider, choose Search, then, in the search
field, enter text found in the page’s title or body.
5 When you find the page, select it and click Link.
To link to a web page or a wiki page on another wiki:
1 While editing a page, either select text that you want to link to the page, or position
the insertion point where you’d like to add the link.
2 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button and then choose Enter URL.
3 In the URL field, enter the URL of the page; then in the Link Text field, enter the text
that you want shown in the link.
The Link Text field doesn’t appear if you select text for the link.
4 Click Link.
To link to an email address:
1 While editing a page, either select text that you want to link to the page, or position
the insertion point where you’d like to add the link.
2 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button and then choose Enter URL.
3 In the URL field, enter “mailto:” followed by an email address; then, in the Link Text field,
enter the text you want show in the link.
The Link Text field doesn’t appear if you select text for the link.
4 Click Link.
To remove a link:
1 While editing a page, select a link.
You can also select multiple links or paragraphs.
2 Click the Create Link (curved arrow) button and then choose Unlink.
Inserting Media
Wiki pages and blog posts support media such as graphics, movies, and audio files.
When you insert a graphic, if the graphic is larger than the width of the content area,
a thumbnail is created. When you click the thumbnail, a full-size graphic appears.
When you insert movie or audio files, the files are embedded in the page. This allows
you to view the movie or listen to audio in the page without loading a separate player.
If you don’t want to embed media files, you can attach them instead. Attaching files
makes it easier to download them.
The following file types are supported:
ÂÂ JPEG
ÂÂ PNG
Chapter 4    Working with Content
37
ÂÂ GIF
ÂÂ QuickTime movie
ÂÂ MP3 audio
If you upload the following file types, the uploaded copy is converted to PNG format:
ÂÂ BMP
ÂÂ TIFF
ÂÂ PSD
ÂÂ DOC
ÂÂ RTF
ÂÂ PDF (first page only)
To embed media files:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point where you’d like the media to
appear.
2 Click the Insert Media (musical staff and pictures) button.
3 Click Choose File, select a media file, and click Choose.
To upload several media files, select a zip file containing those media files.
After transferring the zip file, the media files in the zip file are unarchived and
inserted on the page.
4 In the Text Alternative field, enter a description of the media.
This text appears when you hover the mouse cursor over the embedded media.
The text is used by screen readers.
5 Click an alignment option.
Several alignment options are available:
A
B
C
D
Button Action
38
A
Aligns the media at the left. Text appears at the right of the media.
B
Centers the media on its own line.
C
Aligns the media at the right. Text appears at the left of the media.
D
Shows the media in running text.
6 Click Insert.
Chapter 4    Working with Content
Attaching Files
The best way to attach a file for downloading is to create an archive (zip) of the file
before uploading it to the server. Folders and complex file formats such as applications
and Keynote presentations must be archived before uploading.
To embed a media file such as a graphic, movie, or audio file so that people don’t need
to download it first, click the Insert Media button instead of the Attach File button.
To create an archive:
1 In Finder, select the files you want to compress.
2 Choose File > Compress, or click the Gear button and choose Compress.
To attach a file:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point where you’d like the link to the file
to appear.
2 Click the Attach File (paperclip) button.
3 Click Choose File, select the file, and click Choose.
4 Click Attach.
Inserting and Editing Tables
Wiki pages and blog posts include an easy-to-use table editor.
To insert a table:
1 While editing a page, position the insertion point where you’d like the table to appear.
The table uses the full width of the wiki page. If you insert a table mid-paragraph,
the text on either side of the insertion point is located in paragraphs above and below
the table.
2 Click the Insert Table (table) button.
3 Edit the table using the table editor that appears.
To edit a table:
1 While editing a page, click a table.
2 In the table editor that appears, use the toolbar to change the table’s size or structure,
and edit text in the cells.
Chapter 4    Working with Content
39
The table editor includes the following options:
A
B
C
D
E
F
Button Action
A
Adds a row.
B
Adds a column.
C
Removes a row.
D
Removes a column.
E
Changes whether the top-most row is a header row.
F
Changes whether the left-most column is a header column.
3 Click OK.
To remove a table:
1 While editing a page, click a table.
2 Click “delete table.”
Viewing and Editing HTML Source
You can view the HTML source for a page, which is useful if you’re familiar with HTML.
However, mistakes can cause your browser to crash or make your page unable to
be displayed.
As a precaution, the wiki allows specific HTML tags and attributes. This helps prevent
people from adding malicious HTML source. If you add HTML source and notice it
removed or reformatted, it might not be allowed.
To edit HTML:
1 While editing a page, click the Edit HTML (< >) button.
2 Edit the HTML source and then click the Edit HTML button again to verify your changes.
Your changes are verified for validity and disallowed HTML is removed. If the page
doesn’t appear, the edited HTML isn’t allowed. If you’re a server administrator,
you can change what HTML tags and attributes are allowed. For more information,
see Wiki Server Administration at www.apple.com/server/macosx/resources/.
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Chapter 4    Working with Content
Using a Blog Editing Application
Instead of using the blog to create and edit blog posts, you can use desktop blog
editing applications such as MarsEdit or ecto. These applications allow you to write
content while you’re offline, and then upload when you connect to the blog server.
Blog editing applications must be compatible with MetaWeblog API.
Configure your editor using the following information:
ÂÂ RPC access point: http://serverDNSname/RPC2
ÂÂ User name or blog ID: Your user name or the name of your group
MarsEdit requires the following configuration:
ÂÂ RPC access point: http://serverDNSname/RPC2
ÂÂ Blogid for user blogs: user/username/weblog
ÂÂ Blogid for group blogs: groups/groupname/weblog
For more information about MetaWeblog API, see RFC: MetaWeblog API at
www.xmlrpc.com/metaWeblogApi.
Viewing or Restoring Older Versions of a Page
Every time someone edits and saves a wiki page or blog post, a version of the page is
saved in the page’s history. Each version includes the following page information:
ÂÂ Content
ÂÂ Author
ÂÂ Date and time the page was saved
ÂÂ Version comment
Because every version of the page is saved, you can compare the current version of the
page with older versions to see what changed. If you don’t like what changed, you can
restore an older version of the page. If you restore an older version and later decide
you prefer the newer version, the new version still exists, so you can restore it.
You can’t delete page versions. Because you can’t delete page versions, it isn’t possible
for someone to edit the page without the page history tracking who changed the
page and what they changed.
To view or restore previous versions of a page:
1 While viewing a page, click the View Document History (>) button at the upper-left
of the page.
2 Select the version of the page you want to view.
Chapter 4    Working with Content
41
To compare the currently viewed page version with the previous version, click
Compare. New content is highlighted in blue, while removed content is highlighted in
red with a strikethrough applied to the text.
To restore the currently viewed page version, click Restore and then click OK. The
restored version becomes the active page version and is marked with the comment
“Restored previous version date.”
Adding or Removing Comments
You can add comments to wiki pages or blog posts. By commenting on a page, you
can give feedback on a page without editing the page’s content. The text in your
comment isn’t searched when you use the search field. However, when you leave a
comment on a page, the page is listed in My Page updates and everyone watching the
wiki or blog can view your comment.
Depending on wiki or blog settings and your access level to the wiki or blog, you may
not be able to comment on a page, or your comments might be moderated. When a
comment awaits moderation, it is invisible until an administrator approves it.
If you’re an administrator, you can remove anyone’s comments. If you’re not an
administrator, you can remove only your own comments.
To view comments:
mm When viewing the blog, click the title of a blog post to view comments for that post.
If you’re viewing the blog, you’ll see a “Filter by Date” area at the right of the blog posts.
If you’re viewing a single post, you won’t see “Filter by Date” and you’ll see comments
for the post.
To add a comment:
1 While viewing a wiki page or blog post, click “Add a new comment.”
2 Enter your comment in the Comment field, and click “Save comment.”
To remove a comment:
mm Hold the pointer over the comment and then click the Delete (X) link.
If the Delete (X) link doesn’t appear, you can’t delete the comment.
To moderate a comment:
mm Hold the pointer over the unmoderated comment and then do one of the following:
ÂÂ To accept the comment, click Accept (checkmark).
ÂÂ To delete the comment, click Delete (X).
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Chapter 4    Working with Content
Navigating Wiki Tools
5
Learn about searching and how to filter pages to show only
those you are interested in.
In wiki tools, you can search single wikis or blogs, or you can search all the wikis and
blogs you have access to. There are two key issues with searching:
ÂÂ You might not be searching using the same terminology as what appears in
the page
ÂÂ You might find matches for pages that happen to mention what you’re searching for
but might not focus on that subject
Wiki tools solves these issues with tags and stars.
Tags are short, descriptive words or phrases that classify and organize wiki pages, blog
posts, or mailing list entries. Anyone can add a tag to a page. You can then filter search
results using tags to find just the pages with content that focuses on what you’re
interested in.
Stars are similar to bookmarks, in that they are a way to mark pages that you are
interested in. Stars are not shared with other users. You can view starred pages or filter
search results by starred pages. Regardless of how large wikis and blogs grow, you’ll be
able to focus on just the pages you’re interested in.
Understanding Access Control
Every wiki can have a specific group of people who can access it. This lets you set up a
wiki structure that fits your organization’s security requirements.
For example, if you work in an organization with top-secret projects, you’d want each
of those top-secret projects to have its own wiki. If you have departments where
people in a department work on a few of those secret projects but not all of them,
you’d give them access to the department wiki and specific project wikis.
When you add content to a wiki, make sure the content is appropriate for the people
who can access the wiki.
43
For example, if you added secret project information to a department wiki, everyone
in the department could see the information, whereas people outside the department,
who work on the secret project, don’t have access to the department wiki, and so
they wouldn’t have access to the secret project content. When you have content that
doesn’t fit current wikis, create a wiki for the content.
When using wikis, be aware of which wiki you’re currently viewing. When you search or
use tags while viewing a wiki, you’ll find pages within that wiki but not in other wikis.
However, if you’re viewing My Page, you can search or use tags for pages in all wikis
you have access to.
About Searching
You can search for text or tags on a single wiki or on multiple wikis. Searching across
multiple wikis lists only pages that you have access to.
Text searching lists pages with the following types of matches:
ÂÂ Content
ÂÂ Title
ÂÂ Most recent author
ÂÂ Tag text
You can use advanced search features, such as quoting text, to get exact matches.
For example, if you search for “anne johnson” without quotes, you’ll find pages that
include “anne” and “johnson” but not necessarily together. You might find pages with
“Anne Smith” and “Mike Johnson.” However, this is useful if you search for “anne plan”
and find all pages with both “anne” and “plan.” If you use “anne johnson” (in quotes)
you’ll find pages without text between “anne” and “johnson.”
Usually, you tag a page when that page is about a specific subject. For example, if you
have a page about planning that Anne works on, you’d tag it with “plan” and “anne.”
When you search for the “anne” tag, you’ll find pages that specifically involve Anne,
but not pages that just happen to mention her.
You can search for a combination of tags, like “anne” and “plan,” which would show
pages that use both tags. This is an improvement over doing a text search for “anne
plan” because you won’t find pages that just happen to mention “anne” and “plan.”
You can also combine a text search and tags. For example, let’s say Sunil doesn’t tag
pages related to himself with “sunil” but he wants to find pages related to himself that
also deal with Anne and planning. He could do a text search for “sunil” and then refine
the results using the “anne” and “plan” tags.
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Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
After you find the pages you’re looking for, you can save your search criteria as a smart
filter for future use. You can search on the smart filter, which can include text and tags,
and then apply more tags to further filter the search results.
Searching Across a Single Wiki
Searching in a wiki lists pages in that wiki but doesn’t list matching pages located in
other wikis.
To search for text in a wiki:
1 While viewing a wiki, click the Search (magnifying glass) button.
2 Enter a phrase in the search field.
As you type, the search performs a quick search, listing the top five matches of the
current phrase. If you see the page you’re looking for, select it. If you don’t see the
page you’re looking for, press Enter to view the full list of search results.
To search for tags in a wiki:
1 While viewing a wiki, click the Search (magnifying glass) button.
2 If the Recent Tags list has a tag you want to search for, select it; if not, enter a phrase in
the search field or select Recent Changes.
Selecting Recent Changes lists all wiki pages, blog posts, and mailing list entries in
reverse chronological order.
3 Select tags under the Tags list or in the “Filter by Tag” list.
Every tag you select filters the search by that tag in addition to the currently applied
tag filters. Deselecting a tag stops filtering by that tag.
To filter by content type:
mm While searching a wiki, under “Filter by Type,” click the type of content to view.
Searching Across Multiple Wikis
Searching across multiple wikis lists only pages that you have access to.
To search for text in multiple wikis:
mm While viewing My Page, enter a phrase in the search field.
As you type, the search lists all matches of the current phrase. If you see the page
you’re looking for, select it. If you don’t see the page you’re looking for, press Enter to
view the full list of search results.
To search for tags in multiple wikis:
1 While viewing My Page, enter a phrase in the search field.
You can enter a tag in the search field and find all occurrences of that tag and of
where that text appears in page content.
Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
45
2 Select tags under the “Filter by Tag” list.
Every tag you select filters the search by that tag in addition to the currently applied
tag filters. Deselecting a tag stops filtering by that tag.
To filter by content type:
mm While searching multiple wikis, under “Filter by Type,” click the type of content to view.
Saving Your Search
When you search multiple wikis, you can save your text-based and tag-based search
criteria by creating a smart filter. You can combine smart filters and tags when
searching. In the Updates page and on iPhone or iPod touch, you can filter updated
pages by using smart filters.
To create a smart filter:
1 While viewing My Page, search for text or tags.
2 Under Search Summary, click “Save as a Smart Filter.”
To use a smart filter:
mm While viewing the My Page search results page, select smart filters under the
“Smart Filters” list.
To delete a smart filter:
mm While viewing the My Page search results page, hold the mouse cursor over a
smart filter and click Delete (X).
About Tags
One of the fastest, easiest, and most powerful ways to organize content is to use tags.
Tags are short, descriptive words or phrases that classify and organize wiki pages, blog
posts, or mailing list entries.
There are two types of tags: content tags and meta-information tags.
ÂÂ Content tags describe what a page is about. For example, if you have a department
wiki where everyone has a page describing himself or herself, those pages should
be tagged with “bio.” If you do a tag-based search for “bio,” you’d find all bio pages
for everyone in the department. Similarly, if you had a project named “ProjectX,”
you could tag all pages about ProjectX with the “ProjectX” tag.
ÂÂ Meta-information tags describe the page itself. For example, you could mark all
important pages with “hot” and all pages that require review with “review.” This way
you can quickly find pages that are important or require review.
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Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
There are advantages to using tags:
ÂÂ Searching text can produce results that happen to mention what you’re searching
for but aren’t necessarily about what you’re looking for. With tags, you’d tag only
pages for a specific subject.
ÂÂ You can combine tags to find exactly what you’re looking for. For example if you’re
working on ProjectX and need to know everything important about it, you can
do a search for the “ProjectX” and “hot” tags. Similarly, to find out everything in
ProjectX that needed review, you’d search for the “ProjectX” and “review” tags. To
find everything that’s related to ProjectX, is important, and needs review, then you’d
search for all three tags.
ÂÂ You can turn a tag-based search into a very effective Really Simple Syndication
(RSS) feed. When you subscribe to an RSS feed through an RSS browser such as Mail,
you’re notified when a page in that feed is updated. If you subscribe to an RSS feed
of the “ProjectX” tag, you’re notified when a page related to ProjectX is created or
changed.
Adding or Removing Tags
You can easily add tags to wiki pages, blog posts, and mailing list entries.
When adding tags, be aware of the tags used in your wiki because tags are more
effective when they aren’t duplicated. For example, it is better to have one “ProjectX”
tag rather than “ProjectX” and “Project X” tags. Review similar pages to see how they’re
tagged to get ideas for how to tag your page.
To add a tag to a page:
mm While viewing a wiki page, blog post, or mailing list entry, click the Add Tag (+) button
next to “Tags” at the upper-left of the page and enter the tag.
As you type, the wiki tries to autocomplete your entry to match existing tags. If an
existing tag matches what you want to add, select it.
If you’re viewing the blog or the mailing list, click the title of a blog post or mailing list
entry to view it. You can’t apply tags when viewing several blog posts or mailing list
entries.
To remove a tag from a page:
mm While viewing a wiki page, blog post, or mailing list entry, drag the tag away from the
tag list and then release the mouse button.
mm While editing a wiki page or blog post, click the small X that appears when you move
the pointer near the tag.
Viewing All Tags Used in a Wiki
Here are ways to view all tags used in a wiki.
Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
47
To view all tags sorted by how frequently they’re used:
mm Click the Search (magnifying glass) button, leave the search field empty, and press Enter.
The tags are listed on the right, with the number of times they’re used shown in
parentheses.
To view all tags in alphabetical order:
mm Click the Search (magnifying glass) button and select “all tags.”
Editing and Removing Tags from a Wiki
If you’re an administrator for a wiki, you edit or remove existing tags.
When you edit a tag, you change all occurrences of that tag. For example, you can
change all occurrences of the tag “Project X” to “ProjectX.”
When you remove a tag, you remove all occurrences of that tag. You can’t undo
removing a tag so be careful.
To edit a tag:
1 Click the Search (magnifying glass) button and select “all tags.”
2 Click the “Edit this group’s tags” (pencil) button.
If you’re asked to authenticate, you might not be an admin for the wiki.
3 Click a tag.
4 Edit the Tag Name field and then click Save.
5 When you finish, click “save” in the Edit Tags page.
To remove a tag:
1 Click the Search (magnifying glass) button and select “all tags.”
2 Click the “Edit this group’s tags” (pencil) button.
If you’re asked to authenticate, you might not be an admin for the wiki.
3 Click a tag.
4 Remove all text in the Tag Name field and then click Delete.
5 When you finish, click “save” in the Edit Tags page.
Viewing Favorite Pages
One problem with having a lot of information online is that you need to keep track
of many pages. The traditional solution is to bookmark all pages you’re interested in.
There are problems with this solution:
ÂÂ You need to periodically review your bookmarked pages for updates.
ÂÂ You can’t search or filter just your bookmark collection.
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Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
ÂÂ You need to categorize or organize your bookmark collection; otherwise, having all
bookmarks on a single level becomes cumbersome.
Wiki tools provide two improved solutions: tags and stars.
Tags are good ways to categorize pages containing similar types of information or
content. You can perform a tag-based search and find everything strongly related to
a topic or combination of topics. You can create an RSS feed of this tag-based search
and then be notified when a tagged page is changed.
Stars are similar to a web-based bookmarking system, which unlike tags is not shared
between users. Marking pages you’re interested in with stars allows you to easily
search for content you’re interested in and receive notifications of page updates.
Here are some things you can do:
ÂÂ Search for a combination of starred pages and tags or a text phrase. For example,
if you searched for starred pages with the “plan” tag, you’d find all pages you’re
interested in that deal with planning.
ÂÂ Create an RSS feed of your starred pages so you’re notified when a page you’re
interested in is changed. You can also create an RSS feed of a combination of starred
pages and pages containing tags or a text phrase.
To star a page:
mm While viewing a wiki page or blog post, click the star icon at the left of the title.
If you’re viewing multiple blog posts, click the title of a blog post to view it before
clicking the star.
mm While viewing search results, click the star icon at the right of the result titles.
A yellow star represents a starred page, and a translucent star represents a nonstarred
page. Click a star to switch it between starred and nonstarred.
To view all starred pages:
1 While viewing My Page, click Updates.
2 Under Show, click “starred pages.”
To search for starred pages:
1 While viewing My Page, enter a text phrase in the search field.
You can leave the search field empty to show all pages you have access to.
2 In the Search Results page, click Starred.
3 Click the filters or sort order on the right to apply them.
Click the active sort order to switch between ascending and descending.
Every tag you select filters by that tag in addition to currently applied tag filters.
Deselect a tag to stop filtering by that tag.
Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
49
Previewing Attachments with Quick Look
Quick Look allows you to preview a file without downloading. Quick Look previews
are created when a file that can be represented as a series of images (such as a Pages
document, a PDF, or a Keynote presentation) is attached to a wiki page or blog post.
When you view a Quick Look preview, you view the series of images created by the
wiki server, not the actual file.
Although you can preview movies and audio in Quick Look, you can’t zoom, pan,
or download them.
To preview an attachment with Quick Look:
1 Click the Quick Look (eye) button next to the attachment.
If there is no Quick Look button, the attachment can’t be previewed.
2 Do the following:
To do this
Do this
Change pages
If a previewed attachment has multiple pages, click the page
previews in the page browser on the left.
Resize the preview
Click and drag the bottom right corner of the Quick Look window.
View the preview controls
Make sure your web browser is the active window, then hold the
cursor over the previewed attachment.
Zoom in
View the preview controls and click the Zoom In button (outward
facing arrows).
If the previewed attachment is zoomed in, the Zoom Out button
replaces this button.
Zoom out
View the preview controls and click the Zoom Out button (inward
facing arrows).
If the previewed attachment is zoomed out, the Zoom In button
replaces this button.
Refocus
If a previewed attachment is too large for the Quick Look window,
the cursor changes into a + shape with arrows facing four
directions. Click and drag the mouse to refocus the preview.
Download an attachment
View the preview controls and click the Download button
(downward arrow pointing at a computer).
Clicking Download attempts to load the document in the web
browser. If your web browser can’t load the attachment, it
downloads it.
Stop previewing an attachment
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Chapter 5    Navigating Wiki Tools
View the preview controls and click the Close (X) button.
Keeping Up to Date
6
Learn how to keep up to date with content changes on wiki
pages and blog posts.
Wiki tools provide two ways of showing changed and new wiki pages and blog posts:
ÂÂ My Page—The Updates page in My Page shows all updated wiki pages, blog
posts, podcasts, and group mail for wikis and blogs you’re watching. You can filter
these pages.
ÂÂ RSS—RSS feeds update you when pages are added or changed. You view RSS
feeds in a RSS viewer. This way you don’t need to view the wiki to find out when
content changes.
Viewing Updates on My Page
The Updates page on My Page shows the most recently updated wiki pages, blog
posts, podcasts, and mailing lists you have access to. This includes content updates and
new comments. From this page you can view update summaries or page comments or
you can click a page title to view the page.
The Updates page shows only wiki pages and blog posts from wikis and blogs you’re
watching. You can set whether specific wikis and blogs are watched, so that the
Updates page includes only updates from wikis and blogs you’re interested in.
For more information, see the next topic.
To view the Updates page:
1 Navigate to My Page:
ÂÂ If you’re currently viewing a wiki page, click “my page.”
ÂÂ If you’re not sure where your wiki is located, call your help desk.
2 While viewing My Page, click Updates.
3 Log in if prompted.
51
To view updates:
mm While viewing the Updates page, do the following:
To do this
Do this
View updates, including read pages
Click All Updates
View unread updates
Click Unread Updates
Mark updates as read
Click Mark All As Read
Unread pages are denoted by a blue circle. When the page is read, the circle is cleared.
To filter by special pages:
mm While viewing the Updates page, do the following:
To show this
Do this
All pages
Under Show, click “all”
All pages you’ve created or edited
Under Show, click “my pages”
All pages marked with a star
Under Show, click “starred pages”
All pages tagged with “hot”
Under Show, click “hot pages”
To filter by smart filter:
mm While viewing the Updates page, under “Smart Filters,” click the smart filter to view.
You must save at least one smart filter for smart filters to be listed.
To view update summaries or page comments:
1 While viewing the Updates page, click the blue Updates or Comments button at the
right of the page name to show a comment previewer.
The button lists the number of updates or page comments that were added since
the page was last read. The button can show a maximum of five updates and page
comments.
2 To view all updates and page comments, click “See all” in the comment previewer.
Watching Wikis and Blogs
You can set whether specific wikis and blogs are watched, so that the Updates page
includes only updates from wikis and blogs you’re interested in.
To watch a wiki or a blog:
1 Navigate to My Page:
ÂÂ If you’re viewing a wiki page, click “my page.”
ÂÂ If you’re not sure where your wiki is located, call your help desk.
52
2 If you’re not already logged in, click “Log in to my page” at the upper left.
Chapter 6    Keeping Up to Date
If you are logged in, the upper-left of the page will show your login name.
3 Click Wikis or Blogs in the toolbar.
4 If you’re not viewing all wikis or blogs, click the All link at the upper-left of the list.
The Watched list shows wikis or blogs that are being watched. The My Wikis list shows
wikis or blogs you have created.
5 Click the “Watch updates” button at the right of the wiki or blog title to set whether it
is watched.
A blue button indicates that the wiki or blog is watched, and a grey button indicates
that the wiki or blog is not watched.
About RSS
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) allows you to check for updates to wiki pages without
viewing the wiki. This lets you use RSS readers to receive RSS feed updates and notify
you of changes.
If you use Mail in Mac OS X v10.6 or later, you can receive mail and RSS feeds using the
same reader. Because they both use the same reader, you won’t need to change your
daily workflow to use RSS.
When you’re online, your RSS reader checks your subscribed RSS feeds at timed
intervals. Whenever a new page is created or an existing page in the feed is updated,
the RSS feed is updated and the RSS reader notifies you that the feed changed and
which pages within that feed changed.
The following shows how an RSS reader compares its current pages against the server,
and then updates its own pages based on the status of the pages on the server.
RSS reader
(after checking)
Server
Updated
Team Information - v2
RSS reader
(before checking)
Schedule - v1
Compares
Team Information - v1
Chapter 6    Keeping Up to Date
Status - v1
Status - v1
Schedule - v1
Schedule - v1
Team Information - v1
1. Check for new or updated pages
Team Information - v2
New
Remove
Team Information - v1
2. Update RSS reader
53
Traditionally, when someone updates a document, they attach that document to
an email or upload it to a website and notify everyone that the document has been
updated. RSS simplifies and streamlines this process by notifying people when
content changes.
Whenever anyone—not just the original author, changes a page, anyone who’s
interested in the page will have it in an RSS feed and will be notified that it’s changed.
They can review the changed content, and refine it further without notifying everyone
that they’ve changed the content again. RSS helps people focus on content and
reduces the amount of time spent notifying people who might not be interested in
the content thats changed:
Original author creates page
Original author sends out email notifying
everyone of page location and RSS feeds
Group member reads page
Group member changes the page
RSS notifies everyone
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Chapter 6    Keeping Up to Date
Subscribing to an RSS Feed
There are two types of RSS feeds you can subscribe to: single-page RSS feeds and
multiple-page RSS feeds.
Single-page RSS feeds are feeds of a single page. These feeds are updated when the
page changes. Every entry in the feed represents a different version of the same page.
Single-page RSS feed
ProjectX schedule page
Schedule v6
Schedule v5
Schedule v4
Schedule v3
Schedule v2
Schedule v1
Multiple-page RSS feeds are feeds of multiple pages, usually based on a search. For
example, you can create an RSS feed of all pages tagged with “ProjectX.” These feeds
are updated when a page in the feed is created or updated. Every entry in the feed
represents a different page.
Multiple-page RSS feed
All pages tagged with “ProjectX”
Schedule v6
Meeting minutes v2
Requirements v8
Team v3
Plan v1
Prototypes v1
Chapter 6    Keeping Up to Date
55
Because you can quickly view changes across a wiki or multiple wikis, multiple-page
RSS feeds are much more useful than single-page RSS feeds.
You can create multiple-page RSS feeds of:
ÂÂ The Updates page in My Page
ÂÂ Single-wiki or multiple-wiki search results
ÂÂ Blogs
ÂÂ Pages you’ve created or edited
ÂÂ Starred pages
ÂÂ Hot pages
You can also combine these to create RSS feeds of exactly what you’re looking for.
For example, if you’re working on ProjectX and several important pages are scattered
across wikis you’ve marked with stars, you could create an RSS feed that does a
multiple-wiki search based on the “ProjectX” tag and starred pages.
RSS readers can subscribe to an almost unlimited number of RSS feeds, so you can
create many feeds with very specific purposes.
To create an RSS feed:
1 View the page you want to create a feed of, or search for what you want to create
a feed of.
For example, here are some popular feeds:
To create a feed of this
Do this
Single page
View a wiki page
Updates page in My Page
View the Updates page in My Page
Single-wiki search results
While viewing a wiki, search for text or tags
Multiple-wiki search results
While viewing My Page, search for text or tags
A blog
View the blog
All blogs you’re watching
In the Updates page, click “blog posts”
All pages you’ve created or edited
In the Updates page, click “my pages”
All pages you’ve marked with a star
In the Updates page, click “starred pages”
All pages marked with “hot”
In the Updates page, click “hot pages”
2 Click the RSS button in the address bar of your web browser.
Depending on which RSS reader you use, the RSS reader will appear and confirm that
you want to add the feed. If you use Safari as your RSS reader, the RSS feed appears.
To use Mail as your RSS reader, see Mail Help.
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Chapter 6    Keeping Up to Date
Using the Web Calendar
7
Learn about the easy-to-use, highly functional web calendar
included in wiki tools.
The web calendar allows you to easily schedule events for yourself or your group.
As with iCal, you can create multiple calendars, invite people to events, repeat events,
and add notes to events.
There are two types of web calendars: personal and group. You can send and receive
event invitations through the personal calendar but not through the group calendar.
Also, while anyone in a group can create or edit events in a group calendar, you
can edit only events in your own personal calendar or event invitations you send to
other people.
The web calendar uses iCal Server to store events and invitations. Because all calendar
activity occurs on iCal Server, if you add your personal calendars as an account
in another calendar client such as iCal, all of your personal calendars are synced
automatically.
Navigating through the Web Calendar
The web calendar includes several navigation buttons and a minicalendar that make
it easy to navigate months or weeks, or to return to today’s date.
To change the main calendar view:
mm Click “day,” “week,” or “month.”
The Previous (left arrow) and Next (right arrow) buttons next to “day,” “week,” and
“month” display the previous or next day, week, or month.
To view the minicalendar:
mm Click the Calendar (small calendar) button located between the New Calendar (+) and
Notifications (envelope) buttons.
57
To navigate to a specific date using the minicalendar:
mm To change the minicalendar’s month, click the Previous (left arrow) or Next (right
arrow) button next to the name of the month.
mm To view a specific day, click the day in the mini-calendar.
The main calendar keeps its current view (day, week or month) but shows the
selected date.
To change the minicalendar and the main calendar to show today:
mm Click “today.”
Working with Calendars
You can create multiple calendars for specific purposes. For example, you can have a
calendar for work events and another calendar for personal events. Events added to
one calendar aren’t added to the other. You can show or hide calendars so you can see
events you’re interested in.
Creating and Deleting Calendars
You can create or delete calendars. When you delete a calendar, you also delete all
events in the calendar and decline any invitations you’ve received in the calendar.
You can’t undo deleting a calendar so be careful.
To create a calendar:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, click the Create Calendar (+) button.
2 Enter a name for the calendar in the Calendar Name field.
3 To change the calendar’s color, choose a different color from the Calendar Color
pop-up menu.
4 Click Create.
To delete a calendar:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, hold the mouse cursor over the calendar
you want to delete and then click the Information (i) button.
If you have only one calendar, you can’t delete it.
58
2 Click Delete and then click OK.
Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
Renaming Calendars
You can rename existing calendars.
To rename an existing calendar:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, hold the mouse cursor over the calendar
you want to rename and then click the Information (i) button.
2 Enter a name for the calendar in the Calendar Name field.
3 Click Save.
Applying Calendar Colors
A calendar’s color affects the background color of all events in that calendar. You can
choose from six colors:
ÂÂ Blue
ÂÂ Green
ÂÂ Red
ÂÂ Orange
ÂÂ Pink
ÂÂ Purple
If you add personal calendars to iCal, the calendars’ colors are used in iCal. If you
change the calendars’ colors in iCal, the calendar colors in the web calendar change to
match.
To apply a different calendar color:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, hold the mouse cursor over the calendar
that you want to apply a different color to and then click the Information (i) button.
2 Choose a different color from the Calendar Color pop-up menu.
3 Click Save.
Showing and Hiding Calendars
You can view more than one calendar at the same time. You can also view specific
calendars.
The color of the checkbox next to a calendar name represents the color of the
calendar. All events in that calendar use that color.
To show a calendar:
mm Select the checkbox next to the calendar.
To hide a calendar:
mm Deselect the checkbox next to the calendar.
Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
59
Working with Events
You schedule timed events and all-day events in personal or group calendars. If you’re
viewing your personal calendar, you can invite other people to your events.
Creating, Editing and Deleting Events
Timed events, such as meetings and appointments, take place during a specified
period of time. You can create timed events in day view, week view, or month view,
but they’re easier to create in week view.
All-day events are events that take an unspecified amount of time. They don’t
necessarily take all day, and are often used as reminders (for example when to pay a
bill). You can create all-day events in week view or month view.
To create an event:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, select a calendar.
The event is created in the selected calendar.
2 To create a timed event in day view or week view, drag from the start time to the end
time of the event.
To create an all-day event in week view, drag from the start date to the end date in the
All Day area. If you’re in month view, drag from the start date to the end date. If you’re
scheduling a single-day all-day event, click the day instead of dragging.
3 Change event details, invitees, or notes.
To edit an event:
1 Click the event.
If the event details show “Invitation from,” you’re viewing an invitation, which can’t be
edited.
2 Change event details, invitees, or notes.
To delete an event:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, click an event.
2 Click Delete and then click OK.
For more information about changing event details, invitees, or notes, see the
following topics.
Sending, Viewing, and Accepting or Rejecting Invitations
You can send and receive event invitations while viewing your personal calendar.
When you send an invitation, invitees are notified and can accept, tentatively accept
(set status to “maybe”), or decline the invitation. If you update the event, invitees are
notified of the change and can change the status of the event to accept, tentatively
accept, or decline the changed event.
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Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
If you don’t set a status for an event, the event appears in the calendar with a dotted
line border. Accepted and tentatively accepted events have solid border. Declined
events are removed from the calendar.
To send invitations:
1 While viewing a personal calendar, click an event.
2 Click “invitees;” then, in the invitees pane, enter an attendee’s name in the “Add
attendee” field.
You can invite people but not groups.
As you type an attendee’s name, the calendar attempts to autocomplete the name.
If you see the attendee in the list, click it. If the field doesn’t autocomplete, the invitee
isn’t found and won’t be invited.
After adding an attendee, a new “Add attendee” field appears, allowing you to add
more attendees.
3 Click OK.
To view event notifications:
mm While viewing a personal calendar, click the Notifications (envelope) button.
Notifications that haven’t been accepted or denied are listed in the Notifications area.
To accept, tentatively accept, or reject an event notification:
mm While viewing event notifications, click a status button.
To change an invitation’s status:
mm Click the event invitation, choose from the “my status” pop-up menu, and then click OK.
Changing Event Details
Event details include the name and location of the event and when it is scheduled.
To change event details:
1 Create or edit an event.
2 In the “general” pane of the event details, enter the name of the event in the
“summary” field and the location of the event in the “location” field.
As you type a location, the calendar attempts to autocomplete the location with one
that can be scheduled. If it can autocomplete the location, you’ll see if the location is
available during the proposed time.
3 To change the start time or end time, edit the “start time” or “end time” fields.
4 To change the start date or end date of the event, click the date, and in the calendar
that appears, click a date.
To view the previous month, click Previous (up arrow); to view the next month,
click Next (down arrow).
Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
61
5 To create an all-day event, select “All-Day (Banner) event.”
This disables the “start time” and “end time” fields.
6 To put the event in a different calendar, choose a different calendar from the “calendar”
pop-up menu.
7 To repeat the event, choose an interval from the “repeat” pop-up menu.
To stop repeating the event after a specific number of times, choose After from the
“end” pop-up menu and enter the number of times you want the event scheduled.
To stop repeating the event on a specific date, choose “On date” from the “end” pop-up
menu, click the date, and then choose the end date from the calendar.
8 Click OK.
Changing Event Notes
Event notes are shown when someone previews the event.
To change event notes:
mm While viewing event details, click “notes,” make changes, and then click OK.
Rescheduling Events
You can easily reschedule events. If you reschedule a recurring event, you’ll be asked
if you want to change all occurrences of the event, or just the event you dragged or
clicked.
To reschedule an event:
mm Do one of the following:
ÂÂ Drag the event to the preferred time.
You can drag timed events in the day or week calendar views. You can drag all-day
events in the week or month views.
ÂÂ Click the event and change the “start time” and “end time” fields, or click the date
and in the calendar that appears, click a date.
Viewing and Previewing Events
When you view calendars, for each event you’ll see the event summary and the time
it’s scheduled for. You can view or preview the event for more information, such as its
location and any notes.
To view an event:
mm Click the event.
To preview an event:
mm Place the pointer over the event and wait a few seconds.
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Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
Changing Calendar Settings
The web calendar includes the following settings:
Setting
Description
Timezone
Set this to your time zone. This setting affects the accuracy of the
invitations you send and receive and the events listed.
For example if your time zone is set to Pacific Standard Time (PST)
and you’re inviting someone using Eastern Standard Time (EST),
an event you schedule for 4 p.m. PST is scheduled at 7 p.m. EST
because of the time zone difference.
If you set the wrong time zone, all invitations you send and
receive, and events listed in calendars will have the wrong
times listed.
Availability
Set this to show that you’re unavailable for event invitations any
time that is outside of the specified range.
For example, if you set availability to weekdays from 8 a.m. to
6 p.m., people will see that you’re unavailable for invitations on
weekends.
Start week on
Set this to change the first day of the week listed in week view.
Web calendar settings are personal settings. If you edit settings while viewing a group
calendar, you don’t change anyone else’s settings.
To change calendar settings:
1 Do one of the following:
ÂÂ While viewing the calendar, click “settings.”
ÂÂ While viewing My Page, click “settings,” and then select Calendar.
2 Choose settings from the pop-up menus.
If you change your availability to Weekdays, you can enter your available range of time
on weekdays in the two fields.
3 Click Save.
Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
63
Working with Web Calendars in iCal
You can subscribe to user and group calendars in iCal. When you subscribe to
calendars in iCal, the calendar stored in iCal is read-only. You can’t change events in
iCal, but when events change on the wiki server, those events are updated in iCal.
If you have Mac OS X v10.6 or later installed, you can add your personal calendars as an
account in iCal. You can’t add group calendars as an account. When you add personal
calendars as an account, changes are synced between iCal and the wiki server. You can
change an event in iCal and it’ll update the event in the wiki server, or if you change
the event in the wiki server it’ll update the event in iCal.
To subscribe to a web calendar in iCal:
1 While viewing a personal or group calendar, hold the mouse cursor over the calendar
you want to subscribe to and then click the Information (i) button.
2 Click “Subscribe in iCal.”
3 In iCal, click Subscribe.
4 When you’re asked to authenticate, enter your wiki account name and password.
To add your personal calendars as an account in iCal:
1 Open iCal in Mac OS X v10.6 or later.
2 Choose iCal > Preferences.
3 In the Accounts pane, click Add (+).
4 Choose the CalDAV account type and enter the user name and password you use to
log in to the wiki.
5 For server address, enter the URL of the wiki server (for example, wiki.example.com).
If the wiki server uses an external calendar server, you must enter the URL of the
calendar server instead of the wiki server. If you can’t create an account using the wiki
server information, contact a server administrator to find out if your wiki server uses an
external calendar server.
64
6 Click Create and complete the setup assistant.
Chapter 7    Using the Web Calendar
Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or
iPod touch
8
You can view My Page, wiki pages, blog posts, and upcoming
events on iPhone or iPod touch.
Wiki tools are streamlined when viewed on iPhone or iPod touch. You can easily find
out what’s changed and comment on wiki pages and blog posts.
About Using Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
A specialized version of My Page loads when you view wiki tools on iPhone or
iPod touch. This version keeps you apprised of the latest content updates.
Similar to using wiki tools on the desktop, you can:
ÂÂ View My Page, wiki pages, blog posts, and group calendar events
ÂÂ Filter updates on My Page
ÂÂ Add or remove tags and comments
ÂÂ Perform multi-wiki text searches
ÂÂ Mark pages with a star
There are a few key differences:
ÂÂ You can’t create or edit wiki pages, blog posts, or events.
ÂÂ Blog posts are initially excerpted and can be tapped to be viewed in full.
ÂÂ Group calendar events are shown in a chronological list.
ÂÂ You can’t search using tags.
Viewing My Page on iPhone or iPod touch
When you view My Page on iPhone or iPod touch, you can easily view recently
updated or created wiki and blog pages, access wikis and blogs, view upcoming
events, or search for content located in all wikis and blogs you have access to.
65
The Updates pane lists all updated pages, including how many updates or comments
were made on a page since you last viewed the page. You can apply the following
filters to these pages:
Filter
Description
All
Includes all pages.
Unread
Includes all unread pages. Unread pages have a blue status icon,
while read pages have a clear status icon.
My Pages
Includes all pages that you originally authored that have unread
changes.
Hot Pages
Includes all pages tagged with “hot.”
Starred Pages
Includes all pages that you’ve marked with stars.
Smart Filters
Includes searches that you save on the desktop.
The Wikis and Blogs panes display all wikis and blogs you have access to. Unlike
viewing My Page on a desktop, you can’t create wikis or blogs.
The Events pane lists all upcoming events in your personal calendar, with the soonest
occurring listed first.
The Search pane lets you search for text located in all wikis and blogs you have
access to.
You can’t change My Page settings.
Viewing Wikis and Blogs on iPhone or iPod touch
Viewing wikis on iPhone or iPod touch is similar to viewing wikis on a desktop. You can
use links to browse pages or perform text-based searches.
Every blog post is excerpted to show the title of the blog post and the first one or two
lines of text in the blog post. This allows you to quickly scroll through all blog posts.
Unread blog posts are marked with a blue status icon. When you view the blog post,
the status icon becomes clear.
Unlike using wikis and blogs on the desktop, you can’t create wiki pages or blog posts
nor perform tag-based searches. You can add comments and tags by viewing a page’s
details. You can also compare the current version of the page with the previous version
of the page when you view the page’s details.
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Chapter 8    Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
Viewing Group Calendar Events on iPhone or iPod touch
When you view events in a group calendar, you see a list of locations, note excerpts,
dates, and starting times of upcoming events within the next two weeks with the
soonest occurring event listed first.
The icon next to the event shows which calendar the event is in, so you can easily
differentiate events in different calendars. When you view the details for an event,
you’ll also see the full duration of the event and the full event note.
Unlike viewing events on the desktop, you can’t add or change events.
Searching on iPhone or iPod touch
You can search for a text phrase in wikis or blogs. If you search while viewing My Page,
you search all wikis and blogs. If you search while viewing a wiki or a blog, you search
only that wiki or blog.
Similar to viewing search results on the desktop, the search results pages shows the
top 20 matches for your search and shows the title of the page and an excerpt of the
first line or two of page content.
If you click a search result link, you see the full page. While viewing the full page,
you can click the up and down arrows to view the full page of the previous or next
search result.
Adding or Removing Tags on iPhone or iPod touch
You can easily add tags to wiki pages and blog posts.
When adding tags, be aware of what tags are used in your wiki because tags are more
effective when they aren’t duplicated. For example, it is better to have a “ProjectX” tag
rather than “ProjectX” and “Project X” tags. Review similar pages to see how they’re
tagged to get ideas for how to tag your page.
To view tags:
1 When viewing a wiki page or blog post, click Details.
If you’re already viewing the details, the Details button is replaced by a Hide button.
2 Click the Tags link.
To add a tag:
1 While viewing a wiki page’s or blog post’s tags, click Add Tag (+).
2 Enter a tag in the field and click Add.
Chapter 8    Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
67
To remove a tag:
1 While viewing a wiki page’s or blog post’s tags, click Delete a Tag.
2 Click Delete next to the tag you want to delete.
Adding or Removing Comments on iPhone or iPod touch
You can add comments to wiki pages or blog posts. By commenting on a page, you
can give feedback on a page without editing the page’s content. The text in your
comment isn’t searched when you use the search field.
Depending on wiki or blog settings and your access level to the wiki or blog, you
might not be able to comment on a page, or your comments might be moderated.
When a comment awaits moderation, it is invisible until an administrator approves it.
To view comments:
1 When viewing a wiki page or blog post, click Details.
If you’re already viewing the details, the Details button is replaced by a Hide button.
2 Click the Comments link.
To add a comment:
1 While viewing a wiki page’s or blog post’s comments, click Add Comment (+).
2 Enter your comment in the field and click Post.
To remove a comment:
mm While viewing a wiki page’s or blog post’s comments, click Delete next to comment
you want to delete.
If you’re an administrator, you can remove anyone’s comments. If you’re not an
administrator, you can remove only your own comments.
Marking Pages with a Star on iPhone or iPod touch
You can mark pages that you want to keep track of with a star. In the Updates pane of
My Page, you can display updates to those pages marked with a star.
To mark a page with a star on iPhone or iPod touch:
mm While viewing a wiki page or blog post, click the star at the left of the title.
mm While viewing search results, click the star at the left of the individual search result.
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Chapter 8    Viewing Wiki Tools on iPhone or iPod touch
Part II:  Deploying Wiki Tools
II
See examples of how wiki tools can expedite processes,
organize teams, and reduce manual labor.
Chapter 9
Streamlining Projects
Chapter 10
Improving Internal Documentation
Chapter 11
Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
Chapter 12
Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
Streamlining Projects
9
Learn how to streamline projects using wiki tools.
Wiki tools can streamline distribution of project information by acting as a hub for
different types of project information, such as plans, requirements, meeting minutes,
schedules, and prototypes.
By having a single hub for project information, you can:
ÂÂ Easily navigate and search for all project information
ÂÂ Reduce confusion by eliminating duplicate versions of project information
ÂÂ Create manageable project personnel lists
ÂÂ Enable parallel effort with multiple people working on different projects or the
same project
ÂÂ Create high-level and low-level views
ÂÂ Reuse and archive project information
ÂÂ Keep all interested parties informed of project updates
Project Wiki Blueprint
Each project should have its own wiki. By having a dedicated wiki for the project,
you can easily change who can access the project wiki.
You can point to pages within the project wiki from other wikis, such as departmental
wikis. If your department doesn’t have confidential information in its wiki and
people who require access to project information are allowed to view department
wiki content, you can include project information in the department wiki instead of
creating a wiki for it.
However, if you decide to change project access permissions later on, you can’t
separate project wiki pages from the rest of the department wiki pages.
70
Here’s a suggested layout for a project wiki:
Overview
Meeting
minutes
Team
Related
information
Plan
Prototypes
Schedule
Requirements
A project wiki should have the following pages. Depending on the size of the project,
you could combine some of these into a single page (such as the overview, team, and
schedule pages).
Page Type
Tags
Description
Overview
overview, projectname
On the wiki homepage, provide
a project overview and link to
key pages.
Team
team, hot, projectname
List project personnel and
their roles.
Plan
plan, hot, projectname
Include the project plan,
describing the milestones
and steps required to complete
the project.
Schedule
schedule, hot, projectname
Include or attach the latest
version of the schedule. When
you update the schedule,
replace the schedule on this
page.
Requirements
requirements, hot, projectname
If your project has requirement
specifications, create a page
for them. If there are multiple
requirement pages, link to them.
Prototypes
prototypes, hot, projectname
If your project has prototypes or
preliminary versions that can be
stored as a files, attach them to
this page.
Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
71
Page Type
Tags
Description
Related Information
projectname
If there are related pages on the
wiki or on other wikis, you could
create a page of links to them
or include a list of links on your
overview page.
Meeting Minutes
minutes, projectname
In the blog, post summaries
of meetings.
By tagging all pages related to the project with “projectname,” when you search across
all wikis, you can use the projectname tag to find pages related the project. By tagging
key pages with “hot,” links to those pages appear on the wiki’s main page.
Creating Navigable Wikis
There are two primary ways to navigate a wiki: browsing and searching. The
effectiveness of these methods depends on how well users link related pages together
and apply relevant tags. Wiki tools make it easy for users to link pages and add and
remove tags.
The wiki server stores all of a group’s wiki pages in the same location. There’s no
physical difference between a page that’s located 10 clicks deep in a wiki and one
that’s linked to from the wiki’s homepage. Because of this, you can create as deep or
as wide a navigation hierarchy as you’d like.
Changing hierarchies is as simple as cutting and pasting links from one wiki page to
another. You don’t need to move files between folders.
There are two ways to search: with plain-text and with tags. Plain-text search searches
across page title, content, last author, and tags. Tag-based search is more customizable
and could be more useful if you apply tags to pages that highlight a specific topic.
For example, for a project’s schedule you’d tag that page with “schedule,” but you
wouldn’t tag pages that mention schedules. This way if you do a tag-based search you
can find pages that apply directly to the specific topic instead of just mentioning it.
You can use multiple tags to find just the page you’re looking for. Tag all pages
related to various projects with their project name (ProjectX, ProjectY, and ProjectZ in
our example) and tag all information deliverables with their type (schedule, team,
plan, requirements).
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Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
If you wanted to find the schedule for ProjectZ and did a plain text search for “ProjectZ
schedule,” you’d find all pages that mention ProjectZ and schedule. Using a tag-based
search for “ProjectZ” will show you every page related to the ProjectZ project, which
you can then filter by using the “schedule” tag. You can easily find the page you’re
looking for without looking through a list of pages.
The following shows the results of two tag-based searches and how when you search
using both tags, you find the page related to both topics.
ProjectZ Team
ProjectX Schedule
ProjectZ Plan
ProjectZ
Schedule
ProjectY Schedule
ProjectZ
Requirements
Pages with
“ProjectZ” tag
Pages with
“schedule” tag
You can mix and match tags and plain-text searches to find specific pages. For example,
if you tag mailing list entries with their project name, you can later search for a phrase
in those entries and filter the search using the project tag.
Eliminating Duplicate Versions of Content
One problem with receiving project information through email is that as the project
changes and evolves, old information is left in email. For example, if you’re working on
a project named “ProjectX” that has gone through several schedule revisions, searching
for “ProjectX schedule” in Mail results in finding several schedule-related emails.
Some of these emails might mention ProjectX and the schedule but not include the
latest schedule, and some of them might include older versions of the schedule. Only
one email may have the latest schedule. You might even receive the schedule in an
email that doesn’t include the words “ProjectX” or “schedule,” in which case you won’t
find the schedule.
Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
73
You can solve these problems by giving every critical project information deliverable
its own wiki page. As that information changes, the page is updated, not duplicated.
When someone updates this page, everyone interested in the page is notified of the
change through RSS or on My Page.
If you want to look at an old version of the schedule, you can view the page history
and see a page version for every time someone updated the page. Because the page
history shows when pages were changed, you can refer to the older versions of the
schedule by the time and date shown in the page history.
Managing Project Personnel
Over a project’s lifespan, personnel might change or the responsibilities of the
personnel might change. By adding a team page to a project wiki, you can inform
everyone of who’s doing what on a team without sending out email announcements.
If someone assumes a new role, they can update the team page with their new role,
which reduces the amount of work to maintain the page’s information.
Parallelizing Effort
Wikis parallelize effort by allowing many people to simultaneously edit many pages
or continually refine content on the same page.
If a team is working on a number of projects, every team member can update
pages pertaining to his or her projects without consulting a central person. The wiki
eliminates the need for an information manager, someone who is knowledgeable
about all projects and gathers information about them.
Every team is responsible for editing their project pages and all project pages are
linked together by a hub page or by tags. The wiki becomes a self-sustaining system
that doesn’t require a central person.
If several people are working on the same page, the wiki can help streamline and
parallelize effort. When someone updates page content, the people who are interested
in the page are notified that the page was updated through RSS or on My Page. When
people make content updates, all interested parties are notified.
If two people edit a page simultaneously, the last person to save is notified that
someone else saved the page first and the last person to save can overwrite the saved
page or cancel his or her edits.
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Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
Creating High-Level Views
People who manage many projects usually maintain a collection of spreadsheets
with project lists and schedules, individual project plan documents sent in email,
and prototypes or source files hosted on file servers.
Providing a high-level or low-level view of a project requires effort in pulling
together information from a variety of sources and putting them in an organized,
comprehensive package. By putting this information on the wiki, you can create a
browsable, navigable series of pages to show information for many projects.
To create a high-level view, create a single page in a wiki that many people can
access, with links to every project’s main page. Every project has its own wiki with a
collection of pages with schedules, project plans, and prototypes. Because this is all in
one place on the wiki, you can browse through the pages to find information about
different projects.
Having a single linking page doesn’t expose projects with restricted access, because
these projects are hosted on their own wikis with their own access privileges.
When people click links to those pages, they’re asked to log in as someone with
project access.
Reusing Information
In file-based documents like PDFs, you reuse content by copying content from other
documents or you reference the other document and provide information about how
to find it.
There are several issues with copying content:
ÂÂ The information is no longer synced after you copy it. If the information changes,
you must update your copied content and the original document.
ÂÂ If the reader is familiar with the original content, the reader must still reread a copy
of the content.
There are several issues with referencing other documents:
ÂÂ To reference another document, you must describe the name and location of the
document and where in the document the content is located. If the referenced
document is updated, the page number listed for the content can become incorrect.
ÂÂ If you link to a document on a website, the reader must switch between a PDF
viewer and a web browser.
Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
75
In a wiki, instead of copying content, you provide a link to the content. This solves all of
the issues listed above:
ÂÂ Because a single page contains the information, there are no issues related to
syncing content.
ÂÂ If the reader is familiar with the page, they don’t need to reread the linked page.
ÂÂ Instead of providing detailed information about how to find a document, you can
directly link to wiki pages or documents.
ÂÂ The reader remains in a web browser and can easily navigate between pages.
Keeping Interested Parties Aware of Project Updates
In a project that doesn’t use a wiki, project updates often come piecemeal in a variety
of formats.
For example, the project team might discuss a schedule or personnel change.
This change would be discussed at a meeting, transcribed in meeting minutes, and
then emailed to all interested people. People who don’t attend the meeting will
become aware of the change only if they receive and read the email.
There are several problems with this approach:
ÂÂ The person receiving the email might not be interested in the information.
They could easily miss the information while looking for information they are
interested in.
ÂÂ If someone becomes interested in the information after the meeting occurs, they
must search their inbox to find the latest version of the information. They could
easily find outdated versions.
ÂÂ When you send the email, you might forget to include someone who is interested
in the information.
Having a project wiki solves these issues. Instead of sending meeting minutes through
email, post them to the blog. This way people can easily read all recent project
changes by looking through the blog.
In addition to posting meeting minutes to the blog, update key wiki pages such
as the schedule and personnel pages. If these pages are kept up to date, people
don’t need to read the blog—instead, they can view the key pages when they need
the information.
If everyone marks pages they’re interested in with a star, or keeps RSS feeds of
them, they’ll be aware of all changes, so you won’t need to explicitly choose who
to distribute information to when the project experiences a change.
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Chapter 9    Streamlining Projects
Improving Internal Documentation
10
Learn how wiki tools can help organize and distribute
internal documentation, while making it easier to update.
Internal documentation includes documentation of internal tools or processes that
aren’t made public. Because this documentation is internal and not public, it is usually
not as well organized or updated as public documentation.
There are a few issues with traditional internal documentation:
ÂÂ Internal documentation is often low priority and tends to be less organized than
formal documentation. As such, internal documentation might be in scattered
locations, including file servers, intranets, and on local computers.
ÂÂ An internal document is often related to other internal documents, but because
internal documents are treated less formally, it’s hard to reference other documents.
ÂÂ Internal documents are often written by writers with different styles and tools.
ÂÂ Internal documentation isn’t tied to formal product releases and thus can go
through cycles of heavy updating and inactivity.
ÂÂ It’s hard to search a suite of internal documents.
ÂÂ Internal documentation is used by many people in a company but only the original
author can update it.
ÂÂ Authors of internal documentation usually write the documentation as a side
project, and their primary responsibility is elsewhere. If they are busy with their
primary responsibility, they won’t have time to update internal documentation.
Internal Documentation Wiki Blueprint
Ideally, all internal documentation should be hosted in a single wiki in wiki format.
If internal documentation shouldn’t be available to everyone, these documents can be
hosted on their own wikis.
77
Here’s a suggested layout for an internal documentation wiki:
Overview
Category
Table of
contents
PDF
Single-page
documents
Content
An internal documentation wiki should include the following pages:
Page Type
Tags
Description
Overview
overview
On the wiki’s main page, provide
an overview of what people
can find in the wiki and link to
category pages.
Category
categoryname
If you have a variety of internal
documentation, create pages
that categorize the documents
and link to them.
PDF
PDF, documentname,
categoryname
If you’re not converting an
internal document to wiki
format, you could attach a PDF
to a page and link to that page
from a category page.
By having the PDF on its own
page, you can individually
tag the PDF page, and people
are notified when the PDF is
updated by watching this page.
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Chapter 10    Improving Internal Documentation
Page Type
Tags
Description
Table of contents
contents, documentname,
categoryname
If you have a long, multipage
internal document in wiki
format, it’s useful to have a table
of contents page that is linked
to from a category page. This
page has links to all content
pages for the document.
Content
documentname, categoryname
Includes wiki-formatted internal
documentation content. This
is linked to from the table of
contents page.
Single-page documents
documentname, categoryname
If a document is short, create a
single page with its content and
link to it from a category page.
Choosing Which Documents to Convert to Wiki Format
Sometimes documents are best left in PDF format and not converted to wiki pages.
For example, if the document is infrequently used or updated, it might not be worth
the effort to convert it. You can attach these documents to wiki pages, which allows
people to more easily find the most recent version of the document.
Here’s a comparison of PDFs and wiki:
Wiki
PDF
Dynamic
Static
Easy to update
Hard to update
Easy to link to from other wiki pages
Hard to link to from other PDFs
Can print single wiki pages
Can print entire PDFs
Must give people wiki access to view the wiki
pages
Can distribute without giving people wiki access
Reducing the Need for Single Ownership
Typically, an internal document is written by a single person but is read and used by
many people. The writer of the document usually has a primary responsibility that isn’t
writing documentation, so the internal document usually takes lower priority and can
easily become outdated.
By allowing everyone to edit the documentation or comment on possible issues, the
documentation can stay up to date even if the original writer is too busy to work on it.
Chapter 10    Improving Internal Documentation
79
There are two issues with allowing everyone to edit content:
ÂÂ The author might want to be aware of content updates and suggested changes to
his or her content.
ÂÂ Some documents shouldn’t be edited by anyone but the author, or content updates
should go through a review process.
Wiki tools solves these issues.
To stay aware of pages you’ve written or are interested in, mark those pages with a
star. You can search for all pages you’ve marked with a star and view updates and
comments on these pages in My Page, or create an RSS feed so you’re notified when
someone makes a change when you’re not looking at the wiki.
There are several solutions to making read-only content. You can leave a note at the
top of the page, or in comments, saying not to update the page without permission.
If you mark the page with a star, you’re notified if someone updates the page. You can
then use the page history feature to revert to an older version of the page.
You could also host the content in its own wiki, give yourself admin privileges, and
give everyone else reader privileges but allow them to make comments. This prevents
people from changing your content but they can help you improve your content by
leaving comments.
Maintaining Documents in Wikis Instead of Word
Processor Files
Many single-ownership issues are tied to the idea of using word processors to create
documentation. With a word processor, only a single individual should have ownership
of source files; otherwise you could have multiple versions of a document. You could
use a content management system to allow multiple authors and ensure that the
source doesn’t split off into multiple documents.
It takes substantially more effort to use a combination of word processors, content
management systems, and non-wiki distribution systems. The following require
substantial effort:
ÂÂ You must train people to use content management systems.
ÂÂ When people find issues, they must describe the issue to the owner of the
document, then the owner then must locate the document in the content
management system, update it, and convert it to PDF.
ÂÂ If you distribute documents on webpages that don’t support RSS, owners must
notify everyone to download the new PDF from the website.
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Chapter 10    Improving Internal Documentation
In a wiki, the actions required by the reader and owner are more streamlined and
driven by content changes. In a wiki, when readers find issues, they can fix those issues
while they’re viewing the page. If the wiki restricts who can edit the page, the reader
can leave a comment and tag the page with “issue.”
If the owner marked the page with a star and has a RSS feed of starred pages and
pages tagged with “issue,” the owner is notified when someone says there’s an issue
with one of their pages. When the page is changed, RSS notifies everyone who’s
interested in the page that the page was updated.
The following illustration compares the process of editing documents using non-wiki
authoring tools and the same process using the wiki:
Non-wiki
authoring tool
Wiki
(only owner can edit)
Wiki
(everyone can edit)
Reader
Reader
Reader
Finds an error
Finds an error
Finds an error
Identifies the owner
Leaves a comment
and tag on a page
Makes changes
Emails the owner
the issue
Everyone
Owner
Owner
Locates the source
Locates the source
Makes changes
Receives RSS
notification
Makes changes
Converts to PDF
Everyone
Posts to PDF
Receives RSS
notification
Notifies everyone
to get the PDF
Everyone
Downloads the PDF
The steps in yellow are universally required steps. The steps in white are overhead that
is specific to the process used.
Chapter 10    Improving Internal Documentation
81
Communicating More Effectively
with Wiki Tools
11
Learn how to use wiki tools to communicate more effectively.
Wiki tools provide several new communication methods, which in some situations can
be more effective that the communication methods you’re used to.
Some organizations use email as their primary communication method and use web
communication only for organization-wide static information.
Because wiki tools are dynamic and content can be created and edited by anyone who
has permission, you can expand how web communication is used and thereby limit
the use of email to those situations where it’s appropriate.
82
Choosing the Right Method of Communication
Web communication methods, such as wikis and blogs, are best for nonurgent group
communication, and email is best for urgent or personal communication.
Wikis, blogs, email, and mailing lists excel at specific purposes:
Method
Strengths
Wiki
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Collaborative
Dynamic
Persistent
Good for file distribution
Commentable
Can be linked to
Examples
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Blog
ÂÂ
Time-centered
Persistent
ÂÂ Nonurgent
ÂÂ Commentable
ÂÂ Can be linked to
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
ÂÂ
Internal documentation
Background research
Action items
Documents, presentations,
and files
Project schedule
Links to a focused group of
websites
Meeting agendas
Meeting minutes
ÂÂ Status updates
ÂÂ Links to miscellaneous
websites
Email
ÂÂ
Immediate
ÂÂ Direct
ÂÂ
Mailing lists
ÂÂ
Immediate
Permanent
ÂÂ Logged
ÂÂ
Direct requests
ÂÂ Urgent or time-sensitive
information
ÂÂ Communicating with specific
people who aren’t in a group
Group requests
ÂÂ
Chapter 11    Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
83
The following is a communication flow that you can use to decide the best
communication medium to use for a specific situation:
Are you communicating
with an established group?
Yes
No
Do you need people
to immediately see
your message?
Yes
Are you attaching
a large file?
Yes
Send email to
mailing list
and attach file
to a wiki page
No
Send email
to mailing list
Send email
No
Would it be useful
to update or allow
others to update
your message?
Yes
Add wiki entry
No
Add blog entry
Problems with Email
Email is an immediate, direct communication method that’s best suited for urgent
requests. By contrast, although wikis and blogs have notification systems such as
My Page and RSS, they’re best suited for information that is viewed as needed.
Email has these issues:
ÂÂ When people reply instead of replying to all, the email threads can get out of sync.
ÂÂ Every time an email is responded to, a new version of the email is created.
ÂÂ Unfiltered email appears in your inbox regardless of how urgent it is or whether it
directly affects you.
ÂÂ The volume of email communication can be burdensome.
ÂÂ To find a specific email, you must perform a text search.
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Chapter 11    Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
Email isn’t a good medium for many types of communication. It’s not good for
information that:
ÂÂ Persists over time
ÂÂ Can change
ÂÂ Has no immediate urgency
Instructions are an example of persistent, nonurgent, dynamic communication. If you
send instructions to your department through email, you’ll face several issues:
ÂÂ When people join the department, you must find and then forward previous email
to them.
ÂÂ If people find issues in your instructions, you must send another email or have your
department try to follow the response thread.
ÂÂ When people join the department, you must forward the response thread, which
can be confusing.
ÂÂ If there’s no urgency, people might skip the email and then when they search for it
later, they might see an outdated version of the instructions.
Posting instructions in a wiki page solves these issues.
Eliminating Response Threads
If you send an email to a group and someone in the group has an issue or comment
related to your email, the commenter can either include or not include the group
when sending feedback.
If the commenter includes the group, the email can turn into a lengthy, confusing
discussion, at the end of which members of the group must find the email to follow,
and then they must read through a series of replies. Every group member receives this
full thread, even if some members aren’t interested.
If the commenter doesn’t include the group, the group doesn’t get the benefit of the
discussion. Unless you send a new email to the group, only the commenter receives
updated information.
Because of all the emails that are sent to the group, group members might look at
different emails, which then adds to the confusion, and requires you to reexamine the
thread to find the resolution.
By posting the information on a wiki, people can post questions about the content as
comments, or if they see issues, they can update the content. Because this is all done
on the wiki page, people aren’t sent emails, but if they’re interested in tracking the
page, they can view updates in My Page or have an RSS feed of the page.
Chapter 11    Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
85
There is no confusion about which version of the content is accurate. If people have
questions, they can review the page comments to see if their questions have been
asked before.
Reducing Spam
Emails are direct and immediate; email comes to you. Wikis and blogs are nonurgent;
you view a wiki or blog when you need to. RSS and My Page notify you of wiki and
blog changes, but neither is as urgent and direct as email.
One issue with having urgent and nonurgent information coming through email is
that noncritical information could potentially mask critical information. By reducing
emails to just those that are urgent and moving the rest to blog and wiki as
appropriate, you can focus more efficiently on critical issues. When you don’t have
critical issues, you can quickly scan through blog posts and new wiki pages.
Creating Navigable Information
Unlike email, content in wikis, blogs, and mailing lists can be tagged and linked to.
After posting content in a wiki, people can update the content without sending email
to everyone in the group.
If you tag content related to a specific project with the name of that project, you can
do a single tag-based search to find everything related to that topic. If you instead
used email to distribute information, you’d do a text search to find related content,
but you’ll find email threads that mention the project or that have many responses, of
which you want to know only the result. If the name of the project isn’t included in the
email, you won’t find the email.
When new people join a group or a project, you can send them a collection of links to
wiki pages, or a single link of a tag-based search of all pages they’re interested in.
For example, if you have a collection of orientation information for new employees,
you could search for the “orientation” tag and send them the link to the search results.
If you had this information in several emails, you’d have to search through your email
and then individually forward emails.
86
Chapter 11    Communicating More Effectively with Wiki Tools
Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
12
Learn how to implement wiki tools in the classroom.
Wiki tools aren’t just for helping organizations and professional teams—they can be
used in classrooms.
Wikis can help organize student groups, distribute information in a browsable format,
and support new types of projects that aren’t easily managed with traditional, paperbased tools.
Classroom Wiki Blueprint
You can set up wikis based on whether you want to stop students from editing
specific pages such as the syllabus page, or whether you trust your students not to
edit those pages.
If you want to stop students from editing specific pages, create two wikis for every
class, one where students can just read content and post moderated comments, and
another where students can write content and post unmoderated comments.
If you trust students not to edit specific pages, create a single wiki where students can
read and write content and post comments. On pages that you don’t want them to
edit, add a comment saying that students should not edit the page.
In both wiki setups, create a project wiki when you have a project that you’d like
students from multiple classes to work on.
87
Here’s a suggested layout for two classroom wikis, one of which is editable by students:
Students can’t edit
Classroom wiki
Syllabus
Assignment
descriptions
Yearbook
Notes and
references
Assignment
turn in
Group
sign up
Bios
Overview
Content
Classroom wiki
Students can edit
88
Project
descriptions
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
Project wiki
Here’s a suggested layout for a single classroom wiki, which is editable by students:
Students can edit
Syllabus
Yearbook
Bios
Assignment
descriptions
Group
sign up
Classroom wiki
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
Notes and
references
Description
and overview
Content
Project wiki
89
Classroom wikis can include the following pages:
Page Type
Tags
Description
Syllabus
syllabus
On the wiki’s homepage,
describe the class, including
time, location, and requirements.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can’t edit.
Assignment description
assignment
If the assignment shouldn’t be
revealed until it’s assigned, post
it as a blog entry. If students
can see it at any time, post
it as a wiki entry. Students
can add comments to ask for
clarification.
If you have two wikis, put this
in the wiki that students can’t
edit. If you have a single wiki,
you could use a single page for
describing assignments and
turning in assignments.
Project descriptions
project, projectname
If the project shouldn’t be
revealed until it’s assigned, post
it as a blog entry. If students
can see it at any time, post
it as a wiki entry. Students
can add comments to ask for
clarification.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can’t edit.
90
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
Page Type
Tags
Description
Notes and references
notes
If you have lecture notes,
presentation slides, or external
reference materials, attach these
or link to them in wiki pages or
blog posts. If you attach media,
such as a lecture recording,
students can subscribe to these
in iTunes.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can’t edit.
Yearbook
yearbook
If you want students to get
to know each other, create
a yearbook page and link to
individual bio pages for each
student.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can edit.
Bio
yearbook
If you have a yearbook page,
each student creates his or
her own bio page describing
themself.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can edit.
Group sign-up
group
When you have team-based
assignments, create a page for
team sign up. Students can add
their names to specific teams.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can edit.
Assignment turn-in
assignment
If you want students to turn
in assignments electronically,
create a page to store them.
Similarly, students can turn in
short assignments by adding
comments instead of editing
page content.
If you have two wikis, put this in
the wiki that students can edit.
Project wikis should contain purely content pages, except for the homepage, which
introduces the project. By having projects in separate wikis, you can let people outside
of the current class view and add content.
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
91
Preventing Misinformation
If you use wikis to distribute and collect assignments, organize teams, and host
information created by students about other students, you might think the wiki could
become a hotbed for distribution of misinformation. However, wiki tools have several
safeguards in place to prevent malicious editing.
One of the common misconceptions about using wikis and blogs is that anyone can
edit or update information without consequence. In wiki tools, every time someone
edits and saves a page, a new version of that page is created. The wiki saves previous
versions and keeps track of who edited the page last and what they changed. If a
student maliciously edits a page, you can find out who edited the page and what they
changed. You can then revert the page to an older version.
To prevent students from changing critical information, create a wiki that gives
read-only access to all students and comments moderated by you before they are
published publicly. You could have the class syllabus and assignment descriptions
on this wiki, but link to pages on a wiki students can edit, where students can post
completed assignments for your review.
Creating Wiki Yearbooks
When young students enter a new class, a typical first exercise is to share information
about themselves with all the other students so they learn each others’ names and
become familiar with each other. You can use a wiki to achieve the same results and
also add value.
To start, the teacher creates a class roster wiki page, listing everyone’s name. Every
student would then create a biography page linked from their name on the roster
page. In the biography pages, students describe themselves, including their favorite
things to do, favorite foods, favorite movies. Afterwards, students can browse each
others’ biographies and learn more about each other than can be gleaned from a
short speech in class. This exercise gives students a chance to express themselves in
a creative way and provides lasting value.
Later, you could create a yearbook by excerpting material from every student’s
biography page. Better yet, allow the class roster and biography pages to serve as a
dynamic electronic yearbook.
Posting Assignments on a Wiki
Because a wiki is easy to use, it’s an excellent medium for distributing homework
assignments. If a teacher reuses the same assignments for all classes, providing them
on a wiki saves paper, reduces time and effort.
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Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
If students need clarification about an assignment, they can post comments on the
assignment page, which can then be answered and read by all students. This prevents
the teacher from individually answering questions or re-clarifying the assignment for
other students.
If assignments are secret and not made public until they are assigned, teachers can
create blog posts for assignments. Students can see questions other students ask, and
you can save effort by copying the assignment text from the previous class’s blog and
pasting it in a future class’s blog.
If assignments require short responses, post the assignment as wiki pages or blog
posts and ask students to complete the assignment by adding a comment with
their response.
This works well in collaborative classes where students can build on each other’s
responses, or creative classes such as language arts, where assignments might require
students to create poetry or prose. Students can learn from each others’ work.
Similarly, you can set up a wiki so that comments are moderated. You’d then approve
the best entries from students and share those with the class.
Posting Additional Information on a Wiki
Over time, a class uses a large volume of materials. In a traditional classroom, this
involves numerous printouts that students must organize and file in binders. Similarly,
lessons must be transcribed in student notes, which also must be filed away.
You can use a wiki to create an organized system for class materials, and an online
repository for audio lessons in podcast format. This reduces waste, provides students
with information when they need it, and allows students to review old information
even if they were absent from class, or if their own note taking or organization was
inadequate.
Using Wikis for Group Sign Up
Wikis are a great medium for organizing and tracking voluntary teams. If you have an
assignment that requires a class to split into several teams with a specific number of
members in each, you can use the wiki to organize those teams.
Create a page listing the teams and, if available, include background information about
the subject matter they’re working on.
You could add a table listing names and roles for each team so students know how
many spots are open in the team and what role they’d play. Because students fill out
the tables themselves, you don’t need to track the teams separately.
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
93
You can review the wiki page and quickly see who’s on the team and what role they
play. Later, as students complete their assignments, you can link the assignments from
the wiki page so students can easily see what they’ve worked on.
Ask students to tag the group projects with their names, so that later you can review
everything the student worked on as part of a team.
Using Wikis for Persistent Projects
You can use wikis to create persistent projects, projects that last beyond a single
semester or classroom.
For example, in a history class, you can create a class project where everyone works
on a shared timeline. In the following semester, you can create a project where the
class splits into teams and focuses on different areas of the timeline, building on the
work of the initial class. Future semesters create more detailed information in the wiki,
resulting in a detailed, rich timeline that isn’t possible in a single semester.
There are many issues with creating a cohesive, integrated, large scale, persistent
deliverable in paper format:
94
Issue
Paper Solution
Wiki Solution
Access to previous students
source materials
You must store accompanying
source files for printed reports
on a file server.
The content is the source.
Previously created material
that gets lost
You must store backup copies of Content can’t be lost. If content
printed materials.
is deleted, you can restore it.
Finding areas to improve or
build on
You must read through volumes You can browse through
of material or rely on notes from content, looking for pages that
don’t have much content.
previous students.
Referencing previous work
You must create a
bibliographical reference for
every reference.
You can create a link to other
pages.
Combining work into a
cohesive set
You must physically arrange
reports in an order that makes
sense.
You can link from related pages
to created content.
Chapter 12    Using Wiki Tools in the Classroom
A
access
administrator 23
blogs 21
documentation 77
iPhone and iPod touch 65, 66, 67
passwords 18, 19
permissions 23, 28
user 23
wiki 24, 28, 43
accounts, settings 19
administrator 23, 29
archive files 39
attachments 39, 50
audio files 37
B
blogs
content 32
creating 23, 31
definition 13
deleting 31
podcast enabling 28
settings 18, 21
See also posts, wiki tools
C
calendars. See web calendars
comments
adding 42
enabling 29
iPhone and iPod touch 68
moderation 21
previewing 52
removing 42
content tags 46
D
documentation 8, 9, 77, 79, 80
E
education, wiki tools in 87, 92, 93, 94
email addresses 19, 37
Index
Index
email versus web communication 84, 85, 86
See also mailing lists
embedding files 37
events 60, 61, 62
F
files
archive 39
media 37
filters
search 46
Updates page 52
finding. See searching
G
group web calendar 57, 67
groups 64, 93
H
homepage 30
host name 31
HTML (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) tags 40
I
iCal 64
icons, wiki 27
images
inserting 37
profile 19
invitations 60
iPhone and iPod touch
blog posts 66
comments 68
My Page 65
overview 65
searching 67
stars 68
tags 67
web calendars 67
wiki pages 66
L
links in wiki pages 36
95
list styles 35
login and logout 17
naming conventions
web calendars 59
wiki tool content 34
notes 62
podcasting 21, 28
posts, blog
comments 42
creating 32
deleting 33
editing 34, 41
iPhone and iPod touch access 66
list styles 35
media files 37, 39
paragraph styles 35
renaming 34
restoring 41
RSS feed 53, 55
source code 40
tables 39
text styles 35
updating 51
watching 52
private wiki 24, 28
privileges, administrator 23
profile image 19
protocols, HTML 40
public wiki 24, 28
O
Q
orphan page 32
Quick Look 50
P
R
M
Mac OS X Server, web calendars and iCal 64
mail service, rules for 18, 20
mailing lists 14
media files 37
meta-information tags 46
minicalendar 57
movies 37
My Page
iPhone and iPod touch access 65
login and logout 17
overview 15
settings 18, 19, 20, 21
updating content from 51, 52
N
pages, wiki
attachments 50
categorizing 48
comments 42
creating 32
deleting 33
duplicate content 73
editing 34
iPhone and iPod touch access 66
links 36
list styles 35
media files 37, 39
paragraph styles 35
renaming 34
restoring 41
RSS feed 53, 55
source code 40
tables 39
text styles 35
updating 51, 76
versus PDFs 79
watching 52
paragraph styles 35
passwords 18, 19
PDFs versus wiki pages 79
permissions 23, 28
personal web calendar 57
96
Index
Really Simple Syndication. See RSS
renaming
web calendars 59
wiki tool content 34
RSS (Really Simple Syndication) 49, 53, 55
S
searching
iPhone and iPod touch 67
multiple wikis 45
overview 44
saved searches 46
single wiki 45
tags 46, 47, 48
security 18
See also access
server administrator 24
sidebars 30
source code, accessing 40
stars, wiki 43, 49, 68
T
tags, wiki
categorizing pages 48
introduction 43
iPhone and iPod touch access 67
searching with 44, 45, 46, 47, 48
text styles 35
themes 27
Y
yearbooks, wiki 92
U
updating wiki content 51, 52, 53, 76
users
access control 23
web calendars 64
V
vacation notice 18, 20
W
watching wiki content 52
web calendars
colors 59
creating 58
deleting 58
events 60, 61, 62
hiding 59
iCal 64
multiple 58
navigating 57
overview 13, 57
renaming 59
settings 63
showing 59
web communication 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
weblogs. See blogs
wiki tools
categorizing pages 48
classroom application 87, 92, 93, 94
communication with 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
disabling 27
document organization 77, 79, 80
enabling 27
iPhone and iPod touch 65, 66, 67, 68
navigating 43, 72
overview 7, 12
Quick Look 50
reusing information 75
searching 44, 45, 46, 47, 48
streamlining projects 70, 74, 75
updating content 51
See also blogs, My Page, web calendars, wikis
wikis
access control 24, 28, 43
advantages 12
content 32
creating 23, 24
definition 12
deleting 25
settings 26, 30
sidebars 30
See also pages
Index
97
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