Technician Licensing Class
Technician Licensing Class
Your Computer Goes
Ham Digital!
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
The code used when sending CW in the amateur bands
is International Morse.
•
T8D9
•
T8D10
The following devices can be used to transmit CW in
the amateur bands:
 Straight Key
 Electronic Keyer
 Computer Keyboard
•
The following are examples of digital communications
methods.
T8D1
 Packet
 PSK31
 MFSK
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
A terminal node controller would be connected
between a transceiver and computer in a packet radio
station.
T4A6
A Packet Radio System.
Some Packet equipment
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
•
The sound card provides audio to the microphone
input and converts received audio to digital form when
conducting digital communications using a computer.
T8D8
Packet transmissions may include:
T4A7
 A check sum which permits error detection;
 A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the
information is being sent;
 Automatic repeat request in case of error.
Laptop,
TNC, and
Handheld
comprise
Packet
Station.
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
A "parity" bit is an extra code element used to detect
errors in received data.
T8D11
• Just like a ‘parity bit’ in computers
When applied to digital communications systems, the
acronym "BER" means Bit Error Rate.
•
T7B12
•
T3A10
•
T8B11
Error rates are likely to increase on VHF or UHF data
signals propagated over multiple paths.
A commonly used method of sending signals to and
from a digital satellite is FM Packet.
• FM packet a very popular digital communications system
• Packets usually stored and forwarded, via satellite or space station
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
The term APRS means Automatic Position Reporting
System.
T8D2
Kenwood dual bander plugged into the Avmap G5 GPS position plotter.
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
A Global Positioning System receiver is normally used
when sending automatic location reports via amateur
radio.
•
T8D3
•
T8D6
The abbreviation PSK mean Phase Shift Keying.
•
T8D7
PSK31 is a low-rate data transmission mode.
• PSK-31 transmission rate is about normal typing speed.
• PSK is a remarkable digital mode that slices through interference and gets
message across sometimes to the moon and back.
You can connect a PSK-31 and RTTY data
reader to your radio to decode messages
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
A gateway is the name given to an amateur radio
station that is used to connect other amateur stations to
the Internet.
T8C11
• Similar to a Gateway in connection to a computer network
•
You might obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP
from a repeater directory.
T8C9
• The Internet is your best source. (But this is the question for the exam.)
•
You can select a specific IRLP node when using a
portable transceiver by use of the keypad to transmit the
IRLP node ID.
T8C10
Keypad on this rig’s top corner
and on back of microphone.
(Not necessarily this way on all rigs.)
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
9
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
10
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
It is required that a label indicating the licensee's name,
call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter in
place of on-air station identification when sending signals to
a radio control model using amateur frequencies.
T8C8
• Strange radio control signals can be heard using RC:
• 50.800 to 51.0 MHz and 53.1 to 53.9 MHz.
50 MHz
54 MHz
6-Meter Wavelength Band
Privileges
51 MHz
Licensee’s
call sign
52 MHz
53.1 MHz
53.9 MHz
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
The maximum power allowed when transmitting
telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt.
T8C7
• Telecommand signals are unidentified commands permitted by rule.
Hams can use frequencies on the 6-Meter Band to radio control a model aircraft.
Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!
•
The type of transmission indicated by the term NTSC is
an analog fast scan color TV signal.
T8D4
When you’re ready, you can add the fun of ATV to your ham shack.
Element 2 Technician Class Question
Pool
Your Computer
Goes Ham Digital
Valid July 1, 2010
Through
June 30, 2014
T8D09
What code is used when sending CW in the
amateur bands?
A. Baudot
B. Hamming
C. International Morse
D. Gray
T8D10
Which of the following can be used to
transmit CW in the amateur bands?
A. Straight Key
B. Electronic Keyer
C. Computer Keyboard
D. All of these choices are correct
T8D01
Which of the following is an example of a
digital communications method?
A. Packet
B. PSK31
C. MFSK
D. All of these choices are correct
T4A06
Which of the following would be
connected between a transceiver and
computer in a packet radio station?
A. Transmatch
B. Mixer
C. Terminal node controller
D. Antenna
T4A07
How is the computer’s sound card used
when conducting digital communications
using a computer?
A. The sound card communicates between
the computer CPU and the video display
B. The sound card records the audio
frequency for video display
C. The sound card provides audio to the
microphone input and converts
received audio to digital form
D. All of these choices are correct
T8D08
Which of the following may be included in
packet transmissions?
A. A check sum which permits error
detection
B. A header which contains the call sign
of the station to which the information
is being sent
C. Automatic repeat request in case of
error
D. All of these choices are correct
T8D11
What is a "parity" bit?
A. A control code required for automatic
position reporting
B. A timing bit used to ensure equal
sharing of a frequency
C. An extra code element used to detect
errors in received data
D. A "triple width" bit used to signal the
end of a character
T7B12
What does the acronym "BER" mean when
applied to digital communications systems?
A. Baud Enhancement Recovery
B. Baud Error Removal
C. Bit Error Rate
D. Bit Exponent Resource
T3A10
What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals
propagate over multiple paths?
A. Transmission rates can be increased by a
factor equal to the number of separate
paths observed
B. Transmission rates must be decreased by a
factor equal to the number of separate
paths observed
C. No significant changes will occur if the
signals are transmitting using FM
D. Error rates are likely to increase
T8B11
What is a commonly used method of
sending signals to and from a digital satellite?
A. USB AFSK
B. PSK31
C. FM Packet
D. WSJT
T8D02
What does the term APRS mean?
A. Automatic Position Reporting System
B. Associated Public Radio Station
C. Auto Planning Radio Set-up
D. Advanced Polar Radio System
T8D03
Which of the following is normally used
when sending automatic location reports
via amateur radio?
A. A connection to the vehicle
speedometer
B. A WWV receiver
C. A connection to a broadcast FM subcarrier receiver
D. A Global Positioning System receiver
T8D06
What does the abbreviation PSK mean?
A. Pulse Shift Keying
B. Phase Shift Keying
C. Packet Short Keying
D. Phased Slide Keying
T8D07
What is PSK31?
A. A high-rate data transmission mode
B. A method of reducing noise
interference to FM signals
C. A method of compressing digital
television signal
D. A low-rate data transmission mode
T8C11
What name is given to an amateur radio
station that is used to connect other
amateur stations to the Internet?
A. A
B. A
C. A
D. A
gateway
repeater
digipeater
beacon
T8C09
How might you obtain a list of active nodes
that use VoIP?
A. From the FCC Rulebook
B. From your local emergency coordinator
C. From a repeater directory
D. From the local repeater frequency
coordinator
T8C10
How do you select a specific IRLP node
when using a portable transceiver?
A. Choose a specific CTCSS tone
B. Choose the correct DSC tone
C. Access the repeater autopatch
D. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP
node ID
T8C08
What is required in place of on-air station
identification when sending signals to a radio
control model using amateur frequencies?
A. Voice identification must be transmitted every
10 minutes
B. Morse code ID must be sent once per hour
C. A label indicating the licensee's name, call sign
and address must be affixed to the transmitter
D. A flag must be affixed to the transmitter
antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high
letters or larger
T8C07
What is the maximum power allowed when
transmitting telecommand signals to radio
controlled models?
A. 500 milliwatts
B. 1 watt
C. 25 watts
D. 1500 watts
T8D04
What type of transmission is indicated by
the term NTSC?
A. A Normal Transmission mode in Static
Circuit
B. A special mode for earth satellite uplink
C. An analog fast scan color TV signal
D. A frame compression scheme for TV
signals
Technician Licensing Class
Multi-Mode
Radio Excitement
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
A multi-mode VHF transceiver is most useful for VHF weaksignal communication.
T7A9
Multi-mode
VHF/UHF
transceiver
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
CW is the type of emission that has the narrowest
bandwidth.
•
T8A5
•
T8A11
150 Hz is the approximate maximum bandwidth
required to transmit a CW signal.
CW Signal
500 Hz
wide
SSB Signal
2 - 3 kHz
wide
FM Signal
wide
UHF Fast-Scan TV
5 - 15 kHz
~ 6 MHz
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
The function of block 1, if figure T4 is a simple CW
transmitter is an oscillator.
T7A5
Antenna
1
Driver
Power
Amplifier
Telegraph
Key
Figure T4
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
500 Hz is an appropriate receive filter to select in
order to minimize noise and interference for CW reception.
T4B10
• Bandwidth filters vary for the mode being received.
•
The type of receiver shown in Figure T6 is a singleconversion superheterodyne.
T7A2
(Block 1 is
a detector)
• Single-conversion superheterodyne has only one IF amplifier.
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
The function of a product detector is to detect CW and
SSB signals.
T7A1
• Block 1 as a product detector will detect CW and SSB
• A Product detector is necessary in a simple Morse code (CW) and
single-sideband (SSB) receiver.
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement

T8A1
Single sideband is a form of amplitude modulation.
Voice or Phone Station
Carrier only CW
Tones produce both side
bands or AM
Remove one sideband
and suppress carrier
becomes SSB
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
3 kHz is the approximate bandwidth of a single
sideband voice signal.
T8A8
SSB signals are Amplitude Modulated (AM) with
the carrier and one sideband suppressed.
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
•
A circuit that combines a speech signal and an RF
carrier is a modulator.
T7A3 The function of a mixer in a superheterodyne receiver
is to shift the incoming signal to an intermediate
frequency.
T7A8
Station
Signal
Signal A at 800
kHz (or at 1200
kHz)
MIXER
Signal C at
455 kHz
(In AM Broadcast
Receiver)
Intermediate
Frequency
Local Oscillator
Signal B at
1255 kHz (or at
1655 kHz)
Block Diagram of an AM Broadcast Receiver Mixer
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
•
The advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth
choices on a multimode transceiver will permit noise or
interference reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching
the mode.
T4B9 2400 Hz is an appropriate receive filter to select in
order to minimize noise and interference for SSB reception.
T4B8
SSB Filter
Slots for
optional filters
Receiver section in a communications transceiver
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
The receiver RIT or clarifier controls could be used if
the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high
or low.
•
T4B6
•
T4B7
The term "RIT" means Receiver Incremental Tuning.
Set knob to neutral, press RIT
button to turn on function, and
then adjust slightly for proper
SSB voice reception
RIT adjusts voice pitch,
not the frequency of
received station.
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
•
An RF preamplifier is installed between the antenna
and receiver.
T7B2 In reference to a receiver, interference by very strong
signals causes fundamental overload.
T7A13
Good TV reception.
•
Front end overloaded TV reception
Selectivity is the term that describes the ability of a
receiver to discriminate between multiple signals.
T7A12
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
•
•
The amplitude of the modulating signal determines
the amount of deviation of an FM signal.
T2B6 When the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased
its signal occupies more bandwidth.
T7A4 The circuit pictured in Figure T7, if block 1 is a
frequency discriminator, is an FM receiver.
T2B5
Radio
Frequency
Amplifier
Mixer
Wide
Filter
Intermediate
Frequency
Amplifier
Oscillator
Figure T7
Limiter
Block 1
Audio
Amplifier
Multi-Mode Radio Excitement
•
•
A discriminator demodulates FM signals.
T8A10 The typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV
transmissions on the 70 cm band about 6 MHz.
T7A11
Amateur TV signals can be received on a variety
of equipment – even a small hand-held monitor.
Element 2 Technician Class Question
Pool
Multi-Mode
Radio Excitement
Valid July 1, 2010
Through
June 30, 2014
T7A09
Which of the following devices is most
useful for VHF weak-signal
communication?
A. A quarter-wave vertical antenna
B. A multi-mode VHF transceiver
C. An omni-directional antenna
D. A mobile VHF FM transceiver
T8A05
Which of the following types of emission
has the narrowest bandwidth?
A. FM voice
B. SSB voice
C. CW
D. Slow-scan TV
T8A11
What is the approximate maximum
bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal?
A. 2.4 kHz
B. 150 Hz
C. 1000 Hz
D. 15 kHz
T7A05
What is the function of block 1 if figure T4 is
a simple CW transmitter?
Antenna
1
Driver
Power
Amplifier
Telegraph
Key
Figure T4
A. Reactance modulator
B. Product detector
C. Low-pass filter
D. Oscillator
T4B10
Which of the following is an appropriate receive
filter to select in order to minimize noise and
interference for CW reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz
C. 2400 Hz
D. 5000 Hz
T7A02
A.
B.
C.
D.
What type of receiver is shown in Figure T6?
Direct conversion
Super-regenerative
Single-conversion superheterodyne
Dual-conversion superheterodyne
T7A01
What is the function of a product detector?
A. Detect phase modulated signals
B. Demodulate FM signals
C. Detect CW and SSB signals
D. Combine speech and RF signals
T8A01
Which of the following is a form of
amplitude modulation?
A. Spread-spectrum
B. Packet radio
C. Single sideband
D. Phase shift keying
T8A08
What is the approximate bandwidth of a
single sideband voice signal?
A. 1 kHz
B. 3 kHz
C. 6 kHz
D. 15 kHz
T7A08
Which of the following circuits combines a
speech signal and an RF carrier?
A. Beat frequency oscillator
B. Discriminator
C. Modulator
D. Noise blanker
T7A03
What is the function of a mixer in a
superheterodyne receiver?
A. To reject signals outside of the desired
passband
B. To combine signals from several
stations together
C. To shift the incoming signal to an
intermediate frequency
D. To connect the receiver with an
auxiliary device, such as a TNC
T4B08
What is the advantage of having multiple
receive bandwidth choices on a multimode
transceiver?
A. Permits monitoring several modes at once
B. Permits noise or interference reduction by
selecting a bandwidth matching the mode
C. Increases the number of frequencies that
can be stored in memory
D. Increases the amount of offset between
receive and transmit frequencies
T4B09
Which of the following is an appropriate receive
filter to select in order to minimize noise and
interference for SSB reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz
C. 2400 Hz
D. 5000 Hz
T4B06
Which of the following controls could be used if
the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems
too high or low?
A. The
B. The
C. The
D. The
AGC or limiter
bandwidth selection
tone squelch
receiver RIT or clarifier
T4B07
What does the term "RIT" mean?
A. Receiver Input Tone
B. Receiver Incremental Tuning
C. Rectifier Inverter Test
D. Remote Input Transmitter
T7A12
Which term describes the ability of a
receiver to discriminate between multiple signals?
A. Tuning rate
B. Sensitivity
C. Selectivity
D. Noise floor
T7B02
What is meant by fundamental overload in
reference to a receiver?
A. Too much voltage from the power
supply
B. Too much current from the power
supply
C. Interference caused by very strong
signals
D. Interference caused by turning the
volume up too high
T7A13
Where is an RF preamplifier installed?
A. Between the antenna and receiver
B. At the output of the transmitter’s
power amplifier
C. Between a transmitter and antenna
tuner
D. At the receiver’s audio output
T2B05
What determines the amount of
deviation of an FM signal?
A. Both the frequency and amplitude of the
modulating signal
B. The frequency of the modulating signal
C. The amplitude of the modulating signal
D. The relative phase of the modulating signal and
the carrier
T2B06
What happens when the deviation of an
FM transmitter is increased?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Its signal occupies more bandwidth
Its output power increases
Its output power and bandwidth increases
Asymmetric modulation occurs
T7A04
Radio
Frequency
Amplifier
What circuit is pictured in Figure T7, if
block 1 is a frequency discriminator?
Mixer
Wide
Filter
Intermediate
Frequency
Amplifier
Limiter
Block 1
Oscillator
A. A double-conversion receiver
B. A regenerative receiver
C. A superheterodyne receiver
D. An FM receiver
Audio
Amplifier
T7A11
Which of the following circuits demodulates
FM signals?
A. Limiter
B. Discriminator
C. Product detector
D. Phase inverter
T8A10
What is the typical bandwidth of
analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band?
A. More than 10 MHz
B. About 6 MHz
C. About 3 MHz
D. About 1 MHz
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