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Praise for Search Engine Marketing, Inc., Second Edition
“Keeping pace with the rapidly changing search marketing landscape, the latest edition of Bill Hunt and
Mike Moran's search industry bible, Search Engine Marketing, Inc., incorporates informative and enlightening sections on optimizing multimedia, improving Web site search, and the emergence of social media and
what it really means to the search marketer. There is valuable information in this book to help inform at
every level from the beginner who is curious about search to the advanced enterprise search marketer. Taking a very complicated, technical, and data-driven industry and making it easily understandable and actionable is no small task, and Search Engine Marketing, Inc. succeeds on every level. If you only read one book
on search marketing principles and best practices, this is the one.”
—Jay Middleton
Senior Manager, WW Search Marketing, Adobe Systems, Inc.
“With Search Engine Marketing, Inc., Bill Hunt and Mike Moran have successfully updated what is already
known in the industry as “The Search Marketing Bible.” With new content, examples, and insight including
social media and Web site search, this is a must read book for marketers at companies of all sizes from startups to the Fortune 100.”
—Lee Odden
CEO of TopRank Online Marketing and Author of Online Marketing Blog
“Search is the opportunity of our time because of its ability to match up your online presence with relevant
customers. It is big, it is small, it is simple, it is complex, but most of all it is deeply monetizable—if done
right. That last part is where Search Engine Marketing, Inc. comes in. Mike and Bill have done a fantastic
job of updating their bestseller. Any organization that wants to get search needs to get this book.”
—Avinash Kaushik
Author of Web Analytics: An Hour A Day
“Search Engine Marketing Inc. is an indispensable book to anyone tasked with managing their company’s
search program. The book is easy to understand and implements best practices for maximizing the effectiveness of your search activities.”
—Jochen Specht
Director, Web Strategy, Siemens Corporation
“Search engine marketing is often complicated. The subject can overwhelm the novice and expert alike. But
Mike Moran and Bill Hunt cut through this complexity. They approach search marketing pragmatically with
a calm focus on what really matters. If you run a Web site and want to bring in qualified visitors, spend an
afternoon talking shop with Mike and Bill. If that isn’t an option, buy their new book!”
—Alan Rimm-Kaufman, Ph.D.
Founder and President, The Rimm-Kaufman Group
“Thorough and authoritative, Mike Moran and Bill Hunt chose their title well. They literally wrote the book
on search engine marketing. Beginners won't be lost, experts won't be bored, and everyone will walk away
knowing more about this critical topic.”
—Tim Peter
Internet Marketing Executive, Author of the Thinks blog
“This book is required reading for anyone involved in marketing online—especially search. It provides precisely the right amount of depth and ideas to either get you off the ground or to optimize a highly complex
site to meet your business goals. It's written in a way to be accessible to both small site owners and mega-site
managers, and I've found it invaluable for my team.”
—Crispin Sheridan
Senior Director, Global Search Strategy, SAP
“When Bill Hunt and Mike Moran wrote the original Search Engine Marketing, Inc., I didn't think it could
ever be better. I was wrong. They rewrote it and did just that—made the book even better!”
—Andy Beal
Coauthor of Radically Transparent
“Mike Moran and Bill Hunt have provided a most comprehensive roadmap to both putting together a new
search engine marketing program or overhauling an existing one within the enterprise environment. It talks
about not only how to build an effective SEM program, but also how to sell it internally to all the internal
stakeholders whose buy-in is critical for the SEM program’s long-term success. This book is an invaluable
resource with practical advice and should be required reading for all search engine marketers on your team.”
—Imran Khan
Chief Marketing Officer, E-Loan
“This book is rock solid. It covers all the bases of search engine marketing, including multimedia and social
media. Whether you're a veteran search marketer or a newbie, whether it's a reference for your bookshelf or
a comprehensive primer you're after, you won't go wrong with Search Engine Marketing, Inc.”
—Stephan Spencer
Founder and President, Netconcepts
“Mike Moran and Bill Hunt knowledgeably guide users to all areas of SEO/SEM from basic target keywords, measurement, and optimization to advanced Social Media and Search. Each chapter has clear information, tips, related sites and warning on potential risks. Search Engine Marketing, Inc. is a must read for
marketing professional and C-level leaders who want to embrace Social Media and Web 2.0 tools to keep
their organization on top.”
—Julio Fernandez
Founder, B2BSocialMediaCouncil.com
“Everyone will agree content is king on the Internet. However, for content to rule your marketplace, it must
be found in the search engines ahead of your competitors. Search Engine Marketing, Inc. is a must for any
organization that has plans for global content domination. Plan on picking up several copies; every member
on your team needs it.”
—Bryan Eisenberg
New York Times bestselling Author of Waiting For Your Cat to Bark? and Call to Action
“If you’re looking to get ahead in Search Marketing and want to read a book, put this one down. This isn’t a
book about search marketing, this is the book about search marketing.”
—Edgar Valdmanis
MBA, Marketing Director, The Norwegian Computer Society
Praise for Search Engine Marketing, Inc., First Edition
“A very comprehensive, yet light-hearted guide for internet managers that demystifies search engine marketing and provides practical advice for success.”
—Piers Dickinson
Global Internet Marketing Manager, BP
“Outlines every one of the major strategic steps to develop your search marketing initiatives. This book
teaches Web marketers what to do from the beginning so they can implement a successful search marketing
program—the strategic steps to define the scope and cost of your search marketing program, develop a team,
create a proposal, get executive approval, manage, and measure your search marketing program. You have to
read it to appreciate it!”
—Cynthia Donlevy
Web Marketing & Strategy, Cisco Systems, Inc.
“Getting your site indexed is the most fundamental, yet one of the most challenging, aspects to search
engine marketing. Search Engine Marketing, Inc.: Driving Search Traffic to Your Company's Web Site is a
detailed and comprehensive guide through the pitfalls and opportunities of this complicated subject. I
started reading Chapter 10, “Get Your Site Indexed,” and haven’t really put it down since. It is a wonderfully
well-written and detailed reference that you will come back to again and again to get more out of your SEO
efforts. From price engines to paid placement, Chapter 14, “Optimize Your Paid Search Program,” covers
everything you need to know about paid search. I have yet to come across a more useful book for SEM pros.
From budgeting to bid strategy and optimization, Mike and Bill take you through the steps to create successful paid search campaigns. Whether you are just starting out in paid search or are already a power player,
you will learn something new from this book.”
—David Cook
Search Marketing Manager, Buy.com
“This book has no silver bullets or snake-oil potions that will magically propel your site to the top of every
search engine. What it offers instead is the most comprehensive, well-thought-out, and well-motivated treatment to date of all aspects of search engine marketing from planning to execution to measuring. If you are
involved in any way in the economic aspects of Web search technology, you need this book on your shelf.”
—Dr. Andrei Broder
Yahoo! Research Fellow and Vice President of Emerging Search Technology
“Mike Moran and Bill Hunt have delivered a masterpiece on enterprise search marketing. Both engaging
and results-focused, Search Engine Marketing, Inc. guides the marketer through the basics of why search
is important and how search engines work to the more challenging organizational tasks of selling a search
marketing proposal to executives and executing on a search marketing plan.
Unlike many previous search engine optimization books that have treated search marketing as a guerilla
approach disjointed from other organizational needs, Search Engine Marketing, Inc. shows how to incorporate search into the overall marketing mix in order to increase both customer value and business returnon-investment.
Full of real examples from other enterprise search marketing organizations and thoughtful treatment of the
business issues surrounding search, this book is the reference volume for bringing a successful search marketing program to fruition in the organization.”
—Jeff Watts
Search and Community Manager, National Instruments
“Search Engine Marketing, Inc. is the ultimate source on how to implement a search marketing campaign.
The book provides actionable instructions on topics from how to get the finances within your organization to
how to make your pages rank well in search engines. Beyond that, the book explains conversion metrics and
projecting your success. For anyone within a large organization, looking to make a difference with the corporate Web site; the book is a ‘no-brainer.’ For any professional SEO or SEM, the book is a must read. The
manner in which Bill Hunt and Mike Moran organized the book is both unique and smart. Both Bill and
Mike are also extremely professional public speakers on the topic of Search Marketing. I have been to
dozens of search marketing conferences, and I can honestly say, I am as impressed with this book as I am
with their top presentations.”
—Barry Schwartz
CEO, RustyBrick, Inc.
“Bill and Mike’s book provides an excellent in-depth resource for companies examining their search marketing strategy. In addition to actionable SEO tips, this book outlines how to successfully develop a search
strategy, determine what to outsource versus keep in house, and how to precisely outline the business case
and ‘sell’ search to executive decision-makers. If your company is wondering how to enter the search
space—or if you’re revising your online strategy—read this book.”
—Heather Lloyd-Martin
Author of Successful Search Engine Copywriting
“Required reading for anyone interested in how to apply leading-edge search marketing within large enterprises. With search marketing now of critical importance, the authors provide practical advice and
approaches that are both sophisticated and invaluable.”
—Rob Key
CEO, Converseon, Inc.
Search Engine Marketing, Inc.
Second Edition
This page intentionally left blank
Search Engine
Marketing, Inc.
Second Edition
Driving Search
Traffic to Your
Company’s
Web Site
Mike Moran and Bill Hunt
IBM Press
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Moran, Mike, 1958Search Engine Marketing, Inc. : driving search traffic to your company's web site / Mike Moran
and Bill Hunt. -- 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 0-13-606868-5 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Internet marketing. 2. Internet advertising. 3. Electronic commerce. I. Hunt, Bill. II. Title.
HF5415.1265.M665 2009
658.8'72--dc22
2008026522
All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any
prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to:
Pearson Education, Inc
Rights and Contracts Department
501 Boylston Street, Suite 900
Boston, MA 02116
Fax (617) 671 3447
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-606868-6
ISBN-10: 0-13-606868-5
Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Edwards Brothers in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Fourth Printing: November 2011
Dedications
To my wife, Linda, and my children, David, Madeline, Marcella, and Dwight,
with great appreciation for their support for me.
—Mike Moran
To my wonderful wife, Motoko, and my children, Mariko and William, for their
tremendous patience, encouragement, and support.
—Bill Hunt
This page intentionally left blank
Contents
Foreword xxv
Preface xxvii
Acknowledgments xxxi
About the Authors xxxv
PART 1
THE BASICS OF SEARCH MARKETING
Chapter 1: Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
Web Search Basics
Kinds of Search Results
Where Searchers Go
Search and Your Marketing Mix
Prospective Customers Use Search
Search Marketing Is Cost-Effective
Search Marketing Is Big Business
The Challenge of Search Success
Multiple Specialist Teams
Multiple Product Sites
Multiple Audiences
Multiple Countries
Multiple Technologies
Summary
1
3
4
5
7
18
20
20
21
22
23
23
25
25
27
28
xv
xvi
Contents
Chapter 2: How Search Engines Work
31
Matching the Search Query
Analyzing the Query
Choosing Matches to the Query
Ranking the Matches
Ranking Organic Search Matches
Ranking Paid Placement Matches
Displaying Search Results
Finding Web Pages for the Organic Index
Following Links
Remembering Links
Keeping Up with Changes
Feeding the Index Without Crawling
Analyzing the Content
Converting Different Types of Documents
Deciding Which Words Are Important
Spotting Words You Don’t Normally See
Deducing Information from the Page
What Search Engines Don’t See
Building the Organic Index
Search Relationships
Summary
33
33
35
37
37
42
43
43
45
46
47
47
48
48
48
48
50
50
52
53
55
Chapter 3: How Search Marketing Works
57
Organic Search
What It Costs
The Benefits and Challenges
How to Get Started
Directory Listings
What It Costs
The Benefits and Challenges
How to Get Started
Paid Placement
What It Costs
The Benefits and Challenges
How to Get Started
Summary
58
58
62
64
64
66
67
69
70
72
74
78
79
Contents
xvii
Chapter 4: How Searchers Work
81
Visitor Behavior
Buyer Behavior
Voter Behavior
The Searcher’s Intent
Navigational Searchers
Informational Searchers
Transactional Searchers
The Searcher’s Click
How Searchers Look at Results
Why Searchers Click Where They Do
When Searchers Don’t Click Results
The Searcher’s Follow-Through
The Web Conversion Cycle
How Visitor Behavior Affects Search Marketing
Summary
PART 2:
DEVELOP YOUR SEARCH MARKETING PROGRAM
Chapter 5: Identify Your Web Site’s Goals
Web Sales
Online Commerce Versus Pure Online
Retailers Versus Manufacturers
Offline Sales
Leads
Market Awareness
Information and Entertainment
Persuasion
Influencing Public Opinion
Helping People
Summary
82
82
83
84
85
89
90
91
92
93
93
95
95
97
100
101
103
104
104
106
110
111
113
114
114
115
116
118
xviii
Contents
Chapter 6: Measure Your Web Site’s Success
119
Count Your Conversions
Web Sales
Offline Sales
120
121
124
Leads
Market Awareness
Information and Entertainment
Persuasion
Count Your Traffic
Page Views
Visits and Visitors
Count Your Money
Summary
130
132
133
136
137
137
139
140
141
Chapter 7: Measure Your Search Marketing Success
143
Target Your First Search Marketing Campaign
Choose the Target Area of Your Site
Focus on the Keywords Searchers Use
Assess Your Current Situation
Identify Your Search Landing Pages
See If Your Existing Landing Pages Are Indexed
144
144
146
150
150
153
Check the Search Rankings for Your Landing Pages
Check Your Competitors’ Search Rankings
See What Traffic You Are Getting
Calculate Your First Campaign’s Opportunity
Check Your Keyword Demand
Discover Your Missed Opportunities
Project Your Future Traffic
Project Your Future Conversions
Summary
154
157
158
160
160
161
162
167
169
Chapter 8: Define Your Search Marketing Strategy
Choose the Scope of Your Search Marketing Program
Size Matters
Analyze Your Organizational Structure
Finalize Your Search Marketing Program’s Scope
171
172
173
174
177
Contents
xix
Divide the Search Marketing Work
Search Marketing Tasks
Decide Which Search Marketing Tasks to Centralize
Different Organizations Centralize Different Tasks
178
180
181
184
Choose Your Search Marketing Approach
Select an External Search Marketing Vendor
Run a Completely In-House Search Marketing Program
Project Your Search Marketing Costs
Organic Optimization Costs
Paid Placement Costs
Personnel Costs
Summary
184
186
192
193
193
194
196
197
Chapter 9: Sell Your Search Marketing Proposal
199
Assemble Your Search Marketing Proposal
The Business Case for Your Search Marketing Program
Your First Search Marketing Campaign’s Business Case
The Plan for Your First Search Marketing Campaign
Sell Your Proposal to the Extended Search Team
Business People
Writers
200
200
203
204
206
208
212
Technologists
Site Operations
Sell Your Proposal to Executives
Ten Questions Your Executive Might Ask
Close the Deal
Summary
215
218
220
220
225
225
PART 3:
EXECUTE YOUR SEARCH MARKETING PROGRAM
Chapter 10: Get Your Site Indexed
What If Your Site Is Not Indexed?
Verify Your Site Is Not Banned or Penalized
Make Sure the Spider Is Visiting
Get Sites to Link to You
227
229
230
231
232
236
xx
Contents
How Many Pages on Your Site Are Indexed?
Determine How Many Pages You Have
Check How Many Pages Are Indexed
Calculate Your Inclusion Ratio
How Can More Pages from Your Site Be Indexed?
Eliminate Spider Traps
Reduce Ignored Content
Create Spider Paths
Use Inclusion Programs
How Do You Control Indexing?
Summary
236
236
237
239
239
240
252
255
258
258
266
Chapter 11: Choose Your Target Keywords
267
The Value of Keyword Planning
Building Brand Awareness
Increasing Web Conversions
Your Keyword Planning Philosophy
Don’t Pick Keywords That Are “Too Hot”
Don’t Pick Keywords That Are “Too Cold”
Pick Keywords That Are “Just Right”
Step-by-Step Keyword Planning
Gather Your Keyword Candidate List
Research Each Keyword Candidate
Prioritize Your Keyword Candidate List
Summary
268
268
270
271
271
274
275
276
277
281
286
290
Chapter 12: Optimize Your Content
What Search Engines Look For
Search Filters
Search Ranking Factors
The Philosophy of Writing for Search
Step-by-Step Optimization for Search Landing Pages
Choose a Search Landing Page for a Set of Keywords
Analyze the Metrics for Your Search Landing Page
Audit Your Search Landing Page
Improve Your Search Landing Page’s Content
Summary
293
294
294
298
306
308
310
314
317
323
335
Contents
Chapter 13: Attract Links to Your Site
xxi
337
Why Search Engines Value Links
How Web Sites Link
How Link Popularity Works
338
339
341
Your Linking Philosophy
How Not to Get Links to Your Site
Think About Visitors First
The Harder a Link Is to Get, the More Valuable It Might Be
Think About Links from Your Site
Step-by-Step Link Building for Your Site
Make Your Site a Link Magnet
Perform a Link Audit
Identify Sources of Links
Negotiate Your Links
Summary
343
344
347
348
351
352
352
356
364
377
380
Chapter 14: Optimize Your Paid Search Program
383
Paid Search Opportunities
Paid Placement
Shopping Search
Your Paid Search Philosophy
384
386
394
396
Look for Value
Play the Market
Iterate, Iterate, and Then Iterate Some More
Step-by-Step Paid Search Optimization
Set Up Your Paid Search Program
Choose Your Targets
Attract Searchers’ Clicks
Optimize Paid Search Landing Pages
Measure and Adjust Your Campaigns
Summary
396
398
402
404
404
418
433
439
441
445
Chapter 15: Make Search Marketing Operational
Set Up Your Central Search Team
Staff the Central Team
Develop the Central Team’s Skills
447
448
448
449
xxii
Contents
Establish Search Marketing Best Practices
Change the Standards and Enforce Them
Centralize Keyword Management
Track Search Marketing Success
450
451
452
455
Assess Your Site’s Content
Check Your Search Rankings
Monitor Search Referrals
Calculate Web Conversions from Search
Review Your Measurements with Others
Summary
456
461
464
468
472
475
PART 4:
BEYOND SEARCH MARKETING
477
Chapter 16: Explore New Media and Social Media
479
What’s Web 2.0?
Blogs
Microblogging
Wikis
Ratings and Reviews
Message Boards
New Media
480
480
484
485
486
487
488
Images
Podcasts
Videos
Widgets
Social Media
Viral Marketing
Types of Social Media
Social Media and Search
Summary
490
491
494
495
496
497
499
500
504
Chapter 17: Optimize Your Web Site Search
The Disappointment of Web Site Search
Searchers Have Sky-High Expectations
Search Is Still Too Hard
People Often Search after Navigation Fails
505
506
507
510
512
Contents
xxiii
The Importance of Web Site Search
Why Not Forget Search Completely?
When Bad Search Results Happen to Good Customers
Why You Need a Good Web Site Search
513
513
513
516
The State of Your Web Site Search
Revenue Metrics
Usage Metrics
Survey Metrics
Result Metrics
Improve Your Web Site Search
Improve Your Site
Improve Your Technology
Improve Your Search User Interface
Summary
517
518
519
519
520
521
522
525
527
530
Chapter 18: What’s Next?
What’s Next for Search Marketing?
More Content
More Technology
More Personalized
More Competition
What’s Next for You?
Get Experience
Keep Learning
Summary
533
533
534
536
541
544
547
547
547
550
Glossary
551
Index
583
This page intentionally left blank
Foreword
Whenever I begin a speech, I pose four questions to the audience and ask them to raise their hands
if the answer to a question is “yes.” How would you answer?
In your personal or professional life in the past two months, when trying to fix a problem or
to research or buy a product, have you
1. responded to a direct mail advertisement?
2. consulted magazines, newspapers, TV, or radio?
3. used Google or another search engine?
4. electronically contacted a friend, colleague, or family member who responded with a
Web URL that you then visited?
Over the course of a year, in front of more than ten thousand people from many dozens of
groups including college students, marketing professionals, and executives at Fortune 500 companies, the answers were surprisingly consistent. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of people
answer each of the first two questions affirmatively. These answers mean that the ways most companies have historically reached people—advertising, direct mail, and pleas to the mainstream
media for coverage—are only effective in reaching a small portion of potential customers. However, between 80 percent and 100 percent of people raise their hands to indicate that they have
used a search engine to find a solution to a problem or to research a product or that they have
checked out a Web site suggested by a friend, colleague, or family member. Clearly, creating
effective Web sites that are indexed by search engines is critical for any business.
Unlike nontargeted, in-your-face, interruption-based advertising, search engine results are
content that people actually want to see. How cool is that? Rather than forcing you to convince
people to pay attention to your products and services by dreaming up messages and ad campaigns,
search engines deliver interested buyers right to your company’s virtual doorstep. This is a marketer’s dream-come-true.
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Foreword
However, most marketers don’t know how to harness this exciting form of marketing. Their
most common mistake is to spend way too much time worrying about the keywords and phrases
they want to optimize for and not enough time creating great content on their site—content that
search engines will reward with lots of traffic and that visitors will find useful. And nearly all
organizations are terrible at building an effective landing page, the place people end up when they
click on a search hit. Too often, buyers arrive at a site only to wonder what they’re supposed to do
now. It’s like the outdoor part of a Hollywood movie set. Sure it’s a beautiful facade, but if you
actually went through the front door, you’d find nothing there.
Okay, so that’s the bad news. The good news is that these common problems are easily
solved. Search Engine Marketing, Inc. shows you how, with a step-by-step process and in an
engaging and approachable style. Mike and Bill understand that search engine marketing calls for
a delicate blend of art and science, and they’ll help you incorporate both aspects into your own
search strategies.
My copy of the first edition of Search Engine Marketing, Inc. is ratty and dog-eared from
extensive use. It’s full of coffee stains and my own scribbled notes. Because it so effectively
demystifies search engine marketing and provides such practical advice for success, I turn to it
again and again and recommend it to audiences worldwide. This book is not academic blather or
geeky techno-speak; it’s an approachable and digestible guide chock-full of real-life examples.
I’ve been eagerly awaiting this new edition, particularly the new material on social media. I
know Mike’s and Bill’s ideas will continue to generate business for me, and they’ll do the same
for you. If you follow the ideas in Search Engine Marketing, Inc. you’ll drive more traffic to your
site and convert more visitors into customers.
—David Meerman Scott
Bestselling author of The New Rules of Marketing and PR
Preface
Search marketing demands a curious mix of business, writing, and technical skills. No matter
what skills you have, you probably have some of the skills needed to succeed, but not all of them.
This book will fill the gaps.
If you possess marketing skills, or you have a sales or other business background, you will
quickly see the ways that search marketing draws on your previous experience, but you will also
learn how it is different. Like any form of marketing, you will focus on the target markets you
want to reach—in this case, searchers looking for certain words. You will segment those markets.
You will realize that your Web pages are your marketing communications materials. You might
see parallels to direct marketing as we relentlessly measure our success, or perhaps you will see
the possibilities for search marketing to burnish your brand image. Regardless, like all marketing,
you will learn to design your search marketing program to meet your company’s larger goals.
Unlike other forms of marketing, search marketing is not designed to interrupt people with an
advertising message. Successful search marketing meets people at their point of need. When
searchers want something, you must be ready to satisfy them with what they want, even if you
would prefer to sell them something else.
As critical as marketers are to success, search marketing is, at its core, a writer’s medium.
Like direct marketing, a well-crafted message is critical to enticing a searcher to click your page.
Once at your site, the words on your page also influence whether the prospective customer buys
your product or abandons your site. But search marketing relies on skilled writing to an even
greater extent, because the search engines choose the pages they show based on words. You will
learn how to write the words that your customers and the search engines are looking for. If you
are a writer, you will find search marketing a challenge like none you have ever seen, but one that
can reward your company richly.
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Preface
If you have technical skills, you are needed, too. Search marketing depends on your Web
site’s design and operation. Many commonly used Web technologies stop search marketing cold.
You will find that search marketing is similar to other technical projects—you must understand
the requirements so that you can develop the solution. You need to develop a business case to see
the value so the work can be prioritized and funded for your busy IT team. You will need a project
plan to execute on schedule. You will have standards and operational procedures that keep the
system running smoothly. If you are a Webmaster, a Web developer, or any kind of technologist,
your skills are vital to search marketing success.
If you are looking for a book about the secrets of search marketing, this book does have a
few. However, they might be secrets of a surprising kind. Some people think of search marketing
as an arcane pursuit where you need to know the “tricks” to get search engines to show your site.
But those tricks are not the secrets of search marketing—you do not need tricks to succeed. What
you really need is a firm understanding of how search marketing works, a methodology to plan
your search marketing program, and the information required to execute it. The biggest secret of
search marketing is that knowledge, hard work, and flawless execution are all you need. This
book shows you how to get all three.
In Part 1, we cover the basics of search marketing. What is search marketing? Why is it so
difficult? How do search engines and search marketing work? And what are searchers looking for
anyway? Marketers and writers will learn more about search technology. Technologists will be
exposed to the opportunity search marketing offers your company. You will all learn how to segment searchers based on their behavior, so you will know what they want from your site. Part 1
will teach you all the background you need to formulate a custom search marketing program for
your company—which is what you will do in Part 2.
Part 2 takes you step by step through developing a proposal for your own search marketing
program. You will learn how to identify the goals of your Web site and measure your current success in meeting them. You will learn how well you are doing at search marketing today and how
much it is worth to do better. We show you how to estimate your costs, choose your strategy, and
get your proposed program approved by your executives and by all the folks in your company who
you need on your side. Because search marketing demands cooperation from so many people in
your company, we show you proven ways to get each kind of person to work hard on your program.
Part 3 explores all the details you need to execute your program. Every Web site poses different challenges to a search marketing program. You will learn how to diagnose problems on
your site and correct them. We teach you methodologies for every part of the search marketing
process that you can apply to your own business. And we explain how to measure everything in
your program so that you can improve the operation of your program every day.
Because search marketing undergoes change each year, we’ve thoroughly updated every
chapter in this second edition to reflect changes in the industry. But Part 4 also adds two entirely
new chapters, with one covering multimedia and social media, and the other teaching you to
apply your search skills to improve the search facility on your own Web site.
Preface
xxix
Throughout the book, you will see icons that signify special material on two important subjects. The first, shown at the left, is the spam alert icon, which warns you about overly clever
tricks that pose a real danger to your search marketing campaign. You are probably familiar with
e-mail spam, when you get unwanted messages in your inbox, but search marketing has its own
meaning for spam—any technique that is designed mainly to fool the search engines to gain an
untoward advantage. That is an overly broad definition, but we explain exactly where the ethical
lines are drawn every time you see this icon. Spam can be hazardous to the health of your search
marketing program, because search engines have rules to control search marketing behavior—
when you break the rules, you will suffer the consequences. Whenever you see this icon, you will
know that there is a line that you cross at your own peril.
You will also see, shown at the left, the global tip icon, which alerts you about techniques
that are especially relevant to international search marketing campaigns. Most of the advice in
this book is pitched to an audience of U.S. companies and companies using Google, Yahoo!
Search, and other English-language worldwide search engines. You will learn, however, that
searchers in many countries use search engines specific to that country, and that your non-English
content sometimes has special issues that must be addressed. We highlight those areas in the book
for you. Whether your Web site serves international visitors now, or you are considering doing so
in the future, these tips are important for you.
No matter what your background, you are already partially prepared to become a search
marketer. In this book, you will learn why it is so important to form a team of skills outside your
own. Marketers, writers, technologists, and folks from other fields must collaborate to make
search marketing work. You will find out why it is that the larger your Web site, the harder that
collaboration can be—but you will also learn how to pull it off. Your business can coordinate
these diverse skills to create a successful search marketing program. You just need to know how.
Whether you have been turned off in the past by experts selling quick-fix voodoo or you
have just found search marketing too complicated or too intimidating, put that behind you. This
book explains everything you need to know in simple terms that you can understand no matter
what your experience. If you can use a Web browser, you can learn search marketing.
Every day, more and more business is done on the Web. And, increasingly, people looking
to do business start with a search. Remember, if they can’t find you, they can’t buy from you. Discover how your company can be found.
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Acknowledgments
from Mike
Leading my list of people to thank is Bill Hunt, my coauthor. When I first met Bill, I was an
expert in search technology, but knew almost nothing about search marketing on the Web. To me,
if there was a problem with a search engine returning the wrong results, then we should dive in
and tweak the ranking algorithm until it worked. Uh, right. Bill quickly showed me the rules of
the search marketing road, and I started to learn search from the outside in—how to change our
site to get what we want. In our work together at ibm.com®, Bill has helped me through every difficult problem and has made it fun. Working on a book is never easy, but working with Bill made
it as easy as possible.
I would like to thank my IBM management, including John Rosato and Lee Dierdorff, for
their encouragement to complete this book. (I want to stress that the opinions expressed in this
book are mine alone and do not necessarily reflect those of the IBM Corporation or IBM’s management.) I also want to thank Doug Maine, David Bradley, and Jeanine Cotter, my former executive management at IBM, who were willing to take a chance on search marketing at IBM. This
book is a compilation of what worked, but I want to thank them for riding out the things that did
not work out as well.
I want to thank Jeff Schaffer from my IBM team, a good friend with a wonderful mind, who
worked with me to develop many of the original ideas in the Web Conversion Cycle. Special
thanks go to IBM teammate Alex Holt for reviewing every page of the book and offering helpful
suggestions.
I’d also like to thank Alex for reviewing Chapter 17 in the second edition, as well as Lee
Odden for providing a review of Chapter 16.
The team at IBM Press, especially our editor Bernard Goodwin, was very helpful, and
Daria Goetsch reviewed several chapters and provided helpful comments. Many others provided
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Acknowledgments from Mike
assistance and encouragement along the way, including Andrei Broder, Kevin Chiu, Gideon
Sasson, and others whom I am probably forgetting.
Most of all, I want to thank my wife, Linda, and my children, David, Madeline, Marcella,
and Dwight, who made so many sacrifices so “Daddy could write his book,” being patient while I
spent many hours writing on top of an already heavy workload from my day job at IBM. Without
their love and support, I certainly could never have completed this book. I have read many
acknowledgments of authors thanking their families for the heavy burdens they carried while the
book was written, and I now understand what those other authors were saying. My family
deserves every accolade for helping me complete this. I love them very much.
But my wife, Linda, requires a special acknowledgment for her work on this book, because
it goes so far beyond anything an author would ever expect of a spouse. Before this book ever
went to the publisher, Linda proofread it. And copyedited it. And the publisher was very pleased
with how clean it was (crediting Bill and me far too much). But even those exhausting tasks do
not scratch the surface of what Linda put into this book.
Linda is herself an accomplished magazine writer and book author, thus bringing a level of
professionalism and experience to the craft of writing that she painstakingly taught me throughout the writing of this, my first book. But Linda brought even more to this book than her writing
skills. Linda has worked as a programmer in a large company and is the Webmaster of three Web
sites, so she is actually the perfect audience for this book. Her keen technical mind and corporate
experience made her the ideal reader. We spent hours brainstorming ideas for the book, honing
them until we agreed on the best way to explain them. As Bill and I “completed” each chapter, I
would present it to Linda to see whether it made any sense to her, as someone who should understand it perfectly. And occasionally it did. But more frequently, Linda pointed out a critical flaw
in terminology, a better organization for the same information, an improvement to a figure, or
simply a technical error that we had overlooked. It sounds trite to say that this would not be the
same book without Linda, but it is true. You would not believe how much harder to understand it
would be. Linda did not just proofread or copyedit the words, she inspected the ideas. She judged
the nomenclature, the style, the consistency, the flow—she worked over every thought and every
word. Linda was truly our editor, in every sense of the word.
—Mike Moran
Acknowledgments
from Bill
I would like to thank Mike Moran, my coauthor on this book, for his encouragement, vast knowledge, and willingness to partner with me to write this book while managing an already heavy
workload. Without Mike’s encouragement, gentle nudges, constant pacing, occasional kick in the
backside, and, of course, his sense of humor, I could never have started this book, let alone finish
it. I am indebted to Mike for his writing style that gave my rants a consistent voice that made
them more than informative and actually interesting to the reader. Furthermore, Mike has been
my mentor, teaching me how to effectively navigate the complex maze of a large corporate structure to actually demonstrate that search engine marketing is the ultimate marketing tool. It was
under this tutelage that the methodologies included in this book were allowed to incubate and be
tested on one of the greatest Web sites in the world.
A very special thank you and debt of gratitude goes out to Linda Moran for her unbelievable support of Mike and me on this book. Linda’s assistance in reading and critical reviews of
the book were helpful beyond belief. Mike and I wanted to write a book that was informative and
helpful to the beginner and advanced optimizer alike. Linda’s reviews and recommendations for
changes were absolutely correct and, I believe, integral to us achieving that goal. In addition,
thank you Linda for sacrificing your time with Mike to allow him to work with me on this
demanding project.
I would like to thank the brilliant team of search marketing strategists from Global
Strategies—Jeremy Sanchez, Andy Weatherwax, and David Turner—for their tremendous
knowledge, support, ideas, research, content reviews, and undying encouragement of this
effort. I need to thank them for picking up the slack with our clients while I was writing, which
allowed us to keep them happy and pay the bills.
A thank you goes out to the members of the IBM Search Effectiveness team, who have
helped me to refine many of these techniques and have been my sounding board. Thanks go to
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Acknowledgments from Bill
Marshall Sponder for his honest reviews and assistance in refining the metrics for the enterprise,
to Daniele Hayes for her insights into managing paid placement, and to Jessica Casamento for
challenging me to develop intuitive audit tools to be used by the business units.
I also want to thank the IBM Corporate Webmaster team, especially Klaus Johannes Rusch
for his technical insight and help to understand how to really motivate and work with Webmasters.
I want to thank my IBM management team, specifically John Rosato and Lee Dierdorff, for
their support of Mike and me in working on the book and their support of search engine optimization efforts. I need to further thank John for his relentless desire to rank well and deliver
almost impossible traffic increases to the site, both of which forced me to work harder to crack
the code of delivering effective enterprise search engine marketing. Thank you to the IBM marketing team, including Lisa Baird, Eric Siebert, Richard Toranzo, David Manzo, and Claudio
Zibenberg, for their support of search engine marketing and making it part of the marketing mix.
I want to give special thanks to my wife, Motoko, and my children, Mariko and William,
for their tremendous support and encouragement during this project and for the many sacrifices
they made so that I could take the time to write—even on vacation!
I need to offer a heartfelt thank you to Motoko not only for her support on this book but also
for her dedication to my career, often at the sacrifice of her own, for the past 20 years. It is so true
that behind every successful man is a strong woman, and Motoko is just that woman! Without her
tremendous support, love, and understanding, this book and my overall success would not have
been possible. I further need to thank her for allowing me to become the expert in Japanese SEO
by keeping me current and providing many deep insights that I could have never realized alone.
Thank you!
Additional thanks go to Andy Weatherwax who cleaned up my mess with the graphics and
created many of the custom images. Thank you to Kevin Lee of Did-it for reviewing the paid
search segments of the book and giving honest feedback and guidance that helped ensure accuracy and relevancy.
The team at IBM Press, especially our editor Bernard Goodwin, was very helpful and kept
us from floundering during our first writing experience. Thanks to Tara Woodman for helping us
through the IBM Press process, Kristy Hart for the production support that turned our binder of
paper into an actual book, and Daria Goetsch for reviewing several chapters and providing insight
to make some complex thoughts easier to understand.
Many others provided assistance, examples, and encouragement along the way, including
Andrei Broder, Rob Key, Adam Glazer, Roger Balmer, Marshall Simmonds, Derrick Wheeler,
Detlev Johnson, Joe Morin, Sherwood Stranieri, Danny Sullivan, Chris Sherman, Tor Crockatt,
Neeraj Agrawal, Mike Grehan, and many others to whom I apologize for not listing here.
—Bill Hunt
About the Authors
About Mike Moran
Mike Moran has worked on the Web since its earliest days, in both
marketing and technical roles, including eight years at ibm.com,
IBM’s customer-facing Web site. In 2008, Mike retired from IBM to
pursue speaking, writing, and consulting, including serving as Chief
Strategist for the digital communications agency Converseon.
Mike is also the author of Do It Wrong Quickly: How the Web
Changes the Old Marketing Rules, named one of the best business
books of 2008 by the Miami Herald. Mike also writes regular
columns on search marketing for the WebProNews and Search
Engine Guide Web site. He is the founder and largest contributor to
the Biznology blog (www.biznology.com). Mike is a frequent
keynote speaker on Internet marketing at events around the world, serves as a Visiting Lecturer to
the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business, and he holds an Advanced Certificate in
Market Management Practice from the Royal UK Charter Institute of Marketing.
Mike also has a broad technical background, with over 20 years experience in search technology working at IBM Research, Lotus, and other IBM software units. He led the product team
that developed the first commercial linguistic search engine in 1989 and has been granted five
patents in search and retrieval technology. He led the integration of ibm.com’s site search technologies as well as projects in content management, personalization, and web metrics. Mike led the
adoption of search marketing at ibm.com back in 2001 and pioneered product search facilities that
dramatically raised conversion rates. Mike was named an IBM Distinguished Engineer in 2005 and
an Open Group Distinguished IT Specialist in 2008.
Mike can be reached through his Web site (www.mikemoran.com) and you can follow him
on Twitter at @mikemoran.
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About the Authors
About Bill Hunt
Bill has been a pioneer in search marketing and is considered the
top thought leader on enterprise and global search engine marketing. He is an internationally recognized search marketing expert
who has spoken at conferences in over 30 countries. Press, industry analysts, and corporate leaders frequently seek Bill’s advice to
effectively leverage enterprise and global search marketing.
Bill is currently the President of Back Azimuth Consulting—a new generation of consultants helping companies leverage search and social media data to better understand the voice of
the consumer and then translate it into highly relevant and sales driven content. Bill has previously been the CEO of two of the largest global search marketing firms, Global Strategies and
Outrider, both of which were acquired by WPP. As the CEO of these companies, Bill grew them
to be highly respected market leaders and oversaw the global expansion providing strategic
search marketing services for many Fortune 100 companies, such as Adobe, Cisco, IBM, Intel,
Nestle, P&G, and Zurich Financial.
Bill writes for a number of leading publications such as Search Engine Watch and Search
Engine Land. Bill is currently on the board of directors of the Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization and is active in growing SEMPO’s international base of members. Bill has
also been named by BtoB Magazine one of the Top 100 B2B Marketers.
Bill is a veteran of the U.S. Marine Corps, and he earned a B.A. in Asian Studies/Japanese
from the University of Maryland, Tokyo Campus, and a B.S. in international business from
California State University, Los Angeles. Bill can be reached through his company Web site
(www.back-azimuth.com) or his blog (www.whunt.com) and you can follow him on Twitter at
@billhunt. Visit www.semincbook.com for detailed information and tips on global and enterprise
search marketing.
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C
H A P T E R
1
Why Search
Marketing Is
Important . . .
and Difficult
Search marketing. Perhaps you’ve heard this term kicked around, but you don’t know what it
means. Or, if you do know, you don’t know where to start. As with anything new, if you take it
step by step, you can learn it. A systematic approach can lead to search marketing success in any
organization.
When a searcher types a word into Google, finds your home page, and clicks through to
your site, you have attracted a visitor from a search site. If you do nothing at all, searchers will
still find your site—sometimes. To maximize the number of searchers coming to your site, however, you must take specific actions to attract visitors to your site from search sites. That’s search
marketing. This book shows you how to become a search marketer. This chapter covers the following topics:
• Web search basics. What do we mean when we talk about “Web search”? You might
think you know the basics already, but it is important that you thoroughly understand
search fundamentals as you start your search marketing career. The advanced topics you
need to learn will come more easily if you do not skip over the basics. In this chapter, we
describe several different types of search, we introduce the leading search sites on the
Web, and we talk about what makes them successful.
• Search and your marketing mix. You are probably not reading this book as an academic
exercise—you want to know how to get more visitors to your Web site. You already
spend your marketing budget on other ways to entice people to visit. How do you reallocate some of that budget to fit search into the mix? In this chapter, we demonstrate the
huge opportunity of search marketing and show why you need to make room for it in
your company’s marketing mix.
3
4
Chapter 1
Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
• The challenge of search marketing. Attracting searchers to your site is appealing, but it’s
harder to do than you might think. And the larger your Web site is, the more difficult it
can be. In this chapter, we explain why so many Web sites struggle to attract search visitors. But don’t worry. The rest of this book shows you how to overcome these challenges.
Before examining the promise and the challenges of search marketing, we need to explore
what we mean by Web search.
Web Search Basics
You know search is important. You want to attract search visitors to your site. You are reading this
book because you expect to learn what you need to know so your site succeeds at search marketing. And the most fundamental fact behind what you already know is that more and more Web
users are searching.
Congratulations on spotting the trend! Your intuition that search usage is growing is correct. Fully 64 percent of Web users employ search as their primary method of finding things and
59 percent of U.S. users employ search daily. The top five U.S. search engines processed over 17
billion searches in August 2011!
Beyond the numbers, search is becoming a cultural phenomenon. If you have never
“Googled yourself” (searched for your own name in Google), I bet you are going to do so now.
Even people who do not use the Web have heard of Google and Yahoo! The Web is growing in
popularity every year, and search is growing right along with it. And younger market segments
cannot be reached as easily through traditional advertising, because teens and young adults now
spend more time online than watching television. When you add it all up, your Web site cannot
ignore the increasing importance of search to your visitors.
But that does not make you an expert in how to do search marketing. You might not know
the first thing about how to get your site into the top search results. Maybe you heard that your
competitors are succeeding at search marketing—and one of your customers told you that your
site cannot be found. You want to fix it, but how?
Despite how little you might know, you need to learn just two things to get started:
• The kinds of search results. When a search site responds to a searcher, different kinds of
search results display. To begin your search education, we explain each type of display.
• Where searchers go. You might have a favorite search site, but not all searchers use what
you do. Some search sites are even specific to a particular region or country. You need to
understand which search engines are the most popular so that you can focus on them in
your marketing efforts.
Let’s begin with an overview of Web search results.
Web Search Basics
5
Kinds of Search Results
When we talk about search, we are actually referring to two distinct ways that search results land
on the screen, as shown in Figure 1-1:
• Organic results. Also known as natural results, organic results are what made Google
famous. Organic results are the “best” pages found for the words the searcher entered.
When people refer to search engine optimization (SEO), they are talking about how
you get your site’s pages to be shown in organic search results. Organic search is what
most people think of when they talk about Web search, and searchers click organic
results between 60 and 80 percent of the time. Searchers trust organic results, and therefore organic search must be part of your search marketing program. It can take time to
succeed at organic search, but your time investment will pay off in the long run.
• Paid results. There are a number of ways that you can pay money to improve the traffic
that you receive from search engines, but what people are usually referring to when they
talk about “paid search” or “paid results” has the official name of paid placement. Paid
placement allows a Web site to pay to have its page shown in response to a particular
search word entered, regardless of how closely the page matches what the searcher
entered. Paid search programs are the quick fix to attracting searchers to your Web site,
and search marketers are responding. The U.S. paid search market is forecast to grow
15% between 2010 and 2011.
Paid
Organic
Figure 1-1 Types of search results. Google’s results page has always separated paid from
organic results, but other sites have at times combined them.
6
Chapter 1
Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
Another form of paid search is known as paid listings or directories, as shown in Figure
1-2. Directories are manually maintained classification systems that list Web sites according to
each subject category that describes them. Directories are maintained by human editors who
examine every Web site submitted to them by the site owner and decide under which subject a site
should be listed. You can see in Figure 1-2 that Yahoo! offers navigation to a complete directory of
subjects, so you can jump from movies to computers in a single click. (Because the results are created manually, search geeks and other technologists do not consider directories to be a kind of
search, but Web users do.)
Figure 1-2 Directory listings. Yahoo! adds a directory listing showing the subject category that
matches the result, giving the searcher one more choice.
Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! Inc. © 2008 by Yahoo! Inc. YAHOO! and the YAHOO! logo are
trademarks of Yahoo! Inc.
Web Search Basics
7
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a broader term than SEO that encompasses any kind
of search results. SEM is everything you do to raise your site’s visibility in search engines to
attract more visitors. Regardless of what term you use, search marketing is a critical way for your
site to attract new visitors.
Now that you have learned about the types of search results, we can survey the most popular search sites around the world. In this book, we refer to search sites such as Google and Yahoo!
as search engines.
Where Searchers Go
If you have a favorite search engine that you use all the time, you might not realize how many
other search engines people use. Some search engines operate in just one country or one region,
and others do nothing but help people comparison shop for products. Each search engine is competing vigorously for its share of this growing business, but searchers are beginning to show
brand loyalty, as Figure 1-3 shows.
Figure 1-3 Searcher loyalty. Google leads in the percentage of searchers who do not switch to
a different search site, with over two-thirds using Google exclusively.
Source: comScore (August 2009)
Among worldwide search engines, Google and Yahoo! are currently the two top competitors, but the landscape can change quickly. Yahoo! and Google were partners until 2004, and now
Yahoo! and Microsoft have now become search partners. Let’s look closely at the worldwide
leaders in search and at leaders within particular countries and regions.
8
Chapter 1
Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
Google
A googol is a mathematical term for a 1 digit followed by one hundred 0s, and served as the inspiration for the Google search engine name, signifying the immense size of the search index it
searches. Founded in 1998 by Stanford graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google
(www.google.com) has become so well known that ”Googling” (searching for) someone’s name
has even been mentioned on popular TV shows.
Like many Web businesses of the 1990s, Google started small and grew as the Web
exploded. Unlike many of the dotcom companies of that era, Google resisted going public until
2004, and eschewed advertising, preferring to grow through word of mouth. Google has been
such a wonderful search engine that this strategy has worked. Google is used by more searchers
than any other search engine, with over 65 percent U.S. market share. Google is one of the most
visited Web sites in the world, offering results in over 40 languages—with more than half of its
visitors from outside the United States.
Google started by offering the most relevant organic results that the Web had ever seen,
which is still its most striking feature. The I’m Feeling Lucky button that takes you directly to the
first search result testifies to the confidence Google has in its organic search capability. Google
claims to have three times more pages in its search index than its competitors, but still seems to
find the right one for each search.
Unlike some competitors, Google initially kept its business focused on search, only recently
straying into the territory of a portal, the way Yahoo! and others have offered news, weather, shopping, and other services. Google has always made its money through forms of paid search, allowing advertisers to purchase space on the results page based on what search words were entered.
Over the years, Google has grown into one of the largest paid search companies in the world.
For the search marketer, Google is the 800-pound gorilla of the industry. You cannot ignore
Google in your search strategy for organic or paid campaigns. But Google is not the only search
engine in town. Google is the most popular search engine in the world, as shown in Figure
1-4. But you must include other search engines in your plan to maximize the benefits of search
marketing.
Ask.com 2.9%
AOL 1.5%
Bing 14.4%
Google 65.1%
Figure 1-4
Yahoo! 16.1%
Google is the leader with almost two-thirds of the total share of U.S. searches.
Source: comScore (September 2011)
Web Search Basics
9
Yahoo!
Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com) is one of the most-visited sites on the Internet, but its visitors do a lot
more than search. Yahoo! is a leading portal, offering news, e-mail, shopping, and many other
functions to visitors who register. The Yahoo! search engine is the #2 search engine, with over
15 percent of all searches, but Figure 1-5 shows the difference in focus for Yahoo! and Google.
Figure 1-5 Yahoo! and Google home page focus. Google is “all search, all the time,” whereas
Yahoo! is a “full-service portal.”
Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! Inc. © 2008 by Yahoo! Inc. YAHOO! and the YAHOO! logo are
trademarks of Yahoo! Inc.
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Yahoo! is one of the oldest Web companies around, founded in 1994 by Stanford Ph.D. students David Filo and Jerry Yang. Yahoo! began as a Web directory—initially free to any company
in its list—but later Yahoo! began charging a fee for each listing. Yahoo! quickly became a popular destination as its editors catalogued the growing Web, site by site, into its subject hierarchy.
Yahoo! visitors believed they could find every Web site about any subject in just a few clicks.
When Yahoo! began offering organic search capability, it licensed the technology from other
companies—at one time licensing Google’s search technology. In 2003, Yahoo! shifted gears,
acquiring several organic and paid search companies so that it could control its own technology. At
first, Yahoo! suffered no major drop-off in popularity, but with each passing year, Google has
turned a close race in market share into a rout, with Yahoo! now a distant second. In 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! reached agreement for Microsoft's Bing search engine to power Yahoo! Search,
and began rolling out the Microsoft-powered results in 2010. Yahoo! has announced that all country markets around the world will be receiving Bing search results by early 2012.
Google leads Yahoo! in total searches each month, especially outside the United States.
Yahoo! Search has made strides in recent years to match Google in the number of languages supported, but Yahoo! frequently lags far behind Google in popularity in countries where they go
head to head.
Yahoo! is a force within the United States, but its share of searches varies widely in other
countries. U.S. search marketers must target Yahoo! as part of their plans, but marketers elsewhere should analyze the leading search engines in their country before finalizing their plans.
Yahoo! should be targeted in countries where it handles a high percentage of total queries, but
that needs to be decided on a country-by-country basis.
Although Google and Yahoo! get the lion’s share of attention, other excellent worldwide
search engines should also be targeted by search marketers in their plans. Although you will get
less traffic from these engines than from Google and Yahoo!, it all adds up.
Microsoft Bing
Microsoft has fought an uphill battle for years to gain search share, first with MSN Search, then
Live Search, and its latest entry, the Bing search engine. Bing was introduced in 2009 to great
fanfare and an expensive media campaign, resulting in some early gains in market share that have
continued steadily over time.
Bing is ranked third in the search race by most counts, with almost 15 percent of U.S.
searches, but Microsoft has long tried to increase its share of searches. Microsoft's deal with
Yahoo! has really made Bing the #2 search engine, with nearly over 30 percent of all U.S. searches.
Worldwide search marketers must focus on Bing because of the sizable number of visits
you can attract to your site using Microsoft's organic search technology and its adCenter technology for paid search. In addition to its deal with Yahoo!, Microsoft has also been aggressive in
signing cell phone carrier to power mobile search. Bing has positioned itself as a “decision
engine, but as Figure 1-6 shows, its user interface looks a lot like other search engines.
Web Search Basics
11
Figure 1-6 Bing search results. Like most competitors, Bing returns both organic results as
well as variants of paid listings.
AOL Search
Now part of media giant Time Warner, America Online (founded as Quantum Systems in 1985)
was an online company before most people knew what the Internet was. AOL was the original
portal, gradually making its proprietary service more and more Web-oriented over the years. Still
notable for its ease of use, AOL is the world’s largest Internet service provider (connecting people
to the Internet), at one time offering online access to more than 30 million people.
AOL Search (search.aol.com) is used mostly by AOL users, but that is still a lot of people—
totaling over one percent of U.S. searches, good enough for fifth place. AOL has a partnership
with Google, so organic search results on AOL Search are “enhanced by Google” as you can see
in Figure 1-7.
AOL has at various times used Google Adwords for its paid search results and offered its
own paid search technology that customizes AdWords. While AOL continues to emphasize its
own ad networks for display ads, its small market share in search means that most search marketers ignore AOL's paid search enhancements.
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AOL has made a series of moves over the years to keep its display ad network relevant,
despite its consistent losses in search market share. AOL first tried aggregating all Time Warner
properties into a single ad network, and most recently is working with Microsoft and Yahoo! to
create a mega-network for ads. Again, none of this is a reason for search marketers to spend much
time thinking about AOL.
Figure 1-7 AOL Search. Still enhanced with Google search results, in recent years AOL
Search has moved away from its old status as a Google clone.
© 2008 AOL LLC. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission.
Web Search Basics
13
Ask.com
Founded as Ask Jeeves in 1996 as a “natural language” search engine, Ask.com allowed searchers
to ask a question (“What is the capital of Nepal?”) and get an answer, not just a list of pages containing the words. This approach worked well for popular questions that were answered by human
analysts, but was overwhelmed for the majority of searches by Google's algorithmic approach.
Ask.com made a series of technology acquisitions over the years to bolster its algorithmic search
capability-at times giving Google a run for its money for organic search quality. But its low market
share (under three percent) has left it unable to keep up in the technology arms race with Microsoft
and Google. Today, search marketers spend little time worrying about Ask.com. Figure 1-8 reveals
a search facility that looks similar to the others we've seen.
Figure 1-8 Ask.com search. Ask.com treats Katmandu as a location, returning links to related
topics in addition to regular search results.
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Metasearch Engines
Metasearch engines provide a way of searching multiple search engines, with the expectation
that searching several different engines will provide better results than any one alone. Unfortunately, it does not, and relatively few searchers use metasearch engines.
Metasearch engines actually search multiple search engines at the same time and
mix the results together on the same results page. InfoSpace owns several metasearch
engines that work that way, including WebCrawler (www.webcrawler.com) and Dogpile
(www.dogpile.com). Both of these metasearch engines search Google, Yahoo!, and Bing, but neither draws many searchers.
Search marketers do not need to concern themselves with metasearch engines—if you are
listed in the worldwide search engines, the few searchers who use metasearch engines will find
your site, too.
Local Search Engines
Until now, this discussion has focused on search engines that cover the whole world, but many
popular search engines attract searchers from a local area—just one country or region. If your site
attracts visitors from several countries, you might want to include local search engines in your
plans. But before we look at a few local search engines, keep in mind that often a worldwide
search engine is also the local search engine leader. For example, Google is the #1 search engine
in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and Australia.
Beyond search engines that operate in just one country or region, local search also refers
to searches that operate within a geographic area—even inside a city. Yellow Pages sites, such as
Yahoo! Yellow Pages, are the most common U.S. examples of local search engines. But worldwide
search engines, including Yahoo! and Google, also use local search technology that detects the use
of geographic terms in searches and finds results related to that area. So, a search for “Newark
electrician” might find contractors in that city. But because not all searchers use geographic terms,
and because those terms are frequently ambiguous (Newark, New Jersey or Newark, Delaware?),
search engines are beginning to automatically detect the physical location of the searcher (using
knowledge of the Internet’s physical layout) and use that information in the searches.
Shopping Search Engines
One of the fastest-growing areas of search marketing is shopping search. Shopping search
engines allow comparison of features and prices for a wide variety of products, and customers
are flocking to them. Shopping search engines draw large quantities of qualified buyers-over
200,000 per day in the U.S. according to comScore.
Web Search Basics
15
Consumers like comparison shopping search engines because they allow simultaneous
comparison of similar products across many purchasing factors, such as price, reviews, and
availability, as shown in Figure 1-9. Shopping search engines cover a wide range of consumer
products, including electronics, office supplies, DVDs, toys, and many others. Internet users who
visit shopping sites already have a good idea of what they are looking for, with price and availability often determining from whom they buy.
Figure 1-9 Shopping search engines. Become.com shows the typical feature drilldown of
shopping search engines with added twists such as color selection.
To take advantage of shopping search engines, search marketers should ensure that no data
is missing for products. For example, make sure you provide availability data (in stock, ship
within two weeks, and so on) for your products. If you do not, when shoppers sort the product list
by availability, your products will fall to the bottom of the list. Figure 1-10 shows the leading
shopping search engines. If your site sells products available in shopping search engines, do not
ignore this opportunity. We review specific strategies in more detail in Chapter 14, “Optimize
Your Paid Search Program.”
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Google Product
Search 13%
Other
24%
Yahoo!
Shopping
13%
Bing
Shopping 7%
Shopzilla
10%
Shopping.com
8%
Pronto
9%
ValueClick
8%
TheFind
8%
Figure 1-10 Shopping search market share. Google and Yahoo! are the leaders, but no one
company dominates. Source: comScore (July 2011)
Specialty Search Engines
Whereas shopping search engines locate a wide range of products, specialty search engines
focus on just one or two product categories, or a certain type of content. Figure 1-11 shows a
great example of a specialty search engine that focuses on information technology solutions.
Because the content is limited to pages on a certain subject, the searcher retrieves more relevant
results. Similarly, Technorati (www.technorati.com), which limits itself to blogs, and YouTube
(www.youtube.com), focusing on video, may find more relevant information within those content types.
Most industries have at least one of these specialty engines, but consumer marketing has
specialties, too. For example, the search facility at CNET (www.cnet.com), the computer and
electronics site, shows products (as shopping search engines do), but also shows subject category
matches and matching Web pages. So, searchers for “digital cameras” get a list of cameras along
with their CNET reviews. This blend of product content, reviews, and comparison shopping is a
near-perfect environment for electronics product marketers.
Search marketers should research the specialty search engines that cover their product
lines, because specialty searchers are ready to buy.
Web Search Basics
17
When IT managers
search for “security”
in Google, they get
news stories and
several top results
that have nothing to
do with what they are
looking for.
It’s not Google’s
fault—“security” has
many meanings— but
IT managers must
scan down the page
to find the first
relevant result. Even
searching for “IT
security” doesn’t help
because “it” is such a
common word.
At IT.com, IT managers
get a screen full of relevant results, because
the content is limited to
the subject of information technology.
Notice that Google returned
more than 500 million
results compared to
IT.com’s 260,000. It’s
amazing that Google’s
results are as good as
they are.
Figure 1-11 A specialty search engine. IT.com carefully limits its search results to IT solutions,
providing more relevance to its niche market than Google can.
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Search and Your Marketing Mix
Now that you know a little bit about Web search, let’s see why it should be part of your Web marketing mix—the advertising and other expenditures that your business allocates in its marketing
budget. When we use the term marketing mix, we want you to think broadly—beyond what folks
traditionally consider marketing. If your Web site is part of a for-profit business, then selling products is exactly what you do, but even nonprofit businesses have some kind of marketing mix—a
budget that is allocated in various ways to attract visitors to the site to do something. If it is not to
buy a product, it might be to donate money, or vote for your candidate. Whatever your Web site’s
purpose, search marketing should be part of the budget for attracting visitors to your site.
Your competitor’s marketing mix might already include paid search; after all, the share of
advertisers’ budgets devoted to search marketing increases each year. Some businesses fund
organic efforts from marketing budgets, too (whereas others use technology budgets for organic
search). U.S. paid placement is expected to continue growing, comprising over 40 percent of all
advertising spending, as it rises from $5.2 billion in 2005 to over $11 billion in 2011 (as shown in
Figure 1-12).
Figure 1-12 U.S. paid placement spending. Paid placement continues to grow, projected to
double between 2009 and 2013.
Source: eMarketer (August 2008)
But the rise of search marketing is not just a U.S. phenomenon; it is a worldwide trend.
JupiterResearch has projected paid search to comprise almost half of the €14 million European
online advertising by 2012. It's not just Europe. Covario reported paid search spending increasing by 50 percent in first quarter of 2011 in both Europe and Asia. Around the world, search marketing expenditures have grown dramatically in recent years. Let’s look at why.
Search and Your Marketing Mix
19
A BRIEF HISTORY OF WEB SEARCH
Search technology predates the Web by more than 20 years; after all, computers were
first used to catalog documents and retrieve them in the 1960s. But although search
technology grew to handle databases of thousands and later millions of documents
within large organizations, nothing prepared the search industry for the size of the
Word Wide Web. For the first time, billions of documents could be included in a single
search, and search technology was not initially up to the task.
The first popular solution to this new Web search problem was not really a search
engine at all. A small California company began to manually categorize every site on the
Web in 1994, listing each site in a subject taxonomy that Web visitors could use to find
what they were looking for. At first, it had no real search capability—visitors could
merely find the desired subject and get to the home pages of sites about that subject—
but it was a popular way to find things on this new World Wide Web. Thus began the
first Web directory, called Yahoo!.
At the same time, true search solutions began to emerge. WebCrawler, Excite, Lycos,
and others began examining each page of every Web site and allowing searchers to
look for any word on any page. But no real leader emerged until late in 1995 when Digital Equipment launched the AltaVista search engine. AltaVista differed from the rest; it
delivered strikingly more relevant results than its predecessors. For the first time,
searchers could find what they were looking for in one or two searches, with the best
results near the top of the list. Almost overnight, the Web world was abuzz with news
of this magical new way to find Web sites.
For more than a year, Web users argued over the relative merits of Yahoo! Directory
versus AltaVista search, but in 1997 two new choices emerged. Ask Jeeves developed
a question-answering interface that provided access to answers to hundreds of thousands of commonly asked questions, such as “How many inches are in a meter?” that
no directory or search technology could handle. Goto.com also made its debut in
1997, offering a unique system for advertisers to bid against each other for every
search word, with the highest bidder receiving the #1 ranking for his page. Goto.com
(later renamed Overture) launched the paid search industry.
But Web search changed forever in 1998 with the launch of Google. Google was able
to find hundreds of millions (now billions) of pages on the Web while providing much
better results than other search engines. Google eschewed the question answering of
Ask Jeeves, instead improving on the search-oriented approach of AltaVista, and at
first it had no directory or paid placement. But it worked—searchers were struck by
how frequently Google seemed to find the exact right answer at the top of the list.
Searchers soon abandoned AltaVista in droves for the new favorite.
Google has continued to innovate, by introducing the first search toolbar for browsers,
by steadfastly separating paid search results from organic on its results page, and
through new paid search techniques. Google introduced the AdSense paid search
program, which combines both bidding and the popularity of an advertisement to
decide which one is #1.
Yahoo!, which once used Google as the organic search that complemented its directory, and later became its fiercest rival, has allied with Microsoft to use the Bing search
engine, exiting from the search wars completely. Google and Bing are now the two
largest competitors in the search market, but a little history shows how quickly can
change, as anyone associated with AltaVista or Yahoo! can attest.
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Prospective Customers Use Search
One of the most basic reasons to spend your scarce marketing budget on search is that searchers
buy products: 33 percent of all searchers are shopping, and 77 percent of those who research
online before purchasing use search to do it. Lest you think that not enough people are online for
search marketing to be worth your while, note that total Web users passed the one billion mark
worldwide in 2007. As simple as it sounds, your customers are on the Web, and they use search to
buy. Your site must be found by these searchers who are ready to buy.
Think about the new way that people purchase products. They no longer call your company to
have you mail them a brochure. They “Google” your offering (“verizon wireless”). Or maybe they
look for your competitor’s (“sprint”). Or they search for its generic name (“cell phone service”).
If your company’s Web site is not listed in the first few search results for these searches,
you’re out! You are out of the customer’s consideration set—the group of companies that will be
considered for the customer’s purchase. If you are not in the customer’s consideration set, you
have no chance to make the sale to that customer.
Even if the goal of your Web site is not online purchase, your customers must find you to
learn about your offerings, download information, or find the location of a retail store. Searchers
are far more qualified visitors to your site than someone who clicks a banner ad, for example, so
attracting search visitors is just good business.
The main reason to make search part of your marketing mix is that that’s where your customers are, but there are other reasons.
Search Marketing Is Cost-Effective
Beyond your customers’ use of search, the case for including search in your marketing mix is
compelling for another reason: Search marketing expenditures are a good value.
European marketers report that they pay approximately €2 (euros) each time a searcher
clicks their paid listings, and 55 percent regard that cost as “relatively cheap.” Seventy-six percent of marketers believe paid search is better than banner ads for achieving their business goals,
and 80 percent of businesses surveyed are satisfied with the return on investment for search marketing expenditures—35 percent are very satisfied. In fact, search marketing has the lowest cost
of customer acquisition of any marketing method, as shown in Figure 1-13.
Why is this important? Because if you want to start spending money on search, you need to
stop spending on something else. When you understand that search is the most effective way
to spend your scarce marketing dollars, you should be able to easily make the tradeoffs required
to reduce some existing budgets (direct mail, perhaps?) to find the money for your new search
expenditures.
Search and Your Marketing Mix
21
Average Cost Per Customer Acquisition
Figure 1-13
investment.
Comparing advertising value. Search is the leader in return on advertising
Source: Piper, Jaffray & Co. (October 2006)
Search Marketing Is Big Business
You can tell a new marketing technique is taking off by noticing the number of consultants who
hang out their shingles to help you do it! Several kinds of firms are involved in search marketing:
• Search consultants. A brand new kind of consultancy has sprung up in the past several
years, variously known as SEO consultants or SEM consultants. These new firms, led by
iProspect and Global Strategies International, handle search marketing and nothing else.
• Traditional advertising agencies. At the other end of the spectrum are the old-line advertising agencies that have been around for years. Just as firms such as Young & Rubicam
and Ogilvy & Mather handle TV, radio, and print advertising, in recent years they have
taken on Web advertising. Starting with banner ads, they have now moved into search
marketing, too. Some ad agencies handle paid search only, whereas others offer SEO
consulting for organic search, too.
• Interactive advertising agencies. In between the two extremes, interactive agencies
handle anything online, ranging from search marketing to banner ads to e-mail campaigns. Sometimes these agencies are subsidiaries of the traditional ad agencies, such
as OgilvyInteractive, whereas others, such as Razorfish, are smaller, independent firms.
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All of these firms are competing for your growing paid search budget—Kantar Media
reported that paid search comprised more than eight percent of all advertising spending in the
first half of 2011. Your organization might already work with one of these companies, or might be
looking for a search marketing partner. What is most important at this point is your interest in
allocating part of your marketing budget to search, because you will soon see that achieving success is rather challenging.
The Challenge of Search Success
Now that you know the basics of Web search, and you know how big a marketing opportunity it
is, it must be time for a reality check: Search marketing is not easy to do.
And, unlike most marketing efforts, the bigger you are, the harder it is. We know that in
marketing, size has inherent advantages. The bigger the budget, the more advertising you can
buy, the more free media coverage you can coax, the better a public relations person you can hire,
and on and on. But search marketing is different.
Companies with well-known brand names assume it is easy for their Web site to rank
highly in search results, but John Tawadros (of search marketing firm iProspect) explains that
“the field is more equal. Just because you’re a big name doesn’t mean much to the search
engines.” In fact, well-known brands have lots of competition for search rankings, both from their
competitors and from their allies—many resellers rank highly for well-known brands. Amazon
may rank well when a searcher searches for “sony dvd player”—possibly even higher than
Sony’s Web site.
It is actually easier in some ways for small Web sites to succeed in search marketing than
large ones. For instance, fewer people need to know what to do, and the whole Web site is managed one way by one team. As soon as your site is large enough that you hear some telltale conversations about separating your team or even your site into multiple parts, then search marketing
has just gotten tougher:
• We need multiple teams of specialists. “The copy writers and the HTML coders really
should be in different departments. . . .”
• We need multiple product sites. “Each product line should really run its own separate
Web site. . . .”
• We need multiple audiences. “We should really have different user experiences for consumers than for our business customers. . . .”
• We need multiple countries. “It is really easier for everyone if the Canada and the U.S.
sites are separate. . . .”
• We need multiple technologies. “We decided to keep using the Apache server for the marketing information, but we are putting all of the commerce functions into WebSphere®. . . .”
The Challenge of Search Success
23
Make no mistake—those preceding conversations are actually the sweet sound of success!
Your Web site has grown too large to be run in the old simple way. Good for you that your site is
growing and needs to be managed differently, but it makes search marketing much more difficult, for many reasons. Let’s look at each of these situations and see what can go wrong for
search marketing.
Multiple Specialist Teams
As soon as your Web team grows to more than about a dozen employees, people will start thinking about splitting the group into multiple teams and eventually several departments. No matter
how you split things up, you will start to see communication problems that did not exist before.
If you divide the group by specialties, maybe the Webmasters, JavaScript programmers,
and system administrators go into the Web technology group, and HTML coders, copy writers,
and graphics artists form a Web creative group. That works well for most tasks, because, for
example, each copy writer can work closely with the other copy writers to set standards and
ensure that the writing is consistent across the site.
Unfortunately, search marketing gets more difficult precisely because it cannot be handled
solely as a specialty. Your specialists must understand what they are personally required to do to
make your search marketing a success. Your JavaScript programmers must place their code in
files separate from the HTML files. Your copy writers must use the right words in their copy. Your
Webmasters must choose the right naming convention for your pages’ URLs (Uniform Resource
Locators—the Web page addresses that start with www).
The key point you need to understand is that search marketing is a team effort and that
medium-to-large Web sites have multiple teams that must work together for your search marketing to succeed. Oh, and one more thing: None of these specialists will be focused on search
marketing—that’s your biggest challenge.
Multiple Product Sites
Your organization might be so highly decentralized that your customers do not even think of your
separate products as coming from the same company. How many of you know that Procter &
Gamble makes Crest toothpaste, as well as the Era, Gain, and Tide laundry detergents? And how
many even care? P&G’s customers do not need to know what company makes these products—
they know the brand names, and that is enough. And if they need to learn more about the new
whitening ingredient in Crest, they are much more likely to go to www.crest.com than
www.pg.com. So, Procter & Gamble created separate Web sites for each major brand, as shown
in Figure 1-14.
And each Web site might get its own team. There might be a Crest Webmaster, an Era Webmaster, a Gain Webmaster, and a Tide Webmaster, with the other specialists divided by product,
too. Multiple product sites foster excellent communication among the specialists assigned to
each product, but can create a situation in which there may be almost no communication across
products.
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Era: www.eraactive.com
Tide: www.tide.com
Check out these pages on
the Web yourself. As
different as they look in
black and white, it’s even
more striking in full color.
Tide is orange, Era is red,
and Gain green.
Gain: www.gainlaundry.com
Figure 1-14 Multiple product sites. Three Procter & Gamble laundry detergent home pages
look like they are from completely separate companies.
For most Web tasks, this might not be problematic, but for search marketing, it can be. The
Tide, Era, and Gain sites should each be found when searchers look for “laundry detergent”—but
the respective teams might be fighting over those searchers rather than working together.
To lead search marketing across P&G, you must coax these disparate product groups to
sometimes collaborate instead of always competing. Perhaps they should team up to create the
ultimate “laundry detergent” page that showcases each of their products. This is harder to pull off
than it sounds, because collaboration might violate the competitive corporate culture.
Alternatively, the three detergent marketers might pool their search knowledge so they
each rank in the top ten. Moreover, this technique squeezes some competitors off the front page
(because P&G has three listings out of ten). P&G marketers might warm to this approach
The Challenge of Search Success
25
because it is similar to how they stock supermarket shelves with multiple products to control the
shelf space. None of these separate Web teams need to collaborate for other Web tasks; for search
marketing, however, they do—that’s your problem.
Multiple Audiences
Perhaps your company is highly customer-centric, conducting all sales and marketing based on
audiences, or market segments. So, you have a Web site for large business customers, another for
small-to-medium customers, and a third for consumers, even though they buy many of the same
products. Of course, each of these sites can be run by separate teams that might not need to work
together with the other sites’ teams. (Are you starting to see a pattern here?)
Separate, audience-focused Web sites can be an effective way to communicate with your
customers, because you can tune your marketing message to each audience’s unique needs. Large
businesses might want more customized service, whereas smaller firms might be willing to take a
one-size-fits-all solution to their problem—these differing needs can be addressed with somewhat different offerings that are described differently on your Web site.
IBM sells the same computer software and servers to several different audiences, but large
customers might have negotiated special pricing based on volume and special configurations,
whereas small customers are more interested in ease of installation and service. So, the same
underlying technology might be sold à la carte to large businesses but as a packaged “solution”
to small businesses. To follow through on this strategy, IBM offers large customers discounted
pricing in one part of its site, and markets solutions to smaller businesses elsewhere, as shown in
Figure 1-15.
And dividing this Web site based on customer size usually works well—until you consider
search marketing. Unfortunately, when a prospective IBM customer searches for “Web commerce” in Google, there is no way to know whether the searcher has a small Web site that needs a
turnkey solution or is from a large company wanting to purchase and run its own commerce software on its server. Neither the large company group nor the small company solution group is
focused on search marketing, and so—say it with me now—“you will have to do that.”
Multiple Countries
Another common way to divide up a Web site is by country, and like all the other ways discussed so
far, it makes a lot of sense. (That’s why companies do it!) Your company probably does not sell the
same exact products in every country, so it makes sense that each country might have its own Web
site for customers in that country to visit. Each country might have different languages, currency,
cultural norms, laws—it is easy to understand why Web sites are so frequently divided this way.
26
Chapter 1
Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
IBM’s home page has separate links for medium businesses, large businesses, and other market
segments. Clicking each link leads to a home page tailored for just that audience.
Figure 1-15 Multiple audience sites. IBM uses different marketing messages for different
audiences, with a different area of its Web site for each.
But this clever organizational idea, once again, hurts search marketing efforts. Some
searchers use country-specific search engines, but many use global search engines, such as
Google. What happens when a Canadian searcher enters “four-slice toaster” into the global
search engine? Google might be able to determine the language of the query as English, but there
may be excellent English-language pages on toasters in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada,
the United States, and many other countries. Your company might also have excellent matches
for all of those countries—each toaster page is similar to those in the other countries, but is specific to the country. (It shows the toaster that conforms to UK electrical standards and is priced in
British pounds, for instance.) Google might just show the UK pages, even though it is not the one
the Canadian searcher wants, and suppress the rest as being “similar pages.” If the wrong country
page displays, your visitor cannot buy your product easily—he might be asked to pay in British
pounds when he has Canadian dollars in his wallet.
You can see that if your corporate Web site is divided by country, you might find Web
teams responsible for different countries battling to capture searchers with the same query—they
The Challenge of Search Success
27
want their pages to “win” so that your other country pages are the ones suppressed. Worse, you
might have well-known brand names, such as Coke, that are used in many countries regardless of
language. How do you know which country those searchers want? Figure 1-16 shows how CocaCola handles this problem on its home page, but your company could face this problem for hundreds of brand names that cannot all be listed on your home page.
Coca-Cola highlights each
region of the world and
allows visitors to click on the
appropriate country to reach
each country's Web site.
Figure 1-16 Handling country sites. Coca-Cola highlights country selection on its home page
to get searchers and other visitors to the right place.
Once again, there may be no incentive within your company for different country teams to
collaborate on search marketing—they are not required to work together on most other things.
All together now: “It’s your job.”
Multiple Technologies
Until now, this discussion has focused on the problems of multiple Web teams driven by the
choices your company has made about how to organize. However, another problem grows as Web
sites grow: the technology menagerie. A Web site can employ a dizzying array of technology:
• Content management systems help authors create and store the content for each page.
• Web servers display pages on the visitor’s screen.
28
Chapter 1
Why Search Marketing Is Important . . . and Difficult
• Application servers run programs for the visitor to perform tasks on your site (such as
viewing an appliance’s service records).
• Commerce servers display your merchandise and enable visitors to purchase.
• Portals display content based on the visitors’ interests (such as showing items for sale
that are related to items already purchased).
Each of these components (and more) needs to be carefully configured to support your
search marketing efforts. This configuration is complicated when your Web site has been pieced
together across a large organization, however, because your site probably uses different components in each part of the site. So, your multiple product sites (or audience sites or country sites)
might each have its own team using different technologies to run each site. In the initial rush to
get every part of your company on the Web, a divide-and-conquer strategy might have ruled the
day, with each division doing its own thing. Unfortunately, you are paying for that now, because
every combination of technology that displays a Web page must be configured properly to make
search marketing work.
The more technology combinations you have, the harder it is to get them all working for
search. Frequently, you need to coordinate multiple changes to fix one problem because, for
example, the content management system and the portal are both contributing causes. And (by
now you are waiting for it), none of these technical specialists will think search marketing is part
of their job—it is your job to get them to fix each problem.
If you find that your Web site suffers from the technology menagerie or any of the other
problems listed here, don’t despair. We show you how to solve each one.
Summary
Since the rise of the Web in the 1990s, more and more of your customers have turned to the Web,
and more specifically to Web search, to find what they are looking for. Most searchers are clicking organic search results, although some are selecting paid search listings. Regardless, your Web
site cannot ignore these searchers without losing them to your competitors. By focusing on
searchers as part of your marketing plans, you will raise your sales (or raise whatever your Web
site’s goal is).
But paying attention to searchers takes more work than you might expect. To maximize
your search marketing success, you cannot focus on just one or two search engines. Search
engines come in many flavors and colors, ranging from worldwide sites to single-country engines
to specialized shopping searches. Depending on your business, we discuss later how any or all of
these might be key parts of your search marketing plan.
It is even more complicated for some organizations because the larger your Web site is, the
more elusive search success can be. Large Web sites have multiple teams split by technical specialty, product line, country, and other organizational boundaries. Your company’s organizational
structure might be perfectly aligned for its overall goals, but can fracture search marketing.
Summary
29
Organizational splits hurt search marketing precisely because search marketing cannot be
treated as a specialty performed by just one department. Rather, successful search marketing
efforts pervade your entire Web organization, transforming jobs all along the way. Do not worry
if you cannot imagine how you will persuade all these folks to change the way they do their
jobs—we show you how.
Your multiple Web teams fail at search marketing because of their search ignorance—
ignorance that can be overcome only through knowledge, knowledge that must start with you,
the search marketer. The following chapter examines what a search engine actually does. As you
learn how search engines work, you will be better prepared to train your far-flung Web teams to
transform their jobs and to take advantage of the huge search marketing opportunity.
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Index
Numbers
301 redirects, 250-252
302 redirects (temporary), 251-252
404 errors, 250
A
accessibility issues for visually
impaired, 51
Ad groups, 422
Adaptive Computing marketing, 270
Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files, 48
AdSense program (Google), 19, 114
AdTech (conference), 549
adult content of Web sites
reviewed and penalized by
search engines, 262
suppression by search engine
filters, 297
Advertiser Center (Yahoo!), 195
advertising agencies, as involved in
search marketing, 21, 187
AdWatcher (Web tracking tool), 442
AdWords, Google (paid placement program)
costs of, 388
paid placement rankings, 42-43
ranking algorithm of
based on bid and clickthrough
rate, 388
discouraging bid gamesmanship, 388
stability of, 388
affiliate marketing
Amazon.com as pioneer of, 112
codes, as used to track Web
conversions, 469
how it works, 112
informational search queries,
as important to, 112
links generated by
checking on, 370
dynamic coding of, as problematic
for spiders, 370
low search rankings, as issue for, 112
583
584
as missed by most search
engines, 370
StarTrek.com, as example of, 112
affiliate Web sites, 498
associates of Amazon.com, 112
bidding on trademarks by, 421
“spam” listings by, 86
StarTrek.com, 112
Agrawal, Neeraj, 538
Alexa toolbar, 358-359
algorithms, 37-38. See also PageRank
algorithm (Google); Smart Pricing
algorithm (Google)
used in attempt to estimate page
views, 138
used to rank search results, 298, 305
AlltheWeb, 63
AltaVista, 19, 63, 71
alternate text (alt text)
importance to pictures on Web
pages, 40, 51, 321, 331
keyword stuffing in, 300, 331
Amazon.com, 104-105
affiliate marketing pioneer, 112
book search feature, 534
collaborative filtering technology, 537
distribution system of, 106-107
interests of visitors to, 542
personalization, 541
simplified buying and shipping, 105
America Online. See AOL
American Cancer Society, 116
American Medical Association (AMA)
Web site, 41-42
anchor text
as factor in link popularity, 342
as factor in search ranking, 42, 46, 328
Index
of internal links, 350
optimizing for internal links, 366-367
Anderson, Chris, 522
antiphrases, 34
antisearch, 528
AOL (America Online)
AOL Search, 11, 63
checking pages for inclusion in
search index, 153
partnership with Google, 156, 386
use of Google paid placement service
by, 53
as more popular than rival Live
Search, 10
as original portal, 11
and problem of trying to identify
individual “hits,” 138
history of, 11
use of Google AdWords by, 71
Apache (Linux Web server)
redirects, 251
rewrite module to facilitate indexing of
dynamic URLs, 247
Apple Computer, 176
Apple iTunes, 105
Apple PowerBook Web page, as example
of query filtering result, 302
application servers, 28
articles (stop words), as factors in search
query analysis, 34
Ask.com, 13
checking for indexed pages on, 238
checking pages for inclusion in search
index, 153
organic search technology of, 63
popularity data, 299
submission of sites to, 235
Index
use of “communities” by, 50
use of CitySearch, 78
use of Google AdWords, 71
use of Google paid placement
service, 54
associates, Amazon.com, 112
astroturfing, 503
Atlas DMT (paid search software vendor),
paid placement studies by, 396-397
Atom, 482
Atomz, free site search tool of, 353
audio. See podcasts
authority pages
identified by hub pages, 343
ranked highly by search engines, 343
authority of Web sites, as factor in search
ranking, 41, 342
auto-optimization feature (Google), 438
Avenue A | Razorfish (interactive ad
agency), 21
B
Back button, 529
back links, 356-357, 459
Backlink Watch (link audit tool), 361
Balzer, Evan, 116
banner ads, 76
linked to landing pages, 150
tied to time-sensitive promotions, 151
banner landing pages, 150-151
Become.com, 15
behavior models. See also Web
Conversion Cycle
information and entertainment, 133-134
leads (new customers)
consulting firm, 131-132
swimming pool dealer, 130
585
market awareness (promotion), 132-133
offline sales, 124-125
online commerce Web sites
(offline delivery)
book store, 124
personal computer sales, 121-122
persuasion, 136-137
pure online Web sites (online delivery), 122
Berkshire Hathaway, as example of
conglomerate, 177
Best Buy, 105
best practices in search marketing, 450-455
centralizing keyword
management, 452-455
establishing and enforcing
standards, 451-452
bid gap, 74, 407-408
bid jamming, 410
bid limit, 195
bid management, 180-182
bid management tools, 73-75, 414
agreements with Yahoo!, 75
automation, 417
costs of, 418
search marketing vendors, 414-415
selection of, 414-415
standalone tools, 416-417
supporting bidding tactics, 415-417
use of, as leading to keyword battles, 77
BidBuddy (search marketing vendor), 415
bidding strategy, as used with paid
placement, 42-43, 70, 388, 410, 426-431
automation of, 73-75
bid jamming, 410
bidding strategies, 427
dayparting, 416
friendly URL, 410
586
gap surfing, 410
managing and monitoring of, 72-75
measuring success of
cost per action (CPA), 429
cost per order (CPO), 429
objective bidding, 428
profit margin, 429
return on advertising spending
(ROAS), 429
return on investment (ROI), 429
mistakes by newbies, 428
as not used with Google, 388, 410
objective bidding, 429-430
self-funding strategy, 430
bidding, for keywords
as costly, 76-77
as pioneered by Goto.com, 19
battles over, 452-455
costs of, projecting, 196
BizRate, 16
Black Hat Cameras (fictional retailer).
See also Snap Electronics
high number of links, as suspicious, 323,
362-363
high page rankings of, 319-322, 362
link audit of, as exposing blog spamming,
362-363
blended searches, 489
blogosphere, 481
blogs, 480-484, 535
indexing, 483
Marketing Pilgrim, 549
microblogging, 484-485
off-topic postings to, as form of link
spamming, 346-347, 362-363
Index
Online Marketing Blog, 550
optimizing for searches, 482-483
Search Engine Journal, 550
search engines, 483
SEOmoz Blog, 550
versus press releases, 480
body text
as factor in search ranking, 40
improving content of, 327-330
in emphasized text, 328
in headings, 328
in links (anchor text), 328
in opening text, 328
tips for, 328-329
measuring success of, 321-322
bookmarking, 499-500
bookmarks, as generated by page title, 49
“bow-tie” theory of Web page types, 340
brand awareness
building, as goal of keyword
planning, 268-270
as factor in selecting paid placement
keywords, 420
trademarks, bidding on
by affilates, retailers, and resellers, 421
search engine policies on, 421
brand managers, 208-210
involvement in keyword selection, 209
paid placement ads, as reviewed and
approved by, 209
brand names
“cute” names, 34
handled by large company Web sites, 23-25
identified with top search results, 269
leveraging of, 544-545
Index
as not always best choice for target
keywords, 148
protection of, 211, 545
seach operators, 35
search queries for
favoring manufacturers’ sites,
109, 174, 544
favoring retail and review sites, 157,
166, 174
spelling of, 33
stop words, 34
word order, 34-35
Brin, Sergey, 8
Broder, Andrei, 84, 298
broken links, checking for, 458-459
Bush, George W., as victim of link
popularity, 341
business case, 200
for first search marketing campaign, 203
for search marketing program, 200-203
business people, on extended search team, 208
brand managers, 208-210
lawyers, 211-212
public relations people, 210-211
sales people, 210
business plan for first search
marketing campaign
phases of, 204-205
time line chart, use of, 204-206
Business Research (search marketing
consultant), 265
Buy stage, of Web Conversion
Cycle, 97-98
country/regional specificity, 295
keywords for Snap Electronics, 288-289
587
Buy.com, 108-109
buyers, behavior of. See also
searchers; visitors to Web sites
primary demand (early stages), 82, 96
selective demand (later stages), 83, 96
C
C block of IP address, 350, 358, 362-363
Cadillac Web site
calls to action for offline sales, 127
as offering online purchasing, 125
California Energy Commission, solar energy
specialty directory, 371
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
“clean” code, 330
enabling clean and efficient design, 330
resulting in smaller pages, 330
used to create hidden text (spam
technique), 301
case (typography), as factor in search
query analysis, 33
Castrol Web site, as raising brand
awareness, 420
categorization (form of deep text
analytics), 538
CBS MarketWatch Web site, 114
CDNow, 105
cell phones, 542
central search team, 178-179, 448
coordination of
with ad agencies or search marketing
consultants, 454-455
with extended search team, 448-450
skills needed on, 448-450
588
tasks best performed by
choosing keywords, 182
defining new standards, 183
search marketing strategy, 182
search marketing tools, 183, 448
targeting worldwide search engines, 182
tracking and reporting nontraffic-based
metrics, 183
centralizing search marketing tasks, 181-184.
See also central search team; extended
search team
charitable organizations, Web sites of. See
persuasion, Web sites engaged in
Charles Schwab online brokerage, 104
“chasing the algorithm” (overoptimizing Web
content), 306-307
Cheer laundry detergent Web site, 23-24
CitySearch, as offering local search
function, 78
Clark, Corey (eBay), 207
Click Defense (Web tracking tool), 442
click fraud, 76-77, 442
clicks per search, 93
determined by search ranking, 164
small numerical differences in, 164
way of estimating future Web traffic,
162-163
clickthrough rate
assigning to selected keywords, 166
determined by search ranking, 164
for top-ranked paid placement result, 164
as used by Google AdWords to determine
ranking, 42-43
cloaking (spam technique), 233-234
CNET, 388
CNET Search, 71
multifaceted display of search results
by, 16
Index
CNN Web site, 114, 388
Coach.com, 237-238
Coca-cola
viral marketing, 497
Web site, as targeting multiple
countries, 27
collaborative filtering technology, 537-538
color of text, as factor in search ranking,
40, 48
commerce servers, 28
“communities” (subject groupings), as used by
Ask.com, 50
competition, as factor in search marketing
from foreign companies, 545
from large companies, 544-545
from other local companies, 545
strategies for coping with, 544-546
conferences for search marketers
AdTech, 549
eMetrics Summit, 549
PubCon, 548-549
Search Engine Strategies (SES), 548
Search Marketing Expo, 548
Suchmaschinen-Marketing, 549
conglomerates
Berkshire Hathaway, 177
centralization of search marketing
tasks in, 184
highly decentralized, 177
portfolio management of, 544-545
“consideration set” of search results, 20, 269
consultants, search marketing, 21, 59-60, 187
costs of hiring, 59
small companies, as more likely to
hire, 174
consumer-generated content, 480, 535
Index
content analyzers, 317-319
major tools, 318
sample report by Site Content
Analyzer, 318
content-based social media, 499
content management systems, 28, 61
content marketplaces, 507-509
content monopoly, 509-510
content of Web pages. See Web content
content optimization. See also Web content,
writing for search
crucial to search marketing, 58, 64
of landing pages. See landing pages
as not necessary on every Web page, 59
“overoptimization,” 306-307
search marketing task, 182-183
content, passable, 498
content pipelines, 524
content reporter, 456
building one’s own, 457
components of, 457
content scorecard, 456-457
error log, 456
purchasing, 457
content tagging measurements, 456-457
content writers, 213-214
contextual advertising (form of paid
placement), 72, 114, 388, 391
checking cost-effectiveness on Yahoo!, 392
products most suited to, 392
quality of sites displaying, 392
sites most likely to use, 388
users of, 392
Converseon (search marketing
consultant), 545
589
conversion of Web site visitors into
customers, 95-97, 120, 468-469
sales conversion rate, 120
Web conversion rate, 120-121
conversion rates, 120
determining patterns of, 416
sales conversion rate, 120
Web conversion rate, 120-121
cookies
problematic for spiders, 248
used to track Web conversions, 469-470
used to track Web site visits, 139, 248
cooperative advertising, 402
copywriters, 212-213
core Web pages, 340
Coremetrics (Web tracking tool), 442
cost per action (CPA), 73-74, 429
cost per click (CPC), 73-74, 386
cost per order (CPO), 429
cost per thousand (CPM), 73-74, 387
countries and regions, identification of Web
pages from. See also languages
by domain name, 296
by URL and IP address, 296
country and region filters, 295-296
as problematic for multinational
companies, 296
country maps, 258
CPA (cost per action), 73-74, 429
CPC (cost per click), 73-74, 386
CPM (cost per thousand), 73-74, 387
CPO (cost per order), 429
crawlers (spiders), 44
changing Web pages, as challenge for, 47,
179-180, 215
following of links by, 45-46
590
instructions to, 216
problematic technologies faced by, 154,
174, 217, 452, 456, 460
remembering of links by, 46-47
site availability, 215
as sometimes blocked by Webmasters, 216
used to build search index, 43-47
crawling the Web, 46-48, 179-180, 215
Crest toothpaste Web site, 23
Crockatt, Tor (Espotting), 275, 312
Crystal Reports (content report
generator), 457
CSS. See Cascading Style Sheets
customers
attracting to paid placement listings, 75-76
different types of, as handled by large
company Web sites, 25-26
keeping by having good Web site
searches, 515-516
searchers as, 20
customizing search engines, 526
D
day traders, 105
Dean, Howard, online political
fundraising by, 137
deep text analytics, 538-539
Demographic site targeting, 391
demographics, 542
description of Web page. See also search
result text
as component of paid placement ad, 434
as factor in search ranking, 40, 50, 87
as important to navigational searchers, 87
improving content of, 327
text of, as appearing in snippet, 327
tips for writing, 435
Index
desktop content, 535
destination Web pages, 340
Did-it (search marketing vendor), 414
difficult searches, 510-511
direct answers, 536
directories (domain “folders”), naming of, 215
directories. See also directory listings
as compared to search engines, 19
display of search results by, 6
getting listed in, 69
rejection of submissions to, 70
as sources of information for inbound
links, 373
as sources of information for soliciting
links, 370-373
as syndicated to other sites, 66
visitors to, as not always prospective
customers, 62
directory listings, 6, 57, 64-65
benefits of
improved search rankings, 68
increased traffic, 67
low cost, 68
simplicity, 68
challenges of
editorial changes, 68-69
limited listings and exposure, 68-69
slow response time, 68-70
for companies, as both single and
multiple, 64, 69
as compared to other search marketing
techniques, 79
costs of, 66-67
editorial changes, 68-69
rejection of submissions for, 70
using, 64-65
Index
disappointment of Web site searches, 506-507
difficult searches, 510-511
people search after navigation
fails, 512-513
searchers have high expectations, 507
content marketplaces, 507-509
content monopoly, 509-510
disconnected Web pages, 340
division of search marketing work. See also
centralizing search marketing tasks; central
search team; extended search team
central search team, 178-179
extended search team, 179
involvement of Web specialists, 179-180
tasks involved in
choosing keywords, 180-182
defining standards, 181-183, 451-452
developing technology, 180, 183
managing bids, 180-182
optimizing content, 180-183
search marketing strategy, 180-182
search marketing tools, 181-183
targeting search engines, 180-182
tracking and reporting metrics, 181-183
DMOZ (Open Directory), 66, 349
Dogpile (metasearch engine), 71
data from, as used by Wordtracker, 281
visitors to, 282
Domain Dossier (domain checking
service), 350
domains
identifying internal links, 350
naming of, 215
registered in Whois database, 350
doorway pages (spam technique), 300, 314
duplicate metatags and Web sites (spam
technique), 301
591
Dynamic Keyword Insertion (Google),
437-438
dynamic pages, 526
dynamic URLs, 246
parameters of, 246-247
session identifiers, 246-248
dynamic Web pages, 331
how they work, 244-245
indexing of, 246-247
optimization challenges of, 333-334
as perfect for trusted feed programs, 334
as problematic for spiders, 61, 174, 246
quality control, 334
templates and database information, as
used to create, 331-333
URLs of, 245-246
E
eBay
as example of auction pricing system, 399
search marketing plan of, 207
embedded scripts and style sheets, 330
eMetrics Summit (conference), 549
emphasized text and headings, as factors in
search ranking, 40, 48, 328
entity extraction (form of deep text
analytics), 538-539
ePilot (search engine), 386
ESPN Web site, 114
contextual advertising, 388
premium services, 134-136
Espotting, 71, 275, 312
ethics, 502-503
Evans, Laura, 110
EveryZing, 493
Excite, 19, 63
592
executives
closing deal with, 225
concerns raised by, 220-224
business value, 222-223
competition, 222
corporate goals, 220-221
cost, 223-224
current situation, 221
practicality of proposal, 222
risks, 224
time frame, 223-224
extended search team, 179, 206-208
business people, 208
brand managers, 208-210
lawyers, 211-212
public relations people, 210-211
sales people, 210
site operations people, 218
metrics specialists, 218-219
Web site governance specialists,
219-220
tasks best performed by
managing bids, 182
modifying existing standards, 183
optimizing content, 182-183
targeting local search engines, 182
tracking and reporting metrics, 183
technologists, 215
information architects, 217
style guide developers, 217-218
Web developers, 216-217
Webmasters, 215-216
writers, 212
content writers, 213-214
copywriters, 212-213
translators, 214-215
external links, 339
eye-tracking analytics, 92-93
Index
F
fake grass roots, 503
fantasy-based social media, 499
Fathom Online (search marketing
consultant), 21
Federal Express, 104
feed aggregation services, 484
FeedBurner, 484
Filo, David, 10
FindWhat (search engine), 71
fixed placement, 72, 387
as different from auction-style paid
placement, 387
inflexibility of, 387
per-impression fee, 73, 387
Flash, Macromedia, 254-255
downloading requirements for, 249
HTML landing page, 255
indexing of Web sites built entirely in, 255
as non-indexable by spiders, 254
flogs, 503
folksonomies, 499
followers, 485
forums. See message boards
frames, 255
friendly URL (bidding tactic), 410
functional organizations, 175-176
centralization of search marketing
tasks in, 184
collaboration of teams in, as
important, 175
G
Gain laundry detergent Web site, 23-24
gap surfing (bidding tactic), 410
Garelick Farm microsite, 470
General Electric, 176
Index
General Motors
as example of centralized search marketing
decisions, 182
portfolio management by, 544-545
geographic targeting
of keywords, 425-426
on Google and Yahoo!, 425-426
reverse IP lookup, 425
of searchers, 78, 393, 541
Get stage of Web Conversion Cycle, 97, 122
Global Positioning Systems (GPS), 542
Global Strategies International (Search
marketing consultant), 21, 545
goals, of Web site. See Web site goals
Godin, Seth, 498
Google, 4, 7-8, 10, 507
AdSense, 19, 114
AdWords (paid placement program),
71, 283
costs of, 388
paid placement rankings, 42-43
ranking algorithm of, 388
stability of, 388
algorithms used by. See algorithms
application program interface
(API), 361
bidding tactics, 388, 410
book search feature, 534
checking pages for inclusion in search
index, 153
choosing for paid placement program, 409
contextual advertising, 72, 391
contextual search referrals by, 465
Desktop, 535
Directory, 66
display of search results by, 5, 19,
26-27, 31
593
emphasis on link popularity by, 341
as focused solely on search function, 8-9
as former partner of Yahoo!, 7, 10,
19, 54
history of, 8, 19
keyword assistance feature, 537
as leading paid placement vendor, 70
as leading search engine, 7, 10, 14
local search technology, 14
managing paid placement ads with,
tools for
auto-optimization feature, 438
Dynamic Keyword Insertion, 437-438
match types for keywords, 423-424
OneBox, 488
organic search technology of, 5, 8, 63
PageRank algorithm, 41-42, 299, 459
paid placement account, setting up, 413
paid search
as revenue generator for, 8, 42-43, 70
launch of AdSense program, 19
partnership with AOL Search, 156, 386
Product Search (Google shopping search
engine), 48, 411
rejection of ads by, 441
search rankings in, as checked by Keyword
Tracker, 155
search toolbar
to check for indexed pages, 230-231
to check on inbound links, 234
share of searches, 8, 14
snippets, as shown on, 320
Suggest, 537
“tainted” searches on, 282
toolbar, 356-357
trademark policy of, 421
trusted feed, 48
594
Universal Search, 489
use by PR Weaver (link audit tool),
361-362
Web site searches, 515
“Googling,” 4, 8, 20
Goto.com, 19. See also Overture
GPS (Global Positioning Systems), 542
graphics. See pictures
Guideposts (nonprofit organization), 116
H
Hammer, Michael, 107
handheld devices, 542
Hartford Insurance Web page
organic search rankings of,
checking, 315-316
use of search operator to find appropriate
landing page, 313
“hate” Web sites. See “negative” Web sites
headings and emphasized text, as factors in
search ranking, 40, 48, 328
Hewlett-Packard, “Adaptive Computing”
marketing campaign, 270
hidden content, 534
High Rankings Advisor (Web site), 549
“hits,” as early way of measuring Web
site traffic, 138
Honda, 208
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 45-46
alternate text (alt text), 40, 51, 300,
321, 331
as best for country maps, 258
Cascading Style Sheets, 330
character encoding to determine
language, 295
Index
“clean” code, as achieved with
content tagging measurements, 456-457
documents in formats other than, 48
as handled by Web developers, 216
image (img) tag, 51
language metatag, 295
markup, as used to analyze text, 48
metatags, 48-50
noframes tag, as used to facilitate
indexing, 255
noscript tag, as used to facilitate
indexing, 244
standards, maintenance of, as search
marketing task, 181-183, 452
used to create hidden text (spam
technique), 301
used to create landing pages for Flash Web
sites, 255
validation, 253-254
hub pages, 343
as alternatives to site maps, 256-257
identifying authority pages, 343
Hypertext Markup Language. See HTML
I
IBM
as multinational organization with
centralized approach, 177
“On Demand” marketing campaign, 270
Web site
call to action for offline sales, 127
Globalization home page, inbound
link to, 368
hub pages, as alternatives to site
map, 256-257
as juggling multiple goals, 117
as offering technical support, 110
Index
and page inclusion problem, 460
as targeting multiple audiences,
25-26
iBusinessPromoter (link-building process
tool), 380
iCrossing (search marketing
consultant), 187
Idearc SuperPages, 78
identification of searchers, factors affecting
demographics, 542
geography, 541
handheld devices, 542
information alerts, 542-543
interests, 542
Internet use at home, 542
language, 541
iLike, 495
images
importance of alternate text to, 331
new media, 490-491
overemphasis on, 331
text formatted in, 331
as unreadable by search engines, 50-52
importance of Web site searches, 513
keeping customers, 515-516
reasons for needing a good Web site
search, 516-517
improving Web site searches, 521
search user interface, 527-530
technologies that affect your search,
525-527
your site, 522-525
impulse Web purchases, 104-106
day traders, as ultimate impulse
purchasers, 105
music downloading, 105
595
as result of transactional searches, 106
search marketing techniques to
increase, 105
inbound links
attracting, 364-365. See also link
landing pages
as best way to get sites indexed, 236
to changed URLs, checking, 458-459
checking in cases of non-indexed
pages, 234
content, 328
determining quality of Web sites,
339, 342
directories, as sources of information for,
370-373
negotiating for, 377-380
crafting initial e-mail request, 378-379
managing requests, 380
number of, displaying
using Google toolbar, 356-357
using Yahoo! Search, 356
from Open Directory, 349
to organic search landing pages (back
links), checking, 459
relevancy as query ranking factor, 342
seeking out
as more difficult with high-quality Web
sites, 348-349
in order to attract highly qualified
visitors, 347-348
with specific anchor text, displaying, 358
inclusion operators, 153
inclusion programs, use inclusion
programs, 258
inclusion ratio, 236, 239
checking status of, 459-460
problems with, 239
596
indexing. See also search index; spiders
blogs, 483
checking pages for, 153
by following links, 234
as not done for most Web pages, 46
as search marketing technique, 87
steps to improve. See also spiders;
spider traps
creating spider paths, 255-258
eliminating spider traps, 240-252
reducing ignored content, 252-255
using paid inclusion, 261-263
as used by search engines, 32
information alerts, 542-543
information and entertainment Web
sites, 104, 114
behavior model for subscription
information site, 133-134
content writers, 213
contextual advertising, 114
paid placement, 114
premium services, 133-136
revenue, sources of, 133
Web Conversion Cycle of, 133-136
information architects, 217
information economy, as hallmark of
Web, 338-339
information retrieval, pros and cons, 84
informational searchers, 89-90, 112
InfoSpace (metasearch engine), 14
InfoUSA, 393
Intel Web site
centralized keyword planning, 455
checking for indexed pages on, 239
cooperative advertising, 402
Index
interactive advertising agencies, 21, 187
Interactive Advertising Bureau Web site, 187
interest-based social media, 499
interests of searchers, as factors in
personalization, 542
internal links, 339, 350, 366-367
characteristics of
similar anchor text, 350
similar IP addresses, 350
similar Whois information, 350
display of, by Google toolbar, 356-357
as identifiable by search engines, 350
negotiating, 378
optimizing anchor text for, 366-367
Internet searches, 507
Internet use at home, 542
invisible Web, 46
IP address
components of (“blocks”), 350, 358,
362-363
as used to expose search engine spamming,
362-363
as used to identify internal links, 350, 358,
362-363
as used to identify location of searcher, 14,
78, 425, 541
IP delivery (spam technique), 233-234
to allow indexing of Web pages with
cookies, 248
to allow indexing of Web sites built
with Flash, 255
iProspect (search marketing consultant),
21-22
IT.com (specialty search engine), 16
Iwon (search engine), 63
Index
J
JavaScript
embedded code, as increasing page size,
244, 249-253
as handled by Web developers, 216
as technology favored by information
architects, 217
use problematic for spiders, 61,
174, 217, 460
Jolson, Al, 502
K
Kanoodle (search engine), Keyword Target
(paid placement program), 71
keyword assistance, 537-538
keyword battles, 77, 452-455
keyword bidding
by advertisers for paid placement
listings, 36-37
battles over, 77, 452-455
as pioneered by Goto.com, 19
keyword candidates. See keyword planning
Keyword Effectiveness Index (KEI)
analysis, 275, 282
keyword meaning elements, 312
keyword planning. See also keywords
approaches to, 271
“cold” keywords, 274-275
“hot” keywords, 271-274
“just right” keywords, 275-276
centralization of
to eliminate internal bidding
battles, 452-455
to optimize organic search, 453
organizing, 453-454
597
keyword candidates, building list of
brainstorming for, 277-279
checking current search referrals, 279
checking use by competitors, 280
consulting site search facility, 280
keyword candidates, prioritizing, 286-287
keyword candidates, researching, 281
using Google AdWords Keyword
Tool, 283
using Microsoft adCenter, 285
using Trellian’s Keyword
Discovery, 284
using Wordtracker, 281-282
using Yahoo! Keyword Selector
Tool, 284
reasons for
building brand awareness, 268-270
increasing Web conversions, 270-271
keyword prominence
as factor in search ranking, 39-40, 213-214,
303, 321-322
alternate (alt) text, 40, 51
anchor text, 42, 46
body text, 40
description, 40, 50, 87
headings and emphasized text,
40, 48, 328
links (anchor text), 328
opening text, 328
page title, 39, 49-50, 91-94
measuring, 458
as query ranking factor, 303
keyword research tools, 281
Google AdWords Keyword Tool, 283
Microsoft adCenter, 285
Trellian’s Keyword Discovery, 284
Wordtracker, 281-282
Yahoo! Keyword Selector Tool, 284
598
keyword stuffing or loading (spam
technique), 300
in alternate (alt) text, 300, 331
as risk taken when overoptimizing
content, 308
Keyword Target (paid placement
program), 71
Keyword Tracker (free search ranking
checker), 155, 316
keywords, 38. See also target keywords
battles, 77, 452-455
bidding on
by advertisers for paid placement
listings, 36-37
battles over, 77, 452-455
as pioneered by Goto.com, 19
choice of
as crucial to search marketing, 58, 64
involvement of brand managers in, 209
keyword assistance, as factor in,
537-538
demand, 281
as estimated by Wordtracker, 281
keyword assistance, as factor in, 538
as not necessarily translating into
conversions, 419-420
as “tainted” by search ranking
checkers, 282
density
as factor in search marketing, 213-214
as factor in search ranking, 38-39, 303,
321-322
measuring, 458
as query factor, 303
in different languages, as handled by
search engines, 287
Index
frequency, 303
high bids for, as caused by popularity
of, 76
identifying, in search queries from referral
pages, 159
matching, 508
overuse of, as dangerous, 306-307
planning. See keyword planning
prominence of, 39-40, 213-214, 303,
321-322
proximity of, 39
redundancy of (“flabby” words), 325
stuffing or loading of, 300, 308, 331
in alternate (alt) text, 300, 331
as risk taken when overoptimizing
content, 308
sudden popularity of, 270
term frequency, 38
timing, 270
L
landing pages, 150-151. See also
link popularity
as accommodating links from different
company departments, 454
arranging with partner companies’ Web
sites, 210
auditing, 317
of body text, 321-322
content analyzers, as used for, 317-319
of page title, 319-320
of snippet, 320-321
banner landing pages, 151
needing to match ads, 150-151
tied to time-sensitive promotions, 151
Index
checking performance of, 314-315
search conversions, 317
search rankings, 315-316
search referrals, 316-317
checking search rankings of,
154-156, 458
choices of
based on searcher’s needs and
intents, 310-312
inappropriate, 311-312
meaning elements, 312
for multiple keywords, 312-313
content of, improving, 323
body text, 327-330
description, 327
page title, 323-325
snippet, 325-326
contrasted with doorway pages, 314
creating expressly for higher search
ranking, 154
existing pages, 151-153
finding when none exists, 313-314
for Flash Web sites, 255
guidelines for paid placement, 440-441
new pages, 151
permanence of, 311-312
search landing pages, 151
language filters, 294-295
languages
handled by search engines, 287, 295
used to identify searchers, 541
used to limit search results, 50, 294-295
Latvala, Jari, 420
lawyers, 211-212
lead management systems, 132
599
leads (new customers), finding, 104, 111
affiliate marketing, 112
behavior models, for different
business types
consulting firm, 131-132
swimming pool dealer, 130
information, as primary goal of site
visitors, 130
measuring success of, 132
value of leads, calculating, 132
Web Conversion Cycle of, 130-132
Learn stage of Web Conversion Cycle, 96-97
keywords for Snap Electronics, 288-290
as only stage for lead-generating
Web sites, 130
Lee, Kevin (Did-it), 414
legal issues
“negative” Web sites, 211
Web content, 212
letter case (typography) in search query
analysis, 33
lifetime value, quantifying worth of new
customers with, 428
The Limited (retailer), 34
link analysis. See link popularity
link audits, 356-364
counting inbound links, 356-358
counting links across search engines,
359-360
finding good link candidates, 358
link quality analysis, 360-362
managing links, 359
scoring links, 358-359
tools for, 358-362
as used to expose search engine
spamming, 362-363
600
link backs (reciprocal links), 353
link-building campaigns, 337
link-building process, 459
iBusinessPromoter, 380
SEOElite, 380
link farms, 346, 362, 377, 502
farm operators, 189
as feeding doorway pages, 314
identifying, 372-373
reporting, 373
link landing pages, 352-356
attractions of, 353
designing to attract links and conversions
delivering excellent content, 354
drawing visitors deeper, 355
including other quality links, 355
reinforcing and maintaining
topics, 354
removing “roadblocks,” 354-355
using link-friendly URLs, 354-355
link popularity. See also landing pages
authority pages, high ranking of, 343
authority of Web sites, 41, 68, 174
concept of, 338, 344
criteria for, 342
evolution of, 344-345
as factor in search ranking,
41-42, 341
favoring large companies over small
ones, 174, 544
highest for core and destination
pages, 340
how it works, 341
hub pages, 343
page ranking factor, 299, 322-323
as possible result of spamming
techniques, 323
Index
as problematic for affiliate Web sites, 112
as way to counter “negative” Web
sites, 211
role of spiders in, 45-47
link quality
analysis, 360
by Backlink Watch, 361
by OptiLink, 361
by SEOElite, 361
as conferring authority to other Web
sites, 342
link relevancy, 342
links. See also individual link types
affiliate links, 370, 498
checking for problems with, 234, 458-459
compared to citations in scholarly
papers, 338
external links, 339
following, 234
how they work, 339
internal links, 339, 350, 366-367
link backs (reciprocal links), 353
outbound links, 351-352
paid links, 374-377
relational links, 367-369
solicited links, 369-374
used to judge quality of Web
sites, 338
Live Search
checking pages, 153
organic search technology of, 63
plans enter paid placement market, 70
use of Precision Match by, 71
local search engines, 14
relationships with, 191
targeting, 180-182
Index
local searches, 392-393
geographic targeting of searchers,
78, 541
by major search engines, 14, 78, 393
with paid placement listings, 77-78
Yahoo!, as leader in, 393
by Yellow Pages sites, 14, 78
localization
as handled by large company Web
sites, 25-27
as handled by search marketing
vendors, 191
log files
used to check indexing of pages by
spiders, 232-233
as way of counting “hits,” 138
Long Tail approach, 524-525
LookSmart, 64
Lycos, 19
Lycos Europe, 71
Lynx (text-only browser), used to see spider
trap problems, 249
M
Mackey, John, 502
MapQuest, 390
market awareness (promotional) Web sites,
104, 113-114, 132
behavior model for children’s
cereal, 132-133
navigational searchers,
importance to, 113
often benefiting from paid
placement, 114
601
sales conversion rate,
calculating, 133
Web Conversion Cycle of, 132-133
marketing mix, importance of Web
searching to, 18-22
Marketing Pilgrim (blog), 549
MarketLeap (search marketing
consultant), 414
markup, use by search engines to analyze
text, 48. See also HTML
match types for keywords
expanded
broad (Google)/advanced
(Yahoo!), 423
pros and cons of, 424
negative, 424
phrase match (Google), 423
restrictive
exact (Google)/standard (Yahoo!), 424
as working better with ambiguous
meanings, 424
strategies for, 425
Mentos, viral marketing, 497
merchant ratings on shopping search
engines, 438-440
abuses of, 440
calculated from shoppers’
reviews, 440
tips for ensuring positive reviews, 440
message boards, 487-488
MetaCrawler (metasearch engine)
data from, 281
visitors to, 282
metadata, 538
metasearch engines, 14
602
metatags, 48
description, 40, 50
to determine language, 295
duplicates of, 301
modification to allow indexing by
spiders, 61, 242-243
page title, 39, 49-50, 91-94, 253
robots metatag, 242-243
microblogging, 484-485
micropayments, 534-536
microsites (sites set up for search
referrals), 470
Microsoft adCenter, 285
Microsoft German office Web site, 296
Microsoft Live Search. See Live Search
misrepresentation, 502-503
missed opportunities, calculating, 161-162
monetizing search, 120, 129
Morville, Peter, 506, 528
MSN Search. See Live Search
MSN.com, 63
multifaceted searches, 528, 540-541
Multilingual Search blog, 390
multimedia content, 534
multinational organizations, 176-177
centralization of search marketing
tasks in, 184
IBM, 177
multiple-click searches, 520
music downloads, impact of, 105
N
natural language queries, 539
“natural language” search engine,
Ask.com, 12-13
natural results. See organic results
Index
navigation, 512
navigational searchers, 85-87
confusion caused by search
queries, 85
expecting Web site home page, 85
frustrated by affiliate Web sites, 86
good Web page descriptions,
importance to, 87
navigational searches
as among most popular, 86-87
competition among, 87
examples of, 85
importance to market awareness
Web sites, 113
marketing for, 87-88
as sometimes ambiguous, 85
negative SEO, 502
“negative” Web sites, protection of brand
names from, 211, 545
Neilsen, Jakob, 520
Netscape, use of Google AdWords by, 71
new media
images, 490-491
podcasts, 491-494
search engines, 488-490
video, 494-495
widgets, 495
newsgroups. See message boards
no-click searches, 520
no-conversion searches, 521
no-result searches, 520
non-HTML documents, handling by
search engines, 48
nonprofit organization Web sites. See
persuasion, Web sites engaged in
Index
nontext elements, careful use of
alternate (alt) text, 331
embedded scripts and style sheets, 330
images, 331
text formatted in images, 331
Northern Light (search engine), 46
O
objective bidding, 428-430
ODP (Open Directory Project). See
Open Directory
offline sales, 103, 110, 124, 210
behavior model for automobile
manufacturer, 124-125
call center accuracy, 127-128
call to action, 110-111, 127
customer contact, encouraging, 110, 127
difficulties tracking offline sales to Web
site, dealing with, 129
monetizing Web conversions, 129
sales conversion rate, calculating, 128
success, measuring, 110, 127, 146
ways of tying to Web site, 127
Web conversion rates, calculating, 127-128
Ogilvy & Mather (ad agency), 21, 187
OgilvyInteractive (interactive ad
agency), 21, 187
OneBox, 488
online commerce Web sites (offline
delivery), 104
Amazon.com, 104-105
behavior models, for different
business types
book store, 124
personal computer sales, 121-122
Online Marketing Blog (blog), 550
603
online trading, impact of, 105
Open Directory, 57, 66
contents of, 373
as free service, 66, 68
listings given more weight by search
engines, 68, 349
reluctance to grant WebMD multiple
listings, 69
slow response time, 66-68
as source of information for soliciting
links, 370
submitting a site to, 69
OptiLink (link audit tool), 360-361
optimized content
blogs, 482-483
as crucial to search marketing, 58, 64
maintaining, 180-183
as not necessary on every Web page, 59
video, 494
OptiSpider, 237
Orbitz (travel Web site), 58
organic results. See also organic search
evaluation of, 36-37
favored by searchers, 62
favored by users, 92-93
for landing pages, checking, 155-156
as main feature of Google, 5, 8
matching to search queries, 35-36
paid inclusion, 5
provided by many search engines, 58
ranking of, 37-42, 543-544
retrieval of, 32
tied to search engine optimization, 5
organic search, 5, 57-58
basic steps for search marketing
indexing of Web pages, 58, 64
keyword choice, 58, 64
optimized content, 58, 64
604
benefits of
easy to get started, 64
highly qualified visitors, 62
low cost of, 62-63
syndication across search
engines, 63
compared to other search marketing
techniques, 79
costs of, 58-59
for content and technology
changes, 60-61
as not always prohibitive, 62-63
projecting, for optimization, 193-194
for search marketing consultants, 59-60
getting started with, 64
keywords, limited number per landing
page, 287
paid inclusion, 61
results of, 62
risks of, 224
strategies to cope with competition,
545-546
technologies, 63
organizations. See also individual
organizational types
conglomerates, 177
functional, 175-176
multinational, 176-177
product-oriented, 176
origination Web pages, 340
outbound links, 351
criteria for establishing, 351
opening new browser windows for, 352
as “resources” rather than links, 351
Index
Overture
acquisition by Yahoo!, 42
history of, 19
Precision Match technology of, 42
query tracking tool, 214
P
Page, Larry, 8
page ranking factors, 298-299
freshness, 299
link popularity, 299
page style, 300
popularity data, 299
site organization, 300
spam, absence of, 300
URL length and depth, 299
page title
changing in a dynamic Web
page, 334-335
as component of paid placement ad, 434
as component of search result, 91, 94
errors in coding of, 253
as factor in search ranking, 39, 49-50
importance to searchers, 93-94
improving content of, 323-325
measuring success of, 319-320
tips for writing, 435
page views, 137-138
compared to “hits,” 138
how measured, 138
log files, 138
Web site visits, 139
PageRank algorithm (Google), 41-42, 365
as based on bid and clickthrough
rate, 388, 409
as discouraging bidding tactics,
388, 409-410
Index
how it works, 365
importance of, 365
page ranking factor, 299
rankings of, 361
rewarding higher clickthrough,
388, 405, 441
stability of, 388, 409
use in scoring links for auditing
purposes, 358-359
paid content, 534-536
paid inclusion, 5, 47, 61, 259
benefits of, 260-261
costs of, 260
getting started with, 261-263
as offered by Yahoo!, 63, 260
reports of, 280
tips for making the most of, 264-266
types of
single URL submission, 259
trusted feed, 259
paid links, 6, 374-377
buying Web sites to acquire quality links
and content, 377
deciding how much to pay for, 377
hostility of search engines towards,
375-376
as ignored by most searchers, 92
negotiating, 377-378
as no help with organic search
rankings, 375
sources of, 376
use to increase conversions, 376
watching out for scams, 377
paid placement optimization
bid management tools, 414
agreements of some with Yahoo!, 418
automation, 417
605
costs of, 418
standalone tools, list of, 416-417
as supporting bidding tactics, 417
bidding on keywords, 431-433
minimum and maximum bids, 431
staying within budget, 432-433
bidding strategy for, 410, 426-431
bidding strategies, 427
measuring success of, factors in, 429
mistakes by newbies, 428
objective bidding, 428-430
self-funding strategy, 430
as supported by bid management
tools, 415
budgeting for, 405-408
as different for Google and Yahoo!,
405-406
estimates, as difficult, 407-408
specific costs, 405
when bidding on keywords, 432-433
campaign measurement and adjustment,
441-444
resolving low click issues, 443
resolving low conversion
issues, 443-444
choosing between Google and Yahoo!, 409
conversions, patterns of, 416
copywriting for, 433-434
best practices, 435
editing ad copy, 436
sample paid placement ad, 434
tips for Google and Yahoo!, 434
geographic targeting, 425-426
keywords, organizing, 422
keywords, selecting, 419-420
brand awareness, 420
trademarks, 421
606
managing ads, 436-438
auto-optimization feature (Google), 438
Dynamic Keyword Insertion
(Google), 437-438
match types for keywords, 423-425
rejection of ads, 441
setting up accounts, 408-409, 412-413
targets for first campaign, selecting, 419
paid placement. See also Google
AdWords; paid placement optimization;
Precision Match
benefits of
highly qualified visitors, 75
immediate results, 75
listings targeted to audience, 77-78
local searches, 77-78
low costs of, 76
payment only for visits, 76-77
syndication across search engines, 77
challenges of
bidding tactics, as potentially
costly, 410
click fraud, 76-77
page content inappropriate to
listing, 78
removal of listing for poor
performance, 75
as compared to other search marketing
techniques, 79
contextual advertising, as form of, 72, 114
costs of, 72
compared, 73-74
creative work, 72
management, 72-73
per-action fee (cost per action), 73
per-click fee (cost per click), 73, 386
Index
per-impression fee (cost per
thousand), 73
projecting, 196
“scarcity principle,” as
determining, 399
display of results, 70-71
fixed placement, 72, 387
getting started with, 78
Google and Yahoo!, as leaders in,
70, 194, 386
involvement of sales people in, 210
landing pages, as not required to be
linked to site, 287
list of search engines offering, 71
market awareness Web sites, 114
matching search queries, 36-37
ranking of search query matches, 42-43
rapid growth of, 5, 18
rejection of listings, 78, 441
review and approval by brand
managers, 209
risks for search marketing
campaign, 224-225
strategies to cope with competition, 546
vendors and micro-vendors of, 386
paid results, 5-6
Goto.com, as launching system of, 19
paid inclusion, 5, 61
paid listings or directories, 6
paid placement, 5, 57, 61, 70-72
as revenue generator for Google,
8, 42-43
uniform appearance of, 43
paid search optimization. See paid placement;
paid placement optimization
Index
paid search. See also contextual advertising;
local search engines; local searches; paid
placement; shopping search engines
benefits of
adaptability to site content
changes, 385
highly qualified visitors, 384
immediate results, 384
listings targeted to audience, 384
low costs of, 384
near-total message control, 385-386
payment only for visits, 384
unlimited keyword targeting,
384-385
bid management tools, 414
selection of, 414-415
standalone tools, 416-417
campaign measurement and adjustment,
441, 443-444
costs of, 386
landing pages, guidelines for, 440-441
market principles of, 398-399
auction pricing (“scarcity
principle”), 399
efficiency theory, 399-401
starting small and measuring
progress, 402-404
using money from other
budgets, 401-402
search marketing vendor, working
with, 414-415
setting up accounts for, 409
steps to success, 445-446
Web conversions at low cost, 396-398
paid spokespersons, 503
parameters in dynamic URLs, 246-247
passable content, 498
607
patients, behavior of, 84
Payperpost.com, 503
PDAs (personal digital assistants), 542
PDF (Portable Document Format) files, 48
per-action fee (cost per action), 73-74, 260
per-click fee (cost per click), 73-74,
260, 386
per-impression fee (cost per thousand),
73-74, 387
Performics (search marketing
vendor), 415
personal development in search marketing,
techniques for
continuous learning, 547-548
conferences, 548-549
Web sites and blogs, 548-550
gaining experience, 547
personal digital assistants (PDAs), 542
personality-based social media, 499
personalization, 541-544
factors affecting
demographics, 542
geography, 541
handheld devices, 542
information alerts, 542-543
interests, 542
Internet use at home, 542
language, 541
and privacy issues, 543
of searches, 304
site requirements for, 249
persuasion, Web sites engaged in, 104, 114
behavior model for political campaign,
136-137
extended team members of, 208
to help people, 116
608
to influence public opinion, 115-116,
136-137
calls to action, as way of measuring
success, 115-116
short-term nature of, as favoring paid
placement, 116
informational searchers, 115-116
phonemes, 493
phrases, as factors in search query
analysis, 34
pictures
importance of alt text in describing, 51
as unreadable by search engines, 50-52
Placement targeting, 391
plural and singular forms, as factors in
search query analysis, 33
podcasts, 491-494
political campaign Web sites. See persuasion,
Web sites engaged in
politics, use of Internet for
fundraising, 137
influencing others, 137
sample behavior model of, 136-137
pop-up blockers, 243
pop-up windows, 243
portals, 28
America Online (AOL), 11
Yahoo!, 9
Powell’s Books Web site, 245
PPC Audit (click fraud detection
company), 442
PR Weaver (link audit tool), 361-362
precision and recall, as used to evaluate
organic results, 36-37
Index
Precision Match (paid placement
program), 57, 71
bid management, 388
bidding costs, 388
high bidder technique, 388
rankings on, 388
Precision Match (Yahoo!), 42
premium services, as provided
online, 133-136
Prentice Hall Web site, 331
press releases
versus blogs, 480
as source of quality inbound links, 368
PriceGrabber, 438
Procter & Gamble, separate product
Web sites of, 24-25, 350
product lines
changes to, as challenge for company
Web sites, 47
as handled by large company Web
sites, 23-25
product-oriented organizations, 176
Apple Computer, 176
centralization of search marketing
tasks in, 184
General Electric, 176
profit margin, as factor in bidding strategy
success, 429
promotional Web sites. See market awareness
(promotional) Web sites
PubCon (conference), 548-549
public relations people
as dealing with “negative” Web sites, 211
press releases generated by, 210-211
pull-down navigation, 244
Index
pure online Web sites (online delivery), 104
behavior models for different
business types
e-book store, 122-123
software download store, 122-123
Charles Schwab, 104
Web Conversion Cycle, 122
Q
query filters, 301-302
query ranking factors, 298-303
contextual relevancy, 304
keyword density, 303
keyword frequency, 303
keyword prominence, 303
query intent, 303
term proximity, 304-305
term rarity, 304
R
rank-checking tools, 462
ranking algorithm, 37-38, 298, 305. See also
PageRank algorithm (Google)
page factors, 298-300
query factors, 298, 301-305
rankings, social media, 501
ratings, 486-487
recall and precision, as used to evaluate
organic results, 36-37
recommendations, 497
redirects to other Web pages, 215
improper use of, as problematic for
spiders, 250-252
JavaScript redirects, 251
meta refresh redirects, 251
“page not found” errors, 250
609
reasons for, 250
server-side (“301”) redirects, as used to
facilitate indexing, 250-252
temporary (“302”) redirects, 251-252
referrals from other Web pages
public relations people, as important in
obtaining, 211
referrers (pages immediately preceding
site visits), 158-159
search referrals (from search
engines), 159
referrer (page immediately preceding site
visit), 158-159
relational links (from business
relationships), 367-369
negotiating, 378
from press releases, 368
from sponsorships, 368
from trade associations, 368
relevance, ranking of search results by, 38
replacing search engines, 525
reputation, 498
result metrics, 520-521
results of Web site searches, 511
retailers and manufacturers as online
competitors, 106-109
comparison of Web content, 107-109
disintermediation (elimination of
middleman), pros and cons of, 106-107
distribution and customer service
issues, 106-107
frequent return visits, as favoring
retailers, 109
search marketing techniques of, 107-109
personalization to ensure return
visits, 109
third-party and customer product
reviews, 107
610
search queries for brand names
as favoring manufacturers, 109
as favoring retail and review sites,
157, 166
return on advertising spending (ROAS), as
factor in bidding strategy success, 429
return on investment (ROI), as factor in
bidding strategy success, 429
revenue, as generated by search
marketing efforts
calculating value of Web
conversions, 140
calculating value of Web site
visitors, 141
Web site searches, 518
reviews, 486-487
robots metatag, 242-243
robots.txt file, 216, 240-241
RSS Version 1, 482
RSS Version 2, 482
S
sales conversions, 120, 128
sales people, 210
Sasaki, Curt, 487
SBC Communications, as offering local
search, 393
scope of search marketing program,
172-173
determining, 177-178
organizational structure, 174-175
conglomerates, 177
functional, 175-176
multinational, 176-177
product-oriented, 176
roles of employees, 177
Index
size of company, factors affected
by, 177-178
flexibility, 173
name recognition, 174
resources, 174
size of company, factors affecting, 173
screen readers, 51
scrolling, 93
Search Engine Journal (blog), 550
Search Engine Land (Web site), 549
search engine marketing (SEM), 7
Search Engine Marketing Professional
Organization, 187
search engine optimization (SEO), 5, 58
search engine reputation management, 545
Search Engine Round Table (Web site), 550
Search Engine Strategies (SES)
(conference), 548
Search Engine Watch (Web site), 549
search engines. See also AOL Search;
Ask.com; Google; Live Search; Yahoo!
banning or penalizing of sites by,
231-234, 265
blogs, 483
checking pages for inclusion in,
153, 230-231
as compared to directories, 19
criteria for acceptance of pages. See
search filters
customizing, 526
following of links by, 234
history of, 19
how they work, 32
keywords in different languages, 287
link popularity
as determining high page and query
rankings, 342-343
criteria for, 341-342
Index
links, 338-339
local search engines, 14, 182, 191
local searches, 392-393
metasearch engines, 13-14
new media, 488-490
podcasts, 492
popularity of, 37
ranking algorithms of, 37-38
referrals from, 159
relationships between, 53-54
replacing, 525
reporting spam violations to, 364, 373
shopping search engines, 14-16, 394-396
“spamming” of, 232-234
specialty search engines, 16-17, 534-535
spiders, 43-47
submitting sites to, 234-235
targeting, 180-182
value of links, 343
search facilities, 505
search filters, 294
for adult or sensitive content, 297
country and region filters, 295-297
for inappropriate or offensive
language, 297
language filters, 294-295
preference settings for searchers, 297
query filters, 301-302
for specific document types, 297
search index. See also paid inclusion;
spiders; spider traps
addition of pages to, 43-44, 52-53
inclusion in
checking for, 153, 230-231, 459-460
problems with, identifying and
resolving, 460
611
non-inclusion in, reasons for, 230-231
banned or penalized sites, 231-234, 265
spiders not visiting, 232-235
retrieval of pages from, 35-36
revisiting by spiders, 47
seed list, as basis for, 44
trusted feed, as way of building, 47-48
search landing pages, 151
search marketing, 3. See also search
marketing proposal
for affiliate marketers, 112
best practices for, establishing, 450-455
combating search toolbars, 517
comparison of techniques, 79
conferences, 548-549
consultants, 21, 59-60, 187
costs of hiring, 59
small companies as more likely to
hire, 174
consulting companies involved in, 21-22
as cost-effective, 20-21
costs, projecting, 193
organic optimization costs, 193-194
paid placement costs, 196
personnel costs, 196-197
as important component of marketing
mix, 18-22
to improve organic search results, 58, 64
to increase impulse purchases, 105
for informational queries, 90
internal/external, 184-185
justifying
by calculating value of Web
conversions, 140
by calculating value of Web site
visitors, 141
612
Index
by large companies, 22-23
less flexibility, 173
link popularity, 174, 544
multiple audiences, 25-26
multiple countries, 25-27
multiple product sites, 23-25
multiple specialist teams, 23
multiple technologies, 27-28
name recognition, 174, 544
resources, as poorly used, 174
measuring success of. See searching
marketing success, measuring
for navigational queries
allowing for domain misspellings, 88
countering “negative” sites, 87
indexing of Web pages, 87
providing strong description, 87
personnel costs, 196-197
personal development strategies for
continuous learning, 547-548
gaining experience, 547
relationships between search
engines, 53-54
by retailers and manufacturers, 107-109
for shopping search engines, 15
by small companies, advantages of
flexibility, 173
less name recognition, 174
resources, as well used, 174
strategy
costs, 193-197
division of work, 178-184
as done internally or externally, 184-193
scope, 172-178
strategies to cope with
competition, 544-546
tools, 181-183
for transactional queries, 90
trends in. See search marketing trends
vendors. See search marketing vendors
as way to attract prospective customers, 20
and Web Conversion Cycle, 95-99
Buy stage, 97-99
Get stage, 97
Learn stage, 96-99
Shop stage, 97-99
Use stage, 97-99
Web sites and blogs, for information
on, 548-550
search marketing consultants, 21, 59-60, 187
costs of hiring, 59
small companies as more likely to
hire, 174
search marketing costs, projecting, 193
organic optimization costs, 193-194
paid placement costs, 196
personnel costs, 196-197
Search Marketing Expo (conference), 548
search marketing proposal. See also
executives; Snap Electronics
business case for, 200
for first search marketing campaign
business case for, 203
business plan for, 204-206
for search marketing program
business case for, 202-203
costs of, 202
projected revenue from, 201-202
referrals from search engines, as
projected, 201
selling to company executives, 220-225
selling to extended search team, 206-208
Index
search marketing success, measuring. See also
Snap Electronics
assessing current situation, 150-160
checking indexing of landing
pages, 153-154
checking search rankings of
competition, 157-158
checking search rankings of landing
pages, 154-157
checking traffic, 158-160
identifying landing pages, 150-153
tracking progress of paid search
campaigns, 160
calculating opportunity, 160-168
discovering missed opportunities,
161-162
projecting future conversions, 167-168
projecting future traffic, 162-167
eMetrics Summit conference on, 549
reviewing measurements
to change organizational
behavior, 472-473
to chart successes and failures, 474
summary of steps needed, 169
targeting first campaign, 144-150
as based on Web site goals, 144
choosing target area, 144-146
focusing on appropriate keywords,
146-150
tracking progress, 455
assessing site content, 456-460
calculating Web conversions from
search, 468-472
checking search rankings, 461-464
monitoring search referrals, 464-468
reviewing measurements with
others, 472-474
613
search marketing tools, 181-183
search marketing trends
competition, 544-546
from foreign companies, 545
from large companies, 544-545
from other local companies, 545
content
consumer-generated content, 535
desktop content, 535
hidden content, 534
multimedia content, 534-536
paid content, 534-536
specialty content, 534-535
personalization, 541-544
demographics, 542
geography, 541
handheld devices, 542
information alerts, 542-543
interests, 542
Internet use at home, 542
language, 541
and privacy issues, 543
technology
deep text analytics, 538-539
direct answers, 536
keyword assistance, 537-538
multifaceted search, 540-541
search marketing vendors
choosing to hire, factors in, 184-185
final decision on, 191-192
flexibility of, 189
global search marketing vendors, 191
in-house program, 192-193
industry conferences for, 187-188
personnel costs, 197
resources, 187-188
selected companies, 414-415
614
selection of
creating candidate list, 187-188
deciding vendor requirements, 186
meeting account teams, 190
meeting vendors, 188-190
site audits or project plans, 189
“spammers,” learning to spot, 189,
372-373
types of, 187
search operators, 35
to check number of inbound links, 356-358
to check number of indexed pages, 237-238
to search for appropriate landing
pages, 313
search queries
analysis of, 33-35
antiphrases, 34
phrases, 34
search operators, use of, 35
spelling, 33
stop words, 34
word order, 34-35
word variants, 33
future trends affecting
deep text analytics, 538-539
direct answers, 536
keyword assistance, 537-538
multifaceted search, 540-541
identifying keywords in, 159
informational
intent of, 89
as most popular, 86-87
matching of, 33-36
for organic results, 35-36
for paid results, 36-37
Index
navigational
as among most popular, 86-87
competition among, as low, 87
examples of, 85
marketing for, 87-88
as sometimes ambiguous, 85
transactional
as leading to impulse purchases, 106
as most difficult to optimize for, 90
search query analysis
antiphrases, 34
phrases, 34
search operators, use of, 35
spelling, 33
stop words, 34
word order, 34-35
word variants, 33
search ranking. See also page ranking factors;
query ranking factors
for affiliate marketers, as low, 112
checking. See search ranking, checking
“consideration set” (top listings),
importance of inclusion in, 20,
156, 269
creation of special landing pages for, 154
factors in, 298
page factors, 298-300
query factors, 298, 301-305
as improved by simultaneous organic and
paid listings, 79
of organic search matches, 37-39
as important to searchers, 92-93
keyword density, 38-39
keyword prominence, 39-40, 48
keyword proximity, 39
link popularity, 41
Index
metatags, 48-50
by relevance, 38
of paid placement matches, 42-43
of resellers and review sites, 157,
166, 174
of resellers, 22
ranking algorithm, 37-38, 41-42
search ranking, checking, 154-156
as affected by personalization, 543-544
to ensure indexing of pages, 461-464
as frowned upon by search
engines, 462
for pages of competitors, 462-463
rank checkers, fee-based, 462
tools for, 462
as including only organic results,
155-156
methods of
automated tools, 155
hand-checking, 154-155
Keyword Tracker (free tool), 155
for “negative” sites, 211
for pages of competitors, 157-158
as “tainted” search, 282
search referrals (from search engines),
159, 464
checking for possible keywords, 279
as identifying search query that led to site
visit, 159
measuring
of overall referrals, 464-465
of paid referrals, 466-467
of referrals by keyword, 467-468
of referrals by search engine, 465-466
microsites, as way to track, 470
615
search result text. See also snippet
analyzing, 319-322
components of, 91, 94
improving, 323-330
search results. See also search result text
display of, 31, 43, 53
language, as used to limit, 50
new media, 489
order of. See search ranking
precision and recall, 36-37
subject categories (“communities”), 50
success of
exact matches to query words, 93
high ranking, 92-93
low prices or offers, 93
trusted sources or brand names, 93
types of, 5-6
organic (natural), 5
paid, 5-6
as viewed by searchers, 92-93
search share, calculation of, 465
search term, 33
proximity of, 304-305
rarity of, 304
search toolbars, 230-231, 515
search tools, 517
search types
blended searches, 489
Internet searches. See Internet searches
multifaceted searches, 528
multiple-click searches, 520
no-click searches, 520
no-conversion searches, 521
no-result searches, 520
optimizing blogs for, 482-483
social media, 500-504
Web site searches. See Web site searches
616
search user interfaces, 527-530
searchers. See also visitors to Web sites
behavior of
clicking, 93
scanning rather than reading, 92-93
scrolling, as avoided by, 93
when visiting Web sites, 82, 95
content writers as, 214
“context” of, as determining search result
rankings, 304
eye-tracking analytics, 92-93
gauging intent of, 84-85, 89
geographic targeting of, 78, 541
growth in numbers of, 4
identification of, 541-543
as nonvisitors, 160-162
organic results, 92-93
organic search results, 62
as prospective customers, 20, 62
qualifying before they click, 437
query intent of, 303
snippet, 93-94
speed of, 93
types of, 84
informational searchers, 89-90
navigational searchers, 85-87
transactional searchers, 90-91
seed list, as basis for search index, 44
SEM (search engine marketing), 7
SEO (search engine optimization), 5
SEOElite (link audit tool), 361, 380
SEOmoz Blog (blog), 550
Separate bidding for contextual
advertising, 391
server-side (“301”) redirects, 250-252
double redirects (“hops”), 251-252
temporary (“302”) redirects, 251-252
Index
session identifiers, 246
sessions (Web site visits), 139
Shop stage of Web Conversion Cycle,
97, 288-289
shopping search engines. See also Google
Product Search; Yahoo! Shopping
around the world, 395-396
bid management tools, 414
budgeting for, 408
competitive nature of, 396
data, optimization of, 438-439
merchant ratings on, 438, 440
multifaceted search, 539-540
new clients, 411
pricing structure of, 398
ranking algorithms of, 38
reasons for use, 438-439
signing up with, 411
targets for first campaign,
selecting, 418-419
trusted feed, as used by, 48, 61, 259, 540
Shopping.com, 16, 58, 438-440, 539-540
Shopzilla, 411, 438
single URL submission programs (paid
inclusion), 259-262
SingleFeed, 395
“single-pixel tracking” of page views,
138, 469
singular and plural forms, as factors in
search query analysis, 33
Site Content Analyzer, 318, 458
site maps, 61, 256-258
as helping spiders go through non-indexed
Web sites, 235
hub pages, 256-257
importance of, 217
as spider path, 256-258
Index
Web site size as factor in creation
of, 256-257
Site Match (Yahoo! paid inclusion
program), 260-262
site operations people, 218
metrics specialists, 218-219
Web site governance specialists, 219-220
Six Apart, 498
Smart Pricing algorithm (Google), 408
Snap Electronics (fictional company), 145
Black Hat Camera (fictional retailer),
search results competitor
high number of links, 323, 362-363
link audit of, 362-363
central search team, costs of staffing, 197
content scorecard for, 456-457
costs of first campaign, 197-198
costs, projected, 202
organic optimization, 194
paid placement, 195
search marketing program, 198
digital camera, 146, 178
division of search marketing tasks, 184
dynamic Web page title, changing, 334-335
first search marketing campaign
business case for, 203
business plan for, 204-205
referrals from search engines, 201
future conversions and revenue, 168
incremental revenue from search referrals,
calculating, 471
keyword demand for selected phrases, 165
landing page content, analysis of, 319
body text, 321-322
page title, 319-320
snippet, 320-321
617
landing page content, optimization of
page title, 323-325
snippet, 325-326
landing pages for, 151-153
complete list of, 152-153
existing pages, 151-152
inclusion in search index, checking, 154
measuring success of, 319-322
new pages, 151-152
ranking check of, 156
ranking scorecard for, 463-464
link popularity
analysis of, 322-323
as compared to competitors, 322-323
missed opportunities for, 161-162
as offline sales company, 146
optimization of pages “on the fly,” 265
paid placement experiment of,
167, 178, 403
ad copy adjustments to boost click
rate, 444-445
bid limits, 195, 407
bidding on keywords by, 431-432, 444
as determining optimal bid for
keywords, 430
projected costs of, 195
referrals from search engines, 201
product suitability, evaluating, 145-146
projected revenue from search
marketing, 168
referrals from search engines,
159, 166, 201
robots metatags, 243
search landing pages for, 355
search marketing campaigns of, 172
618
Index
search marketing program
business case for, 202-203
projected costs of, 202
projected revenue from, 201-202
referrals from search engines, as
projected, 201
scope of, 178, 464-465
search marketing vendors, 188-191
search ranking for selected keyword
phrases, 156
as compared to competitors, 157-158
as projected in future, 165-166
as returning retail and review sites, 157
checking of, 463
on Google and AOL Search, 156
search referrals, monitoring of
by keyword (one month), 467
by keyword (overall), 467-468
overall, 464-465
by search engine, 465-466
search share, calculation of, 465
shopping search signup experiences
of, 409-411
target keywords for, 147-149, 276
adjectives, brainstorming for, 278
as assigned to Web Conversion Cycle,
by stage, 288-290
final list of, 149
as needing to reflect more qualified
visitors, 158
nouns, brainstorming for, 277-278
quality, as emphasized over price,
148, 166
ranking scorecard for, 463
Web copy, for digital camera campaign,
evolution of, 306-307
SnapShot digital camera, as focus of first Snap
marketing campaign, 146
sneezers, 498
snippet (summary text), 43, 53, 320
adjusting Web content to enhance, 87, 94
exact match to search query, as factor in
success, 90-91, 93
example of, as poorly written, 87, 94
as generated by search engine, 91, 94
improving content of, 325-326
measuring success of, 320-321
on Google and Yahoo!, 320, 326
summarization technology, 538
as text most read by searchers, 93-94
social bookmarking, 499
social bookmarking sites, 500
social computing, 480
social media
searches, 500-504
types of, 499-500
unethical activity, 502
viral marketing, 497-499, 502
social media marketing, 496
social tagging, 499
software download requirements, as
problematic for spiders, 249
solicited links, 369-374
criteria for choosing sites, 369
negotiating, 378
sources of potential links
directories, 370-373
other sources, 373-374
spotting link farms, 372-373
Sony, 107-109, 503
sorting of search results. See search ranking
spamming
reporting, 364
of search engines, as leading to
penalization, 231-234, 300-301, 364
Index
spam on Web sites, as lowering page
ranking, 300
specific techniques
doorway pages, 300
duplicate metatags, 301
duplicate Web sites, 301
hidden text, 301
keyword stuffing or loading, 300, 331
as way to boost link popularity, 346
blog spamming, 346-347, 362-363
e-mail spamming to request
links, 346
fake two-way links, 346
guest book spamming, 346
hidden links, 346
link farms, 346, 362, 372-373
special inclusion operators, 153
specialty content, 534-535
specialty directories, 371-372
specialty search engines
content handled by, 534-535
fixed placement, as used by, 72
speech recognition, 493
spelling, as factor in search query
analysis, 33
spider paths, 255
country maps, 258
site maps, 256-258
spider traps, 240
trusted feeds, as helpful in dealing
with, 259
types of
cookies, 248
dynamic Web pages and URLs,
244-248
Flash, 249, 254-255
frames, 255
619
JavaScript, 244, 249, 253
large-size pages, 252-253
personalization requirements, 249
pop-up windows, 243
pull-down navigation, 243-244
redirects, as improperly used,
250-252
robots directives, 240-243
software download requirements, 249
unavailability of Web site, 252
using Lynx browser to view, 249
spiders, 44. See also spider paths; spider traps
changing Web pages, as challenge for, 47,
61, 75, 179-180, 215
document formats readable by, 249
encouraging visits by, 256-258
country maps, 258
site maps, 256-258
following of links by, 45-46
instructions to, as handled by
Webmasters, 216
non-visits, reasons for, 231-234
problematic technologies faced by, 60-61,
154, 174, 217, 370, 452, 456, 460
remembering of links by, 46-47
site availability, 215
as sometimes blocked by Webmasters,
216, 240-243
as used to build search index, 43-47
as used to help identify non-inclusion
problems, 237
user agent names, as identifying, 233
splogs, 484
“Sponsor Listings” (paid placement
listings), 57
Spool, Jared, 511
Sports Illustrated Web site, 114
620
StarTrek.com, 112
static Web pages, 244-245
Sterne, Jim, 160, 549
stop words, as factors in search query
analysis, 34
style guide developers, 217-218
subject directories. See directories
submission of Web sites, to search engines,
234-235
success of search marketing program,
measuring
as determined by Web site goals, 103
for offline sales, as difficult, 110
for Web sales sites, as easy, 104, 110
for Web sites engaged in persuasion,
115-116
Suchmaschinen-Marketing (conference), 549
summarization (form of deep text
analytics), 538
Sun Microsystems, 487
survey metrics, 519-520
syndication of search results, 428
T
target area for first search marketing
campaign, factors in choosing
high profile, 144
measurable business impact, 144-145
practicality, of working with teams, 145
simplicity, 145
target keywords, 146-150
brainstorming for, 277
adjectives, 278
nouns, 277-278
brand names, 148, 420
Index
“cold” keywords, 274-275
as changing by audience, 275
as changing in translation, 274
generic names, as best choices, 148-150
“hot” keywords, 271-274
acronyms, 274
broad or multiple meanings, 273-274
broad subject matter, 272-273
as changing from singular to plural, 274
involvement of brand managers in, 209
“just right” keywords, 275-276
keyword assistance, 537-538
Keyword Selector Tool, 147
less popular keywords, 148-149, 270
“mega-keywords,” competition for, 149
for paid placement campaigns, 419-420
brand names, 420
geographic targeting for, 425-426
match types for, 423-425
organization of, 422-423
return on spending/investment by, 429
for paid search campaigns, 384-385
as search marketing task, 180-182
variant words and phrases, accounting
for, 148-150
Tawadros, John (iProspect), 22
teams
as divided by specialty, 175
for search marketing, 178-179
central search team, 178-179
extended search team, 179
technologists, 215
information architects, 217
style guide developers, 217-218
Web developers, 216-217
Webmasters, 215-216
Index
technology
improving technologies that affect your
search, 526-527
improving Web site searches, 525-527
Teoma (search engine), 63
term frequency, as factor in search ranking, 38
“three-second” rule for writing Web copy, 98
Tide laundry detergent Web site, 23-24
Time Warner, 11
Tivo Web site, 6
toolbars, search toolbars, 515-517
trackbacks, 482
trademarks, bidding on, 421
traffic. See Web traffic
transactional searchers, 90-91
transactional searches
as leading to impulse purchases, 106
as most difficult to optimize for, 90
translators, 214-215
Trellian’s Keyword Discovery, 284
trend analysis of Web traffic results, 139-140
trusted feed, 47-48, 61
as enabling multifaceted search, 540
as form of paid inclusion, 259
data required by, 262-263
optimization “on the fly,” 265
submitting site to, 262
vendors of, 265
XML, 262-263
TurboTax software, 99
Tweet Scan, 485
tweets, 485
Twitter, 485
types of social media, 499-500
typography, as factor in search query
analysis, 33
621
U
unethical activity, 502
Uniform Resource Locator (URL), 23. See
also dynamic URLs
as added to search index, 53
of changed pages, checking links
to, 458-459
as component of search result, 91
of dynamic Web page, 245-246
as not remembered by consumers, 269-270
checking for inclusion in search
index, 153-154
display URL, 434-436
length and depth of, 299
name and permanence of, 215
of page immediately preceding each site
visit (referrer), 158-159
redirects as way of dealing with
change, 215
session identifier in, 61, 246-248
of static Web page, 244-245
tracking parameter in, 469
unique visitors, to Web sites, 139
Universal Search, 489
usage metrics, 519
use inclusion programs
free programs, 258
paid inclusion, 259
Sitemaps, 259
Use stage of Web Conversion Cycle, 97-98
as often absent for pure online
businesses, 122
technical support, importance of
providing, 98
user agents, 232-233
identifying site visitors and spiders, 233
use by spammers to fool search
engines, 233-234
622
V
Verizon SuperPages, 14, 393
video, 494-495
viral marketing, 497-499, 502
visitors to Web sites. See also Web
Conversion Cycle
behavior of, 82, 95, 121-122
as buyers, 82-83, 96-97
impulse purchases by, 104-105
primary and selective demand
modes of, 82-83, 96
Web Conversion Cycle, 95-98
counting. See Web traffic metrics systems
identifying as unique, 139
pages viewed by, 139
as patients, 84
quality of, 347-348
technical support for, 98
user agent names, 233
value of, calculating, 141
as voters, 83-84
visits to Web sites, 139
double-counting of, 139
as used to calculate conversion
rates, 120-121
voters, behavior of, 83-84
W
Wal-Mart, 503
Watchfire (content reporter), 457-458
weather.com, 388
Web 2.0
blogs, 480-484
defined, 480
message boards, 487-488
Index
microblogging, 484-485
ratings and reviews, 486-487
wikis, 485-486
Web beacons, 138
Web content. See also writers
to attract specific searchers, 89
informational, 90, 96-99, 112
transactional, 89-91, 98-99
ensuring legality of, 212
to enhance snippet copy, 87, 94
of paid placement ads, 434
proper organization of, 300
of retailers and manufacturers, 107-109
as scanned rather than read, 92-93
standards for, establishing and
enforcing, 452
for technical support, 98-99
trends in, as factors in search marketing
consumer-generated content, 535
desktop content, 535
fact-rich content, 539
hidden content, 534
multimedia content, 534-536
paid content, 534-536
specialty content, 534-535
to turn searchers into customers, 76, 95
as used by affiliate marketers, 112
Web site goals, 103
writing with search marketing in
mind, 212-214, 306-308
Web Conversion Cycle, 95-99
assigning keywords to, by stage, 288-290
Buy stage, 97-99, 295
Get stage, 97, 122
Learn stage, 96-99, 130
Index
Shop stage, 97-99
Use stage, 97-99, 122
Web conversions, 120
calculating to monitor changes in,
468-469
for offline sales sites
as expressed in terms of
revenue, 128-129
rates of, 127-128
value of, 129
increasing, 270-271
rates of, calculating, 120-121, 469
as affected by double-counting, 139
for offline sales Web sites, 127-128
timing of, 416
tracking
affiliate codes, 469
cookies, 469-470
to determine referrals and revenue,
471-472
for effective keyword planning, 288
to evaluate search marketing success,
468-469, 474
microsites, 470
programmed tracking parameters, 469
URL tracking parameters, 469
value of, calculating, 140
to determine bids, 400
on individual basis, 129
Web Conversion Cycle, 95-99
assigning keywords to, by
stage, 288-290
Buy stage, 97-99, 295
Get stage, 97, 122
Learn stage, 96-99, 130
623
Shop stage, 97-99
Use stage, 97-99, 122
Web design
Cascading Style Sheets, 330
as page ranking factor, 300
Web developers, 216-217
Web feeds, 483
web marketing ethics test, 502-503
Web measurement programs, 138
Web metrics specialists, 218-219
Web metrics. See Web sites,
measuring success of
Web pages
changes to, 47, 179-180, 215
content of. See Web content
indexed pages, checking for, 237
search operators, 237-238
tools for, 238-239
language of, 50
number on Web sites, estimating,
236-237, 460
public versus private, 236
redirects to other pages, 215
size as potential problem for
spiders, 252-253
types as posited by “bow-tie”
theory, 340. See also individual
page types
Web sales, 103-104
behavior models, for different
business types
book store, 124
e-book store, 122-123
personal computer sales, 121-122
software download store, 122-123
624
as differentiated by delivery
mode, 104-105
impulse purchases, rapid growth of,
104-105
music downloads, impact of, 105
online trading, impact of, 105
retailers vs. manufacturers, 106-109
Web Conversion Cycle, 121-122
Web searching
as cultural phenomenon, 4
growth of, 4
history of, 19
Web servers, 27, 252
Web site availability, 215, 252
Web site design, 217
Web site goals. See also individual
Web site types
as determining search marketing
success, 103
juggling multiple goals, 117
types of
comparison of, 118
information and entertainment, 104,
114, 133-136
leads (new customers), 104, 111-113,
130-132
market awareness (promotion), 104,
113-114, 132-133
offline sales, 103, 110-111, 124-129
persuasion, 104, 114-116, 136-137
Web sales, 103-109, 121-124
as used to target first search marketing
campaign, 144
Web site governance specialists, 219-220
Web site navigation
as handled by information
architects, 217
Index
importance to increasing impulse
purchases, 105
site map and site index, 217
Web site searches, 506
disappointment of, 506-507
difficult searches, 510-511
people search after navigation
fails, 512-513
searchers have high expectations,
507-510
Google, 515
importance of, 513
keeping customers, 515-516
reasons for, 516-517
improving, 521
improving your search user interface,
527-530
improving your site, 522-525
improving your technology, 525-527
letting the searcher feel in control, 529
result metrics, 520-521
results, too many, 511
revenue metrics, 518
survey metrics, 519-520
usage metrics, 519
Web site standards, enforcement of, 219-220,
451-452
Web sites, improving, 522
Long Tail approach, 524-525
search user interfaces, 527-530
technology, 525-527
Top 40 approach, 522-524
Web sites, measuring success of
counting conversions, 120-121
information and entertainment, 133-136
leads (new customers), 130-132
market awareness (promotion), 132-133
Index
offline sales, 124-129
persuasion, 136-137
Web sales, 121-124
counting revenue, 140-141
counting traffic, 137-140
page views, 137-138
visits and visitors, 139-140
Web sites and blogs for search marketers. See
also individual Web sites and blogs
authors’ Web sites, 548
Search Engine Watch, 549
Web technologies
developing, as search marketing
task, 180, 183
handling of, as challenge, 27-28
implementation affecting search
marketing efforts, 179-180
poor use by large companies, 174
as problematic for spiders, 60-61, 154, 174,
179-180, 217
specialists in, 23, 215-218
standards, maintenance of, 181-183,
451-452
Web traffic metrics systems, 137. See also
referrals
counting of page views by, 138
as counting Web site visitors, 124, 127
future traffic, estimating, 162-163
measurements of Web traffic
cookies, 139
identifying “hits,” as problematic, 138
page views, 138
visitors (unique visitors), 139
visits (sessions), 139
referrals from other Web pages, 158-159
reporting as search marketing task,
181-183
625
“single-pixel tracking,” 138
specialists in, 218-219
as tracking referrals from other Web
sites, 159
as tracking responses to calls to action, 127
trend analysis, 139-140
use of search referrals to identify search
query keywords, 159
use of single metrics program across Web
site, 139-140
value of, calculating, 141
Web use worldwide, 20
Web videos, 494
WebCEO (content reporter), 457-458
WebCrawler (metasearch engine), 19, 71
WebKing (HTML code analyzer), 457
Weblogs (blogs), 480-484, 535
indexing, 483
Marketing Pilgrim, 549
microblogging, 484-485
off-topic postings to, as form of link
spamming, 346-347, 362-363
Online Marketing Blog, 550
optimizing for searches, 482-483
Search Engine Journal, 550
search engines, 483
SEOmoz Blog, 550
versus press releases, 480
Webmaster Toolkit site, 350
Webmasters, 215-216
WebmasterWorld (Web site), 550
WebmasterWorld’s World of Search
(conference), 548-549
WebMD
and battles over multiple directory
listings, 69
link-building campaign by, 337
WebProNews (Web site), 550
626
WebTrends (Web measurement
program), 138
Whois database, 350, 362-363
Whole Foods, 502
widgets, 495
Wikipedia, 485
wikis, 485-486
Windows operating system, possible future
search function of, 536
word of e-mail, 497
word of IM, 497
word of mouth marketing, 496
word of Web. See viral marketing
word order, as factor in search query
analysis, 34-35
word variants, as factors in search query
analysis, 33
Wordtracker (keyword research tool), 275,
281-282
English-only keyword analysis, 282
Keyword Effectiveness Index (KEI)
analysis, 275, 282
word variations and variants, display
of, 282
writers, 212
content writers, 213-214
copywriters, 212-213
translators, 214-215
writing for search
“chasing the algorithm”
(overoptimization), 306-307
writing for people as first priority, 306-308
X
Xenu (broken link detector), 237, 457-458
XML in trusted feeds, 262-263, 540
Index
Y-Z
Yahoo!
Advertiser Center, 195
bid management tools, 75, 418
checking pages for inclusion in
search index, 153
choosing for paid placement program, 409
contextual advertising, 72, 391-392
as directory, 6, 10, 19, 57, 64
as former partner of Google, 7, 19, 53-54
history of, 10, 19
as leading paid placement vendor, 70
as leading search engine, 7
local search technology, 14, 78, 393
match types for keywords, 423-424
organic search technology of, 63
paid inclusion, 63, 260-261
paid placement account, setting up, 412
paid placement costs, 194
paid placement rankings on, 42-43
as portal, 8-9
rejection of ads by, 441
services requiring searcher
registration, 304
share of searches worldwide, 10
snippets, as shown on, 326
trademark policy of, 421
trusted feed, 48
Yahoo! Directory, 57, 64
costs of listing in, 66-67
listings given more weight by search
engines, 68
slow response time, 68
as source of information for soliciting
links, 370
submitting a site to, 69
upgrading listings, 66-67
WebMD, 69
Index
Yahoo! Keyword Selector Tool, 284
Yahoo! Podcasts, 493
Yahoo! Precision Match. See Precision
Match
Yahoo! Search, 19, 536
display of external inbound links
by, 356-357
display of paid placement results
by, 70-71
“tainted” searches by search ranking
checkers, 282
trusted feed, 47
Yahoo! Shopping, 393
Yang, Jerry, 10
Yellow Pages sites
as local search utilities, 14, 78
as sources of information for
soliciting links, 371
Young & Rubicam (ad agency), 21, 187
627
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