Portal Administrator`s Guide - Description

Portal Administrator`s Guide - Description
Portal Administrator's Guide
Liferay Portal Administrator's Guide
by Richard L. Sezov, Jr. and Stephen Kostas
Copyright © 2010 by Liferay, Inc.
Put ISBN Number Here if this is a published work
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Unported license.
You are free:
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● to remix—to adapt the work
Under the following conditions:
● Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified
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● Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you
may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a
compatible license.
The full version of this license appears in the appendix of this book, or you
may view it online here:
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0
Contributors:
Ray Auge, Jian Cao (Steven), Brian Chan, Alice Cheng, Bryan Cheung, Ivan
Cheung, Shepherd Ching, Alexander Chow, Bruno Farache, Jorge Ferrer, Mike
Han, Jeffrey Handa, JR Houn, Scott Lee, Wei Hong Ma (Sai), Charles May,
James Min, Alberto Montero, Jerry Niu, Michael Saechang, Li Ji Shan (Dale),
Ed Shin, Joseph Shum, Stephen Wilburn, Michael Young
Table of Contents
1. Introduction.................................................................................................................15
ROBUST FUNCTIONALITY..........................................................................................................................16
AWARD-WINNING USER INTERFACE .........................................................................................................17
MULTI-TENANCY VIA COMMUNITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS .......................................................................17
FLEXIBLE ARCHITECTURE ........................................................................................................................17
ENTERPRISE APPLICATION INTEGRATION ..................................................................................................17
SECURITY ...............................................................................................................................................17
HIGH AVAILABILITY AND HIGH PERFORMANCE .........................................................................................18
THEMING AND EASE OF BRANDING ..........................................................................................................18
READY INTEGRATION ...............................................................................................................................19
CUSTOMIZATION AND EASE OF DEVELOPMENT...........................................................................................19
2. Initial Setup..................................................................................................................21
EDITIONS OF LIFERAY...............................................................................................................................21
OBTAINING LIFERAY.................................................................................................................................22
INSTALLING A BUNDLE.............................................................................................................................23
INSTALLING LIFERAY FOR AN ENTERPRISE.................................................................................................25
SAMPLE DATA..................................................................................................................................25
LIFERAY HOME.................................................................................................................................25
DATABASE SETUP.............................................................................................................................26
DEFAULT METHOD: AUTOMATIC................................................................................................26
MANUAL METHOD....................................................................................................................26
TURNING A BUNDLE INTO AN ENTERPRISE PORTAL.............................................................................27
THE PORTAL-EXT.PROPERTIES FILE............................................................................................29
INSTALLING LIFERAY ON AN EXISTING APPLICATION SERVER.............................................................30
INSTALLING LIFERAY IN 10 EASY STEPS.....................................................................................30
GLASSFISH 3.X..........................................................................................................................32
JETTY 6....................................................................................................................................35
JBOSS 5.X.................................................................................................................................37
RESIN 3.1.X..............................................................................................................................40
RESIN 3.2.X..............................................................................................................................42
TOMCAT 6.0.X..........................................................................................................................43
WEBLOGIC 10...........................................................................................................................45
ORACLE WEBLOGIC 10.3...........................................................................................................49
WEBSPHERE 6.1........................................................................................................................53
WEBSPHERE 7.0........................................................................................................................57
MAKING LIFERAY COEXIST WITH OTHER JAVA EE APPLICATIONS.......................................................60
SUMMARY...............................................................................................................................................61
3. Configuration...............................................................................................................63
LIFERAY'S USER INTERFACE......................................................................................................................63
NAVIGATING LIFERAY.......................................................................................................................64
NAVIGATING THE CONTROL PANEL....................................................................................................67
PORTAL ARCHITECTURE...........................................................................................................................69
USERS..............................................................................................................................................70
USER GROUPS..................................................................................................................................70
ROLES..............................................................................................................................................71
ORGANIZATIONS...............................................................................................................................71
COMMUNITIES..................................................................................................................................72
TEAMS.............................................................................................................................................72
USING THE CONTROL PANEL.....................................................................................................................72
ADDING USERS.................................................................................................................................73
USER MANAGEMENT........................................................................................................................75
ORGANIZATIONS...............................................................................................................................76
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COMMUNITIES..................................................................................................................................78
SITE TEMPLATES.......................................................................................................................80
USER GROUPS..................................................................................................................................82
USER GROUPS AND PAGE TEMPLATES........................................................................................82
ROLES..............................................................................................................................................87
DEFINING PERMISSIONS ON A ROLE............................................................................................88
SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT THE POWER USERS ROLE.........................................................................91
TEAMS.............................................................................................................................................91
GLOBAL SERVER SETTINGS.......................................................................................................................92
PASSWORD POLICIES.........................................................................................................................92
SETTINGS.........................................................................................................................................93
GENERAL..................................................................................................................................94
AUTHENTICATION: GENERAL SETTINGS......................................................................................94
AUTHENTICATION: LDAP..........................................................................................................95
EXPORT....................................................................................................................................99
SINGLE SIGN-ON.....................................................................................................................102
AUTHENTICATION: CENTRAL AUTHENTICATION SERVICE (CAS)...............................................102
AUTHENTICATION: FACEBOOK.................................................................................................104
AUTHENTICATION: NTLM......................................................................................................104
AUTHENTICATION: OPENID.....................................................................................................104
AUTHENTICATION: OPENSSO..................................................................................................105
AUTHENTICATION: SITEMINDER..............................................................................................106
USERS....................................................................................................................................106
MAIL HOST NAMES................................................................................................................107
EMAIL NOTIFICATIONS............................................................................................................107
IDENTIFICATION......................................................................................................................107
MISCELLANEOUS: DISPLAY SETTINGS.......................................................................................107
CUSTOM FIELDS.............................................................................................................................107
MONITORING..................................................................................................................................108
PLUGINS CONFIGURATION................................................................................................................108
PAGE TEMPLATES...........................................................................................................................109
SITE TEMPLATES.............................................................................................................................110
SERVER ADMINISTRATION..............................................................................................................111
RESOURCES............................................................................................................................111
LOG LEVELS............................................................................................................................111
PROPERTIES............................................................................................................................112
CAPTCHA................................................................................................................................112
DATA MIGRATION...................................................................................................................112
FILE UPLOADS........................................................................................................................113
MAIL.....................................................................................................................................113
OPENOFFICE...........................................................................................................................113
SCRIPT...................................................................................................................................114
SHUTDOWN............................................................................................................................114
PORTAL INSTANCES........................................................................................................................114
PLUGINS INSTALLATION..................................................................................................................115
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................115
4. Web Content Management..........................................................................................117
PAGE CREATION AND MANAGEMENT......................................................................................................118
MANAGING PAGES..........................................................................................................................119
UNDERSTANDING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PAGES................................................................................120
MANAGE PAGES INTERFACE............................................................................................................120
LOOK AND FEEL..............................................................................................................................121
EXPORT / IMPORT.........................................................................................................................122
SETTINGS.......................................................................................................................................122
VIRTUAL HOST.......................................................................................................................123
LOGO......................................................................................................................................123
SITEMAP................................................................................................................................123
MONITORING..........................................................................................................................124
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STAGING ...............................................................................................................................124
EDITING A PAGE.............................................................................................................................131
WHAT IS WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT?........................................................................................135
HOW CAN LIFERAY'S WCM HELP YOU? ........................................................................................135
WHAT FEATURES DOES LIFERAY WCM HAVE? ..............................................................................135
BUILDING A SITE WITH LIFERAY'S WCM................................................................................................136
SIMPLE CONTENT CREATION...........................................................................................................136
WEB CONTENT SECTION OF THE CONTROL PANEL....................................................................137
PUBLISHING CONTENT WITH THE WEB CONTENT DISPLAY PORTLET.........................................140
ADVANCED CONTENT CREATION.....................................................................................................143
STRUCTURES..........................................................................................................................144
TEMPLATES ...........................................................................................................................148
ASSIGNING TEMPLATE PERMISSION.........................................................................................153
ADVANCED PUBLISHING OPTIONS...................................................................................................153
SCHEDULING WEB CONTENT ...................................................................................................154
TAGS AND CATEGORIES...........................................................................................................155
USING LIFERAY'S INTEGRATED WORKFLOW WITH CONTENT MANAGEMENT......................................157
DEFINING WORKFLOWS FOR WEB CONTENT ............................................................................158
USING THE ASSET PUBLISHER PORTLET...........................................................................................159
QUERYING FOR CONTENT........................................................................................................160
ORDERING AND GROUPING......................................................................................................162
DISPLAY SETTINGS..................................................................................................................163
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................166
5. Liferay Collaboration Suite.........................................................................................167
SCOPES.................................................................................................................................................168
ARCHIVED SETUPS.................................................................................................................................169
PERMISSIONS.........................................................................................................................................170
SHARING...............................................................................................................................................170
ANY WEB SITE..............................................................................................................................171
FACEBOOK......................................................................................................................................171
GOOGLE GADGET............................................................................................................................172
NETVIBES......................................................................................................................................173
FRIENDS........................................................................................................................................173
BLOGS...................................................................................................................................................173
THE BLOGS PORTLET......................................................................................................................174
CONFIGURING THE BLOGS PORTLET..........................................................................................175
PERMISSIONS..........................................................................................................................176
ADDING BLOG ENTRIES...........................................................................................................176
AGGREGATING BLOG ENTRIES.........................................................................................................179
CALENDAR.............................................................................................................................................180
CONFIGURING THE CALENDAR PORTLET...........................................................................................181
EMAIL FROM..........................................................................................................................181
EVENT REMINDER EMAIL........................................................................................................181
DISPLAY SETTINGS..................................................................................................................182
USING THE CALENDAR PORTLET......................................................................................................182
CHAT ...................................................................................................................................................183
MAIL....................................................................................................................................................184
MESSAGE BOARDS.................................................................................................................................186
GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................186
EMAIL FROM..................................................................................................................................187
MESSAGE ADDED EMAIL.................................................................................................................187
MESSAGE UPDATED EMAIL.............................................................................................................187
THREAD PRIORITIES.......................................................................................................................187
USER RANKS..................................................................................................................................188
RSS..............................................................................................................................................188
PERMISSIONS.................................................................................................................................188
ADDING CATEGORIES AND MAILING LISTS.......................................................................................189
USING THE MESSAGE BOARDS.........................................................................................................190
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POSTING NEW THREADS.................................................................................................................191
MESSAGE BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS...............................................................................192
MOVING THREADS..................................................................................................................193
DELETING THREADS................................................................................................................193
BANNING USERS.....................................................................................................................194
SPLITTING THREADS...............................................................................................................194
EDITING POSTS.......................................................................................................................194
PERMISSIONS..........................................................................................................................194
WIKIS...................................................................................................................................................195
GETTING STARTED WITH THE LIFERAY WIKI....................................................................................195
MANAGING WIKIS..........................................................................................................................197
ADDING AND EDITING WIKI PAGES..................................................................................................198
PAGE DETAILS................................................................................................................................200
DETAILS.................................................................................................................................200
HISTORY................................................................................................................................200
INCOMING / OUTGOING LINKS.................................................................................................201
ATTACHMENTS.......................................................................................................................201
NAVIGATING IN THE WIKI PORTLET................................................................................................201
TAGS.....................................................................................................................................................201
CATEGORIES..........................................................................................................................................202
SOCIAL EQUITY......................................................................................................................................204
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................205
6. Advanced Liferay Configuration..................................................................................207
THE PORTAL-EXT.PROPERTIES FILE.................................................................................................208
PROPERTIES OVERRIDE............................................................................................................208
LIFERAY HOME.......................................................................................................................209
PORTAL CONTEXT...................................................................................................................209
RESOURCE REPOSITORIES ROOT...............................................................................................209
TECHNOLOGY COMPATIBILITY KIT...........................................................................................209
SCHEMA.................................................................................................................................209
UPGRADE...............................................................................................................................210
VERIFY...................................................................................................................................210
AUTO DEPLOY........................................................................................................................210
HOT DEPLOY..........................................................................................................................213
HOT UNDEPLOY
213
SANDBOX DEPLOY...................................................................................................................214
PLUGIN..................................................................................................................................214
PORTLET................................................................................................................................214
PERSISTENCE..........................................................................................................................215
JPA.......................................................................................................................................215
TRANSACTION MANAGER........................................................................................................216
PORTLET COORDINATION.........................................................................................................217
THEME...................................................................................................................................218
RESOURCE ACTIONS................................................................................................................218
MODEL HINTS........................................................................................................................219
SERVICE BUILDER...................................................................................................................219
SPRING...................................................................................................................................219
HIBERNATE............................................................................................................................220
JDBC.....................................................................................................................................222
CUSTOM SQL.........................................................................................................................224
DATABASE..............................................................................................................................224
EHCACHE................................................................................................................................225
JAVASCRIPT...........................................................................................................................225
COMBO...................................................................................................................................227
SQL DATA.............................................................................................................................228
COMPANY...............................................................................................................................228
USERS....................................................................................................................................229
FACEBOOK CONNECTION..........................................................................................................233
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NTLM...................................................................................................................................233
REQUEST HEADER AUTHENTICATION.......................................................................................233
AUTHENTICATION TOKEN........................................................................................................233
GROUPS AND ROLES................................................................................................................234
ORGANIZATIONS.....................................................................................................................237
SECURITY MANAGER...............................................................................................................238
BASIC AUTHENTICATION.........................................................................................................238
LANGUAGES AND TIME ZONES.................................................................................................238
LOOK AND FEEL......................................................................................................................240
LAYOUTS................................................................................................................................240
EDITORS.................................................................................................................................240
FIELDS....................................................................................................................................241
REQUEST................................................................................................................................241
SESSION.................................................................................................................................242
HTTP....................................................................................................................................244
JAAS.....................................................................................................................................244
LDAP....................................................................................................................................245
CAS.......................................................................................................................................247
NTLM...................................................................................................................................248
OPENID.................................................................................................................................248
OPENSSO...............................................................................................................................248
SITEMINDER...........................................................................................................................249
AUTHENTICATION PIPELINE.....................................................................................................249
AUTO LOGIN...........................................................................................................................252
SSO WITH MAC (MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE)..............................................................253
PASSWORDS............................................................................................................................253
PERMISSIONS..........................................................................................................................255
CAPTCHA................................................................................................................................257
STARTUP EVENTS...................................................................................................................258
SHUTDOWN EVENTS...............................................................................................................259
PORTAL EVENTS.....................................................................................................................259
LOGIN EVENT..........................................................................................................................260
LOGOUT EVENT.......................................................................................................................260
DEFAULT LANDING PAGE.........................................................................................................260
DEFAULT LOGOUT PAGE..........................................................................................................260
DEFAULT GUEST PUBLIC LAYOUTS..........................................................................................260
DEFAULT USER PRIVATE LAYOUTS..........................................................................................261
DEFAULT USER PUBLIC LAYOUTS............................................................................................262
SANITIZER..............................................................................................................................263
SOCIAL EQUITY.......................................................................................................................263
VAADIN..................................................................................................................................264
DEFAULT ADMIN....................................................................................................................264
LAYOUTS................................................................................................................................264
DEFAULT SETTINGS LAYOUTS..................................................................................................265
PORTLET URL........................................................................................................................270
PREFERENCES.........................................................................................................................270
STRUTS..................................................................................................................................270
REDIRECT..............................................................................................................................270
IMAGES..................................................................................................................................271
FILESYSTEMHOOK..................................................................................................................272
EDITORS.................................................................................................................................272
FIELDS....................................................................................................................................272
MIME TYPES..........................................................................................................................273
AMAZON................................................................................................................................273
BROWSER LAUNCHER..............................................................................................................273
CONTROL PANEL.....................................................................................................................274
INSTANT MESSENGER..............................................................................................................274
LUCENE SEARCH.....................................................................................................................275
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SOURCEFORGE........................................................................................................................278
VALUE OBJECT.......................................................................................................................278
COMMUNICATION LINK...........................................................................................................280
CLUSTER LINK........................................................................................................................280
CLUSTER EXECUTOR................................................................................................................281
MINIFIER................................................................................................................................281
MONITORING..........................................................................................................................282
MULTICAST............................................................................................................................282
CONTENT DELIVERY NETWORK................................................................................................283
COUNTER...............................................................................................................................283
LOCK......................................................................................................................................284
JBI.........................................................................................................................................284
JCR........................................................................................................................................284
LIVE USERS............................................................................................................................284
LOCK......................................................................................................................................285
MAIL.....................................................................................................................................285
OPENOFFICE...........................................................................................................................287
POLLER..................................................................................................................................287
POP.......................................................................................................................................287
QUARTZ.................................................................................................................................288
SCHEDULER............................................................................................................................288
SEARCH CONTAINER................................................................................................................288
SHAREPOINT...........................................................................................................................288
SOCIAL BOOKMARKS...............................................................................................................289
VELOCITY ENGINE...................................................................................................................289
VIRTUAL HOSTS.....................................................................................................................290
HTTP....................................................................................................................................291
SERVLET FILTERS....................................................................................................................291
UPLOAD SERVLET REQUEST.....................................................................................................294
WEB SERVER..........................................................................................................................295
WEBDAV..............................................................................................................................295
MAIN SERVLET.......................................................................................................................295
AXIS SERVLET........................................................................................................................295
GOOGLE GADGET SERVLET.......................................................................................................296
JSON TUNNEL SERVLET.........................................................................................................296
LIFERAY TUNNEL SERVLET......................................................................................................296
NETVIBES SERVLET.................................................................................................................296
SPRING REMOTING SERVLET....................................................................................................296
WEBDAV SERVLET................................................................................................................296
WIDGET SERVLET...................................................................................................................296
ADMIN PORTLET.....................................................................................................................296
ANNOUNCEMENTS PORTLET....................................................................................................297
ASSET PUBLISHER PORTLET....................................................................................................298
ASSET....................................................................................................................................298
BLOGS PORTLET......................................................................................................................299
BREADCRUMB PORTLET...........................................................................................................300
CALENDAR PORTLET...............................................................................................................300
COMMUNITIES PORTLET..........................................................................................................300
DISCUSSION TAG LIBRARY.......................................................................................................301
DOCUMENT LIBRARY PORTLET................................................................................................301
DOCKBAR PORTLET.................................................................................................................302
FLAGS PORTLET......................................................................................................................302
EMAIL NOTIFICATION SETTINGS..............................................................................................302
IFRAME PORTLET....................................................................................................................302
IMAGE GALLERY PORTLET.......................................................................................................303
LOGIN PORTLET......................................................................................................................303
INVITATION PORTLET..............................................................................................................303
JOURNAL PORTLET..................................................................................................................303
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JOURNAL ARTICLES PORTLET...................................................................................................306
JOURNAL CONTENT SEARCH PORTLET......................................................................................306
MESSAGE BOARDS PORTLET....................................................................................................306
MY PLACES PORTLET..............................................................................................................307
NAVIGATION PORTLET............................................................................................................308
NESTED PORTLETS PORTLET....................................................................................................308
PORTLET CSS PORTLET...........................................................................................................308
SEARCH PORTLET....................................................................................................................308
SHOPPING PORTLET................................................................................................................309
SOFTWARE CATALOG PORTLET................................................................................................310
TAGS COMPILER PORTLET.......................................................................................................310
TAGS PORTLET.......................................................................................................................310
TASKS PORTLET......................................................................................................................310
TRANSLATOR PORTLET............................................................................................................311
WIKI PORTLET........................................................................................................................311
PLUGIN MANAGEMENT..........................................................................................................................313
PORTLETS......................................................................................................................................313
THEMES.........................................................................................................................................314
LAYOUT TEMPLATES......................................................................................................................315
HOOK PLUGINS..............................................................................................................................315
WEB PLUGINS................................................................................................................................315
INSTALLING PLUGINS FROM REPOSITORIES......................................................................................316
INSTALLING PLUGINS MANUALLY...................................................................................................318
PLUGIN TROUBLESHOOTING............................................................................................................320
LIFERAY CONFIGURATION ISSUES.............................................................................................321
DEPLOY ISSUES FOR SPECIFIC CONTAINERS..............................................................................323
CHANGING THE CONFIGURATION OPTIONS IN MULTIPLE PLACES...............................................325
CREATING YOUR OWN PLUGIN REPOSITORY....................................................................................325
THE SOFTWARE CATALOG.......................................................................................................326
MANUALLY CREATING A SOFTWARE CATALOG.........................................................................334
CONNECTING TO A SOFTWARE CATALOG...................................................................................334
LIFERAY SERVICES ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE.........................................................................................334
ACCESSING LIFERAY'S WSDL.........................................................................................................337
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................338
7. Enterprise Configuration............................................................................................341
LIFERAY CLUSTERING.............................................................................................................................342
ALL NODES SHOULD BE POINTING TO THE SAME LIFERAY DATABASE...............................................344
DOCUMENT LIBRARY CONFIGURATION.............................................................................................344
DEFAULT FILE SYSTEM HOOK..................................................................................................344
JACKRABBIT SHARING.............................................................................................................344
OTHER STORAGE OPTIONS.......................................................................................................345
SEARCH CONFIGURATION................................................................................................................347
PLUGGABLE ENTERPRISE SEARCH.............................................................................................347
LUCENE CONFIGURATION.........................................................................................................349
HOT DEPLOY..................................................................................................................................351
DISTRIBUTED CACHING..........................................................................................................................351
HIBERNATE CACHE SETTINGS..................................................................................................353
CLUSTERING JACKRABBIT........................................................................................................354
WORKFLOW WITH KALEO.......................................................................................................................355
INSTALLATION................................................................................................................................355
KALEO WORKFLOW IN A NUTSHELL.................................................................................................356
PROCESS DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................................356
WORKFLOW IN THE CONTROL PANEL ......................................................................................364
INTEGRATING WITH USERS, COMMUNITIES, ORGANIZATIONS AND ROLES...................................366
USING KALEO WORKFLOW PROCESSES IN LIFERAY PORTAL..............................................................367
PERFORMANCE TUNING..........................................................................................................................368
MEMORY.......................................................................................................................................368
GARBAGE COLLECTION....................................................................................................................369
ix
PROPERTIES FILE CHANGES.............................................................................................................372
SERVLET FILTERS...........................................................................................................................372
PORTLETS......................................................................................................................................372
READ-WRITER DATABASE CONFIGURATION.....................................................................................373
DATABASE SHARDING.....................................................................................................................374
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................376
8. Maintaining A Liferay Portal.......................................................................................377
LIFERAY MONITORING USING GOOGLE ANALYTICS..................................................................................377
BACKING UP A LIFERAY INSTALLATION..................................................................................................378
SOURCE CODE................................................................................................................................379
LIFERAY'S FILE SYSTEM
379
DATABASE.....................................................................................................................................379
LIFERAY'S LOGGING SYSTEM..................................................................................................................380
UPGRADING LIFERAY.............................................................................................................................382
LIFERAY UPGRADE PROCEDURE.......................................................................................................383
UPGRADE STEPS.....................................................................................................................383
UPGRADING FROM LIFERAY 5.1 TO LIFERAY 5.2..............................................................................384
PREREQUISITE ........................................................................................................................384
CHANGES IN CONFIGURATION PROPERTIES ...............................................................................384
THEME UPGRADE ...................................................................................................................385
API CHANGES ........................................................................................................................386
UPGRADING FROM LIFERAY 5.2 TO LIFERAY 6.0..............................................................................386
PREREQUISITE.........................................................................................................................387
UPGRADING YOUR PERMISSIONS ALGORITHM...........................................................................387
UPGRADING EXT TO EXT PLUGINS.........................................................................................388
SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................388
9. Appendix: Documentation License..............................................................................391
CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE................................................................................................................391
LICENSE.........................................................................................................................................391
CREATIVE COMMONS NOTICE..........................................................................................................399
10. Colophon...................................................................................................................401
x
PREFACE
Liferay Portal is the leading open source portal in the marketplace today.
It has received awards from multiple leading industry publications, and has
an impressive download rate (over 60,000 downloads a month and over a million downloads total). Why is it so popular? Because Liferay Portal has out of
the box all of the features you need to run a successful web site, whether that
site is a public Internet site, a corporate Intranet, a social network, or anything in between.
This book was written for anyone who has any part in setting up, using,
or maintaining a web site built on Liferay Portal. It will guide you step-bystep through the installation, configuration, and use of Liferay Portal. Use
this book as a handbook to getting your Liferay Portal installation running
smoothly, and then keep it by your side as you configure and maintain your
Liferay-powered web site.
The information contained herein has been organized in a way that
makes it easy to locate information. We start at the beginning: downloading
and configuring the Liferay bundles. From there, we work all the way
through the multiple ways of installing Liferay manually on an application
server, to portal administration. After this, we cover the many features of
Liferay Portal, including its web content management system, its collaboration suite, and the Kaleo workflow engine. From there we go into advanced
administration topics and enterprise configuration, including clustering and
integrating Liferay with other services, such as search. We round things out
by showing you how to optimize Liferay's performance, how to manage a
xi
Liferay installation, how to back it up, and how to upgrade Liferay if you are
moving from a previous version.
What's New in the Fourth Edition
Liferay Portal version 6 is a significant upgrade from the last release.
This edition of the book has been exhaustively overhauled so that it covers
Liferay Portal version 6 as well as contains material that hasn't been covered
before. Of course all of the new portal properties are covered, upgrading and
installing the new version is covered, and the rest of the book has been exhaustively gone through and updated.
You'll be treated to an expanded control panel in Liferay Portal 6, and
every option is detailed and explained here. You'll gain an understanding of
all of the constructs within Liferay, including users, roles, communities, organizations, user groups, and now teams.
You'll be introduced to Liferay portal's collaboration suite which includes like blogs, calendar, chat, mail, message boards, and wikis. Your users
will be able to collaborate like never before using this suite of integrated applications.
But more than that, for the first time we've been able to provide documentation on the use of Liferay portal's web content management suite. Now
you'll have a ready reference showing you how to load and maintain your
site's content without having to guess.
With all of this new stuff, the book is a bit thicker. But we've tried to
keep it to a manageable size by excising material which applied to Liferay 4.x
and below. The result is what you have in your hands: a lean, mean guide
chock full of information that is relevant to you as you build your site on
Liferay portal.
Conventions
Sections are broken up into multiple levels of headings, and these are designed to make it easy to find information.
Tip: This is a tip. Tips are used to indicate a suggestion or
a piece of information that affects whatever is being talked
about in the surrounding text. They are always accompanied by this gray box and the icon to the left.
Source code and configuration file directives are presented monospaced
and in gray boxes, as below.
If source code goes multi-line, the lines will be \
separated by a backslash character like this.
Italics are used to represent links or buttons to be clicked on in a user interface.
xii
Monospaced type
is used to denote Java classes, code, or properties with-
in the text.
Bold is used to describe field labels and portlets.
Page headers denote the chapters, and footers denote the particular section within the chapter.
Publisher Notes
It is our hope that this book will be valuable to you, and that it will be an
indispensable resource as you begin to administer a Liferay portal server. If
you need any assistance beyond what is covered in this book, Liferay, Inc. offers training, consulting, and support services to fill any need that you might
have. Please see http://www.liferay.com/services for further information
about the services we can provide.
It is entirely possible that some errors or mistakes made it into the final
version of this book. Any issues that we find or that are reported to us by the
community are documented on the Official Liferay Wiki. You can view them
or contribute information that you've found about any issues here:
http://www.liferay.com/ community/wiki/-/wiki/Main/Liferay+Administrator's+Guide+Errata
As always, we welcome any feedback. If there is any way you think we
could make this book better, please feel free to mention it on our forums. You
can also use any of the email addresses on our Contact Us page
(http://www.liferay.com/contact-us). We are here to serve you, our users
and customers, and to help make your experience using Liferay Portal the
best it can be.
Author Notes
RICHARD SEZOV:
The first edition of this book was outlined in a small notebook (paper,
not a computer) on a plane flying from Philadelphia to Los Angeles. Covering
Liferay 4.3, it was the first actual, physical book Liferay produced. The book
has come a long way since then, and somehow we're able to get it to be more
comprehensive with each edition.
For this fourth edition, for the first time we have multiple authors. We
did that in order to cover the material we needed to cover in such a short
time, and also because in parallel, I am working on another book for developers called Liferay in Action. I very much appreciate the help from my coauthor, and am glad for his help. This book could not have come together
without him. I also want to especially thank Stephen Wilburn for his contributions.
I have endeavored to give credit to everyone who made a contribution
(it's on the copyright page), but if I missed somebody—which would not be
surprising—please let me know so your name is not left out of the next edition! I cannot express enough how wonderful it is to be surrounded by so
xiii
many talented people who do everything they can to make this product the
best it can be—even when a particular task is not their primary job.
The engineering team at Liferay is a fantastic group of people, and the
documentation team is highly indebted to them because we pepper them
with so many questions all the time. So special thanks are due to Ray Auge,
Julio Camarero, Nate Cavanaugh, Brian Chan, Alex Chow, Bruno Farache,
Jorge Ferrer, and Mike Young. I also have to especially thank Cynthia Wilburn, who keeps us all on track and who somehow juggles a huge incoherent
pile of stuff that needs to get done into an organized plan that we can all follow.
I'd also like to thank my daughter Julia for the brightness of her coun tenance and her marvelous ability to tell me when work is done and it's time
to play. And of course, I want to thank my wife, Deborah, who continually has
to put up with long hours as a computer widow, for her understanding and
support—especially for this edition. I couldn't do any of this without her.
Rich Sezov
http://www.liferay.com/web/richard.sezov/blog
STEPHEN KOSTAS:
As this book comes to completion, I'm approaching my one year anniversary as a member of the Liferay team. Being part of Liferay has meant
working with a great group of people from all over the world, each doing
their part to bring us to the release of Liferay 6. It has also meant a lot of
hard work, working with Rich, the other Steve, and the engineering team to
make sure that this 4th edition of the Administrator's Guide provides
everything that you need to get Liferay working for you.
I suppose that this is where I should thank people, so thanks to Rich, for
all of his toil and late nights spent putting this together, my wife Dana, for
putting up with me paying attention to my laptop instead of her, and the engineering team, for answering our questions, providing us with all sorts of
useful information, and of course, building Liferay.
Stephen Kostas
http://www.liferay.com/web/stephen.kostas/blog
xiv
1. INTRODUCTION
Liferay Portal is the world's leading open source enterprise portal solution using the latest in Java and Web 2.0 technologies. Now in its 11th year of
development, the award-winning Liferay Portal is one of the most widely deployed portal technologies on the market, with an estimated 250,000 deployments worldwide.
More than a portal, Liferay is a platform for creating effective business
applications and solutions. It offers a robust feature set, impressive scalability, time-saving development tools, support for over 30 languages, and a flexible, scalable architecture that is open source developed and enterprise refined. Notable differentiators include:
•
Compatible with all major databases, operating systems, and app
servers
•
Hierarchical system of communities and organizations
•
Granular, delegable permissioning system
•
Highly scalable, supporting more than 5,000 concurrent transactions
(33,000 simultaneous users) per server
•
Real-world performance of millions of page views and 1.3 million
users
•
Supports 22 languages, out-of-the-box
•
Award-winning user interface
Introduction
Robust Functionality
The product is also known for robust functionality with over 60 out-ofthe-box portlets that can be categorized into three main categories:
1.
Content Management & Web Publishing
Liferay Portal’s built-in content management system is a structured
system with support for roles-based workflow, separation of
presentation from content creation, and editorial approval and versioning processes. Its document library features versioning, document locking, and automatic file-type conversions for document-based collaboration, as well as WebDAV, and Microsoft Office®
integration for dynamic document sharing. Content may also be
stored on third-party systems such as Jackrabbit, Magnolia, and Alfresco. What’s more, users can seamlessly integrate content with
native collaboration and social networking features, as well as third
party applications, to publish full-bodied enterprise solutions to the
web.
2.
Collaboration
Liferay’s collaboration suite includes Message Boards, Blogs, Wikis—
featuring RSS capabilities, tagging, common meta-data, and social
bookmarking—that work within Liferay Portal’s flexible system of
communities and organizations. As a whole, they enable productive
discussion around your collective knowledge; not only can users
manage their own work experiences with our built-in webmail client
and personal calendars, they can dynamically share their work and
thoughts as part of a team.
3.
Social Networking
Tying our content and collaboration features together is an enterprise-ready social networking suite with presence-enabled features
like instant messaging and activity tracking that facilitate fluid, realtime communication within your organization. Moreover, Liferay’s
Social API gives users a platform for building their own social applications. Users can plug into Liferay’s social capabilities and allow
third party applications to take part in Liferay’s activity feeds, member and “friend” lists, and other social assets, and customize these
assets per their specific needs. In essence, Liferay provides you with
the tools and framework for building a fully functional social network that can be customized to meet your unique specifications.
16
Robust Functionality
Introduction
Award-winning User Interface
Liferay offers a rich, easy-to-use “Web 2.0” interface using AJAX and other presentation layer technologies. It features effortless GUI-based personalization, drag-and-drop portlets, dynamic navigation and breadcrumb features, and an instant-add portlet library. The portal platform also integrates
with YUI3, jQuery or your JavaScript library of choice.
Multi-tenancy via Communities and Organizations
Liferay Portal gives enterprises the ability to organize users by businessdefined categories such as departments, geographies, or offices, as well as by
cross-departmental teams and workgroups. Each community and organization can inherit and define its own permissions and administer user, group,
and role management for the various portlets it chooses to include.
Virtual hosting allows them each to apply their own individual friendly
URLs, themes, and configurations, independent of the others.
Flexible Architecture
Organizations choose Liferay Portal for the flexibility of its architecture
and the ease of integration. Thanks to our use of Service Oriented Architecture, users get accelerated development cycles, re-usable services, and composite application development.
Enterprise Application Integration
Moreover, Liferay Portal is an open framework with a completely exposed API supporting web services (SOAP), JSON, RMI and our own proprietary tunneling classes. As long as your existing applications are open and
provide support through some service layer or API, Liferay can integrate with
those applications.
There is a range of options for application integration depending on your
needs, from web services and a Liferay iFrame portlet for lighter integration
scenarios, to a web proxy or WSRP for more complex integration scenarios.
Security
Liferay Portal uses industry standard, government-grade encryption
technologies, including advanced algorithms such as DES, MD5, and RSA, and
was benchmarked as among the most secure portal platforms using LogicLibrary’s Logicscan suite. It offers a customizable single sign-on (SSO) that integrates with Yale CAS, JAAS, LDAP, Netegrity, Microsoft Exchange, and more.
Security
17
Introduction
What’s more, Liferay Portal ships with robust user management and security features including password policies, user reminder settings, and complete log-in security procedures. Liferay also abides by OWASP guidelines to
reduce the risk of security vulnerabilities. Other security features include:
•
Pluggable Authentication
•
Email Verification
•
Session Management
High Availability and High Performance
Liferay Portal has been tested to support more than 3,000 concurrent
transactions (33,000 simultaneous users) on a single 8-core application server, with mean login times under one second and maximum ½ throughput of
79+ logins per second. Our Web Content Management (WCM) system scales to
beyond 150,000 concurrent users on a single Liferay Portal server with average transaction times under 50ms and 35% CPU utilization; In high-traffic
web-publishing scenarios, Liferay Portal has proven to handle millions of
page views and over 1.3 million users. Additionally, in collaboration and social networking scenarios, each physical server supports over 1300 concurrent users at average transaction times of under 800ms.
Liferay Portal is also deployable to the Cloud and virtual server environments and ensures high availability and performance with:
•
Hardware/Software Load Balancing, HTTP Failover, Session Replication
•
Distributed Cache using Lightweight Multicast Protocol
•
Terracotta, Oracle RAC, and other scalability solutions
Theming and Ease of Branding
Theming in Liferay Portal allows you to create dynamic sites of any kind,
from traditional portals to heavily branded solutions that may not resemble a
portal at all. Via the creation and dynamic inheritance of CSS and Javascript
templates, you have full control over the look-and-feel of your site without
actually having to modify any code within the portal or portlets. Since all
components of the Liferay SDK (Themes, Hooks, Layout Templates and Portlets) are hot deployable to your Liferay environment, you can install and
change these customizations while the portal is still running. This makes for
impressive flexibility in customizing Liferay Portal, extremely painless updates, as well as notable savings in development time.
18
Theming and Ease of Branding
Introduction
Ready Integration
As the only independent enterprise portal on the market, Liferay is fully
committed to keeping its platform compatible with all major databases, operating systems, and application servers. Liferay Portal is built with standard
integration technologies including JSR 168/286, JSR 170, WebDav, iCal and
WSRP. The core source is comprised of open source frameworks such as
Struts, Spring and Hibernate and the product runs PHP, Ruby, Python, Grails
and other lightweight scripting technologies within a robust Java framework.
Thanks to its adherence to open standards and this flexible architecture,
Liferay Portal integrates easily with both open source and mainstay proprietary products such as Documentum, Microsoft Office®, Alfresco, Intalio,
JasperSoft, Magnolia, MuleSource, Pentaho, Terracotta, and more.
Customization and Ease of Development
Created, designed, and honed by developers, Liferay Portal places high
value on the ease of development and offers its own SDK. It includes tools
such as Liferay Service Builder that automatically generates data tiers (SQL
and Hibernate logic / classes), Spring Dependency Injection wiring, and Web
Service access. This frees your development team to focus on higher priority
matters like business logic. Meanwhile, Liferay Hooks give you access to
modify core Liferay functionality without modifying Liferay’s core source
code. Liferay’s extensible development environment permits an easy upgrade
path for your customizations because it creates a clean separation between
the platform and your modifications. The modular nature of our hooks results in less code to maintain and fewer scenarios to test. Other features include:
•
Industry-standard Struts/Tiles MVC framework
•
Integrated Kaleo workflow engine allowing developers to define dynamic business processes (i.e., publishing and editorial approval,
user registration, e-commerce transactions)
•
Spring framework for easy transaction management
•
Support for other frameworks including JSF and IceFaces, Wicket,
Spring MVC, and others
Customization and Ease of
Development
19
2. INITIAL SETUP
Liferay Portal is one of the most flexible applications with regard to application server environment on the market today. You can install Liferay
Portal on everything from a shared Tomcat installation to a multi-node
cluster running a commercial application server, and on everything in
between. In fact, Liferay is used successfully in all of these scenarios every
day.
You will find that because Liferay is extremely flexible in its deployment
options, it is easy to install as well. If you already have an application server,
you can simply use the tools for deployment that came with your application
server. If you do not have an application server, Liferay provides several application server bundles from which to choose. These are very easy to install
and with a small amount of configuration can be made into production-ready
systems.
Editions of Liferay
Liferay ships in two different editions: Liferay Portal Community Edition
(CE) and Liferay Portal Enterprise Edition (EE). CE is the same Liferay Portal
that has been available for years: frequently updated and bursting with the
latest features, the Community Edition of Liferay Portal is offered for free under the Lesser GNU public license, an open source license. This license gives
you the flexibility to link Liferay with your own code in your portlet, theme,
hook, layout, Ext, or web plugins, no matter what license you use for your
code. If, however, you modify Liferay directly, those modifications need to be
contributed back to the open source product. This is really the best of both
worlds: you have the freedom to do what you want with your code, and
Liferay receives the benefits of any enhancements that are made directly.
Initial Setup
Liferay Portal EE is a supported version of Liferay Portal for the enterprise.
Hardened for security and designed to be rock solid stable, EE is offered with
a subscription and support package, allowing organizations to build their
portals on a stable version of the product that is offered over an extended
period of time.
Because the release cycle for EE is longer than that for CE, each enterprise release is supported for 4 years. All bug fixes in Liferay Portal are backported to your version of Liferay for the duration of your subscription. This
gives organizations the peace of mind that comes from knowing that their
Liferay-powered web sites are stable and will run for years to come, enabling
them to build their sites on a proven, stable platform. Additionally, Liferay's
professional services team offers training and consulting on the Enterprise
Edition to ensure long-term support and stability for our clients.
Obtaining Liferay
The CE version of Liferay is freely downloadable from our web site at
http://www.liferay.com. Click on the Downloads link at the top of the page,
and you will be presented with multiple options for getting a copy of Liferay,
including our convenient bundles or a .war package for installation on your
application server of choice.
The EE version of Liferay is provided to you as a result of your support
subscription. You will receive download links which will allow you to obtain a
copy of a Liferay bundle or a .war package for installation on your application
server of choice.
So what is a bundle anyway? A bundle is simply an open source application server with Liferay preinstalled. If you want to install a bundle, there is a
list of bundles available. If you do not currently have an application server, it
is best to download the Tomcat bundle, as Tomcat is one of the smallest and
most straightforward bundles to configure. If you have an application server
preference, you can also choose the server you prefer from the available
Liferay Portal bundles. All of the bundles ship with a Java Runtime Environment for Windows; if you are using a different operating system, you will
need to have a JDK (Java Development Kit) installed prior to launching
Liferay.
Please note that Liferay is not able to provide application server bundles
for proprietary application servers such as WebLogic or WebSphere, because
the licenses for these servers do not allow for redistribution. Liferay Portal,
however, runs just as well on these application servers as it does on open
source application servers. You will need to use the .war package to install
Liferay on these application servers.
22
Obtaining Liferay
Initial Setup
For a manual install, you will need the Liferay .war file as well as Liferay's dependency .jars. Later in this chapter are instructions for installing Liferay
on many of the major application servers available today.
Installing a Bundle
Liferay bundles contain the same directory structure regardless of application server. The top-level folder is named for the release of Liferay. This folder is also sometimes called Liferay Home.
Illustration 1: Bundle directory structure
Inside this folder, you will find folders for various uses:
Data: This folder is used to store the embedded HSQL database which the
bundles use, as well as the configuration and data for the Jackrabbit JSR-170
content repository and the Lucene search index.
Deploy: Plugins which you wish to deploy to Liferay can be copied into
this folder. It is also used by Liferay's graphical plugin installer utility, which
is available from the Control Panel.
License: Contains both Liferay's license and a file which describes the licenses for many of the other open source projects that are used internally by
Liferay.
[Application Server]: There will also be an application server folder
which is different depending on which bundle you have downloaded. This
folder contains the application server in which Liferay has been installed.
In most cases, installing a bundle is as easy as uncompressing the archive
and then starting the application server. For example, if you were to install
Liferay Portal on Tomcat, you would simply unzip the bundle to a location of
your choice.
Now you would start Tomcat in the same way as you would if you had
downloaded it manually. Tomcat is launched by way of a script which is
found in its bin folder. If you drop to a command prompt and go to this
folder, you can launch Tomcat via the following command on Windows:
startup
or the following command on Linux / Mac / Unix:
./startup.sh
The Liferay / Tomcat bundle will then launch. If you are on Windows,
you will see another command prompt window appear with Tomcat's console
Installing a Bundle
23
Initial Setup
in it. If you are on Linux, you can see the Tomcat console by issuing the following command:
tail -f ../logs/catalina.out
Once Tomcat has completed its start up, it should automatically launch a
web browser so you can see the home page. If it does not, launch your web
browser and then go to the following address: http://localhost:8080. The default Liferay home page will then appear in your web browser. It will be using
an embedded database for its configuration, but it is fully functional. You can
now begin exploring the various features of Liferay.
Liferay ships by default with a sample web site included, called 7 Cogs.
You can access this site and log in as the various users to get familiar with
Liferay and what it can do.
Installing a different bundle is done in exactly the same way: unzip the
bundle into the folder of your choice, launch the application server, and then
view the portal in your web browser.
Illustration 2: Default Page in the Liferay Bundles
As you can see, bundles are the easiest way to get started with Liferay.
They come pre-configured with a running Liferay that can be used immediately to explore all of the things that Liferay can do. And with minimal extra
configuration (which we will see later), bundles can be converted into full
production-ready systems.
24
Installing a Bundle
Initial Setup
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
When it comes time to install Liferay Portal on your server, you'll find it
is easiest to do this by starting with a bundle and then reconfiguring that
bundle so that it is enterprise-ready. Because this is by far the quickest and
easiest method to get a production Liferay system running, we will look at
this first. Often, however, enterprises will have an established Java EE infrastructure upon which they would like to install Liferay. In this situation, a
bundle will not suffice. Most of the rest of this chapter, therefore, will focus
on installing Liferay onto an already-established application server.
Sample Data
Liferay CE ships with some sample data to help you see some of the
things Liferay Portal can do. While the sample 7 Cogs data is a good example
of how Liferay might be used, when you are ready to build your own site, you
won't want that data cluttering up your database. So before you connect
Liferay to your production database, you will want to make sure you have removed the sample 7 Cogs data from your Liferay installation. This is as simple
as undeploying the application that installs the 7 Cogs data.
There is only one application included in the bundle that you will need to
remove. It's a hook that copies the 7 Cogs data into the database when Liferay
is started. Because we want to revert Liferay's behavior back to its defaults
for a clean install, you will want to remove the sevencogs-hook application.
The other two applications related to 7 Cogs are both themes, which you can
leave installed if you wish.
If you forget to undeploy the sevencogs-hook application before you connect Liferay to your real database, the sample data will be created in your
database and may cause issues, especially if you already have data in your
database. So you want to make sure that you get sevencogs-hook undeployed
before setting up your server. Use your application server's method for uninstalling applications in order to remove them.
Liferay Home
Liferay Portal uses a special folder defined as Liferay Home. This folder is
one folder higher than the location of the application server itself. This is
why the bundles place the application server one folder in from the bundle's
root folder.
If Liferay is unable to create the resources it needs in this folder, or if it
finds itself running on certain application servers, it will fall back to defining
the home folder in the home folder of the user ID that is running Liferay.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
25
Initial Setup
As described above in the Bundles section, the home folder is very important to the operation of Liferay. The aforementioned folders (data, deploy,
and license) will be created there, and you can also put a special configuration
file called portal-ext.properties there.
This file is fully documented in Chapter 6: Advanced Liferay Configuration,
but we will use it in this chapter for some basic configuration, including setting up Liferay to talk to our database.
Database Setup
Default Method: Automatic
If you create your database and grant a user ID full access to it, Liferay
can use that user ID to create its indexes and tables automatically. This is the
recommended way to set up Liferay, as it allows you to take advantage of
Liferay's ability to automatically maintain its database during upgrades or
through various plugin installs which may create tables of their own. It is by
far the best way to set up your Liferay installation.
If you will be setting up Liferay's database with the recommended permissions, you can skip the next section.
Manual Method
Note: This is not the recommended set up for Liferay installations,
but is documented here so that enterprises with more restrictive
standards can install Liferay with more strict — but suboptimal —
database settings. If it is at all possible, Liferay recommends that
you use the automatic method as documented above instead of the
procedure outlined below.
Even though Liferay can create its database automatically, some enterprises prefer not to allow the user ID configured in an application server to
have the permissions over the database necessary for Liferay and its plugins
to maintain their tables. For these organizations, Select, Insert, Update, and
Delete are generally all the permissions that are granted, and so we will go
over how to set up the database manually. If your organization is willing to
grant the Liferay user ID permissions to create and drop tables in the database—and this is the recommended configuration—you can skip this section.
One other caveat is this: Liferay has an automatic database upgrade function which runs when the version of Liferay is upgraded to a new release. If
the user ID that accesses the database does not have enough rights to create /
26
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
modify / drop tables in the database, you will need to grant those rights to
the ID before you start your upgraded Liferay for the first time. Once the upgrade is complete, you can remove those rights until the next upgrade. Additionally, many plugins provided by Liferay require that new tables be added
to Liferay's database. These plugins cannot be installed if Liferay does not
have permission to create these tables automatically. If you wish to install
these plugins, you will need to grant rights to create tables in the database
before you attempt to install them.
Liferay provides an SQL script archive download on the web site. For the
CE version, it is in the Additional Files section of the Downloads page. For the
EE version, you will be provided a link to this archive. Download this file and
unzip it. You will find that it contains a folder structure that is broken down
by the type of script (full, minimal, or upgrade), and then further by database
vendor type.
It is best to use the create-minimal script if you are installing a fresh
version of Liferay on a development, QA, or production server. This script
creates the necessary Liferay tables in the database, with a minimum configuration. This is most appropriate for a new installation of Liferay.
The create script, by contrast, configures a Liferay database with a portion of the content from http://www.liferay.com embedded in it. This can be
useful from a development perspective, as it contains working examples of
the use of many of Liferay's features, including the Content Management
System.
Inside the create or create-minimal folders are scripts for every database that Liferay supports. A DBA can use the script provided to create the
Liferay database, complete with the indexes necessary for optimal performance. Once this is done, be sure that the ID that the portal will use to connect
to the database has at least Select, Insert, Update, and Delete permissions.
Preferably, however, the ID should also have rights to create, modify, and
drop tables and indexes, as this makes upgrading easier. This, however, is not
necessary for the daily operation of Liferay.
Once your DBA has created the database and provided the credentials for
accessing it, you are ready to begin 1) making a bundle enterprise-ready or 2)
manually installing Liferay on your application server.
Turning a Bundle into an Enterprise Portal
Liferay Portal is distributed with the following bundle options for servlet
containers and full Java EE application servers:
•
Geronimo+Tomcat
•
Glassfish 3
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
27
Initial Setup
•
JBoss
•
Jetty
•
JOnAS
•
Resin
•
Tomcat 6.0
Choose your preferred bundle and download it from the downloads page
on Liferay's web site or via the EE links that were provided to you. A prerequisite for running any of the bundles is that you have the proper version
of the Java Development Kit (1.5 or higher) installed on the machine to which
you are installing Liferay. Make sure that you have also created the
JAVA_HOME environment variable and have pointed it to your Java installation.
Unzip the bundle to the location from which you are going to run it. For
example, you might use D:\apps in Windows or /opt in Linux or UNIX variants. The default bundle installation of Liferay Portal uses an embedded database. While this is a good method to have it up and running fast for evaluation or development, it has several drawbacks:
•
Only one user can access it at a time. This is because the data is
stored on a file on disk and HSQL locks it when doing changes.
•
The data is stored inside the bundle and might be lost on redeployment.
•
This configuration does not scale well and will have performance problems when multiple users are accessing the system.
Obviously, you do not want to be running Liferay against the embedded
database. Fortunately, Liferay has great support for a good number of production-ready databases, and it is easy to configure Liferay to use them. The
exact instructions will depend on the application server and database, but
can be summarized as:
28
1.
Create the database in your DBMS of choice (see the above section
labeled Database Setup for further information).
2.
[Optional] Create a Data Source called jdbc/LiferayPool in your application server which points to your database and has the proper
credentials to access it.
3.
[Optional] Create a mail session called mail/MailSession in your application server which points to your mail server, so Liferay can send
mail.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
4.
Create a portal-ext.properties file in the Liferay Home folder
which either points directly to the database and mail session or
points to the application server's Data Source and mail session.
5.
Start Liferay. Liferay will create the tables automatically and start.
Otherwise, you will have had to prepare the database first by running the appropriate create script.
Refer to the manual installation instructions below for further details on
configuring the various application servers. There is no difference between
the Liferay bundles and the regular distribution archives of the application
servers as they are available from their own sites, with the exception that
Liferay is pre-installed in them, and the JVM settings may have been optimized for use with Liferay.
The portal-ext.properties File
To point your Liferay bundle to your database, create a file called
in your Liferay Home folder. This file overrides default properties that come with Liferay. You are going to override the default
configuration which points Liferay to the embedded HSQL database.
portal-ext.properties
There are two ways to set up the connection:
•
Use your application server's connection pool.
•
Use the built-in connection pool.
If you want to use your application server's connection pool, you will
have to create one in your application server that points to your database. It
should be called jdbc/LiferayPool. To cause Liferay to use this connection
pool, add the following directive to your portal-ext.properties file:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
To use the built-in connection pool—based on C3P0—add the template
which is provided in Chapter 6 for your particular database. The template for
MySQL is provided as an example below.
#
# MySQL
#
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=
jdbc.default.password=
You would provide the user name and password to the database as values
for the username and password directives.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
29
Initial Setup
For mail, there is a similar procedure. Again, you have two ways to configure your server:
•
Use your application server's mail session.
•
Use the built-in mail session.
To use your application server's mail session, you will have to create one
in your application server that points to your mail server. Once you have
done that, add the following directive to your portal-ext.properties file:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
To use the built-in mail session, add the following directives to your
portal-ext.properties file, substituting your mail server information:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
Save the file. You can now start your application server.
Installing Liferay on an Existing Application Server
This section contains detailed instructions for installing Liferay Portal
using its WAR distribution. This allows system administrators to deploy
Liferay in existing application server installations. It is recommended that
you have a good understanding of how to deploy Java EE applications in your
application server of choice.
Installing Liferay in 10 Easy Steps
There are 10 generic steps to installing Liferay on an existing application
server:
30
1.
Obtain the Liferay .war file and the dependencies archive.
2.
Make sure you do not have an application listening at the root ( /) of
your server. If you do, move it to a different context or undeploy it.
3.
Decide whether you want to use your application server's data
sources or if you want to use the one included with Liferay. If you
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
want to use your application server's data source, create a data
source for Liferay called jdbc/LiferayPool.
4.
Decide whether you want to use your application server's mail session or if you want to use the one included with Liferay. If you want
to use your application server's mail session, create one called
mail/MailSession.
5.
Shut your application server down.
6.
Extract the dependencies to a location on your server's global class
path. This allows both Liferay and plugins to access these dependencies.
7.
Create a portal-ext.properties file and place it in the Liferay
Home folder. See the notes on specific application servers below for
the location of this folder for your application server.
8.
Add either the JNDI name of your data source or the JDBC parameters above to connect Liferay to your database.
9.
Add either the JNDI name of your mail session or the mail parameters above to connect Liferay to your mail server.
10. Start your application server, deploy the Liferay .war file, and start
it.
The instructions below are specific for each application server that
Liferay supports. Liferay supports a wide combination of application servers
and databases. Because of this, for brevity this section assumes MySQL as the
database, that the database has already been created, and that you are using
your application server's mail session and data source. To use other databases, substitute the JDBC driver and URL construct for your database in
place of the MySQL ones shown here.
We also assume your application server is already installed and running
successfully. If you still need to install your application server, please follow
your vendor's instructions first.
The following instructions assume an installation on a local machine.
When installing to a remote server, substitute localhost with the host name
or IP of the server.
Tip: Note that Liferay 5.x and above requires JDK 1.5 or greater. Do
not attempt to install Liferay 6.x on an application server that runs
under Java 1.4 or lower; it will not work. If you are running an application server that ships with a JDK and that JDK is 1.4 or lower,
you will need to upgrade your application server in order to run current versions of Liferay Portal. Liferay 4.x, however, will run fine on these application servers.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
31
Initial Setup
Remember, for all of these application servers, create your portal-ext.file in the Liferay Home folder and make sure it points to your
database connection pool and mail session.
properties
GlassFish 3.x
Liferay Home is in the Glassfish root folder. We will assume for these instructions that you are using the default domain stored in [GlassFish
Root]/glassfish/domains/domain1.
1.
Before starting GlassFish, you will need to modify some settings in
the domain you will be using to increase the default amount of
memory available. In your domain folder is a config folder. Open the
file called domain.xml in this folder.
2.
At approximately line 166 of this file, you will find the following JVM
option being set:
<jvm-options>-Xmx512m</jvm-options>
Change this to:
<jvm-options>-Xmx1024m</jvm-options>
3.
Add another line after this line with the following JVM option:
<jvm-options>-XX:MaxPermSize=256m</jvm-options>
Save and close the file.
4.
In your domain folder is a folder called docroot. This folder contains
a default page for the domain in a file called index.html. Delete or
move this file to another location.
5.
Extract the Liferay dependencies archive into your domain's
folder. Extract your database's JDBC driver here as well.
6.
On Glassfish 3.0.1, you will need to extract commons-codec.jar from
the Liferay WAR file, rename it to commons-codec-repackaged.jar,
and copy it to [Glassfish Root]/glassfish/modules/, overwriting
Glassfish's version of the file
lib
Database Configuration
If you want GlassFish to manage the data source, use the following instructions. If you want to use the built-in Liferay data source, you can skip
this section.
32
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
Illustration 3: Glassfish JDBC Connection Pool
1.
Go to the GlassFish console URL: http://localhost:4848.
2.
Under Other Tasks, select Create New JDBC Connection Pool.
3.
In the first screen, give it a name of LiferayPool, a Resource Type of
javax.sql.ConnectionPoolDataSource, and select MySQL as the
Database Vendor. Click Next.
4.
On the next page, scroll down to the Additional Properties section.
Find the property called URL, and set its value to:
jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF8&amp;emulateLocators=true
5.
If your database is not on the same server as GlassFish, substitute
your database server's host name for localhost above.
6.
Click Add Property, and add a property called user with a value of the
user name to connect to the database.
7.
Click Add Property again, and add a property called
value of the password to connect to the database.
8.
Click Finish.
9.
You will now see a list of Connection Pools. To test your connection,
click the LiferayPool and click the Ping button. If you get a Ping
Succeeded message, everything has been set up correctly.
password
with a
10. Click JDBC Resources. You will see a list of JDBC Resources by JNDI
Name.
11. Click New.
12. Make the JNDI Name
you created earlier.
jdbc/LiferayPool
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
and select the LiferayPool
33
Initial Setup
13. Click OK.
Mail Configuration
If you want GlassFish to manage your mail session, follow the instructions below. If you want Liferay to manage your mail session, you can skip
this section.
1.
Under Resources, click JavaMail Sessions.
2.
Click New.
3.
Give the JavaMail Session a JNDI name of mail/MailSession, and fill
out the rest of the form with the appropriate information for your
mail server.
Click OK.
Deploy Liferay
1.
Create a file called
ectives to the file:
portal-ext.properties.
Add the following dir-
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
If you are using GlassFish's data source, add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using GlassFish's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
34
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
Save and close the file.
2.
Go to the GlassFish console URL: http://localhost:4848
3.
Click Applications in the tree on the left.
4.
Click the Deploy button.
5.
Under Packaged File to Be Uploaded to the Server click Choose File, and
browse to the location of the Liferay .war file.
6.
Leave the rest of the defaults and click OK.
Illustration 4: Deploying Liferay in GlassFish 3
Liferay will be deployed and started automatically.
Jetty 6
Liferay Home is one folder above Jetty's install location.
1.
Download and install Jetty 6.
2.
Download the Liferay Portal .war file.
3.
Download Liferay Portal Dependencies.
4.
Copy the dependencies to $JETTY_HOME/lib/ext.
5.
Edit $JETTY_HOME/extra/etc/start-plus.config.
$(jetty.home)/lib/ext/
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
35
Initial Setup
$(jetty.home)/lib/ext/*
6.
Create a data source bound to
$JETTY_HOME/etc/jetty.xml.
jdbc/LiferayPool
by editing
<Call name="addService">
<Arg>
<New
class="org.mortbay.jetty.plus.JotmService">
<Set
name="Name">TransactionMgr</Set>
<Call
name="addDataSource">
<Arg>jdbc/LiferayPool</Arg>
<Arg>
<New
class="org.enhydra.jdbc.standard.StandardXADataSource">
<Set
name="DriverName">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</Set>
<Set name="Url">jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF-8</Set>
<Set
name="User"></Set>
<Set
name="Password"></Set>
</New>
</Arg>
<Arg>
<New
class="org.enhydra.jdbc.pool.StandardXAPoolDataSource">
<Arg
type="Integer">4</Arg>
<Set
name="MinSize">4</Set>
<Set
name="MaxSize">15</Set>
</New>
</Arg>
</Call>
</New>
</Arg>
</Call>
7.
Download
mysql-connector-java-{$version}-bin.jar and
$JETTY_HOME/lib/ext. This is the JDBC driver for MySQL. If
copy to
you are
using a different database, copy the appropriate driver.
8.
Create a mail session bound to
$JETTY_HOME/etc/jetty.xml:
mail/MailSession
by editing
<Call name="addService">
<Arg>
<New
class="org.mortbay.jetty.plus.MailService">
<Set
name="Name">MailService</Set>
<Set
name="JNDI">mail/MailSession</Set>
<Put
name="mail.smtp.host">localhost</Put>
</New>
</Arg>
</Call>
9.
36
Create $JETTY_HOME/etc/jaas.config.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
PortalRealm {
com.liferay.portal.kernel.security.jaas.PortalLoginModule
required;
};
10. Create directory $JETTY_HOME/webapps/root and unpack the
Liferay .war file into it.
11. Go to
$JETTY_HOME/webapps/root/WEB-INF/lib
Impl.jar and xml-apis.jar.
and delete
xerces-
15. Copy $JETTY_HOME/webapps/root/WEB-INF/lib/commons-logging.jar to $JETTY_HOME/ext (overwriting the existing one).
16. Create batch file: run.bat.
@echo off
if
""
==
"%JAVA_HOME%"
goto
errorJavaHome
%JAVA_HOME%/bin/java -Xmx512m -Dfile.encoding=UTF8 -Duser.timezone=GMT
-Djava.security.auth.login.config=../etc/jaas.config
-DSTART=../extra/etc/start-plus.config -jar ../start.jar ../etc/jetty.xml
goto
end
:errorJavaHome
echo
JAVA_HOME
goto
end
not
defined.
:end
Note: If you get a java.lang.OutOfMemoryError exception while starting
up Jetty, give your JVM more memory by setting -Xmx1024m.
Start Liferay by running run.bat. Open your browser
host:8080. You should see the default Liferay home page.
to
http://local-
JBoss 5.x
Liferay Home is one folder above JBoss's install location.
1.
Download and install JBoss AS 5.0.1 GA into your preferred directory.
This directory will be referred to below as $JBOSS_HOME.
2.
Download the latest version of the Liferay Portal .war file.
3.
Remove hibernate-validator.jar from $JBOSS_HOME/common/lib.
4.
Go to
$JBOSS_HOME/server/default/lib/.
nector-java-{$version}-bin.jar and copy
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Download mysql-conto this directory. (This
37
Initial Setup
is the JDBC connector for MySQL. Use the appropriate driver for your
database.)
5.
Download
Liferay's
Portal
Dependencies.
Unzip
to
$JBOSS_HOME/server/default/lib.
6.
Configure
JAAS. Edit $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/conf/loand comment out the entire XML for policy other in
lines 115-131.
gin-config.xml
<!--<application-policy name = "other">-->
...
<!--<authentication>
<login-module code = "org.jboss.security.
auth.spi.UsersRolesLoginModule"
flag = "required" />
</authentication>
</application-policy>-->
Database Configuration
If you want JBoss to manage the data source, use the following instructions. If you want to use the built-in Liferay data source, you can skip this
section.
Create $JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/liferay-ds.xml with the
following content:
<datasources>
<local-tx-datasource>
<jndi-name>jdbc/LiferayPool</jndi-name>
<connection-url>
jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF-8
</connection-url>
<driver-class>com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</driver-class>
<user-name></user-name>
<password></password>
<min-pool-size>0</min-pool-size>
</local-tx-datasource>
</datasources>
Mail Configuration
If you want JBoss to manage the mail configuration, use the following instructions. If you want to use the built-in Liferay mail session, you can skip
this section.
Set
mail
properties
by
replacing
the
contents
of
$JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/mail-service.xml with:
38
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<server>
<mbean
code="org.jboss.mail.MailService"
name="jboss:service=MailSession">
<attribute
name="JNDIName">mail/MailSession</attribute>
<attribute
name="User">nobody</attribute>
<attribute
name="Password">password</attribute>
<attribute
name="Configuration">
<configuration>
<property
name="mail.store.protocol"
<property
name="mail.transport.protocol"
value="imap"
/>
<property
name="mail.imap.host"
value="localhost"
/>
<property
name="mail.pop3.host"
value="localhost"
/>
<property
name="mail.smtp.host"
value="localhost"
/>
value="smtp"
/>
</configuration>
</attribute>
</mbean>
</server>
Deploy Liferay
1.
Delete all the files and folders in
$JBOSS_HOME/server/default/de-
ploy/ROOT.war
2.
Unzip the Liferay .war file to the ROOT.war directory.
3.
Remove
from:
jaxrpc.jar,
stax.jar, xercesImpl.jar, xml-apis.jar
$JBOSS_HOME/server/default/deploy/ROOT.war/WEB-INF/lib
4.
Navigate to the Liferay Home folder, which is one folder above
JBoss's install location.
5.
Create a file called
ectives to the file:
portal-ext.properties.
Add the following dir-
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
If you are using JBoss's data source, add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
39
Initial Setup
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using JBoss's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
Save and close the file.
Start JBoss. Open your browser to
see the default Liferay home page.
http://localhost:8080.
You should
Resin 3.1.x
Liferay Home is one folder above Resin's install location.
1.
Download and install Resin into your preferred directory. From now
on, the directory where you installed Resin will be referred to as
$RESIN_HOME.
2.
Edit $RESIN_HOME/conf/resin.conf. Replace lines 8-13 with:
<class-loader>
<tree-loader
path="${resin.home}/lib"/>
<tree-loader
path="${server.root}/lib"/>
<compiling-loader path="$
{server.rootDir}/common/classes"/>
<library-loader
path="${server.rootDir}/common/lib"/>
</class-loader>
And add the following:
<database>
<jndi-name>jdbc/LiferayPool</jndi-name>
<driver
type="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver">
<url>jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF-8</url>
<user></user>
<password></password>
</driver>
<prepared-statement-cache-size>8</prepared-statement-cache-size>
<max-connections>20</max-connections>
<max-idle-time>30s</max-idle-time>
</database>
<resource
jndi-name="mail/MailSession"
type="javax.mail.Session">
<init>
40
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
<mail.store.protocol>imap</mail.store.protocol>
<mail.transport.protocol>smtp</mail.transport.protocol>
<mail.imap.host>localhost</mail.imap.host>
<mail.pop3.host>localhost</mail.pop3.host>
<mail.smtp.host>localhost</mail.smtp.host>
</init>
</resource>
<system-property
javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory="org.apache.xerces.jaxp.Do
cumentBuilderFactoryImpl"
/>
<system-property
javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory="org.apache.xerces.jaxp.SAXParser
FactoryImpl" />
<system-property
javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory="org.apache.xalan.processor.T
ransformerFactoryImpl" />
<system-property
org.xml.sax.driver="org.apache.xerces.parsers.SAXParser"
/>
3.
Go to $RESIN_HOME and create a new directory called common/lib.
Download mysql-connector-java-{$version}-bin.jar and copy to
this directory. This is the JDBC connector for MySQL. If you are using
another database, substitute this with the appropriate driver.
4.
Download the Liferay Portal Dependencies and unzip into
IN_HOME/common/lib.
5.
Delete contents of $RESIN_HOME/webapps/ROOT.
6.
Unzip liferay-portal-x.x.x.war to $RESIN_HOME/webapps/ROOT.
7.
If
you
are
using
$RES-
Resin
3.1.9 or higher, remove $RESThis contains the old Portlet 1.0
classes. The Portlet 2.0 classes are backwards compatible, so this
should not affect anything.
IN_HOME/lib/portlet-01.jar.
8.
Next, you will need several .jar files which are included as part of the
Liferay source distribution. Many application servers ship with these
already on the class path, but Resin does not. The best way to get the
appropriate versions of these files is to download the Liferay source
code and get them from there. Once you have downloaded the
Liferay source, unzip it to a temporary folder.
1.
Go to
$LIFERAY_SOURCE/lib/development/ and copy activation.jar and mail.jar to $RESIN_HOME/common/lib. Copy saxpath.jar and xalan.jar to $RESIN_HOME/lib.
2.
Go to $LIFERAY_SOURCE/lib/portal and copy
and xml-apis.jar to $RESIN_HOME/lib.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
xercesImpl.jar
41
Initial Setup
9.
To start the server, open a command prompt, navigate to the
IN_HOME and type:
$RES-
java -jar lib/resin.jar start
10. Open your browser to http://localhost:8080. You should see the
default Liferay home page.
Resin 3.2.x
Liferay Home is one folder up from Resin's install location.
1.
Download and install Resin 3.2.1 into your preferred directory. From
now on, the directory where you installed Resin will be referred to
as $RESIN_HOME.
2.
Edit $RESIN_HOME/conf/resin.conf. Replace lines line 9-13 with:
<tree-loader path="${resin.home}/ext-lib"/>
<tree-loader path="${resin.root}/ext-lib"/>
<tree-loader path="${resin.home}/lib"/>
<tree-loader path="${resin.root}/lib"/>
<compiling-loader path="${server.rootDir}/common/classes"/>
<library-loader path="${server.rootDir}/common/lib"/>
3.
Search <jvm-arg> tag in
the following:
resin.conf
and replace what is there with
<jvm-arg>-Xmx256m</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-Xss1m</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-Xmx1024m</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-XX:MaxPermSize=256m</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-Dfile.encoding=UTF-8</jvm-arg>
<jvm-arg>-Duser.timezone=GMT</jvm-arg>
42
4.
Go to $RESIN_HOME and create a new directory called common/lib.
Download mysqlconnector-java-{$version}-bin.jar and copy to
this directory. This is the JDBC connector for MySQL. If you are using
another database, substitute this with the appropriate driver.
5.
Download the Liferay Portal Dependencies and unzip into
IN_HOME/common/lib.
6.
Delete the contents of $RESIN_HOME/webapps/ROOT.
7.
Unzip liferay-portal-x.x.x.war to $RESIN_HOME/webapps/ROOT.
$RES-
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
8.
Next, you will need several .jar files which are included as part of the
Liferay source distribution. Many application servers ship with these
already on the class path, but Resin does not. The best way to get the
appropriate versions of these files is to download the Liferay source
code and get them from there. Once you have downloaded the
Liferay source, unzip it to a temporary folder.
◦
9.
Go to
$LIFERAY_SOURCE/lib/development
$RESIN_HOME/common/lib
Copy
saxpath.jar
To start the server, open a command prompt, navigate to the
IN_HOME and type:
to
$RES-
java -jar lib/resin.jar start
Open your browser to
fault Liferay home page.
http://localhost:8080.
You should see the de-
Tomcat 6.0.x
Liferay Home is one folder above Tomcat's install location.
1.
Download and install Tomcat 6.0.X into your preferred directory.
From now on, the directory where you installed Tomcat will be referred to as $TOMCAT_HOME.
Note: For JDK 5 users: move $TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/ROOT/WEBINF/lib/xercesImpl.jar to $TOMCAT_HOME/common/endorsed. JDK 1.4
is no longer supported in Liferay 5.x and above.
2.
Create and edit $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/Catalina/localhost/ROOT.xml
to set up the portal web application.
<Context path="">
</Context>
3.
Download liferay-portal-x.x.x.war.
4.
Download
Liferay's Portal Dependencies. Create a $TOMdirectory and unzip the dependencies ZIP in
there. If the files do not extract to this directory, make sure they are
in the correct directory by moving them there.
CAT_HOME/lib/ext
5.
Edit $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/catalina.properties:
common.loader=
${catalina.home}/classes,\
...\
${catalina.home}/lib/ext/*.jar
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
43
Initial Setup
6.
Make sure your database server is installed and is working. If it's installed in a different machine, make sure that it's accessible from the
one where Liferay is being installed.
7.
Configure data sources for your database. Make sure the JDBC driver
for your database is accessible by Tomcat. Obtain the JDBC driver for
your version of the database server. In the case of MySQL use mysqlconnector-java-{$version}-bin.jar. Next, copy the JAR file to
$TOMCAT_HOME/common/lib/ext.
8.
Edit $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/Catalina/localhost/ROOT.xml.
<Context...>
<Resource
name="jdbc/LiferayPool"
auth="Container"
type="javax.sql.DataSource"
driverClassName="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"
url="jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF-8"
username=""
password=""
maxActive="100"
maxIdle="30"
maxWait="10000"
/>
</Context>
9.
Be sure to enter the user name and password to your database in the
appropriate fields above.
10. Create a mail session bound to
mail/MailSession. Edit $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/Catalina/localhost/ROOT.xml and configure a mail
session.
<Context...>
<Resource
name="mail/MailSession"
auth="Container"
type="javax.mail.Session"
mail.transport.protocol="smtp"
mail.smtp.host="localhost"
mail.store.protocol="imap"
mail.imap.host="localhost"
/>
</Context>
11. Configure JAAS.
Edit $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/Catalina/localhost/ROOT.xml and configure a security realm.
44
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
<Context...>
<Realm
className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JAASRealm"
appName="PortalRealm"
userClassNames="com.liferay.portal.security.jaas.PortalPrincipal"
roleClassNames="com.liferay.portal.security.jaas.PortalRole"
debug="99"
useContextClassLoader="false"
/>
</Context>
14. Create $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/jaas.config.
PortalRealm {
com.liferay.portal.kernel.security.jaas.PortalLoginModule
required;
};
15. Edit
$TOMCAT_HOME/bin/catalina.bat
CAT_HOME/bin/catalina.sh (on Linux /
(on Windows) or $TOMMac / Unix) so that Tomcat
can reference the login module.
rem ----- Execute...
set JAVA_OPTS=-Xms128m -Xmx512m -Dfile.encoding=UTF8
-Duser.timezone=GMT -Djava.security.auth.login.config=
%CATALINA_HOME%/conf/jaas.config
16. Delete contents $TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/ROOT directory. This undeploys the default Tomcat home page.
17. Unpack liferay-portal-x.x.x.war to $TOMCAT_HOME/webapps/ROOT.
18. For supporting UTF-8 URI Encoding, edit
er.xml:
$TOMCAT_HOME/conf/serv-
<!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
<Connector
port="8080"
maxSpareThreads="75"
redirectPort="8443"
maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
maxThreads="150"
minSpareThreads="25"
enableLookups="false"
acceptCount="100"
disableUploadTimeout="true"
connectionTimeout="20000"
URIEncoding="UTF-8"
/>
19. Run Tomcat, point browser to http://localhost:8080. You should
see the default Liferay home page.
WebLogic 10
Liferay Home is one folder above the home folder of the domain in
which Liferay is installed.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
45
Initial Setup
These instructions assume that you have already configured a domain
and server, and that you have access to the WebLogic console.
Dependency Jars
1.
Navigate to the folder which corresponds to the domain to which
you will be installing Liferay. Inside this folder is a lib folder. Unzip
the Liferay dependencies archive to this folder.
2.
Copy the JDBC driver for your database to this folder as well.
3.
You will also need the xercesImpl.jar or you will get SAX parsing
errors after you deploy Liferay. You may download this from
http://xerces.apache.org. Copy the xercesImpl.jar file into this directory.
4.
Create a folder called endorsed in $WEBLOGICHOME/jrockit90_150_04/jre/lib, then
copy commons-lang.jar, rhino.jar,
serializer.jar, and xalan.jar to the
folder that you just created.
Database Configuration
If you want WebLogic to manage your data
source, use the following procedure. If you
want to use Liferay's built-in data source, you
can skip this section.
46
1.
Browse to your WebLogic Console.
Click the Lock & Edit button above the
Domain Structure tree on the left side
of the page.
2.
From the Domain Structure tree on the left, select Data Sources. Then
click the New button on the right side of the screen.
3.
Give the Data Source a name, such as LiferayDataSource.
4.
Define the JNDI name as jdbc/LiferayPool.
5.
Select your Database Type and the Driver class, and then click the
Next button.
6.
Accept the defaults on the next screen by clicking Next.
7.
On the next screen, put in your Database Name, Host Name, Database
User Name, and Password. If you have been following the defaults we
Illustration 5: WebLogic: Data
Sources
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
have been using so far, you would use lportal, localhost, root, and no
password as the values. Click Next.
8.
The next screen allows you to test your database configuration. Click
the Test Connection button. If the test succeeds, you have configured
your database correctly. Check off the server you want to deploy this
Data Source to (AdminServer is the default). Click Finish.
9.
Click the Activate Changes button on the left, above the Domain
Structure tree.
Mail Configuration
If you want WebLogic to manage your mail sessions, use the following
procedure. If you want to use Liferay's built-in mail sessions, you can skip
this section.
1.
In the Domain Structure tree, select Mail Sessions. Then click the Lock
& Edit button again to enable modifying these settings.
2.
Click the New button which is now enabled on the right side of the
screen.
3.
Give the Mail Session a name, such as LiferayMail.
4.
Select your new LiferayMail session from the list by clicking on it.
5.
On the screen that appears, define the JNDI name as
sion. Click the Save button.
6.
Click the Targets tab. Check off the server you want to deploy this
Data Source to (AdminServer is the default).
7.
Click the Activate Changes button on the left side of the screen, above
the Domain Structure tree.
mail/MailSes-
Deploy Liferay
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Illustration 6: WebLogic: Mail Sessions
1.
Click the Deployments option
in the Domain Structure tree
on the left side of the screen.
2.
Click the Lock & Edit button
above the Domain Structure
tree.
3.
Click the Install button on the
right side of the screen.
4.
Click the Upload your file(s)
link.
47
Initial Setup
5.
Browse to where you have stored the Liferay .war file, select it, and
then click Next.
6.
Select the Liferay .war file from the list and click Next.
7.
Leave Install this deployment as an application selected and click Next.
8.
Give the application a name (the default name is fine). Leave the other defaults selected and then click Finish.
9.
WebLogic will now deploy Liferay. When it is finished, a summary
screen is displayed. Click the Activate Changes link on the left above
the Domain Structure tree.
10. Create a portal-ext.properties file in the Liferay Home folder,
which is one folder up from your domain's home folder. If you are
using Liferay's built-in data source, add the database settings:
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
If you are using WebLogic's data source, add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using WebLogic's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
11. In the Deployments screen, select the Liferay application and click
the Start button. Select Servicing All Requests in the pop up.
12. Click Yes to continue on the next screen.
48
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
Liferay will start. You will be able to get to it by browsing to http://<server
name>:7001. If your browser is running on the same machine upon which you
have installed Liferay, the URL is http://localhost:7001.
Oracle WebLogic 10.3
If you still have the mainWebApp module installed, you will need to remove it first.
Dependency Jars
1.
Navigate to the folder which corresponds to the domain to which
you will be installing Liferay. Inside this folder is a lib folder. Unzip
the Liferay dependencies archive to this folder.
2.
Copy the JDBC driver for your database to this folder as well.
3.
Create
a
folder
called
endorsed
in
$WEBLOGICHOME/jrockit90_150_04/jre/lib, then copy commons-lang.jar,
rhino.jar, serializer.jar, and xalan.jar to the folder that you
just created.
Start Application Server
Start WebLogic.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
49
Initial Setup
Database Configuration
If you want WebLogic to manage your data source, use the following procedure. If you want to use Liferay's built-in data source, you can skip this section.
Illustration 7: Creating a data source in WebLogic 10.3
50
1.
Select JDBC → Data Sources. Click New.
2.
Give your data source a name, such as Liferay Data Source. The JNDI
name should be jdbc/LiferayPool.
3.
Choose the type of database. From the screen shot, you can see that
we have chosen MySQL. The database driver class should be chosen
for you automatically.
4.
Click Next twice. You should be on the Connection Properties screen.
Enter the database name, the host name, the port, the database user
name, and the password. WebLogic will use this information to construct the appropriate JDBC URL to connect to your database. Click
Next.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
5.
WebLogic will now confirm with you the information that it
gathered. For MySQL, some additional parameters need to be added
to the URL. Modify the JDBC URL so that it has the proper parameters:
jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8& \
useFastDateParsing=false
6.
Click Test Configuration to make sure WebLogic can connect to your
database successfully. If it does, click Finish.
7.
You will be back to the list of data sources. Notice that your new data
source has no value in the Target column. Click on your data source
to edit it.
8.
Click the Targets tab and check off the server instance(s) to which
you wish to deploy your data source. Then click Save.
Mail Configuration
1.
Select Mail Sessions and create a new mail session which points to
your mail server.
2.
Give it the name Liferay Mail and give it the JNDI name of
mail/MailSession and click Next.
3.
Choose your server and then click Finish.
Deploy Liferay
1.
Create a portal-ext.properties file in the Liferay Home folder,
which is one folder up from your domain's home folder. If you are
using Liferay's built-in data source, add the database settings:
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
If you are using WebLogic's data source, add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
51
Initial Setup
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using WebLogic's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
Save and close the file.
2.
Add the following to server.xml
<library-ref>
<library-name>jsf</library-name>
<specification-version>1.2</specification-version>
<implementation-version>1.2</implementation-version>
<exact-match>false</exact-match>
</library-ref>
3.
Select Deployments and click the Install button. Upload jsf-1.2.war
from WebLogic's common files directory, and select Install this deployment as a library.
4.
After installing the JSF libraries, go back to deployments and select
the Liferay .war file from the file system or click the Upload Your
File(s) link to upload it, and then click Next.
5.
Select Install this deployment as an application and click Next.
6.
If the default name is appropriate for your installation, keep it. Otherwise, give it a name of your choosing and click Next.
7.
Click Finish. After the deployment finishes, click Save.
Tip: After Liferay completes installing, you may see an error initializing the Web Proxy portlet. Because the XSL parser configured by
default within WebLogic cannot compile a style sheet in this portlet,
Liferay disables it by default. To re-enable this portlet, extract
xalan.jar and serializer.jar from the Liferay .war archive and copy
them to your JDK's endorsed folder for libraries. If you are using JRockit, you
may find this folder in
[Bea Home]/jrockit_160_05/jre/lib/ext.
52
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
WebSphere 6.1
Tip: Throughout this installation and configuration process, WebSphere will prompt you to Click Save to apply changes to Master
Configuration. Do so intermittently to save your changes.
Liferay Home is in a folder called liferay in the home folder of the user ID
that is running WebSphere.
Installation
1.
Download the Liferay Portal WAR file.
2.
Download
and
extract
these
Liferay
.jars
to
web-
sphere/appserver/lib/ext.
•
Dependency libraries (Liferay Portal Dependencies)
•
Your database JDBC driver .jar
•
Currently you also need to copy
Dependencies
archive
from the Liferay
into
WebSphere/AppServer/java/jre/lib/ext, as WebSphere already
contains older versions of the portlet .jar which must be overridden at the highest level of the class path. This issue may be
fixed in future releases; check the Liferay Wiki for updates to
this issue.
portlet.jar
Database Configuration
1.
Start WebSphere.
2.
Open Administrative Console and log in.
3.
Click Resources, click JDBC Providers.
4.
Click New.
5.
For name, enter the name of the JDBC provider (e.g. MySQL JDBC Provider).
6.
For Implementation class name, enter the implementation class for your
database driver's connection pool data source For MySQL, enter:
com.mysql.jdbc.jdbc2.optional.MysqlConnectionPoolDataSource
7.
Click Next.
8.
Clear any text in class path. You already copied the necessary .jars to a
location on the server's class path.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
53
Initial Setup
9.
Click Next.
10. Click Finish.
11. Click Data Sources under Additional Properties.
12. Click New.
13. Enter a name: liferaydatabasesource.
14. Enter JNDI: jdbc/LiferayPool.
15. Everything else should stay at the default values.
16. Click Next.
17. Under Additional Properties, click Custom Properties.
18. Click New.
19. Create three custom properties by entering Name, Value and clicking OK
for each row in the following table.
Name
Value
1. user
root
2. serverName
localhost
3. databaseName
lportal
20. Click Data Sources -> Test Connection to test.
Mail Configuration
1.
Click Resources -> Mail Providers.
2.
Click Built-in Mail Provider.
3.
Click Mail Sessions.
4.
Click New.
Name: liferaymail
JNDI Name: mail/MailSession
54
5.
Click OK.
6.
Click Security.
7.
Click Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure.
8.
Select Enable application security.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
9.
Deselect Use Java 2 security to restrict application access to local resources.
Install Liferay
1.
Click Applications -> Install new applications.
2.
Browse for liferay-portal-x.x.x.war.
3.
Enter context root /.
4.
Click Next. For Steps 1 to 3, click Next to apply defaults.
5.
Choose the Mail Session and Data Source, and then click Next.
6.
Specify the virtual host upon which you want Liferay to run.
7.
At the Summary Screen, click Finish.
8.
Wait for the installation process to complete.
9.
Save this configuration to master configuration by clicking on System administration and Save Changes to Master Repository.
Illustration 8: Installing the Liferay .war file on WebSphere 6.1
10. Create a portal-ext.properties file in the Liferay Home folder. For
WebSphere, this is a folder called liferay in the home folder of the
user that is running WebSphere. If you are using Liferay's built-in
data source, add the database settings:
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
55
Initial Setup
If you are using WebSphere's data source per the instructions above,
add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using WebSphere's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
Save and close the file.
Start Liferay Portal
1.
Applications.
2.
Click Enterprise Applications.
Illustration 9: Starting Liferay on WebSphere 6.1
56
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
3.
Uninstall DefaultApplication, PlantsByWebSphere and SamplesGallery.
4.
Select liferay-portal.war, click Start.
5.
Open up the browser and go to http://localhost:9080. The default
Liferay home page will be displayed.
WebSphere 7.0
Liferay Home is in a folder called liferay in the home folder of the user ID
that is running WebSphere.
1.
Download the Liferay Portal WAR file.
2.
Download
and
extract
these
Liferay
jars
to
web-
sphere/appserver/lib/ext.
•
Dependency libraries (Liferay Portal Dependencies)
•
JDBC Driver for your database
Database Configuration
If you want WebSphere to manage the database connections, follow the
instructions below.
Illustration 10: WebSphere 7.0 JDBC Providers
1.
Start WebSphere.
2.
Open the Administrative Console and log in.
3.
Click Resources → JDBC Providers.
4.
Click New.
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
57
Initial Setup
5.
For name, enter the name of JDBC provider (e.g. MySQL JDBC Provider).
6.
For Implementation class name, enter:
com.mysql.jdbc.jdbc2.optional.MysqlConnectionPoolDataSource
7.
Click Next.
8.
Clear any text in class path. You already copied the necessary .jars to
a location on the server's class path.
9.
Click Next.
10. Click Finish.
11. Click Data Sources under Additional Properties.
12. Click New.
13. Enter a name: liferaydatabasesource.
14. Enter JNDI: jdbc/LiferayPool.
15. Everything else should stay at the default values. Save the data
source.
16. When finished, go back into the data source and click Custom Properties, and then click the Show Filter Function button. This is the second
from last of the small icons under the New and Delete buttons.
17. Type user into the search terms and click Go.
Illustration 11: Modifying data source properties in WebSphere 7
58
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
18. Select the user property and give it the value of the user name to
your database. Click OK and save to master configuration.
19. Do another filter search for the url property. Give it a value that
points to your database. For example, the MySQL URL would be:
jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false. Click OK and save to mas-
ter configuration.
20. Do another filter search for the password property. Enter the password for the user ID you added earlier as the value for this property.
Click OK and save to master configuration.
21. Go back to the data source page by clicking it in the breadcrumb
trail. Click the Test Connection button. It should connect successfully.
Mail Configuration
1.
Click Resources -> Mail -> Mail Providers.
2.
Click the Built-In Mail Provider for your node and server.
3.
Click Mail Sessions, and then click the New button.
4.
Give it a name of liferaymail and a JNDI name of
Click OK and save to master configuration.
5.
Click Security → Global Security and deselect Use Java 2 security to restrict application access to local resources if it is selected. Click Apply.
mail/MailSession.
Install Liferay
1.
Click Applications -> New Application -> New Enterprise Application.
2.
Browse to the Liferay .war file and click Next.
3.
Leave Fast Path selected and click Next, and then click Next again.
4.
Make sure your server is selected and click Next.
5.
Keep the context root set to / and click Next.
6.
Click Finish. When Liferay has installed, click Save to Master Configuration.
Start Liferay
1.
Create a portal-ext.properties file in the Liferay Home folder. For
WebSphere, this is a folder called liferay in the home folder of the
user that is running WebSphere. If you are using Liferay's built-in
data source, add the database settings:
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
59
Initial Setup
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=root
jdbc.default.password=root
2.
If you are using WebSphere's data source per the instructions above,
add the JNDI name instead:
jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Do the same thing for the Mail Session. If you are using the built-in
configuration, set the following properties for your system:
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.password=
mail.session.mail.pop3.port=110
mail.session.mail.pop3.user=
mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=false
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
mail.session.mail.smtp.port=25
mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=pop3
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
If you are using WebSphere's mail session, add the JNDI name instead:
mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
3.
Save and close the file.
4.
Click Application Types -> WebSphere Enterprise Application.
5.
Uninstall the default application.
6.
Select the Liferay application and click Start.
Making Liferay Coexist with Other Java EE Applications
Liferay Portal by default is configured to sit at the root (i.e., /) of your
application server. Dedicating your application server to running only
Liferay Portal is a good practice, allowing for separation between your portal
environment and your web application environment. This is generally a best
practice for portals, which by definition are application development platforms in and of themselves. For that reason, your instance of Liferay is likely
to be hosting many applications, and even integrating several of them together on a single page. For this reason, you are going to want to make sure
your portal environment has all the resources it needs to do this, and configuring it so that it is the sole consumer of any other .war files that get de-
60
Installing Liferay for an Enterprise
Initial Setup
ployed to the application server helps to make sure that your system performs optimally.
If, however, you want Liferay to share space on an application server
with other applications, there is no reason why you cannot do that. In this instance, you may not want to make Liferay the default application in the root
context of the server.
There are two steps to modifying this behavior:
1.
Deploy Liferay in a context other than root (for example /portal).
2.
Modify the portal-ext.properties file to tell Liferay the context to
which it has been deployed.
To change the file, open it in a text editor. Place the portal.ctx property
at the top of the file:
portal.ctx=/
This default setting defines Liferay Portal as the application that sits at
the root context. If you change it to something else, say /portal, for example,
you can then deploy Liferay in that context and it will live there instead of at
the root context.
A full discussion of the portal-ext.properties file appears in Chapter 6.
Note for WebLogic Users: WebLogic also requires that you modify the
file which is included with Liferay. In this file are tags for the
context root:
weblogic.xml
<context-root>/</context-root>
Change this so that it matches the path you set in your portal-ext.file. You will have to modify the weblogic.xml file inside the
Liferay .war itself. Extract the file from the .war file, modify it, and then put
it back in the .war file. Then deploy the modified Liferay .war file to the server in the proper context.
properties
Summary
This chapter is a guide to everything about installing Liferay. Whether
you choose a Liferay bundle or an existing application server, Liferay Portal
integrates seamlessly with your enterprise Java environment. It is supported
on more application servers than any other portal platform, allowing you to
preserve your investment in your application server of choice, or giving you
the freedom to move to a different application server platform. Liferay is
committed to providing you this freedom: we have 100 test servers certifying
our builds with roughly 10,000 tests per version of Liferay Portal. Each of
those tests must be run on all of our different supported combinations of apSummary
61
Initial Setup
plication servers, databases, and operating systems. So you can be sure that
we are committed to supporting you on your environment of choice. Liferay
Portal won't get in your way, and you can feel safe knowing that you have the
freedom to use the software platform that is best for your organization, and
Liferay Portal will run and perform well on it.
62
Summary
3. CONFIGURATION
Once Liferay is successfully installed, you can begin configuring it to fit
it to your environment and your particular portal project. You can perform
many of these configuration tasks through Liferay's portlet-driven user interface.
You will want to customize your portal by configuring various settings
for it, such as email notifications, integration with services such as LDAP, creating users, user groups, organizations, communities, and roles, and readying
your portal to have its content and applications loaded by your developers.
This chapter covers these activities:
•
Liferay's User Interface: How to navigate around Liferay and make
use of the Control Panel.
•
Liferay Administration: How to administer a Liferay portal.
•
Global Portal Settings: Password policies, Settings, Monitoring,
and more.
Liferay's User Interface
Liferay is a portal server. This means that it is designed to be a single environment where all of the applications a user needs can run, and these are
integrated together in a consistent and systematic way. If an application lives
outside of the portal, the portal should be able to consume some resource of
the application (such as an RSS feed or a subset of functionality in a “dashboard” application) so that the end user can see everything he or she interacts with at a glance.
Configuration
To achieve this, all of the application functionality within Liferay Portal
is in fragments of the page called portlets. Portlets are web applications that
run in a portion of a web page. Liferay's core is a portlet container, and the
container's job is to aggregate the set of portlets that are to appear on any
particular page and display them properly to the user. In this way, one or
many applications can reside on a page, and the user can (at the administrator's discretion) arrange them in the way that works best for the user.
Portlet applications, like servlet applications, have become a Java standard which various portal server vendors have implemented. The Java standard defines the portlet specification. A JSR-168 or JSR-286 standard portlet
should be deployable on any portlet container which supports those standards. Portlets are placed on the page in a certain order by the end user and
are served up dynamically by the portal server.
Portal applications come generally in two flavors: 1) multiple portlets
can be written to provide small amounts of functionality and then are aggregated by the portal server into a larger application, or 2) whole applications can be written to reside in only one or a few portlet windows. The
choice is up to those designing the application. Developers only have to
worry about what happens inside of the portlet itself; the portal server
handles building out the page as it is presented to the user.
Portlets are not difficult to build, and Java standard portlets can be written by any Java developer with experience in writing web applications.
Liferay provides a Plugins Software Development Kit that makes creating
portlet projects easy. For further information about the Plugins SDK, please
see Liferay in Action, published by Manning Publications, which is the official
guide to Liferay development.
Additionally, Liferay supports portlets written in other programming
languages, such as PHP, Ruby, Groovy, or Python. Sample portlets written in
these languages can be checked out from our Subversion repository
(http://svn.liferay.com/repos/public/plugins/trunk/portlets).
Navigating Liferay
Assuming that you've followed the instructions in Chapter 2 for removing the demo web site (7 Cogs), Liferay initially presents a very simple interface. Unauthenticated users can navigate the public pages of the portal and
will see a Sign In link in the top right corner of the screen.
To sign into Liferay for the first time, you can click the Sign In link. You
will then be presented with the Sign In Portlet. This portlet allows a user (or
a prospective user) to do several things: sign in to Liferay, create a new account on the portal, or have a password reminder emailed if the user has forgotten his or her password. To sign in for the first time, don't create an ac64
Liferay's User Interface
Configuration
count for yourself. We will do that later. If you were to create a new account
on the portal for yourself now, it would be created using Liferay's defaults,
which means the account would not have access to the administrative portlets you need in order to set up Liferay for your organization. For this reason,
you will need to sign in as the default administrative user. This user's credentials are:
User Name: [email protected]
Password: test
Illustration 12: Logging into Liferay Portal
Go ahead and sign into your new portal using these credentials. As you
can see, Liferay by default uses one's email address as the user name. This
can be changed later if you don't like this functionality, but it is generally a
good practice to keep it this way. Users' email addresses are not normally
things they will forget, and they are unique to each user, so they make good
candidates for user IDs.
The first page that will be displayed when a user logs in for the first time
is the Terms of Use page. This page is displayed to the user before he or she is
allowed to access the portal. By default, your users will have to agree to your
terms of service before they will be allowed to used the portal. This page can
be customized to contain whatever text you want, or the feature can be disabled altogether. To continue, you will need to agree to the Terms of Service.
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Once you log in as the administrative user, you will see that the Dockbar
has now appeared across the top of the page. The Dockbar is the primary tool
logged in users have for navigating the portal and accessing administrative
functions from anywhere on the web site. Depending on the logged-in user's
roles and what section of the website the user is viewing, you may see all or
only some of the options available in the Dockbar.
As an administrator, the first option you will see on the Dockbar is Add . Mousing
over Add will reveal a list of things that you can add. You can use this to add a new
page at the current navigation level, or add portlets to the current page. When you
first pull down the menu, you will see a list of common portlets that you can click on
to add to the page. You will also see a More option, which will show you all of the currently available portlets. From the expanded More menu, you can add portlets to the
current page. If you want to add a portlet to the current page, you can click the Add
button next to a portlet to add it to the first column in the page, or drag the portlet
from the menu to where you want it on the page.
Illustration 13: Add Menu from the Dockbar
The next option you'll see is the Manage menu. From this menu, you can
access various settings for the current page and any of its subpages. The
items available are Page, Page Layout Sitemap, and Settings. Clicking on Page
Layout brings up a dialog box which enables you to choose the layout template to use for the current page. The other settings are the same as their
counterparts in the Control Panel, and are covered in detail later in this
chapter. The last item in the menu is Control Panel; clicking on it brings you to
the Control Panel.
The next thing you'll see is a check box labeled Toggle Edit Controls. This
lets you turn on and off the edit controls in the top of the portlet windows.
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This is helpful for administrators who want to look at a page they're working
on and see it the way a regular user would.
If you roll your mouse over Go to, the Dockbar will expand, showing all of
the places in the portal to which you have access. Initially, the place you are
on is highlighted. You will see that you are in the liferay.com community, on
the public pages. Liferay allows for various configurations of pages for end
users: you can configure it so that some or all users have their own pages,
public and private (or both), upon which they can place the portlets they
need to use. The administrator account by default has its own pages. Because
you are logged in with an account that has Administrator privileges, you can
see everything in the portal.
One of the most important tools Liferay offers for managing your portal
is the aforementioned Control Panel. The Control Panel is composed of administrative portlets that you can use to mange various aspects of the portal.
Navigating the Control Panel
The control panel is very easy to navigate. On the left side is a list of
headings with functions underneath them. The headings are in alphabetical
order, but the functions are in a logical order.
User Name: The first section is always the logged in user's personal
space. Here, you can change your account information and manage your own
personal pages.
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Illustration 14: Liferay's Control Panel
Content: The Content section contains links to all of Liferay's content
management functions. You can maintain web content, documents, images,
bookmarks, a calendar, administer a message board, configure a wiki, and
more. The title of this section appears as the name of the community or organization whose content you are currently managing, and you can switch to
another one at any time.
Portal: The Portal section allows portal administrators to set up and
maintain the portal. This is where you can add and edit users, organizations,
communities, roles, and configure the settings of the portal.
Server: The Server section contains administrative functions for configuring portal instances, plugins, and more.
All of the functions that you will need to maintain the portal or its content can be found in the control panel. Additionally, developers can write
portlets which can also be added to the control panel. For further informa-
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tion about this, you can take Liferay's Portal Developer course or see the official guide to Liferay development, Liferay in Action .
Portal Architecture
Before we dive into the user interface for adding and maintaining various portal resources, it is best to go over the concepts Liferay uses to organize a portal.
Portals are accessed by Users.
Users can be collected into User Groups.
Users can belong to Organizations.
Organizations can be grouped into hierarchies, such as Home Office →
Regional Office → Satellite Office.
Users, Groups, and Organizations can belong to Communities that have a
common interest.
Within Organizations and Communities, users can belong to Teams,
which are groupings of users for specific functions within a community or
organization.
The simplest way to think about this is that you have users and various
ways those users can be grouped together. Some of these groupings follow an
administratively organized hierarchy, and other groupings may be done by
the users themselves (such as different users from multiple organizations
starting a community called “Dog Lovers” that has a common interest in
dogs). And other groupings may be done administratively via Roles for other
functions that may cut across the portal (such as a Message Board Administrators role made up of users from multiple communities and organizations,
allowing those users to administer any message board in the portal).
This way of organizing portal concepts may be illustrated as shown on
the next page.
In the illustration below, each arrow may be read using the words “can
be a member of.” So this means that Organizations can be members of Communities, Communities can be members of Roles, Users can be members of
anything, and so on. Though this seems very complex, it provides a powerful
mechanism for portal administrators to configure portal resources and security in a consistent and robust manner. It is important to note that the diagram illustrates only users and their collections. Permissions do not flow
through all of these collections: permissions can be assigned to roles only.
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Illustration 15: Liferay permissions model. Don't worry, it's not as complicated as it seems.
Teams are inside individual organizations and communities, and are only
available as they are created within those organizations and communities.
Roles that appear inside organizations and communities are roles that are
scoped just for organizations and communities. This means that though each
organization and community in the portal has this role with its configured
permissions, membership in this role is different for each organization and
community.
Users
Users represent physical users of the system. These are the user accounts that people use to log into the system. By default, users get their own
private communities with public and private pages that they can manage
themselves, and this can be turned off or locked down by administrators. But
this personal space is important: it's what enables users to have their own
public blog or their own private calendar, a place to store their documents,
and more.
Users can be collected in multiple ways. They can be members of organization hierarchies, such as Liferay, Inc. → Security → Internet Security.
They can be collected into arbitrary user groups, such as Bloggers, which
could be used to set apart users who get a Blog page in their personal space
from users who do not. They can be members of communities which draw together common interests. And they can have roles which define their permissions in the system, and these roles can be scoped by Portal, Organization, or
Community.
User Groups
User Groups are simple, arbitrary collections of users, created by administrators. They can be members of communities or roles. Permissions cannot
be assigned to User Groups. Though User Groups do not have pages like some
of the other collections of users (such as Communities or Organizations), they
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do have page templates which can be used to customize users' personal sets
of pages. This will be fully described below.
Roles
There are three kinds of roles:
Portal Roles
Organization Roles
Community Roles
These are called role scopes. Roles are used to define permissions across
their scopes: across the portal, across an organization, or across a community. For example, consider a role which grants access to create a Message
Board category. A Portal role would grant that access across the portal,
wherever there was a Message Board portlet. A Community role would grant
that access only within a single community. An Organization role would
grant that access only within an Organization.
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•
•
Because Roles are used strictly for portal security, they also do not have
pages, like Communities and Organizations.
Users, User Groups, Communities, or Organizations can be members of a
role.
Organizations
Organizations are hierarchical collections of Users. They are one of the
two types of portal resources that can have pages. There is also a special type
of Organization called a location, which can define where users are specifically located.
Organizations are handy for defining where a user belongs in a particular hierarchy. For example, if you are implementing Liferay for a large organization, it may help to define user Joe Smith via his position in the organization chart. If Joe Smith is a Sales Engineer located in the New Jersey office,
working in the North East division of the Sales department, he might be a
member of the following organizations:
Sales
North East Division
New Jersey Location
Now say that you have placed an Asset Publisher portlet as a static portlet on every user's home page (via a User Group page template) so that you
can inform employees of various announcements via the content management system. If you tagged your content appropriately, you could ensure that
Joe Smith gets any announcements that are meant for Sales, the North East
Division, or the New Jersey location.
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Organizations can be members of Communities.
Communities
Communities are collections of Users who have a common interest.
Liferay's default pages are part of a community named for the portal, because
everyone—whether they are anonymous or members of the portal—has a
common interest in the default, public pages of your site. There are three
types of Communities:
Open
Restricted
Hidden
An Open Community (the default) allows portal users to join and leave
the Community whenever they want to, using the Control Panel or a Communities portlet added to a page which they can access. A Restricted Community requires that users be added to the Community by a community administrator. Users may use the Control Panel or the Communities portlet to
request membership. A Hidden community is just like a Restricted community, with the added concept that it does not show up at all in the Communities portlet or the Control Panel. Users will have to be added to a hidden
community by a community administrator.
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•
•
Teams
Teams are unique within a context of a Community or Organization.
Teams are essentially sets of users that can be created within a community.
This makes teams different from the Community and Organization Roles because teams appear only in the specific community or organization in which
they are created. This is very useful if you need to create a team of users for a
specific purpose within a community or organization and not for each community or organization in the portal.
Teams can also be essential for some use cases, because they can be created by Community or Organization Administrators. Community and Organization Administrators cannot create roles, so the ability to have teams empowers them to manage permissions at a level they weren't capable of previously.
Using the Control Panel
The Portal section of the Control Panel is used for most administrative
tasks. You will find there an interface for the creation and maintenance of
•
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Users
Organizations
Using the Control Panel
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Communities
User Groups
Roles
Additionally, it allows you to configure many server settings, including:
•
•
•
Password Policies
Authentication options, including Single Sign-On and LDAP
integration
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Default User Associations
•
Reserved Screen Names
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Mail Host Names
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Email Notifications
You will use the Portal section of the Control Panel to create your portal
structure, implement security, and administer your users. Note that only
users with the Administrator role—a portal scoped role—have permission to
view this section of the Control Panel. You can, of course, grant permissions
to one or more sections to roles that you create yourself.
•
•
Adding Users
Let's begin by adding a user account for yourself. We will then configure
this account so that it has the same administrative access as the default administrator account. Go up to the D ockbar, mouse over Manage and click the
Illustration 16: The Add User screen.
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Control Panel link, if you aren't there already. Then under the Portal category, click Users. Click the Add button.
You will then be presented with the Add User form. Fill out the form using your name and email address. When you are finished, click Save.
The page will then reappear with a message saying that the save was successful, and there will now be an expanded form which allows you to fill out a
lot more information about the user. You don't have to fill anything else out
right now, but one thing is important to note: when the user ID was created,
a password was automatically generated and, if Liferay has been correctly installed (see Chapter 2), an email message with the password in it was sent to
the user. This of course requires that Liferay can properly communicate with
your SMTP mail server in your organization.
Illustration 17: Liferay's User Account editor.
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If you haven't yet set up your mail server, you'll need to use this screen
to change the default password for the user ID to something you can remember. You can do this by clicking on the Password link in the box on the right,
entering the new password in the two fields, and clicking Save.
Next, you will want to give your user account the same administrative
rights as the default administrator's account. This will allow you to perform
administrative tasks with your own ID instead of having to use the default ID.
And this allows you to make your portal more secure by deleting or disabling
the default ID.
Click the Roles link. You will then be taken to a screen which shows the
roles to which your ID is currently assigned. By default, you should have one
role: Power User. By default, all users are also assigned the Power User role.
You can give this role certain permissions if you wish or disable it altogether
(we will see how to do this later). You can also define the default roles a new
user receives; we will go over this later also.
To make yourself an Administrator, click the Select link. A window will
pop up with a list of all the roles in the system. Select the Administrator role
from the list and the window will disappear and you will see that the role has
been added to the list of roles to which you are assigned. Next, click the Save
button, which is at the bottom of the blue bar of links on the right. You are
now an administrator of the portal. Log out of the portal and then log back in
with your own user ID.
User Management
If you click the Users link on the left of the Control Panel, you will see
that there are now two users in the list of users. If you wanted to change
something about a particular user, you can click the Actions button next to
that user.
Edit User: This takes you back to the Edit User page, where you can
modify anything about the user.
Permissions : This allows you to define which Roles have permissions to
edit the user.
Manage Pages: If the user has pages, this allows you to edit them.
Impersonate User: Opens another browser window which allows you to
browse the site as though you were the user.
Deactivate: Clicking this will deactivate the user's account.
Note that most users will not be able to perform most of the above (in
fact, they won't even have access to this section of the Control Panel). Be-
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cause you have administrative access, you can perform all of the above functions.
Organizations
Organizations in Liferay are meant to model organizations in real life.
They can be used to represent different companies, non-profit organizations,
churches, schools, clubs, and so on. They have been used to represent a
sports league, with various sports (soccer, baseball, basketball, etc.) and their
teams as sub-organizations. If you have a collection of users that all belong to
the same grouping, you may be able to model that as an organization.
Your portal may have only one organization or several, depending on
what kind of site you are building. For example, a corporate site may model
its own organization hierarchy in Liferay, while a social networking site may
have users from many separate organizations who access the site. Organizations can be organized in a hierarchy to unlimited levels, and Users can be
members of one or many organizations—inside of a hierarchy or across different hierarchies.
Additionally, Organizations can be associated with Roles. One application
of this in a corporate setting could be an IT Security group. You may have an
organization within your IT organization that handles security for all of the
applications company-wide. If you had users as members of this organization, you could grant the Administrator role you just granted to your own ID
to the whole Organization, thereby giving the members of the IT Security organization administrative access to the portal. If a user in this organization
later was hired by the Human Resources department, the simple administrative act of moving the user from the IT Security organization to the HR organization would remove this privilege from the user, since the user would no
longer be in an organization that has the Administrator role. By adding the
user to the HR organization, any roles the HR organization has (such as access to a benefits system in the portal) would be transferred to the user. In
this manner, you can design your portal to correspond with your existing organization chart, and have users' permissions reflect their positions in the
chart.
Of course, this is only one way to design it. If you have more complex requirements, you can combine Organizations with Teams and scoped Roles to
assemble the sets of permissions you wish to grant to particular users.
Organizations are one of two types of Liferay resources (the other being
Communities) that can have its own pages. This allows members of the organizations (if they are granted the Manage Pages permission) to maintain
their own pages. They can have a set of public pages which include information and applications appropriate for guests or logged in users who are not
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members of the Organization to make use of (such as a help desk ticket entry
system for an IT page), and they can have a set of private pages with applications for the organization's own use (such as the back-end portlets of the
same ticketing system).
To add an organization, click the Organizations link on the left side of the
Control Panel, and then click the Add button.
Illustration 18: Adding an organization.
Name: The name of the organization.
Type: Use this to choose whether this is a regular organization or a location.
Parent Organization: Click the Select link to bring up a window which
allows you to select the organization in the system that is the direct parent of
the organization you are creating. Click the Remove button to remove the currently configured parent.
Tip: Note that you are already a member of the organization you
created, because you created it. By creating an organization, you become both a member and have the Organization Owner role, which
gives you full rights to the organization.
Fill out the information for your organization and click Save.
As before with users, the form reappears and you can enter more information about the organization. Organizations can have multiple email adUsing the Control Panel
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dresses, postal addresses, web sites, and phone numbers associated with
them. The Services link can be used to indicate the operating hours of the organization, if any.
For now, click the Back button. This will take you back to the list of organizations.
Click the Actions button next to the new organization you have created.
You will then see the many actions you can take to manipulate this organization.
Edit: Lets you edit the organization.
Manage Pages: Lets you create and manage public and private pages for
the Organization.
Manage Teams: Lets you create teams within this organization, to which
you can assign users and permissions.
Assign User Roles: Lets you assign Organization-scoped roles to users.
By default, Organizations are created with three roles: Organization Administrator, Organization Member, and Organization Owner. You can assign one or
more of these roles to users in the organization. All members of the Organization get the Organization Member role.
Assign Members: Takes you to a screen where you can search and select
users in the portal to be assigned to this organization as members.
Add User: Adds a new user in the portal who will be a member of this organization.
View Users: Shows a list of users who are members of this organization.
Add Regular Organization: Lets you add a child organization to this organization. This is how you create hierarchies of organizations with parent-child relationships.
Add Location: Lets you add a child Location, which is a special type of
organization that cannot have any children added to it.
View Sub organizations: Shows a list of all the organizations that are
children of this organization.
Delete: Deletes this organization from the portal. You will have to ensure that the organization has no users in it first.
Communities
Communities are very much like Organizations except that they are not
hierarchical. They are designed instead to be islands to themselves which
anyone from any organization (or from no organization at all) can join. You
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can use Communities, therefore, in any situation where you need to cut
across the organizational structure of your portal, or where you have a site
that would apply to almost anybody.
For example, a corporate Intranet running Liferay may have sites for all
the organizations in the company: Sales, Marketing, product groups, Information Technology, Human Resources, and so on. But what about the corporate health and fitness center? That's something that everybody in the company—regardless of organization—potentially has an interest in, and may
want to join. That's a good candidate for a Community. Using the same scenario, the home page for the Intranet is probably best placed in a community
that any member of the portal can access.
For other kinds of web sites, you may want to use communities to bring
people together who have a common interest. If you were building a photo
sharing web site out of Liferay, you may have communities based on the
types of photos people want to share. So those who enjoy taking pictures of
landscapes can join a Landscapes community, and those who enjoy taking
pictures of sunsets can join a Sunsets community. And if they lose interest,
they can leave those communities too.
The default home page in Liferay is in a community which by default is
called liferay.com (you can rename it; see the tip below), and this is where you
would put your public web site. As you can see, there are several scenarios in
which you would want to use something like a community instead of an organization, and this is why they have distinct roles within Liferay Portal.
Tip: In previous versions of Liferay, the default community where
the public pages were located was called Guest . Starting with
Liferay 6, the default public community is named dynamically
based on whatever the name of the portal is. Any time you change
the name of your site, the name of this community will change.
You can set the name in Portal → Settings .
Communities can be created and managed in two ways. The first is
through the Control Panel, like every other user/page collection in Liferay.
The second is through the My Communities portlet, which can be added to
any page in Liferay. Why are there two ways? Because the My Communities
portlet also doubles as a way to navigate from community to community, and
allows users to browse the list of communities and select whether or not they
want to join one (if it is open or restricted). This enables you as a portal ad ministrator to provide users with this functionality without giving them access to the Control Panel.
To add a community, click the Communities link on the left side of the
Control Panel in the Portal section, and then click the Add button.
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Name: Enter the name of the community you wish to create.
Description: Enter some descriptive text about the community.
Type: There are three kinds of communities: Open, Restricted, and
Private. An open community appears in the My Communities portlet and
users can join and leave the community whenever they want. A restricted
community is the same except users can only request membership. A community administrator must then explicitly grant or deny users' requests to
join. A private community does not appear in the My Communities portlet
and users must be added to it manually by a community administrator.
Active: Communities can be active or inactive. If a community is inactive, no data can be added to it.
Tags: You can use Liferay's tagging mechanism on the community. This
is helpful if the community has a specific, topical purpose within the portal.
Once you have created a community, it will appear in the list of communities in the Control Panel. The operations you can perform on it are very
similar to the operations you can perform on organizations.
Edit: Lets you edit the community.
Manage Pages: Lets you create and manage public and private pages for
the community.
Manage Teams: Lets you create and manage teams for the community.
Assign User Roles: Lets you assign community-scoped roles to users. By
default, communities are created with three roles: Community Administrator, Community Member, and Community Owner. You can assign one or more
of these roles to users in the community. All members of the community get
the Community Member role.
Assign Members: Takes you to a screen where you can search and select
users in the portal to be assigned to this community as members.
Join/Leave: If you are not a member of the community, you will have a
Join or Request Membership option. If you are a member of the community
you will see an option to leave the community.
Delete: Users with administrative access to the portal or who are owners
of the community can delete it.
Site Templates
While we're on the subject of communities, it is important to mention
Site Templates, which is several links down in the Portal category in the Control Panel. These allow you to create web sites within communities by select-
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ing from pre-defined templates that you can make ahead of time. What this
means is that you can create a template community that has a pre-defined
set of pages and portlets, and then use that template to very quickly create
multiple communities that are pre-populated with those pages and portlets.
Illustration 19: Site Templates
You can create templates for open, restricted, and private communities.
Additionally, you can create a default template that applies to all kinds of
communities. For our example, we will work with a template designed for
student communities.
Go to the Control Panel and click Site Templates. Click the Add button and
create a site template called Students. Make the template Active. Now you can
select the Open Site Template link and begin adding content, pages, portlets
and configuring the layouts. You'll learn more about how to do this in the
next chapter. Once you're finished, return to the Site Templates portlet and
select Save.
To create a community based on the new template, go to the Control
Panel and click Communities. Click the Add button and create a community
called Freshmen. In the Public Pages drop down menu, select Student Template
and then click Save. The new community will have all the pages, content, and
portlets you created in the template. This feature streamlines the community
creation process for administrators, making it very easy to quickly create
communities.
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User Groups
User Groups are arbitrary groupings of users. These groups are created
by portal administrators to group users together who don't have an obvious
organizational or community-based attribute or aspect which brings them
together. Groups cannot have permissions like roles, but User Groups can be
added to Roles. Why would you use User Groups, then? They come into play
when you have complex security requirements and for page templates,
which we will discuss below.
Creating a User Group is easy. Click the User Groups link and then click
the Add button. There are only two fields to fill out: Name (the name of the
User Group) and Description (an optional description of what the group is
for). Click Save and you will then be back to the list of groups.
As with the other resources in the portal, you can click the Actions button
to perform various operations on User Groups.
Edit: Allows you to modify the name or description of the User Group.
Permissions: This allows you to define which Users, User Groups, or
Roles have permissions to edit the User Group.
Manage Pages: Though User Groups don't have pages of their own, you
can create page templates for a group. When a User Group has page templates, any users added to the group will have the group's pages copied to
their personal pages. This allows you to do things like create a Bloggers user
group with a page template that has the Blogs and Recent Bloggers portlets
on it. The first time users who are added to this group log in to the portal,
this page will get copied to their personal pages. They will then automatically
have a blog page that they can use.
Assign Members: Takes you to a screen where you can search for and
select users in the portal to be assigned to this User Group.
View Users : Lets you view the users who are in the User Group.
Delete: Deletes the User Group.
User Groups and Page Templates
Liferay allows users to have a personal set of public and private pages
that each user can customize at will. The default configuration of those pages
can be determined by the portal administrator through the portal-ext.properties file and optionally by providing the configuration in a LAR file.
Though this has been a long-time feature of Liferay, it was not very flexible
or easy to use.
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Liferay version 5.1 introduced the concept of page templates which are
tied to User Groups. This enables administrators to provide the same configuration for the personal pages of all (or just a subset of) users, using Liferay's
GUI instead of the properties file. In some cases you may want to provide a
different configuration for each user depending on his or her profile. For example, in a portal for University students, staff and undergraduates would
get different default pages and portlets in their personal space. You can also
set it up so that different groups are combined together to create the desired
default configuration. When a user is assigned to a user group, the configured page templates are copied directly to the user's personal pages.
User Group Page Templates: Defining page templates for a user group
A User Group's page templates can be administered using the Control
Panel. The User Groups link lists all of the existing user groups and allows
you to perform several actions on each of them.
Illustration 20: Manage Pages action on a User Group
By selecting the Manage Pages action the administrator can access the
common Liferay UI for creating pages and organizing them in a hierarchy.
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Illustration 21: Adding a Page Template
Note that it is possible to create both public and private pages. Each set
will be used as templates to be copied to the user's personal public or private
page sets respectively when the user becomes a member of the user group.
In the screen shot above, the administrator has created a new private
page called You are a student within the Students user group. Since the page
created is a portlet page, the administrator can now click the View Pages button to open the page and add as many portlets as desired to that page and
configure them as needed. Let's assume for this example that the Loan Calculator and Calendar portlets are selected.
Applying the page templates by assigning members to the user group
The next step is to assign an existing user to that group to verify that the
page template is copied as a user's private page. To do this, click Actions →
Assign Members in the list of available user groups.
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Illustration 22: Assigning Members to a User Group
By clicking the Available tab in the next screen, a list of all available users
is shown. From that list, one or more users can be selected to make them
members of the user group. When the Update Associations button is clicked,
the users become members of the group and copies of any public or private
page templates which are configured for the user group are copied to their
page sets.
In the previous example, a user that already had an existing page called
Welcome will now have a new page called You Are A Student the next time she
accesses her personal space. That page will contain two portlets: Loan Calculator and Calendar as configured by the User Group administrator.
Additional details
Because the pages are copied to a user's set of pages, those pages are now
owned by the user and they can be changed at any time if the portal is set up
to allow users to edit their personal pages. When a user is removed from a
user group the associated pages won't be removed: they have become that
user's pages. The system is smart enough, however, to detect when a user is
added again to a group of which he or she was already a part, and the pages
are not added again.
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Illustration 23: Template copied to a user's page set
If an administrator modifies page templates for a User group after users
have already been added to the group, those changes will be used when new
users are assigned to the user group. Since the pages are templates, however,
the changes won't be applied to users that were already members of the user
group.
Composing A Page Out of Several User Groups
Users can belong to many user groups. If you have templates defined for
a number of groups, this may result in having many page templates copied to
users' pages. To prevent this, you can combine pages from different user
groups into a single page.
Let's expand our previous example by dividing the Students into First
Year Students, Second Year Students, Third Year Students, International Students, and Prospective Students. For each of these types of students we want
to have a page with the Loan Calculator and Calendar, but depending on
which type, we also want other different portlets to be on that page too.
This can be achieved by using a naming convention for the pages. If two
or more pages of different user groups have the same name, they will be
combined into a single page when they are copied to a user's personal pages
set.
In the example above, a User was added to a Students group which had a
page called You are a Student. If the administrator creates a page template
with the same name (You are a Student) in the First Year Students group and
puts in it an RSS portlet pointing to information interesting for them, that
page would be combined with the You are a Student page that's in the Students group, and the resulting page would contain the portlets configured for
both User Groups:
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Illustration 24: Combined portlet pages.
Page Combination Rules
The following rules are used when composing a page by combining pages
from different user groups:
If a user becomes a member of a User Group that has a page
template with the same name in the same set (public or private) as a
page that the user already has, those pages will be combined.
•
If any of the pages has the name translated to several languages,
only the default language is considered in the comparison.
•
The portlets on the new page will be copied to the bottom of the
equivalent columns of the existing page.
•
If the existing and the new pages have different layout templates,
the existing one is preserved.
•
If the new layout template has portlets in columns that do not exist
in the existing page, those portlets will be automatically copied to
the first column of the existing layout template.
As you can see, it is possible to have a very flexible configuration for the
default pages of portal users. Furthermore, that configuration can be
changed at any time using the UI administrators are used to and then assigning users to new user groups.
•
While these examples are somewhat simple, the system allows for as
many user groups as desired. By using the convention of matching the page
names, it is possible to build any default page composition that you want for
your users.
Roles
Roles are groupings of users that share a particular function within the
portal, according to a particular scope. Roles can be granted permissions to
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various functions within portlet applications. Think of a role as a description
of a function, such as Message Board Administrators. A role with that name is
likely to have permissions to functions of the Message Board portlet delegated to it. Users who are placed in this role then inherit those permissions.
Roles are scoped by Portal, Organization, or Community. The Control
Panel makes it easy for you to assign users to Roles and to assign permissions
to Roles. You only have to go to one place: the Roles link. From there, you can
add roles scoped by Portal, Organization, or Community from one interface.
To create a Role, click the Roles link, and then click the Add button. Type
a name for your role and an optional description. The drop down box at the
bottom of the form lets you choose whether this is a Regular, Community, or
Organization role. When you have finished, click Save.
You will be back at the list of roles. To see what functions you can perform on your new role, click the Actions button.
Edit: Click this action to edit the role. You can change its name or description.
Permissions : This allows you to define which Users, User Groups, or
Roles have permissions to edit the Role.
Define Permissions : Click this to define what permissions this role has.
This is outlined in the next section.
Assign Members: Takes you to a screen where you can search and select
users in the portal to be assigned to this role. These users will inherit any
permissions given to the role.
View Users : Lets you view the users who are in the Role.
Delete: Deletes the Role.
Defining Permissions on a Role
Roles exist as a bucket for granting permissions to the users who are
members of them. So one of the main tasks you will be doing with a role is
granting it the permissions that you want members of the role to have.
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Illustration 25: Defining Permissions on a Role
When you click the Define Permissions action on a Portal scoped Role, you
are given a choice of four kinds of permissions that can be defined for this
role: Portal, Content, Applications, and Control Panel. For other Roles, you
need to use the Permissions link in individual portlets to assign permissions
for the community or organization in which that portlet is placed.
Portal permissions cover portal-wide activities that are in several categories, such as Community, Location, Organization, Password Policy, etc.
This allows you to create a Role that, for example, can create new Communities in the portal. This would allow you to grant users that particular permission without making them overall portal administrators.
Content permissions cover the content that the installed portlets create.
If you pick one of the portlets from this list, you'll get options for defining
permissions on its content. For example, if you pick Message Boards, you'll
see permissions for creating categories or threads, or deleting and moving
topics.
Application permissions affect the application as a whole. So if we stick
with our Message Boards example, an application permission might define
who can add the Message Boards to a page.
Control Panel permissions affect how the portlet appears to the user in
the Control Panel. Some Control Panel portlets have a Configuration button,
so you can define who gets to see that, as well as who gets to see an application in the Control Panel.
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Illustration 26: Message board content permissions
Each possible action to which permissions can be granted is listed. To
grant a permission, choose the permission. If you want to limit the scope of
the permission to a community or organization, click the Limit Scope link, and
then choose the community or organization that is in scope.
Once you have chosen the permissions granted to this role, click Save.
For a Message Boards Admin role, you would likely grant Content permissions to every action listed. After you click Save, you will see a list of all permissions that are currently granted to this role. From here, you can add more
permissions or go back by clicking a link in the breadcrumb list or the Return
to Full Page link.
Roles are very powerful, and allow portal administrators to define various permissions in whatever combinations they like. This gives you as much
flexibility as possible to build the site you have designed.
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Special Note about the Power Users Role
By default, many portlets within Liferay are configured so that Power
Users have access to them, but regular users do not. If you decide to remove
the Power Users role from the default user associations, you will need to
modify the permissions on certain portlets. To do this, see the section on Plugins Configuration below.
Teams
Teams don't appear as a link in the Control Panel because they are user
groupings that are inside communities and organizations. They exist because
there will be times when you need to create a bucket for permissions within a
community or organization that only affect that community or organization.
That is when you create a team. Teams are a part of the community or organization in which they are created. If you create a team for one community, it is not available for another community. This is beneficial when
you want a particular set of people and permissions for a specific one time
function.
Creating a team for a community is simple. Go to Control Panel → Communities and select the Actions→ Manage Teams.
Select the Add Team button and then type in a name and add a description. Once you're finished, click Save. Your new team will appear in the list.
To add members, simply click on Actions → Assign Members. That's it! Your
team is ready.
Illustration 27: Assigning permissions to a team
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Creating a team for the organization is just as simple. To create a
team for an organization go to Control Panel → Organizations, choose the
organization from the list, select Actions → Manage Teams, and perform the
same steps you would for a community.
Permission management for teams is handled at the individual portlet
level, using the Permissions button on the portlet itself. This enables users
who wouldn't have access to all of the necessary options in the control panel
to manage permissions through teams.
To give a team access to a particular portlet function, access the configuration menu for that portlet where it resides on a page, click the Permissions
tab, check the boxes corresponding to permissions you want to assign to
these teams, and then click Save.
Global Server Settings
Now that you have navigated in the Control Panel, you should be pretty
familiar with how it works, and that all the options appear in the left navigation, their interfaces appear in the middle, and any sub-options appear on
the right. We have focused so far on the maintenance of users and portal security. The remaining links in the Portal category focus on various portal settings which cover how the portal operates and integrates with other systems
you may have.
Password Policies
Password policies can help to enhance the security of your portal. Using
password policies, you can set password rules such as password strength, frequency of password expiration, and more. Additionally, you can apply different rule sets to different sets of portal users.
If you are viewing a page other than the Control Panel, go up to the Dockbar and select Control Panel. Next, click on the Password Policies link on the left
side of the screen in the Portal category. You will see that there is already a
default password policy in the system. You can edit this in the same manner
as you edit other resources in the portal: click Actions and then click Edit .
You will then see the Password Policy settings form:
Changeable: Selects whether a user can change his or her password.
Change Required: Selects whether a user must change his or her password upon first log in.
Minimum Age: You can choose how long a password must remain in effect before it can be changed.
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Reset ticket max age: You can choose how long a password reset link
remains valid.
Syntax Checking: Allows you to choose whether dictionary words can
be in passwords as well as the minimum password length.
Password History: Keeps a history (with a defined length) of passwords
and won't allow users to change their passwords to one that was previously
used. You can enable it or disable it using the check box.
Password Expiration: Lets you choose an interval where passwords can
be active before they expire. You can select the age, the warning time, and a
grace limit, and you can enable or disable it using the check box.
Lockout: Allows you to set the number of failed log in attempts before a
user's account becomes locked. You can choose whether an administrator
needs to unlock the account or if it becomes unlocked after a specific duration. You can enable or disable it using the check box.
From the list of password policies, you can perform several other actions.
Edit: Brings you to the form above and allows you to modify the password policy.
Permissions: This allows you to define which Users , User Groups , or
Roles have permissions to edit the Password Policy.
Assign Members: Takes you to a screen where you can search and select
users in the portal to be assigned to this password policy. The password
policy will be enforced for any users who are added here.
Delete: This shows up for any password policies that you add beyond the
default policy. You cannot delete the default policy.
Settings
The Settings link is where most of the global portal settings are.
General: This lets you configure global settings, such as the company
name, domain, the virtual host, a global portal logo, and more.
Authentication: Allows you to configure log in IDs, connection to LDAP,
and Single Sign-On.
Users: Has three tabs, labeled Fields, Reserved Credentials, and Default
User Associations. The Fields tab enables or disables some user fields, such as
birthday or terms of use. The Reserved Credentials tab lets you reserve
screen names and email addresses so that users cannot register using them.
You might use this to prevent users from registering on the portal with user
names that contain profanity or that sound official, such as admin or presid-
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ent. The Default User Associations tab lets you configure default membership
to Roles, User Groups, and Communities for new users, and provides a check
box which allows you to retroactively apply these to existing users.
Mail Host Names: You can add a list of other mail host names that are
associated with your organization. For example, your main domain might be
mycompany.com, but you might use mycompany-marketing.com for your email
newsletters. Any domain names associated with your organization can go
here.
Email Notifications: Liferay sends email notifications for certain events,
such as user registrations, password changes, etc. You can customize those
messages here.
We will go over these settings in detail below.
General
The General link allows you to set the name of the company / organization / site which is running the portal. Setting the name here will also define
the name of your portal's default community. By default it is liferay.com , so
you will definitely want to set this to reflect your organization. You can also
set the virtual host, the mail domain, and several other items of miscellaneous information about the organization.
Authentication: General Settings
The Authentication link has several tabs under it. All of these are used for
configuring how users will authenticate to Liferay. Because Liferay supports a
number of authentication methods, there are settings for each.
The general settings affect only Liferay functionality, and don't have
anything to do with any of the integration options on the other tabs. This tab
allows you to customize Liferay's out-of-box behavior regarding authentication. Specifically, the General tab allows you to select from several global authentication settings:
94
•
Authenticate via email address (default), screen name, or user ID
(a numerical ID auto-generated in the database—not recommended).
•
Enable / Disable automatic log in. If enabled, Liferay allows a
user to check a box which will cause the site to “remember” the
user's log in by placing a cookie on his or her browser. If dis abled, users will have to log in manually always.
•
Enable / Disable forgotten password functionality.
•
Enable / Disable request password reset links.
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•
Enable / Disable account creation by strangers. If you are running an Internet site, you will probably want to leave this on so
that visitors can create accounts on your site.
•
Enable / Disable account creation by those using an email address in the domain of the company running the site (which you
just set on the General tab). This is handy if you are using
Liferay to host both internal and external web sites. You can
make sure that all internal IDs have to be created by administrators, but external users can register for IDs themselves.
•
Enable / Disable email address verification. If you enable this,
Liferay, will send users a verification email with a link back to
the portal to verify that the email address they entered is a valid
one they can access.
By default, all settings except for the last are enabled. One default that is
important is that users will authenticate by their email address. Liferay defaults to this for several reasons:
1.
An email address is, by definition, unique to the user who owns it.
2.
People can generally remember their email addresses. If you have a
user who hasn't logged into the portal for a while, it is possible that
he or she will forget his or her screen name, especially if the user
was not allowed to use his or her screen name of choice (because
somebody else already used it).
3.
If a user changes his or her email address, it is more likely that the
user will forget to update his or her email address in his or her profile, if that email address is not used to authenticate. If the user's
email address is not updated, all notifications sent by the portal will
fail to reach the user. So it is important to keep the email address at
the forefront of a user's mind when he or she logs in to help the user
keep it up to date.
For these reasons, Liferay defaults to using the email address as a user
name.
Authentication: LDAP
Connecting Liferay to an LDAP directory a straightforward process
through the Control Panel. There are still, however, two places in which you
can configure the LDAP settings: the portal-ext.properties file (which will
be covered in the next chapter) and the Control Panel, where the settings will
get stored in the database. Note that if you use both, the settings in the database will override the settings in portal-ext.properties. For this reason, we
recommend for most users that you use the Control Panel to configure the
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LDAP settings—it's easier and does not require a restart of Liferay. The only
compelling reason to use the portal-ext.properties file is if you have many
Liferay nodes which will be configured to run against the same LDAP directory. In that case, for your initial deployment, it may be easier to copy the
portal-ext.properties file to all of the nodes so that the first time they
start up, the settings are correct. Regardless of which method you use, the
settings are the same.
The LDAP settings screen is where you configure the global values.
Enabled/Required
Enabled: Check this box to enable LDAP Authentication.
Required: Check this box if LDAP authentication is required. Liferay will
then not allow a user to log in unless he or she can successfully bind to the
LDAP directory first. Uncheck this box if you want to allow users with Liferay
accounts but no LDAP accounts to log in to the portal.
LDAP Servers
This is where you add LDAP Servers. If you have more than one, you can
arrange the servers by order of preference using the up/down arrows. When
you add an LDAP Server, you will need to provide several pieces of data so
that Liferay can bind to that LDAP server and search it for user records. Regardless of how many LDAP servers you add, each server has the same configuration options:
Default Values
Several leading directory servers are listed here. If you are using one of
these, select it and the rest of the form will be populated with the proper default values for that directory.
Connection
These settings cover the basic connection to LDAP.
Base Provider URL: This tells the portal where the LDAP server is located. Make sure that the machine on which Liferay is installed can communicate with the LDAP server. If there is a firewall between the two systems,
check to make sure that the appropriate ports are opened.
Base DN: This is the Base Distinguished Name for your LDAP directory. It
is usually modeled after your organization. For a commercial organization, it
may look something like: dc=companynamehere,dc=com.
Principal: By default, the administrator ID is populated here. If you
have removed the default LDAP administrator, you will need to use the fully
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qualified name of the administrative credential you do use. You need an administrative credential because Liferay will be using this ID to synchronize
user accounts to and from LDAP .
Credentials: This is the password for the administrative user.
This is all you need in order to make a regular connection to an LDAP
directory. The rest of the configuration is optional: generally, the default attribute mappings are sufficient data to synchronize back to the Liferay database when a user attempts to log in. To test the connection to your LDAP
server, click the Test LDAP Connection button.
If you are running your LDAP directory in SSL mode to prevent credential information from passing through the network unencrypted, you will
have to perform extra steps to share the encryption key and certificate
between the two systems.
For example, assuming your LDAP directory happens to be Microsoft Active Directory on Windows Server 2003, you would take the following steps to
share the certificate:
On the Windows 2003 Domain Controller, open the Certificates MMC snapin. Export the Root Certificate Authority certificate by selecting Certificates
(Local Computer) mmc snapin -> Trusted Root Certification Authorities -> MyRootCACertificateName. Right click this certificate and select All Tasks -> export ->
select DER encoded binary X.509 .CER. Copy the exported .cer file to your Liferay
Portal server.
As with the CAS install (see the below section entitled Single Sign-On ),
you will need to import the certificate into the cacerts keystore. The import is
handled by a command like the following:
keytool -import -trustcacerts -keystore
/some/path/jdk1.5.0_11/jre/lib/security/cacerts -storepass changeit
-noprompt
-alias MyRootCA -file /some/path/MyRootCA.cer
The keytool utility ships as part of the Java SDK.
Once this is done, go back to the LDAP page in the Control Panel. Modify
the LDAP URL in the Base DN field to the secure version by changing the protocol to https and the port to 636 like the following:
ldaps://myLdapServerHostname:636
Save the changes. Your Liferay Portal will now use LDAP in secure mode
for authentication.
Users
This section contains settings for finding users in your LDAP directory.
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Authentication Search Filter: The search filter box can be used to determine the search criteria for user log ins. By default, Liferay uses the email
address as a user log in name. If you have changed this setting—which can be
done on the General tab that's next to the LDAP tab in the Settings->Authentication section of the Control Panel —you will need to modify the search filter
here, which has by default been configured to use the email address attribute
from LDAP as search criteria. For example, if you changed Liferay's authentication method to use the screen name instead of the email address, you
would modify the search filter so that it can match the entered log in name:
([email protected][email protected])
Import Search Filter: Depending on the LDAP server, there are differways to identify the user. Generally, the default setting
(objectClass=inetOrgPerson) is fine, but if you want to search for only a
subset of users or users that have different object classes, you can change
this.
ent
User Mapping: The next series of fields allows you to define mappings
from LDAP attributes to Liferay fields. Though your LDAP user attributes may
be different from LDAP server to LDAP server, there are five fields that
Liferay requires to be mapped in order for the user to be recognized. You
must define a mapping to the corresponding attributes in LDAP for the following Liferay fields:
•
Screen Name
•
Password
•
Email Address
•
Full Name
•
First Name
•
Middle Name
•
Last Name
•
Job Title
•
Group
The Control Panel provides default mappings for commonly used LDAP
attributes. You can also add your own mappings if you wish.
Test LDAP Users: Once you have your attribute mappings set up (see
above), click the Test LDAP Users button, and Liferay will attempt to pull
LDAP users and match them up with their mappings as a preview.
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Illustration 28: Testing LDAP Users
Groups
This section contains settings for mapping LDAP groups to Liferay.
Import Search Filter: This is the filter for finding LDAP groups that you
want to map to Liferay. Enter the LDAP group attributes that you want retrieved for this mapping. The following attributes can be mapped:
•
Group Name
•
Description
•
User
Test LDAP Groups: Click the Test LDAP Groups to display a list of the
groups returned by your search filter.
Export
Users DN: Enter the location in your LDAP tree where the users will be
stored. When Liferay does an export, it will export the users to this location.
User Default Object Classes: When a user is exported, the user is created with the listed default object classes. To find out what your default ob ject classes are, use an LDAP browser tool such as JXplorer to locate a user and
view the Object Class attributes that are stored in LDAP for that user.
Groups DN: Enter the location in your LDAP tree where the groups will
be stored. When Liferay does an export, it will export the groups to this location.
Group Default Object Classes: When a group is exported, the group is
created with the listed default object classes. To find out what your default
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object classes are, use an LDAP browser tool such as Jxplorer to locate a group
and view the Object Class attributes that are stored in LDAP for that group.
Illustration 29: Mapping LDAP Groups
Once you've set all your options and tested your connection, click Save.
From here, you can add another LDAP server or set just a few more options
that apply to all of your LDAP server connections.
Import/Export
Import Enabled: Check this box to cause Liferay to do a mass import
from your LDAP directories. If you want Liferay to only synchronize users
when they log in, leave this box unchecked. Definitely leave this unchecked if
you are working in a clustered environment. Otherwise, all of your nodes
would try to do a mass import when each of them starts up.
If you check the box, one more option becomes available.
Import on Startup Enabled: Check this box to have Liferay run the import when it starts up. This box only appears if you check Import Enabled
above.
Export Enabled: Check this box to enable Liferay to export user accounts from the database to LDAP . Liferay uses a listener to track any
changes made to the User object and will push these changes out to the LDAP
server whenever the User object is updated. Note that by default on every log
in, fields such as LastLoginDate are updated. When export is enabled, this
has the effect of causing a user export every time the user logs in. You can
disable this by setting the following property in your portal-ext.properties
file:
users.update.last.login=false
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Use LDAP Password Policy: Liferay uses its own password policy by default. This can be configured on the Password Policies link in the Portal section on the left side of the Control Panel . If you want to use the password
policies defined by your LDAP directory, check this box. Once this is enabled,
the Password Policies tab will display a message stating that you are not using a local password policy. You will now have to use your LDAP directory's
mechanism for setting password policies. Liferay does this by parsing the
messages in the LDAP controls that are returned by your LDAP server. By default, the messages in the LDAP controls that Liferay is looking for are the
messages that are returned by the Fedora Directory Server. If you are using a
different LDAP server, you will need to customize the messages in Liferay's
portal-ext.properties file, as there is not yet a GUI for setting this. See below for instructions describing how to do this.
Once you have completed configuring LDAP, click the Save button.
LDAP Options Not Available in the GUI
Though most of the LDAP configuration can be done from the Control
Panel, there are several configuration parameters that are only available by
editing portal-ext.properties. These options will be available in the GUI in
future versions of Liferay Portal, but for now they can only be configured by
editing the properties file.
If you need to change any of these options, copy the LDAP section from
the portal.properties file into your portal-ext.properties file. Note that
since you have already configured LDAP from the GUI, any settings from the
properties file that match settings already configured in the GUI will be ignored. The GUI, which stores the settings in the database, always takes precedence over the properties file.
ldap.auth.method=bind
#ldap.auth.method=password-compare
Set either bind or password-compare for the LDAP authentication method. Bind is preferred by most vendors so that you don't have to worry about
encryption strategies. Password compare does exactly what it sounds like: it
reads the user's password out of LDAP, decrypts it, and compares it with the
user's password in Liferay, syncing the two.
ldap.auth.password.encryption.algorithm=
ldap.auth.password.encryption.algorithm.types=MD5,SHA
Set the password encryption to used to compare passwords if the property ldap.auth.method is set to password-compare.
ldap.import.method=[user,group]
If you set this to user, Liferay will import all users from the specified
portion of the LDAP tree. If you set this to group, Liferay will search all the
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groups and import the users in each group. If you have users who do not belong to any groups, they will not be imported.
ldap.error.password.age=age
ldap.error.password.expired=expired
ldap.error.password.history=history
ldap.error.password.not.changeable=not allowed to change
ldap.error.password.syntax=syntax
ldap.error.password.trivial=trivial
ldap.error.user.lockout=retry limit
These properties are a list of phrases from error messages which can
possibly be returned by the LDAP server. When a user binds to LDAP , the
server can return controls with its response of success or failure. These controls contain a message describing the error or the information that is coming back with the response. Though the controls are the same across LDAP
servers, the messages can be different. The properties described here contain
snippets of words from those messages, and will work with Red Hat's Fedora
Directory Server. If you are not using that server, the word snippets may not
work with your LDAP server. If they don't, you can replace the values of these
properties with phrases from your server's error messages. This will enable
Liferay to recognize them.
Single Sign-On
Single Sign-On solutions allow you to provide a single log in credential
for multiple systems. This allows you to have people authenticate to the
Single Sign-On product and they will be automatically logged in to Liferay
and to other products as well.
Liferay at the time of this writing supports several single sign-on solutions. Of course if your product is not yet supported, you may choose to im plement support for it yourself by use of the extension environment—or your
organization can choose to sponsor support for it. Please contact
[email protected] for more information about this.
Authentication: Central Authentication Service (CAS)
CAS is an authentication system that was originally created at Yale University. It is a widely-used open source single sign-on solution, and was the
first SSO product to be supported by Liferay.
Please follow the documentation for CAS to install it on your application
server of choice.
Your first step will be to copy the CAS client .jar file to Liferay's library
folder. On Tomcat, this is in [Tomcat Home]/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/lib.
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Once you've done this, the CAS client will be available to Liferay the next
time you start it.
The CAS Server application requires a properly configured Secure Socket
Layer certificate on your server in order to work. If you wish to generate one
yourself, you will need to use the keytool utility that comes with the JDK.
Your first step is to generate the key. Next, you export the key into a file. Finally, you import the key into your local Java key store. For public, Internet-based production environments, you will need to either purchase a
signed key from a recognized certificate authority (such as Thawte or Verisign) or have your key signed by a recognized certificate authority. For Intranets, you should have your IT department pre-configure users' browsers
to accept the certificate so that they don't get warning messages about the
certificate.
To generate a key, use the following command:
keytool
-genkey
-alias
tomcat
-keypass
changeit
-keyalg
RSA
Instead of the password in the example (changeit), use a password that
you will be able to remember. If you are not using Tomcat, you may want to
use a different alias as well. For First and Last name, enter localhost, or the
host name of your server. It cannot be an IP address.
To export the key to a file, use the following command:
keytool
-export
-alias
tomcat
-keypass
changeit
-file
server.cert
Finally, to import the key into your Java key store, use the following
command:
keytool -import -alias tomcat -file %FILE_NAME%
-keystore $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts
-keypass
changeit
If you are on a Windows system, replace $JAVA_HOME above with
Of course, all of this needs to be done on the system on which
CAS will be running.
%JAVA_HOME%.
Once your CAS server is up and running, you can configure Liferay to use
it. This is a simple matter of navigating to the Settings -> Authentication -> CAS
tab in the Control Panel. Enable CAS authentication, and then modify the URL
properties to point to your CAS server.
Enabled: Set this to true to enable CAS single sign-on.
Import from LDAP: A user may be authenticated from CAS and not yet
exist in the portal. Select this to automatically import users from LDAP if
they do not exist in the portal.
The rest of the settings are various URLs, with defaults included. Change
localhost in the default values to point to your CAS server. When you are fin-
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ished, click Save. After this, when users click the Sign In link, they will be directed to the CAS server to sign in to Liferay.
Authentication: Facebook
Liferay Portal also enables users to log in using their Facebook accounts.
To enable this feature, you simply need to select the Enable box and enter the
Application ID and Application Secret which should have been provided to
you by Facebook. Facebook SSO works by taking the primary Facebook email
address and searching for the same email address in Liferay's User_ table. If a
match is found, the user is automatically signed on (provided that user
clicked allow from the Facebook dialog). If there isn't a match, the user is
prompted in Liferay to add a user from Facebook. Once selected, a new user
is created by retrieving four fields from Facebook (first name, last name,
email address, and gender).
Authentication: NTLM
NTLM is a Microsoft protocol that can be used for authentication
through Microsoft Internet Explorer. Though Microsoft has adopted Kerberos in modern versions of Windows server, NTLM is still used when authenticating to a workgroup. Liferay Portal now supports NTLM v2 authentication.
NTLM v2 is more secure and has a stronger authentication process than
NTLMv1.
Enabled: Check the box to enable NTLM authentication.
Domain Controller: Enter the IP address of your domain controller. This
is the server that contains the user accounts you want to use with Liferay.
Domain: Enter the domain / workgroup name.
Authentication: OpenID
OpenID is a new single sign-on standard which is implemented by multiple vendors. The idea is that multiple vendors can implement the standard,
and then users can register for an ID with the vendor they trust. The credential issued by that vendor can be used by all the web sites that support OpenID. Some high profile OpenID vendors are AOL (http://openid.aol.com/screenname), LiveDoor (http://profile.livedoor.com/username),
and LiveJournal (http://username.livejournal.com). Please see the OpenID
site (http://www.openid.net) for a more complete list.
The obvious main benefit of OpenID for the user is that he or she no
longer has to register for a new account on every site in which he or she
wants to participate. Users can register on one site (the OpenID provider's
site) and then use those credentials to authenticate to many web sites which
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support OpenID. Many web site owners often struggle to build communities
because end users are reluctant to register for so many different accounts.
Supporting OpenID makes it easier for site owners to build their communities
because the barriers to participating (i.e., the effort it takes to register for
and keep track of many accounts) are removed. All of the account information is kept with the OpenID provider, making it much easier to manage this
information and keep it up to date.
Liferay Portal can act as an OpenID consumer, allowing users to automatically register and sign in with their OpenID accounts. Internally, the product
uses OpenID4Java (http://code.google.com/p/openid4java/) to implement
the feature.
OpenID is enabled by default in Liferay, but can be disabled here.
Atlassian Crowd
Atlassian Crowd is a web-based Single Sign-On product similar to CAS.
Crowd can be used to manage authentication to many different web applications and directory servers.
Because Atlassian Crowd implements an OpenID producer, Liferay works
and has been tested with it. Simply use the OpenID authentication feature in
Liferay to log in using Crowd.
Authentication: OpenSSO
OpenSSO is an open source single sign-on solution that comes from the
code base of Sun's System Access Manager product. Liferay integrates with
OpenSSO, allowing you to use OpenSSO to integrate Liferay into an infrastructure that contains a multitude of different authentication schemes
against different repositories of identities.
You can set up OpenSSO on the same server as Liferay or a different box.
Follow the instructions at the OpenSSO site (http://opensso.dev.java.net) to
install OpenSSO. Once you have it installed, create the Liferay administrative
user in it. Users are mapped back and forth by screen names. By default, the
Liferay administrative user has a screen name of test, so in OpenSSO, you
would register the user with the ID of test and an email address of
[email protected] Once you have the user set up, log in to Open SSO using this
user.
In the same browser window, go to the URL for your server running
Liferay and log in as the same user, using the email address [email protected]
Go to the Control Panel and click Settings -> Authentication -> OpenSSO. Modify
the three URL fields (Login URL, Logout URL, and Service URL) so that they
point to your OpenSSO server (i.e., only modify the host name portion of the
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URLs), click the Enabled check box, and then click Save. Liferay will then redirect users to OpenSSO when they click the Sign In link.
Authentication: SiteMinder
SiteMinder is a single sign-on implementation from Computer Associates. Liferay 5.2 now has built-in integration with SiteMinder. SiteMinder
uses a custom HTTP header to implement its single sign-on solution.
To enable SiteMinder authentication in Liferay, check the Enabled box on
the SiteMinder tab. If you are also using LDAP with Liferay, you can check the
Import from LDAP box. If this box is checked, user authenticated from SiteMinder that do not exist in the portal will be imported from LDAP.
The last field defines the header SiteMinder is using to keep track of the
user. The default value is already populated. If you have customized the field
for your installation, enter the custom value here.
When you are finished, click Save.
Users
The Users link has three tabs: Fields, Reserved Credentials, and Default User
Associations.
The Fields tab allows you to enable/disable the following fields:
•
Enable/disable requiring Terms of Use
•
Enable/disable user screen names autogeneration
•
Enable/disable the birthday field
•
Enable/disable the gender field
The next tab is Reserved Credentials. You can enter screen names and
email addresses here that you don't want others to use. Liferay will then prevent users from registering with these screen names and email addresses.
You might use this feature to prevent users from creating IDs that look like
administrative IDs or that have reserved words in their names.
The Default User Associations tab has three fields allowing you to list
(one per line) communities, roles, and user groups that you want new users
to be members of by default. Liferay's default is to have new users be members of both the Users role and the Power Users role.
The Power Users role has the rights to use most of the portlets that ship
with Liferay, so it is enabled by default. If you remove this role from the list,
you may find that you need to grant users via a different role the ability to
use some portlets (such as the Wiki or Message Boards).
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If you have defined other user groups, communities, or roles that you
want newly created users to be members of by default, enter them here. For
example, you may have defined page templates in certain user groups to prepopulate end users' private pages. If there is a particular configuration that
you want everyone to have, you may want to enter those user groups here.
Mail Host Names
The next link is Mail Host Names. You can enter (one per line) other mail
host names besides the one you configured on the General tab. This lets the
portal know which mail host names are owned by your organization.
Email Notifications
There are four tabs under the Email Notifications link. The Sender tab allows you to set the portal's administrative name and email address. By default, this is Joe Bloggs and [email protected] You can change it to anything you
want. This name and address will appear in the From field in all email messages sent by the portal.
The other three tabs (Account Created Notification, Password Changed Notification, and Password Reset Notification) allow you to customize the email messages that are sent to users on those three events. A list of tokens for inserting certain values (such as the portal URL) is given if you wish to use those.
Identification
The identification section has several links for addresses, phone numbers, and other information you can configure in your portal. This allows you
to set up contact information for the organization that is running the portal.
Developers can query for this information in their applications.
Miscellaneous: Display Settings
This section allows you to set the default portal language and the time
zone. You can also set the portal-wide logo which appears in the top left
corner of themes that are configured to display it. Be careful when using this
option to choose an image file that fits the space. If you pick something that
is too big, it will mess up the navigation.
Custom Fields
Custom fields are a way to add attributes to many types of assets in the
portal. For example, if you are using Liferay Portal to create a site for rating
books, you might add custom fields to several assets in the portal. You might
give the User object a custom field called Favorite Books. If you're using the
wiki for book reviews, you might add fields for Book Title and Book Author.
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To add a custom field simply click on the Custom Fields link in the Control
Panel then click on the Edit link and then select Add Custom Field.
Illustration 30: The Wiki shows custom fields integrated with the rest of the fields on the form.
From here you will need to add the custom field key. The key appears as
the label for the field on the form. For some portal assets (like the User), custom fields are a separate section of the form. For others, as can be seen
above, custom fields are integrated with the default fields on the form. Additionally, developers can access custom fields programatically through the
<liferay-ui:custom-attribute /> tag.
You can create fields of many different types: text fields (indexed or
secret), integers, selection of multiple values, and more. Once you've created
a field, you cannot change its type.
Monitoring
The next link on the left side of the Control Panel is for monitoring. Using
this, you can see all of the live sessions in the portal. For performance reasons,
this setting is generally turned off in production, but if you have it turned on,
you can view the active sessions here.
Plugins Configuration
The Plugins Configuration link contains tabs for three types of plugins:
portlets, themes, and layouts. You can use these tabs to view which roles can
add plugins to pages or you can make the plugins active or inactive.
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Note that this is for basic configuration: if you want to view the existing
permission configuration for a given portlet and/or modify that configuration for existing roles, this is where you can do that. If you need to add permissions to new roles for a given portlet, use the Roles section of the Control
Panel and the Actions → Define Permissions button.
Page Templates
The Page Templates link allows you to create a custom page with the layout, portlets and web content you will want to reuse. From this link you can
also edit existing templates and modify their permissions.
Illustration 31: You can create page templates with predefined layouts and portlets that can be used over
and over.
To add a page template click on the Page Template link in the Control Panel. From there select Add and then enter a name and description for your
template. Below the description field is a toggle that lets you make the template active or inactive, and below this is a link to open the page template so
you can edit it. The template pictured above in a university portal might be
for returning students. Clicking the Open Page Template link brings you to the
Manage Pages interface, which we'll see in the next chapter.
Once you're finished adding the content, layout, and portlets, return to
the Page Template portlet (which is in another browser tab) and select Save.
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When you want to use the new template to create a new page on a site,
simply navigate to Control Panel → Pages and the page is available in the template drop down menu when you're adding a page.
Site Templates
The Site Templates link allows you to define a set of predefined pages to
include when creating new sites for communities and organizations. You may
define and edit site templates as well as their permissions.
Illustration 32: Site templates help you to quickly build many similar sites using the same pattern.
To add a site template click on the Site Template link in the Control Panel.
From there you can select Add and then enter a name and description for
your template. Also, below the description field is where you can make this
template active.
Once this is complete, click on Actions → Manage Pages. From here you
can add pages to your template, configure the look and feel by managing
themes or CSS files, and export the template as a .lar file. You can also import
a .lar file from here as well.
On the pages you've created for the site template, you can add the portlets and content you want. Once you've added the pages, portlets, content,
and themes, you can use this template when you create a new community.
The template will appear the in the drop down menus for the Public
Pages/Private Pages options when you are adding a community.
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Server Administration
The Server Administration link lets you perform various tasks relating to
administration of the overall portal server, as opposed to administering resources in the portal. Clicking the link makes this abundantly clear: you're
immediately presented with a graph showing the resources available in the
JVM.
Resources
The first tab is called Resources . This tab contains the aforementioned
graph plus several server wide actions that an administrator can execute.
These are:
Garbage collection: You can send in a request to the JVM to begin the
garbage collection task.
Clearing VM caches: You can send in a request to the JVM to clear a
single VM cache.
Clearing caches across the cluster: You can send in a request to the
JVM to clear content cached across the entire cluster.
Clearing database caches: You can send in a request to the JVM to clear
the database cache.
Reindex all search indexes: You can send in a request to regenerate all
search indexes. If you are not using a Solr search server (see Chapter 7 for
further information). This will impact portal performance, so try not to do
this except at non-peak times.
Generate Thread Dump: If you are performance testing, you can generate a thread dump which can be examined later to determine if there are any
deadlocks and where they might be.
Verify database tables of all plugins: Checks all tables against their indexes for accuracy of data retrieval.
Log Levels
Here you can dynamically modify the log levels for any class hierarchy in
the portal. If you have custom code that you have deployed which isn't in the
list, you can use the Add Category tab to add it. If you change the log level near
the top of the class hierarchy (such as at com.liferay), all the classes under
that hierarchy will have their log levels changed. If you are testing something
specific, it is much better to be as specific as you can when you change log
levels. Modifying them too high in the hierarchy generates a lot more log
messages than you need.
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Properties
Liferay and the JVM contain many settings which are defined as properties. There are two tabs here: one showing system properties and one showing portal properties.
The system properties tab shows an exhaustive list of system properties
for the JVM, as well as many Liferay system properties. This information can
be used for debugging purposes or to check the configuration of the currently running portal.
The portal properties tab tab shows an exhaustive list of the portal properties. These properties can be customized, as will be seen in the next
chapter. If you need to check the current value of a particular property, it
can be viewed from this screen without having to shut down the portal or
open any properties files.
Captcha
By default, Liferay ships with its own simple captcha service which is designed to thwart bots from registering for accounts on sites powered by
Liferay. If you want to instead use Google's reCaptcha service, you can do
that.
Simply check the Enable ReCaptcha box and enter your public and private
keys into the text fields provided, and then click Save. Liferay Portal will then
use reCaptcha instead of simple captcha.
Data Migration
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Liferay Portal or if you
need to migrate your data from one system to another, this section helps you
to do that without your developers having to write custom scripts.
The first section lets you copy your entire Liferay database from the current database under which it is running to the database you specify in this
set of fields. You'll need to enter the driver class name (and the driver will
need to be on Liferay's classpath), the JDBC URL of the database to which
you'll be copying your data, and a user name and password that has access to
that database. Once you have all of this information entered, click Execute to
copy the data.
The next section helps you migrate your documents. If you want to move
off of the Jackrabbit JSR-170 repository to the file system, or to the Jackrabbit
repository from the file system, or to any of the other repositories supported
by the document library, you can do this very easily. Make sure you have
already set up your portal-ext.properties file so that the hook is properly
configured before running this migration. Select the Document Library hook
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that represents where you want your documents migrated, and click Execute.
Your documents will be migrated to the new repository, and you can then
shut down Liferay, make the new repository the default in the portal-ext.properties file, and then restart.
Similarly, you can migrate images from the Image Gallery in the same
manner.
File Uploads
Since Liferay allows users to upload files in various places, you may want
to lock down the type of files and the size of files users are allowed to upload.
Here, you can set the overall maximum file size and then override that size
for specific applications within Liferay. You can limit the allowed file extensions generally or by application. You have a lot of flexibility as to how you
want files to be managed within your portal.
Mail
Rather than using the portal-ext.properties file as we did in the installation chapter, you can configure a mail server here. If the portal is to receive mail (see the Message Boards portlet in Chapter 5), you can connect a
POP mail server. And of course, if the portal is to send mail—which it needs
to do in order to send notifications to users—you can connect an SMTP server
here as well, and this is highly recommended.
Note that if you add your mail server settings here, they will override
anything that is in your portal-ext.properties file.
OpenOffice
Liferay Portal enables users to add content in many formats: web content, images, and files. This is done using the Web Content Management System, the Image Gallery, the Document Library, and in other portlets, both
built-in and custom written. Sometimes, it is helpful to convert this content
from whatever format it is in to a format that is more convenient for the user
browsing the content. Liferay Portal allows users to do this by integrating
with OpenOffice.org.
OpenOffice.org is an open source office suite which is normally run in
graphical mode to create documents, but it can be run in “server” mode.
When run in server mode, OpenOffice.org can be used to convert documents
to and from all of the file types it supports. Liferay can then make use of this
feature to automatically convert content on the fly.
Use this tab to tell Liferay how to connect to your running instance of
OpenOffice.org. You can install OpenOffice.org on the same server upon
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which Liferay is running. Once you have it installed, you can start
OpenOffice.org in server mode with the following command:
soffice -headless -accept="socket,host=127.0.0.1,port=8100;urp;"
-nofirststartwizard
As you can see, the command above specifies that OpenOffice.org will
run on port 8100, which is the default port in the Control Panel . If you can
use this port, all you need to do is check the Enabled box, and Liferay will be
integrated with OpenOffice.org.
If you have something else running on this port, find a port that is open
and specify it both in the command above and on the Control Panel's
OpenOffice.org con figuration page. When you are finished, click Save.
Script
Liferay includes a scripting console which lets administrators execute
migration or management code instantly. Several scripting languages are
supported, including JavaScript, Groovy, Python, Ruby, and Beanshell. For
further information about Liferay's APIs, see the JavaDoc, the Liferay Wiki
(http://wiki.liferay.com), or Liferay in Action.
Shutdown
If you ever need to shut down your Liferay Portal server while users are
logged in, you can use the Shutdown tab to inform your logged-in users of
the impending shutdown. You can define the number of minutes until the
shutdown and a custom message that will be displayed.
Users will see your message at the top of their portal pages for the dura tion of time you specified. When the time expires, all portal pages will display
a message saying the portal has been shut down. At this point, the server will
need to be restarted to restore access.
Portal Instances
Liferay Portal allows you to run more than one portal instance on a
single server. Data for each portal instance are kept separate from every other portal instance. All portal data, however, is kept in the same database.
Each portal instance requires its own domain name. Liferay will direct
users to the proper portal instance based on this domain name. So before you
configure an instance, configure its domain name in your network first.
When you're ready to add an instance, click the Add button here.
You'll be prompted for three fields:
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Web ID: A general convention is to use the domain name for this. It's a
user-generated ID for the instance.
Virtual Host: Put the domain name you configured in your network
here. When users are directed to your Liferay server via this domain name,
Liferay will then be able to send them to the proper portal instance.
Mail Domain: Enter the domain name for the mail host for this instance.
Liferay will use this to send email notifications from the portal.
When you are finished filling out the form, click Save . Now navigate to
the portal using your new domain name. You will see that you are brought to
what looks like a clean install of Liferay. This is your new portal instance
which can now be configured any way you like.
Plugins Installation
The Plugins Installation link shows all of the plugins that are currently installed. These are divided into tabs for portlets, themes, layout templates,
Hook plugins, and Web plugins. If you want to install a new plugin, click the
Install More Portlets button. You will then be brought to the Plugin Installer,
where you can browse Liferay's repository of portlets or install your own plugins. The Plugin Installer will be covered in Chapter 6.
Summary
This chapter has described the resources in Liferay Portal that can be
configured to build the foundation of your web site. We have seen how to
navigate Liferay's user interface so that you can get anywhere you need to in
the portal. We have also looked at overall portal architecture and how you
might go about designing your site using Liferay.
Next, we went in-depth through Liferay's Control Panel. Using the Control Panel, we learned how to manage users, organizations, user groups, and
roles. We also learned how to configure various server settings, such as authentication, LDAP integration, and single sign-on. We also learned how to
associate users by default with different user groups, communities, and roles,
and we saw how to reserve screen names and e mail addresses so that users
cannot register in the portal with them.
Next, we saw how to view and configure overall server settings. We saw
how to view the memory currently being used by the server, as well as how
to initiate garbage collection, a thread dump, search engine re-indexing, and
the clearing of various caches. We learned how to debug parts of the portal
by changing log levels, and by viewing the various properties that are defined
in the portal.
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Configuration
Finally, we learned how to properly notify users that the portal is about
to shut down and how to enable the OpenOffice.org integration. The ability to
run multiple portal instances on one installation of Liferay was covered, and
we saw how to view the plugins that are currently installed.
All of this information was designed to put you on the path to becoming
a seasoned Liferay Portal Administrator.
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Summary
4. WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT
With most products, you would read the previous chapter, understand
what the software can do in terms of setting up your environment and security model, and go ahead and build your system. You'd design your infrastructure and get your server environment up and running while your developers
would go ahead and write the applications that would live on your web site.
Liferay Portal, however, doesn't leave you to start that far behind. Liferay
Portal is more than just a container for applications with a robust security
model. It already includes many of the applications you'll need, out of the
box, ready to go, and integrated with all the user management and security
features you've already learned about.
Perhaps the key application that ships with Liferay is Liferay's Web Content Management system (CMS). We call it the key application because it is
the one that most everybody uses, because everyone needs to load content
onto their web sites. Liferay's CMS empowers you to manage all of the content on your site quickly, easily, and in the browser. Beyond managing existing content, Liferay CMS lets users easily create and manage everything from
a simple article of text and images to full functional web sites. Web publishing works alongside Liferay Portal’s larger collection of applications, which
means that you can add in shopping cart functionality, visitor polls, web
forms, community collaboration tools and more. Everything is done with our
collection of easy-to-use tools with familiar rich-text editors and intuitive interface.
This chapter covers all aspects of Liferay CMS, including:
•
Page types
Web Content Management
•
Layouts
•
Page and content permissions
•
Importing and exporting content
•
Content creation and editing
•
Staging
•
Content publishing
•
Structures and templates
•
CMS Workflow
•
Asset publisher
By the time we're done, you should be able to apply all of these concepts
to your own content. To demonstrate all of Liferay's Content Management
features, we'll create and manage content on the portal for a fictitious company called Spartan Software.
First, a little housekeeping. If we're going to be Spartan Software, our
portal should also be called Spartan Software. To set the general information
about your portal like the name and mail domain, go to Control Panel → Portal
→ Settings. The configuration for Spartan Software might look something like
the below screenshot.
Illustration 33: Changing Portal Settings
You can also customize the logo in the top left corner of every page by
selecting Display Settings under the Miscellaneous tab on the panel to the right.
Once you've made the changes, we're ready to begin creating pages.
Page Creation and Management
Your pages must contain something, right? The reason web pages exist
at all is to display content. Whether you're using the web to share project in formation, advertise to potential customers, or demonstrate a golf swing—
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Web Content Management
you're displaying content. And with Liferay's CMS, you'll find that the process of loading your pages up with content is extremely easy and straightforward, and you don't ever need to leave your browser.
Essentially, CMS is a suite of various portlets that include functionality
for creating and displaying various types of content. Don't be concerned by
the sheer number of applications you see in this category in the Add → More
menu: we'll go over everything in a step-by-step fashion. We'll start by taking
a look at page creation and management.
Managing Pages
There are three ways to access the Manage Pages interface. If you are
currently on the set of pages you wish to manage, simply go up to the Dockbar and select Manage, then Page. You can also access the Manage Pages tool
two other ways in the Control Panel.
Illustration 34: Two paths to managing pages
The first way is to simply select the community or organization that you
want to work with in the Content section, and click on Pages in the left
column. The second way is to select Actions and then select Manage Pages from
the community or organization you're working with down in the portal section of the Control Panel.
If you only need to add a single page very quickly, you can simply go to
Add → Page in the Dockbar, and a page will be added immediately. You can
then click on the page in the navigation and begin working on it immediately.
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Web Content Management
Once you're in Manage Pages, you'll see an interface to create new pages,
change various settings related to the set of pages you've selected, and export or import pages using Liferay Archive (LAR) files. We're just going to
stay on the first tab under the Public Pages tab for now, so we can focus on
the set of pages available to anyone visiting the site. By default, Liferay contains a single page called Welcome, and we'll leave it that way.
Understanding Public and Private Pages
Liferay's page groups are always associated with Users, Organizations, or
Communities. And even under the hood, a user's personal pages are part of a
private community just for that user.
All sets of pages are divided into two groups: Public Pages and Private
Pages. Public Pages, by default, are accessible to anyone—including those
who haven't logged in to the portal.
Private Pages, by default, are only accessible to the users who belong to
the Organization or Community to which the pages belong. This means that
an Organization's private pages would only be viewable by members of the
Organization. The tabs for public and private pages have the same interface.
Manage Pages Interface
As you can see, the screen defaults to the New Page tab. Because the
name of the community is selected on the left, adding a page here will add a
top level page next to the Welcome page. But you can nest pages as deeply as
you wish. If you wanted to create a sub-page under the Welcome page, all
you'd have to do is select the Welcome page first and then create your page.
Illustration 35: Adding pages to a community is easy to do.
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And if you later decide you don't like the order of your pages, you can drag
and drop them in the list to put them in whatever order you want. Let's go
ahead and add another top level page and name it Collaboration. We'll use this
page for portlets such as Blogs and Wiki.
When you're finished adding your pages, you can get back to them by
clicking the View Pages button just above the page hierarchy. Let's not do that
just yet; we've got a few more options to cover.
Look and Feel
If you click the second tab, you'll be presented with an interface which
allows you to choose a theme for the site upon which you are currently working. Themes can transform the entire look of the portal. Themes can be created by developers and can be installed very easily by using the Plugin Installer from the Control Panel, and this is detailed in Chapter 6.
Illustration 36: Many themes include more than one color scheme. This allows you to keep the existing
look and feel, but give your site a bit of a different flavor than the default.
Since we don't have any themes beyond the default one installed yet,
we'll use the default theme for our pages. Some themes have more than one
color scheme which can be selected, including the default theme. Let's
change the color scheme by selecting Themes and then clicking on the Green
color scheme. If you then go back to the site (by clicking Back to Spartan Internet in the top left corner of the Control Panel), you'll see that some parts of
the theme are now tinged in a greenish hue.
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Also, notice that you can choose themes for regular browsers or mobile
devices. You might create another community for mobile users attached to
the http://m.spartansoftware.com address and serve up a page that is designed for the smaller screens on phones.
The CSS tab allows you to enter custom CSS that will also be served up by
your theme. In this way, you can tweak a theme in real time by adding new
styles or overriding existing ones.
Let's move on to the final tab under Pages.
Export / Import
The Export / Import tab allows you to export the pages you create into a
single file, called a LAR (Liferay Archive). You can then import this file into
any server running Liferay, and all of your pages will be copied. This is a
great way to take your content from one environment (say, a development or
QA environment) and move it all in one shot to your production server.
This is also a good way to back up your site's content. You can export it
to a specific location on your server which is backed up, and if you ever have
to restore your site, all you need to do is import the latest LAR file. One limitation on LAR files, however, is that they are version dependent, so you can't
use an export from an old version of Liferay and import it into a newer version.
Let's be good admins and export a LAR file for backup purposes. Select
the Export / Import tab and then name the file spartansoftwareV1.lar. We're
asked what we would like to export. Let's select everything for this initial export. Note that if you select the More Options link, the list expands to include
data from many of Liferay's applications, including the Document Library
and the Wiki. You can also export the theme you're using.
Once you click the Export button, your browser will prompt you to save
the file. Once you have the file, you can copy it to a backup location for safe
keeping or import it into another installation of Liferay Portal. If you must
rebuild or wish to revert back to this version of your site, you can import this
file be selecting Export / Import and then selecting Import and then browsing
to the file.
Settings
The Settings tab gives us several powerful tools. In this tab you'll find options to customize the logo, stage the content, connect a domain to a community or organization, take advantage of the Liferay's integration with
Google Analytics, and more. Let's take a look at them in order.
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Virtual Host
You can make web navigation much easier for your users by connecting
a domain name to a community or organization. This tab allows you to define
a domain name (i.e., www.mycompany.com) for your community. This can be
a full domain or a subdomain. This enables you to host a number of web sites
as separate communities on one Liferay server.
For instance, if we set this up for Spartan Software's marketing community, users in that community could use marketing.spartansoftware.com
to get to their community, provided that Spartan's network administrators
created the domain name and pointed it to the Liferay server.
To set this up, you would simply configure the DNS for marketing.spartansoftware.com at the web address for your portal, and enter
http://marketing.spartansoftware.com in the Virtual Host tab for the marketing community.
This can help users quickly access their community without recalling an
extended URL.
Logo
If you want to use your own logo for a specific community or organization, you can configure an alternate logo here. To add a custom logo, select
the Logo tab, then browse to the location of your file and select the Use Logo
box. Be careful to make sure that your logo fits the space in the top left
corner of the theme you are using for your web site.
Sitemap
The next tab lets you generate a sitemap to help you optimize your site
for search engines. The Sitemap tab publishes your site using the sitemap
protocol, a protocol that helps search engines crawl your web site to index all
relevant information. You can publish your site to Yahoo or Google, and their
search indexes will use the sitemap to index your site.
Liferay Portal makes this very simple for administrators by generating
the sitemap XML automatically for all public web sites.
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Illustration 37: Site Map Options
By selecting one of the search engine links, the sitemap will be sent to
them. It's only necessary to do this once per community or organization. The
search engine crawler will periodically crawl the sitemap once you've made
the initial request.
If you're interested in seeing what is being sent to the search engines, selecting the Preview link allows you to see the generated XML.
Monitoring
The Monitoring tab allows you to integrate your pages with Google Analytics. Liferay provides seamless integration with Google Analytics, allowing
you to place your ID in one place, and then it will get inserted automatically
on every page. This enables you to focus your efforts on building the page,
rather than remembering to put the code everywhere. Google Analytics is a
fantastic, free service which lets you do all kinds of traffic analysis on your
site, so you can see who visits, where they visit from, and what pages they
most often visit. This helps you to tweak your site so that you can provide the
most relevant content to your users.
Staging
Staging is a major feature of Liferay CMS. The concept of staging is a
simple one: you don't want your users seeing your web site change before
their eyes as you are modifying it, do you? Liferay's staging environment al-
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lows you to make changes to your site in a specialized staging area, and then
when you are finished, publish the whole site to your users.
You can use staging in multiple ways. Larger organizations may consider
having a staging server—a separate instance of Liferay Portal which is used
just for staging. Content creators can then use this server to make their
changes while the live server handles the incoming user traffic. When
changes to the site are ready to be published, they can be pushed remotely to
the live server.
Alternatively, you may want to host both your staging environment and
your live environment on the same server—particularly if you are part of a
smaller organization with less resources to purchase servers. Either way,
once set up, the interface is the same; the only difference comes when it's actually time to publish your content.
Enabling the Staging Environment
The Staging tab allows us to make changes in a staging environment and
preview our work before publishing it to the live site. Let's create a staging
environment for the Spartan Software's Corporate Headquarters community.
First, we'll need to create the community. Go the Control Panel, select the
Communities tab, and then select Add. In the Name field, type in Corporate
Headquarters. Add a description and leave the type set to Open. After you've
completed these steps, select Save.
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Illustration 38: Setting up an Open Community
Now we're going to add a page to our new community. Since you're
already in the Communities interface, you can simply select Actions → Manage
Pages for the Corporate Headquarters community.
Add a new public page named News and Events. Next, click the View Pages
button and add the Alerts and Announcements portlets to it.
Now we're ready to activate the staging feature for this community. You
should now have two tabs or windows open in your browser to Liferay: one is
on the Control Panel, and one contains the page you have just created. Return to the Control Panel tab where you're editing the page structure and select Settings → Staging.
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Illustration 39: You can choose what content should be staged and what content should not be staged.
We'll assume we don't have a separate staging server, and so we'll select
a staging type of Local Live. If you were to select Remote Live, you would also
have needed to supply the name or IP of the remote server where staged content should be published, the port (80 if Liferay is sitting behind a web server,
or the port your application server is listening on if not), and the remote
community or organization ID. You can find this ID by selecting Actions →
Edit on any community or organization in the Control Panel. Either way, once
we make a selection (Local Live or Remote Live), many more options will become available to us.
We'll cover many of the collaboration portlets listed here when we come
to chapter 5. For now you just need to be aware that the option is available to
enable or disable staging for any of them, and you need to decide if you
would like to stage content for these portlets. In the case of the collaborative
portlets, the answer would of course be “no.” Why? Because portlets such as
the Message Boards are designed for user interaction. If their content were
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staged, you'd have to manually publish your site whenever somebody posted
a message on the message boards in order to make that message appear on
the live site.
Generally, you'll want Web Content to be staged, because end users
aren't creating that kind of content—that's the stuff you publish to your site.
But portlets like the message boards or the wiki would likely benefit from not
being staged.
Under Advanced Options, you can select a number of Editorial Stages your
content needs to go through. This means you can have your pages reviewed
through up to six levels of approval before they get published. If you select a
number of stages here, you'll next be asked to define roles for each stage.
Users in these roles will need to approve the changes through however many
stages you have selected in order for the changes to be published live. Let's
see how all of this works.
Using the Staging Environment
If we navigate back to the News and Events page of the Corporate
Headquarters community we'll now notice an orange border around the
page, and the Staging link will be in the Dockbar. Select the Staging button
and then View Staged Area. The page now has a red border.
Illustration 40: The live site has an orange border; the staged site has a red border.
Add the wiki portlet and then from the Dockbar select Staging → View
Live Page. Notice that the wiki portlet isn't there. As you can see, only the
page changes are staged; web content itself can go through a whole different
workflow process (which we'll get to later). If you select Staging → View
Staged Page, you'll also see that since we didn't configure the Wiki portlet to
stage its content (because that content is user-submitted), the Wiki portlet in
our staged area displays a warning message telling us that its content is not
staged.
Now, let's say that our page is exactly the way we want it, and we want to
publish it to the live site. If we have enabled more than one Editorial Stage,
we can submit a proposal to have the content reviewed. If not, we can simply
publish it to the live site.
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To submit a proposal, you must be viewing the staged page. From there,
you can go up to the Dockbar and select Staging → Propose Publication . Once
you do this, a small dialog box will pop up asking you for the proposal de scription as well as allowing you to select the reviewer who should be able to
review this proposal. The list of reviewers is populated from the roles you selected when you enabled Editorial Stages.
Once you've submitted your proposal, it will no longer be possible to submit more proposals. Your proposal will have to be dealt with by someone
with the role who reviews the content at this editorial stage. To view the proposals, go back up to the Dockbar and select Staging → View Proposals . You'll
then see the proposal you've submitted.
Illustration 41: Proposals must be approved or deleted.
Click on the proposal to view it. Here, you'll be able to change the ap prover, set a due date, select the next reviewer (from the role which is configured for that editorial stage), and, of course, the other options you'd expect: preview the proposed changes, approve, and reject.
Once rejected, the proposal needs to either be approved later or deleted.
If the proposal is approved, it goes on to the next stage, if there's another approver. Otherwise, a Publish to Live button is enabled. In order to get the modified pages onto the live site, somebody has to push this button; there isn't a
way to cause the pages to be published automatically upon the last approval.
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Illustration 42: There's a specific workflow to use when publishing content using the staging environment.
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To publish the modified page we simply need to return to the proposal
and click Publish to Live. Once this is done, Liferay will ask you what you wish
to publish. In our example, we have only one page to publish, and it's already
selected. All we have to do is click Publish. The changes are now live!
When it comes time to modify your site again, you simply repeat the process. You can enable staging on an individual community or organization
basis, depending on your needs. This makes it really easy to put strict controls in place for your public web site, but to open things up for individual
communities that don't need such strict controls. Liferay's staging environment is extremely easy to use and makes maintaining a content-rich web site
a snap.
Editing a Page
There are a lot of other things you can do beyond placing portlets on a
page. So let's move on from staging back to the Spartan Software community,
which is not staged. You can do this by going up to the Dockbar and clicking
Go To → Spartan Internet.
We'll use the Collaboration page you created earlier in the chapter. Navigate to the Collaboration page and select Manage → Page from the Dockbar.
This screen should now be familiar to you, but we haven't yet looked at
all of its options.
The Page tab allows you to:
•
change the name of the page
•
enter HTML code for the title
•
choose the page type
•
hide the page from the theme navigation
•
define a friendly URL to the page
•
choose an icon to be displayed
•
choose a frame target for the page
•
copy an existing page
You can also enter custom meta tags or JavaScript to the page if you're a
web developer. Additionally, if you click the Permissions button, you can
define which users, groups, roles, or organizations can view or edit the page.
The Children tab lets you create child pages underneath the page you've
selected. You can nest pages as deep as you like, but for every page below the
top level hierarchy, you must provide navigation to it via a Navigation or
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Breadcrumb portlet, at least with most themes (including the default). Developers can create themes which have cascading menu bars which show the
full hierarchy, and some examples of that are in Liferay's plugin repositories.
For now, let's just stick with the Page tab. Change the title to Collaborate
with Spartan!, click Save, and then click Return to full page.
Modifying Page Layouts
Page layouts allow you to arrange your pages so that the content appears
the way you want it to. Liferay comes shipped with many layouts already
defined. Developers can create more and they can be deployed to your portal
for your use.
In order to prepare for the portlets we'll soon be adding, let's change the
layout of the Collaboration page. To access layouts, go up to the Dockbar and
select Manage → Page Layout.
Now, select the 2 Columns (50/50) layout and then Save. Once saved, you'll
return to the page and it'll seem as though nothing has happened. However,
once we start adding portlets you'll notice how the page is now equally divided into two columns. You can stack portlets on top of each other in these
columns. There are, of course, more complicated layouts available, and you
can play around with them to get the layout that you want.
Sometimes a particular layout is almost what you want, but not quite. In
this case, you can use the Nested Portlets portlet to embed a layout inside another layout. This portlet is simply a container for other portlets. Its configuration allows you to select from any of the layouts installed in Liferay, just
like the layouts for a page. This gives you virtually unlimited options for laying out your pages.
Portlets
As we discussed earlier, Liferay Portal pages are composed of portlets. All
of your site's functionality, from blogs to shopping, is composed of portlets.
Adding portlets to a page is simple. Let's add some to our Collaboration
page.
1.
In the Dockbar, select Add → More.
2.
In the window that appears, expand the Collaboration category.
3.
Drag the Blogs portlet off the Add Application window onto the right
column of our page.
4.
Next, drag the Wiki portlet to the left column.
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See how easy it is to add applications to your pages? We've gone one step
further: we've got the Wiki portlet, the Blogs portlet, and then a nested portlet with a different layout and the Alerts, Unit Converter, and RSS portlets.
Illustration 43: Yeah, we're showoffs. But as you can see, your page layout options are virtually limitless.
You'll find it is very easy to make your pages look exactly the way you
want them to. If the layout options provided aren't enough, you can even develop your own. More information about that can be found in Liferay's official guide to development, Liferay in Action.
Page Permissions
By default, public pages are just that: public. They can be viewed by anybody, logged in or not logged in. And private pages are really only private
from non-members of the community. If someone has joined your community or is a member of your organization, that person can see all of the
private pages. You can, however, modify the permissions on individual pages
in either page group so that only certain users can view them.
So, let's say we wanted to create a page only for administrators to see.
We can do this with the following procedure:
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1.
Go to the Dockbar and select Manage → Control Panel.
2.
Click the Pages link in the left navigation.
3.
Click the Private Pages tab to switch to the Private Pages. Remember,
these pages by default are viewable only by members of the community or organization.
4.
Create a page called Admin Forums.
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5.
Click on the page in the tree on the left and then select the Page tab.
6.
Click the Permissions button.
7.
Uncheck the View permission next to the Guest role.
8.
Uncheck the View and Add Discussion permissions next to the Community Member role.
9.
Click the Save button.
Illustration 44: Permissions for Admin Forums
Congratulations! You've just changed the permissions for this page so
that only community administrators can view it. Any users you add to this
role will now be able to see the page. Other users, even members of this community, won't have the permissions to see it.
You now understand how to manage pages in Liferay Portal. It's time to
move on to adding content to those pages. Liferay's Web Content Management (WCM) is a highly powerful, yet flexible, set of tools that enables you to
successfully manage your web site.
You'll soon discover that Liferay's WCM is easy to learn and highly configurable. If you already have experience with WCM, you'll see some new features and improvements to old ones. If you're new to Liferay's WCM, then
you'll be surprised at how fast you will be adding, editing, and scheduling
content on your site. Once you're familiar with portlets such as Web Content
Display and Asset Publisher, your ability to manage an immense site with a
large amount of content will simply amaze you.
We'll be using Liferay's WCM to publish simple pieces of content, develop
templates to define how content is to be displayed, set up a workflow for content to be approved, schedule when content is to be published and much,
much more.
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What is Web Content Management?
Web Content Management is a system which allows non-technical users
to publish content to the web without having advanced knowledge of web
technology or programming of any sort. Liferay CMS empowers you to publish your content with a simple point and click interface, and it helps you to
keep your site fresh. You'll find yourself easily creating, editing, and publishing content within just a few minutes of being exposed to its features. But
Liferay CMS doesn't sacrifice power for simplicity. If need be, you can use
your developer skills to create complex presentation layer templates that
make your content “pop” with dynamic elements. Once these templates have
been deployed into the portal, your non-technical users can manage content
using these templates as easily as they would manage static content. All of
this makes Liferay CMS an appropriate choice for sites with only a few pages
or sites with gigabytes of content.
How Can Liferay's WCM Help You?
With Liferay's WCM you have the ability to create, edit, stage, publish,
and approve content with easy to learn yet powerful tools. Liferay's WCM
streamlines site changes for the end user versus doing a site in HTML. Some
ways Liferay WCM makes this possible include:
•
Once set up, non-technical users can manage the site.
•
Liferay's fine-grained permissions system ensures your content
gets to the right users.
•
To manage the site, no programming is required.
•
Content can be staged.
•
Content can be passed through a workflow.
•
Content can be published on a schedule.
•
WCM is integrated with Liferay's services, so advanced template
developers can use them to query for data stored elsewhere in
Liferay.
What Features Does Liferay WCM Have?
Liferay's WCM has a host of features the makes managing the content of
your site easier.
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•
WYSIWYG Editor: A complete HTML editor that allow you to
modify fonts, add color, insert images and much more.
•
Structure Editor: Easily add and remove fields you want available to content creators and then dynamically move them
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around. This editor includes an entire suite of form controls you
can drag and drop onto your structure.
•
Template Editor: Import template script files that inform the
system how to display the content within the fields determined
by the structure.
•
Web Content Display: A portlet that allows you place web content on a page in your portal.
•
Asset Publisher: A portlet which can aggregate different types
of content together in one view.
•
Scheduler: Lets you schedule when content is reviewed, displayed, and removed.
•
Workflow Integration: Run your content through an approval
or review process.
Liferay's Web Content Management is a powerful and robust tool for creating and organizing content on your web site. Now that you've seen the basics of what you can do with Liferay's WCM, let's apply some of these con cepts and create some content.
Building a Site with Liferay's WCM
You've just been assigned the task to build the web site for a small company that makes video games named Spartan Software. You've decided to
take advantage of Liferay Portal and its rapid deployment features as well as
its ability to get a fully functional, content-rich web site up and running in
little time.
We'll walk through the creation of Spartan Software's web site, starting
by creating some simple content using Liferay's built-in WYSIWYG editor and
then publishing it. We'll then take advantage of Liferay's robust structure
editor. We'll use templates to display the content and the explore some of the
advanced publishing features such as the built-in workflow and Asset Publisher.
Simple Content Creation
As we've stated above, content is the reason web sites exist. Liferay Portal
has made it easier than ever to get content published to your site. Because
Liferay Portal is so flexible, you can use basic authoring tools right away or
take advantage of the more advanced features. It's adaptable to your needs.
We'll begin by creating simple content using Liferay's WYSIWYG Editor
and then we'll publish it to the home page of Spartan Software's web site.
This a fast and straightforward process that demonstrates how easy it is to
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create and publish content onto your Liferay Portal. So let's get familiar with
the Web Content section of the Control Panel so we can create and publish
our first pieces of content.
Web Content Section of the Control Panel
When you manage web content from the control panel, you have the
ability to select the location where you will be adding or editing the content.
For instance, you can add content
that will be available to a specific
community, organization, or
globally across the portal. The
Content section of the Control
Panel displays the name of the
community
or
organization
where you are currently working
as its heading. You can change
where you're working using the
drop down attached to the heading.
We will add our first piece of Illustration 45: Choosing an organization or community
in the Content section
content to the Spartan Internet
community, which we defined earlier in the chapter as the default community.
Rich, WYSIWYG Editing
Once you have the Spartan Internet community selected, click on the
Web Content link in the control panel. Next, click the Add Web Content button.
This is a highly customizable form that is asking for a title and it contains a
powerful WYSIWYG editor. From here we can add images and links, change
fonts, italicize, increase font size and more. We will cover the other features
such as structures, templates, and content scheduling later in this chapter.
For now, type the words Welcome to Spartan in the Name field. Notice that
content can be localized in whatever language you want. If you click the localize check box, two select boxes appear which allow you to pick the language
you're working in and the language that is the default. You can enter translations of your content for any language in the list. The screenshot below
shows this interface but for now, we won't be using it, so you can leave it unchecked. In the content field, add a short sentence announcing that the web
site is up and running.
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Illustration 46: Web Content Editor
Images, Fonts, Links, and More
Getting a new web site up and running is an exciting step for any enterprise, whether it is a large corporation or a small non-profit charity. To celebrate this momentous achievement at Spartan Software, let's give our announcement some of the pomp and circumstance we think it deserves!
Using the editor, select all of the current text, and then change the style
to Heading 1, the font size to 20, and the color to medium blue.
A couple of lines lower, return the style, font, and color to normal or de fault. Type in another sentence. As you can see, you can adjust the style, size,
and color to match the needs of the content. You can also bullets, numbering,
links to another site, or custom images. You can even add an emoticon. Let's
add a smiley face at the end of our announcement.
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Illustration 47: Customizing Content
The WYSIWYG editor is a flexible tool that gives you the ability to add
text, images, tables, links, and more. Additionally, you can modify the display
to match the purpose of the content. Plus it's integrated with the rest of
Liferay Portal: for example, when you upload an image to be added to a page,
that image can be viewed and manipulated in the Image Gallery portlet.
If you're HTML savvy, Liferay CMS doesn't leave you out in the cold. You
can click the Source button and write your own HTML if you wish.
Assigning Permissions
You can determine who will and who won't see your content. By default,
the content is viewable by Anyone (Guest Role). You can limit viewable permissions by selecting any Role from the drop-down or in the list. Additionally, Liferay Portal provides the ability to customize permissions in more detail. Select the More Options link next to the drop down button, and you'll find
the different activities you can grant or deny to your web content.
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Illustration 48: Permissions for Web Content
For this piece of web content, we don't need to change anything. After
you're finished with permissions, click Save. This will save the content in
draft form. Once you're satisfied with the your changes, select Publish. This
makes the content available for display, but we still have some work to do to
enable users to see it. In Liferay CMS, all content resides in a container,
which is one of two portlets: Web Content Display or Web Content List. By far
the most frequently used is the Web Content Display portlet. So let's go back to
the page where we want the content displayed and add the Web Content Display portlet (in this case, the Welcome page).
Publishing Content with the Web Content Display Portlet
Now that we've created and published our first piece of web content for
Spartan Software, it's time to display it. First, we'll need to add the Web Content Display portlet to our Welcome page. Do this by selecting Add → Web Content Display from the Dockbar.
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Illustration 49: Adding the Web Content Display
Portlet
Once the portlet appears, drag it to the position on the page where you
want your content to appear. You can use the Web Content Display portlet to
lay out the content on your pages any way you like. You can have as many
Web Content Display portlets on a page as you need.
Publishing Existing Content
To add existing web content, select the gear icon on the lower left of the
portlet. You will see the message “Please select a web content from the list
below.” You have several options here.
Naturally, if your content appears in the list, you can simply select it. If
there were lots of published content available, you could search for the content by name, ID, type, version, content, and community (click the Advanced
link to see all the options). You can also show the available locales for your
content. If you're working on the page for a particular language, you can select the translation of your content that goes with your locale.
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Illustration 50: Publishing web content is a snap. At a minimum, you only have to select the content you
wish to publish. You can also enable lots of optional features to let your users interact with your content.
If you have enabled OpenOffice.org integration with your portal, you can
also enable the document conversion. This gives your users the ability to
download your content in their format of choice. This is especially handy if
you are running a research or academically oriented site; users can very
quickly download PDFs of your content for their research projects.
Note that you also have other options, such as enabling a Print button,
enabling ratings so that users can rate the content, enabling comments, and
enabling ratings on comments.
The Print button pops the content up in a separate browser window that
contains just the content, without any of the web site navigation. This is
handy for printing the content. Enabling ratings shows one of two ratings interfaces Liferay has: five stars or thumbs up and thumbs down. This can be
set globally in the portal-ext.properties file. See Chapter 6 for further information about this.
Enabling comments creates a discussion forum attached to your content
which users can use to discuss your content. Enabling ratings on comments
gives your users the ability to rate the comments. You may decide you want
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one, some, or none of these features, which is why they're all implemented as
simple check boxes to be enabled or disabled at need.
If you click the Supported Clients tab, you'll see that you can choose the
type of client to which you want to expose content. This lets you target the
large screens of users' computers for expansive graphics and lots of special
effects, as well as target the small screens of mobile devices with pertinent
information and a lightweight page. For now, leave both checked and click
the Save button. You can now close the configuration window.
Publishing New Content
To publish new content, select the page and green plus icon on the lower
left of the portlet. This launches the same full-featured editor you've already
seen in the Control Panel, which lets you add and edit content in place as you
are working on your page. This is another example of the flexibility that
Liferay Portal offers. At times, you may want to add content directly into the
Web Content Display portlet of the page you're managing, especially if you
are in the process of building the page. At other times, you may want to use
the control panel to create content, because at that moment you're more
concerned with the creation of the content and not where the content will
later be displayed. Either way, Liferay CMS supports both processes equally.
Editing Content
Once the content is displayed—whether you've selected content or created it in the Web Content Display portlet—you can edit the content directly
from the Web Content Display portlet or from the Control Panel. To edit it
from the Web Content Display portlet, select the pencil icon to the lower left
of the portlet. This will launch the WYSIWYG editor and from there you can
make any necessary changes.
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Illustration 51: Web Content Display Portlet
When you publish your content this way, it will become immediately
available on the site (unless, of course, you have a workflow enabled, which
we'll see below). It's nice to be able to edit the content where it is when you
need to, as well as edit it in the Control Panel.
One thing to note here that's important: if you want to view your page
the way your users will see it (i.e., without all those portlet controls and
icons), you can go up to the Dockbar and select Toggle Edit Controls. This
makes all those extra controls you see as a portal administrator disappear. If
you need to use those controls again, just select Toggle Edit Controls again.
Advanced Content Creation
You will find that as your web site grows, managing it becomes more
challenging. Without preset limitations, users can display content in any order and in any manner they desire (think huge, flashing letters in a font
nobody can read). Also, without a scheduling feature, manually removing or
replacing old content becomes cumbersome. Furthermore, without a workflow for approving content, some content might get published that should
not have been, or content could get published that contains errors or omissions.
Thankfully, with Liferay Portal's Advanced Content Creation features,
managing a complex and rapidly evolving web site is easy. You can use Structures to define which fields are available to users when they create content
and use Templates to define how to display that content. Additionally, you can
configure Liferay's built-in Workflow system to set up a review and publishing
process and then take advantage of the Scheduling feature to determine when
content is displayed and when it's removed. Liferay Portal gives you the management tools you need to run everything from a simple, one-page web site
to an enormous, content-rich site.
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Structures
Structures are the foundation for web content. They determine which
fields are available to users as they create a new item for display. Structures
not only improve manageability for you the administrator, but also make it
much easier for the users to quickly add content.
For example, say you're managing an online news magazine. All of your
articles need to contain the same types of information: a title, a subtitle, an
author, and one or more pages of text and images that comprise the body of
the article. If Liferay only supported simple content as has been described
above, you would have no way to make sure that your users entered a title,
subtitle, and author. You might also get articles that don't match the look
and feel of your site. If titles are supposed to be navy blue and they come in
from your writers as light blue, you need to spend time reformatting them
before they are published.
Structures give you the ability to provide a format for your content so
that your users know what needs to be entered to have a complete article.
Using structures, you can provide for your users a form which spells out exactly what is required, and which can be automatically formatted properly
using a template.
To create a structure, you simply add form controls such as text fields,
text boxes, text areas (HTML), check boxes, select boxes, and multi-selection
lists, as well as specialized, Liferay-specific Application Fields such as Image
Gallery and Document Library right onto the structure. Furthermore, you can
move the elements around by dragging them where you want them. This allows you to quickly brainstorm different orders for your input fields. Additionally, elements can be grouped together into blocks which can then be repeatable. Template writers can then write a template which loops through
these blocks and presents your content in innovative ways, such as in sliding
navigation bars, content which scrolls with the user, and more.
Let's take a look at how we edit a structure.
Editing a Structure
Go back to the Control Panel and the Web Content section. Click Add Web
Content to add another piece of content to your portal. Instead of going right
for the content this time, however, we're going to create a structure. To edit
a structure, simply select the Edit button from the Structures tab.
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Illustration 52: Structure Editor
It is very easy to edit structures: all you have to do is drag elements into
the structure and then give them names. For instance, select the Checkbox
element under the Form Controls tab and drag it onto the structure. You can
do the same with any of the elements. To remove it from the structure,
simply select the Delete icon (black circle with X) in the upper right corner of
the element. Take a moment to add, delete, and rearrange different elements.
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Illustration 53: Structure Elements
Liferay supports the following elements in structures:
FORM FIELDS
Text Field: Used for items such a titles and headings.
Text Box: Used for the body of your content or long descriptions.
Text Area (HTML): An area that uses a WYSIWYG editor to enhance the
content.
Checkbox: Allows you to add a checkbox onto your structure. Template
developers can use this as a display rule.
Selectbox: Allows you to add a select box onto your structure.
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Multi-selection Lists: Allows you to add a multi-selection list onto your
structure.
APPLICATION FIELDS
Image Gallery: Allows you to add the Image Gallery application into
your structure.
Upload Image: Allows you to add the upload image application into your
structure.
Document Library: Allows you to add the Document Library application
to your structure.
MISCELLANEOUS
Link to Page: Inserts a link to another page in the same community.
Selection Break: Inserts a break in the content.
Editing Elements
When creating a new structure it
is essential that you set the variable
names for the elements for the template writers. Otherwise, the generated variable names will be very difficult for a template writer to follow.
For Spartan Software, we want to create a series of guides that give a stepby-step list of instructions for the
game level designers. In your structure, you can add the element Text
Area (HTML) which has the Field Label
Instructions. However, we want to give
it the variable name of Steps. This can
be done very easily: at the bottom of
every form element is a Variable
Name field. Replace the generated
name with the name you want to use.
There are many other options for
fields, including setting tooltips for
users. To set these options, select the
Edit Options button in the lower right
corner of the element.
The Instructions for the User
field is where you can type in instructions for the user and even display it
Illustration 54: Editing Options for Elements
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as a tooltip. For the Spartan Software Company News structure, type in something that will help users know what to put into the Body element (example:
this is an HTML Text area for the body of your content). Also, enable the Display as Tooltip box. Now, when users hover over the Help icon near your
title, they will see the instructions you entered.
Assigning Permissions
Permissions to the structure are straightforward. Generally, you don't
want most users editing structures as this often requires a developer to
modify the template assigned to the structure. However, you do want to
make your structure viewable to everyone that will be using it to add web
content. You can determine who views a structure by selecting from the
Viewable By select box beneath the Permissions tab. By default the Anyone
(Guest Role) is selected.
Illustration 55: View
Permissions for Structure
You will also want to determine how users can interact with the structure. You can do this by selecting the More link.
Illustration 56: More Permissions for Structures
From the More link, you have the ability to grant or deny permissions
based on Roles. For instance, you can give the Guest role the ability to Add
Discussion or you may want to give a Community Member the ability to Delete.
Liferay Portal makes it easy to configure the permissions based on your specific needs for the site.
Templates
Developers create templates to display the elements of the structure in
the markup that they want. Content can then be styled properly using CSS,
because markup is generated consistently when users enter content. In essence, templates are scripts that tell Liferay how to display the content within the fields determined by the structure. Any changes to the structure re-
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quire corresponding changes to the template. Otherwise, new or deleted
fields will produce errors on the page. Without a template, the portal has no
idea how to display content which has been created using a custom structure.
Template Types (VM, XSL, FTL, and CSS)
Liferay supports templates written in four different templating languages. This is so that you can get started right away. If you have experience
with one over another, you can use whichever one you've already used before. If you are just starting with any one of them, we recommend Velocity,
as it is less “chatty” than XSL and extremely simple to understand.
VM (Velocity Macro): Velocity is a scripting language that lets you mix
logic with HTML. This is similar to other scripting languages, such as PHP,
that you may have seen before, though Velocity is much simpler. It's been in
the product the longest, so it is probably the most widely used language for
templates in Liferay CMS. If you haven't used any of the template languages
before, we recommend using Velocity: you'll get up to speed the fastest.
XSL (Extensible Style Sheet Language): XSL is used in Liferay templates
to transform the underlying XML of a structure into markup suitable for the
browser. While it may not be as clean and compact as Velocity or FTL, it is
widely used for transforming XML into other formats.
FTL (FreeMarker Template Language): Freemarker is a templating language which could be considered a successor to Velocity, though it is not yet
as popular. It has some advantages over Velocity for which it sacrifices some
simplicity, yet it is still easy to use and less “chatty” than XSL.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets): You can use CSS if your structure is very
straightforward and modifications are simple (colors, fonts, layouts, etc). If
your structure is more complex, however, you'll need to use one of the other
options.
Adding a Template
Liferay CMS makes it easy to create structures, templates, and content
from the same interface. Let's go through the entire flow of how we'd create
a structure, link it to a template, and then create content based on what
we've defined. We'll use Velocity for our template, and we'll lay out the
structure fields systematically to go along with the format we've defined for
our content.
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Illustration 57: Adding Template Interface
156
1.
Go back to the Web Content section of the Control Panel and
click Add Web Content.
2.
Select Edit from the Structure tab.
3.
Remove the Content field and add the following fields:
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Variable Name
Field Type
Title
Text
Abstract
Text Box
Image
Image Gallery
Body
Text Area
4.
Select Save.
5.
After you have saved the structure, select the Templates tab.
6.
Select Add Template.
7.
Type in a name and description and enable the Autogenerate ID
box.
8.
De-select the box labeled Cacheable.
9.
Select VM as the language.
10. If you've written the script beforehand, you can select Browse to
upload it from your machine. Otherwise, you can click Launch
Editor to type the script directly into the small editor window
that appears.
11. Select Save.
12. Return to the Web Content tab and open the Company News
content. You'll see the new element labeled Abstract just below
the Title.
Below is the template script for this structure. It is written in Velocity:
#set ($renderUrlMax = $request.get("render-url-maximized"))
#set ($namespace = $request.get("portlet-namespace"))
#set($readmore = $request.get("parameters").get("read_more"))
<h1>$title.getData()</h1>
#if ($readmore)
<p>$abstract.getData()</p>
<p>$body.getData()</p>
#else
<p>
<img src="${image.getData()}" border="0" align="right">
$abstract.getData()</p>
<a href="${renderUrlMax}&${namespace}read_more=true">Read More</a>
#end
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This template is pretty small, but it actually does quite a bit. First, a portlet URL which maximizes the portlet is created. Once this is done, we get the
namespace of the portlet. This is important because we don't want our URL
to collide with another URL that might be on the page.
After this, we attempt to get a request parameter called read_more.
Whether or not we were successful in getting this parameter is the key to the
rest of the script:
•
If we were successful in getting the read_more parameter, we
display the abstract and the body below the title (which is always displayed).
•
If we were not successful in getting the read_more parameter,
we display the image, the abstract, and the link we created
above, which sets the read_more parameter.
When this template is rendered, it looks something like this:
Illustration 58: By default, the content displays like this. If the user clicks the
Read More link, the portlet will display the body field as well. Note we've also
enabled comments and ratings in this Web Content Display portlet.
Of course, there is much, much more you can do with structures and
templates. Check out the Liferay Wiki (http://wiki.liferay.com) for further information and examples.
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Assigning Template Permission
Permissions for templates are very similar to permissions for structures.
Generally, you only want specific developers accessing the template. However, you may want to make the templates viewable to some content creators who understand the template scripting language, but are not directly
writing the scripts. You can determine who views the template by selecting
from the Viewable By select box beneath the Permissions tab. By default the
Anyone (Guest Role) is selected.
Illustration 59: View
Permissions for Templates
You'll also want to determine how users can interact with the template.
You can do this by selecting the More link.
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Illustration 60: More Permissions for Templates
From the More link, you have the ability to grant or deny permissions
based on Roles. For instance, you may create a role with the ability to update the template and create a second role that can both update and delete.
Liferay Portal makes it possible to assign permissions based on the roles and
responsibilities within your organization.
Advanced Publishing Options
As we discussed above, as your site becomes larger and more complex,
management of the content becomes more challenging. We've discussed
Liferay management tools that help you create content quickly and in an orderly fashion. We created a simple announcement and then covered Liferay's
new structure editor that allows you to quickly design a structure and prepare it for the template designers. Then, we went through applying a template to the structure. We demonstrated how to display our content using the
Web Content Display portlet. Now, we're ready to take advantage of Liferay's
advanced publishing options.
If a web site isn't properly managed, it can quickly become out of date,
and that drives viewers away. If people are finding your site because of
search engines, you don't want them presented with outdated (and now inaccurate) web content.
Additionally, you may want the ability to create content and send it
through a review and approve process weeks before you want it displayed on
the web site. Liferay gives you this flexibility with the Schedule feature in the
Web Content portlet.
Scheduling Web Content
You can publish your content on a schedule. You can determine when
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rect) information. The scheduler is built right into the form that your users
make use of to add web content, in the same column as the structure and
template selectors.
Illustration 61: Schedule for Publishing Content
Display Date: Allows you to determine (within a minute) when content
will be displayed.
Expiration Date: Allows to set the date when the content will expire.
The default is one year.
Never Auto Expire: Allows you set your content to never expire.
Review Date: Allows you to set a date when you want the content reviewed.
Never Review: Allows you to determine that your content will not be reviewed.
As you can see, the scheduling feature in Liferay Portal gives you great
control in managing when, and for how long, your web content is displayed
on your web site. Additionally, you have the ability to determine when your
content should be reviewed for accuracy and/or relevance. This makes it possible to manage your growing inventory of content.
Tags and Categories
Though tags and categories will be more fully described in Chapter 5, it is
important to mention them here. Tags are keywords that can be attached to
web content in order to help users find content. Categories are a hierarchical
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organization of content whose structure can be defined by administrators.
With tags and categories, you can make it easier for your users to find your
content through search or navigation.
Why Tag?
Tags are keywords attached to a piece of web content in the portal. By
assigning a tag to web content, you define metadata about that content. This
can be used by Liferay's search engine to score the results of a search, enabling users to find content that is most relevant to their search. Tags can be
created on the fly by the creator of the content, and it is important to tag
your content whenever it is created. If you don't tag your content, all the
search engine has to go on is the full text of the content when a user does a
search, and that might not produce the most optimal results.
Tagging also helps with navigation. Liferay Portal has two portlets specifically designed for navigating content using tags: Tag Cloud and Tag Navigation. If you add either of these to a page, you can use them to show the topics contained in your content.
Who Tags?
Tags in web content are added by the creator of the content. They can be
added on the fly or they can be selected from the existing library of tags. For
most of the portal, users tag content, but for web content, only the content
creator tags the content, because there is no user interface for regular users
to tag web content.
It is important that you both tag and categorize your content when you
enter it.
What is the Difference Between a Tag and a Category?
Categories are defined by someone with administrative access to the
content. They are hierarchical, tree-like structures that users can use to find
content. Categories are different from tags in that they are never created by
end users. Instead, categories define how your content is organized from the
point of view of the owner of the content. A good example of categories
might be the table of contents of a book: it shows the hierarchical structure
and organization for all of the content within that book. This shows that the
structure of the book has been planned ahead of time by the creator of the
book. Categories do the same thing. By contrast, tags are like the index of a
book: they show where many different topics are mentioned within the book
in alphabetical order. When a search is done throughout the book, even the
author might be surprised at how many times he or she mentions a particular topic outside of its category. So both ways of organizing your content are
important, especially if your users will be using search to find content.
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Tagging and categorizing web content is easy. You can do it at the bottom of the same form you use to add content. If you open the Categorization
section of the form, you'll be presented with an interface for adding tags and
categories.
Illustration 62: Tagging and categorizing content can be done at the same time you create it.
The Control Panel contains an interface for managing tags and categories for each community or organization in the portal. This interface can be
used administratively to manage your tags and categories. We'll take a look
at this interface in the next chapter.
Using Liferay's Integrated Workflow with Content Management
Workflow is essentially a predetermined sequence of connected steps. In
Liferay CMS, workflow is designed to manage the creation, modification, and
publication of web content. You can set up a workflow so that content cannot
be published without going through an approval process that you design. In
this way, content goes up on your site only after it has been reviewed and approved.
Liferay's workflow engine is called Kaleo workflow, and it ships with
Liferay CE. If you have uninstalled it or are using EE, it needs to be installed
and configured separately, and this is covered in Chapter 7. For now, we'll assume it's installed and show you how you can take advantage of workflow in
getting your content through any approval steps between creation and publication.
To enable workflow for Web Content, navigate to the Control Panel and
select Workflow Configuration. From there, select a workflow that has been deployed to Liferay.
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Illustration 63: Enabling Workflow for Content Management
As you will discover in Chapter 7, you can design workflows to suit your
organization's approval process. For Spartan Software's implementation we
will use the Single Approver workflow which ships with the product.
Defining Workflows for Web Content
Let's go ahead and set up Liferay's Workflow for the Spartan Software
web site.
1.
Go to the Control Panel and select Workflow Configuration from the
left panel.
2.
From the select box, choose Single Approver for Web Content. Click
Save. Note that you can add workflow to many of Liferay's portlets.
That's all it takes to set up workflow for web content. Now publishing
content works a little bit differently. Let's go through the process of publishing some sales goals for a new Spartan Software game. Return to the home
page and click on the Add Web Content icon on the Web Content Display portlet. Call it Sales Goals and enter some content. Notice that the Publish button
is now gone. In its place is a Submit for Publication button. Go ahead and click
it.
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Illustration 64: Pending Workflow
Next, go to the Workflow Tasks in Control Panel and then select My Workflow Tasks. You will see the option to Review Content for Sales Goals. It shows
because you are logged in as an Administrator. There is also a Content Approvers role which is defined by this workflow, and anyone in this role can
approve content as well.
To approve the content, you must first take ownership of it. Click on the
task. You should see the screen below.
Illustration 65: My workflow tasks shows tasks that are assigned to your role. To take up a task, you
must assign it to yourself first.
Taking ownership of, reviewing, and approving content is very easy:
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1.
Click the Assign to Me button. Alternatively, you could assign it
to someone else in the Content Approvers role or create / update
a due date for the content's approval.
2.
Once you've assigned it to yourself, buttons allowing you to approve or reject the content appear. Click Approve.
3.
You're asked to submit a comment. You'd have to do this for
either Approve or Reject. Add a comment and click Save.
4.
The content is now approved.
In a real world situation, you obviously wouldn't want the person who
created the content to be the one who approves it. Instead, you would have
one or more roles designed for users who will be creating content, and you
will have specific users assigned to one or more roles for approving content.
Our example was of a very straightforward workflow, as it has only a single
approver. Kaleo workflow allows you to design workflows that go through as
many steps as you need to conform to your business processes. This is beyond the scope of this chapter, but is covered in Chapter 7.
Using the Asset Publisher Portlet
As we create web content, it's important to keep in mind that to Liferay,
the pieces of content are assets, just like message board entries and blog
posts. This allows you to publish your web content using Liferay's Asset Publisher.
You can use the Asset Publisher to publish a mixed group of various
kinds of assets such as images, documents, blogs, and of course, web content.
This helps in creating a more dynamic web site: you can place user-created
wiki entries, blog posts, or message board messages in context with your content. Let's take a look at some of its features.
Querying for Content
The Asset Publisher portlet is a highly configurable application that lets
you query for mixed types of content on the fly. By giving you the ability to
control what and how content is displayed from one location, the Asset Publisher helps you to “bubble up” the most relevant content to your users.
To get to all of the portlet's options, click the Configuration link in the
portlet's menu (the wrench icon).
Selecting Assets
The ability to configure how content is displayed and selected by your
users further demonstrates the flexibility of the Asset Publisher. You get to
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choose how content is displayed. You can select it manually for display in a
similar way to the Web Content Display portlet, or you can set up predefined
queries and filters and let the portal select the content for you, based on its
type or its tags and categories.
Let's first take a look at how we might select content manually. You'll see
that it's very similar to the Web Content Display portlet.
Selecting Assets Manually
By selecting Manual from the select box beneath Asset Selection, tell the
Asset Publisher that you want to select your content manually. You can select
what you want to be published within the portlet, or you can create new content right from within the Asset Publisher.
Illustration 66: Selecting assets manually is very similar to the Web Content Display portlet, except you
have many other content types from which to choose.
Clicking Add New gives you a menu of options, enabling you to create the
content right where you are. You can create blogs, bookmarks, calendar
entries, documents, images, and of course, web content. Anything you create
here will be added to the list below of assets that will be displayed by the
portlet.
Clicking Select Existing gives you a similar menu, except this time you can
pick from existing content in the portal that either you or your users have
created. Has someone written an excellent wiki page that you want to highlight? Select it here, and it will be displayed.
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The Asset Publisher gives you the ability to mix and match different content types in the same interface. Once you have your content selected, you
can move on to the display types to configure how the content appears.
Most of the time, however, you'll likely be using the Asset Publisher to
select content dynamically.
Selecting Assets Dynamically
The default behavior for the Asset Publisher is to select assets dynamically according to rules that you give it. These rules can be stacked on top of
each other so that they compliment each other to create a nice, refined query
for your content. You have the following options for creating these rules:
Scope: Choose the communities or organizations from which the content
should be selected.
Asset Type: Choose whether you will display any asset or only assets of a
specific type, such as only web content, only wiki entries, or any combinations of multiple types.
Illustration 67: You can filter by tags and categories, and you can set up as many filter rules as you need.
Filter Rules: Add as many filters on tags or categories as you like. You
can choose whether the content contains or does not contain any or all categories or tags that you enter.
Once you've set up your filter rules for dynamically selecting your content, you can then decide how the content will be displayed.
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Ordering and Grouping
You can display the content returned by the filters above in order by
title, create date, modified date, view count, and more in ascending or descending order. For instance, you may have a series of “How To” articles that
you want displayed in descending order based on whether the article was
tagged with the hammer tag. Or, you may want a series of video captures to
display in ascending order based on a category called birds. You can also
group by Asset Type or Vocabularies. Vocabularies are groups of categories
defined by administrators in the Categories section of the Control Panel.
Again, we'll see more about categories in Chapter 5.
Illustration 68: Ordering and Grouping
In the Ordering and Grouping section of the Asset Publisher, you have
great control over how content is ordered and grouped in the list, but this is
only one aspect of how your content will be displayed. You can refine the display through many other display settings.
Display Settings
The Display Settings section gives you precise control over the display of
your assets. There are a multitude of options available to configure how you
want your content to appear. You can configure the style, length of abstracts,
behavior of the asset link, maximum items to display, pagination type, and
file conversions. Additionally, you can enable printing, flags, ratings, comments, and comment ratings, and these work the same way they do in the
Web Content Display portlet.
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Illustration 69: Display Settings
DISPLAY STYLE
Abstracts: Shows the first 200-500 characters of the content, defined by
the Abstract Length field.
Table: Displays the content in an HTML table which can be styled by a
theme developer.
Title List: The content's title as defined by the user who entered it.
Full Content: The entire content of the entry.
OTHER SETTINGS
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Asset Link Behavior: When the link to the asset is clicked, it can be displayed in the Asset Publisher or in the portlet to which the asset belongs,
such as the Blogs or Message Boards.
Maximum Items to Display: You can display 1-100 items.
Pagination Type: Select Simple or Regular. Simple shows previous and
next navigation; regular includes a way of selecting the page to which you'd
like to navigate.
Exclude Assets with 0 Views: If an asset has not been viewed, exclude it
from the list.
Show Available Locales: Since content can be localized, you can have
different versions of it based on locale. This will show the locales available,
enabling the user to view the content in the language of his or her choice.
Enable Conversion To: If you have enabled Liferay Portal's
OpenOffice.org integration, you can allow your users to convert the content
to one of several formats, including PDF.
Below these options are the same ones in the Web Content Display portlet: enable print, enable comments, enable ratings, etc.
Show Metadata: Allows you to select from the available metadata types
(see below).
Illustration 70: Show Metadata
Enable RSS Subscription: This gives users the ability to subscribe to the
content via RSS Feeds.
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The Display Settings section of the Asset Publisher has numerous options
to help you configure how your content selections are displayed to your
users. Even though there are many choices, its easy to go through the options
and quickly adjust the ones that apply to you. You'll want to use the Asset
Publisher to query for mixed assets in the portal that have relevant information for your users.
Summary
This chapter has been your guide to Liferay Web Content Management.
We've seen how pages are created and managed in Liferay communities and
organizations. It is easy to create whole page hierarchies without ever leaving your browser. You can import and export pages using LAR archives, and
these can also be used to transfer a site from one Liferay Portal server to another.
Liferay CMS also includes a powerful staging environment, allowing you
to stage content locally on the same server or remotely to another server.
And when working on pages, you have the ability to use layouts and nested
portlets to design every page to look exactly the way you want it to look.
Whether your site is small and static or large and dynamic, Liferay's WCM
enables you to easily plan and manage it. With tools such as the WYSIWYG
Editor, Structures, and Templates, you can quickly add and edit content. With
the Web Content Display and Asset Publisher, you can rapidly select and
configure what and how your content is displayed. And by using Liferay's
integrated workflow, you can set up custom publishing rules to fit your
organization. You will find that managing your site becomes far easier when
using Liferay's Web Content Management system.
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5. LIFERAY COLLABORATION SUITE
Liferay Portal ships with a robust suite of collaboration applications
which you can use to build communities of users for your site. These applications are best-of-breed applications with all the features you would expect of
standalone versions that are outside a portal. The difference with Liferay's
collaboration suite, however, is that all of the applications share a common
look and feel, security model, and architecture. And they inherit all of the
strengths of being a part of the Liferay development platform, so you can use
them in combination with Liferay's user management and Content Management features to build a well-integrated, feature-rich web site.
This chapter will focus on the use of Liferay's collaboration suite. You
will learn how to set up and administer:
•
Blogs
•
Calendars
•
Chat
•
Mail
•
Message Boards
•
Wikis
You will see how all of these features can work together to provide an
enhanced experience for your users, as well as giving you the tools to help
build a community that keeps coming back.
Liferay Collaboration Suite
Scopes
As we learned earlier, roles can be scoped by the portal, by a community, or by an organization. This means that the role only takes effect for
the scope in which it resides. For example, a Message Boards Administrator
role with complete access to the Message Boards portlet would have different
permissions based on the role's scope. If it's a portal role, members have permission to administer message boards across the portal. If it's a community
role, members have permission to administer message boards only within the
community in which they are members of the role. If it's an organization
role, members have permission to administer message boards only within the
organization in which they are members of the role.
We also use the word scope to refer to the data set of a portlet. When a
portlet is added to a page in a community or organization, it is scoped for that
community or organization. This means that its data belongs to that community or organization. If the portlet is added to a page in a different community or organization, it will have a completely different data set. This is
how the Message Boards portlet can be placed in one community and have
one set of categories and threads, and then be placed in a different community and contain a completely different set of categories and threads.
One limitation of this is that by default, you can have only one Message
Boards portlet per community or organization. If you have one Message
Boards portlet on one page in a community and you add the portlet to another page in the same community, the second Message Boards portlet will contain exactly the same data as the first, and this is because of its scope. It is
scoped for that community. Many of Liferay's portlets work this way.
To get around this, some Liferay portlets can have scopes that go beyond
just the specific community or organization upon which the portlet has been
placed. You can now scope them by page. If you set the scope of a portlet to
be the page instead of the whole community or organization, you can add any
number of these portlets to different pages, and they will have different sets
of data. This allows you to have more than one message board per community or organization if you wish. All portlets, however, default to the “native” configuration, and have their scopes set to the community or organization where they are placed.
Unless otherwise noted, all of the portlets in this chapter support scoping by either the page or the community / organization to which they belong. This gives you much more flexibility in how you want to set up your
portal. By default, however, the scope remains the same as it always has, and
is set to be by the community or organization. If you want to change the
scope, it only takes a few simple steps.
1.
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Click the Menu icon in the portlet window (the wrench).
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2.
Select Configuration.
3.
Select the Scope tab.
4.
Modify the Scope to be the current page.
5.
Click Save.
Illustration 71: Changing the scope for a portlet
That's all it takes to change the scope for a particular portlet instance. By
setting the scope to page, you can add as many of these portlets to a particular community or organization as you want, provided they all are added to
different pages.
Archived Setups
Another useful feature in Liferay's portlets is Archived Setups. This
means that once you configure a portlet, you can save those settings in an
“archive” that the portal will save for you. If someone goes in and changes
the settings of a particular portlet, it then becomes easy to revert those
changes back to the original, archived configuration.
To create an archived setup, click the Configuration option from the
menu in the portlet's title bar. If the current settings of the portlet you are
configuring are the ones you want to archive, click the Archived tab. If not,
change and save the settings until you have the portlet configured the way
you want it, and then click the Archived tab.
There is only one field to fill out: a name for your archive. Create a name
for your archive and click Save. You will now see your archive in the list. If
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for whatever reason you need to revert the portlet to these archived settings,
you can click Actions → Restore next to the archived setup you want to restore.
Unless otherwise noted, all of the portlets in this chapter support this
feature. This is particularly useful for portlets that have a lot of configuration
options, such as the Message Boards portlet.
Permissions
All of Liferay's portlets support Liferay's robust, fine-grained permissions system. Some higher level permissions can be configured here: whether
a role can add the portlet to a page, can configure the portlet, or whether the
role can view the portlet. To set these permissions, go to the Configuration
menu and click on Permissions. This will show you a table of roles defined in
the portal. Select which roles are allowed to see the portlet and which roles
are allowed to configure the portlet, and then click Submit.
Sharing
The web was once thought of as a number of islands of applications in a
vast universe of “cyberspace.” Everybody tried to make their island the
biggest. Some succeeded and some failed. More recently, the concept of the
web as an application itself has taken hold, and so widgets have become very
popular nowadays. This concept is part of the “Web 2.0” concept and is very
much enabled by widgets. So what is a widget? A widget is a small piece of
code which provides a piece of functionality, can be included on any web site,
but does not necessarily have to be hosted by that web site. If you have ever
embedded a YouTube video on your own web site so that users could watch a
video without actually having to visit http://youtube.com, then you have
already used a widget.
Liferay supports serving its portlets as widgets. You can embed a particular instance of a portlet running on your site into another site, such as Facebook. This opens up a whole new avenue of exposure to your web site that
you would not otherwise have had. In fact, this is how all those Facebook
games work.
To share one of your portlets as a widget, go to the Configuration option
in the menu in the portlet's title bar. Then click the Sharing tab. There are
five subtabs under sharing: Any Web Site, Facebook, Google Gadget, Netvibes,
and Friends.
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Any Web Site
Copy and paste the snippet of code into the web site to which you want
to add the portlet as a widget. That's all you need to do. When a user loads
the page on the other web site, the code will pull the relevant portlet from
your site and display it.
Facebook
You can add any Liferay portlet as an application on Facebook. To do
this, you must first get a developer key. A link for doing this is provided to
you in the Facebook tab. You will have to create the application on Facebook
and get the key and canvas page URL from Facebook. Once you have done
this, you can copy and paste their values into the Facebook tab. Your portlet
will now be available on Facebook as a Facebook application.
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Illustration 72: Liferay's forums in Facebook
Google Gadget
iGoogle is service provided by Google that lets users create a customizable page and add Gadgets to that page. Liferay can serve up portlets to be
used as Google Gadgets on an iGoogle page.
Check the box labeled Allow users to add [portlet-name] to iGoogle. Copy and
paste the URL provided into Google's Add a feed or gadget feature on the iGoogle configuration page, and Liferay will serve that portlet directly onto
your iGoogle page. The URL provided is unique to the specific instance of the
portlet, so you could serve multiple instances of the same portlet as different
Google Gadgets.
This feature could be useful to allow users to view what's happening on
your portal at a glance, with asset publishers or custom RSS feeds. You could
also use Liferay's API to build your own portlet and provide the URL for users
to place on their iGoogle pages.
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Netvibes
Netvibes offers a similar service to iGoogle – users can log in, create their
own personal portal, called a dashboard, and add customizable widgets to the
dashboard that they create. To set up Netvibes support for a particular portlet, check the Allow users to add [portlet-name] to Netvibes pages box. You can
then use the provided URL to create a custom Netvibes widget based on the
instance of the portlet that you're using.
Friends
The final sub-tab in the Sharing tab is called Friends. This tab has a single
check box that allows you to give your friends permission to add the application as a widget to another web site. This could be particularly useful for your
blog or your calendar if you wish to share them.
Blogs
The word Blog is an apostrophe-less contraction of the two words web log.
Blogs were first popularized by web sites such as Slashdot (http://slashdot.org) which have the format of a running list of entries to which users
could attach comments. Over time, more and more sites such as Digg, del.icio.us, and Newsvine adopted the format, empowering users to share their
opinions and generating lively discussions.
Over the course of time, blogging sites and applications began to appear,
such as blogger.com, blogspot.com. TypePad, WordPress, and Web Roller.
These applications allow individuals to run their own web sites in the same
format: a running list of short articles to which readers who are registered
with the site can attach threaded comments. People who run a blog are called
bloggers, and sometimes they build a whole community of readers who are interested in their blog posts. Additionally, there are several famous people
who run their own blogs. It gives people an outlet for self-expression which
they would not otherwise have, and the ubiquity and wide reach of the Internet ensures that if you have something important and interesting to say,
somebody will read it.
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Illustration 73: Slashdot, one of the first blogs on the Internet
Liferay Portal has a portlet called the Blogs portlet which allows you to
provide a blogging service to users of your web site. In fact, Liferay extensively uses the Blogs portlet on http://www.liferay.com to provide employees
with blogs of their own. In addition to the Blogs portlet, there is also a Blogs
Aggregator portlet which can take entries from multiple users' blogs and
put them all in one larger list. We will go over how to use both of these portlets to create a blogging site for your users.
The Blogs Portlet
The Blogs portlet is available from the Collaboration section of the Add →
More menu. You will notice that it is an Instanceable portlet, meaning that it
can only be added once to any community or organization. This allows you to
use the Blogs portlet to create a shared blog to build a site like Slashdot or to
create multiple personal blogs to build a site like http://blogger.com. What's
the difference? Adding the Blogs portlet to a Community or Organization page
creates a shared blog for members of the Community or Organization. Adding
the Blogs portlet to a user's personal space creates a blog for just that user.
Either way, the Blogs portlet works the same. And of course, you can change
Illustration 74: Initial view of the Blogs portlet
the Blog portlet's scope to have different blogs on different pages in the same
community.
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By default, the Blogs portlet will display the latest entry in its entirety.
Since we have just added the portlet to a page, we have no entries, so the
portlet will be empty. Before we start adding entries, we'll configure the
portlet so that it displays entries according to our specifications.
Configuring the Blogs Portlet
The Blogs portlet is easy to configure. Click on the Menu icon in the portlet's title bar and select Configuration. Beneath the Setup tab, you will see another row of options.
Email From: Selecting the Email From tab allows you to define the From:
field in the email messages that users receive from the Blogs portlet.
Entry Added Email: This option allows you to enter a subject and body
of the emails sent out when a new Blog entry has been added.
Entry Updated Email: This option allows you to enter a subject and
body of the emails sent out when a new Blog entry has been updated.
Display Settings: Here, you can configure the various display options
for the Blogs portlet.
Illustration 75: Blogs Configuration
The Display Settings tab lets you configure the formatting of the Blogs
portlet. You can choose the most optimal ways to display your entries as well
as configure how you want your users to interact with you as you post those
entries.
Maximum Items to Display: This allows you to choose the total number
of blog entries to display on the initial page. You can choose up to 100 to be
displayed.
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Display Style: Choose between Full Content, the Abstract, or just the
Title. Setting this to Abstract causes Liferay to display only the first 30 words
of your blog entries, with a Read More link at the bottom of each to allow
users to read the whole entry if they wish.
Enable Flags: Allow users to flag content as inappropriate and send an
email to the administrators.
Enable Ratings: Allows you to enable your users to rate your blog
entries from one to five stars.
Enable Comments: Allows readers to comment on your blog entries.
Enable Comment Ratings: Allows readers to rate the comments which
are posted to your blog entries.
Click on the RSS tab to configure the way in which blogs will display to
RSS readers. Here, you can choose how you want your blog entries to be published to feed readers and outside web sites.
Maximum Items to Display: Allows you to determine how many blog
entries will be displayed at once. The default is set to twenty.
Display Style: You can select to display the full content, abstracts, or
title of your blogs.
Format: You can choose which format you want to deliver your blogs:
RSS 1.0, RSS 2.0, or Atom 1.0.
Permissions
Depending on whether this is a personal blog or a shared blog, you may
want to modify the permissions on the blog. By default, the permissions are
set up for a personal blog, so only the owner of the community to which the
portlet has been added will be able to add entries. If you want to share a blog
with multiple users, it is easy to do.
First, create a role for your bloggers and add them to the role. Next, click
the Permissions button on the Blogs portlet. You will now see a list of both
portal and Community / Organization roles, and currently only the owner is
checked. Check off any other role or team that should have the ability to add
blog entries, and then click Save.
Adding Blog Entries
Now you're ready to begin adding blog entries. Click the Add Blog Entry
button. You will see the following data entry screen:
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Illustration 76: Adding a Blog entry
There isn't much difference between this screen and any other data
entry screen within Liferay Portal. You get a title, a way of scheduling when
the entry is to appear, and a rich editor that allows you to format your entry
the way you want, complete with embedded images, videos, and the like.
Note also that as you type, the entry is automatically saved as a draft at
periodic intervals. This gives you peace of mind in using the portlet from
within your browser, since you won't lose your entry in the event of a
browser crash or network interruption. You can also tag your entries using
the same tagging mechanism found everywhere else in the portal.
The Blogs portlet also supports trackbacks and pingbacks. Trackbacks
are special links that let you or another site know if you or if someone else
linked to a blog entry. For example, if you wanted to write an entry in your
blog and reference someone else's entry, you might put the URL to the other
entry in the Trackbacks to Send field. Similarly, if you want others who link
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to your blog to let you know about the link via trackbacks, leave the Allow
Trackbacks box checked. This will generate a URL that is displayed with
your blog entry. Others who want to link to your entry can use this URL for
the link, and every time the link is clicked on, your Liferay-powered site will
know about it and will be able to keep track of the clicks.
Note that trackbacks only work when the protocol is supported by both
the linker and the linkee. For this reason, the Blogs portlet also supports
pingbacks. Pingbacks are XML-RPC requests that are similar to trackbacks
except they are automatically sent when you link to another site. So if you
link to another site in your blog entry, Liferay will send a pingback to that
site to notify that site that you linked to it. Similarly, if someone links to your
blog entry, Liferay can receive a pingback from that person's site and record
the link.
Once you have finished your blog entry, click Publish. You'll go back to
the list of entries, and now your entry is displayed. Here is what it looks like
when the display style is set to Abstract and the number of entries is set to 10:
Illustration 77: First blog entry added
You can see that in the summary view, you don't see the trackback /
pingback link, and you only see the number of comments which have been
added. If you were to click the Read More link, you would see the entirety of
the article, all of the comments in a threaded view, and the trackback / pingback link which others can use to link back to your blog entry.
Additionally, the full view of a blog contains convenient links to add blog
entries to popular aggregating sites such as Digg, del.icio.us, and others. This
gives your readers an easy way to submit your blog entries to these aggregators, potentially driving further traffic to your site.
As you can see, the Blogs portlet is a full-featured blogging application
which gives you and your users the ability to enter the blogosphere with an
application that supports anything a blogger needs.
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Aggregating Blog Entries
You can set up a whole web site devoted just to blogging if you wish. The
Blogs Aggregator portlet allows you to publish entries from multiple bloggers
on one page, giving further visibility to blog entries. This portlet is also very
easy and straightforward to set up. You can add it to a page from the Collaboration category in the Add → More menu in the dock.
If you click Configuration from the menu button in the title bar of the
portlet, you will see the Blogs Aggregator's configuration page. From here,
you can set several configuration options.
Illustration 78: Blogs Aggregator Configuration
Selection Method: You can select Users or Scope here. If you select
Users, the Blogs Aggregator will aggregate the entries of every blogger on
your system. If you want to refine the aggregation, you can select an Organization by which to filter the users. If you select Scope, the Blogs Aggregator
will contain only entries of users who are in the current scope. This will, in
essence, limit the entries to members of the Community or Organization upon
which the Blogs Aggregator portlet resides.
Organization: Allows you to determine which organization's blogs you
want to aggregate.
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Display Style: Just like the Blogs portlet, you can select from several different styles for displaying blog entries.
Maximum Items to Display: Select maximum number of entries the
portlet will display.
Enable RSS Subscription: The aggregated entries can themselves be an
RSS feed. Leave this box selected if you want people to be able to subscribe to
your aggregated blog entries.
Show Tags: This option will display all the tags associated with the blogs.
When you have finished setting the options in the portlet, click Save.
Then click Return to Full Page.
As you will see, the Blogs Aggregator looks very much like the Blogs portlet, except that the entries come from more than one author.
Calendar
Liferay's Calendar portlet is a complete calendaring solution. You can
schedule any number of events of different types, receive alarms via email or
text message, import and export your calendar, and much more. Additionally, you can import and export the calendar to the popular iCalendar format
for use in other applications.
In a similar way to the Blogs portlet, you can use the Calendar portlet as
a shared calendar on a community or organization's web site, or you can use
the Calendar portlet as a personal calendar—or both.
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Illustration 79: The Liferay Calendar Portlet
Configuring the Calendar Portlet
Go to the Configuration option from the menu in the portlet's title bar.
You have three tabs there which allow you to configure three different options: Email From, Event Reminder Email, and Display Settings.
Email From
In this tab, you can set the Name and Email Address that will display in
system generated reminder emails. The address that you enter in the Email
Address field must be properly formatted, but it does not need to be an address that actually exists. This can work well in conjunction with mail rules
in your email client that can operate on these messages. By default, the name
is set to Joe Bloggs and the email address is set to [email protected]
Event Reminder Email
This tab lets you customize the email message that you receive from the
portlet when you have an event for which you have configured a reminder. It
contains the same rich text editor that you see everywhere else in Liferay,
and this allows you to format your message so that you will be able to easily
recognize it. Additionally, there are several variables which allow you to insert runtime values into the message, and these are listed underneath the
text editor so that you can use them in the appropriate place in your template. For example, you might want the event start date and time and the
event title included in the email reminder that you receive. Inserting the
variables that correspond with those values into your template will allow you
to do that.
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Display Settings
Display Settings for the calendar allows you to define which tab in the
calendar is the default when the portlet is first displayed. By default, the
summary tab is displayed, but you may want the daily, weekly, or monthly
view to be the default.
There are additional settings for the summary tab: you can select whether it has a horizontal or vertical layout, select whether it shows a mini
month, select whether it shows today's events, or select to enable comments.
Using the Calendar Portlet
The Calendar portlet generally works the way you would expect a calendar to work. It inherits its interface from the rest of Liferay's portlet library,
so you should find common tasks in the same place that you find them in
other Liferay portlets.
To get started, you may want to click the Permissions button. Here you
can find a list of roles with check boxes denoting whether the role has the
Add Event or the Export All Events permission. By default, only the owner has
permissions to do these things, which means that, by default, the Calendar
portlet is set up to be used in one's personal space. Out of the box, Liferay de faults to putting a Calendar portlet on all users' private pages, so this is expected. If you are going to be using the Calendar as a shared calendar, you
may want to modify some things here.
First, create a portal, community, or organization role and add the users
to whom you wish to grant access to the calendar to the role. Then come
back to the Calendar portlet and click the Permissions button. Check the boxes
next to the role(s) that should have access to one or both of the functions
(Add Event or Export All Events). Then click Submit.
Now you are ready to begin using your calendar. Click the Add Event button. You will see a form that allows you to fill out all the information for your
event.
Start Date/Time: The date and time the event starts.
Duration: How long the event will last.
All Day Event: Check this box to disassociate time from the event and
make it last all day.
Time Zone Sensitive: Leave this box checked to make sure that the
portal keeps track of the event regardless of time zone.
Title: The title of the event.
Description: A description of the event.
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Type: Select from a number of pre-configured event types. You can
change these in the portal-ext.properties file.
Permissions: Determine who can view and edit the event.
Repeat: If the event repeats on a schedule, select the schedule (daily,
weekly, monthly. etc.)
End Date: If the event repeats on a schedule but there is an end to the
set of meetings, enter the end date.
Reminders: Select whether to send a reminder, how long before the
event to send it, and through what medium (email, SMS text message, or instant message) to send it. Note that this feature is integrated with your profile on the portal, so you will need to fill out your mobile phone number and /
or instant messenger IDs in order to use those features.
When you have finished adding your event, click Save.
You can view calendar events by day, week, month, year, or in a simple
list.
Chat
Liferay's Chat portlet gives you a convenient way of allowing your users
to send each other instant messages when they are logged into your web site.
It appears as a bar at the bottom of every page, showing who is logged on,
their statuses, and any chats the logged-in user has had open.
Illustration 80: Liferay's Chat Portlet
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The Chat portlet is very simple to use. To change the settings, click Settings (found near the lower right corner next to Online Friends). Here you can
set your status, whether to show if you are online, and whether to play a
sound if someone sends you a message while you have the window or tab in
the background.
The portlet shows you the number of your friends who are online. To
chat with one of them, click the Online Friends link and then click the friend's
name. You can then begin chatting with him or her. You can have multiple
chats open at a time, and even have one or more of them minimized.
The Chat portlet is distributed with the Liferay bundles, but is not included as part of the .war distribution, as it is a separate plugin. If you installed the Liferay .war manually on your application server, you can install
the Chat portlet by going to the Control Panel, clicking Plugins Installation,
and then clicking the Install More Portlets button. Find the Chat portlet in the
list, click on it, and then click Install.
Mail
Liferay's Mail portlet enables your users to interact with their email using an easy to use, ubiquitous web interface. If your mail system supports the
IMAP protocol, you can use the Mail portlet to integrate your users' mail with
the rest of your web site. You can also connect the Mail portlet to a mail account provided by Google.
The Mail portlet is distributed with the Liferay bundles, but is not included as part of the .war distribution, as it is a separate plugin. If you installed the Liferay .war manually on your application server, you can install
the Mail portlet by going to the Control Panel, clicking Plugins Installation,
and then clicking the Install More Portlets button. Find the Mail portlet in the
list, click on it, and then click Install.
Illustration 81: Liferay Mail portlet
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To connect the Mail portlet with an email account, click the Add a New
Email Account link. From there, you are given a choice between a Custom
email Account or a Gmail Account. Choose the option that you wish, and fill
out the form that appears.
For a Gmail account, all you need to do is provide your email address and
your password, and the portlet will take care of the rest.
For a Custom Mail Account, the following fields are necessary:
Address: The email address which receives mail for this account.
Login: The user name for logging into the account.
Password: The password for logging into the account.
Incoming Settings: The host name for your IMAP (Internet Mail Access
Protocol) or POP server.
Incoming Port: The port upon which the IMAP or POP service is running.
Use Secure Incoming Connection: Check this box to use an encrypted
connection to the server, if your server supports it.
Outgoing SMTP Server: The host name of your SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol) server.
Outgoing Port: The port upon which the SMTP service is running.
Use Secure Outgoing Connection: Check this box to use an encrypted
connection to the server, if your server supports it.
When finished, click Save. Your new email account now appears as a tab
at the top of the page along with the button for adding a mail account. In this
way, you can add as many mail accounts as you want in order to view them in
the portlet.
If you click the tab for the mail account you just configured, you will be
brought to an interface which allows you to read your mail and compose new
messages. To read a message, click on it. To compose a new message, click the
Compose Email link on the left side of the portlet. You will be brought to a
form which allows you to compose an email message using the same rich text
editor that appears everywhere else in Liferay. You can read, reply, and create messages, as well as manage all of your folders in Liferay's Mail portlet.
The Mail portlet is a great way to integrate a familiar service with other
collaboration features that Liferay provides.
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Message Boards
Liferay's message boards are one of the most widely used applications
provided by the product. The application is a state of the art forum application similar to many forums in which you may have participated. The difference, of course, is that Liferay's message boards can inherit the abilities of
the Liferay development platform to provide an integrated experience that
others cannot match.
There are countless web sites out there where it is clearly evident that
there is no link whatsoever between the main site and the message boards. In
some cases, users are even required to register twice: once for the main site
and once for the message boards. Sometimes it is three times: for the site, for
the message boards, and for the shopping cart. By providing a message
boards portlet along with all of the other applications, Liferay can provide a
unique, integrated approach to building your web site. All of the integration
work is done for you, and you can concentrate on building out the site that
you want to build.
The Message Boards portlet has a lot of configuration options, but they
are straightforward to use and are the reason why this portlet is a full-featured forum application for your web site. To get started, add a Message
Boards portlet to your site. Once it is added, click the Menu icon in the portlet's title bar and click Configuration. There are two rows of tabs. The first tab
in the top row is titled simply, Setup. This is where you can configure the application the way you want it to behave on your site.
General
The first tab beneath Setup is labeled General. Here, you can enable anonymous posting, flags and ratings. All three options are selected by default.
Anonymous posting lets those without an account on the system post
messages to your message boards. You may or may not want to do this, depending on the type of community you are building. Allowing anonymous
posting opens your site to anyone who might want to spam your forums with
unwanted or off topic advertising messages. For this reason, most of those
who implement message boards turn anonymous posting off by unchecking
this box.
Flags allow your users to flag content which they consider to be objectionable. If you are allowing anonymous posting, you might use flags in combination with it if you have someone administering your message boards on a
day-to-day basis. That way, any unwanted messages can be flagged by your
community, and you can review those flagged messages and take whatever
action is necessary. Using flags is also a good practice even if you're not allowing anonymous posting.
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Ratings enable your users to give certain posts a score. This score is used
by Liferay Portal's social equity system to rank your community members by
how helpful their contributions are. You can read more about social equity
later in this chapter.
Email From
This tab allows you to configure the email address that messages from
the Message Boards portlet come from. By default, the name is Joe Bloggs and
the email address is [email protected]
Message Added Email
This tab allows you to customize the email message that users receive
when a message is added to a topic to which they are subscribed.
Enabled: Uncheck the box to disable the message added email.
Subject Prefix: Enter a prefix that will be prepended to the subject line
of the email. This is usually done so that users can set up message filters to
filter the notifications to a specific folder in their email clients.
Body: Enter anything here that should appear in the body of the email.
Signature: Enter anything here that should appear as part of the signature of the email.
Below the fields is a section called Definition of Terms which defines
certain variables which you can use in the fields above to customize the email
message. Some of these variables are for the message board category name,
the community name, and more.
Message Updated Email
The Message Updated Email tab is identical to the Message Added Email
tab, except it defines the email message that users receive whenever a topic
is updated.
Thread Priorities
You can define custom priorities for message threads. These allow administrators to tag certain threads with certain priorities in order to highlight them for users. By default, three priorities are defined: Urgent, Sticky,
and Announcement. To define a thread priority, enter its name, a URL to the
image icon that represents it, and a priority number which denotes the order
in which that priority should appear.
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There is also a field on this form that allows you to select a localized language for your priorities. If you need to do this, you can select the language
from the selection box.
User Ranks
Users can be ranked according to the number of messages they have posted. You can set up custom ranks here. Defaults have been provided for you,
going from zero messages all the way up to 1000.
In addition to ranks, you can also select who is a “moderator” by what
roles are held. Defaults are there for you which show you how to do this.
Moderator=community-role:Message Boards Administrator
Moderator=organization:Message Boards Administrator
Moderator=organization-role:Message Boards Administrator
Moderator=regular-role:Message Boards Administrator
Moderator=user-group:Message Boards Administrator
As you can see, all you need to do is set the rank, the collection type, and
the name of the type. In the example above, anyone who has a Community
Role, an Organization Role, a regular Role, or is in a user group called Message
Boards Administrator, or anyone who is the Organization Owner gets the Moderator rank.
As with thread priorities, on this tab you can define whether your ranks
are localized in a particular language.
RSS
Message board threads can be published as RSS feeds. This tab allows you
to define how the feeds are generated.
Maximum Items to Display: Select the number of items to display in the
feed.
Display Style: Select the style. You can publish the full content, an abstract, or just the title of a thread.
Format: Choose the format among RSS 1.0, RSS 2.0, or Atom 1.0 formats.
Permissions
The default page that the Message Boards portlet displays has three buttons on it. Click the one labeled Permissions. This allows you to define which
roles have the ability to add a category of threads or to ban abusive users
from the message boards. Select the roles and permissions you want to configure and then click Submit.
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Adding Categories and Mailing Lists
You are now ready to add categories to your message boards. Click the
Add Category button. You may merge with a Parent Category by enabling the
Merge with Parent Category check box and clicking the Select button. Enter a
name for the category and a description of the category. At the bottom of the
form is a check box which allows you to enable the mailing list function.
The mailing list function works in concert with the message notification
emails. If a user subscribes to a message board category, he or she will get
emails when someone posts messages to that category. Enabling the mailing
list function allows those users to simply reply to the notification messages
in their email clients, and those replies will be posted to the thread automatically.
To enable this functionality, you will need a mail account for the category. Once you click the check box, a number of other options will appear.
Email Address: Enter the email address of the account that will receive
the messages.
Next, there are two sections: Incoming and Outgoing. These define the
mail settings for receiving mail and for sending mail. The Incoming tab has
the following options:
Protocol: Select POP or IMAP.
Server Name: Enter the host name of the mail server you are using.
Server Port: Enter the port on which your mail service is running.
Use a Secure Network Connection: Check this box to use an encrypted
connection if your server supports it.
User Name: The login name on the mail server.
Password: The password for the account on the server.
Read Interval (Minutes): Liferay will poll the server at this interval
looking for new messages to post.
The Outgoing section has the following options:
Email Address: Enter the email address that messages from this category should come from. If you want your users to be able to reply to the categories using email, this should be the same address configured on the Incoming tab.
Use Custom Outgoing Server: If you need to use a different mail server
than the one that is configured for the portal, check this box. If you check the
box, a number of other options will appear.
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Server Name: Enter the host name of the SMTP mail server you are using.
Server Port: Enter the port on which your mail service is running.
Use a Secure Network Connection: Check this box to use an encrypted
connection if your server supports it.
User Name: Enter the login name on the mail server.
Password: Enter the password for the account on the mail server.
When finished adding your category, click Save. Add as many categories
to your message boards as you wish.
Note that categories can have subcategories. You can add a number of
top-level categories and then click on each one and add categories under
that, to an unlimited level. For usability reasons, you don't want to nest your
categories too deep, or your users will have trouble finding them. You can always add more categories as your message boards grow.
Using the Message Boards
Upon seeing Liferay's Message Boards portlet, your users will immediately recognize that the interface is similar to many other implementations
they've seen before. Message boards are nothing new to the Internet, and
many people have been using them for quite a long time. For that reason,
Liferay's message boards will seem very familiar to your users.
Threads can be viewed in many ways. At the top of the portlet is a set of
tabs: Recent posts, My Posts, My Subscriptions, and for administrative users,
Statistics and Banned Users. The Recent Posts tab shows all posts from all categories by date, so you can keep up on all the most recent discussions in the
message boards. The My Posts tab shows all of the posts for the user that is
currently logged in. This is a convenient way to get back to a previous conversation in order to retrieve some pertinent information. The My Subscriptions tab allows a user to manage thread subscriptions. If you lose interest in
a particular topic, you may want to visit this tab and unsubscribe from a
thread.
For administrators, the Statistics tab shows the number of categories, the
number of posts, and the number of participants in your message boards. It
also has a list of who the top posters to your message boards are. The Banned
Users tab shows all of the users who have been banned from posting on the
message boards.
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Posting New Threads
To post a new thread simply select the Post New Thread button. You will
see a message editing form. The body field on this form is different from that
of the other portlets in Liferay. The reason for this is to support BBCode,
which is a standard form of markup used in many message board products.
Before BBCode was invented, many message board products would allow
users to enter HTML to format their messages. This, however, enabled attackers to insert malicious code into the message board. BBCode was invented to
provide users a way of formatting their messages without allowing them to
enter HTML. Similarly, Liferay supports BBCode in the message boards portlet because the other editor—which is used for the Content Management System, the Blogs portlet, and other portlets—produces HTML. This is appropriate for those other portlets, as they are only used by privileged users, but it is
not appropriate for the message boards. Besides this, many users of message
boards are familiar with BBCode and are used to it, and the editor that is
provided for Liferay's Message Boards portlet makes it very easy to use.
Illustration 82: Editing a message boards post. You can see the emoticons that are available in the editor.
Users who have Moderator access to the board can modify the priority of
messages. You can also use the editor to quote from messages that you are
replying to, to insert emoticons, to add preformatted text, and more.
Messages that are posted to the message boards are shown by default in
a threaded view so that replies are attached to the proper parent message.
This makes it easy to follow along with conversations.
When viewing a message board thread, users are given several options.
At the top right of the thread are three icons, allowing users to view threads
in a flat view, in a tree view, or in a combination view. A flat view shows all of
the messages in the order in which they are posted. A tree view shows all of
the messages in a threaded view, so that replies are next to the messages
they are replying to. A combination view shows the threads at the top as subjects only, with the flat view underneath.
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When viewing a thread, users can click links allowing them to post a new
thread, subscribe to the thread they are viewing, or if they have administrative access, lock a thread or move a thread to another category. Subscribing to
a thread causes Liferay to send the user an email whenever a new message is
posted to the thread. If you have enabled the mailing list feature for the category in which the thread resides, users can simply reply to these messages
in order to post back to the thread, without having to visit your site.
The Message Boards portlet is also highly integrated with Liferay's user
management features. Posts on the message board show users' pictures if
they have uploaded one for themselves, as well as the dates that users created an ID on your site.
Message Board Administrative Functions
The Message Boards portlet provides for the day to day administration of
the message threads. You may wish to separate this function out by a role,
and then delegate that role to one or more of your users. That would free you
up to concentrate on other areas of your web site. To do this, you can create a
role called Message Board Administrator. This role can be scoped by the
portal, an organization, or a community. If you have a portal scoped role,
members of this role will be able to administer any Message Boards portlet in
the portal. If it is a community or organization scoped role, members of this
role will be able to administer a Message Boards portlet in only the community or organization in which they have the role.
Go to the Control Panel and create this role. Once it is created, click Actions → Define Permissions. Click the Portlet Permissions button. Browse the list
until you find the Message Boards portlet and then click on it. You will then
see a screen which allows you to configure the various permissions on the
portlet.
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Illustration 83: Configuring Message Board Administrators role
Grant the permissions you wish message board administrators to have
and then click Save. You can then add users to this role and they will inherit
the permissions.
Message Board administrators can perform all of the functions we have
already presented, including creating and deleting categories and posting
threads. In addition to these, a number of other functions are available.
Moving Threads
Many times a user will post a thread in the wrong category. Administrators may in this case want to move a thread to the proper category. This is
very easy to do. You can select the Action menu to the right of the thread and
then select Move Thread. Or, if you are already viewing the thread and you
have administrative access, there is a link at the top of the thread labeled
Move Thread. Click this link. You will be presented with a simple form which
allows you to select a category to which to move the thread and a check box
which allows you to post a message explaining why the thread was moved.
This message will be posted as a reply to the thread you are moving. When
finished, click the Move Thread button and the thread will be moved.
Deleting Threads
Users with administrative access to the message boards can delete
threads. Sometimes users begin discussing topics that are inappropriate or
which reveal information which should not be revealed. In this case, you can
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simply delete the thread from the message boards. This is easy to do. First,
view the list of threads. Next to every thread is an Actions button. Click Actions → Delete to delete the thread. This does not prevent users from re-posting the information, so you may need to be vigilant in deleting threads or
consider the next option.
Banning Users
Unfortunately, sometimes certain users can become abusive. If you wind
up with a user like this, you can certainly make attempts to warn him or her
that the behavior he or she is displaying is unacceptable. If this does not
work, you can ban the user from posting on the message boards.
Again, this is very easy to do. Find any post which was written by the ab usive user. Underneath the user's name / profile picture is a link called Ban
this User. Click this link to ban the user from the message boards.
If after taking this action the user apologizes and agrees to stop his or
her abusive behavior, you can choose to reinstate the user. To do this, click
the Banned Users tab at the top of the Message Boards portlet. This will show a
list of all banned users. Find the user in the list and click the Unban this User
link.
Splitting Threads
Sometimes a thread will go on for a while and the discussion completely
changes into something else. In this case, you can split the thread where the
discussion diverges and create a whole new thread for the new topic. Administrative users will see a Split Thread link on each post. To split the thread,
click the link. You will be brought to a form which allows you to add an explanation post to the split thread. Click Ok to split the thread.
Editing Posts
Administrative users can edit not only their own posts, but also everyone
else's. Sometimes users will post links to copyrighted material or unsuitable
pictures. You can edit these posts, which allows you to redact information
that should not be posted or to censor profanity that is not allowed on your
message boards.
Permissions
Permissions can be set not only on threads, but also on individual posts.
You can choose to limit a particular conversation or a post to only a select
group of people. To do this, click the Permissions link on the post and then select among the Delete, Permissions, Subscribe, Update, and View permissions for
the particular role to which you want to grant particular access.
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This function can be used to make it so some privileged users can post on
a certain thread, but others are allowed to view it, or any combination of the
above permissions.
Wikis
Liferay's Wiki portlet, like the Message Boards portlet, is a full-featured
wiki application which has all of the features you would expect in a state of
the art wiki. Again, though, it has the benefit of being able to take advantage
of all of the features of the Liferay platform. As such, it is completely integrated with Liferay's user management, tagging, and security features.
So what is a wiki? Put simply, a wiki is an application which allows users
to collaborate on information. This, of course, has many applications—the
most famous of which is Wikipedia, which is a full encyclopedia developed
collaboratively by users from all over the world, using a wiki. Another example would be Liferay's wiki, which is used for collaborative documentation
for the Standard Edition of the product.
A wiki application allows users to create and edit documents and link
them to each other. To accomplish this, a special form of markup is used
which is sometimes called wikitext. Unfortunately, the proliferation of many
different wiki applications resulted in slightly different syntax for wikitext in
the various products, as each new wiki tried to focus on new features that
other wikis did not have. For that reason, a project called WikiCreole was
started. This project resulted in the release of WikiCreole 1.0 in 2007, which is
an attempt to define a standard wiki markup that all wikis can support.
Rather than define another wikitext syntax, Liferay's Wiki portlet supports WikiCreole as its syntax. This syntax is a best-of-breed wiki syntax and
should be familiar to users of other wikis. The portlet provides a handy cheat
sheet for the syntax on the page editing form, with a link to the full documentation if you wish to use some of WikiCreole's advanced features.
Getting Started with the Liferay Wiki
The Wiki portlet works just like the other portlets developed by Liferay.
Add the portlet to a page using the Add → More menu and then click Configuration in the portlet menu in the Wiki portlet's title bar. You'll see some op-
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tions are likely to be familiar to you by now such as sharing the application
with websites, Facebook, Google Gadgets, etc.
You will also notice that the Communication tab has some additional options not seen in the other portlets.
Illustration 84: Communication tab of Wiki portlet
The Communication tab allows you to configure communication across
portlets, using predefined public render parameters. From here you can
modify four public render parameters: nodeId, title, categoryId and tag.
For each parameter you can select:
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•
Ignore the values for this parameter that come from other portlets.
For example, the wiki portlet can be used along with the Tags Navigation portlet. When a user clicks on a tag in the Tags Navigation
portlet, the wiki it shows the list of pages with that tag. In some
cases an administrator may want the wiki portlet to always show the
front page independently of any tag navigation done through other
portlets. This can be achieved by checking the ignore check box so
that the values of the parameter coming from those other portlets
are ignored.
•
Read the value of a parameter from another portlet. This is an advanced but very powerful option that allows portlets to communicate without configuring it beforehand. For example, imagine that the
wiki portlet is used to publish information about certain countries.
Another custom portlet that allows browsing countries for administrative reasons was written and placed on the same page. That
second portlet has a public render parameter called country with the
name of the country. Using this procedure, we can cause the wiki to
show the information from the country being browsed through the
other portlet. You can do this here for the wiki by setting the value
for the title parameter to be read from the country parameter of the
other portlet.
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Once you have set the options the way you want them, click Save.
Managing Wikis
The Wiki portlet can contain many wikis. By default, it contains only one,
called Main. To manage Wikis, navigate to the Control Panel and select the
Wiki tab. You will then be brought to a screen that allows you to add, modify,
and delete wikis. You will see that the Main wiki has already been added for
you.
At the top of this screen is a Permissions button. Clicking this allows you
to define what roles have access to create wikis. If you have created a specific
role for creating wikis, you can click the box in the Add Node column and then
click Submit, and that role will have access to create new wikis in this portlet.
Clicking the Add Wiki button brings you to a screen which allows you to
give the wiki a name and a description. You can also set up some default permissions. When you create a new wiki, it will appear in a list at the top of the
main page of the portlet.
Next to each wiki in the list of wiki nodes is an Actions button. This button contains several options:
Edit: Lets you edit the name and description of the wiki.
Permissions: Lets you define what roles can add attachments to wiki
pages, add pages to the wiki, delete pages, import pages to the wiki, set permissions on the wiki, subscribe to the wiki, update existing pages, and view
the wiki.
Import Pages: You can import your data from other wikis. This allows
you to migrate off of another wiki which you may be using and use the
Liferay wiki instead. You may wish to do this if you are migrating your site
from a set of disparate applications (i.e. a separate forum, a separate wiki, a
separate content management system) to Liferay, which provides all of these
features.
Currently, MediaWiki is the only wiki that is supported, but others are
likely to be supported in the future.
Subscribe: A user can subscribe to a wiki node, and any time a page is
added or updated Liferay will send an email to the user informing him or her
what happened.
Delete: Deletes the wiki node.
To go back to your wiki, click on its name in the list of wikis.
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Note that there is also a wrench icon leading to a configuration menu on
this portlet in the control panel. This contains several other options which
you may have seen on other portlets.
Email From, Page Added Email, and Page Updated Email are similar to
the notification email settings for other portlets, allowing you to customize
who wiki emails come from and the format and text of the email that is sent
when a page is added or updated.
The Display Settings tab gives you several options for how the wiki should
be displayed. Enable Page Ratings, Enable Comments, and Enable Comment Ratings are similar to the same options in other portlets. They give
you the ability to set how you want users to interact with wiki documents: a
little, a lot, or not at all.
Below this, you can set which wikis are visible in the Wiki portlet by default and which are hidden. You might host two wikis in any given community, exposing one to the public and keeping one of them private for community members.
Finally, the Wiki portlet also supports RSS feeds as the other collaboration portlets do, and you can configure its options here.
Adding and Editing Wiki Pages
By default, there is one page added to your wiki, called FrontPage. To get
started adding data to your wiki, click the Edit link at the top right of the
portlet. You will be brought to a blank editing page.
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Illustration 85: Editing the default page in the wiki portlet
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You can now begin to add content to the page. Notice that there is a very
convenient “cheat sheet” which can help with the wiki syntax. You can use
this syntax to format your wiki pages. Consider for example the following
wiki document:
== Welcome to Our Wiki! ==
This is our new wiki, which should allow us to collaborate on documentation.
Feel free to add pages showing people how to do stuff. Below are links to
some sections that have already been added.
[[Introduction ]]
[[Getting Started]]
[[Configuration]]
[[Development]]
[[Support]]
[[Community]]
This would produce the following wiki page:
Illustration 86: Wiki text added to front page
This adds a simple heading, a paragraph of text, and several links to the
page. Notice that the links are red, instead of the normal blue color in the default Liferay theme. This indicates that the page behind that link does not yet
exist, and therefore needs to be created. If you click one of those links, you
will be brought immediately to the editing screen you were on previously
when you edited the front page, except this time you will be creating the
page behind the link you just clicked. Liferay will display a notice at the top
of the page stating that the page does not exist yet, and that you are creating
it right now. As you can see, it is very easy to create wiki pages. All you have
to do is create a link from an existing page.
Note that at the top of the screen you can select from the Creole wiki
format and the HTML editor that comes with Liferay. We recommend that
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you stick with the Creole format, as it allows for a much cleaner separation of
content and code. If you want all of your users to use the Creole format, you
can disable the HTML format using the portal-ext.properties file. See the
next chapter for further information on how to configure this.
At the bottom of the page editing screen, you can select Categories for the
article. Categories are a hierarchical list of headings under which you can
create wiki pages. This allows you to organize your content in a more formal
fashion. You can create categories using the Control Panel, in the Tags and
Categories section.
Page Details
When viewing a page, you can view its details by clicking the Details link
which appears in the top right of the page. This allows you to view many properties of the page. There are several tabs which organize all of the details into
convenient categories.
Details
The Details tab shows various statistics about the page, and also contains
a few actions that you can perform on the page.
Title: Displays the title of the page.
Format: Displays the format for the page—either Creole or HTML.
Latest Version: Displays the latest version of the page. The wiki portlet
automatically keeps track of page versions whenever a page has been edited.
Created By: Displays the user who created the page.
Last Changed By: Displays the user who last modified the page.
Attachments: Displays the number of attachments to the page.
RSS Subscription: Displays links which allow you to subscribe to the
page as an RSS feed in three formats: RSS 1.0, RSS 2.0, and Atom 1.0.
Email Subscription: Contains links allowing you to subscribe to the entire wiki or just to this page.
Advanced Actions: Contains links allowing you to modify the permissions on the page, make a copy of the page, move (rename) the page, or delete the page.
History
This tab shows a list of all of the versions of the wiki page since it was
created. You can revert a page back to a previous state and you can also com210
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pare the differences between versions by selecting the versions and then
clicking the Compare Versions button.
Incoming / Outgoing Links
The next two tabs are for incoming and outgoing links. These are wiki
links to and from the page. You can use this tab to examine how this page
links to other pages and how other pages link back to this page.
Attachments
The last tab is for attachments. You can attach any file to the wiki. This is
mostly used to attach images to wiki articles which can then be referenced in
the text. Referencing them using the proper WikiCreole syntax renders the
image inline, which is a nice way to include illustrations in your wiki documents.
Navigating in the Wiki Portlet
At the top of the portlet is a list of links which allow you to navigate
around the wiki. Next to the Manage Wikis button is a list of wikis that are
currently created in the portlet. Simply click on the wiki's name to begin
browsing that wiki. After this is a set of navigation links:
FrontPage: Takes you to the main page of the main wiki.
Recent Changes: Takes you to a page which shows all of the recently updated pages.
All Pages: Takes you to a flat, alphabetical list of all pages currently
stored in the wiki.
Orphan Pages: This link takes you to a list of pages that have no links to
them. This can happen if you take a link out of a wiki page in an edit without
realizing it's the only link to a certain page. This area allows you to review
wiki pages that are orphaned in this way so that you can re-link to them or
delete them from the wiki if they are no longer relevant.
Search: Enter a term here and click the Search button to search for items
in the wiki. If the search term is not found, a link will be displayed which allows you to create a new wiki page on the topic for which you searched. In
general, categories start of with broad terms and eventually
Tags
Tags are an important tool that you can use to help organize information
on your portal and make it easier for your users to find content that they're
looking for. Tags are words or phrases that you can attach to any content on
Tags
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the website. Tagging content will make your search results more accurate,
and enable you to use tools like the Asset Publisher to display content in an
organized fashion on a web page. There are two ways to create tags: you can
do it through the administrative console in the control panel, or on the fly as
content is created.
To create tags in the control panel,
select the community that you want to
create tags for, and select Tags. From
this screen, you will be able to view
any existing tags and make new ones.
To create a new tag, simply click Add
Tag. You then be asked for the name of
the tag, and you'll also have the ability
to set permissions for viewing or managing the tag.
Illustration 87: The Add Tag dialog
From the Tags screen on the control panel, you can also edit existing tags. You can change the tag name,
change the tag's permissions, delete the tag, or add Properties. Properties are
essentially tags for your tags; you can use them to add additional information
about your tags.
Categories
Categories are similar in concept to tags, but are designed with the administrator in mind, not the end user. Hierarchies of categories can be created, and categories can be grouped together in Vocabularies. Where tags represent an ad hoc method for users to group content together, categories exist
to allow administrators to organize content in a more official, hierarchical
structure. As has been said in Chapter 3, think of tags like the index to a book
and categories like the table of contents. Both serve the same purpose: to
help the user find the information he or she seeks.
Adding vocabularies and categories is similar to adding tags. Once you've
selected the community or organization you want to work on, select Categories from the content section of the control panel, and you will be presented
with the categories administration screen.
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Illustration 88: Categories administration
Clicking on a vocabulary on the left will display any categories that have
been created under that vocabulary. You can create new vocabularies simply
by clicking Add Vocabulary and providing a name for it. You can create categories in a similar fashion by choosing a vocabulary on the left, and then selecting Add Category. Like tags, you can also provide properties for categories.
Once you have created some vocabularies and categories, you can take
advantage of the full capabilities of categories by creating a nested hierarchy
of categories. To nest categories, select what you want to be the parent category, then drag any category that you want to become a child category onto
it. You will see a plus sign appear next to the name of the category you are
dragging if you can add it to the selected parent category; if you see a red x
that means that you cannot add that category as a subcategory of parent category that you have selected.
Illustration 89: Adding a subcategory
Once you have created a hierarchy of categories, your content creators
will have them available to apply to content that they create. Under the Categorization section of the content creation screen, click the button labeled Select under the Categories heading. A dialog will appear with your vocabularies
Categories
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and categories. Select any relevant categories by checking the box next to
them, and they will be applied to the content.
Social Equity
When you have a lot of user interaction on your web site, sometimes it is
helpful to try to separate the signal from the noise. Liferay contains a lot of
applications which end users can make use of to communicate with each other and provide information. Some of this information is good and helpful and
some of it can be rather unhelpful. In order to better show which users are
making real, valuable contributions, Liferay is introducing the new Social
Equity system with Liferay 6.
Social Equity enables you to assign values and weight for each contribution that a user makes. Points are given to users for Information, and Participation. This way, a user who writes several blogs and wiki articles can be
shown as having a higher rank than a user who has only written comments
Illustration 90: The Social Equity control panel
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and message board replies. The purpose of this is to better indicate which
users on a web site are knowledgeable contributors, and to reward those
users.
Currently Social Equity is available for the Blogs, Message Boards, and
Wiki applications. Each category contains a rating for Information Value, Information Lifespan, Daily Limit, Participation Value, Participation Lifespan, and
Daily Limit.
Information Value: Indicates how many points a user receives for the
information content of a specific action.
Information Lifespan: Indicates, in number of days, how long it will be
before the information points expire. Setting it to 0 means that they will never expire.
Daily Limit: This is the maximum number of actions of this type that a
user will receive information points for in a given day.
Participation Value: Indicates how many points a user receives for the
participating in the content creation of the website.
Participation Lifespan: Indicates, in number of days, how long it will be
before the participation points expire. Setting it to 0 means that they will
never expire.
Daily Limit: This is the maximum number of actions of this type that a
user will receive participation points for in a given day.
The actions available that you can provide credit for are wide ranging.
Users can receive credit for everything from writing wiki pages to simply
viewing content. You can also easily tweak these numbers in the control panel if it becomes clear that certain activities are weighted too high or too low.
If you have a portal that is heavily driven by community created content,
Social Equity is an invaluable tool to recognize users who are major contributors, as well as to indicate to new users whose advice is going to be the most
sound and helpful. It's easy to set up, and can be configured differently for
each community and organization on your portal, giving you increased flexibility across your web site as a whole.
Summary
We have together explored many of the portlets in Liferay's collaboration suite. You have seen how you can configure all of the portlets in a similar fashion using a unified user interface. After this, we went over all of the
portlets in succession.
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The Blogs and Blogs Aggregation portlets can be used to manage shared
blogs or blogs belonging to a group of people at once. These portlets have all
the features you would want in a blog, including rich text editing, links to
news aggregators, tags, RSS feeds, and more.
The Calendar portlet likewise can be used to manage a shared calendar
or a group calendar. It includes features for events, event notification, repeatable events, and import and export to and from the standard iCalendar
format.
Integrating mail with your portal is easy with the Mail portlet. You can
add as many custom or Gmail mail accounts as you wish, and this portlet can
keep them all organized in one place, together with the rest of the things
Liferay is aggregating for you.
Discussion becomes easy with Liferay's Message Boards portlet. This
portlet can be used to manage heavily trafficked discussion forums with ease.
It inherits all of the security features of the Liferay platform and includes administrative functions for thread priorities, moving threads, nested discussion categories, banning users, and more.
Liferay's Wiki portlet is a state of the art wiki application that users can
make use of to collaborate on web pages. Again, it inherits the strengths of
the Liferay platform in the form of security, interface, and search. You can
use the wiki portlet to manage several wiki nodes or use many wiki portlets
to manage one node each.
Tying all of these applications together are tags and categories. Tags can
be added to any content by end users, and hierarchies of categories can be
added to the system by administrators to be applied to content anywhere in
the portal. These help your users to find the content that is most relevant to
them, empowering the search to be as accurate as possible.
Liferay's collaboration platform is a full suite of integrated applications
that empower users to work together. You can use them to great effect to enhance your web site and to build a vibrant, active community.
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6. ADVANCED LIFERAY
CONFIGURATION
Liferay is configured by a combination of settings which are stored in the
database (configured by the use of the Control Panel) and settings which are
stored in properties (text) files. These files can be modified to change
Liferay's behavior in certain ways. There are a large number of configuration
options that can be set, and so this chapter will have a wide-ranging set of
topics. We will first go over the main configuration file, which is stored in the
Liferay Home directory, and is called portal-ext.properties.
There are also some other settings that you may want to further customize. They include changing certain out-of-box defaults, security configuration, adding features to Liferay through plugin management, and accessing
Liferay's web services. We will examine specifically these topics:
•
Advanced Liferay Configuration: This includes the customization of
the portal-ext.properties file.
•
Plugin Management: You will learn how to install Plugins (portlets
and themes) from Liferay's Official Repository and Liferay's
Community Repository, as well as how to create your own plugin repository.
•
Liferay SOA: Accessing Liferay services remotely, from outside
the portal, will be discussed, as well as how to configure the security settings for these services.
Advanced Liferay Configuration
The portal-ext.properties File
Liferay's properties files differ from the configuration files of most other
products in that changing the default configuration file is discouraged. In
fact, the file that contains all of the defaults is stored inside of a .jar file, making it more difficult to customize. Why is it set up this way? Because Liferay
uses the concept of overriding the defaults in a separate file, rather than going in and customizing the default configuration file. You put just the settings you want to customize in your own configuration file, and then the configuration file for your portal is uncluttered and contains only the settings
you need. This makes it far easier to determine whether a particular setting
has been customized, and it makes the settings more portable across different installations of Liferay.
The default configuration file is called portal.properties, and it resides
inside of the portal-impl.jar file. This .jar file is located in Liferay Portal's
WEB-INF/lib folder. The file which is used to override the configuration is
portal-ext.properties. This file can be created in your Liferay Home folder
(please see Chapter 2: Initial Setup for the location of this folder for your application server). By default, the file does not exist at all, unless you are running an older version of Liferay. What follows is a brief description of the options that can be placed there, thus overriding the defaults from the
portal.properties file. These are presented in a logical order, not an alphabetical one, as many properties relate to other properties in the system.
Properties Override
This property specifies where to get the overridden properties. By default, it is portal-ext.properties. Updates should not be made on the original file (portal.properties) but on the overridden version of this file. Furthermore, each portal instance can have its own overridden property file following the convention portal-companyid.properties.
For example, one read order may be: portal.properties,
ext.properties, and then portal-test.properties.
then
portal-
Examples:
include-and-override=portal-ext.properties
include-and-override=${liferay.home}/portal-ext.properties
You can add additional property files that overwrite the default values
by using the external-properties system property.
A common use case is to keep legacy property values when upgrading to
newer versions of Liferay. For example:
java ... -Dexternal-properties=portal-legacy-5.1.properties
include-and-override=${external-properties}
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Liferay Home
Specify the Liferay home directory.
liferay.home=${resource.repositories.root}
This property is available for backwards compatibility. Please set the
property liferay.home instead.
resource.repositories.root=${default.liferay.home}
Portal Context
This specifies the path of the portal servlet context. This is needed because javax.servlet.ServletContext does not have access to the context
path until Java EE 5.
Set this property if you deploy the portal to another path besides root.
Examples:
portal.ctx=/
portal.ctx=/portal
Resource Repositories Root
Specifies the default root path for various repository and resource paths.
Under this path several directories will be created for the hot deploy feature,
JCR, etc.
Examples:
resource.repositories.root=${user.home}/liferay
resource.repositories.root=/home/liferay
Technology Compatibility Kit
Set the following to true to enable programmatic configuration to let the
Portlet TCK obtain a URL for each test. This should never be set to true unless
you are running the TCK tests.
tck.url=false
Schema
Set this to true to automatically create tables and populate with default
data if the database is empty.
schema.run.enabled=true
Set this to to true to populate with the minimal amount of data. Set this
to false to populate with a larger amount of sample data.
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schema.run.minimal=true
Upgrade
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes will run on
startup to upgrade older data to match with the latest version.
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess.
upgrade.processes=\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_0,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_1,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_2,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_3,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_4,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_3_5,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_4_4_0,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_0_0,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_1_0,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_1_2,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_2_0,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_2_1,\
com.liferay.portal.upgrade.UpgradeProcess_5_2_2
Verify
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes will run on
startup to verify and fix any integrity problems found in the database.
com.liferay.portal.integrity.VerifyProcess.
verify.processes=com.liferay.portal.verify.VerifyProcessSuite
Specify the frequency for verifying the integrity of the database.
Constants in VerifyProcess:
public static final int ALWAYS = -1;
public static final int NEVER = 0;
public static final int ONCE = 1;
verify.frequency=1
Auto Deploy
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These
classes are used to process the auto deployment of WARs.
com.liferay.portal.kernel.deploy.auto.AutoDeployListener.
auto.deploy.listeners=\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.HookAutoDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.LayoutTemplateAutoDeployListener,\
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com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.PortletAutoDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.ThemeAutoDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.WebAutoDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.exploded.tomcat.LayoutTemplateExplodedTomca
tListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.exploded.tomcat.PortletExplodedTomcatListen
er,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.auto.exploded.tomcat.ThemeExplodedTomcatListener
Set the following to true to enable auto deploy of layout templates, portlets, and themes.
auto.deploy.enabled=true
Set the directory to scan for layout templates, portlets, and themes to
auto deploy.
auto.deploy.deploy.dir=${liferay.home}/deploy
Set the directory where auto deployed WARs are copied to. The application server or servlet container must know to listen on that directory.
Different containers have different hot deploy paths. For example, Tomcat listens on ${catalina.base}/webapps whereas JBoss listens on $
{jboss.server.home.dir}/deploy. Set a blank directory to automatically use
the application server specific directory.
Examples:
auto.deploy.dest.dir=
auto.deploy.default.dest.dir=../webapps
auto.deploy.geronimo.dest.dir=${org.apache.geronimo.base.dir}/deploy
auto.deploy.geronimo-jetty.dest.dir=${org.apache.geronimo.base.dir}/deploy
auto.deploy.geronimo-tomcat.dest.dir=${org.apache.geronimo.base.dir}/deploy
auto.deploy.glassfish.dest.dir=${com.sun.aas.instanceRoot}/autodeploy
auto.deploy.glassfish-tomcat.dest.dir=${com.sun.aas.instanceRoot}/autodeploy
auto.deploy.jboss-tomcat.dest.dir=${jboss.server.home.dir}/deploy
auto.deploy.jetty.dest.dir=${jetty.home}/webapps
auto.deploy.jonas-jetty.dest.dir=${jonas.base}/webapps/autoload
auto.deploy.jonas-tomcat.dest.dir=${jonas.base}/webapps/autoload
auto.deploy.resin.dest.dir=${resin.home}/webapps
auto.deploy.tomcat.dest.dir=${catalina.base}/webapps
auto.deploy.weblogic.dest.dir=${env.DOMAIN_HOME}/autodeploy
Set the interval in milliseconds on how often to scan the directory for
changes.
auto.deploy.interval=10000
Set the number of attempts to deploy a file before blacklisting it.
auto.deploy.blacklist.threshold=10
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Set the following to true if deployed WARs are unpacked. Set this to false
if your application server has concurrency issues with deploying large WARs.
auto.deploy.unpack.war=true
Set the following to true if you want the deployer to rename portlet.xml
to portlet-custom.xml. This is only needed when deploying the portal on
WebSphere 6.1.x with a version before 6.1.0.7 because WebSphere's portlet
container will try to process a portlet at the same time that Liferay is trying
to process a portlet.
Note that according to IBM, on versions after 6.1.0.9, you need to add a
context parameter to the web.xml descriptor in your portlet application
called
com.ibm.websphere.portletcontainer.PortletDeploymentEnabled
and set it to false. This parameter causes WebSphere's built-in portlet container to ignore your portlet application when it is deployed, enabling Liferay
to pick it up.
auto.deploy.custom.portlet.xml=false
Set this to 1 if you are using JBoss' PrefixDeploymentSorter. This will append a 1 in front of your WAR name. For example, if you are deploying a
portlet called test-portlet.war, it will deploy it to 1test-portlet.war. JBoss
now knows to load this portlet after the other WARs have loaded; however, it
will remove the 1 from the context path.
Modify /server/default/conf/jboss-service.xml.
See org.jboss.deployment.scanner.PrefixDeploymentSorter.
auto.deploy.jboss.prefix=1
Set the path to Tomcat's configuration directory. This property is used to
auto deploy exploded WARs. Tomcat context XML files found in the auto deploy directory will be copied to Tomcat's configuration directory. The context XML file must have a docBase attribute that points to a valid WAR directory.
auto.deploy.tomcat.conf.dir=../conf/Catalina/localhost
Set the path to Tomcat's global class loader. This property is only used by
Tomcat in a standalone environment.
auto.deploy.tomcat.lib.dir=../common/lib/ext
Set the URLs of Libraries that might be needed to download during the
auto deploy process
library.download.url.quercus.jar=http://lportal.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/*
checkout*/lportal/portal/trunk/lib/development/quercus.jar
library.download.url.resinutil.jar=http://lportal.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/*checkout*/lportal/portal
/trunk/lib/development/resin-util.jar
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library.download.url.script10.jar=http://lportal.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/*checkout*/lportal/portal/t
runk/lib/development/script-10.jar
Set the Glassfish settings to enable JSR 88 application deployment.
auto.deploy.glassfish-tomcat.jee.deployment.enabled=false
auto.deploy.glassfishtomcat.jee.dm.id=deployer:Sun:AppServer::localhost:4848
auto.deploy.glassfish-tomcat.jee.dm.user=admin
auto.deploy.glassfish-tomcat.jee.dm.passwd=adminadmin
auto.deploy.glassfishtomcat.jee.df.classname=com.sun.enterprise.deployapi.SunDeploymentFactory
Hot Deploy
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes
are used to process the deployment and undeployment of WARs at runtime.
com.liferay.portal.kernel.deploy.hot.HotDeployListener.
Note: PluginPackageHotDeployListener must always be first.
hot.deploy.listeners=\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.PluginPackageHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.ExtHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.HookHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.LayoutTemplateHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.PortletHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.ThemeHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.ThemeLoaderHotDeployListener,\
com.liferay.portal.deploy.hot.MessagingHotDeployListener
Hot Undeploy
Set the following to true to enable undeploying plugins.
hot.undeploy.enabled=true
Set the undeploy interval in milliseconds on how long to wait for the undeploy process to finish.
hot.undeploy.interval=0
Set the following to true to undeploy a plugin before deploying a new
version. This property will only be used if the property hot.undeploy.enabled is
set to true.
hot.undeploy.on.redeploy=false
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Sandbox Deploy
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
com.liferay.portal.kernel.deploy.sandbox.SandboxDeployListener.
These classes are used to process sandbox style plugins.
sandbox.deploy.listeners=\com.liferay.portal.deploy.sandbox.ThemeSandboxDepl
oyListener
Set this to true to enable sandbox style plugin development.
sandbox.deploy.enabled=false
Set the directory to scan for sand box style plugins.
sandbox.deploy.dir=${liferay.home}/sandbox
Set the interval in milliseconds on how often to scan the directory
for
sandbox.deploy.interval=10000
Plugin
Input a list of comma delimited supported plugin types.
plugin.types=portlet,theme,layout-template,hook,web
Input a list of Liferay plugin repositories separated by \n characters.
plugin.repositories.trusted=http://plugins.liferay.com/official
plugin.repositories.untrusted=http://plugins.liferay.com/community
Set this property to false to avoid receiving on screen notifications when
there is a new version of an installed plugin.
plugin.notifications.enabled=true
Input a list of plugin packages ids separated by \n characters. Administrators won't be notified when a new version of these plugins are available.
The ids are of the form groupId/artifactId. You can also end the id with an
asterisk to match any id that starts with the previous character.
plugin.notifications.packages.ignored=liferay/sample-jsp-portlet
Portlet
Set this property to define the default virtual path for all hot deployed
portlets. See liferay-portlet-app_5_1_0.dtd and the virtual-path element for
more information.
portlet.virtual.path=
Set this property to true to validate
schema.
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Advanced Liferay Configuration
portlet.xml.validate=true
Set this property to add a security check when portlets are dynamically
added to a page.
portlet.add.default.resource.check.enabled=true
Set a list of comma delimited list of portlet ids that will bypass this
security check set in the previous property.
portlet.add.default.resource.check.whitelist=58,86,87,88,103,113,145
Input a list of comma delimited struts actions that will bypass the
check
set
in
the
property
portlet.add.default.resource.check.enabled.
security
portlet.add.default.resource.check.whitelist.actions=\
/journal/rss,\
/language/view
Persistence
Set the provider for ORM persistence. If this property is set to jpa,
then the properties with the prefix jpa. will be read. If this property is set to
hibernate, then the properties with the prefix hibernate will be read.
persistence.provider=hibernate
persistence.provider=jpa
JPA
Input a list of comma delimited JPA configurations.
jpa.configs=\
META-INF/mail-orm.xml,\
META-INF/portal-orm.xml
Set the name of the JPA provider.
jpa.provider=eclipselink
jpa.provider=hibernate
jpa.provider=openjpa
jpa.provider=toplink
Specify
provider
specific
properties
prefixed
with
jpa.provider.property.
jpa.provider.property.eclipselink.allow-zero-id=true
jpa.provider.property.eclipselink.logging.level=FINEST
jpa.provider.property.eclipselink.logging.timestamp=true
The LoadTimeWeaver interface is a Spring class that allows JPA
ClassTransformer instances to be plugged in a specific manner depending on
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the environment.
Not all JPA providers require a JVM agent (Hibernate is an example).
If your provider does not require an agent or you have other alternatives
(such as applying enhancements at build time through a custom compiler or
an Ant task), then the loadtime weaver should not be used.
jpa.load.time.weaver=org.springframework.instrument.classloading.ReflectiveL
oadTimeWeaver
jpa.load.time.weaver=org.springframework.instrument.classloading.glassfish.G
lassFishLoadTimeWeaver
jpa.load.time.weaver=org.springframework.instrument.classloading.oc4j.OC4JLo
adTimeWeaver
jpa.load.time.weaver=org.springframework.instrument.classloading.weblogic.We
bLogicLoadTimeWeaver
Specify a specific database platform setting if the JPA provider is not
able to detect the database platform.
Valid values for the Hibernate and OpenJPA providers are: DB2,
DERBY,
HSQL, INFORMIX, MYSQL, ORACLE, POSTGRESQL, SQL_SERVER, and SYBASE.
Valid values for the EclipseLink provider are:
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.DB2MainframePlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.DB2Platform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.DerbyPlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.HSQLPlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.InformixPlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.MySQLPlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.OraclePlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.PostgreSQLPlatform,
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.SQLServerPlatform, or
org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.SybasePlatform.
Check with JPA provider's documentation for details and all possible
values.
jpa.database.platform=
Liferay will automatically detect the database type by initializing
DBUtil. You can override the value here if needed. Expected values are:
db2, derby, firebird, hypersonic, informix, ingres, interbase,
jdatastore,
mysql, oracle, postgresql, sap, sqlserver, and sybase.
jpa.database.type=
Transaction Manager
Set the transaction manager. It must be a class that extends
org.springframework.transaction.support.AbstractPlatformTransaction
Manager.
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The application server specific transaction managers provide XA
transactions by leveraging application server specific data sources and thus
require additional application server specific configuration. You should not
modify this unless you know what you're doing.
transaction.manager.impl=org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.HibernateTransac
tionManager
transaction.manager.impl=org.springframework.transaction.jta.JtaTransactionM
anager
transaction.manager.impl=org.springframework.transaction.jta.OC4JJtaTransact
ionManager
transaction.manager.impl=org.springframework.transaction.jta.WebLogicJtaTran
sactionManager
transaction.manager.impl=org.springframework.transaction.jta.WebSphereUowTra
nsactionManager
Additional
properties
that
follow
the
pattern
will be read to call the setters on the
transaction
manager.
For
example,
the
property
transaction.manager.property.globalRollbackOnParticipationFailure,
will call the setter setGlobalRollbackOnParticipationFailure on the
transaction manager. The list of available setters depends on the
implementation specified in the property transaction.manager.impl.
allowCustomIsolationLevels should be set to true when using the
JtaTransactionManager.
transaction.manager.property.*
transaction.manager.property.allowCustomIsolationLevels=true
transaction.manager.property.globalRollbackOnParticipationFailure=false
Portlet Coordination
Set this property to specify how events are distributed. If the value is
layout-set, then events will be distributed to all portlets contained in a layout
set. If the value is layout, then events will be distributed to all portlets that
are present in a layout.
portlet.event.distribution=layout
Set this property to specify how public render parameters are distributed. If the value is layout-set, then public render parameters will be distributed to all portlets contained in a layout set. This will only work correctly if
the property layout.default.p_l_reset is set to false. If the value is layout, then
public render parameters will be distributed to all portlets that are present in
a layout.
portlet.public.render.parameter.distribution=layout
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Theme
Set this property to true to load the theme's merged CSS files for faster
loading for production.
Set this property to false for easier debugging for development. You can
also disable fast loading by setting the URL parameter css_fast_load to 0.
theme.css.fast.load=true
Set this property to true to load the theme's merged image files for faster
loading for production.
Set this property to false for easier debugging for development. You can
also disable fast loading by setting the URL parameter images_fast_load to 0.
theme.images.fast.load=true
Set the theme's shorcut icon.
theme.shortcut.icon=liferay.ico
Set this property to set the default virtual path for all hot deployed
themes. See liferay-look-and-feel_5_1_0.dtd and the virtual-path element
for more information.
theme.virtual.path=
Set this with an absolute path to specify where imported theme files
from a LAR will be stored. This path will override the file-storage path specified in liferay-theme-loader.xml.
theme.loader.storage.path=
Themes can be imported via LAR files. Set this to true if imported themes
should use a new theme id on every import. This will ensure that a copy of
the old theme is preserved in the theme loader storage path. However, this
also means that a lot of themes that are no longer used remain in the file system. It is recommended that you set this to false.
theme.loader.new.theme.id.on.import=false
Set this to true to decorate portlets by default.
theme.portlet.decorate.default=true
Set this to true to exposing sharing icons for portlets by default.
theme.portlet.sharing.default=false
Resource Actions
Input a list of comma delimited resource action configurations that will
be read from the class path.
resource.actions.configs=resource-actions/default.xml
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Model Hints
Input a list of comma delimited model hints configurations.
model.hints.configs=\
META-INF/portal-model-hints.xml,\
META-INF/workflow-model-hints.xml,\
META-INF/ext-model-hints.xml,\
META-INF/portlet-model-hints.xml
Service Builder
Input a list of common delimited method prefixes designated for readonly transactions. Service Builder will use these prefixes to annotate methods that are to run in read-only transactions.
service.builder.service.read.only.prefixes=\
get,\
has,\
is,\
reindex,\
search
Spring
Input a list of comma delimited Spring configurations. These will be
loaded after the bean definitions specified in the contextConfigLocation
parameter in web.xml.
Note that there is a special case for hibernate-spring.xml and jpaspring.xml. Even though both files are specified, only one will actually load
at runtime based on the property persistence.provider.
spring.configs=\
META-INF/base-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/hibernate-spring.xml,\
META-INF/infrastructure-spring.xml,\
META-INF/management-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/util-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/jpa-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/audit-spring.xml,\
META-INF/cluster-spring.xml,\
META-INF/editor-spring.xml,\
META-INF/jcr-spring.xml,\
META-INF/ldap-spring.xml,\
META-INF/messaging-core-spring.xml,\
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META-INF/messaging-misc-spring.xml,\
META-INF/poller-spring.xml,\
META-INF/rules-spring.xml,\
META-INF/scheduler-spring.xml,\
META-INF/scripting-spring.xml,\
META-INF/search-spring.xml,\
META-INF/workflow-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/counter-spring.xml,\
META-INF/document-library-spring.xml,\
META-INF/mail-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portal-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portlet-container-spring.xml,\
\
#META-INF/dynamic-data-source-spring.xml,\
#META-INF/shard-data-source-spring.xml,\
#META-INF/memcached-spring.xml,\
#META-INF/monitoring-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/ext-spring.xml
Set the bean name for the Liferay data source.
spring.hibernate.data.source=liferayDataSource
Set the bean name for the Liferay session factory.
spring.hibernate.session.factory=&liferaySessionFactory
Hibernate
Many of the following properties should only be customized if you have
advanced knowledge of Hibernate. They map to various Hibernate configuration options which themselves have detailed documentation. Please see
http://www.hibernate.org for more information.
Input a list of comma delimited Hibernate configurations.
hibernate.configs=\
META-INF/mail-hbm.xml,\
META-INF/portal-hbm.xml,\
META-INF/ext-hbm.xml
Liferay will automatically detect the Hibernate dialect in com.liferay.Set this property to manually override the automatically detected dialect.
portal.spring.PortalHibernateConfiguration.
#hibernate.dialect=
Set the Hibernate connection release mode. You should not modify this
unless you know what you're doing. The default setting works best for Spring
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managed transactions. See the method
buildSessionFactory in class org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.LocalSessionFactoryBean and search for
the phrase "on_close" to understand how this works.
hibernate.connection.release_mode=on_close
Set the Hibernate cache provider. Ehcache is recommended in a
clustered environment. See the property net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName for detailed configuration.
Examples:
hibernate.cache.provider_class= \
com.liferay.portal.dao.orm.hibernate.EhCacheProvider
hibernate.cache.provider_class= \
net.sf.hibernate.cache.HashtableCacheProvider
hibernate.cache.provider_class= \
com.liferay.portal.dao.orm.hibernate.OSCacheProvider
#hibernate.cache.provider_class= \
com.liferay.portal.dao.orm.hibernate.TerracottaCacheProvider
This property is used if Hibernate is configured to use Ehcache's cache
provider.
net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/ehcache/hibernate.xml
Use the following ehcache configuration in a clustered environment.
net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/ehcache/hibernate-clustered.xml
Uncomment the following in a Terracotta environment.
#net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/ehcache/hibernate-terracotta.xml
Set other Hibernate cache settings.
hibernate.cache.use_query_cache=true
hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache=true
hibernate.cache.use_minimal_puts=true
hibernate.cache.use_structured_entries=false
Use these properties to disable Hibernate caching. This may be a performance hit; you may only want to use these properties for diagnostic purposes.
hibernate.cache.provider_class=org.hibernate.cache.NoCacheProvider
hibernate.cache.use_query_cache=false
hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache=false
Set the JDBC batch size to improve performance. If you're using Oracle 9i,
however, you must set the batch size to 0 as a workaround for a hanging bug
in the Oracle driver. See LEP-1234 for more information.
Examples:
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hibernate.jdbc.batch_size=20
hibernate.jdbc.batch_size=0
Set other miscellaneous Hibernate properties.
hibernate.jdbc.use_scrollable_resultset=true
hibernate.bytecode.use_reflection_optimizer=true
hibernate.show_sql=false
Use the classic query factory until WebLogic and Hibernate 3 can get
along. See http://www.hibernate.org/250.html#A23 for more information.
hibernate.query.factory_class=org.hibernate.hql.classic.ClassicQueryTranslat
orFactory
Set this property to true to enable Hibernate cache monitoring. See LPS2056 for more information.
hibernate.generate_statistics=false
When using DB2, set:
hibernate.dialect=com.liferay.portal.dao.orm.hibernate.
JDBC
Set the JNDI name to lookup the JDBC data source. If none is set, then the
portal will attempt to create the JDBC data source based on the properties
prefixed with jdbc.default.
#jdbc.default.jndi.name=jdbc/LiferayPool
Set the properties used to create the JDBC data source. These properties
will only be read if the property jdbc.default.jndi.name is not set.
The default settings are configured for an in-memory database called Hypersonic that is not recommended for production use. Please change the
properties to use another database.
Add dynamic-data-source-spring.xml to the property spring.configs
to configure the portal to use one database cluster for read calls and another
database cluster for write calls. The convention is to create a set of properties
prefixed with jdbc.read. to handle read calls and another set of properties
prefixed with jdbc.write. to handle write calls. These data sources can also
be created via JNDI by setting the properties jdbc.read.jndi.name and jdbc.write.jndi.name.
DB2
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.ibm.db2.jcc.DB2Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:db2:lportal
jdbc.default.username=db2admin
jdbc.default.password=lportal
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Derby
jdbc.default.driverClassName=org.apache.derby.jdbc.EmbeddedDriver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:derby:lportal
jdbc.default.username=
jdbc.default.password=
Hypersonic
jdbc.default.driverClassName=org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:hsqldb:${liferay.home}/data/hsql/lportal
jdbc.default.username=sa
jdbc.default.password=
MySQL
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=
jdbc.default.password=
Oracle
jdbc.default.driverClassName=oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe
jdbc.default.username=lportal
jdbc.default.password=lportal
P6Spy
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.p6spy.engine.spy.P6SpyDriver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=
jdbc.default.password=
PostgreSQL
jdbc.default.driverClassName=org.postgresql.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/lportal
jdbc.default.username=sa
jdbc.default.password=
SQL Server
jdbc.default.driverClassName=net.sourceforge.jtds.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:jtds:sqlserver://localhost/lportal
jdbc.default.username=sa
jdbc.default.password=
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Sybase
jdbc.default.driverClassName=net.sourceforge.jtds.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:jtds:sybase://localhost:5000/lportal
jdbc.default.username=sa
jdbc.default.password=
Liferay uses C3PO by default for connection pooling. The data source
factory can be configured to use JNDI or another pooling implementation by
modifying infrastructure-spring.xml. See http://www.mchange.com/projects/c3p0/index.html configuration for a list of additional fields used by
C3PO for configuring the database connection.
jdbc.default.maxPoolSize=50
jdbc.default.minPoolSize=5
Custom SQL
Input a list of comma delimited custom SQL configurations. Liferay Administrators should never need to customize this; this is more of an option
for developers who are customizing Liferay's behavior.
custom.sql.configs=custom-sql/default.xml
Some databases do not recognize a NULL IS NULL check. Set the customand custom.sql.function.isnotnull properties for
your specific database.
.sql.function.isnull
There is no need to manually set these properties because
already sets it.
These properties are available, however, so that you can see how you can
override it for a database that PortalHibernateConfiguration does not yet
know how to auto configure.
com.liferay.portal.spring.PortalHibernateConfiguration
DB2
custom.sql.function.isnull=CAST(? AS VARCHAR(32672)) IS NULL
custom.sql.function.isnotnull=CAST(? AS VARCHAR(32672)) IS NOT NULL
Database
Specify any database vendor specific settings.
MySQL
database.mysql.engine=InnoDB
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Ehcache
Set the classpath to the location of the Ehcache config file for internal
caches. Edit the file specified in the property ehcache.multi-vm.config.location to enable clustered cache.
ehcache.single.vm.config.location=/ehcache/liferay-single-vm.xml
ehcache.multi.vm.config.location=/ehcache/liferay-multi-vm.xml
Use the following in a clustered environment.
ehcache.multi.vm.config.location=/ehcache/liferay-multi-vm-clustered.xml
JavaScript
Set a list of JavaScript files that will be loaded programmatically in
/html/common/themes/top_js.jsp.
There are two lists of files specified in the properties
javascript.bare-
bone.files and javascript.everything.files.
As the name suggests, the barebone list is the minimum list of JavaScript
files required for most cases. The everything list includes everything else not
listed in the barebone list.
The two lists of files exist for performance reasons because unauthenticated users usually do not utilize all the JavaScript that is available. See the
property javascript.barebone.enabled for more information on the logic of
when the barebone list is used and when the everything list is used and how
to customize that logic.
The list of files are also merged and packed for further performance improvements. See the property javascript.fast.load for more details.
Specify the list of barebone files.
The ordering of the JavaScript files is important.
The Liferay scripts are grouped in such a way that the first grouping denotes utility scripts that are used by the second and third groups. The second
grouping denotes utility classes that rely on the first group, but does not rely
on the second or third group. The third grouping denotes modules that rely
on the first and second group.
javascript.barebone.files=\
\
#
# YUI core
#
\
aui/yui/yui.js,\
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\
#
# YUI modules
#
\
aui/attribute/attribute.js,\
aui/event-custom/event-custom.js,\
aui/loader/loader.js,\
aui/oop/oop.js,\
\
#
# Alloy core
#
\
aui/aui-base/aui-base.js,\
\
#
# Liferay base utility scripts
#
\
liferay/dependency.js,\
liferay/language.js,\
liferay/liferay.js,\
liferay/modules.js,\
liferay/util.js,\
\
#
# Liferay utility scripts
#
\
liferay/events.js,\
liferay/portal.js,\
liferay/portlet.js,\
liferay/portlet_sharing.js
Specify the list of everything files (everything else not already in the list
of barebone files).
javascript.everything.files=\
\
#
# Liferay modules
#
\
liferay/address.js,\
liferay/layout_configuration.js,\
liferay/layout_exporter.js,\
liferay/workflow.js,\
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\
#
# Deprecated JS
#
\
liferay/deprecated.js
Set this property to false to always load JavaScript files listed in the
property javascript.everything.files. Set this to true to sometimes load
javascript.barebone.files and sometimes load javascript.everything.files.
The default logic is coded in com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePrein such a way that unauthenticated users get the list of barebone
JavaScript files whereas authenticated users get both the list of barebone
JavaScript files and the list of everything JavaScript files.
Action
javascript.barebone.enabled=true
Set this property to true to load the packed version of files listed in the
properties javascript.barebone.files or javascript.everything.files.
Input a list of comma delimited properties that are valid bundle ids
for the JavaScript minifier.
javascript.bundle.ids=\
javascript.barebone.files,\
javascript.everything.files
Define
a
bundle
directory
for
each
property
listed
in
javascript.bundle.ids.
javascript.bundle.dir[javascript.barebone.files]=/html/js
javascript.bundle.dir[javascript.everything.files]=/html/js
Define the bundle dependencies using any property listed in
javascript.bundle.ids.
javascript.bundle.dependencies[javascript.everything.files]=javascript.bareb
one.files
Set this property to false for easier debugging for development. You can
also disable fast loading by setting the URL parameter js_fast_load to 0.
javascript.fast.load=true
Set the following to true to enable the display of JavaScript logging.
javascript.log.enabled=false
Combo
The combo servlet combines multiple JavaScript files into a bundle
based on shared dependencies. This makes loading JavaScript files much
faster. Set this to false if the combination should refresh when one of its
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JavaScript files has changed. This property should be set to true during
development for easier debugging but set to false during production for
faster performance.
combo.check.timestamp=false
SQL Data
Set the default SQL IDs for common objects.
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.Country.country.id=19
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.Region.region.id=5
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.ListType.account.address=10000
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.ListType.account.email.address=10004
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.ListType.contact.email.address=11003
sql.data.com.liferay.portal.model.ListType.organization.status=12017
Company
This sets the default web id. Omni admin users must belong to the company with this web id.
company.default.web.id=liferay.com
This sets the default home URL of the portal.
company.default.home.url=/web/guest
The portal can authenticate users based on their email address, screen
name, or user id.
company.security.auth.type=emailAddress
company.security.auth.type=screenName
company.security.auth.type=userId
Set this to true to ensure users login with https.
company.security.auth.requires.https=false
Set the following to true to allow users to select the remember me feature
to automatically login to the portal.
company.security.auto.login=true
Set the following to the maximum age (in number of seconds) of the
browser cookie that enables the remember me feature. A value of 31536000 signifies a lifespan of one year. A value of -1 signifies a lifespan of a browser session.
Rather than setting this to 0, set the property
company.security.auto.-
login to false to disable the remember me feature.
company.security.auto.login.max.age=31536000
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Set the following to true to allow users to ask the portal to send them
their password.
company.security.send.password=true
Set the following to true to allow strangers to create accounts and register themselves on the portal.
company.security.strangers=true
Enter a friendly URL of a page that will be used to create new accounts
whenever the user clicks the create account link in the login portlet. This allows providing custom portlets to create accounts. By default, the portal's
create account will be used.
#company.security.strangers.url=/create_account
Set the following to true if strangers can create accounts with email addresses that match the company mail suffix. This property is not used unless
company.security.strangers is also set to true.
company.security.strangers.with.mx=true
Set the following to true if strangers who create accounts need to be
verified via email.
company.security.strangers.verify=false
Set the following to true to allow community administrators to use their
own logo instead of the enterprise logo.
company.security.community.logo=true
Input a list of sections that will be included as part of the company settings form.
company.settings.form.configuration=general,authentication,default-userassociations,reserved-credentials,mail-host-names,email-notifications
company.settings.form.identification=addresses,phone-numbers,additionalemail-addresses,websites
company.settings.form.miscellaneous=display-settings
Users
Set the following to false if users cannot be deleted.
users.delete=true
Set the following to true to always autogenerate user screen names even
if the user gives a specific user screen name.
users.screen.name.always.autogenerate=false
Input a class name that extends com.liferay.portal.security.auThis class will be called to generate user screen
names.
th.ScreenNameGenerator.
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users.screen.name.generator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.ScreenNameGener
ator
Set this to true when you want the validation to allow for creation of
numeric screen names.
users.screen.name.allow.numeric=false
Input a class name that extends com.liferay.portal.security.auth.ScreenNameValidator. This class will be called to validate user ids.
Examples:
users.screen.name.validator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.ScreenNameValid
ator
users.screen.name.validator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LiberalScreenNa
meValidator
Input
a
class
name
that
implements
This class will be
called to generate a full name from the user's first, middle and last names.
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.FullNameGenerator.
users.full.name.generator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.DefaultFullNa
meGenerator
Set this to false if you want to be able to create users without an email
address. Note that not requiring an email address disables some features that
depend on an email address.
users.email.address.required=true
Set the suffix of the email address that will be automatically generated
for a user that does not have an email address. This property is not used unless the property users.email.address.required is set to false. The autogenerated email address will be the user id plus the specified suffix.
[email protected]
Input a class name that implements com.liferay.portal.security.auThis class will be called to generate an email address for a user that does not specify an email address. This class will only be
used if the property users.email.address.required is set to false.
th.EmailAddressGenerator.
users.email.address.generator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.DefaultEmailA
ddressGenerator
Input a class name that implements com.liferay.portal.security.auThis class will be called to generate a full name from
the user's first, middle and last names.
th.FullNameGenerator.
users.full.name.generator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.DefaultFullNa
meGenerator
Input a class name that implements com.liferay.portal.security.auThis class will be called to validate user first, middle
and last names.
th.FullNameValidator.
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users.full.name.validator=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.DefaultFullNameVa
lidator
Set the maximum file size for user portraits. A value of 0 for the maximum file size can be used to indicate unlimited file size. However, the maximum file size allowed is set in property com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size found in system.properties.
users.image.max.size=307200
Set the maximum user portrait height and width in pixels. A value of
indicates no restictions on user portrait dimensions.
0
users.image.max.height=120
users.image.max.width=100
Set this to true to record last login information for a user.
users.update.last.login=true
Input a list of sections that will be included as part of the user form when
adding a user.
users.form.add.main=details,organizations
users.form.add.identification=
users.form.add.miscellaneous=
Input a list of sections that will be included as part of the user form when
updating a user.
users.form.update.main=details,password,organizations,communities,usergroups,roles,categorization
users.form.update.identification=addresses,phone-numbers,additional-emailaddresses,websites,instant-messenger,social-network,sms,open-id
users.form.update.miscellaneous=announcements,displaysettings,comments,custom-attributes
Set this to true to enable reminder queries that are used to help reset a
user's password.
users.reminder.queries.enabled=true
users.reminder.queries.custom.question.enabled=true
Input a list of questions used for reminder queries.
users.reminder.queries.questions=what-is-your-primary-frequent-flyernumber,what-is-your-library-card-number,what-was-your-first-phonenumber,what-was-your-first-teacher's-name,what-is-your-father's-middle-name
Set this to true to search users from the index. Set this to false to search
users from the database. Note that setting this to false will disable the ability
to search users based on Expando attributes.
users.search.with.index=true
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Set a property with the prefix users.update.user.name. and a suffix
with the class name that should be updated whenever a user's name has
changed.
users.update.user.name.com.liferay.portlet.messageboards.model.MBMessage
=true
Input a list of user attributes that will be included when exporting users
to a CSV file. You can include custom fields by adding the prefix expando: to
the attribute name.
users.export.csv.fields=fullName,emailAddress
Set this to false to enable users without a reminder query to reset
their password.
users.reminder.queries.required=true
Set a property with the prefix users.update.user.name. and a suffix
with the class name that should be updated whenever a user's name has
changed.
users.update.user.name.com.liferay.portlet.messageboards.model.MBMessage
=true
Input a list of user attributes that will be included when exporting
users to a CSV file. You can include custom fields by adding the prefix
expando: to the attribute name.
users.export.csv.fields=fullName,emailAddress
When importing and exporting users, the portal will use this
mapping to connect LDAP user attributes and portal contact attributes.
See com.liferay.portal.model.ContactModel for a list of attributes.
ldap.contact.mappings=
When importing and exporting users, the portal will use this
mapping to connect LDAP user attributes and portal contact's custom
attributes.
ldap.contact.custom.mappings=
See com.liferay.portal.model.UserModel for a list of attributes.
ldap.user.mappings=uuid=uuid\nscreenName=cn\npassword=userPassword\nemai
lAddress=mail\nfirstName=givenName\nlastName=sn\njobTitle=title\ngroup=group
Membership
When importing and exporting users, the portal will use this
mapping to connect LDAP user attributes and portal user's custom attributes.
ldap.user.custom.mappings=
Set this to true if the portal should automatically create a role per
group imported from LDAP. The role will be assigned to the group so that
users can automatically inherit that role when they are assigned to the
group.
ldap.import.create.role.per.group=false
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Facebook Connection
facebook.connect.auth.enabled=false
facebook.connect.app.id=
facebook.connect.app.secret=
facebook.connect.graph.url=https://graph.facebook.com
ze
facebook.connect.oauth.auth.url=https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/authori
facebook.connect.oauth.redirect.url=http://localhost:8080/c/login/facebo
ok_connect_oauth
facebook.connect.oauth.token.url=https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/access
_token
NTLM
Set this to true to enable NTLM single sign on. NTLM will work only
if LDAP authentication is also enabled and the authentication is made by
screen name. If set to true, then the property auto.login.hooks must
contain
a
reference
to
the
class
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.NtlmAutoLogin
and
the
filter
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.ntlm.NtlmFilter
must
be
referenced in web.xml.
ntlm.auth.enabled=false
ntlm.auth.domain.controller=127.0.0.1
ntlm.auth.domain.controller.name=EXAMPLE
ntlm.auth.domain=EXAMPLE
[email protected]
ntlm.auth.service.password=test
Request Header Authentication
Set this to true to automatically import users from LDAP if they do
not exist in the portal. The property auto.login.hooks must contain a
reference
to
the
class
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.RequestHeaderAutoLogin to enable
request header authentication.
request.header.auth.import.from.ldap=false
Authentication Token
Set this to true to enable authentication token security checks. The
can be disabled for specific actions via the property
auth.token.ignore.actions or for specific portlets via the init parameter
check-auth-token in portlet.xml.
checks
auth.token.check.enabled=true
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Set the authentication token class. This class must implement
class is used to prevent
CSRF attacks. See http://issues.liferay.com/browse/LPS-8399 for more
information.
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.AuthToken. This
auth.token.impl=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.SessionAuthToken
Input a list of comma delimited struts actions that will not be
checked for an authentication token.
auth.token.ignore.actions=\
/asset/rss,\
\
/blogs/rss,\
\
/document_library/edit_file_entry,\
\
/journal/rss,\
\
/image_gallery/edit_image,\
\
/login/login,\
\
/message_boards/rss,\
\
/wiki/edit_page_attachment,\
/wiki/rss
Set the character sets for password validation.
z
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.charset.lowercase=abcdefghjkmnpqrstuvwxy
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.charset.numbers=23456789
[email protected]$*=-?
YZ
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.charset.uppercase=ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWX
Groups and Roles
Input a list of comma delimited system group names that will exist in addition to the standard system groups. When the server starts, the portal
checks to ensure all system groups exist. Any missing system group will be
created by the portal.
system.groups=
Input a list of comma delimited system role names that will exist in addition to the standard system roles. When the server starts, the portal checks
to ensure all system roles exist. Any missing system role will be created by
the portal.
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The standard system roles are: Administrator, Guest, Power User, and
User. These roles cannot be removed or renamed.
system.roles=
Set the description of the Administrator system role.
system.role.Administrator.description=Administrators are super users who can
do anything.
Set the description of the Guest system role.
system.role.Guest.description=Unauthenticated users always have this role.
Set the description of the Owner system role.
system.role.Owner.description=This is an implied role with respect to the
objects users create.
Set the description of the Power User system role.
system.role.Power.User.description=Power Users have their own public and
private pages.
Set the description of the User system role.
system.role.User.description=Authenticated users should be assigned this
role.
Input a list of comma delimited system community role names that will
exist in addition to the standard system community roles. When the server
starts, the portal checks to ensure all system community roles exist. Any
missing system community role will be created by the portal.
The standard system community roles are: Community Administrator,
Community Member, and Community Owner. These roles cannot be removed or renamed.
system.community.roles=
Set the description of the Community Administrator system community
role.
system.community.role.Community.Administrator.description=Community
Administrators are super users of their community but cannot make other
users into Community Administrators.
Set the description of the Community Member system community role.
system.community.role.Community.Member.description=All users who belong to a
community have this role within that community.
Set the description of the Community Owner system community role.
system.community.role.Community.Owner.description=Community Owners are super
users of their community and can assign community roles to users.
Input a list of comma delimited system organization role names that will
exist in addition to the standard system organization roles. When the server
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starts, the portal checks to ensure all system organization roles exist. Any
missing system organization role will be created by the portal.
The standard system organization roles are: Organization Administrator,
Organization Member, and Organization Owner. These roles cannot be removed or renamed.
system.organization.roles=
Set the description of the Organization Administrator system organization role.
System.organization.role.Organization.Administrator.description=Organization
Administrators are super users of their organization but cannot make other
users into Organization Administrators.
Set the description of the Organization Member system organization
role.
system.organization.role.Organization.Member.description=All users who
belong to a organization have this role within that organization.
Set the description of the Organization Owner system organization role.
system.organization.role.Organization.Owner.description=Organization Owners
are super users of their organization and can assign organization roles to
users.
Omni admin users can administer the portal's core functionality: gc,
shutdown, etc. Omni admin users must belong to the default company.
Multiple portal instances might be deployed on one application server,
and not all of the administrators should have access to this core functionality. Input the ids of users who are omniadmin users.
Leave this field blank if users who belong to the right company and have
the Administrator role are allowed to administer the portal's core functionality.
omniadmin.users=
Set the following to true if all users are required to agree to the terms of
use.
terms.of.use.required=true
Specify the group id and the article id of the Web Content article that
will be displayed as the terms of use. The default text will be used if no Web
Content article is specified.
terms.of.use.journal.article.group.id=
terms.of.use.journal.article.id=
Specify subtypes of roles if you want to be able to search for roles using
your custom criteria.
roles.community.subtypes=
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roles.organization.subtypes=
roles.regular.subtypes=
Organizations
Specify the names of your organization(s). For example, you could use
Teams, Clubs, Parishes, or anything which describes your hierarchical structure.
organizations.types=regular-organization,location
Specify which organizations can be at the top of the hierarchy.
organizations.rootable[regular-organization]=true
Specify which organizations can be children.
organizations.children.types[regular-organization]=regularorganization,location
Set this to true if organizations can have an associated country.
organizations.country.enabled[regular-organization]=false
Set this to true if organizations must have an associated country.
organizations.country.required[regular-organization]=false
By default, Locations cannot be at the top of the hierarchy, because they
cannot have children. You must specify the following properties for each organization type you create.
Example:
organizations.rootable[location]=false
#organizations.children.types[location]=
organizations.country.enabled[location]=true
organizations.country.required[location]=true
Input a list of sections that will be included as part of the organization
form when adding an organization.
organizations.form.add.main=details
organizations.form.add.identification=
organizations.form.add.miscellaneous=
Input a list of sections that will be included as part of the organization
form when updating an organization.
organizations.form.update.main=details
organizations.form.update.identification=addresses,phone-numbers,additionalemail-addresses,websites,services
organizations.form.update.miscellaneous=comments,reminder-queries,customattributes
Set this property to true if you want any administrator that creates an
organization to be automatically assigned to that organization.
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organizations.assignment.auto=false
Set this property to false if you want any administrator of an organization to be able to assign any user to that organization. By default, he will only
be able to assign the users of the organizations and suborganizations that he
can manage.
organizations.assignment.strict=true
Set this property to true if you want users to only be members of the organizations to which they are assigned explicitly. By default they will also become implicit members of the ancestors of those organizations. for example
if a user belongs to Liferay Spain he will implicitly be a member of the ancestors Liferay Europe and Liferay Global and will be able to access their private
pages.
organizations.membership.strict=false
Security Manager
Set this to true to use Liferay's java.lang.SecurityManager implementation. This should never be set to true except for debugging purposes.
portal.security.manager.enable=false
Basic Authentication
Set this to true to require a password when using basic authentication.
Only set this to false if additional security measures are in place to ensure
users have been properly authenticated.
basic.auth.password.required=true
Languages and Time Zones
Specify the available locales. Messages corresponding to a specific language are specified in properties files with file names matching that of content/Language_*.properties. These values can also be overridden in properties files with file names matching that of content/Language-ext_*.properties. Use a comma to separate each entry.
All locales must use UTF-8 encoding.
See the following links to specify language and country codes:
http://ftp.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/related/iso639.txt
http://userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/diverse/doc/ISO_3166.html
locales=ar_SA,ca_AD,ca_ES,zh_CN,zh_TW,cs_CZ,nl_NL,en_US,fi_FI,fr_FR,de_DE,el
_GR,hu_HU,it_IT,ja_JP,ko_KR,nb_NO,fa_IR,pl_PL,pt_BR,pt_PT,ru_RU,es_ES,sv_SE,
tr_TR,vi_VN
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Set the following to true if unauthenticated users get their preferred language from the Accept-Language header. Set the following to false if unauthenticated users get their preferred language from their company.
locale.default.request=false
Specify the available time zones. The specified ids must match those
from the class java.util.TimeZone.
time.zones=\
Pacific/Midway,\
Pacific/Honolulu,\
America/Anchorage,\
America/Los_Angeles,\
America/Denver,\
America/Chicago,\
America/New_York,\
America/Puerto_Rico,\
America/St_Johns,\
America/Sao_Paulo,\
America/Noronha,\
Atlantic/Azores,\
UTC,\
Europe/Lisbon,\
Europe/Paris,\
Europe/Istanbul,\
Asia/Jerusalem,\
Asia/Baghdad,\
Asia/Tehran,\
Asia/Dubai,\
Asia/Kabul,\
Asia/Karachi,\
Asia/Calcutta,\
Asia/Katmandu,\
Asia/Dhaka,\
Asia/Rangoon,\
Asia/Saigon,\
Asia/Shanghai,\
Asia/Tokyo,\
Asia/Seoul,\
Australia/Darwin,\
Australia/Sydney,\
Pacific/Guadalcanal,\
Pacific/Auckland,\
Pacific/Enderbury,\
Pacific/Kiritimati
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Look and Feel
Set the following to false if the system does not allow users to modify the
look and feel.
look.and.feel.modifiable=true
Set the default layout template id.
default.layout.template.id=2_columns_ii
Set the default theme id for regular themes.
default.regular.theme.id=classic
Set the default color scheme id for regular themes.
default.regular.color.scheme.id=01
Set the default theme id for wap themes.
default.wap.theme.id=mobile
Set the default color scheme id for wap themes.
default.wap.color.scheme.id=01
Set the following to true if you want a change in the theme selection of
the public or private group to automatically be applied to the other (i.e. if
public and private group themes should always be the same).
theme.sync.on.group=false
Layouts
Set this to true to remember maximized window states across
different pages.
layout.remember.maximized.window.state=false
Set this to true to enable comments for pages.
layout.comments.enabled=true
Set this to true to remember maximized window states across different
pages.
layout.remember.maximized.window.state=false
Editors
You can configure individual JSP pages to use a specific implementation of
the available WYSIWYG editors: ckeditor, fckeditor, liferay, simple,
tinymce, or tinymcesimple.
editor.wysiwyg.default=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portal-web.docroot.html.portlet.blogs.edit_entry.jsp=ckeditor
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editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.calendar.edit_configuration.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.enterprise_admin.view.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.invitation.edit_configuration.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_article_content.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_article_content_xsd_el.jsp=
ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_configuration.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.login.configuration.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portal-web.docroot.html.portlet.mail.edit.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.mail.edit_message.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.message_boards.edit_configuration.jsp=
ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.shopping.edit_configuration.jsp=ckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portal-web.docroot.html.portlet.wiki.edit.html.jsp=ckeditor
Fields
Input a list of comma delimited user types who can edit their own
fields. Valid types are administrator, user-mx, and user-without-mx.
Set a value of administrator if an administrator can edit the
specified field. An administrator is anyone who has the Administrator role.
Set a value of user-mx if a user who has an email address that
matches the company mail suffix can edit the specified field.
Set a value of user-without-mx if a user who does not have an email
address that matches the company mail suffix can edit the specified field.
Set all three values if all users can edit the specified field. Set a
combination of the three values if only a combination of the users can edit
the specified field.
field.editable.com.liferay.portal.model.User.screenName=administrator,userwith-mx,user-without-mx
field.editable.com.liferay.portal.model.User.emailAddress=administrator,user
-with-mx,user-without-mx
Request
Portlets that have been configured to use private request attributes in
may still want to share some request attributes. This
property allows you to configure which request attributes will be shared.
liferay-portlet.xml
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Set a comma delimited list of attribute names that will be shared when
the attribute name starts with one of the specified attribute names. For example, if you set the value to hello_,world_, then all attribute names that
start with hello_ or world_ will be shared.
request.shared.attributes=LIFERAY_SHARED_
Session
Specify the number of minutes before a session expires. This value is always overridden by the value set in web.xml.
session.timeout=30
Specify the number of minutes before a warning is sent to the user informing the user of the session expiration. Specify 0 to disable any warnings.
session.timeout.warning=1
Set the auto-extend mode to true to avoid having to ask the user whether
to extend the session or not. Instead it will be automatically extended. The
purpose of this mode is to keep the session open as long as the user browser
is open and with a portal page loaded. It is recommended to use this setting
along with a smaller session.timeout, such as 5 minutes for better performance.
session.timeout.auto.extend=false
Set this to true if the user is redirected to the default page when the ses sion expires.
session.timeout.redirect.on.expire=false
Portlets that have been configured to use private session attributes in
may still want to share some session attributes. This
property allows you to configure which session attributes will be shared. Set
a comma delimited list of attribute names that will be shared when the attribute name starts with one of the specified attribute names. For example, if
you set the value to hello_,world_, then all attribute names that start with
hello_ or world_ will be shared.
liferay-portlet.xml
Note that this property is used to specify the sharing of session attributes from the portal to the portlet. This is not used to specify session sharing
between portlet WARs or from the portlet to the portal.
session.shared.attributes=org.apache.struts.action.LOCALE,COMPANY_,USER_,LIF
ERAY_SHARED_
Set this to false to disable all persistent cookies. Features like automatically logging in will not work.
session.enable.persistent.cookies=true
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The login process sets several cookies if persistent cookies are enabled.
Set this property to set the domain of those cookies.
session.cookie.domain=
Set the following to true to invalidate the session when a user logs into
the portal. This helps prevents phishing. Set this to false if you need the
guest user and the authenticated user to have the same session.
session.enable.phishing.protection=true
Set the following to true to test whether users have cookie support before allowing them to sign in. This test will always fail if tck.url is set to true
because that property disables session cookies.
session.test.cookie.support=true
Set the following to true to disable sessions. Doing this will use cookies to
remember the user across requests. This is useful if you want to scale very
large sites where the user may be sent to a different server for each request.
The drawback to this approach is that you must not rely on the API for sessions provided by the servlet and portlet specs.
This feature is only available for Tomcat and requires that you set Tomcat's Manager class to com.liferay.support.tomcat.session.SessionLessManagerBase.
session.disabled=false
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend com.liferay.portal.struts.SessionAction. These classes will run at the specified event.
#
# Servlet session create event
#
servlet.session.create.events=com.liferay.portal.events.SessionCreateAction
#
# Servlet session destroy event
#
servlet.session.destroy.events=com.liferay.portal.events.SessionDestroyActio
n
Set the following to true to track user clicks in memory for the duration
of a user's session. Setting this to true allows you to view all live sessions in
the Admin portlet.
session.tracker.memory.enabled=true
Set the following to true to track user clicks in the database after a user's
session is invalidated. Setting this to true allows you to generate usage reports from the database. Use this cautiously because this will store a lot of usage data.
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session.tracker.persistence.enabled=false
Set the following to true to convert the tracked paths to friendly URLs.
session.tracker.friendly.paths.enabled=false
Enter a list of comma delimited paths that should not be tracked.
session.tracker.ignore.paths=\
/portal/render_portlet,\
\
/document_library/get_file
HTTP
Set the maximum number of connections.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.max.connections.per.host=2
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.max.total.connections=20
Set the proxy authentication type.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.auth.type=username-password
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.auth.type=ntlm
Set user name and password used for HTTP proxy authentication.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.username=
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.password=
Set additional properties for NTLM authentication.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.ntlm.domain=
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.ntlm.host=
Set the connection timeout when fetching HTTP content.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.timeout=10000
JAAS
Set the following to false to disable JAAS security checks. Disabling JAAS
speeds up login. JAAS must be disabled if administrators are to be able to impersonate other users.
portal.jaas.enable=false
By default, com.liferay.portal.security.jaas.PortalLoginModule
loads the correct JAAS login module based on what application server or servlet container the portal is deployed on. Set a JAAS implementation class to
override this behavior.
portal.jaas.impl=
The JAAS process may pass in an encrypted password and the authentication will only succeed if there is an exact match. Set this property to false to
relax that behavior so the user can input an unencrypted password.
portal.jaas.strict.password=false
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Set the following to true to enable administrators to impersonate other
users.
portal.impersonation.enable=true
LDAP
Set the values used to connect to a LDAP store.
ldap.factory.initial=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
ldap.base.provider.url=ldap://localhost:10389
ldap.base.dn=dc=example,dc=com
ldap.security.principal=uid=admin,ou=system
ldap.security.credentials=secret
ldap.referral=follow
Settings for com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LDAPAuth can be configured from the Admin portlet. It provides out of the box support for Apache
Directory Server, Microsoft Active Directory Server, Novell eDirectory, and
OpenLDAP. The default settings are for Apache Directory Server.
The LDAPAuth class must be specified in the property auth.pipeline.pre
to be executed.
Encryption is implemented by com.liferay.util.Encryptor.provider.class in system.properties.
ldap.auth.enabled=false
ldap.auth.required=false
Set either bind or password-compare for the LDAP authentication method. Bind is preferred by most vendors so that you don't have to worry about
encryption strategies.
ldap.auth.method=bind
ldap.auth.method=password-compare
Set the password encryption to used to compare passwords if the property ldap.auth.method is set to password-compare.
ldap.auth.password.encryption.algorithm=
ldap.auth.password.encryption.algorithm.types=MD5,SHA
Active Directory stores information about the user account as a series of
bit fields in the UserAccountControl attribute.
If you want to prevent disabled accounts from logging into the portal you
need to use a search filter similar to the following:
(&(objectclass=person)([email protected][email protected])(!
(UserAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)))
See the following links:
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http://support.microsoft.com/kb/305144/
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=269181
ldap.auth.search.filter=([email protected][email protected])
You can write your own class that extends com.liferay.portal.securto transform the LDAP attributes before a
user or group is imported to the LDAP store.
ity.ldap.AttributesTransformer
ldap.attrs.transformer.impl=com.liferay.portal.security.ldap.AttributesTrans
former
You can write your own class that extends com.liferay.portal.securto customize the behavior for exporting portal users to
the LDAP store.
ity.ldap.LDAPUser
ldap.user.impl=com.liferay.portal.security.ldap.LDAPUser
When a user is exported to LDAP and the user does not exist, the user
will be created with the following default object classes.
ldap.user.default.object.classes=top,person,inetOrgPerson,organizationalPers
on
When importing and exporting users, the portal will use this mapping to
connect LDAP user attributes and portal user variables.
ldap.user.mappings=screenName=cn\npassword=userPassword\nemailAddress=mail\n
firstName=givenName\nlastName=sn\njobTitle=title\ngroup=groupMembership
When importing groups, the portal will use this mapping to connect
LDAP group attributes and portal user group variables.
ldap.group.mappings=groupName=cn\ndescription=description\nuser=uniqueMember
Settings for importing users and groups from LDAP to the portal.
ldap.import.enabled=false
ldap.import.on.startup=false
ldap.import.interval=10
ldap.import.user.search.filter=(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)
ldap.import.group.search.filter=(objectClass=groupOfUniqueNames)
Set either user or group for import method. If set to user, portal will import all users and the groups associated with those users. If set to group, the
portal import all groups and the users associated those groups.
This value should be set based on how your LDAP server stores group
membership information.
ldap.import.method=user
ldap.import.method=group
Settings for exporting users from the portal to LDAP. This allows a user
to modify his first name, last name, etc. in the portal and have that change
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get pushed to the LDAP server. This will only be active if the property
ldap.auth.enabled is also set to true. New users and groups will be created
at the specified DN.
ldap.export.enabled=true
ldap.users.dn=ou=users,dc=example,dc=com
ldap.groups.dn=ou=groups,dc=example,dc=com
Set this to true to use the LDAP's password policy instead of the portal
password policy.
ldap.password.policy.enabled=false
Set these values to be a portion of the error message returned by the appropriate directory server to allow the portal to recognize messages from the
LDAP server. The default values will work for Fedora DS.
ldap.error.password.age=age
ldap.error.password.expired=expired
ldap.error.password.history=history
ldap.error.password.not.changeable=not allowed to change
ldap.error.password.syntax=syntax
ldap.error.password.trivial=trivial
ldap.error.user.lockout=retry limit
CAS
Set this to true to enable CAS single sign on. NTLM will work only if LDAP
authentication is also enabled and the authentication is made by screen
name. If set to true, then the property auto.login.hooks must contain a reference to the class com.liferay.portal.security.auth.CASAutoLogin and
the filter com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.cas.CASFilter must
be referenced in web.xml.
cas.auth.enabled=false
A user may be authenticated from CAS and not yet exist in the portal. Set
this to true to automatically import users from LDAP if they do not exist in
the portal.
cas.import.from.ldap=false
Set the default values for the required CAS URLs. Set either cas.serveror cas.service.url. Setting cas.server.name allows deep linking. See
LEP-4423.
.name
cas.login.url=https://localhost:8443/cas-web/login
cas.logout.url=https://localhost:8443/cas-web/logout
cas.server.name=localhost:8080
cas.service.url=
#cas.service.url=http://localhost:8080/c/portal/login
cas.service.url=http://localhost:8080/c/portal/login
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cas.validate.url=https://localhost:8443/cas-web/proxyValidate
NTLM
Set this to true to enable NTLM single sign on. NTLM will work only if
LDAP authentication is also enabled and the authentication is made by screen
name. If set to true, then the property auto.login.hooks must contain a reference to the class com.liferay.portal.security.auth.NtlmAutoLogin and
the filter com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.ntlm.NtlmFilter must
be referenced in web.xml.
ntlm.auth.enabled=false
ntlm.auth.domain.controller=127.0.0.1
ntlm.auth.domain=EXAMPLE
OpenID
Set this to true to enable OpenId authentication. If set to true, then the
property auto.login.hooks must contain a reference to the class
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.OpenIdAutoLogin.
open.id.auth.enabled=true
OpenSSO
These properties control Liferay's integration with OpenSSO.
Set this to true to enable OpenSSO authentication.
open.sso.auth.enabled=false
Set the log in URL and log out URL. The first URL is the link to your
OpenSSO server (which can be the same server as the one running Liferay);
the second URL is the link to your Liferay Portal.
open.sso.login.url=http://openssohost.example.com:8080/opensso/UI/Login?
goto=http://portalhost.example.com:8080/c/portal/login
open.sso.logout.url=http://openssohost.example.com:8080/opensso/UI/Logout?
goto=http://portalhost.example.com:8080/web/guest/home
Set the URL to the OpenSSO service.
open.sso.service.url=http://openssohost.example.com:8080/opensso
Set the HTTP attribute name for the user's screen name.
open.sso.screen.name.attr=uid
Set the HTTP attribute name for the user's email address.
open.sso.email.address.attr=mail
Set the HTTP attribute name for the user's Common Name.
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open.sso.first.name.attr=cn
Set the HTTP attribute name for the user's Surname.
open.sso.last.name.attr=sn
SiteMinder
Set this to true to enable CA SiteMinder single sign on. If set to true, then
the property auto.login.hooks must contain a reference to the class
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.SiteMinderAutoLogin
and
the
logout.events.post must have a reference to com.liferay.portal.events.SiteMinderLogoutAction for logout to work.
siteminder.auth.enabled=false
A user may be authenticated from SiteMinder and not yet exist in the
portal. Set this to true to automatically import users from LDAP if they do not
exist in the portal.
siteminder.import.from.ldap=false
Set this to the name of the user header that SiteMinder passes to the
portal.
siteminder.user.header=SM_USER
Authentication Pipeline
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes will run
before or after the portal authentication begins.
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.Authenticator.
The Authenticator class defines the constant values that should be used
as return codes from the classes implementing the interface. If authentication is successful, return SUCCESS; if the user exists but the passwords do not
match, return FAILURE; and if the user does not exist on the system, return
DNE.
Constants in Authenticator:
public static final int SUCCESS = 1;
public static final int FAILURE = -1;
public static final int DNE = 0;
In case you have several classes in the authentication pipeline, all of
them have to return SUCCESS if you want the user to be able to login. If one
of the authenticators returns FAILURE or DNE, the login fails.
Under certain circumstances, you might want to keep the information in
the portal database in sync with an external database or an LDAP server. This
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can easily be achieved by implementing a class via LDAPAuth that updates the
information stored in the portal user database whenever a user signs in.
Each portal instance can be configured at run time to either authenticate
based on user ids or email addresses. See the Admin portlet for more information.
Available authenticators are:
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LDAPAuth
See the LDAP properties to configure the behavior of the LDAPAuth class.
auth.pipeline.pre=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LDAPAuth
auth.pipeline.post=
Set this to true to enable password checking by the internal portal authentication. If set to false, you're essentially delegating password checking
is delegated to the authenticators configured in auth.pipeline.pre and auth.pipeline.post settings.
auth.pipeline.enable.liferay.check=true
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes will run
when a user has a failed login or when a user has reached the maximum
number of failed logins.
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.AuthFailure.
auth.failure=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LoginFailure
auth.max.failures=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.LoginMaxFailures
auth.max.failures.limit=5
Set the following to true if users are forwarded to the last visited path
upon successful login. If set to false, users will be forwarded to their default
layout page.
auth.forward.by.last.path=true
The login page reads a redirect by a parameter named redirect. If this
property is set to true, then users will be redirected to the given redirect
path upon successful login. If the user does not have permission to view that
page, then the rule set by the property auth.forward.by.last.path will apply.
You can set the redirect manually from another application, by appending the redirect parameter in a url that looks like this: /c/portal/login?redirect=%2Fgroup%2Femployees%2Fcalendar. This url will redirect the user to
the path /group/employees/calendar upon successful login.
auth.forward.by.redirect=true
Enter a list of comma delimited paths that can be considered part of the
last visited path.
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auth.forward.last.paths=/document_library/get_file
Enter a URL that will be used to login portal users whenever needed. By
default, the portal's login page is used.
#auth.login.url=/web/guest/home
Enter a friendly URL of a page that will be used to login portal users
whenever the user is navigating a community and authentication is needed.
By default, the portal's login page or the URL set in the property auth.login.url is used.
auth.login.community.url=/login
Enter the name of the login portlet used in a page identified by the URL
of the previous property (if one has been set). This will allow the portlet to
have access to the redirect parameter and thus forward the user to the page
where he was trying to access when necessary. You should leave the default
value unless you have your own custom login portlet.
auth.login.portlet.name=58
Enter a list of comma delimited paths that do not require authentication.
auth.public.paths=\
/blogs/find_entry,\
/blogs/rss,\
/blogs/trackback,\
\
/bookmarks/open_entry,\
\
/document_library/get_file,\
\
/journal/get_article,\
/journal/get_articles,\
/journal/get_latest_article_content,\
/journal/get_structure,\
/journal/get_template,\
/journal/view_article_content,\
/journal_articles/view_article_content,\
\
/layout_management/sitemap,\
\
/message_boards/find_category,\
/message_boards/find_message,\
/message_boards/find_thread,\
/message_boards/get_message_attachment,\
/message_boards/rss,\
\
/my_places/view,\
\
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/polls/view_chart,\
\
/portal/emoticons,\
/portal/expire_session,\
/portal/extend_session,\
/portal/extend_session_confirm,\
/portal/json_service,\
/portal/logout,\
/portal/open_id_request,\
/portal/open_id_response,\
/portal/session_click,\
/portal/session_tree_js_click,\
/portal/status,\
\
/search/open_search,\
/search/open_search_description.xml,\
\
/shopping/notify,\
\
/tags/rss,\
\
/wiki/get_page_attachment,\
/wiki/rss
Auto Login
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement
These classes will run in
consecutive order for all unauthenticated users until one of them return a
valid user id and password combination. If no valid combination is returned,
then the request continues to process normally. If a valid combination is returned, then the portal will automatically login that user with the returned
user id and password combination.
com.liferay.portal.security.auth.AutoLogin.
For example, com.liferay.portal.security.auth.RememberMeAutoLogin
reads from a cookie to automatically log in a user who previously logged in
while checking the Remember Me box.
This interface allows deployers to easily configure the portal to work
with other SSO servers. See com.liferay.portal.security.auth.CASAutoLogin for an example of how to configure the portal with Yale's SSO server.
auto.login.hooks=com.liferay.portal.security.auth.CASAutoLogin,com.liferay.p
ortal.security.auth.NtlmAutoLogin,com.liferay.portal.security.auth.OpenIdAut
oLogin,com.liferay.portal.security.auth.OpenSSOAutoLogin,com.liferay.portal.
security.auth.RememberMeAutoLogin,com.liferay.portal.security.auth.SiteMinde
rAutoLogin
Set the hosts that will be ignored for auto login.
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auto.login.ignore.hosts=
Set the paths that will be ignored for auto login.
auto.login.ignore.paths=
SSO with MAC (Message Authentication Code)
To use SSO with MAC, post to an URL like:
http://localhost:8080/c/portal/login?cmd=already-registered&login=<userId|emailAddress>&password=<MAC>
Pass the MAC in the password field. Make sure the MAC gets URL encoded because it might contain characters not allowed in a URL.
SSO with MAC also requires that you set the following property in system.properties:
com.liferay.util.servlet.SessionParameters=false
See the following links:
http://issues.liferay.com/browse/LEP-1288
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_authentication_code
Set the following to true to enable SSO with MAC.
auth.mac.allow=false
Set the algorithm to use for MAC encryption.
auth.mac.algorithm=MD5
Set the shared key used to generate the MAC.
auth.mac.shared.key=
Passwords
Set the following encryption algorithm to encrypt passwords. The default algorithm is SHA (SHA-1). If set to NONE, passwords are stored in the
database as plain text. The SHA-512 algorithm is currently unsupported.
Examples:
passwords.encryption.algorithm=CRYPT
passwords.encryption.algorithm=MD2
passwords.encryption.algorithm=MD5
passwords.encryption.algorithm=NONE
passwords.encryption.algorithm=SHA
passwords.encryption.algorithm=SHA-256
passwords.encryption.algorithm=SHA-384
passwords.encryption.algorithm=SSHA
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Digested passwords are encoded via base64 or hex encoding. The default
is base64.
passwords.digest.encoding=base64
#passwords.digest.encoding=hex
Input a class name that extends com.liferay.portal.security.pwd.BasicToolkit. This class will be called to generate and validate passwords.
Examples:
passwords.toolkit=com.liferay.portal.security.pwd.PasswordPolicyToolkit
passwords.toolkit=com.liferay.portal.security.pwd.RegExpToolkit
If you choose to use com.liferay.portal.security.pwd.PasswordPolias your password toolkit, you can choose either static or dynamic
password generation. Static is set through the property passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.static and dynamic uses the class com.liferay.util.PwdGenerator to generate the password. If you are using LDAP password syntax checking, you will also have to use the static generator so that you can
guarantee that passwords obey its rules.
cyToolkit
Examples:
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.generator=static
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.generator=dynamic
passwords.passwordpolicytoolkit.static=iheartliferay
If you choose to use com.liferay.portal.security.pwd.RegExpToolkit
as your password toolkit, set the regular expression pattern that will be used
to generate and validate passwords.
Note that \ is replaced with \\ to work in Java.
The first pattern ensures that passwords must have at least 4 valid characters consisting of digits or letters.
The second pattern ensures that passwords must have at least 8 valid
characters consisting of digits or letters.
Examples:
passwords.regexptoolkit.pattern=(?=.{4})(?:[a-zA-Z0-9]*)
passwords.regexptoolkit.pattern=(?=.{8})(?:[a-zA-Z0-9]*)
Set the length and key for generating passwords.
Examples:
passwords.regexptoolkit.charset=0123456789
passwords.regexptoolkit.charset=0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefgh
ijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
Examples:
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passwords.regexptoolkit.length=4
passwords.regexptoolkit.length=8
Set the name of the default password policy.
passwords.default.policy.name=Default Password Policy
Permissions
Set the default permission checker class used by com.liferay.to check permissions for actions on objects. This class can be overridden with a custom class
that extends com.liferay.portal.security.permission.PermissionCheckerImpl.
portal.security.permission.PermissionCheckerFactory
permissions.checker=com.liferay.portal.security.permission.PermissionChecker
Impl
Set the algorithm used to check permissions for a user. This is useful so
that you can optimize the search for different databases. See com.liferay.portal.service.impl.PermissionLocalServiceImpl. The default is method
two.
The first algorithm uses several if statements to query the database for
these five things in order. If it finds any one of them, it returns true:
•
•
•
•
•
Is the user connected to one of the permissions via group or
organization roles?
Is the user associated with groups or organizations that are directly
connected to one of the permissions?
Is the user connected to one of the permissions via user roles?
Is the user connected to one of the permissions via user group roles?
Is the user directly connected to one of the permissions?
The second algorithm (the default) does a database join and checks the
permissions in one step, by calling countByGroupsRoles, countByGroupsPermissions, countByUsersRoles, countByUserGroupRole, and countByUsersPermissions in one method.
The third algorithm checks the permissions by checking for three things.
It combines the role check into one step. If it finds any of the following items,
it returns true:
•
Is the user associated with groups or organizations that are directly connected to one of the permissions?
•
Is the user associated with a role that is directly connected to
one of the permissions?
•
Is the user directly connected to one of the permissions?
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The fourth algorithm does a database join and checks the permissions
that algorithm three checks in one step, by calling countByGroupsPermissions, countByRolesPermissions, and countByUsersPermissions in one
method.
Algorithm 5 moves to a completely role-based permissions check for better performance. Permissions by users are no longer supported, yet it uses
the same table structure as Algorithms 1-4.
Algorithm 6 is the current algorithm for Liferay 6 and above. It supports
role-based permissions like Algorithm 5, but does so by using only one table
and bitwise operations. This makes it perform far better than the other algorithms.
permissions.user.check.algorithm=1
permissions.user.check.algorithm=2
permissions.user.check.algorithm=3
permissions.user.check.algorithm=4
permissions.user.check.algorithm=5
permissions.user.check.algorithm=6
Set the default permissions list filter class. This class must implement
com.liferay.portal.kernel.security.permission.PermissionsListFilter.
This is used if you want to filter the list of permissions before it is actually
persisted. For example, if you want to make sure that all users who create objects never have the UPDATE action, then you can filter that list and remove
any permissions that have the UPDATE action before it is persisted.
permissions.list.filter=com.liferay.portal.security.permission.PermissionsLi
stFilterImpl
Set this to true to configure permission caching to block. See the property ehcache.blocking.cache.allowed for more information.
permissions.object.blocking.cache=false
The permissions cache uses a thread local map to store the most frequently accessed items to lower the number of queries to the underlying
cache. Set the maximum map size to 0 to disable the thread level cache.
permissions.thread.local.cache.max.size=100
Set the following to true to automatically check the view permission on
parent categories or folders when checking the permission on an specific
item.
For example, if set to true, to be able to have access to a document, a user
must have the view permission on the document's folder and all its parent
folders. Or, to have access to a comment, a user must have the view permis sion on the comments's category and all its parent categories.
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permissions.view.dynamic.inheritance=true
Captcha
Set the maximum number of captcha checks per portlet session. Set this
value to 0 to always check. Set this value to a number less than 0 to never
check. Unauthenticated users will always be checked on every request if
captcha checks is enabled.
captcha.max.challenges=1
Set whether or not to use captcha checks for the following actions.
captcha.check.portal.create_account=true
captcha.check.portal.send_password=true
captcha.check.portlet.message_boards.edit_category=false
captcha.check.portlet.message_boards.edit_message=false
Set the engine used to generate captchas. reCAPTCHA uses an external
service that must be configured independently but provides an audible alternative which makes the captcha accessible to the visually impaired.
captcha.engine.impl=com.liferay.portal.captcha.recaptcha.ReCaptchaImpl
captcha.engine.impl=com.liferay.portal.captcha.simplecaptcha.SimpleCaptchaIm
pl
captcha.engine.recaptcha.key.private=
captcha.engine.recaptcha.key.public=
captcha.engine.recaptcha.url.script=http://api.recaptcha.net/challenge?k=
captcha.engine.recaptcha.url.noscript=http://api.recaptcha.net/noscript?k=
captcha.engine.recaptcha.url.verify=http://api-verify.recaptcha.net/verify
SimpleCaptcha
Set the height and width for captcha images generated by SimpleCaptcha.
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.height=50
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.width=150
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement nl.These classes will be randomly
used by SimpleCaptcha to generate a background for a captcha image.
captcha.backgrounds.BackgroundProducer.
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.background.producers=nl.captcha.backgrounds.Fla
tColorBackgroundProducer,nl.captcha.backgrounds.GradiatedBackgroundProducer,
nl.captcha.backgrounds.SquigglesBackgroundProducer,nl.captcha.backgrounds.Tr
ansparentBackgroundProducer
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement nl.These classes will be randomly used by SimpleCaptcha to gimp a captcha image.
captcha.gimpy.GimpyRenderer.
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captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.gimpy.renderers=nl.captcha.gimpy.RippleGimpyRen
derer
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.gimpy.renderers=nl.captcha.gimpy.BlockGimpyRend
erer,nl.captcha.gimpy.DropShadowGimpyRenderer,nl.captcha.gimpy.FishEyeGimpyR
enderer,nl.captcha.gimpy.RippleGimpyRenderer,nl.captcha.gimpy.ShearGimpyRend
erer
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement nl.These classes will be randomly used by SimpleCaptcha to add noise to a captcha image.
captcha.noise.NoiseProducer.
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.noise.producers=nl.captcha.noise.CurvedLineNois
eProducer
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.noise.producers=nl.captcha.noise.CurvedLineNois
eProducer,nl.captcha.noise.StraightLineNoiseProducer
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement nl.These classes will be randomly used
by SimpleCaptcha to generate text for a captcha image.
captcha.text.producer.TextProducer.
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.text.producers=com.liferay.portal.captcha.simpl
ecaptcha.PinNumberTextProducer
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.text.producers=com.liferay.portal.captcha.simpl
ecaptcha.DictionaryWordTextProducer,com.liferay.portal.captcha.simplecaptcha
.PinNumberTextProducer,nl.captcha.text.producer.DefaultTextProducer,nl.captc
ha.text.producer.FiveLetterFirstNameTextProducer
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement nl.These classes will be randomly used
by SimpleCaptcha to render text for a captcha image.
captcha.text.renderer.WordRenderer.
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.word.renderers=nl.captcha.text.renderer.Default
WordRenderer
captcha.engine.simplecaptcha.word.renderers=nl.captcha.text.renderer.Colored
EdgesWordRenderer,nl.captcha.text.renderer.DefaultWordRenderer
Startup Events
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend com.liferay.portal.struts.SimpleAction. These classes will run at the specified event.
The following is a global startup event that runs once when the portal
initializes.
global.startup.events=com.liferay.portal.events.GlobalStartupAction
The following is an application startup event that runs once for every
web site instance of the portal that initializes.
application.startup.events=com.liferay.portal.events.AppStartupAction
#application.startup.events=com.liferay.portal.events.AppStartupAction,com.l
iferay.portal.events.SampleAppStartupAction
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Shutdown Events
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend com.liferay.portal.struts.SimpleAction. These classes will run at the specified event.
Global shutdown event that runs once when the portal shuts down.
global.shutdown.events=com.liferay.portal.events.GlobalShutdownAction
Application shutdown event that runs once for every web site instance of
the portal that shuts down.
application.shutdown.events=com.liferay.portal.events.AppShutdownAction
Programmatically kill the Java process on shutdown. This is a workaround for a bug in Tomcat and Linux where the process hangs on forever.
See http://issues.liferay.com/browse/LEP-2048 for more information.
shutdown.programmatically.exit=false
Portal Events
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend com.liferay.These classes will run before or after the specified
event.
portal.struts.Action.
Servlet service event: the pre-service events have an associated error
page and will forward to that page if an exception is thrown during excecution of the events. The pre-service events process before Struts processes the
request.
Examples:
servlet.service.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction
servlet.service.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.LogMemoryUsageAction,co
m.liferay.portal.events.LogThreadCountAction,com.liferay.portal.events.Servi
cePreAction
servlet.service.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.LogSessionIdAction,com.
liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction
servlet.service.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction,com.li
feray.portal.events.RandomLayoutAction
servlet.service.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction,com.li
feray.portal.events.RandomLookAndFeelAction
Use the following to define the error page.
servlet.service.events.pre.error.page=/common/error.jsp
The post-service events process after Struts processes the request.
servlet.service.events.post=com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePostAction
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Login event
Define events that can occur pre-login and post-login.
login.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.LoginPreAction
login.events.post=com.liferay.portal.events.LoginPostAction,com.liferay.port
al.events.DefaultLandingPageAction
Logout event
Similarly, events can be defined for the log out event.
logout.events.pre=com.liferay.portal.events.LogoutPreAction
Example post events:
logout.events.post=com.liferay.portal.events.LogoutPostAction
logout.events.post=com.liferay.portal.events.LogoutPostAction,com.liferay.po
rtal.events.DefaultLogoutPageAction,com.liferay.portal.events.SiteMinderLogo
utAction
#logout.events.post=com.liferay.portal.events.LogoutPostAction,com.liferay.p
ortal.events.GarbageCollectorAction
Default Landing Page
Set the default landing page path for logged in users relative to the server path. This is the page users are automatically redirected to after logging
in. For example, if you want the default landing page to be http://localhost:8080/web/guest/login, set this to /web/guest/login. To activate this
feature, set auth.forward.by.last.path to true. To customize the behavior,
see com.liferay.portal.events.DefaultLandingPageAction in the login.events.post property above.
#default.landing.page.path=/web/guest/login
Default Logout Page
Set the default logout page path for users relative to the server path.
This is the page users are automatically redirected to after logging out. For
example,
if you
want
the
default
logout page
to
be
http://localhost:8080/web/guest/logout, set this to /web/guest/logout.
To activate this feature, set auth.forward.by.last.path to true. To customize the behavior, see com.liferay.portal.events.DefaultLogoutPageAction
in the logout.events.post property above.
#default.logout.page.path=/web/guest/logout
Default Guest Public Layouts
The Guest group must have at least one public page. The settings for the
initial public page are specified in the following properties.
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If you need to add more than one page, set the property
de-
fault.guest.public.layout.lar to specify a LAR file instead.
For even more complex behavior, override the addDefaultGuestPubmethod in com.liferay.portal.service.impl.GroupLocalSer-
licLayouts
viceImpl.
Set the name of the public layout.
default.guest.public.layout.name=Welcome
Set the layout template id of the public layout.
default.guest.public.layout.template.id=2_columns_ii
Set the portlet ids for the columns specified in the layout template.
default.guest.public.layout.column-1=58
default.guest.public.layout.column-2=47
default.guest.public.layout.column-3=
default.guest.public.layout.column-4=
Set the friendly url of the public layout.
default.guest.public.layout.friendly.url=/home
Set the regular theme id for the public layout.
#default.guest.public.layout.regular.theme.id=classic
Set the regular color scheme id for the public layout.
#default.guest.public.layout.regular.color.scheme.id=01
Set the wap theme id for the public layout.
#default.guest.public.layout.wap.theme.id=mobile
Set the wap color scheme for the public layout.
#default.guest.public.layout.wap.color.scheme.id=01
Specify a LAR file that can be used to create the guest public layouts. If
this property is set, the previous layout properties will be ignored.
#default.guest.public.layouts.lar=$
{liferay.home}/deploy/default_guest_public.lar
Default User Private Layouts
If the properties layout.user.private.layouts.enabled and layout.user.private.layouts.auto.create are both set to true, then users will have private
layouts and they will be automatically created. The settings below are used
for the creation of for the initial private pages.
If you need to add more than one page, set the property default.user.private.layout.lar to specify a LAR file instead.
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For even more complex behavior, override the addDefaultUserPrivateLayouts method in com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction.
Set the name of the private layout.
default.user.private.layout.name=Welcome
Set the layout template id of the private layout.
default.user.private.layout.template.id=2_columns_ii
Set the portlet ids for the columns specified in the layout template.
default.user.private.layout.column-1=71_INSTANCE_OY0d,82,23,61
default.user.private.layout.column-2=11,29,8,19
default.user.private.layout.column-3=
default.user.private.layout.column-4=
Set the friendly url of the private layout.
default.user.private.layout.friendly.url=/home
Set the regular theme id for the private layout.
#default.user.private.layout.regular.theme.id=classic
Set the regular color scheme id for the private layout.
#default.user.private.layout.regular.color.scheme.id=01
Set the wap theme id for the private layout.
#default.user.private.layout.wap.theme.id=mobile
Set the wap color scheme for the private layout.
#default.user.private.layout.wap.color.scheme.id=01
Specify a LAR file that can be used to create the user private layouts. If
this property is set, the previous layout properties will be ignored.
#default.user.private.layouts.lar= \
${liferay.home}/deploy/default_user_private.lar
Default User Public Layouts
If the properties layout.user.public.layouts.enabled and layout.user.public.layouts.auto.create are both set to true, then users will have public layouts
and they will be automatically created. The settings below are used for the
creation of for the initial public pages.
If you need to add more than one page, set the property default.user.public.layout.lar to specify a LAR file instead.
For even more complex behavior, override the addDefaultUserPublicLayouts method in com.liferay.portal.events.ServicePreAction.
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Set the name of the public layout.
default.user.public.layout.name=Welcome
Set the layout template id of the public layout.
default.user.public.layout.template.id=2_columns_ii
Set the portlet ids for the columns specified in the layout template.
default.user.public.layout.column-1=82,23
default.user.public.layout.column-2=8,19
default.user.public.layout.column-3=
default.user.public.layout.column-4=
Set the friendly url of the public layout.
default.user.public.layout.friendly.url=/home
Set the regular theme id for the public layout.
#default.user.public.layout.regular.theme.id=classic
Set the regular color scheme id for the public layout.
#default.user.public.layout.regular.color.scheme.id=01
Set the wap theme id for the public layout.
#default.user.public.layout.wap.theme.id=mobile
Set the wap color scheme for the public layout.
#default.user.public.layout.wap.color.scheme.id=01
Specify a LAR file that can be used to create the user public layouts. If
this property is set, the previous layout properties will be ignored.
#default.user.public.layouts.lar=$
{liferay.home}/deploy/default_user_public.lar
Sanitizer
Set
the
name
of
a
class
com.liferay.portal.kernel.sanitizer.Sanitizer.
that
implements
This class is used to
sanitize content.
sanitizer.impl=com.liferay.portal.sanitizer.DummySanitizerImpl
Social Equity
Set the interval on which the CheckEquityLogMessageListener will
run. The value is set in one minute increments.
social.equity.equity.log.check.interval=1440
Set this to true to enable social equity logs.
social.equity.equity.log.enabled=true
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Vaadin
Specify the location of the portal wide Vaadin themes and widget set
(client side JavaScript).
vaadin.resources.path=/html
Specify the base Vaadin theme to load automatically for all Vaadin
portlets. A portlet can include an additional theme that is loaded after the
shared theme.
vaadin.theme=reindeer
Specify the shared widget set (client side JavaScript) that is used by
all Vaadin portlets running in the portal.
vaadin.widgetset=com.vaadin.portal.gwt.PortalDefaultWidgetSet
Default Admin
Set the default admin password.
default.admin.password=test
Set the default admin screen name prefix.
default.admin.screen.name=test
Set the default admin email address prefix.
default.admin.email.address.prefix=test
Set the default admin first name.
default.admin.first.name=Test
Set the default admin middle name.
default.admin.middle.name=
Set the default admin last name.
default.admin.last.name=Test
Layouts
Set the list of layout types. The display text of each of the layout types is
set in content/Language.properties and prefixed with layout.types. You can create new layout types and specify custom settings for each layout type. End
users input dynamic values as designed in the edit page. End users see the
layout as designed in the view page. The generated URL can reference properties set in the edit page. Parentable layouts can contain child layouts. You
can also specify a comma delimited list of configuration actions that will be
called for your layout when it is updated or deleted.
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layout.types=portlet,panel,embedded,article,url,link_to_layout
Set whether or not private layouts are enabled. Set whether or not
private layouts are modifiable. Set whether or not private layouts should be
auto created if a user has no private layouts. If private layouts are not enabled, the other two properties are assumed to be false.
layout.user.private.layouts.enabled=true
layout.user.private.layouts.modifiable=true
layout.user.private.layouts.auto.create=true
Set whether or not public layouts are enabled. Set whether or not public
layouts are modifiable. Set whether or not public layouts should be auto created if a user has no public layouts. If public layouts are not enabled, the other two properties are assumed to be false.
layout.user.public.layouts.enabled=true
layout.user.public.layouts.modifiable=true
layout.user.public.layouts.auto.create=true
Default Settings Layouts
These settings allow you to define several attributes on layouts. You can
also specify which JSPs are responsible for editing and viewing layouts. You
will likely never need to change these settings.
layout.edit.page=/portal/layout/edit/portlet.jsp
layout.view.page=/portal/layout/view/portlet.jsp
layout.url=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=${liferay:plid}
layout.url.friendliable=true
layout.parentable=true
layout.sitemapable=true
layout.first.pageable=true
layout.configuration.action.update=
layout.configuration.action.delete=
Settings for portlet layouts are inherited from the default settings.
layout.edit.page[portlet]=/portal/layout/edit/portlet.jsp
layout.view.page[portlet]=/portal/layout/view/portlet.jsp
layout.url[portlet]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=${liferay:plid}
layout.url.friendliable[portlet]=true
layout.parentable[portlet]=true
layout.configuration.action.update[portlet]=
layout.configuration.action.delete[portlet]=
Settings for panel layouts.
layout.edit.page[panel]=/portal/layout/edit/panel.jsp
layout.view.page[panel]=/portal/layout/view/panel.jsp
layout.url[panel]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=${liferay:plid}
layout.url.friendliable[panel]=true
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layout.parentable[panel]=true
layout.first.pageable[panel]=true
Settings for control_panel layouts.
layout.edit.page[control_panel]=/portal/layout/edit/control_panel.jsp
layout.view.page[control_panel]=/portal/layout/view/control_panel.jsp
layout.url[control_panel]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=$
{liferay:plid}
layout.url.friendliable[control_panel]=true
layout.parentable[control_panel]=true
layout.first.pageable[control_panel]=true
Settings for embedded layouts.
layout.edit.page[embedded]=/portal/layout/edit/embedded.jsp
layout.view.page[embedded]=/portal/layout/view/embedded.jsp
layout.url[embedded]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=$
{liferay:plid}
layout.url.friendliable[embedded]=true
layout.parentable[embedded]=false
layout.sitemapable[embedded]=true
layout.first.pageable[embedded]=true
layout.configuration.action.update[embedded]=
layout.configuration.action.delete[embedded]=
Settings for article layouts.
layout.edit.page[article]=/portal/layout/edit/article.jsp
layout.view.page[article]=/portal/layout/view/article.jsp
layout.url.friendliable[article]=true
layout.url[article]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=${liferay:plid}
layout.parentable[article]=false
layout.sitemapable[article]=true
layout.first.pageable[article]=true
layout.configuration.action.update[article]=com.liferay.portal.model.LayoutT
ypeArticleConfigurationUpdateAction
layout.configuration.action.delete[article]=com.liferay.portal.model.LayoutT
ypeArticleConfigurationDeleteAction
Settings for URL layouts.
layout.edit.page[url]=/portal/layout/edit/url.jsp
layout.view.page[url]=
layout.url[url]=${url}
layout.url.friendliable[url]=true
layout.parentable[url]=false
layout.sitemapable[url]=false
layout.first.pageable[url]=false
layout.configuration.action.update[url]=
layout.configuration.action.delete[url]=
Settings for page layouts.
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layout.edit.page[link_to_layout]=/portal/layout/edit/link_to_layout.jsp
layout.view.page[link_to_layout]=
layout.url[link_to_layout]=${liferay:mainPath}/portal/layout?p_l_id=$
{linkToPlid}
layout.url.friendliable[link_to_layout]=true
layout.parentable[link_to_layout]=true
layout.sitemapable[link_to_layout]=false
layout.first.pageable[link_to_layout]=false
layout.configuration.action.update[link_to_layout]=
layout.configuration.action.delete[link_to_layout]=
Specify static portlets that cannot be moved and will always appear on
every layout. Static portlets will take precedence over portlets that may have
been dynamically configured for the layout.
For example, if you want the Hello World portlet to always appear at the
start of the iteration of the first column for user layouts, set the property layout.static.portlets.start.column-1[user] to 47. If you want the Hello World portlet
to always appear at the end of the second column for user layouts, set the
property layout.static.portlets.end.column-2[user] to 47. You can input a list of
comma delimited portlet ids to specify more than one portlet. If the portlet is
instanceable, add the suffix _INSTANCE_abcd to the portlet id, where abcd is
any random alphanumeric string.
The static portlets are fetched based on the properties controlled by custom filters using EasyConf. By default, the available filters are user, community, and organization.
layout.static.portlets.start.column-1[user]=3,6
layout.static.portlets.end.column-1[user]=14
layout.static.portlets.start.column-2[user]=71_INSTANCE_abcd,7
layout.static.portlets.end.column-2[user]=34,70
layout.static.portlets.start.column-3[user]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-3[user]=
It is also possible to set static portlets based on the layout's friendly URL.
layout.static.portlets.start.column-1[user][/home]=3,6
layout.static.portlets.end.column-2[community][/home]=14
Set the static portlets for community layouts.
layout.static.portlets.start.column-1[community]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-1[community]=
layout.static.portlets.start.column-2[community]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-2[community]=
layout.static.portlets.start.column-3[community]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-3[community]=
Set the static portlets for organization layouts.
layout.static.portlets.start.column-1[organization]=
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layout.static.portlets.end.column-1[organization]=
layout.static.portlets.start.column-2[organization]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-2[organization]=
layout.static.portlets.start.column-3[organization]=
layout.static.portlets.end.column-3[organization]=
Set the static portlets that will appear for every layout. See
/html/portal/layout/view/portlet.jsp in the Liferay source code for the logic of
when these portlets will be shown. For example, these portlets will only show
for layouts that can contain portlets and are not in a pop up state.
layout.static.portlets.all=1_WAR_chatportlet
Set the private group, private user, and public servlet mapping for
com.liferay.portal.servlet.FriendlyURLServlet. This value must match the servlet
mapping set in web.xml.
For example, if the private group pages are mapped to /group and the
group's friendly URL is set to /guest and the layout's friendly URL is set to
/company/community, then the friendly URL for the page will be
http://www.liferay.com/group/guest/company/community. Private group pages
map to a community's private pages and are only available to authenticated
users with the proper permissions.
For example, if the public pages are mapped to /web and the group or
user's friendly URL is set to /guest and the layout's friendly URL is set to
/company/community, then the friendly URL for the page will be
http://www.liferay.com/web/guest/company/community. Public pages are available to unauthenticated users.
The friendly URLs for users, groups, and layouts can be set during
runtime.
layout.friendly.url.private.group.servlet.mapping=/group
layout.friendly.url.private.user.servlet.mapping=/user
layout.friendly.url.public.servlet.mapping=/web
Redirect to this resource if the user requested a friendly URL that does
not exist. Leave it blank to display nothing.
Note: For backward compatibility, this overrides the property layout.show.http.status for the 404 status code.
layout.friendly.url.page.not.found=/html/portal/404.html
Set the reserved keywords that cannot be used in a friendly URL.
layout.friendly.url.keywords=c,group,web,image,wsrp,page,public,private,rss,
tags
Set the following to true if layouts should remember (across requests)
that a window state was set to maximized.
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layout.remember.request.window.state.maximized=false
Set the following to true if guest users should see the maximize window
icon.
layout.guest.show.max.icon=false
Set the following to true if guest users should see the minimize window
icon.
layout.guest.show.min.icon=false
Set the following to true if users are shown that they do not have access
to a portlet. The portlet init parameter show-portlet-access-denied will override
this setting.
layout.show.portlet.access.denied=true
Set the following to true if users are shown that a portlet is inactive. The
portlet init parameter show-portlet-inactive will override this setting.
layout.show.portlet.inactive=true
Set the following to true if the portal should show HTTP status codes like
404 if the requested page is not found.
layout.show.http.status=true
Set the default layout template id used when creating layouts.
layout.default.template.id=2_columns_ii
Set the following to false to disable parallel rendering. You can also disable it on a per request basis by setting the attribute key com.liferay.portal.util.WebKeys.PORTLET_PARALLEL_RENDER to the Boolean.FALSE in a pre
service event or by setting the URL parameter p_p_parallel to 0.
layout.parallel.render.enable=true
Set the name of a class that implements com.liferay.portal.util.LayoutClone.
This class is used to remember maximized and minimized states on shared
pages. The default implementation persists the state in the browser session.
layout.clone.impl=com.liferay.portal.util.SessionLayoutClone
Set the following to true to cache the content of layout templates. This is
recommended because it improves performance for production servers. Setting it to false is useful during development if you need to make a lot of
changes.
layout.template.cache.enabled=true
Set the default value for the p_l_reset parameter. If set to true, then
render parameters are cleared when different pages are hit. This is not the
behavior promoted by the portlet specification, but is the one that most end
users seem to prefer.
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layout.default.p_l_reset=true
Portlet URL
Set the following to true if calling setParameter on a portlet URL appends the parameter value versus replacing it. There is some disagreement in
the interpretation of the JSR 168 spec among portlet developers over this
specific behavior. Liferay Portal successfully passes the portlet TCK tests
whether this value is set to true or false.
See http://issues.liferay.com/browse/LEP-426 for more information.
portlet.url.append.parameters=false
Set the following to true to allow portlet URLs to generate with an anchor tag.
portlet.url.anchor.enable=false
JSR 286 specifies that portlet URLs are escaped by default. Set this to
false to provide for better backwards compatibility.
If this is set to true, but a specific portlet application requires that its
portlet URLs not be escaped by default, then modify portlet.xml and set the
container runtime option javax.portlet.escapeXml to false.
portlet.url.escape.xml=false
Preferences
Set the following to true to validate portlet preferences on startup.
preference.validate.on.startup=false
Struts
Input the custom Struts request processor that will be used by Struts
based portlets. The custom class must extend com.liferay.portal.struts.PortletRequestProcessor and have the same constructor.
struts.portlet.request.processor=com.liferay.portal.struts.PortletRequestPro
cessor
Redirect
Set this property to ip or domain for the redirect security method. If set
to domain, the portal will only redirect users to domains listed in the property redirect.url.domain.allowed. If set to ip, the portal will only redirect
to domains whose IP address resolve to an IP address listed in the property
redirect.url.ip.allowed.
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redirect.url.security.mode=domain
redirect.url.security.mode=ip
Input a list of comma delimited domains which the portal is allowed to
redirect to. Input a blank list to allow any domain.
redirect.url.domains.allowed=
Input a list of comma delimited IPs which the portal is allowed to redirect to. Input a blank list to allow any IP. SERVER_IP will be replaced with the
IP of the host server.
redirect.url.ips.allowed=127.0.0.1,SERVER_IP
Images
Set the location of the default spacer image that is used for missing images. This image must be available in the class path.
image.default.spacer=com/liferay/portal/dependencies/spacer.gif
Set the location of the default company logo image that is used for missing company logo images. This image must be available in the class path.
image.default.company.logo=com/liferay/portal/dependencies/company_logo.png
Set the location of the default organization logo image that is used for
missing organization logo images. This image must be available in the class
path.
image.default.organization.logo=com/liferay/portal/dependencies/organization
_logo.png
Set the locations of the default user portrait images that are used for
missing user portrait images. This image must be available in the class path.
image.default.user.female.portrait=com/liferay/portal/dependencies/user_fema
le_portrait.png
image.default.user.male.portrait=com/liferay/portal/dependencies/user_male_p
ortrait.png
Set the name of a class that implements
com.liferay.portal.im-
age.Hook. The portal will use this persist images.
Available hooks are:
•
com.liferay.portal.image.DatabaseHook
•
com.liferay.portal.image.DLHook
•
com.liferay.portal.image.FileSystemHook
image.hook.impl=com.liferay.portal.image.DatabaseHook
#image.hook.impl=com.liferay.portal.image.DLHook
#image.hook.impl=com.liferay.portal.image.FileSystemHook
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image.hook.file.system.root.dir=${liferay.home}/data/images
Editors
You can configure individual JSP pages to use a specific implementation
of the available WYSIWYG editors: liferay, fckeditor, simple, tinymce,
or tinymcesimple.
editor.wysiwyg.default=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.blogs.edit_entry.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.calendar.edit_configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.enterprise_admin.view.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.invitation.edit_configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_article_content.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_article_content_xsd_el.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.journal.edit_configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.login.configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portal-web.docroot.html.portlet.mail.edit.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.mail.edit_message.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.message_boards.edit_configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portalweb.docroot.html.portlet.shopping.edit_configuration.jsp=fckeditor
editor.wysiwyg.portal-web.docroot.html.portlet.wiki.edit_html.jsp=fckeditor
Fields
Set the following fields to false so users cannot see them. Some company
policies require gender and birthday information to always be hidden.
field.enable.com.liferay.portal.model.Contact.male=true
field.enable.com.liferay.portal.model.Contact.birthday=true
field.enable.com.liferay.portal.model.Organization.status=false
Input a list of comma delimited user types who can edit their own fields.
Valid types are administrator, user-mx, and user-without-mx.
Set a value of administrator if an administrator can edit the specified
field. An administrator is anyone who has the Administrator role.
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Set a value of user-mx if a user who has an email address that matches
the company mail suffix can edit the specified field.
Set a value of user-without-mx if a user who does not have an email address that matches the company mail suffix can edit the specified field.
Set all three values if all users can edit the specified field. Set a combination of the three values if only a combination of the users can edit the specified field.
field.editable.com.liferay.portal.model.User.screenName=administrator,userwith-mx,user-without-mx
field.editable.com.liferay.portal.model.User.emailAddress=administrator,user
-with-mx,user-without-mx
Mime Types
Input a list of comma delimited mime types that are not available by default from javax.activation.MimetypesFileTypeMap.
mime.types=\
application/msword doc,\
application/pdf pdf,\
application/vnd.ms-excel xls,\
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint ppt,\
application/x-ms-wmp wmv,\
application/x-shockwave-flash swf flv
Input a list of comma delimited extensions for which the content disposition header has to be set to inline.
mime.types.content.disposition.inline=flv,pdf,swf,wmv
Amazon
Enter an Amazon access key ID and an Amazon associate tag. This is
made available only for personal use. Please see the Amazon's license at
http://www.amazon.com for more information.
#amazon.access.key.id=
#amazon.associate.tag=
Browser Launcher
Enter a URL to automatically launch a browser to that URL when the
portal has fully initialized. Enter a blank URL to disable this feature.
browser.launcher.url=http://localhost:8080
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Control Panel
Set the name of the layout.
control.panel.layout.name=Control Panel
Set the friendly URL of the layout.
control.panel.layout.friendly.url=/manage
Set the theme of the layout.
control.panel.layout.regular.theme.id=controlpanel
Set the maximum number of communities that will be shown in the navigation menus. A large value might cause performance problems if the number of communities that the user can administer is very large.
control.panel.navigation.max.communities=50
Set the maximum number of organizations that will be shown in the navigation menus. A large value might cause performance problems if the number of organizations that the user can administer is very large.
control.panel.navigation.max.organizations=50
Set the name of a class that implements com.liferay.portlet.ControlPanelEntry. This class denotes the default value of of the element control-panel-entry-class in liferay-portlet.xml and is called by the Control Panel to decide whether the portlet should be shown to a specific user in
a specific context.
control.panel.default.entry.class=com.liferay.portlet.DefaultControlPanelEnt
ry
Instant Messenger
Set the AIM login and password which the system will use to communicate with users.
aim.login=
aim.password=
Due to a bug in JOscarLib 0.3b1, you must set the full path to the ICQ
jar.
See the following posts:
http://sourceforge.net/forum/message.php?msg_id=1972697
http://sourceforge.net/forum/message.php?msg_id=1990487
icq.jar=C:/Java/orion-2.0.7/lib/icq.jar
Set the ICQ login and password which the system will use to communicate with users.
icq.login=
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icq.password=
Set the MSN login and password which the system will use to communicate with users.
msn.login=
msn.password=
Set the YM login and password which the system will use to communicate with users.
ym.login=
ym.password=
Lucene Search
Set the limit for results used when performing index searches that are
subsequently filtered by permissions.
index.filter.search.limit=5000
Set the following to true if you want to avoid any writes to the index.
This is useful in some clustering environments where there is a shared index
and only one node of the cluster updates it.
index.read.only=false
Set the following to true if you want to index your entire library of files
on startup.
index.on.startup=false
Set this to true to add a delay before indexing on startup. A delay may be
necessary if a lot of plugins need to be loaded and reindexed. This property is
only valid if index.on.startup is set to true.
index.on.startup.delay=60
Set this to true if you want to index your entire library of files after an
upgrade. Only set this property to false if you are running a small upgrade
and you do not need to reindex everything.
index.on.upgrade=true
Set the following to true if you want the indexing on startup to be executed on a separate thread to speed up execution.
index.with.thread=true
Designate whether Lucene stores indexes in a database via JDBC, file system, or in RAM.
Examples:
lucene.store.type=jdbc
lucene.store.type=file
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lucene.store.type=ram
Lucene's storage of indexes via JDBC has a bug where temp files are not
removed. This can eat up disk space over time. Set the following property to
true to automatically clean up the temporary files once a day. See LEP-2180.
lucene.store.jdbc.auto.clean.up=true
Set the JDBC dialect that Lucene uses to store indexes in the database.
This is only referenced if Lucene stores indexes in the database. Liferay will
attempt to load the proper dialect based on the URL of the JDBC connection.
For example, the property lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.mysql is read for the JDBC
connection URL jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal.
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.db2=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.DB2Dialec
t
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.derby=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.DerbyDi
alect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.hsqldb=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.HSQLDi
alect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.jtds=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.SQLServe
rDialect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.microsoft=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.SQL
ServerDialect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.mysql=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.MySQLDi
alect
#lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.mysql=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.MySQLI
nnoDBDialect
#lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.mysql=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.MySQLM
yISAMDialect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.oracle=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.Oracle
Dialect
lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.postgresql=org.apache.lucene.store.jdbc.dialect.Po
stgreSQLDialect
Set the directory where Lucene indexes are stored. This is only referenced if Lucene stores indexes in the file system.
lucene.dir=${liferay.home}/lucene/
Input a class name that extends com.liferay.portal.search.lucene.LuceneFileExtractor. This class is called by Lucene to extract text from complex files
so that they can be properly indexed.
lucene.file.extractor=com.liferay.portal.search.lucene.LuceneFileExtractor
The file extractor can sometimes return text that is not valid for Lucene.
This property expects a regular expression. Any character that does not
match the regular expression will be replaced with a blank space. Set an
empty regular expression to disable this feature.
Examples:
lucene.file.extractor.regexp.strip=
lucene.file.extractor.regexp.strip=[\\d\\w]
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Set the default analyzer used for indexing and retrieval.
Examples:
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.br.BrazilianAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.cn.ChineseAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.cjk.CJKAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.cz.CzechAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.nl.DutchAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.fr.FrenchAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.de.GermanAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.KeywordAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.index.memory.PatternAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.PerFieldAnalyzerWrapper
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.ru.RussianAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.SimpleAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.snowball.SnowballAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.standard.StandardAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.StopAnalyzer
lucene.analyzer=org.apache.lucene.analysis.WhitespaceAnalyzer
Set how often index updates will be committed. Set the batch size to configure how many consecutive updates will trigger a commit. If the value is 0,
then the index will be committed on every update. Set the time interval in
milliseconds to configure how often to commit the index. The time interval is
not read unless the batch size is greater than 0 because the time interval
works in conjunction with the batch size to guarantee that the index is committed after a specified time interval. Set the time interval to 0 to disable
committing the index by a time interval.
lucene.commit.batch.size=0
lucene.commit.time.interval=0
Set Lucene's buffer size in megabytes. Higher numbers mean indexing
goes faster but uses more memory.
lucene.buffer.size=16
Set Lucene's merge factor. Higher numbers mean indexing goes faster
but uses more memory. The default value from Lucene is 10. This should never be set to a number lower than 2.
lucene.merge.factor=10
Set how often to run Lucene's optimize method. Optimization speeds up
searching but slows down writing. Set this property to 0 to always optimize.
Set this property to an integer greater than 0 to optimize every X writes.
lucene.optimize.interval=1
Set this to true if you want to index your entire library of files after
an upgrade. Only set this property to false if you are running a small upgrade
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and you do not need to reindex everything.
index.on.upgrade=true
Set the interval on which the lucene automatic clean up is set run. The value
is set in one minute increments.
lucene.store.jdbc.auto.clean.up.interval=1440
Set this to true if you want the portal to replicate an index write
across all members of the cluster. This is useful in some clustered
environments where you wish each server instance to have its own copy of
the Lucene search index. This is only relevant when using the default Lucene
indexing engine.
lucene.replicate.write=false
SourceForge
source.forge.mirrors=\
http://downloads.sourceforge.net,\
# Redirect
http://internap.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# San Jose, CA
http://superb-east.dl.sourceforge.net,\ # McLean, Virginia
http://superb-west.dl.sourceforge.net,\ # Seattle, Washington
http://easynews.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Phoenix, AZ
http://kent.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Kent, UK
http://ufpr.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Curitiba, Brazil
http://belnet.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Brussels, Belgium
http://switch.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Lausanne, Switzerland
http://mesh.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Duesseldorf, Germany
http://ovh.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Paris, France
http://dfn.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Berlin, Germany
http://heanet.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Dublin, Ireland
http://garr.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Bologna, Italy
http://surfnet.dl.sourceforge.net
# Amsterdam, The Netherlands
http://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Ishikawa, Japan
http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net,\
# Tainan, Taiwan
http://optusnet.dl.sourceforge.net
# Sydney, Australia
Value Object
You can add a listener for a specific class by setting the property
value.object.listener with a list of comma delimited class names that implement com.liferay.portal.model.ModelListener. These classes are pooled and reused and must be thread safe.
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portal.model.Contact=com.liferay.portal.mo
del.ContactListener
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portal.model.Layout=com.liferay.portal.mod
el.LayoutListener
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portal.model.LayoutSet=com.liferay.portal.
model.LayoutSetListener
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value.object.listener.com.liferay.portal.model.PortletPreferences=com.lifera
y.portal.model.PortletPreferencesListener
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portal.model.User=com.liferay.portal.model
.UserListener
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portlet.journal.model.JournalArticle=com.l
iferay.portlet.journal.model.JournalArticleListener
value.object.listener.com.liferay.portlet.journal.model.JournalTemplate=com.
liferay.portlet.journal.model.JournalTemplateListener
The finder level cache stores the many paths that return a value object
and the many paths that return a list of value objects. The finder level cache
only caches primary keys and is further helped by the entity level cache that
caches the value object to the primary key.
The Hibernate level cache is provided by the hibernate.cache.provider_class property. Set this to true to enable entity level caching.
value.object.entity.cache.enabled=true
Set this to true to configure entity level caching to block. See the property ehcache.blocking.cache.allowed for more information.
value.object.entity.blocking.cache=true
The entity level cache uses a thread local map to store the most frequently accessed items to lower the number of queries to the underlying
cache. Set the maximum map size to 0 to disable the thread level cache.
value.object.entity.thread.local.cache.max.size=100
Entity level caching for a specific type of value object can be configured
by using a property name that includes the value object's class name.
value.object.entity.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portal.model.Layout=true
value.object.entity.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portal.model.User=true
value.object.entity.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityAssetEntry=false
value.object.entity.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityLog=false
value.object.entity.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityUser=false
Set this to true to enable finder level caching.
value.object.finder.cache.enabled=true
Set this to true to configure finder level caching to block. See the property ehcache.blocking.cache.allowed for more information.
value.object.finder.blocking.cache=true
The finder level cache uses a thread local map to store the most frequently accessed items to lower the number of queries to the underlying
cache. Set the maximum map size to 0 to disable the thread level cache.
value.object.finder.thread.local.cache.max.size=100
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Finder level caching for a specific type of value object can be configured
by using a property name that includes the value object's class name. Mapping tables can also be specified to configure the caching of value object relationships.
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portal.model.Layout=true
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portal.model.User=true
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityAssetEntry=false
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityLog=false
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.social.model.SocialEqu
ityUser=false
value.object.finder.cache.enabled.Users_Roles=true
Communication Link
Set the JGroups properties used by the portal to communicate with other
instances of the portal. This is only needed if the portal is running in a
clustered environment. The JGroups settings provide a mechanism for the
portal to broadcast messages to the other instances of the portal. The specified multi-cast address should be unique for internal portal messaging only.
You will still need to set the Hibernate and Ehcache settings for database
clustering.
comm.link.properties=UDP(bind_addr=127.0.0.1;mcast_addr=231.12.21.102;mcast_
port=45566;ip_ttl=32;mcast_send_buf_size=150000;mcast_recv_buf_size=80000):P
ING(timeout=2000;num_initial_members=3):MERGE2(min_interval=5000;max_interva
l=10000):FD_SOCK:VERIFY_SUSPECT(timeout=1500):pbcast.NAKACK(gc_lag=50;retran
smit_timeout=300,600,1200,2400,4800;max_xmit_size=8192):UNICAST(timeout=300,
600,1200,2400):pbcast.STABLE(desired_avg_gossip=20000):FRAG(frag_size=8096;d
own_thread=false;up_thread=false):pbcast.GMS(join_timeout=5000;join_retry_ti
meout=2000;shun=false;print_local_addr=true)
Cluster Link
Set this to true to enable the cluster link. This is required if you want
to cluster indexing and other features that depend the cluster link.
cluster.link.enabled=false
Set the JGroups properties for each channel, we support up to 10
transport channels and 1 single required control channel. Use as few
transport channels as possible for best performance. By default, only one
UDP control channel and one UDP transport channel are enabled. Channels
can be configured by XML files that are located in the class path or by inline
properties.
cluster.link.channel.properties.control=UDP(bind_addr=localhost;mcast_ad
dr=${multicast.group.address["cluster-link-control"]};mcast_port=$
{multicast.group.port["cluster-linkcontrol"]};ip_ttl=8;mcast_send_buf_size=150000;mcast_recv_buf_size=80000):PI
NG(timeout=2000;num_initial_members=3):MERGE2(min_interval=5000;max_interval
=10000):FD_SOCK:VERIFY_SUSPECT(timeout=1500):pbcast.NAKACK(gc_lag=50;retrans
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mit_timeout=300,600,1200,2400,4800;max_xmit_size=8192):UNICAST(timeout=300,6
00,1200,2400):pbcast.STABLE(desired_avg_gossip=20000):FRAG(frag_size=8096;do
wn_thread=false;up_thread=false):pbcast.GMS(join_timeout=5000;join_retry_tim
eout=2000;shun=false;print_local_addr=true)
cluster.link.channel.properties.transport.0=UDP(bind_addr=localhost;mcas
t_addr=${multicast.group.address["cluster-link-udp"]};mcast_port=$
{multicast.group.port["cluster-linkudp"]};ip_ttl=8;mcast_send_buf_size=150000;mcast_recv_buf_size=80000):PING(t
imeout=2000;num_initial_members=3):MERGE2(min_interval=5000;max_interval=100
00):FD_SOCK:VERIFY_SUSPECT(timeout=1500):pbcast.NAKACK(gc_lag=50;retransmit_
timeout=300,600,1200,2400,4800;max_xmit_size=8192):UNICAST(timeout=300,600,1
200,2400):pbcast.STABLE(desired_avg_gossip=20000):FRAG(frag_size=8096;down_t
hread=false;up_thread=false):pbcast.GMS(join_timeout=5000;join_retry_timeout
=2000;shun=false;print_local_addr=true)
#cluster.link.channel.properties.transport.1=udp.xml
#cluster.link.channel.properties.transport.2=mping.xml
Set JGroups' system properties. System properties have higher
priority than individual properties given to each channel. That means system
properties will override individual properties.
cluster.link.channel.system.properties=\
#
# Common
#
\
jgroups.bind_addr:localhost,\
#jgroups.bind_interface:eth0,\
\
#
# Multicast
#
\
jgroups.mping.mcast_addr:${multicast.group.address["cluster-linkmping"]},\
jgroups.mping.mcast_port:${multicast.group.port["cluster-linkmping"]},\
jgroups.mping.ip_ttl:8,\
\
\
Cluster Executor
Set this to true to enable the cluster executor debugging. This will
attach a debugging listener which will log every cluster event it receives.
cluster.executor.debug.enabled=false
Minifier
The strip filter will attempt to cache inline minified CSS and JavaScript
content. Set this property configure the maximum pieces of cached content.
Set this property to 0 to disable caching of inline minified content.
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minifier.inline.content.cache.size=10000
Input a list of comma delimited values that will cause the minified CSS to
not be cached if those values are contained in the content.
minifier.inline.content.cache.skip.css=
Input a list of comma delimited values that will cause the minified JavaScript to not be cached if those values are contained in the content.
minifier.inline.content.cache.skip.javascript=getSessionId,encryptedUserId
Monitoring
Configure the appropriate level for monitoring Liferay. Valid values are:
HIGH, LOW, MEDIUM, OFF.
monitoring.level.com.liferay.monitoring.Portal=HIGH
monitoring.level.com.liferay.monitoring.Portlet=HIGH
Set this to true to store data samples of the current request as a thread
local variable. This allows you to obtain each request's statistics for further
processing
monitoring.data.sample.thread.local=false
Set this to true to monitor portal requests.
monitoring.portal.request=false
Set this to true to monitor portlet action requests.
monitoring.portlet.action.request=false
Set this to true to monitor portlet event requests.
monitoring.portlet.event.request=false
Set this to true to monitor portlet render requests.
monitoring.portlet.render.request=false
Set this to true to monitor portlet resource requests.
monitoring.portlet.resource.request=false
Set this to true to show data samples at the bottom of each portal page.
In order for data to show, the property monitoring.data.sample.thread.local must be set to true.
monitoring.show.per.request.data.sample=false
Multicast
Consolidate multicast address and port settings in one location for
easier maintenance. These settings must correlate to your physical network
configuration (i.e. firewall, switch, and other network hardware matter) to
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ensure speedy and accurate communication across a cluster.
Each address and port combination represent a conversation that is
made between different nodes. If they are not unique or correctly set, there
will be a potential of unnecessary network traffic that may cause slower
updates or inaccurate updates.
See the property cluster.link.channel.properties.control.
multicast.group.address["cluster-link-control"]=233.0.0.1
multicast.group.port["cluster-link-control"]=23301
See the properties cluster.link.channel.properties.transport.0
and cluster.link.channel.system.properties.
multicast.group.address["cluster-link-udp"]=233.0.0.2
multicast.group.port["cluster-link-udp"]=23302
See the property cluster.link.channel.system.properties.
multicast.group.address["cluster-link-mping"]=233.0.0.3
multicast.group.port["cluster-link-mping"]=23303
See the properties net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName and
net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName.peerProviderProperties.
multicast.group.address["hibernate"]=233.0.0.4
multicast.group.port["hibernate"]=23304
See the properties ehcache.multi.vm.config.location
ehcache.multi.vm.config.location.peerProviderProperties.
and
multicast.group.address["multi-vm"]=233.0.0.5
multicast.group.port["multi-vm"]=23305
Content Delivery Network
Set the hostname that will be used to serve static content via a CDN. This
property can be overridden dynamically at runtime by setting the HTTP
parameter cdn_host.
cdn.host=
Counter
The counter operates with is own data source to prevent deadlocks. By
default, the data source created for the counter uses the same settings as
those used to create the data source used for the rest of the portal. That happens by because the counter service will look up the properties prefixed with
jdbc.default. to create its data source. See the JDBC properties prefixed with
jdbc.default. for more information.
Setting a different value for the counter JDBC prefix allows you to better
fine tune the counter data source with its own set of configuration settings
for high availability installations. Note that these settings, though separate,
are a copy of the default settings with the newly overridden values.
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counter.jdbc.prefix=jdbc.default.
Set the number of increments between database updates to the Counter
table. Set this value to a higher number for better performance.
counter.increment=100
Set the interval in minutes for the ConnectionHearbeatJob. This will determine how often the database is polled for long running connections and
will prevent the database from disconnecting the socket prematurely.
counter.connection.heartbeat.job.interval=60
Lock
Set the lock expiration time for each class.
Example: 1 Day
lock.expiration.time.com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.model.DLFileEntry=8
6400000
Example: 20 Minutes
lock.expiration.time.com.liferay.portlet.wiki.model.WikiPage=1200000
JBI
Connect to either Mule or ServiceMix as your ESB.
Examples:
jbi.workflow.url=http://localhost:8080/mule-web/workflow
jbi.workflow.url=http://localhost:8080/servicemix-web/workflow
JCR
Liferay includes Jackrabbit (http://jackrabbit.apache.org) by default as
its JSR-170 Java Content Repository.
jcr.initialize.on.startup=false
jcr.workspace.name=liferay
jcr.node.documentlibrary=documentlibrary
jcr.jackrabbit.repository.root=${liferay.home}/jackrabbit
jcr.jackrabbit.config.file.path=$
{jcr.jackrabbit.repository.root}/repository.xml
jcr.jackrabbit.repository.home=${jcr.jackrabbit.repository.root}/home
jcr.jackrabbit.credentials.username=none
jcr.jackrabbit.credentials.password=none
Live Users
Set this to true to enable tracking via Live Users.
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live.users.enabled=false
Lock
Set the lock expiration time for each class.
1 day:
lock.expiration.time.com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.model.DLFolder=8640
0000
lock.expiration.time.com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.model.DLFileEntry=8
6400000
20 minutes:
lock.expiration.time.com.liferay.portlet.wiki.model.WikiPage=1200000
Mail
Set the JNDI name to lookup the Java Mail session. If none is set, then the
portal will attempt to create the Java Mail session based on the properties
prefixed with mail.session.
#mail.session.jndi.name=mail/MailSession
Set the properties used to create the Java Mail session. The property prefix mail.session. will be removed before it is used to create the session object. These properties will only be read if the property mail.session.jndi.name is
not set.
mail.session.mail.imap.host=localhost
mail.session.mail.pop3.host=localhost
#mail.session.mail.smtp.auth=true
mail.session.mail.smtp.host=localhost
#mail.session.mail.smtp.socketFactory.class=javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory
#mail.session.mail.smtp.socketFactory.fallback=false
#mail.session.mail.smtp.socketFactory.port=465
#mail.session.mail.smtp.starttls.enable=true
#mail.session.mail.smtp.password=
#mail.session.mail.smtp.port=465
#mail.session.mail.smtp.user=
mail.session.mail.store.protocol=localhost
mail.session.mail.transport.protocol=smtp
Set this to false if administrator should not be allowed to change the mail
domain via the Admin portlet.
mail.mx.update=true
Input a list of comma delimited email addresses that will receive a BCC of
every email sent through the mail server.
mail.audit.trail=
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Set the name of a class that implements com.liferay.mail.util.Hook.
The mail server will use this class to ensure that the mail and portal servers
are synchronized on user information. The portal will not know how to add,
update, or delete users from the mail server except through this hook.
Available hooks are:
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.CyrusHook
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.DummyHook
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.FuseMailHook
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.GoogleHook
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.SendmailHook
mail.hook.impl=com.liferay.mail.util.ShellHook
CyrusHook
Set the commands for adding, updating, and deleting a user where %1%
is the user id. Replace the password with the password for the cyrus user.
mail.hook.cyrus.add.user=cyrusadmin password create %1%
#mail.hook.cyrus.add.user=cyrus_adduser password %1%
mail.hook.cyrus.delete.user=cyrusadmin password delete %1%
#mail.hook.cyrus.delete.user=cyrus_userdel password %1%
mail.hook.cyrus.home=/home/cyrus
FuseMailHook
See http://www.fusemail.com/support/api.html for more information.
You must also update the mail.account.finder property.
mail.hook.fusemail.url=https://www.fusemail.com/api/request.html
mail.hook.fusemail.username=
mail.hook.fusemail.password=
mail.hook.fusemail.account.type=group_subaccount
mail.hook.fusemail.group.parent=
SendmailHook
Set the commands for adding, updating, and deleting a user where %1% is
the user id and %2% is the password. Set the home and virtual user table information.
mail.hook.sendmail.add.user=adduser %1% -s /bin/false
mail.hook.sendmail.change.password=autopasswd %1% %2%
mail.hook.sendmail.delete.user=userdel -r %1%
mail.hook.sendmail.home=/home
mail.hook.sendmail.virtusertable=/etc/mail/virtusertable
mail.hook.sendmail.virtusertable.refresh=bash -c "makemap hash
/etc/mail/virtusertable < /etc/mail/virtusertable"
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ShellHook
Set the location of the shell script that will interface with any mail server.
mail.hook.shell.script=/usr/sbin/mailadmin.ksh
OpenOffice
Enabling OpenOffice integration allows the Document Library portlet to
provide document conversion functionality. To start OpenOffice as a service,
run the command:
soffice -headless -accept="socket,host=127.0.0.1,port=8100;urp;"
-nofirststartwizard
This is tested with OpenOffice 2.3.x.
openoffice.server.enabled=false
openoffice.server.host=127.0.0.1
openoffice.server.port=8100
Poller
Specify the poller request timeout in milliseconds. This prevents the
poller from locking up the application server.
poller.request.timeout=1000
POP
Set this to true to enable polling of email notifications from a POP server.
The user credentials are the same used for SMTP authentication and is specified in the mail/MailSession configuration for each application server.
pop.server.notifications.enabled=false
Set the interval on which the POPNotificationsJob will run. The value is
set in one minute increments.
pop.server.notifications.interval=1
Set this property to create a special MX subdomain to receive all portal
related email (e.g. events.liferay.com). This means configuring a default inbox for the domain and receiving all emails into that inbox.
This approach may not be allowed for some organizations. If you cannot
use the subdomain approach, unset this value and Liferay will use the
replyTo address specified in the portlet preferences.
pop.server.subdomain=events
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Quartz
These properties define the connection to the built-in Quartz job
scheduling engine.
org.quartz.dataSource.ds.connectionProvider.class=com.liferay.portal.schedul
er.quartz.QuartzConnectionProviderImpl
org.quartz.jobStore.class=org.quartz.impl.jdbcjobstore.JobStoreTX
org.quartz.jobStore.dataSource=ds
org.quartz.jobStore.driverDelegateClass=com.liferay.portal.scheduler.quartz.
DynamicDriverDelegate
org.quartz.jobStore.isClustered=false
org.quartz.jobStore.misfireThreshold=60000
org.quartz.jobStore.tablePrefix=QUARTZ_
org.quartz.jobStore.useProperties=true
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceId=AUTO
org.quartz.scheduler.instanceName=QuartzSchedulerEngineInstance
org.quartz.threadPool.class=org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool
org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount=5
org.quartz.threadPool.threadPriority=5
Scheduler
Set this to false to disable all scheduler classes defined in liferay-portlet.xml and in the property scheduler.classes.
scheduler.enabled=true
Input a list of comma delimited class names that implement com.liferay.portal.kernel.job.Scheduler. These classes allow jobs to be scheduled on startup.
These classes are not associated to any one portlet.
scheduler.classes=
Search Container
Set the available values for the number of entries to display per page. An
empty value, or commenting out the value, will disable delta resizing.
The default of 20 will apply in all cases.
Always include 20, since it is the default page size when no delta is specified. The absolute maximum allowed delta is 200.
search.container.page.delta.values=5,10,20,30,50,75
Sharepoint
Set the tokens for supported Sharepoint storage paths.
sharepoint.storage.tokens=document_library
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Set the class names for supported Sharepoint storage classes.
sharepoint.storage.class[document_library]=com.liferay.portlet.documentlibra
ry.sharepoint.DLSharepointStorageImpl
Social Bookmarks
The Blogs portlet allows for the posting of entries to various popular social bookmarking sites. The example ones are the defaults; to configure more,
just add the site in the format below.
social.bookmark.types=blinklist,delicious,digg,furl,newsvine,reddit,technora
ti
social.bookmark.post.url[blinklist]=http://blinklist.com/index.php?
Action=Blink/addblink.php&url=${liferay:social-bookmark:url}&Title=$
{liferay:social-bookmark:title}
social.bookmark.post.url[delicious]=http://del.icio.us/post?url=$
{liferay:social-bookmark:url}&title=${liferay:social-bookmark:title}
social.bookmark.post.url[digg]=http://digg.com/submit?phase=2&url=$
{liferay:social-bookmark:url}
social.bookmark.post.url[furl]=http://furl.net/storeIt.jsp?u=$
{liferay:social-bookmark:url}&t=${liferay:social-bookmark:title}
social.bookmark.post.url[newsvine]=http://www.newsvine.com/_tools/seed&save?
u=${liferay:social-bookmark:url}&h=${liferay:social-bookmark:title}
social.bookmark.post.url[reddit]=http://reddit.com/submit?url=$
{liferay:social-bookmark:url}&title=${liferay:social-bookmark:title}
social.bookmark.post.url[technorati]=http://technorati.com/cosmos/search.htm
l?url=${liferay:social-bookmark:url}
Velocity Engine
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend
com.liferay.util.velocity.VelocityResourceListener. These classes will run in sequence to allow you to find the applicable ResourceLoader to load a Velocity
template.
velocity.engine.resource.listeners=com.liferay.portal.velocity.ServletVeloci
tyResourceListener,com.liferay.portal.velocity.JournalTemplateVelocityResour
ceListener,com.liferay.portal.velocity.ThemeLoaderVelocityResourceListener,c
om.liferay.portal.velocity.ClassLoaderVelocityResourceListener
Set the Velocity resource managers. We extend the Velocity's default resource managers for better scalability.
Note that the modification check interval is not respected because the
resource loader implementation does not know the last modified date of a resource. This means you will need to turn off caching if you want to be able to
modify VM templates in themes and see the changes right away.
velocity.engine.resource.manager=com.liferay.portal.velocity.LiferayResource
Manager
velocity.engine.resource.manager.cache=com.liferay.portal.velocity.LiferayRe
sourceCache
velocity.engine.resource.manager.cache.enabled=true
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#velocity.engine.resource.manager.modification.check.interval=0
Input a list of comma delimited macros that will be loaded. These files
must exist in the class path.
velocity.engine.velocimacro.library=VM_global_library.vm,VM_liferay.vm
Set the Velocity logging configuration.
velocity.engine.logger=org.apache.velocity.runtime.log.SimpleLog4JLogSystem
velocity.engine.logger.category=org.apache.velocity
Virtual Hosts
Set the extensions that will be ignored for virtual hosts.
virtual.hosts.ignore.extensions=\
/c,\
.css,\
.gif,\
.image/company_logo,\
.ico,\
.js,\
.jpeg,\
.jsp,\
.png,\
/portal/layout,\
/portal/login,\
/portal/logout
Set the hosts that will be ignored for virtual hosts.
virtual.hosts.ignore.hosts=\
127.0.0.1,\
localhost
Set the paths that will be ignored for virtual hosts.
virtual.hosts.ignore.paths=\
/c,\
\
/c/portal/change_password,\
/c/portal/extend_session,\
/c/portal/extend_session_confirm,\
/c/portal/json_service,\
/c/portal/layout,\
/c/portal/login,\
/c/portal/logout,\
/c/portal/portlet_url,\
/c/portal/render_portlet,\
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/c/portal/reverse_ajax,\
/c/portal/session_tree_js_click,\
/c/portal/status,\
/c/portal/update_layout,\
/c/portal/update_terms_of_use,\
/c/portal/upload_progress_poller,\
\
/c/layout_configuration/templates,\
/c/layout_management/update_page
Specify the community name that will default to the company's virtual
host. If the specified community has a virtual host, then that will take precedence. If it does not, then it will use the company's virtual host.
This property is useful to remove /web/guest (or any other community)
from the default URL. For example, if this property is not set, then the default URL may be http://localhost:8080/web/guest/home. If this property is
set, then the default URL may be http://localhost:8080/home.
virtual.hosts.default.community.name=Guest
HTTP
See system.properties for more HTTP settings.
Set the maximum number of connections.
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.max.connections.per.host=2
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.max.total.connections=20
Set the proxy authentication type.
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.auth.type=username-password
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.auth.type=ntlm
Set user name and password used for HTTP proxy authentication.
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.username=
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.password=
Set additional properties for NTLM authentication.
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.ntlm.domain=
#com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.proxy.ntlm.host=
Set the connection timeout when fetching HTTP content.
com.liferay.portal.util.HttpImpl.timeout=10000
Servlet Filters
The audit filter populates the AuditRequestThreadLocal with the appropriate request values to generate audit requests.
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com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.audit.AuditFilter=false
The auto login filter processes the classes in the property
auto.lo-
gin.hooks to provide auto login functionality.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.autologin.AutoLoginFilter=true
The cache filter will cache content. See ehcache.xml to modify the cache
expiration time to live.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.cache.CacheFilter=true
The CAS filter is used to provide CAS based single sign on.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.cas.CASFilter=true
This double click filter will prevent double clicks at the server side. Prevention of double clicks is already in place on the client side. However, some
sites require a more robust solution. This is turned off by default since most
sites will not need it.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.doubleclick.DoubleClickFilter=false
The ETag filter is used to generate ETag headers.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.etag.ETagFilter=true
If the user can unzip compressed HTTP content, the GZip filter will zip
up the HTTP content before sending it to the user. This will speed up page
rendering for users that are on dial up.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.gzip.GZipFilter=true
The header filter is used to set request headers.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.header.HeaderFilter=true
The I18n filter is used to internationalize URLs. See the property
loc-
ale.prepend.friendly.url.style for more information.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.i18n.I18nFilter=true
The Language filter replaces JavaScript code that make a client side call
to translate a piece of text with the actual translated value. For example, a
typical piece of JavaScript code fits the pattern Liferay.Language.get('key') where key is the text to translate. This filter will replace
the entire piece of code with the translated text. This is very useful because it
will lower the number of client calls by translating the text before the
browser receives the JavaScript file.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.language.LanguageFilter=true
The minifier filter is used to minify CSS and JavaScript.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.minifier.MinifierFilter=true
The monitoring filter monitors portal request performance.
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com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.monitoring.MonitoringFilter=true
The NTLM filter is used to provide NTLM based single sign on.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.ntlm.NtlmFilter=true
The NTLM post filter is used to fix known issues with NTLM and ajax requests. See LPS-3795.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.ntlm.NtlmPostFilter=true
The OpenSSO filter is used to provide OpenSSO based single sign on.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sso.opensso.OpenSSOFilter=true
The secure filter is used to protect servlets based on IP and protocol. See
the properties *.servlet.hosts.allowed and *.servlet.https.required.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.secure.SecureFilter=true
The servlet authorizing filter allows external servlets to be authorized by
the portal. See LEP-4682.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.servletauthorizing.ServletAuthorizingFilt
er=true
The strip filter will remove blank lines from the content. This will speed
up page rendering for users that are on dial up.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.strip.StripFilter=true
The layout cache filter will cache pages to speed up page rendering for
guest users. See ehcache.xml to modify the cache expiration time to live.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.layoutcache.LayoutCacheFilter=true
The session id filter ensure that only one session is created between http
and https sessions. This is useful if you want users to login via https but
have them view the rest of the site via http. This is disabled by default. Do
not enable this unless you thoroughly understand how cookies, http, and https work.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.sessionid.SessionIdFilter=false
The Sharepoint filter allows users to access documents in the Document
Library directly from Microsoft Office using the Sharepoint protocol.
com.liferay.portal.sharepoint.SharepointFilter=true
The strip filter will remove blank lines from the outputted content. This
will speed up page rendering for users that are on dial up.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.strip.StripFilter=true
The theme preview filter generates a preview of the currently applied
theme that can be used by the Dreamweaver Theming plugin. This is disabled
by default. Set the themePreview parameter to 1 in the URL to access the
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theme
preview
for
any
page.
For
example,
a
URL
can
be
http://localhost:8080/web/guest?themePreview=1.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.themepreview.ThemePreviewFilter=false
The thread local filter cleans up registered thread locals to prevent
memory leaks. Register your thread local with com.liferay.portal.kernel.util.ThreadLocalRegistry.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.threadlocal.ThreadLocalFilter=true
The valid HTML filter will move JavaScript that is outside of the closing
body tag to its proper place inside the body tag. Most sites will prefer to leave
this filter disabled because having JavaScript outside of the body tag causes
the page to render faster. However, the side effect is that it will also make the
site inaccessible to screen readers because the HTML is technically invalid.
Setting this property to true optimizes for accessibility while setting this
property to false optimizes for browser performance.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.validhtml.ValidHtmlFilter=false
The Velocity filter will process */css/main.css as a Velocity template.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.velocity.VelocityFilter=false
The virtual host filter maps hosts to public and private pages. For example, if the public virtual host is www.helloworld.com and the friendly URL
is /helloworld, then http://www.helloworld.com is mapped to http://localhost:8080/web/helloworld.
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.virtualhost.VirtualHostFilter=true
Upload Servlet Request
Set the maximum file size. Default is 1024 * 1024 * 100.
com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size=104857600
Set the temp directory for uploaded files.
#com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.temp.dir=C:/Temp
Set the threshold size to prevent extraneous serialization of uploaded
data.
com.liferay.portal.upload.LiferayFileItem.threshold.size=262144
Set the threshold size to prevent out of memory exceptions caused by
caching excessively large uploaded data. Default is 1024 * 1024 * 10.
com.liferay.portal.upload.LiferayInputStream.threshold.size=10485760
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Web Server
Set the HTTP and HTTPs ports when running the portal in a J2EE server
that is sitting behind another web server like Apache. Set the values to -1 if
the portal is not running behind another web server like Apache.
web.server.http.port=-1
web.server.https.port=-1
Set the hostname that will be used when the portlet generates URLs.
Leaving this blank will mean the host is derived from the servlet container.
web.server.host=
Set the preferred protocol.
web.server.protocol=https
Set this to true to display the server name at the bottom of every page.
This is useful when testing clustering configurations so that you can know
which node you are accessing.
web.server.display.node=false
WebDAV
Set a list of files for the WebDAV servlet to ignore processing.
webdav.ignore=.DS_Store,.metadata_index_homes_only,.metadata_never_index,.Sp
otlight-V100,.TemporaryItems,.Trashes
Main Servlet
Servlets can be protected by com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.secure.SecureFilter.
Input a list of comma delimited IPs that can access this servlet. Input a
blank list to allow any IP to access this servlet. SERVER_IP will be replaced
with the IP of the host server.
main.servlet.hosts.allowed=
Set the following to true if this servlet can only be accessed via https.
main.servlet.https.required=false
Axis Servlet
See Main Servlet on how to protect this servlet.
axis.servlet.hosts.allowed=127.0.0.1,SERVER_IP
axis.servlet.https.required=false
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Google Gadget Servlet
Set the servlet mapping for the Google Gadget servlet.
google.gadget.servlet.mapping=/google_gadget
JSON Tunnel Servlet
See Main Servlet on how to protect this servlet.
json.servlet.hosts.allowed=
json.servlet.https.required=false
Liferay Tunnel Servlet
See Main Servlet on how to protect this servlet.
tunnel.servlet.hosts.allowed=127.0.0.1,SERVER_IP
tunnel.servlet.https.required=false
Netvibes Servlet
Set the servlet mapping for the Netvibes servlet.
netvibes.servlet.mapping=/netvibes
Spring Remoting Servlet
See Main Servlet on how to protect this servlet.
spring.remoting.servlet.hosts.allowed=127.0.0.1,SERVER_IP
spring.remoting.servlet.https.required=false
WebDAV Servlet
See Main Servlet on how to protect this servlet.
webdav.servlet.hosts.allowed=
webdav.servlet.https.required=false
Widget Servlet
Set the servlet mapping for the widget servlet.
widget.servlet.mapping=/widget
Admin Portlet
You can set some administrative defaults by using these properties. The
first time you bring up your portal, these values will then already be set in
the Admin portlet. All values should be separated by \n characters.
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Set up default group names.
admin.default.group.names=
Set up default role names.
admin.default.role.names=Power User\nUser
Set up default user group names.
admin.default.user.group.names=
Set this to true to ensure that a user is synchronized with the default associations of groups, roles, and user groups upon every log in. Set this to false
if default associations should only be applied to a user when a user is created.
admin.sync.default.associations=false
The rest of these properties map to their values in the Admin portlet.
admin.mail.host.names=
admin.reserved.screen.names=
admin.reserved.email.addresses=
admin.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
admin.email.user.added.enabled=true
admin.email.user.added.subject=com/liferay/portlet/admin/dependencies/email_
user_added_subject.tmpl
admin.email.user.added.body=com/liferay/portlet/admin/dependencies/email_use
r_added_body.tmpl
admin.email.password.sent.enabled=true
admin.email.password.sent.subject=com/liferay/portlet/admin/dependencies/ema
il_password_sent_subject.tmpl
admin.email.password.sent.body=com/liferay/portlet/admin/dependencies/email_
password_sent_body.tmpl
Announcements Portlet
Configure email notification settings.
announcements.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
announcements.email.to.name=
[email protected]
announcements.email.subject=com/liferay/portlet/announcements/dependencies/e
mail_subject.tmpl
announcements.email.body=com/liferay/portlet/announcements/dependencies/emai
l_body.tmpl
Set the list of announcement types. The display text of each of the announcement types is set in content/Language.properties.
announcements.entry.types=general,news,test
Set the interval on which the
one minute increments.
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CheckEntryJob
will run. The value is set in
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announcements.entry.check.interval=15
Asset Publisher Portlet
Input a list of comma separated display styles that will be available in
the configuration screen of Asset Publisher portlet.
asset.publisher.display.styles=table,title-list,abstracts,full-content
Asset
Input a list of comma delimited default properties for new
categories. Each item of the list should have the following format: key:value.
asset.categories.properties.default=
Set the following to false to specify that searching and browsing
using categories should only show assets that have been assigned the
selected category explicitly. When set to true, the children categories are also
included in the search.
asset.categories.search.hierarchical=true
Set this to true to enable incrementing the view counter for assets.
asset.entry.increment.view.counter.enabled=true
Input
a
class
name
that
implements
will be
just an
empty class that doesn't actually do any validation. The
MinimalAssetEntryValidator requires all enties to have at least one tag.
com.liferay.portlet.asset.util.AssetEntryValidator. This class
called to validate entries. The DefaultAssetEntryValidator class is
asset.entry.validator=com.liferay.portlet.asset.util.DefaultAssetEntryValida
tor
asset.entry.validator=com.liferay.portlet.asset.util.MinimalAssetEntryValida
tor
Input a list of comma delimited default tag properties for new tags.
Each item of the list should have the following format: key:value.
asset.tag.properties.default=
Set the name of the default vocabulary which will be created by
default.
asset.vocabulary.default=Topic
Set a property with the prefix asset.renderer.enabled. and a suffix
with the asset renderer factory class name to enable or disable an asset
renderer factory. The default setting is true. See LPS-6085 for more
information.
asset.renderer.enabled.com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.asset.DLFileEntry
AssetRendererFactory=false
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Blogs Portlet
The following properties affect the Blogs portlet.
blogs.email.comments.added.enabled=true
blogs.email.comments.added.subject=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/em
ail_comments_added_subject.tmpl
blogs.email.comments.added.body=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/email
_comments_added_body.tmpl
blogs.page.abstract.length=400
blogs.rss.abstract.length=200
blogs.trackback.excerpt.length=50
Configure email notification settings.
blogs.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
blogs.email.entry.added.enabled=true
blogs.email.entry.added.subject=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/email
_entry_added_subject.tmpl
blogs.email.entry.added.body=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/email_en
try_added_body.tmpl
blogs.email.entry.updated.enabled=true
blogs.email.entry.updated.subject=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/ema
il_entry_updated_subject.tmpl
blogs.email.entry.updated.body=com/liferay/portlet/blogs/dependencies/email_
entry_updated_body.tmpl
Set the interval on which the
is set in one minute increments.
TrackbackVerifierJob
will run. The value
blogs.trackback.verifier.job.interval=5
Set the excerpt length for linkbacks.
blogs.linkback.excerpt.length=200
Set the interval on which the LinkbackMessageListener will run. The
value is set in one minute increments.
blogs.linkback.job.interval=5
Set this to true to enable pingbacks.
blogs.pingback.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable trackbacks.
blogs.trackback.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable pinging Google on new and updated blog
entries.
blogs.ping.google.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable comments for blogs entries.
blogs.entry.comments.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable previous and next navigation for blogs
entries.
blogs.entry.previous.and.next.navigation.enabled=true
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Breadcrumb Portlet
Set this to true to show the Guest community as the top level parent in
the breadcrumbs. It will only show if it has at least one page.
breadcrumb.show.guest.group=true
Set this to true to show the path of parent communities or organizations
in the breadcrumbs. An community or organization will only be shown if it
has at least one page.
breadcrumb.show.parent.groups=true
Calendar Portlet
Set the list of event types. The display text of each of the event types is
set in content/Language.properties.
calendar.event.types=anniversary,appointment,billpayment,birthday,breakfast,call,chat,class,clubevent,concert,dinner,event,graduation,happyhour,holiday,interview,lunch,meeting,movie,netevent,other,party,performance,press-release,reunion,sportsevent,training,travel,tv-show,vacation,wedding
Set the interval on which the
one minute increments.
CheckEventJob
will run. The value is set in
calendar.event.check.interval=15
Configure email notification settings.
calendar.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
calendar.email.event.reminder.enabled=true
calendar.email.event.reminder.subject=com/liferay/portlet/calendar/dependenc
ies/email_event_reminder_subject.tmpl
calendar.email.event.reminder.body=com/liferay/portlet/calendar/dependencies
/email_event_reminder_body.tmpl
Set this to true to enable comments for calendar events.
calendar.event.comments.enabled=true
Communities Portlet
Set this to true to allow community members to see the Communities
portlet and the communities he is a member of in the Control Panel. Setting
this to false will only allow administrators to see this portlet in the Control
Panel.
communities.control.panel.members.visible=true
Configure email notification settings.
communities.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
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[email protected]
communities.email.membership.reply.subject=com/liferay/portlet/communities/d
ependencies/email_membership_reply_subject.tmpl
communities.email.membership.reply.body=com/liferay/portlet/communities/depe
ndencies/email_membership_reply_body.tmpl
communities.email.membership.request.subject=com/liferay/portlet/communities
/dependencies/email_membership_request_subject.tmpl
communities.email.membership.request.body=com/liferay/portlet/communities/de
pendencies/email_membership_request_body.tmpl
Discussion Tag Library
Set the thread view for discussion comments. This will affect Blogs, Document Library, and other portlets that use the Discussion tag library to
provide comments. Set the value to flat to paginate comments. Set the value
to combination to show all comments in one page along with a tree view of
the comments.
discussion.thread.view=combination
discussion.thread.view=flat
Document Library Portlet
Set
the
name
of
a
com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.Hook.
class
that
implements
The document library server will
use this persist documents.
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.AdvancedFileSystemHook
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.CMISHook
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.FileSystemHook
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.JCRHook
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.S3Hook
FileSystemHook
dl.hook.file.system.root.dir=${liferay.home}/data/document_library
JCRHook
dl.hook.jcr.fetch.delay=500
dl.hook.jcr.fetch.max.failures=5
A file extension of * will permit all file extensions.
dl.file.extensions=*
dl.file.extensions=.bmp,.css,.doc,.docx,.dot,.gif,.gz,.htm,.html,.jpg,.js,.l
ar,.odb,.odf,.odg,.odp,.ods,.odt,.pdf,.png,.ppt,.pptx,.rtf,.swf,.sxc,.sxi,.s
xw,.tar,.tiff,.tgz,.txt,.vsd,.xls,.xlsx,.xml,.zip,.jrxml
Set this to false to allow users to update file entries by uploading a
file with an extension different from the one of the originally uploaded file.
There is a known issue where setting this to true will break OSX
compatibility. See LPS-10770 for more information.
dl.file.extensions.strict.check=false
Set the maximum file size for indexing file contents. Files larger than
this property will not have their contents indexed, only their metadata will
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be indexed. A value of -1 indicates that all file contents will be indexed. A
value of 0 indicates that no file contents will be indexed.
dl.file.indexing.max.size=10485760
Set this to true to enable the read count for document library files.
dl.file.entry.read.count.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable file rank for document library files.
dl.file.rank.enabled=true
Set this to true if document library should be published to live by
default.
dl.publish.to.live.by.default=true
Set this to true to hold the lock when an unlock is requested through
WebDAV until a user manually releases the lock from the Document Library
portlet. Set this to false to release the lock.
dl.webdav.hold.lock=false
Set this to true to create only one document library file version
when saving multiple times during a WebDAV session.
dl.webdav.save.to.single.version=false
Dockbar Portlet
Set the portlet ids that will be shown directly in the Add Application menu.
dockbar.add.portlets=56,101,110,71
Flags Portlet
Input a list of questions used for flag reasons.
flags.reasons=sexual-content,violent-or-repulsive-content,hateful-orabusive-content,harmful-dangerous-acts,spam,infringes-my-rights
Email Notification Settings
flags.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
flags.email.subject=com/liferay/portlet/flags/dependencies/email_flag_su
bject.tmpl
flags.email.body=com/liferay/portlet/flags/dependencies/email_flag_body.
tmpl
Set this to true to enable guest users to flag content
flags.guest.users.enabled=false
IFrame Portlet
Specify a role name that a user must be associated with in order to configure the IFrame portlet to use the @[email protected] token. This token is used to
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post the password of users who access this portlet in order to automatically
login to the framed site.
No role is required by default. However, it is recommended that you specify a role in high security environments where users who configure this
portlet may attempt password theft. See LPS-5272 for more information.
iframe.password.token.role=
Image Gallery Portlet
Set the maximum file size and valid file extensions for images. A value of 0
for the maximum file size can be used to indicate unlimited file size.
However, the maximum file size allowed is set in the property
com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size.
ig.image.max.size=10240000
A file extension of * will permit all file extensions.
ig.image.extensions=.bmp,.gif,.jpeg,.jpg,.png,.tif,.tiff
Set the maximum thumbnail height and width in pixels. Set
dimension of the custom images to 0 to disable creating a scaled image of
that size.
ig.image.thumbnail.max.dimension=150
ig.image.custom1.max.dimension=100
ig.image.custom2.max.dimension=0
Set this to true if image gallery should be published to live by default.
ig.publish.to.live.by.default=true
Login Portlet
Set this to true to allow the user to choose a password during account
creation.
login.create.account.allow.custom.password=false
Invitation Portlet
invitation.email.max.recipients=20
invitation.email.message.body=com/liferay/portlet/invitation/dependencies/em
ail_message_body.tmpl
invitation.email.message.subject=com/liferay/portlet/invitation/dependencies
/email_message_subject.tmpl
Journal Portlet
Set this to true if article ids should always be autogenerated.
journal.article.force.autogenerate.id=true
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Set this to true so that only the latest version of an article that is also not
approved can be saved without incrementing version.
journal.article.force.increment.version=false
Set the list of article types. The display text of each of the article types is
set in content/Language.properties.
journal.article.types=announcements,blogs,general,news,press-release,test
Set the token used when inserting simple page breaks in articles.
[email protected][email protected]
Set the interval on which the CheckArticleJob will run. The value is set in
one minute increments.
journal.article.check.interval=15
Set this to true to check that a user has the VIEW permission on a Journal article when its content is rendered.
journal.article.view.permission.check.enabled=false
Set this to true if feed ids should always be autogenerated.
journal.feed.force.autogenerate.id=false
Set this to true if structure ids should always be autogenerated.
journal.structure.force.autogenerate.id=false
Set this to true if template ids should always be autogenerated.
journal.template.force.autogenerate.id=false
Input a comma delimited list of variables which are restricted from the
context in Velocity based Journal templates.
journal.template.velocity.restricted.variables=serviceLocator
Set the maximum file size and valid file extensions for images. A value of
0 for the maximum file size can be used to indicate unlimited file size. However, the maximum file size allowed is set in the property com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size.
journal.image.small.max.size=51200
A file extension of * will permit all file extensions.
journal.image.extensions=.gif,.jpeg,.jpg,.png
Input a list of comma delimited class names that extend com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.TransformerListener. These classes will run in sequence to allow
you to modify the XML and XSL before it's transformed and allow you to
modify the final output.
journal.transformer.listener=\
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com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.TokensTransformerListener,\
#com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.PropertiesTransformerListener,\
com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.ContentTransformerListener,\
com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.LocaleTransformerListener,\
com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.RegexTransformerListener,\
com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.ViewCounterTransformerListener
Enter a list of regular expression patterns and replacements that will be
applied to outputted Journal content. The list of properties must end with a
subsequent integer (0, 1, etc.) and it is assumed that the list has reached an
end when the pattern or replacement is not set. See com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.RegexTransformerListener for implementation details.
#journal.transformer.regex.pattern.0=beta.sample.com
#journal.transformer.regex.replacement.0=production.sample.com
#journal.transformer.regex.pattern.1=staging.sample.com
#journal.transformer.regex.replacement.1=production.sample.com
Set whether to synchronize content searches when server starts.
journal.sync.content.search.on.startup=false
Configure mail notification settings.
journal.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
journal.email.article.approval.denied.enabled=false
journal.email.article.approval.denied.subject=com/liferay/portlet/journal/de
pendencies/email_article_approval_denied_subject.tmpl
journal.email.article.approval.denied.body=com/liferay/portlet/journal/depen
dencies/email_article_approval_denied_body.tmpl
journal.email.article.approval.granted.enabled=false
journal.email.article.approval.granted.subject=com/liferay/portlet/journal/d
ependencies/email_article_approval_granted_subject.tmpl
journal.email.article.approval.granted.body=com/liferay/portlet/journal/depe
ndencies/email_article_approval_granted_body.tmpl
journal.email.article.approval.requested.enabled=false
journal.email.article.approval.requested.subject=com/liferay/portlet/journal
/dependencies/email_article_approval_requested_subject.tmpl
journal.email.article.approval.requested.body=com/liferay/portlet/journal/de
pendencies/email_article_approval_requested_body.tmpl
journal.email.article.review.enabled=false
journal.email.article.review.subject=com/liferay/portlet/journal/dependencie
s/email_article_review_subject.tmpl
journal.email.article.review.body=com/liferay/portlet/journal/dependencies/e
mail_article_review_body.tmpl
Specify the strategy used when Journal content is imported using the
LAR system.
journal.lar.creation.strategy=com.liferay.portlet.journal.lar.JournalCreatio
nStrategyImpl
Specify the path to the template used for providing error messages on
Journal templates.
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journal.error.template.velocity=com/liferay/portlet/journal/dependencies/err
or.vm
journal.error.template.xsl=com/liferay/portlet/journal/dependencies/error.xs
l
Journal Articles Portlet
Set the available values for the number of articles to display per page.
journal.articles.page.delta.values=5,10,25,50,100
Journal Content Search Portlet
Set whether unlisted articles are excluded from search results.
journal.content.search.show.listed=true
Message Boards Portlet
Configure mail notification settings.
message.boards.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
message.boards.email.html.format=true
message.boards.email.message.added.enabled=true
message.boards.email.message.added.subject.prefix=com/liferay/portlet/messag
eboards/dependencies/email_message_added_subject_prefix.tmpl
message.boards.email.message.added.body=com/liferay/portlet/messageboards/de
pendencies/email_message_added_body.tmpl
message.boards.email.message.added.signature=com/liferay/portlet/messageboar
ds/dependencies/email_message_added_signature.tmpl
message.boards.email.message.updated.enabled=true
message.boards.email.message.updated.subject.prefix=com/liferay/portlet/mess
ageboards/dependencies/email_message_updated_subject_prefix.tmpl
message.boards.email.message.updated.body=com/liferay/portlet/messageboards/
dependencies/email_message_updated_body.tmpl
message.boards.email.message.updated.signature=com/liferay/portlet/messagebo
ards/dependencies/email_message_updated_signature.tmpl
Set this to true to allow anonymous posting.
message.boards.anonymous.posting.enabled=true
Enter time in minutes on how often this job is run. If a user's ban is set to
expire at 12:05 PM and the job runs at 2 PM, the expire will occur during the
2 PM run.
message.boards.expire.ban.job.interval=120
Enter time in days to automatically expire bans on users. Set to 0 to dis able auto expire.
Examples:
message.boards.expire.ban.interval=10
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message.boards.expire.ban.interval=0
Enter RSS feed abstract length. This value limits what goes in the RSS
feed from the beginning of the message board post. The default is the first
200 characters.
message.boards.rss.abstract.length=200
Set this to true to enable pingbacks.
message.boards.pingback.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable previous and next navigation for message
boards threads
message.boards.thread.previous.and.next.navigation.enabled=true
Set the allowed thread views and the default thread view.
message.boards.thread.views=combination,flat,tree
message.boards.thread.views.default=combination
My Places Portlet
Set the display style for the My Places navigation menu.
my.places.display.style=simple
my.places.display.style=classic
Set this to true to show user public sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.user.public.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set this to true to show user private sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.user.private.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set this to true to show organization public sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.organization.public.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set this to true to show organization private sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.organization.private.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set this to true to show community public sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.community.public.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set this to true to show community private sites with no layouts.
my.places.show.community.private.sites.with.no.layouts=true
Set the maximum number of elements that will be shown in the My
Places navigation menu. For example, if the maximum is set to 10, then, at
most, 1 personal community, 10 organizations, and 10 communities will be
shown.
my.places.max.elements=10
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Navigation Portlet
Specify the options that will be provided to the user in the edit configuration mode of the portlet.
navigation.display.style.options=1,2,3,4,5,6
Define each mode with 4 comma delimited strings that represent the form:
headerType, rootLayoutType, rootLayoutLevel,
includedLayouts, and
nestedChildren.
navigation.display.style[1]=breadcrumb,relative,0,auto,true
navigation.display.style[2]=root-layout,absolute,2,auto,true
navigation.display.style[3]=root-layout,absolute,1,auto,true
navigation.display.style[4]=none,absolute,1,auto,true
navigation.display.style[5]=none,absolute,1,all,true
navigation.display.style[6]=none,absolute,0,auto,true
Nested Portlets Portlet
nested.portlets.layout.template.default=2_columns_i
Add a comma separated list of layout template ids that should not be allowed in the Nested Portlets Portlet.
nested.portlets.layout.template.unsupported=freeform,1_column
Portlet CSS Portlet
Set this to true to enable the ability to modify portlet CSS at runtime via
the Look and Feel icon. Disabling it can speed up performance.
portlet.css.enabled=true
Search Portlet
Set any of these to false to disable the portlet from being searched by the
Search portlet.
com.liferay.portlet.blogs.util.BlogsOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.bookmarks.util.BookmarksOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.calendar.util.CalendarOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.directory.util.DirectoryOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.util.DLOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.imagegallery.util.IGOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.journal.util.JournalOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.messageboards.util.MBOpenSearchImpl=true
com.liferay.portlet.wiki.util.WikiOpenSearchImpl=true
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Shopping Portlet
Set the following to true if cart quantities must be a multiple of the
item's minimum quantity.
shopping.cart.min.qty.multiple=true
Set the following to true to forward to the cart page when adding an item
from the category page. The item must not have dynamic fields. All items
with dynamic fields will forward to the item's details page regardless of the
following setting.
shopping.category.forward.to.cart=false
Set the following to true to show special items when browsing a category.
shopping.category.show.special.items=false
Set the following to true to show availability when viewing an item.
shopping.item.show.availability=true
Set the maximum file size and valid file extensions for images. A value of
0 for the maximum file size can be used to indicate unlimited file size. However, the maximum file size allowed is set in the property com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size.
shopping.image.small.max.size=51200
shopping.image.medium.max.size=153600
shopping.image.large.max.size=307200
A file extension of * will permit all file extensions.
shopping.image.extensions=.gif,.jpeg,.jpg,.png
Configure email notification settings.
shopping.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
shopping.email.order.confirmation.enabled=true
shopping.email.order.confirmation.subject=com/liferay/portlet/shopping/depen
dencies/email_order_confirmation_subject.tmpl
shopping.email.order.confirmation.body=com/liferay/portlet/shopping/dependen
cies/email_order_confirmation_body.tmpl
shopping.email.order.shipping.enabled=true
shopping.email.order.shipping.subject=com/liferay/portlet/shopping/dependenc
ies/email_order_shipping_subject.tmpl
shopping.email.order.shipping.body=com/liferay/portlet/shopping/dependencies
/email_order_shipping_body.tmpl
Set this to true to enable comments for shopping orders.
shopping.order.comments.enabled=true
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Software Catalog Portlet
Set the maximum file size and max file dimensions for thumbnnails. A
value of 0 for the maximum file size can be used to indicate unlimited file
size. However, the maximum file size allowed is set in the property
com.liferay.portal.upload.UploadServletRequestImpl.max.size.
sc.image.max.size=307200
sc.image.thumbnail.max.height=200
sc.image.thumbnail.max.width=160
Set this to true to enable comments for software catalog products.
sc.product.comments.enabled=true
Tags Compiler Portlet
Set this to true to enable the ability to compile tags from the URL. Disabling it can speed up performance.
tags.compiler.enabled=true
Tags Portlet
Input a class name that implements com.liferay.portlet.tags.util.TagsAssetValidator. This class will be called to validate assets. The DefaultTagsAssetValidator class is just an empty class that doesn't actually do any validation.
The MinimalTagsAssetValidator requires all assets to have at least one
tag entry.
Examples:
tags.asset.validator=com.liferay.portlet.tags.util.DefaultTagsAssetValidator
#tags.asset.validator=com.liferay.portlet.tags.util.MinimalTagsAssetValidato
r
Input a list of comma delimited default properties for new tag entries.
Each item of the list should have the following format: 0:key:value
tags.properties.default=
Set the name of the default tag set where new tags are created by default.
tags.vocabulary.default=Default Tag Set
Tasks Portlet
Specify the default number of approval stages.
tasks.default.stages=2
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Specify the default role name for each stage of approval ordered from
lowest level of approval to highest. These Roles must have the APPROVE_PROPOSAL permission.
tasks.default.role.names=Community Administrator,Community Owner
Translator Portlet
Set the default languages to translate a given text.
translator.default.languages=en_es
Wiki Portlet
Set the URL of a page that contains more information about the classic
syntax of the wiki. It will be shown to the user when editing a page.
wiki.classic.syntax.help.url=http://wiki.liferay.com/index.php/Wiki_Portlet
Set the name of the default page for a wiki node. The name for the default page must be a valid wiki word. A wiki word follows the format of having an upper case letter followed by a series of lower case letters followed by
another upper case letter and another series of lower case letters. See
http://www.usemod.com/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?WhatIsaWiki for more information
on wiki naming conventions.
wiki.front.page.name=FrontPage
Set the name of the default node that will be automatically created when
the Wiki portlet is first used in a community.
wiki.initial.node.name=Main
Set the following property to specify the requirments for the names of
wiki pages. By default only a few characters are forbidden. Uncomment the
regular expression below to allow only CamelCase titles.
wiki.page.titles.regexp=([^/\\[\\]%&[email protected]]+)
#wiki.page.titles.regexp=(((\\p{Lu}\\p{Ll}+)_?)+)
Set the following property to specify the characters that will be automatically removed from the titles when importing wiki pages. This regexp should
remove any characters that are forbidden in the regexp specified in
wiki.page.titles.regexp.
wiki.page.titles.remove.regexp=([/\\[\\]%&[email protected]]+)
Set this to true to enable ratings for wiki pages.
wiki.page.ratings.enabled=true
Set this to true to enable comments for wiki pages.
wiki.page.comments.enabled=true
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Set the list of supported wiki formats and the default wiki format.
wiki.formats=creole,html
wiki.formats.default=creole
Configure settings for each of the wiki formats.
wiki.formats.engine[creole]=com.liferay.portlet.wiki.engines.jspwiki.JSPWiki
Engine
wiki.formats.configuration.main[creole]=jspwiki.properties
wiki.formats.edit.page[creole]=/html/portlet/wiki/edit/wiki.jsp
wiki.formats.help.page[creole]=/html/portlet/wiki/help/creole.jsp
wiki.formats.help.url[creole]=http://www.wikicreole.org/wiki/Creole1.0
wiki.formats.engine[html]=com.liferay.portlet.wiki.engines.HtmlEngine
wiki.formats.edit.page[html]=/html/portlet/wiki/edit/html.jsp
wiki.formats.engine[plain_text]=com.liferay.portlet.wiki.engines.TextEngine
wiki.formats.edit.page[plain_text]=/html/portlet/wiki/edit/plain_text.jsp
Set the list of supported wiki importers.
wiki.importers=MediaWiki
Configure settings for each of the wiki importers.
wiki.importers.page[MediaWiki]=/html/portlet/wiki/import/mediawiki.jsp
wiki.importers.class[MediaWiki]=com.liferay.portlet.wiki.importers.mediawiki
.MediaWikiImporter
Configure email notification settings.
wiki.email.from.name=Joe Bloggs
[email protected]
wiki.email.page.added.enabled=true
wiki.email.page.added.subject.prefix=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies/e
mail_page_added_subject_prefix.tmpl
wiki.email.page.added.body=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies/email_page_
added_body.tmpl
wiki.email.page.added.signature=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies/email_
page_added_signature.tmpl
wiki.email.page.updated.enabled=true
wiki.email.page.updated.subject.prefix=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies
/email_page_updated_subject_prefix.tmpl
wiki.email.page.updated.body=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies/email_pag
e_updated_body.tmpl
wiki.email.page.updated.signature=com/liferay/portlet/wiki/dependencies/emai
l_page_updated_signature.tmpl
wiki.rss.abstract.length=200
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Plugin Management
One of the primary ways of extending the functionality of Liferay Portal
is by the use of plugins. Plugins are an umbrella term for installable portlet,
theme, layout template, hook, Ext, and web module Java EE .war files. Though
Liferay comes bundled with a number of functional portlets, themes, layout
templates, hooks, and web modules, plugins provide a means of extending
Liferay to be able to do almost anything.
Portlets
Portlets are small web applications that run in a portion of a web page.
The heart of any portal implementation is its portlets, because all of the functionality of a portal resides in its portlets. Liferay's core is a portlet container.
The container's job is to manage the portal's pages and to aggregate the set
of portlets that are to appear on any particular page. This means that the
core doesn't contain application code. Instead, all of the features and functionality of your portal application must reside in its portlets.
Portlet applications, like servlet applications, have become a Java standard which various portal server vendors have implemented. The JSR-168
standard defines the portlet 1.0 specification, and the JSR-286 standard
defines the portlet 2.0 specification. A Java standard portlet should be deployable on any portlet container which supports the standard. Portlets are
placed on the page in a certain order by the end user and are served up dynamically by the portal server. This means that certain “givens” that apply to
servlet-based projects, such as control over URLs or access to the HttpSerTip: Liferay 4.4.2 and below support the Portlet 1.0 standard: JSR168. Liferay 5.0 and above support the Portlet 2.0 standard: JSR-286.
You cannot run Portlet 2.0 portlets in Liferay 4.4.2, but because the
Portlet 2.0 standard is backwards-compatible, portlets written to the
1.0 standard will run in Liferay 5.x and above.
object, don’t apply in portlet projects, because the portal server
generates these objects dynamically.
vletRequest
Portal applications come generally in two flavors: 1) portlets can be written to provide small amounts of functionality and then aggregated by the
portal server into a larger application, or 2) whole applications can be written to reside in only one or a few portlet windows. The choice is up to those
designing the application. The developer only has to worry about what happens inside of the portlet itself; the portal server handles building out the
page as it is presented to the user.
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Most developers nowadays like to use certain frameworks to develop
their applications, because those frameworks provide both functionality and
structure to a project. For example, Struts enforces the Model-View-Controller design pattern and provides lots of functionality—such as custom tags and
form validation—that make it easier for a developer to implement certain
standard features. With Liferay, developers are free to use all of the leading
frameworks in the Java EE space, including Struts, Spring MVC, and Java
Server Faces. This allows developers familiar with those frameworks to more
easily implement portlets, and also facilitates the quick porting of an application using those frameworks over to a portlet implementation.
Additionally, Liferay allows for the consuming of PHP and Ruby applications as “portlets,” so you do not need to be a Java developer in order to take
advantage of Liferay's built-in features (such as user management, communities, page building and content management). You can also use scripting
languages such as Groovy if you wish. You can use the Plugins SDK to deploy
your PHP or Ruby application as a portlet, and it will run seamlessly inside of
Liferay. We have plenty of examples of this; to see them, check out the Plugins SDK from Liferay's public code repository.
Does your organization make use of any Enterprise Planning (ERP) software that exposes its data via web services? You could write a portlet plugin
for Liferay that can consume that data and display it as part of a dashboard
page for your users. Do you subscribe to a stock service? You could pull stock
quotes from that service and display them on your page, instead of using
Liferay's built-in Stocks portlet. Do you have a need to combine the functionality of two or more servlet-based applications on one page? You could make
them into portlet plugins and have Liferay display them in whatever layout
you want. Do you have existing Struts, Spring MVC, or JSF applications that
you want to integrate with your portal? It is a straightforward task to migrate these applications into Liferay, and then they can take advantage of the
layout, security, and administration infrastructure that Liferay provides.
Themes
Themes are hot deployable plugins which can completely transform the
look and feel of the portal. Most organizations have their own look and feel
standards which go across all of the web sites and web applications in the infrastructure. Liferay makes it possible for a site designer to create a theme
Illustration 91: Envision theme from Liferay's theme repository
plugin which can then be installed, allowing for the complete transformation
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of the portal to whatever look and feel is needed. There are lots of available
theme plugins on Liferay's web site, and more are being added every day.
This makes it easier for those who wish to develop themes for Liferay, as you
can now choose a theme which most closely resembles what you want to do
and then customize it. This is much easier than starting a theme from
scratch. There is more about theme development in Liferay in Action.
Illustration 92: Murali theme from Liferay's theme repository
Layout Templates
Layout Templates are ways of choosing how your portlets will be arranged on a page. They make up the body of your page, the large area where
you drag and drop your portlets to create your pages. Liferay Portal comes
with several built-in layout templates, but if you have a complex page layout
(especially for your home page), you may wish to create a custom layout template of your own. This is covered in Liferay in Action.
Hook Plugins
Hook plugins were introduced with Liferay 5.2. As the name implies, they
allow “hooking” into Liferay's core functionality. This means that they enable developers to override or replace functionality that is in the core of the
system. You can hook into the eventing system, model listeners, and portal
properties. You can also override Liferay's core JSPs with your own. Hooks
are very powerful and have been designed to replace most of the reasons for
using the extension environment with something that is easier to use and hot
deployable.
Web Plugins
Web plugins are regular Java EE web modules that are designed to work
with Liferay. Liferay supports integration with various Enterprise Service Bus
(ESB) implementations, as well as Single Sign-On implementations, workflow
engines and so on. These are implemented as web modules that are used by
Liferay portlets to provide functionality.
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Installing Plugins from Repositories
Liferay Portal has a section of the Control Panel which can handle plugin
installation: Plugins Installation, which is in the Server category. This not
only allows you to see what plugins are installed in your portal, but also it enables you to run the search indexer on those portlets that support it and install new portlets.
Go to the Dock and select Control Panel. In the Server category, select Plugins Installation.
You should now see the screen which allows you to configure and install
portlets.
The default look of the Plugin Installer shows which plugins are already
installed on the system, whether it is active, and what Portal roles have access to it.
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Illustration 93: Default plugin installer view
If you would like to see what plugins are available, you can do so by clicking the Install More [Plugin Type] button, where [Plugin Type] changes based
on which tab you are viewing. Please note that the machine upon which
Liferay is running must have access to the Internet in order to be able to read
the Official and Community repositories. If the machine does not have access
to the Internet, you will need to download the plugins from the site and install them manually. We will discuss how to do this later in this chapter.
From the initial page you can navigate to the different pages of plugins,
as they are all in alphabetical order. You can also change the number of items
per page and navigate to a specific page if you know where a particular plugin appears in the list. This is a standard feature of Liferay, and you will see it
in most of Liferay's portlets.
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Illustration 94: Installing plugins
After the Install More [Plugin Type] button is clicked, a new view appears.
This view has multiple tabs, and by default, displays the Portlet Plugins tab.
Note that the list displayed is a list of all of the plugins that are available
across all of the repositories to which the server is subscribed. Above this is a
search mechanism which allows you to search for plugins by their name, by
whether they are installed, by tag, or by which repository they are in.
To install a plugin, choose the plugin by clicking on its name. For example, if you want to use online web forms on your web site, you might want
to install the Web Form portlet. This portlet provides a handy interface
which allows you to create forms for users to fill out. The results get emailed
to an address which you specify.
Find the Web Form Portlet in the list by searching for it or browsing to it.
Once you have found it, click on its name. Another page will be displayed
which describes the portlet plugin in more detail. Below the description is an
Install button. Click this button to install your plugin.
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Illustration 95: Installing the Web Form plugin
The plugin chosen will be automatically downloaded and installed on
your instance of Liferay. If you have the Liferay console open, you can view
the deployment as it happens. When it is finished, you should be able to go
back to the Add Application window and add your new plugin to a page in
your portal.
The same procedure is used for installing new Liferay Themes, Layout
Templates, hooks, and web modules. Instead of the Portlet Plugins tab, you
would use the appropriate tab for the type of plugin you wish to install to
view the list of plugins of that type. For themes, convenient thumbnails (plus
a larger version when you click on the details of a particular theme) are
shown in the list.
After clicking on the Install button for a theme, the theme becomes available on the Look and Feel tab of any page.
Installing Plugins Manually
Installing plugins manually is almost as easy as installing plugins via the
Plugin Installer. There are several scenarios in which you would need to install plugins manually rather than from Liferay's repositories:
•
Your server is firewalled without access to the Internet. This
makes it impossible for your instance of Liferay to connect to
the plugin repositories.
•
You are installing portlets which you have either purchased
from a vendor, downloaded separately, or developed yourself.
•
For security reasons, you do not want to allow portal administrators to install plugins from the Internet before they are evaluated.
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You can still use the Control Panel to install plugins that are not available from the on line repositories. This is by far the easiest way to install plugins.
If your server is firewalled, you will not see any plugins displayed in the
Portlet Plugins tab or in the Theme Plugins tab. Instead, you will need to click
the Upload File tab. This gives you a simple interface for uploading a .war file
containing a plugin to your Liferay Portal.
Click the Browse button and navigate your file system to find the portlet
or theme .war you have downloaded. The other field on the page is optional:
you can specify your own context for deployment. If you leave this field
blank, the default context defined in the plugin (or the .war file name itself)
will be used.
That's all the information the Plugin Installer needs in order to deploy
your portlet, theme, layout template, hook, or web module. Click the Install
button, and your plugin will be uploaded to the server and deployed. If it is a
portlet, you should see it in the Add Content window. If it is a theme, it will be
available on the Look and Feel tab in the page definition.
If you do not wish to use the Update Manager or Plugin Installer to deploy plugins, you can also deploy them at the operating system level. The
first time Liferay starts, it creates a hot deploy folder which is by default created inside the Liferay Home folder. This folder generally resides one directory up from where your application server is installed, though it sometimes
is elsewhere depending on which application server you are running. To find
out where the Liferay Home folder is for your application server, please see
the section on your server in Chapter 1. The first time Liferay is launched, it
will create a folder structure in Liferay Home to house various configuration
and administrative data. One of the folders it creates is called deploy. If you
copy a portlet or theme plugin into this folder, Liferay will deploy it and
make it available for use just as though you'd installed it via the Plugin Installer in the Control Panel. In fact, this is what the Plugin Installer is doing
behind the scenes.
You can change the defaults for this directory structure so that it is
stored anywhere you like by modifying the appropriate properties in your
portal-ext.properties file. Please see the above section on the portal-ext.properties file for more information.
To have Liferay hot deploy a portlet or theme plugin, copy the plugin
into your hot deploy folder, which by default is in [Liferay Home]/deploy. If
you are watching the Liferay console, you should see messages like the following:
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16:11:47,616 INFO [PortletAutoDeployListener:71] Copying portlets for
/Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferay-portal6.0.4/deploy/weather-portlet-6.0.4.1.war
Expanding: /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferay-portal6.0.4/deploy/weather-portlet-6.0.4.1.war into
/Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferay-portal-6.0.4/tomcat6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694
Copying 1 file to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694/WEB-INF
Copying 1 file to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694/WEB-INF/classes
Copying 1 file to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694/WEB-INF/classes
Copying 1 file to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694/META-INF
Copying 37 files to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/webapps/weather-portlet
Copying 1 file to /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/webapps/weather-portlet
Deleting directory /Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferayportal-6.0.4/tomcat-6.0.26/temp/20100729161147694
16:11:48,072 INFO [PortletAutoDeployListener:81] Portlets for
/Users/stephenkostas/java/liferay/bundles/liferay-portal6.0.4/deploy/weather-portlet-6.0.4.1.war copied successfully. Deployment
will start in a few seconds.
Jul 29, 2010 4:11:50 PM org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig
deployDirectory
INFO: Deploying web application directory weather-portlet
16:11:50,585 INFO
weather-portlet
[PortletHotDeployListener:222] Registering portlets for
16:11:50,784 INFO [PortletHotDeployListener:371] 1 portlet for weatherportlet is available for use
As long as you see the available for use message, your plugin was installed
correctly, and will be available for use in the portal.
Plugin Troubleshooting
Sometimes for various reasons plugins fail to install. There are different
reasons for this based on several factors, including
•
Liferay configuration
•
The container upon which Liferay is running
•
Changing the configuration options in multiple places
•
How Liferay is being launched
You will often be able to tell if you have a plugin deployment problem by
looking at the Liferay server console. If you see the plugin get recognized by
the hot deploy listener, you will see a plugin copied successfully message. If this
message is not followed up by an available for use message, you have an issue
with your plugin deployment configuration, and it is likely one of the factors
above.
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We will look at each of these factors.
Liferay Configuration Issues
Tip: This applies to Liferay versions prior to version 4.3.5. Liferay
versions above 4.3.5 are able to auto detect the type of server it is
running on, which makes things a lot easier. If you are running a
newer version of Liferay, you can skip this section. If you are upgrading from one of these versions, continue reading.
Liferay by default comes as a bundle or as a .war file. Though every effort
has been made to make the .war file as generic as possible, sometimes the default settings are inappropriate for the container upon which Liferay is running. Most of these problems were resolved in Liferay 4.3.5 with the addition
of code that allows Liferay to determine which application server it is running on and adjust the way it deploys plugins as a result.
If you have upgraded from one of these older versions, you may still have
settings in your portal.ext.properties file that are no longer needed. One
of these settings is the manual override of the default value of auto.deploy.dest.dir.
In versions of Liferay prior to 4.3.5, there is a property called auto.dethat defines the folder where plugins are deployed after the
hot deploy utilities have finished preparing them. This folder maps to a
folder that the container defines as an auto-deploy or a hot deploy folder. By
default in older versions of Liferay, this property is set to ../webapps. This
default value works for Tomcat containers (if Tomcat has been launched
from its bin folder), but will not work for other containers that define their
hot deploy folders in a different place. In newer versions of Liferay, this value
is automatically set to the default for the application server upon which
Liferay is running.
ploy.dest.dir
For example, Glassfish defines the hot deploy folder as a folder called
inside of the domain folder in which your server is running. By
default, this is in <Glassfish Home>/domains/domain1/autodeploy. JBoss
defines the hot deploy folder as a root folder inside of the particular server
configuration you are using. By default, this is in <JBoss Home>/server/default/deploy. WebLogic defines this folder inside of the domain directory.
By default, this is in <Bea Home>/user_projects/domains/<domain
name>/autodeploy.
autodeploy
The best thing to do when upgrading to newer versions of Liferay Portal
is to remove this property altogether. It is not needed, as the autodetection
of the container handles the hot deploy location. If, for whatever reason, you
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need to customize the location of the hot deploy folder, follow the instructions below.
You will first need to determine where the hot deploy folder is for the
container you are running. Consult your product documentation for this.
Once you have this value, there are two places in which you can set it: the
portal-ext.properties file and in the Plugin Installer portlet.
To change this setting in the portal-ext.properties file, browse to
where Liferay was deployed in your application server. Inside of this folder
should be a WEB-INF/classes folder. Here you will find the portal-ext.properties file. Open this file in a text editor and look for the property auto.deploy.dest.dir. If it does not appear in the file, you can add it. The safest way
to set this property—as we will see later—is to define the property using an
absolute path from the root of your file system to your application server's
hot deploy folder. For example, if you are using Glassfish, and you have the
server installed in /java/glassfish, your auto.deploy.dest.dir property
would look like the following:
auto.deploy.dest.dir=/java/glassfish/domains/domain1/autodeploy
Remember, if you are on a Windows system, use forward slashes instead
of back slashes, like so:
auto.deploy.dest.dir=C:/java/glassfish/domains/domain1/autodeploy
Save the file and then restart your container. Now plugins should install
correctly.
If you would rather change this setting via the Plugin Installer in the
Control Panel (because you do not wish to restart your container), you can do
that by clicking on the Configuration tab. On this page are a number of settings you can change, including the default folders for hot deploy, where
Liferay should look for plugin repositories, and so on.
Illustration 96: Changing the hot deploy destination directory
The setting to change is the field marked Destination Directory. Change
this to the full path to your container's auto deploy folder from the root of
your file system. When you are finished, click the Save button at the bottom
of the form. The setting will now take effect without your having to restart
your container.
Note that the setting in the Control Panel overrides the setting in the
properties file.
If you are having hot deploy trouble in Liferay versions 4.3.5 and greater,
it is possible that the administrator of your application server has changed
the default folder for auto deploy in your application server. In this case, you
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would want to set auto.deploy.dest.dir to the customized folder location as
you would with older versions of Liferay. In Liferay 4.3.5 and greater, this setting still exists, but is blank. Add the property to your portal-ext.properties file and set its value to the fully qualified path to the auto deploy folder
configured in your application server.
Deploy Issues for Specific Containers
There are some containers, such as WebSphere®, which do not have a
hot deploy feature. Unfortunately, these containers do not work with
Liferay's hot deploy system. But this does not mean that you cannot install
plugins on these containers. You can deploy plugins manually using the application server's deployment tools. Liferay is able to pick up the portlet plugins once they get deployed to the container manually, especially if you add
it to the same Enterprise Application project that was created for Liferay.
When Liferay hot deploys portlet and theme .war files, it sometimes
makes modifications to those files right before deployment. In order to successfully deploy plugins using an application server vendor's tools, you will
want to run your plugins through this process before you attempt to deploy
them.
In the Plugin Installer section of the Control Panel, click the Configuration tab. The second-most field on the form is labeled Destination Directory.
Place the path to which you would like plugin .war files copied after they are
processed by Liferay's plugin installer process. You will use this as a staging
directory for your plugins before you install them manually with your
server's deployment tools. When you are finished, click Save.
Now you can deploy plugins using the Plugin Installer portlet or by dropping .war files into your auto deploy directory. Liferay will pick up the files,
modify them, and then copy the result into the destination directory you
have configured. You may then deploy them from here to your application
server.
Example: WebSphere® Application Server
1. If you don't have one already, create a portal-ext.properties file in
the Liferay Home folder of your Liferay installation. Add the following directive to it:
auto.deploy.dest.dir=${liferay.home}/websphere-deploy
2. Create a folder called websphere-deploy inside your $LIFERAY_HOME
folder. This is the folder where the Lucene index, Jackrabbit config,
and deploy folders are.
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3. Make sure the web.xml file inside the plugin you want to install has
the following context parameter in it:
<context-param>
<paramname>com.ibm.websphere.portletcontainer.PortletDeploymentEnabled</paramname>
<param-value>false</param-value>
</context-param>
Liferay versions 5.2.2 and higher will automatically inject this into the
web.xml file on WebSphere containers.
4. The WebSphere deploy occurs in two steps. You will first use
Liferay's tools to “pre-deploy” the file, and then use WebSphere's
tools to do the actual deployment. This is because Liferay makes deployment-time modifications to the plugins right before they are actually deployed to the application server. For other application servers, this can usually be done in one step, because Liferay can make
the modifications and then copy the resulting .war file into an
autodeploy folder to have it actually deployed. Because WebSphere
does not have an autodeploy feature, we need to separate these two
steps.
5. Deploy your .war file using Liferay's Plugin Installer or by copying it
into $LIFERAY_HOME/deploy. Liferay will make its modifications and
because we changed the auto.deploy.dest.dir in the first step, it
will copy the resulting .war file into $LIFERAY_HOME/websphere-deploy. You will see a copied successfully message in the log.
6. Use WebSphere's tools to deploy the .war file. Make the context root
for the .war file equal to the file name (i.e., /my-first-portlet).
Once the .war file is deployed, save it to the master configuration.
7. Go back to the Applications -> Enterprise Applications screen in the
WebSphere Admin Console. You will see that your portlet is deployed, but not yet started. Start it.
8. Liferay will immediately recognize that the portlet has been deployed and register it. The portlet will be automatically started and
registered upon subsequent restarts of WebSphere.
Experienced WebSphere system administrators can further automate
this by writing a script which watches the websphere-deploy directory and
uses wsadmin commands to then deploy plugins automatically.
Changing the Configuration Options in Multiple Places
Sometimes, especially during development when several people have administrative access to the server at the same time, the auto deploy folder locPlugin Management
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ation can get customized in both the portal-ext.properties file and in the
Control Panel. If this happens, the value in the Control Panel takes precedence over the value in the properties file. If you go into the Control Panel and
change the value to the correct setting, plugin deployment will start working
again.
Creating Your Own Plugin Repository
As your enterprise builds its own library of portlets for internal use, you
can create your own plugin repository to make it easy to install and upgrade
portlets. This will allow different departments who may be running different
instances of Liferay to share portlets and install them as needed. If you are a
software development house, you may wish to create a plugin repository for
your own products. Liferay makes it easy for you to create your own plugin
repository and make it available to others.
You can create your plugin repository in two ways:
1.
Use the Software Catalog in the Control Panel to create the repository by using its graphical interface and an HTTP server.
2.
Create an XML file using the Liferay Plugin Repository DTD
(http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-pluginrepository_6_0_0.dtd) and an HTTP server.
Both methods have their benefits. The first method allows users to upload their plugins to an HTTP server to which they have access. They can
then register their plugins with the repository by adding a link to it via the
Control Panel's graphical user interface. Liferay will then generate the XML
necessary to connect the repository to a Control Panel running on another
instance of Liferay. This XML file can then be placed on an HTTP server, and
the URL to it can be added to the Plugin Installer, making the portlets in this
repository available to the server running Liferay.
The second method does not require an instance of Liferay to be running. You can upload plugins to an HTTP server of your choice, and then create an XML file called liferay-plugin-repository.xml manually. If you
make this file available on an HTTP server (it can be the same one upon
which the plugins are stored, or a different one altogether), you can connect
the repository to a Plugin Installer in the Control Panel running on an instance of Liferay.
We will first look at creating a plugin repository using the Software Catalog in the Control Panel.
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The Software Catalog
You will want to use the Software Catalog if you will have multiple
users submitting portlets into the repository, and if you don't want to worry
about creating the liferay-plugin-repository.xml file yourself.
Illustration 97: The Software Catalog with nothing installed
Each community in your portal can have an instance of the Software
Catalog. The Control Panel will keep track of which community or organization you are in and present you with the software catalog for that community
or organization. This means that different communities/organizations can
have different software repositories, so you can host several software repositories on the same instance of Liferay if you wish—they just have to be in different communities or organizations.
Choose the community that will host the plugin repository and go to the
Control Panel. You will see at the top of the screen a message that says “Content for [Organization/Community],” where [Organization/Community] is
the organization or community you were on when you selected the Control
Panel from the Dock. If you want to administer the software catalog for a different community or organization, you can select it from the selection box.
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Illustration 98: Populated Software Catalog from liferay.com
The Software Catalog has several tabs. The first tab is labeled Products.
The default view of the portlet, when populated with software, displays what
plugins are available for install or download. This can be seen in the version
on Liferay's home page.
We will use an example community in order to better illustrate how to
use the Software Catalog portlet. Assume you, as the portal administrator,
have created a community called Old Computers. This community will be a
web site for users to collaborate on setting up and using old computers with
obsolete hardware and operating systems. Users who participate in the site
will eventually get upgraded to a more privileged status and get their own
blog page. To implement this, you have created a My Summary portlet which
displays the user's name, picture, and description from his or her user profile. Because this portlet is generic enough that it could be useful to anyone
using Liferay, you have decided to make it available in your own software
catalog.
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The first step in adding a plugin to your software repository is to add a license for your product. A license communicates to users the terms upon
which you are allowing them to download and use your software. Click the
Licenses tab and then click the Add License button that appears. You will then
see a form which allows you to enter the title of your license, a URL pointing
to the actual license document, and check boxes denoting whether the license is open source, active, or recommended.
When you have finished filling out the form, click the Save button. Your
license will be saved. Once you have at least one license in the system, you
can begin adding software products to your software catalog. Click the
Products tab, and then click the Add Product button.
Your next step will be to create the product record in the software catalog. This will register the product in the software catalog and allow you to
start adding versions of your software for users to download and / or install
directly from their instances of Liferay. You will first need to put the .war file
containing your software on a web server that is accessible without authentication to the users who will be installing your software. In the example
above, the Old Computers site is on the Internet, so you would place the file on
a web server that is accessible to anyone on the Internet. If you are creating a
software catalog for an internal Intranet, you would place the file on a web
server that is available to anyone inside of your organization's firewall.
To create the product record in the Software Catalog portlet, click the
Products tab, and then click the Add Product button. Fill out the form with information about your product.
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Illustration 99: Adding a product to the Software Catalog
Name: The name of your software product.
Type: Select whether this is a portlet, theme, layout template, hook, or
web plugin.
Licenses: Select the license(s) under which you are releasing this software.
Author: Enter the name of the author of the software.
Page URL: If the software has a home page, enter its url here.
Tags: Enter any tags you would like added to this software.
Short Description: Enter a short description. This will be displayed in
the summary table of your software catalog.
Long Description: Enter a longer description. This will be displayed on
the details page for this software product.
Permissions: Click the Configure link to set permissions for this software
product.
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Group ID: Enter a group ID. A group ID is a name space which usually
identifies the company or organization that made the software. For our example, we will use old-computers.
Artifact ID: Enter an Artifact ID. The artifact ID is a unique name within
the name space for your product. For our example, we will use my-summary-portlet.
Screenshot: Click the Add Screenshot button to add a screen shot of your
product for users to view.
When you have finished filling out the form, click the Save button. You
will be brought back to the product summary page, and you will see that your
product has been added to the repository.
Notice that in the version column, N/A is being displayed. This is because
there are not yet any released versions of your product. To make your product
downloadable, you need to create a version of your product and point it to
the file you uploaded to your HTTP server earlier.
Before you do that, however, you need to add a Framework Version to your
software catalog. A Framework version denotes what version of Liferay your
plugin is designed for and works on. You cannot add a version of your
product without linking it to a version of the framework for which it is designed.
Why is this so important? Because as Liferay gains more and more features, you may wish to take advantage of those features in future versions of
your product, while still keeping older versions of your product available for
those who are using older versions of Liferay. This is perfectly illustrated in
the example My Summary portlet we are using. Liferay had a My Summary
portlet of its own, which does exactly what we have described here. This
portlet was added to the suite of portlets which Liferay provides in the Social
Networking plugin. This plugin makes use of the many social networking features which have been added to Liferay. So rather than just displaying a summary of your information, the Social Networking portlet adds features such
as status updates, a “wall” for each user in his or her profile that other users
can “write” on, the ability to become “friends” with other users—thereby
granting them access to their profiles—and more.
None of this would work in older versions of Liferay, because the core
engine that enables developers to create features like this is not there. So in
this case, you would want to keep the older My Summary portlet available for
users who have not yet upgraded, and make the newer social portlets available to those using latest version of Liferay. This is what Framework Versions
does for you. If you connect to Liferay's software repositories with an old version of Liferay Portal, you will see the My Summary portlet. If you connect to
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Liferay's software repositories with new version of Liferay, you will see the
social portlets.
So click the Framework Versions tab and then click the Add Framework Version button.
Give the framework a name, a URL, and leave the Active check box
checked. For our example, we have entered 6.0.3 for the name, because our
portlet should work on that version and higher, and http://www.liferay.com
for the URL. Click Save.
Illustration 100: Adding a product version to the Software Catalog
Now go back to the Products tab and click on your product. You will notice that a message is displayed stating that the product does not have any
released versions. Click the Add Product Version button.
Version Name: Enter the version of your product.
Change Log: Enter some comments regarding what changed between
this version and any previous versions.
Supported Framework Versions: Select the framework version for
which your software product is intended. Enter a + at the end of the version
number if you want to specify a version plus any future versions.
Download Page URL: If your product has a descriptive web page, enter
its URL here.
Direct Download URL (Recommended): Enter a direct download link to
your software product here. The Plugin Installer portlet will follow this link
in order to download your software product.
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Include Artifact in Repository: To enable others to use the Plugin Installer portlet to connect to your repository and download your plugin, select
yes here.
When you are finished filling out the form, click the Save button. Your
product version will be saved, and your product will now be available in the
software repository.
Generating The Software Catalog
The Software Catalog works by generating an XML document which the
Plugin Installer reads. Using the data from this XML document, the Plugin Installer knows where it can download the plugins from, what version of
Liferay the plugins are designed for, and all other data about the plugins that
have been entered into the Software Catalog portlet.
In order to get your Software Catalog to generate this XML data, you will
need to access a particular URL. If you have created a friendly URL for your
community (for example, the default community, which is called guest, has a
friendly URL of /guest already configured for it), you can use the friendly
URL. If not, you will first need to know the Group ID of the community in
which your Software Catalog portlet resides. You can do this by accessing the
Manage Pages interface and looking at the URLs for any of the pages. The
URL will look something like this: http://localhost:8080/web/10148/1.
Obviously, it is much easier if you are using Friendly URLs, and we highly
recommend that you do.
Next, go to your browser and go to the following URL:
http://<server name>:<port number>/software_catalog?<Friendly URL name or
Group ID>
For example, if you are on the same machine as your Liferay instance,
and that instance is running on port 8080, and your group ID from the database is 10148, you would use the following URL:
http://localhost:8080/software_catalog?10148
If you have also created a friendly URL called old-computers for this organization or community, you would use the following URL:
http://localhost:8080/software_catalog?old-computers
If you have configured everything properly, an XML document should be
returned:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<plugin-repository>
<settings/>
<plugin-package>
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<name>My Summary</name>
<module-id>old-computers/my-summary-portlet/1.0/war</module-id>
<modified-date>Thu, 23 Apr 2009 20:40:16 +0000</modified-date>
<types>
<type>portlet</type>
</types>
<tags>
<tag>social</tag>
<tag>profile</tag>
</tags>
<short-description>My Summary</short-description>
<long-description>My Summary</long-description>
<change-log>Initial Version</change-log>
<download-url>http://www.liferay.com/portlets/my-summary-portlet6.0.4.war
</download-url>
<author>Rich Sezov</author>
<screenshots/>
<licenses>
<license osi-approved="true">MIT License</license>
</licenses>
<liferay-versions/>
</plugin-package>
</plugin-repository>
You can now give the URL to your software repository out on your website, and other administrators of Liferay can enter it into the Plugins Installation module of their Liferay Control Panels to connect to your repository.
If you want to serve your repository off of a static web server, you can
save this document to a file called liferay-plugin-package.xml and put this
file on your HTTP server. You can then give out the URL to the directory
which holds this file on your web site, and anyone with an instance of Liferay
will be able to point their Plugin Installer portlets to it.
Benefits of the Software Catalog
As you can see, the Software Catalog makes it easy for you to create a repository of your software. Users of Liferay can configure their Plugin Installers to attach to your repository, and the proper versions of your software
will be automatically made available to them by a single click. This is by far
the easiest way for you to keep track of your software, and for your users to
obtain your software.
Another benefit of the Software Catalog is that by using it, you make
available to your users a standard interface for manually downloading your
software. For those who prefer to manually download plugins, your Software
Catalog gives them an interface to go in, find your software either by browsing or by searching, preview screen shots, and download your software—and
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you don't have to build any of those pages yourself. Simply configure your
software in the portlet, and all of that is done for you.
How can you do this? The Software Catalog is also available as a portlet.
You can add it to any page on your web site through the Add Application
menu. You will find the portlet in the Tools category.
Manually Creating A Software Catalog
If you do not wish to use the Control Panel to create your software catalog, you can create it manually by manually typing out the XML file that the
Software Catalog section of the Control Panel would normally generate. Note
that if you do this, you will not be able to use the Software Catalog portlet as
a graphical user interface to your software that end users can use to download your software manually: you will have to build this yourself. Keep in
mind that many instances of Liferay Portal sit behind a firewall without access to the Internet. Because of this, if you are making your software available to Internet users, some of them will have to download it manually anyway, because their installations are firewalled. In this case, the Software
Catalog portlet is the easiest way to provide a user interface for downloading
your software.
If you still wish to use a text editor to create your software catalog, you
can. To manually create a software catalog, obtain the DTD for the XML file
from Liferay's source code. You will find this DTD in the definitions folder in
the Liferay source. It is a file called liferay-plugin-package_6_0_0.dtd. Use
this DTD with a validating XML editor (a good, free choice is jEdit with all the
XML plugins) to create your software catalog manually.
Connecting to a Software Catalog
If there is a software catalog of plugins that you would like to point your
instance of Liferay to, all you need is the URL to the catalog. Once you have
the URL, go to the Plugin Installer in your Control Panel and click the Configuration tab. You will see that there are two fields in which you can enter URLs
to plugin repositories: Trusted Plugin Repositories and Untrusted Plugin Repositories. Currently, the only difference between the two is to provide a visual cue
for administrators as to which repositories are trusted and untrusted.
Enter the URL to the repository to which you wish to connect in one of
the fields and click Save. The portlet will connect to the repository, and items
from this repository will be shown in the list.
Liferay Services Oriented Architecture
Liferay includes a utility called the Service Builder which is used to generate all of the low level code for accessing resources from the portal database.
Liferay Services Oriented Architecture
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This utility is further explained in Liferay in Action, but it is mentioned here
because of its feature which generates interfaces not only for Java code, but
also for web services and JavaScript. This means that the method calls for
storing and retrieving portal objects are all the same, and are generated in
the same step.
Illustration 101: Liferay SOA's first layer of security.
Because the actual method calls for retrieving data are the same regardless of how one gets access to those methods (i.e., locally or through web services), Liferay provides a consistent interface for accessing portal data that
few other products can match. The actual interfaces for the various services
are covered in Liferay in Action, but before they can be used there are steps
that need to be taken to enable users to access those services remotely.
In the default portal.properties file, there is a section called Main Servlet. This section defines the security settings for all of the remote services
provided by Liferay. Copy this section and paste it into your custom portalext.properties file, and you can configure security settings for the Axis Servlet, the Liferay Tunnel Servlet, the Spring Remoting Servlet, the JSON Tunnel Servlet, and the WebDAV servlet.
By default, a user connecting from the same machine Liferay is running
on can access remote services so long as that user has the permission to use
those services in Liferay's permissions system. Of course, you are not really
“remote” unless you are accessing services from a different machine. Liferay
has two layers of security when it comes to accessing its services remotely.
Without explicit rights to both layers, a remote exception will be thrown and
access to those services will not be granted.
The first layer of security that a user needs to get through in order to call
a method from the service layer is servlet security. The Main Servlet section of
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the portal-ext.properties file is used to enable or disable access to Liferay's remote services. In that section of the properties file, there are properties
for each of Liferay's remote services.
You can set each service individually with the security settings that you
require. For example, you may have a batch job which runs on another machine in your network. This job looks in a particular shared folder on your
network and uploads documents to your community's document library
portlet on a regular basis, using Liferay's web services. To enable this batch
job to get through the first layer of security, you would modify the portalext.properties file and put the IP address of the machine on which the
batch job is running in the list for that particular service. For example, if the
batch job uses the Axis web services to upload the documents, you would
enter the IP address of the machine on which the batch job is running to the
axis.servlet.hosts.allowed property. A typical entry might look like this:
axis.servlet.hosts.allowed=192.168.100.100, 127.0.0.1, SERVER_IP
If the machine on which the batch job is running has the IP address
this configuration will allow that machine to connect to
Liferay's web services and pass in user credentials to be used to upload the
documents.
192.168.100.100,
Illustration 102: Liferay SOA's second layer of security.
The second layer of security is Liferay's security model that it uses for
every object in the portal. The user ID that accesses the services remotely
must have the proper permission to operate on the objects it will be accessing. Otherwise, a remote exception will be thrown. The Portal Administrator
will need to make use of Liferay's usual means of granting access to these resources to the user ID that will be operating on them remotely.
For example, say that a Document Library folder called Documents has
been set up in a community. A role has been created called Document Upload-
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ers which has the rights to add documents to this folder. Your batch job will
be accessing Liferay's web services in order to upload documents into this
folder. In order for this to work, you will have to call the web service using a
user ID that is a member of this group (or that has individual rights to add
documents to this folder). Otherwise, you will be prevented from using the
Web Service.
To call the web service using credentials, you would use the following
URL syntax:
http://" + userIdAsString + ":" + password + "@<server.com>:<port>/tunnelweb/secure/axis/" + serviceName
The user ID is the user's ID from the Liferay database. This may be obtained by logging in as the user and clicking My Account from the Dock. In the
top left corner of the portlet that appears is the user ID.
For example, to get Organization data using a user that has the ID of 2
with a password of test, you would use the following URL:
http://2:[email protected]:8080/tunnelweb/secure/axis/Portal_OrganizationService
It is important to note here how Password Policies (covered in Chapter 3)
can be used in combination with this feature. If you are enforcing password
policies on your users (requiring them to change their passwords on a periodic basis, etc.), any administrative ID which accesses Liferay's web services
in a batch job will have its password expire too.
To prevent this from happening, you can add a new password policy
which does not enforce the password expiration and add your administrative
user ID to it. Then your batch job can run as many times as you need it to,
and the administrative ID's password will never expire.
In summary, accessing Liferay remotely requires the successful passing
of two security checks:
1.
The IP address must be pre-configured in the server's
properties file.
2.
The user ID being used must have permission to access the resources
it is attempting to access.
portal-ext.-
Accessing Liferay's WSDL
After configuring the security settings properly, your first step in obtaining access to remote web services is to access the WSDL. If you are on a
browser on the same machine Liferay is running on, you can do this by accessing the following URL:
http://localhost:<port number>/tunnel-web/axis
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If, for example, you are running on Tomcat on port 8080, you would specify this URL:
http://localhost:8080/tunnel-web/axis
If you are accessing a web service that was created as part of a portlet
plugin, the URL is similar, but uses the context of your application rather
than the tunnel-web servlet. You can get a list of your Service Builder-generated WSDL documents by using the URL pattern below:
http://localhost:8080/your-portlet/axis
If you are on a different machine from the Liferay server, you will need
to pass in your user credentials on the URL to access the WSDL:
http://<user ID>:<password>@<server name>:<port number>/tunnel-web/axis
In any case, once you successfully browse to this URL, you will see the list
of web services.
WSDL for each service is available by clicking on the WSDL link next to
the name of the service. There are many services; one for each of the services
available from the Liferay API.
Once you click on one of the WSDL links, the Web Service Definition Language document will be displayed. This document can be used to generate
client code in any language that supports it. You can either save the document to your local machine and then generate the client code that way, or
use your tool to trigger Liferay to generate the document dynamically by using one of the URLs above.
For further information about developing applications that take advantage of Liferay's remote services, please see Liferay in Action.
Summary
This very long chapter covered a cornucopia of topics. First, we went
through all of the options which can be customized in your portal-ext.properties file, exhaustively. This serves as a reference section for the file,
so you can quickly find documentation for any property you might encounter.
Next, we took a good, long look at plugin management. Every aspect of
plugin management was covered, including plugin types, installing plugins
from a repository, installing plugins manually, troubleshooting, creating
your own plugin repository, and more.
After this, we covered how to configure Liferay's web services in a secure
way so that you can access the back end services you need. We also saw how
Summary
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to access web services that your own developers have created with Liferay's
Service Builder utility.
Combined with the preceding chapters, the information you've gained so
far gives you the ability to competently install and configure a website which
runs on Liferay. Next, we'll take a look at some of the ways you can configure
Liferay for the enterprise.
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7. ENTERPRISE CONFIGURATION
Liferay Portal is a robust, enterprise-ready portal solution. As such, it is
fully ready to support mission-critical, enterprise applications in an environment configured for multiple redundancy and 24/7 up times. The product,
however, like other products of its kind, does not come configured this way
out of the box, and so there are some steps that need to be taken in order to
configure it this way.
This chapter will cover these topics in detail. Because Liferay runs on so
many different Java EE application servers, it will be impossible to cover all of
the differences between these application servers. For this reason, we will
cover the configuration of Liferay only. As an example, we will cover how to
configure Liferay to work in a clustered environment, but we will not cover
how to create the cluster in your application server. Please consult the documentation for your particular application server to see how you can configure your application server of choice to work as a cluster.
We will, however, cover the configuration of Liferay for a number of advanced scenarios, such as
•
Clustering and Distributed Caching
•
Liferay Workflow
•
Deploying Customized versions of Liferay
•
Performance Testing and Tuning
During this discussion, we will mention a number of other open source
products upon which Liferay relies for much of this functionality. These
products all have their own documentation which should be consulted for a
Enterprise Configuration
fuller view of what these products can do. For example, Liferay uses Ehcache
for its caching mechanism. We will cover how to configure Ehcache to enable
various caching functionality in Liferay, but will refer you to that product's
documentation for further information about that product.
Sometimes Liferay supports multiple products which perform the same
function. There are, for example, multiple implementations of Enterprise
Service Buses for use with workflow, and Liferay supports several of them.
We will leave it up to you to select which product best fits the needs of your
project without recommending one product over another.
With all of that said, let's get started configuring Liferay for the enterprise.
App Server Cluster
Virtual Hosting
Unbreakable Liferay
To infinity and
beyond
www.mytcl.com
www.mytte.com
www.mypmu.com
Load Balancer
Liferay Server 1
Controller 1
DB 1
DB 2
Multiple Domains
Multiple Load Balancers
Liferay Server 2
Multiple Liferay Servers
Controller 2
DB 3
DB 4
Multiple Databases
Illustration 103: "Unbreakable" Liferay architecture
Liferay Clustering
Once you have Liferay installed in more than one node on your application server, there are several optimizations that need to be made. At a min-
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imum, Liferay should be configured in the following way for a clustered environment:
•
All nodes should be pointing to the same Liferay database
•
Jackrabbit, the JSR-170 content repository, should be:
◦
On a shared file system available to all the nodes (not really
recommended, though), or
◦
In a database that is shared by all the nodes
•
Alternatively, the Document Library should be configured to use
the File System Hook, and the files can be stored on a SAN for
better performance.
•
Similarly, Lucene, the full text search indexer, should be:
•
◦
On a shared file system available to all the nodes (not really
recommended, though), or
◦
In a database that is shared by all the nodes, or
◦
On separate file systems for all of the nodes, or
◦
Disabled, and a separate pluggable enterprise search server
configured (recommended).
If you have not configured your application server to use farms
for deployment, the hot deploy folder should be a separate
folder for all the nodes, and plugins will have to be deployed to
all of the nodes individually. This can be done via a script.
Many of these configuration changes can be made by adding or modifying properties in your portal-ext.properties file. Remember that this file
overrides the defaults that are in the portal.properties file. The original
version of this file can be found in the Liferay source code or can be extracted
from the portal-impl.jar file in your Liferay installation. It is a best practice
to copy the relevant section that you want to modify from portal.properties into your portal-ext.properties file, and then modify the values
there.
Note: This chapter documents a Liferay-specific cluster configuration,
without getting into specific implementations of third party software, such as Java EE application servers, HTTP servers, and load
balancers. Please consult your documentation for those components
of your cluster for specific details of those components. Before configuring Liferay in a cluster configuration, make sure your OS is not defining
the hostname of your box to the local network at 127.0.0.1.
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All Nodes Should Be Pointing to the Same Liferay Database
This is pretty self-explanatory. Each node should be configured with a
data source that points to one Liferay database (or a database cluster) that all
of the nodes will share. This ensures that all of the nodes operate from the
same basic data set. This means, of course, that Liferay cannot (and should
not) use the embedded HSQL database that is shipped with the bundles. It is
also best if the database server is a separate physical box from the server
which is running Liferay.
Document Library Configuration
There are several options available for configuring how Liferay's document library stores files. Each option is a hook which can be configured
through the portal-ext.properties file by setting the dl.hook.impl= property.
Default File System Hook
This is the hook that Liferay will use to manage your document library
by default. It uses the file system to store documents which has proven to be
the highest performing configuration for large document libraries. You can
use the file system for your clustered configuration, but the advanced file
system hook is generally recommended for more complex clustering environments.
the
You can configure the path where your documents are stored by setting
property in your portal-ext.proper-
dl.hook.file.system.root.dir=
ties.
Jackrabbit Sharing
Liferay uses Jackrabbit—which is a project from Apache—as its JSR-170
compliant document repository. By default, Jackrabbit is configured to store
the documents on the local file system upon which Liferay is installed, in the
$LIFERAY_HOME/liferay/jackrabbit folder. Inside this folder is Jackrabbit's
configuration file, called repository.xml.
To simply move the default repository location to a shared folder, you do
not need to edit Jackrabbit's configuration file. Instead, find the section in
portal.properties labeled JCR and copy/paste that section into your
portal-ext.properties file. One of the properties, by default, is the following:
jcr.jackrabbit.repository.root=${liferay.home}/data/jackrabbit
Change this property to point to a shared folder that all of the nodes can
see. A new Jackrabbit configuration file will be generated in that location.
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Note that because of file locking issues, this is not the best way to share
Jackrabbit resources. If you have two people logged in at the same time uploading content, you could encounter data corruption using this method, and
because of this, we do not recommend it for a production system. Instead, to
enable better data protection, you should redirect Jackrabbit into your database of choice. You can use the Liferay database or another database for this
purpose. This will require editing Jackrabbit's configuration file.
The default Jackrabbit configuration file has sections commented out for
moving the Jackrabbit configuration into the database. This has been done to
make it as easy as possible to enable this configuration. To move the Jackrabbit configuration into the database, simply comment out the sections relating
to the file system and comment in the sections relating to the database.
These by default are configured for a MySQL database. If you are using another database, you will likely need to modify the configuration, as there are
changes to the configuration file that are necessary for specific databases.
For example, the default configuration uses Jackrabbit's DbFileSystem class
to mimic a file system in the database. While this works well in MySQL, it
does not work for all databases. For example, if you are using an Oracle database, you will need to modify this to use OracleFileSystem. Please see the
Jackrabbit documentation at http://jackrabbit.apache.org for further information.
You will also likely need to modify the JDBC database URLs so that they
point your database. Don't forget to create the database first, and grant the
user ID you are specifying in the configuration file access to create, modify,
and drop tables.
Once you have configured Jackrabbit to store its repository in a database,
the next time you bring up Liferay, the necessary database tables will be created automatically. Jackrabbit, however, does not create indexes on these
tables, and so over time this can be a performance penalty. To fix this, you
will need to manually go into your database and index the primary key
columns for all of the Jackrabbit tables.
All of your Liferay nodes should be configured to use the same Jackrabbit
repository in the database. Once that is working, you can create a Jackrabbit
cluster (please see the section below).
Other Storage Options
There are other options available to configure Liferay's Document Library. The default option has the best performance with large document libraries, because it simply uses the file system. If you require a JSR-170 compliant document store, you can use Jackrabbit, which can be configured to use
the file system or database, depending on your needs. If, however, you have
very specific configuration needs, or if you already have a content repository
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that you want to continue using, you might want to use one of the following
options Liferay has available.
Advanced File System Hook
To use the Advanced File System Hook, set:
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.AdvancedFileSystemHook
This is the preferred hook for clustered environments especially if
you're using a SAN to store files.
From a performance standpoint, this method is superior to using Jackrabbit. The Advanced File System Hook distributes the files into multiple directories and thus circumvents file system limitations. Liferay does not implement any file level locking, so only use this if you’re using a SAN that sup ports file locking (most modern ones do but check your SAN documentation
to be sure).
The path for storing your documents is set also set using the
dl.hook.-
file.system.root.dir property in the portal-ext.properties.
Amazon Simple Storage
To use Amazon’s Simple Storage Service to store you documents for a
Liferay Portal, set
dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.S3Hook
in portal-ext.properties. You will need to consult the Amazon Simple
Storage documentation for additional details on setting it up.
Documentum
You can use this hook to store your documents with Documentum. Before configuring Documentum, you will need to install the documentum-hook
plugin. Before installing, however, please note that the documentum-hook plugin is only supported on Liferay Enterprise Edition, and is currently in an experimental stage, and may not be ready for production use. To use this hook,
set
dl.hook.impl=liferay.documentum.hook.DocumentumHook
If you are using Documentum, there are additional settings that must be
configured in the
${liferay_home}/documentum-hook/docroot/WEBINF/src/dfc.properties and documentum-hook/docroot/WEB-INF/src/portlet.properties files.
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Search Configuration
You can configure search in one of two ways: use pluggable enterprise
search (recommended for a cluster configuration) or configure Lucene in
such a way that either the index is stored on each node's file system or is
shared in a database.
Pluggable Enterprise Search
As an alternative to using Lucene, Liferay supports pluggable search engines. The first implementation of this uses the open source search engine
Solr, but in the future there will be many such plugins for your search engine
of choice. This allows you to use a completely separate product for search,
which can be installed on another application server in your environment.
Your search engine then operates completely independently of your Liferay
Portal nodes in a clustered environment, acting as a search service for all of
the nodes simultaneously.
This solves the problem described below with sharing Lucene indexes.
You can now have one search index for all of the nodes of your cluster
without having to worry about putting it in a database (if you wish, you can
still do this if you configure Solr or another search engine that way) or maintaining separate search indexes on all of your nodes. Each Liferay node will
send requests to the search engine to update the search index when needed,
and these updates are then queued and handled automatically by the search
engine, independently.
Configuring the Solr Search Server
Since Solr is a standalone search engine, you will need to download it
and install it first according to the instructions on the Solr web site
(http://lucene.apache.org/solr). Of course, it is best to use a server that is
separate from your Liferay installation, as your Solr server will be responsible for all indexing and searching for your entire cluster. Solr is distributed
as a .war file with several .jar files which need to be available on your application server's class path. Once you have Solr up and running, integrating it
with Liferay is easy, but it will require a restart of your application server.
The first thing you will need to define is the location of your search index. Assuming you are running a Linux server and you have mounted a file
system for the index at /solr, create an environment variable that points to
this folder. This environment variable needs to be called $SOLR_HOME. So for
our example, we would define:
$SOLR_HOME=/solr
This environment variable can be defined anywhere you need: in your
operating system's start up sequence, in the environment for the user who is
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logged in, or in the start up script for your application server. If you are going to use Tomcat to host Solr, you would modify setenv.sh or setenv.bat
and add the environment variable there.
Once you have created the environment variable, you then can use it in
your application server's start up configuration as a parameter to your JVM.
This is configured differently per application server, but again, if you are using Tomcat, you would edit catalina.sh or catalina.bat and append the following to the $JAVA_OPTS variable:
-Dsolr.solr.home=$SOLR_HOME
This takes care of telling Solr where to store its search index. Go ahead
and install Solr to this box according to the instructions on the Solr web site
(http://lucene.apache.org/solr). Once it's installed, shut it down, as there
is some more configuration to do.
Installing the Solr Liferay Plugin
Next, you have a choice. If you have installed Solr on the same system
upon which Liferay is running, you can simply go to the Control Panel and install the solr-web plugin. This, however, defeats much of the purpose of using
Solr, because the goal is to offload search indexing to another box in order to
free up processing for your installation of Liferay. For this reason, you should
not run Liferay and your search engine on the same box. Unfortunately, the
configuration in the plugin defaults to having Solr and Liferay running on
the same box, so to run them separately, you will have to make a change to a
configuration file in the plugin before you install it so you can tell Liferay
where to send indexing requests. In this case, go to the Liferay web site
(http://www.liferay.com) and download the plugin manually.
Open or extract the plugin. Inside the plugin, you will find a file called
in the WEB-INF/classes/META-INF folder. Open this file in a
text editor and you will see the entry which defines where the Solr server can
be found by Liferay:
solr-spring.xml
<bean
class="com.liferay.portal.spring.context.PortletBeanFactoryPostProcessor" />
<bean id="com.liferay.portal.search.solr.server.BasicAuthSolrServer"
class="com.liferay.portal.search.solr.server.BasicAuthSolrServer">
<constructor-arg
type="java.lang.String"value="http://localhost:8080/solr" />
Modify this value so that they point to the server upon which you are
running Solr. Then save the file and put it back into the plugin archive in the
same place it was before.
Next, extract the file schema.xml from the plugin. It should be in the
folder. This file tells Solr how to index the data com-
docroot/WEB-INF/conf
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ing from Liferay, and can be customized for your installation. Copy this file to
$SOLR_HOME/conf (you may have to create the conf directory) on your Solr
box. Now you can go ahead and start Solr.
You can now hot deploy the solr-web plugin to all of your nodes. See the
next section for instructions on hot deploying to a cluster.
Once the plugin is hot deployed, your Liferay search is automatically upgraded to use Solr. It is likely, however, that initial searches will come up
with nothing: this is because you will need to reindex everything using Solr.
Go to the Control Panel. In the Server section, click Server Administration.
Click the Execute button next to Reindex all search indexes at the bottom of the
page. It may take a while, but Liferay will begin sending indexing requests to
Solr for execution. When the process is complete, Solr will have a complete
search index of your site, and will be running independently of all of your
Liferay nodes.
Installing the plugin to your nodes has the effect of overriding any calls
to Lucene for searching. All of Liferay's search boxes will now use Solr as the
search index. This is ideal for a clustered environment, as it allows all of your
nodes to share one search server and one search index, and this search server operates independently of all of your nodes.
Lucene Configuration
Lucene, the search indexer which Liferay uses, can be in a shared configuration for a clustered environment, or an index can be created on each node
of the cluster. The easiest configuration to implement is to have an index on
each node of the cluster. Liferay provides a method called ClusterLink which
can send indexing requests to all nodes in the cluster to keep them in sync.
This configuration does not require any additional hardware, and it performs
very well. It may increase network traffic when an individual server reboots,
since in that case a full reindex will be needed. But since this should only
rarely happen, it's a good tradeoff if you don't have the extra hardware to
implement a Solr search server.
You can enable ClusterLink by setting one property in your
file:
portal-ex-
t.properties
cluster.link.enabled=true
Of course, this needs to be set on all the nodes.
If you wish to have a shared index, you will need to either share the index on the file system or in the database. This requires changing your Lucene
configuration.
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The Lucene configuration can be changed by modifying values in your
file. Open your portal.properties file and search
for the text Lucene . Copy that section and then paste it into your portal-ext.properties file.
portal-ext.properties
If you wish to store the Lucene search index on a file system that is
shared by all of the Liferay nodes, you can modify the location of the search
index by changing the lucene.dir property. By default, this property points
to the lucene folder inside the Liferay home folder:
lucene.dir=${liferay.home}/data/lucene/
Change this to the folder of your choice. To make the change take effect,
you will need to restart Liferay. You can point all of the nodes to this folder,
and they will use the same index.
Like Jackrabbit, however, this is not the best way to share the search index, as it could result in file corruption if different nodes try reindexing at
the same time. We do not recommend this for a production system. A better
way is to share the index is via a database, where the database can enforce
data integrity on the index. This is very easy to do; it is a simple change to
your portal-ext.properties file.
There is a single property called lucene.store.type. By default this is
set to go to the file system. You can change this so that the index is stored in
the database by making it the following:
lucene.store.type=jdbc
The next time Liferay is started, new tables will be created in the Liferay
database, and the index will be stored there. If all the Liferay nodes point to
the same database tables, they will be able to share the index. Performance
on this is not always as good as it could be. Your DBAs may be able to tweak
the database indexes a bit to improve performance. For better performance,
you should consider using a separate search server (see the section on Solr
above).
Note: MySQL users need to modify their JDBC connection string for this
to work. Add the following parameter to your connection string:
emulateLocators=true
Alternatively, you can leave the configuration alone, and each node will
then have its own index. This ensures that there are no collisions when multiple nodes update the index, because they all will have separate indexes.
This, however, creates duplicate indexes and may not be the best use of resources. Again, for a better configuration, you should consider using a separate search server (see the section on Solr above).
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Hot Deploy
Plugins which are hot deployed will need to be deployed separately to all
of the Liferay nodes. Each node should, therefore, have its own hot deploy
folder. This folder needs to be writable by the user under which Liferay is
running, because plugins are moved from this folder to a temporary folder
when they are deployed. This is to prevent the system from entering an endless loop, because the presence of a plugin in the folder is what triggers the
hot deploy process.
When you want to deploy a plugin, copy that plugin to the hot deploy
folders of all of the Liferay nodes. Depending on the number of nodes, it may
be best to create a script to do this. Once the plugin has been deployed to all
of the nodes, you can then make use of it (by adding the portlet to a page or
choosing the theme as the look and feel for a page or page hierarchy).
Some containers contain a facility which allows the end user to deploy
an application to one node, after which it will get copied to all of the other
nodes. If you have configured your application server to support this, you
won't need to hot deploy a plugin to all of the nodes—your application server
will handle it transparently. Make sure, however, that you use Liferay's hot
deploy mechanism to deploy plugins, as in many cases Liferay slightly modifies plugin .war files when hot deploying them.
All of the above will get basic Liferay clustering working; however, the
configuration can be further optimized. We will see how to do this next.
Distributed Caching
Liferay uses Ehcache, which has robust distributed caching support. This
means that the cache can be distributed across multiple Liferay nodes running concurrently. Enabling this cache can increase performance dramatically. For example, say that two users are browsing the message boards. The
first user clicks on a thread in order to read it. Liferay must look up that
thread from the database and format it for display in the browser. With a distributed Ehcache running, this thread can be pulled from the database and
stored in a cache for quick retrieval. Say then that the second user wants to
read the same forum thread and clicks on it. This time, because the thread is
in the local cache, no trip to the database is necessary, and so retrieving the
data is much faster.
This could be done by simply having a cache running separately on each
node, but the power of distributed caching allows for more functionality. The
first user can post a message to the thread he or she was reading, and the
cache will be updated across all of the nodes, making the new post available
immediately from the local cache. Without that, the second user would need
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to wait until the cache was invalidated on the node he or she connected to
before he or she could see the updated forum post.
Configuring distributed caching requires the modification of the portalwell as one or more other files depending on what you
want to cache. The first thing you will want to do is determine where on your
server you will want to store your cache configuration files. This will have to
be somewhere on Liferay's class path, so you will need to find where your application server has stored the deployed version of Liferay, and create a
folder in Liferay's WEB-INF/classes folder to store the files. Because the original, default files are stored inside of a .jar file, you will need to extract them
to this area and then tell Liferay (by use of the portal-ext.properties file)
where they are.
ext.properties file as
For example, say you are running Liferay on Tomcat. Tomcat stores the
deployed version of Liferay in <Tomcat Home>/webapps/ROOT. Inside of this
folder is the folder structure WEB-INF/classes. You can create a new folder in
here called myehcache to store the custom versions of the cache configuration
files. Copy the files from the /ehcache folder—which is inside the portal-impl.jar file—into the myehcache folder you just created. You then need to
modify the properties in portal-ext.properties that point to these files.
Copy / paste the Hibernate section of portal.properties into your portalext.properties file and then modify the net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName property to point to the clustered version of the configuration
file that is now in your custom folder:
net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/myehcache/hibernate-clustered.xml
Now that Liferay is pointing to your custom file, you can modify the settings in this file to change the cache configuration for Hibernate.
Next, copy / paste the Ehcache section from the portal.properties file
into your portal-ext.properties file. Modify the properties so that they
point to the files that are in your custom folder. For example:
ehcache.multi.vm.config.location=/myehcache/liferay-multi-vm.xml
If you are going to enable distributed clustering, uncomment the following line and point it to your custom version of the file:
ehcache.multi.vm.config.location=/myehcache/liferay-multi-vm-clustered.xml
You can now take a look at the settings in these files and tune them to fit
your environment and application.
Alternatively, if your Liferay project is using the Ext plugin to make customizations to Liferay, you can place your cache configuration in the extension environment. The settings there will override the default settings that
ship with Liferay. If you wish to do this, you can create new versions of the
files in ext-impl/src/ehcache. The files should be have with -ext.xml
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tacked onto the end of the file name. For example, the custom version of hibernate.xml should be called hibernate-ext.xml, and the custom version of
liferay-multi-vm-clustered.xml
should be called
liferay-multi-vm-clustered-ext.xml. You can then modify the files and tune them to fit
your environment / application, and they will be deployed along with the
rest of your extension environment.
Hibernate Cache Settings
By default, Hibernate (Liferay's database persistence layer) is configured
to use Ehcache as its cache provider. This is the recommended setting. The
default configuration, however, points to a file that does not have clustering
enabled. To enable clustering, copy the Hibernate section from portal.properties into your portal-ext.properties file. To enable a clustered cache,
comment out the default file (hibernate.xml) and uncomment the clustered
version of the file, making sure that you change the path so that it points to
your custom version of the file:
net.sf.ehcache.configurationResourceName=/myehcache/hibernate-clustered.xml
Next, open this file in a text editor. You will notice that the configuration
is already set up to perform distributed caching through a multi-cast connection. It is likely, however, that the configuration is not set up optimally for
your particular application. You will notice that by default, the only object
cached in the Hibernate cache is the User object ( com.liferay.portal.model.impl.UserImpl). This means that when a user logs in, his or her User object will go in the cache so that any portal operation that requires access to it
(such as permission checking) can retrieve that object very quickly from the
cache.
You may wish to add other objects to the cache. For example, a large part
of your application may be document management using the Document Library portlet. In this case, you may want to cache Document Library objects,
such as DLFileEntryImpl in order to improve performance as users access
documents. To do that, add another block to the configuration file with the
class you want to cache:
<cache
name="com.liferay.portlet.documentlibrary.model.impl.DLFileEntryImpl"
maxElementsInMemory="10000"
eternal="false"
timeToIdleSeconds="600"
overflowToDisk="true"
>
<cacheEventListenerFactory
class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMICacheReplicatorFactory"
properties="replicatePuts=false,replicateUpdatesViaCopy=false"
propertySeparator=","
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/>
<bootstrapCacheLoaderFactory
class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMIBootstrapCacheLoaderFactory" />
</cache>
Your site may use the message boards portlet, and those message boards
may get a lot of traffic. To cache the threads on the message boards, configure a block with the MBMessageImpl class:
<cache
name="com.liferay.portlet.messageboards.model.impl.MBMessageImpl"
maxElementsInMemory="10000"
eternal="false"
timeToIdleSeconds="600"
overflowToDisk="true"
>
<cacheEventListenerFactory
class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMICacheReplicatorFactory"
properties="replicatePuts=false,replicateUpdatesViaCopy=false"
propertySeparator=","
/>
<bootstrapCacheLoaderFactory
class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMIBootstrapCacheLoaderFactory" />
</cache>
Note that if your developers have overridden any of these classes, you
will have to specify the overridden versions rather than the stock ones that
come with Liferay Portal.
As you can see, it is easy to add specific data to be cached. Be careful,
however, as too much caching can actually reduce performance if the JVM
runs out of memory and starts garbage collecting too frequently. You will
likely need to experiment with the memory settings on your JVM as well as
the cache settings above. You can find the specifics about these settings in
the documentation for Ehcache.
Clustering Jackrabbit
If you are using the Document Library, can configure it to use the JSR170 document repository, which is the Apache product Jackrabbit. You have
already configured basic data sharing among nodes by moving its configuration into a database. The next thing you need to do is configure clustering for
Jackrabbit, so that each node knows about data being entered into the repository by other nodes.
You
can
find
the
Jackrabbit configuration file in [Liferay
The file is called repository.xml. You have
likely already edited this file when you modified the configuration to move
the data into the database.
Home]/liferay/jackrabbit.
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At the bottom of this file is a cluster configuration that is commented
out. If you are using a MySQL database, you can uncomment this section and
use it as-is. You will need to change the cluster ID for each node so that they
don't conflict with one another.
If you are using another database, the only changes necessary are the
connection, credentials, and schema settings. Modify them according to your
database of choice and then save the file. This is all it takes to set up clustering for Jackrabbit.
Workflow with Kaleo
Liferay Portal includes a workflow engine called Kaleo. In Greek, this
word means “called ones,” which is appropriate for a workflow engine that
will be calling users to participate in a process that has been designed for
them.
Kaleo workflow allows a user to define any number of simple to complex
business processes/workflows, deploy them, and manage them through a
portal interface. Those processes have knowledge of users, groups, and roles
without writing a single line of code—it only requires the creation of a single
XML document.
Installation
Liferay's Kaleo workflow engine ships with CE versions of Liferay. If you
have EE or if you have uninstalled it, the plugin can be installed through the
built-in plugin repository. The name is kaleo-web, and you'll find it in the list
of web plugins. Installing the plugin will add a number of new options to the
Control Panel.
•
My Workflow Tasks
•
Workflow Configuration
•
My Submissions
•
Workflow
There is one default workflow that is bundled with the kaleo-web plugin:
Single Approver Workflow. This workflow requires one approval before an
asset can be published. One of the conveniences of using Liferay's workflow
engine is that any roles that are specified in the workflow definition are created automatically when the definition is deployed. This provides a level of
integration with the portal that third party engines cannot match. The Single
Approver Workflow contains three roles each with different scopes. The
scope of each role can be easily deduced by their names - Community Content Reviewer, Organization Content Reviewer, and Portal Content Reviewer.
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Kaleo Workflow in a Nutshell
Liferay's Kaleo workflows are defined in an XML file and executed by
users on the portal. Administrators can create as many different workflow
definitions as they need to manage the work done on their portal. You can
define new user roles in the workflow to manage the approval process or use
roles that already exist in your portal.
Process Definitions
Each workflow definition is defined by a single XML file. The XML file has
several parts which define the workflow. To get an idea of how this works,
we'll be examining the default single-approver-definition.xml file which
is included in the the Liferay Kaleo plugin.
The key parts of the workflow definition are the asset, states, transitions,
and tasks. The asset is whatever piece of content is being reviewed and approved in the workflow. States represent stages of the workflow; for example:
created, rejected, or approved. Transitions occur between states, and indicate
what the next state should be. Tasks are steps in the workflow that require
user action.
Generally speaking a state will contain a task and the user input from the
task will determine which transition will occur. The transition will then
move the workflow to the next task. This cycle will continue until the end
“approved” state is reached.
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Illustration 104: The default single approver workflow. Arrows represent transitions, and
boxes represent states and tasks.
First we define the schema. For Liferay workflows using Kaleo, liferayYou can find this
a good XML editor
should be able to cache it from Liferay's website.
worklow-definition-6_0_0.xsd should be your schema.
schema in the definitions folder of the Liferay source or
<workflow-definition
xmlns="urn:liferay.com:liferay-workflow_6.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="urn:liferay.com:liferay-workflow_6.0.0
http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-workflow-definition_6_0_0.xsd"
>
Next we define a name and description for the workflow. This will appear in the Control Panel when you are choosing and configuring workflows.
<name>Single Approver</name>
<description>A single approver can approve a workflow content.</description>
<version>1</version>
After that, we need to define our initial state. In this case, in is simply
that the asset has been created. States can contain actions and transitions.
Actions can contain scripts. You can specify the language of the script with
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the <script-language> tag. Scripts can be written in Groovy, JavaScript, Ruby,
or Python. Transitions will move you to a new state or task.
<state>
<name>created</name>
<initial>true</initial>
From the initial state, we transition to a new state where the asset will
need to be reviewed.
<transitions>
<transition>
<name>review</name>
<target>review</target>
<default>true</default>
</transition>
</transitions>
</state>
After that, we create a task. The task has several parts, and is the most
complex part of the definition. In the task, we first need to choose a role to
notify that there's new content which is in need of review. If the role doesn't
exist, defining it here causes it to be created automatically.
The first task listed in the single-approver-definition.xml workflow
definition is actually not the first task in the workflow. It is the update task.
This is the task that will be assigned by the workflow if the asset is rejected
by an approver. It is listed first because it is the default task: when this task
is triggered, the workflow process has been reset back to the beginning. In
this task, the asset is assigned back to the content creator, who will receive
an email notification and be required to resubmit the asset. Once the task is
resubmitted, it goes back to the review stage.
You can also see that the task is assigned to <user/>. This tag will always
assign the task back to the user who created the asset.
<task>
<name>update</name>
<actions>
<notification>
<name>Creator Modification Notification</name>
<execution-type>onAssignment</execution-type>
<template>Your submission was rejected by a reviewer,
please modify and resubmit.</template>
<template-language>text</template-language>
<notification-type>email</notification-type>
</notification>
</actions>
<assignments>
<user />
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</assignments>
<transitions>
<transition>
<name>resubmit</name>
<target>review</target>
<default>true</default>
</transition>
</transitions>
</task>
The review task is the first task in the workflow . This is where users on
the portal need to review the content to move to the next step.
Once the transition has been made to this task, a notification is sent out
to those who are assigned to the task. You can edit the name or content of
the notification in the XML file.
<task>
<name>review</name>
<actions>
<notification>
<name>Review Notification</name>
<execution-type>onAssignment</execution-type>
<template>You have a new submission waiting for your review
in the workflow.</template>
<template-language>text</template-language>
<notification-type>email</notification-type>
</notification>
</actions>
You must also assign the task to a specific role or roles. This role does
not have to be the role which you notified if, for example, you wanted to no tify all of the content creators any time a new item was submitted. Regardless of who else you are notifying, you will definitely want to notify anyone
who will be responsible for approving content.
Notifications need an
exectution-type
which can be
onAssignment,
onEntry, or onExit.
•
onEntry generates
and sends the notification when the user logs
in to the portal.
•
onExit
generates and sends the notification when the user logs
out.
•
generates and sends the notification as soon as
the user is assigned the task in the workflow. onAssignment notification will not work if you wish to notify a user that is not
part of the workflow.
onAssignment
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Notifications also need a notification-type which can be email, im, or
Your notification type and execution type should complement each other. You wouldn't generally want to use an onExit execution
type with a private message, because the user won't receive that message until he or she logs back in. Generally speaking, email notifications work best
with onExit or onAssignment, while IM or private message work better with
onEntry.
private-message.
Email and private message notifications can also be created as plain text,
or you can create formatted content using Freemarker or Velocity templating languages. When creating the notification, you need to specify the template-language as text, freemarker, or velocity.
In this workflow, anyone who would be capable of approving the content
is notified onAssignment. This includes administrators, and community and
organization owners. The role-type tag helps the system sort out who
should be receiving the notification based on the scope, and can be set as
community, organization, or portal.
<assignments>
<roles>
<role>
<role-type>community</role-type>
<name>Community Administrator</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>community</role-type>
<name>Community Content Reviewer</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>community</role-type>
<name>Community Owner</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>organization</role-type>
<name>Organization Administrator</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>organization</role-type>
<name>Organization Content Reviewer</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>organization</role-type>
<name>Organization Owner</name>
</role>
<role>
<role-type>regular</role-type>
<name>Portal Content Reviewer</name>
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</role>
<role>
<role-type>regular</role-type>
<name>Administrator</name>
</role>
</roles>
</assignments>
Once the content is approved, you will want to transition to a new state.
In this case, we have only need of a single approver, so we will transition to
the final approved state. In more complex workflows, this might transition to
a second tier approver.
<transitions>
<transition>
<name>approve</name>
<target>approved</target>
<default>true</default>
</transition>
<transition>
<name>reject</name>
<target>update</target>
<default>false</default>
</transition>
</transitions>
</task>
Finally, we define our end state, which runs a script to set the state of the
content to approved, in the portal. The script is part of the Kaleo workflow
engine. Any workflow customizations can be completely contained within
XML workflow definitions.
You could also write a customized script if there were actions outside of
the standard one that need to be performed on your asset. The default script,
written in Javascript, sets the status of the asset to approved. You can add additional information into the script through Javascript, or you can change the
<script-language> to another supported language (Ruby, Groovy, or Python)
and rewrite the action with additional details to meet your needs.
<state>
<name>approved</name>
<actions>
<action>
<name>approve</name>
<execution-type>onEntry</execution-type>
<script>
<![CDATA[
Packages.com.liferay.portal.kernel.workflow.WorkflowStatusManagerUtil.update
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Enterprise Configuration
Status(Packages.com.liferay.portal.kernel.workflow.WorkflowConstants.toStatu
s("approved"), workflowContext);
]]>
</script>
<script-language>javascript</script-language>
</action>
</actions>
</state>
To create longer workflows, you would simply create additional states,
tasks and transitions similar to the ones in the single approver definition,
and create additional reviewer roles. For instance, if you wanted to have a
second level of review before an item is approved, you could create a new
task in between the review task and the approved state. The task itself would
have similar content to review, but you would assigned to a different role –
either one that you have already created, or a new one generated by Kaleo.
You would set the review task to transition to your new task, and set the new
task to transition to the approved state, once it is completed. You can also use
forks and joins to create more complex workflows.
Illustration 105: A possible parallel approval design
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Workflow with Kaleo
Enterprise Configuration
You can transition to a fork from a task or state, and from a fork, you can
transition to multiple tasks or states which will occur in parallel. In the above
example, when we have multiple transitions from one task, they are mutually
exclusive –- you either trigger one or the other. The transitions are also serial, meaning that one must occur, and then the next one can occur. With a
parallel workflow, you can have different approvals going through different
users at the same time. For example, you could use this to separate two different departments' approval chains on a single asset.
A fork should be formatted like this:
<fork>
<name></name>
<actions>
...
</actions>
<transitions>
...
</transitions>
</fork>
To bring a fork back together, you would transition both nodes of the
fork back to a single join. A join is formatted similarly to a fork, except that
any transitions are serial, not parallel.
Due Dates
When you're creating a task for a workflow, you can configure due date
options. The due date for an item isn't set as a specific day, but as a period of
time after the task is assigned. For example, you could set the due date for a
specific task to be two days after the task is assigned. This is all configured in
the XML definition file, and there is currently no GUI option to configure this
setting.
The due date options are formatted in the definitions file like this:
<task>
<name></name>
<description/></description>
<due-date-duration>{any whole number}</due-date-duration>
<due-date-scale>{second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year}<due-datescale>
...
</task>
The due date is set inside the task with the two elements: a duration and
a scale. The duration can be any whole number, and is completely meaningless without the scale. The scale tells you what units the duration is measured in, valid values for this are second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and
year.
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Here's an example of how this can work practically: you could set the
duration to 10, and then set the scale to be hour. This would mean that the
task would be due 10 hours after it was assigned. If you edited the definition
file, and changed hour to day, that would mean that the task would need to be
completed within 10 days after in was assigned.
Workflow in the Control Panel
Most of your workflow configuration is done via the Control Panel.
Everything you need to do in the
portal can be done through simple GUI
controls.
Workflow
Workflow is found under the
Portal heading in the Control Panel.
There are three options under Workflow. Definitions, Default Configuration,
and Submissions.
Illustration 106: Adding a workflow definition
Before you do anything else, you'll
need to add workflow definitions through the Definitions to make them
available. By default only the Single Approver workflow appears here. Clicking Add allows you to enter a title for a new workflow definition and upload
the XML file. Once you add a file here, it is added to the previous page.
Under Default Configuration you can set the default workflow behavior for
each content related application on the portal. You can choose to use no
workflow, which is the default, or select any installed workflow definition.
Setting the default configuration will cause any newly created Communities
or Organizations to default to that configuration. An Administrator can then
edit the definitions for each one individually through the Workflow Configuration page.
Clicking on Submissions will let you view any currently pending assets, or
any assets which were previously approved.
Workflow Configuration
After you have uploaded workflow definitions and set the default workflow behavior you can go up to Workflow Configuration and tweak the definitions that you are using for each Community and Organization individually.
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Illustration 107: The Workflow Configuration page
Using the drop down feature on the Control Panel section, you can select
any community or organization in the portal. All of the options under that
heading, including Workflow Configuration, now apply to that particular
group.
My Workflow Tasks
My Workflow Tasks is a personalized version of the Workflow Tasks, and
it is found in your personal section of the Control Panel. Here are specific
tasks which have been assigned to you or assigned to a role of which you are
a member. You can also view your completed tasks.
Illustration 108: My Workflow Tasks page
It is here that workflow users review and approve content. By clicking on
the actions next to a piece of content, a user can view that content and then
choose to approve or reject it and add comments.
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Enterprise Configuration
My Submissions
My Submissions is found under your user's personal information in the
Control Panel. From this screen you can view any assets that you have submitted to review. Those that are currently under review are listed under the
Pending tab, and those that have gone through the review process are listed
under the Completed tab.
Illustration 109: The My Submissions page
Besides viewing your work, you can also withdraw a submission from the
review process by clicking on Withdraw Submission from the Pending tab.
Integrating with Users, Communities, Organizations and Roles
The Kaleo workflow engine is deeply integrated with Liferay Portal. It
can generate roles scoped for Organizations, Communities, and for the whole
Portal based on workflow definitions. You can also customize workflow options based on individual communities and organizations,
Users and Roles
Users are the most important part of the workflow, since they're the
ones who do all the work. To make a user a part of the workflow process, you
assign them a role which you defined in your workflow . When you are creating your workflow definition, you can create new roles by defining them in
the XML file, or by using roles which you have already created in your portal.
Roles created automatically are always portal scoped, so if you want to use
Community or Organization scoped roles, create the roles before deploying
your workflow to the portal.
Communities and Organizations
A Portal Administrator can create a default workflow definition scheme
for each application which will apply for the entire portal, and a Community
or Organization Administrator can customize the settings for their community or organization.
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Using Kaleo Workflow Processes in Liferay Portal
Before workflow can be used, you must define which types of assets on
the portal are workflow-enabled. If you have created additional definitions,
you must also define the workflow definition to use for each asset that is
workflow-enabled.
Illustration 110: You can select which community or organization you are
currently working in by using the drop down menu over the Content
section.
To demonstrate how this works when you configure it. we will create a
press release. Press releases should be posted in the Newsroom section of the
website, so before changing setting specific workflow configuration options
or creating content, create the Newsroom community and switch to it in the
Control Panel.
After going to Workflow Configuration, set Web Content to use the Single
Approver workflow.
To demonstrate the workflow process, create two users – a Content Creator and a Content Reviewer. The Content Creator logs in and creates a new
Press Release for Spartan Software and clicks Submit for Publication. This triggers the workflow process and notifies the Content Reviewer. When the Content Reviewer logs in, he can assign the workflow task to himself and approve the content.
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Illustration 111: Before a Content Reviewer can approve content, he must assign it to himself, or have an
administrator assign it to them.
Once the content is approved, it can be posted on the Press Releases page
in a web content display portlet.
As you can see, Liferay Portal and the Kaleo Workflow engine combine to
create a very robust environment for web content management. Simple
workflows can be managed using the default configuration and GUI tools,
while more complex workflows can be created to meet the workflow management needs of almost any portal.
Performance Tuning
Once you have your portal up and running, you may find a need to tune
it for performance, especially if your site winds up generating more traffic
than you'd anticipated. There are some definite steps you can take with regard to improving Liferay's performance.
Memory
Memory is one of the first things to look at when you want to optimize
performance. If you have any disk swapping, that will have a serious impact
on performance. Make sure that your server has an optimal amount of
memory and that your JVM is tuned to use it.
There are three basic JVM command switches that control the amount of
memory in the Java heap.
-Xms
-Xmx
-XX:MaxPermSize
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These three settings control the amount of memory available to the JVM
initially, the maximum amount of memory into which the JVM can grow, and
the separate area of the heap called Permanent Generation space.
The first two settings should be set to the same value. This prevents the
JVM from having to reallocate memory if the application needs more. Setting
them to the same value causes the JVM to be created up front with the maximum amount of memory you want to give it.
-Xms1024m -Xmx1024m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m
This is perfectly reasonable for a moderately sized machine or a developer machine. These settings give the JVM 1024MB for its regular heap
size and have a PermGen space of 128MB. If, however, you have Liferay on a
server with 4GB of RAM and you are having performance problems, the first
thing you might want to look at is increasing the memory available to the
JVM. You will be able to tell if memory is a problem by running a profiler
(such as Jprobe, YourKit, or the NetBeans profiler) on the server. If you see
Garbage Collection (GC) running frequently, you will definitely want to increase the amount of memory available to the JVM.
Note that there is a law of diminishing returns on memory, especially
with 64 bit systems. These systems allow you to create very large JVMs, but
the larger the JVM, the more time it takes for garbage collection to take
place. For this reason, you probably won't want to create JVMs of more than
2 GB in size. To take advantage of higher amounts of memory on a single system, run multiple JVMs of Liferay instead.
Issues with PermGen space can also affect performance. PermGen space
contains long-lived classes, anonymous classes and interned Strings. Hibernate, in particular—which Liferay uses extensively—has been known to make
use of PermGen space. If you increase the amount of memory available to the
JVM, you may want to increase the amount of PermGen space accordingly.
Garbage Collection
As the system runs, various Java objects are created. Some of these objects are long-lived, and some are not. The ones that are not become de-referenced, which means that the JVM no longer has a link to them because they
have ceased to be useful. These may be variables that were used for methods
which have already returned their values, objects retrieved from the database for a user that is no longer logged on, or a host of other things. These
objects sit in memory and fill up the heap space until the JVM decides it's
time to clean them up.
Normally, when garbage collection (GC) runs, it stops all processing in
the JVM while it goes through the heap looking for dead objects. Once it finds
them, it frees up the memory they were taking up, and then processing can
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continue. If this happens in a server environment, it can slow down the processing of requests, as all processing comes to a halt while GC is happening.
There are some JVM switches that you can enable which can reduce the
amount of time processing is halted while garbage collecting happens. These
can improve the performance of your Liferay installation if applied properly.
As always, you will need to use a profiler to monitor garbage collection during a load test to tune the numbers properly for your server hardware, operating system, and application server.
Illustration 112: Java memory
The Java heap is divided into sections for the young generation, the old
generation, and the permanent generation. The young generation is further
divided into three sections: Eden, which is where new objects are created,
and two “survivor spaces,” which we can call the From and To spaces.
Garbage collection occurs in stages. Generally, it is more frequently done
in the young generation, less frequently done in the old generation, and even
less frequently done in the permanent generation, where long-lived objects
reside. When garbage collection runs in the young generation, Eden is swept
for objects which are no longer referenced. Those that are still around are
moved to the “To” survivor space, and the “From” space is then swept. Any
other objects in that space which still have references to them are moved to
the “To” space, and the “From” space is then cleared out altogether. After
this, the “From” and the “To” spaces swap roles, and processing is freed up
again until the next time the JVM determines that garbage collection needs
to run.
After a predetermined number of “generations” of garbage collection,
surviving objects may be moved to the old generation. Similarly, after a predetermined number of “generations” of garbage collection in the old generation, surviving objects may be moved to the permanent generation.
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By default, the JDK uses a serial garbage collector to achieve this. This
works very well for a short-lived desktop Java application, but is not necessarily the best performer for a server-based application like Liferay. For this
reason, you may wish to switch to the Concurrent Mark-Sweep (CMS) collector.
Rather than halting application processing altogether, this garbage collector makes one short pause in application execution to mark objects directly reachable from the application code. Then it allows the application to
run while it marks all objects which are reachable from the set it marked. Finally, it adds another phase called the remark phase which finalizes marking
by revisiting any objects modified while the application was running. It then
sweeps through and garbage collects. This has the effect of greatly reducing
the amount of time that execution needs to be halted in order to clean out
dead objects.
Just about every aspect of the way memory management works in Java
can be tuned. In your profiling, you may want to experiment with some of
the following settings to see if any of them can increase your performance.
NewSize, MaxNewSize: The initial size and the maximum size of the
New or Young Generation.
+UseParNewGC: Causes garbage collection to happen in parallel, using
multiple CPUs. This decreases garbage collection overhead and increases application throughput.
+UseConcMarkSweepGC: Use the Concurrent Mark-Sweep Garbage Collector. This uses shorter garbage collection pauses, and is good for applications that have a relatively large set of long-lived data, and that run on machines with two or more processors, such as web servers.
+CMSParallelRemarkEnabled: For the CMS GC, enables the garbage collector to use multiple threads during the CMS remark phase. This decreases
the pauses during this phase.
SurvivorRatio: Controls the size of the two survivor spaces. It's a ratio
between the survivor space size and Eden. The default is 25. There's not
much bang for the buck here, but it may need to be adjusted.
ParallelGCThreads: The number of threads to use for parallel garbage
collection. Should be equal to the number of CPU cores in your server.
A sample configuration using the above parameters might look something like this:
JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -XX:NewSize=700m -XX:MaxNewSize=700m -Xms2048m
-Xmx2048m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m -XX:+UseParNewGC -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:
+CMSParallelRemarkEnabled -XX:SurvivorRatio=20 -XX:ParallelGCThreads=8"
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Properties File Changes
There are also some changes you can make to your portal-ext.properties
file once you are in a production environment.
Set the following to false to disable checking the last modified date on
server side CSS and JavaScript.
last.modified.check=false
Set this property to true to load the theme's merged CSS files for faster
loading for production. By default it is set to false for easier debugging for development. You can also disable fast loading by setting the URL parameter
css_fast_load to 0.
theme.css.fast.load=true
Set this property to true to load the combined JavaScript files from the
property javascript.files into one compacted file for faster loading for production. By default it is set to false for easier debugging for development. You
can also disable fast loading by setting the URL parameter js_fast_load to 0.
javascript.fast.load=true
Servlet Filters
Liferay comes by default with 17 servlet filters enabled and running. It is
likely that for your installation, you don't need them all.
To disable a servlet filter, simply comment it out of your web.xml file.
If there is a feature supported by a servlet filter that you know you are
not using, you can comment it out as well to achieve some performance
gains. For example, if you are not using CAS for single sign-on, comment out
the CAS Filter. If you are not using NTLM for single sign-ons, comment out
the Ntlm Filter. The fewer servlet filters you are running, the less processing
power is needed for each request.
Portlets
Liferay comes pre-bundled with many portlets which contain a lot of
functionality, but not every web site that is running on Liferay needs to use
them all. In portlet.xml and liferay-portlet.xml, comment out the ones you are
not using. While having a loan calculator, analog clock, or game of hangman
available for your users to add to pages is nice, those portlets may be taking
up resources that are needed by custom portlets you have written for your
site. If you are having performance problems, commenting out some of the
unused portlets may give you the performance boost you need.
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Read-Writer Database Configuration
Liferay allows you to use two different data sources for reading and
writing. This enables you to split your database infrastructure into two sets:
one that is optimized for reading and one that is optimized for writing. Since
all major databases support replication in one form or another, you can then
use your database vendor's replication mechanism to keep the databases in
sync in a much faster manner than if you had a single data source which
handled everything.
Enabling a read-writer database is simple. In your portal-ext.properties
file, configure two different data sources for Liferay to use, one for reading,
and one for writing:
jdbc.read.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.read.url=jdbc:mysql://dbread.com/lportal?useUnicode=true& \
characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.read.username=
jdbc.read.password=
jdbc.write.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.write.url=jdbc:mysql://dbwrite.com/lportal?useUnicode=true& \
characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.write.username=
jdbc.write.password=
Of course, specify the user name and password to your database in the
above configuration.
After this, enable the read-writer database configuration by uncommenting the Spring configuration file which enables it in your spring.configs property (line to uncomment is in bold:
spring.configs=\
META-INF/base-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/hibernate-spring.xml,\
META-INF/infrastructure-spring.xml,\
META-INF/management-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/util-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/editor-spring.xml,\
META-INF/jcr-spring.xml,\
META-INF/messaging-spring.xml,\
META-INF/scheduler-spring.xml,\
META-INF/search-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/counter-spring.xml,\
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META-INF/document-library-spring.xml,\
META-INF/lock-spring.xml,\
META-INF/mail-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portal-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portlet-container-spring.xml,\
META-INF/wsrp-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/mirage-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/dynamic-data-source-spring.xml,\
#META-INF/shard-data-source-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/ext-spring.xml
The next time you restart Liferay, it will now use the two data sources
you have defined. Be sure to make sure that you have correctly set up your
two databases for replication before starting Liferay.
Database Sharding
Liferay starting with version 5.2.3 supports database sharding for different portal instances. Sharding is a term used to describe an extremely high
scalability configuration for systems with massive amounts of users. In diagrams, a database is normally pictured as a cylinder. Instead, picture it as a
glass bottle full of data. Now take that bottle and smash it onto a concrete
sidewalk. There will be shards of glass everywhere. If that bottle were a database, each shard now is a database, with a subset of the data in each shard.
This allows you to split up your database by various types of data that
might be in it. For example, some implementations of sharding a database
split up the users: those with last names beginning with A to D go in one
database; E to I go in another; etc. When users log in, they are directed to the
instance of the application that is connected to the database that corresponds to their last names. In this manner, processing is split up evenly, and
the amount of data the application needs to sort through is reduced.
By default, Liferay allows you to support sharding through different
portal instances, using the round robin shard selector. This is a class which
serves as the default algorithm for sharding in Liferay. Using this algorithm,
Liferay will select from several different portal instances and evenly distribute the data across them.
Of course, if you wish to have your developers implement your own
sharding algorithm, you can do that. You can select which algorithm is active
via the portal-ext.properties file:
shard.selector=com.liferay.portal.dao.shard.RoundRobinShardSelector
#shard.selector=com.liferay.portal.dao.shard.ManualShardSelector
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#shard.selector=[your implementation here]
Enabling sharding is easy. You will need to make sure you are using
Liferay's data source implementation instead of your application server's. Set
your various database shards in your portal-ext.properties file this way:
jdbc.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.default.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.default.username=
jdbc.default.password=
jdbc.one.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.one.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal1?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.one.username=
jdbc.one.password=
jdbc.two.driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
jdbc.two.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost/lportal2?
useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&useFastDateParsing=false
jdbc.two.username=
jdbc.two.password=
shard.available.names=default,one,two
Once you do this, you can set up your DNS so that several domain names
point to your Liferay installation (e.g., abc1.com, abc2.com, abc3.com). Next,
go to the Control Panel and click Portal Instances in the Server category. Create two to three instances bound to the DNS names you have configured.
If you are using the RoundRobinShardSelector class, Liferay will automatically enter data into each instance one by one, automatically. If you are
using the ManualShardSelector class, you will have to specify a shard for
each instance using the UI.
The last thing you will need to do is modify the spring.configs section of
your portal-ext.properties file to enable the sharding configuration, which by
default is commented out. To do this, your spring.configs should look like
this (modified section is in bold):
spring.configs=\
META-INF/base-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/hibernate-spring.xml,\
META-INF/infrastructure-spring.xml,\
META-INF/management-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/util-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/editor-spring.xml,\
META-INF/jcr-spring.xml,\
META-INF/messaging-spring.xml,\
META-INF/scheduler-spring.xml,\
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META-INF/search-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/counter-spring.xml,\
META-INF/document-library-spring.xml,\
META-INF/lock-spring.xml,\
META-INF/mail-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portal-spring.xml,\
META-INF/portlet-container-spring.xml,\
META-INF/wsrp-spring.xml,\
\
META-INF/mirage-spring.xml,\
\
#META-INF/dynamic-data-source-spring.xml,\
META-INF/shard-data-source-spring.xml,\
\
That's all there is to it. Your system is now set up for sharding.
Summary
We've seen how good a fit Liferay Portal is for the enterprise. It can be
scaled linearly to grow to whatever size you need to serve your users. Clustering is a snap, and Liferay harmonizes very well with whatever environment you may have.
Kaleo workflow is a simple, yet robust workflow solution for your enterprise. With deep integration with Liferay's portlet applications and permissions system, it is an ideal choice for implementing your business processes.
Liferay Portal is also built for performance. You can tune it to support
over 3300 concurrent users on a single server with mean log in times under
half a second and maximum throughput of more than 79 log ins per second.
We've seen some tips for tuning Liferay Portal, and we have to keep in mind
the adage about tuning: load test and profile, tune, repeat.
You can also take advantage of read-writer database configurations, as
well as database sharding. In all, Liferay Portal gives you all the options you
need to build a high-performance, robust environment that supports your
enterprise.
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Summary
8. MAINTAINING A LIFERAY
PORTAL
Maintaining a running implementation of Liferay Portal is not much different from maintaining the application server environment upon which it is
running. There are, however, several factors which administrators should be
aware of when they are responsible for a running instance of Liferay. This
chapter will cover these issues, outlining for system administrators some
specifics about keeping a running Liferay instance stable and secure.
This chapter will cover the following topics:
•
Liferay Monitoring using Google Analytics
•
Backing Up a Liferay Installation
•
Changing Logging Levels
•
Upgrading Liferay
The discussion on back up will cover what parts of Liferay should be
backed up. We will not cover specific backup software or procedures; generally, most organizations have standards for doing backups of their systems,
and Liferay as a Java EE application fits well into these standards.
Liferay Monitoring Using Google Analytics
Liferay includes built-in support for Google Analytics, allowing administrators to make use of Google's tool set for analyzing site traffic data. When
you sign up for Google Analytics, a snippet of code is provided which needs to
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
be added to your web pages in order to allow Google's system to register the
page hit. It can be a tedious process to add this code to every page on a site,
especially if it is a large site and there is a lot of user-generated content.
This problem can be solved in Liferay by putting Google's code into a custom theme written especially for the site on which the portal is running. Doing this, however, requires that a theme developer make specific changes to
the theme, and it prevents users from using the many freely available themes
that are available for Liferay “out of the box.”
Because of this, support for Google Analytics has been built into Liferay,
and can be turned on through a simple user interface. This allows Liferay Administrators to make use of Google Analytics on a community by community
basis and turn it on and off when needed.
To enable Google Analytics support, go to the Manage Pages screen for
the community for which you want to enable support. You can do this
through the Control Panel by going to either the Organizations or Communities
link in the Portal section, and then clicking Actions → Manage Pages for the
community or organization you want to analyze. Click the Settings tab.
Illustration 113: Setting Up Google Analytics
Click the Monitoring Tab. Put your Google Analytics ID (which should
have been provided to you when you signed up for the service) in the field
and click Save. All of the pages in the community you selected will now have
the Google Analytics code in them and will be tracked.
Backing Up A Liferay Installation
Once you have an installation of Liferay Portal running, you will want to
have proper backup procedures in place in case of a catastrophic failure of
some kind. Liferay is not very different from any other application that may
be running in your application server, but there are some specific components that need to be backed up in addition to your regular backup procedures
for your application server.
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Source Code
If you have extended Liferay or have written any plugins, they should be
stored in a source code repository such as Subversion, CVS, or Git. This repository should be backed up on a regular basis to preserve your ongoing work.
If you are extending Liferay with the Ext Plugin, you will want to make
sure that you also store the version of the Liferay source on which your extension environment is based. This allows your developers convenient access
to all of the tools they need to build your extension and deploy it to a server.
Liferay's File System
Liferay's configuration file, portal-ext.properties, gets stored in the
Liferay Home folder, which is generally one folder up from where your application server is installed (see Chapter 2 for specific info for your application
server). At a minimum, this file should be backed up, but it is generally best
to back up your whole application server.
If you have followed the procedure in the previous chapter to modify
your Ehcache configuration, you will have cache configuration files in the deploy location of Liferay. You will need to back up this location.
Liferay also stores configuration files, search indexes, cache information,
and the default Jackrabbit document repository in a folder called data in
Liferay Home. You should generally back up all of the contents of your
Liferay Home folder.
If you have modified the location where the Document Library stores
files, you should also back up this location.
Database
Liferay's database is the central repository for all of the Portal's information and is the most important component which needs to be backed up. You
can do this by either backing up the database live (if your database allows
this) or by exporting the database and then backing up the exported file. For
example, MySQL ships with a mysqldump utility which allows you to export
the entire database and data into a large SQL file. This file can then be backed
up. In case of a database failure, it can be used to recreate the state of the
database at the time the dump was created.
If you are using Liferay's Document Library with the Jackrabbit JSR-170
repository to store documents in a database, the Jackrabbit database should
be backed up also.
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Liferay's Logging System
Liferay uses Log4j extensively to implement logging for nearly every
class in the portal. If you need to debug something specific while a system is
running, you can use the Control Panel to set logging levels by class dynamically.
To view the log levels, go to the Control Panel, click Server Administration
in the Server section, and then click the Log Levels tab.
You will then see a paginated list of logging categories. These categories
correspond to Liferay classes that have log messages in them. By default, all
categories are set to display messages only if there is an error that occurs in
the class. This is why you see ERROR displayed in all of the drop down list
boxes on the right side of the portlet.
Each category is filtered by its place in the class hierarchy. For example,
if you wanted to see logging for a specific class that is registered in Liferay,
you would browse to that specific class and change its log level to something
that is more descriptive, such as DEBUG. Once you click the Save button at the
bottom of the list, you will start seeing DEBUG messages from that class in
your application server's log file.
If you are not sure which class you want to see log messages for, you can
find a place higher up in the hierarchy and select the package name instead
of an individual class name. If you do this, messages for every class lower in
the hierarchy will be displayed in your application server's log file.
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Maintaining A Liferay Portal
Illustration 114: Changing Logging Levels
Be careful when you do this. If you set the log level to DEBUG somewhere
near the top of the hierarchy (such as com.liferay, for example), you may
wind up with a lot of messages in your log file. This could make it difficult to
find the one you were looking for, and causes the server to do more work
writing messages to its log file.
If you are want to set the log level for one of your own classes in a de ployed plugin, you can register that class (so long as it uses Log4J to do its
logging) with Liferay so that you can control the log levels more easily.
You will first need to implement Log4J logging in your class, with a statement such as the following (taken from Liferay's JCRHook class):
private static Log _log = LogFactory.getLog(JCRHook.class);
You would then use this _log variable to create log messages in your
code for the various logging levels:
_log.error("Reindexing " + node.getName(), e1);
To enable your logging messages to appear in your server's log file via
the Control Panel, click the Add Category tab on the same Log Levels page.
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391
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
Illustration 115: Adding a Logging Category
You will see that you can add a logging category. Simply put in the fully
qualified name of your class or of the package that contains the classes whose
log messages you want to view, choose a log level, and then click the Save
button. You will now start to see log messages from your own class or classes
in the server's log file.
Upgrading Liferay
Liferay upgrades are fairly straightforward. A consistent set of steps is all
you need to follow to upgrade a standard Liferay installation. Things do get
more complicated if your organization has used the extension environment
to customize Liferay, as it will need to be converted to an Ext Plugin for
Liferay 6, and it is possible that API changes in the new version will break
your existing code. This, however, is usually pretty easy for your developers
to fix. Portlet plugins are generally backwards compatible, as they are written to the Java standard. This includes Portlet 1.0 (JSR-168) portlets, as the
Portlet 2.0 (JSR-286) standard has also been designed to be backwards-compatible. Theme plugins may require some modifications in order to take advantage of new features. Much effort has been made to make upgrades as
painless as possible; however, this is not a guarantee that everything will
work without modification. Extension environment code is the most complicating factor in an upgrade, so it is important to test as much as possible.
As a general rule, you can upgrade from one major release to the next
major release. For example, you can upgrade directly from Liferay 5.1.x to
5.2.x, but not from 5.1.x to 6.0.x. If you need to upgrade over several major
releases, you will need to run the upgrade procedure for each major release
until you reach the release you want. This doesn't mean you need to run the
procedure for every point release (i.e., 4.3.5 to 4.3.6 to 4.4.0 to 4.4.1, etc.); you
only need to run the procedure for the major releases. A good practice is to
use the latest version of each major release to upgrade your system.
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Liferay Upgrade Procedure
Liferay can auto-detect whether the database requires an upgrade the
first time the new version is started. When Liferay does this, it will automatically upgrade the database to the format required by the new version. In order to do this, Liferay must be accessing the database with an ID that can create, drop, and modify tables. Make sure that you have granted these permissions to the ID before you attempt to upgrade Liferay. It is also a good idea to
backup your database before attempting an upgrade in case something goes
wrong during the process.
Tip: Liferay versions prior to 4.3.0 require that you manually run SQL
scripts on your database to perform an upgrade. If you need to upgrade from Liferay 4.1.x to 4.2.x in preparation for an upgrade to a
current version of Liferay, you can find these SQL scripts in the
source code archive for the version of Liferay you are running. They
will be in the SQL folder of the archive.
Upgrade Steps
It takes only five steps to upgrade a standard Liferay installation to
Liferay 6:
1.
Copy your customized portal-ext.properties file to a safe place,
and then undeploy the old version of Liferay and shut down your application server.
2.
Copy the new versions of the dependency .jars to a location on your
server's class path, overwriting the ones you already have for the old
version of Liferay.
3.
Deploy the new Liferay .war file to your application server. Follow
the deployment instructions in Chapter 2 .
4.
Modify
5.
Start (or restart) your application server. Watch the console as
Liferay starts: it should upgrade the database automatically. Verify
that your portal is operating normally, and then run the upgrade
procedure to upgrade to permissions algorithm 6 (see below) and restart.
your portal-ext.properties
sions.user.check.algorithm=5.
file
and
set
permis-
That's all there is to it. Everything else is handled by Liferay's upgrade
procedure. Note that as stated above, if you have to upgrade over several
Liferay versions, you will need to repeat these steps for each major release.
You can now deploy your own plugins to the system.
Upgrading Liferay
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Maintaining A Liferay Portal
Once your upgrade is complete, you may wish to review the portal.changes for this version of Liferay to see whether the new defaults (see below) are appropriate for your implementation.
properties
What follows are instructions for upgrading for specific versions.
Upgrading From Liferay 5.1 to Liferay 5.2
Always use the latest version of 5.2 available as it will have fixed all the
potential upgrade issues that may have been found.
Prerequisite
It's recommended to upgrade first at least to 5.1.2SE if you are running
any previous version.
Changes in configuration properties
How to keep the old values
The default values of some properties has been changed. In order to keep
the previous values you have to run Liferay passing the following system
property:
java ... -Dexternal-properties=portal-legacy-5.1.properties
Each application server has different methods to add this system property. In Tomcat modify setenv.sh/setenv.bat and append that option to the
environment variable JAVA_OPTS. The scripts setenv.sh or setenv.bat are
not delivered with Tomcat but if they exist, Tomcat will use them in the startup process, so it's a nice way to separate your own settings from tomcat's
default shell scripts.
Here are the complete contents of that file ( portal-legacy-5.1.properties) for reference:
resource.repositories.root=${user.home}/liferay
theme.portlet.sharing.default=true
organizations.country.required[regular]=true
organizations.assignment.auto=true
organizations.assignment.strict=false
organizations.membership.strict=true
lucene.dir=${resource.repositories.root}/lucene/
jcr.jackrabbit.repository.root=${resource.repositories.root}/jackrabbit
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dl.hook.impl=com.liferay.documentlibrary.util.JCRHook
dl.hook.file.system.root.dir=${resource.repositories.root}/document_library
Important changes in the configuration of Database access and mail integration
One very important aspect of the upgrade is that now the configuration
of the database parameters and those for mail integration are handled
through the portal-ext.properties file to unify the configuration through
all application servers.
It's still possible to use application server specific data sources and pools
if desired by using certain configuration properties. This is documented in
Chapter 2.
Theme Upgrade
Instructions for maintaining customized themes built in 5.1 without redeploying with the new SDK :
•
Change the header of /WEB-INF/liferay-plugin-package.xml to:
<!DOCTYPE plugin-package PUBLIC "-//Liferay//DTD Plugin Package 5.2.0//EN"
"http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-plugin-package_5_2_0.dtd">
•
Change the header of /WEB-INF/liferay-look-and-feel.xml to:
<!DOCTYPE look-and-feel PUBLIC "-//Liferay//DTD Look and Feel 5.2.0//EN"
"[http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-look-and-feel_5_2_0.dtd">]
•
Upgrade compatibility version in liferay-look-and-feel.xml:
<compatibility>
<version>5.2.2+</version>
</compatibility>
•
In portal.vm, delete the following lines :
$theme.include($bottom_ext_include)
$theme.include($session_timeout_include)
$theme.include($sound_alerts_include)
If you don't remove these, you will see a blank page and an exception.
•
In order to display the control panel in the dock, add the following
lines in dock.vm:
#if ($show_control_panel)
<li class="control-panel">
<a href="$control_panel_url">$control_panel_text</a>
</li>
#end
Upgrading Liferay
395
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
•
In navigation.css:
.lfr-dock li.control-panel a {
background-image: url(../images/dock/control_panel.png);
}
•
Then copy /images/dock/control_panel.png from the classic theme
(ROOT/html/themes/classic) into your theme.
•
In
WEB-INF/web.xml,
change the deprecated declaration
com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.compression.CompressionFilter into com.liferay.portal.servlet.filters.gzip.GZipFilter.
API Changes
Usage of ServiceContext in Liferay's Services Layer
The most significant API change in 5.2 is that most APIs of the service
layer have been adapted to use the Service Context Pattern. The Service Context is an object that contains context information about a given API call. All
of the fields in this object are optional, although the services that store any
type of content will require you to specify at least the scopeGroupId. Here is a
simple example of how to create a ServiceContext instance and pass it to a
service API:
ServiceContext serviceContext = new ServiceContext();
serviceContext.setScopeGroupId(myGroupId);
BlogsEntryServiceUtil.addEntry(...., serviceContext);
If you are invoking the service from a servlet, a Struts action, or any other front end class which has access to the portletRequest, you can use a utility method that will create the ServiceContext object and fill it with all the
necessary values automatically. In that case the above example should be rewritten as follows:
ServiceContext serviceContext =
ServiceContextFactory.getInstance(BlogsEntry.class.getName(),
portletRequest);
BlogsEntryServiceUtil.addEntry(...., serviceContext);
Upgrading From Liferay 5.2 to Liferay 6.0
Always use the latest version of 6.0 available as it will have fixed all the
potential upgrade issues that may have been found.
396
Upgrading Liferay
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
Prerequisite
It's recommended to upgrade first at least to 5.2.3 CE if you are running
any previous version.
Upgrading Your Permissions Algorithm
Liferay 6.0 introduces permissions algorithm 6. Algorithm 6 is an enhancement to our permissions system which drastically improves performance by reducing the number of queries necessary to determine permissions
for any individual asset within Liferay portal.
Liferay 6 by default is configured to use algorithm 6. This is appropriate
for new installations, but requires additional configuration for upgrades, because the table structure for this algorithm is different from the structures
for the previous algorithms. For this reason, before you start Liferay 6 for the
first time and run the upgrade process, you need to tell Liferay 6 to use Algorithm 5, and then run a separate conversion utility later, after you have
verified that the upgrade was successful. To temporarily switch your Liferay
6 installation to algorithm 5, add the following entry to your portal-ext.properties:
permissions.user.check.algorithm=5
This will tell Liferay that you are still using algorithm 5. Next, start
Liferay and allow it to upgrade your database. Once the upgrade has completed, verify that everything is working properly. You can now leave the algorithm setting as is, or if you want to take advantage of the performance of
the new algorithm, you can upgrade to algorithm 6 by going through a few
simple steps in the Control Panel.
To upgrade to Algorithm 6, log in as an Administrator and navigate to
the Control Panel. Go to Server Administration and select Data Migration from
the menu along the top of the screen. You should see a section entitled Legacy Permissions Migration at the bottom of the page.
Illustration 116: Dialog to update your permissions algorithm to the latest version.
Algorithms 5 and 6 do not support adding permissions at the user level.
If you have permissions set to individual users, the converter can simulate
this for you by auto-generating roles with those permissions, and assigning
those roles to the users who have individualized permissions. If you have a
lot of these, you'll likely want to go through and clean them up after the conversion process. To generate these roles, check the Generate Custom Roles box.
Upgrading Liferay
397
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
If you do not generate the roles, all custom permissions set for individual
users will be discarded.
Click Execute to convert all existing users and roles to algorithm 6.
Upgrading EXT to EXT Plugins
With Liferay 6.0, the Ext environment no longer exists in its previous
form. Instead, Ext is now a plugin. If you are using the Ext Environment to
change core code, you will find that Ext Plugins handle core customizations
better than the Ext Environment did, so developers can spend less time with
deployments and maintaining changes than they did previously. There is
now only one SDK needed for Liferay development, which also simplifies
things for the developer.
Before using any code previously developed in Ext, you will need to migrate your Ext environments to Ext plugins. If you are on a version of Liferay
prior to 5.2, you will also need to upgrade your existing Ext environment to
Liferay 5.2 before attempting to convert it to a plugin. The upgrade process
will not work on earlier versions of Liferay's Ext environment.
In the Plugins SDK, under the ext directory you can find the build.xml
file to convert your existing Ext Environment to a plugin. The script creates
the shell of an Ext plugin with the ext.zip file included with the Plugins SDK
and merges your existing Ext Environment into the new plugin.
To run the script, use the following command:
ant upgrade-ext -Dext.dir=[path to existing Ext] -Dext.name=[new plugin
name] -Dext.display.name=”[friendly name for new plugin]”
This will create a directory with the name you specified, with the merged
changes from your Ext Environment and the default .zip file. Both build-service (Service Builder) and build-db (DB Builder) have been ported to Ext Plugins to allow developers to regenerate their services and SQL code in Ext Plugins. However, Service Builder in Ext plugins will be deprecated in future versions, and custom services should be migrated to portlet plugins. Try to migrate your custom services to portlet plugins as soon as possible as this is the
recommended practice.
Summary
Liferay Portal is an easy environment to maintain. Backup procedures
are simple and straightforward. Administrators have all the options they
need to view and diagnose a running Liferay Portal server through its tunable logs.
Upgrading Liferay is also a snap, because Liferay does most of the work
automatically. With easy permissions migration tools and automated data398
Summary
Maintaining A Liferay Portal
base upgrade scripts, you'll have your new version of Liferay Portal up and
running in no time.
Summary
399
9. APPENDIX: DOCUMENTATION
LICENSE
The text of this book is copyrighted by Liferay, Inc., and is released under
the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported license.
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BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. TO THE EXTENT THIS LICENSE MAY BE CONSIDERED TO BE A CONTRACT, THE LICENSOR
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required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable
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doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the
purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorse406
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409
10. COLOPHON
The text and layout were accomplished using OpenOffice.org 3.2 running
on Kubuntu Linux. The file is one large document, rather than a multi-linked
master document. It's just easier to manage that way. The PDF was exported
directly from OpenOffice.org. Some content written for this book was also
exported to the Liferay wiki at http://wiki.liferay.com. It is the intent of the
author to continue doing this for every edition of this book that is published.
We also expect that some more community documentation will make it into
the official documentation.
All of the fonts used in the creation of this book are either open source
fonts or freely available fonts. The body text font is Gentium Book Basic, created
by
SIL
International.
It
can
be
found
here:
http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=Gentium.
The font for the titles is called Delicious, from the free exljbris font
foundry. It can be found here: http://www.josbuivenga.demon.nl/delicious.html. This change was made from the Second Edition in an attempt to
give the book a more “modern” look. The text used in tables is the same.
The font used for source code is Liberation Mono, created by Red Hat,
Inc.
The
Liberation
fonts
can
be
found
here:
https://www.redhat.com/promo/fonts.
Screen shots were taken using Ksnapshot (an excellent screen shot program that is part of the KDE desktop) as well as with the screenshot facility
built into Apple's OS X and GNOME's “take a screenshot” utility. Other screen
shots were taken by the contributors using unknown software. Drawings inside the book were created in OpenOffice.org draw, Inkscape, Dia, or some
Colophon
combination of the three. Some drawings and screen shots were touched up
using the GIMP. Can you tell we like open source?
The cover of the book was done in a more traditional way, by Liferay's
graphics team using Adobe Illustrator.
Rich Sezov, September 2010
412
Colophon
INDEX
A
C
ajax....................................17, 291, 293 caching....9, 221, 256, 279-281, 289, 294,
Asset Publisher...5, 8, 71, 118, 134, 136, 341, 342, 351-354
159-161, 163, 165, 166, 172, 202, 298
Calendar. 5, 8, 12, 16, 68, 70, 84-86, 161,
authentication pipeline................7, 249 167, 173, 180-183, 206, 241, 250, 272,
300, 308
auto deploy.....6, 210-212, 322, 323, 325
captcha.....................4, 7, 112, 257, 258
auto login......................7, 252, 253, 292
cas.4, 7, 8, 17, 18, 23, 44, 72, 83, 96, 97,
102-105, 127, 132, 140, 149, 186, 193,
B
194, 196, 208, 219, 224, 225, 234, 247Backup...............122, 377, 378, 383, 388 249, 252, 280-283, 288, 292, 311, 323,
Blog 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 22, 45-52, 61, 70, 330, 334, 338, 348, 349, 351, 353, 357,
82, 107, 121, 132, 133, 159-161, 165, 361, 372, 378, 379, 383, 386, 392, 393,
167, 173-181, 187, 191, 204-206, 211, 396
216, 217, 222, 234, 240, 251, 272, 289, categories 5, 6, 16, 17, 89, 155, 156, 160,
297, 299-302, 304-306, 308, 309, 312, 162, 168, 189, 190, 193, 200-204, 206,
321, 327, 386
256, 298, 380
Blogs 5, 8, 12, 16, 82, 121, 132, 133, 159, chat...5, 12, 149, 167, 183, 184, 268, 300
161, 165, 167, 173-180, 191, 204-206,
Clustering.9, 11, 275, 280, 295, 341, 342,
234, 240, 251, 272, 289, 299, 301, 304,
344, 351-355, 376
308, 386
cms......117-119, 124, 135, 139, 140, 142,
bundle....3, 11, 21-29, 61, 184, 227, 313,
149, 157, 166, 371, 401
320, 321, 344, 355, 372
Communities.....3, 4, 8, 9, 12, 15-17, 63,
68-73, 76, 78-81, 89, 91, 94, 105-107,
413
110, 115, 120, 123, 125, 126, 131, 161, 218, 314, 315, 319-323, 343, 349, 351
166, 167, 231, 274, 300, 301, 307, 314, HSQL..........23, 28, 29, 216, 223, 276, 344
326, 364, 366, 378
html.......32, 131, 135, 139, 144, 146-149,
community..13, 17, 21, 67-72, 79-82, 88- 164, 191, 199, 200, 222, 224, 225, 227,
92, 94, 110, 117, 119, 120, 122-128, 131, 238, 240, 241, 264, 268, 272, 286, 289,
133, 134, 137, 141, 147, 148, 156, 167- 294, 301, 306, 312, 386, 401
169, 173, 174, 176, 179, 180, 182, 186188, 192, 198, 199, 202, 205-207, 214, I
229, 235, 236, 251, 267, 268, 291, 300,
307, 311, 316, 326, 327, 332, 336, 355, image gallery. 8, 113, 139, 144, 147, 151,
303
360, 364-367, 378, 401
Control Panel. . .3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 23, 63, 6668, 72-75, 77, 79-81, 83, 88, 89, 91, 92,
95, 97, 98, 101, 103, 105, 108-110, 114,
115, 118, 119, 121, 125-127, 133, 137,
142-144, 150, 156-158, 162, 184, 192,
197, 200, 202, 205, 207, 274, 300, 316,
319, 322, 323, 325, 326, 333, 334, 348,
349, 355, 357, 364-367, 375, 378, 380,
381, 385, 387
invitation......................8, 241, 272, 303
J
jaas...................7, 17, 36-38, 44, 45, 244
jackrabbit. .9, 16, 23, 112, 284, 324, 343346, 350, 354, 355, 379, 384
jar file.41, 43, 44, 46, 102, 208, 343, 347,
352
css....9, 18, 110, 122, 148, 149, 218, 281, javascript....6, 17, 18, 114, 131, 225-228,
282, 290, 292, 294, 301, 308, 372, 386
264, 281, 282, 292, 294, 335, 358, 361,
362, 372
D
JBoss.............3, 28, 37-40, 211, 212, 321
Data Migration......................4, 112, 387 JCR. .8, 209, 219, 284, 301, 344, 373, 375,
Document Library8, 9, 16, 112, 113, 122, 381, 384, 385
144, 147, 287, 293, 301, 302, 336, 343- jetty.............................3, 28, 35-37, 211
345, 353, 354, 379
jonas..........................................28, 211
E
journal8, 9, 104, 215, 234, 236, 241, 251,
Ehcache..6, 221, 225, 256, 279, 280, 283, 272, 279, 289, 303-306, 308, 396
292, 293, 342, 351-354, 379
JSP 214, 225, 240, 241, 259, 265-268, 272,
289, 290, 312, 315
F
freemarker...............................149, 360
JSR-168................................64, 313, 382
JSR-170....23, 112, 284, 343-345, 354, 379
G
JSR-286................................64, 313, 382
glassfish3, 27, 32-35, 211, 213, 216, 321,
322
K
H
Kaleo...9, 11, 19, 157, 159, 355-357, 361,
362, 366-368, 376
hibernate. 6, 9, 19, 37, 215-217, 219-222, L
224, 279, 280, 283, 352, 353, 369, 373,
language......7, 15, 64, 87, 107, 114, 137,
375
141, 149, 151, 153, 165, 188, 215, 226,
hot deploy...6, 9, 18, 209, 211, 213, 214,
238, 239, 264, 292, 297, 300, 304, 311,
414
314, 338, 357-362
navigation. . .9, 17, 66, 92, 107, 119, 123,
Language.properties...264, 297, 300, 304 131, 133, 142, 144, 155, 165, 196, 201,
274, 299, 307, 308, 386
LAR file..........82, 110, 122, 218, 261-263
Ntlm. . .4, 7, 104, 233, 244, 247, 248, 252,
Layouts....7, 81, 108, 118, 132, 149, 166, 291, 293, 372
240, 260-269, 278, 307, 308
LDAP.....4, 7, 17, 63, 73, 93, 95-103, 106, O
115, 219, 232, 233, 245-250, 254
OpenId...............4, 7, 104, 105, 248, 252
Liferay.................................................2 OpenSSO.....4, 7, 105, 106, 248, 252, 293
Liferay Portal....2, 9-13, 15-19, 21-23, 25,
27, 28, 30, 35, 37, 41, 42, 53, 56, 57, 6064, 79, 97, 101, 104, 105, 107, 112-117,
122, 123, 125, 132, 134, 136, 137, 139,
142-144, 148, 153, 155, 165-167, 174,
177, 187, 208, 248, 313, 315, 316, 319,
322, 330, 334, 341, 346, 347, 354, 355,
366-368, 376-378, 387-389
organizations...3, 7, 9, 12, 15-17, 22, 26,
63, 68-72, 76-80, 91, 92, 110, 115, 120,
125, 131, 161, 166, 231, 237, 238, 255,
274, 287, 300, 307, 314, 326, 337, 364,
366, 377, 378, 384
P
passwords7, 93, 101, 234, 245, 249, 253liferay-portlet.xml.....241, 242, 274, 288, 255, 337
372
Performance Tuning.....................9, 368
locations..................................237, 271
permissions....4-7, 10, 17, 26, 27, 69-73,
logging. . .10, 37, 173, 174, 178, 179, 185, 75, 76, 78, 82, 87-93, 109, 110, 118, 131,
215, 227, 242, 245, 260, 290, 337, 377, 133-135, 139, 140, 148, 153, 168, 170,
380-382
176, 182, 183, 188, 192-195, 197, 200,
logs 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 65, 82, 95, 100, 121, 202, 255-257, 268, 275, 329, 335, 376,
132, 133, 159, 161, 165, 167, 173-180, 383, 387, 388
191, 204-206, 234, 240, 243, 251, 259, plugin..4, 6, 9, 10, 21, 23, 26, 27, 31, 64,
263, 272, 289, 290, 299, 301, 304, 308, 68, 91, 108, 111, 115, 116, 121, 132, 184,
353, 359, 360, 367, 386, 388
207, 213, 214, 275, 293, 313-334, 338,
Look and Feel....4, 7, 110, 121, 144, 167, 343, 346-349, 351, 352, 355, 356, 379,
381-383, 385, 388
240, 308, 314, 315, 318, 319, 351, 385
lucene...7, 9, 23, 275-278, 324, 343, 347- portal-ext.properties..3, 6, 26, 29-32, 34,
39, 48, 51, 55, 59, 61, 82, 95, 96, 100,
350, 384
101, 112, 113, 142, 183, 200, 207, 208,
319, 322, 323, 325, 335-338, 343, 344,
M
346, 349, 350, 352, 353, 372-375, 379,
mailing list...........................5, 189, 192
383, 385, 387
message boards5, 9, 12, 16, 89, 90, 106,
portal.properties 101, 208, 335, 343, 344,
113, 127, 128, 165, 167, 168, 170, 186350, 352, 353, 384
195, 205, 206, 306, 307, 351, 354
portlet.5-10, 13, 16-18, 21, 41, 53, 63-68,
My Places....................................9, 307
71, 72, 77, 79-89, 91, 92, 106, 108-110,
mysql. . .29, 31, 33, 34, 36-42, 44, 48, 50, 113, 115, 119, 121, 126-128, 131-134,
51, 53, 55, 58-60, 216, 223, 224, 276, 136, 139-143, 151, 152, 154, 155, 158345, 350, 355, 373, 375, 379
161, 163, 165, 166, 168-188, 190-192,
194-198, 200, 201, 205-207, 209, 211N
215, 217-220, 226, 229, 232, 233, 240415
245, 250, 251, 257, 261-265, 267-270,
272, 274, 279, 280, 282, 284, 285, 287290, 295-320, 322-334, 336-338, 346,
348, 351, 353, 354, 368, 372, 374, 376,
380, 382, 384, 386, 388
334
Solr....................................111, 347-350
spring.....6, 8, 19, 215-217, 219-222, 224,
296, 314, 335, 348, 373-376
portlet.xml..212, 214, 215, 233, 241, 242, SSO with MAC..............................7, 253
270, 274, 288, 372
staging....5, 118, 124-129, 131, 166, 305,
323
R
structure.5, 16, 23, 25, 27, 46-48, 54, 73,
read-writer database...........10, 373, 376 79, 105, 117, 118, 126, 135-137, 143-156,
resin.....................3, 28, 40-43, 211, 212 166, 202, 219, 221, 224, 237, 251, 256,
304, 314, 319, 352, 373, 375, 387
roles. 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 16, 38, 63, 66, 68-73,
75, 76, 78-80, 82, 87-90, 93, 94, 106-109, T
115, 128, 129, 131, 148, 153, 159, 168,
170, 176, 182, 188, 197, 231, 234-237, tag. 5, 6, 8, 9, 16, 26, 42, 61, 71, 80, 108,
255, 256, 280, 297, 311, 316, 355, 356, 118, 122, 124-129, 131, 135, 136, 144,
149, 154-157, 160, 162, 166, 177, 180,
359-362, 366, 370, 387, 388
187, 195, 196, 200-203, 206, 252, 268,
270, 273, 292, 294, 298, 301, 305, 310,
S
311, 314, 317, 323, 329, 330, 333, 338,
schema....6, 209, 210, 214, 348, 355, 357 346, 356, 358, 360, 369, 370, 376, 382,
Scope......5, 70, 71, 73, 76, 78, 80, 87-90, 387
159, 161, 168, 169, 174, 179, 192, 355, template....4, 5, 9, 18, 29, 66, 71, 80-87,
360, 366, 386
107, 109, 110, 115, 118, 134-137, 143,
Service Builder.6, 19, 219, 334, 338, 339, 144, 146-149, 151-154, 166, 181, 210,
211, 213, 214, 240, 251, 261-263, 269,
388
279, 289, 291, 294, 304-306, 308, 313,
Services Oriented Architecture......9, 334
315, 318, 319, 329, 358-360
servlet. .8, 10, 27, 64, 209, 211, 227, 231,
theme. .6, 9, 10, 17, 18, 21, 25, 107, 108,
233, 243, 244, 247, 248, 253, 259, 268,
110, 115, 121-123, 131, 132, 164, 199,
289, 291-296, 303, 304, 309, 310, 313,
207, 211, 213, 214, 218, 225, 240, 261314, 335, 336, 338, 372, 386
264, 274, 289, 293, 294, 313-315, 318,
sharding..............................10, 374-376 319, 323, 329, 351, 372, 378, 382, 384shopping 9, 117, 132, 186, 241, 252, 272, 386
309
time zone..............7, 107, 182, 238, 239
single sign-on.4, 17, 73, 93, 97, 102-106, tomcat. 3, 21-24, 27, 28, 43-45, 102, 103,
115, 315, 372
211-213, 243, 259, 320, 321, 338, 348,
sitemap......4, 66, 123, 124, 251, 265-267 352, 384
SiteMinder..........4, 7, 106, 249, 252, 260
U
SMTP.....30, 34, 36, 39-41, 44, 48, 51, 52, upgrade...6, 10, 12, 19, 26, 27, 210, 275,
56, 60, 74, 113, 185, 190, 285, 287
277, 278, 321, 325, 327, 330, 349, 382Social Bookmarks.........................8, 289 389
social equity......6, 7, 187, 204, 205, 263 user groups. . .3, 4, 12, 63, 69-71, 73, 82software catalog....9, 310, 325-330, 332- 84, 86-88, 93, 94, 106, 107, 115, 297
416
162, 167, 195-201, 204-206, 234, 241,
252, 253, 272, 284, 285, 308, 311, 312,
velocity...8, 149, 151, 289, 290, 294, 304, 401
306, 360
workflow. 5, 9, 11, 16, 19, 118, 128, 134virtual host4, 8, 17, 55, 93, 94, 115, 123, 136, 143, 157-159, 166, 219, 220, 226,
290, 291, 294
284, 315, 341, 342, 355-368, 376
V
WSDL....................................9, 337, 338
W
war file. 23, 30-32, 35, 37, 39, 48, 52, 53, X
57, 59-61, 313, 319, 321, 323, 324, 328,
xml......32, 36-39, 41, 43-45, 52, 61, 123,
347, 351, 383
124, 149, 178, 212, 214, 215, 218-222,
web content......4, 5, 11, 12, 18, 68, 109, 224, 225, 233, 241, 242, 247, 248, 252,
113, 117, 128, 134-137, 139-144, 148, 268, 270, 274, 280, 281, 284, 288, 292,
150, 151, 154-163, 165, 166, 236, 367, 293, 301, 304, 324-326, 332-334, 344,
368
348, 352-359, 361, 363, 364, 366, 372Web Form.................................117, 317 376, 385, 386, 388
WEB-INF....37, 39, 43, 102, 208, 320, 322, xsl.....................................149, 304, 306
346, 348, 352, 385, 386
Z
web.xml.....212, 219, 233, 242, 247, 248,
268, 324, 372, 386
zip...23, 24, 27, 28, 38, 39, 41-43, 46, 49,
WebDAV......8, 16, 19, 295, 296, 302, 335 292, 301, 386, 388
WebLogic.3, 22, 45-52, 61, 211, 216, 217,
222, 321
. 38, 41, 45, 210-213, 222, 228, 229, 234websphere..3, 22, 53, 55-57, 59, 60, 212, 236, 240, 242, 243, 246, 247, 250, 252,
217, 323, 324
257, 259, 262, 266, 268-270, 272, 276wiki......6, 9, 12, 13, 16, 53, 68, 106, 107, 280, 284, 289, 294, 296, 297, 301, 303,
114, 121, 122, 128, 132, 133, 152, 160- 305, 306, 308, 309, 312, 322, 345, 351
417
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