"Birth of America" Manual
EPILEPSY WARNING
PLEASE READ THIS NOTICE BEFORE PLAYING THIS GAME OR BEFORE ALLOWING
YOUR CHILDREN TO PLAY.
Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of consciousness when
subjected to strong, flashing lights for long periods of time. Such individuals may
therefore experience a seizure while operating computer or video games. This can
also affect individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have never
previously experienced a seizure.
If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms (seizures or
loss of consciousness) after exposure to flashing lights, please consult your doctor
before playing this game.
Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a computer and
video games. Should you or your child experience dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or
muscle twitching, loss of consciousness, feelings of disorientation or any type of
involuntary movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately
and consult your doctor before playing again.
PRECAUTIONS DURING USE:
- Do not sit too close to the monitor. Sit as far as comfortably possible.
- Use as small a monitor as possible.
- Do not play when tired or short on sleep.
- Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room.
- Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour.
© 2008 Matrix Publishing LLC. and AGEOD SARL. All Rights Reserved. Matrix Publishing LLC. and Matrix Publishing LLC. logo are trademarks
of Matrix Publishing LLC. All other trademarks and trade names are the properties of their respective owners Matrix Publishing LLC. and
AGEOD SARL make no claim thereto. 1-83881-00093-9-US
THERE’S NO TIME TO DELAY, SOLDIER!
American Civil War: The Blue and the Gray is a
historically accurate, realistic and fun turn-based
grand operational strategy game of the American
Civil War. Based on an expanded and improved
version of the “Birth of America” game engine, the
game enjoys a very intuitive interface and is easy
to learn.
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Contents
Table of Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Unique Features and Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Game Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.1 Installation Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Minimum Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Recommended Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2. The Main Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.1 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.2 Game. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.3 AI (Artificial Intelligence). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.4 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2 Campaigns and Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 Loading, Deleting, and Renaming Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Saving Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5 Play By Email (PBEM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.1 Create a game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.2. Host Sends TRN file to Opponent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.3 Non-Host sends ORD file to Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5.4 Host Resolves Turn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.5.4 Replay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3. Winning the Game (Overview). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1 Victory Points (VP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2 Scenario Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2.1 Objective Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2.2 Sudden Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3 National Morale (NM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3.1 Calculating National Morale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3.2 National Morale and Unit Cohesion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3.3 National Morale and Supply Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.4 Automatic Victory/ Defeat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4. Main Screen and Game Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1 Tour of Main Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.1 The Main Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.2 The Message Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2 Regions and Sea Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3 Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3.1 Cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.3.1 Settlements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3.2 Native Villages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3.3 Towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3.4 Stockades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5
Contents
4.3.5 Fortifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3.6 Harbors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3.7 Depots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.4 Areas and Theaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.5 Map Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.6 Game Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5. Organizing Your Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.1 Understanding the Unit Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.2 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.1 The Unit Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.2 Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.3 Unit Detail panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6. Leaders and Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1 Leader Ranks (Command and Control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.1 Command Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.1.2 Command Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.1.3 Exceeding Command and Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.1.4 Command Point Modifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.2 Leader Attributes and Special Abilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2.1 Leader Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2.2 Leader Special Abilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2.3 Leader Experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2.4 Effects of Leader Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3 Promoting Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7. Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1 Activation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1.1 Activation Check Modifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1.2 Active Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1.3 Inactive Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1.4 Restrictions Placed on Inactive Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2 Movement Orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2.1 Speed of Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2.2 Cohesion Cost of Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2.3 Plotting Movement Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2.4 Editing Movement Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2.5 Reliability of Movement Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.3 Resting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.4 Combat Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5 Blocking Movement and Zone of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5.1 Patrol Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5.2 Evasion Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5.3 Effectiveness of Zone of Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5.4 Fortifications and Zone of Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.6 Intercepting Enemy Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.8 Raiding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.9 Entrenching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.10 Fixed Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.11 Special Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.11.1 Special Order Activity Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6
Contents
7.11.2 Special Orders Available to Land/Naval Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8. Military Intelligence (Fog of War). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1 Detection Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1.1 Detection Point Generation Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1.2 Detection Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.2 Hide Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.2.1 Hide Point Generation Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9. Naval Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.1 Naval Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9.1.1 Naval Activation Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.1.2 Intercepting Naval Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.2 Naval Units and Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.2.1 Replenishment of Naval Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.2.2 Naval Transport of Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.3 Naval Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9.4 Distant Unload. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9.5 Engaging in Naval Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9.5.1 Wind Gauge Determination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9.5.2 Benefits of Having the Wind Gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.6 Weather and Initial Firing Range at Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.7 Naval Fire Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.8 Naval Boarding Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.9 Naval Battle Resolution and Aftermath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.10 Blockade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10. Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.1 The Supply System (Overview). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.1.1 Types of Supply (General Supply and Ammunition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.1.2 Supply Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.2 Supply Sources and Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.3 Penalties for lack of supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.4 Inherent regimental supply reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.5 Supply wagons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.6 Looting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10.7 Naval units supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11. Field Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11.1 Engaging in Field Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11.2 Combat Frontage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11.3 Combat Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11.4 Fire Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
11.4.1 Fire Combat Initiative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
11.4.2 Fire Combat Modifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
11.4.3 Fire Combat Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.4.4 Fire Combat Effects - Casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.4.5 Fire Combat Effects – Cohesion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.5 Assault Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.5.1 Assault Combat Initiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.5.2 Assault Combat Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.5.3 Assault Combat Effects – Casualties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
11.6 Special Assault Actions (Cavalry Charges & Forming Squares) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7
Contents
11.6.1 Cavalry Charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.6.2 Forming Squares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.6.3 Cavalry Charge Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.8 Morale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
11.8.1 Morale Checks Prior to Combat Round. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.8.2 Morale Checks During Combat Round . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.8.3 Morale Checks and Cohesion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.9 Withdrawal During Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.9.1 Withdrawal Attempt Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11.9.2 Failure to Withdraw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.9.3 Successful Withdrawal from Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.9.4 Withdrawal vs. Rout Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.9.5 Complete Rout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.10 Ending Field Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.10.1 Pursuit of Routing Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.10.2 Effects of Battle on Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
11.10.3 Effects of Battle on Unit Experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.10.4 Effects of Battle on National Morale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
11.10.5 Effects of Battle on Victory Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12. Siege Combat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12.1 Laying Siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12.1.1 Calculating the Attacking Force Siege Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12.1.2 Calculating the Defending Force Siege Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
12.1.3 Siege Resolution Value (SRV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
12.2 Storming a Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
13. Battle Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
14. Command Postures and Rules of Engagement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
14.1 Command Postures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
14.2 Rules of Engagement (ROE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14.2.1 Assault and Offensive Posture ROEs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
14.2.2 Defensive and Passive ROEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
15. Attrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
15.1 Effects of Attrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
15.1.1 Checking Attrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
15.1.2 Attrition Reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
15.2 Hardened Attrition Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
15.3 Scorched Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
16. Military Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
16.1 Controlling Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
16.1.1 Gaining and Losing Military Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16.1.2 Effects of Military Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16.1.3 Entering Hostile Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16.1.4 Controlling Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16.2 Civilian Loyalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
16.2.1 Effects of Civilian Loyalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
16.2.2 Open Revolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
16.2.3 Influencing Loyalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
16.2.4 Partisans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8
Contents
16.3 Engagement Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17. The Ledger (Managing Your Forces). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17.1 The Forces List (F1 key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17.1.1 Sorting the Forces List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17.1.2 Forces List Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
17.1.3 Jump to Unit Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.1.4 Second Level Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.2 Available Replacements Screen (F2 key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.3 Military Options Screen (F3 key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.4 Diplomatic Options Screen (F4 key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.5 Secretary of State (Objectives) Screen (F5 key) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
17.6 Secretary of State (Historical Briefing) Screen (F6 key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
18. Weather and Seasonal Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
19. Losses and Replacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
19.1 The Replacement Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
19.1.2 Absorbing Replacements :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
19.1.3 Eligibility to Receive Replacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
19.1.4 Prohibitions to Receiving Replacements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
19.2 Automatic Garrisons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
20. Capturing Enemy Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
20.1 Capturing Enemy Units after Field Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
20.2 Capturing Enemy Units after Siege Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
20.3 Using Captured Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
21. Unit Experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
21.1 Experience Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
21.1.1 Experience Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
21.1.2 Gaining Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
21.2 Effects of Experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
22. Scenario Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Appendices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
A. Terrain Summary for Land Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
B. Movement Summary for Naval Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
C. Shortcut Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
D. Map Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
E. NATO Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
F. Leader Special Abilities (Traits). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
F1. Special Abilities Applicable Only to Element or Leader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
F2. Special Abilities Applicable Only to the Unit to which an Element Belongs . . . . . 77
F3. Special Abilities Applicable to an Entire Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
F4. Special Abilities Applicable to an Entire Force only When Leader with Special Ability
is in Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
H. Manual Errata and Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
J. Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
9
Grab the bayonet and fall in...
Step back to the age of Napoleon and follow in the earliest footsteps of this military genius! Napoleon in Italy is a hex based strategy game that includes both the strategic level of movement and
logistics combined with playable tactical battles.
Lead the young Napoleon’s French Army on his first campaign against the Austrians and Piedmontese in Northern Italy or try to stop Napoleon’s dedicated army and tactical brilliance with
the mighty allied army of Austria. Experience a great interface and addicting gameplay based on
realistically modelled Napoleonic combat.
Units and armies have various attributes like morale, experience, unit cohesion and supply to reflect
the realities of historical operational combat in the Napoleonic era. Leaders are rated for Attack,
Defense and Initiative as well as many special abilties designed to reflect the unique historical
abilities of each commander. A realistic unit replacement system and historical siege and tactical
battle rules bring the ultimate in turn-based gameplay set at the end of the 18th century.
Napoleon in Italy includes a year-long Full Campaign, 7 short historical campaigns and a guided
Tutorial. Each campaign may be played as either side against a cunning AI or a human opponent.
Grab the bayonet and fall in; it’s time to experience Napoleon in Italy!
Getting Started
A game produced by AGE Studio.
Introduction
Wars in America (WIA) is a historical strategy simulation that recreates the early years of warfare
that shook North America from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth centuries (1639-1815).
Players assume the role of military and political leaders in command of land and naval forces
belonging to one of the British Empire (GBR), French Empire (FRA), Spain (SPA), Native Americans
(IND), or the American Colonies/United States (USA). Using a system of simultaneous turn resolution,
the simulation can be played against either the computer’s artificial intelligence (AI) or a human
opponent using file transfer protocols (PBEM) or TCP/IP.
The WIA game system will be familiar to veteran players of AGEOD’s previous titles: Birth of America,
American Civil War and Napoleon’s Campaigns. There are, however, certain differences between
the systems that give WIA a distinctly Colonial North American quality. The WIA game system goes
beyond mere cosmetics to give players an authentic gaming experience that accurately reflects the
conditions on the ground – conditions that generals such as Montcalm, Howe or Washington would
have faced.
Unique Features and Concepts
Even though Wars in America shares a common lineage with earlier AGEOD simulations, many new
features and concepts have been incorporated into the game play.
 PBEM: Zipped file and password encryption
 Rules of Engagement: These new options give players even greater degree of control
over their forces. Now, players can specify the intensity of their attacks and the tenacity
of their defenses. Options range from all-out attacks to probes and feints. On defense,
troops can be ordered to hold their ground at all costs or ‘cut and run’ to minimize
losses.
 New Abilities: There are more than 25 new Leader abilities.
 Cohesion: A new notion for the Birth of America era, representing the ability of troops to
withstand combat and hardships
 Improved Naval AI: Naval AI has been vastly improved and naval combat made much
more deadly. Naval interception rules make the war at sea a true test of nerves.
 New Unit Types: Among the new units making an appearance are partisan bands,
riflemen, gunboats, and spies.
 A Scorched-Earth Rule: Leave the countryside devoid of supply and see if the British can
ever reach Pittsburg or drive the French out of Canada.
 Foreign entry: A concept that allows players to influence the potential intervention in the
war of foreign major powers initially neutral.
 Hardened Attrition Option: This hyper-realistic attrition option forces player to play close
attention to supply and shelter for their troops.
 A user option creates a probability that an inactive leader and his stack can become
‘locked’ (i.e. inactive) for 1 or more turns.
 Engagement Points (EP): The ‘currency’ used to ‘buy’ options that are earned by
successful combat, captures, and by Merchants in certain ocean areas.
 Scenario Options: Players have an opportunity to ‘buy’ certain options (i.e. spend
Engagement Points to purchase new units, get replacements, order supply, etc.)
11
Getting Started
 Privateers: created to hunt and destroy merchants, reducing the opponents gain of EP
 Replay: an mp3-like player that will replay the movements of the previous turn. Very
helpful for PBEM use.
Game Scale
Wars in America consists of a number of scenarios that are divided into game turns each
representing one month (30 days) of game time. The smallest military unit in the game is the
Element. An Element is a company, squadron or battery consisting of at least one (1) strength point.
Unit strength points are equivalent to approximately 20-30 men for infantry and cavalry units, 10
men per strength point in artillery batteries. Naval units represent squadrons of two to four Ship-ofthe-Line, Frigate, or transport vessels.
The map is a 2D representation of eastern North America stretching from the Atlantic coast in the
East to the Mississippi River in the West, and from The Caribbean Sea in the South to the remote
reaches of Hudson Bay in Canada in the North. It is divided into regions, areas, and theaters.
Updates
AGEOD makes every effort to fix any problems with its software or documentation as soon as such
problems are identified. Owners of Wars in America are encouraged to visit http://www.birth-ofamerica.com for the latest available software updates. Moreover, AGEOD’s forums are a great place
to meet other players for discussions of strategy, historical commentary, news, and opinion. If
technical support is required, owners should contact AGEOD via email at [email protected] for a
speedy resolution of specific software issues.
In the main menu of the game, the Update button is now active. When you click on it, it automatically
checks your version of the game, goes on the Internet to AGEOD’s website and checks if a patch is
available to update your game.
1. Installation
1.1 Installation Procedure
Start your computer and insert the CD labeled WIA into your CD-ROM or DVD drive. The setup
program will start automatically. Follow the on-screen instructions to install the game.
If Autoplay is not activated, start the setup program by double clicking on My Computer, then on the
icon of your CD-ROM drive and finally on “setup.exe”.
If Microsoft (R) DirectX 9.0c (R) is not present on your PC, please launch the DirectX installer, which
can be found on the CD-ROM.
Once the game has been installed, you can start it from the Windows Start menu, the desktop
shortcut or if Autoplay is enabled, by inserting the CD. Note that the CD is not required to play the
game.
12
Getting Started
Removing the game: select “add/remove programs” in the Control Panel. Select WIA. Click “add/
remove”. This will uninstall WIA, including saved games.
1.2 System Requirements
Minimum Requirements
Processor: Intel Pentium or AMD, 1500 MHz
RAM: 1024 MB
Graphic Card: 128 MB vRAM, DirectX 9.0c compatible
Sound Card: 16-bit, DirectX 9.0c compatible (DirectMusic compliant)
CD Rom: x 8
Peripherals: Microsoft compatible keyboard and mouse
Operating System: Windows XP, Vista
Hard Disk: 2000 MB free disk space
DirectX: Version 9.0c
Recommended Requirements
Processor: Intel Pentium IV or AMD Athlon, 2000 MHz
RAM: 1024 MB (2048 MB of RAM for Vista)
Graphic Card: 128 MB vRAM, DirectX 9.0c compatible 256 Mb
Sound Card: 16-bit, DirectX 9.0c compatible (DirectMusic compliant)
CD Rom: x 8
Peripherals: Microsoft compatible keyboard and mouse
Operating System: Windows XP, Vista
Hard Disk: 2000 MB free disk space
DirectX: Version 9.0c
2. The Main Menu
The Main Menu Screen allows players to access basic game functions such as loading saved
games, starting new games, viewing a movie-like replay of the last turn and setting game options.
2.1 Options
Game options are divided into various sub-groups.
2.1.1 Media
The Media sub-group contains options pertaining to the way in which game audio is configured and
graphics are displayed. Other game settings in the Media sub-group let players set tool-tip delays,
pauses after battles, and combat animations.
13
Getting Started
2.1.2 Game
The Game sub-group contains options allowing players to activate/deactivate the Fog of War, set
Attrition conditions and intensity, use of randomized Leaders, and more. The default settings are
recommended, especially for players that are new to the game system used in WIA.
2.1.3 AI (Artificial Intelligence)
The AI sub-group contains options allowing players to set individual parameters of the game’s AI.
Players can make the AI very powerful and thus present themselves with greater challenges.
2.1.4 System
The System sub-group contains options allowing players to adjust technical settings. These include
‘Texture Init.’ and ‘Region pre-caching’—options that allow for smoother scrolling. The default
settings are recommended for most systems. However, the Armory section of AGEOD’s forum can
help you determine which settings are best for your computer system.
Important Note: Some scenarios require that the Limited Map loading
option be turned off in order to scroll the Main Screen.
2.2 Campaigns and Scenarios
When starting a new game, players are presented with a list of available scenario. These range from
relatively short scenarios to full campaign games. Short scenarios are limited in scope and involve
less territory on the game map. Full campaign games, like the Campaign 1775-1783, involve entire
theaters of play and literally hundreds of individual Leaders and units. (A campaign game that lets
players fight years of North American warfare on a scale which takes into account Company and
Battalion-sized strength points is bound to take considerable time and effort.)
The list of scenarios also includes a Tutorial exercise that is HIGHLY recommended for new players.
The game mechanics of Wars in America are relatively simply to learn, but don’t be deceived—the
game system is incredibly complex and nuanced behind the scenes. Learning to master the
subtleties requires patience and practice.
The tool-tip feature gives brief descriptions of each of the scenarios. Once players have made a
scenario selection, starting the game merely requires choosing a side (example: FRA or GBR).
2.3 Loading, Deleting, and Renaming Games
Instead of starting a new game, players may ‘Resume’ a previously-saved or automatically-saved
game. Players also have the option to Rename, Delete, or Restore a previous turn as indicated by the
tool-tip. Holding the mouse over the game in the Load Game window provides players with shortcuts to these file-handling options. (It is not advised to rename a saved game outside of WIA.)
2.4 Saving Games
Games are saved automatically by the game system upon completion of a game turn. Usually,
the only time a player needs to manually save a game is when they Quit in the middle of plotting
movement for an up-coming game turn and want to resume issuing orders upon restarting the
14
Getting Started
game. Players may save a game at any time by pressing the Esc key and accessing the Main Menu.
From here, players can select the Save Game menu.
Note: Players also have the option of restoring any of the previous 24
turns of a Saved game. Note that all saved turns of a game which are more
recent than the one restored are lost once this ‘older’ turn of that game is
actually restored.
2.5 Play By Email (PBEM)
WIA can be played against another human opponent using PBEM or any other valid file transfer
protocol, such as Instant Messaging. One of the players (the “Host”) will have to initiate the game.
The procedure is detailed as follows:
2.5.1 Create a game
Step1: The Hosting player chooses a Campaign/Scenario and a side and starts the game as usual.
This automatically generates a sub-folder in the C:\Program Files\AGEODs Wars in America\WIA\
Saves\ directory, named after the Campaign or Scenario selected (1775 Campaign if you play the
‘1775 Campaign’ scenario, for example). Please note that a number helps differentiate between
multiple instances of the same Campaign/Scenario. However, the best way to avoid confusion is
to rename the in-game Save (e.g. 1775 Campaign John vs. Joe). Do NOT rename any WIA files
externally to the game.
In this newly created folder you will find two TRN files, each with three letters indicating which side
it belongs to (example: FRA or GBR).
Note: C:\Program Files\AGEODs... is the default directory. This directory may be titled something
different if the game is installed to another location. It is also different for the different language
versions of Windows.
2.5.2. Host Sends TRN file to Opponent
Step 2: The Hosting player sends his opponent the TRN file with the opponent’s designation (i.e.
if you play the FRA, then send the COL file to your opponent). The opponent must store this file in
the folder named WIAGame\WIA\Saves\. It is advisable to use subfolders to keep all PBEM games
in progress separate. For example, the opponent could save the TRN file under the WIAGame\WIA\
Saves\JohnVsJoe subfolder.
Note: In order to avoid possible data corruption during the file E-mail transfer process, it is strongly
advised to E-Mail the file using the Zip file and password options included.
2.5.3 Non-Host sends ORD file to Host
Step 3: Non-Hosting player now loads the game and gives his orders for the upcoming turn.
When ready, the Non-Hosting player saves the game. This will generate an ORD file (in the folders
mentioned above).
Important: The Non-Hosting player should NOT click on End Turn button at this step. The NonHosting player now sends his ORD file to the Hosting player.
15
Getting Started
2.5.4 Host Resolves Turn
Step 4: The Hosting player saves the ORD file received from his opponent into the appropriate
directory and loads the game again. He now clicks on End Turn button to launch the turn resolution,
where all orders are then executed. A new turn is now ready to start. Go back to step # 2 and repeat.
Note: The Non-Hosting player now has the opportunity to “play back”
his opponent’s turn using the new ‘Playback’ feature.
2.5.4 Replay
Selecting Replay allows the player to view a ‘movie-like’ replay of the last turn execution. The
controls are similar to an MP3 player: Forward, Reverse, Stop, Start, etc. A day-by-day stepwise
button is also available.
3. Winning the Game (Overview)
Victory in Wars in America is determined at the conclusion of each scenario by comparing Victory
Point totals. The side (ex: FRA or GBR) with the most Victory Points (VP) is declared the winner.
Relative differences between Victory Point totals can be used as a measure of how well a player
performed in comparison to his opponent. Scenarios can be brought to an immediate conclusion if
conditions for Automatic Victory or Automatic Defeat are met. A scenario can also immediately end if
conditions for Sudden Death are met.
3.1 Victory Points (VP)
Victory Points are earned and accrued each turn for such things as holding important locations
on the map, achieving goals as set forth by individual scenarios, and by destroying enemy units.
A running total of a player’s current Victory Points is displayed in the top left corner of the Main
Screen. Once earned, Victory Points are never lost except in cases where a player has decided to
promote a Leader outside the normal Seniority hierarchy (i.e. players do not lose VPs if their own
units are destroyed or if they lose control of designated Objectives).
Victory Point Modifiers
Number of VPs Earned/Lost
Strategic City
+1 VP per turn
Objective City
+1 to 3 VPs per turn (according to scenario)
Enemy unit destroyed
(+ VPs) Variable according to unit
Leader Promotions which Bypass Seniority
(− VPs) Variable according to BYPASSED
Leader’s Political Cost
Important Note: In order to gain credit for a captured Objective or Strategic city, a player must
garrison the location with a regular unit (i.e. no Irregulars, Militias) if the region has a Loyalty Rating
less than 51%.
16
Getting Started
3.2 Scenario Objectives
Each scenario in Wars in America has a specific list of Objectives representing important cities and
goals that players attempt to own or achieve throughout the course of play. These Objectives are
listed in the introductory summary before the start of each scenario and on the Objectives Screen
(F5 key) during play.
3.2.1 Objective Cities
Players start scenarios with one or more Objective cities already in their possession; the rest
must be taken from the enemy before the scenario’s end. On the Objectives Screen (F5 key), each
Objective city is listed along with its value in National Morale points. National Morale Points gained
or lost as a result of Objective cities changing hands is only calculated once—at the end of the turn.
In other words, gaining NM points for capturing a city is a one-shot deal; you don’t get NM for the
city every turn (unlike Victory Points, which are earned each turn).
NM value of Objective City
VPs Received Each Turn
1 or 2 National Morale Points
1 VP
3 or 4 National Morale Points
2 VPs
5+ National Morale Points
3 VPs
3.2.2 Sudden Death
Sudden Death refers to winning the scenario by owning or capturing a certain number of Objective
Cities. Some scenarios may be ended early if a player reaches the required number of cities.
This type of victory should be considered a Major Victory. Not all scenarios have Sudden Death
conditions. If a scenario has Sudden Death conditions, these conditions will be listed in the scenario
summary along with the number of cities required to trigger Sudden Death.
3.3 National Morale (NM)
National Morale is used to represent the willingness of a civilian population (and its military forces)
to ‘continue the fight’. Having a high National Morale total indicates that a populace is more inclined
to support the war effort; a low National Morale total is an indication that the people are close to
giving up. In game terms, a high National Morale may trigger an Automatic Victory while conversely
a low National Morale may trigger an Automatic Defeat. National Morale is also used to modify
unit cohesion, the production of supplies, and the accumulation of money. Winning a scenario by
reaching the Automatic Victory threshold should be viewed as a Major Victory whereas winning by
virtue of having more Victory Points is a Minor Victory.
3.3.1 Calculating National Morale
Each side (e.g. FRA or GBR) is given a National Morale total at the start of each scenario. As with
Victory Points, National Morale is calculated each turn and a running total is displayed in the top left
corner of the Main Screen. Unlike Victory Points, however, a player’s National Morale total can be
(and often is) reduced by events that occur during a turn.
17
Getting Started
National Morale modifiers
Effect on NM
Capture of Objective regions/cities
Increases NM according to value set by
scenario
Loss of Objective regions/cities
Reduces NM according to value set by scenario
Winning a Battle
Increases NM according to # of enemy units
destroyed
Losing a Battle
Reduces NM according to # of friendly units
lost
Losing Leaders (Casualties or Loss of Seniority)
Reduces NM according to Leader’s Political
Cost
Leader Promotions which bypass Seniority
Reduces NM according to BYPASSED Leader’s
Political Cost
War Resilience
Increases NM if side retains its capital city
War Weariness
Reduces NM according to scenario
3.3.2 National Morale and Unit Cohesion
National Morale affects unit cohesion (reflecting the fact that military forces with high morale
are generally more combat-efficient). A high National Morale also increases the speed at which
Cohesion is recovered. For every two NM above 100, a unit’s maximum cohesion total is increased
by 1%. For every two NM below 100, a unit’s maximum cohesion total is reduced by 1%.
3.3.3 National Morale and Supply Production
National Morale affects the amount of supplies produced by supply sources. For every two NM
above 100, the amount of supplies produced by a supply source is increased by 1%. For every two
NM below 100, the amount of supplies produced by a supply source is reduced by 1%.
For example: A side which has a National Morale of 80 (i.e. 20 points less than 100) would
experience a 10% reduction in unit cohesion. In addition, the overall number of replacement troops
available would also be reduced by 10%. Supply sources would produce 10% fewer supply points.
3.4 Automatic Victory/ Defeat
Automatic Victory is achieved when a side reaches objectives indicated by the scenario . This
information is indicated on the Objectives Screen (F5 key) of the Ledger and as a tool-tip on the
scenario selection menu.
A scenario immediately ends if either side (USA|FRA or GBR) possesses all objectives defined in that
scenario, PLUS at least 50% of that scenario’s strategic cities (note that the number of strategic
cities depends on the scenario) An Automatic Victory is considered a Major Victory; conversely an
Automatic Defeat is considered a Major Defeat.
18
The Game Interface
For example: At the start of the 1775 Campaign objectives cities for Continental player are: Quebec,
Montreal, Detroit, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond, Pittsburgh, Charleston and Wilmington.
In addition there is twenty four strategic cities, so for an automatic victory he must own all the
objectives and at least twelve strategic cities.
4. Main Screen and Game Interface
The majority of your gaming experience in Wars in America will take place while viewing the Main
Screen and satellite displays (i.e. Unit Panel, Unit Detail Panel, etc.). The game map can be scrolled
by moving the mouse to the edges of the field of view or by using the Arrow keys. The map view
may also be ‘Zoomed’ (In or Out) by using the mouse-wheel or by pressing the End, Page Up
and Page Down keys. Press the mouse-wheel button down to toggle between the extreme Zoom
magnifications.
4.1 Tour of Main Screen
The Main Screen below (Figure 4.1) shows the initial game turn of the 1812 Campaign. For
illustrative purposes, the Fog of War option has been turned off.
Figure 4.1 The Main Screen
19
The Game Interface
4.1.1 The Main Screen
Refer to Figure 4.1 regarding the following numbered items of interest.
1. Player Summary Display: This display keeps a running total of a player’s accumulated
Engagement Points, National Morale, and Foreign Help points (if applicable according to
the scenario being played).
2. Terrain and Weather Panel: This panel gives players a visual indication of the terrain and
weather located in the region of the game map where their mouse is currently positioned.
3. Main Commands Panel: This panel contains three (3) buttons that grant access to the
Main Menu, Save Game procedure, and End Turn (used to initiate computer resolution of
plotted activity). The current game date is also located here. A tooltip informs players of
the turns remaining in the scenario being played.
4. Mini Map Display: The mini-map depicts a map of North America and contains a jump
feature allowing players to left-click and view any location on the map (allowable
according to scenario).
5. Globe: Left-clicking on the Globe opens the Ledger. Pressing the Esc key closes the
Ledger.
6. Filters: Left-clicking on these toggle buttons allows players to filter the map. Use the tooltip to determine each filter and its function. Numeric keys on the keyboard also correspond
to various filter functions.
7. Special Orders Panel: This panel contains Special Orders buttons. A grayed-out or
subdued button indicates that a particular Special Order is either not applicable or
unavailable.
8. Postures and ROE Buttons: The top row of buttons allows players to set their desired
Command Postures. The bottom row of buttons allows players to set Rules of Engagement.
9. Unit Panel: The Unit Panel displays the details and composition of the currently selected
Force. The individual unit images appearing on the Unit Panel are referred to as ‘unit
counters’. During a game turn, the Unit Panel is replaced by a Message Log. The Message
Log is also displayed if no Force is selected.
10.Elements Panel: The Elements panel contains a graphic representation of all elements
belonging to a selected unit. Left-clicking on an Element icon gives players access to the
Unit Detail panel for that element.
11.Troop Display Marker (TDM): Forces outside of structures are represented on the game
map by their TDMs. A TDM contains a portrait of the Force’s Leader, a color-coded
background indicating nationality, an icon indicating the side to which the Force belongs,
a series of bullets representing the size of the selected Force, and a number indicating the
number of additional Forces in the region.
4.1.2 The Message Log
Left-clicking the End Turn button ends a player’s ability to issue orders for the up-coming game turn
and initiates the game turn resolution segment. The Unit Panel is converted into a Message Log
window as seen in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2 The Message Log
20
The Game Interface
The Message Log contains a summary of events that took place during the game turn. Message Log
text that is colored red indicates events of particular importance (events in red may be clicked to
view a pop-up newspaper account).
The six toggle buttons to the left of the Message Log window act as message filters. Use these
toggles to filter out unwanted messages or highlight messages concerning particular topics. Doubleclicking on a message line in the log jumps the Main Screen to the section of map pertaining to that
message.
4.2 Regions and Sea Zones
Land Forces and naval units move across the game map by tracing their movement paths into (and
through) hundreds of land regions and sea zones. Holding the mouse over a region or sea zone
creates a tool-tip display that provides players with information specific to the region or zone.
Regions are identified in part by their Civilization Level. The four (4) Civilizations levels are: Wild,
Cleared, Developed, and Rich.
Forces have a limited ability to ‘live off the land’ (i.e. forage) depending upon the civilization level
of a region. Regions that are considered Wild, for example, provide less forage than regions that
are deemed Rich. Land forces may not enter Sea Zones except when being transported by naval
vessels. Therefore, forage is not available in Sea Zones.
4.3 Structures
Cities, towns, fortifications, harbors, and depots are known collectively as ‘structures’. Their
presence on the map is indicated by an icon which gives players a visual clue as to their size (i.e.
level) and strength. One of a player’s main goals is to control Objective and Strategic cities in order
to generate Victory Points or trigger an Automatic Victory per the scenario being played.
4.3.1 Cities
Certain cities are designated as Objectives or Strategic locations. All cities have their size indicated
by a number appearing on their name plate. This number represents the Level of the city—from
small cities (Level 1) to very large urban centers (Level 20). Cities act as supply sources according to
their level. Cities larger than Level 6 automatically generate friendly garrisons if manpower of the
appropriate type exists in the Replacement Pool. Cities may be captured by enemy forces, but they
can never be destroyed.
Figure 4.3 Structures: Pictured here, the fortified city of Québec and some other Canadian cities (as seen
in the 1812 Campaign scenario)
21
The Game Interface
4.3.1 Settlements
are very small European communities in the American wilderness. They act as a limited supply
source (for very few units) and they can be captured, entered or destroyed by occupying enemy
units, including Indians and irregulars.
4.3.2 Native Villages
are the Native Americans’ equivalent of settlements. They work as settlement for supply purposes
and can also be destroyed. In addition, in most scenarios where Indians are active, the warbands
usually return automatically to their villages of origin every winter to take winter quarters. (They will
remain locked inside the village for the duration of the winter months.)
4.3.3 Towns
A town is a small city (Levels 1 to 3). Towns are supply sources and have the capability to generate
added supplies if a depot is built inside. Towns may be captured by enemy forces but they can never
be destroyed.
4.3.4 Stockades
Stockades are small basic field fortifications to protect a handful of men against their enemies. They
can be destroyed by all kind of enemies and cannot be used to build depots or forts.
4.3.5 Fortifications
A fortification represents a defensive network of improved positions that provides benefits to
defending units. These structures have a limited ability to generate and distribute supplies.
Like cities, fortifications are represented by Levels that indicate their strength. There are four
fortification levels: Non-Existent (Level 0), Standard (Level 1), High (Level 2), and Exceptional (Level
3). Fortifications interfere with enemy movement and supply transiting the region where they are
located. Fortifications may be captured by enemy forces but only those of level 1 can be destroyed.
4.3.6 Harbors
A Harbor is a structure that has the benefit of being able to accommodate naval vessels. Naval
vessels in a harbor are indicated by a figure next to the anchor icon representing the harbor. While
inside a harbor, naval vessels may not be attacked by enemy naval vessels. Harbors provide supply
to both land and naval forces unless they are blockaded by enemy naval vessels. Naval vessels can
be ‘repaired’ (regain cohesion and reduce damage) while inside a harbor.
4.3.7 Depots
Depots are supply structures that are either represented on the game map at the start of a scenario
or constructed by a player during play. For complete information regarding depots, refer to the
Supply section of this manual.
All structures provide ‘shelter’ from attrition. Players may move a Force ‘inside’ structures by dragdrop(ing) the selected Force on the structure. Once inside, the Force is no longer represented on
the game map by a TDM but rather as a number on a red blinking plate. To select a Force that has
entered a structure, left-click on the structure.
22
The Game Interface
Commander’s Note: Forces regain cohesion faster if they are
placed inside of a structure as opposed to just being in a region with a
structure. In terms of being protected from attrition, however, it makes
no difference whether a Force is physically inside a structure; being in a
region with a structure is enough..A Force that is inside a structure may
only be attacked through the two forms of Siege combat.
4.4 Areas and Theaters
Areas are made up of geographically connected regions. Locally raised units (i.e. militia) have
limited combat efficiency outside of their Areas. Theaters represent a collection of geographically
connected Areas. Use the Map Filters listed in 4.5 Map Filters to see the Areas/Theaters present in
the scenario being played.
4.5 Map Filters
Located next to the Globe and just below the mini-map on the Main Screen are two rows of Map
Filter toggles. These six (6) toggles give players the ability to visualize information on the game map.
 Military Control (1 key): This filter shows regional ownership (where players have
already established Military Control).
 Supply (2 key): The filter shows the location of General Supply and Ammunition
stockpiles as indicated by wooden crates and cannonballs icons respectively (with each
icon equaling approximately 50 supply points). The regions highlighted in green indicate
the extent of your supply network (i.e. regions through which supplies may currently
pass).
 Objectives (3 key): This filter highlights Objective and Strategic cities that grant Victory
Points to their owner.
 Loyalty (4 key): This filter highlights regions according to their level of Loyalty.
 Areas (5 key): This filter indicates the location and size of Areas on the map.
 Theaters (6 key): This filter indicates the location and size of Theaters on the map.
4.6 Game Interface
Game play revolves around activity that takes place on the Main Screen and its assorted display
panels. The interface is designed to allow players to left-click on items to activate or select them.
In addition, the tool-tip feature allows players to gain access to a wealth of information simply by
holding the mouse over various aspects of the game. The tool-tip display is set to “instantaneous’ by
default, but this setting may be changed on the Options Screen.
Pressing the Esc key on your keyboard allows you to close any window that is currently open. If you
press the Esc key while viewing the Main Screen, you are returned to the Main Menu options screen.
Note: A list of keyboard short-cut keys is available in the Appendix
section of this manual.
23
Units & Leaders
5. Organizing Your Forces
5.1 Understanding the Unit Panel
The Unit Panel is a versatile tool for viewing, selecting, and organizing your Forces (Units, Leaders,
Naval vessels, Forces, Corps, Supply Wagons, etc.). Left-clicking on Forces (including Leaders and
garrisoned structures) on the game map causes a horizontal display window known as the Unit
Panel to appear along the bottom edge of the screen.
Figure 5.2 The Unit Panel is the primary means of gathering information about friendly and enemy
forces.
The Unit Panel arranges and displays unit counters belonging to the Force you selected. Arrow
buttons to the left and right of the Unit Panel allow you to scroll through the row of units counters
making up the Force. Only one Force can be viewed at a time. If multiple Forces are present in the
same location on the game map, these are displayed as ‘tabs’ along the top of the Unit Panel. These
additional Forces can be viewed by left-clicking on their respective tabs.
Information specific to the Force you are viewing is displayed above the unit counters. This
information includes:
 the name of the Force,
 the number of component units contained in the Force,
 the Combat Efficiency of the Force (PWR), a numerical representation of the relative
power of the Force,
 icons that display tooltip information (General Supply and Ammunition levels, supply
expenditures, detection and evasive ratings, and penetration indicators),
 a white or brown envelope indicating Activation status,
 Movement and Combat penalties (flashing red %) due to insufficient Command ratings
(if any).
Note: Hold down the Ctrl key to see how many men are in the Force
currently being viewed on the Unit Panel.
24
Units & Leaders
5.2 Units
The term ‘unit’ refers to military
formations that are represented by
a single ‘counter’ and can be moved
independently on the game map.
Units can vary in size from regiments,
artillery batteries, and even individual
Leaders. Note that size and strength
are two different concepts. It is
possible to have a Regiment-sized
unit (weakened by attrition or combat
losses) be reduced in strength to less
than a company.
Figure 5.3 Shown here are unit counters
for two typical units— Leaders and
combat units.
5.2.1 The Unit Counter
When displayed on the Unit Panel, a unit counter shows information specific to the unit. This
information includes:







the nationality of the unit (indicated by the counter’s background color),
zone of origin (primarily displayed on militia units),
Special Ability icons (small symbols in the top left corner),
Unit type (shown by the NATO symbol in the top right corner),
Unit experience
Unit Cohesion (represented by the purple column),
Unit Strength (represented by the green column).
5.2.2 Element
Units have internal parts known as elements. An element is the smallest military formation in the
game, usually representing a Battalion, Squadron, or Battery-sized formation. An element may also
represent a multi-battalion regimental-sized formation. Elements cannot be further sub-divided.
(Some units are so small that they contain only one element.) When an Element loses its last
strength point, it is eliminated.
When a unit (or Force) is selected, its component elements are displayed in a window (known as
the Element Display Panel) located to the right of the Unit Panel. The Command Rating (Strategic/
Offensive/Defensive ratings) of the unit’s commanding officer (if any) is displayed across the top
of the Element Display panel. The exact identity of each element (and identity of its parent unit) is
displayed by holding the mouse over the element icon inside the Element Display panel.
5.2.3 Unit Detail panel
Left-click the element icon inside the Element Display panel to open the Unit Detail panel. The Unit
Detail panel consists of three (3) vertically-arranged information panes.
25
Units & Leaders
The top pane displays:








the element icon (NATO symbol representing unit-type),
the element’s nationality,
the element’s national symbol,
the name of the element followed by the element’s position in the unit (2/8 indicates
this is the second element out of a total of 8 elements in the unit),
the element’s experience level (each star symbol indicates one level of experience ),
the element’s strength (manpower symbols, each representing usually 100 men/ 10
men for artillery batteries),
the unit type (i.e. infantry, cavalry, etc.) and actual number of men remaining/ the
maximum number of men allowed. Note that many units start scenarios at less than
their maximum allowable strength,
Seniority and Political Cost (for Leaders).
The middle pane displays a variety of values, ratings, and modifiers that are used when the element
moves, engages in combat, or is assessed by various game routines (i.e. supply, attrition, command,
detection, etc.):
Figure 5.4 Unit Detail Panel: Specific information concerning individual elements is contained on the Unit
Detail panel.
26
Units & Leaders
 Offensive Fire: This value is used by the element when it engages in offensive Fire
combat. The higher the value, the greater the chance this element has of scoring a hit
on enemy units.
 Defensive Fire: This value is used by the element when it engages in defensive Fire
combat. The higher the value, the greater the chance this element has of scoring a hit
on enemy units.
 Initiative: This value is used to determine whether the element will engage in Fire
Combat before or after opposing units. The higher the value, the greater the chance that
this element will fire before enemy units—thus inflicting casualties before suffering any
in return.
 Range: This rating indicates the maximum range of the element’s principal weapons
(i.e. rifle, musket, artillery, bayonet, etc.). A rating of zero indicates that an element’s
principal weapon is used in Assault combat and requires physical contact with an
enemy unit.
 Rate of Fire: This value indicates the number of times this element will fire its principal
weapon per combat round. A high rate of fire gives an element multiple chances of
scoring hits on enemy units per combat round.
 Protection: This value is an indication of an element’s ability to avoid suffering hits from
enemy fire and melee combat. A high Protection value makes it more difficult to inflict
casualties on an element. This value is determined by a number of factors such as
speed, dispersion, flexibility, ability to use terrain, etc.
 Discipline: This value represents the element’s ability to retain its combat effectiveness.
A high Discipline value indicates that an element can withstand greater punishment
without Routing.
 Assault: This value is used by the element when it engages in Melee combat. The
higher the value, the greater the chance this element has of scoring a hit on enemy
units.
 Ranged Damage: These values indicate the number of strength points/cohesion points
the element inflicts when it scores a hit on an enemy unit in Fire combat.
 Assault Damage: These values indicate the number of strength points/cohesion points
the element inflicts when it scores a hit on an enemy unit in Assault combat.
 Cohesion: This value indicates an element’s current number of Cohesion points.
Cohesion points are an expression of an element’s combat readiness and impact on
most game functions (morale, speed, combat efficiency, etc.). The higher the value, the
more able an element is to conduct military operations.
 Movement: This entry indicates the element’s Movement type. Movement types include
Infantry (heavy and light), Cavalry (heavy and light), and Wheeled (normally used by
supply wagons and artillery units). Note: Horse artillery units are classified as Heavy
Cavalry.
 Speed Coefficient: This value represents a multiple used to calculate the speed of
individual elements. The higher the co-efficient, the faster units are able to travel. For
example, a heavy infantry unit needing three (3) days to enter a region with Forestterrain would have its speed coefficient of 150% reduce this time to only two (2) days.
 Detection vs. Land Units: This value represents the ability of an element to detect
enemy land units. The higher the value, the better able an element is to detect an
enemy land unit.
 Detection vs. Sea Units: This value represents the ability of an element to detect enemy
naval units. The higher the value, the better able an element is to detect an enemy naval
unit.
 Hide Value: This value represents the ability of an element to escape detection from
enemy units. The higher the value, the better able an element is to escape detection.
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Units & Leaders
 Weight: This number indicates the relative size of the element (in transport capacity)
and is used when the element is transported by naval units.
 Support Unit: Yes or No. This entry indicates whether the element is a combat element
or a support element.
 Police: This number represents the amount of ‘policing’ an element contributes to
gaining military control over a region on the game map. It is expressed in Police points
per day.
 Supply: These numbers represent the number of General Supply points currently
stockpiled by the element/ maximum General Supply point capacity.
 Ammo: These numbers represent the number of Ammunition points currently stockpiled
by the element/ maximum Ammunition point capacity.
 Patrol/Evade: The values represent the element’s ability to block enemy movement (i.e.
Patrol value) out of a region and the element’s ability to ‘Evade’ or bypass enemy units
(i.e. move through a region containing enemy units). The higher the value, the greater
chance an element has of blocking enemy movement and evading enemy units.
 Blockade: The value represents a naval unit’s relative ability to institute a blockade
of an enemy harbor (naval units only). The higher the value, the greater the unit’s
contribution to the blockade calculation. (The collective blockade values of all
friendly naval units in the sea zone are totaled in order to calculate the blockade’s
effectiveness.)
The bottom pane displays an image representing the element’s principle asset-type (i.e. infantry,
cavalry, artillery, naval vessel, etc.)
6. Leaders and Leadership
Leaders have an enormous impact on the effectiveness and efficiency
of your military assets. Leaders are given leadership ratings that
reflect their historical abilities and which affect almost every aspect of
the game. Units that are ‘leader-less’ and/or Forces that exceed their
Leader’s Command Point capacity are subject to movement and combat
penalties.
Figure 6.1 shown here, 3-star leader Sir Isaac Brock (1812 Campaign), with
special abilities traits shown on the left of his ‘counter’
6.1 Leader Ranks (Command and Control)
The ability of Leaders to effectively command military assets is expressed as a comparison of
their rank in relation to the number (and size) of the units under their command. Every Leader in
the game is assigned a rank ranging from 1-star to 3-stars. (Naval Leaders are all referred to as
Admirals regardless of rank.)
 1-star General: Brigadier General
 2-star General: Major General
 3-star General: Viceroy, Marshall, Lieutenant General
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Units & Leaders
6.1.1 Command Points
Each Leader provides Command Points (CPs) according to his rank. When multiple Leaders exist in a
single Force the Command Points they provide are cumulative and applied to the Force as a whole.
Command Points Summary
 A 1-star Leader provides two (2) Command Points to units in his Force.
 A 2-star Leader provides four (4) Command Points to units in his Force.
 A 3 or 4-star Leader provides twelve (12) Command Points to units in his Force.
6.1.2 Command Cost
Each unit is given a Command Cost which reflects the difficulties a Leader would have in ‘leading’ it
efficiently (large formations are unwieldy). Each Force has a Command Cost equal to the cumulative
number of Command Costs associated with its component units.
Command Cost Summary
 Artillery battery: one (1) CP
 Regiment : one (1) CP
Increased Command Costs are used to represent cultural differences in command and control
methodologies between nationalities.
6.1.3 Exceeding Command and Control
It is perfectly permissible for a Leader to be put in command of units that exceed his ability (i.e.
Command Costs are greater than his Command Points). When this occurs, the Unit Panel displays a
warning in the form of a percentage loss of movement and combat effectiveness. The penalty is
equal to roughly 5% per CP over the Command Point allowance of the Force.
Figure 6.2 Command Penalty. At the start of the 1812 Campaign, Smyth’s Brigade contains units
requiring 5 command points total, while his rank allows him only 4. A penalty of 5% is therefore indicated
on the tool-tip and by the flashing red 5% on the Unit Panel.
6.1.4 Command Point Modifications
The total number of Command Points that can be provided by Leaders in a single Force is effectively
unlimited. This number can be modified by:
 + (Variable): Leader Special Abilities
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Units & Leaders
6.2 Leader Attributes and Special Abilities
In addition to providing leadership in the form of Command Points, Leaders also have various
individual attributes and Special Abilities that differentiate themselves from one another. To get the
best use out of your leaders, be sure to always put the right man in the right job.
6.2.1 Leader Attributes
Each Leader has three (3) principal attributes: a Strategic Rating, an Offensive Rating, and a
Defensive Rating.
 Strategic Rating: A Leader’s Strategic Rating is used to determine the likelihood that he
will be considered ‘Active’ during a game turn. The higher his Strategic Rating, the more
likely he will be ‘Activated’.
 Offensive Rating A Leader’s Offensive Rating is used when a Leader is in command of a
Force that engages in combat while assuming either an Assault or Offensive Posture.
 Defensive Rating A Leader’s Defensive Rating is used when a Leader is in command of
a Force that engages in combat while assuming either a Defensive or Passive Posture.
6.2.2 Leader Special Abilities
Some Leaders possess Special Abilities that give them advantages in certain circumstances. The
Special Abilities that a Leader possesses are indicated by unique Special Ability icons which appear
on his Leader counter. A complete list of these Special Abilities and their effects on game play is
found in the Appendix section of this manual.
6.2.3 Leader Experience
Leaders gain experience from participating in combat. After each battle, Leaders are individually
checked to see if they have gained or lost experience. This determination is based upon the Leader’s
ratio of losses suffered/losses inflicted and has nothing to do with winning or losing the battle. It is
quite possible for Leaders on the losing side to gain experience while leaders on the winning side
may lose experience. Leaders that gain experience become eligible for eventual promotion if all
other conditions are met.
6.2.4 Effects of Leader Experience
Leaders gain tangible benefits from their experience levels just as units do. (Consult Section 21. Unit
Experience for the effect of experience on combat units.) These benefits are accrued as follows:
 Strategic Ratings do not change because of experience.
 A Leader’s Offensive Rating is increased by +1 for each Even level of experience (2, 4,
6, etc.).
 A Leader’s Defensive Rating is increased by +1 for each Odd level of experience (1, 3,
5, etc.).
6.3 Promoting Leaders
Leaders who have proved themselves capable in their current rank may become eligible for
promotion. This is indicated by a flashing promotion icon (a medal) on their counter and a message
to that effect appearing in the Message Log turn summary. Promoting Leaders to the next rank
enhances their ability to provide Command Points.
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Orders
There are several conditions that need to be met in order to promote a Leader:
 An entry in the database must exist for the new rank. Consult the Unit Detail panel for
the Leader to find out if the Leader is eligible. (Is Promotable Yes/No) Many leaders are
not promotable.
 The Leader must have either gained four (4) Seniority ranks or have a Seniority of 1 or
2. (The Leader’s initial Seniority ranking is shown in [brackets] on the Unit Detail panel.
His current Seniority is listed along side his initial [bracketed] Seniority.
Note: Seniority is indicated numerically with the lowest numbers actually
representing more senior Leaders. In other words, a Leader becomes eligible
when his current Seniority is four (4) points lower than his initial Seniority.
7. Orders
Game play in Wars in America is conducted simultaneously. Players plot their activities for the
upcoming game turn (each turn represents one month of game time) by issuing ‘orders’ to the
various military assets under their command. Once a player has finished issuing orders to his forces,
the game turn is resolved by left-clicking the End Turn button on the Main Screen. Players are never
required to issue orders. Forces without orders will simply maintain their previous turn Posture and
act or react to the presence of enemy forces accordingly.
7.1 Activation
At the beginning of each turn, every Leader undergoes an ‘Activation Check’. (These checks are
made even if the Leader is currently not commanding any units.) Activation checks are made using
a Leader’s Strategic Rating. The higher a Leader’s Strategic Rating, the greater chance the Leader
will pass the Activation Check. Leaders who pass their Activation Check are considered ‘Active’
for the upcoming game turn. Likewise, Leaders that fail their check are considered ‘Inactive’.
Forces without Leaders are always considered Active but suffer movement and combat penalties
accordingly.
7.1.1 Activation Check Modifiers
The Activation check is modified by the following conditions:
 +1 Strategic Rating: A Leader who was active during the previous game turn increases
his Strategic Rating by one (1) for purposes of the Activation check.
7.1.2 Active Leaders
Leaders who are considered Active are indicated on the game map by having a white-colored
envelope next to their TDM. Forces commanded by Active Leaders may move and engage in combat
normally during the up-coming game turn.
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Orders
7.1.3 Inactive Leaders
Leaders who are considered Inactive are indicated on the game map by having a brown-colored
envelope next to their TDM. Units and Forces commanded by Inactive Leaders may still move and
engage in combat during the up-coming game turn, but they do so with penalties applied.
7.1.4 Restrictions Placed on Inactive Leaders
Inactive Leaders may only assume a Defensive or Passive Posture (not applicable for Naval Leaders).
In addition, the following restrictions are placed on Inactive Leaders:
 Inactive units or Forces suffer a 35% reduction in their movement ability (i.e. speed),
 Inactive units or Forces suffer up to a 35% reduction in their combat efficiency if they
engage in combat in hostile territory.
 A user option creates a probability that an inactive leader and his stack can become
‘locked’ (i.e. inactive) for 1 or more turns
7.2 Movement Orders
Forces are moved across the game map in an effort to achieve certain objectives and engage enemy
forces in combat. Movement is always voluntary, and indeed, there are certain benefits derived from
remaining stationary (such as regaining Cohesion Points and receiving replacements).
7.2.1 Speed of Movement
A Force moves at the speed of the slowest Unit in the Force. For example, a force that is
predominately made of infantry moves at the artillery rate IF it contains an artillery battery.
Movement speed is based in part on the average Cohesion value of the elements in the Force in
relation to the maximum average Cohesion of the elements in the Force. The resulting percentage
is halved and then applied to the movement rate of the Force. For example, if a Force has an
average Cohesion value of 30 at the start of its movement and a maximum average Cohesion of 60;
the difference is 50%. This 50% is then cut in half to 25%. Based on Cohesion alone, the moving
Force in this example would move 25% slower than it would normally. Elements that have zero (0)
cohesion points have a speed that is 50% of their normal movement rate.
Movement is also a function of many variable factors. These include the element’s Activation status,
unit-type, speed coefficient, and Command Posture. Other factors include weather conditions,
terrain, the presence of enemy forces, etc. Consult the Terrain Summary in Appendix A for a
complete listing of all terrain-types and their effect on movement rates.
7.2.2 Cohesion Cost of Movement
Moving Forces spend their Cohesion points as follows:
 Normal Land Movement: Land Forces lose one (1) Cohesion Point for each day of
normal land movement. This loss is modified by command posture and whether the
Force is ‘Force Marching’.
 Naval Transport: Land Forces being transported by naval transport lose a minimal
amount of cohesion; a Force will experience a greater loss of Cohesion when moving
through sea zones with harsh weather.
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Orders
 Naval Vessels: Naval vessels lose Cohesion depending on the type of ship and weather
in the regions traveled through.
Forces also take Attrition hits in proportion to the Cohesion cost of the move.
Commander’s Note: It is good practice to assign a Command Posture
(and ROE) to a Force before moving it.
7.2.3 Plotting Movement Orders
Movement orders are plotted on the game map (for both land and naval Forces) by left-clicking on a
Force’s TDM and drag-drop(ping) the Force on its intended destination. Once the Force is dropped on
its intended destination, a movement path linking the starting point and the destination is displayed.
Each leg of the movement path (i.e. each region) is annotated with an indication of the estimated
number of days the Force requires to travel that distance.
7.2.4 Editing Movement Orders
To cancel a movement order, drag-drop the Force back to its original starting location. To cancel a
movement order one leg at a time, press the Delete key once for each leg to be removed. To add
a leg to a movement path, left-click on the Force’s TDM (on the last leg of the movement path)
and drag-drop the Force to the next intended destination. When a Force is moved into an adjacent
region, the path-finding algorithm selects a movement path that is the quickest but not necessarily
the most direct route. To get the most direct route, hold down the CTRL key when drag-drop(ping)
the selected Force.
7.2.5 Reliability of Movement Orders
A Force does not automatically follow orders if conditions change due to enemy interference.
Remember; the simultaneous nature of the game turn means that enemy action must be accounted
for. For example, if a Force in an Offensive Posture is moving through a region and is engaged by
a larger enemy Force, it is likely that the moving Force will seek to withdraw after a few rounds of
combat (thus assuming a Passive Posture and coming to a halt).
7.3 Resting
A Land Force can recover Cohesion Points by spending time resting rather than moving and fighting.
The basic rate of recovery for land units is 0.75 Cohesion Points per day of rest.
This basic rate of 0.75 Cohesion Points per day is modified by the following conditions:









+1.00 CPs: Force is stationary in Passive Posture.
+0.75 CPs: Force is stationary and inside a structure.
+0.50 CPs: Force is stationary and outside of a structure.
+0.50 CPs: Force is stationary and located in a loyal region.
+0.50 CPs: Force is a stationary Irregular unit.
−0.50 CPs: Force is in Offensive Posture.
−0.50 CPs: Force is besieging.
−0.50 CPs: Force is being transported by naval transport.
−1.50 CPs: Force is besieged.
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Orders
 Variable CPs: Cohesion Point gains/losses are modified by National Morale.
 Variable CPs: Certain Special Abilities increase/decrease the amount of CPs recovered.
 A Medical support unit in a Force increases the per turn Cohesion recovery by 15%
7.4 Combat Orders
Players do not issue combat orders per se. Combat is executed automatically (under certain
conditions) if opposing forces are present in the same region and at least one side is assuming an
Assault or Offensive Posture.
7.5 Blocking Movement and Zone of Control
The simultaneous nature of Wars in America movement plotting and resolution segments means that
players (and the computer AI) must anticipate their opponent’s activities. The presence of enemy
forces and fortifications inhibits friendly movement in a land region during the resolution portion of
a game turn. If the presence is strong enough, friendly units will be able to enter a region but move
no further. Note that there is a minimum threshold required to block movement. (A weak enemy ZOC
will not prevent friendly forces from entering a region where they have no Military Control.)
7.5.1 Patrol Values
Each element has a Patrol Value that represents the ability of the element to block (i.e. interrupt)
enemy movement. The modified average of all the Patrol Values belonging to friendly elements
is added to the Patrol value of any friendly fortifications in a region. Having Military Control in the
region also adds to the Patrol Value’s effectiveness. The resulting value represents the strength of
the Zone of Control that friendly forces exert in the region.
7.5.2 Evasion Values
Each element has an Evasion Value that represents the ability of the element to avoid contact with
enemy forces. The sum of all the Evasion Values belonging to friendly elements is modified by
weather and terrain. The size of a friendly Force is also taken into account—smaller forces have an
easier time avoiding enemy contact.
 Small Force: A Small Force is a Force that contains fewer than four (4) Units and/or
fewer than four (4) Command Points worth of Units/Elements.
 Large Force: A Large Force is a Force that contains more than nine (9) Units and/or
more than nine (9) Command Points worth of Units/Elements.
7.5.3 Effectiveness of Zone of Control
Once the strength of the Zone of Control (i.e. total modified Patrol Value) is determined, it is divided
by the Evasion Value of the opposing Force. An opposing Force is prevented from entering any
adjacent region where its level of military control is less than this number. Regions that a Force
cannot enter due to a blocking Zone of Control are indicated in Red on the game map. Additional
information regarding blocked movement is obtained by holding your mouse over adjacent regions.
Commander’s Note: Small fast moving cavalry forces have the best
chance to avoid being pinned down by enemy Zones of Control.
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Orders
7.5.4 Fortifications and Zone of Control
Fortifications have a Patrol Value equal to [the level of Military Control in the region] x [the
fortification level]. As a result, it is virtually impossible to bypass large enemy fortifications.
7.6 Intercepting Enemy Forces
During movement plotting portion of a game turn (i.e. pre-resolution), rather than direct a friendly
Force to move to a specific region, a player may direct a friendly Force to ‘intercept’ an enemy
Force. If during the resolution portion of the game turn, the intercepting Friendly Force fails to locate
the enemy Force, it will immediately stop moving. If a friendly Force attempts to intercept an enemy
Force that subsequently splits into multiple Forces, the intercepting Force will attempt to engage
the larger of the enemy Forces. An intercepting Force will have its movement path adjusted by the
computer AI in order to intercept the moving enemy force.
To intercept an enemy Force, drag-drop the friendly intercepting Force (or Forces) on top of the
enemy Force’s TDM on the game map. An icon indicating the Interception attempt is placed on the
friendly Force’s TDM.
7.8 Raiding
A player who is able to disrupt the enemy’s supply network will severely cripple his opponent before
the first shot is even fired. For this reason, it is important to take advantage of opportunities to strike
at the enemy’s supply lines and infrastructure. Accordingly, players may set the desired behavior of
their Forces using Special Orders as follows:
 Default Orders: Forces will automatically capture any supply stockpiles located in
enemy structures that they capture while moving. The capturing Force first replenishes
its own supply up to capacity, leaving the remaining supplies intact. Enemy structures
remain intact and change ownership.
 Evade Fight: Forces will immediately destroy all enemy supplies they encounter while
moving except in their final destination. Enemy structures remain intact and change
ownership.
 Destroy Depot: To destroy a Depot, a Force must begin the turn in the region with the
enemy Depot and be assigned the ‘Destroy Depot’ Special Order. The Depot is destroyed
before the Force executes any additional movement orders. (Note: Only Level 1 depots
can be destroyed).
 Pillage: Certain units (i.e. Indians, Guerillas, etc) immediately destroy all supplies and
Depots they encounter. (They cannot destroy fortifications.) These units are identifiable
by their ‘Pillage’ Special ability icons.
7.9 Entrenching
Entrenchments provide defensive benefits. They are not considered to be structures, although they
do provide limited shelter against bad weather. They are not subject to the rules governing siege
combat. Entrenchments are attacked using the Field Combat resolution procedure.
Entrenchments are eliminated once ALL units that occupy the entrenchment are moved out of the
region. Friendly Forces within the same region may occupy different levels of entrenchments.
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Orders
Players do not construct entrenchments. Forces under defensive posture do automatically entrench
while idle, but the level of entrenchment is limited to 1.
7.10 Fixed Units
Many scenarios have Forces that begin the game as ‘Fixed’. Fixed Forces are indicated with a Lock
icon next to their TDM on the game map or on the face of their unit counters on the Unit Panel. Fixed
Forces may not move from their fixed location until:
 A friendly non-fixed Force ends its turn in the region (or structure) with the fixed Force
(as per scenario restrictions),
 The fixed Force is attacked by enemy forces,
 A specific date has been reached (as per the tool-tip).
Figure 7.1 Fixed units. Shown here are two units garrisoning Kingston (Ontario, 1812 Campaign). The
small lock icon in the upper left corner of their unit counters indicates that these are ‘fixed units’.
Some Forces (such as automatic garrison elements) are permanently fixed and may never move
under any circumstances. (A Static Element has a Move ratio of 0%). Consult the tool-tip information
for information regarding specific units.
7.11 Special Orders
Special Orders allow players to fine tune how their forces move and react to the enemy during
the upcoming turn. The Special Orders available to a particular Force are indicated on the panel
with Special Orders buttons located to the left of the Unit Panel. Available Special Orders are
highlighted—unavailable Special Orders are subdued. Leaders who are ‘Inactive’ may not perform
certain Special Orders that would otherwise be available to them if they were Active.
7.11.1 Special Order Activity Checks
Unless otherwise noted, Special Orders require that the initiating Force pass an activity check
(mostly related to Leaders and their attributes) in order to perform the desired Special Orders.
Special Orders that require multiple days to complete are always executed at the beginning of a
game turn. If time remains after completion of the Special Order, the Force will carry out any plotted
movement.
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Orders
7.11.2 Special Orders Available to Land/Naval Forces
The following Special Orders are available to land/ naval forces and may be initiated by using the
Special Orders buttons if activated. A Special Orders button will only be Active if the pre-requisite
conditions are met.
Special
Order Icon
Special
Order
Special Order Description/ Effects
Ambush
Non-Moving Irregular Forces (i.e. Partisans, Guerillas, Etc) Can
Try To Set Up An Ambush In Marsh, Forest, Hill, Mountainous
And SwAMP Terrain. If Successful, The Ambushing Units Receive
Combat Benefits (Such As First Fire) And Have An Increased
Chance To Withdraw.
Forced
March
A Fortce That Force Marches Is Able To Move Faster But At An
Increased Loss Of Cohesion. Light Infantry And Cavalry Are Likely
To Suffer Less Cohesion Loss THAN OTHERS. A Force Containing
Only Leaders And/Or Support Units May Not Force March.
Seek Shelter
A Force That Seeks Shelter Will Enter A Structure At Its
Destination. A Force That Retreats In Battle Will Enter A Structure
In The Current Region.
Build Depot
The Force Expends Two (2) Supply Wagon Units or Two (2) Naval
Transport Units And Constructs A Depot. Depot Construction
Requires Two (2) Game Turns To Construct.
Destroy
Depot
Force must begin the turn in the region with the enemy Depot
and be assigned the ‘Destroy Depot’ Special Order. The Depot is
destroyed before the Force executes any additional movement
orders. (Note: Only Level 1 Depots can be destroyed).
Evade
Combat
A Force With This Order Will Seek To Avoid Contact With Enemy
Forces During Its Movement. It Will Also Assume A Raiding Mode.
Naval
Bombard
A Naval Force Will Bombard The First Coastal Structure Or
Entrenched Position It Encounters Provided A Friendly Land Force
Is Present In The Region. Enemy Batteries In Fortifications Or
Entrenchments Greater Than Level 4 Have An Opportunity To
Return Fire.
Disband
Units / Spike
The Guns
If selected, the unit will be disbanded during turn execution.
The player will lose vp and nm as if the unit were destroyed in
combat.
Distant
Unload
Distant unload can be selected when land units are ABOARD a
naval stack (i.e. embarked). select distant unload then select the
land region for unload. Warning : you must move the naval stack
to a coastal region adjacent to the “unload” land destination
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Orders
Special
Order Icon
Special
Order
Special Order Description/ Effects
Destroy Fort
When selected, the level 1 fort in the region will be destroyed
Build Fort
When selected, a level 1 fort will be constructed in the region.
Surrender
Besieged UNITs can surrender, CAUSING THEM TO disappear.
8. Military Intelligence (Fog of War)
Wars in America recreates the uncertainty regarding enemy locations and intentions by presenting
players with a condition known as the ‘Fog of War’. Essentially, the position of enemy forces is
withheld unless players are able to ‘detect’ their presence. Keep in mind, however, that a player’s
ability to detect an enemy is somewhat offset by the enemy’s ability to hide.
8.1 Detection Value
The ability of friendly Forces to see into a region they occupy (and adjacent regions) is determined
by the number of Detection Points that a Force (or friendly region) is able to generate. Detection
Points are not cumulative. Only the largest number of Detection Points generated by a single source
is used. Once determined, this number of Detection Points is known as the Detection Value.
8.1.1 Detection Point Generation Summary
Detection Points (DPs) are generated by the following conditions:
Highest Detection Rating of any friendly unit in the region. For example, an element belonging to a
cavalry brigade usually has a Detection Rating of 4 DPs; a line infantry element usually has 2 DPs.
In regions in which a player does not have friendly forces:
 +2 DPs: Military Control in the region is at least 51% (friendly).
 +2 DPs: Population in the region is at least 51% Loyal.
 −1DP: Detection Points used to see into adjacent regions.
8.1.2 Detection Procedure
The Detection Value is applied to the enemy’s Hide Value. If the Detection Value exceeds the enemy’s
Hide Value, enemy forces are detected (i.e. revealed on the game map). If not, the enemy forces
remain concealed. For each point of Detection Value over an enemy’s Hide Value, the accuracy of the
information received is increased.
38
Naval Units
Commander’s Note: Enemy forces near your territory or units are almost always detected unless the
region is Wild (i.e. no structures present in the region) or the enemy units are particularly stealthy.
Irregular units are good choices for both reconnaissance and infiltration.
8.2 Hide Value
The ability of friendly Forces to escape detection is determined by the number of Hide Points that a
Force generates. Only the lowest number of Hide Points generated by a single source is used. Once
determined, this number of Hide Points is known as the Hide Value and is used in comparison with
an enemy’s Detection Value to determine if a Force has been spotted.
8.2.1 Hide Point Generation Summary
Hide Points (HPs) are generated by the following conditions:
If a Force is located within a region with a structure (either friendly or enemy), its Hide Value is
automatically set to one (1) unless the Force is assuming a Passive Command Posture.





+1 HP: Only Leaders are present in the Force.
+1 HP: Force is Passive or considered Small.
+1 HP: Covered Terrain (Forest, Woods, Wilderness, Mountain, Marsh, Swamps)
+1 HP: Harsh Weather (i.e. Mud, Snow, Frozen, Blizzard)
−1 HP: Force is considered Large.
Hide Points are cumulative. For example, a Small Force (+1 HP) containing only elements of Cossack
cavalry (Irregular) has a base Hide Value of three (3); if located in a region with covered terrain (+1
HP) and harsh weather (+1 HP) it would have a modified Hide Value of six (6). A Force with a Hide
Value of six (6) that remains in a Passive Command Posture is practically invisible—perfect for
scouting behind enemy lines.
 Small Force: A Small Force is a Force that contains fewer than four (4) Units and/or
fewer than four (4) Command Points worth of Units/Elements.
 Large Force: A Large Force is a Force that contains more than nine (9) Units and/or
more than nine (9) Command Points worth of Units/Elements.
9. Naval Units
The naval aspect of Wars in America, while unlikely to be decisive in most scenarios, is nevertheless
an important part of any overall strategic planning. Naval Forces are treated the same as Land
Forces in most instances. Naval Leaders are referred to as ‘Admirals’ regardless of rank. There are
no Chain of Command or Seniority issues to be concerned with. However, it is often a good idea to
promote Admirals when possible to take advantage of the additional Command Points gained by
virtue of the higher rank.
9.1 Naval Movement
Naval movement orders are issued and plotted in the same manner as Land movement. Naval
Forces are assigned Command Postures and ROEs that mirror those assigned to Land Forces.
Movement is traced through adjacent sea zones (i.e. regions). Movement paths are indicated on the
game map and annotated with the estimated number of days required to reach each sea zone.
39
Naval Units
9.1.1 Naval Activation Checks
Admirals are required to make Activation Checks each game turn. However, an Admiral who fails the
Activation check is not prevented from assuming an Offensive Command Posture, only delayed in
executing his movement orders.
9.1.2 Intercepting Naval Movement
Naval Forces can never be directly prevented from entering a sea zone (or river section). However,
whenever a naval Force enters a sea zone (or river section) where an opposing naval Force
is present, each naval unit uses its Patrol and Evasion Ratings to determine whether a naval
engagement occurs. Coastal fortifications (and fortifications astride a navigable river) have high
Patrol Values. In most cases this will enable them to fire on opposing naval forces as they pass by.
9.2 Naval Units and Supply
Naval vessels require General Supply and Ammunition to operate efficiently just as land units do.
9.2.1 Replenishment of Naval Units
Naval units may replenish their inherent supplies of General Supply and Ammunition supply points in
friendly-controlled Ports which have a supply of General Supply and/or Ammunition points available.
Naval units may replenish their inherent General Supply points while at sea if they occupy a sea
zone adjacent to a land region with a supply of General Supply points available.
9.2.2 Naval Transport of Supplies
Naval Transport units may be used to transport and distribute supplies (both General Supply and
Ammunition) to friendly land units and structures located in adjacent coastal regions. This method of
distributing supplies is similar to that used by Supply Wagons.
9.3 Naval Transport
Both sides may have naval vessels designated as transports. Naval transports are distinguished by
their carrying capacity. For example, a large naval transport has the ability to transport (i.e. carry
on-board) up to ten (10) points of transport weight. Transports rated as Tiny and even some Ships of
the Line have the ability to transport one (1) point of transport weight.
Naval Transport Procedure
There are two separate ways in which land units may board naval transports:
Land units begin a game turn located inside a harbor with a Force containing naval transports. The
land Force is combined with the transporting naval Force by drag-dropping the land Force on the
naval Force’s tab (on the Unit Panel). The transporting naval Force must have sufficient transport
capacity (i.e. transport points greater than or equal to the ‘weight’ of the land units). A movement
order may now be issued to the transporting naval Force.
Land units begin a game turn in a region adjacent to a coastal sea zone containing a naval Force
with transport units. The land Force is combined with the naval Force by drag-dropping the land
Force on the naval Force’s TDM. A movement order may be issued to the naval transport Force. This
movement order will be delayed until the land Force boards the transports.
40
Naval Units
Land units may remain on-board transport vessels in sea zones indefinitely. However, land units
will suffer attrition losses while at sea. Land units automatically disembark (i.e. leave the naval
transports) when the transporting naval Force enters a harbor. They may also disembark in a region
without a harbor (i.e. conduct an Amphibious Landing).
9.4 Distant Unload
Amphibious Landing Procedure
The Amphibious Landing procedure uses the Distant Unload special order:
Select a naval stack containing embarked land units. Activate the Distant unload button and select
the land region where the land units will be unloaded.
Move the naval fForce to the a coastal region boarding the distant land destination. At the end of
naval movement, the land forces will be unloaded in the adjacent land region.
Warning Note: all land units will be disembarked from the naval stack.
9.5 Engaging in Naval Combat
Naval combat is handled similarly to Land combat between opposing Forces in the same sea zone.
At least one of the Forces must be assigned an Offensive Posture. Naval Forces engage in combat
according to their assigned Command Postures and ROEs. Each engagement is conducted as a
series of six (6) consecutive combat rounds per day. Combat continues until one side or the other
decides to withdraw, is forced to withdraw, is destroyed, or night falls at the end of the sixth combat
round. Combat resumes the following day with each side having to pass a Commitment Check. If
neither side passes its Commitment Check, the battle is immediately ended and considered a Draw.
9.5.1 Wind Gauge Determination
The ‘Wind Gauge’ is a term used to describe the tactical advantage derived from having the wind
blowing in a favorable direction. Since all fighting ships in this era were ‘sailed’ or oared, the speed
and direction of the wind is an important consideration.
Wind Gauge is determined by comparing the Strategic Rating of the opposing Admirals (in
command) along with the following conditional modifiers:
Strategic Rating of Admiral in command (the default Strategic Rating is [3] if no Admiral is in
command,
Combat bonuses due to Leader Special Ability (Admiral in command, bonuses can be positive or
negative modifiers).
The side with the highest modified Strategic Rating is considered to have gained the ‘Wind Gauge’.
If both sides have an equal Strategic Rating after modifications, neither side is considered to have
obtained the ‘Wind Gauge’.
41
Naval Units
9.5.2 Benefits of Having the Wind Gauge
The side that gains advantage of the Wind Gauge receives the following benefits:
 the Fire Value of combat vessels is increased by 15%,
 the chance of Boarding is increased to 50%,
 the Discipline Value of friendly vessels is raised for Boarding purposes.
9.6 Weather and Initial Firing Range at Sea
The initial range at which combat takes place is determined by identifying the element with the
longest (i.e highest) Firing range. This initial range is modified by weather conditions (usually
resulting in a reduction). The first round of combat takes place at this modified range.
This range is reduced by one (1) during each subsequent round of combat until the combat range
reaches a minimum of one (1). Combat will continue to take place at a range of one (1) unless
Boarding occurs.
9.7 Naval Fire Combat
In order for elements to fire during the course of a naval combat round, they must meet the
following criteria:
 the element must be in range,
 the element must still have the ability to fire (i.e. not yet reached its maximum Rate of
Fire for the round),
 the element must have at least 10% of its initial ammunition supply remaining.
If the element meets these criteria, it is allowed to fire (using either its Offensive Fire Value or
Defensive Fire Value). Naval Fire combat is resolved by comparing an element’s Fire Value to the
Protection Value of the defending units.
9.8 Naval Boarding Combat
Boarding is essentially a naval version of melee combat. Unlike land combat, Boarding is not
automatic. In fact, in any one naval engagement, there is only a 30% chance (per day) that Boarding
will occur. If the side with the Wind Gauge has a greater average crew Discipline Rating than the
opposing side, the chance of Boarding is increased to 50%. If the side with the Wind Gauge has a
lower average crew Discipline Rating than the opposing side, the chance of Boarding is reduced to
only 10%. Some Admirals (such as British admiral Sir George B. Rodney) have Special Abilities that
either make Boarding automatic or modify the chance that Boarding will occur.
Once a Boarding action has occurred, neither side is able to fire (either offensively or defensively).
Combat is instead resolved by comparing the attacking element’s Assault Value to the Assault Value
of the defending units.
Note: Currently, players may not capture enemy ships in Boarding
actions. Losses due to boarding are reflected as normal hits.
42
Supply
9.9 Naval Battle Resolution and Aftermath
The Withdrawal procedure is calculated and executed in the same way as Land combat. A naval
force that withdraws from combat (either voluntarily or otherwise) is moved to an adjacent sea zone
or section of river. The winner of a naval combat is determined according to the losses suffered and
losses inflicted on the enemy. Leader casualties are checked and indicated on the Message Log.
Naval vessels can recover Cohesion Points by spending time resting in a harbor rather than sailing
and fighting. The basic rate of recovery for naval vessels is two (2.0) Cohesion Points per day of rest.
Naval vessels that are at sea (i.e. not in a harbor) do not recover Cohesion regardless of whether
they move or fight.
Commander’s Note: Damaged elements do not recover losses while at
sea. It is a good practice to have damaged vessels return to a friendly harbor.
9.10 Blockade
One of the more effective ways that seapower can influence a land campaign is through blockading
enemy harbors. A blockade is nothing more than a cordon of naval combat vessels that seeks to
prevent enemy ships from entering or leaving a particular harbor.
Each harbor has one or more exit points (sea zones). Each exit point must be occupied by naval
units possessing the required number of Blockade points in order for the harbor to be considered
‘blockaded’. A harbor that is blockaded does not generate supply points.
10. Supply
One of the most daunting challenges faced by any military leader is keeping an army supplied
with all the goods and services it needs to maintain itself in the field. Forget about strategy for a
moment—it’s logistics that wins most battles. Wars in America works with a supply system that
very accurately recreates the problems faced by generals in this regard. Players that ignore the
realities and limitations imposed by 18th and 19th century logistics soon find their forces rendered
combat-ineffective or worse—simply melting away through attrition.
10.1 The Supply System (Overview)
10.1.1 Types of Supply (General Supply and Ammunition)
There are two types of supplies: General Supply and Ammunition. Both are produced and distributed
in similar fashion but are accounted for separately. General Supply represents items used by military
units to maintain their manpower in good fighting order (i.e. food, water, clothing, etc.) Ammunition
represents the supply of munitions that military units expend in combat (i.e. bullets, gunpowder,
cannon shot, etc.)
43
Supply
10.1.2 Supply Requirements
Military units (including naval vessels) require General Supply each turn to maintain their operating
efficiency. Ammunition is required only when military units engage in combat.
Units that are unable to satisfy their General Supply requirements are considered ‘Out of Supply’
and operate at a reduced level of efficiency (in addition to suffering other ill-effects). Units that are
unable to satisfy their Ammunition requirements are considered ‘Out of Supply’ for combat purposes
and participate in combat at a significant disadvantage.
10.2 Supply Sources and Production
Forces will draw supply from their regiments’ inherent supply reserve and from any supply wagons
in the force.
Regiments and wagons will then replenish supplies from the region they are located in, or from an
adjacent region.
 Supply is generated in amounts expressed in supply chips (SC), which come in two
varieties: a full SC holds 5 supply points and 2 ammos points, while a basic SC only
holds 5 supply points.
Each turn, supply points (both General Supply and Ammunition) are produced and stored in friendlycontrolled cities, ports, fortifications, and depots. The amount of supply points produced by a
structure depends primarily on the level of the structure, but other factors are modify the number of
supply points created. Supplies are produced and distributed on the first day of each game turn.
The countryside of a region generates 0-4 basic SC to unbesieged units (depending on civilization
level, weather and looted status). When enemy armies co-exist in the same region, the region’s
supply is distributed proportionally to the percentage of military control.
Level 1 cities and Indian villages generate 1 basic SC.
Unbesieged level 2 (or +) cities, forts, depots and unblockaded harbors generate full SCs as follows
(cumulative):




1 / city level
1 / port level
5 if there is a fort in the region
10 if there is a depot in the region
SCs do not accumulate from one turn to another: they only serve to replenish regiments and supply
wagons. Any surplus is lost.
You can check the total supply generated in each region by hovering the mouse over the region.
Important: Besieged units (unless in an unblockaded port) can only
draw supplies from supply wagons (in addition to burning up their
remaining inherent reserves, if any).
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Supply
Note: Most supply is generated by friendly structures. Countryside supply is
very limited and only used as a last resort, usually resulting in looting (see below).
10.3 Penalties for lack of supply
 Units lacking food & water will start taking hits, eventually resulting in elimination. They
also incur a moderate combat penalty.
 Units lacking ammunition will incur a severe combat penalty.
10.4 Inherent regimental supply reserves
Each regiment carries reserves of food & water (2 months worth for line units, 3 for irregulars and 4
for Indians) as well as ammunition for approximately 2 battles. These reserves are replenished every
month if there is enough supply generated within range (own and adjacent regions).
The current supply reserve of each unit (before replenishment) can be seen in its tooltip.
Note: once cut out from their supply sources, units will gradually spend
all their reserves and have to rely on accompanying supply wagons to
supply them if they want to avoid starvation and desertion.
10.5 Supply wagons
Each supply wagon can stockpile up to 80 points each of food & water and ammunition. They are
replenished the same as regiments. Regiments with no inherent supply left will draw supply from
supply wagons, if any are present in their army.
Supply wagons also have the following additional benefits:
 They provide a +10% fire bonus during battles (provided they have some ammo left).
 They protect units from bad weather effects by trading hits for supply.
Note: Supply wagons are critical if you intend to carry out operations out
of range of your supply sources for more than a few months, as well as to
defend in siegesErreur ! Signet non défini..
10.6 Looting
Irregular units (such as Indians) will automatically loot any enemy regions they enter unless the
region is contested (that is, if an enemy force is present in the region defending the countryside—
not inside a structure—and not in passive posture).
Looting also occurs if structures (cities, forts, depots, harbors, etc.) do not provide enough supply
and the force must then resort to a region’s countryside. This does not apply, however, if the region
has a loyalty of 75%+ (as the people freely provide supply to friendly forces).
A looted region only provides one third of its normal supply.
In addition, in the French And Indian War scenarios, the French gain VPs through looting.Erreur !
Signet non défini.
45
Combat
Looted regions are tagged with a small red oval shield. They have a good chance of recovering each
Spring season.
10.7 Naval units supply
Fleets can replenish food & water from adjacent land regions just as armies do, but they can only
replenish ammo in ports. Ships also tend to use up ammo faster than ground units.
11. Field Combat
Field combat is defined as two opposing forces engaging in ‘maneuver combat’ in the open. That is
to say, neither side is defending or attacking a structure, as would be the case with Siege combat.
Field combat can range from a mere skirmish involving only a few units to a major set-piece battle
involving tens of thousands of soldiers and lasting several days.
11.1 Engaging in Field Combat
In order to engage in Field combat, two opposing forces must occupy the same region on the game
map. At least one of the opposing forces must be assuming an Offensive posture to initiate the
combat. Field combat is resolved in a series of six (6) consecutive one (1) hour combat rounds per
day. If neither side withdraws (voluntarily or otherwise) the battle extends into a second day. It is
conceivable (but unlikely) that a single battle could continue for dozens of combat rounds.
11.2 Combat Frontage
Depending upon the type of terrain in the region where field combat takes place, only a certain
number of a unit’s component elements will actually take part in a battle during any single combat
round. Elements that are unable to participate in a combat round are held in reserve and may be
called upon to relieve other weakened elements in subsequent combat rounds.
To determine the number of elements able to participate in a given combat round, the
maneuverability of unit’s component element-types are compared against the prevalent terrain in
the region. Some element-types are more maneuverable than others in different types of terrain.
For example, line infantry elements are quite slow in mountain terrain and take up greater combat
frontage. Irregular elements are faster in mountainous terrain and take up less combat frontage.
Therefore, quality issues aside, a greater number of Irregular elements (e.g. Indians) are able to take
part in a combat round in mountainous terrain in comparison to line infantry elements.
11.3 Combat Range
The distance at which the two opposing forces begin combat operations is referred to as the ‘initial
combat range’. The initial combat range used to resolve the first round of combat is determined
according to the type of terrain in the region and the local weather conditions. It is greatest
(opposing forces start farther away from each other) in cases where a battle is fought in Fair
weather over terrain that is open—thus allowing for long range spotting with unobstructed fields of
fire.
After the first combat round of a battle is fought at the initial combat range, the range decreases (by
one range) each subsequent combat round until physical contact between the two opposing forces
46
Combat
is made. Only elements that are considered ‘in range’ will be able to fire in a given combat round.
(Elements that are unable to fire due to range may still suffer casualties from the enemy’s return
fire.) Once opposing forces make physical contact (i.e. a range of Zero), the combat range remains
face to face until the conclusion of the current day (six combat rounds). If a battle is renewed on a
subsequent day, the initial combat range is recalculated and the closing procedure is repeated.
Commander’s Note: Combat range is an important consideration. A force with superior firepower will
benefit from combat fought at longer distances while a force with superior melee power will want to
look for opportunities to engage the enemy ‘up close and personal’.
11.4 Fire Combat
Fire combat refers to the use of projectile weaponry to cause casualties among the enemy (i.e.
rifles, muskets, artillery).
11.4.1 Fire Combat Initiative
Each combat round, Fire combat is resolved by having elements of the force with the highest
initiative fire first. After casualties are deducted from the opposing force, surviving elements
belonging to the opposing force then have the opportunity to return fire.
11.4.2 Fire Combat Modifiers
The effectiveness of an element’s Fire combat is modified by a variety of factors—all of which are
taken into account by the computer without player input.
















Discipline Rating
Experience Level
Strength of Firing Element
Leader Attributes
Special Abilities of Units/Leaders
Target cover (terrain or fortifications)
Weather
Command Bonuses/Penalties
Out of Supply Penalties
Terrain Considerations
River Crossing Penalties
Amphibious landing Penalties
Friendly Supply Wagon present
Command Posture (Offensive/Defensive)
Failed Withdrawal/Passive Posture
Forced March Penalties
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Combat
11.4.3 Fire Combat Resolution
Each element that is eligible to fire in a combat round is given an opportunity to score hits (i.e. inflict
casualties) on enemy units. Eligible elements may fire their weapons multiple times during a combat
round based upon their ‘rate of fire’. Firing elements use their Offensive or Defensive Fire values to
determine whether they have scored a hit on an enemy element. The higher the value, the greater
chance an element will score a hit. If a firing element scores a hit, the element that has been hit
loses both strength points and cohesion.
11.4.4 Fire Combat Effects - Casualties
Strength point losses from Fire combat are assessed according to the type of element that is firing.
Infantry and cavalry elements that score a hit during Fire combat cause the target element to lose
one (1) strength point. Artillery elements that score a hit generally cause a two (2) strength point
loss. Heavy artillery units (siege artillery, ships, etc.) that score a hit cause a three (3) strength point
loss. An element that loses its last remaining Strength point is eliminated.
11.4.5 Fire Combat Effects – Cohesion
Cohesion point losses from Fire combat are assessed according to the type of element that is firing.
Generally, a hit from small-arms or artillery fire inflicts between five (5) and fifteen (15) points worth
of cohesion damage. Each Fire round cost 2 cohesion points to attacker.
11.5 Assault Combat
Assault combat refers to the type of combat that occurs when opposing forces make physical
contact and engage in hand-to-hand fighting. The principal weapons used in Assault combat are the
saber and bayonet. Unit cohesion and morale is particularly important in determining who stands
their ground and who runs away.
11.5.1 Assault Combat Initiation
Assault combat occurs automatically when the combat range between opposing forces decreases
to Zero (0). Once combat reaches a range of Zero (0), it does not increase on subsequent combat
rounds. Thus, if a battle reaches a range of Zero on the second combat round of the day, it will
remain at Zero for the remaining combat rounds in the day.
11.5.2 Assault Combat Resolution
Each element participating in Assault combat is given an opportunity to inflict casualties on
enemy elements. Assault combat is conducted simultaneously (i.e. no casualties are suffered until
all elements have engaged in combat). Elements engaging in Assault combat use their Assault
Value. An element’s Rate of Fire is not a consideration in Assault Combat; each element gets one
opportunity to engage in Assault combat per combat round.
11.5.3 Assault Combat Effects – Casualties
Strength point losses from Fire combat are assessed according to the type of element that is doing
the assaulting and the size of the assaulting element. Battalion-sized infantry and cavalry elements
that score a hit during Assault combat generally cause the target element to lose one (1) strength
point. Elements containing multiple battalions can cause up to three (3) strength point losses per hit.
An element that loses its last remaining strength point is eliminated.
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Combat
11.5.4 Assault Combat Effects – Cohesion Cohesion point losses from Assault combat are assessed
according to the type of element that is doing the assaulting and the size of the assaulting element.
Generally, a hit during Assault combat inflicts between nine (9) and fifteen (15) points worth of
cohesion damage. Each Assault round cost 2 cohesion points to the attacker and 1 to the defender.
11.6 Special Assault Actions (Cavalry Charges
& Forming Squares)
Cavalry was a potentially deadly weapon on the Eighteenth Century-era battlefield. Only highly
disciplined bodies of troops could withstand the shock effect of seeing hundreds of horses
thundering toward them. Yet, while cavalry charges could be devastating, they were difficult to
coordinate and vulnerable to steadfast ranks of enemy bayonets. In addition, cavalry was very rare
in numbers and use in the wild terrains of North America.
11.6.1 Cavalry Charges
Once a Field Combat has reached a combat range of Zero (0), a Force containing cavalry elements
is checked to see if it will mount a ‘cavalry charge’. The chance of mounting a cavalry charge is
determined by the Discipline Value of the cavalry being checked. This check is modified by the
Leader’s Offensive Rating. The leadership bonus is applied fully if the Leader in direct command of
the charging unit/element or is halved if the Leader providing the bonus is commanding the entire
Force. If successful, cavalry units are considered to have charged the enemy elements they are in
contact with.
11.6.2 Forming Squares
If an opposing force mounts a cavalry charge, defending line infantry elements have the ability to
‘form squares’. To Form Squares, the defending elements must pass a Form Squares Check. The
chance of Forming Squares is determined by the Discipline Value of the defending infantry elements
being checked. This check is modified by the Leader’s Defensive Rating. The leadership bonus is
applied fully if the Leader is in direct command the defending element or is halved if the Leader
providing the bonus is commanding the entire Force.
11.6.3 Cavalry Charge Resolution
A Cavalry charge attacking defending elements that have not ‘Formed Squares’ inflicts a 50%
increase in damage (i.e. damage equals 150% of normal). A Cavalry charge that attacks infantry
elements that have ‘Formed Squares’ results in normal damage being done to the defending
elements. The return damage done to cavalry elements that charge defending elements in ‘Squares’
is increased by 100% (i.e. damage equals 200% of normal).
11.8 Morale
Just as National Morale is an indication of a nation’s willingness to continue a conflict, unit morale
is an indication of a unit’s willingness to remain in combat. Basically, units that are successful in
combat and suffer few losses tend to remain effective for longer periods of time. Units that suffer
high casualties in combat tend to Rout (i.e. leave the field of battle). If enough units rout, panic can
spread throughout an entire force causing it to ‘break and run’. A Force that is routed from battle is
susceptible to suffering additional casualties from ‘Pursuit’.
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Combat
11.8.1 Morale Checks Prior to Combat Round
At the beginning of every combat round, elements that have suffered losses (in any preceding
combat round) must pass a Morale check. Morale checks are performed using the element’s
Discipline value. If the element passes the Morale check, it may continue fighting normally. If an
element fails the Morale check, it is considered ‘Shaken’ and has its Rate of Fire and Assault Value
reduced during the current combat round.
11.8.2 Morale Checks During Combat Round
Elements that suffer losses in a combat round (due to either Fire or Melee combat) must
immediately pass a Morale check. Morale checks made during a combat round use the element’s
Cohesion value. The Morale check is modified:




if the checking element is Militia fighting in their own home area,
if the checking element is defending in fortifications (or trenches),
if the checking element is defending a symbolic objective (i.e. home capital),
if the checking element has previously suffered losses.
If an element passes the Morale check, it may continue fighting normally. If an element fails a
Morale check during a combat round, it is considered ‘Routed’. Routed elements (and units) are
considered to have left the field in panic and may no longer participate in the battle.
11.8.3 Morale Checks and Cohesion
The moral check is based on the current cohesion compared to the max cohesion, modified by
losses taken.
11.9 Withdrawal During Combat
At the start of each combat round (beginning with the second round), both sides in a battle are
checked to see if the commanding officer chooses to withdraw. The decision to withdraw from
the battle is based on the relative strengths of the opposing forces, the Commanding officer’s
aggressiveness (i.e. Offensive Rating), and the presence of fortifications. A Force that decides to
withdraw (whether it is successful or not) has its command posture automatically changed to
Passive for the remainder of the game turn.
A Force that is surrounded by enemy controlled regions (i.e. all adjacent regions are at least 95%
enemy-controlled) will never attempt to withdraw from battle.
Forces conducting an Amphibious Assault may not withdraw.
11.9.1 Withdrawal Attempt Modifiers
A force that decides to withdraw must pass a Withdrawal check. The Withdrawal check is modified
by:






the existence of an ‘Evade Fight’ Special Order,
the relative size of the opposing forces,
a commanding officer’s Strategic Rating,
the presence of cavalry (both friendly and enemy),
a successful ‘Ambush’ Special Order,
a Leader with a ‘Skirmisher’ Special Ability.
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Combat
11.9.2 Failure to Withdraw
Forces that fail the Withdrawal check are forced to fight the upcoming combat round at a slight
penalty. Such forces automatically attempt to withdraw at the beginning of each subsequent combat
round. The chance of successfully withdrawing is increased with each successive combat round.
11.9.3 Successful Withdrawal from Battle
A Force that passes a Withdrawal check is considered to immediately withdraw from the battle—
thus ending the battle before the start of the upcoming combat round. A Force that withdraws
from battle is moved to a friendly-controlled adjacent region on the game map. If the Force has a
‘Seek Shelter’ Special Order and there is an unbesieged structure in the region where the battle
took place, the Force is moved into the structure. Depending upon the level of enemy control, a
withdrawing Force may be forced into another battle in the region it withdrew to.
11.9.4 Withdrawal vs. Rout Clarification
Disengaging from an enemy is a complicated maneuver once a battle has begun. Each turn, a Force
is first checked to determine whether it will attempt to withdraw. If a decision is made to withdraw,
the Force is then checked to see if the withdrawal is successful. A withdrawal from battle is an
orderly procedure that seeks to put distance between opposing forces with minimal risk to the
withdrawing force.
A Rout is an unwanted (i.e. involuntary) withdrawal from battle that occurs due an overall collapse
of morale. It is an unorganized flight to safety conducted without leadership or purpose other than
to get as far away from an enemy as quickly as possible. As a result, men and equipment are often
abandoned. A Force which Routs is subject to additional casualties (Pursuit).
11.9.5 Complete Rout
When too many elements on a side have routed (i.e. have failed a moral check), the army as a whole
must pass a test. If this test is failed, all units on that side rout from the battle.
11.10 Ending Field Combat
Field combat is concluded in a variety of ways:
 a Force is successful in withdrawing from combat,
 a Force is defeated in combat and forced to Rout,
 the battle ends in a Draw at the end of the current game turn if neither side withdraws.
11.10.1 Pursuit of Routing Force
A Force that is routed suffers additional losses in the form of “Pursuit” casualties. (Pursuit casualties
represent losses due to the chaos and disintegration of an army running away in the face of an
organized enemy force). Pursuit casualties are increased if the non-routing force (i.e. the winner of
the battle) contains a significant number of cavalry units.
11.10.2 Effects of Battle on Leaders
At the conclusion of every battle, each Leader who participated in the combat is checked to see
if he has become a casualty. Lower ranking officers are more likely to be personally affected than
are higher ranking officers. Leaders of 3-star rank are immune from Casualty checks; however,
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Combat
ALL Leaders, regardless of rank, may become a casualty if their immediate subordinate unit is
eliminated. Leaders that survive the battle may gain experience based upon their ratio of losses
suffered/losses inflicted (even Leaders on the losing side). Leaders may also gain or lose Seniority
depending on whether they won or lost the battle. Winning Leaders are sometimes granted
additional Special Abilities as well.
11.10.3 Effects of Battle on Unit Experience
Units participating in combat gain experience regardless of whether they won or lost the battle.
11.10.4 Effects of Battle on National Morale
The winning side gains NM according to the losses inflicted on the opposing force. The losing side
loses NM equal to the losses suffered in combat.
11.10.5 Effects of Battle on Victory Points
The winning side gains Victory Points according to the losses inflicted on the opposing force. The
losing side neither gains nor loses Victory Points.
Commander’s Note: Victory in a battle is determined primarily by the
losses suffered and losses inflicted. It is possible to be considered the victor in a
battle even if a Force withdraws if it inflicts serious losses on an opposing force.
12. Siege Combat
Siege Combat is distinct from open field combat in that one side is defending a structure (city,
fortification, or depot). There are two separate ways of resolving a siege open to an attacking force.
An attacking force (i.e. the Besieging force) may choose to either: (1) ‘lay siege’ to the structure or
(2) ‘Storm’ the structure.
12.1 Laying Siege
Laying siege to a structure can be a time-consuming process. It consists of a gradual wearing-down
of the defender’s will to resist through attrition (i.e. starvation, disease, desertion, etc.). Combat is
resolved by comparing the Siege Value of the besieging force to the Siege Value of the defending
force (i.e. the besieged force).
12.1.1 Calculating the Attacking Force Siege Value
The attacking force is given a randomly generated Siege Value which is then modified by the
following beneficial conditions:





the amount of artillery strength points in the attacking force,
attacking force commanded by a Leader with ‘Siege Engineer’ Special Ability,
attacking force contains Sapper units (with ‘Siege Expert’ special abilities),
presence of a ‘Breach’ in the structure’s defenses,
the defending force lacks General Supply.
52
Combat
12.1.2 Calculating the Defending Force Siege Value
The defending force is given a randomly generated Siege Value which is then modified by the
following beneficial conditions:
 the amount of artillery strength points in the defending force,
 defending force commanded by a Leader with ’Engineer’ or ‘Fort Defender’ Special
Ability,
 the level of fortification.
12.1.3 Siege Resolution Value (SRV)
Once both siege values have been determined, they are compared. The difference between the
two values is expressed as a single number referred to as the SRV (i.e. Siege Resolution Value.)
For example, a besieging force with a Siege Value of six (6) is compared to a besieged force with a
Siege Value of three (3). The resulting SRV would be three (3). If a besieging force with a Siege Value
of four (4) is compared to a besieged force with a Siege Value of eight (8). The resulting SRV would
be minus four (−4).
SRV
Siege Resolution
Greater Than
Defenders Average
Unit Discipline
Defending force immediately surrenders (all units are eliminated). If the
Defending force contains a Supply Wagon with General Supply points
remaining, this result is ignored and a Breach is made instead (See
below).
Greater Than or Equal
To 3
A Breach is made. Each breach reduces the fortification level of the
structure by one (1). Reductions in fortification level affect the benefits
of fortifications in future rounds of the current siege.
Greater Than
0
The defending force suffers five (5) strength point hits per point of SRV.
For example, an SRV of three (3) would result in the defending force
losing 15 strength points.
Less Than
0
The defending force manages to repair a previously-suffered breach.
Increases in fortification level affect the benefits of fortifications in
future rounds of the current siege.
Note that results on this table are cumulative. A positive SRV greater than or equal to three (3)
indicates that: (1) a breach is made; and (2) the defending force suffers hits accordingly.
12.2 Storming a Structure
If time is an important consideration, a structure may be attacked outright rather than wait for a
lengthy siege to be resolved. A direct assault on a structure is known as ‘Storming’ a structure and
it is resolved in much the same way as Field Combat except that a defending force derives great
benefit from the structure’s fortifications.
Combat considerations involved in ‘Storming a Structure’ are:
53
Combat
 defending units receive combat bonuses due to the structure’s level of fortification
(bonuses are reduced for cities without fortifications and depots)
 combat frontage (for both sides) is severely limited.
 defending units may not withdraw from combat
 a defending force that Routs as a result of combat is eliminated.
13. Battle Resolution
Once battle is joined, players exercise little direct control over their forces. Instead, each battle is
fought according to a very complex series of AI routines.
Each battle is resolved individually and sequentially. The first battle to take place during the game
turn is resolved first, followed by the remaining battles until all battles taking place during the turn
are resolved. Each battle is reported back using two reporting schemes; the Battle Circle and Battle
Report.
Figure 13.1 Shown here a battle circle displaying British attacking Americans at Ogdenburg (1812
Campaign). Seeing the green/red ratio bar, American forces hold a slight advantage in the number of
un-routed elements committed to the battle during this particular combat round.
54
Combat
The Battle Circle is an animated display showing the location of the battle, the principal opposing
commanders, flags representing the faction or nationalities involved, the number of Forces as they
are committed to the battle, and finally, the ratio of un-routed elements committed to the battle on
any given combat round.
While combat is being resolved, the Battle Circle gives you updates as additional Forces enter the
battle and as the number of un-routed elements on both sides changes. Audio cues are also used to
indicate various battle events (Committing the Guard, a cavalry charge, etc.).
Once the battle has been resolved, the Battle Circle is replaced by the Battle Report. The Battle
Report is a static display that presents players with a very detailed summary of the battle that was
just fought.
Figure 13.2 After each land combat or naval engagement, a battle report is generated which acts as an
after-action schematic representation of the battle. Note that this Battle Report is different from the Battle
Circle resolution depicted in Figure 13.1.
The Battle Report gives players detailed information as follows (from top to bottom):
 Battle Description: Each report has a heading that indicates the name (location) of the
battle, the date of the current game turn, the exact day the battle took place, and—most
importantly—who won.
 Leaders Present: The report lists each of the Leaders who were present at the battle.
Use the tool-tip to find out their exact identities.
 Initial Forces: The report lists the number, type, and nationalities of all combat and
support elements that participated in the battle.
 Ranged Casualties: Each red figure equals 10 hits suffered from Fire combat. The
number indicates how many full elements were eliminated by Fire combat.
 Assault Casualties: Each red figure equals 10 hits suffered from Melee/Boarding
combat. The number indicates how many full elements were eliminated by Melee/
Boarding combat.
55
Combat
 Leader/Unit Abilities: Round icons indicate the Leader/Unit special abilities that were
factored into the combat equation.
 Specific Action Indicators: Square icons indicate specific actions/events. Use the tooltip to see specific actions/events that took place during the battle.
 Global Combat Values: The scales indicate the global combat values for both sides
(accounting for all elements participating in the battle.)
 Total Casualties Suffered: The number indicates the exact number of men lost in the
battle.
 Weather and Terrain panel: This panel displays a graphic representation of the
predominant terrain. Underneath is a weather icon which indicates the weather at the
time of the battle.
 Battle Summary Panels: These panels, located in the bottom corners of the report
window, give specific information about the battle as it relates to each side (i.e. #
of units Routing, # of men taken prisoner, etc.). Use the tool-tip to find out exact
information contained in each icon.
The Battle Report gives a detailed summary about each battle. It is possible to determine what
actually took place on the battlefield by studying the casualties, applied leader abilities, and specific
action indicators.
14. Command Postures and Rules of
Engagement
All Forces deployed on the game map assume a Command Posture which determines how they
react to enemy activity each game turn. These Postures are selected by the player or assigned
to a Force by default. As a reminder, a Posture icon appears on the game map to the left of each
Force’s TDM. Rules of Engagement define the intentions of a Force if it participates in a battle. Taken
together, these options allow players to exercise a high degree of control over their forces even after
they have issued Orders for the game turn.
14.1 Command Postures
There are four (4) Command Postures to choose from:
Assault: A Force will attack any opponent it detects in its region. Rather than besiege a
fortification/city, it will immediately ‘storm’ the defenses (i.e. assault the city).
Offensive: A Force will attack any opponent it detects in its region. Rather than ‘storm’ a
fortification/city outright, it will besiege it instead (or continue an on-going siege).
Defensive: A Force will not attack opponent forces in the region. If attacked, it defends itself
with the benefit of the region’s terrain bonus (if any). A Force will initiate (and continue) a
Siege combat. This is the default posture.
Passive: A Force will not attack opponent forces in the region. If attacked, it defends itself
without benefit of terrain and with combat penalties. A Force will have an increased chance
to withdraw from a battle. Forces assuming a Passive posture do not increase the % of
56
Combat
military control in the region they occupy. A Force in Passive Posture is automatically assigned a
Retreat if Engaged ROE. Units belonging to a Force in Passive Posture recover Cohesion at an
increased rate (up to the maximum level for the unit). A Force in Passive Posture takes priority in
receiving potential replacements (all other conditions being equal).
14.2 Rules of Engagement (ROE)
The Rules of Engagement options available are different according to the Posture that has been
assigned to a Force.
14.2.1 Assault and Offensive Posture ROEs
The possible ROE options for a Force in either an Assault or Offensive posture are:
All-Out Attack: A Force will not attempt to retreat during the first two (2) combat rounds of
a battle. The chances of attempting a retreat are reduced during subsequent combat
rounds. Losses are increased for both sides.
Sustained Attack: A Force conducts combat normally. This is the default ROE for Forces in
Assault or Offensive posture.
Conservative Attack: A Force attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the
third combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in
withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides are reduced.
Feint/Probe Attack: A Force attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the
second combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding
in withdrawing from battle are greatly increased. Losses for both sides are significantly
reduced.
14.2.2 Defensive and Passive ROEs
The possible ROE options for a Force in a Defensive posture are:
Hold At All Costs: A Force will never attempt to retreat. Routing is still possible. Losses for
a defending Force will be increased.
Defend: A Force conducts combat normally. This is the default ROE for Forces in Defensive
or Passive posture.
Defend and Retreat: A Force attempts to withdraw from the battle beginning with the third
combat round unless it appears as if victory is at hand. The chances of succeeding in
withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for both sides are reduced.
Retreat if Engaged: A Force will attempt to withdraw beginning with the first combat
round. The chances of succeeding in withdrawing from battle are increased. Losses for
both sides are reduced. A ‘Retreat if Engaged’ ROE is automatically assigned to a Force
adopting a Passive Posture.
57
Combat
Force Postures and ROEs are assigned to Forces individually and independent of assignments made
to other Forces. In other words, it is permissible (and indeed likely) that multiple friendly Forces
located in the same region of the game map will have different Postures and ROEs. Such groupings
of Forces treat the presence of enemy forces according to their individually assigned Postures and
ROEs.
15. Attrition
The term ‘Attrition’ refers to a unit’s gradual loss of combat efficiency and manpower (i.e. disease,
desertion, accidents, etc.). During the early America era, most armies suffered more from attrition
than they did from combat with the enemy. This fact is reflected in the game by exposing Forces to
potential attrition losses based on activities they perform throughout a game turn.
15.1 Effects of Attrition
Losses from attrition are reflected by the reduction of Cohesion and elimination of Strength Points.
15.1.1 Checking Attrition
Forces are checked for attrition under these conditions:
 Movement: A Force which moves during a game turn is subject to potential attrition
losses in proportion to the Cohesion cost of the move. (Forces suffer one (1) Cohesion
point loss for each day of movement subject to a number of modifiers.)
 Wilderness Region: A Force which occupies a Wilderness region for all or part of a
game turn is subject to potentially severe attrition losses, more particularly during the
bad season.
 Lack of General Supply: A Force which lacks General Supply (‘Out of Supply’) is subject
to potential attrition losses each game turn.
 Harsh Weather: A Force which lacks shelter (i.e. in a region without a structure) during
Harsh weather (i.e. Snow, Frozen, and Blizzard) is subject to potentially severe attrition
losses.
 Epidemics: Large concentrations of strength points in a region have the potential
of causing an outbreak of disease. If an epidemic breaks out, Forces are subject to
potential attrition losses.
15.1.2 Attrition Reduction
The effects of Attrition are reduced by:
 Rich Region: Attrition losses are reduced by 50% if a Force is occupying a Rich region,
 Civilized Region: Attrition losses are reduced by 10% if a Force is occupying a Civilized
region,
 Supply Wagons: A Supply Wagon (with General Supply) accompanying a land Force
reduces attrition losses by 10%. Fleets are not protected by the presence of Naval
Transports.
 Force is entrenched: A Force that is entrenched (regardless of level) reduces attrition
losses by 20%.
58
Military Control
Attrition modifiers (both positive and negative) are cumulative. For example, if an entrenched Force
that lacks General Supply experiences an epidemic all three of these conditions would be factored
into the final Attrition loss equation.
15.2 Hardened Attrition Option
Players may choose to play the game using the Hardened Attrition Option. This rule, while more
realistic, will result in increased losses due to attrition as the name indicates. All units, regardless
of whether they have moved during the current game turn, are subject to attrition under this option
unless they occupy a structure. Also, units will not be eligible to receive replacement strength points
or elements unless they remain stationary and occupy a Depot.
15.3 Scorched Earth
‘Scorched Earth’ simulates the strategy of denying an advancing enemy the ability to live off the
land (i.e. your land!) by deliberately destroying anything of value in a region before retreating.
Note: This strategy currently has very limited application in Wars in America., but is included for a
future ‘what if’ scenario.
Each scenario is different in the way it handles this aspect of play. Essentially, Scorched Earth has
the following general effects:
a % of supplies about to be captured by the enemy are destroyed before capture,
a % chance that a region will be pillaged (destroying structures in the process),
a % chance that a depot will be destroyed (along with any supply) rather than be captured,
a general increase in attrition casualties if used in conjunction with the Hardened Attrition option.
16. Military Control
Military control of territory in Wars in America is handled more realistically than is the case with
other simulations or war-games. No longer do players gain immediate control over an area just
because they happen to have a few units pass through on their way to somewhere else.
16.1 Controlling Regions
Military Control over a region is expressed as a percentage of friendly/enemy control. A contested
region is one in which control is split between the players with each player exercising a certain
percentage of control. A player is said to exercise total control over a region when the percentage of
friendly control reaches 100/0 (i.e. 100% control vs. 0% for the opposing player. A player can have
anywhere from 51% to 100% and be considered to have military control over a region. (At 51%,
however, a player’s military control can best be described as tenuous.) At the beginning of each
scenario, the military control of regions on the map is indicated by icons representing the controlling
side (FRA or GBR or satellite nations).
59
Military Control
16.1.1 Gaining and Losing Military Control
Military control is gained by having friendly forces enter a region and remain for a period of time.
The amount of time needed to gain complete control is dependent upon a number of factors.
(Essentially, the larger the presence a player has in a region; the quicker the level of military control
will reach 100.)
If opposing players each have forces in a region, neither will increase their level of military control
until one or the other player assumes an Offensive Posture. If the player assuming an Offensive
Posture is successful in driving the opposing force out of the region (or into a structure within the
region), his level of military control will begin to increase. If only one player has forces in a region,
his level of military control will begin to increase. On average, friendly forces will gain total control
over a region in only a few turns. (Forces in Passive Posture do not increase or contest military
control of a region.)
Military control is also affected by the level of civilian loyalty in a region. Military control is gradually
increased over time if the citizens of a region are at least 51% loyal. Military control is gradually
decreased over time if the citizens of a region are less than 51% loyal. Loyalty only affects military
control in regions in which neither side has military forces (i.e. leaving a garrison in a region nullifies
the effect of civilian loyalty).
16.1.2 Effects of Military Control
Having military control over regions has the following effects:





Cohesion costs for movement are increased in enemy controlled regions,
an increased chance for successful ‘March to the Sound of the Guns’ checks,
an increased Detection Level,
an increased chance of blocking enemy movement through the region,
supplies cannot transit through regions with less than 26% friendly Military Control.
16.1.3 Entering Hostile Territory
Hostile territory is defined as being a region in which a player has less than 6% military control.
Entering such regions with friendly forces has the following effects:
 A Force that enters a hostile region automatically assumes an Offensive Posture. (Forces
consisting of cavalry units, Irregulars, or support units ignore this rule when transiting
hostile territory.)
 A Force that conducts an Amphibious Assault or river crossing into a regions with less
than 10% control, automatically assumes an Offensive Posture. (Forces consisting of
Irregulars or support units ignore this rule.)
 A Force cannot retreat from a battle into a region that is less than 6% controlled by the
retreating player. (A player that loses a battle and is surrounded by hostile territory is
likely to see the total destruction of his forces.)
16.1.4 Controlling Structures
In order to assume control over a structure (city, objective city, town, etc.) a side need only be the
last to occupy it. It is not necessary to leave a garrison behind to maintain control although it is a
good practice. Note however, that Victory Points are not gained from Objective/ Strategic cities in
regions with less than 6% Loyalty (i.e. hostile territory) unless the cities are garrisoned.
60
Military Control
Irregular units and Partisans may only take control of a structure if the Loyalty of the region is
greater than 50%. Likewise, they cannot capture fortifications. (Irregulars and Partisans immediately
destroy any Depots they enter including any supplies stockpiled inside).
16.2 Civilian Loyalty
Loyalty is a measure of the civilian population’s support for a player’s side and is independent
from the level of military control. (It is quite possible to have a high degree of military control over
a region and yet a very low level of civilian support.) Winning the ‘hearts and minds’ of civilians in
regions you control is a lengthy process.
Important Note: currently, the ‘Loyalty property’ is only used in the
American Revolution scenarios (1776-1783).
16.2.1 Effects of Civilian Loyalty
A region is considered Loyal if a player has at least a 51% Loyalty. (Granted, a Loyalty percentage of
only 51% is a slim margin.) A player gains the following benefits from having a loyal region:
 garrisons in Objectives are not required in order to earn Victory Points,
 an Increased Detection value in the region,
 an increased chance of friendly Partisan units appearing if enemy forces take Military
Control,
 a gradual increase of the Military Control percentage.
16.2.2 Open Revolts
If a player exercises Military Control over a region that is less than 11% Loyal and fails to garrison
its cities and towns, an Open Revolt is very likely to occur. If an Open Revolt occurs, enemy partisans
units appear in all un-garrisoned structures.
16.2.3 Influencing Loyalty
Loyalty is influenced by capturing Strategic Cities. Each time a player captures an enemy Strategic
City, one (1) Loyalty Check is made in the following locations:
 each Strategic City on the map,
 each region with a Strategic City in the Area,
 each region adjacent to the newly captured Strategic City (This also includes the region
with the newly captured Strategic City.)
These checks are cumulative. For example, a region with a Strategic City that is captured by the
enemy would be checked three (3) times—once for each of the Loyalty Check conditions mentioned
above.
16.2.4 Partisans
Partisans are civilians who have taken up arms to drive out an enemy’s military control and/or
presence in a region. They appear primarily in areas and regions where they were historically active.
Partisans may appear automatically according to the scenario being played or appear when a region
61
Military Control
experiences an Open Revolt. Partisan units are typically used to disrupt supply transport. They are
fast and difficult to locate but stand little chance in combat against organized troops.
16.3 Engagement Points
Engagement Points (EP) are the currency used for Military and Diplomatic Optons. They are earned
in several ways:
 Capturing of Objectives and Strategic Cities
 Maintaining Merchant vessels in the Ocean Commerce areas
 by event
Note: EP’s are earned every turn, and are accumulated until ‘spent’ on
Options. Merchant vessels and events produce messages telling you EP
gain or loss, if any. Strategic cities give you 0.25 EP a turn, objectives
produce from 0.1 to 0.3 each turn. You can a list of all those sources in the
Objective Page of the ledger.
17. The Ledger (Managing Your Forces)
Wars in America is a complex simulation involving a myriad of command decisions each turn. To
assist players in managing their forces, a Ledger feature has been included which places a wealth
of critical information into an easily accessible format.
To open the Ledger, left-click on the Globe located to the left of the Unit Panel on the Main screen.
You may also open a specific page on the Ledger by pressing any of the function keys (F1 through
F5) as indicated below.
17.1 The Forces List (F1 key)
The Forces List is a roster of all Leaders, garrisons and maneuver forces available in a given
scenario.
17.1.1 Sorting the Forces List
The Forces List can be sorted so that specific information is readily displayed. Use your mouse to
select the feature you are interested in viewing (i.e. unit strength, cohesion, unit name, region, etc.)
Use the mouse wheel to scroll through the Forces List.
17.1.2 Forces List Filters
Located to the left of the Forces List is a column of filters that can be toggled On and Off to further
refine your display of specific information. (You can identify the filters by holding your mouse over
the filter icons.) For example, if you were interested in finding out the strength of cavalry stacks in
a particular area, you would simply sort the Forces List by Area (or Theater) and toggle the cavalry
filter to ON.
62
Military Control
17.1.3 Jump to Unit Feature
The Forces List allows you to select and jump to any unit on the game map by clicking on the icon in
the right corner of the unit’s information box.
17.1.4 Second Level Filter
Pressing F1 a second time will activate another set of filters for the units’ ledger, showing all your
units individually.
17.2 Available Replacements Screen (F2 key)
The Available Replacements Screen contains a graphic summary of all available replacement chits
according to their specific sub-types and nationality.
17.3 Military Options Screen (F3 key)
The Military Options Screen contains a description of all Military Options open to a player along with
the cost of these options (in terms of Engagement Points). These options will vary according to the
scenario being played. Not all scenarios contain selectable Military Options.
The Message Log indicates when Military Options are (or become) available. Players take advantage
of these options by left-clicking the option text on the Ledger screen. A signature appears next to the
option to indicate that it has been selected. Certain options may be selected multiple times (as long
as the player can afford the associated costs).
17.4 Diplomatic Options Screen (F4 key)
The Various Options Screen contains a description of all scenario options open to a player along
with the cost of these options (in terms of Victory Points). These options will vary according to the
scenario being played. Not all scenarios contain selectable Options.
17.5 Secretary of State (Objectives) Screen (F5
key)
The Secretary of State (Objectives) Screen contains:
a brief synopsis of the current scenario,
a summary of National Morale totals (enemy totals in brackets),
location of your capital city,
your total combat losses (enemy totals in brackets),
the number of enemy Prisoners of War (POWs) held,
your Victory Point totals (enemy totals in brackets),
Victory Points received each turn for owning Strategic/Objective cities (enemy totals in
brackets),
 current date and number of game turns remaining in scenario.







Scenario Objective cities are listed on the second page of this screen. The list displays the name
of the city, the current ownership, the value of the city in NMs, and the location (area) of the city.
(Clicking on the ownership icon closes the ledger and takes you to the city on the game map.)
63
Weather
17.6 Secretary of State (Historical Briefing)
Screen (F6 key)
This screen contains a brief historical description of the scenario that may assist you in developing
strategies of your own.
18. Weather and Seasonal Effects
As the European Armies discovered in the 1700’s, weather can be a general’s best friend or
his worst nightmare. Weather effects are applied on a regional basis. For example, the weather
conditions present in one region can be considerably different than weather occurring in an adjacent
region. Weather generation does take into account seasonal variations in temperature and wind
patterns. Therefore, the likelihood of harsh weather occurring in a region is greater during winter
months (November through February).
Effect on Movement/
SupplyWeather Type
Combat
Effects (Atk/
Def)
Attrition
Notes
None
None
None
Moderate
Penalty
Crossing rivers
more difficult
Slight Penalty
(Atk)
Mountain
regions suffer
Attrition
See
Note 1
Moderate
Penalty
Moderate Penalty
(Atk), Battles start
at Close Range
Attrition unless
Sheltered
See
Note 1
Frozen (Harsh)
Moderate
Penalty, Bodies
of water may
freeze
Moderate Penalty
(Atk)
Attrition with
increased
severity unless
Sheltered
See
Note 1
Blizzard
(Very Harsh)
Severe Penalty, Severe Penalty
Bodies of
(Atk), Battles start
water may
at Close Range
freeze
Attrition with
even greater
severity unless
Sheltered
See
Note 2
Fair
Mud
Snow
(Harsh)
Notes: Forces in a loyal region (over 50% Loyalty) with a friendly structure ignore Attrition losses
due to Harsh Weather. The Force does not have to be physically placed inside the structure to
benefit.
64
Reinforcements
The attrition effects of Snow, Frozen, and Blizzard conditions involve increasing amounts of severity
(with attrition due to Blizzard being the most severe).
19. Losses and Replacements
When combat and attrition losses occur, they are apportioned among elements belonging to
the Force which has suffered the casualties. These elements have their losses indicated on the
Unit Panel by the presence of gray manpower symbols (black manpower symbols representing
remaining strength points). Each hit suffered causes the loss of one (1) strength point. The exact
total of men remaining in the element is indicated numerically. As long as elements have at least
one (1) Strength Point remaining, they are eligible to receive replacements. Once the final strength
point is lost, the element is eliminated.
19.1 The Replacement Pool
The number, type, and nationality of available replacements are displayed on the Replacements
Screen (F2 key) of the Ledger. This pool of replacements represents manpower which is being
trained and held in reserve until such time as it can be forwarded on to eligible combat units.
Replacements are represented on the Replacement Screen in terms of replacement chits. Each
replacement chit is equivalent in strength to an average battalion-sized element of the nationality
indicated.
Figure 19.1 The Replacement Screen is a graphic representation of the Replacement pool showing the
number, type, and nationality of available replacement chits.
65
Reinforcements
Replacement Chits There are events during the game that generate additional replacement.
Otherwise, the player must expend EP in Military and Diplomatic Options to ‘purchase’ additional
replacements.
19.1.2 Absorbing Replacements :
Replacement chits are used to create entire elements that can be merged into units that have lost
an entire element.
19.1.3 Eligibility to Receive Replacements
In order for a unit that has suffered strength point losses to be eligible to receive replacements, it
must remain stationary for the complete game turn. The number of replacement strength points a
unit may absorb (as a percentage of its full strength) is a function of the type of terrain it occupies
as follows:




10%: unit in a region with an unbesieged town,
20%: unit in a region with an unbesieged city (level 4 or greater),
30%: unit in a region with an unbesieged Depot
5% per level: unit is a naval vessel in harbor (represents repair to damaged ships)
Note: These percentages are non-cumulative. A unit with a maximum
strength of 27 strength points is allowed to replace nine (9) strength points
per turn if it remains stationary in a region with a depot (30% of 27 = 9).
19.1.4 Prohibitions to Receiving Replacements
The following units may not receive replacements:





units that are currently at full strength,
units of a type different from the available replacement chits,
units of a different nationality from the available replacement chits,
units that have moved regardless of the terrain they occupy,
units that are besieged (unless located within an un-blockaded harbor),
19.2 Automatic Garrisons
Automatic garrisons appear in a region having a depot or city/fortification greater than Level 6
if enough replacement chits are available in the Replacement Pool. The region must also have a
friendly Military Control of at least 51% and there must be at least one line infantry regiment in the
region. Garrison units are permanently fixed and may not be merged with other units. This feature is
not used in the initial scenarios supplied with WIA, but is available for future modifications.
66
Reinforcements
20. Capturing Enemy Units
At the conclusion of every battle or siege combat in which the losing side is Routed or Surrenders,
the winning side has the opportunity to capture enemy artillery and supply units. Essentially, Routed
units that are fired upon by enemy elements are susceptible to being captured. This represents the
destruction of an organized line of resistance and the vulnerability of rear echelon formations to
being overwhelmed by an advancing enemy.
20.1 Capturing Enemy Units after Field Combat
At the conclusion of a Field Combat in which the losing side has Routed, support units which
survived the combat are susceptible to capture. Each artillery battery and supply wagon belonging
to the losing side is checked to see if it is captured. Captured units are immediately placed into
a single TDM controlled by the winning side. Such units are identified as ‘Captured’ by the gray
background and word ‘Capt’ printed on the unit counter face.
20.2 Capturing Enemy Units after Siege Combat
At the conclusion of a Siege Combat in which the losing side has Routed, support units which
survived the combat are susceptible to capture. Each artillery battery and supply wagon belonging
to the losing side is checked to see if it is captured. Captured units are immediately placed into
a single TDM controlled by the winning side. Such units are identified as ‘Captured’ by the gray
background and word ‘Capt’ printed on the unit counter face. Fixed artillery (such as emplaced or
coastal batteries) are automatically Captured.
20.3 Using Captured Units
Captured artillery and supply wagons function exactly as normal units in every respect. However,
captured units may not recover losses unless they are replacement points available of the same
nationality. In most cases, this will not occur unless a player is able to re-capture a previouslycaptured unit.
21. Unit Experience
One of the most telling factors in any combat situation will be the experience (or lack thereof) of the
participants. Many elite units were effective not because of their pretty uniforms, but because the
men in these units had years of experience in dealing with the stresses of campaigning. (Consult
Section 6.2 for information regarding the effect of experience on Leaders.)
21.1 Experience Levels
There are multiple levels of experience indicated by small stars on the unit icon. Units and Leaders
may lose experience when trained (upgraded) to a new unit type. There is no upper limit to the
number of experience levels a unit may gain during play.
67
Reinforcements
21.1.1 Experience Indicators
A Unit’s level of experience is indicated by the number of stars on it’s unit counter.
Experience is also indicated by star icons located on the top pane of an element’s Unit Detail
panel display. Each star represents a level of experience. For example, certain veteran units begin
scenarios with up to five (5) levels of experience. These units have five (5) stars in their Unit Detail
panel displays.
21.1.2 Gaining Experience
Experience is gained by participating in combat or through training provided by Leaders with
Training-related Special Abilities. When a unit participates in combat, depending upon its individual
success, it may be awarded Experience Points. Experience awards are noted in the Message Log.
In order to gain an Experience Level, a unit must acquire anywhere from 5 to 20 Experience Points.
Eligible units are checked at the end of each game turn to see if they have gained an experience
level.
21.2 Effects of Experience
The net effect of experience is to make units more efficient military formations. For each level of
experience, units have their abilities increased as follows:
 For each Odd level of experience (i.e. 1, 3, 5, etc.), units gain a +1 increase in their
Initiative, Discipline, Patrol, and Evasion values.
 For every Even level of experience (i.e. 2, 4, 6, etc.), units gain a +1 increase in their
Offensive Fire, Defensive Fire, Assault, and Police values.
 For every level of experience, units gain a 10 point increase in their Cohesion value. (For
example, a unit with two levels of experience receives 20 extra Cohesion points.)
22. Scenario Events
Each scenario contains scripted ‘events’ designed to introduce historical perspective and
happenstance into the game. Events can be triggered by players who fulfill certain conditions or
triggered simply by reaching a particular date in the scenario. Most events are noted in the Message
Log. Some even come with their own ‘press releases’.
In many cases, the occurrence of an event is merely for information purposes. Some events,
however, insert or delete troops from the game map. Pay close attention to the Message Log at the
beginning of each turn and use the ‘jump’ feature (left-clicking on message text) to go directly to the
map where an event has taken place.
68
Appendix
Appendices
A. Terrain Summary for Land Units
Terrain Type
Effect on
Movement/Supply
Roads
Treat as clear terrain
regardless of actual
terrain
Major Roads
Cost of moving is
50% of the cost of
clear terrain
Combat Effects
(Atk/Def)
Clear
Other Effects
Notes
Foraging Bonus
Woods
Slight Penalty
Atk: None
Def: Slight
Bonus
Forest
Moderate Penalty
Atk: None
Def: Moderate
Bonus
Marshes
Severe Penalty
Atk: None
Def: Moderate
Bonus
Hide Bonus
See
Note 2
Wilderness
Severe Penalty
Atk: Severe
Penalty
Def: None
Hide Bonus
See
Note 3
Mountain
Severe Penalty
Atk: Severe
Penalty
Def: None
Hide Bonus
Limited Foraging
See
Note 4
Major River/ Lake
Severe Penalty
Atk: None:
Def: Major
Bonus
May freeze
during Winter
See
Note 5
Minor River
Moderate Penalty
Atk: None
Def: Minor
Bonus
Ferry/Bridge
Moderate Penalty
Atk: None
Def: Minor
Bonus
69
See
Note 5
Negated if
Frozen
See
Note 5
Appendix
Terrain Type
Effect on
Movement/Supply
Shallow Water
Moderate Penalty
Coastal Water
Impassable
Ocean
Impassable
Transit Link
Travel To and From
requires 1 full Turn
Combat Effects
(Atk/Def)
Other Effects
Notes
May freeze
during Winter
Notes:
1. Irregular units receive Major Combat bonus (Atk & Def)
2. Irregular units receive Slight Combat bonus (Atk), receive Major Combat Bonus when Ambushing
3. Irregular units receive Moderate Combat bonus (Atk) when Ambushing
4. Irregular units receive Moderate Combat bonus (Atk) when Ambushing, increased movement
penalties for wheeled and mounted units.
5. Friendly Forces attacking across a river (major or minor) do not incur a penalty if the region has a
level of friendly military control greater than 10%
B. Movement Summary for Naval Units
Terrain Type
Effect on Movement/
Supply
Combat Effects (Atk/Def)
Other Effects
Major River
Shallow draught
vessels only
Weather may reduce
initial combat range
May Freeze
Minor River
Prohibited to naval
units
Weather may reduce
initial combat range
May Freeze
Ferry/Bridge
Shallow Water
Shallow draught
vessels only
Coastal Water
Weather may reduce
initial combat range
Ocean
Weather may reduce
initial combat range
Transit Link
70
Notes
Appendix
C. Shortcut Keys
Zooming:
Mouse wheel
Click on mouse wheel
End
Page Up
Page Down
Zoom in/Zoom out
Alternate between maximum and minimum zoom levels
Alternate between maximum and minimum zoom levels
Zoom in
Zoom out
Handling Forces
Left-click
Right-click
Ctrl + left-click
Right-click on a tab
Keys 1 – 6
Ctrl F1-F4
Ctrl F9
Ctrl + Shift + S
Select a Force.
Unselect (and returns to messages display)
Cycle through the various region Forces, make multiple
selections on the Unit Panel
Moves Force to desired location.
Cancel whole move (exception if [Shift] is pressed it allows
circular trips)
Either intercept an enemy or combine with a friendly Force
Enter the structure
Combine with this Force
Moves Force to desired location (Disables pathfinding)
Cancel the last leg of the movement path of an Army or
Fleet
Center map on selected Force
When an Army Force is selected Displays Army Command
Radius.
When a (non-Army) Force is selected Displays regions and
nature of the links.
Show number of men
Cylce through ‘locked’ land forces.
Cycle through land Forces. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to
skip units that are not moving.
Cycle through naval Forces. Simultaneously press [Ctrl] to
skip units that are not moving.
(Sentry) Selected Force will be skipped when cycling with
keys E/R/T/Y
Remove all “sentry” orders
Lock/unlock all Forces (prevents a Force dropped onto
another Force from merging)
Lock/unlock this Force.
Switch Map Filter
Use unit filter for you or your enemy.
End Game Turn
Save Game
F1
F2
F3
Force List
Replacements (Secretary of War)
Military Options (Secretary of War)
Drag-drop on another region
Drag-drop on same region
Drag-drop on another Force
Drag-drop on city, harbor
Drag-drop on a tab
Drag-drop + Ctrl
Del
C
Shift
Shift
Ctrl
Q/W
E/R
T/Y
S
Ctrl +S
Ctrl + L
71
Appendix
F4
F5
F6
Diplomatic Options (Secretary of State)
Objectives (Secretary of State)
Scenario Background
In the Unit Panel
Ctrl-click
Mouse wheel scroll
Select unit(s) then drag-drop
Select/unselect multiple units
Move through the list of units
Create a new Army/Fleet. This is used for disembarking in a
coastal region without a friendly harbor.
A, O, D, P
Change the Force to the corresponding posture
Operational Orders (if applicable)
Shift+T
Shift+D
Shift+S
Shift+M
Shift+A
Shift+B
Enter Town upon reaching destination
Build Depot
Sortie from structure
Force March
Set an Ambush
Burn Structure (land units)
Messages Log
Simple-click
Double-click
Mouse wheel scroll
Go to region where event occurred (if relevant)
Display messages content (if message is red) and opens
specific message window
To scroll up and down the message list
Windows & Interface
Esc
R
Close the window
When on the main menu Resume last played game.
Saved Games
When you move the mouse over a saved game on the load
game screen, you can either back up one turn (Home key),
rename it (Insert key) or delete it (Delete key).
72
Appendix
D. Map Icons
Depot
City
Fort
Fort Level 2
Natives Village
City & Depot
Fort & Depot
Fort Level 2 & Depot
Stockade
Town
Fort & City
Fort Level 2 & City
Settlement
Town & Depot
Fort & City & Depot
Fort Level 2 & City &
Depot
73
Appendix
Harbor
Fortress & City
Fortress & City &
Depot
E. NATO Symbols
Admiral (one to three anchors
symbols)
Cavalry, Heavy
Cavalry, Light
Artillery, Coastal
Engineers
Artillery, Field
General (one to four stars symbols)
Artillery, Heavy
Goods
Artillery, Horse
Headquarters
Artillery, Light
Headquarters
Artillery, Siege
Headquarters
Balloons
Indian
Cavalry
Infantry
Cavalry Division
Infantry Division
74
Appendix
Infantry, Heavy
Rangers
Infantry, Light
Privateer
Irregular
Sharpshooters
Marines
Signal
Medical
Slaves
Militia (initials designate areas)
Supply
Mountain
Flotilla
Naval Engineers
Transport
Partisans
Warship
Sappers
75
Appendix
F. Leader Special Abilities (Traits)
F1. Special Abilities Applicable Only to Element or
Leader
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Over Cautious
This commander is far too cautious when it comes to engaging
the enemy, resulting in passivity and a lack of reactivity in the
Chain of Command of his Army. -4 CP if the commander of the
Force
Emplaced Guns
These guns are emplaced batteries and can’t be moved outside
the region.
Medical Service
This element is a Medical Service company, able to provide
health care even on the battlefield. Give +15% to the Cohesion
Recovery rate of all others elements of the Force they are in.
Signal
This signal unit is of great use to an able commander for
transmitting orders along the chain of command. +2 Command
Points to the Force it is in. This ability does not improve.
Reconnaissance
Improves the detection of enemy units in regions adjacent to
the Force
Pillager
If the most senior commander in the region, this leader will let
his men burn and pillage the countryside. Only the most loyal
and policed regions will be spared by his cruel behaviour. If an
element, it will burn immediately any enemy Depot or stockade
captured.
Large Transport
This unit has a transport capacity of 10 CPs.
Medium Transport
This unit has a transport capacity of 5 CPs.
Transport
This unit has a transport capacity of 3 CPs
Small Transport
This unit has a transport capacity of 2 CPs.
Tiny Transport
This unit has a transport capacity of 1 CPs.
76
Appendix
F2. Special Abilities Applicable Only to the Unit to
which an Element Belongs
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Entrencher
Raises Defensive Fire value by 10%, increases Protection value
by 1. Applies to all elements in the Unit (ONLY) when the Unit is
entrenched.
Skirmisher
Raises Initiative by 1. Applies to all elements in the Force/Unit.
F3. Special Abilities Applicable to an Entire Force
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Staffer
+1 Command Point per ability level, even if NOT in command.
(If in a Force with an Army HQ, subordinates corps also receive
this bonus)
Screener
This element or Leader is able to screen and mask the
progression of the whole Force with the clever use of scouts,
use of side-tracks and stealthy march subterfuges. +1 to the
Hide Value of the Force and +25% to the Evasion Value, if the
Force is moving.
Deceiver
This element or Leader is adept at establishing dummy
positions (Quaker guns and such), camouflaging to the enemy
the real strength of his Force. +1 to the Hide Value of the Force,
if entrenched.
Deep Raider
This element or Leader is able to mount deep raids which can
avoid enemy patrols, with the use of side-tracks and stealthy
march subterfuges. +50% to the Evasion Value, if the Force is
moving.
Patroler
This element or Leader is proficient in making more effective
patrols in the region he is in, by setting an effective network
of surveying detachments or establishing signal towers. +1
to Detection Value, +35% to the Patrol Value of the Force the
element is in, if entrenched.
Sea Spotter
This element or Admiral is proficient in surveying the seas
and spotting enemy ships. +1 to Detection Value, +35% to the
Patrol Value of the Force the element is in.
77
Appendix
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Brave
Increases Cohesion by 10. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, applies to all elements in the Force.
Militiaman
Raises Discipline value by 1, increases Cohesion by 10. Applies
to all Militia elements in the Force/Unit.
Cavalryman
Raises Assault value by 25%. Applies to all cavalry elements in
the Force/Unit if occupying clear, prairie or desert terrain.
Artillerist
Raises Offensive/Defensive Fire value by 20%. Applies to all
artillery elements in the Force/Unit.
Defensive Engineer
Raises Defensive Fire value by 10%, increases Protection value
by 1. Applies to all elements in the Force/Unit when the Force/
Unit is entrenched.
Partisan
Raises Offensive/Defensive Fire value by 30%, raises Assault
value by 30%, Increases Protection value by 2. Applies to all
Irregular elements in the Force/Unit in difficult terrain.
Irregular Fighting
Skill
Raises Offensive/Defensive Fire value by 15%, raises Assault
value by 15%. Applies to all elements in the Force/Unit when
in combat versus Irregulars or Partisans units (only in difficult
terrain).
Fire Discipline
Increases Offensive/Defensive Firepower value by 10%,
increases Assault value by 10%, +3 bonus to the check needed
to form a square against cavalry charges. Applies to all regular
infantry elements in the Unit. If the commanding officer, applies
to all regular infantry elements in the entire Force.
Infantryman
Increases Offensive/Defensive Firepower value by 10%,
increases Assault value by 10%. Applies to all infantry elements
in the Unit. If the commanding officer, applies to all regular
infantry elements in the entire Force.
Defensive
Commander
Increases Defensive Fire value by 10%. Applies to all elements
in the Force/Unit.
Ranger
Increases speed by 25%. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, 25% increase applies to all elements in entire
Force. (Wild Areas ONLY).
Pontoneer
Increases speed crossing rivers by 50%. Applies to entire Force
when crossing rivers.
Mountaineer
If the commander, provides a 25% move bonus to the whole
Force in Hills, Wooded Hills, Mountain or Alpine terrains.
78
Appendix
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Supply Ranger
Reduces consumption of General Supply by 15%. Applies to the
entire Force/Unit. (Wild areas ONLY).
Forager
This element or commander reduces by 25% the chances that
a unit pillages a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply
is lacking).
Expert Forager
This element or commander reduces by 50% the chances that
a unit pillages a region when foraging (i.e. when General Supply
is lacking).
Siege Expert
Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Force when
attacking Forts.
Colonial
25% reduction in supply consumption to the whole FORCE in
colonial areas.
Fort Defender
Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Force when
defending in a Fort.
Engineer
Provides a one point siege bonus to the whole Force when
defending or attacking Forts.
(Nationality)
Commander
Leader can lead units of applicable nationality without penalty.
Training Master
Provides 1 experience point every turn to all the troops in the
Force.
F4. Special Abilities Applicable to an Entire Force only
When Leader with Special Ability is in Command
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Over Cautious
This commander is far too cautious when it comes to engaging
the enemy, resulting in passivity and a lack of reactivity. -4 CP
if the commander of the Force
Superior Tactician
Increases Initiative by 1. Applies to all elements in the Force/
Unit.
Offensive Master
Units under his command may deploy better and more units
when attacking. If the commander, allows an easier retreat on
the first four hours of the battle.
Master of Defense
Units under his command may deploy better and more units
when defending, reducing the enemy’s effectiveness.
79
Appendix
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Wonderful Tactician
Initiative bonus of 1 to all units under his command. Plus, if
naval commander, +1 bonus to Wind Gauge.
Fast Mover
Increases speed by 15%. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, the 15% increase in speed applies to entire
Force.
Very Fast Mover
Increases speed by 25%. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, the 25% increase in speed applies to entire
Force.
Very Fast
Cavalryman
Increases speed by 25%. Applies to all cavalry elements in the
Unit. If the commander, the 25% increase in speed applies to
all cavalry elements in entire Force.
Very Fast Raider
Increases speed by 25%. Applies to all Irregular elements in the
Unit. If the commander, 25% increase applies to all Irregular
elements in entire Force.
Slow Mover
Decreases speed by 25%. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, 25% decrease applies to entire Force.
Seaman
Increases speed by 25%. Applies to all elements in the Unit. If
the commander, 25% increase applies to entire Fleet.
Master Logistician
Reduces consumption of General Supply by 25%. Applies to all
elements in the Unit. If the commander, 25% reduction applies
to all elements in the Force.
Ambusher
If the commander, 50% bonus to Irregulars’ chance to ambush
in non-clear areas
Surpriser
If the commander, 20% chance of surprising the enemy (first
fire).
Withdrawer
If the commander, allows a 30% greater chance of withdrawing
during the first two (2) hours of a battle.
Adept Raider
If the commander, allows an 85% chance of retreat at any
round of battle, if overwhelmed. Applies only to Forces needing
4 or fewer command points.
Reckless
If the commander, will have difficulty retreating on the first two
hours of the battle.
Hothead
If the commander, won’t be able to order a retreat during the
first two hours of the battle.
80
Appendix
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Expert Withdrawer
If the commander, allows a 30% greater chance of withdrawing
during the first four (4) hours of a battle.
Multinational
Can lead units of any nationality without penalty.
Recruiting Officer
Can muster up to 5 new Conscripts companies on a regular
basis in cities of Level 5+. Must be in the city to do so.
Training Officer
If the commander, will train up to two (2) regiments of
Conscript every turn.
Master Spy
If the commander, improves the detection of enemy units
(except Irregulars) within the Theatre by reducing Evasion Level
by -1.
Poor Spy Network
If the commander, erroneous reports received which worsen
the detection of enemy units (except Irregulars) within the
Theatre by adding +1 to the Evasion level.
Charismatic
This leader has a charismatic aura. If the commander, provides
+5 maximum Cohesion and a +25% increase in the fatigue
recovery rate of units under his command.
Good Army
Administrator
The leader is appreciated by his men and cares about their
well-being. If the commander, provides a +15% increase in the
fatigue recovery rate of units under his command.
Dispirited Leader
This commander is absolutely not charismatic in the eyes of
his men or is a defeatist. -5 Maximum Cohesion to the Force if
the commander, -25% to the Cohesion recovery rate.
Admired
Commander
The leader is beloved and revered by his men, as he cares
about their well-being. If the commander, provides a +25%
increase in the fatigue recovery rate of units under his
command.
Good Population
Administrator
If the most senior General in the region, will progressively
increase the Loyalty of the population over time. (+1% each
turn up to 75%)
Good Commander
If in command provides +1 Command Point per ability level.
Gifted Commander
This general is gifted for command. +2 Command Points and
+1 additional CP per ability level above 1, to any Force he
commands.
81
Appendix
Icon
Special Ability
Description of Special Ability
Good Subordinates
This general knows how to pick his subordinates and is able to
delegate command at the right moment. +3 Command Points
to any Forces he commands. This ability does not improve.
Quickly Angered
This general is quickly angered and is often having arguments
with his subordinates. -4 Command Points to the Force he
commands.
Great Strategist
If the Commander in Chief in the Department, provides +1
Command Point and an additional +1 per ability level, to his
Force.
Dispersed Move
This general (if the commander) has the bad habit of letting his
troops move in disorder, thus reducing how they can effectively
patrol the region, or conceal their approach. −25% to Evasion
and Patrol, −1 to hiding Value of the whole Force, if moving.
Sea Raider
If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at avoiding
enemy naval Forces, if need be. +25% to the Evasion Value of
the Fleet. Works even if not moving.
Fort Runner
If the admiral in command, this leader will be adept at running
enemy Forts, if need be. +10% to the Evasion Value, −35% to
the damage taken from Forts firing on the passing Fleet. Works
only if moving.
H. Manual Errata and Additions
This section will contain changes or additions to information as a result of future updates to the
software. Information contained in this manual is current up to version 1.01.
82
Credits
J. Credits
Athena Games Entertainment Online Distribution (AGEOD)
Game Designers:
Development:
Art Director:
Graphics:
Historical Research:
Additional Research:
Music:
Sounds SFX:
Documentation:
Proofreading:
Corporate Communications:
Administration:
Special Thanks:
Philippe Thibaut & Philippe Malacher
Philippe Malacher & Yoann Brosseau
Original Art by Robin Pirez. Complementary art by Gilles
Pfeiffer
Original Art by Robin Pirez. Complementary art by Gilles
Pfeiffer
Philippe Thibaut, Florent Quesnel, Steve Dunn
Philippe Sacré, Olivier Malacher, Ludovic Grousset
Grégory Minodier, US Army’s 3rd US Infantry Regiment Fife
and Drum Corps
Michael Huang
Orignal documentation by Laurence Russell
Paul Roberts, Steve Dunn, Mark Kratzer
Ludovic Grousset, Mark Kratzer
Philippe Thibaut, Samuel Anzalone
Deputy Director of Public Affairs Adrienne M. Combs, Joint
Force Headquarters, US Military / Master Sergeant Kanessa
Trent, Public Affairs Office, US Army / Major Joel Lindeman,
3rd US Infantry Regiment, US Army / Steve Dunn / Paul
Roberts / Norbert Hofmann / Arturo Sanchez / Stefan “aka”
Dooya / Arne Meyer Vedo-Hansen
Volunteers (Alphabetically):
Arsan, Cat_Lord, Dooya, Lightsfantastic, Lodilefty, Moustic,
Muddymonkey77, Primasprit, Rafiki, Reiryc, Runyan99,
Stwa, Sunray, Tagwyn, Tarakoja, Teufel0331, TheDeadeye
Production:
A game produced by AGE Studio
Matrix Games
Executive Producer:
Associate Producer:
Boxartwork Design:
Manual Design and Layout:
Public Relations & Marketing:
Production Assistant:
Administration:
Distributor Sales Manager:
Business Development Manager:
Serious Games Project Manager:
Customer Support Staff:
Forum Administration:
David Heath
Erik Rutins
Marc Schwanebeck
Marc Schwanebeck
Sean Drummy
Gregory Wilcox
Liz Stoltz
Ross Jepson
Karlis Rutins, Lance Stoltz
Shaun Wallace, David Heath
Daniel Heath, Alex Fiedler, Andrew Williams
Andrew Williams, Marc Schwanebeck, Erik Rutins , David
Heath, Paul Vebber
Web-Database Design & Development: Alex Fiedler
Network and System Administrator: Mike Vahan
Network & PC Support:
Ron Duquesnel
83
Index
Quality Assurance Lead:
Very Special Thanks:
Matrix NexGen:
Erik Rutins
Ron Tedesco, Debra Pugh, Renee Schoenfelder, Marti Nagy,
Bob Lippman, Thomas Heath, Yvonne Heath.
Alexander Rutins, David Vebber, Megan Vebber, Andrew
Heath, Nicholas Heath, Shane Heath, Austin Stoltz, Noah
Stoltz, Cameron Eckenfels, Hannah Eckenfels, Heidi Fiedler,
Kai Cloer and Erik Conkling
Our Strength:
We thank God for giving us the ability and strength to
complete this project and follow our dream.
We would also like to thank our families and friends for
giving us their non-stop love and support during this
project.
Index
A
combat round 27, 41, 42, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51,
57
Command Costs 29
Command Points 29, 30, 39, 76, 81, 82
Command Postures 20, 39, 41, 56
Corps 24, 79, 81, 82
Activation Checks 40
Ammo 28
Ammunition 23, 24, 28, 40, 43, 44
Amphibious Landing 41
Areas 23
Assault 27, 30, 34, 42, 48, 50, 56, 57, 60
Assault combat 48, 49
attrition 11, 22, 23, 25, 26, 43, 52, 58, 59, 65
Attrition hits 33
Automatic Defeat 17, 18
Automatic Victory 16, 17, 18, 21
D
Defensive Fire 27, 42, 48
Defensive Rating 30, 49
Depots 22, 35, 61
Detection Points 38
Discipline 27, 42, 47, 49, 50, 53, 78
Division 25
B
Blockade 28
blockaded 66
Boarding 42
breach 53
E
elements 20, 25, 27, 34, 36, 39, 42, 43, 46,
47, 48, 49, 50, 65, 67, 76
Entrenching 35
Evasion 34, 40, 77, 82
exit points 43
Experience 30, 47, 52, 67, 68
C
Calculating National Morale 17
Captured units 67
Cavalry Charges 49
Chain of Command 39, 76, 79
Cities 21
Civilization Level 21
cohesion 18, 22, 23, 27, 32
Cohesion Points 32, 33, 43
Combat Efficiency 24
Combat Frontage 46
F
Field Combat 35, 46, 49, 51, 53, 67
Fire combat 27, 42, 47, 48
Fire Combat Casualties 48
forage 21
Force 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34,
84
Index
35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 49, 50, 51, 52,
53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 71, 72, 77,
79, 80
Forming Squares 49
fortification 22, 52, 53, 54, 56, 66
fortifications 21, 22, 34, 35, 37, 40, 44, 47, 50,
53, 54, 61
G
garrisons 21, 66
General Supply 23, 28, 40, 43, 44, 53, 58
Globe 20, 23
H
N
National Morale 17, 18, 20, 34, 49, 52
O
Objective cities 17
Objectives 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 72
Objectives Screen (F5 key) 17
Offensive Fire 27, 42
Offensive Posture 30, 33, 34, 41, 57, 60
Offensive Rating 30, 49, 50
P
Hardened Attrition Option 11, 59
harsh weather 32, 39
Hide Points 39
Hide Value 27, 38, 39, 77
Hostile territory 60
Partisans 37, 61, 75, 78
Patrol 28, 34, 40, 77, 82
PBEM 11, 15
Player Summary Display 20
Police 28
Protection 27, 42
I
R
initial combat range 46, 70
Initiative 27, 47, 79, 80
Installation Procedure 12
Intercepting Enemy Forces 35
Irregular units 39, 61, 70, 78
Raiding 35, 37
randomized Leaders 14
Range 27, 42, 46, 64
Ranged Damage 27
rate of fire 27, 48
Rate of Fire 27, 42, 50
recovery 33, 34, 43, 81
regions 12, 18, 21, 23, 33, 38, 39, 40, 50, 59,
60, 61, 64, 71, 76
replacement chit 65
Replacement Pool 21, 65, 66
replacements 11, 17, 32, 57, 59, 65, 66
Resting 33
Rules of Engagement 11
L
Leaders 14, 16, 18, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,
36, 37, 39, 47, 51
Ledger 18, 20, 65
Loyalty 16, 23, 60, 61, 81
M
Main Menu Screen 13
Manual Errata 82
Map Filters 20, 23
Media 13
Melee combat 27, 48, 50
Message Log 20, 30, 43
Military control 59, 60
Military Control 23, 34, 38, 59, 60, 66
Military Options 71
Mini Map Display 20
movement order 33, 40
movement path 33, 35, 71
S
Scorched Earth 59
Scorched-Earth Rule 11
sea zone 21, 28, 39, 40, 41, 43
Seniority 16, 18, 39, 52
Siege combat 23, 46, 56
Sound of the Guns 60
Spanish Campaign 1808-1814 14
Special Ability 25, 30, 41, 50, 52, 53
Special Ability icons 25, 30
Special Orders 20, 35, 36, 37
Special Orders Panel 20
85
Index
Speed Coefficient 27
Strategic Rating 30, 31, 41, 50
strength point 12, 48, 53, 65
structure 22, 23, 33, 36, 37, 39, 44, 46, 51, 52,
53, 54, 58, 60, 61, 71, 72
Sudden Death 16, 17
Supply 18, 22, 23, 24, 28, 37, 40, 43, 44, 47,
52, 53, 58, 59, 64, 69, 70, 79, 80
supply sources 18, 21
Supply Wagons 40
Support Unit 28
support units 37, 60, 67
System Requirements 13
T
TDP 20, 22, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 56, 67
Terrain and Weather Panel 20
Theaters 23
Troop Display Panel 20
U
Unit Cohesion 17, 18, 25
unit countersí 20
Unit Detail panel 20
Unit Panel 19, 20, 24, 25, 29, 36, 65, 72
Units 24, 25, 27, 28, 32, 36, 39, 40, 44, 47, 49,
52, 57, 67, 69, 70, 79
Unit strength points 12
V
Victory Points 11, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 52
W
Wind Gauge 41, 42, 80
Withdrawal procedure 43
Z
Zone of Control 34
Zoom magnifications 19
86
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