MaRe NostRuM: War in the Mediterranean

MaRe NostRuM: War in the Mediterranean
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
Contents
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Components
3.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY
4.0 ACTIONS
5.0 RANDOM EVENTS
6.0 AREA CONTROL
7.0 STACKING
8.0 LAND MOVEMENT
9.0 NAVAL MOVEMENT
10.0 AIR MOVEMENT
11.0 COMBINED ACTIONS
12.0 COMBAT
13.0 SUPPLY UNITS
14.0 REFIT
15.0 REINFORCEMENTS
16.0 MAJOR BASES
17.0 OFF-MAP BASE AREAS
18.0 FOG OF WAR
19.0 SPECIAL UNITS
20.0 SPECIAL FORCES
21.0 NEUTRALS
OPTIONAL rules
22.0 ADVANCED COMMAND
23.0 ADVANCED ACTIONS
24.0 OPTIONAL STRATEGIES
25.0 OPTIONAL FORCES
26.0 FIGHTER INTERCEPTION
27.0 GROUND RETREATS
28.0 ENTRENCHING
29.0 SHOCK EFFECT
30.0 CARRIER DEPLETION
31.0 AIR UNIT RECOVERY
Credits
Designer: Joseph Miranda
Developer: Chris Perello
Playtesters: Eric R. Harvey,
Doug Johnson, Joe Youst
Special Thanks: Jack Greene
Counter Graphics: Larry Hoffman
Map Graphics: Joe Youst
Production: Callie Cummins
& Lisé Patterson
© 2015 Decision Games
Bakersfield, CA.
Made & Printed in the USA.
NOTE: To remove the rules from this
magazine, carefully and slowly peel them
from the subscription card they are attached to by peeling from the top and then
the bottom meeting in the middle. The
card is not intended to be removed.
These rules use the following color system:
Red for critical points such as errata and
exceptions, Blue for examples of play.
Check for E-rules updates to this game
@ www.worldatwarmagazine.com.
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Mare Nostrum is a wargame of the
struggle for the Mediterranean and North
African theaters of operation during World
War II. The historical campaign saw an
Allied victory, but the Axis had several
opportunities to gain a decisive victory.
Design Note. This was an inter-service
campaign for both sides, involving land,
naval, and air components. The game
mechanics chosen to model the campaign
are based on S&T’s award-winning Red
Dragon Rising (#250) game which presents
operations through discrete Actions
rather than a strictly sequenced process.
The system shows the effects of various
operations over the course of a scenario.
Substantial changes have been made to
the system; these are not retroactive to
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
other games in the RDR family appearing in
previous magazines: South Seas Campaign
(WaW #18) and Norway ‘40 (WaW #29).
1.2 Course of the Game
There are two players in the game: the Axis
and the Allied. Each Game Turn represents
a month. Within that month each player
has a Player Turn. Within each turn, players
pick Event markers, determine the supply
units they will receive for the turn, and
take Actions. Actions are central to the
game, allowing the player to use “forces”
of units to execute specific operations:
movement, combat, logistical, and/or
intelligence-gathering. Generally, a player
conducts one Action per turn, but various
game functions allow for more, representing
periods of rapid activity alternating with
the slower process of buildup of forces.
1.3 Game Scale
One inch on the map equals 72 miles. Each
turn represents one month of operations. Most
ground units in the game represent divisions,
with some independent non-divisional units.
Aircraft units represent six to twelve squadrons
of aircraft, depending on the quality of the
aircraft and air force. Naval units represent
one fleet aircraft carrier, divisions of two
or three battleships, or four to six cruisers,
squadrons/flotillas of six to twelve destroyers,
or various numbers of other ships types.
R1
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
2.0 COMPONENTS
2.1 Component Inventory
The game includes:
Off-Map Bases. These are larger areas
on the periphery of operations which only
one side’s units may enter. (Example.
the Allied Middle East Command.)
These rules.
Two 34x22-inch maps (see 2.2),
covering the playing area and containing
a number of charts, tables, tracks,
and boxes summarizing or aiding in
specified game functions (see 2.3).
Two die-cut cardboard sheets with 560
playing pieces called counters (see 2.4).
Players must provide at least one standard
six-sided die (more would be useful) to
resolve a variety of game functions, and
several wide-mouth opaque containers
(called “pools”) to randomize the
selection of various game markers.
2.2 Game Map
The game map emphasizes strategically critical
sea zones and land areas of the Mediterranean
and its littoral, North Africa and the adjoining
Middle East. Join the two map sections along
the center. The game map is divided up into
various spaces. These spaces include:
Land Areas are major regions on
which ground units operate. Air units
may be based or fly over land areas.
These are sometimes referred to as just
“areas”. (Example. Eastern Cyrenica.)
Sea Zones are major oceanic areas. Naval
units operate in sea zones and air units
may fly over over them; additionally, ground
units may be transported across sea zones.
Fortresses are land areas representing
major defended locations. They have
special rules regarding the number of units
allowed in them and regarding combat
against units in them. They are considered
separate land areas. (Example. Tobruk is
a separate area within the Bardia area.)
Small Islands are land bodies
encompassed entirely by surrounding
waters. They are considered separate
areas. (Example. Malta.)
Out of Play Areas. No operations
may take place in Turkey, Saudi Arabia,
Spain, France, Corsica, or those
areas not specifically on the map.
R2
Placement. A unit may be in only one zone,
area or Off-Map Base at any one time.
2.3 Charts, Tables, Tracks, & Boxes
All charts, tables, tracks, and boxes are
located on the map. Listed below, each
identifies the rules describing its use.
Supply Units Available Box (13.0)
Refit Table (14.0)
Units Destroyed Box (12.0, 14.0)
Units for Refit Box (14.0)
Great Britain Off-Map Base (17.0)
Atlantic Off-Map Base (17.0)
Africa Transit Off-Map Base (17.0)
Middle East Command Off-Map Base (17.0)
Special Forces Available Box (20.0)
2.4 Counters
The counters in the game are
of two general types:
Common Displays & Tables
Turn Record Track (3.4)
Terrain Effects Chart (7.0, 8.4, 12.0)
Markers are used to record various
game functions (see 2.5).
Combat units represent the actual military
forces which participated (or could have
participated) in the campaign. Combat
units are grouped generally into three
types, described in the rules: ground units
(2.6), naval units (2.7), and air units (2.8).
Displays & Tables Duplicated
for each player
Terrain Key (2.2)
Special Forces Table (20.0)
Shock Table (29.0)
Axis Tables & Boxes
Events In Play Box (5.0)
Events Discarded Box (5.0)
Special Reinforcements Box
(5.0 & Scenarios)
Units Withdrawn Box (5.8)
Supply Reinforcement Table (13.0)
Supply Units Available Box (13.0)
Refit Table (14.0)
Units Destroyed Box (12.0, 14.0)
Units for Refit Box (14.0)
Special Forces Available Box (20.0)
Counter Colors. There are two sides
in the game: Allies and Axis. Each
side includes different nationalities,
each of which is distinguished by the
background color of its countres.
Axis
Germans: Grey
Italians: Light Green
Allies
British Commonwealth: Tan
United States: Green
Allied Tables & Boxes
Events In Play Box (5.0)
Events Discarded Box (5.0)
Special Reinforcements Box
(5.0 & Scenarios)
Units Withdrawn Box (5.8)
Supply Reinforcement Table (13.0)
Neutrals
Neutrals may be controlled by
one or neither side; see 21.0.
Vichy French: Blue
Iraqi: Brown
Markers
Turn
(3.4)
Battle
(12.0)
Event
Back Disruption
(16.0)
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Front
Special Forces
(20.0)
Area Control
Allied
Axis
Interception
(Optional;26.0)
Entrenched
(Optional;28.0)
Unit Abbreviations
German
Af: Afrika Division
Br: Brandenburgers
DAK: Deutches Afrikakorps
(German Africa Corps)
F: Flieger (airborne)
HG: Herman Goering
KM: Kriegsmarine
LLSR: Luftlande Sturm Regiment
PAA: Panzerarmee Afrika
RFSS: Reichsfuhrer SS
VM: von Mellethin
Italian
Ar: Ariete
As: Assiette
Bo: Bologna
Br: Brescia
CCNN: (Blackshirts)
Ce: Centauro
Fol: Folgore
G: Guastatori (assault engineers)
GBS: Gruppo Battalglioni da
Sbarco (Blackshirt amphibious)
GGFF: Giovani Fascisti (Young Fascists)
Imper: Imperiali
LS: La Spezia
Nap: Napoli
Nem: Nembo
Pav: Pavia
Pist: Pistioia
RC: Ragruppamento Corrazata
(armored task force)
RECAM: (Reconnaissance Group)
Sah: Saharan
SM: San Marco
Su: Superga
Tre: Trento
Historical Note. The British Commonwealth
includes Allied forces such as Poles
and Free French, but for game purposes
they are considered British.
2.5 Markers
The marker types listed below are used
for a variety of purposes. The specific
instructions for each can be found in the
rules section noted with each marker.
Note: Special Forces markers have
a combat function, but they are
not treated as combat units.
Tri: Trieste
XM: Italian naval special forces
(10 th Flotilla Assault Vehicles)
British
A: Army
Aus: Australian
AL: Arab Legion
FF: Free French
Gd: Guards
GK: Greek
Haif: Haifa Defenses
JB: Jewish Brigade
LRDG: Long Range Desert Group
MEC: Middle East Commando
NZ: New Zealand
Pol: Polish
Res: Armor Reserve (army
level tank brigades)
RMC: Royal Marine Commando
SA: South Africa
SAS: Special Air Service
TJFF: Trans Jordan Frontier Force
US
Rgr: Ranger
Vichy French
Alg: Algerian
Beir: Beirut
Casa: Casablanca
Cons: Constantine
Mor: Moroccan
Syr: Syrian
Iraqi
Mech: Mechanized
Ship-Type Abbreviations
CV: aircraft carrier
2.6 Combat Units
All combat units have common
information on them.
Movement or Range Factor. For
ground and naval units, this is the
movement allowance; for air units
this is the range factor. Static units
have a movement of “(0)”.
Reinforcement Group indicates
where a unit sets up or when it is
received as a reinforcement.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
CVE: escort carrier
BB: Battleship division
BC: Battlecruiser division
CA: Cruiser squadron
CD: Coastal Defense
CL: Light cruiser
CV: Aircraft carrier
DD: Destroyer
PT: Patrol torpedo boat or gunboat
LS: Landing ships (various types)
TR: Transport ships
TR(f): Fast transport
SS: Submarine
-FR: captured French warship
Carriers: CV and CVE are termed
“aircraft carriers” in the rules.
Design Note. In some cases, naval
units represent more than one
class. For example, CL and DD
units might also include destroyer
escorts or large torpedo boats.
Aircraft Types
B: Bomber
F: Fighter
G/G: Powered glider (big!)
GA: Ground Attack
HB: Heavy Bomber
NF: Night Fighter
R: Reconnaissance
SP: Seaplane
TR-SP: Transport Seaplane
Tr: Transport (air)
Aircraft units generally have the name of
the aircraft they represent. “Var” means
various different types of aircraft.
Sample combat unit
Anti-Ground
Combat
Factor
Reinforcement
Group
Unit Type
Unit ID
AntiSubmarine
Combat Factor
Anti-Aircraft
Combat Factor
Movement
or Range
Anti-Ship
Combat Factor
“Start” = deploys at start of the 1941
scenarios. A specific name indicates
the area in which it sets up.
R3
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
Ground unit types
Heavy
Armor/
Panzer
Mechanized
Infantry/
Panzergrenadier
Armored
Anti-Aircraft
Reconnaissance Artillery/FLAK
Fortification
rule applying to “naval vessels” applies to both;
a rule applying to submarines or to surface
ships applies to the one type only. Most naval
units are backprinted with their reinforcement
group. Aircraft carriers are backprinted
with their “depleted” side (see 30.0).
Light
HQ
Infantry
Airborne
Infantry
Glider
Infantry
Engineers
Supply
“1941, 1942 or 1943” = deploys as part
of reinforcement group for that year.
Mountain
Infantry
Marines
Garrison
front is their mobile status and the
reverse shows them as static bases.
“Mercury,” “Herkules,” “Torch,”
“Felix” = special reinforcement.
“Optional” = optional unit.
front
front
back
NAVAL unit types
Example. “Cyrenaica” on the British 2
Armored Division, pictured here, indicates
it begins the 1941 scenario in the Cyrenaica
area. “1941” on the German 90LtA Division
means it is part of the 1941 reinforcement
group.) See the Reinforcement rule (15.0)
and Scenarios (page R21) for details.
nd
2.7 Ground Combat Units
A ground unit is identified by the symbol in
the unit box. See the diagram for the different
types. The categorization of heavy and light
is important for air and sea transportability.
Two-=step units are ground units with
combat factors on both sides, like the British
2nd Armored Division pictured here. When a
two-step unit suffers a hit in combat, flip it
over so its reduced side shows. If a reduced
unit takes another hit it is eliminated.
Supply units these are backprinted
to show a change in status (13.5). The
R4
Carrier
(CV)
Battleship
(BB)
Heavy
Cruiser
(CA)
Light
Cruiser
(CL)
Destroyer
(DD)
Submarine
(SS)
Transport
(TR)
Heavy
Bomber
Bomber
Fighter
Ground
Attack
Seaplane
Transport
2.9 Air Combat Units
All aircraft units are land-based (with some
seaplanes). Carrier-borne aircraft are built
into the ship factors and not represented by
separate units. Most air units are backprinted
with their reinforcement group. The German
HS-129 is a special case (see 19.13).
2.10 Important Definitions
Note: Fortification units are not the
same as Fortress areas (though they
may be placed in such areas).
back
AIR unit types
Landing
Ship (LS)
2.8 Naval Combat Units
There are two broad categories of naval units
in the game: submarines and surface ships. A
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
Action: when capitalized, a specific
game activity (G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4),
generally performed by units
according the Action Chart.
Force: one or more units performing
some Action together.
Friendly and Enemy: a friendly unit is a
unit which you control. An enemy unit is
a unit controlled by the other player.
May and Must: if a rule says “may” then
this means the player can opt to do it
or not. If a rule says “must” then the
player has to perform that Action.
Near East: all land areas east of Suez.
North Africa: all land areas
from Morocco to Suez.
Off-Map Base: areas which only one player
can enter. Axis off map bases include
Italy and Greece; Allied off map bases
include Britain, the North Atlantic,
Africa and the Middle East Command.
On-Map: a general term for land areas
and sea zones other than OffMap Bases (Example. Cairo).
Pool: a wide mouthed opaque container
which is used to randomize the
appearance of various game pieces.
Southern Europe: land areas including
Italy, Greece, Gibraltar and various
Mediterranean islands which are
playable by one or both players.
Transport: any naval unit with the label
TRANSPORT on the reverse side has
the ability to carry land units by sea.
3.0 Sequence of Play
3.1 Scenarios
There are four scenarios in Mare
Nostrum: Desert Fox (1941-42), War for
the Mediterranean (1941-43), The Herkules
Option (1942), and Turning of the Tide (194243). Each scenario includes start and end
turns, set up instructions, special rules, and
victory conditions (see pages R21 - R25).
For all scenarios, sort the counters by type,
nationality, and arrival code. The scenario
will indicate which units start on the map
and which units begin in Reinforcement Pools
or other locations. Each player places his
side’s event markers in an opaque container
(event pool). Place the various other game
markers aside in a convenient place.
3.2 Unit Set Up
Each scenario uses one of two set up
schedules, either 1941 or 1942. Each
schedule identifies units, by type or specific
unit identification, to be placed in specific
locations. When identified by type, the
owning player may select any unit of that
type for placement. Unless otherwise
specified, two-step units are set up at full
strength. ground units with an identification
also have their size (see ab 2.7 for details)
3.3 Winning the Game
Given the nature of the struggle in
the Med, victory is an all-or-nothing
proposition. There are no victory
points for intermediate objectives.
The scenario instructions will specify
the objectives to be gained by each
player to win the game. General, these
objectives are occupation of specific
areas or zones on the map. Victory is
checked under two different conditions:
Sudden Death Victory. In all scenarios,
play stops and a player is declared the
winner if the player controls Mosul and
all on-map areas containing ports at
the beginning of his own player turn.
End of the Game. If no sudden death
victory is achieved, victory is determined
at the end of the final game turn. The
objectives must be met at that time; it does
not matter all necessary victory conditions
are met prior to the end of the game. If
neither player achieves the necessary
objectives, or if both do, the game is a draw.
Example. the Allied player gains the Sudden
Death Victory condition at the end of his turn.
The Axis player has his ensuing turn to either
recapture a port or Mosul, or the Allies win.
Effectively, the enemy will have one player turn
to attempt to prevent a Sudden Death victory
3.4 Turns
The scenario instructions will indicate the
starting and ending turn for the scenario. Each
turn consists of a series of steps called the
Sequence of Play. (See the box for details.)
Players conduct game activities only during the
designated steps. Once a step or game Action
has been completed, a player may not undo
it unless the opposing player permits. Each
time the Turn Record Phase is reached, move
the turn record marker forward one space. If
this is the last turn of the scenario, the game
comes to an end and victory is evaluated.
Player Note. The following three rules cover
major events driven by forces outside the
Mediterranean: the German invasion of
Greece & Crete in May 1941, the AngloAmerican invasion of North Africa in
November 1942, and the planned (but never
executed) German attack on the British
fortress at Gibraltar, respectively. These
rules introduce these operation into the
game without giving either player a chance
to react in an ahistorical way, or forcing
either to proceed along historical lines.
3.5 Operation Mercury
Operation Mercury was the German airborne
assault on the island of Crete in May 1941.
In the Operation Mercury Phase of May
1941, Greece becomes Axis controlled
and Crete becomes playable. Conduct
the following steps in the order listed.
1) Place all Allied “Mercury” units
on Crete. The 2 NZ and 6 Australian
Divisions begin at reduced strength; Crete
Force (CreF) begins at full strength.
Turn Sequence Outline
Axis Player Turn
Sudden Death Victory Phase: check
if the Axis player controls the areas
necessary for a sudden death victory.
If so, the game ends with an Axis
victory; if not, play continues.
Operation Mercury: in May 1941 the
Axis receives reinforcements as part
of the invasion of Greece (see 3.5).
Random Event Pick: the Axis player
draws one event marker from
the Axis event pool (see 5.0).
Supply Reinforcement Roll: the
Axis player determines how
many supply units become
available this turn (see 13.0).
Action phase: the Axis player
conducts one or more Actions with
his forces on the map (see 4.0).
Allied Player Turn
Sudden Death Victory Phase: check
if the Allied player controls the
areas necessary for a sudden death
victory. If so, the game ends with an
Allied victory; if not, play continues.
Operation Torch: in turns from October
1942 through December 1942 only,
the Allied determines whether the
Torch landings take place (see 3.6).
Random Event Pick: the Allied player
draws one event marker from
the Allied event pool (see 5.0).
Supply Reinforcement Roll: the
Allied player determines how
many supply units become
available this turn (see 13.0).
Action phase: the Axis player
conducts one or more Actions with
his forces on the map (see 4.0).
Mutual Administration
Turn Record Phase: if the last turn
of the scenario has been played,
the game ends and a victor is
determined (3.3). If there are
turns yet to be played, the turn
marker is advanced to the next
and the sequence begins again.
2) Place all Axis “Mercury” units in Greece.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R5
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
4) At the end of the Allied turn, the US BB,
CV, and CVE “Torch” units are withdrawn
and placed in the Allied Reinforcement
Pool. This includes units which may have
been eliminated in the course of the turn.
5) In the Axis Action phase of that turn,
the Axis player receives all Axis
“Torch” reinforcements in Italy.
Player Note. Torch reinforcements are
immediately placed on the map; they are not
initially placed in the Reinforcement Pool.
3.7 Operation Felix
Operation Felix was the planned German
invasion of Gibraltar This is explained
entirely under the Axis Major Event
description for Operation Felix.
4.0 ACTIONS
Actions are the heart of the game. Each
Action taken by a player allows a specific
set of units to conduct specific activities.
The Actions Chart (pages R26-R29) details
which Actions enable which activities.
3) During the Axis Player turn, the Axis
gains two additional G-3 Actions. These
can be any kind of Actions allowing
airborne, airlift and/or air unit movement
and/or combat, but only “Mercury” and
supply units can participate in them. Other
Actions can be performed normally.
4) At the end of the May turn, any surviving
Allied “ Mercury” units remain in play. All
German “ Mercury” units (both surviving
and eliminated) involved in Mercury are
permanently removed from play (the units
have been transferred elsewhere).
Player Note. The Axis does not have to
invade Crete. The units may be used
anywhere and can provide an immense
one turn advantage at that point, but at
the cost of leaving British units on Crete.
3.6 Operation Torch
Operation Torch was the US-British invasion
of northwest Africa in November 1942.
At the start of each Allied turn starting
with October 1942, the Allied player rolls
one die. If it is with the following ranges,
Operation Torch occurs that turn:
R6
October 1942: 1-2
November 1942: 1-4
December 1942: 1-6 (automatic)
Design Note. Almost all game functions are
carried out through Actions. Unlike most
wargames, units may not automatically
move, fight, etc., each turn. This reflects
numerous command control and logistical
factors of the original campaign.
When Torch occurs, Vichy Tunisia, Algeria,
and Morocco immediately become playable
areas; they and all Vichy units in them become
Axis-controlled. If the Vichy Syria event has
not already occurred, Vichy Syria immediately
becomes Axis controlled; remove the Event
marker from the Allied event pool. Conduct
the following steps in the order given.
4.1 Action Generation
Each player automatically receives one
Action each turn. Additional Actions may be
generated by the random Event marker chosen
that turn (see 5.0) or by the expenditure of
a supply unit (13.6). The additional Actions
may have limitations on which type can be
executed and where they can be executed.
1) Place all Allied “Torch” units in
the Atlantic off-map base.
4.2 Types of Actions
There are four basic types of Actions in the
game, grouped into the general categories
of the American staff system (see below).
This distinction is made solely for simplicity
and accessibility; there is no difference
between Actions other than the activities
allowed. Each player may select Actions freely
unless prevented by the prerequisites of the
Action itself or the conditions generating the
Action (such as the random event marker).
G-1 = Administrative
G-2 = Intelligence and Special Operations
G-3 = Operational
G-4 = Logistical
2) The Allied player receives three extra
Actions this turn; they must be used
on G-3 amphibious operations. Any
Allied units can conduct them.
3) At the end of the Allied turn in which
Torch occurs, all Vichy French units in the
same areas as American ground units
become Allied-controlled. All other Vichy
units (wherever they are located) are
withdrawn and never return to play.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
4.3 Forces & Actions
A “force” is a single group of units in one
area or zone conducting an Action together.
Most Actions can be carried out only by
one force; exceptions are noted in the
Action descriptions. Where applicable,
the Action chart identifies unit types
capable of carrying out certain Actions.
Command Control. All units on
the same side may operate together
freely unless the advanced command
control rule (25.0) is being used.
Example. An Action allowing the movement
of a land force means the player could move
some or all ground units in particular area;
air and naval units in that area could not
move. On the other hand, an Action called for
land and/or naval and/or air units to operate
together (for example, as part of a airborne
or amphibious Action) would allow the player
to move all those units at the same time.
4.4 Multiple Actions
A unit may participate in more than one Action
per turn. Additional actions may be generated
by events or expending supply units (see 13.6).
Example: the Allied player takes his
one automatic Action. He then plays
the Operation Battleaxe Event marker.
He now executes a second Action in
accordance with that event explanation
4.5 Sequentially of Actions
If a player can take more than one Action in a
turn, he executes them one after another. He
does not execute additional Random Events
picks or Supply Reinforcement die rolls.
4.6 Actions Explanation
All Actions are explained in on pages
R26-R29. The explanations of Actions may
contradict other rules in the game. If so,
then explanation takes precedence.
5.0 RANDOM EVENTS
5.1 Event markers
Each player receives a specified number of
Event markers as directed by the scenario
instructions. Place the markers in an opaque
container (Random Event pool). During the
player’s Random Event pick of each player turn,
the player draws one marker from the pool.
5.2 Event marker Data
Each marker has the following data on it.
Year. Generally, a marker can be played
in any year. Certain markers will have
the years in which they can be played.
If picked in a year on the explanation,
then it can be played. Otherwise,
return it and do not pick a substitute.
Immediate. If a marker reads “Immediate”
then the player must play it when picked.
Keep. If a marker reads “Keep”
the player may either
a) play the marker in the Action
phase of this player turn, or
b) place it face-down in the
Events Available box for play in a
subsequent Action phase, or
c) if specified by the marker, play it
at some other point in the turn.
Event. Each marker triggers an event,
described on pages R30 and R31. Some
marker allow more than one possible
course of action, depending upon the
situation; execute the applicable one.
If the event is notes as a major event,
see page R32 for a description.
Example: if the Allied player picks the US
Patton event in 1941 or 1942, it would be
treated as no effect and returned to the pool;
if picked in 1943, implement its instructions.
Example. The Allied Operation Battleaxe
marker has two options. (1) Take one additional
G-3 Ground Action using British units. Discard.
(2) Keep.” This means the Allies can either (1)
Take one additional G-3 Ground Action using
British units and then discard the marker, or
(2) keep it and play it on a subsequent turn
(at which point it would be discarded).
5.3 Executing the Event
Generally, the Event explanation will provide
the details of execution, but some require
players to refer to another rule. Events may
contradict another rule; in that case, the marker
explanation supersedes the rule (for example,
some Events allow the immediate picking of
additional Event markers). In most cases, an
Event can be executed only during the player’s
own player turn. However, certain events
can be played in an opposing player’s turn.
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5.4 Disposition
Each Event explanation will indicate the
disposition of the marker upon being played:
Discard: the marker is permanently
removed from the game.
Return: place the marker back
in the event pool.
Return on die roll: roll one die after
playing the marker. If the result is
within the range listed on the event,
return the marker to the pool. If the
result does not require return, keep the
marker for play in a subsequent turn.
Example. The Allied player picks the Patton
event on February 1943. He holds it, then
plays Patton on March 1943. He then rolls
one die and rolls a “3,” indicating that Patton
must be returned to the Allied event pool.
Player Note. Events which allow a player
to take more than one Action per turn can
be used only once per turn, even if not
returned to the pool. For example, if the
Patton marker were kept (owing to a die roll
of “1-2”), it could not be used again until
April 1943. Furthermore, the Allied player
would not have to use Patton in April 1943,
he could hold the marker and play it later.
5.5 Prerequisites
Certain Events have a prerequisite. If the
prerequisite is not in effect, then treat the
event as no effect. Do not pick a substitute.
Example. If a marker says that a certain
unit has to be in play, but that unit is not
in play. then the event is ignored.
5.6 Multiple Events
A player may have any number of Event
markers in his available box. A player
may implement more than one Event
per turn. These can be in any order.
Example. The Allies might execute Operation
Battleaxe to gain an additional G-3 Ground
combat Action to make an attack; they could
add in Tactics to enhance that attack.
5.7 Appeal to the High Command
At the beginning of an Action phase, a
player may execute G-1 Action for a chance
to pick a second Event marker that turn.
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Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
5.8 Unit Withdrawals
Certain Events call for units to be withdrawn
from play. When this occurs, take the units
off the map, regardless of their position.
Depending on the event, the units may be
placed in the Withdrawn Units box or into the
owning player’s Reinforcement Pool (see 15.1)
for possible future return to play. A withdrawn
unit not returning to play does not count as
eliminated (and may not be Refit (14.0).
6.0 AREA CONTROL
The control status of the various land areas
on the map determines whose forces can
make use of base facilities located within
them, who will win the game, and various
other game functions Use the control markers
to indicate which side controls an area.
6.1 Area Control
All areas on the map are designated at
the beginning of each scenario as being
“controlled” by one player or the other,
or as being neutral. A neutral area is
one which has not yet entered play (for
example, Vichy Syria at the start of 1941).
A player gains control of a formerly enemy
controlled area the instant that he has one
or more ground units in that area while
there are no enemy ground units in it.
A player does not need to keep units in
an area to maintain control. However, the
instant that an enemy unit enters such
an area, that side gains control of it.
Contested Areas. If both players
have ground units in an area, it is
“contested”. Different rules will have
specific effects for contested areas.
Sea Zones cannot be controlled
by either player, regardless of
occupation (but see 9.3).
Special Forces markers may
change the control of an area using
the G-2 Subversion Action.
6.2 Home Bases
Certain areas and off-map boxes are
permanently controlled by one player or
the other. Opposing units may not enter
those areas under any circumstances.
R8
Italian areas are always Axis controlled.
Great Britain, the North Atlantic,
Africa and Middle East Command
are always Allied controlled.
6.3 Neutral Areas
The following territories begin 1941 scenarios
as neutral. While neutral, neither player’s
forces may enter their areas. Various
rules will bring them into the game.
Greece is neutral on Turns 1 and 2 (MarchApril 1941). On turn 3 (May 1941) mainland
Greece becomes Axis controlled. Only
Axis units may enter mainland Greek
areas. At this point, both side’s units
may enter Crete See Operation Mercury
Greece will begin as Axis controlled in
scenarios starting after May 1942.
Vichy French territories (Syria, Tunisia,
Algeria, Morocco) are neutral until
activated by the Syrian Intervention
and/or Operation Torch events. After
a Vichy French territory becomes a
belligerent, both side’s units may enter
it. Note that Syrian Intervention does
not bring in the North African Vichy
territories, but the Operation Torch event
also brings in Syria. Vichy territories will
begin in different states of control in
scenarios starting after March 1941.
7.0 STACKING
Stacking is the term describing the piling
of more than one friendly unit in same sea
zone or land area at the same time.
7.1 Stacking Generally
Each player may stack an unlimited number of
units of any or all types in a given area or zone.
However, see 7.2 and 7.3 for special cases.
Friendly and enemy units in the same area
or zone do not count against each other’s
stacking limits (but may trigger combat).
7.2 Terrain Limits on Stacking
Small islands, fortresses, and deep desert
areas have a maximum stacking allowance
of three ground units (of any size) plus up to
three supply units and three based air units.
There is no limit to the number of air units
which can fly over them on missions, or naval
units that can base adjacent to small islands
and fortresses which have port symbols.
Generally, there is no limit to the number of
units able to move through these areas.
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Amphibious and Airborne Landing
Limitation. No more than three ground
units may be used to launch a single
amphibious or airborne invasion of a
small island or into a fortress. Each side
can have up to three ground units in
these areas. Friendly units do not affect
enemy stacking limits and vice versa.
7.3 Airbase Stacking
Each airbase has a capacity number
printed on it. This is the maximum number
of air units which may be based on them
(on the ground). An unlimited number
of air units may fly over any area.
7.4 Over-Stacking Penalty
If an area or airbase is over-stacked at the
end of an Action, the owning player must
eliminate units of his choice to bring the
zone/base into compliance. The eliminated
units are placed in the Refit Box.
8.0 LAND MOVEMENT
Ground units move via Actions generating
movement. A unit moves by leaving one
land area and crossing into an adjacent
land area. Terrain may inhibit or sometimes
enhance movement (8.4). Ground units
may be transported by air or sea (see
11.0) and on and off the map (16.0)..
8.1 Distance Moved
A land unit may move a number of areas
up to its movement factor. Unused
movement is not accumulated and may
not be transferred to another unit.
Static Units. A unit with a
movement of zero may not move.
8.2 Moving a Force
Multiple units may move together if they
start in the same area. Once designated,
the force moves together and must stay
together. Units may be dropped off (left in
an area passed through); dropped off units
may not move further in that same Action.
Units may not be picked up during a move.
Player Note. Generally, you may move only
one force per Action. However, certain
Actions allow the movement of more
than one force (for example, Concentrate
on HQ and Strategic Redeployment).
8.3 Movement & Enemy Units
Ground units must stop the instant that
they enter a zone containing an enemy
ground unit. They can move out of that zone
in their next Action. ground units which
enter an area containing enemy air units
(on the ground) must cease movement—
they may engage in combat (see 10.5).
8.4 Movement & Terrain
Terrain may affect movement into or
across them. See the Terrain Effects
Chart on the map for details.
Clear. A ground unit moves normally
across Clear terrain.
Escarpments. A land unit moving across an
escarpment which is crossed by a road
moves normally. If moving across an
escarpment not crossed by a road, the unit
must roll a die to make the move. See the
Terrain Effects Chart. If it fails the die roll,
it may not cross and ceases movement in
the area before the escarpment
Coast Road. A land unit starting its move
in an area traversed by the coast road,
and staying on areas traversed by the
road, may move up to two additional
areas in one Action. That is, it must
stay on the Coast Road for the entire
movement to gain the bonus.
Design Note. Units, especially heavy units,
may cross non-road escarpments owing to
the presence of tracks not shown on the map.
9.0 NAVAL MOVEMENT
Naval units must be placed in sea zones; they
can never enter land areas. Naval unit may
stay at sea an unlimited amount of time. Naval
movement is similar to land movement except
it involves naval movement moving via sea
zones. Certain naval units may transport ground
units and conduct amphibious landings (11.0).
9.1 Distance Moved
A naval unit may move a number of sea
zones up to its movement factor (unless
prohibited by one of the other rules in
this section). Movement may be made
across the sides of zones, or diagonally;
for example, a vessel in the Malta Channel
could move into the Gulf of Gabes.
9.2 Naval Forces
More than one naval unit may move together
if they start in one zone and stay together
through the move. Naval units may be
dropped off in zones along the way; dropped
off units may not move further that Action.
Example: a force of one BB, one CL and one
DD moves one sea zone, drops off the BB,
then the other two units continue moving.
Railroad. This is treated the same as a
Coast Road, except that the Allies may
use the Railroad Move G-4 Action.
9.3 Terrain Restrictions
Naval units may not enter land areas
nor enemy off-map bases.
Fortresses. Fortresses count as separate
land areas for movement purposes.
Suez Canal. Allied naval units may move via
the Suez Canal by paying one movement
point, and then continuing the move on
the other side of the Canal. The moving
unit must have enough movement left
to enter both the canal and the sea
zone on the other end of the Canal, or
the Canal may not be entered in that
Action. Also, the Suez Canal may be
used only if all areas on both sides are
either Allied controlled or contested; Axis
control of any area adjacent to the Canal
prohibits naval movement via it. Axis
naval units may never move via the Suez
Canal. Ground units may cross the Suez
Canal, but cease their movement on the
other side. Air units are not affected.
Suez Canal. A land unit must cease
movement when crossing the Suez
Canal. That it is, it may expend any
number of movement points to get to the
adjacent to the Suez Canal, then spend
one more movement point and cross,
thereby stopping on the other side.
Deep Desert: A land unit must
cease movement when entering
a Deep Desert area.
Prohibited movement. Some terrain
types prohibit land movement into or
across them. Also, ground units may
not move across all-sea boundaries
except by sealift or airlift (11.0).
Strait of Messina. The Strait of Messina
is a separate sea zone. Allied naval
units must stop when entering it. Roll
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one die for each unit. On a 1-2 the unit
is eliminated; on a 3-6 it survives.
Surviving units may otherwise conduct
any amphibious and/or combat Actions.
The units may move out normally on an
ensuing Action. If the units stay in the
Zone, there is no further die roll, but if they
move back in, must be checked again.
Design Note. This is due to Axis
naval defenses and airpower not
otherwise shown in the game.
9.4 Ports
Land areas containing a port symbol
provide support to naval units in the
adjoining sea zone. The port applies to all
sides of the land area having a coastline
adjacent to a sea zone. The effects of this
rule are described in various Actions.
Player Note. Naval units cannot
physically enter port on the game
map owing to game ergonomics.
9.5 Movement & Enemy Naval Units
Naval units must cease movement the instant
they enter a zone containing any enemy
naval units. Units starting in a sea zone
with enemy units may move out normally.
9.6 Carrier Aircraft
Carrier aircraft are figured into the strength
of the carrier units in the game—they are
not separate units. They do not fly separately
from the carriers. Carriers can attack units
in the same area, in which case they are
treated as other surface naval units. They
can also attack adjacent areas; see the
Long Range Carrier Airstrike Action.
10.0 AIR MOVEMENT & BASING
Aircraft units in the game are land-based.
They may only operate from land areas
and friendly off-map boxes containing
airbases. Air units may transport ground
units using certain Actions (see 11.0).
10.1 Air Unit Basing
Aircraft must end each turn in a land area
containing a friendly airbase. An airbase
printed on the map has an unlimited capacity;
it may base any number of air units. If
the area is contested, each side can base
an unlimited number of air units in it.
A friendly fortress has an automatic
airbase capacity of three air units.
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Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
A static friendly supply unit provides an
airbase for three air units (in addition to an
area’s normal basing capacity); the supply
unit can be in any land area, including a
fortress. If the supply units is eliminated,
the owning player must eliminate air units
in that to bring the area within its airbase
capacity. Also, no more than one supply
unit per area may perform this function.
10.2 Airbases & Enemy Ground Units
If an Action phase begins or ends with an
enemy ground unit in an area with a printed
friendly airbase but no friendly ground units,
all air units on the airbase are eliminated.
Air units are otherwise unaffected by enemy
ground units in the same area. (For example,
during combat, friendly air units may attack
enemy ground units in the same area.)
Air units based on supply units are not
eliminated unless those supply units are
also eliminated. (But if there are printed
airbases with sufficient capacity to hold the
air units, then they are transferred to those
bases with no additional action as long as
other friendly ground units are in the area.)
10.3 Flying a Mission
An air unit begins its mission at its airbase, flies
to its target (see 10.4), then returns to its base.
R10
Player Note. An air unit effectively
moves twice in each Action, once out
and once back, but this counts as a
single Action. In effect, the air unit’s
“range” is half its total movement.
10.4 Air Movement & Range
An air unit starts its mission from its base.
Multiple air units in the same area may fly the
mission together; once the force is created, it
must stay together through the entire mission,
including the return to base. No units may be
dropped off or picked up en route. The units
may move a number of areas/zones equal to
the lowest movement factor in the force. Air
units may move across any and all land areas
and sea zones, and (if eligible) into off map
boxes; the presence of enemy units in the zone
has no effect (but see 26.0). Air units may move
diagonally across sea zone boundaries. After
the mission is conducted, the air units must
return to the base of origin (unless using the
re-basing Action), again crossing a number of
areas/zones up to the lowest movement factor
in the force. They need not travel the same
route as long as the range is not exceeded.
Same Area Missions. Air units may conduct
missions in their base areas against
enemy units in that area—this may be
the case when an area is contested.
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10.5 Automatic Combat Air Patrol
The instant that friendly air or ground units
attack into an area containing enemy air units,
those air units automatically are considered
to be part of the defending force. They use
their combat factors normally. An air unit in
this case would not be eliminated by enemy
ground units until the end of the Action in
which enemy units entered their area.
Player Note. This means defending air units
will have a shot at enemy forces before
any potential loss of airbase. But if t the
enemy ground units are still in the area
at the end of the Action, then the friendly
air units based in it are eliminated.
10.6 Enemy Air Units & Interception
Otherwise, air units may fly through areas
and zones containing any type of enemy unit
without stopping. The optional Interception
rule may change this (see 27.0).
11.0 COMBINED ACTIONS
Certain actions allow a player to utilize air,
naval and/or ground units in a single Action—
these are called “Combined Actions.” The
player taking the Combined Action designates
the units to participate in it, and all chosen
units must be eligible to participate. The
Action descriptions on the Action chart
detail the execution. This section provides
a number of general rules applicable to the
naval and air transportation of ground units.
11.1 Ground Unit Transportation
A qualified naval or air unit picks up a ground
unit at the start of the Action, transports it,
and possibly lands it at the end of the Action.
Picking up and dropping off the ground unit
is part of the Action—it does not require a
separate Action. The ground unit is placed
beneath the transport unit counter while
being transported. The transported unit
may not employ its combat factors, move
separately nor conduct any other Action other
than being transported. If the transporting
unit is attacked, and the transporting unit is
eliminated, then the transported unit is also
eliminated. A transported unit may not be
attacked separately from a transporting unit.
11.2 Transported Ground Units
Ground units being transported may
not move during the Action other than
to be picked up and/or dropped off.
11.3 Sealift
Ground units may be transported by friendly
naval units within transport capacity (see
below). They may remain embarked for any
length of time; there is no requirement to
land them at the end of the Action. Nontransporting naval vessels may accompany the
transport vessels as part of the same Action.
Naval Transport Capacity
LS: two units of any types.
TR: one heavy or two light units.
TR(f): one light unit.
BB, BC, CA, CL, DD: one marine
or commando/ranger unit.
Embarkation. Ground units may embark from
a coastal land area onto eligible vessels
in an adjacent sea zone. The presence of
friendly ground or naval units in the zone
or area does not affect embarkation.
Disembarkation. Units may disembark from
the transport unit into any land area
adjacent to the transport’s final zone of
movement unless that area is prohibited to
the ground unit or there are enemy naval
units in the transport’s sea area. If there
are enemy ground units in the landing
area, the landing can trigger an amphibious
assault and the transport vessel is subject
to return fire from enemy units with an
anti-surface ship factor of one or more.
(See the Acton explanations for details.)
Shuttling. A unit may also be embarked
and disembarked from land areas
adjacent to the same sea zone.
Example. An Italian naval transport unit
located in the Straits of Messina could
transport an Italian ground unit from
Southern Italy to Messina in Sicily without
the transport itself having to move.
11.4 Port Capacity
Ports have a capacity. This is the number
of supply units which can be embarked or
debarked from that Port during a single Action.
The port capacity is regardless of the state of
control of the area. This does not affect the
embarkation of debarkation of other land units.
Example. The Allies conduct an Amphibious
Assault against Axis controlled Crete.
They could land any number of ground
units there, plus a number of supply
units up to Crete’s port capacity.
11.5 Airlift
Air transport (TR) and heavy glider (G/G) units
may transport eligible ground units within
capacity (see below). The transporting and
transported units must begin the Action in
the same area. During transport, place the
ground unit under the transport unit. The
transporting air unit can fly up to twice its
printed range to an airbase. The ground
unit must be disembarked at the end of the
transportation (unlike naval transport). If
there are enemy ground or air units in the
area of disembarkation, an Air Assault can
take place (see the Action chart). Nontransporting air units may accompany the
transport units as part of the same Action.
Air Transport Capacity.
TR: one light unit (only).
German G/G: one heavy or one light unit.
Emplaning. Transporting and transported
units must start the Action in a friendly or
contested airbase (which can include printed
airbases, fortresses or static supply units).
Disemplaning. The disembarkation area
must be a friendly or contested airbase (for
Airlift) or any eligible ground area (Airborne
Actions). If there are enemy ground or air
units in the landing area, the landing can
trigger mandatory combat and the transport
unit is subject to return fire from enemy
units with an anti-aircraft factor of one or
more. Anti-aircraft fire is applied after any
transported ground units have disemplaned.
Combat Examples
Example 1. The Axis player conducts a Launch a Land Based
Airstrike against enemy ground and air units in a land area Action
by a He-111 bomber and a Me-110 fighter against the Bardia zone.
There is a British infantry division and a Hurricane fighter unit
in Bardia. The Axis player uses the Me-110 to attack the fighter
(using the AA combat factor) and the He-111 to attack the infantry
(using the anti-land combat factor). Both British units fire back
using their AA factors. Note the Axis player could have used
both his air units to attack the fighter or the brigade, or any other
combination. Even if the Axis player attacked only one British unit,
both could fire back, each at one Axis unit, or both at one Axis.
Example 2. The Allied player launches an Airborne Action. A
force of one bomber and one transport aircraft (transporting one
airborne unit) move into an area containing one enemy fighter and
one infantry division. The airborne landing takes place, followed by
combat. Note this means that airborne unit would land prior to the
combat, therefore if its transport were shot down it would not be
affected (though it would be affected by any combat upon landing).
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R11
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
12.0 COMBAT
Combat generally occurs between opposing
units in the same land area or sea zone. It is
resolved by rolling dice for each participating
unit to score hits on opposing units.
12.1 Mandatory & Voluntary Combats
Most combat is voluntary and occurs only
when one player selects the Action needed
to initiate it. If no such Action is selected,
opposing units can coexist indefinitely within
the same land area and/or sea zone. The
combats listed below are mandatory; they must
be executed as part of the Action creating the
situation described. When combat is initiated,
all friendly units in the area/zone must attack
and all enemy units in the area/zone must
defend units cannot be held out of combat.
Mandatory Combats
Amphibious invasion into a small island
(see 12.11) or printed fortress (see 12.12).
Amphibious invasion into any area
containing a fortification unit.
Airborne or airlift move to an enemy
occupied or contested land area.
Any Action requiring combat.
12.2 Combat Combinations
The following are the possible
combinations of attacking and defending
units in the same combat.
Ground units versus air and/or ground
units in the same land area.
Air units versus air and/or ground
units in the same land area.
Ground and Air units versus air and/
or ground units in the same land
area (see also the G-3 Combined
Actions: Ground Support Action).
Air units versus air and/or naval
units in the same sea zone.
Naval units versus air and/or naval
units in the same sea zone.
Air and naval units versus air and/
or naval units in the same sea zone.
Naval units versus ground units in an
adjacent land area (see 12.8 & 12.13).
R12
Carrier aircraft versus naval units in
an adjacent area/zone (see 12.8).
12.3 Combat Procedure
To resolve a combat, carry out the
following steps in this order:
1) Remove the participating units from the
map; place the Battle marker in the area/
zone as a reminder. Line up the opposing
units in a convenient off-map location.
2) Determine whether either side gets
First Fire (12.4). If not all firing by all units
is simultaneous; for formality’s sake, the
initiating player may roll firing dice first.
Players may use any desired method to
note hits on units during the firing process.
(Example. By placing markers next to them.)
3) Roll dice to fire each unit (see 12.5 - 12.6).
4) When all firing is complete, apply any
hits scored in the combat (see 12.7.)
5) Return any surviving units to the
area and remove the Battle marker.
Return any aircraft to base. Conduct
any other movement required for the
specific type of combat, if any.
12.4 First Fire
Certain special rules and Event markers
will give First Fire to certain units. Those
units execute their fire, and losses are
applied, before any other units get to fire.
In effect, First Fire constitutes a first round
of combat, followed by a second round
involving all other participating units.
If units on both sides are eligible for First
Fire, roll one die to determine who goes
first: odd numbers give Axis units First
Fire, even numbers give Allied units First
Fire. Firing then occurs in this sequence:
1. Side which won the First Fire die roll
attacks with all its First Fire units.
2. Side which lost the First Fire die
roll fires with all its First Fire units.
3. All remaining units fire simultaneously
Player Note. A unit with First Fire still fires
only once per battle. It is subject to any
return fire normally. The advantage is that
a First Fire unit may eliminate enemy units
before they have a chance to fire back.
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12.5 Firing
Each firing unit fires once per combat (see
below). Each firing unit may fire at any one
enemy unit (but see 12.8). More than one firing
unit may be fired at a single target, but all
units firing at the target must be announced
before the first unit fires; the fire of later-firing
units may not be shifted to another target if
an earlier firing unit eliminates the target.
Combat Factor Type. Each combat unit
has up to four combat factors. It may use
only one in a single combat. Each factor
may be fired only at the specified target
type: anti-ground factor at ground units,
anti-aircraft factor at air units, anti-surface
factor at naval units other than submarines,
and anti-submarine factor at submarines.
Player Note. Any type of unit can fire at any
other type of unit. For example, a ground
unit with an AA factor of “1” or more could
fire at an air unit in the same area.
12.6 Firing Strength
The printed combat factor is used to determine
whether the firing unit hits its target (see
12.7). Certain events and Actions may cause
a unit’s various combat strengths to be raised
or lowered. If more than one such modification
applies, use the cumulative total/difference.
However, a printed combat strength of “1”
or more cannot be reduced to zero; the unit
always fires with a minimum strength of one.
Special Combat Strengths
Zero Factors. A printed combat strength
of “0” may not be increased; it
always remains zero. In effect the unit
cannot fire at that type of target.
“Boxed” Ground Units Combat Factors.
A ground unit with a box combat factor
is a support unit (for example, HQ units).
Its ground combat strength is used only if
there are friendly ground units in the same
combat with a combat strength of “1” or
more, and that strength is not boxed.
Heavy Bomber (HB) units use their full
anti-ground strength only when attacking
enemy ports, depots and airbases that are
printed on the map. When attacking enemy
ground units, HBs use an anti-ground
combat strength of “1”. Their anti-ground
combat strength is circled as a reminder.
Design Note. The combat values of the
target unit do not affect firing (there are
no combat odds). The anti-surface ship
factor of an aircraft carrier represents
its torpedo and dive bombers.
12.7 Hits
One die is rolled for each firing unit. Compare
the die result to the firing unit’s applicable
combat factor (as modified; see 12.6). If the
result is less than or equal to the combat
factor, the firing unit scores a hit against
the target. A two-step target is reduced
to its one-step side. A one-step unit, or a
reduced two-step unit, is eliminated and
removed to the owning player’s refit box.
Example. a unit with an anti-air
strength of “2” would eliminate one
enemy air unit on a die roll of “1-2.”
12.8 Ranged Combat
Naval units may bombard enemy ground
targets in a land area adjacent to the naval
units’ sea zone. Carriers may launch an
airstrike against enemy naval units in an
adjacent sea zone. In both cases, all attacking
units must be in one sea zone, and all target
units must be in one area or zone. These are
explained in details on the Actions chart.
12.9 Defending Aircraft
Air units based in an area being attacked
must take part in the defense of the area..
If the combat results in the defending
player losing control of the area, any air
units which had been based in that area
are eliminated. Air units which were based
in other areas fly back to that base.
12.10 Protected Naval Targets
Naval carriers (CV), landing ships (LS), and
transports (TR, TR(f)) may not be attacked
by enemy naval surface or submarine units
until every other non-protected ship in the
same zone is being attacked by at least one
enemy unit. Enemy air units and aircraft
carriers are not bound by this restriction; they
are free to attack any naval units desired.
Example. The attacker has two CA and
one CV attacking a force of three enemy DD
and one TR. The CA would have to attack
the DD while the CV could attack the TR
(or a DD). If the attacker had four CA, then
he could commit three of them to attacking
the DDs, and the fourth CA attack the TR.
assault) containing enemy ground units and/
or aircraft it must attack. If it fails to eliminate
all enemy units defending the islands, the
attacking ground units are eliminated.
12.12 Attacking Fortress Areas
All ground units attacking into fortresses have
their ground combat strengths reduced by
one to a minimum of one. If any ground units
defending in the fortress survive the combat,
the attackers are affected as follows:
Ground units attacking from an adjacent
land area must retreat back into that area.
Move them back to the area from which
they attacked. The area must be friendly
controlled or contested; if not, the retreating
units are eliminated instead. (They may
not retreat to other adjacent areas.)
Ground units attacking from the
sea (amphibious) or air (airborne
assault) are eliminated.
Attacking air units in these cases which
survive the combat return to base.
Player Note. Remember, you can stack one
additional unit in a small island or fortress
area if it is a HQ, so this is a way to enhance
the defense or assault against those spaces.
12.13 Coastal Defense
Ground units with an anti-surface ship combat
factor may fire at any ships (including those
protected pursuant to 12.10) in an adjacent
sea zone if the ships are bombarding the
ground unit’s area (see 12.8), or if the ships
are conducting or supporting an amphibious
landing into the ground unit’s area (targets
can include transports and any other naval
units which moved with them). Otherwise,
ground units with an anti-naval factor may
not attack enemy naval units in sea zones.
Timing. The fire takes place after any
movement, and disembarkation is
part of movement. Note, though, that
the defending units could choose
to fire their anti-ground combat
factors at the landing units.
Ground units being disembarked for
amphibious landings are unaffected
by the fire; even if their transport is
eliminated, the units land normally.
12.11 Invading Small Islands
When a friendly ground force moves into
a small island (via amphibious or airborne
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Ground units cannot fire at enemy
submarines, since no ground unit
has an anti-submarine factor.
13.0 SUPPLY UNITS
Supply units represent concentrations
of supplies and transport vehicles, and a
focus of attention for the player’s logistical
infrastructure. Each supply unit has two sides:
the front represents it in its mobile state,
and the reverse in its static state. Mobile
supply units can move; static supply units
cannot move but have an anti-aircraft factor.
13.1 Supply Unit Pool
Each player places all supply units not part of
the initial setup for a scenario in the Supply
Units Available Box on the map . Supply units
eliminated for any reason (combat, capture,
expenditure) are returned to the available
supply unit box. They do not require refit (14.0).
Player Note. The number of supply units
on each side is limited to those provided
in the counter mix; players may not
create additional units even if the new
units to be received in a turn would
require it. This represents historical
limitations on logistical support.
13.2 Supply Unit Generation
During a player’s Supply Reinforcement
Phase, the player rolls one die and consults
the Supply Reinforcement Table for his side
to determine the number of new supply
units drawn from the pool that turn. The
following game situations and events may
affect the number of supply units received.
Mosul. If the Allies control Mosul, then
they receive one additional Supply
unit per Supply Reinforcement phase.
This supply unit must be placed in the
Middle East Command off-map base.
Operation Torch. The Axis will use a
different line on the table depending
upon whether or not the Torch marker has
been picked. Once picked, the improved
line is used for the rest of the game.
Pacific War. The Allies will use a different
line on the table depending upon whether
or not the Pacific War marker has been
picked. Once picked, the improved line
is used for the rest of the game.
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Certain G-4 Recovery Actions in the ground
area where the supply unit was expended
(see the Actions chart for details).
13.7 Static Supply Unit Functions
In addition to generating additional Actions
(see 13.6), static supply units may be used for
any or all of the game functions listed below:
As an airbase with a capacity of three
air units; the unit is not expended
when used for this purpose.
As the point to deploy Refit air or ground
units per Refit Action (14.2). Each static
supply unit can be the point of placement
for one refit unit. The supply unit is not
expended when used for this purpose.
To enable a Refit attempt for all reduced
two-step units in the are through a Refit
Action (14.3). The supply unit is not
expended when used for this purpose.
Design Note. The Axis does not receive an
additional supply unit for controlling Mosul
since it would not have been technically
possible to ship petroleum back to Europe
within the framework of the game. The
Allies receive more supply for the Pacific
War as the USA now becomes an active
belligerent. The Axis receives more supply
when Operation Torch is launched because
of increased attention on the Mediterranean
from the German high command.
13.6 Supply Unit Action Generation
A player may expend a supply unit to generate
one of the Actions below. This Action is in
addition to the automatic one Action per turn,
plus any Actions generated by Event markers.
Supply unit generated actions come after the
automatic one action has been executed; it may
be before or after any Event generated Actions.
A player may generate any number of additional
Actions in any areas containing supply units
as long as he has supply units remaining.
13.3 Supply Unit Placement
Newly received Axis supply units must be
placed in in any area of the Italian mainland,
and on Greek mainland areas starting
in May 1941. One newly received Allied
supply unit may be placed in Cairo if that
area is Allied-controlled or contested. All
other newly received Allied supply units
must be placed in either the Great Britain
or the Middle East Command box.
Expending Supply Units. The expended
supply unit is removed from the map
and returned to the supply unit box.
A player may expend supply units
in land areas; supply units being
transported may not be expended.
13.4 Supply Unit Operations
Once on the map, supply units function as other
ground units. They are subject to enemy fire
in the same manner as other ground units (but
see 13.8). Stacking supply units is limited in
fortresses and small islands (see 7.2). Supply
units may be moved by sealift and airlift.
13.5 Supply Unit Status
Supply units have two sides: mobile (front)
and static (reverse). They may be flipped
back and forth using G-4 Actions.
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13.8 Transport
Mobile supply units can be air
and naval transported (as light
units). Static units may not.
13.9 Supply Unit Capture
If at any time a supply unit is in a land area
with an enemy ground combat unit and no
friendly ground combat unit, roll one die
(one die per unit if more than one). On a 1-3
the supply unit is captured, on a 4-6 it is
eliminated. Replace a captured supply unit
with a friendly one (and in the same mode). If
the capturing player has no more supply units,
or does not desire to take advantage of the
capture, the supply unit can be eliminated.
14.0 REFIT
Generated Actions:
Any G-3 Action by air or ground units
(to include combined Airborne or
Airlift Actions) in the same land area
as the supply unit was expended.
Any G-3 Action by naval units in a sea
zone adjacent to a land area with a port
if the supply unit was expended in that
port area. If there are ground units in the
same land area as the supply unit, they
could take part in a combined Amphibious
or Sealift Action with the naval units.
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The Refit Actions allow a player to attempt to
return eliminated units to play, or to flip reduced
units to full strength. Each refit Action enables
the player to make (1) a refit attempt for each
eliminated unit of one type and one nationality,
or (2) for all reduced units in one area.
Player Note. Case (2) applies only to
ground units since they are the only ones
in the game which can be reduced.
14.1 Refit Procedure
Designate the unit type to be refit; this can be
any one type of unit for any one nationality or
all reduced land units of one nationality in one
area. Roll one die for each unit to be refit and
consult the refit table. The table gives the die
roll range for each of the following outcomes:
Refit: place the unit on the map per the
reinforcement placement rule (15.1).
Damaged: place the unit in the
Reinforcement Pool (see 15.1).
Destroyed: remove the unit from
play permanently; no further refit
attempts may be made for it.
Example. The Axis player in one Action
could attempt to Refit all Italian air
units in the Refit box, or all reduced
German units in Cyrenica West.
Design Note. Certain units have a better refit
die roll range in 1942 and 1943, representing
improvements in organization and training.
14.2 Refit Placement
Completely eliminated units which were
Refit are placed on the map at one of the
following locations using the same procedure
as Reinforcement placement (see 15.0).
One unit per Refit Action may be placed
on each static supply unit base (13.7) and
friendly controlled depot area (printed
on the map). If there is more than one
supply unit/printed depot in an area, then
a player can place one unit on each.
Cairo can be used by whichever side
controls it to place Refit units per (2) above.
All other depots can be used only by the
originally controlling player. (Example. Refit
Allied units could not be placed in Tripoli.)
Player Note. this is owing to the logistical
infrastructure in the Cairo area, as well as the
political boost for any Axis conquest of Egypt.
14.3 On-Map Refit of Reduced Units
Reduced two-step units may be restored
to full strength using the Refit Action. The
Action may be carried out in a land area
with a friendly static supply unit or printed
depot. Make a refit check for each eligible
unit in the area. A result of Refit or Damage
flips them to their full strength side. A result
of Destroyed has no effect (the unit is not
flipped, but it is not eliminated either).
One static supply unit or printed depot
can attempt a Refit attempt for all friendly
reduced units of one nationality in the area.
Player Note. “Nationality” as used here
means German or Italian for the Axis,
British Commonwealth and USA for the
Allies. Vichy French units cannot Refit.
15.0 REINFORCEMENTS
Units arriving into play after a scenario
begins are called reinforcements.
15.1 Reinforcement Pool
At the start of each scenario, each player
places all reinforcement units designated
for that year into the Reinforcement Pool for
his side. (There will be two reinforcement
pools, one Axis and one Allied.)
Depending on the scenario, additional units
may be added to the pool later in the game.
Units which were eliminated and then
returned to play as damaged also are added
to the pool. When called for by an Action,
the player picks at random from the pool the
number of units called for and places them
on the map as described below. Two-step
units enter at full strength unless dictated
otherwise by scenario instructions.
German & Italian Reinforcement
Placement
Air & Ground Units. In Italian mainland
areas at any time; on the Greek mainland
starting in May 1941. (Remember, supply
units are treated as ground units.)
Naval Units. In any sea zone
adjacent to the Italian or Greek
mainland that also contain a port.
British Reinforcement Placement
In either the Great Britain or the
Middle East Command box.
US Reinforcement Placement
Example: all “1942” units are placed in
the Reinforcement Pool in January 1942.
15.3 Special Reinforcements
Certain reinforcements are designated
as “Special.” These are placed only if
certain conditions are triggered. Place
them in the Special Reinforcements box
until deployed. When they come into play,
place them on the map (not the pool).
Player Note. Allied special reinforcements
include Operation Torch units. Axis special
reinforcements Include Operation Mercury,
Operation Herkules and Operation Felix
forces. The Axis also has a reinforcement
group which appears in reaction to the
Allied Operation Torch. Also, both sides
have Optional units which may come
into play if using the Optional rules.
16.0 MAJOR BASES
Major Bases are printed on the map.
They are permanent features.
16.1 Major Base Type & Function
There are three types of major bases. Each
has the functions described below.
Airbases allow an unlimited number of
air units to be based in the area by a
player if controlled or contested. (That
is, both players can make use of an
area’s airbase complexes as long as
they maintain at least one ground unit
in that area.) (See 10.0 for details.)
Ports allow ground units in that area to
embark from and debark onto naval units
in adjacent sea zones. The number of
units allowed to do this in one Action is
limited by the port capacity, shown on
the Terrain Effects Chart. Ports also allow
the basing of naval units in adjacent sea
zones, and can facilitate certain naval
Actions. (See 9.0 and 11.0 for details.)
In the Great Britain box.
Fortification Units. These can be
placed in any friendly controlled area
(including fortress areas) which contains
a Port. Once placed, a fortification
cannot be moved on the map.
15.2 Year Groups
Units with a year printed on them are held aside
and then placed in the player’s Reinforcement
Pool on the first turn of that year.
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Depots are used as locations to place
units which have been returned to play
via Refit actions. There is no limit to the
number of units which can be refit on them
(within the Refit rules, 14.0). They do not
otherwise function as supply units.
16.2 Base Control
Control of major bases is established at the
beginning of each scenario (via who controls
the area). Control changes per rule 6.0. A
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contested airbase or port area may be used
by either player. Depots may be used for Refit
only if controlled by the player who controlled
them at the start of the 1941 scenario (with
the special case of Cairo (see 14.2).
Player Note. Fortress and small island
areas will not be contested because
the combat rule will result in one
player or the other having complete
control at the end of an Action.
16.3 Base Disruption & Recovery
A major base can become disrupted as a
result of enemy air or naval bombardment.
If that occurs, place a disrupted marker
on the base. One disruption affects all
bases in the area (see 16.4). The marker
remains until the base recovers through
execution of the G-4 Base Recovery Action.
A disrupted base which receives another
disruption is not further effected.
16.4 Effects of Disruption
A disrupted base has the following limitations.
Reinforcements may not be
placed at the base.
Refits may not take place at the base
(they can if a static supply unit is there).
Port capacity is reduced to “one”.
Based air units remain in place. The
only Action they can take is Air ReBasing. Air units may not re-base into a
disrupted base. Air units on a disrupted
base defend normally, and return fire
against stacking enemy units.
17.0 OFF-MAP BASES
17.1 Off-Map Areas
Each player has off-map bases.
These are treated as modified land
areas and/or sea zones. The player
always controls his base areas.
Axis Land Areas. North and South Italy
(all turns), Greece (starting May 1941).
These are treated as land areas.
Allied Combined Areas/Zones. Great
Britain, North Atlantic, African Transit,
and British Middle East Command. These
are treated as combined land areas
and sea zones and may be occupied
by ground, naval, and air units.
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17.2 Off-Map Base Capacity
An unlimited number of ground, air and
naval (where applicable) units can occupy
an off-map base Units can stay in boxes
indefinitely. Off-map bases may have major
bases as printed on them. Units may conduct
any kind of Action they would normally
be able to conduct in an area or zone.
arranged in any way necessary to conceal
their components. Players may not examine
the contents of enemy stacks (even in the
same area/zone), pools, or boxes unless
one of the following conditions apply:
At the instant of combat, all units
involved in the combat are revealed.
17.3 Off-Map Base Combat
Enemy units may not enter or attack into them.
A G-2 Action is executed
allowing the examination.
17.4 Moving to and from Bases
An event occurs allowing the examination.
Allies Box to Box. The Great Britain, Atlantic,
Africa Transit, and Middle East boxes
are connected. The Allied player can
move units via air and naval movement,
including transporting ground units.
ground units may disembark/embark
in all of these areas. It requires all of a
naval or air unit’s movement to move
from one of these boxes to the next one,
or from a box to an on-map area/zone (in
other words, a unit moves one box per
Action, but see the Allied Off-Map Base
Move Action for enhanced movement).
A player voluntarily reveals his own units.
Player Note. Enemy units in the same
area or zone do not reveal one another
unless one of the above events occurs.
18.2 Attacking Thin Air
This rule may result in an impossible combat
situations: for example, aircraft with no
anti-submarine factor attacking heretofore
hidden submarines. The combat does not
take place, but the Action is expended
and the enemy units are revealed.
Allies Box to/from Map. Units can move
between the Atlantic box and the areas/
zones connected to it on the west end
of the map, or between the Middle
East Command box and the areas/
zones connected to it on the east end
of the map. Moving on or off the map
counts as moving one area or zone on
the map, but units leaving the map
must stop in the first box entered.
18.3 Refit Outcomes
Players may conceal from one-another the
outcome of refit rolls and the placing of
units back in the Reinforcement Pool.
Axis. The Axis bases are printed on the
map; they are treated as off-map
because the Allies may not enter them.
Treat them as regular land areas for the
purpose of moving units to and from.
The following units have special functions
or capabilities in addition to operating
like other units of their type.
17.5 Air Units in Bases
Allied air units in off-map bases may rebase onto the map. But they cannot conduct
any other operation (such as attacking Axis
ground units). Axis air units in Italy and
Greece may conduct missions normally onto
the map and land back in Italy/Greece. Allied
units may not attack into these areas.
18.0 FOG OF WAR
18.1 Concealing Units
A player may place one-step units face down
to conceal their strength. Stacks may be
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Player Note. Rule 18.3 requires a
high level of trust between players
and may be dispensed with.
19.0 SPECIAL UNITS
19.1 Airborne Infantry
These are treated as infantry except they
may utilize various airborne Actions.
19.2 Airlanding Infantry
These are treated as infantry except they
may utilize various airlanding Actions.
19.3 Mountain Infantry
These are otherwise treated as infantry units,
except that they can cross an escarpment
on a die roll of “1-5”. German mountain units
are also treated as Airlanding (see 19.2).
19.4 Marines
Marine units can be transported by any BB,
BC, CA, CL or DD. They may be embarked
or disembarked on any type of coast area,
regardless of the presence of a port. They also
maybe transported normally by amphibious
units (and have the option of embarking or
disembarking from non-port coastal areas).
may embark and disembark transported
units and air supply markers on adjacent
coastal areas. They count against the
airbasing capacity of one adjacent area.
19.5 Rangers/Commandos
These are treated as both
Mountain and Marine units.
19.13 German HS-129
This unit has two sides. The front (weaker
anti-ground strength) is used when the unit
is stacking targets in North Africa and the
Middle East. The reverse is used elsewhere.
Flip the unit depending on the current
location (this does not require an Action).
19.6 German Tigers
The German 501 Panzer Battalion is equipped
with Tiger tanks. This unit has First Fire (12.5).
Historical Note. The HS-129 was illsuited to desert conditions, though
it performed better elsewhere.
19.7 Assault Engineers
Assault engineers taking part in an attack
against a defending force containing any
fortification units get First Fire (12.5). This
first fire can be applied only against enemy
fortification units. Otherwise, they take part
in combat normally. Also, if they are attacking
an enemy force defending in a printed
fortress area, they automatically get first
fire (against any enemy unit in that area).
20.0 SPECIAL FORCES
19.8 Allied Airborne Divisions
When these enter play as reinforcement, they
are deployed at reduced strength; a refit Action
must be used to bring them to full strength.
Historical Note. This rule reflects both
the need to train these units for specific
operations, as well as their initial deployment
as single regiments or brigades.
19.9 Corps and Army Headquarters (HQ)
HQ are treated as heavy ground units (see
also 12.6). One HQ may be added to a stack
on a small island or fortress or deep desert in
excess of normal stacking limits. Headquarters
also enable the Concentrate on HQ Action.
19.10 Ground Attack aircraft.
“GA” class air units can make a
combined Ground Support attack in
conjunction with ground units. This
is explained under the Actions.
19.11 Seaplanes
Seaplane (SP) units may be based on sea zones
adjacent to a friendly or contested airbase or
port on land (and count against its capacity).
19.12 Transport Seaplanes
TR-SP units may base, take off and land only
from sea zones and off map bases. They
The Special Forces counters are markers
rather than ground combat units. (Note they
have no combat factors.) Available Special
Forces markers are held in the Special Forces
box on the map. Three are used by choosing
the G-2 Special Forces Operations Action.
Note: Combat units with the commando
symbol (such as US Army Rangers)
are not considered “special forces”
for the purpose of this rule.
20.1 Special Forces Missions
The three types of special forces missions are
listed below. You can comity any number of
available special forces markers to a single
Action. For each special forces unit committed,
roll one die on the Special Operations Table.
Any one success means the entire operation
has succeeded. Once committed to an
Action, a Special Forces marker may not be
withdrawn until all die rolls have been made.
Sabotage Against Land Targets may
destroy enemy supply or air units
in one land area. (This may not be
conducted against printed bases.)
Subversion Against Enemy Control
may change the control status of
one enemy controlled land area not
occupied enemy ground units.
Naval Special Operations targets an
enemy naval force. Only the Italian
Naval Special Forces can do this.
20.2 initiating the Action
When initiating a Special Forces Action,
designate any one area (or sea zone for
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Naval Special Operations) and the mission
to be executed. Only on-map areas/zones
may be targeted. The enemy must reveal
which units are in that area or zone. If a
mission can be conducted against it, then
roll on the table. Otherwise, the Action ends
with no effect (obviously, you will still be
able to take advantage of any intelligence
gained by revealing enemy units.)
20.3 Special Forces Reinforcements
Special Forces markers which
have a year group are placed in the
Reinforcement Pool for that year.
21.0 NEUTRALS
21.1 Vichy French Forces
The Vichy territories in Africa (Morocco,
Algeria, Tunisia) and the Middle East (Syria)
are neutral at the beginning of certain
scenarios. Neither player controls neutral
Vichy French units and neither player’s forces
may enter those territories. They come into
play through the Syrian Intervention Event
(Allied #23) and Operation Torch (see 3.6).
Vichy Territories. When a Vichy French
territory comes into play, both sides
may enter its areas. Any major bases in
them start as Axis controlled. Sea zones
adjacent to Vichy territories are not neutral.
Vichy Units. Vichy units which enter player
are initially Axis controlled. Vichy ground
units attacked by American ground units
are eliminated automatically (at the end
of the combat) but do fire back. When
attacked by other Allied units, the combat
is conducted normally and the Vichy units
remain on the map if they survive. Vichy
units may never refit; once removed from
the map, they are out of the game.
Design Note. Vichy air and naval units
are not included given the game scale
and assorted logistical issues. Where
applicable, they are factored into the combat
strengths of the Vichy ground units.
Player Note. Since the Vichy Syrian and Iraq
Rebellion events occur at the start of the
Allied turn, this will give the Allied player
the rest of the turn to deal with them before
those forces can actively support the Axis.
21.2 Free French Forces
Operation Torch may cause Free French units to
become Allied controlled (see 3.6). Free French
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units are treated as a separate nationality on
the Allied side. However, they may not refit
if eliminated. Make a note of these units.
Example. British and US units could
in this case conduct a Ground Move
& Attack Action together.
21.3 Iraqi Forces
Iraq begins the game under Allied control.
However, Iraqi units may not be moved and
cannot attack or be attacked; both players
ignore them for all purposes. If the Iraq
Rebellion event (Allied #6) occurs, Iraqi units
become Axis controlled, at which point treat
them as other Axis units. When the event
occurs, determine control of Iraqi areas per 6.0.
22.4 Axis Joint Operations
Any event stating “This can involve all Axis
units” or “This can involve German and
Italian units” allows German and Italian
units (only) to conduct operations together.
The Axis Kesselring event (#7) allows all
Axis units to conduct Actions together.
Axis Invasion. If Axis units enter Iraq before
the Iraq Rebellion event has occurred, roll
one die. On a result of 1-4 the Axis gains
control of Iraqi units; on a 5-6 the Allies
gain control. Remove the Iraqi Rebellion
event from the Allied event pool.
Iraqi Units. Once in play, Iraqi units are
friendly to the side which controls
them. They may never Refit.
OPTIONAL RULES
Rules 22.0 through 31.0 are optional;
players may use some, none, or all
as they deem appropriate.
22.0 ADVANCED COMMAND
This rules presents some of the difficulties
inherent in multinational alliances.
Player Note. “Allied” as used in this
rule means units on the same side.
22.1 Multinational Cooperation
Friendly units of different nationalities may not
conduct G-3 Actions unless specified in 22.2
through 22.6. The may act together in all other
ways: G-1, G-2 and G-4 Actions, stacking in an
area, using friendly supply units, ports, airfields,
and bases. They also defend together normally.
22.2 Transport
Any allied air or sea transport unit
may transport any eligible allied
unit regardless of nationality.
22.3 Allied Joint Operations
Any event stating “This can involve all
Allied units” allows British and US units
to conduct Actions together. The Allied
Alexander Event marker (#1) allows all
Allied units to conduct Actions together.
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22.5 German HQS
German and Italian units may participate
in a G-3 Action together if one of the units
is a German headquarters. This applies to
Actions involving ground, air or combined
ground-air units (but not naval).
Example. if the Axis takes the
Concentrate on a HQ Action, he could
move both German and Italian ground
units to an area with a German HQ.
22.6 Vichy and Iraqi Units
Vichy French and Iraqi units may never
combine in Actions with other friendly units
per this rule. This is regardless of Event
markers, or the Axis HQs rule. Also, Vichy
French units which join the Allies may not
combined with other Allied units in the
same Action, regardless of Event markers.
23.0 ADVANCED ACTIONS
Several Actions in the G-3 and G-4 sections
of the Actions chart are indicated as optional.
Unless necessitated by the use of another
optional rule, players are free to adopt
or discard each Action. See also 26.0.
24.0 OPTIONAL STRATEGIES
24.1 Hitler Turns South
The Axis player may choose this option only
at the beginning of the Scenario I (1941)
campaign game. When using this option:
The German 5th Panzer Division is
received on May 1941 in Greece as
part of the Mercury reinforcements.
All Mercury units remain in play (instead of
being withdrawn at the end of May 1941).
The Axis uses the “Torch” column on the
Supply Table starting with May 1941.
(Other Torch rules are not affected.)
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
Additional Victory Conditions. The Axis
player must win a Sudden Death Victory
by the end of the game (see 3.2). Any
other result is an Allied victory. If the
Hitler Turns South option is chosen and
the Axis also plays the Operation Felix
event, the Axis must win by the end of
the year in which Felix is executed.
Historical Note. The diversion of
German forces and logistics to North
Africa would have been detrimental
to the campaign against the USSR
24.2 Malta
The Allied player may choose at the beginning
of a scenario to enhance his Malta based
operations. Each turn the Allied player controls
Malta, the Allies receive one additional
Action. This must be used to launch one G-3
Air or G-3 Naval Action using air or naval
units based on Malta. If the Allied player
chooses to launch this additional Action,
he must expend one supply unit (either
state) in the Middle East Command box; this
decision is made on a turn by turn basis.
The Allies may not perform
this additional action if:
1) the Allies have no naval or
air units on Malta, or
2) if the Axis controls or contests Malta, or
3) if the Axis controls Alexandria
and/or Gibraltar.
The Axis player does not receive an
additional Action for controlling Malta.
Historical Note. Malta was the base for
considerable Allied air and naval operations
against Axis traffic in the Mediterranean.
The expenditure of the supply unit in
the Middle East command represents
the additional command attention and
logistical support for the island fortress.
The advantage to the Allies for this rule is
that they do not have to move the supply
unit to Malta to initiate the extra action.
25.0 OPTIONAL FORCES
Players can use these forces to
explore historical alternatives.
25.1 Italian CV-1 Aquila
Historically, this carrier was undergoing
final outfitting at the Italian armistice in
September 1943. In Scenarios 1 and 3
(1941 and 1942 start campaign games), the
Axis player can announce the building of
the the Aquila. To do so, at the start of the
scenario remove permanently the 1942 Italian
reinforcement BB unit and then add the Aquila
to the Axis 1943 reinforcement group.
25.2 31st Indian Armored Division
This unit was formed but never committed to
combat. The Allies can add the 31st Armored
Division to the Reinforcement Pool at the start
of any Allied turn in which any Axis ground
units occupy Alexandria or Cairo, or in which
the Axis initiates Hitler Turns South (24.1).
25.3 British BB-5 & CLAA-5
The Allies receive the British BB-5 and
CLAA-5 units at the start of any Allied turn
there are any Axis ground units occupying
Gibraltar, Malta or Alexandria. The Allied
player places these two units together
in either the Britain or Atlantic box.
Historical Note. If the Axis seized a major
Allied naval base, the Royal Navy would
have reinforced the Mediterranean.
25.4 US CV-7 Wasp
The Allied player adds the US CV-7 and
US DD-4 to his 1942 reinforcement group.
However, the Allies must withdraw one British
CV and one British DD at the start of 1942.
Alternatively, the Allies can add the Wasp
and DD-4 to their Reinforcement Pool on any
turn in 1942 or 1943 without withdrawing
the British units if the Axis has initiated
Operation Felix or Hitler Turns South.
Historical Note. The US Navy’s Wasp was
briefly involved in the Mediterranean
to ferry fighters to Malta. This option
assumes a more permanent commitment.
25.5 Operation Lila
This assumes the Axis operation to seize
Vichy French warships at Toulon succeeded.
At the end of the turn that Torch event goes
into effect, roll one die each for the Italian
BB-Fr and CL-Fr naval units. On an even roll,
the Axis has seized that unit: place the counter
in in the Axis Reinforcement Pool. On an even
roll, the unit was scuttled by its crew and is
permanently out of play. If the Axis picks one
of these units as a reinforcement, deploy it as
an Italian naval reinforcement. However, the
Axis player must expend one supply unit (static
or mobile) located in Italy to do this. If the Axis
player does not do so, then return the unit to
the Reinforcement Pool at the end of the draw.
Historical note: the Germans turned over
several French warships they seized to
the Italians, who were refitting them
when the war ended. The supply unit
expenditure represents the shipyards and
fuel required to get the ships into action.
25.6 Sahara Forces
The Italian Saharan and Allied LeClerc units are
initially placed in the Special Reinforcement
box. The instant Operation Torch is played (3.6),
the Axis places the Italian unit in any deep
desert area south of Tripoli or Sirte. The Allies
then place LeClerc unit in any of those areas.
The placement areas can contain enemy units.
Once on the map, these units perform normally.
Historical Note. The French and Italians
engaged in some low level operations
south of the map. These forces came into
play during the Tunisian campaign.
25.7 Operation Felix
Operation Felix units are
explained under the event.
26.0 FIGHTER INTERCEPTION
Interception is an optional Action
(23.0). This section describes the
rules needed to put it into effect.
26.1 Procedure
Conducting the Action allows a player to
put any or all fighter units on the map into
interception mode. Mark any fighters with
an Interception marker. If using the optional
command rule (22.0), only fighters of one
nationality may be marked per Action.
26.2 Restrictions
Fighters in interception mode may not
undertake other Actions in the same turn
unless they forgo interception to engage an
enemy air attack against their area normally.
Their anti-land, anti-submarine and antisurface naval strengths (if any) are reduced
to “0” (zero). Each intercepting fighter may
conduct only one interception per turn (26.3).
26.3 Conducting an Interception
Whenever a force of enemy air units (intruders)
moves into or adjacent to an area containing
friendly fighters in Interception mode, the
non-acting player may (but is not required to)
declare an interception. Temporarily halt play
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
to resolve the interception. The intercepting
fighters attack the intruding enemy aircraft.
Resolve air to air combat, with the intercepting
force as the attacker. Only the intercepting
air units may attack, and only the moving air
units may be attacked. Upon resolution of
the interception, surviving intercepting units
return to base and surviving intruding air units
move to complete their missions. The actual
interception does not count as an Action;
expending the Action to put the fighters in
interception mode enables the combat.
27.0 GROUND RETREATS
Ground units can convert hits to retreat
results under certain conditions.
27.1 Procedure
When a defending ground unit receives a
hit result from an enemy ground unit, the
player can choose to retreat it one land
area rather than take the loss. The player
can choose to not retreat the unit and
instead take losses normally. A unit which
retreats still fires normally. The decision to
retreat is made after all hits are inflicted.
27.2 Direction of Retreat
Move the unit into an adjacent land area.
That area must be friendly-controlled
(not contested or enemy-controlled).
27.3 Restrictions
A unit may choose to retreat only if its
movement factor equals or exceeds that
of all enemy ground units firing at it. A
unit can convert a maximum of one hit to
a retreat. If a unit takes more than one
hit, it must take excess hits as losses. Hits
inflicted by enemy air or naval units cannot
be converted into retreats. Units cannot
retreat into sea zones, via air or naval
transport, or across forbidden terrain.
28.0 ENTRENCHING
Ground units may Entrench as a G-4
Action; see the Action chart for details.
28.1 Procedure
To conduct the Action, there must be a
ground unit in an area. Place an Entrenched
marker in that area. It only takes one
ground unit to entrench a land area. All
friendly ground units benefit from the
entrenchment marker as long as it is in play.
Both sides may entrench in the same area
(but cannot use enemy entrenchments).
R19
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
28.2 Entrenchment Effects
When enemy units of any type (ground, naval,
air) attack ground units in a zone containing
an Entrenched marker, reduce their combat
strength by “1,” but never to a final strength of
less than one. Entrenched units fire normally.
Only friendly ground units benefit from the
Entrenched marker. Entrenchment markers
may not be captured and used by the enemy.
Exception. Entrenchments do not
reduce the die roll for air and naval
bombardments against printed bases.
28.3 Entrenching in Fortresses
An entrenchment in a fortress area
reduces the attacker’s combat strength
by “2”, but never to less than “1.”
28.4 Assault Engineers
Assault engineer units attacking an
entrenched defending force get First Fire.
28.5 Duration
The entrenchment marker remains in place
until all friendly ground units in the zone leave
or are eliminated in combat. The unit which
originally built the entrenchment does not have
to remain in the same area to maintain it.
29.0 SHOCK EFFECT
Shock effect represents psychological and
political effects on the combatants. When
one of the triggering events occurs, the player
initiating the action rolls one die and consults
the Shock Table (at the completion of the
action). Implement the result immediately.
Shock Triggers
Major Ground Victory: the loss of four or
more friendly units in a combat involving
at least one enemy ground unit.
Major Air Victory: the loss of four or
more friendly air units t in a combat
involving at least one enemy air unit.
Major Naval Victory: the loss of three or
more friendly naval units to an attack
involving at least one enemy naval or air
unit. An eliminated CV, BB or BC counts
as two units. (A CVE counts as one unit.)
Loss of Major Objective: the first time
a player gains control of one of the
following from the other player:
R20
Axis Player: Gibraltar, Malta, Crete,
Tobruk, Alexandria, Baghdad.
Allied Player: Tripoli, Tunisia, Messina.
Player Note. Players should note which
major objectives have been seized so
they are not checked more than once.
30.0 CARRIER DEPLETION
30.1 Procedure
Each time that an aircraft carrier unit conducts
any kind of attack or defense in which it
uses any of its combat strengths, and there
are enemy air or carrier units involved in
the combat, roll one die for depletion of
the carrier after the combat is resolved.
On a die roll of “5-6,” flip the carrier to its
reverse (depleted) side. This is not necessary
if the carrier has been eliminated.
30.2 Effects
A depleted carrier has all its combat
factors reduced to the numbers shown on
the reverse of the counter, and may not
conduct the Long Range Carrier Strike Action.
Another depletion has no further effect.
30.3 Recovery from Depletion
A carrier remains depleted until it has
performed a Remove Carrier Depletion Action.
After the Action, flip the carrier face up.
30.4 Eliminated Carriers
If a carrier is eliminated in a combat,
then is restored to play via refit, it
returns with its full combat values.
Historical Note. Carrier air squadrons
tended to take heavy losses even if
the carrier itself was undamaged.
31.0 AIR UNIT RECOVERY
Air units tended to have a high rate of noncombat “down” time. This rule will limit
the utility of air units during turns where
a player executes multiple acitons.
31.1 Out of Action Check
When the air unit completes a Mission (by
landing on an airbase, roll one die. On a “56” flip it to its reverse side; it may not fly
again in that turn. On a “1-4” it remains face
up and can conduct operations normally.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
31.2 Effects
While a unit is face down, an air unit also
has its combat factors reduced to zero. It
may not attack even if other friendly units
in the area are conducting combat.
31.3 Recovery
Add an air unit recovery phase at the end
of each player turn (after completion of all
action phases). During this phase, all air
units on their reverse side are automatically
flipped back to their front side and can
operate normally (this does not require any
separate Action or supply unit expenditure).
SCENARIOS
Scenario I
War for the
Mediterranean
Scenario II
Desert Fox
This is the full campaign
game covering the fighting
in the Mediterranean
from March 1941 through
August 1943. Use the
1941 set up (see below).
This covers the war in
North Africa from Rommel’s
arrival in March 1941 to
his last chance for victory
at El Alamein in October
1942. Use the 1941 set up.
Allied Victory
The Allies control at the
end of the scenario:
Allied Victory
The Allies control at the
end of the scenario:
1) Gibraltar, Cairo,
Mosul and Basra, plus:
2) all ports in North
Africa; plus
3) all ports in either
Sicily or in Sardinia.
Axis Victory
The Axis controls at the
end of the scenario:
1) all Ports in both Sicily
and Sardinia; plus
2) three or more on-map
ports anywhere else.
Special Rules
1. Vichy France starts the
game neutral. See the
Syrian Intervention and
Operation Torch rules.
2. Greece and Crete begin
the game as unplayable
areas. They enter play via
the Operation Mercury rule.
1) Gibraltar, Alexandria,
Cairo, Mosul and
Basra, plus
2) at least three of
the following: Malta,
Crete, Tobruk, Tripoli.
Axis Victory
The Axis controls at the
end of the scenario:
1) all areas containing
Ports in Sicily, Sardinia
and Libya; plus
2) at least three of the
following: Gibraltar,
Malta, Crete, Alexandria,
Damascus, Mosul.
Special Rules
1. Vichy France starts the
game neutral. See the
Syrian Intervention and
Operation Torch rules.
2. Greece and Crete begin
the game as unplayable
areas. They enter play via
the Operation Mercury rule.
3. Do not roll for Operation
Torch on October 1942 (it
does not occur until after
the scenario has ended).
Scenario III
Turning of
the Tide
This covers the latter part
of the campaign beginning
in July 1942 and running
through August 1943.
Use the 1942 set up.
Allied Victory
The Allies control at the
end of the scenario:
1) Gibraltar, Cairo,
Mosul and Basra, plus:
2) all ports in North
Africa; plus
3) all ports in either
Sicily or in Sardinia.
Axis Victory
The Axis controls at the
end of the scenario:
1) all Ports in both Sicily
and Sardinia; plus
2) three or more on-map
ports anywhere else.
Special Rules
1. Vichy France: Vichy
Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco
start the game neutral. The
Vichy Syria event has been
played and Vichy Syria is
in play (though the units
have been eliminated). See
the Syrian Intervention and
Operation Torch rules.
2. Operation Mercury:
Operation Mercury has
occurred. Greece is Axis
controlled (as is Crete).
Scenario IV
THE Herkules
OPTION
This starts with the critical
Axis decision of whether
to launch the invasion of
Malta or for Rommel to
drive on Alexandria. The
scenario begins in July
1942 and concludes at
the end of October 1942.
Use the 1942 set up.
Allied Victory
The Allies control at the
end of the scenario:
1) Gibraltar, Alexandria,
Cairo, Mosul and
Basra, plus
2) at least three of
the following: Malta,
Crete, Tobruk, Tripoli.
Axis Victory
The Axis controls at the
end of the scenario:
1) all areas containing
Ports in Sicily, Sardinia
and Libya; plus
4) at least three of the
following: Gibraltar,
Malta, Crete, Alexandria,
Damascus, Mosul.
Special Rules
1. Vichy France: Vichy
Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco
start the game neutral. The
Vichy Syria event has been
played and Vichy Syria is
in play (though the units
have been eliminated). See
the Syrian Intervention and
Operation Torch rules.
2. Operation Mercury:
Operation Mercury has
occurred. Greece is Axis
controlled (as is Crete).
3. Do not roll for Operation
Torch on October 1942 (it
does not occur until after
the scenario has ended).
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R21
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
1941 ALLIED SET UP
Sequence
Allies set up first.
Allied Controlled Areas
Gibraltar, Malta, Benghazi, Jebel, Central
Cyrenaica, Tobruk, Bardia, Eastern
Cyrenaica, all areas in Egypt, Cyprus,
Palestine, Transjordan, all areas in Iraq,
Kuwait; Britain, North Atlantic, African
Transit, Middle East Command.
British Ground Units
Gibraltar: Gibraltar fortification.
Malta: Malta infantry (reduced);
Malta fortification.
Cyrenaica: 2 armored.
Tobruk: 13 corps HQ, 9 Aus infantry.
Alexandria: 70 infantry (reduced), Guards
mechanized, Alexandria fortification.
Cairo: 7 armored (starts reduced),
Pol infantry, Cairo garrison.
Cyprus: Cyprus garrison.
Palestine: 1 cavalry, 8 infantry,
Haifa fortification.
Transjordan: AL recon; TJFF garrison.
Basrah: Bas garrison.
Baghdad: Hab garrison.
Middle East Command box: 7 Aus,
4 Ind infantry; ME commando.
British Air Units
Gibraltar/Malta/Tobruk/Alexandria/
Cairo (at least one unit on each): 1 x
Gladiator, 1 x Hurricane, 1 x Blenheim, 1 x
Wellington, 1 x Sunderland, 1 x Transport.
Baghdad: 1 x Wellington.
Allied Supply Units
Benghazi: 1 x supply (mobile).
Tobruk: 1 x supply (static), 1 x supply (mobile).
Sollum: 1 x supply (mobile).
Alexandria: 1 x supply (static),
1 x supply (mobile).
Cairo: 1 x supply (static), 1 x supply (mobile).
Middle East Command box:
1 x supply (mobile).
Allied Supply Available Box: all
other Allied Supply units.
Allied Special Forces Box: LRDG.
Allied Refit Box
No units.
Allied Withdrawn Box
None.
Allied Event markers Available
None.
Allied Event marker Pool
All other Event markers.
Allied Reinforcement Pool
At start: All Allied “1941” units.
January 1942: All Allied “1942” units.
January 1943: All Allied “1942” units.
Allied Special Reinforcement Box
All Allied “Mercury” units (see 3.5).
All Allied “Torch” units (see 3.6).
Allied Optional Forces (if used)
US CV-7 Wasp & DD-4, British BB-5, CLAA-5,
British 31st Armored Division, LeClerc recon.
British Naval Units
Sea zone adjacent to Gibraltar: CV
Formidable, BB-3, CL-3, DD-4.
Sea zone adjacent to Malta: DD-3, SS-1.
Sea zone adjacent to Alexandria: CV
Ark Royal, BB-1, BB-2, CA-1, CL-1, CL-2,
DD-1. DD-2, PT-1, TR-1, TR-2, TR-3.
Britain box: TR-4.
Middle East Command box: TR-5.
R22
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
1941 AXIS SET UP
Sequence
Axis set up second.
Axis Controlled Areas
Sardinia, Sicily, Pantalleria, Tripoli, Central
Triploitania, Sirte, Zulla, El Agheila,
Aegean islands; North and South Italy.
German Ground Units
El Agheila: DAK HQ; German 21 armored;
South Italy: 15 armored.
Italian Ground Units
El Agheila: 10 Corps HQ; 132 armored;
102, 17, 25, 27, 55 infantry.
Tripoli: Tripoli fortification.
Sirte: Sirte garrison.
Zella: Sahara garrison.
Pantelleria: Pantelleria fortification.
Aegean Islands: Aegean fortification.
Sicily: 26, 28, 54 infantry; Sic W, Sic S,
Sic M fortification (one per area).
Sardinia: 30, 31 infantry; Sar N, Sar
S fortification (one per area).
German Air Units
Any Axis controlled areas (no more
than two in North Africa) 1 x Me109, 1 x Me-110, 1 x Ju-87, 2 x
Ju-88, 1 x He-111, 1 x Ju-52.
Italian Air Units
Any Axis controlled areas (no more
than three in North Africa): 1 x G50,
1 x CR-32, 1 x CR42, 1 x MC200, 1 x
BR20, 2 x SM 79, 1 x SM 81, 1 x Can
1007, 1 x Z506, 2 x Var (transport).
German Naval Units
Any sea zones adjacent to South Italy: TR-1.
Italian Naval Units
Any zone areas adjacent to South Italy:
BB-1, CA-1, CA-2, CL-1, CL-2, DD-1, DD-2,
DD-3, DD-4, PT-1, SS-1, TR-1, TR-2, TR-3.
Any sea zone adjacent to
Tripoli: PT-2, TR-4.
Any sea zone in the Mediterranean: SS-2.
Axis Supply Unit
El Agheila: 2 x supply (mobile).
Sirte: 1 x supply (static).
Tripoli: 2 x supply (static),1 x supply (mobile).
Sicily (any one area): 1 x supply (static).
South Italy: 1 x supply (mobile).
Axis Supply Available Box
All other Axis Supply units.
Axis Special Forces Box
Italian XM Naval SF.
Axis Refit Box
German: none.
Italian: 60 infantry division; Benghazi
and Tobruk fortifications; BB-2.
Axis Withdrawn Box
None.
Axis Event markers Available
Rommel, Operation Sonnenblume.
Axis Event marker Pool
All other Event markers.
Axis Reinforcement Pool
At Start: All Axis “1941” units.
January 1942: All Axis “1942” units
January 1943: All Axis “1943” units
Axis Special Reinforcement Box:
All Axis “Mercury” units (see 3.5)
All Axis “Herkules” units (see Axis Event #12)
All Axis “Torch” units (see 3.6).
Vichy French Units (Set up
by the Axis player)
Casablanca: Moroccan mountain
division; Casablanca fortification.
Oran: Oran division, Oran fortification.
Algiers: Algiers division, Algiers fortification.
Constantine: Constantine division.
Tunisia: Tunis division.
Damascus: Syrian infantry, Syrian recon.
Beirut: Beirut fortification.
Iraqi Units (Set up by the Axis player)
Baghdad: 1+2 infantry, Mech brigade.
Mosul: 3+4 infantry.
Axis Optional Forces (if used)
Italian CV-1 Aquila, Sahara recon, Hitler
Turns South units, Operation Felix units
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R23
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
1942 ALLIED SET UP
Sequence
Allies set up first.
Allied Supply Available Box:
all other Allied Supply units.
Allied Controlled Areas
Gibraltar, Malta, all areas in Egypt,
Cyprus, Palestine, Transjordan, all areas
in Iraq, Kuwait; Britain, North Atlantic,
African Transit, Middle East Command.
Allied Special Forces box:
LRDG, A/SAS.
British ground units
Gibraltar: Gibraltar fortification.
Malta: Malta infantry; Malta fortification
(reduced). Place a “Disrupted”
marker on the Malta port.
Sollum: 10 Corps HQ; 10 infantry
(reduced), 50 infantry (reduced).
Western Desert: 13 Corps HQ; 1
armored (reduced), 7 armored
(reduced); 5 Ind infantry (reduced).
Mersa Matruh: NZ infantry.
El Alamein: 8 Army HQ; Guards
mech; 1 SA infantry (reduced).
Alexandria: MEC marine;
Alexandria fortification.
Cairo: 10 armored; 44 infantry; Cairo garrison.
Cyprus: Cyprus garrison.
Palestine: 1 cavalry, 8 infantry,
Haifa fortification.
Transjordan: AL recon; TJFF garrison.
Basrah: Bas garrison.
Baghdad: 8 Ind infantry, Hab garrison.
Middle East Command box: 8 armor,
British air units
Gibraltar: 1 x Sunderland.
Alexandria/Cairo/Palestine/Iraq: 2 x
Hurricane, 1 x Spitfire, 1 x Beaufighter, 1 x
Tomahawk, 1 x Blenheim, 2 x Wellington, 1
x Hudson, 1 x Albacore, 1 x Var (transport).
British naval units
Sea zone adjacent to Gibraltar:
carrier Argus, CLAA-1, DD-4.
Sea zone adjacent to Alexandria:
CL-3, DD-5, SS-2, PT-1, TR-4.
Britain box: carrier Eagle, BB-1, BC1, CLAA-4, DD-6, TR-5, TR-6.
Middle East Command box: TR-7.
Allied Supply units:
Sollum: 1 x supply (mobile).
El Alamein: 1 x supply (mobile)
Alexandria: 2 x supply (static).
Cairo: 3 x supply (static).
Middle East Command box:
2 x supply (mobile).
R24
Allied Refit Box (all units British):
Land: 30 corps HQ; A/Res armor; Des Col
recon; 9 Aus infantry, 4 Ind infantry, 2
SA infantry, 1 FF infantry, Pol infantry.
Naval: BB-2, CL-2, DD-2, SS-1, TR-2, TR-3.
Air: 1 x Hurricane, 1 x Spitfire, 1 x
Blenheim, 1 x Wellington, 1 x Boston,
1 x Swordfish, 1 x Var (transport).
Allied Withdrawn Box (all units British):
Ground: 70 infantry, 6 Aus
infantry, 7 Aus infantry.
Air: 1 x Hurricane.
Naval: DD-3.
Allied Units Destroyed Box
(all units British):
Ground: 2 armored; Creforce infantry.
Naval: carrier Ark Royal; CA-1, DD-1, TR-1.
Air: 1 x Gladiator, 1 x Hurricane, 1 x
Blenheim, 1 x Wellington.
Allied Event markers Available
Middle East Air Force, Ultra.
Allied Markers used and not available:
Iranian Intervention, Iraq Rebellion,
Operation Battleaxe, Operation Crusader,
Pacific War, Vichy Syria Intervention.
Allied Event marker Pool
All other Event markers.
Allied Reinforcement Pool
All Allied “Start”, “1941” and “1942”
units not deployed above (including:
carriers Formidable and Indomitable)
January 1943: Add all Allied 1943 units.
Allied Special Reinforcement Box:
All Allied “Torch” units. See
the Operation Torch rule.
Allied Optional Forces (if used)
US carrier Wasp & DD-4, British BB-5,
31st Armored Division, LeClerc recon.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
1942 AXIS SET UP
Sequence
Axis set up second.
Axis Controlled Areas
Sardinia, Sicily, Pantalleria, Tripoli, Central
Tripolitania, Sirte, Zulla, El Agheila,
Benghazi, Jebel, Central Cyrenaica, Tobruk,
Bardia, Eastern Cyrenaica, Crete, Aegean
islands; North and South Italy, Greece.
German ground units:
Tobruk/Bardia/Eastern Cyrenaica: PAA
HQ, DAK HQ; 15 panzer (reduced), 21
panzer; 90 LtA infantry (reduced); 288
armored infantry; A/19 flak; KgH marine.
Crete: Crete fortification; 164 infantry.
Sicily: B/19 flak.
Italian ground units:
Tobruk/Bardia/Eastern Cyrenaica:
10 HQ, 20 HQ, 21 HQ; 132 armor
(reduced), 133 armor; 101 infantry,
102 infantry (reduced), 17 infantry
(reduced), 27 infantry; RC assault gun.
Benghazi: 25 infantry (reduced),
Benghazi fortification.
Tripoli: Tripoli fortification.
Sirte: Sirte garrison.
Zella: Sahara garrison.
Pantelleria: Pantelleria fortification.
Aegean Islands: Aegean fortification.
Sicily: 26, 28, 54 infantry; Sic W, Sic S,
Sic M fortification (one per area).
Sardinia: 30, 31 infantry; Sar N, Sar
S fortification (one per area).
South Italy: SM marines.
German Air Units:
North Africa: 1 x Me 109, 1 x Ju
87, 1 x Ju 88, 1 x Ju 52.
Sicily/Sardinia/South Italy/Crete/
Greece: 2 x Me 109, 1 x Me 110, 2 x Ju 88,
1 x He 111, 1 x Hs 115, 1 x Ju 52, 1 x G/G.
Italian Air Units:
North Africa: 1 x MC 200, 1 x MC
202, 1 x CR 42, 1 x transport.
Sicily/Sardinia/South Italy: 1 x MC
202, 1 x BR 20, 1 x SM 79, 1 x SM 81,
1 x Z 506, 1 x Ju 87, 1 x transport.
German Naval Units:
Any sea zones adjacent to
South Italy: PT-1, TR-2.
Any sea zone in the Mediterranean: SS-1.
Italian Naval Units:
Any sea zones adjacent to South
Italy: BB-2, BB-3, CA-2, CL-2, CL-3,
DD-3, DD-4, PT-1, TR-4, TR-5, TR-6.
Any sea zones adjacent to Tripoli
or Benghazi: PT-2, TR-6.
Any sea zone in the Mediterranean: SS-2.
Axis Supply Units:
Tripoli: 1 x supply (static),1 x supply (mobile).
Benghazi: 1 x supply (mobile).
Jebel: 1 x supply (static).
Tobruk: 2 x supply (static), 1 x supply (mobile).
Sicily: 1 x supply (static), 1 x supply (mobile).
South Italy: 1 x supply (mobile).
Axis Supply Available Box
All other Axis Supply units.
Axis Special Forces box
German Brandenburgers, Italian XM.
Axis Refit Box:
German ground: none.
German naval: TR-1.
German air: 1 x Me 109, 1 x Me 110, 1 x Ju 87,
1 x Ju 88, 1 x He 111, 1 x Ar 196, 1 x Ju 52.
Italian ground: RECAM recon; 55 infantry,
60 infantry; Tobruk fortification.
Italian naval: CL-1, DD-2, SS-1, TR-2, TR-3.
Italian air: 1 x G50, 1 x BR 20, 1 x SM 79, 1
x SM 81, 1 x Can 1007, 1 x transport.
Axis Reinforcement Pool
All Axis “Start,” “1941” and “1942” units not
deployed above (including: Italian BB-1)
January 1943: Add all Axis 1943 units
Axis Special Reinforcement Box:
All Axis “Herkules” units.
See the Herkules rule.
All Axis “Torch” units. See the
Operation Torch rule.
Vichy French Units (Set up
by the Axis player)
Casablanca: Moroccan mountain
division; Casablanca fortification.
Oran: Oran division, Oran fortification.
Algiers: Algiers division, Algiers fortification.
Constantine: Constantine division.
Tunisia: Tunis division.
Eliminated: Syrian infantry, Syrian
recon, Beirut fortification.
Iraqi Units
Eliminated: 1+2 infantry, 3+4
infantry, Mech brigade.
Axis Optional Forces (if used)
Italian CV-1 Aquila, Sahara recon., Operation
Felix units, Hitler Turns South units
Axis Withdrawn Box
All Mercury units.
Axis Units Destroyed Box:
German ground: none.
German naval: none.
German air: 1 x Me 109, 1 x Ju 88.
Italian ground: none.
Italian naval: CA-1, DD-1, TR-1.
Italian air: 1 x CR 32, 1 x SM 79.
Axis Event markers Available
Kesselring, Luftflotte Two,
Operation Herkules, Rommel.
Axis Markers used and not available:
Battleship Convoy, Dash to the Wire, Operation
EA 3, Operation Sonnenblume, Operation
Sommernachtstraum, Operation Venezia.
Axis Event marker Pool
All other Event markers.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R25
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS
G-1 ACTIONS
Reinforcements. The player rolls one
die, checks the result, and then blindly
draws that number of units (one through
six) from the Reinforcement Pool. Those
units are then placed per the reinforcement
rule instructions. (Note that Special
reinforcements use a separate procedure
for deployment. See the Mercury, Herkules,
Torch and optional Felix rules.)
Emergency Naval Transport
Replacements. This Action may be
conducted only if the player has Transport
(TR) units in the Destroyed box (not other
types of amphibs). The player selects one
Transport naval unit as a reinforcement, taken
from that deadpile (no Refit is required).
Appeal to the High Command. Roll one
die: 1-2 = no effect; 3-6 = pick one Event
marker at random. This Action may be
taken only once per turn. It occurs in the
Action phase, not the Events phase and is
in addition to any Event picked previously
in the turn. Any Actions generated by that
Event are taken in the Action phase.
G-2 ACTIONS
Ground Scouting. The player examines
all enemy units in ground zones
adjacent to all friendly ground units.
Aerial Scouting. The player examines all
enemy units in ground or sea zones within
scouting range of all friendly airbases
and aircraft carriers. Scouting range is as
follows: Carriers air = two areas/zones ;
friendly controlled Airbases = six. Enemy
off-map bases may not be scouted. (Note:
any based air units themselves do not move,
nor does this Action generate any combat).
Naval Scouting. The player examines
all enemy units in sea zones adjacent
to all friendly naval units.
Signals Intelligence. The player rolls one
die. A result of “1-3” is no effect.; a result
of “4-6” he may do one of the following: (1)
examine all enemy forces on the map or in
all off-map displays; Or: (2) Roll one die and
examine that number of Event markers in the
enemy player’s hand. The enemy player should
R26
turn his head so he is not aware of which
Event markers the Allied player is examining.
Special Forces Operation. This
may be performed only if the player
has at least one Special Forces unit.
See the Special Forces rule (20.0).
ULTRA Intelligence (Allies only). See the
ULTRA rule under Major Events descriptions.
G-3 Land Actions
Ground Move. Move a force of ground
units via ground movement. Move one or
more ground units in any one area up to
their movement allowance. This may include
movement from and to areas containing
enemy ground units. All moving units must
be moved together, though units may be
dropped off (and move no further). Units
may move directly from one zone containing
enemy ground units to another such zone, but
then cease movement. (See 8.0 for details)
Ground Combat Attack. Use a force
which starts in a contested land area to
attack the enemy force within that same
area (land battle). (See 12.0 for details.)
Ground Move & Attack. Move a force of
ground units via the Ground Move Action
to an area containing enemy units; then
attack the enemy units within that are per
the Ground Combat Attack Action. Also, if
there are any friendly ground units in that
area (which were not part of the moving
force, they may join in the attack. Note:
this Action must be executed if the units
move into a fortress area containing enemy
units. (See 8.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Concentrate on a HQ. Move any or all ground
units from their current locations to a single
area which has a friendly HQ. Units use normal
ground movement (no air or naval transport),
and moving units must be able to actually make
it to the HQ’s area. Units may start and/or end
this movement in areas occupied by enemy
units. The HQ itself may not move. The moving
units may not attack at the end of its move.
(This Action is an exception to the normal
rule that only one force may move per turn.)
HQ Supported Move. Move any or all ground
units which start in the same area as a friendly
HQ per the Ground Move Action; however,
all those units increase their movement
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
allowance by “1”. The HQ itself may not move
in this Action. The units may not start in or
enter areas containing enemy ground units. A
HQ may provide this support for another HQ.
G-3 Naval Actions
Naval Move. Move a force of naval units
via naval movement. Move one or more naval
units in any one zone up to their movement
allowance. This may include movement
from and to zones containing enemy naval
units. All moving units must be moved
together, though units may be dropped off
(and move no further). Units may move
directly from one zone containing enemy
naval units to another such zone, but then
cease movement. (See 9.0 for details.)
Naval Move from Off-Map. Move a force
of naval units from an off-map base area
to a neighboring sea zone. This uses one
movement point, and the units may continue
moving. The units may attack at the end
of the move per Naval Move & Attack (see
below). (See 9.0, 12.0 and 17.0 for details.)
Naval Move to Off-Map. Move a force of
naval units from a sea zone to a neighboring
off-map base. This uses one movement point,
and the units must cease moving in that OffMap base. Units cannot attack at the end
of the move. (See 9.0 and 17.0 for details.)
Naval Re-Deployment. Move a force of
friendly naval units on the map up to twice its
normal movement ability, within the following
strictures: all units moving via this Action
must either start and/or end their move in
a sea zone adjacent to a friendly controlled
port; none of the units may enter an area
containing enemy naval units (they may start
in such an area); none of the units may launch
any kind of attack. The force may include
transported units, but may not embark up or
disembark them. The units may not start in an
Off-Map Base or enter one (see Naval Move
to and from Off-Map Base Actions, above.)
Naval Theater Re-Deployment (Allies
only). Move one force of friendly naval
units up to three Off-Map Base boxes (not
not onto or off the map itself; for example,
from Britain to the North Atlantic to Africa
transit to the Middle East Command).
Naval Attack. A force of naval units in any
one sea zone attacks enemy units in that same
zone (naval battle). (See 12.0 for details.)
Naval Move & Attack. Conduct a Naval
Move into a zone containing enemy naval
units and then execute a Naval Attack
Action. Also, if there are any friendly naval
units in that zone (which were not part
of the moving force), they may join in the
attack. (See 9.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Bombardment: of Ground Units. Use naval
units in any one sea zone to attack enemy
ground units in one land area bordering that
sea zone (coastal bombardment). The only
enemy ground units which may be attacked
in this way are fortification units in coastal
areas, or all units in coastal fortress areas
(such as Tobruk), or all units on small islands
(such as Malta) — ground units in other areas
may not be targeted. Use the naval unit’s
anti-ground unit strength (and all land and
air units in that zone may fire back if they
have an anti-surface ship combat factor).
This may be combined with a Launch a Long
Range Carrier Air Strike Action (below)
against those ground units. Note: the naval
units may conduct a Naval Move as part of
this Action. (See 9.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Bombardment of Base Areas. Use naval
units in any one sea zone to attack either
(1) all enemy printed bases in one adjacent
coastal fortress area or small island; or (2) an
enemy port in one adjacent coastal area. Use
the naval units’ anti-ground unit strength. For
each hit, select one enemy Base and place
one Disrupted marker on it (but no more than
one per base, excess hits are not counted).
This may be combined with a Launch a Long
Range Carrier Air Strike Action (below) against
those printed bases. (All land and air units in
that zone may fire back if they have an antisurface ship combat factor). Note: the naval
units may conduct a Naval Move as part of
this Action. (See 9.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Carrier Air Strike against a Sea Zone
(Launch a long range carrier air strike). This
may be conducted only by aircraft carrier
units. The carriers and any escorting naval
units may first make a Naval Move Action.
Each carrier can attack one enemy surface or
submarine unit in one adjacent sea zone using
the appropriate combat factor.. The combat
is resolved normally. The enemy may not fire
back at the carrier (even if the enemy has
air units—but see optional rule 30.0, Carrier
Depletion). (See 9.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Carrier Air Strike against a Land Area
(Launch a long range carrier air strike). This
may be conducted only by aircraft carrier units.
The carriers and any escorting naval units may
first make a Naval Move Action. Each carrier
can attack one enemy ground unit or printed
base in one adjacent land area, using its
anti-ground combat factor, or air unit using its
anti-air combat factor. Any enemy units in that
area may be attacked (not just those defined
as being “coastal” per the Bombardment
Actions). The combat is resolved normally,
though the enemy may not shoot back
at the carrier (even if the enemy has air
units—but see optional rule 30.0, Carrier
Depletion). (See 9.0 and 12.0 for details.)
G-3 Air Actions
Air Re-Basing. Move a force of aircraft
from one friendly base area to another
friendly base area. Only land based air units
(and seaplanes) may perform this. The takeoff and landing base areas can be friendly
controlled or contested. All air units must
move together. They can move up to twice
the range allowance of the air unit in the
force with the with the lowest range factor.
A player may use his side’s Off-Map Bases
as either the takeoff or landing point for rebasing, with Off-map Bases considered to be
one area off of the map. Re-basing units may
conduct no combat as part of their re-basing
operation (even if there are enemy air units
in the landing area). This allows an air unit
to land at a base other than the one at which
it originally started. (See 10.0 for details.)
Air Theater Re-Deployment (Allies
only). You may move one force of
friendly air units up to three Off-Map
Base boxes (not not onto or off the map
itself). (See 10.0 and 17.0 for details.)
Airstrike: against Ground and/or Air
Units. Launch a land based airstrike against
enemy ground and air units in a land area. Pick
up any or all air units based in one area and
move them to any one land area in range of the
air unit with the single lowest range. Attack
enemy units in that area. Also, if there are any
friendly air units already in that area (Example.
if on a contested base), they may join in the
attack. This cannot be combined with an
attack by friendly land or naval units (including
carriers). (See 10.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Airstrike: against Naval Units. Launch a
land based airstrike against naval units. Pick
up any or all air units based in one area and
move them to any one sea zone in range. Then
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
attack enemy surface and submarine naval
units in that zone. This cannot be combined
with an attack by friendly carriers (or other
naval units). (See 10.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Airstrike: against Bases. Launch a land
based airstrike against enemy bases. Pick up
any or all air units based in one area and move
them to any one land area in range. The land
area must be enemy controlled or contested,
and it must contain ports, airbases and/
or a depot. Also, if there are any friendly air
units in that zone, they may join in the attack.
Attack enemy controlled or contested ports,
airbases and depots in that area. Attacking
units may be divided up between any of these
bases, and they use their anti-ground unit
strength. For each hit, place one Disrupted
marker on one base (but no more than one
per base, excess hits are not counted). This
cannot be combined with an attack by friendly
land or naval units (including carriers). Enemy
units with anti-air capability in the zone
fires simultaneously at the intruders. This
Action cannot be combined with an attack
by friendly land or naval units (including
carriers). (See 10.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Airstrike: against Railroad. Launch a land
based airstrike against railroads. Pick up any
or all air units based in one area and move
them to any one land area in range. The land
area must be enemy controlled or contested,
and it must contain a railroad. Attack the
railroad in that area. If there are any friendly
air units in that zone, they may join in the
attack. For the attack on the rail line, use the
anti-ground unit strength. If there are any hits,
place a Disrupted marker on the rail line (but
never more than one, excess do not count).
Enemy units with anti-air capability in the
zone fires simultaneously at the intruders.
This Action cannot be combined with an
attack by friendly land or naval units (including
carriers). It may be combined with Launch a
land based airstrike against enemy bases.
A disrupted railroad may not be used for rail
movement. (See 10.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Interception (Optional). Put land based
fighter air units into or out of Interception
Mode. Place and/or remove Intercept markers
on any/all “F” units on the map. As long as
air units are in Interception Mode, they can
conduct no other Actions. Fighters remain in
Interception mode until the player removes the
marker via a subsequent Action, or the unit is
eliminated or withdrawn. (See 26.0 for details.)
R27
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
G-3 Combined Actions
Amphibious Movement (Sealift of Ground
Units). Use Naval amphibious units to move
ground units (amphibious movement). Only
amphibious class naval units may do this (TR,
TR(f), LS). The amphibious unit(s) must start
the movement phase adjacent to a coastal
area containing both a port (regardless of
state of control) and friendly ground units. The
amphibious units then pick up the ground units
(within capacity) and move up to their normal
movement limit, carrying the ground units.
At the end of the move, the ground unit(s)
may (1) stay aboard the amphibious unit, or
(2) be disembarked on an adjacent land area
containing a Port (again, regardless of state
of control). This may trigger an Amphibious
Assault (under Combined Actions). Each LS
can transport two units of any type; each TR
can carry two light or one heavy unit; each
TR(f) can carry one light unit. Other naval units
may accompany the amphibs. Units may not
be embarked or disembarked if there are any
enemy surface naval units in the sea zone
adjacent to the embarkation/disembarkation
zone, respectively (See 11.0 for details.)
Amphibious Evacuation. Use Naval
amphibious units to evacuate ground units
without a port of embarkation. Same as
Amphibious Movement, except: (1) This may
be done from a coastal area which does not
contain a port; and (2) if the embarking naval
unit is a Tr or TR(f), then roll one die for each
such ground unit: on a “1-3” it is embarked
normally; on a “4-6” place it in the Refit box. If
the embarking unit is a LS, the ground unit is
placed in the Refit box only on a die roll of “1”.
Emergency Transport. Use warships to move
ground units (emergency transport). All BB,
BC, CA, CL and DD units may perform this. The
naval units must start the movement phase
adjacent to a coastal area containing friendly
Marine or Commando/Ranger units (regardless
of state of control). (Unlike Amphibious
Movement, this does not require the presence
of ports.) The BB/BC/CA/CL/DD units then
pick up the ground units (within capacity) and
may move up to their normal movement limit,
carrying the ground units. At the end of the
move, the ground unit(s) must be disembarked
on an adjacent land area or small island (if
not, the ground units are eliminated). This
may trigger an Amphibious Assault. Units
may not be embarked/disembarked if there
are any enemy surface naval units in the sea
zone adjacent to the embarkation/debarkation
R28
zone, respectively. Each BB/BC/CA/CL/DD
may carry one Marine or Commando/Ranger
regiment or brigade per move. Other naval
units may accompany the BB/BC/CA/CL/DD.
This may be combined with other units using
Amphibious movement. (See 11.0 for details.)
(without any transported units). Other air
units may accompany the Air Transport if they
began in the same area. Each Air Transport
unit can carry up to one light unit (no heavy
units). Each Glider can carry one heavy or one
light unit. (See 10.0 and 11.0 for details.)
Amphibious Movement (Sealift of Air Units).
Use Transport units to move land-based air
units. Only LS/TR/TR(f) can perform this, and
each can transport one air unit. It is performed
in the same manner as Amphibious Movement.
Airlift (2). Same as Airlift (1), but the
air transports and any escorting air
units can move up to twice their range,
landing in the same friendly controlled
airbase area and disembark the ground
units. (This is similar to the Air Re-basing
Action.) (See 10.0 and 11.0 for details.)
Amphibious Invasion. Ground forces being
transported by naval units in a sea zone
disembark and move into an adjacent coastal
area. Ground units being transported by TR
or TR(f) disembark on an adjacent coastal
or small island area which must contain a
Port (regardless of control status). Ground
units being transported by LS or Emergency
Transport may land on any coastal area or
small island (no port required). The player
must conduct an attack against all enemy
ground units in that area if it contains a
fortification unit, or is a fortress or small
island. Otherwise, attacking is at the player’s
option. This may also include the participation
of friendly ground units in the same area.
Naval units may not add their combat
strengths to this combat (they could have
conducted a Bombardment as a prior, separate
Action.) (see 11.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Air-Ground Support. Make a combined
air-ground attack. The player moves or has
in place ground units in an area and then
conducts an attack with them. The player
may add to the attack any one force of GA
(ground attack) air units which are within
range, and/or which were already in the area,
per a normal Airstrike: against Ground Units
Action. Air Support may also be combined
with an Amphibious Invasion (above) or Air
Assault (below). (see 11.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Airlift (1). Airlift ground unit from any friendly
base to any other friendly base (Airlift). Only
Air Transport (TR) and Glider (G/G) units may
perform this. The Air Transport / Glider units
must start the movement phase in the same
area as friendly ground units (which must also
contain an airbase). The Air Transport units
pick up the ground units and move up to their
normal movement limit, carrying the ground
units, landing in a friendly controlled area
containing an airbase. At the end of the move,
the ground units must be disembarked. The
air units then return to their starting airbase
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
Airlift (3) (Allied only). Combined Air
Theater Re-Deployment and Airlift (1), with
the air transports plus transported ground
units moving through Off-Map bases.
(See 10.0, 11.0 and 17.0 for details.)
Airborne Move. Make an airborne move.
This is conducted in the same manner as an
Airlift (1), except that the air-transported
ground units must be airborne types. They may
land on any land area (no friendly controlled
airbase is needed in the landing area). If
there are enemy air and/or ground units in
the landing area, then an Air Assault combat
must occur (see below). The Air Assault is
resolved as part of this same Action. Air
Transports may land in the target zone if
the airborne units either gain control of an
airbase, on landing, or if they eliminate all
enemy units in an area with a printed airfield.
Otherwise, the air units return to their starting
airbase. (See 11.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Air Assault. This is mandatory when
making an Airborne Action into a target zone
containing enemy air and/or ground units.
Upon reaching the target zone, and after
disembarking air airdropped units, all moving
ground and air units must attack. Any friendly
air and ground units which were already in
the area may also be involved. Air Transports
return to airbase only if they survive the
combat. (See 11.0 and 12.0 for details.)
Airborne Invasion (Axis only). Make an
airborne assault supported by airlanding
troops. First execute an Airborne Move into
an area containing a printed airbase (control
status is irrelevant). Then conduct an Airlift
(1) into that same airbase area. The airlifted
units must be airborne, airlanding or mountain
types. All moving units must start in the
same area, and all units must be disembarked
in the same area. If there are enemy air or
ground units in the landing area, execute
an Air Assault using the combined Airborne
and Airlanding units, plus any accompanying
air units. (See 11.0 and 12.0 for details.)
3) Conduct one additional G-4 Recovery
from Disruption for disrupted Bases/
Railroads in the area in which
the supply unit is expended.
Airdrop Supplies. Conduct an airdrop of
supplies. This is performed in the same
manner as an Airborne Move, except air
transports can each pick up one supply unit
and move to one area within range. The target
area may be in any state of control. The air
transports then “drop” the supply units in
that area (no airbase is required). Roll one
die for each airdropped supply unit. On a 1-5
the drop is successful and the supply unit is
placed in the target area. On a 6 the supply
unit is eliminated. The air unit then returns
to base. Once airdropped, the supply unit
functions normally. (See 11.0 for details)
4) Conduct one Refit Action for reduced
units in the area in which the supply unit
is expended. Or (5) Conduct one optional
Entrench action. (See 13.0 for details.)
Carrier Transfer (Allied only). Use carrier
units to transfer land-based air units (Allies
only). Only carrier units may perform this,
and only fighter (F) units may be transferred
in this manner. The fighters start in a friendly
or contested airbase, move up to their range
limit to the carrier, then move one more time
up to their range limit to another friendly or
contested airbase. All such air units must move
together. They may not conduct any combat
when doing this transfer. (See 10.0 for details.)
G-4 Actions
Convert Mobile Supply Units to their
Static Side. Flip any or all friendly supply
units anywhere on the map from their mobile
side to their static sides. (This is an exception
to the normal rule that only units in one area
may conduct an action.) (See 13.0 for details)
Convert Static Supply Units to their
Mobile Sides. Flip any or all supply units
from their static sides to their mobile sides.
(This is an exception to the normal rule
that only units in one area may conduct
an action.) (See 13.0 for details)
Take an Additional Action. Expend one
supply unit and do one of the following.
Logistics Redeployment. Any or all
mobile supply units which begin on areas
containing roads may move along road
areas per the road movement rule (using the
enhanced movement). Moving supply units
may must start in and only enter friendly
controlled areas (not contested). (This is an
exception to the normal rule that only one
force may move per turn. Note that mobile
supply units can also move normally via the
Ground Move Action.) (See 8.0 for details.)
Entrench (Optional). Place an entrenched
marker in the same land area as
friendly ground unit. The entrenching
unit must be in a land area containing
a friendly supply unit (which is then
expended) or printed depot (which is not
expended). (See rule 28.0 for details.)
Remove Carrier Depletion (Optional). An
Allied carrier unit must be in either the Britain
or Middle East Command off-map base. An
Axis carrier must be adjacent to a port in
Italy. The player then flips up one carrier to its
non-depleted side. (See rule 30.0 for details)
Railroad Movement of Supplies (Allies
only). Only mobile supply units may do this.
The unit must start in an area which contains
a railroad. It can then move an unlimited
number of areas via connected rail lines. All
such areas must be friendly controlled. The
unit may then move normally (including any
Road movement). Rail movement costs no
movement points. (See 8.0 for details.)
Recovery from Disruption. Any and all
disrupted airbases, ports, depots and/or
railroads in one controlled area may attempt
recovery. Roll one die for each: on a “4-6”
remove the Disruption marker; on a “1-3” it
remains disrupted. If there is more than one
disruption in a single area, you can roll for each
of them individually as part of the same Action.
Refit Reduced Ground Units. Attempt
to restore all reduced strength ground
units of one nationality in one area to their
full strength. (See 14.0 for details.)
Refit Eliminated Ground Units
in the Refit box. Attempt to restore
eliminated ground units of one nationality
to play. (See 14.0 for details.)
1) Conduct one G-3 Action (any type) using
land or air units which begin the Action in
that area (or both if a Combined Action).
Refit Eliminated Naval Units in the Refit
box. Attempt to restore eliminated naval units
of one nationality to play. (See 14.0 for details.)
2) If the area has a friendly controlled
and non-disrupted port, conduct one G-3
Action (any type) using naval units which
begin the Action in one adjacent zone.
Refit Eliminated Air Units in the Refit box.
Attempt to restore eliminated air units of one
nationality to play. (See 14.0 for details.)
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R29
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
ALLIED EVENTS
1. Alexander (1942-43). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two
additional Actions, any type. This can involve both
British and US units. Return on die roll 1-4.
13. Naval Reassignment. Immediate. Select two Allied naval units of
the following types on the map or an Off-Map Base: CV, CVE, BB or
BC (any combination). Place them in the Reinforcement Pool. Return.
2. Allied Reorganization (1942-43). (1) Flip any four reduced
Allied units to their full strength side without rolling on the Refit
table. The units must be in the same areas as an Allied static
supply unit or Allied controlled or contested Depot. Return.
Or: (2) Execute one G-4 Refit Action. Return. Or: (3) Keep.
14. Operation Agreement. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one
additional G-2 Special Forces Raid Action; also take one
G-3 Combined Amphibious Action involving British naval
and marine/commando units (in any order). Discard.
3. Churchill. Immediate. Roll one die. Odd result = lose the normal
Allied Action this turn (additional Actions via event or supply
expenditure are OK); even result = pick three Action markers. Return.
4. Force H. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3
Naval Action using British units. Return.
6. Iraq Rebellion. Immediate. See the Iraq Rebellion rule. Discard.
7. Lend-Lease Surge. Immediate. Place three
supply units in Britain. Discard.
8. Med Convoy. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional Naval G-3
Action which must involve at least one naval Transport which
ends its movement in any Mediterranean zone. Return.
9. Man Who Never Was. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one
additional G-3 Amphibious Action. Discard.
10. Middle East Air Force. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional G-3
Air Actions using either British or US units (but not both). Return.
12. Morale Check. Immediate. If the Allies control at
least three more on-map Port areas than the Axis, then
the Allies gain one Action (any type). Return.
16. Operation Crusader. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional
G-3 Ground Actions using British units. Discard.
17. Operation Supercharge (1942-43). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take
three additional G-3 Ground Actions using British units.
5. Iranian Intervention. Immediate. Withdraw British ground
units whose total ground combat strength is at least
six. Place them in the Reinforcement Pool. Discard.
11. Montgomery (1942-43). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take
two additional G-3 or G-4 Actions (or one of each)
using British units. Return on die roll = 1-3.
15. Operation Battleaxe. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional
G-3 Ground Action using British units. Discard.
18. Patton (1943). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional G-3 Ground
Actions using American units. Return on die roll = 1-2.
19. Pacific War (1942-43). Immediate. Implement all of the following:
(1) The Allied player rolls three dice. For the first die roll, withdraw
ground combat units whose total anti-ground combat factors equal
or exceed the die roll. For the second die roll, withdraw air combat
units whose total anti-air combat factors equal or exceed the die
roll. For the third die roll, withdraw naval combat units whose total
anti-naval combat factors equal or exceed the die roll. These units
never return to play. And: (2) For the remainder of the game, the
Allied player uses the Pacific War line on his Supply Reinforcement
Table. (3) Place this marker in the Pacific War box on the map.
20. Radar. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3 Naval
Action using either British or US units. In any combat
which ensues, Allied naval units get First Fire. Return.
21. Tactics. (1) Keep. Or: (2) For any one Allied attack, select
two Allied units and they get First Fire. Return.
22. ULTRA. Major Event. (1) Keep. (2) See the
ULTRA description on page R32.
23. Vichy Syria Intervention. Immediate.
See the Vichy Syria rule. Discard.
24. Weather. Immediate. Roll one die. Odd = the Allied player loses
his regular one Action for the turn (but still can take special
actions via Event marker play and supply unit expenditure).
Even = take one additional Action immediately. Return.
25. Optional: Variant: For future scenarios.
Otherwise, treat as no effect and return.
R30
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
AXIS EVENTS
1. Axis Reorganization (1942-43). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Flip any
three reduced Axis units to their full strength side without
rolling on the Refit table. The units must be in the same areas
as an Axis static supply unit or Axis controlled or contested
Depot. Return. Or: (3) Execute one G-4 Refit Action. Return.
2. Battleship Convoy. Immediate. Receive two Axis supply
units as reinforcements and place them on any one Axis
controlled port in the Mediterranean. Discard.
15. Operation Lehrgang. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3 Naval
Action. This can involve both German and Italian units. Discard.
16. Operation Sonnenblume. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two
additional G-3 Actions (any type). This can involve
both German and Italian units. Discard.
17. Operation Sommernachtstraum. (1) Keep. Or:
(2) Take one additional G-3 Ground Action. This can
involve both German and Italian units. Discard.
3. Commando Supremo. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one G-3 or one
G-4 Action (any type) using only Italian units. Return.
4. Dash to the Wire (1941-42). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional
G-3 Land Action using German ground units. In any combat
which ensues, German ground units get First Fire. Discard.
5. Egyptian Nationalists. (1) Keep. Or: (2) If there is at
least one German ground unit in Egypt, then the Allied
player must reduce one Allied ground unit and eliminate
one Allied supply unit from forces in Egypt. Discard.
18. Operation Venezia. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3 Ground
Action. This can involve both German and Italian units. Discard.
19. Rommel. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional G-3 Ground
Actions in Africa or the Near East. This can involve both
German and Italian units. Return on die roll = 1-3.
20. Tactics. (1) Keep. Or: (2) For any one Axis attack, select
three Axis units and they get First Fire. Return.
21. Vichy Support. (1) If Operation Torch has occurred, then
discard without playing. Otherwise: (2) Keep. Or: (3) Receive
two supply units as a reinforcement and place them in
Tripoli and/or Benghazi if Axis controlled. Discard.
6. Fuehrer HQ. Immediate. Roll one die and
consult the results below. Return.
Odd result = No Event marker granting an additional
action may be played this turn (regular Action is OK).
22. Weather. Immediate. Otherwise, roll one die. Odd = the Axis
player loses his regular one Action for the turn (but still can
take special actions via Event marker play and supply unit
expenditure). Even = take one additional Action. Return.
Even result = pick three Action markers.
7. Kesselring: (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional Actions, any type.
This can involve both German and Italian units. Return on die roll 1-3.
8. Hube (1943). (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3 Ground
Action involving German units. Return on die roll = 1-4.
9. Luftflotte Two. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take two additional
G-3 Air Actions involving German units. Return.
23. 88s. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Play during an Allied attack. All German
Flak units get First Fire for that one combat. Return.
24. Optional: Operation Felix (1941-42). Major Event. (1) Keep. Or: (2)
Receive the Felix reinforcement group and place them on Gibraltar.
Take two additional G-3 Actions using any German units which move
to and/or attack Gibraltar. Discard. (See the Operation Felix rule.)
25. Optional: Variant: For future scenarios.
Otherwise, treat as no effect and return.
10. Marshal’s Baton. (1) Keep. Or: (2) If any Axis ground
units currently occupy any land area in Egypt or the Near
East, take one additional Action (any type). Discard.
11. Morale Check. Immediate. If the Axis controls at least three
or more on-map Port areas than the Allies, or control Cairo
or Mosul, then the Axis gains one Action (any type).
12. Operation Herkules (1942-43). Major Event. (1) Keep. Or:
(2) Receive the Herkules reinforcement group. Then take two
additional G-3 Actions (any type). This can involve both German
and Italian units. Discard. (See the Operation Herkules rule.)
13. Operation Aida. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-3 ground or
air Action. This can involve both German and Italian units. Discard.
14. Operation EA 3. (1) Keep. Or: (2) Take one additional G-2 Special
Forces Raid Action using Italian naval special forces units. Discard.
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
R31
Mare Nostrum: War in the Mediterranean
MAJOR EVENT DESCRIPTIONS
Allied #22: ULTRA
ULTRA was the high level Allied cryptographic
intelligence operation which intercepted Axis
signals traffic. In the game, it is represented
by an Event marker and can be used to make
special Interception Actions. When the
ULTRA marker is picked, place it in the Allied
Events box on the map. Thereafter it may
be used once per turn as described below.
Ultra Reaction Procedure
During any Axis G-3 Naval or Air Action, the
Allied player may declare an ULTRA Action.
1) Temporarily cease movement
of the Axis force.
2) The Allied player conducts one G-3 Naval
or one G-3 Air Action in such a manner that
the Allied force targets that moving Axis
force; the Allied units may already be in
the area/zone where the Axis movement
stopped. If the Axis moved a force of
naval units, then the Allied player may use
a force of either air or naval units. If the
Axis moved a force of air units, then the
Allied player may use a force of air units.
3) Execute combat against the Axis
force with the Allies as the attacker.
4) After combat, surviving Allied air
units return to base, and surviving
Allied naval units stay in place.
5) Surviving Axis units resume
their movement.
6) Return the ULTRA maker to the Allied
event pool on a die roll of 1-3; otherwise,
keep it for play on a subsequent turn.
Reacting Carriers
An Allied carrier force can make an
attack from an adjacent sea zone via
ULTRA, in accordance with the Carrier
Strike against Sea Zone Action.
Axis #12: OPERATION HERKULES
Operation Herkules was the planned Axis
airborne-amphibious invasion of Malta.
If the Axis player picks the Operation
Herkules event, he keeps it. He may
execute Operation Herkules on this or
R32
any subsequent turn. Once executed, the
marker is removed from the game.
Executing Operation Herkules
Announce the event at the end of any Axis
event phase. The Axis player immediately
receives all Herkules reinforcement units
(German and Italian); place them like any other
reinforcements. On the turn of play, the Axis
player receives two additional G-3 Actions
of any type. German and Italian units may be
combined to perform these two Actions.
Player Note. The Axis does not have to
invade Malta. The units may be used
anywhere – such as their historical support
for Rommel’s 1942 drive into Egypt.
Axis #24: OPERATION FELIX
Operation Felix was the planned German
assault on Gibraltar. It was not implemented
for a number of reasons, mainly the lack of
cooperation from Spain’s Francisco Franco.
The assumption behind this option is that
the forces which were to be used in Felix
were assigned to the Mediterranean for
an amphibious assault as opposed to the
original plan of moving through Spain.
Felix Event marker
The marker is used only Scenario 1 (1941).
During initial set up, add the marker to the
Axis event pool. If picked in 1941 or 1942, the
Axis player may play Felix on this turn or keep
the marker and play it on a subsequent 1941
or 1942 turn; if picked in 1943 it is treated as
no effect and discarded. Additionally, Felix
may not be executed in 1943 or May 1941 (the
turn of Operation Mercury). Once executed,
the marker is removed from the game.
Executing Operation Felix
Announce the event at the end of any Axis
event phase and conduct the following steps.
1) The Axis player immediately receives all
Felix reinforcement units. Place the units
on Gibraltar; this requires no movement.
2) Receive one Me-110, one Ju-87 and
one Ju-88 from the Mercury units (even
if they had been previously eliminated or
withdrawn). Place them on Gibraltar as if
they had flown a mission from an adjacent
area. (If the Axis has implemented Hitler
Turns South, these air units are not received
as part of Felix—they are already in play.)
World at WAR 41 | APR–MAY 2015
3) The Axis player immediately takes
two G-3 Actions using the Felix land/
air units to target Gibraltar.
4) At the conclusion of these Actions,
the Felix air units are withdrawn. If
Mercury has not yet occurred, they may
be used for that event later in the game.
The Felix ground units remain in play.
Control of Gibraltar
As long as the Axis controls Gibraltar
with at least one ground unit, Allied
naval units must cease movement when
entering the Gibraltar Approach sea zone
(from either direction). Those units may
move out normally on their next Action.
Additional Victory Conditions
If the Axis executes Operation Felix, the Axis
must win a Sudden Death Victory by the end of
the game. Any other result is an Allied victory.
If the marker is never picked, or if it is picked
and not played, use regular victory conditions.
Design Note. The idea here is that if
the Germans got Spain involved in the
war, they would have to win a decisive
victory in the Mediterranean.
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