Order of titles
USOO8452162B2
(12) United States Patent
(10) Patent N0.2
de Haan
(54)
(45) Date of Patent:
ORDER OF TITLES
5,999,698 A *
6,118,924 A *
.
-
~
6,118,927 A
(75)
Inventor.
(73)
Assignee: Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.,
Wlebe de Haan, E1ndhoven (NL)
6,215,746 B1
-
21
A
1 N
.
( )
(22)
~
( ) Y
Egg; et 31' ““““““ n 524/400
10/2001 Ando et a1.
,
as
6,449,227 B1
ays-
6,493,506 B1
12/403 822
ganilunhiFttaali
,
7,190,885 B2
1wag1 e
713/400
.
......... ..
9/2002 H60
12/2002 Schoneret a1.
3/2007 Ando et a1.
0.:
pp
Filed:
’
Mar. 13, 2009
(65)
EP
Prior Publication Data
US 2009/0180757 A1
Jul. 16, 2009
Related US. Application Data
Feb. 21, 2001, noW Pat. No. 7,577,341.
(30)
0903738 A2
EP
0903744 A2
3/1999
EP
0905699 A2
3/1999
EP
0903744 A3
6/1999
EP
0929072 A2
7/1999
EP
1003337 AZ
50000
(commued)
Assistant Examiner * Stephen smlth
(EP) ................................... .. 99202056
Int_ CL
(57)
ABSTRACT
A method of recording an encoded bit stream that represents
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References Cited
(56)
’
ry'
5,838,362 A
7/1998
adjacent recordings that represent playable titles, Where a
plete cells or a subset of complete cells of a recording in the
order of allocation Within the Video object storage area on the
disc. The method further includes generating a title list of
titles sorted in the order of arrangement Within the Video
object area on the disc. The method further includes de?ning
a free space title that represents free space Within the Video
object area and includes the free space title in the title list.
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
5,784,528 A *
Video objects includes recording a collection of contiguously
arranged Video objects and management information about
recorded Video objects. The collection is partitioned into
playable title is de?ned as a playback sequence of all com
(58) Elggicd Clasm?catgoslé 2;?)rc31129 214 217 283 330
See a
3/1999
Primary Examiner i Thai Tran
Foreign Application Priority Data
Jun. 25, 1999
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
0724264 A2
7/1996
EP
(63) Continuation of application No. 09/763,442, ?led on
(51)
Kikuchi et a1.
*
platserg ilssixltertdeglo‘rdadjusted under 35
- ~
Nakataniet al. ............ .. 386/248
9/2001 Nakatani et a1.
6,308,005 B1
-
9/2000
9/2000
4/2001 Ando Iet a1,
6,285,827 B1
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
May 28, 2013
12/1999 Nakai et a1. ................. .. 386/230
4
E1ndhoven (NL)
( * ) Notice:
US 8,452,162 B2
Yamane etal. ............. .. 386/329
18 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets
11/1998 Furuyaet a1.
LPISATYS
ORIGNALS
FLAV LIST 1
PLAY LlST 2
W 0111
AS ORIGlNAL
I
mm 0101
PLAY LISTK
mmm
FREE SPACE
00110111
PLAY “ST N
DRIGI NAL \
ORIGINAL2
(am 01x1
0000 01:1
ORIGINALI
MEMO!
ORIGINAL K
ORIGINAL N
US 8,452,162 B2
Page 2
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
1021048 A2
7/2000
1041565
2294173
8181971
11155130
A1
A
A
A
11328929 A
10/2000
4/1996
7/1996
6/1999
11/1999
JP
wo
wo
W0
W0
20000232763 A
9746007 A1
9844508 A1
00/02195 A2
00/30112 A1
* cited by examiner
8/2000
12/1997
10/1998
1/2000
5/2000
US. Patent
May 28, 2013
Sheet 3 0f8
US 8,452,162 B2
vrsI/
VTS_P1T s
VMGI l1T_SRPT/TT_SRPs
EXAMPLE
TT_PB_TY
PLAY 11st
usn
mom
AS ORIGINAL
00000101
i PLAY LIST K
g
P'lT_Ns
5
VTS_1TN
5'
21
:1
4
I
W
0000 0101
a
K'
/@
FREE SPACE
0000 0111
1
M
\>®
PLAY LISTN
000101111
N ( < 50)
ORIGINAL1
0000 01x1
N+1
:2
2
I
ORIGINALZ
9 ORIGINALI
N +2
00000101
4
‘2‘
N +1
/@
..
Q
g ORIGINALK
00000101
5
N+K
\©
FREE SPACE
00000111
1
N+M
\©
ORIGINAL N
0000 01x1
AGL_Ns
== '1 '
TT_PTL_ID_FLD
==zero
VTSN
== '1 '
N+N
Bit 1 of IT _ PB _TY indicates free space
FIG. 6A
US. Patent
May 28, 2013
VTS_1TN
Sheet 5 0f 8
VTS_PGCI_SA
1
2
C???W”?
I
-> ORIGINAL 1 PGCI
K
—> PLAY LISTK PGCI
M
—> FREE SPACEM PGCI
N
N+1
N +2
—> ORIGINAL1 PGCI
-—> ORIGINAL2 PGCI
N+I
—> ORIGINAL I PGCI
N+K
—> ORIGINALK PGCI
N+M
——> FREE SPACE M PGCI
N+N
—>- ORIGINALN PGCI
Entry type
Block mode
Block type
PTL _ID _ FLD
gé "
Equal VTS _ PGCI_ SA indicate ' no THL '
FIG. 60
US 8,452,162 B2
US. Patent
May 28, 2013
US 8,452,162 B2
Sheet 6 0f 8
0" gl
i5|l\1 L 0Cl"'
i
>
>
nCuIlY
A)A.\),.V
1
<
2
FIG. 7
FIG. 8
US. Patent
May 28, 2013
Sheet 7 0f 8
r_______------___-__-_---|
12
X
FIG. 9
FIG. 10
US 8,452,162 B2
US. Patent
May 28, 2013
US 8,452,162 B2
Sheet 8 0f 8
%/
’25
27\
FIG. 11
FG.12
US 8,452,162 B2
1
2
ORDER OF TITLES
quent recording may be overwritten too. He would not under
stand this if the recordings were randomly ordered, as
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No.
09/763,442 now US. Pat. No. 7,577,341 and is incorporated
allowed in the DVD Video format, possibly leading to disap
pearing of a previous recording when overwriting a speci?c
by reference herein.
recording.
This allows a playback device to employ a simple user
model in case of real time DVD video recordings. A title
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
menu, used by a player for display and selection, can simply
The invention relates to a method for recording encoded
be read from the management area. There is no need to read
the information in the video storage area itself and conse
quently calculating a title menu. This means that a player
information signals on a disc like record carrier, such as an
optically readable disc. The invention further relates to a
recording apparatus for performing the method.
adapted for playback ofpre-recorded DVD Read-Only discs,
does not require modi?cation in order to display a proper title
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
menu.
The DVD-Video format for optically readable discs is
de?ned in the DVD Speci?cations for Read-Only Disc, part 3:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Video Speci?cations (version 1.0, August 1996). Relevant
parts therefrom are being disclosed in for instance European
Patent Application EP 724 264 and US. Pat. No. 5,784,528,
respectively document D1 and D2 in the list of referred docu
These and further aspects and advantages of the invention
20
will be apparent from and elucidated in more detail hereinaf
ter with reference to the disclosure of preferred embodiments,
ments that can be found at the end of this description. Both
in particular with reference to the appended ?gures in which,
documents are incorporated by reference herein.
FIG. 1 illustrates the logical data structure of a DVD disc
corresponding to an embodiment for DVD Video Recording
The DVD-Video format as de?ned in the above mentioned
Speci?cations for READ-Only Disc and disclosed in D1 and
25
according to the invention;
FIG. 2 illustrates more in detail the structure of the Video
D2 was created for storing movies and other video content on
read-only DVD media. Some of the features of the DVD
Video format make it less suitable for real-time recording
Manager area (VMG) of FIG. 1;
applications.
Title Set Information area (VTSI) of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 illustrates the structure of the Video Manager Infor
However, it is desirable to create and record video streams
and associated data structures on rewritable media in real time
FIG. 3 illustrates more in detail the structure of the Video
30
mation Management Table (VTSI_MAT) of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 illustrates the structure of the Program Chain Infor
which are should preferably be almost identical to the struc
tures de?ned in the DVD-Video format. Such rewritable discs
mation area (PGCI);
FIG. 6 shows an example of ?nding a Titles Program Chain
should be play back compatible with the majority of the
installed base of consumer DVD-Video players. The method
according to the invention describes a novel and inventive
35
FIG. 7 shows a recording apparatus according to a ?rst
format for DVD-Video compatible real-time recording of
embodiment of the invention, the respective units therefrom
being illustrated in more detail in the following ?gures of
video streams, referred to hereinafter to as Real Time DVD
Video Recording or shortly DVD-Video Recording. The for
mat de?ned is intended for home video recording on an opti
Information (PGCI);
which
40
FIG. 8 shows anA/V input unit;
cal medium which is playback compatible with DVD-Video
FIG. 9 shows a CODEC unit;
players.
FIG. 10 shows anA/V output unit;
The above-mentioned DVD-Video format demands that
data for a VTS be allocated contiguously. This gives all kinds
of problems when part of the data is overwritten with new
FIG. 11 shows a drive unit, and
FIG. 12 shows a system control unit.
45
recordings:
DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
The DVD-Video format allows an arbitrary numbering of
Video Titles (VT) within a Video Title Set (VTS). For
instance such as the sequence of Video Titles: VT1, VT3,
new and largerVideo Title VT4, will result in overwriting also
The data structure to be disclosed hereafter explains the
DVD-Video compatibility behind the Real-Time Video
Recording Format and speci?es how it should be used by
recorders to create DVD-Video playback compatible discs.
Video Title VT2. This would appear strange to a user, employ
ing a Video Title menu listing the Video Titles in consecutive
DVD-Video format for read-only discs, a number of changes
order: VT1, VT2, VT3, . . . . Such a sequence would be
have been made to the data organization and the use of some
changed into a sequence like: VT1, X, VT4, . . . with X 55
of the recording parameters in the real-time data stream.
VT2, . . . . Overwriting for instance Video Title VT 3 with a 50
To overcome limitations for real-time recording of the
The use of Titles and Menus is restricted to improve
denoting a deleted Video Title.
Thus, when partial overwrite is one of the features, the user
exchangeability of rewritable discs between recorders. In
addition to this, strict rules are de?ned for Play Lists, which
model of the recording medium becomes complicated.
can be created by the user to de?ne playback sequences of
OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
60
pieces from the recorded Titles.
user as a sequential, tape like medium. The user will under
First a list of de?nitions is given.
Access Unit
Coded representation of a presentation unit. See ISO/IEC
13818-1 related to MPEG-2 systems, document D3 in the list
of referred documents that can be found at the end of this
description, for a more detailed de?nition of MPEG audio and
stand that when overwriting a speci?c recording, a sub se
video access units.
In consequence, amongst other things, it is an object of the
invention to obviate the above-mentioned disadvantages.
By de?ning the playable items and the list of playable titles
in the order of allocation, the recording medium appears to a
65
US 8,452,162 B2
4
3
The VTS Title VOBS is partitioned into adjacent Record
ings which do not necessarily coincide with the VOBs in the
Buffer Cell
Last Cell of a Video Object (VOB) containing just one
Video Object Unit (VOBU). The Buffer Cell is not used by
VOBS.
Title
User accessible unit listed in the Title Search Pointer Table.
Title Menu
This is a menu that gives the user access to Play Lists and
any Program Chain (PCGC). The Cell ID of a Buffer Cell is
equal to 255.
Cell
Sequence of one or more Video Object Units (VOBU). The
optionally to Full Titles.
Title Search Pointer Table
?rst VOBU of a Cell shall contain video data. Cells are the
basic presentation units for the Program Chains (PGC)
Chapter
10
Table in the Video Manager listing all available Play Lists
Subdivision of a Title. Other word for Part_of_Title (PTT).
DVD-VR Format
and Full Titles on the disc. It is a starting point for ?nding the
data that is relevant for playing back a Title.
Short for Video Format Speci?cations for Real-Time
DVD-Video Recording.
Video Manager (VMG)
DVD-Video data structures containing information about
DVD-Video Format for Read-only Discs
15 the recorded video data and the Title Menu. The Title Search
Format as speci?ed in the DVD speci?cations for ReadPointer Table is one of the elements of the Video Manager.
Only Disc-Part 3: Video Speci?cations (version 1.0, August
Video Object (VOB)
1996), elements of which are being disclosed in D1 and D2.
DVD-Video Format for Rewritable Discs
A Video Object is (a part of) a sequence of contiguously
recorded Cells, together constituting (a part of) an MPEG-2
Format of DVD-Video related structures with the modi?- 20 Program Stream.
cations speci?ed in this disclosure.
Elementary Stream
An integer number of MPEG-2 Program Stream packs may
be missing from the beginning of the ?rst Cell of the VOB, if
An elementary stream is a generic term for a sequence of
this Cell is not used by any Title. The last Cell of a VOB is a
coded video, coded audio, coded graphics or other access
Buffer Cell.
units that can be correctly decoded by a hypothetical decoder 25
AVOB shall contain one video elementary stream. Gaps in
operating without special control from an external controller.
the video stream are allowed under conditions speci?ed by
Free Space
the DVD-Video speci?cations.
Recording which is represented by a Free Space Title in the
According to the DVD-Video speci?cations a VOB may
Title Search Pointer Table. If the last Recording is free space,
also contain up to eight Audio streams (in elementary audio
it is not represented in this table.
30 streams and/or in private streams) and up to 32 Sub-picture
Free Space Title
Full Title or Play List Title which cannot be played back as
the related Program Chain Information contains a pre-com-
mand to prevent this. Time_Play( ), Time_Search( ),
streams. The DVD-VR format only allows one Audio stream
and one Sub-picture stream within the same VOB.
Video Object Unit (VOBU)
Integer number of MPEG-2 Program Stream packs repre
PTT_Play( ) and PTT_Search( ) for a Free Space Title are 35 senting a presentation period between 0.4 and 1.0 seconds.
blocked. The Cell information in the Program Chain of a Free
Space Title may not be reliable.
Full Title
Title representing one Recording.
The last VOBU of a Cell has a maximum presentation
period of 1.2 seconds. When the VOBU contains Video, the
video data consists of an integer number of GOPs and starts
with a sequence header, a GOP header and an intra coded
When a Full Title is played, all complete Cells (except the 40 picture.
Buffer Cells) contained in the Recording are played in the
A Sub-picture Unit is optional in aVOBU and cannot cross
order of data allocation in the VTS Title VOBS. Full Titles
VOBU boundaries. The SPU’s associated validity period
may be accessible via the Title Menu.
ends at or before the end presentation time of the VOBU.
Group of Pictures (GOP)
Video Object Set (VOBS)
Series of coded pictures starting with a GOP-header fol- 45
This is a collection of contiguously recorded VOBs.
lowed by an intra coded picture. The GOP represents up to 36
VOBs which are used for the menus are stored in the Video
display ?elds at a rate of 59.94 HZ, or 30 ?elds at a rate of 50
Manager VOBS (VMGM_VOBS). VOBs which are used for
HZ.
the Titles are stored in the VTS Title VOBS (VTSTT_VOBS).
MPEG-2 Program Stream (MPEG-2 PS)
FIG. 1 shows the general data structure in accordance with
Program Stream as de?ned in ISO/IEC 13818-1 related to 50 the Real-Time Video Recording format. The data structure
MPEG-2 systems, document D3 in the list of referred docucomprises a Lead-In area (LI), a Volume (VOL) and File
ments that can be found at the end of this description.
System area (FS), a Video Manager area (VMG), one Video
Multiplexed Stream
Title Set (VTS), an area reserved for other structures
Amultiplexed stream is a single bit-stream, combining one
(OTHER) and a Lead-Out area (LO) as known from the
or several elementary streams that can be played in synchro- 55 DVD-ROM data structure. Not speci?cally shown in FIG. 1 is
nism.
Presentation Control Information (PCI) and Data Search
Play List (or Play List Title)
Information (DSI) within the Video Object Set forVTS Titles
Title representing a play back sequence of Cells from one
(VTSTT_VOBS), both dispersed in the Navigation Packs
Recording. Play Lists are accessible via the Title Menu.
(NV_PCK) of each Video Object Unit (VOBU).
Program Chain (PGC)
60
The data organization according to the Real-Time Video
Playback sequence of Cells for the presentation of a Menu
Recording format will ?rst be discussed in general.
or a Title.
With respect to the Video Manager (VMG) the following is
Real Title
remarked. The Video Manager (VMG) shall contain a Title
Full Title or Play List Title which is not a Free Space Title.
Menu. Consequently a Video Object Set for Video Manager
Recording
65 Menu (VMGM_VOBS) is mandatory.
Contiguous piece of the VTS Title VOBS, enclosing an
With respect to the Video Title Sets (VTS) the following is
remarked. The data structure on a disc contains only one
integer number of MPEG-2 PS packs.
US 8,452,l62 B2
5
6
Video Title Set (VTS). The Root Menu shall contain a dummy
play back of all complete Cells (except Buffer Cells) of a
Recording in the order of allocation in the Video Object Set
(VOBS). The Play List may be different from the Full Title. If
Program Chain (PGC) with a pre-command calling the Title
Menu. No other Video Title Set (VTS) menus shall be present
on the disc. Consequently the Video Title Set (VTS) does not
so it de?nes play back of a subset of the Cells which are
contain a Video Object Set for a Video Title Set Menu
played by the Full Title.
(VTSM_VOBS). The Video Object Set for Video Title Set
Titles (VTSTT_VOBS) of the Video Title Set (VTS) contains
Full Titles and Play Lists are each represented as a Title in
the Title Search Pointer Table in VMGI (TT_SRPT) and as a
the recorded video content.
Title Unit (TTU) in the Part_of_Title Search Pointer Table in
the VTSI (VTS_PTT_SRPT). A Play List points to the same
Program Chain (PGC) as the corresponding Full Title, unless
a different Program Chain (PGC) is recorded for the Play List.
Full Titles and Play List Titles are Real Titles, unless they
With respect to the Video Object Set (VOBS), the Video
Objects (VOBs) and Cells, the following is remarked. A
Video Object (VOB) is (a part of) a sequence of contiguously
recorded Cells, together constituting (a part of) an MPEG-2
Program Stream as de?ned in D4. An integer number of
are tagged as Free Space. When a Full Title is deleted by the
user, both the Full Title and the Play List in the Title Search
MPEG-2 Program Stream packs may be missing from the
beginning of the ?rst Cell of the Video Object (VOB), if this
Pointer Table (TT_SRPT) are tagged as Free Space by setting
a unique Playback Type value (TT_PB_TY). If two consecu
Cell is not used by any Title. The last Cell of a Video Object
(VOB) is a Buffer Cell, which is not used by any Title. EA
Video Object Set (VOBS) is a collection of contiguously
recorded Video Objects (VOBs). Video Objects (VOBs) and
Cells on a rewritable disc are not fully compliant with the
20
Video Speci?cations for the DVD Read-Only Disc as dis
closed in D2 and D4. The following exceptions are allowed or
required:
1) The DVD-Video speci?cation demands that a Video
Object (VOB) starts with an System Clock Reference
(SCR) equal to zero. This is not required for DVD-VR
discs.
2) The Display of the video stream from one Video Object
(VOB) does not have to start with a top ?eld nor have to
end with a bottom ?eld.
25
tive Full Titles are deleted, the entries in the Title Search
Pointer Table (TT_SRPT) shall be combined into one new
Title. Also the related Play Lists are combined and tagged as
Free Space. Free space that is available on the disc at the end
of the VTS Title VOBS or beyond the boundaries of the VTS,
is not re?ected in the TT_SRPT. FIG. 6 illustrates an example
of ?nding a Title’s PGCI.
Within FIG. 6 the following data structures are given: Title
Play Back Type (TT_PB-TY), Number of Part_of_Title
(PTT_Ns), VTS Title Number (VTS_TTN), PGC_Number
(PGCN), Program Number (PGN), Start Address of VTS
Program Chain Information Table (VTS_PGCI-SA), Pro
gram Chain Information Table (PGCIT), Number of Angles
30
(AGL-Ns), Parent_ID_?eld for Title (TT_PTL_ID-FLD),
3) The DVD-Video speci?cation prescribes incremental
numbering of Video Objects (VOBS) and Cells. When
VTS Number (VTSN) and Parent ID-?eld (PTL_ID_FLD).
Each Title (except for the last Play List Title and the last
recording the disc for the ?rst time that requirement can
generally be met. However, when old recordings are
(partly) overwritten, or when the user does editing, it
tion in the associated Program Chain Information (PGCI).
The Program Chain Information (PGCI) of the last Play List
Full Title) is linked to the next Title by a Link PGCN instruc
35
and the last Full Title contains a CallSS to the Title Menu. If
the Title is tagged as Free Space, this instruction is stored as
may not be possible to maintain the incremental num
bering. To overcome this problem, DVD-VR format
requires that the Video Object Identi?cation number
(VOB ID) ofall Video Object (VOBs) is equal to ‘1’. In
addition to this, Cell ID numbers (except number 255)
a pre-command in the Program Chain Information (PGCI).
40
remain unique but they are allowed to be non sequential.
4) Video Objects (VOBs) and Cells contain Navigation
packs (NV_PCK) with forward references to facilitate
forward search. Some of these forward references can
not be known at recording time and therefore must be
sub-divided into a maximum of 99 Chapters (Part_of_Titles).
45
As already disclosed with reference to FIG. 1, exactly one
behave in an acceptable way.
5) The Navigation packs (NV_PCK) also contain a param
Video Title Set is recorded on disc. FIG. 2 illustrates the data
structure of Video Manager General Information (VMGI)
50
solve this problem a high number will be recorded for
this parameter. A Buffer Cell at the end of aVideo Object
Data Search Information (DSI) are not shown in FIG. 2,
although this information is dispersed in corresponding Navi
gation Packs (NV_PCK) in each Video Object Unit (VOBU)
(VOB) guarantees that the end of a Video Object (VOB)
55
of the Video Object Set for the Video Manager Menu
(VMGM_VOBS).
With respect to the Video Manager Information Manage
ment Table (VMGI_MAT), the ?rst 8 bytes of the Provider
Unique ID (PVR_ID) contains the string ‘DVD-VROl ’. The
The Video Object Set for Titles in a Video Title Set
(VTSTT_VOBS) can be partitioned into a collection of adja
cent pieces, called Recordings, which do not necessarily
coincide with the Video Objects (VOBs). Recordings enclose
within the Video Manager (VMG) area as shown in FIG. 1. As
in FIG. 1, the Presentation Control Information (PCI) and
eter cannot be made correct in real time in all cases. To
is never reached during play back.
With respect to recordings, the following is remarked:
The maximum number of Chapters for all Full Titles on one
disc is 254.
In the following the restrictions and modi?cations com
pared to the read-only format will be given.
encoded with values that make legacy playback devices
eter specifying the presentation termination time of the
last video frame of the Video Object (VOB). This param
Otherwise the instruction is stored as a post-command.
The number of Full Titles on a DVD-VR disc is equal to the
number of Play Lists with a maximum of 49 Titles can be
60
First Play Program Chain (FP_PGC) contains just a JumpSS
an integer number of MPEG-2 PS packs.
Recordings relate to the partitioning of the content as it is
to the Title Menu as a pre-command.
presented to the user.
sections of equal length. The ?rst half contains pointers for N
Play Lists and the second half contains pointers to N Full
With respect to Full Titles, Play Lists and Free Space, the
following is remarked:
For each Recording two One_Sequential_PGC_Titles are
created: one Full Title and one Play List. The Full Title de?nes
The Title Search Pointer Table (TT_SRPT) consists of two
65
Titles. Play Lists as well as Full Titles are sorted in the order
of incrementing start addresses of the ?rst used Cell in the
Video Object Set (VOBS). All Titles are One_Sequen
US 8,452,162 B2
7
8
tial_PGC_Titles for which Time_Play( ) and Time_Search( )
Parental ID Field (PTL_ID_FLD). When a Play List is equal
to the associated Full Title, their Start Address of Video Title
Set Program Chain Information (VTS_PGCI_SA) values are
are blocked. Part_of_Title_Play( ) and Part_of_Title
Search( ) shall be blocked for Titles which are associated with
identical.
With respect to the Video Title Set Menu Program Chain
Free Space and shall not be blocked for other Titles. Table 1
lists allowed Playback Types as indicated by the Title_Play
back_Type (TT_PB_TY) ?eld.
Information Unit Table (VTSM_PGCI_UT) the following is
remarked. The number of Video Title Set Menu Language
Units as speci?ed in VTSM_PGCI_UTI shall be 1. There is
exactly one Video Title Set Menu Language Unit Search
Pointer (VTSM_LU_SRP). The Video Title Set Menu Exist
ence ?eld (VTSM_EXST) shall contain the value (1000
0000b) to indicate that just the Root Menu exists. The Video
Title Set Menu Language Unit (VTSM_LU) contains just one
TABLE 1
Allowed values of TTiPBiTY
Value of TTiPBiTY
Type of Title
0000 0101b
Real Title which is not the last Play List
0001 0101b
Real Title which is the last Play List or
the last Full Title
Free Space Title
or not the last Full Title
0000 0111b
The Video Manager Menu Program Chain Information
Unit Table (VMGM_PGCI_UT) is just linked to the Title
Menu. There shall be only one Language Unit. The Video
Manager Menu exists in this Language Unit.
Following the Video Title Set Attribute Table (VTS_
ATRT), the Video Manager Menu Cell Address Table
Program Chain Information Search Pointer (VTSM_PG
CI_SRP). TheV1deo Title Set Menu Program Chain Category
parameter (VTSM_PGC_CAT) for the Video Title Set Menu
Program Chain (VTSM_PGC) contains the value (8300
0000h) indicating that the associated Program Chain (PGC) is
20
the Entry PGC for the Root Menu. There is exactly one Video
Title Set Menu Program Chain Information (VTSM_PGCI).
The Video Title Set Time Map Table (VTS_TMAPT) con
tains Video Title Set Time Maps (VTS_TMAPs) that are
and the Video Manager Menu Video Object Unit Address
present for all Titles on the disc but do not contain any map
entries.
With respect the Video Title Set Cell Address Table
Map (VMGM_VOBU_ADMAP) to a maximum of 511
VOBUs. The remaining part of the Video Manager area
(VTS_C_ADT), the parameter containing the number of
Video Object in the Video Title Set (VTS_VOB_Ns) contains
(VMGM_C_ADT) is restricted to a maximum of 170 cells
(VMG) is occupied with the Video Manager Menu Video
Object Set (VMGM_VOBS) and the back up of the Video
25
30
the contains the value ‘1’. It is noted that the VTS_VOB_Ns
does not re?ect the actual number of VOBs in the Video
Manager Information (VMGI_BUP).
Object Set of a rewritable disc. It is set to 1 as the VOB_ID
With reference to FIG. 3, the Video Title Set Information
(VTSI) will be discussed. As the Root Menu contains just a
dummy Program Chain (PGC) and other menus are not
allowed, the Video Title Set (VTS) Menus have no associated
number of all VOBs is set to ‘ 1 ’ . All Video Title Set Cell Piece
Information (VTS_CPI) have the same value (‘1’) for the
Video Title Set Video Object ID Number (VTS_VOB_IDN).
35
Video Object (VOB) data. Consequently the Cell Address
Table of the Video Title Set Menu (VTSM_C_ADT) and the
Address Map of the Video Object Unit of the Video Title Set
(VTSM_VOBU_ADMAP) do not exist.
The Management Table of the Video Title Set Information
Exactly 254 VTS_CPI blocks are recorded with VTS_C_IDN
starting from ‘1’ and incrementing up to and including ‘254’.
The Start Address and EndAddress of the Video Title Set Cell
Piece (VTS_CP_SA and VTS_CP_EA) of Cell Pieces which
are not referenced by any PGC of a Real Title contain the
40
value (0000 0000h). It is noted that Cell Pieces that are ref
(VTSI_MAT) comprises the following area (not shown in the
erenced by a PGC of a Free Space Title contain zero start and
?gure):
end addresses.
With respect to The Video Title Set Video Object Unit
the VTS Video Attributes (VTS_V_ATR) (the video com
pression mode complies with MPEG-2),
the number of Audio Streams (VTS_AST_Ns) describing
45
Address Map (VTS_VOBU_ADMAP) it is remarked that all
Video Object Unit (VOBU) start addresses of the VOBUs
50
which are completely contained in VTSTT_VOBS are listed
here in ascending order. It is noted that VOBU start addresses
of VOBUs which are part of Free Space are also included in
the VTS VOBU Address Map.
Next the structure of the Program Chain Information area
the number of different audio stream attribute sets used
in this VTS,
the VTS Audio Stream Attribute Table (VTS_AST_ATRT)
listing the different audio stream attribute sets which are
de?ned (and may or may not be used) for this VTS: The
PGCI for each Title de?nes which of the sets is actually
(PGCI) for Title Program Chains will be given with reference
used,
to FIG. 5. This structure comprises a Program Chain General
Information Area (PGC-GI), a Program Chain Command
the number of Sub-picture Streams (VTS_SPST_Ns) (set
to one in this VTS) and
the VTS Sub-picture Stream Attribute Table (VTS_SP
ST_ATRT) (all ?elds in this table are zero)
The Video Title Set Information (VTSI) further comprises
further a Video Title Set Part_of_Title Search Pointer Table
(VTS_PTT_SRPT) wherein the Title Units are recorded in
the same order as Titles in Title Search Pointer (TT_SRPT).
Next is present a Video Title Set Program Chain Informa
55
60
tion Table (VTS_PGCIT). The number of Video Title Set
Table (PGC_CMDT), a Cell Playback Information Table
(C_PBIT) and a Cell Position Information Table (C_POSIT).
With respect to the Program Chain General Information
(PGC-GI) it is noted that exactly one of the Availability ?ags
in the Program Chain Audio Stream Control Table
(PGC_AST_CTLT) is set to (1b). When the ith Availability
?ag is set, the ith Audio stream parameter set de?ned for this
Video Title Set (VTS) is valid for this Program Chain (PGC).
The Decoding Audio stream number is always ‘0’.
Program Chain Information (VTS_PGCI) search pointers is
The availability ?ag of the ?rst Program Chain Sub-picture
equal to the number of Titles in Title Search Pointer Table
(TT_SRPT). The search pointers are recorded in the same
order as the Titles. All Program Chains (PGCs) are Entry
PGCs with all bits zero for Block mode, Block type and
Stream Control (PGC_SPST_CTL) ?eld in the Program Sub
picture Stream Control Table (PGC_SPST_CTLT) is set to
(1b). All other bits of the Program Sub-picture Stream Con
trol Table (PGC_SPST_CTLT) contain the value (0b).
65
US 8,452,162 B2
9
The Program (PG) Playback mode in the Program Chain
Navigation Control (PGC_NV_CTL) is set to sequential
b7
playback. The Still time value is set to no Still.
b6
b5
b4
b3
Application
The PGC Command Table (PGC-CMDT) contains exactly
three commands. According to this version of the speci?ca
tion only one command is actually used (for Title linking), the
other two commands are NOP commands (0000 0000b).
Which command is used for Title linking is de?ned in Table
b2
bl
b0
Extension Length
Identi?er
Application Identi?er contains the value (0001b) if the
stream attributes as de?ned in VTSI_MAT for this VTS must
be overruled by the real-time stream attributes. Otherwise
contains the value (0000b). The real-time stream attributes
2.
TABLE 2
are valid from Start PTM until End PTM of the VOBU in
which this ?eld is contained.
Commands in PGCI
Extension Length de?nes the number of bytes for this
extension following this ?eld. It shall contain the value
PGC associated with . . .
contains . . .
as a . . .
Real Title which is not the last Play List
LinkPGCN
post—command
or not the last Full Title in TTiSRPT
to PGC of next
Real Title which is the last Play List or
the last Full Title in TTiSRPT
Real Title
CallSS
to Title Menu
post—command
Free Space Title
LinkPGCN
pre—command
(0010b) if Application Identi?er is (0001b). It contains the
value (0000b) if Application Identi?er is (0000b).
RT_V_ATR describes the real -time Video
stream
attribute s .
20
to PGC of next
b7
Real Title
25
b6
Aspect
ratio
b5
b4
Reserved
b3
b2
b1
b0
reserved
Source
picture
letter
b oxed
reserved
Film
camera
mode
With respect to Cell Playback Information Table
(C_PBIT): Cells are not part of an Angle Block and do not
exist in an Interleaved Block.
With respect to the Cell Position Information Table
30
(C_POSIT): the Identi?cation Numbers of the Video Objects
of all Cells in the PGC contain the value ‘1’. It is noted that,
Aspect ratio, Source picture letterboxed and Film camera
mode have meanings as de?ned in the DVD speci?cations for
the Read_Only Disc.
RS_AST_ATR describes the real-time Audio stream
attributes:
on DVD-VR discs, all VOBs have the same VOB_IDN.
It is allowed that the Cell ID number of a Cell of which the
Seamless playback ?ag set in Cell Playback Information, is
35
not the same as the previous Cell ID number incremented by
1.
With respect to the Presentation Control Information (PCI)
it is noted that modifying a Play List may require that a Cell
reserved
Surround
reserved
Typ e
40
is split into two new Cells. In that case all values of Cell
Surround Type as de?ned in the DVD Speci?cations of the
Read-Only Disc. With respect to Data Search Information
(DSI) it is noted that all VOBs are allocated in Contiguous
Elap se Time (C_ELTM in PCI_GI) shall be updated in all PCI
?elds in the second Cell.
Additional data ?elds with respect to the DVD-Video for
mat for Read-Only discs for carrying real-time stream
attributes are given below.
The last reserved 32 bytes of the General Information of
Presentation Control Information (PCI_GI) are rede?ned in
this speci?cation as shown in table 3
45
With respect to the Data Search Information General Infor
50
TABLE 3
mation (DSI_GI) it is remarked that the Video Object ID
number (VOB ID) number is always 1. Further there is no
requirement that the Cell ID numbers are monotonically
increasing from 1 in the Video Object. The following rules
shall be applied for Cell ID:
Cell ID is identical in all VOBUs belonging to the same
Cell
Cells which are used by Real Titles are uniquely identi?ed
Rede?mtion of reserved ?elds at end of PCIiGI
by their Cell ID
Number of
Reserved
(8) PCIiGIiXI
(9) RTiViATR
(10) RTiASTiATR
Reserved
Blocks and there are no Angles.
Contents
bytes
Reserved
PCIiGI Extension Information
Video Attributes
Audio Stream Attributes
Reserved
16
1
1
1
13
Total
32 bytes
bytes
byte
byte
byte
bytes
PCI_GI_XI identi?es the application and speci?es the
length of the extension. If all bits in this byte are zero, also the
bytes of PCI_GI following this ?eld are zero:
It is noted that modifying a Play List may require that a Cell
is split into two new Cells. In that case all values of Cell
Elapse Time (C_ELTM in DSI_GI) shall be updated in all
60
DSI ?elds in the second Cell.
With respect to Video Object, it is remarked that an integer
number of MPEG-2 Program Stream packs may be missing
from the beginning of the ?rst Cell of the VOB, if this Cell is
not used by any Title. The last Cell of a VOB is a Buffer Cell.
It is noted that seamless connections between VOBs are
excluded.
Only one Audio stream is allowed within a VOB. The
Audio decoding stream number is ‘0’.
US 8,452,162 B2
11
12
Only one Sub-picture stream is allowed within aVOB. The
Sub-picture decoding stream number is ‘0’. Data for a Sub
picture Unit (SPU) is fully contained in one VOBU. The SPU
validity period shall not start before the Start PTM of the
VOBU, nor shall it end later than the End PTM of the VOBU.
The DVD-Video format for rewritable discs is not fully
identical to the DVD-Video format for read-only discs. The
differences are (1) in the rules for data allocation and (2) in
some details of the navigation data in the real-time data
Video players and rewritable discs by following the guide
according to a speci?c standard for compression, such as for
example MPEG-2 for audio and video.
The compressed and multiplexed stream is submitted via a
track buffer 13, which absorbs rate ?uctuations stemming
from intermittent recording and data reproduction from a
disc, to a drive unit 14. The encoding/ and decoding unit 9 also
expands a compressed stream read from a recording medium
by the drive unit 14 and outputs separately an audio signal A
and a video signal V to the A/V output unit 15. To this
purpose, the encoding/decoding unit 9 comprises a suitable
A/V decoder 16 for decoding the compressed audio and video
source signals.
The A/V output unit 15, which is illustrated in more detail
in FIG. 10, comprises an audio D/A converter 17 for output
ting sound signals to an external sound output terminal 18.
The A/V output unit 15 further comprises a video encoderi
D/A converter unit 19 for outputting video signals to an
lines given in the next.
external image output terminal 20.
With respect to VOBS Structures; on rewritable DVD
Video discs some rules for the Video Object Set data struc
tures are different from the rules for read-only discs.
14 receives the compressed stream generated by the encod
streams. The ?rst kind of differences generally has no conse
quences for DVD-Video players. As a consequence of the
second kind of differences in some cases trick mode behavior
of DVD-Video playback devices with rewritable discs may
not be always exactly the same as with prerecorded discs.
Manufacturers can improve compatibility between DVD
FIG. 11 illustrates the drive unit 14 in more detail. This unit
20
DVD-Video players will play back rewritable discs well
when they are robust against:
non-sequential numbering of VOBs in the VTSTT_VOBS
non-sequential numbering of Cells within a VOB
the existence of remnants of partly overwritten Cells or
other unused data in between “active” Cells
modi?ed rules for forward search pointers as de?ned next:
DVD-Video recorders are required to at least ?ll in correct
suitable error correction processing unit 21 to the stream.
Next a channel modulation/demodulation unit 22 converts the
stream with error-correction code to channel bits adapted for
recording on a recording medium 23. In case of a DVD-disc
25
forward pointers FWDl(n) for néM. Forward pointers FWDI
(n) with M<n§N contain the last correct value. For n>N
forward pointers point to the end of the current Cell. The
30
duration of a Cell on a rewritable disc is typically 60 seconds.
This means that for forward search functionality DVD
Video players can still rely on the FWDI pointers for the lower
speeds (2x, 4x, 8x). For higher speeds, the player can still use
the long distance FWDI pointers but in this case they point to
ing/decoding unit 9, and adds an error-correction code by a
the EFM+ modulation scheme is being applied. Recording
and reading in case of a recording medium 23 of the optical
type, is performed by a laser comprised in an optical head unit
25. A laser power control unit 24 is controlling the laser.
Re?ected signals from the recording medium 23 are being
converted by an ampli?er and waveform equalizer circuit 26
into two-value signals. The resultant compressed stream is
further demodulated by the modulating/demodulation unit
22, error corrected by the error correction processing unit 21
and outputted to the encoding/ decoding unit 9 via track buffer
35
13.
A servo circuit 27, connected to the ampli?er and wave
the end of the current Cell. If accurate fast search speeds are
form equalizer circuit 26, controls the positioning of the
desired, the speed can be adjusted by picking up intermediate
optical head unit 25 relative to the recording medium 23 and
the rotational velocity of the recording medium 23 by con
trolling rotational driving means 28.
A system control unit 29, as shown in FIG. 12, controls
each block and perform ?le control, control information man
pictures (e.g. by applying a FWDI(6) pointer) or by adapting
the display period of the pictures.
40
FIG. 7 shows a recording apparatus according to a ?rst
embodiment of the invention. The recording apparatus is
composed of several units. One unit is the A/V input unit 1.
The A/V input unit 1 receives image and sound signals at
antenna input terminal 2 and an external sound/image input
terminal 3. The antenna input terminal 2 is adapted to receive
broadcasted modulatedA/V signals transmitted by either sat
agement and track buffer control. To this purpose a system
control processing unit 30 is provided that is being connected
45
ellite, terrestrial or cable source. The external sound/image
input terminal 3 is adapted to receive a non modulated audio
signal or a non-modulated video signals generated directly by
50
respectively an audio or a video source.
FIG. 8 illustrates the A/V input unit 1 in more detail. A
tuner 5, which is connected to the antenna input terminal 2,
demodulates the modulatedA/V antenna signals and outputs
the demodulated signals to a suitableA/V demultiplexing unit
55
6 for separating audio signals from video signals. An audio
A/D converter unit 7 outputs a digital audio signal A and a
NTSC/PAL/SECAM decoding unit 8, comprising a video
A/ D converter, outputs a digital video signal V. These signals
operator output means comprising display means.
Although the invention has been described with reference
to preferred embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that
these are not limitative examples. Thus, various modi?cations
thereof may become apparent to those skilled in the art,
without departing from the scope of the invention, as de?ned
by the claims. The invention can be implemented by means of
both hardware and software, and that several “means” may be
represented by the same item of hardware. Further, the inven
tion lies in each and every novel feature or combination of
features. It is also remarked that the word ‘comprising’ does
A andV are outputted to a encoding/decoding unit 9, which is
illustrated in more detail in FIG. 9. The encoding/decoding
unit 9 compresses and encodes the signals A and V, respec
tively by an audio encoder 10 and a video encoder 11, con
verts them to a multiplexed and compressed stream conform
60
ing to Video Recording speci?cations, employing a
65
multiplexer 12. To this purposes the audio encoder 10 and
video encoder 11 are adapted to perform source compression
to memory means 31 loaded with a suitable operation system.
Operator input means 32 and operator output means 33 are
connected to the memory means 31. The operator input
means 32 comprising for instance keying means and the
not exclude the presence of other elements or steps than those
listed in a claim. Any reference signs do not limit the scope of
the claims.
LIST OF REFERRED DOCUMENTS
(D1) European Patent Application EP 724 264
(D2) US. Pat. No. 5,784,528
US 8,452,162 B2
14
13
(D3) ISO/IEC 13818-1: 1995 Information Technology4Ge
neric Coding of moving pictures and associated audio
information: Part 1: Systems (MPEG2-systems)
in response to deleting two consecutive full titles, combine
play lists related to the two consecutive full titles and
tagging the combined play lists as free space.
The invention claimed is:
1. A method of recording an encoded bit stream, said
encoded bit stream representing a plurality of video objects
comprising a sequence of cells together constituting a part of
an MPEG2 Program Stream on a disc, said method compris
the system controller is con?gured to de?ne a free space title
that represents free space within the video object area and
include the free space title in the title list.
7. The recording apparatus according to claim 6, wherein
8. The recording apparatus according to claim 7, wherein
ing the acts:
recording a collection of contiguously arranged video
objects in a video object storage area of said disc;
recording management information in a management
the system controller is con?gured to block free space titles
from playback.
9. The recording apparatus according to claim 8, wherein
the system controller is con?gured to convert a deleted title to
information area of said disc for storing information
about the recorded video objects, wherein said collec
a free space title.
10. The recording apparatus according to claim 9, wherein
tion is partitioned into adjacent recordings that represent
the system controller is con?gured to generate a title menu
listing the titles in a same order as in the title list for allowing
user access to the titles, and wherein the recorder comprises a
playable titles;
de?ning a playable title as a playback sequence of all
complete cells or a subset of complete cells of a record
ing in an order of allocation within the video object
storage area on the disc; and
generating a title list of titles sorted in the order of alloca
tion within the video object storage area on the disc,
20
when a full title is deleted.
creating two titles for the recording, the two titles including
a full title and a play list title, and
in response to deleting two consecutive full titles, combin
ing play lists related to the two consecutive full titles and
tagging the combined play lists as free space.
2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the
act of de?ning a free space title that represent free space
within the video object area and including the free space title
in the title list.
25
30
5. The method according to claim 4, further comprising the
40
arranged video objects in a video object storage area of
45
management information area of said disc for storing
information about the recorded video objects, wherein
17. The recording apparatus of claim 6, wherein the plu
rality of video objects and the cells include navigation packs
wherein, during recording of the plurality of video objects,
50
de?ne a playable title as a playback sequence of all com
plete cells or a subset of complete cells of a recording in
an order of allocation within the video object storage
the forward references comprise predetermined values.
18. The recording apparatus of claim 17, wherein the navi
gation packs further include a parameter specifying presen
tation termination time of a last video frame of a video object,
wherein an initial value of the presentation termination time
area on the disc;
generate a title list of titles sorted in the order of allocation
within the video object storage area on the disc;
create two titles for the recording, the two titles including a
full title and a play list title; and
rality of video objects have a video object identi?cation num
ber which is equal to one, and the cells include cell Identi?
cation numbers that are unique and non- sequential.
with forward references to facilitate forward search and
said collection is partitioned into adjacent recordings
that represent playable titles; and
a system controller con?gured to:
initial value of the presentation termination time comprises a
predetermined value, and further comprising a buffer cell at
an end of the video object to guarantee that the end of the
video object is never reached during play back.
15. The recording apparatus of claim 6, wherein the system
controller is further con?gured to tag as free space both the
full title and the play list title when a full title is deleted.
16. The recording apparatus of claim 6, wherein the plu
a recorder con?gured to record a collection of conti guously
said disc and to record management information in a
references to facilitate forward search and wherein, during
recording of the plurality of video objects, the forward refer
ences comprise predetermined values.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the navigation packs
further include a parameter specifying presentation termina
tion time of a last video frame of a video object, wherein an
35
act of generating a title menu listing the titles in a same order
as in the title list for allowing user access to the titles.
6. A recording apparatus for recording an encoded bit
stream representing a plurality of video objects comprising a
sequence of cells together constituting a part of an MPEG2
Program Stream on a disc, the recording apparatus comprises:
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of video
objects have a video object identi?cation number which is
equal to one, and the cells include cell Identi?cation numbers
that are unique and non-sequential.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of video
objects and the cells include navigation packs with forward
3. The method according to claim 2, further comprising the
act of blocking free space titles from playback.
4. The method according to claim 3, further comprising the
act of converting a deleted title to a free space title.
display for displaying the title menu.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising the act of
tagging as free space both the full title and the play list title
55
comprises a predetermined value, and further comprising a
buffer cell at an end of the video object to guarantee that the
end of the video object is never reached during play back.
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