inside bricscad
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INSIDE BRICSCAD
Ralph Grabowski
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BRICSYS
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Copyright © 2016 by upFront.eZine Publishing, Ltd.
All rights reserved worldwide.
Seventh edition based on BricsCAD V16
11 April 2016
Technical Writer
This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind,
Ralph Grabowski
either express or implied, respecting the contents of this
book and any disks or programs that may accompany it,
All brand names and product names mentioned in this book
including but not limited to implied warranties for the
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staff, or distributors shall be liable to the purchaser or any
on the property of others. The publisher recognizes and
other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss, or
respects all marks used by companies, manufacturers, and
damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or
developers as a means to distinguish their products.
indirectly by this book.
Table of Contents
Part I — Introducing BricsCAD V16
1. A Quick Tour Through BricsCAD..................................... 1
How to Start BricsCAD V16....................................................................3
Starting BricsCAD on Windows.......................................................................................................... 3
Windows Vista and 7......................................................................................................................................... 3
Windows 8............................................................................................................................................................ 4
Windows 10......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Starting BricsCAD on Linux................................................................................................................. 4
Starting BricsCAD on Mac OS X......................................................................................................... 5
Get Started With a Workspace...............................................................5
BricsCAD V16 User Interface ............................................................................................................. 6
SUPPORTED GRAPHICS BOARDS................................................................................................ 8
The BricsCAD Window......................................................................................................................... 8
A Basic Tour of the User Interface.................................................................................................... 9
Crosshair and Arrow Cursors.......................................................................................................................... 9
Command Bar.......................................................................................................................................10
All About Command Prompts...................................................................................................................... 10
Undoing What You’ve Done: U..................................................................................................................... 13
Seeing What You Did Before: Command History.................................................................................... 13
Typing Less: AutoComplete........................................................................................................................... 15
UCS Icon.................................................................................................................................................16
Online Help...........................................................................................................................................17
Exiting BricsCAD..................................................................................18
WHAT’S NEW IN BRICSCAD V16............................................................................................... 19
2. Navigating the BricsCAD Interface ................................ 33
Above the Drawing Area......................................................................34
Title Bar..................................................................................................................................................34
Menu Bar................................................................................................................................................36
Toolbars..................................................................................................................................................38
Toolbar Buttons and Macros......................................................................................................................... 39
The Standard Toolbar...................................................................................................................................... 40
Flyouts................................................................................................................................................................. 41
Entity Properties Toolbars.............................................................................................................................. 41
Ribbon.....................................................................................................................................................44
Drawing Tabs.........................................................................................................................................45
In the Drawing Area.............................................................................46
Shortcut Menus....................................................................................................................................46
quad cursor ..........................................................................................................................................48
Look At Control....................................................................................................................................49
USER INTERFACE ELEMENTS OF BARS...................................................................................... 50
ucs icon..................................................................................................................................................52
2D Drafting, 3D Modeling, and DUCS........................................................................................................ 52
Layout Mode...................................................................................................................................................... 54
Tips Widget............................................................................................................................................55
Below the Drawing Area......................................................................56
Layout Tabs............................................................................................................................................56
Scroll Bars..............................................................................................................................................57
Command Bar.......................................................................................................................................58
Status Bar...............................................................................................................................................58
Summary.............................................................................................60
iv
Inside BricsCAD V16
Part II — Architectural Drafting in 2D
3. Setting Up A New Drawing............................................. 61
Before You Begin.................................................................................63
Starting A New Drawing.....................................................................................................................63
Default Settings................................................................................................................................................. 65
Selecting the Linear Units..................................................................................................................65
ABOUT STARTING NEW DRAWINGS......................................................................................... 66
Selecting the Angle Style...................................................................................................................68
Choosing the Plot Style......................................................................................................................70
Setting Entity Properties....................................................................................................................70
Finishing the Wizard............................................................................................................................71
Additional Important Settings..............................................................72
Setting the Drawing Limits................................................................................................................72
Accessing System Variables...............................................................................................................74
Changing the Snap and Grid Spacing.............................................................................................75
Creating Layers....................................................................................77
QUICK SUMMARY OF LAYERS.................................................................................................. 78
Naming Layers......................................................................................................................................79
Saving Drawings...................................................................................81
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE SAVEAS COMMAND........................................................................ 82
Making Backups Automatic..............................................................................................................83
QUICK SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVE SAVE FORMATS................................................................ 83
Summary.............................................................................................85
4. Creating Your First Drawing........................................... 87
Reopening Drawings............................................................................89
Drawing the Lot Boundary...................................................................90
Planning the Next Steps.......................................................................93
Changing Layers...................................................................................................................................93
Drawing the House Outline..................................................................94
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE PLINE COMMAND........................................................................... 95
QUICK SUMMARY OF ENTITY SNAP MODES............................................................................ 97
Table of Contents v
Direct Distance Entry..........................................................................................................................98
Dynamic Input......................................................................................................................................98
Moving the House into Position......................................................... 100
Starting on the Driveway................................................................... 102
Finishing the Driveway.....................................................................................................................103
Mirroring Entities............................................................................................................................................104
Putting Drawings to Paper................................................................. 105
QUICK SUMMARY OF PRINT PREVIEW....................................................................................108
Solving Printing Problems................................................................................................................108
Generating PDFs of Drawings.........................................................................................................110
Specifying PDF Output Options..................................................................................................................110
Summary........................................................................................... 111
5. Adding Details to Drawings.......................................... 113
Dividing the Lot................................................................................. 115
Smoothing Polylines..........................................................................................................................118
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE PEDIT COMMAND..........................................................................119
Grips Editing...................................................................................... 120
Hatching the Lawn ...........................................................................................................................121
QUICK SUMMARY OF EDITING WITH GRIPS............................................................................122
Creating Symbols............................................................................... 126
Drawing Circles...................................................................................................................................126
Zooming in Real Time...................................................................................................................................126
QUICK SUMMARY OF DRAWING CIRCLES...............................................................................127
Creating Arrays...................................................................................................................................128
QUICK SUMMARY OF SPLINE..................................................................................................130
Array Paths...........................................................................................................................................130
Drawing Splines..............................................................................................................................................130
Zooming to Objects.......................................................................................................................................131
QUICK SUMMARY OF POLYGON.............................................................................................132
Paving Stones from Polygons......................................................................................................................133
Arraying Along a Path...................................................................................................................................133
QUICK SUMMARY OF ARRAYPATH..........................................................................................134
vi
Inside BricsCAD V16
Making Blocks.................................................................................... 135
Adding Many More Trees ...............................................................................................................136
QUICK SUMMARY OF DRAWING ELLIPSES...............................................................................138
Drawing the Pond.............................................................................. 138
Summary........................................................................................... 140
6. Making Changes to Drawings....................................... 141
Changing the Look of Lines................................................................ 143
Loading Linetypes..............................................................................................................................143
Changing Properties..........................................................................................................................144
QUICK SUMMARY OF PROPERTIES BAR..................................................................................146
Changing the Linetype Scale...........................................................................................................147
Selecting Entities by Other Methods............................................................................................148
Selecting Entities by Their Properties.......................................................................................................148
Selecting an Entity by Tabbing....................................................................................................................149
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE LENGTHEN COMMAND..................................................................150
Changing Line Lengths.....................................................................................................................150
Stretching the Pond........................................................................... 151
QUICK SUMMARY OF SELECTION SET OPTIONS......................................................................152
Moving Entities...................................................................................................................................154
Adding the Fence............................................................................... 154
Listing Data..........................................................................................................................................156
Summary........................................................................................... 157
7. Adding Notes and Dimensions...................................... 159
Adding Notes to Drawings................................................................. 162
Determining the Size of Text..........................................................................................................163
QUICK SUMMARY ON CALCULATING TEXT HEIGHTS...............................................................164
Creating Text Styles...........................................................................................................................165
QUICK SUMMARY OF TEXT JUSTIFICATION MODES................................................................166
Simple Text..........................................................................................................................................167
Table of Contents vii
Changing Text.................................................................................... 168
Placing Rotated Text..........................................................................................................................168
Placing Multiple Lines of Text.........................................................................................................169
Searching and Replacing Text.........................................................................................................170
Placing Dimensions in Drawings......................................................... 171
Preparing the Drawing for Dimensioning...................................................................................171
Dimensioning the Yard.....................................................................................................................172
Vertical and Baseline Dimensions.................................................................................................174
Baseline Dimensioning..................................................................................................................................174
Aligned and Radial Dimensions.....................................................................................................175
Radial Dimensions..........................................................................................................................................176
Annotatively-Scaled Text and Dimensions.......................................... 176
Using Annotative Scaling.................................................................................................................178
A FEW EXTRA THINGS ABOUT ANNOTATIVE SCALING............................................................182
Summary........................................................................................... 183
8. Bills of Material........................................................... 185
About Attribute Data......................................................................... 187
Creating Blocks with Attributes......................................................... 188
Drawing Blocks...................................................................................................................................190
Defining Attributes............................................................................................................................190
Adding More Attributes...................................................................................................................192
Combining Entities and Attributes into Blocks..........................................................................193
Inserting Blocks with Attributes......................................................... 195
Alternatives to the Insert Command............................................................................................196
Exporting Data from Drawings........................................................... 197
Data Extraction ..................................................................................................................................197
Importing Data Files into Spreadsheets.......................................................................................201
Placing Data in Drawings as Tables.................................................... 203
Summary........................................................................................... 204
viii
Inside BricsCAD V16
Part III — Mechanical Modeling in 3D
9. Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans ............................. 205
About Regions................................................................................... 207
How to create Regions.....................................................................................................................207
Tutorial: Creating Boundaries.........................................................................................................208
QUICK SUMMARY OF BOUNDARY OPTIONS...........................................................................209
Boolean Operations........................................................................... 213
Tutorial: Creating a Waffle Shape..................................................................................................213
QUICK SUMMARY OF BOOLEAN OPERATIONS.......................................................................214
Measuring Regions............................................................................. 220
About Mass Properties.....................................................................................................................220
Summary........................................................................................... 221
10. Direct 3D Modeling & Editing..................................... 223
About 3D Solid Models...................................................................... 225
Planning Ahead..................................................................................................................................225
ELEMENTS OF A 3D MODEL....................................................................................................226
Planning Ahead by Deconstructing 3D.....................................................................................................227
Traditional Solid Modeling Commands............................................... 227
The Traditional Extrusion Method.................................................................................................228
QUICK SUMMARY OF EXTRUDE COMMAND..........................................................................231
3D View Rotation...........................................................................................................................................232
Extrusion by Direct Modeling.........................................................................................................233
Dynamic UCS...................................................................................................................................................233
Extruding Directly with the Quad Cursor................................................................................................235
Subtracting Solids To Make Holes.............................................................................................................237
QUICK SUMMARY OF LOOKFROM COMMAND......................................................................238
PushPull Modeling..........................................................................................................................................238
Aligning the UCS.............................................................................................................................................241
Pulling, Instead of Pushing...........................................................................................................................242
Filleting 3D Solids...........................................................................................................................................246
Joining Parts with Union...............................................................................................................................248
Table of Contents ix
Generating 2D Drawings.................................................................... 248
Slicing Sections And Adding Detailed Views..............................................................................250
Creating Detail Views....................................................................................................................................252
Summary........................................................................................... 254
11. Dimensional & Geometric Constraints ....................... 255
Working with Constraints.................................................................. 257
About Dimensional Constraints.....................................................................................................257
Using Dimensional Constraints...................................................................................................................258
QUICK SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONAL CONSTRAINTS...............................................................259
About Geometric Constraints.........................................................................................................262
Identifying Geometric Constraints.............................................................................................................262
QUICK SUMMARY OF 2D GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS..............................................................263
Using Geometric Constraints......................................................................................................................264
QUICK SUMMARY OF 3D CONSTRAINTS.................................................................................268
Summary........................................................................................... 269
x
Inside BricsCAD V16
Part IV — Appendices
A. Concise Summary of Command Aliases........................ 271
B. Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings .... 279
C. Concise Summary of Command Names........................ 299
Chapoo Commands...........................................................................................................................303
Dimension Commands.....................................................................................................................304
Dimensional Constraint Commands.............................................................................................305
Direct Modeling Commands...........................................................................................................305
Geometric Constraint Commands.................................................................................................307
Layer Commands...............................................................................................................................309
Sheet Metal Commands...................................................................................................................315
ViewBase Commands........................................................................................................................317
Table of Contents xi
xii
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 1
A Quick Tour
Through BricsCAD
Welcome to BricsCAD V16!
You want to know how to create drawings with BricsCAD, and this book shows you how to — in as little
as a day! But before doing any kind of drafting, you really should take a tour of the user interface to learn
your way around BricsCAD. Even if you know other CAD programs, it may be useful for you to skim this
chapter to take note of the areas in which BricsCAD might operate differently from what you expect.
Here you learn how to start this popular 2D/3D CAD program, take a tour through its user interface, and
then get your feet wet by drawing a few lines.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Starting BricsCAD V16
•
Becoming familiar with parts of the user interface
•
Understanding the crosshair cursor, command bar, auto-complete, and UCS icon
•
Drawing lines
•
Reversing errors
•
Accessing online help
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Button — executes associated command when clicked
Cursor — provides feedback from the operating system and from BricsCAD
Flipscreen — switches between the drawing window and text window
Flyout — shows a secondary toolbar when clicked
Icon — represents commands pictorially
Layout — defines how drawings are plotted
Pickbox — specifies the points being picked (selected)
Right-click — involves pressing the right mouse button to display context-sensitive (shortcut) menus
Toolbar — collects buttons into a single, useful strip
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
Alt Alternate key on PCs
Cmd
Command key on Macs
Ctrl
Control key on PCs
F
Function key
U Undoes the last command or option
UCS
User-defined coordinate system
NEW COMMANDS
CommandShortcut*
Menu Selection**Ribbon
Help
? or F1
Help | Help
Home | Help | Help
Line
L
Draw | Line
Draw | Draw | Line
QuitAlt+F4File | Exit...
TextScr
F2
View | Prompt History Window
...
UndoCtrl+ZEdit | Undo...
UcsIcon.........
F1 means function key F1
*
Alt+F4 means hold down the Alt key, and then press function key F4.
**
2
The vertical bar separates menu selections. Draw | Line means: from the Draw menu, select the Line item.
Inside BricsCAD V16
How to Start BricsCAD V16
If BricsCAD is not yet set up on your computer, do so. To run BricsCAD, your computer must be
operating recent releases of Windows, just about any recent dialect of Linux, or OS X on Macs.
To start BricsCAD, double-click the BricsCAD icon found on the computer desktop.
Left to right: How the BricsCAD icon looks on Windows, Linux, and Mac
(The double blue arrow is the way Windows 10 indicated compressed files.)
Depending on the speed of your computer, it can take from 10 to 30 seconds to load BricsCAD. During this time, a “splash screen” appears and disappears as BricsCAD starts up in the background.
STARTING BRICSCAD ON WINDOWS
BricsCAD V16 works with Windows Vista and newer.
Windows Vista and 7
In Windows Vista and 7, you start the program from the task bar using the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
Click the task bar’s Start
icon.
Choose All Programs.
Select Bricsys, followed by the BricsCAD V16 folder, and then click on BricsCAD V16.
The exact name you see depends on the language version you downloaded. For example, “BricsCAD
V16 (x64) en_US” is the name of the 64-bit program for English speakers in the US dialect.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 3
Windows 8
In Windows 8.x, you make these moves:
1.
2.
If necessary, switch to the Start screen.
In the Start screen, tap on the BricsCAD V16 icon.
Windows 10
Under Windows 10 starting BricsCAD reverts more to like it started with Windows 7: :
1.
2.
3.
Tap the
Start button.
Choose All Apps.
In the B menu, tap Bricsys folder, and then tap the BricsCAD V16 item.
If the item is not visible in the menu, then follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Tap the Start button.
Start typing “bricscad”
When you see Bricsys V16, tap it.
STARTING BRICSCAD ON LINUX
BricsCAD works with just about any recent release of Linux, but is specifically supported on Fedora,
OpenSuse, and Ubuntu. To start the program, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4
Click the task bar’s Main Menu button.
Choose Graphics.
Click on BricsCAD V16.
Inside BricsCAD V16
STARTING BRICSCAD ON MAC OS X
BricsCAD works with recent releases of OS X on Mac computers, 10.8 or higher. On the dock, click
the BricsCAD V16 icon:
If you do not see the icon there, then follow these steps:
1.
In the dock, open the Application folder.
2.
Find the BricsCAD V16 icon, and then click it.
To keep the icon in the dock, follow these steps
1.
2.
Right-click the BricsCAD icon.
From the shortcut menu, choose Options, and then choose Keep in Doc.
TIP
Instructions in this book specific to Linux and Mac are shown in gray text.
No matter the operating system, BricsCAD looks the same in each one, as illustrated on the following spread.
Get Started With a Workspace
The first thing BricsCAD displays is the Get Started dialog box. BricsCAD does so many different
things that each of the four panels modify the BricsCAD user interface to better suit the drawing
needs. The four interfaces are illustrated on the following spread. Decide which kind of drawing
you want to do, and then click the panel that matches it most closely.
2D Drafting — for 2D generic drafting
3D Modeling — for 3D generic modeling
Mechanical — for 3D modeling of assemblies of parts and sheet metal design
BIM — for 3D modeling of architectural designs; “BIM” is short for building information modeling
Sheet Metal — for 3D bending and unfolding of sheet metal designs
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 5
BRICSCAD V16 USER INTERFACE
Illustrated is BricsCAD with its “Mechanical” workspace running on Windows 10.
Title bar
Menu bar
Ribbon
Mechanical and
library browsers
Drawing tabs
Crosshair cursor
Grid lines
(Dark gray = major lines
light gray = minor lines)
Pickbox
X axis (red)
Layout tabs
Command bar
6
Inside BricsCAD V16
X, y coordinate and elevatio
on (z)
Drawing origin (0,0)
LookAt Control
Y axis (green)
Vertical scroll bar
UCS icon
Horizontal scroll bar
Status bar
Status bar options
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 7
The first several tutorials in this book use the 2D workspace. You can change the workspace at
anytime.
There are three other options in this dialog box:
Units — chooses between Imperial (British) and Metric (decimal) units. Units are discussed in Chapter 2.
Advanced — displays the Create New Drawing dialog box, which will be familiar to users of BricsCAD V14
and earlier. It is described in chapter 2.
Don’t show this again — stops the dialog box from appearing when BricsCAD starts. To bring back the
dialog box, go into the Settings command and then search for “Warning Messages.”
THE BRICSCAD WINDOW
Take a look at the details of the BricsCAD window by checking out the figure spread across the
earlier two pages.
BricsCAD’s central area consists of a large graphical drawing region. Here you can see the red-green
cursor with its pickbox, and the red-green UCS icon with its x,y axes. The drawing region is surrounded by several panels of information — toolbars or ribbon, status bar, and so on.
Along the very top of the BricsCAD window, you see the title bar. Below it is the menu bar and then
the ribbon or several toolbars with their icons. (Other toolbars might be located on the left and right
of the drawing area.) Along the bottom are the layout tabs, perhaps a scroll bar, and the command
prompt area. At the very bottom is the status bar.
SUPPORTED GRAPHICS BOARDS
BricsCAD works with whatever graphics board is built into your computer.When it comes to non-wireframe renderings,
however, BricsCAD employs RedSDK GPU-acceleration technology provided by Redway3D. (GPUs are the processing
chips on graphics boards.) Download the latest drivers from www.redway3d.com/pages/driversList.php.
WINDOWS
On Windows, Redsdk hardware acceleration supports graphics boards made by AMD, Intel, and nVidia. See www.redway3d.com/pages/GPUList.php; for the comprehensive list.
MAC
Apple does not allow developers to have full access to the graphics hardware inside Mac computers, and so there are
no third-party drivers available to speed up the display of CAD programs.
LINUX
On Linux, RedSDK support graphics chip sets for 3D graphics hardware acceleration from AMD and nVidia. Intel is not
supported in Linux, nor are laptops with discrete graphics systems. You are advised to download the latest recommended
drivers from NVIDIA and AMD.
8
Inside BricsCAD V16
A BASIC TOUR OF THE USER INTERFACE
The user interfaces of CAD programs have many elements, and so it can be daunting to learn all of
it at once. Here you look at just a few UI elements:
•
•
•
Crosshair and arrow cursors
Command bar
UCS icon
Later, Chapter 2 provides a detailed tour of BricsCAD and its UI (short for “user interface”).
Crosshair and Arrow Cursors
The cursor gives you feedback from BricsCAD, Windows, and other software. When the cursor is
in the BricsCAD drawing area, it looks like a crosshair that shows you where “you” are in the drawing, precisely.
Pick box
X axis
Y axis
Try moving the cursor now around the BricsCAD window: move your mouse.
Notice the colors of the crosshairs. These are there to help you orient yourself, particularly in 3D
(three dimensional) drafting. Here’s what the colors mean:
• • • • Red line represents the x axis
Green line represents the y axis
Blue line represents the z axis; it is hidden when your draw in 2D mode
Black square is the pick box, for selecting entities
The black square at the center of the crosshairs is called the “pick box.” It shows you the exact point
you are picking entities in the drawing. You use the pickbox during Chapter 5, “Adding Details to
Drawings.”
You can change the colors and the size of the cross hairs, as well as the size of the pick box, with
the Settings command; see the tip coming up soon.
When you move the crosshair out of the drawing area, the cursor changes it shape to an arrow —
one that you probably are familiar with from other software. You use the arrow cursor to make
menu selections, pick buttons on the toolbar or ribbon, and so on.
Left: Arrow cursor appears outside the drawing area, and is used to select UI elements.
Right: Double-headed cursor is used to change the size of UI elements.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 9
The cursor can change to other shapes. For example, when the cursor becomes a double-ended
cursor, you can resize windows and palettes.
TIPS
Many user interface options are changed in BricsCAD with the Settings command. It provides
you with over 600 settings that let you control how BricsCAD works and looks. The best way to find a
specific setting quickly is to enter its name in its search field, as shown below.
Changing the Pickbox Size. To change the size of the pickbox, enter “pickbox.” The default size that you
see on the BricsCAD screen is 3 pixels wide, but you can change the size from 0 (gone) to 50 pixels (huge);
I suggest you change it to 5 to make it just a bit bigger.
Changing the Crosshair Cursor Size. Should you find the crosshair cursor too small or too large, you
change its size also through the Settings command: search for “crosshair.” The default value is 5, which
means the length of the cross hairs is 5% of the screen’s size. When set to 100, the cross hairs stretch across
the entire drawing area.
COMMAND BAR
Commands
CommandLine, CommandLineHide
Ribbon
...
Shortcuts Ctrl+9, Shift+F2
Alias ...
The command bar is near the bottom of the BricsCAD window. It is where you enter the names
of commands and their options. If you are a touch typist like me, then you will find that you will
probably prefer entering commands by typing them, instead of hunting through a menu or the
ribbon. The command bar also the place where BricsCAD prompts you for additional information
it needs to complete commands. You can turn off the Command bar with the CommandLineHide
command, but I don’t recommend doing this; there is no good reason to do so!
These are the important parts of the command bar:
Click to close
command bar
Command history
Scroll through earlier
command history
Drag to move
command bar
Prompts from
BricsCAD
Enter your
response here
Let’s take a look at how the command bar works.
All About Command Prompts
When you see the ‘ : ’ (colon) symbol by itself in the Command bar, like this...
:
...it means that BricsCAD is ready for you to enter a command. The colon is called the “prompt.”
Should you wish to enter a command but there is text after the ‘ : ’, press the Esc key once or twice
to clear the command line.
10
Inside BricsCAD V16
Try drawing a few lines with the Line command now:
1.
Enter the Line command, as follows:
This means that you should type the word line, and then press the Enter key. Pressing Enter tells BricsCAD
that you are finished typing the name of the command, and that it can now execute the command.
Notice that BricsCAD changes the prompt from ‘ : ’ to ‘ Start of line: ’ as follows:
: line (Press Enter)
2.
Start of line:
BricsCAD is asking you where you want it to start the line. You move the cursor to the spot at which you wish
the line to begin by moving the mouse. As you move the mouse, notice that the crosshair cursor moves in
concert.
3.
At any spot in the drawing area, pick a point on the screen by pressing the first button on your mouse. (The
first button is the left-most one.) The left button is known in the CAD world as the “pick button.”
Notice that the Command bar changes the prompt wording by adding more options. I’ll tell you their meanings later.
Angle/Length/Undo/<End point>: (Pick another point)
As you keep moving the mouse, notice the line that stretches like a “rubber band” from the point you picked.
This rubber band is also known as the “drag line.” It shows where the line would be located if you were to
click now.
Drag line
Current location
of the cursor
Start of line
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 11
Notice also that BricsCAD provides you with information about the state of the line, specifically its length and
its angle. This on-screen information is called “direct distance entry,” and you learn more about it in a later
chapter.
5.
Move the mouse some more, and then press the pick button again. There: you’ve drawn your first line with
BricsCAD!
6. Continue drawing some more lines by repeating the same steps: (a) move the mouse and then (b) press the
pick button. Draw as many lines as you like.
7.
To end the Line command, press the Esc key. Pressing Esc stops just about any command, although in some
commands you may need to press the key two or three times.
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: (Press esc)
I want to point out that the prompt text you see — ‘Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>’
— has subtle aspects that are not immediately obvious. For instance, tou can specify an option by
typing just the letters displayed in uppercase, such typing ‘a’ to start the Angle option.
The other aspect to notice is that the default option (or value) is always shown angle brackets,
such as <End Point>. “Default” means that this is what BricsCAD will do when you just press Enter,
without picking an option. This can become a pretty fast way of working.
12
Inside BricsCAD V16
TIP Pressing Enter when you use the Line command has different effects, depending on the prompt
that is currently active. (See the table below.) This is why it is important to always keep an eye on the
prompts displayed by BricsCAD on the Command bar.
PromptEffect of Pressing Enter
‘Start of line:’ Pressing Enter makes BricsCAD continue drawing from the last point, that was
placed as a line or an arc. This is a great way to ensure that new lines are perfectly
tangent to the ends of previous lines or arcs.
‘<End point>:’ Pressing Enter terminates the Line command, just as Esc does.
‘ : ’
Pressing Enter repeats the last command, which in this case is the Line command.
Undoing What You’ve Done: U
To erase the lines you drew, type U at the ‘:’ prompt to undo the lines, as follows:
: u
Alternatively, you could also access the U command in these ways:
•
•
•
•
Click the Undo icon on the Standard toolbar
In the ribbon’s Home tab, click Undo in the File panel.
Select Undo from the Edit menu
Press Ctrl+Z — the shortcut keystroke for undo
As you can see from this example, BricsCAD provides several ways to perform actions. In the days
to come, you will probably find yourself using a combination of keyboard typing, toolbar icons,
menu picks, keyboard shortcuts — whichever you find most convenient.
TIP At any time, right-click in the drawing area to display shortcut menus. (Press the mouse’s right
button.) These menus show commands that are relevant to the current action or the state of the drawing.
Because these menus are context-sensitive, their content changes depending on what’s going on at the
time you right-clicked.
Seeing What You Did Before: Command History
The command bar typically displays three or four lines of history, which is the text of previously
displayed prompts. When you need to see more lines of history, then you have a couple of choices:
•
Drag the bar’s top border to stretch it taller or shorter. For the exact location to do this, see the double-ended arrow cursor shown below.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 13
•
Drag the bar away from its docked position, and then resize it, as shown below.
•
Press F2 to see the prompt window. BricsCAD display a second window on the computer screen. You can
reposition it anywhere, such as on a second screen.
The Prompt History window displays the most recent 400 lines of command text. You can scroll
back to earlier prompts and other text by clicking on the vertical scroll bar along the right edge of
the window. You can leave the window up, or else dismiss it by again pressing F2.
You can copy the text to the clipboard by right-clicking the text window to access the shortcut menu.
14
Inside BricsCAD V16
Typing Less: AutoComplete
There are two ways to spend less time entering command names:
•
•
Aliases as command abbreviations, described later in this book and listed in Appendix A.
Auto-complete, in which you start typing the name of a command and BricsCAD lists automatically the names
of all commands that begin with the same letters.
Here is how auto-complete works with the Line command:
1.
At the command prompt, type L. Notice that a box pops with listing the names of all commands and system
variables that start with ‘l’. To see them all, scroll down the list, all the way to where it ends with “lwunits.”
2.
Now type i, the second letter of the Line command. Notice that the suggestion list shortens to just those
names beginning with ‘li.’
3a. You can keep typing letter of the command name to further reduce the suggestion list.
Notice that the last letter (‘E’) is highlighted in blue. This means that if you now press Enter, the command
shown (‘LINE’) will be executed.
3b. Or you can use the cursor to select a name from the list. It’s your choice.
Here are the elements of the auto-complete feature:
Suggestion list
Alias with command
name in brackets
System variable name
Command name
Auto-Append
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 15
The suggestion list does not distinguish between the names of commands and system variables,
but you can turn off the display of system variables in the list, as described below. Systems variables
hold settings that determine how BricsCAD looks and acts; often, they are the same as in AutoCAD.
Preference variables are similar, but are unique to BricsCAD. See Appendix B for the complete list
of them.
Aliases are identified easily, because they are followed by the full command name in brackets, such
as LI (LIST).
To change the auto-complete settings, right-click the command bar and then choose AutoComplete
from the shortcut menu.
Auto-Append — turns on of off (toggles) the command-completion characters, which are highlighted in blue
Suggestion List — toggles the display of the auto-complete list
Display System Variables — toggles the display of system variable names in the list
Display Preference Variables — toggles the display of preference variable names in the list
Delay Time — determines how long BricsCAD waits before displaying the auto-complete list
To change other things like the font or color used by the command line, right-click and then choose
Options from the shortcut menu.
UCS ICON
CommandUcsIcon
Menu ...
Alias
...
The UCS icon is usually found in one of the lower corners of the drawing area, either in the left or
right corner. UCS is short for “user-defined coordinate system,” and its job is to help you see where
in 3D you are drawing. It is located at the origin (0,0) of the drawing and shows the rotation of the
view point.
In 2D mode, it looks like this, packing a bunch of information:
Direction of positive y axis
Looking straight down on xy-plane
Z axis
Direction of positive x axis
Drawing is in World coordinate system
16
Inside BricsCAD V16
The red X and green Y lines point in the direction of the positive x and y axes. At the intersection
of the two lines is where the Z line points up, invisible now in 2D mode.
This UCS icon is usually (but not always) placed at the origin of the drawing. The origin is the intersection of the x and y axes, precisely where x = 0 and y = 0 are located.
When there is a ‘W’ at the origin, it means you are “looking straight down” the z axis, and straight
onto the x,y-plane. The W means “world coordinate system,” which is the normal Cartesian system
you may have learned about in school. When the W is missing, it means the drawing is in a userdefined coordinate system — UCS, for short, and one that you or someone else created.
User-defined coordinate systems are especially handy when drawing on the slopes of roofs or the
undersides of boxes.
I find the UCS icon gets in the way of 2D drafting, and so I recommend that you turn it off, as follows:
1.
Type the UcsIcon command at the ‘:’ prompt in the command bar, as follows:
: ucsicon (Press Enter)
Press Enter to execute the command.
2. Notice the next prompt displayed by BricsCAD:
ON/OFF/All/Origin/<ON>: off (Press Enter)
3.
Type ‘Off,’ and then press Enter. Notice that the UCS icon disappears from the drawing area.
You’ll get to try out the UCS icon later during the 3D modeling portion of this book.
ONLINE HELP
CommandHelp
Ribbon
Home | Help | Help
Menu Bar
Help | Help
ShortcutF1
Alias`
?
To peruse help during a command, press F1 and BricsCAD displays a separate Help window, such
as the one illustrated below for the Line command.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 17
Icons indicate whether the command operates in each of the supported operating systems, Windows, OS X, or Linux. Most commands do. Other icons indicate which edition the command works
with, such as Pro, Platinum, or Sheet Metal. For the complete list of commands, see Appendix C.
In addition, there is an online version of help information that you access through a Web browser.
Enter the following URL: www.bricsys.com/bricscad/help/en_US/V16/UsrGui/index.html.
Exiting BricsCAD
CommandQuit
Menu Bar
File | Exit
Shortcuts
Ctrl+Q, Alt+F4
To exit BricsCAD, use the Quit command. When BricsCAD asks if you want to save the drawing,
click No.
Alternatively, press Ctrl+Q, or else select Exit from the File menu.
———
This has been your introduction to seeing and using BricsCAD. Next, you get into greater depth
using the user interface. But first... a summary of what’s new in the V16 release of BricsCAD.
18
Inside BricsCAD V16
WHAT’S NEW IN BRICSCAD V16
This list of new and changed BricsCAD functions was compiled from version 16.2.05 Bricsys continually updates this software. For
information on functions added since this book was published, please see www.bricsys.com/common/releasenotes.jsp.
Changes are highlighted throughout this book, but be aware that the information on theses pages is not comprehensive. Command
and variable names new since the last edition of this book are shown in boldface blue, while updated ones are shown in boldface
black. Commands and variables are listed in alphabetical order in the following sections:
ÐÐ
User Interface
ÐÐ
2D Drawing and Editing
ÐÐ
3D Modeling
ÐÐ
BIM Design
ÐÐ
Communicator Module
ÐÐ
Files and Plotting
ÐÐ
Mapping
ÐÐ
Rendering
ÐÐ
Settings
ÐÐ
Sheet Metal Module
ÐÐ
Sheet Set Manager
ÐÐ
Text and Databases
ÐÐ
Libraries
USER INTERFACE
BricsCAD V16 installs and runs independently from previous BricsCAD versions.
When BricsCAD V16 starts, it displays a redesigned Getting Started dialog box; see figure below.
Redesigned getting started dialog box
Dialog boxes are updated to accommodate new functions. For example, the Layers and Print dialog boxes have options for transparency.
Mechanical Browser pane gets a new Report tab. The shortcut menu displays options applicable to all features when features are
grouped by type. Flip Side context menu command supports Angle and Distance 3D constraints.
Quad gets a new tabbed layout to provide faster access to groups, and to eliminate sections from jumping moves up or down as
categories are expanded and contracted. When Rollover tooltips are activated, properties are displayed on the Quad title bar.
When the cursor is hovered over multiple entities, pressing the Tab key allows to iterate through the entities and see their entity
type being displayed in the Quad.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 19
The name of the entity under the cursor is reported on the toolbar of the Quad cursor.
New format of the Quad cursor
Ribbon is modified for new commands.
Rollover tooltips display properties of the entity over which the cursor is hovering.
TIPS
To check the length of an edge of a 3D solid, hover over it while holding the Ctrl-key. This selects
the edge instead of the entire solid. See figure below.
The content of rollover tooltips is customized through the new Properties tab in the Customize dialog box.
Rollover tooltip displayed on Quad title bar while holding down Ctrl key
NEW VARIABLE RELATED TO ROLLOVER TOOLTIPS
ÐÐ
RolloverOpacity specifies the transparency of rollover tooltips; range is 10 (nearly transparent) to 100 (opaque).
ÐÐ
RolloverTips determines the amount of information displayed by rollover tooltips:
RolloverTips
Meaning
0
1
2
Shows no properties (turns off rollover tooltips)
Shows properties while hovering the cursor, as defined by Customize | Properties
Shows properties when entering the Quad’s title bar
Selection mode allows you to hold down the Ctrl key to access sub-entities in multi-line leaders, polylines, and associative arrays. When pressing Tab to cycle through overlapping entities, selection gives higher priority to faces with more edges under the pickbox.
Sheet sets get their own pane, instead of being part of Drawing Explorer.
Sheet Metal workspace has been added.
NEW VARIABLE RELATED TO USER INTERFACE
ÐÐ
DragModeInterrupt toggles whether redraws can be interrupted; may cause incomplete graphics.
2D DRAWING AND EDITING
(dc = dimensional constraint; gc = geometric constraint)
AiMleaderEditAdd adds leader lines to multileaders.
AiMleaderEditRemove removes leader lines from multileaders.
20
Inside BricsCAD V16
ArrayClose saves or discards changes made by the ArrayEdit command.
ArrayEdit edits the entities in associative arrays, including through the Replace option.
ArrayPath creates associative arrays by distributing entities along paths made of lines, polylines, arcs, circles, ellipses, splines,
helixes, or 3D polylines.
ArrayPolar creates associative arrays by distributing entities in a circular pattern.
ArrayRect creates associative arrays by distributing entities in rows, columns, and levels.
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO ARRAYS
ÐÐ
ArayAssociativity determines whether arrays are crated as associative or not.
ÐÐ
ArayEditState reports whether an array is being edited.
ÐÐ
dcDisplay toggles the display of dimensional constraint icons.
Drawing Explorer implements drag’n drop copying for layers, text styles, line types and coordinate systems between unopened
drawings in folders view.
ESnap gets a new GCE geometric center mode for snapping to the centroid of closed polylines, splines, planar 3D polylines,
regions, and planar faces of 3D solids. (See 3D section for new 3D esnaps.)
CHANGED VARIABLE RELATED TO ESNAP
ÐÐ
OsMode flag 1024 toggles the new GCE entity snap, replaces the now-obsolete Quick esnap mode.
ExportLayout exports visible entities from the current layout to the model space of a new drawing.
Hatch allows basic edit operations when the original hatch pattern definition is not available.
Layer supports transparency, and stores the ‘Invert filter’ setting per drawing. Layer states can now be edited. Drawing Explorer
adds ‘Transparency’ and ‘VP Transparency’ columns to the Layer Property Filter dialog box.
OverKill deletes duplicate entities and overlapping lines, arcs, and polylines at the command line; merges partly overlapping and
contiguous ones.
Properties reformats property values after changing unit variables like LUnitsand LuPrec. Units can now be displayed in values preferred by users, such as m (meters) instead of unitless decimal values, as was typical in the past. Properties displays sub-entity
properties of polyline segments, region edges, and multiline-leaders. After opening another document, property values are now
updated using the unit settings of the new drawing. New properties for surfaces and 3D solid sub-entities are added, such as geometrical type, parameters (e.g. radius), area and perimeter.
Units now display the length, area, or volume using units preferred by users through new system variables listed below. The unit
defined by the InsUnits variable is the base unit,such as Imperial or metric. Should InsUnits be set to 0, then the preferred units
mechanism is disabled. For example, when InsUnits is set to mm, entering “2m” in a length property field results as [2000.0000
mm], and entering “1ft” results as [304.8000 mm].
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO UNITS
AreaPrec and VolumePrec set the precision for area and volume displays.
ÐÐ
AreaUnits, LengthUnits, and VolumeUnits variables specify a list of preferred units formatted like “mm, m, km” to display length, area
and volume quantities; the most suitable unit is chosen from the list depending on the quantity or size. Units are specified through the Settings dialog box:
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 21
VariableDefault Units
AreaUnits
LengthUnits
VolumeUnits
in ft mi um mm cm m km
(none)
in ft mi um mm cm m km
Choosing user-preferred units
ÐÐ
PropUnits determines which user-preferred units are displayed by properties (default = 7):
PropUnits
Display User-formatted Values in Properties
1
2
4
16
Area values
Dynamic dimensions values
Length values
Volume values
TIPS
You can enforce a single preferred unit by specifying only a single type to the list.
When the LengthUnits list is empty (which the default, but the way), the units defined by InsUnits are
used.
When LUnits is set to 3 (engineering) or 4 (architectural), property values are formatted with Imperial
units, as before, they have always been.
Transparency property added to entities and layers, and is turned on for plotting with the Plot Transparencies option in the Page
Setup and Print dialog boxes. (Plot Transparency option is turned off by default, because it takes longer to plot transparent entities.)
GdiPlus supports transparency and is the default graphics interface on Windows, replacing GDI which did not support transparency.
Export | Publish to PDF adds per-pagesetup transparency setting.
TIPThe Transparency command changes the transparency of raster images inserted in the drawing;
it has no effect on other types of entities or layers, whose transparency is changed with the Transparency
property.
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO TRANSPARENCY
ÐÐ
CeTransparency sets the transparency for new entities.
ÐÐ
HpTransparency sets the transparency for new hatch and gradient entities.
ÐÐ
TransparencyDisplay toggles display of transparency in objects.
Trace draws wide lines, after prompting for the width; the width of each end of a trace can be changed using grips.
Drawing views generation now supports 3D surface entities.
22
Inside BricsCAD V16
ViewDetailStyle specifies the style of detail views and detail symbols; see figure below.
Left: Dialog box for defining detail view styles; right: defining section view styles
ViewEdit changes the scale and the hidden line visibility of drawing views; can be used in paper space only.
ViewExport exports drawings from paper space to model space; destroys 3D information. Exported views are placed on the
Clipboard so that they can be pasted into other documents.
ViewProj generates additional projected views from existing drawing views.
ViewSection has new ‘Full’, ‘Half’ and ‘Offset’ options to control the section type.
ViewSectionStyle specifies the style of section views; see figure above.
TIP
The ViewBase, ViewSection, and ViewProj commands toggle the view alignment when you tap
Ctrl-key while placing the view.
Zoom command adds the Object option to zoom into the selected entity.
3D MODELING
(bm = bricsCAD modeling; dm = direct modeling) BricsCAD V16 now supports surface modeling using existing bm- drawing and
editing commands and constraints. BricsCAD V16 introduces local mechanical components, which are stored in the same .dwg file
where the component is inserted in the mechanical assembly. Assembly design changes default names to match the names of new
definitions when component definitions are renamed or replaced.
bmBrowser now has a Report tab in the Mechanical Browser pane for displaying the lists of sub-entities that result from executing
the dmRepair and smSelectHardEdges commands.
bmExternalize converts local components to external components.
bmForm now also creates local components.
bmLocalize converts external components to local components.
bmMech now converts blocks and external reference to local and external mechanical components.
bmOpenCopy creates new drawing with a copy of selected components.
bmReplace replaces component inserts.
Direct modeling now can make selections by windowing during direct modeling commands.
dmCoincident3d has a new Autoconstrain option to automatically create coincidence constraints for all overlapping faces of
selected 3D solids.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 23
dmDeformCurve deforms by moving or rotating edges to a specified set of target curves, and supports deformations of a chain
of edges to a single target curve. Closed chains of edges are deformed to closed curves.
dmDeformMove moves or rotates edges.
dmDeformPoint transforms points lying on specified faces, and creates surface entities from deformed regions..
dmExtrude adds direction option for the solids.
dmFix3d now works with multiple selections.
dmGroup creates new groups, edits them, and dissolves groups.
dmRepair checks, reports, and optionally fixes errors in 3D solids.
dmSelect automatically selects similar 3D sub-entities:
ÐÐ
Edges of the same length
ÐÐ
Edges of shorter, shorter and equal, longer, or longer and equal length
ÐÐ
Faces of the same area
ÐÐ
Protrusions or depressions of the same radius
ÐÐ
Fillets of the same radius
ÐÐ
Blend networks, optionally ignoring short blends
dmSelect options in the ribbon
dmSimplify removes unnecessary edges and vertices, merges seam edges, and so on.
dmStitch converts watertight region and surface entities to 3D solids.
dmThicken converts surfaces to 3D solids with specified thicknesses.
Dynamic UCS is no longer is restricted to be aligned with planar faces; now supports curved faces.
Enitity snaps now snap to the geometry of 3D solids, and are controlled by the new 3dOsMode system variable:
ÐÐ
ZCenter snaps to center of planar or curved faces; finding this point can be time-consuming, and so 2D geometric center snap is usually
sufficient for snapping to the center of planar faces.
ÐÐ
ZKnot snaps to knots on splines
ÐÐ
ZMidpoint snaps to the midpoint of edges
ÐÐ
ZNearest snaps to nearest point on faces
ÐÐ
ZNone disable all 3D snap modes
ÐÐ
ZPerpendicular snaps to the perpendicular to planar faces
ÐÐ
ZVertex snaps to the vertices of 3D solids and splines
GenerateBoundary creates closed polylines from faces of 3D solids.
Imprint command for imprinting 2D geometry on 3D solids or surfaces now creates additional edges on planar faces.
Loft creates 3D solid lofts from two or more cross sections with guide curves controlling the shape, optional smooth or ruled
transitions,and control of face normals and draft angles.
ProjectGeometry projects geometry like curves, and edges onto regions, surfaces, and 3D solids.
SectionPlane gains a new Clip Display option that is similar to Live status, but only the display of entities is clipped. (In contrast,
Live status actually replaces solids with temporary solids of a different shape.) Clip Display modes allows you to continue using all
modeling and editing operations on all drawing content.
24
Inside BricsCAD V16
TIP
Using a SectionPlane object to control which part of a model is displayed makes it easy to
store and repeat display states. Multiple section, boundary, and volume states can be set simultaneously.
Clipped solids can be closed through the ‘Use Lids’ option; lids can be snapped to.
NEW VARIABLE RELATED TO MODELING
ÐÐ
bmReportPanel toggles whether the Mechanical Browser panel is reporting the results of commands.
BIM DESIGN
(bim = building information modeling) V16.2 has a new format for the bimlib database, and are updated automatically from earlier
releases, but once upgraded, BricsCAD V16.1 and older no longer read the database.
The BIM database now allows custom material and composition properties to be defined. To replace windows and doors, simply
assign a different definition file using the File property in the properties panel. The Building Materials editor’s context menu adds
an option to create a one ply composition using the current material. The Project Information dialog box exports and imports the project and the library database in XML format; objects with the same id as existing objects are overwritten during imports.
bimAttachComposition attaches BIM compositions (wall styles) to solids.
bimDrag: now dynamically place a parallel copy when holding down the Ctrl key while dragging a major face of a wall and slab solids.
TIP
When you use bimDrag to move a solid by dragging one of its major faces, other solids whose
major faces overlap with the dragged solid will be dragged along. This applies recursively to solids with
overlapping major faces.
bimExport exports walls recognized as Standard Walls are exported as IfcWallStandardCase with proper SweptSolid geometry,
reference axis and MaterialLayersetUsage.
bimFlip flips starting faces of compositions; mirrors inserts like windows and doors.
bimGetStatisticalData reports statistics data of BIM objects in the current drawing.
bimIfcImport imports IFC files.
bimInsert now switches between width and height of the door, and distance to neighbor-entities when holding down the Ctrl
key. When hovering the cursor over an existing door or window, the command now places the window or door with the same
parameters.
-BimParameters lists and edits the parameters of inserted components.
bimReposition repositions inserts (doors, windows) in the faces of solids.
bimSection creates sections from BIM models; see SectionPlane command for additional functions.
bimSectionOpen opens drawing files related to BIM sections.
bimSectionUpdate exports BIM sections; also updates BIM sections.
bimSkpImport imports SKP SketchUp files with optional stitching.
bimSplit automatically separates segmented solids, or by selection of cutting faces.
bimUpdateThickness reapplies overall thickness of compositions to solids.
bimWindowArray places an array of inserts, such as windows and doors.
Properties palette now shows Length, Thickness, Height, Gross and Net Volume, Gross and Net Side Area, and Footprint Area
fields for building elements, walls, and slabs, and can be exported with the DataExtraction command. .
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 25
COMMUNICATOR MODULE
BricsCAD V16 is not compatible with Communicator V15, and so an upgrade to Communicator V16 is required. Communicator
is an optional, extra-cost add-on that works only with Platinum editions of BricsCAD.
Communicator now supports product assembly structures in models imported from ACIS, CATIA V4/V5/V6, IGES, Inventor, NX,
Parasolid, Pro/E/Creo, Solid Edge, SolidWorks, STEP, VDA-FS, and XCGM). It imports product (assembly) structures from JT and
STEP files, and can export to Parasolid files when the pskernel.dll program is found on the system path.
The following new variables control the import process:
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO COMMUNICATOR
ÐÐ
ImportProductStructure determines whether structures are imported as regular blocks or as local mechanical components.
ÐÐ
ImportRepair determines whether imported geometry should be automatically repaired.
ÐÐ
ImportStitch determines whether imported geometry should be automatically stitched.
ÐÐ
ImportSimplify determines whether imported geometry should be automatically simplified.
ÐÐ
ImportIgesStitch determines whether geometry imported from IGES files should be stitched automatically.
ÐÐ
ImportIgesSimplify determines whether geometry imported from IGES files should be simplified automatically.
ÐÐ
ImportSwRotateYZ determines whether geometry imported from Solidworks files should be automatically rotated to map the Y axis to Z axis.
FILES AND PLOTTING
BricsCAD V16 now creates temporary .dwl and .dwl2 drawing lock files while drawings are open to inform other users that the
drawing is in use, since when, and by whom.
DxfOut now uses the newest format version by default.
Export assigns specific colors to 3D solid entities and their faces when exported to STEP and CATIA file formats.
PdfOptions now exports hyperlinks contained in drawings, searchable text in wireframe mode, and improves the precision of
PDF export. Transparency can be set per-pagesetup
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO PDF
ÐÐ
PdfAdjust adjusts the fade, contrast and monochrome settings of PDF underlays at the command prompt.
ÐÐ
PdfImageAntiAlias toggles anti-aliasing of upscaled images when saved in PDF format.
ÐÐ
PdfImageCompression specifies the compression used by images save in PDF format.
Print now supports transparency with the Plot Transparencies option in the Page Setup and Print dialog boxes. Plot transparency
option is turned off by default, because it takes longer to plot transparent entities. Print dialog box now maintains the previously
used size when switching between printers with similar-sized but differently-named paper sheet sizes, whenever possible. When
the new printer does not support sheet of the same size as the previously used ones, the Paper Size droplist displays Previous
Paper size instead of switching to a default paper size of the new printer. If during the same print dialog session, yet another printer
becomes selected, which DOES support the Previous Paper size, this Paper size will become selected.
Print improves the print quality of TrueType text in clipped viewports.
Publish publishes .dsd drawing sheets at the command prompt.
SupportFolder opens the C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Support folder.
TemplateFolder opens the C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Templates folder.
WhoHas display ownership information for a selected drawing file.
NEW VARIABLE
ÐÐ
LocalRootFolder specifies path to the local root folder, such as (“C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\”).
26
Inside BricsCAD V16
MAPPING
BricsCAD V16 add projections and coordinate reference systems for New Zealand, North America, Canada, Russia and the Russian
Commonwealth of Independent States. Geographic coordinate reference systems adds support for the EPSG:3346 (Lietuvos1994)
and EPSG:25884 (TM Baltic93) coordinate reference systems.
MapConnect sets up a connection between BricsCAD and a Web-based map provider.
RENDERING
BricsCAD V16 now supports default lighting.
Visual styles gets a new BIM style.
NEW VARIABLES
ÐÐ
DefaultLighting determines whether default lighting is always on, or only used when no other lights are in the drawing.
ÐÐ
ImageDiskCache toggles use of the disk cache for images.
ÐÐ
LinearBrightness controls the brightness level of a viewport when default lighting is used.
ÐÐ
LinearContrast controls the contrast level of a viewport when default lighting is used.
SETTINGS AND PROPERTIES
Settings updated for new and changed system variables. The Settings dialog box removes check boxes for zero-value bitcodes to
improve clarity. For long variable names that might be truncated, a tooltip shows the full name.
Left: Updated Settings dialog box; right: Properties bar with additional properties
Properties palette offers the following new properties: Transparency, Clipping, Front Plane, Back Plane, and Default
Lighting. See figure above.
ToolPalette now supports groups of palettes; tabs and tools can be reordered using drag’n drop.The command caches the icons
only the first time to speed up subsequent launches.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 27
SHEET METAL MODULE
(sm = sheet metal) As of BricsCAD V16, sheet metal commands are available only in a separate, extra-cost, add-on module. The
sheet metal module adds the lofted bend feature with controls for the number of bends and their configuration, quadrilateral or
triangular.The module supports two new corner reliefs, circular and v-type.The Wrong Bend alert tells users of improper bend-like
geometry connecting flanges that can appear on imported sheet metal parts.
New sheet metal workspace
LicPropertiesSheetmetal reports the licence state of the sheet metal module.
SmBendSwitch converts bends to lofted bends.
smBendCreate adds the Entire model option.
smConvert now recognizes lofted bend features, and no longer affects global thickness unless conversion produces new sheet
metal features. This command is now available through the Quad.
smDelete is better at deleted flanges when adjacent bends whose angle exceeds 180 degrees.
smExporToSm now supports lofted bends, both isolated ones and those adjacent to flanges.
smFlangeBase adds Up/Down/Both sides option.
smJunctionSwitch changing symmetrical junctions to ones with overlapping faces.
smLoft constructs sheet metal bodies with lofted bends and flanges, creating fillets at the ends of one open contour to match the
tangents’ directions with those of the other contour.
smReliefSwitch now changes corner relief feature between Rectangular, V-type and Circular, with better behavior when bend
angles exceed 180 degrees of bend reliefs on the inner borders of flanges.
smRepair joins connected lofted bends surrounded by flanges and rebuilds them tangent to adjacent flanges.
smSelectHardEdges selects all hard edges, and then reports about them in the report panel.
smThicken now produces lofted surfaces that can be used in sheet metal design.
smUnfold reports improved error and warning messages, and aligns 2D flattened patterns so the largest dimension is along the
X axis.
28
Inside BricsCAD V16
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO SHEET METAL
ÐÐ
FeatureColors toggles the assignment of colors to the faces of sheet metal features.
ÐÐ
smColorBend specifies the color of sheet metal bends.
ÐÐ
smColorBendRelief specifies the color of sheet metal reliefs.
ÐÐ
smColorCornerRelief specifies the color of sheet metal corners.
ÐÐ
smColorFlange specifies the color of sheet metal flanges.
ÐÐ
smColorJunction specifies the color of sheet metal junctions.
ÐÐ
smColorLoftedBend specifies the color of sheet metal lofted bends.
ÐÐ
smLayerColorAnnotations specifies the layer color of unfolded dimensions.
ÐÐ
smLayerColorBendAnnotations specifies the layer color of unfolded annotations.
ÐÐ
smLayerColorBendLine specifies the layer color of unfolded bend lines.
ÐÐ
smLayerColorContours specifies the layer color of unfolded 2D DXF output.
ÐÐ
SmTargetCAM specifies the intended CAM system.
ÐÐ
UseSheetMetal determines the type of sheet metal license.
SHEET SET MANAGER
(ssm = sheet set manager) BricsCAD V16 moves the Sheet Set manager from the Explorer window to its own pane.
Left: New Sheet Set Manager; right: sheet set properties in Drawing Properties dialog box
Sheet list tables can now be placed on sheets; however, in the current implementation the table content is not associative. View
label and callout blocks are placed associatively in the selected sheet view. These new options must be accessed from the Sheet
Set pane, such as for the insert table option illustrated above.
DwgProps gets Sheet Set tab to report sheetset data; association can be removed with the ‘Remove Association’ button.
SheetsetClose closes the new Sheet Set pane, which is no longer part of the Drawing Explorer.
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO SHEETSETS
ÐÐ
ssmAutoOpen determines whether the Sheet Set Manager opens automatically when drawings associated with the sheet are opened.
ÐÐ
ssmPollTime determines the refresh interval of sheet set status data.
ÐÐ
ssmSheetStatus determines how status is refreshed: never, when loaded or updated, or as specified by ssmPollTime.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 29
TEXT AND DATABASES
Find now uses wildcards like *.
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO ANNOTATIVE SCALING
ÐÐ
AnnoAutoScale determines whether scales are automatically added to annotative objects when you change the annotation scale in the
Settings dialog box and status bar.
TIP
Adding unneeded annotative scales to entities can create confusion in drawings, so always leave
this variable disabled unless you know that you need really need it!
ÐÐ
DimAnno controls the annotative property of the current dimension style.
DataExtraction wizard exports almost any property of entities in the current drawing in .csv comma-separated values format,
which can be read by Office software as well as imported into drawings as tables. The wizard’s options are saved in .dxd data extraction definition files, which can be shared among users.
Entity properties that can be extracted from drawings.
30
Inside BricsCAD V16
MText now creates and edits multiple columns with options for columns that dynamically change their height or width. To access
the function, click the new Column Settings button.
Options for columns in MText
LIBRARIES
BricsCAD V16 is compiled with Visual Studio 2013 (platform toolset = v120). To be compatible, third-party C++ code with .dll
extensions need to be compiled with the same V120 platform toolset.
Customize dialog box added the Properties tab to customize the data reported by rollover tooltips. Error reporting displays
improved error messages when a CUI file without MenuGroup is loaded by now reporting the file name, and whether it is the
main file or a partial one.
New Properties pane in Customize dialog box
GdiPlus supports transparency and is now the default graphics interface on Windows, replacing GDI which did not support transparency. All other visual styles — like realistic and xray — are always rendered with the RedOpenGL graphics system.
NEW VARIABLES RELATED TO GDI
ÐÐ
GsDeviceType2D selects the graphics system for wireframe displays.
ÐÐ
GsDeviceType3D selects the graphics systems for hidden, Gouraud, and Flat visual styles.
chapter 1 A Tour Through BricsCAD 31
Installer displays an error message before starting the installation on Windows XP (rather than on BricsCAD startup), because
Windows Vista and higher is required to run BricsCAD V16.
LicenseManager provides access to all Bricsys software licenses, as shown below.
License manger managing licenses
LicPropertiesSheetmetal reports the licence state of the sheet metal module.
NEW VARIABLE RELATED TO LICENCES
ÐÐ
UseSheetMetal determines the type of sheet metal license
Registry strings are now stored in a portable format.
32
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 2
Navigating the BricsCAD
Interface
We continue here our tour of BricsCAD’s user interface (UI), looking at parts of it in greater detail.
You will work your way from the top of the screen to the bottom — from the title bar down to the status bar.
In subsequent lessons, you’ll learn about some of the nuances to the UI, such as entering aliases and working with relative coordinates.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Working with the upper half of BricsCAD: title bar, menu bar, toolbars, and ribbon
•
Trying out some user interface elements of the drawing area: Quad cursor and UCS icon
•
Finding out about the lower half of BricsCAD: layout tabs, scroll bar, command bar, and status bar
•
Understanding bars (palettes)
Title bar: program name and name of the current drawing, with program window controls at the far right
Menu bar: menu items, with drawing window controls at the far right
Toolbar: buttons in toolbars, with flyouts and droplists
Ribbon: tabs with panels with buttons, flyouts, and droplists
Drawing tabs: each drawing open
Above the Drawing Area
The figure above explodes the top part of BricsCAD’s interface into several bars. Let’s take a look
at them from top to bottom:
Title bar — reports the names of the program and current drawing file, as in “BricsCAD - [Drawing1.dwg]”
Menu bar — contains pull-down menus for accessing commands
Toolbars — collect buttons labeled with icons (miniature pictures) into bars
Ribbon — collects tabs and panels with icons
Drawing tabs — quickly access open drawings
Let’s take a closer look at each of these to better understand their function in BricsCAD.
TITLE BAR
The title bar displays the name of the BricsCAD program, its edition (such as “Platinum”), and the
drawing you are working with, such as [Office Fixtures.dwg].
34
Inside BricsCAD V16
If the drawing is read-only (cannot be saved by the same name to its original file location), then a
note is added to the file name that looks like [Office Fixtures.dwg (Read-Only)].
At the left end of the title bar is a rarely used menu that performs the same function as the buttons
at the far other end: they minimize or maximize/restore the BricsCAD window, and exit BricsCAD.
Left: Control menu at left end of title bar; right: equivalent control buttons at right end of title bar.
The title bar has a couple of hidden tricks. To quickly maximize the BricsCAD window, double-click
the title bar; to restore the window, double-click the title bar a second time. To quickly open a
drawing, drag it from the file manager to BricsCAD’s title bar.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 35
MENU BAR
BricsCAD’s menu bar is similar to that of other programs that run on Windows, OS X, and Linux.
Even if you are familiar with accessing menus in other programs, you may wish to follow along
with this tutorial to pick up some tips.
1.
Move the computer’s mouse so that the cursor touches the menu bar.
TIP
2.
If you pick a menu item accidentally, you can “unselect” it by picking it a second time.
Move the mouse left or right until the cursor is over a word, such as View. Notice that View becomes highlighted.
3. To select the View menu, press the first mouse button (the left button on the mouse). Instantly, a menu
pops down. It lists most (but not all) of BricsCAD’s view options, including Redraw, Pan, and Zoom.
4. Move the cursor down the menu, then pause over a menu item, such as Regen. Notice that the menu item is
highlighted.
36
Inside BricsCAD V16
5.
Continue moving the cursor further down until you arrive at Zoom. A submenu appears, listing Zoom command and variations of the command, such as Zoom In and Zoom Out.
Just as menus group similar commands together, submenus group together command options and very
closely related commands. (Submenus can also have sub-submenus!) This submenu lists different ways of
zooming in and out of drawings.
6. Move the cursor all the way down to Command Bar. Notice that there is a check mark
in front of Com-
mand Bar. It means that this is a toggle, where the check mark means the item is turned on; the lack of a
check mark
means it is turned off. (“Toggle” means to turn on and off.)
Click on Command Bar (press the left mouse button). By selecting the item in the menu, you are telling BricsCAD to run the related command. In this case, it’s the CommandLine command, which toggles the display of
the command bar.
7.
The command bar disappears from the bottom of the BricsCAD window. To return the command bar to normal, go back to the View menu, and then select Command Bar a second time. It reappears.
8.Look to the right of the Command Bar text, and notice the Shift+F2 words. This is an example of BricsCAD reminding you of the keystroke shortcut associated with the command. Instead of selecting items from menus,
you can also do it by pressing function keys — Shift+F2, in this case.
9. Here’s how shortcut keystrokes work:
a.
Hold down the Shift key, and then press F2. Notice that the command bar disappears.
b.Press Sift and F2 a second time. The bar reappears.
Some users find pressing keys on the keyboard faster than selecting items from the menu or ribbon.
TIP
The check mark and the keystroke shortcuts are examples of the symbols used by menus to
indicate special meanings. They can indicate the status of commands. See the table below.
Menu SymbolExampleMeaning
... (ellipsis)
Named Views...
(arrowhead)Zoom
 (check mark)
 Clean Screen
+ (plus)
Shift+F2
_ (underline)
Command Bar
Indicates command displays a dialog box
Indicates the presence of a submenu
Indicates that the command is turned on
Uses the Shift key for command shortcuts
Uses the Alt key to access menu items
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 37
TIP
You can access the menu bar without a mouse! Here’s how to do it:
1. Hold down the Alt key. On the menu bar, notice that each word has a letter underlined,
such as View.
2. Press the v key to drop the View menu. Notice that every menu item has a letter underlined.
3. Press a key, such as c key to execute the Command Bar command.
Advanced users may be interested in customizing menus and other parts of BricsCAD with the
CUI command; see the Customizing BricsCAD ebook, which is available for purchase from www.
worldcadaccess.com/cb8.
At the right end of the menu bar are the same three buttons as you saw at the end of the title bar.
They minimize the current drawing window, maximize/restore it, and close the drawing.
TOOLBARS
Below the menu bar are several toolbars. Toolbars are collections of similar functions — a bar of
tools. For instance, the Draw 2D toolbar has commands for drawing 2D entities, such as lines, arcs,
and rectangles; the 3D Constraints toolbar contains commands for connecting and sizing entities
automatically with 3D geometric and dimensional constraints.
Left: Toolbar for drawing 2D entities; right: toolbar for connecting entities with 3D constraints
Each toolbar consists of a row of buttons and/or list boxes. Click a button to execute the related
command. The figure shows a number of controls you can expect to find on toolbars.
Dragbar
Open Layer dialog box
Move entity to current layer
Access additional layerrelated commands
On/Off
Unfreeze/Freeze
Unlocked/Locked
Set layer by entity
Droplist
Layer name
Color sample
Print/No print
(click to display list)
Toolbars have several visual elements for controlling them:
•
Drag bar at the left end of a docked toolbar lets you move the toolbar around the screen. To drag a floating toolbar, grab it by its title bar.
38
•
Flyout (small black triangle) displays an embedded toolbar; hold down on the button to see the flyout
•
Droplist (a.k.a. list box) lists items; click the arrow at the right end of the box to access the list.
Inside BricsCAD V16
BricsCAD has more than thirty toolbars, but you see only a few of them now.
The visible ones are placed along the top and side edges of the drawing area.
To see the complete list of toolbar names, right-click any toolbar or the ribbon, and then choose BRICSCAD.
The shortcut menu that appears lists the names of all the toolbars; see the
figure to the right. Those names prefixed with a check mark are currently
displayed. You can toggle (switch on or off) the display of a toolbar by selecting its name from the list.
BricsCAD lets you change the look of the icons displayed by all toolbars, the
function of the icons, and even the shape of the toolbar. These operations
are described in the Customizing BricsCAD ebook.
Toolbar Buttons and Macros
Buttons have small pictures called “icons.” Icons are pictorial representations of commands. For example, one button on a toolbar shows the
icon, which represents— . Well, what does it represent? The three sheets
of paper are the symbol for layers, but the blue star (or is it a snowflake?)
is not as clear.
Because icons are pictures, their meaning is not always clear. For this reason,
BricsCAD also displays word descriptions. Pass the cursor over an icon, and
then wait for a second. A small tag, called a “tooltip,” appears; below, the
tooltip tells you that the button executes “Set Layer by Entity” (LayMCur
command).
Keep the cursor over the icon, and look down at the status line at the very bottom of the BricsCAD
window. It displays a one-sentence description of the button’s meaning.
In other words, when you click the button, BricsCAD prompts you to choose an entity in the drawing, and then changes the working layer to that belonging to the entity.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 39
The Standard Toolbar
Of all the toolbars, the topmost one contains those buttons that you are probably familiar with from
other Windows or Linux applications — as well as a few unique to BricsCAD. This one is called the
“Standard” toolbar, because it is standard to most Windows and Linux applications. It’s important
enough that I point out the meaning of all its buttons.
QNew
Open
QSave
Preview
QPrint
Copy
Cut
Publish
Pate
Match Proproperties
Undo
Add Selected
Select Similar
Erase
Redo
Help
Explorer
Sheet Sets
Settings
Properties
From left to right, the icons have the following meaning:
QNew creates new drawing files; Q is short for “quick.”
Open opens existing drawing files.
QSave saves the current drawing.
Preview shows what the drawing will look before it is printed or plotted.
QPrint immediately prints the drawing to the default printer; no dialog box is displayed.
Publish prints collections of drawings.
Cut (CutClip command) copies entities to the clipboard, erases them from the drawing; “clip” is short for clipboard.
Copy (CopyClip command) copies entities to the clipboard.
Paste (PasteClip command) pastes graphical or text data from the clipboard into the drawing.
Match Properties (MatchProp command) copies properties from an entity and applies them to other entities.
Add Selected (AddSelected command) adds additional entities to the selection set.
Select Similar (SelectSimilar command) selects additional entities similar to the first one selected.
Erase deletes the selected entities.
Undo (U command) undoes the last command(s).
Redo redoes the last undo.
Explorer opens the Drawing Explorer for controlling named entities, such as linetypes and blocks.
Sheet Sets (SheetSet command) opens the Drawing Explorer for creating and modifying sets of sheets.
Settings opens the Settings dialog box for adjusting the values of all system variables.
Properties opens the Properties pane; reports and edits the properties of selected entities.
Help displays the help window.
TIP
Toolbars can stick to any side of the drawing area or float anywhere on the desktop. As well,
they can float anywhere on your computer’s screen, as well as on secondary screens.
40
Inside BricsCAD V16
Flyouts
Some toolbar buttons contain flyouts, which are sub-toolbars containing two or more additional
buttons “hidden” underneath. When you take a close look at the View toolbar...
...notice that in the lower-right corner of the Zoom Extents button is a tiny triangle:
The
triangle indicates that the button contains the flyout, a sub-toolbar with additional buttons.
To see how a flyout works, move the cursor over the Zoom Extents button:
1.
Move the cursor down to the button you want, keeping the left mouse button depressed.
2.
Let go of the mouse button.
Notice that the command is executed; the button you selected now appears on the toolbar. It can
be a bit tricky accessing a flyout the first few times, so practice this procedure until it works.
Left: Holding down on the button displays the flyout.
Right: Selecting a button from the flyout.
TIP Toolbars can be dragged around BricsCAD. If your computer has two monitors, you may want to
drag the toolbars to the second one to create a larger drawing area. BricsCAD remembers toolbar placement.
Entity Properties Toolbars
After the Standard toolbar, I’d say that the most important one in BricsCAD is the Entity Properties
toolbar. It has several droplists that provide immediate feedback of the properties of the entities
with which you are working. Droplists provide instant access to useful lists, such as the names of
layers and of colors.
From left to right: Droplists access layer names and their properties; colors; linetypes (patterns); and line weights (entity widths).
Here’s three ways in which you can use droplists in BricsCAD:
a.
When no entities are selected, then the droplists report the current (active) property name: the name
of the current layer, color, lineweight, and linetype. For instance, the default color is usually “ByLayer,”
meaning that the current layer defines the default color.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 41
b. When an entity is selected, the droplist reports the properties associated with the entity. For example,
select a red circle, and the color property changes to Red.
c.
When an entity is selected and you choose a different property from the droplist, then the entity takes
on the new property. For instance, select “Blue” from the color droplist, and the circle turns blue.
At the left end of the Entity Properties toolbar, you see a couple of buttons and a droplist for the
handling of layer names. (You learn about layers in Chapter 3.)
Layer button labeled with an icon
(click to access Layers dialog box)
Droplist
(click to display list)
Status icons
report the state of each layer
In the droplist, the symbols have the following meaning:
Light bulb — turns the layer on and off.
Sun or Snowflake — thaws and freezes the layer in all viewports.
Sun on page — thaws and freezes the layer in the current viewport only. (This symbol appears only when the
drawing is in paper space.)
Padlock — unlocks and locks the layer.
Printer — prints or doesn’t print the layer.
Square — specifies the color assigned to the layer
TIP
Click the color square to access the Colors dialog box, which lets you change the layer’s color.
Name —specifies the name of the layer (“0” in the figure above).
In the center of the Entity Properties toolbar is the Colors droplist that reports the name or number
of the current color — when no entities are selected. It can change the current color, and change
the color of selected entities, as described earlier.
42
Inside BricsCAD V16
Initially the list shows nine colors. You access to additional colors through the Select Color item
found at the end of the list. As you select colors from the Select Color dialog box, they are added
to the droplist.
From left to right: Colors, linetypes, and line weights. To load more colors or linetypes, click Select Color or Load.
TIP It is good CAD drafting practice to assign colors and layers through layers, and not to override
them with these droplists. The colors and linetypes named ByLayer and ByBlock have special meaning in
BricsCAD:
ByLayer — entities take the color and linetype defined by the layer they reside on.
ByBlock — entities take the color and linetype defined by the block to which they belong.
Linetypes Droplist. This droplist reports the name of the current linetype — when no entities are
selected — and it lists the names of all linetypes currently loaded into the drawing. New drawings
have just three linetypes: Continuous, ByLayer, and ByBlock.
To load additional linetypes, click the Other item at the end of the droplist. This action opens up
the Load Linetypes dialog box, from which you can load the linetypes you need, such as Center and
Hidden. When loaded, their names are added to the end of the list. You use this droplist to change
the linetype of selected entities.
Lineweights droplist. This droplist reports the width of the current line weight, and lists the
widths of all available lineweights. These range from 0 to 2.11mm (0.083"); unlike with colors or
linetypes, you cannot add or edit lineweights. This droplist can change the current lineweight, and
change the lineweight of selected entities.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 43
RIBBON
The ribbon dominates the upper part of the user interface. It’s kind of like overlapping toolbars,
where of tabs segregate the “toolbars” into groups of functions. Each tab has is further segregated
by a series of panels, and each panel contains a group of buttons, flyouts, and droplists — just like
toolbars.
If you do not see the ribbon, enter the Ribbon command:
: ribbon
Shown above is the standard ribbon’s Home tab,. BricsCAD comes with several ribbons, and to
switch between the you can use any of the following versions of the Workspaces command:
•
Workspaces droplist as a toolbar (shown at left below)
Left: Workspace toolbar; right: Selecting the workspace on the status bar
•
Workspaces on the status bar (shown at right above)
•
Workspace command
Because Bricsys wrote its own version of the ribbon interface, it is equally available on the Windows, Mac, and Linux versions, unlike all other CAD systems. You customize the ribbon through
the CUI command.
44
Inside BricsCAD V16
DRAWING TABS
Drawing tabs let you switch quickly between open drawings, and provides a shortcut to file-related
commands, such as Open and Close. BricsCAD calls it “Document Tab.”
To access the commands, right-click a drawing tab:
Most of these commands are familiar to you, but here are a couple that are unique to BricsCAD:
Close Left Tabs — closes all drawings to the left of this tab. This is useful for closing older drawings, ones
that were opened earlier
Close All But This — closes all other drawings, except the current one. I could find this useful when I open an
entire folder’s worth of drawings, and then want to keep just one open
Save All — saves all drawings at once
Duplicate Tab — makes a copy of the current drawing, naming it Copy_name.dwg
Open Folder — opens the folder from which the drawing was opened
There are two variables that control drawing tabs. DocTabPosition places the tab at the top,
bottom,left, or right of the drawing area. ShowDocTabs turns the tab row on and off.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 45
In the Drawing Area
The drawing area is in the center of the BricsCAD window. It has many functions that are described
in the rest of this book. And so here I will tell you about just a few user interface elements.
SHORTCUT MENUS
Scattered all about BricsCAD are accesses to shortcut menus. Nearly any place you right-click, a
menu will pop up with a list of commands. The commands usually are relevant to the spot you rightclick. For instance, here is the shortcut menu that appears when you right-click a selected entity:
The shortcut menu lists commands you can apply to the selected entity. For instance, the Repeat
option repeats the command.
46
Inside BricsCAD V16
Holding down the Shift or Ctrl keys sometimes displays other shortcut menus. In later lessons, I’ll
point out shortcut menus that are useful to the work at hand. I don’t detail them all here, because
there are so many; I suggest you right-click various spots to see what happens.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 47
There is one exception I want to point out. When a mouse from 3dConnexion is attached to the computer, right-clicking the 3D mouse’s left button displays in BricsCAD the following shortcut menu:
These options control how the 3D mouse acts inside BricsCAD.
QUAD CURSOR
Status barQUAD
ShortcutF12
The Quad cursor is unique to BricsCAD in the way that it incorporates drawing and editing commands. This multifunction cursor takes its cue from the “heads-up” style of computer interface
design, placing in the drawing area many useful commands.
The Quad cursor is normally not visible; most of the time, you see the standard tri-color crosshair
cursor or arrowhead cursor. When you pass the cursor over an entity, however, the quad cursor
appears, first as a single button; see figure below. (If it does not appear, then turn it on by clicking
QUAD on status bar or pressing function key F12.)
When you move the arrow cursor onto the sole button, the quad cursor expands to show additional
buttons, usually for commands most commonly used with the nearest entity.
In addition, there are blue boxes for groups of additional buttons. Some groups are for common
operations, while others are specific to the entity. To access the additional buttons, pass the cursor
over a blue box. Click a button to execute its command.
48
Inside BricsCAD V16
(new to V16) The quad cursor was redesigned in V16 to make icon groups more compact, as well
as to provide more functions. See “What’s New in BricsCAD V16” for the complete list of changes.
BricsCAD comes with three sets of predefined Quad cursors, one each for the 2D drafting, 3D
modeling, and 3D sheet metal workspaces. The Quad cursor changes its content, depending on the
nearby entity and the workspace.
To customize the Quad, right-click it to access the following shortcut menu:
LOOK AT CONTROL
BricsCAD has a LookFrom widget in the upper right corner of the drawing area. When you pass the
cursor over the widget, however, small triangles appear, as does the the preview of a chair. Pausing
the cursor over a triangle shows what the 3D view will look like; clicking the triangle changes the
3D viewpoint.
Left: LookFrom control with no cursor interaction...; right: ...and when the cursor is over one of the small triangles
The green dot indicates the cursor position, kind of like a laser pointer:
TIPS
To see the bottom views, hold down the Ctrl (or Cmd in Mac) key.
Click the center of the LookFrom control to return the view to its home view. This is particularly helpful in
Twist mode.
There are two ways you can change the way the LookFrom control operates. The easier one is
right-click the control, and then choose an option from the shortcut menu.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 49
USER INTERFACE ELEMENTS OF BARS
Bars or “palettes” are so important to BricsCAD that I am going to give you this quick tour of their user interface features.
Once you learn these for the Properties Bar, you can use them with other bars, as well. (See Chapter 6 for how to use the
Properties bar.)
Close the bar
Name of selected object
Click - to collapse section
(click to + expand)
Property name
Toggles bar between Properties
and Quick Select modes
Property value
Drag to resize the bar
Drag the title bar to relocate the bar on the screen
Click the x button to close the bar.
Click the droplist to access other entities (if any).
Click the + node to expand a section.
Click the - node to collapse a section.
Click on a property value to modify it.
Drag the edge of the bar to change its size, smaller or larger.
SHORTCUT KEYSTROKES FOR BARS
Several bars can be opened and closed using shortcut keystrokes. Here is a summary of them:
ActionCommandShortcut Keystroke
Open or close Command bar
CommandLine
Ctrl+9 or Shift+F2
Open or close Properties barPropertiesCtrl+1 or Ctrl+Shift+P
Display or hide status barStatBarShift+F3
Display or hide scroll barsScrollBarShift+F4
50
Inside BricsCAD V16
Most of the options in the shortcut menu are straight-forward, but I do want to explain the difference between Isometric and Twist modes:
•
Isometric mode is like using the Viewpoint or View commands
•
Twist mode is like using the RtRotF (real time view rotation) command
Left: LookFrom in isometric mode; right: And in twist mode
The other method is to enter the LookFrom command, from which you can turn it off (and on)
and access its settings:
: lookfrom
LookFrom [ON/OFF/Settings] <ON>:
The Settings option opens the Settings dialog box at the LookFrom section. Here you can adjust the
properties of the widget, such as its translucency and position. Of particular interest is the number
of isometric viewpoints it can display, which is set through “Direction Mode” or the LookFromDirectionMode variable. The following table shows you the options:
LookFromDirectionMode
Number of Views
0 6 orthogonal views
1 14 views; no flat views of corners 2
18 views; top down corners
3
26 views; eight top down corners
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 51
UCS ICON
The UCS icon usually appears in the lower left corner of the drawing. UCS is short for “user-defined
coordinate system,” which doesn’t especially explain its function. Basically, it shows you the x and
y directions on 2D drawings, and the x, y, and z directions in 3D drawings.
Left: UCS icon in the 2D plan view; right: UCS icon in a 3D viewpoint
The UCS icon uses the same color coding as the crosshair cursor: red = X, green = Y, and blue = Z.
The “W” means that the view is currently in the world coordinate system (“WCS,” for short), the
default x,y,z coordinate system. When you define a new coordinate system (the user-defined coordinate system or “UCS,” for short), the W disappears.
The box at the origin of the icon lets you know which are the positive axes.
2D Drafting, 3D Modeling, and DUCS
UCSes are useless in 2D drafting, and so one of the first things I do is turn off the UCS icon, like this:
: ucsicon
ON/OFF/All/ORigin/Corner/<ON>: off
There is one exception: when drawing things at an angle, such as an angled wing of a building.
Changing the UCS to match the angle of the building rotates everything else as well. In the figure
below, I rotated the UCS icon to match the angled walls; notice that the crosshair cursor has matched
the angle.
To change the angle of the UCS icon, you need to tell the UCS command three things: (a) the new
origin point, (2) the new direction of the x axis, and (3) the new direction of the y axis. From these
52
Inside BricsCAD V16
three, BricsCAD figures out the direction of the z axes using the right-hand rule. Here is how to use
the UCS command in 2D drawings:
: ucs
Specify origin of UCS or Face/NAmed/Entity/Previous/View/X/Y/Z/ZAxis/Move<World>: (Pick a point
like the intersection of two lines; BricsCAD turns on INTersection entity snap automatically)
Point on X-axis or <Accept>: (Pick a point along the new x axis; BricsCAD turns on ENDpoint entity snap automatically)
Point on the XY-plane with positive Y value or <Accept>: (Pick a point along the new y axis;
BricsCAD turns on ENDpoint entity snap automatically)
The same system works for manually changing the UCS in 3D modeling. If you use the same UCS
often, then you can name it to switch back to it more quickly.
3. Pick new y axis using
ENDpoint esnap
1. Pick new origin using
INTersection esnap
2. Pick new x axis using
ENDpoint esnap
Why would you want to change the UCS in 3D? Because CAD is still fundamentally 2D, even when
in 3D. To draw on a face, the UCS needs to match the orientation in space of the face. BricsCAD,
fortunately, can do this automatically through dynamic UCS. Here is a brief example.
In the figure below, the UCS icon is in the “world” position:
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 53
To, say, write some text on the bottom of the piston, the UCS needs to relocate to the flat face. To do
so, first turn on DUCS mode by clicking the DUCS button on the status bar (so that it looks black).
Then start the Text command:
: text
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: (Pick a face on which to write)
Now move the cursor around faces of the piston. Notice how the UCS jumps to match the orientation of the face. I show two of these in the figures below.
Left: UCS dynamically placed on one face...
Right: ...and on another face
Named UCSes can be managed through the ExpUcs command, which displays the Coordinate Systems section of the Drawing Explorer.
Layout Mode
In paper space of layout modes, the UCS icon turns into something that looks like a sheet of paper.
It really serves no purpose. In the earliest days when layout mode was first introduced, the user
interface was such that it could be difficult for users to determine if they were in model or paper
space. So the UCS icon switched to a triangle in some CAD programs, and a paper in BricsCAD.
Today, however, the user interface makes layout mode quite clear, and so the paper icon remains
primarily for sentimental reasons.
54
Inside BricsCAD V16
TIPS WIDGET
“Tips” are like interactive tooltips that report options that might otherwise be unknown to users.
For example, the following Tips widget appears during the Polysolid command.
The Tips widget shows several icons. They indicate that by holding down the Ctrl key during the
command, the user can change the justification of polysolids between left, centered, and right.
To get a brief description of the purpose, pause the cursor over the Tip. To dismiss the Tip, click
the small x at the right end. (The i and Ctrl buttons at the left end do nothing.)
The display of the Tips widget is toggled through the TIPS button on the status bar.
Tips cannot be customized.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 55
Layout tabs
Help line
Coordinates
Command bar
Below the Drawing Area
Here at the bottom of this page is the bottom of BricsCAD. The figure illustrates the areas of information you get from...
Layout tabs — switch between model space and layouts
Scroll bars — pan the drawing; turned off by default, so use the ScrollBars command to turn them on
Command bar — accepts typed input and displays prompts; see Chapter 1 for details
Status bar — reports on the status of the drawing and provides on-off toggles
Let’s examine the function of each area.
LAYOUT TABS
Under the drawing area are three tabs labeled Model, Layout1, and Layout2. You may have seen
similar tabs in other Windows or Linux software, such as the sheet tabs in LibreOffice Calc or Excel.
Click to move
through layout tabs
Click to access
model space
Right-click for
shortcut menu
Click to access
layout view
In BricsCAD, these tabs switch the drawing view among layouts. Layouts allow you to define how
the drawing will look before it is plotted, such as positioning its location on the paper, adding a
56
drawing border, or specifying shades of gray instead of colors.
Inside BricsCAD V16
Horizontal scroll bar
Status bar
The arrow buttons (to the left of the tabs) are for when there are too many tabs to fit along the
bottom of BricsCAD.
To access a shortcut menu of layout options, right-click any layout tab. The options let you create
more layouts,rename them, or specify settings specific to a variety of plotter models.
Layouts are discussed in greater detail later in this book.
SCROLL BARS
To the right of the layout tabs is a scroll bar. When it is dragged back and forth, the drawing view
“pans,” which is to say it moves from side to side. At the right edge of the drawing area is the vertical
scroll bar, and it moves the drawing view up and down. Scroll bars are useful when the drawing is
zoomed in (enlarged) and you want to see adjacent details quickly.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 57
If you do not see the scroll bars, press Shift+F4 to turn them on, or enter the ScrollBar command.
Click buttons to pan drawing
by 1% of screen width
Click here to pan drawing
by 10% of screen width
Drag to pan drawing interactively
Scroll bars are limited to panning left-right and up-down. As a more flexible alternative, hold down
the middle button (or the roller wheel in the middle of the mouse), and then drag the mouse around.
This action pans the drawing in any direction during any command.
COMMAND BAR
The Command bar is described in the previous chapter.
STATUS BAR
Below the command prompt area is the status bar, which reports the status of the drawing. From
left to right, the status bar displays the following info:
X, Y coordinates,
and elevation (Z)
Help text
58
Mode toggles
Drag to resize BricsCAD window
Current settings for
layer, color, linetype, text
style, dimension styles,
and workspace
Status bar options
Help text — displays a line of helpful text when the cursor is paused on a toolbar button or a menu item.
X,Y Coordinates — 2D coordinates of the cursor’s current location in the drawing.
Elevation (Z) — the current setting of the elevation.
Layer — reports the currently active layer name (default = 0)
Color — reports the current color (default = 0; black)
Linestyle — reports the current line type (ByLayer)
Style — reports the current text style (Standard)
Dimension style — reports the current dimension style (ISO-25)
Workspace — reports the current workspace (2D Drafting).
Drawing Settings — reports the status of drawing settings. Each word is an on/off button called a “toggle:”
•
Gray text — the toggle is turned off, as for SNAP in the figure above.
•
Black text — the toggle is turned on, as for POLAR.
Click a button to turn the mode on and off.
SNAP — toggles the distance snap
GRID — toggles the display of grid lines
ORTHO — toggles orthographic drawing mode to draw at right angles
Inside BricsCAD V16
POLAR — toggles snapping at common polar angles, such as 15 degrees
ESNAP — toggles all entity snaps (a.k.a. object snaps)
STRACK — toggles snap tracking
LWT — toggles lineweight display
TILE / P:Layout — switches between paper and model modes
Annotation Scale — specifies the current scale factor for annotative entities
AutoScale — toggles wether annotation scales are added automatically (new to V16)
Tablet — toggles tablet mode on and off
DDUCS — toggles dynamic UCS mode for drawing on the faces of 3D entities
DYN — toggles dynamic dimensions mode
QUAD — toggles the cursor between crosshair and quad modes
RT — toggles the display of rollover tooltips (new to V16)
TIPS — toggles the tips widget
None — selects a GIS coordinate system (new to V16)
You can right-click any of the buttons to display a shortcut menu. Many have the same set of options: On, Off, and Settings,
Settings is a shortcut to the dialog box that regulates the mode. For example, to change the settings
for the grid, right-click the GRID button and then select Settings; BricsCAD displays the Snap/Grid
section of the Settings dialog box.
When you right-click a few buttons, they present a longer list of options so that you can, for example,
choose an entity snap.
chapter
2 Navigating the BricsCAD Interface 59
Click the tiny black triangle
listing all possible toggles.
near the right end of the status bar to display a shortcut menu
This lefts you turn on and off toggles that you want (or don’t want) to see.
Summary
You have learned all about BricsCAD’s user interface, from the title bar at the top to the status bar
along the bottom, and nearly everything in between
Next, you begin to start working with BricsCAD, beginning with starting a new drawing.
60
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 3
Setting Up A
New Drawing
You now prepare the CAD environment for creating new drawings. By the end, you will know how
to set up drawings, save your work to disk, and how to exit BricsCAD.
Before creating any drawing with BricsCAD, you must prepare it. Here, the tutorials show you how to do
this by working through these steps:
Step 1:
Start a new, blank drawing
Step 2:
Name the drawing
Step 3:
Specify the units of measurement
Step 4:
Set the snap and grid spacings
Step 5:
Indicate the drawing limits
Step 6:
Create layers
Step 7:
Save the drawing
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Preparing a drawing for first-time use with a wizard
•
Specifying units, angle formats, and drawing settings
•
Understanding how layers organize the drawing
•
Saving the drawing
•
Recognizing the importance of automatic backups
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Default — value of a setting defined by the program and unchanged by the user
File name — uniquely identifies drawing files and other documents
Grid — displays a grid of lines or array of dots as visual guides
Layers — organize drawings by segregating common elements
Limit — specifies the nominal limits of drawings, and constrains the range of grid marks
Scratch — brand-new drawing with no preset parameters
Snap — constrains cursor movement to discrete distances
Template — a drawing file read by BricsCAD that sets default parameters for new drawings
Unit — specifies units of measurement, such as metric, architectural, and engineering
Wizard — series of dialog box that step users through a procedure
Working set — set of one of more drawings that were previously open in BricsCAD or were saved for future use
Workspace — predefined user interface specific to tasks, such as 2D drafting or 3D modeling
Zoom — enlarges and reduces the visual size of drawings
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
' or ft
Feet
" or in
Inches (12 inches per foot)
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
BAK
Backups of BricsCAD drawing files
DWT
Portion of file names that identify them as template files
DWG
Portion of file names that identify them as BricsCAD drawings
mm Millimeters (1000mm per meter)
m
Meters
NEW COMMANDS
CommandAliasMenu BarRibbon Tab
Layer
Limits
NewWiz
Settings
SaveAs
62
la
...
ddnew
rm
...
Inside BricsCAD V16
Settings | Layers
Settings | Drawing Limits
File | New Wizard
Settings | Settings
File | Save As
Home | Layers | Layers
...
...
Settings | Settings | Settings
...
Before You Begin
To learn how to use BricsCAD, you will work with a drawing based on a landscape plan, creating
and modifying the drawing of a yard around a home.
Before beginning this tutorial, you may want to measure your yard and locate major features, such
as the house, driveway, and garden areas. If you’d rather not measure your yard or you don’t have
access to one, then you can follow along with the following sketch, which is the drawing used by
the next several lessons.
The tutorial will be in metric units (millimeters and meters), and for North American readers I’ll
provide imperial units (feet and inches).
STARTING A NEW DRAWING
CommandNewWiz
Menu
File | New Wizard
When you start a new drawing in BricsCAD, you can start in several ways:
•
From “scratch” with a blank drawing
•
With a template drawing that presets certain aspects. (Note that workspaces only preset elements of the
user interface, not of drawings.)
•
Enlist the services of a software wizard, which is how you start this tutorial
THIS SECTION’S DRAWING
During this book’s first few chaptsers, you create the following drawing.The completed Yard.dwg file can be downloaded
from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8. (Use Imp-Yard.dwg if you draw with imperial units.)
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 63
The wizard is a series of dialog boxes that take you through the steps needed to set up a new drawing. It prompts you to select the units, grid, and so on.
In this tutorial, you create the new drawing with the assistance of the wizard.
1.
If BricsCAD is not running, start it now by double-clicking its icon on the desktop
2. Notice the Get Started dialog box. It shows you the default workspaces available in BricsCAD.
3.
Click the Advanced button. Notice the Setup dialog box.
The dialog box supplies you with these options for starting new drawings or opening existing ones:
Load Working Set — loads the previously-open drawings, as well as saved sets of drawing file names
Open Drawing(s) — displays the Open dialog box, from which you can select one or more drawings to
open
Start from Scratch — starts empty new drawings, using either imperial or metric units
Start from Template — starts new drawings based on a template file that you select from a long list
with names like default-mm.dwt and Mechanical-imperial.dwt
Start from Default Template — starts new drawings with the template file specified by the BaseFile
system variable; the current default is default-mm.dwt
Use a Wizard — creates new drawings based on settings specified in a series of dialog boxes that follow
4. Select the Use a Wizard button by clicking the circle (called a “radio button”) next to it.
5.
Click Next.
The wizard takes you through a series of dialog boxes that ask you to specify the units, format of
angles, and other drawing settings. I’ll explain what each of them mean.
64
Inside BricsCAD V16
Default Settings
First off, you choose the units. Well, the wizard calls them the “default settings.” This is because so
many settings are affected by units that choosing one set of units determines many other settings.
Here is how to decide which units to choose:
•
If you measured the yard in feet and inches, then click the radio button next to Imperial (feet and inches)
•
If you measured the yard in meters and centimeters, then click the radio button next to Metric
6. If you are following along with my tutorial drawing, then choose Metric, as shown above.
7.
Click Next.
SELECTING THE LINEAR UNITS
BricsCAD displays linear measurements in a variety of units, such as in fractions or decimals. Linear
measurements are things like lengths and heights. (The only other kind of measurement that you
work with are angular measurements that are used to measure angles.)
TIP
Once you select a unit style, BricsCAD display all measurements in that style. But don’t worry!
You can always switch the measurement style to something else. You would do that with the Units command.
The reason you can switch between units is because internally BricsCAD keeps track of measurements
with unitless real numbers accurate to 14 decimal places; it doesn’t use metric or Imperial. For the sake of
us humans, however, BricsCAD displays distances and angles in the units we want; the computer software
converts them on-the-fly.
BricsCAD offers several formats of units using the names listed below. Look closely at the sample
measurement understand how BricsCAD displays each one. Note that the dash (-) separates feet
from inches, while a space separates inches from fractional inches.
Unit Name
Measures In
Example
Architectural
Engineering
Fractional
Decimal
Scientific
Feet, inches, fractional inches
Feet, inches, decimal inches
Inches, fractional inches
Units and decimal units
Units, decimal units, and exponents
4'-6 1/16"
4'-6.0625"
54 1/6"
2128.4449
2.1284E+03
The default is called “Decimal,” which is often used for metric measurements, such as millimeters.
BricsCAD shows metric measurement as unitless “decimals,” such as 1.2345. The “mm” for millimeter is not displayed.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 65
ABOUT STARTING NEW DRAWINGS
LOAD WORKING SET
Working sets load the previously-open drawings, or else saved sets of drawing file names.To save a set of open drawings
as a working set, use the Workset command. It also opens worksets during an editing session.
OPEN DRAWING(S)
To select one than one drawing from the Open dialog box, hold down the following keys as you pick them:
Shift — select a contiguous range of .dwg files
Ctrl (Cmd on Macs) — to select non-contiguous files
START FROM SCRATCH
New “empty” drawings employ the default settings of all system variables, as read from the following DWT template files:
default-mm.dwt — for drawings with metric units or unitless (millimeters)
default-imperial.dwt — for drawings with Imperial or British units (inches)
66
Inside BricsCAD V16
START FROM TEMPLATE
New drawings are begun with a DWT template file that you select from the following list:
You can create your own templates from the current drawing with the SaveAs command: choose “Drawing Template
(*.dwt)” from the Save As Type droplist.
START FROM DEFAULT TEMPLATE
Start new drawings with the template file specified by the BaseFile system variable, usually default-mm.dwt if none other
is specified. This option is useful when you usually want to start with the same template, such as one specified by your
firm or a client.
To change the value of BaseFile, enter the Settings command, search for “basefile,” and then click the
button in the
Template field. From the Choose a File dialog box, select the .dwt file you wish to employ as the new default template.
USE A WIZARD
Creates new drawings based on settings specified in a series of dialog boxes. See the tutorial in this chapter.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 67
8. For this drawing tutorial, measurements were made in centimeters. Under Unit of Measurement, ensure
“Decimal” is selected.
9. Centimeters are represented by two decimal places. To set the number of decimal places, follow these steps:
Next to Precision, click the down arrow and then select “0.00.”
(For imperial drawings, measurements made to the nearest 1/4-inch are accurate enough for this project.
Select Architectural, and then choose 0'-0 1/4".)
10. Click Next. As we see next, BricsCAD displays the set of options for measuring and displaying angles.
TIP
You are free to enter distances more accurate than a centimeter, because BricsCAD remembers
distances to full accuracy. When BricsCAD displays coordinates, however, it will round them off to the nearest 0.01 units, because we told it to in step 9.
SELECTING THE ANGLE STYLE
Before we choose the angle measurement system, I must mention some facts about angles:
•
Angles are measured counter clockwise from the positive x axis; see figure below
•
0 degrees is the direction of the positive x axis
•
90 degrees is at the positive y axis
Positive Y axis
at 90 degrees
Positive angle are measured
counter clockwise
180 degrees
270 degrees
or -90 degrees
Positive X axis
at 0 degrees
The Angle dialog box lets you choose from the formats of angular units that BricsCAD should display.
68
Inside BricsCAD V16
The options available are listed below:
Angle NameMeasures InExample
Decimal degrees Degrees and decimals
12.3456
Degrees/Minutes/Seconds (d ' ")
Degrees, minutes, seconds, and decimal seconds 12d34'56"
Grads (g) Grads and decimals123.45g
Radians (r)Radians and decimals1.23r
Surveyor’s Units (N d ' " E)
North/South degrees towards East/West
N12d34'56"E
Note that there are 400 grads (used in Germany) and are 2*pi radians in a 360-degree circle.
If we were real land surveyors, we would use Surveyor format. But we’re not, and so we’re sticking
with the more familiar decimal degrees. (Again, you can choose the change the angular format at
anytime with the Units command without affecting the drawing.)
11. Ensure that the default, Decimal Degrees, is selected for the angle of measurement.
12. Change the default Precision to 0 degrees, as we are measuring angles to the nearest degree.
13. Click Next.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 69
CHOOSING THE PLOT STYLE
When it comes time to printing drawings, they can be formatted by BricsCAD using one of two
methods. One method is known as a color table (a.k.a. “color dependent” styles or CTB), while the
other method is through a style table (a.k.a. “named” styles or STB). They are, unhappily, mutually
exclusive, meaning only one can be active at a time — meaning you have to choose one.
14. Right now, all you need to know is that neither color tables nor style tables really matter when plotting regular 2D drawings on monochrome printers. And so, ensure that the Color Dependent (CTB) option is selected.
15. Click Next.
SETTING ENTITY PROPERTIES
You come to the final dialog box of the wizard. Here, you set the defaults of some entity properties
(a.k.a. “objects”). By default, all entities are drawn with a color named “ByLayer” and a linetype of
the same name.
ByLayer means that layers determine the color and linetype of entities. If the layer is set to red,
then all entities on that layer appear red; change the layer to green, and the entities follow suit. In
this dialog box, you can overrule these default properties. But you won’t, because changing colors
and linetypes is best left for later and done with the Layers dialog box — i.e. “by layer.”
16. The only change to make here is turning off the UCS icon, because it is unhelpful (by being visually intrusive)
to the tutorial drawing. See figure above for how settings should look.
17. Click Finish to close the dialog box.
70
Inside BricsCAD V16
FINISHING THE WIZARD
When the wizard is done, BricsCAD looks a little bit different from before. There is an array of lines
in the drawing called the “grid” lines. There is one grid line that goes through the origin (at 0,0) that
is red and another that is green — the same colors as the x an y crosshair cursor lines:
Red grid line — x axis (horizontal)
Green grid line — y axis (vertical)
The UCS icon is gone, because you turned it off and because it is unnecessary for this tutorial. And
when you move the mouse, the coordinate display on the status bar changes in increments of 0.01
— this is due to setting the precision of units to 0.01.
The wizard does not adjust all settings, and you have a few more to change, as described next.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 71
Additional Important Settings
The wizard does not, unfortunately, set up everything you need in new drawings, and so for the rest
of this lesson you’ll use commands to set other things, such as the area of the drawing’s limits, the
spacing of the snap and grid, and the names of layers. Along the way, I’ll explain what each means.
SETTING THE DRAWING LIMITS
CommandLimits
Menu Bar
Settings | Drawing Limits
There is no limit to the size of drawings you can create with BricsCAD. You could, if you wanted,
draw the entire solar system full size. Indeed, an early AutoCAD sample drawing showed that this
was possible: from the orbit of Pluto we could zoom all the way down to the individual letters on
a plaque mounted on a lunar lander in a crater on the Earth’s moon.
When it comes time to printing drawings, however, the overall size of a drawing is constrained by
the size of the paper that the printer can handle, often just 210 x 297mm or 8-1/2 x 11" — a far
sight smaller than the solar system! One way to control the size is by setting the limits with the
Limits command.
Limits show the nominal area of a drawing, and they perform two other functions that are useful:
•
Constrain the extents of the grid lines
•
Determine the area shown by the Zoom command’s All option
More on these later. In the meantime, here is how you determine the limits and then set them:
1.
Examine the size of the yard in the sketch. After leaving a bit of “breathing room” around the plan, the drawing will need about 40m (130 feet) of width and 30m (100 feet) of height.
•
Width is represented by the x coordinate, which sometimes is shown in red
•
Height by the y coordinate, shown in green sometimes
The origin of the drawing is where the lines of the x and y axes meet, at 0,0.
Y axis represents height
The origin of the drawing
is located at 0,0
X axis represents width
2.
At the ‘ : ’ prompt, enter the Limits command, as follows:
: limits (Press Enter to execute the command)
3.
Notice that BricsCAD asks you to enter the x,y coordinates of the lower left corner. The default value of 0,0 is
good for this drawing, so press Enter to leave the value as is:
72
Limits are off: ON/<Lower left corner> <0,0>: (Press Enter to accept the default value of 0,0)
Inside BricsCAD V16
4. When BricsCAD asks for coordinates of the upper right corner, enter 40 and 30, as follows:
Upper right corner <12,9>: 40,30
Upper right corner is at 40,30 meters
Drawing limits
Lower left corner is at the origin 0,0
Warning! If you work with imperial units, it is important that you include the apostrophe ( ' ) when you
enter measurements as feet, like 130'.
When you leave out the apostrophe of 130, BricsCAD assumes you mean 130 inches, which it translates to
10'-10.
5.
I find it handy to restrict the grid’s lines to the extent of the Limits. To do so, I change the value of the GridDisplay system variable to 2 like this:
: griddisplay
New current value for GRIDDISPLAY (0 to 15) <3>: 2
6. Finally, use the Zoom All command to see all of the drawing. Enter the Zoom command, and then enter ‘a’
for the All option:
: zoom
Zoom: In/Out/All/Center/Dynamic/Extents/Left/Previous/Right/Scale/Window/<Scale (nX/nXP)>: a
The grid spacing now looks looser. When you began, BricsCAD displayed an area of one foot by nine
inches; now BricsCAD displays an area of 40m by 30m (130 feet by 100 feet). When you move the
cursor to the upper right corner of the drawing area, the status bar should report values near 40,
30. Thus, the Zoom command lets you see the “big picture,” as well as zooming in for a detailed look.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 73
ACCESSING SYSTEM VARIABLES
CommandSettings
Ribbon
Settings | Settings | Settings
Menu Bar
Settings | Settings
Alias
SE
The values you entered at the command prompt can instead be changed through the Settings dialog
box. This dialog box reports the values of all system variables. System variables hold settings that
control nearly all aspects of BricsCAD — and there are over 800 of them! I list them all in Appendix B.
From time to time in this book, you will encounter some of them, such as the GridDisplay variable
you used earlier. The purpose of system variables (“sysvars,” for short) is to tell BricsCAD how to
operate. When you used the Limits command, for example, BricsCAD stored the values you entered
in two system variables, LimMin and LimMax:
LimMin — stores the x, y coordinates of the lower left corner.
LimMax — stores coordinates of the upper right corner.
These two system variables can be accessed directly at the command bar by entering their names,
just like they were commands:
: limmin
New value for LIMMIN <0,0>: (Press Enter to keep values as they are)
: limmax
New value for LIMMAX <40,30>: (Press Enter)
Enter text to search for
Click arrows to Þnd next occurance
Click X to close dialog box
and save changes
Click + to expand section
Click - to collapse section
Descriptive name of system variable
Actual name of system variable
Description of system variable
74
Inside BricsCAD V16
Value of system variable
The problem lies in remembering the names of hundreds of system variables. And so the other
method is to use the Settings dialog box, as follows:
1.
Enter the Settings command:
: settings
Notice the Settings dialog box.
2.
This dialog box contains hundreds of settings, and so the best way to access one of them is to use the Find
feature, as follows:
a.
Enter “limits” in the Find field.
b.Press Enter.
The Settings dialog box goes to the first setting with “limits” in its name. Click the
Find Next arrow until
you arrive at the Limits Minimum and Limits Maximum settings:
3.
There is no “Close” or “OK” button to dismiss the dialog box. Instead, click the red X.
TIP
When the Find field turns orange, it means that there is no setting by that name.
CHANGING THE SNAP AND GRID SPACING
One great advantage to drawing with CAD is that software permits you to create very accurate
drawings. BricsCAD has several functions that help you draw with pretty much darn-near perfect
accuracy.
One such function is called “snap mode.” Snap can be thought of as setting the mouse resolution. It
determines the distance the cursor moves in the drawing. For instance, by setting the snap distance
to 0.5, the cursor moves at precise, 0.5-unit distances during drawing and editing commands.
Another feature is called “grid,” which you have already seen. It helps you visualize distances. (You
learn about other accuracy aids in later lessons of this book.) Follow these steps to set the snap
and grid spacing:
1.
(If you are not in the Settings dialog box, then enter the Settings command.)
In the Find field, enter “snap mode” and then press Enter.
2.
Notice that the listing in the dialog box jumps to the Snap Unit field. It specifies the distance that the cursor
moves.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 75
3.
Change the X and Y values of Snap Unit to 0.1, 0.1 to represent 1 decimeter (or 1",1" in imperial units). Leave
other snap settings at their default values, such as Snap Angle = 0.
4. Earlier, the wizard had turned on the grid as a visual guide. The grid is meant to guide you; the default spacing of 10 units is perhaps to far apart. (BricsCAD will in fact not display the grid when its lines or dots are too
closely spaced.) Change the spacing to 1 meter by changing the value of Grid Unit to 1,1.
5. Finally, change the type of grid from lines to dots. Grid lines are useful in 3D modeling, but tend to cover up
lines in 2D drafting. Here is how to do this:
a. Click the
node next to Grid Style .
b. Turn on the Dotted Grid is 2D Model Space option.
6. To close the dialog box, click the X at the top right end.
TIP A grid distance of 0" has a special meaning in BricsCAD. It means that the grid spacing matches
the snap spacing, 1" in our case.
76
Inside BricsCAD V16
Notice that the drawing area is covered by a fine grid of lines:
TIP
Sometimes the snap function can get in the way of your drafting. You can turn the snap on and
off at any time by pressing function key F9.
Similarly, the grid can be toggled with F7.
For many options in BricsCAD’s commands, you need only type the first letter of the option. For example,
type “a” as the abbreviation for the All option. When two options begin with the same letter, you need to
type the first two characters of the option.
When entering text and numbers in a dialog box, pressing the Tab key is a quicker way to get to the next
field. Fields are buttons, text entry boxes, list boxes, and other dialog box elements that you can change.
To return to previous fields, press Shift+Tab (hold down the Shift key, and then press Tab).
When you change values in the Settings dialog box, they are shown in boldface text. And, the changes take
effect immediately.
Creating Layers
CommandLayer
Ribbon
Home | Layers | Layers
Menu Bar
Settings | Layers
Alias LA
If you have ever worked with overlay drafting, then you would be familiar with the concept of layers. In overlay drafting, drafters would draw the base plan on one clear sheet of Mylar (a common
form of drawing media made from plastic). The electrical plan would be drawn on another sheet,
the structural on a third. Since the Mylar is transparent, they would overlay the two or all three of
the drawings to create a single blueprint —depending on how much detail needed to be shown.
In CAD, layers operate in a similar manner. We draw different parts of drawings on different lay-
ers. Then, we can turn layers off and on to display the drawing in different ways. For example, the
electrical contractor would be interested in seeing only the base plan layer with the electrical layer.
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 77
QUICK SUMMARY OF LAYERS
BricsCAD provides great control over layers through the Drawing Explorer. It lists the names of all layers and their
properties. The names of properties are indicated by the names on the header bar.
(To sort layers alphabetically, click a header such as Name or Linetype. Click a second time to sort in reverse order, Z to A.)
• — indicates the current layer.
Layer Name — specifies the name up to 255 characters long.You can use numbers, letters, and the following punctuation marks: dollar sign ( $ ), hyphen ( - ), underline ( _ ), and spaces. Two layers cannot have the same name in the same
drawing. There is no limit to the number of layers in a drawing.
On/Off (obsolete) — when on, displays entities; when off, entities cannot be seen nor are they plotted.
Freeze — freezes entities so that they cannot be seen, edited, or plotted. Also, frozen layers are not included when
BricsCAD performs drawing regenerations and hidden-line operations. When thawed, the layers behave normally. (To
thaw layers means to turn off their frozen status.) It is better to freeze layers than turn them off.
Locked — locks layers, which means entities are seen but cannot be edited. Unlock layers to make entities available
for editing.
Color — specifies the color of entities on the layer.The default color is 7, which is displayed as white or black, depending
on the background color. Entities drawn on the layer are displayed in this color, but the entity color can be overridden
with the Color command.
Linetype — specifies the line type by which entities are displayed.The default linetype is Continuous (solid line). Before
any other linetype can be used, its definition must be loaded into the drawing; can be overridden by the Linetype command.
Lineweight — specifies the line widths for entities on the layer.The default is 0.00mm; the maximum is 2.11mm (about
0.08", or 6 points wide); can be overridden by the Lineweight command.
Plot Style — specifies the plot style with which entities plotted. Named plot styles defines colors, widths, and percentages of black during plotting. This option is not available for drawings created with color-dependent plot styles.
Plot — specifies whether the layer is plotted; when off, the layer is not plotted. Material — specifies the material used during renderings.
LAYOUT MODE PROPERTIES
When drawings are in layout mode, this dialog box displays more columns. (VP is short for “viewport.”)
VP Freeze — freezes the layers in new viewports created in paper space
VP Color, VP Linetype, VP Lineweight, VP Plot Style — specifies the color, linetype, lineweight, and plot style
for the layer in paper space viewports
78
Inside BricsCAD V16
While it is possible to create hundreds and thousands of layers in drawings, it is more common to
work with a few dozen layers; in this book, we work with a mere half-dozen layers to segregate
items like the text, the yard, the road, and so on.
A further advantage to CAD layers is that global properties can be applied to entities. For example,
all entities on a layer called grass could be colored green (or maybe brown, depending on the time of
year). Changing the color of the layer instantly changes the color of all entities assigned to that layer.
NAMING LAYERS
Layers are specified by name. BricsCAD lets you give layers names up to 255 characters long. Start
setting up new layers with the Layers command.
1.
Enter the Layer command:
: layer
Notice the Drawing Explorer dialog box. This dialog box lets you control almost every aspect of layers in drawings.
The drawing already has one layer: 0. Every new BricsCAD drawing has one layer, called “0”, which you can
never erase. Layer 0 has special properties that affect the creation of blocks, as discussed in greater detail
later in this book.
Create a new layer
Rename the layer
Properties of layers
Set the layer current
2. Following the steps illustrated below, create a layer:
a.
Click the New Layer
button. Notice that BricsCAD creates a new layer called “NewLayer1.”
b. Change the name by clicking “NewLayer1.”
c.Type Lot , and then press Enter.
Step 1: Click New button
Step 2: Click new layer name
Step 3: Enter name and press Enter
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 79
3.
Assigning a color to each layer makes it easier to determine which lines belong to which layers. Change the
color of the Lot layer to blue, as follows:
a.
Click the black square under the Color column across from the layer name Lot.
b. The Select Color dialog box appears, displaying 255 colors. Which one to choose?
Above the set of black and gray squares are BricsCAD’s “standard colors,” which are the most-commonly used ones. Select the dark gray square. Notice that the number “8” appears in the Color text box,
because this is color number 8.
c.
Click OK to exit the Select Color dialog box. The color of the square across from layer Lot changes to gray.
4. Add the remaining layer names and colors, using the table as a guide. If you make a spelling mistake, just click
the layer name and type the correction.
New Layer
Lot
House
Road
Lawn
Plants
Pond
5.
Layer Color
Dark gray (color 8)
White (black)
Red (color 1)
Cyan (light blue, color 4)
Green (color 3)
Blue (color 5)
When you finish assigning colors to layer names, pick the Lot layer name, then click in the blank square between the 2 and Lot. Notice the blue ball that appears; it indicates the current layer.
For now, drafting takes place on the Lot layer — until you select another name as the current layer.
6. To exit the Drawing Explorer dialog box, click X at the top right of the dialog box.
80
Inside BricsCAD V16
Notice that the name of the layer on the Entity Properties toolbar changes from 0 to Lot. The color
has changed from black to gray. When you click the layers droplist, you see all of the newly-created
layer names and their properties. Later in this book, you make use of this droplist to control layer
properties.
TIPS There can be some confusion over the color “white” — or is it black? BricsCAD switches white
and black depending on the background color of the drawing area. When the background is black, BricsCAD displays white lines; when white, BricsCAD displays black lines. So, white can be black — at least in the
world of CAD.
To set the background color in BricsCAD, from the Settings menu, select Settings. In the Find field, enter
background color, and then press Enter. Select the color.
Saving Drawings
CommandSave
Ribbon
Home | File | Save
Menu Bar
File | Save
Shortcut
Ctrl+S (Cmd+S on Macs)
As the final activity, save your important work with the Save command, as follows.
1.
On the toolbar, click on the icon that looks like a diskette
(tooltip = Save).
In the ribbon’s Home tab, click the Save button in the File panel.
2.
Because this drawing has a generic name of “Drawing1.Dwg,” BricsCAD displays the Save Drawing As dialog
box to give you a chance to give it a better name. Type the name “Yard” in the File name text entry box.
Step 1: Choose the folder in which to save drawings
Step 2: Enter the drawing's name
3.
Step 3: Click Save to save the drawing
Click the Save button. BricsCAD saves the drawing with the name yard.dwg. From now on, you and BricsCAD refer to this drawing as “Yard.”
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 81
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE SAVEAS COMMAND
The Save As dialog box lets you save drawings in several dialects of DWG. Newer versions of BricsCAD can always
read drawings created by older versions of BricsCAD, Ares, DraftSight, AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, IntelliCAD, and other
DWG-based drafting programs.
Older versions of BricsCAD cannot, however, read drawing files created by newer versions, and this is true of all other
CAD programs, including AutoCAD. For example, BricsCAD V8 cannot read drawings created in BricsCAD V16. When
working with users of older versions of CAD programs, you must make BricsCAD explicitly save drawings in earlier
formats compatible with older software, as described by this table:
Save As File Format
Saves Drawings in File Formats Used By These Versions
AutoCAD 2013 AutoCAD 2010 AutoCAD 2007 20132014201520162017
2010
2011
2012
2007
2008
2009
AutoCAD 2004 AutoCAD 2000 AutoCAD Release 14
AutoCAD Release 13
AutoCAD Release 11/12
2004
2005
2006
2000
2000i
2002
Release 14 (released in 1997)
Release 13 (released in 1994)
Releases 11 and 12 (released in 1990 and 1992, respectively)
Should you need to go all the way back to AutoCAD 10 through 2.5, then use the DXF format, such as “DXF Release 10.”:
AutoCAD Release 10 AutoCAD Release 9 AutoCAD Release 2.6 AutoCAD Release 2.5 R10 (released in 1988)
R9 (released in 1987)
R2.6 (released in 1987)
R2.5 (released in 1986)
DXF is short for “drawing interchange format,” and is a (mostly) open file format read by many CAD and other programs.
BricsCAD imports and exports drawings in DXF format.
Warning! BricsCAD may erase and alter some entities when it translates drawings to earlier
formats of DWG and DXF. Check drawings after translation. This is not the fault of BricsCAD but
due to the way that entities are represented in drawing files.
TIP
When you regularly save drawings in older formats, then you can make one of them
the default. In the Settings dialog box, search for “save format,” and then choose the file format you wish to make the default.
82
Inside BricsCAD V16
MAKING BACKUPS AUTOMATIC
For speed, BricsCAD keeps parts of the drawing in the computer’s memory (RAM). The drawback
is that when the operating system crashes or when the power is cut to the computer, you may lose
some or all of your work. Because crashes are common in older versions of Windows especially, it
is an excellent idea to save drawings every 10 or 15 minutes.
BricsCAD does this automatically, but also lets you specify the interval in which the drawings are
saved — without you needing to repeatedly use the Save command. The default setting is 60 minutes, which is too long.
To ensure that automatic backups are enabled, and to make automatic saves more frequently, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the Settings command.
2.
In the Find field, enter “save time,” and then press Enter.
3.
Change the value from 60 to 10.
QUICK SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVE SAVE FORMATS
In addition to saving drawings in AutoCAD’s .dwg file format, BricsCAD can export drawings with the File | Export
command in the following formats:
•
ASCII and binary DXF (*.dxf)
•
Template (*.dwt)
•
Adobe Portable Document Format (*.pdf)
•
Scalable Vector Graphics (*.svg)
•
Windows Bitmap (*.bmp), Metaformat (*.wmf), and Enhanced Metaformat (*.emf)
•
And many versions of DWF, such as 2D, 3D, binary, ASCII, and compressed ASCII
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 83
TIPThe Save Time Interval setting specifies how much time elapses before BricsCAD saves drawings. Don’t set this number too low, otherwise the computer spends so much time saving to disk that
other work cannot be done.
4. If it isn’t already, you might want to turn on Incremental Save Backup. This means that BricsCAD keeps the
previous saved file as a backup copy — and that’s a good thing.
5.
Click X to close the dialog box.
TIP Automatic saves and backups are not made to the original files. Instead, during automatic
saves, BricsCAD saves drawings with the extension of .sv$ and backed up files with .bak.
6. If you need to take a break at this point, use File | Exit. BricsCAD closes its window and you find yourself back
at the desktop.
Although BricsCAD automatically saves drawings, it is still a good idea for you to save your work
after finishing a significant amount of editing.
84
Inside BricsCAD V16
Summary
Let’s review the drawing to this point. Although you haven’t drawn anything yet, the drawing file
contains a fair amount of information.
On the toolbar, you see the color of the current layer is gray and its name is Lot.
On the status line, you see that the coordinates are displaying in decimal units, or meters; and that
drafting modes, like snap, grid, and model, are turned on.
The grid is made of dots.
The automatic backup feature saves your drawing six times an hour.
In the next lesson, you begin to draw!
chapter 3 Setting Up a New Drawing 85
86
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 4
Creating Your First
Drawing
The point to 2D CAD is to draft drawings efficiently, and then print them — either on paper or electronically. Here you learn how to draw lines, accurately, how to make changes to them, and then produce
a copy of your first drawing on a printer.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Drawing with lines and polylines
•
Understanding absolute and relative distances
•
Using polar coordinates
•
Modifying entities
•
Plotting (printing) drawings
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Absolute coordinate — refers to measurements made relative to the drawing’s origin
Aperture — refers to the area around the cursor in which BricsCAD searches for entities to snap to
Direct distance entry — specifies points by moving the mouse in a direction, then entering the distance
Extent — refers to the invisible rectangle that encompasses all entities in drawings
Fillet — rounds corners
Mirror — mirrors copies of entities
Entity (entity) snap — snaps the cursor to geometric features, such as to the ends of lines
Origin — refers to the location of x=0, y=0, usually at the lower-left corner of drawings
Ortho — constrains cursor movement to the vertical and horizontal; short for “orthographic”
Pick cursor — refers to the square cursor in which BricsCAD searches for entities to select
Polar coordinate — describes measurements specified by distances and angles
Relative coordinate — describes measurements made relative to the last point
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
@ Specifies relative coordinates, such as @2,3
#
Specifies absolute coordinates, such as #4,5
<
Specifies angles, such as 10<45
-
Forces BricsCAD to use the command-line version of a command, such as -layer
[option] Indicate command options, such as [Undo]
<value> Indicate the default (current) value, such as <LOT>
x
Specifies the X coordinate along the horizontal axis
y
Specifies the Y coordinate along the vertical axis
NEW COMMANDS
Command
Aliases
Menu Selection
Ribbon Tab
CancelEsc... ...
Fillet
f or fi
Modify | Fillet
Change | Modify | Fillet
Mirror
mi
Modify | 2D Mirror
Change | Arrange | 2D Mirror
Move
m
Modify | Move
Change | Arrange | Move
Open
op or Ctrl+O
File | Open
Home | File | Open
OSnap
os or F3
Settings | Settings
Settings | Settings
PLine
pl
Draw | Polyline
Draw | Draw | Polyline
Plot
Ctrl+P
File | Print
Home | Print/Plot | Print
QSave
Ctrl+S
File | Save
Home | File | Save
Zoom
z
View | Zoom
View | Zoom | Zoom
1
The ellipsis (...) indicates no menu selection is available.
1
88
Inside BricsCAD V16
Reopening Drawings
CommandOpen
Ribbon
Home | File | Open
Menu Bar
File | Open
ShortcutCtrl+O
If you exited BricsCAD at the end of the last lesson, then you need to restart BricsCAD, and then
load the Yard drawing.
TIP
The Recent Drawings item of the File menu always holds the names of the last ten drawings you
opened with BricsCAD. Here’s how to do this:
1. Click File on the menu bar.
2. Slide your cursor down to Recent Drawings, and then click on yard.dwg.
See figure below.
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
By the end of this lesson, your drawing should look like this one:
Tutorial-04.dwg can be downloaded from
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/28941239/Inside-BricsCAD-Tutorial-Files.zip
(For imperial units, open Imp-tutorial-04.dwg.)
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 89
Notice that when the Yard drawing opens in BricsCAD, it looks exactly the same as when you last
saw it — that is to say blank, except for the grid lines.
Drawing the Lot Boundary
CommandLine
Ribbon
Draw | Draw | Line
Menu Bar
Draw | Line
Alias
L
Let’s get some lines on the screen! To orient yourself, the first thing to do is to draw the boundary
of the yard. That helps you see the extents of the drawing.
The lines making up the lot boundary are drawn with the Line command. You begin drawing the lot
lines at the lower-left corner, the origin (0,0), then work counterclockwise around the lot boundary,
as shown in the following illustration.
@23<180
Angle of line: 216.88
Length of line: 15
C (close)
35,0
Start at 0,0
(the origin)
90
Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
First, ensure DYN is turned off on the status bar; the word should look gray. This turns off dynamic input, so
that all prompts appear in the Command bar.
2.
Enter the Line command, as ollows:
: line
3.
Respond to the ‘Specify first point:’ prompt by typing the coordinates of the origin:
: _line Start of line: 0,0
4. To draw the lower boundary line 35m long, you need to tell BricsCAD that the far end of the line is located at
the x,y coordinates of 35,0. (In imperial units, this is 116',0.)
Angle/Length/Undo/<End point>: 35,0
TIP
Notice that the prompt line Angle/Length/Undo/ is separated by slashes. The slashes indicate
that these words are options of the Line command. If you were now to type “undo”...
Angle/Length/Undo/<End point>: undo
...BricsCAD would un-draw the last line segment. “Angle” and “Length” are other options that
specify the angle and length of line segments. Later, you will encounter another option, “Close.”
5.
The next line is 24m north. Its endpoint is located at coordinates 35,24.
(In imperial units, draw to 116',80'. Remember to include the apostrophe ' with each distance; the apostrophe
indicates feet; if you were to leave it out, BricsCAD would interpret the numbers as inches, and you would
end up with a very small yard!)
Angle/Length/Follow/Undo/<End point>: 35,24
6. You drew the first two lines with absolute coordinates, where you calculated the coordinates based on measurements relative to the origin at 0',0'. BricsCAD, however, can do these calculations for you when you use
polar coordinates, in which you specify the distance and angle.
Continue drawing the lot boundary by combining relative and polar coordinates like this:
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: @23<180
(In imperial units: End point: @76'<180)
With all that punctuation, entering @23<180 can feel like quite a typing chore. I’m getting you to type coordinates for now so that later you will appreciate other, less cumbersome input methods!
TIPS
When you tell BricsCAD to draw a line with the above relative polar coordinates, you enter a
special notation that has the following meaning:
Notation
Meaning
@
Use relative coordinates
23
Distance is 23m from the current point
<
Draw the line at an angle...
180
...of 180 degrees
Lines are drawn relative to the current point; the angle, however, is measured in absolute degrees using
the East-is-0-degrees convention. Using relative polar coordinates makes sense when you have many
angled lines to draw.
In the meantime, if you make a mistake entering the coordinate notation, simply use the Undo option (type U
at the prompt) and reenter the coordinates.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 91
7.
Enter the coordinates for the next endpoint using the Angle option, as follows:
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: a
Angle of line: 216.88
Length of line: 15
(In imperial units, Length of line: 50'.)
Notice that the Angle option removes the need to use the @ and < characters.
The Length option works the same way, but prompts first for the length, then the angle.
8. To finish the lot boundary, you use a shortcut. Type c (short for “Close”) to close the boundary — instead of
typing the final coordinates (0,0):
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: c
BricsCAD automatically draws a line from the current endpoint to the beginning of the first line.
As mentioned earlier, slashes surround options names. All of the options for the Line command are
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/ :
Angle — asks you to enter the angle of the next line segment, followed by length
Length — asks you to enter the length of the next line segment, followed by angle
Follow — asked you to show the angle with the mouse, and then enter the length
Close — BricsCAD closes the polygon formed by the lines
Undo — BricsCAD undoes the drawing of the last line segment
9. To add space around the drawing, use the Zoom command to make the drawing 10% smaller, as follows:
: zoom
In/Out/All/Center/Extents/Left/Previous/Right/Window/<Scale (nX/nXP)>: 0.9x
This zooms the drawing 90% as large as it was before.
Instead of drafting on paper, you have created your first digital drawing! More importantly, you
have drawn it full size — even if it looks small on your computer screen. This is one of the most
powerful aspects of CAD: everything is drawn full size. There is no need for a scale ruler or to divide
distances by a scale factor as in manual drafting.
92
Inside BricsCAD V16
Planning the Next Steps
The next step is to draw the outline of the house. The lower-right corner of the house is located 3m
up and 6m in from the lot corner.
There are several ways in BricsCAD to locate one entity relative to another, in this case the corner
of the house relative to the property line. You could...
•
Calculate the coordinates of the house’s corner.
•
Use the XLine command to draw a pair of construction lines, then start drawing from their intersection.
•
Use the From option to start drawing from an offset from the lot corner.
•
Use tracking to offset the starting point (described in a later lesson).
•
Draw the house in the corner of the lot, then move the house into position.
Please don’t feel overwhelmed by this list of many options. I showed them to you purely to make
the point that in CAD there often are many ways to skin a cat.
In this tutorial, you use the last method in the list: draw, and then move. It demonstrates two of
BricsCAD’s most powerful commands, PLine and Move. But first, make a layer change.
CHANGING LAYERS
Command
-Layer
Before you draw the house, you need to change the layer to “House.” Continuing with the theme of
many approaches to solving drafting problems, a significant number of BricsCAD’s commands can
be carried out in more than one way. Here you learn an alterative way to control layers.
In the previous chapter, you used the Drawing Explorer dialog box to create and color new layers
and to set “Lot” as the current (or working) layer. Another method is to change the layer through a
droplist on the ribbon, status bar, or toolbar. And then there is yet another method:
In this part of the tutorial, you change layers by typing the command and its options at the keyboard
by entering the -Layer command. The hyphen ( - ) in front of Layer forces the command to display
its prompts in the command bar.
1.
To set the House layer with the -Layer command, enter the following:
: -layer
2.
The -Layer command has more than a dozen options, most of which you ignore for now:
? to list/New/Make/Set/Color/Ltype/LWeight/TRansparency/MATerial/Plot/stAte/ON/OFF/Freeze/
Thaw/LOck/Unlock: s
Enter s, and BricsCAD invokes the Set option. It sets another layer as active, whose name you specify.
3.
BricsCAD prompts you to enter the name of the layer to make active. To change the working layer to House,
type “house” and then press Enter.
New layer to make current: house (Press Enter.)
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 93
4.The House layer is now current.
The -Layer command repeats its many-optioned prompt. Press Esc to cancel the command and return to the
‘ : ’ prompt.
? to list/New/Make/Set/.../Unlock: (Press Esc.)
:
TIP You can cancel commands at any time by pressing Esc. Sometimes, however, you may need to
press Esc two or even three times in commands that have large numbers of sub-options, such as the PEdit
command.
5.
Look at the ribbon, status bar, or toolbar to confirm that BricsCAD has changed the working layer from layer
Lot to layer House.
TIP For all of command options, BricsCAD capitalizes one (or more) letters of each option. To select
an option, you need type only its capitalized character, such as S for the Set option.
When two (or more) options begin with the same first letter — such as LType and LWeight — then you
need to enter the first two characters, as specified by the capitalization — LT and LW in this case.
There are a few times when the character that’s capitalized is in the middle of the option name, such as A
for the stAte option. This is because the all the other letters in stAte were already taken up by other option
abbreviations.
By capitalizing them, BricsCAD shows you the fewest characters you need to enter for it to know what
you’re talking about. So you could enter SE for the Set option or LTY for LType.
Drawing the House Outline
Status Bar
ORTHO
Ribbon
Settings | Settings | Draw Orthogonal
Menu
Settings | Draw Orthogonal
ShortcutsCtrl+L
F8
CommandPline
Ribbon
Draw | Draw | Polyline
Menu Bar
Draw | Polyline
Alias
PL
Earlier, you drew the lot boundary as a polygon with the Line command. It looked like a continuous
line that was made of several segments and vertices (corners). Each segment, however, is independent; they only look connected. This disconnected group of lines can be difficult to deal with when
it comes to selecting something like the entire lot boundary at once.
To remedy this, BricsCAD offers a special kind of line called the “polyline.” Polylines are lines made
up of many features, as suggested by the prefix poly. They can be made of lines and arcs, or of
snaky-looking spline-like shapes; plines can have widths (which lines cannot), and even varying
widths — all connected together as a single entity, as illustrated below.
94
Inside BricsCAD V16
Segment
Vertex
End point
Arc
(aka polyarc)
Width
Start point
Length
1.
Because the lines describing the house are all at right angles, I recommend using orthographic mode, known
as “ortho” for short. The mode constrains cursor movement to the horizontal and vertical directions. Turn on
ortho mode by clicking the ORTHO button on the status bar so that it turns black.
As confirmation, BricsCAD reports the following:
2.
: <Ortho on>
Draw the house’s outline as a polyline. (The figure further below gives the dimensions for the outline of the
house.) To do so, enter the PLine command.
: pline
BricsCAD prompts you for the point from which to begin drawing the polyline. But instead of specifying coordinates, you this time ask BricsCAD to find a geometric feature by using entity snap:
ENTER to use last point/Follow/<Start of polyline>: int
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE PLINE COMMAND
A polyline consists of numerous lines and/or arcs connected together as a single entity. Polylines are drawn with the
PLine command, and edited with the PEdit command.The PLine command has the following options for drawing polylines:
: pline
ENTER to use last point/Follow/<Start of polyline>:
Arc/Close/Distance/Follow/Halfwidth/Width/Undo/<Next point>:
Next point — specifies the location of the polyline’s next vertex
Arc — draws polyarcs; you can switch between lines and arcs when drawing polylines
Close — joins the last endpoint with the starting point
Follow — draws a specific distance, in the direction of the cursor’s angle
Halfwidth — specifies the width of polylines by the distance from their center line to their outside edge
Width — specifies the width of polyline segments; allows independent starting and ending widths for creating tapered
polylines
Undo — undoes the last polyline drawing operation
Press Esc to exit the PLine command.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 95
When you enter int (short for “intersection”), BricsCAD attempts to snap to the nearest intersection, rather
than snapping to the nearest 0.1m you had specified earlier with the snap mode. Entity snaps override
regular snap distance. Here, the intersection snap overrides the 0.1m-snap. This is sometimes referred to as
“entity snap override.”
8.5 (28')
6 (20')
1 (3')
16 (50')
Start here with INT osnap
10 (30')
C (close)
3.
BricsCAD then prompts you to position the cursor near the intersection of two lines.
Snap to intersection of:
(Pick the lower-right corner of the lot.)
Snap marker (X)
Tooltip
a.
Move the cursor until the aperture is over the lower-right corner of the lot boundary. The tooltip reports
the entity snap found by BricsCAD.
b. Click — press the left mouse button. BricsCAD “captures” the intersection as the starting point for the
polyline.
96
Inside BricsCAD V16
QUICK SUMMARY OF ENTITY SNAP MODES
BricsCAD has the following entity (object) snaps that look for specific geometric features on entities:
Mode
CommandSnaps to...
app
cen
end
ext
from
gcen
ins
int
mid
nea
nod
APParent
CENter
ENDpoint
EXTension
FROM
GCENter
INSertion INTersection
MIDpoint
NEArest
NODe
Apparent intersections of two entities
Center of arcs, circles, and polyarcs
Either end of lines, arcs, and other open entities
Extension of two entities
Offset distance from a specified point
Geometric center of objects (new to V16)
Insertion point of blocks and text
Intersection of lines, arcs, circles, and other entities
Middle of lines, arcs, and other open entities
Nearest point on the nearest entity
Point entities
par
per
qua
qui
tan
PARallel
PERpendicular
QUAdrant
QUIck
TANgent
Parallel to lines and other entities
Perpendicular to lines, arcs, and other entities
0-, 90-, 180-, and 270-degree points on arcs, circles, and polyarcs
First geometric feature found by BricsCAD
The tangents of arcs and circles
The M2p command is kind of like an entity snap, in that it finds the middle between two points.
Because more than one entity snap can be active at a time, BricsCAD provides a number of visual cues to
identify the current one. You can toggle the visual cues through the Program Options | Display section of the
Settings dialog box.
Snap marker (X)
Tooltip
The table below illustrates on-screen markers associated with each entity snap mode.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 97
DIRECT DISTANCE ENTRY
As CAD systems improve, they develop easier way to specify distances and angles. Let’s now look
at a shortcut called “direct distance entry” (DDE). It combines cursor movement with keyboard
entry — you directly show BricsCAD the angle, and then type in the distance. It’s a lot quicker than
typing values of angles — and more intuitive, too.
Carrying on with the tutorial, here is how to use DDE:
4. The second line of the prompt displays many options, but don’t let them intimidate you; for now, you ignore
all of them, except for the default, ‘Next point.’
Arc/Distance/Follow/Halfwidth/Width/<Next point>: (Move cursor up)
Here is how to do direct distance entry:
a.
First, move the cursor up towards the top of the drawing. The distance does not matter, only the direction. (Other ways of saying “move the cursor up” include “in the positive y direction,” or “to the North,”
or “at 90 degrees”).
b. Then, on the keyboard, type 10 and press Enter. (In imperial units, 30')
Notice that the line is drawn upwards, 10m long. Direct distance entry is like another form of relative coordinates: BricsCAD measures the 10m relative to the last entered point.
DYNAMIC INPUT
Let’s now move to another way of using direct distance entry, one that is even more interactive
with the drawing area. It is known as “dynamic input,” because it displays distances and angles
dynamically — right at the cursor in the drawing. Let’s see how it works:
5.
To use dynamic input for the next segment, the 1m line, follow these steps:
a.
On the status bar, ensure DYN is turned on. When black (instead of gray) then dynamic input is on.
Notice that a couple of “dimensions” immediately appear in the drawing area:
b. These are known as “dynamic dimensions,” because they change as you move the cursor. Try it now:
Move the cursor and watch how the length and angle values change.
Left to right: Dynamic dimension values changing as the cursor moves
98
Inside BricsCAD V16
TIP
When you enter numbers at the keyboard, they are entered into the blue field. Notice in the
figures above that the length field is highlighted in blue.
To move between the length and angle fields, press the Tab key. In the figure below, the angle field (135
degrees) turns blue, as shown below.
c.
Enter the length of the wall, 1 and then press Tab. (In imperial units: 3'.)
Notice that the length field (1 or 3) turns red. This tells you that BricsCAD has accepted the value, and
has locked it temporarily.
d. When you pressed Tab in the last step, BricsCAD highlighted the angle field in blue. This means that it is
ready for input: enter the angle of the wall, 0 (degrees)...
e.
...and then press Tab again to lock the value. (To change the length and/or angle, press Tab to switch
between the two fields.)
Accept the length and angle values by pressing Enter.
6. Draw the remainder of the house outline by moving the cursor in the appropriate direction, and then entering the distances:
Cursor Direction
Metric Distance
Imperial Distance
East13'
North620'
West8.528'
South 1650'
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 99
7.
Complete the polyline with the C option, as you did with the Line command.
8.5 (28')
6 (20')
1 (3')
16 (50')
Start here with INT osnap
10 (30')
C (close)
When Lot was the working layer, the lines you drew showed up in blue. You changed the layer to
House, and BricsCAD automatically drew the lines in black instead. This shows that lines take on
the color specified by their layer. (You can, if you need to, change colors on-the-fly with the Color
command.)
Moving the House into Position
CommandMove
Ribbon
Change | Arrange | Move
Menu Bar
Modify | Move
Alias
M
Now that you’ve drawn the outline of the house, you need to move it into position. Entities are
moved with the Move command.
1.
Enter Move the ‘Command:’ prompt:
: move
2.
Select entities to move:
(“Entities” is an older word that means the same as objects.)
At the same time, BricsCAD changes the crosshair cursor into a small square cursor, called the pick cursor.
3.
Move the cursor to any part of the house’s polyline, and then press the pick button.
100
Notice that BricsCAD asks what you want to move:
Select entities to move: (Pick the outline of the house)
Inside BricsCAD V16
The entire house outline is highlighted. The highlighting shows as a dotted line, which is how BricsCAD lets
you know it found the entity you picked.
Selected polyline
is highlighted
Select polyline with pick cursor
4. BricsCAD reports the number of entity selected, and then lets you make additional selections, if need be. The
prompt repeats:
Select entities to move: (Press Enter to exit entity selection)
Because you are moving just one polyline, press Enter to end the entity selection process.
5.
Just as when drawing lines, the Move command needs to know a from-point and a to-point. But here the
from-point is named the “base point,” as follows:
Enter base point: <Displacement>: 0,0
(If you were to press Enter at the ‘Enter base point <Displacement>’ prompt, BricsCAD would ask for the
displacement vector, which consists of a move in the x,y, and z directions.)
6. Now BricsCAD wants to know where you want to move the selected entities. The Move command calls the
to-point the “displacement point,” as follows:
Displacement point <ENTER to use base point as displacement>: -6,3
Y = -3 (-10')
X = -6 (-20')
Displacement point
Base point
The coordinates -6,3 (in imperial units: -20',10') tell BricsCAD to move the house left by 6m (x direction = –6
meters) and up by 3m (y direction = 3). BricsCAD instantly relocates the house much faster than a house
mover. The Move command shows you a powerful aspect of CAD: no eraser dust!
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 101
7.
It’s a good idea to regularly save your work. Press Ctrl+S, and BricsCAD silently saves the drawing to disk. The
only indication is that “: _qsave” appears on the command line.
Alternatively, you can click the diskette icon on the toolbar, enter the QSave command, or select Save from
the File menu.
Starting on the Driveway
The final drafting for this project is to add the driveway and the street. Before drawing them, change
the layer to Road using the technique described below. Once the layer is set correctly, you will draw
the driveway and street outlines using a shortcut. Once the upper roadwork is drawn, you duplicate
it with a single command to create the lower roadworks.
1.
On the toolbar, status bar, or ribbon, click on the House layer name.
2.
When the list box appears, select Road. BricsCAD changes the layer name from House to Road and the working color from black to red. Below, I show the toolbar version of the Layers droplist.
3.
Ensure that ortho mode is still on by glancing at the status bar. The ORTHO button should be in black text.
4. Start the Line command:
: line
...and then draw the upper driveway and street line using direct distance entry, as follows:
ENTER to use last point/Follow/<Start of line>: int
Snap to intersection of: (Pick upper-right corner of house)
Angle/Length/Undo/<End point>: 8.5
Angle/Length/Follow/Undo/<End point>: 12
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: (Press ENTER to end the command)
From point: INT
12 (40')
8.5 (28')
102
Inside BricsCAD V16
Recall that you can “back up” to undraw incorrect lines with u (short for “Undo”), as follows:
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: 21
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: u
Angle/Length/Follow/Close/Undo/<End point>: 12
FINISHING THE DRIVEWAY
CommandFillet
Ribbon
Change | Modify | Fillet
Menu Bar
Modify | Fillet
Alias
F
To add the curb return — the arc joining the driveway and street — use BricsCAD’s Fillet command.
It draws arcs between intersecting lines. The lines don’t have to physically meet; BricsCAD takes
care of extending (or trimming) the lines so that the arc is drawn between them.
You use the Fillet command by specifying the radius of the arc and then applying the fillet.
1.
To start the command, enter the Fillet command, or else do as I do: just type f at the ‘ : ’ prompt.
: f
2.
Notice that BricsCAD reports the current fillet radius. To change it, enter the hidden r option:
_filet
Fillet (radius=0.50): Settings/Polyline/Radius/Trim/Undo/Multiple/<Select first entity>: r
TIP
If you follow the official route by entering “s” for the Settings option, then BricsCAD opens the
Settings dialog box at the section where the fillet radius is specified. Just another case of more than one
way to skin cats.
3.
Enter the fillet radius of one meter (three feet in imperial units):
Fillet radius <radius=0.50>: 1
4. With the fillet radius set to 1m, perform the filleting, as follows:
Fillet (radius=0.50): Settings/.../<Select first entity>: (Pick one line)
Select second entity: (Pick the other line)
BricsCAD automatically adjusts the two lines to fit the 1m arc between them.
Select second object
Select first object
Fillet radius = 3'
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 103
Mirroring Entities
CommandMirror
Ribbon
Change | Modify | 2D Mirror
Menu Bar
Modify | 2D Mirror
Alias
MI
Above, you used the Line and Fillet commands to create one part of the roadway. A very important
concept behind computer-aided anything is that you should never have to draw the same line twice.
To illustrate the power of this concept, use the Mirror command to duplicate the lower driveway
and street line without having to draw them! This command creates mirrored copies of entities,
naturally: the copy is the reverse of the original.
1. Enter the Mirror command:
: _mirror
2.
Select entities to mirror: (Pick the driveway line)
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to mirror: (Pick the curb return)
Entities in set: 2
Select entities to mirror: (Pick the street line)
Entities in set: 3
Select entities to mirror: (Press Enter to end entity selection)
3.
104
BricsCAD asks you to select the entities you want to mirror. Use the cursor to pick the line and arc segments,
as follows:
BricsCAD needs you to specify the mirror line, an imaginary line about which it mirrors the entities you just
picked. Use Midpoint and Perpendicular entity snaps to help you:
Start of mirror line: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick center of garage entrance)
Inside BricsCAD V16
End of mirror line: per
Snap to perpendicular of: (Pick right-hand lot boundary)
The length of the mirror line is not important, but its angle is crucial. For this reason, you used two new entity
snap modes: mid to find the midpoint of the garage entrance and per to ensure the mirror line is perpendicular to the lot boundary.
4. At this point, BricsCAD gives you the option of erasing the old entities — the two lines and arc you picked. In
most cases, as in this case, you don’t want them erased:
Delete the original entities? <N> n
BricsCAD draws the lower driveway and street outline as a perfect mirror image of the upper set.
You have now drawn the outline of the lot, house, and driveway. The work you have done is valuable and it is important that you save the drawing to disk. Use the QSave command to store the
drawing on disk.
Putting Drawings to Paper
CommandPrint
Ribbon
Home | Print/Plot | Print
Menu Bar
File | Print
ShortcutCtrl+P
While it is efficient (and environmentally aware) to create and store drawings on computers and
share them electronically via email or Web sites, you may want to print copies on paper. That lets
you mark up the drawing with notes or show off your progress to friends and family!
The Print command sends the drawing to printers, plotters (oversize printers), and files. It is also
known as the print command. Traditionally, “plotters” used motors to move the pen over the paper,
while “printers” are what we mostly use today – laser printers and inkjet printers.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 105
The following series of dialog boxes assumes you have a printer compatible with Windows or Linux
attached to your computer. (The method for printing with Macs is roughly similar, but shows different dialog boxes.)
1.Press Ctrl+P or enter the Print command. Notice that BricsCAD displays the Plot [Model] dialog box.
(Old timers might enter the command as “plot,” but this makes the command’s options appear in the Command bar, instead of in the dialog box.)
Drawing orientation: Landscape
Plot offset: Center on Page
Choose a printer
Choose Extents
Choose Fit
print area to
size of page
Click Preivew
2.
The dialog box has many options. Fortunately you can ignore most options, except for these:
Printer/Plotter Configuration
Select a printer from the Name droplist. BricsCAD supports local and networked printers.
Plot Area
106
Select Extents. This option ensures everything in your drawing is plotted on the paper.
Inside BricsCAD V16
Plot Scale
Check that Fit Print Area to Size of Page is selected. This ensures the entire drawing will be plotted, and
that it won’t be too large or too small.
Page Orientation
If the orientation of the paper doesn’t match that of the drawing, then you need to change it. The paper
is tall but the drawing is wide. To change the orientation of the paper, select Landscape.
Plot Offset
3.
Turn on the Center on Page option to have the drawing nicely centered on the paper.
To check that the drawing fits the paper, click the Preview button. The drawing appears simulated on a sheet
of paper.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 107
4. If the drawing looks alright to you, then click Print to print the drawing.
(If, however, the preview shows a problem, click Close to exit, and return to the Print dialog box to adjust
settings.)
BricsCAD sends the drawing to the printer, and it should appear a few seconds later looking exactly
like the preview.
SOLVING PRINTING PROBLEMS
If the printer does not produce the drawing correctly, here are some items to check:
•
Check in the Print dialog box that...
...drawings are centered on the page
...and check that the Extents of the drawings is printed.
These two settings ensure that all of the drawing will be printed on the paper.
Left: Print will be centered on page.
Right: Print will be made to drawing extents.
QUICK SUMMARY OF PRINT PREVIEW
The Print Preview window has the following controls:
Print button prints the drawing as shown.
Close closes the window, and returns to the Print dialog box.
Print Settings also returns to the Print dialog box.
Zoom droplist changes the size of the preview image; scale ranges from 10% to 500%.
TIP
If the Preview button is grayed out in the Print dialog box, this means you have not
yet selected a printer for this drawing.
To make preview available, select a printer — any printer! — from the Printer/Plotter Configuration droplist:
108
Inside BricsCAD V16
•
Check the printer:
Is it turned on?
Does it have paper?
Is the paper not jammed?
Are the toner or ink cartridges not low”
Are there any warning messages or lights?
Left and right: Warning lights from various printers.
•
Check that the BricsCAD is printing to the correct printer. The operating system sometimes mistakenly lists
names of printers that are not necessarily accessible by the computer.
•
In some cases, the spooler acts up in Windows. The spooler is software that feeds data to the printer, allowing you to continue working with BricsCAD while the printer works in the background. Sometimes, the
spooler plugs up, preventing the printer from receiving the data.
To fix the problem, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
Click Start, and then Devices and Printers in Windows 7.
(In Windows 8, press Windows+W, and then enter “printers” in the Search field. Choose View Devices
and Printers.)
In the window, click Add a Printer. Install the same printer as the one that is giving you problems.
You now have two drivers for the same printer. Remove the first printer: right-click its icon, and then
choose Remove Device.
4. Printing should now work.
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 109
GENERATING PDFS OF DRAWINGS
The PDF format from Adobe is a popular way of sharing drawings electronically, so that you can
send them by email or post them to Web sites. When drawings are saved in PDF format, they can
be viewed but not altered.
To save drawings in PDF format in BricsCAD, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the Export command.
2. In the Export Drawing As dialog box, click the Files of Type droplist, and then choose “Adobe PDF (*.pdf)”.
3.
Click Save.
You can open the PDF file in Acrobat Reader or another program that displays .pdf files.
Specifying PDF Output Options
You can control aspects of the PDF files produced by BricsCAD. While this is done through the
Settings command, the quick way to access options specific to PDF files is with the PdfOptions
command. The Settings dialog box conveniently opens up at the section for PDF Export options,
as illustrated below.
Here is an explanation of the settings available, along with the default values in parentheses:
PDF Embed Fonts (on) embeds TTF font files in the PDF file:
•
•
(new to V16) PDF Text is Seachable (off) allows text to be searched in the PDF file.
PDF Simple Geometry Optimization (on) reduces the file size by combining individual line segments into
polylines, and uses Bezier control points to define splines. This option does not affect the drawing, only the
resulting PDF file.
PDF Zoom to Extents Mode (on) exports the drawing unscaled, so that its extends fit the page
PDF Layer Support (1) determines whether layers are included:
110
PDF TTF Text as Geometry (off) converts text made with TTF fonts into geometry (lines and arcs)
PDF SHX Text as Geometry (off) converts text made with SHX fonts into geometry
0 Exclude layers; export entities with no layer information (this is a form of security)
1 Export layers, except those turned off (default setting)
2 Export all layers, including those turned off
Inside BricsCAD V16
PDF Layouts to Export (1) specifies which layouts should be included in the PDF file:
0 Only the current “active” layout; this is like plotting a single layout (default setting)
1 All layouts; the PDF file becomes a multi-page PDF, with each layout on its own page
PDF Papersize Override — determines whether the PDF page should be of a custom size:
•
•
PDF Overridden Paper Width (210) specifies the width of the PDF page in millimeters
PDF Overridden Paper Height (297) specifies the height in millimeters
PDF Use Plotstyles (on) determines whether the drawing is exported to PDF format using named plot styles;
named plot styles must exist in the drawing
Image Anti-Aliasing (on) applies anti-aliasing (smoothing) to images requiring upscaling for export to PDF
format
(new to V16) Image Compression (JPEG) specifies whether to compress raster images in drawings; 0 = off.
Image DPI (300) specifies the minimum resolution of raster images
Render DPI (300) specifies the minimum resolution of rendered images
Hatch to bitmap DPI (300) exports hatch patterns as raster bitmaps, and specifies their resolution
Summary
Congratulations! You’ve drafted your very first drawing using a computer. You can save the drawing
as a memento of your introduction to computer-aided drafting.
In the next lesson, you learn how to add details to drawings, such as hatching and symbols (blocks).
chapter
4 Creating Your First Drawing 111
112
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 5
Adding Details
to Drawings
So far you’ve learned how to draw lines to create the outlines of the lot, the house, and the driveway.
Now it’s time to add details, like the lawn, some trees, and a pond. Here you learn to use BricsCAD’s intermediate commands, such as those that create ellipses, place hatch patterns, and draw offsets.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Drawing circles and ellipses
•
Editing with grips
•
Applying hatch patterns to areas
•
Arraying entities
•
Making parallel offsets of entities
•
Creating symbols (blocks)
•
Performing real-time zooming and panning
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Drag — describes holding down the left mouse button while moving selected entities
Grip — describes the small square that indicates the editing points on a selected entity
Grips editing — refers to selecting entities, and then applying editing commands
Hatch pattern — displays a repeating pattern that indicates the material of entities
Palette or bar — describes a window that provides continuous information about BricsCAD
Real time — refers to an action in BricsCAD that occurs as the same time as you move the mouse
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
L
W last (used by entity selection)
window (used by entity selection and zooming)
NEW COMMANDS
CommandAliasesMenu BarRibbon Tab
Array
Block
Circle
Ellipse
Hatch
Insert
Offset
Pan
PEdit
RtZoom Zoom Window
114
ar
b
c
el
h
i
o
p, -p
pe
...
z w
Inside BricsCAD V16
Modify | 2D Array
Tools | Create Block
Draw | Circle
Draw | Ellipse
Draw | Hatch
Insert | Block
Modify | Offset
View | Pan
Modify | Edit Polyline
View | Realtime | Realtime Zoom
View | Zoom | Zoom Window
Change | Arrange | 2D Array
Tools | Blocks | Create Block
Draw | Draw | Circle
Draw | Draw | Ellipse
Draw | Hatch | Hatch
Insert | Blocks | Insert Block
Change | Modify | Offset
View | Navigate | Real-time Pan
...
View | Navigate | Real-time Zoom
View | Zoom | Zoom Window
Dividing the Lot
The yard has both a lawn and a garden area. In this tutorial, you draw the boundary between the
two areas with a polyline using the PLine command, and then smooth it with the PEdit (polyline
edit) command.
If BricsCAD is not running, start it now. If you did not complete the previous lesson, open the tutorial-04.dwg file found on the Web page at https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/28941239/Inside-
BricsCAD-Tutorial-Files.zip. (If you’re doing the tutorials in imperial units, open Imp-tutorial-04.dwg.)
Before starting to draw, though, take these steps:
1.
You won’t be drawing at right angles, so turn off ortho mode by clicking the ORTHO button on the status bar.
It should look gray to indicate it is turned off.
2.
Change the working layer to Lawn; its color should be cyan (light blue). Here are several different ways to do
this:
•
In the toolbar interface, choose “Lawn” from the Layers droplist (as shown below).
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
By the end of this lesson, your drawing should look similar to this one:
Tutorial-05.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
(For tutorials in imperial units, download Imp-tutorial-04.dwg.)
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 115
•
In the ribbon interface, choose “Lawn” from the Layers droplist.
•
In the status bar, right-click the current layer field...
...and then choose “Lawn” from the list.
TIP
If the Current Layer field is not visible on the status bar, then you can add it like this:
1. Click the black arrow at the end of the status bar
2. From the shortcut menu, choose Current Layer.
•
At the command prompt, you can enter the CLayer system variable. (Clayer is short for “current layer,”
and s a quick way to change layers at the keyboard. In fact, this is what the Current Layer field on the
status bar uses.)
: clayer
New current value for CLAYER <"0">: lawn
Now the drawing is ready for you to draw the lawn-garden boundary.
3.
To draw the polyline, start the PLine command.
: pline
4. To determine the polyline’s starting point, you use an entity snap mode. But this time, you will access entity
snap modes differently than in last chapter’s method:
a.
116
Hold down the Shift key on the keyboard.
Inside BricsCAD V16
b. Press the right mouse button, and then let go of the Shift key. Notice the new menu that pops up on the
screen. This is called a “shortcut menu.” It lists all of BricsCAD’s entity snap modes.
c.
Move the cursor down to Snap to Midpoint, and then click. On the command line, notice that BricsCAD
reports:
5.
Start of polyline: _midpoint
Move the cursor to any point on the diagonal portion of the lot line, and then select the line.
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick diagonal lot line)
Polyline snaps to the
midpoint of the segment
BricsCAD snaps the starting point of the polyline to the precise midpoint of the lot’s diagonal line.
6. Moving your way down toward the bottom of the yard line, pick a few more points at roughly 3m to 6m
intervals. (In imperial units: 10' to 20' intervals.)
TIP
If you are not sure how far 3m or 6m is (10ft or 20ft), keep an eye on the distance displayed by
the coordinates on the status bar. Or else turn on DYN on the status bar, and watch the distance dynamically:
7.
When you get to the bottom lot line, press Shift+right mouse button. From the shortcut menu, select Nearest entity snap.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 117
8. Pick anywhere the line crosses the cursor’s aperture box. Again, BricsCAD snaps the polyline precisely to the
lower lot line.
9.Press Esc to end the PLine command.
SMOOTHING POLYLINES
CommandPEdit
Shortcut
double-click the polyline
Menu Bar
Modify | Edit Polyline
Alias
PE
Here is the reason you created the boundary as a polyline: you can now use the PEdit command
(short for “polyline edit”) to change the crooked polyline segments into a smooth flowing curve easily.
1.
To edit the polyline, begin the PEdit command:
: pedit
2.
Pick the polyline.
Select polyline to edit: (Pick the polyline, or type L to choose the last-drawn entity)
Original polyline
(“frame”)
Splined polyline
(cubic Bezier curve)
3.
The PEdit command has many, many options. Its purpose is to change the look of polylines. Use the Spline
option to smooth the straight lines into a flowing curve, as follows:
Edit polyline: Edit vertices/Close/Decurve/Fit/Join/Linetype-mode/Reverse/Spline/
Taper/Width/Undo/<eXit>: s
The straight lines disappear and are replaced by a smooth curve. (Technically, BricsCAD redrew the line segments as a cubic Bezier curve based on the polyline frame.)
4. Exit the PEdit command by pressing Esc.
118
Inside BricsCAD V16
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE PEDIT COMMAND
The PEdit command edits polylines:
: pedit
Edit polyline: Edit vertices/Close/Decurve/Fit/Join/Linetype-mode/Reverse/Spline/Taper/
Width/Undo/<eXit>:
Edit vertices — edits the width and position of individual segments; inserts and removes vertices.
Close — closes an open polyline by drawing a segment between the starting and ending vertices; this prompt is displayed
only when an open polyline is being edited.
Open — opens a closed polyline by erasing the last segment drawn; this prompt is displayed only when a closed polyline
is edited.
Decurve — reverts a curve-fit or splined polyline to its original form.
Fit — applies a curve fit to the polyline.
Join — joins this polyline with another polyline, line, or arc; entities must be connected to form a single polyline (best
done with entity snaps); this option fails when gaps exist between the entities to be joined.
Linetype-mode — determines if linetypes fit over the entire length of the polyline, or between vertices.
Reverse — reverses the direction of the polyline.
Spline — applies a Bezier spline to the polyline.
Taper – applies a varying width to segments.
Width — applies a uniform width to all segments making up the polyline.
Undo — undoes the last polyline editing operation.
eXit — exits the command.
TIP
While you can use the PEdit command’s Edit vertices option to change the shape of
polylines, it is much easier to use grips editing, like this:
1. Select a polyline.
2. Notice the green squares, called “grips.” Pick one; it turns red.
3. Drag the red grip. Notice that the polyline changes its curvature.
4. When done editing the polyline, press Esc.
TIP The letter L is short for “last,” and is shorthand notation for selecting the last entity drawn
still visible on the screen. After you select one or more entities, BricsCAD reports the number selected: “1
found.”
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 119
Grips Editing
You edited the polyline this way: (a) started the PEdit command, then (b) selected the polyline to
edit. This is called “verb-noun editing.” The verb is the command (PEdit), followed by the noun or
entity (the polyline).
BricsCAD can do this in reverse: (a) select the entities, and then (b) edit them. This used to be called
“noun-verb editing,” but Bricsys gives it another name: grips editing.
Grips editing can be a faster and more direct way to edit CAD drawings; but not all editing com-
mands lend themselves to it. Here you use grips editing to change the shape of the splined polyline
separating the garden from the lawn.
TIP If floating toolbars obscure the polyline, use the scroll bar to move the polyline into view. Grab
the horizontal scroll bar and drag it until you clearly see the polyline.
1.
First though, enlarge the view of the splined polyline with the Zoom Window command:
a.
Enter the Zoom command:
: zoom
b. Specify the Window option by entering ‘w’:
Specify corner of window, enter a scale factor (nX or nXP), or
[All/Center/Dynamic/Extents/Previous/Scale/Window/Entity] <real time>: w
Specify first corner: (Pick a point)
c.
The Window option requires you to pick a rectangular area on the screen to magnify.
Specify opposite corner: (Pick another
point)
When you pick points for the first and other corners, you specify the two opposite corners of the rectangle,
as shown in the following figure.
A. Specify first corner
Area to be zoomed into
B. Specify opposite corner
Now that the working area is larger, you can start to edit the polyline using grips. In an earlier lesson, I
pointed out the small square at the center of the crosshair cursor. It is called the “pickbox.” When BricsCAD
displays the pickbox, you can select entities without any command being active.
120
Inside BricsCAD V16
2.
Pick the polyline. Notice that the polyline changes from solid to dashed, and that small green squares appear
on the polyline, including at its ends. The green squares are called “grips,” because they let you grip entities.
Green grips indicate vertices of the straight polyline segments you originally drew, before splining it.
3.
Pick the green grip at the bottom end of the polyline. BricsCAD prompts:
New location for control point: nea
Hot grip
Drag grip to relocate end point
4. Enter the NEAr entity snap mode, and then move the cursor. As you do, the last segment of the polyline
curves and arcs to follow you. (The NEAr entity snap ensures the polyline ends precisely at the lot line.)
5.
Click along the lot line where you want the end of the polyline to move to.
If you wish, feel free to interactively reshape the rest of the polyline, segment by segment.
6. When you are finished reshaping the polyline, press Esc twice to exit modeless editing.
7.
Enter the View Previous command to see the entire drawing again.
HATCHING THE LAWN
CommandHatch
Ribbon
Draw | Hatch | Hatch
Menu Bar
Draw | Hatch
Alias
H
You created the boundary between the lawn and garden, but how do you show the difference be-
tween the areas of grass and dirt? One way is to add symbols that identify areas. In BricsCAD, this
is done with the Hatch command, and in this tutorial you hatch the lawn with the symbol for grass.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 121
QUICK SUMMARY OF EDITING WITH GRIPS
Grips editing is interactive: you select an entity, select one of its grip, and then manipulate the grip to modify the entity.
Unselected object
Select object;
notice green grips
Select a grip;
notice it turns red
Most grips look the same, and so it can be hard to determine their function — until you start to drag one of them.Typically, an interior grip moves the entity, while grips on the periphery stretch or scale the entity.
Periphery grips
stretch (or scale)
objects
Center grips
move objects
GRIPS EDITING COMMANDS
During grips editing, BricsCAD makes available these editing commands: Stretch, Move, Rotate, Scale, Mirror, and Copy.
(The six operate identically to their non-grips equivalents.) To see the commands, you need to press the Spacebar, repeatedly. Each time you do, BricsCAD displays another set of prompts:
** STRETCH **
<Stretch to point>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit:
** MOVE **
<Move to point>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit:
** ROTATE **
<Rotation angle>/Base point/Copy/Undo/Reference/eXit:
** SCALE **
<Scale factor>/Base point/Copy/Undo/Reference/eXit:
** MIRROR **
<Second point>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit:
After ** MIRROR **, BricsCAD repeats the cycle. The other editing options are:
Base point — specifies a base point other than the hot grip.
Copy — copies the entity, using the current grip as the base point.
Reference — changes the reference point from the current hot grip.
Undo — undoes the last editing operation.
eXit — exits non-modal editing mode (or press ESC).
122
Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
First, turn off the grid, since its lines can interfere with seeing the hatch pattern. On the status bar, click GRID
so that the word turns gray.
2.
Enter the Hatch command to start the Hatch command:
: hatch
Notice the Hatch and Gradient dialog box:
3.
To find the grass hatch pattern, click the
button to the right of “Name.”
4. BricsCAD displays the Hatch Pattern Palette dialog box. The patterns are listed alphabetically; look for the
pattern named “Grass1.”
5.
Select Grass1, and then click OK to return to the Hatch dialog box. Notice that Name changes to “Grass1.”
6. Ensure the Scale is set to 1 for metric drawings. (In imperial drawings, change the Scale to 25.) If the scale factor were too small, BricsCAD would refuse to draw the hatch pattern, and then complain,
Hatch spacing too dense, or dash size too small.
Please increase pattern scale or MAXHATCH value.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 123
7.
BricsCAD has a useful feature that searches a contiguous area, no matter how many different borders the
area has. To employ this feature, click the Pick points in Boundaries
button.
8. The dialog box disappears and BricsCAD prompts to pick a point. Do so anywhere in the lawn area.
Select a point to define a boundary or hatch area: (Pick a point inside the lawn area)
Notice that BricsCAD immediately previews the hatch pattern for you. It shows that the scale factor is good
enough. Note how precisely the hatch pattern is applied, and how it is automatically clipped along boundaries. Try doing a hatch pattern that neatly and that quickly by hand!
The hatch preview lets you check for two important things:
•
...that the pattern floods the correct area. Look out for patterns that leak into unwanted areas, or don’t
appear at all.
•
...that the pattern is applied at a good scale factor. Look for one that are too large or too tightly spaced. Pattern scale
too small
Hatch leaked into
adjacent area
Boundaries
124
Inside BricsCAD V16
TIPS
When the scale is much too large, the hatch may seem invisible. When too small, the hatch pattern look like a solid and can takes a very time to display.
There is also a -Hatch command that operates at the command line. It is meant for use by macros and programming routines.
9. Press Enter to return to the dialog box:
Select a point to define a boundary or hatch area: (Press Enter)
10. After you press Enter, the Hatch dialog box reappears. Click OK to exit it.
With all this hard work on your drawing, it’s a good idea to save the drawing to the computer’s hard
disk with the Save command... right now!
Once hatch patterns are in place, they are not cast in stone. You can change them in several ways:
•
You can move entities that make up the boundary of the pattern, and the hatching automatically updates
itself.
•
The hatch does not need to stay in place. You can move it, copy, erase, and so on.
•
Click the hatch entity and BricsCAD brings up the Properties palette, illustrated here. You can change the
color, pattern, scale factor, rotation angle, and so on.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 125
Creating Symbols
You’ve given the lawn area its grass. Now it’s time to add trees and shrubs to the garden area. Instead
of drawing complex things like trees, landscape architects typically draw simple representations,
such as a circle with radiating lines.
And instead of drawing the trees and shrubs over again, designers draw one, and the insert repeating copies of it. The most efficient method is to use the Block command to create one copy, and then
insert multiple copies with the Insert command.
DRAWING CIRCLES
CommandCircle
Ribbon
Draw | Draw | Circle
Menu Bar
Draw | Circle
Alias
C
In this tutorial, you learn how to draw trees as simplified symbols, and then turn them into blocks.
1.
Before starting to draw first tree, make sure the working layer is set to Plants. From a Layer droplist, select
layer “Plants.”
2.
Next, draw a 0.15-meter radius circle. Enter the Draw command, and then specify a radius of 0.15 units (in
imperial units, 6"):
: circle
2Point/3Point/RadTanTan/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>: (Pick a point anywhere in
garden area.)
Diameter/<Radius>: 0.15
When the radius is 0.15, the diameter is 0.3, so don’t be surprised when BricsCAD draws the circle larger than
you expect. (Recall that the radius is half the diameter.)
Zooming in Real Time
CommandRtZoom
Shortcut
scroll the mouse wheel
Ribbon
View | Navigate | Real-time Zoom
Menu Bar
View | Realtime | Realtime Zoom
CommandRegen
Menu Bar
View | Regen
The program lets you zoom in and out without needing to specify a zoom size or ratio. This is done
with the mouse and the RtZoom command:
3.
The 0.3m circle looks very small on the screen. The RtZoom command lets you see your work more clearly.
The command name is short for “real time zoom.”
: rtzoom
>>Press ENTER or Esc to complete, or right-click to display context menu....
126
Inside BricsCAD V16
a.
The cursor changes to a magnifying glass. Drag the cursor over the circle.
b. As you move the mouse forward and backward, BricsCAD dynamically increases and decreases the
zoom. (As an alternative, if you have a mouse with a wheel, roll the wheel forward to zoom in.)
NOTETo drag means to (a) hold down the left mouse button, (b) move the mouse, and then (c) let go
of the mouse button.
4. If you find the tree going off the edge of the screen, right-click the drawing, and then choose Realtime Pan
from the shortcut menu. This pans (shifts) the drawing in real time: as you drag the cursor, the tree-circle is
moved back to the center of the drawing area.
QUICK SUMMARY OF DRAWING CIRCLES
BricsCAD provides several methods for drawing circles. Use the one that suits your need the best.
: circle
2Point/3Point/TanTanRad/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>:
Circumference
(C = 2 x R x pi)
Center
Radius
(R = D / 2)
Center-Radius — pick the center point, and then specify the radius.
Center-Diameter — pick the center point, and then specify the diameter.
2-Points — pick two points to define the diameter.
3-Points — pick three points to define the circumference.
3 Points on circle
Radius-Tangent (RadTanTan) — pick two points of tangency to other entities, and then specify radius.
Convert Arc to a Circle — closes an arc to form a circle.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 127
5.
When the tree-circle is at a satisfactory size, press Esc to get out of real-time pan-and-zoom mode:
>>Press ENTER or Esc to complete, or right-click to display context menu....
(Press ESC.)
If the circle looks like an octagon or diamond, select View | Regen to clean it up, as follows:
: _regen
Now that the circle looks rounder and larger, it is easier to work with.
CREATING ARRAYS
CommandArray
Ribbon
Change | Arrange | 2D Array
Menu Bar
Modify | 2D Array
Alias
AR
The tree branches are represented by an array of lines. To create the array, use the Array command
to create the radiating lines. This command can creates several types of arrays: linear, rectangular,
and polar (circular). They are illustrated below.
Left to right: Linear, rectangular, and polar arrays.
For this tutorial, you draw one line and then array it to create ... more.
1.
Enter the Line command:
: line
Specify first point: cen
of (Pick center of circle)
Specify next point or [Undo]: (Pick point anywhere outside of circle)
Specify next point or [Undo]: (Press ENTER to end the command)
TIP
To draw a perfectly horizontal or vertical line, hold down the Shift key. This action turns on
ortho mode temporarily, for as long as you hold down the Shift key.
The CENter entity snap begins the line precisely at the center of the circle. The other end of the line extends
beyond the edge of the circle.
2.
128
Select the line you just drew. Notice that it is highlighted.
Inside BricsCAD V16
3.
Enter the Array command:
: array
Notice the Array dialog box.
4. Entering array parameters in this dialog box is like filling out a form:
Array ParameterValue
Array Type
Polar
Select Entities
Click
CenterClick
Select Entities, and then choose the line
Pick Center Point, and then choose the center of the circle like this:
Base/Center of polar array: cen
Snap to center of: (Choose the circle)
Number of items
Rotate items as copied
5.
15
Yes
Ignore the other settings (leave them at their default values); see figure above. Click OK.
There’s your tree symbol. Your next step is to turn it into a block.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 129
ARRAY PATHS
Another type of array lines objects along a path. This is called a “path array” appropriately enough.
You use this construction technique to lay a path of paving stones across the lawn, from the house
to near the pond.
A path array needs a guide path, an entity along which to place the arrayed entities. In this part
of the tutorial, you draw the guide path with a spline (Spline command), then array (PathArray
command) the paving stones made of polygons (Polygon command), and finally edit the array
(ArrayEdit command).
Drawing Splines
CommandSpline
Ribbon
Draw | Polylines | Spline
Menu Bar
Draw | Spline
Alias
spl
To draw a spline with the Spline command, follow along with these steps:
1.
First though, change the layer to “Road” using one of the methods you learned earlier. (My preferences is to
use the “clayer road” shortcut shown below.) This means the paving stones are placed on the same layer as
the driveway.
QUICK SUMMARY OF SPLINE
: spline
First point for spline:
Second point:
Close/Fit tolerance/<Next point>:
Select starting tangent point:
Enter tangent for ending point:
Vertex
Starting tangency
Spline
Ending tangency
Fit tolerance
First point for spline — specifies the start of the spline’s tangency
Second point — locates the first vertex of the spline
Close — closes the spline, joining the start and points
Fit tolerance — specifies how closely the spline matches its vertices (also known as “fit points”); a value of 0 forces the
spline to pass through the points you pick, and then the higher the number the further the spline is from those points.
Select starting tangent point — locates a tangency for the starting point; press Enter to ignore the option
Enter tangent for ending point — locates a tangency for the ending point; press Enter to ignore the option
130
Inside BricsCAD V16
: clayer
New current value for CLAYER: road
2.
Draw the guide path using a spline. Splines were first used in ship building for making hulls from smooth flowing strips of wood. If you ignore the options, then drawing a spline is as easy as drawing lines:
: spline
First point for spline: (Pick a point on the house outline, as show below.)
3.
Second point (Pick a point along the lawn)
Close/Fit tolerance/<Next point>: (Pick another point along the lawn)
Close/Fit tolerance/<Next point>: (Pick a point at the edge of the lawn near the pond, as
shown below)
To end the command, press Enter three times, once for each prompt:
Close/Fit tolerance/<Next point>: (Press Enter)
Starting point tangent point: (Press Enter)
Enter tangent for ending point: (Press Enter)
TIP
Another way to draw splines is with polylines. Use the PLine command to draw the polyline, and
then use the PEdit command’s Spline command to convert it to a spline. This can be an easier approach
than using the Spine command directly.
Zooming to Objects
The Zoom command has a handy option that lets you zoom into a single entity. Here is how it works:
4. To zoom into the spline, use the OBject option of the Zoom command, as follows:
: zoom
Zoom: In/Out/.../OBject/<Scale (nX/nXP)>: ob
Select an entity: l
By entering ‘ L ’ at the select prompt, you ask the program to select the last-drawn entity, the spline. Using
OBject with Last makes it easy for you to pick the spline out of the grass pattern.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 131
5.
Notice that the program zooms into the spline, so that it fills the screen. Zoom back out by 10% (i.e., 0.9x) so
that you have some working space (see figure below):
:
zoom .9x
QUICK SUMMARY OF POLYGON
This command draws regular polygons, which means that every side has the same length. (To draw irregular ones, use
another command such as Rectang or PLine.) The minimum and maximum sides is 3 and 1024.
: polygon
Polygon: Multiple/Width of line/<Number of sides> <4>:
Specify by: Edge/<Center of polygon>:
Specify by: Vertex/<Midpoint of side>:
1: Number of sides
Edge
2: Center
Vertex
3. Midpoint of side
Multiple — repeats the command to draw additional polygons
Width of line — specifies the width of the lines, because polygons are made of polylines
Number of sides — specifies the number of sides between 3 and 1024
Edge — specifies the length of one side
Center of polygon — specifies the center point of the polygon
Vertex — specifies the location of a vertex (corner of the polygon)
Midpoint of side — specifies the midpoint of one of the sides
132
Inside BricsCAD V16
Paving Stones from Polygons
CommandPolygon
Ribbon
Draw | Polygons
Menu Bar
Draw | Polygon
Alias
pol
6. The paving stones are hexagonal (six-sided) in shape, and so you draw them best with the Polygon command. This command, unfortunately, is an unintuitive one and so tricky to execute; follow along:
: polygon
a.
The first thing you do is specify the number of sides. For a hexagon, you specify 6 sides:
Polygon: Multiple/Width of line/<Number of sides>: <4>: 6
b. Then you pick the center point of the polygon. For this tutorial, pick one end of the spline using ENDpoint entity snap:
Specify by: Edge/<Center of polygon>: (Pick one end of the spline.)
c.
Now you specify the size of the hexagon, which is not easy to do. For this tutorial, just drag the cursor
away from the center point, as shown by the figure.
Specify by: Vertex/<Midpoint of side>: (Move cursor away from center of polygon)
Arraying Along a Path
CommandArrayPath
Ribbon
Change | Array | Path Array
Menu Bar
Modify | Array | Path Array
Alias
...
(new to V16) With one paving stone (polygon) in place, you use the ArrayPath command to add
all of the others along the path (spline). But first, a word of explanation.
ArrayPath is one of a trio of commands that create associative arrays; the other two are ArrayRect
(associative rectangular arrays) and ArrayPolar (polar ones.) Associative means that all the elements
of the array act as a single entity, yet can be individually edited — like an associative dimension
(chapter 7). When you change the path, the array changes to suit.
1. Start the ArrayPath command, and then select the polygon, as follows:
: arraypath
Select entities to array: (Pick the polygon)
2.
Press Enter to exit the selection process, and then pick the spline:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to array: (Press Enter)
Type = Path, Associative = Yes
Select the path curve: (Pick the spline)
3.
Now you see many paving stones along the path. Press Enter to exit the command.
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 133
4. Use the Erase command to remove the spline from the drawing.
QUICK SUMMARY OF ARRAYPATH
: arraypath
Select entities to array:
Select path curve: (ASsociative/Method/Base point/Tangent direction/Items/Rows/Levels/
Align items/Z direction/<eXit>:
Select path curve — you can use any linear (open) entity for the path, such as a line, polyline, arc, circle, ellipse, elliptical arc, spline, helix, or 3D polyline.
ASsociative — toggles the array between associative and non-associative
Method — determines how the entity is arrayed along the path:
Measure
Divide
Places entities at a specified distance apart
Places a specified number of entities along the path
Base point — specifies a new base point from which the entity is arrayed; useful for when you don’t want the array
on top of the path
Tangent direction — determines how the entity is aligned along the path in 3D, tangent or normal.
Items — specifies the (Measure mode) distance between items, or (Divide mode) number of items to place along the
path; a maximum number of items can be specified to make the array shorter than the path.
Rows — specifies the number of rows for stacked arrays
Levels — specifies the number of levels and their spacing for 3D arrays
Align items — determines whether the entity is aligned along the path
Z direction — toggles the z orientation between upright or banked along path
eXit — ends the command
134
Inside BricsCAD V16
To count the number of paving stones you need to order, select the array and then look at the Items
field in the Properties pane: 19.
Making Blocks
CommandBlock
Ribbon
Insert | Blocks | Create Block
Menu Bar
Tools | Create Block
Alias
B
CAD draws symbols more quickly and accurately than you could by hand. The key is to turn the
symbols into blocks, and then insert the blocks into drawings. In this section, you do this by adding
trees to the garden area.
1.
To turn the tree symbol into a block, use the Block command:
: block
Notice that BricsCAD displays the Block Definition dialog box.
2.
Enter the following parameters:
Block Option
ValueNotes
Name Base point
Entities
Convert to block
Scale uniformly
Tree On
On
You can give the block any name you like, up to 255 characters long
Click Pick Point button, and then choose the center of the circle
Click Select Entities, and then choose all 16)
Converts the entities to a block when you click OK
Forces the circle to remain round
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 135
a.
The base point is used later by the Insert command; this point is also called the “insertion point” — the
point where the block is inserted in the drawing. The center of the tree symbol is a logical spot base
point, so use CENter entity snap:
Insertion point for new block: cen
Snap to centerpoint of: (Pick the circle)
b. You need to tell BricsCAD which entities to turn into a block. BricsCAD lets you select entities by several
different ways. So far, you have picked them one at a time with your mouse or with the L (last) option.
Just as you windowed the zoomed-in view, you can window the entities you want to select with the W
option (short for “Window”).
c.
Select entities for block: w
You pick the two corners of a rectangle that encompasses the circle and lines making up the tree symbol:
First corner of crossing window: (Pick point 1, shown in figure below)
Opposite Corner: (Pick point 2, shown in figure)
Entities in set: 30
Select entities for block: (Press Enter to end entity selection)
#1: First corner of
crossing window
Base point
#2: Opposite corner
3.
Click OK. BricsCAD records the tree symbol as a block in the drawing file. In the next section, you place many
trees as blocks.
4. Use the Zoom Extents command to see the entire yard.
ADDING MANY MORE TREES
CommandInsert
Ribbon
Insert | Blocks | Insert Block
Menu Bar
Insert | Block
Alias
I
With the bigger view in place, insert tree blocks in the drawing.
1.
Start the Insert command:
: insert
136
Notice that BricsCAD displays the Insert dialog box.
2.
The Tree block name should be shown in the Name field.
You can ignore most of the dialog box, other than to ensure that the options are set as follows:
Inside BricsCAD V16
Insert Options
Value
Insertion Point Scale Rotation Angle: 0
3.
Specify On-screen (on)
Specify On-screen (on)
Specify On-screen (off)
Click OK. BricsCAD now prompts you in the command bar, because of the Specify On-Screen options that
were turned on in the dialog box.
The first item of business is to pick a spot for the block, a suitable spot in the garden area.
Insertion point for block: (Pick a point anywhere in the garden area.)
4. The other item is the scale, which draws the block larger or smaller than the symbol original size:
Corner/XYZ/X scale factor <1.000000>: 2
The x scale factor of 2 draws the block twice as large as the original. Because you drew the original symbol
one meter in diameter, the newly inserted tree has a diameter of two meters. If you had entered a scale factor smaller than 1, such as 0.5, then the block would have been drawn half-size.
From this exercise, you can see that it makes sense to draw a symbol to unit size (to the nearest meter or
foot), because that makes it easy to scale the block during insertion.
Left: Two trees inserted at different scale factors
Right: Many more tree blocks inserted into the drawing
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 137
5.
Try a different way of repeating the Insert command. This time, right-click the drawing. Notice that the Insert
command repeats, again displays the dialog box and prompts of the Insert command.
6. Add several more trees around the garden area using the Insert command and different scale factors, such as
2, 1.2, 0.6, and 0.4 (or 6.0, 4.0, 2.0, and 1.5 in imperial units).
Use the Mirror command to double the number of trees.
Drawing the Pond
CommandEllipse
Ribbon
Draw | Draw | Ellipse
Menu Bar
Draw | Ellipse
Alias
EL
CommandOffset
Ribbon
Change | Modify | Offset
Menu Bar
Modify | Offset
Alias
O
Drawing the garden pond illustrates another pair of useful commands: Ellipse draws oval shapes
and Offset adds parallel copies. The oval will be the pond, the parallel offset the pond’s edging.
1.
Switch to the Pond layer via one of the layer droplists.
QUICK SUMMARY OF DRAWING ELLIPSES
BricsCAD provides three methods for drawing ellipses (ovals):
: ellipse
Arc/Center/<First end of ellipse axis>: (Enter an option.)
Point 1: Center
Point 3: Other end of
minor axis
Point 2: Other end of
major axis
Center — specifies the ellipse’s center point, and then the endpoints of the major and minor axes.
Axis, End — specifies the endpoints of the ellipse’s major axis, and then the minor one.
Center
Minor (short) axis
Major (long) axis
Arc — draws elliptical arcs.
This command also draws isocircles, which are isometric circles. This option is available only when isometric drawing
mode is turned on through the Snap or Settings commands.
138
Inside BricsCAD V16
2.
The pond is to be an oval 4.5m tall by 1.5m wide (15 by 5 feet in imperial units). To draw the pond with the
Ellipse command, follow these steps:
: ellipse
Pick the starting point of the ellipse anywhere in the garden area.
Arc/Center/<First end of ellipse axis>: c
Center of ellipse: (Pick a point)
First end of ellipse axis
Second end of axis
Other axis
3.
The other end of the pond is 4.5m away. Use direct distance entry by moving the cursor down and right:
Endpoint of axis: (Move the cursor) 4.5
4. And the pond is five feet wide:
5.
Rotation/<Other axis>: 1.5
The pond is edged with rock. You could draw the edging of by repeating this command to draw a second,
larger ellipse. The easier alternative is to use the Offset command, which creates parallel copies, precisely.
Here, you use it to create a concentric ellipse:
: offset
a.
The offset distance is 0.3m (or one foot in imperial units):
Parallel: ENTER for Through point/<Distance>: 0.3
b. Choose the ellipse; notice that only one entity can be offset at a time:
Select entity: (Pick the ellipse)
c.
Place the offset copy on the outside of the ellipse:
Both sides/<Side for parallel copy>: (Pick outside the ellipse)
chapter
6 Adding Details to Drawings 139
d. The command repeats itself to offset other entities. But to exit the command, press Enter.
Select entity: (Press ENTER)
The Offset command also creates parallel lines, parallel polylines, and concentric circles and arcs.
If you wish, add the Gravel hatch pattern to the pond edging.
To see the progress you are making in learning BricsCAD, plot your drawing with the Print command. At this point, your drawing should look similar to the following:
Remember to save your work with the Save command.
Summary
You’ve added a number of details to the drawing. In the next lesson, you learn how to make changes
140
to them — how to edit entities.
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 6
Making Changes to
Drawings
Previously, you added details to the drawing, such as the lawn, trees, and a pond. Here, you learn
how to change parts of the drawing and how to extract information. This when CAD software shows itself
to be powerful: effortlessly making changes and finding out the data held by drawings.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Modifying properties of entities
•
Applying linetypes
•
Changing the length of open and closed entities
•
Finding information about entities in drawings
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Extend — extends open entities to boundaries that are defined by other entities
Filter — creates specified subsets of entities based on their properties
Linetype — displays line patterns made of dashes, dots, gaps, and symbols
Properties — lists all the characteristics of an entity
Trim — cuts entities at cutting edges that are defined by other entities
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
.lin Linetype definition file
NEW COMMANDS
CommandAliasesMenu SelectionRibbon Tab
Dist
di
Tools | Inquiry | Distance
Tools | Inquiry | Distance
LengthenlenModify | Lengthen...
LinetypeltSettings | Linetypes...
List
li
Tools | Inquiry | List Entity Info
Tools | Inquiry | List
PropertiesprModify | Properties...
Stretch
s
Modify | Stretch
Change | Modify | Stretch
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
By the end of this lesson, your drawing will look like this one:
Tutorial-06.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
(Imp-Tutorial-06.dwg in imperial units)
142
Inside BricsCAD V16
Changing the Look of Lines
When you drew the lot lines in an earlier lesson, they showed on the screen as solid lines. Lot lines,
however, are usually shown by a dashed pattern. Just as BricsCAD comes with several hatch pat-
terns, it also includes a number of line patterns called “linetypes.” Here is what line types look like:
To change a line from looking solid (called “Continuous” by BricsCAD) to looking dashed:, you load
the linetype definition into the drawing, and then change the line(s) to the new type.
LOADING LINETYPES
CommandLinetype
Menu Bar
Tools | Linetypes
Status BarLinetype
Alias
LT
Start BricsCAD, and then open your copy of yard.dwg. If necessary, open the tutorial-05.dwg file or
Imp-tutorial-05.dwg in imperial units.
1.
If necessary, use the Zoom command’s All option so that you see the entire drawing on the screen”
: zoom
Zoom: In/Out/... <Scale (nX/nXP)>: all
Follow this by an 80% zoom that adds breathing space around the drawing:
: zoom
Zoom: In/Out/... <Scale (nX/nXP)>: 0.8x
2.
Before you can apply linetypes, you must load their definitions from a file into the drawing. Linetype definitions are stored in files separately from BricsCAD and drawings. You recognize the file by the .lin found at the
end of its name. Here is how to load linetypes into the drawing.
a. Enter the linetype command:
: linetype
Notice that BricsCAD displays the Drawing Explorer:
All new drawings initially contain some linetypes, and here is what they mean:
• ByLayer — entities take the linetype assigned to the layer
• ByBlock — entities take the linetype of their block
• Continuous — lines are solid, with no gaps
• DYN_DIM — lines have dashes; used by dynamic dimensions
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 143
TIP Although BricsCAD uses terms like linetypes and line weights, these apply to nearly all entities in
drawings — not just to lines.
3.
To add a linetype to this drawing, click the
New button. You can’t create new linetypes in BricsCAD, as the
name of this button suggests; this button instead leads to the dialog box from which you access pre-defined
linetypes. Notice the Load Linetypes dialog box.
The dialog box lists in alphabetical order the names of all linetype definitions stored in the default.lin file.
Scroll through the list to see what is available. The names of linetypes use codes to identify some of them:
•
Linetype names postfixed with X2 are double scale
•
Linetype names postfixed with 2 or 4 or 8 are half or quarter or eighth-size (0.5x, 0.25x, 0.125x scale)
•
Linetype names prefixed with ISO match the ISO standard
4. Load the Border linetype like this:
a.
b. Click OK to close the dialog box.
Select BORDER.
5.
You are back in the Drawing Explorer dialog box. Set the Border linetype as current, like this:
a.
Click BORDER to select it.
b. Under the Current column, click the blank square so that the
blue dot appears.
c. Click X to dismiss the dialog box.
If the Properties bar or Entity Properties toolbar are open, notice that the default linetype changes
to Border.
CHANGING PROPERTIES
CommandProperties
Menu Bar
Modify | Properties
Ribbon
...
Alias
PR
The Properties bar (or palette) is handy for changing several properties of one or more entities. It
provides three kinds of information:
144
Inside BricsCAD V16
•
No Selection properties — describe the way an entity will look when draw it now, with the default color,
layer, linetype, and so on. The figure below shows that entities will be drawn with color ByLayer (red), on
layer Road, and so on.
•
Entity properties — describes the properties of a single entity that is selected. Note that the General section
is common to all entities, which the Geometry section changes, depending on the type of entity selected. In
the figure at left, you see that a line is selected and the Properties bar shows the properties of the line.
Left: One line selected
Right: More than one line selected
•
Multiple properties — two or more selected entities shows properties in common; when properties differ
between entities, the Properties bar reports “*Varies*” for the property, as shown above (right).
Use the Properties bar to change the lot lines from ‘Continuous’ to ‘Border’, like this:
1.
If the Properties bar is not displayed, enter the Properties command to open it now:
: properties
Notice that the Properties bar opens.
2.
In the drawing, pick the five blue lot lines directly. As you pick them, notice that BricsCAD highlights them:
they are shown as dashed lines, with green grip squares appearing on each line.
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 145
At the top of the Properties bar, notice that the list box reports Line (5). It tells you that five lines were selected, and that the properties listed belong to the five. Because more than one line is selected, many properties
are reported as *Varies*, because properties (such as the x coordinate) differs for each line.
QUICK SUMMARY OF PROPERTIES BAR
Properties describe entities, such as their color, linetype, starting and ending coordinates, and thickness. When two or
more entities are selected, then the Properties bar (palette) can displays a subset of entities. Click the droplist, and then
choose a subset, such as two arcs.
The Properties palette does more than display properties; it also lets you to change values of properties — usually.
Properties marked *Varies* can also be changed; in this case, all selected entities take on the same property. If you do
this by accident, use the U command to undo the change.
There are three ways to change property values:
• Enter new values by typing them in
• Select preset values from droplists (when available)
• Click buttons (when available) to select values from drawings or dialog boxes
146
Inside BricsCAD V16
3.
Next to Linetype in the Properties bar, click Bylayer. Notice that BricsCAD lists the names of the linetypes in
the drawing, ByLayer, ByBlock, Continuous, Dyn_Dim, and Border.
4. Select the Border linetype by clicking its name.
5.Press Esc to clear the grips.
Notice that the lines change their look and take on the dashed linetype. If, however, you see no
change to the lines, then read the next section to learn how to fix this problem.
CHANGING THE LINETYPE SCALE
CommandLtScale
Menu Bar...
Ribbon
...
Alias
LTS
The reason linetypes sometimes look continuous is that they are sensitive to scale, just like hatch
patterns. The lines should show gaps, but don’t. The solution is to change the scale (size) of the
linetype.
Top: Incorrect linetype scale.
Above: Correct linetype scale.
All linetypes start with a scale factor of 1.0, which is usually too small to display patterns of dots
and dashes correctly.
Warning Setting linetype scale is one of the trickiest aspects of BricsCAD. Linetypes look continuous
when the scale is too large — and when too small!
One method to change the scale of linetypes is to use LtScale; another is to use the Properties bar
and its Linetype Scale field, as follows:
1.
Continuing in the Properties bar, click the field next to Linetype Scale.
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 147
2.
Change 1.0 to something like 10.
3.
Check whether the linetype pattern becomes visible. If not, try another scale value, such as 0.01.
4. It may be necessary for you to use the Regen command to clean up the display.
SELECTING ENTITIES BY OTHER METHODS
I find that it can be tricky trying to select entities in crowded drawings. No matter how tiny the
pick box, sometimes I repeatedly pick the wrong entity. The program provides two workarounds
that are useful to know.
Selecting Entities by Their Properties
In the previous tutorial I had you pick the five lot lines one by one. I did that on purpose so that I
could show you easier ways! You can select entities instead by their properties, as follows:
1.Press Esc to ensure no entities are selected.
2. In the Properties pane, click the
148
Inside BricsCAD V16
Quick Select button. Notice that the pane changes its look:
Notice the following about the new look:
•
All entities are selected, as shown by “All (25)”
•
Thee buttons populate the toolbar
•
Basic properties show ‘ * ’ (asterisk), which means that all properties are selected.
Toggle between
Properties and
Quick Select
All entities selected
in drawing
Add to to selection set
Remove from selection set
Apply filters to current selection set
Start a new selection set
When using Quick Select, you are modifying filters that apply to the current selection set, which starts off
as all entities in the drawing. A filter changes the selection set by properties. For instance, when you select
“Red” as the Color, you filter out all entities that are not red.
3.
In the Layer droplist, choose “Lot.”
4. Click the
Add to Selection Set button. Notice that only the lot lines are highlighted. You can now change
other properties of the lot lines, such as the linetype or color.
TIP
The * is not the only wildcard used by Quick Select. To see the full list, click the asterisk to uncover this shortcut menu. (That’s left click, not right click.)
This lets you, for example, select all lines that have a Length property of less than 10m.
Selecting an Entity by Tabbing
When two or more entities overlap, you can press the Tab key to force the program to cycle through
them. This trick works only when the SelectionPreview variable is turned on.
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 149
CHANGING LINE LENGTHS
CommandLengthen
Menu Bar
Modify | Lengthen
Once you’ve drawn stuff in a drawing, they aren’t static; you can change their size and position.
When it comes to changing size, it matters if the entities are open or closed. Open entities are like
like lines, arcs, and open polylines; closed ones are like circles, ellipses, and polygons. Some commands work only with open ones, some with only closed, and some with both kinds.
One way to change lengths is using grips, as described earlier. A more precise method is with the
Lengthen command. To see how it works, in this tutorial you extend the edge of the street line to
the bottom of the screen. If necessary, first zoom in on the area around the pond with the Zoom
Window command.
1.
Start the Lengthen command:
: lengthen
2.
At the ‘Select entity to list length’ prompt, pick the lower road line:
Edit length:
the line.)
DYnamic/Increment/Percent/Total/<Select entity to list length>: (Pick
QUICK SUMMARY OF THE LENGTHEN COMMAND
The Lengthen command provides you with the following options for changing the length (longer or shorter) of open
entities, such as lines, arcs, and polylines:
: lengthen
Edit length:
DYnamic/Increment/Percent/Total/<Select entity to list length>:
DElta — changes the length to an absolute amount where you show the delta by picking a point the
required distance from the endpoint; default = 0 units. (Delta is the Greek word used by
mathematicians to indicate change.)
DYnamic — changes the length by interactive dragging.
Percent — changes the length relative to 100%, as follows:
•
Less than 100%, such as 50%, shortens the entity.
•
More than 100%, such as 200%, lengthens the entity.
Total — changes the length to an absolute amount; default = 1 unit.
Undo — undoes the last change.
As is common in BricsCAD, there is more than one way to change the length of lines and other open entities. You can
also use grips and these commands:
Change command — changes the length of a group of lines to a common endpoint.
Extend command — extends a line to a boundary entity.
Trim command — cuts back a line to a cutting edge entity.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
Notice that BricsCAD reports its length in the command bar:
Current length: 11.00
This means that the line is 11m long (about 37', imperial units).
3.
Lengthen the road to 12m by specify the Total option, and then entering 12 as the new length, as follows:
Edit length: DYnamic/Increment/Percent/Total/<Select entity to list length>: t
Angle/<Enter total length (11.00)>: 12
4. Curiously, BricsCAD asks you a second time to select the entity; for some reason, it does not automatically
change the length of the line you choose first:
5.
Mode/<Select entity to change>: (Pick the same line)
Notice that the line lengthens. Press Enter to end the command.
Mode/Undo/<Select entity to change>: (Press ENTER)
Stretching the Pond
CommandStretch
Ribbon
Change | Modify | Stretch
Menu Bar
Modify | Stretch
Alias S
You’ve used several editing commands to change entities, such as PEdit to modify polylines, grips
editing, Properties to change linetype and scale, and Lengthen to alter the length of lines.
One of BricsCAD’s most powerful editing commands is Stretch. This command lets you take parts
of entities and stretch them wider and thinner, longer and shorter.
Here you apply it to change the shape of the pond. You may find it helpful to first zoom in to the
area around the pond.
1.
Start the Stretch command.
: stretch
Select entities to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon: C
The Stretch command has an odd limitation, in that entities are initially selected only by two methods, both
of them crossing selection modes. You can specify either Crossing (which forms a rectangular selection window) or CPolygon, which forms a polygonal selection window. The reason for the limitation is that it allows
Stretch to know which entities to stretch — those crossing the selection window — and which to not stretch
(those outside the selection window). Entities fully inside the selection window are moved.
TIP
Some entities cannot be stretched, like text and 3D solids. When they cross the selection window, the Stretch command moves them.
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 151
QUICK SUMMARY OF SELECTION SET OPTIONS
Selection has many options for selecting entities, as shown in the following table. I find that I typically use just some of them,
such as pick, W, C, L, P and Enter. To see the full list in BricsCAD, enter the Select command, and then press ?, like this:
: select
Select entities to include in set: ?
Select entities: ALL/Add/+/Remove/-/Previous/Last/Window/Crossing/Outside/WPolygon/CPolygon/OPolygon/WCircle/CCircle/OCircle/Box/POint/Fence/AUto/Multiple/Single/PROperties/Dialog/Undo:
Mode
Abbreviation
Entity
[pick]
All
ALL
Previous
P
Last
L
Window
W
Crossing
C
Outside
O
Window Polygon WP
Crossing Polygon CP
Outside Polygon OP
Window Circle WC
Crossing Circle CC
Outside Circle
OC
Box
B
Fence
F
Auto
AU
Single
S
Selects
A single entity
All non-frozen entities; can also press Ctrl+A
Most recently selected entity
Most-recently created entity visible on the screen
All entities inside a rectangular window
All entities crossing and within a rectangular window
All entities outside the rectangular window
All entities within a polygonal window
All entities crossing and within a polygon
All entities outside a polygonal window
All entities inside a circular window
All entities crossing and inside a circular window
All entities outside a circular window
All entities depending on how direction selection window is drawn:
• Right to left: selects by Crossing mode
• Left to right: selects by Window mode
All entities along a fence polyline
Single pick selects one entity; otherwise acts like Box option
Selects the first entity encountered, and ends the command
SELECTION MODIFICATIONS
Add or +
Remove or -
Multiple
Undo
Dialog
End Cancel
A or +
R or -
M
U
D
press [Enter]
press [Esc]
Enters add-entities mode
Enters remove-entities mode
Select entities without highlighting them; faster in complex drawings
Removes most recent selection group
Displays the Entity Selection section of the Settings dialog box
Ends entity selection
Cancels entity selection
SELECTION BY PROPERTIES
The PROperties option selects entities by common properties:
Properties
Abbreviation
Selects
Color
Layer
Ltype
Name
Thickness
Type
Value
Width
Location
152
C
LA
LT
N
TH
TY
V
W
LO
Inside BricsCAD V16
All entities of the same color name or number such as “red” or “122”
All entities with the same layer name
All entities of the same linetype
All entities of the same name
All entities of the same thickness
All entities of the same entity type, such as “circle”
All entities of the specified handle
All entities of the specified width
Switches back to original select prompt
2.
Select entities by picking two points to specify a crossing window, as follows:
First corner of crossing window: (Pick a point)
Opposite Corner: (Pick another point)
C is short for “crossing,” an entity selection mode similar to the window mode you used earlier with the
Zoom command. In this case, BricsCAD selects all entities within the selection rectangle and all entities crossing or touching the rectangle.
3.
After picking two corners of a rectangle that covers part of the pond, press Enter:
Select entities to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon: (Press ENTER to
end entity selection)
TIP
If the pond were entirely inside the entity selection rectangle, the Stretch command would
move the pond, not stretch it. If you accidentally select entities other than the pond, type the R option
(short for “remove from selection set”), and then select the entities to remove.
4. To tell BricsCAD how much you want the pond stretched, pick two points that indicate the distance:
Base point of displacement: (Pick a point near the pond)
Second point of displacement: (Pick a point away from the pond)
You have now created a whole new look to your pond! (Your pond will probably look different from the one
illustrated in this book.) Note that you cannot create this effect using grips editing.
5.
If you don’t like it, you can undo the stretch with the U command, as follows:
: u
U: STRETCH
... and try stretching the pond again.
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 153
MOVING ENTITIES
CommandMove
Ribbon
Change | Modify | Move
Menu Bar
Modify | Move
Alias
M
If the pond isn’t exactly where you want it, you can relocate it with the Move command.
1.
Start the Move command by entering the letter ‘m’, as follows:
: m
Here you used another of BricsCAD’s shortcuts. M is the alias (abbreviation) for the Move command. (Appendix A lists all command aliases that you can use in BricsCAD.)
2.
Continue the Move command by specifying Crossing selection mode to capture all three parts of the pond:
two ellipses and hatch pattern.
Select entities to move: c
First corner of crossing window: (Pick a point near the pond)
Opposite Corner: (Pick another point to encompass the pond)
Select entities: (Press ENTER to end entity selection)
3.
Just as with the Stretch command, you need to specify two points. They indicate the direction and distance
to move the entities:
Vector/<Base point>: (Pick edge of pond.)
Displacement point: (Pick new location for pond.)
4. Notice that the pond has moved. If necessary, clean up the screen with the Redraw command, using its alias,
as follows:
: r
5.
Save your work.
TIP BricsCAD lets you specify commands by typing just one or two letters at the ‘ : ’ prompt. Shortcut keystrokes are listed at the start of each chapter. The complete list of command name abbreviations
(called “aliases”) is stored in the default.pgp and is provided in Appendix A.
Adding the Fence
Say you’ve decided to add a fence to the backyard. You can use BricsCAD to help plan the materials
needed: after drawing the fence (as a polyline), you can find out from the drawing the length of
the fence.
The fence is drawn as a polyline, 0.1m-wide (4”-wide). Along the way, you’ll use a variety of entity
snap modes and tracking mode.
1.
First, switch the working layer to House by selecting its name from the toolbar.
Use the Zoom Previous command to see the full drawing.
2.
If you turned off the INTersection entity snap, turn it back on using this method: at the command prompt,
enter Intersection like a command.
: intersection
154
Inside BricsCAD V16
3.
Begin by entering the PLine command:
: pline
4. Start the polyline at the middle of the upper house line. This point is shown as #1 in the figure below). Use the
MIDdle entity snap to precisely locate the polyline’s starting point at the middle of the house line. “Mid” is
the abbreviation for MIDdle entity snap.
5.
: _pline
Start of polyline: Arc/Distance/Halfwidth/Width/<Next point>: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick upper house line.)
Current line-width is 0
To change the width of the polyline from zero to 10cm (4"), use the PLine command’s w (Width) option, as follows:
Start of polyline: Arc/Distance/Halfwidth/Width/<Next point>: w
Starting width <0>: 0.1
Ending width <0.1>: (Press Enter to accept the new default)
Note that you can specify different starting and ending widths, which would produce tapered polylines.
6. Now that the starting point and width are set, continue drawing the fence. Follow the path shown by numbers 2 through 5 in the figure above.
7.
Pause the picking action at point #5. When you get to the bottom of the house, you get into a bit of tricky geometry. You want the fence to end at the same relative location as its starting point. You’re not sure of the x
coordinate, which is located somewhere along the bottom line of the lot. Fortunately, you can find that point
with point filters.
Normally, when you pick a point, you are providing BricsCAD with the x and y coordinate. Point filters capture
a single coordinate, such as just the x or the y.
a.
Here is how to get just the x coordinate:
Arc/Distance/Follow/Halfwidth/Width/<Next point>: .x
b. BricsCAD asks you to pick a point (‘Select X of’ prompt), from which it obtains that x coordinate. Tell it
that you want the middleof the line:
Select X of: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick the lower line of the house at #6)
Notice that you can combine point filters and entity snaps to get very specific coordinates!
chapter
6 Making Changes to Drawings 155
c.
And then BricsCAD asks you for the y coordinate. When it asks ‘Still need YX,’ BricsCAD is asking for the y
and z coordinates. Well, the z you don’t care about, but here is how to get the y with the perpendicular entity
snap:
Still need YZ of: per
Snap to perpendicular of: (Pick the property line at #7)
You completed the fence by drawing the last polyline segment using PERpendicular entity snap at #7.
8. Exit the PLine command:
...<Next point>: (Press ENTER to exit the command)
LISTING DATA
CommandList
Ribbon
Tools | Inquiry | List
Menu Bar
Tools | Inquiry | List Entity Info
Alias
LI
CommandDist
Ribbon
Tools | Inquiry | Distance
Menu Bar
Tools | Inquiry | Distance
Alias
DI
Now that you’ve drawn the fence, you can use the List command to tell you its length.
1.
Enter the List command:
: list
SOrt/Tracking/<Select entities to list>: (Pick the fence’s polyline)
SOrt/Tracking/<Select entities to list>: (Press Enter to end entity selection)
BricsCAD flips to the Prompt History and lists lines of information. The List command tells you every piece of
information about the polyline (technically known as a “lwpolyline”) that BricsCAD has stored in its database.
Most of the information is about its vertices (“at point”).
The total length of the polyline is shown in the middle of the listing:
156
Perimeter
77.0
So, 77 meters (roughly 260 feet). Now you know how much fencing you would need.
Inside BricsCAD V16
2.
Press function key F2 to flip back to the graphics window. The Properties bar also reports area and length
information:
3.
You can measure distances directly on the drawing with the Dist command (short for “distance”). To find
the shortest distance from the house to the pond with the Dist command, from the Tools menu bar, select
Inquiry | Distance:
: _dist
Starting point for distance: nea
Snap to nearest of: (Pick inside edge of pond.)
End point: per
Snap to perpendicular of: (Pick house wall.)
The beeline distance from house to pond is 13m (around 43 feet). The value on your drawing may
differ, depending on where you located the pond.
Summary
You’ve done a lot of editing, so remember to save the work you have done on the drawing. You may
also want to plot out the drawing.
Next, you learn how to add text and dimensions to the drawing.
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6 Making Changes to Drawings 157
158
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 7
Adding Notes and
Dimensions
With the yard plan nearly finished, now is the time to add callouts (or text) to describe the parts of
the yard. Here you learn how to add these finishing touches to the drawing.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Understanding drawing scales
•
Placing text in drawings
•
Defining styles and justification modes for text
•
Editing text
•
Toggling text and quick text
•
Attaching a variety of dimensions to entities in the drawing
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Associative — refers to entities, such as dimensions and hatches, that update automatically when associated entities
are updated
Bounding box — describes the invisible rectangle that determines the word wrap of paragraph text
Callouts — describes the text attached to lines that describe significant parts of drawings
Dimension — indicates a measured distance, usually consisting of lines, arrowheads, and text
Justification — determines the relative positioning of text, such as right, left, and centered
Layout — presents editable print previews
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
dims
Dimensions
dimvars
Dimension variables
dimstyle
Dimension style
NEW COMMANDS
CommandShortcutsMenu BarRibbon Tab
DdEdited...Draw | Dimensions | Edit
DimAligned
dal, dimali
Dimension | Aligned
Draw | Dimensions | Aligned
DimBaseline
dba, dimbase
Dimension | Baseline
Draw | Dimensions | Baseline
DimContinue
dco, dimcont
Dimension | Continue
Draw | Dimensions | Continue
DimEdit
ded, dimed
Modify | Edit Dimension Text
...
DimLinear
dli, dimlin
Dimension | Linear
Draw | Dimensions | Linear
DimRadius
dra, dimrad
Dimension | Radius
Draw | Dimensions | Circle
MText
t
Draw | Multiline Text
Draw | Text | Multiline Text
QTextqt…...
Rotate
ro
Modify | Rotate
Change | Arrange | 2D Rotate
Style
st
Settings | Text Style
Home | Drawing Explorer
Text
tx
Draw | Text
Draw | Text | Text
160
Inside BricsCAD V16
Before starting the exercise, take these steps:
1.
Start BricsCAD, and then open
the yard.dwg file.
If you were unable to complete the exercises of previous lessons, open the tutorial-06.dwg file; for imperial
units, open the Imp-tutorial-06.dwg file.
2.
Do a Zoom All
to make the full drawing visible.
3.
With the Layer
command, create a new
layer, and then name it Text.
4. Assign color “White” to the layer, and then make the layer current by clicking in the Current column, so that
the blue dot appears next to the name, “Text.”
You are now ready to tackle text in drawings.
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
By the end of this lesson, your drawing will look like this one:
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 161
Adding Notes to Drawings
CommandMText
Ribbon
Draw | Text | Multiline Text
Menu Bar
Draw | Multiline Text
Alias
T
You add callouts with the MText command, short for “multiple-line text” and also known as paragraph text.
Mtext constrains text within a rectangular block. The top and two sides of paragraphs are constrained, but not the bottom; as you add text, it flows down. You can, however, drag the sides to make
the block wider and thinner (see figure below); this is handy for ensuring the text fits a particular
spot, such as notes or in tables. You can move the block of mtext to any location in the drawing.
Top of text block (fixed)
Drag to make
this side
wider and
narrower
Side of
text block
(fixed)
Bottom changes
automatically as text is
added or removed
You can format individual words and letters of the text with a variety of fonts and colors, as well
as effects such as boldfacing and italics. Special symbols can be included, such as center lines
and degrees, and you can define how far margins are indented and tabs are set. All these features
make mtext very flexible, but somewhat complex. (Later you meet the simpler, but less capable,
Text command.)
Place some mtext in the drawing now, like this:
1.
Start the MTtext command:
: mtext
2.
To place a note within the outline of the house, pick a starting point inside there:
Multiline Text: First corner for block of text: (Pick a point within the house
outline)
a. Specify first corner:
Text begins here
Bounding box
162
Inside BricsCAD V16
b. Specify opposite corner:
3.
Drag the cursor, and as you do notice that a rectangle is being formed. Pick a second point to define the
width of the text:
Specify opposite corner or [Height/Justify/Line spacing/Rotation/Style/Width]: (Pick
a second point)
The rectangle forms a boundary box that constrains the text. The box is visible only when the MText
command is active; otherwise, it is neither displayed nor printed.
BricsCAD will starts the first line of text at the top of the box. The right edge of the box determines
where the text wraps — flows onto the following lines. (For right-to-left text like Hebraic, the left
edge determines the word wrap location.) This is just like setting margins with word processing
software.
The bottom of the boundary is ignored. When there is too much text for the box, BricsCAD automatically extends it downwards. The bottom is used only when the direction of the text flows upwards.
DETERMINING THE SIZE OF TEXT
Now you need to pause to do some multiplication and division, because you have to work out the
height of the text. The drawing standard for text height is 10mm (or 3/8" in imperial units). But
if text were placed at that size, it would be nearly invisible; after all, a few millimeters is tiny next
to a 15-meter house! You need the text to be big enough to be legible, and so it has to be larger,
much larger.
To figure out how tall to make the text, read the text box, Quick Summary on Calculating Text Heights.
Based on the size of this drawing, the text height needs to of 400mm tall (or 18" in imperial units).
Continue with the MText command to specify the text height and other font parameters:
1.
After picking the second point, BricsCAD displays the Text Formatting dialog box, in which you specify font
settings and enter the text. First, change the height, as follows:
a.
In the Font droplist, ensure “Arial” is specified.
b. In the Height droplist, highlight 0.2, and then enter 0.4.
c.Press Enter.
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 163
QUICK SUMMARY ON CALCULATING TEXT HEIGHTS
Here are the steps to calculating the height of text appropriate for any size of drawing.
IN METRIC UNITS
Step 1: Work out the related drawing and paper widths, which will specify the scale factor:
Width of drawing
————————————————
Width of paper
40m
——————
0.297m
=
Step 2: Determine the scale factor by dividing the two values:
40
—————
0.297
=
134
The scale factor is 134. That means text in the drawing should be about 140 times taller to plot big enough to be
legible on the page. The standard for text heights in drawing is 3mm (0.003m), and for title text is 10mm.
Step 3: Multiply the standard text size by the scale factor:
0.003m
x
132
=
0.4m
In BricsCAD’s MText and Text commands, specify a text height of 0.4m.
IN IMPERIAL UNITS
Step 1: Work out the related drawing and paper widths, which will specify the scale factor:
Width of drawing
————————————————
Width of paper
130 ft.
———————
11 in.
=
Step 2: To make the units consistent, convert the feet to inches:
130 ft x 12 in/ft
————————————————— =
11 in.
1,560 in.
—————————
11 in.
Step 3: Determine the scale factor by dividing:
1,560 in.
—————————
11 in.
=
142
The scale factor is 142. That means text in the drawing should be about 140 times taller to plot big enough to be
legible on the page. The standard for text heights in drawing is 1/8" (0.125"), and for title text 3/8" (0.375").
Step 4: Multiply the standard text size by the scale factor:
0.125"
x
142
=
18"
In BricsCAD’s MText and Text commands, specify a text height of 18".
———
The reason for the difference between the metric scale factor of 134 and the imperial scale factor of 142 is that metric
A4 paper is 18mm (0.7") wider than imperial A-size paper. See www.papersizes.org/a-paper-sizes.htm.
164
Inside BricsCAD V16
2.
Type House, and then press Enter. Notice that the text appears in the drawing.
3.
Click OK to exit the MText command.
TIP
You can change the width of the mtext boundary box using grips. Here is how to do this:
1. Select the text. Notice the two handles (green grips) , one at each corner of the top of the
boundary box.
2. Select a grip; notice it turns red.
3. Drag a grip wider and narrower. Notice that the word wrap (paragraph lengths) change.
CREATING TEXT STYLES
CommandStyle
Ribbon
Home | Drawing Explorer | Text Styles
Menu Bar
Settings | Text Styles
Alias ST
Just as linetypes must be loaded into BricsCAD drawings, text fonts must also be loaded before
using them. This is done through the Style command.
1.
Enter the Style command. Notice that the Drawing Explorer dialog box appears on the screen.
: style
2.
Make the following changes to the Standard style:
Property
Old Value
New Value
Font Name
Height
Arial
0
Times New Roman
.75
(For imperial drawings, enter 26 as the height.) Ignore the other settings, as you don’t need the text to be
backwards, upside-down, or vertical — at least for now.
TIP
The height of 0 has a special meaning: it means that the text height is not predefined and so
must be specified during the Text command.
Text
height
Text insertion point
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 165
3.
Click X to close the dialog box. Notice that the House text changes immediately to the new font:
From now on, all text you place uses the Times New Roman font and is 0.75m tall (imperial units:
26 inches tall) — text that is half as tall as before.
QUICK SUMMARY OF TEXT JUSTIFICATION MODES
BricsCAD can specify justification (alignment) for text in many different ways:
Middle Center (MC)
also, Middle
Top Left (TL)
Middle Left (ML)
Baseline Left (BL)
also, Start Point
Baseline Right (BR)
also, Right
Align and
Fit
(fitted
between
two
points)
Baseline Center (BC)
also, Center
Justification
Meaning Start point
Baseline left
Align
Fitted between two points
Fit
Fitted with constant text height
CenterBaseline center
Middle
Exact center of text
RightBaseline right
TLTop left
TCTop center
TRTop right
MLMiddle left
MC
Middle center (equivalent to Middle)
MRMiddle right
BL
Baseline left (equivalent to Start point)
BC
Baseline center (equivalent to Center)
BR
Baseline right (equivalent to Right)
166
Inside BricsCAD V16
SIMPLE TEXT
CommandText
Menu Bar
Draw | Text
Ribbon
...
Alias
TX
BricsCAD has a second command for placing text: Text places single lines of text. In some ways, it
is easier than MText. To try it out, first zoom in on the pond.
1.
2.
Now that you see the pond area more clearly, start the Text command with Draw | Text | Text.
: _text
Select the Align justification mode, which places the text fitted between two points that you pick:
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>:
Text start point: (Pick one end of the pond.)
Text end point: (Pick other end of the pond.)
a
Align between two points
Because the Align option’s pick points define the width and angle of the text, Text doesn’t ask for the rotation angle, as it normally would.
3.
The Text command goes straight to the prompt:
Text: Pool
Notice that the word “Pool” is drawn with the Times New Roman text font specified by the Standard style.
4.Press Enter at the ‘Text:’ prompt to exit the command.
Text: (Press ENTER)
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 167
Changing Text
CommandDdEdit
Shortcut
double-click text
Alias
ED
Oops! “Pool” should read “Pond.”
To change the wording, use the DdEdit command. You could select Edit Text from the Modify
menu, but there’s another way:
1.
Double-click the word Pool. This action activates the DdEdit command (short for “dynamic dialog editor”).
Notice the Edit Text dialog box.
2.
Replace Pool with Pond.
3.
Click OK. Notice that the word is corrected in the drawing.
PLACING ROTATED TEXT
Now we’ll add some more text. To see how rotated text works, this time you place the text sideways.
First, though, perform a Zoom All to see the entire drawing.
Restart the Text command, and then follow these steps:
1.
From the Draw menu, choose Text | Text.
: _text
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: (Pick a point on
street.)
2.
Specify a rotation angle of 90 degrees, and then enter the text:
Rotation angle of text <0>: 90
Text: Donlyn Avenue
Text: (Press Enter)
168
Inside BricsCAD V16
By specifying a rotation angle of 90 degrees, BricsCAD draws the text sideways. You can, of course, place
text at any angle — from 0 degrees to 359 degrees.
3.
If you picked the wrong rotation angle, you can rotate the text after the fact. Use the Zoom OBject command
to take a closer look.
4. Pick the text...
: (Pick text.)
..and then right-click the text. From the shortcut menu, choose Properties.
5.
In the Properties palette:
a.
Look for Rotation in the Text section.
b. Change 90 to 270, and then press Tab.
6. Notice that BricsCAD rotates the text by 180 degrees. Press Esc to exit grips editing.
PLACING MULTIPLE LINES OF TEXT
Place more callouts throughout the drawing. First, though, use Zoom All to see the entire drawing,
and then follow these steps:
1.
Use the Text command to add multiple callouts to the drawing.
: text
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: (Pick near the bottom
of the drawing)
2.
Remember to change the rotation angle back to 0 degrees.
Rotation angle of text <90>: 0
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 169
3.
Enter two lines of text, as follows:
Text: 4486 Donlyn Avenue (Press Enter)
Text: Anytown BC (Press Enter)
Text: (Press Enter)
Notice how BricsCAD places the second line of text precisely below the first.
4. Repeat the command to add labels to trees, such as Birch, Aspen, Yellow Pine, or Western Red Cedar.
At this point, it is a good idea to save your work using the Save command.
SEARCHING AND REPLACING TEXT
CommandFind
Ribbon
Draw | Text | Find
Menu Bar
Edit | Find
To find text in drawings and/or replace it with different text, use the Find command (Edit | Find).
This displays the following dialog box. In the Find Text String field, enter the text for which you
are looking, and then click Find Next:
By clicking the Options button, you can narrow the search by BricsCAD to certain kinds of text:
170
•
Block Attribute Value — attribute text found in blocks
•
Dimension Annotation Text — text in dimensions, including leaders
•
Text (MTert, DText, Text) — all other kinds of text, including field text
•
Table Text — text found in the cells of tables
•
Hyperlink — text in URLs (links)
•
Hyperlink Description — text found in the descriptions of hyperlinks
Inside BricsCAD V16
And then there are additional options for narrowing down the search further:
•
Match Case — the text must match the pattern of upper and lower case
•
Whole Words — the text must have spaces on either side, and so not be part of a larger word
•
Use Wildcard — the text contains characters wildcards, such as * (any number of characters) and ? (any
single character)
Placing Dimensions in Drawings
With callouts firmly placed in the drawing, let’s turn to dimensioning the lot with commands that
start with Dim (short for “dimensioning”). Some of the elements of linear dimensions are illustrated
below.
Dimension line
Dimension text
Extension line
Arrowhead
Definition point
The bad news is that there are dozens and dozens, and dozens of settings for dimensions to adhere
to the drafting standards used by various countries; the good news is that BricsCAD comes preconfigured with most settings at reasonable values, for both metric and imperial units.
The settings are known as dimensioning variables, or “dimvars” for short. You can change dimvars
in two ways: with the Dimension Styles node (in the Drawing Explorer dialog box), or by directly
entering their names at the ‘ : ’ prompt. In the following tutorials, you use both methods.
PREPARING THE DRAWING FOR DIMENSIONING
System VariableDimScale
Like text, hatch patterns, and linetypes, the scale of dimensions is relative to the printed size. Oth-
erwise, the arrowheads and text will be too small to read. Before drawing dimensions, you should
set the scale, as follows:
1.
To set the dimension scale, enter the DimScale dimvar as a command:
: dimscale
2.
The same scale factor that you calculated for text works here: 4 for metric units (or 142 for imperial units).
Enter new value for DIMSCALE <1>: 4
TIP 3.
The height of dimension text is controlled by Style, and is unaffected by the DimStyle scale factor.
Create a new layer called Dims (black color, continuous linetype), and then make it current.
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 171
4. Freeze unnecessary layers, such as Text, Lawn, Plants, and Pond.
5.
Close the Drawing Explorer dialog box.
6. Because dimensioning often takes place at intersections, turn on INTersection entity snap mode, as follows:
: intersection
DIMENSIONING THE YARD
CommandDimLinear
Ribbon
Draw | Dimensions | Linear
Menu Bar
Dimension | Linear
Alias
dimlin
CommandDimContinue
Ribbon
Draw | Dimensions | Continuous
Menu Bar
Dimension | Continuous
Alias
dimcont
Begin dimensioning with the most used dimensioning command, DimLinear. It draws horizontal,
vertical, and rotated linear dimensions — depending on how you move the cursor. By tradition,
most dimensions are either horizontal or vertical. In rare cases they are placed at an angle (“rotated”). BricsCAD determines how to construct the dimension from the relative positions of your
pick points in the drawing.
•
For horizontal dimensions — pick two points roughly horizontal, and BricsCAD draws the dimension
perfectly horizontal
•
For vertical dimensions — pick two points roughly vertical, and BricsCAD draws the dimension exactly
vertical.
•
For rotated dimensions — at the prompt, enter R to force the dimension to be placed at an angle.
BricsCAD prompts you to specify the angle. A more useful command, however, is DimAligned, which
determines the angle automatically.
1.
2.
To begin, select Linear from the Dimensions menu.
: _dimlinear
Dimension the lower lot line horizontally, as follows:
ENTER to select entity/<Origin of first extension line>: (Pick intersection near #1)
Origin of second extension line: (Pick other intersection at #2)
Angle/Text/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated: (Locate dimension line by picking a spot below
the lot line, near #3 in the figure below)
1: Pick one end
2: Pick other end
3: Locate dimension line
172
Inside BricsCAD V16
BricsCAD determines the length of the line from your pick points, and then places all the elements of the
dimension for you, including determining the length between the two extension lines.
TIP BricsCAD automatically draws all of the components of a dimension: both extension lines, the
dimension line, both arrowheads, and the dimension text.
3.
Try another horizontal dimension of the top lot line. This time, use BricsCAD’s entity dimensioning, in which
you pick the entity and BricsCAD dimensions it. The method uses just two picks, instead of three.
Press the Spacebar to repeat the DimLinear command:
: (Press Spacebar to repeat command) _dimlinear
ENTER to select entity/<Origin of first extension line>: (Press Enter to select entities)
Select entity to dimension: (Pick property line at #4.)
Angle/Text/Orientation of dimension line: Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated: (Pick #5)
5: Locate dimension line
4: Select property line
4. You can continue drawing horizontal dimensions with the DimContinue command. This also is a way to
dimension with fewer picks. When there is a lot of dimensioning to do, you want to minimize the amount of
picking you have to do! From the Dimension menu, select Continue:
: _dimcontinue
Continue: ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Pick #6)
TIP The DimLinear command has several options
Angle/Text/Orientation of dimension line: Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated:
5.
Angle — rotates the dimension text.
Text — lets you modify or replace the dimension text.
Orientation — forces the dimension line to be horizontal, vertical, or rotated.
To end the command, it is important that you press Esc, because pressing Enter makes BricsCAD prompt you
to choose the starting dimension.
Continue: ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Press ESC
to end the command)
Because BricsCAD knows where the last extension line was, all it now needs to know the location
of the next extension line to draw in the second dimension.
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 173
VERTICAL AND BASELINE DIMENSIONS
As noted earlier, the DimLinear command draws vertical dimensions in addition to horizontal
dimensions. When you move the cursor in a vertical direction, BricsCAD knows to draw the dimension vertically.
1.
To draw vertical dimensions, select Dimension | Linear, and then follow the numbered pick point from the
illustration below.
: _dimlinear
ENTER to select entity/<Origin of first extension line>: (Pick #7)
Origin of second extension line: (Pick #8)
Angle/Text/Orientation of dimension line:
Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated: (Pick #9)
#7
#8
#9
#10
#11
2.
Use DimContinue to continue the vertical dimensions along the right side of the lot at points 10 and 11.
: dimcont
Continue:
Continue:
Continue:
ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Pick #10)
ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Pick #11)
ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Press Esc)
Baseline Dimensioning
CommandDimBaseline
Ribbon
Draw | Dimensions | Baseline
Menu Bar
Dimensions | Baseline
Alias
dimbase
A variation on the DimContinue command is DimBaseline. Rather than continuing a dimension
from the previous extension line, DimBaseline dimensions from the original extension line (a.k.a.
“the base line”). To see how it works, first place a vertical dimension:
3.
With the DimLinear command, place the first extension line at #12. Place the second extension line at #13, and
then the dimension line at #14.
174
Inside BricsCAD V16
4. Now try out the DimBaseline command. From the Dimension menu, select Baseline.
: _dimbaseline
Baseline: ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Pick #15)
Baseline: ENTER to select starting dimension/<Origin of next extension line>: (Press Esc)
Pressing Esc exits the command.
#15
#13
#14
#12
The DimBaseline and DimContinue commands also work with other linear and angular dimensions.
ALIGNED AND RADIAL DIMENSIONS
CommandDimAligned
Ribbon
Draw | Dimensions | Aligned
Menu Bar
Dimensions | Aligned
Alias
dimali
So far, you have dimensioned the straight and angled portions of the lot line with horizontal and
vertical dimension commands. To dimension an angled line, you use the DimAligned command.
1.
Enter the DimAligned command:
: dimaligned
ENTER to select entity/<Origin of first extension line>: (Pick #16.)
Origin of second extension line: (Pick #17.)
Angle/Text/<Location of dimension line>: (Pick #18.)
#17
#18
#16
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 175
The dimension you draw may look different, depending on how the angled line was drawn.
Radial Dimensions
CommandDimRadius
Ribbon
Draw | Dimensions | Radius
Menu Bar
Dimensions | Radius
Alias
dimrad
So far, all dimensioning commands have presented pretty much the same prompts. Now try one
that’s a bit different. The DimRadius command dimensions arcs and circles. The related DimDiameter command places dimensions across diameters of circular entities.
2.
(Zoom in for a closer look, if necessary.) Enter the DimRadius command, and then follow the prompts:
: dimradius
Select arc or circle: (Pick #19)
Dimension text = 1
Angle/Text/<Location of dimension line>: (Pick #20)
The DimRadius command gives you some flexibility as to where you want to place the dimension text. As you
move the cursor, BricsCAD ghosts in the leader and text.
#19
#20
3.
Save your work, and then print out a copy.
Annotatively-Scaled Text and Dimensions
(new to V16) In this and the previous chapter, you needed to work out the scale factor for annotative entities, such as text, dimensions, hatch patterns, and linetypes. The scale of these entities
takes into account the size of paper on which the drawing will be printed. If the paper size never
changes, then all is fine.
If the paper size will change, such as printing sometimes on A- (A4) and then on D-size (A1) paper,
then you need a handy way to change the size of annotative entities easily. BricsCAD fortunately
provides this through annotative scaling.
When you turn on the annotative scaling option, BricsCAD determines the correct height to use for
text, the correct scale factor for hatch patterns, and so on. Indeed, it can store several annotative
scales per entity, hiding those scale(s) that are currently unneeded.
Think of annotative scaling as a “master scale factor” that affects only annotative entities, and only
in three areas of drawings: with annotative entities, in viewports, and on plots. To understand this,
I have put together this rule:
176
Annotative scale = Viewport scale = Plot scale
Inside BricsCAD V16
The scale at which you plot the drawing determines the scale factor of annotative entities. (If your
drawing uses viewports, the same scale applies.)
To use annotative scaling, you turn it on in styles controlled by the Drawing Explorer. You click the
Annotative check box in styles for text, multilines, dimensions, multilines, and blocks. Below, I show
that creating an annotative text style is as easy as clicking the Annotative property; I happened to
name the text style “Annotative.”
For entities that have no styles, their dialog box has the Annotative check box, such as for hatches
and attributes. See the Annotative option in the fragment of the Hatch and Gradient dialog box
illustrated below.
Linetypes are a bit different, in that they use the MsLtScale variable to match the current annotative
scale factor. (Annotative scales are applied to entities, not to layers.)
You can’t just type one in an annotative scale factor; you are limited to the ones provided by BricsCAD. You can, however, edit the list with the ScaleListEdit command to add and remove scale factors.
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 177
USING ANNOTATIVE SCALING
So far, I’ve been doing a lot of talking. Let’s see how annotative scaling works for real. I’ll have you
switch back and forth into model and layout modes. (Layout mode shows you what the drawing
looks like on the paper you’ll be printing it on; it is like an interactive print preview mode.) You
find tabs for switching between the model and layout modes at the bottom of the drawing area.
1.
Open the Imp-Tutorial-06.dwg file.
2.
Switch to layout mode by clicking the Layout1 tab.
The black rectangle is the viewport, in which you see the model. (In the figure below, the viewport has green
grips, because I have already selected it.) The white area represents the paper, while the dashed rectangle is
the margin (the area at the edge of the paper on which the printer cannot print).
3.
When the drawing is first opened in a viewport, it is most likely displayed at a non-standard scale. BricsCAD
fits the model’s extents inside the area of the viewport, and so this drawing has an initial scale of 0.00462733
(or 1:216.1073, expressed as a scale factor). To see the model’s scale, select the viewport border, and then
check the Custom Scale value in the Properties bar.
Because 1:216.1073 is a non-standard scale factor, you have to change it to meet these two criteria:
• The entire drawing must fit the viewport (usually somewhat smaller than the viewport)
• The drawing must be at a standard scale
TIP
To convert the scale into the scale factor, divide 1 by the scale. In this case
0.00462733 = 1 / 0.00462733 = 1:216.1073
178
Inside BricsCAD V16
4. You change the oddball scale to a standard one through a button on the status bar or the Properties bar. On
the status bar, the annotative scale button appears near the right end next to DUCS, and probably looks like
1:1 right now. (If you do not see it, click the arrow at the right end of the status bar, and then turn on the Annotative Scale button.)
The annotation scale button does double-duty of setting the scale for the viewport and for annotative objects.
5.
Enter the model area by double-clicking inside the viewport border (the black rectangle), because annotative
scaling works only in model space.
6. Use the Zoom Extents command to ensure that the drawing fits the viewport snugly. This gives you the largest scale permissible.
7.
For the scale factor, pick the next largest whole number to 1:216.1073, because standard scale factors are
always whole numbers, such as 1:250. Choosing the next largest number makes the drawing slightly smaller
in the viewport. You don’t want some of the drawing hidden by the edge of the viewport! (If the scale factor
were something like 1:7.25, then pick 1:8.)
There is, however, no scale factor listed at 1:250, so you need to add it with the ScaleListEdit command, as
follows:
a.
Enter the ScaleListEdit command. Notice the Edit Scale List dialog box.
: scalelistedit
b. In the Edit Scale List dialog box, click Add.
c.
For the ‘Name appearing in scale list’ you can type anything. For this tutorial, enter 1:250.
d. For ‘Drawing Units’ enter 250. Leave the Paper Units set to 1.
e.
Click OK.
chapter
7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 179
8. To pick the annotative scale factor, right-click the Annotation Scale button (1:1), and then select 1:250.
You know that you have picked the correct scale when the drawing becomes slightly smaller, but not too
much smaller. (See figure below.) Notice also that the reported scale matches the annotation factor you
selected. From now on, the viewport scale is locked to the annotation scale. This means that any change you
make to the annotation scale changes the viewport scale automatically.
TIP
If the drawing does not change its size in the viewport automatically, you will need to make the
change manually. In the Properties bar, change the value of Viewport Scale to match Annotation Scale, or
1:4 for this tutorial.
180
Inside BricsCAD V16
9. With the annotative scale factor set up, test the annotation scaling feature by placing two kinds of text in
Model tab, standard and annotative. First the standard text:
a.
Click the Model tab.
TIP
Why place the annotative text in model tab? (Why not in the layout tab?) My CAD-expert friend
Bill Fane explains, “If you zoom and pan while entering annotative text in a layout tab, you mess up the
viewport’s scale; when you go back into model space, the annotations are missing, because their scale no
longer matches the scale of the viewport. For this reason, it is best to enter annotative text in Model tab.”
b. Enter the Text command to place regular text with the “Standard” style (which is non-annotative) at a
height of 1/8" (0.125"):
: text
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: (Pick a point)
Height of text <0.2000>: 0.125
Rotation angle of text <0>: (Press Enter)
Text: Driveway
Text: (Press Enter)
Notice that the text looks very tiny. It is so tiny that I needed to highlight it with a blue selection rectangle; look for the short dash in the center. It is so tiny because it is placed at the size we normally use
for text in drawings, 1/8". Recall from earlier in the chapter that we would normally scale it up by 250x
and so draw it 31.25" high!
10. Now place the annotative text:
a.
Restart the Text command, and then use the Style option to change the text style to an annotative one.
: text
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: s
Text style to use (or ‘?’): Annotative
Text: Style/Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/Justify/<Start point>: (Pick a point)
b. Again place text with a height of 1/8".
Height of text <0.2000>: 0.125
Rotation angle of text <0>: (Press Enter)
Text: Driveway
Text: (Press Enter)
Notice that the text looks a reasonable size. BricsCAD did the scale calculation for us and determined
that the text should be 31.25" tall.
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7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 181
TIP
If the drawing does not contain an annotative text style, then you can create one like this:
1. Enter the Style command.
2. Make a copy of an existing style by clicking the New button.
3. Click the Annotative option. It’s that simple!
4. Give the style a clever name, such as “Annotative,” and then exit the Drawing Explorer.
A FEW EXTRA THINGS ABOUT ANNOTATIVE SCALING
Annotative scaling is tricky enough that some users avoid applying it to their drawings. Here are some things to watch
out for.
WHAT TO DO WHEN ANNOTATIVELY-SCALED ENTITIES GO MISSING
Annotative scaling can cause objects to disappear. The problem occurs when the viewport scale no longer matches the
entities’ annotative scale.This, however, makes sense: BricsCAD drawings can have multiple layouts, each with a different
scale factor so that drawings can be printed on a variety of paper sizes. (This is why all drawings have just one Model tab
but many Layout tabs: each Layout tab is normally assigned a different plot scale and/or a different view of the drawing.)
Annotatively-scaled entities only appear when the correct scale is set in model space.
VIEWING ALL ANNOTATIVE SCALES IN DRAWINGS
There is one exception to disappearing entities, and that’s when multiple copies appear in the drawing.This occurs when
more than one annotative scale is applies to entities.When the AnnoAllVisible system variable is turned on (= 1), then
all variations appear, as illustrated below.
This can lead to some confusion as multiple-sized versions of text and other entities appear. The variable is meant for
debugging: it’s handy when you need to see all scales assigned to an annotative entity. To keep from seeing in double or
triple vision, BricsCAD leaves AnnoAllVisible turned off by default.
HOW TO SPOT ANNOTATIVELY SCALED ENTITIES
An entity affected by annotative scaling shows the
icon when you pass the cursor over it. When the entity has been
assigned more than one annotative scale, then the double version
of the icon is displayed. The icon represents the
end view of an engineer’s scale ruler, which allows engineers to work with multiple scales.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
11. Any text you place now in Model tab will be scaled appropriately for the viewport and the scale factor. To see
that the text appears at the correct size in the viewport, switch to Layout1. The text placed with the Standard
style is effectively invisible, but the annotative text "Driveway" is correctly visible.
12. Select the annotative text, and notice that the Properties bar reports two scales:
•
Paper text height
1/4"
•
Model text height
2'7-1/4" (same as 31.25")
TIP
Should you need to plot the drawing at a second scale, then I recommend you set up a second
layout tab, set the new annotation scale, and then go back to model tab. Select the text and other annotations needing scaling, and then apply the new annotation scale factor.
Summary
This lesson showed how to add text and dimensions to drawings.
This tutorial is now complete. The following lessons describe other 2D CAD topics in greater detail,
such as working with attribute data,and constructing 2D regions.
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7 Adding Notes and Dimensions 183
184
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 8
Bills of Material
One of the most powerful aspect of CAD is its ability to generate information from drawings. You
saw a hint of this in an earlier lesson when you used the Dist and List commands to find distances, lengths,
areas, and totals.
Here you learn how to extract information stored by attributes in blocks, and then how to create a bill of
materials (BOM) in the BricsCAD drawing and externally in a spreadsheet.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Defining attributes (data)
•
Attaching attributes to blocks
•
Creating templates for formatting attribute and block data
•
Exporting attributes and block data from drawings
•
Importing the data into spreadsheets for analysis
•
Importing spreadsheets into drawings
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Attribute — consists of text data attached to blocks
Attribute extraction — describes a process that exports attribute and block data to files
Block — describes BricsCAD’s term for a symbol. (Other CAD software packages call blocks “components,” “cells,”
“shapes,” “symbols,” or “parts.”)
Block
Insertion point
Attributes
Donut — consists of a solid-filled circle
Insertion point — specifies the place at which blocks are inserted in drawings
Prompt — refers to the text displayed by BricsCAD during block insertions
Tag — identifies attributes by name
Template file — defines the format of data in export files
Value — specifies the default values of attribute data
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
CDF
Comma-delimited format
DXF
Drawing interchange format
ODF
Open Document file
SDF
Space-delimited format
TXT
Extension for an ASCII text file
XLS
Excel spreadsheet file
NEW COMMANDS
CommandAliasesMenu BarRibbon Tab
AttDef
AttDisp
AttExt
Donut
Table
186
at
ad
ax
do, doughnut
...
Inside BricsCAD V16
Tools | Attributes | Define Attributes
Tools | Attributes | Attribute Display
Tools | Attributes | Extract Attributes
Draw | Donut
Draw | Table
Insert | Block | Define Attribute
Insert | Block | Attribute Display
Insert | Block | Extract Attributes
Draw | Draw | Polygons | Donut
Draw | Tables | Table
About Attribute Data
CAD can be used for many different kinds of drawings, such as floor plans, building construction,
mechanical design, and electrical layouts. Drawings are usually made using standard parts, such
as desks, windows, screws, and switches. When the parts contain attribute data, then the drawings
become truly useful.
In this chapter, you create the schematic drawing for an automobile electrical system. The draw-
ing contains numerous components, such as a battery and a fuse, several kinds of light bulbs, and
quite a few ground and solder connections. You could count these components by hand, but I’d
wager that you would miss a few and end up with a wrong total. (Well, you might not miscount,
but I know I would.)
It’s faster and 100% accurate to let BricsCAD do the counting. Part of the counting process is called
“attribute extraction,” because BricsCAD extracts attribute data from the drawing and then stores it
in a data file. The data file can be imported into a spreadsheet to count the components, determine
component costs, and so on. The parts count can be placed in drawings as tables.
This is very powerful stuff, and is known in many disciplines as BOM (short for “bill of materials”)
or in architecture as FM (short for “facilities management”).
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
During this lesson, you work with the following drawing file, electric.dwg.
Electric.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
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8 Bills of Material 187
The attribute extraction process progresses through these steps:
Step 1: Template — define an attribute extraction template file
Step 2: Extract — use the AttExt command to extract attributes to a data file
Step 3: Import — import the data file into a spreadsheet program
AttExt is the name of the command that extracts attributes from drawings. It is a very old command,
one that goes back to 1985 in some CAD packages — which explains why it is somewhat ornery.
Over the decades it has remained essentially unchanged, except for the addition of the dialog box
front-end. While other programs may boast “coaches” and “wizards” to step you through complicated procedures, BricsCAD does not assist you in this area. And so this lesson exists to guide you.
In the first tutorial, you create a headlamp block, and then attach attribute data to it. In the following tutorials, you open a copy of the completed electric.dwg file, and then extract the attribute
data from it. Later, you open the attribute data file in a spreadsheet program to count the parts,
and finally you bring that data back into BricsCAD as a table.
Creating Blocks with Attributes
The example drawing for this lesson is part of the electrical schematic of an antique automobile. See
the next page. (Wondering which auto? It’s adapted from the electrical system that helped power my
first car, a bright-orange 1965 Volkswagen Beetle.) If you have repair manuals or other schematic
drawings laying around, you can use them to reproduce your own schematic with BricsCAD. If not,
then follow along with the schematic sketch I provide with this ebook.
To begin with, you create one block and attach attributes to it. Working with attributes is kind of
tedious, which is why I won’t get you create all of the blocks. I’ve got them all in a drawing that
you can download.
1.
2.
188
Start BricsCAD with a new drawing using the 2D Drawing workspace (in metric units) or the Default-cm.dwt
template file.
Because you will be drawing the block to an accuracy of 0.1 unit, it makes sense to change the snap spacing
to this value and to turn on the grid. Follow these steps:
a. On the status bar, right-click SNAP, and then choose Settings from the shortcut menu.
b. In the Settings dialog box, make these changes:
Grid
Grid
Grid
Grid
Mode
Unit
Major
Display
Snap Mode
Snap Unit Inside BricsCAD V16
 Grid on
0.1,0.1
1
Turn off Display beyond LIMITS area
 Snap on
0.1,0.1
The result should be like the bold-faced entries in the Settings dialog box illustrated below.
c.
3.
Click X when done. Notice that the screen fills with a fine grid of lines. (Recall that the the extents of the
grid display are determined by the limits.)
A couple more steps and you are ready to draw:
a. There is no need for the UCS icon, so turn it off with the UcsIcon command:
: ucsicon
ON/OFF/All/ORigin/Corner/<ON>: off
b. Perform a Zoom All to center the drawing on the screen.
chapter
8 Bills of Material 189
DRAWING BLOCKS
CommandDonut
Ribbon
Draw | Draw | Polygons | Donut
Menu Bar
Draw | Donut
Alias
doughnut
The symbol used for solder connections is one that’s really easy to draw. It is just a fat dot, and it
is best drawn with the Donut command. This command creates solid looking circles out of wide
polyline arcs, and are specified with outer and inner diameters.
1.
Start the Donut command.
: donut
2.
3.
The solder connection is 0.1 units in diameter. To make a solid-filled donut, specify an inside diameter of zero.
Enter the following sizes at the prompts:
2Point/3Point/RadTanTan/<Inside diameter of donut> <0.5000>: 0
Outside diameter of donut <1.0000>: 0.1
BricsCAD prompts you to place the donut, as follows:
Center of donut: (Pick anywhere in the screen.)
Center of donut: (Press ENTER to exit the command.)
The Donut command repeats itself until you exit it by pressing Enter.
4. That 0.1-unit donut sure is tiny. Enlarge the drawing area with the Zoom Extents command:
: zoom
Zoom: In/Out/All/Center/.../<Scale (nX/nXP)>: e
(If the donut looks like it has straight sides, then use the Regen command to smooth its edges.)
: regen
DEFINING ATTRIBUTES
CommandAttDef
Ribbon
Insert | Blocks | Define Attributes
Menu Bar
Tools | Attributes | Define Attributes
With the solder connection drawn as a donut, you can now create the attribute data. The process
takes these steps:
Step 1: AttDef — define attribute definitions with the AttDef command (as described in this tutorial)
Step 2: Block — attach attribute definitions to blocks with the Block command (in tutorials later)
Step 3: Insert — define attribute data during the Insert command; optionally, edit data with AttEdit
Attributes are customized data that store information, such as part numbers and prices. Drawings
are useful to showing you how to assemble the electrical system, but the bill of materials (derived
from the attributes) tells you how many parts are needed for the assembly.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
TIP
Attributes attach only to blocks. It is possible to add data to other kinds of entities, but the
process is more technical, because it involves xdata (short for “extended entity data”). Nevertheless,
BricsCAD can export all data (such as properties) from all entities to CSV files for further processing.
A single block can contain one or more attributes. Just as blocks are graphical descriptions, attributes
are textual descriptions. And only text or numbers can be used; graphical data, such as images and
other entities, cannot be included in attributes.
Attributes can describe the block’s part number, manufacturer, price, and any other text-based
information you want to include. These attributes can have descriptive labels, such as “Product
name,” “Manufacturer,” “Model number,” “Stock number,” “Serial number,” and “Material.”
You could include “Price” as an attribute field; but since prices tend to change, it is better to deal
with the price later in the spreadsheet program. Instead, I suggest that if you need prices in attributes that you use a code instead, which is later substituted with the latest price.
Attributes are created with the AttDef command (short for “attribute definition”).
1.
Start the AttDef command. Notice the Define Attribute dialog box.
: attdef
2.
In the Attribute section, enter the following text:
Attribute Field
Value
Tag Product
Prompt Product
Default Solder Connection
3.
In the Text section of the dialog box, set the Height (of the text) to a tiny, unobtrusive value, such as 0.01.
You don’t actually want to see these attributes in drawings; you work with them through dialog boxes.
4. The Insert Coordinates section defines the point in the drawing at which the attribute text starts. A logical
location would be on or near the block. To obtain the value of the Insert Coordinates, follow these steps:
a. In the Insert Coordinates section, click the
button. The dialog box disappears temporarily.
b. In the command bar, notice that BricsCAD prompts you for the location of the insertion point.
Specify insertion point: (Pick a point to the right of the donut)
c. Pick a point to the right of the connection block:
chapter
8 Bills of Material 191
5.
As soon as you do, the dialog box returns. Its fields should now be filled out with values that look similar
to the following:
Click OK. Notice that BricsCAD shows the tag next to the donut.
TIP
Although blocks can contain multiple attributes, the AttDef command creates just one attribute
at a time. You have to repeat the command to define additional attributes, up to a maximum of 245.
ADDING MORE ATTRIBUTES
For the Stock Number, add a second attribute directly below the first:
1.
Press the Spacebar to repeat the AttDef command:
: (Press Spacebar)
_attdef
2.
And notice that the Define Attribute dialog box reappears.
Fill in the following data in the Attribute section:
Attribute Field
Value
Tag
Prompt
Value
Stockno
Stock No.
000-0000
3.
Ensure the tag name “Stockno” is a single word, with no spaces.
Click the
button, and then pick a point below the previous tag. (You find this easier to do if you turn off
snap mode for now.)
4. Back in the dialog box, click OK. Notice that BricsCAD adds the second attribute below the first.
The two attributes are identified by their tags, “PRODUCT” and “STOCKNO.” The text will change
when the attributes are later combined with the donut to create a block, as you see in the next tutorial.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
COMBINING ENTITIES AND ATTRIBUTES INTO BLOCKS
CommandBlock
Ribbon
Insert | Blocks | Create Block
Menu Bar
Tools | Create Block
Alias
b
You now have a donut with two attributes. The next step is to combine the donut and attributes
into a single entity. This is done with the Block command.
1.
Start the Block command.
: block
Notice the Block Definition dialog box.
2.
The first thing to do is enter a name for the block. In this case, enter “Connect” in the Name field:
3.
Name: Connect
You can ignore the Description field.
The most important aspect to blocks is their base point. The base point is the spot where the block will be
inserted in drawings — either with coordinates or a cursor pick. The default is at the origin of the drawing at
0,0,0. However, other points might be more convenient, as described in the boxed text on the next page.
For this block, change the base point to the center of the donut:
a. In the Base Point section, click the
Pick Point button. The dialog box disappears temporarily.
b. In the command bar, notice that BricsCAD prompts you for the location of the insertion point. Pick a
point to the right of the connection block.
Insertion point for new block: (Pick the center of the donut)
As soon as you pick the point, the dialog box returns.
4. BricsCAD needs to know which entities will be part of the block:
a. In the Entities section, click the Select Entities
button. The dialog box disappears temporarily.
chapter
8 Bills of Material 193
b. In the command bar, notice that BricsCAD prompts you to select the entities that you want to be part of
the block. Select the donut and the text.
Select entities for block: (Select donut and two attribute entities)
You can press Ctrl+A (or Cmd+A on Macs) to select all entities in the drawing, or else use windowing, like
I did in the figure above.
c.Press Enter to end entity selection and then return to the dialog box.
5.
Select entities for block: (Press ENTER)
Choose the Retain option. This determines what happens to the entities after you click OK.
OptionMeaning
Retain
Convert to Block
Delete
Retains the entities after defining them as a block
Creates a block from the entities, and then inserts them in the drawing;
this option combines two steps: erases the entities and inserts the block
Erases the entities after defining them as a block;
this option saves using the Erase command to later remove the entities
6. Click OK. The drawing looks no different, but behind the scenes BricsCAD has converted the three entities
into a block definition. Block definitions are stored in the .dwg file, and are used to insert them into the drawings, making them visible. See the next tutorial.)
7. Save the drawing with Ctrl+S, giving it the name “Symbols.”
194
Inside BricsCAD V16
Inserting Blocks with Attributes
CommandInsert
Ribbon
Insert | Blocks | Insert Block
Menu Bar
Insert | Insert Block
Alias
i
In an earlier lesson, you placed blocks with the Insert command. To see how attributes work, you
will use the same command with the Connect block.
1.
Enter the Insert command:
: insert
2.
Notice the Insert Block dialog box. Check that Name field contains “Connect.” If not, select it from the droplist.
3.
Change the following options:
Attribute Field
Value
Insertion Point
 Specify On-screen
Scale X (off; scale = 1)
Rotation (off; angle = 0)
4. Click OK.
Notice that the cursor is located at the block’s center. This is the base point you defined earlier with the Block
command; now it is known as the “insertion point.”
5.
In the command bar, BricsCAD asks for the location of the block:
Insertion point for block: (Pick a point)
Notice that BricsCAD does not prompt you for the scale or rotation angle, because you specified these parameters in the dialog box (scale = 1, rotation = 0).
6. BricsCAD does, however, prompt you to enter the attribute values. You can press Enter to accept the defaults:
Product <Solder Connection>: (Press Enter)
Stock No. <000-0000>: (Press Enter)
Notice that the attribute values appear next to the connection block, in exactly the same location where you
placed the tags.
chapter
8 Bills of Material 195
ALTERNATIVES TO THE INSERT COMMAND
In addition to the Insert command, BricsCAD has several other methods for placing blocks in
drawings:
Drawimg Explorer accesses blocks stored in other drawings and inserts them into drawings
-Insert command displays insertion options in the command bar, and is meant for use in scripts and macros
Drag’n drop to drag .dwg files from the operating system’s file manager right into the drawing
When you use drag’n to drop .dwg files from the file manager into the drawing, BricsCAD reacts
differently depending on which mouse button you hold down during the action:
•
•
Hold down the left mouse button — file opened as a drawing, like using the Open command
Hold down the right mouse button — BricsCAD gives you options through this shortcut menu:
The functions of these options are as follows:
Default by File Extension — places known file types with appropriate commands:
File ExtensionCommand ActivatedResult
Drawing .dwg Raster images Unknown file types Open command ImageAttach command
InsertObj command
Inserted as a block
Attached as a raster image
Inserted as an OLE entity (Windows only)
Insert Here — places the file as a block through the -Insert command
Open — opens the file as a drawing in a new window through the Open command
Create XRef Attachment — places the file as an externally-referenced drawing through the -XRef Attach
command
Create XRef Overlay — places the file as an overlain xref through the -XRef Overlay command
Create Hyperlink Here — prompts you to select one or more entities, and then attaches a URL to them that
points to the file through the -HyperLink command
Cancel — cancels the operation
196
Inside BricsCAD V16
Exporting Data from Drawings
Adding attributes to blocks is tedious work, and so to save you time and trouble, I have prepared
for you the drawing used by the next set of tutorials. It already contains all the needed blocks and
attributes.
To get a copy, go to the www.worldcadaccess.com/lb8 Web site, and then download the electric.
dwg file.
DATA EXTRACTION
CommandDataExtraction
Ribbon
...
Menu Bar
Tools | Attributes | Extract Data
(new to V16) To export data from drawings, you use the DataExtraction command. It saves the
data in a CSV file, short for “comma delimited values,” which can then be read into spreadsheet and
database programs for further processing. (This command is a more convenient replacement to
the AttExt command, because it does not need template files.)
To extract the attribute data from the drawing, follow these steps:
1.
Launch BricsCAD, and then open the electric.dwg file.
2.
To see all of the attributes, including invisible ones, use the AttDisp command. This step is not necessary for
extracting attributes, because BricsCAD extracts both visible and invisible attributes. But turning them on
makes it easier for you to monitor the task.
: attdisp
Attribute display mode: ON/OFF/Normal <Normal>: ON
TIP The AttDisp command changes the way BricsCAD displays attribute text:
Normal — displays attributes, except for those set to Invisible mode.
On — displays all attributes, including invisible ones.
Off — hides all attributes.
chapter
8 Bills of Material 197
3.
Start the attribute extraction entering the DataExtraction command.
: dataextraction
Notice the Data Extraction dialog box.
4. Click the
Select button, and then select all of the entities in the drawing like this:
Select entities: all
Entities in set: 124
Select entities: (Press Enter to return to dialog box)
5.
The number of entities found may differ in your drawing from mine, depending on how you drew it.
Back in the dialog box, notice the first set of options:
You are only interested in extracting attribute data from blocks, so turn off all options. The section now looks
like this:
6. The second set of options specify files. Let’s go through them one by one:
Create Data Extraction Definition — I recommend turning on this option the first time you extract data
from a drawing. BricsCAD saves the options you chose to a DXD file (short for “data extraction definition”). The next time you run this data extraction command, you use the following option (“Based on
an existing data extraction definition”) to reuse the options, saving you from setting things up all over
again. You see the benefit of this when you get to the next dialog box!
Based on an Existing Data Extraction Definition — Reuse the DXD file from a previous session.
Extract Delimiter-separated Format — Specify the file name and folder location for the extracted data.
Data is saved in CSV format, which separates data values with commas: one record per row, with fields
separated by commas. You have to fill out this option, as BricsCAD prevents you from moving further
without it by keeping the Next button deactivated.
For ease of reference, specify the following files:
198
Create Data Extraction Definition electric.dxd
Based on an Existing Data Extraction Definition (ignore this time around)
Extract Delimiter-separated Format
electric.csv
Inside BricsCAD V16
Click the
Browse button, choose a folder, and then specify the ‘electric’ file names. When you are down,
the dialog box should look something like this.
7.
Click Next. Notice that the Page 2 dialog box lists the blocks and line entities.
8. You want data about all of them extracted, so click Next to carry on. (From the line entities, you can get the
length of each one, which tells you the amount of wiring needed.)
9. When the Page 3 dialog box appears, it looks scarey as it lists every property of every entity, as well as attributes.
TIP
To turn off (or on) all properties at once, select the first property in the list, hold down the Shift
key, select the last property, and then click the checkbox.
Your big job now is to turn off all properties, except for the following ones:
Length
Product
StockNo
chapter
8 Bills of Material 199
TIP
To sort the columns alphabetically, click the header of each one. When you click the invisible
header of the checkboxes column, it sorts by which boxes are checked.
10. The Additional Format column allows you to specify a different format from the default value. You don’t
want too much formatting, because that might confuse the spreadsheet program.
a. For “Length,” click the blank area under Additional Format. Notice the dialog box. The Length field shows
you what the format looks like, either the default or else after you make changes.
In the figure shown above, I changed the “Format” to Decimal and the “Precision” to 0.0. I was tempted to
specify mm for “Suffix,” but then I realized that would make the spreadsheet unhappy — it would think the
number was text.
b. For Product and StockNo, I changed the “Format” to First capital.
c.
Click OK to exit the Format dialog box.
TIP
text.
The formatting codes used by the DataExtraction command are the same ones used for field
11. Click Finish. After a second or two, the results are deposited in the electric.csv file.
12. To see the result, open the electric.csv file with a text editor. The content should look something similar to
that illustrated below.
200
Inside BricsCAD V16
For each block and line in the Electric drawing, BricsCAD lists the following pieces of data:
FieldMeaningExample Value
Count
Name
Length
Product
StockNo
Number of occurrences in the drawing
Name of the block or entity
Length of line (does not apply to attributes)
Block’s attribute value (does not apply to lines)
Block’s attribute value (does not apply to lines)
12 (light bulbs)
LBULB
5.1
Single light bulb
400-0001
You’ve created a rudimentary bill of material, which can be printed out on your printer or imported
to a spreadsheet — as described next. Later you learn how to bring the spreadsheet into the drawing as a bill of materials.
IMPORTING DATA FILES INTO SPREADSHEETS
To format the raw data and perform calculations, you can import the exported data into a spreadsheet. Shown in this tutorial is LibreOffice Calc, part of a free software package available from
https://www.libreoffice.org/discover/calc/. Other spreadsheet programs, such as Excel, may have
analogous steps.
1.
2.
Launch the spreadsheet program.
To open the data file correctly, please follow these steps:
a. From the spreadsheet’s File menu, select Open to display the Open dialog box.
b. Navigate to the folder holding the electric.csv file.
c.
3.
Select the electric.csv file, and then click Open.
Notice that LibreOffice displays the Text Import dialog box, which allows you to specify the format of files
being imported.
chapter
8 Bills of Material 201
All the default options are sufficient, but make sure the following ones are set:
Import
From row:
1
Tab Comma Semicolon
Separator Options
Separated by: 4. Click OK. Notice that Excel loads the electric.csv file, and then displays each field in its own column.
If it is necessary to adjust the column widths, select the four columns, then choose from the menu bar Format | Column | Optimal Width.
5.
If you wish, add price and extension fields, a totals row, and format the text for lovely output. For example, I
used the SUM() function to find the total length of wires (lines).
6. Remember to save the spreadsheet file.
202
Inside BricsCAD V16
Placing Data in Drawings as Tables
CommandTable
Ribbon
Draw | Tables | Table
Menu Bar
Draw | Table
Data that you export as CSV files can be placed in drawings as tables. This creates a bill of materials right in the drawing. BricsCAD’s Table command imports data in two formats, CSV and XML.
•
•
CSV — output from BircsCAD DataExtraction command, as well as other programs
XML — non-product specific spreadsheet format using XML codes (extended markup language), and
can be exported by LibreOffice Calc and Excel
(Don’t confuse XML with XLS, the latter being Excel’s native format.) You place files, such as CSV
and XLV, in drawings with the Table command as follows:
1.
Start the Table command. Notice the Insert Table dialog box.
2. In the Table Options section, choose the From Data option, and then click the
Browse button to access
the electric.csv file.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the folder in which the CSV file is stored. Choose it, and then click Open.
4. If necessary, change the Separator field to ; or which ever character is used to separate fields in the file. If
you specify the wrong separator character, BricsCAD will later complain “Invalid format.”
5. Click OK. Notice that BricsCAD prompts you to pick the insertion point:
Specify insertion point or [Style/Width/Height]: (Pick a point)
6. The table is placed in the drawing, and BricsCAD immediately goes into formatting mode, should you wish to
further change the look of the table.
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8 Bills of Material 203
Summary
You learned how to export attribute data to spreadsheets, and then bring formatted spreadsheet
data back into BricsCAD. You also learned about creating, populating, and editing tables.
Next, you learn about a more sophisticated 2D entity known as the region.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 9
Modeling 2D Regions
and Booleans
Here, you learn how to increase your CAD efficiency by working with regions and Boolean operations.
These two BricsCAD features let you construct complex 2D shapes, and then analyze them — and BricsCAD
does this far faster than if you were to perform the calculations by hand.
(Regions are available in the Pro and Platinum editions of BricsCAD only.)
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Converting collections of entities into regions
•
Using point filters to find coordinates
•
Applying Boolean operations to regions
•
Finding the mass properties of regions
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Boolean — refers to logical operations, such as AND, OR, and NOT
Mass property — reports the properties of a mass, such as area, centroid, and radius of gyration
Point filter — returns a single coordinate
Region — consists of a closed 2D area
NEW COMMANDS
Command Shortcut
Menu BarRibbon
DelObj…
…...
Intersect
in
Modify | Solid Editing| Intersect
Solid | Edit | Intersect
MassProp
...
Tools | Inquiry | Region/Mass Properties
Tools | Inquiry | Mass Properties
Regionreg
Draw | Region...
Subtract
Union
su
uni
Modify | Solid Editing | Subtract
Modify | Solid Editing| Union
Solid | Edit | Subtract
Solid | Edit | Union
THIS CHAPTER’S DRAWING
By the end of this lesson, your drawing will look like this one:
RegionTutorial.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
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Inside BricsCAD V16
About Regions
BricsCAD works with regions. These are closed 2D areas of almost any shape. Regions are interesting,
because two or more can be combined using Boolean operations. These operations join, intersect,
and subtract one region to and from another. This lets you create a single entity with holes in it,
and analyze its physical properties.
Technically, regions are ACIS entities. The holes inside of regions are known as “islands.” The outer
boundary of the region goes by the name of a “loop.” Boundaries and islands can have any kind of
shape, from a triangle to multiple flowing curves.
Loop (outer boundary)
Region
Island (inner boundary)
HOW TO CREATE REGIONS
There are two commands in BricsCAD for making regions, Boundary and Region. The difference
between them is this:
Boundary — draws polylines along the boundaries of entities
Region — makes region entities out of other entities
In a curious twist of fate, neither can create a region from scratch; rather, they convert existing
closed entities into regions. This is why it always takes two steps to create regions:
Step 1: Draw the shape using drawing commands such as PLine, Arc, and Circle. To create a region successfully, the shape must be closed and cannot have intersecting curves. See figure below for examples.
Left: Closed, non-self-intersecting shape Center: Not closed; cannot be made into a region Right: Self-intersecting curve; cannot be
made into a region
Step 2: Convert the shape into a region with either the Boundary or Region commands.
(At the time of writing this book, the Region command does not combine multiple entities into a
single region entity. For instance, select three circles, and Region creates three circular regions.
This behavior may change in a future release of the software.)
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9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 207
By default, both commands leave the source entities in place. But the DelObj (short for “delete
objects”) system variable changes the behavior, should you wish source entities be erased automatically:
DelObjMeaning
-2
-1
0
1
2
Prompts to ask if all entities should be erased
Prompts to ask if profile entities should be erased
Leaves source entities in place
(Default value) Erases only the entities used with the Extrude, Revolve, and Sweep commands
Erases all source entities
TIPThe U command can be used to change region entities back to their original components.
After they are converted to regions, entities look no different, but they do have different properties,
of which you learn about later. In the following tutorials, you first use the Boundary command and
then the Region command. Later, you apply boolean operations.
TUTORIAL: CREATING BOUNDARIES
Available in all versions of BricsCAD
CommandBoundary
Ribbon
Draw | hatch | Boundary
Menu Bar
Draw | Boundary Polyline
Alias
BO
The Boundary command draws a boundary around the inside of selected areas and/or entities.
It draws them as polylines or regions — your choice, although in this tutorial you want regions.
(This command is a subset of the Hatch command. To place hatch patterns correctly, the Hatch
command first draws invisible boundaries around the areas to be hatched; the hatching is applied
inside the boundary, and then the boundary is optionally erased. The Boundary command draws
the same kind of outline, but keeps it.)
The Boundary command displays a dialog box that looks like a simplified version of the Hatch and
Gradient dialog box — just the hatching components are missing. Because by default it draws the
boundary from a polyline, its menu item reads “Boundary Polyline.” For this tutorial, however, you
will change the default behavior to instead draw regions.
To create boundaries as regions, follow these steps:
1.
2.
208
Start BricsCAD with a new drawing. The workspace or template does not matter.
By default, the Boundary command draws boundaries as polylines, which you don’t want. For some reason
that I don’t understand, you cannot change this in the Boundary command’s dialog box; the option is grayed
out (as shown below) and so is inaccessible!
Inside BricsCAD V16
QUICK SUMMARY OF BOUNDARY OPTIONS
The Boundary dialog box contains options that control how boundaries are created.
BOUNDARIES
The Pick Points button dismisses the dialog box temporarily, and the prompts you to pick a point in the drawing: ‘Select
a point to define a boundary or hatch area.’
BOUNDARY SET
The Boundary Set section determines where BricsCAD should look for entities from which to create boundaries.
The default is the entire current viewport, but you can change this with the New
button to smaller areas, such as
the existing selection set or the current viewport. For instance, after you click the New button and choose a number
of entities, the boundary seeking algorithm limits its work to the entities you selected.
BOUNDARY RETENTION
The Boundary Retention option is inoperative in current releases of BricsCAD.To change the setting between polylines
and regions, use the HpBound system variable (described in the tutorial).
ISLANDS
When entities contains other entities (a.k.a. “islands”), then you can tell the boundary-seeking algorithm to include or
ignore them.
The circles shown below illustrate the difference between the Nested, Outer, and Ignore options. Notice the location
of the cursor, and that the pick point is the same in each case.
TIP
Entities created by Boundary can look invisible, because they are created on the current layer. To see them, create a new layer with a different color.
Continued...
chapter
9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 209
...continued.
Nested — all entities (the circles) form boundaries, as shown in red at the right.
Left: Original circles
Right: All circles turned into boundaries
Outer — the outermost circles form boundaries (shown in red below); the innermost circles are ignored.
Left: Original circles
Right: Circles nearest to pick point turned into boundaries
Ignore — only the outermost circle is used to form the boundary; the others are ignored.
Left: Original circles
Right: Only outermost circle turned into a boundary; other circles ignored
BOUNDARY TOLERANCE
The Boundary Tolerance option specifies the acceptable size of gaps. For example, when you set the tolerance to 0.1", then
gaps as large as 0.1" will be ignored (or bridged) by the boundary-seeking algorithm.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
To switch the default entity to region, use the HpBound system variable.
HpBoundMeaning
Off On Boundaries are made from region entities
Boundaries are made from polylines
Set it to “off,” as follows:
: hpbound
New current value for HPBOUND (Off or On) <On>: off
3.
Use the Circle command to draw two overlapping circles, like the ones illustrated below. The sizes do not
matter.
4. Start the Boundary command. Notice the Boundary dialog box; the boxed text on a nearby page explains its
functions.
5.
Click the Pick Points in Boundaries
button. This lets you pick a point inside the circles; BricsCAD then
determines the boundary(ies) automatically, based on your pick point.
6. Notice that the dialog box disappears (temporarily), and that you are prompted at the command bar.
Select a point to define a boundary or hatch area: (Pick inside one circle)
Pick a point inside one of the circles, as illustrated below. It doesn’t matter which one, just don’t select a
circle itself.
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9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 211
7.Press Enter to return to the dialog box:
Select a point to define a boundary or hatch area: (Press ENTER)
8. And then click OK to exit the dialog box.
TIPS
If the area is already hatched, then the hatch’s associativity is lost when a boundary polyline is
converted to a region. In this case, the region must be rehatched.
After regions are created, BricsCAD does not delete source entities like the circles. Although the DelObj
system variable (short for “delete entity”) is supposed to allow deletion, it has no effect when the region is
created by the Boundary command.
The command line version is -Boundary, and is meant for use by scripts and programming routines.
9. The circles look no different, yet BricsCAD has drawn an entity inside one of them. To see it, drag it away from
the circles, like this:
a. Click the circle that surrounds your pick point made during the Boundary command. Notice that when
BricsCAD highlights it, the highlight looks like a crescent moon. This moon is the region entity.
b. Drag the region away from the two circles. Notice that it is an independent entity; the two original
circles remain in place.
10. Use the Properties bar to determine that the entity is in fact a region.
The Properties bar also reports the area and perimeter of the region.
As you can see from the result of this tutorial, regions are a handy way to create unusual shapes as
a single entity. In the next tutorial, you use the Region command.
212
Inside BricsCAD V16
Boolean Operations
Available only for the Pro and Platinum versions of BricsCAD
When drawings contain two or more regions or 3D solids, you can perform boolean operations on
them. These operations allow you to combine separate regions and 3D solids and make them one
— or to separate one into many. “Boolean” is a term from mathematics that describes the logical
operations that you may have learned in school, such as AND, OR, and NOT.
BricsCAD has three boolean commands for these combing and separating operations, as described
in the text box on a nearby page. The commands are named as follows:
Union (for AND operations) — makes two or more regions into one
Intersect (for OR operations) — finds the area in common between two overlapping regions
Subtract (for NOT operations) — removes the area of one region from another overlapping one
Technically, these commands employ ACIS modeling to perform their work, which is why they are
not available in BricsCAD Classic, unfortunately.
Together with Boundary and Regions commands, these boolean commands are be employed to
construct complex shapes with BricsCAD. Indeed, boolean operations work only with region entities and 3D solids — and not regular 2D and 3D entities like line and meshes. To do so, you would
need to convert the regular entities into regions or 3D solids.
The trickiest of the boolean operations subtraction, which is why get to employ it in the following
tutorial.
TUTORIAL: CREATING A WAFFLE SHAPE
Commands
Ribbon
Menu Bar
Aliases
Array and -Array
Change | Array
Modify | 2D Array
AR and -AR
CommandRegion
Ribbon
Model | Solids | Region
Menu Bar
Draw | Region
Alias
REG
CommandSubtract
Ribbon
Model | SOlid Editing | Subtract
Menu Bar
Modify | Solids | Subtract
Alias
SU
In this tutorial, you create a waffle shape as illustrated below. After drawing some intersecting
rectangles, you will apply the Subtract command to form the waffle shape. To determine the net
area, you find the mass properties of the shape; this would be very difficult to do without regions.
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9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 213
QUICK SUMMARY OF BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
UNION COMMAND
Union joins two or more regions into one. This allows you to create complex entities from simple ones.
Left: Original objects (two regions); right: square unioned with circle as a single object
In boolean terms, the union operation returns everything in region #1 OR in #2.
INTERSECT COMMAND
Intersect removes all but the overlapping portions of two or more regions. This allows you to find the areas in common between entities.
Left: Original objects (two regions); right: circle intersected with square
In boolean terms, the intersection operation returns everything that’s in region #1 AND in region #2.
SUBTRACT COMMAND
Subtract subtracts one set of regions from another. This allows you to remove parts of entities.
There are two outcomes possible from subtraction.The outcome depends on the order in which you select the regions,
as shown by the figure below. In the center result, the circle was removed from the square; in the right result, the opposite occurred: the square was removed from the circle. (Selection order does not matter for the union and intersect
operations.)
Left: Original objects (two regions); center: circle subtracted from square; right: square subtracted from circle
In boolean terms, the subtraction operation returns everything that’s in region #1 but NOT in region #2.
214
Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
2.
Start BricsCAD with a new drawing.
Using the Circle command, draw a circle with a radius of 2.875 units at the origin (0,0), as follows:
: circle
2Point/3Point/RadTanTan/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>: 0,0
Diameter/<Radius>: 2.875
(If necessary, use the Zoom Extents command to see the entire circle, and then employ Zoom 0.5x to get
some space around it.)
Circle of radius at 2.875
(diameter = 5.75)
@10, .5
Start rectangle to the
lower-left of the circle
3.
Now draw a rectangle with the Rectang command:
: rectang
The rectangle’s first corner is not crucial, except that it should be to the lower-left of the circle. See the figure
above.
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Rotated/Square/Thickness/Width/<Select first corner of
rectangle>: qua
Snap to quadrant of: (Pick a point to the lower-left of the circle.)
Enter relative coordinates to position the other corner. The width (x) does not matter, but the height (y)
should be 0.5 units. I’m going to use a width of 10 units. I’ll specify the other corner using relative coordinates, as follows:
Other corner of rectangle:
@10,.5
4. The next step is to convert the circle and rectangle to region entities using the Region command:
: region
Select entities: all
Select entities: (Press ENTER to end entity selection.)
2 regions(s) created
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9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 215
After the entities are converted to regions, they look no different. The circle and rectangle are, however, now
region entities that are circular and rectangular in shape. The Boolean operations that you carry out later in
this tutorial would not work on actual circles and rectangles, and so they had to be converted to regions.
If necessary, use the Properties bar to convince yourself the entities are now regions!
5.
Create copies of the rectangle region to cover the circle.
Now, you could use the Copy command for this task, but it is much faster to deploy the -Array command. In
this tutorial, you array the rectangle twice. The first time you array the rectangle vertically; the second time,
you rotate one by 90 degrees (with the Mirror command!) and then array it horizontally.
To start the -Array command, enter the -ar alias:
: -ar
6. Choose the rectangle:
This command can make arrays that are polar (circular) or rectangular, but you want rectangular:
Type of array: Polar/<Rectangular>: (Press Enter to accept default, Rectangular)
The number of rows in the first array is somewhat arbitrary, because you want to cover the entire circle with
rectangles. If there are too many, you can just erase the extras; if too few, then it’s a pain to restart the Array
command, so draw too many in the first place!
Number of rows in the array <1>: 10
Number of columns <1>: (Press Enter to accept default, 1)
The distance between rows is 1 unit:
Select entities to array: (Pick the rectangle.)
Select entities to array: (Press Enter to end entity selection.)
Vertical distance between rows, or spacing rectangle: 1
Notice that BricsCAD instantly creates ten copies of the rectangle.
Vertical
distance
between
rows = 1.0
216
Number of rows = 10
Entity to array
(The reason I use command-line oriented -Array command instead of the dialog box-toting Array is because it
can be faster to enter values at the command line than hunting through a dialog box.)
Inside BricsCAD V16
7.
Use the Erase command to remove superfluous rows, in other words, those that don’t cover the circle.
8. Now you want a second set of rectangles at 90 degrees. Create the first one by mirroring an existing rectangle with the Mirror command:
: mirror
Select the lowest rectangle, like this:
Select entities to mirror: (Pick the rectangle indicated by the figure below.)
Select entities to mirror: (Press ENTER to end entity selection.)
BricsCAD needs an imaginary line called the “mirror line” about which to mirror the rectangle. The placement
of the mirror line is not crucial, as long as it is at 45 degrees to the rectangle. The easy way to do this is to
employ the following relative polar coordinates: @1<45 as the mirror line’s end point:
Start of mirror line: 0,0
End of mirror line: @1<45
Delete the original entities? <N> (Press ENTER to accept default, N)
9. With the vertical rectangle in place, start the Array command. This is the dialog box version of the command.
chapter
9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 217
a.
For Array Type, ensure Rectangular is chosen:
b. Click
c.
Select Entities and then enter ‘L’ to select the last-chosen entity:
Select entities to array: l
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to array: (Press Enter to return to the dialog box)
Specify the number of copies to make:
Rows Count:
1
Columns Count
10
Column Offset:
1
Notice that the preview window shows several columns, one row high.
d. Click OK, and BricsCAD instantly creates ten copies of the vertical rectangle.
10. Erase the rectangles that don’t lie on the circle.
218
Inside BricsCAD V16
11. Now you finally get to use a Boolean. With the Subtract command, remove the rectangular regions from the
circular region, as follows:
: subtract
Select ACIS entity to subtract from: (Pick circle.)
Select ACIS entity to subtract from: (Press ENTER to end “From” entity selection.)
To pick all of the rectangles more quickly, follow these steps:
a. First, use All selection mode to select everything in the drawing.
Select ACIS entities to subtract: all
b. Second, use the R (remove) option to remove just the circle from the selection set.
Select ACIS entities to subtract: r
Subtract entities from selection set: (Pick circle.)
Subtract entities from selection set: (Press ENTER to end the command.)
That’s just two selections, instead of 12!
Notice the result: the Subtract command removes the overlapping regions, producing the waffle
effect — yet those 32 parts are in reality a single entity. This again shows you one benefit of working with regions.
chapter
9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 219
Measuring Regions
CommandMassProp
Menu Bar
Tools | Inquiry | Mass Properties
You’ve seen in the first two tutorials how region entities are unique in BricsCAD, by consisting of
unusual shapes and even a series of seemingly disconnected shapes. Another benefit we get from
regions is that we can easily determine their physical properties — especially easy for ones made
of many separate parts, like the waffle shape. If the waffle were instead made of 32 regular 2D
entities, then we would have to add up the areas of all individual parts, and then find the total. In
contrast, the waffle region is a single entity, and so easy to measure.
1.
To find the total area of the waffle pattern, use the MassProp command, as follows:
: massprop
Select entities: (Pick waffle shape.)
Select entities: (Press ENTER.)
2.
BricsCAD displays the results of the analysis in the text window. If necessary, press F2:
So now you know: The area of the waffle pattern is 59.2956 square units, precisely. The value you
see for your region may differ due to the way you placed the rectangles.
ABOUT MASS PROPERTIES
The MassProp command uses terms that have the following meaning:
Bounding box
Area
Perimeter
220
Inside BricsCAD V16
Cendroid
Area — cumulative area of all 24 waffles.
Bounding Box — rectangular limits of the region; the coordinates describe the lower-left and
upper-right corners of the corners of an imaginary rectangle that tightly encloses the region.
Centroid — center of mass of the region’s 24 waffles, excluding the open areas.
Moments of inertia — measure of the region’s resistance to angular acceleration.
Perimeter — cumulate perimeters of all 24 waffles.
Product of Inertia — measures the region’s resistance to change in rotation.
Radius of Gyration — distance from the axis that the entire region can be concentrated to obtain
the same mass moment of inertia.
Summary
This lesson introduced you to regions and Boolean operations. These concepts extend to working
with 3D models in BricsCAD Professional and other 3D software packages.
chapter
9 Modeling 2D Regions and Booleans 221
222
Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 10
Direct 3D Modeling
& Editing
Here, you learn how to create 3D models using traditional and modern editing techniques. Tradi-
tional techniques use commands to create and manipulate 3D models; modern ones manipulate 2D and
3D entities directly.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Learning about 3D solid models
•
Extruding profiles (2D entities) into bodies
•
Rotating 3D viewpoints
•
Subtracting 3D entities from one another
•
Modeling with direct editing
•
Aligning UCSes
•
Adding fillets to 3D edges
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Direct modeling and editing — creates and edits 3D parts directly, without entering commands
Profiles — describes 2D entities that define 3D parts.
Quad cursor — multi-tiled cursor with common commands
Shell — refers to a hollowed out 3D solid model
Sub entities — describes entities that make up 3D solid models, such as faces and edges
Union — joins two or more solid models into a single body
USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS
QUAD Quad cursor
SUB
Sub-entity selection
NEW COMMANDS
Command
ShortcutMenu BarRibbon Tab
DelObj.........
Extrude
Ext
Model | 3D Solids | Extrude
Solid | Create
QuadDisplay
F12......
SolidEdit
...
Model | 3D Solid Editing | Shell
Solid | Edit
UCS.........)
THIS CHAPTER’S MODEL
By the end of this lesson, your 3D model will look like this one:
Focus-bracket.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
224
Inside BricsCAD V16
About 3D Solid Models
BricsCAD Pro and Platinum allow you to create 3D models made from solids. Solids are 3D entities
that are solid on the inside, which distinguishes them from other 3D entities that are not, such as
surfaces and polyface meshes.
Because they are solid through and through, models made from 3D solids accurately mimic real
world entities. For instance, using third-party tools like FEA (finite element analysis) and CFD
(computational fluid dynamic), they can be tested on the computer to ensure they work properly
once manufactured.
BricsCAD has several methods for creating 3D models from solids, and here you learn about two
of them: using traditional commands and direct modeling.
In these tutorials, you model the focus ring mount for a small webcam. The finished 3D model is
shown later. The 2D plans are illustrated below — and they show a further benefit to 3D: it is easier
for non-experts to visualize products in 3D than in 2D. (This drawing is available as Tutorial-10-2D.
dwg.)
PLANNING AHEAD
There are several differences between 3D modeling and 2D drafting. One difference is that 3D has
a limited number of ways to create parts of a 3D model, whereas there are many way to draw in
2D. For instance, to create a box shape in 3D, you can use the Box command or else extrude a rect-
angle, and that’s pretty much it; in 2D, by contrast, you can draw a rectangle with lines, polylines,
or traces, or with the Rectangle or Polygon commands, and so on.
Another difference is that in 3D modeling you must plan ahead how to construct the 3D model;
this differs from 2D, where you can simply start drawing. Now, there is a bit of a Catch-22 here,
because being effective in planning ahead is possible only after you gain experience in 3D modeling.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 225
ELEMENTS OF A 3D MODEL
Three-dimensional modeling employs a jargon of its own. Here is a visual reference to some common terms. PARTS OF A 3D MODEL
Curve or contour
Vertex
Edge
Face
Primitive (basic) 3D parts are made with the Box, Sphere, Cylinder, Pyramid, Wedge, and Torus commands:
CREATING 3D MODELS FROM 2D
Applying the Extrude command to 2D entities:
Left: Extrude command applied to a 2D circle; right: Extrude with 5-degree taper
Applying the Revolve command to 2D entities:
226
Inside BricsCAD V16
Planning Ahead by Deconstructing 3D
The way to plan ahead is to deconstruct the model. Look at it to see what kinds of sub-parts exist,
such as boxes and cylinders; holes are formed from cylinders.
Then figure out common operations, such as parts that could be repeated (made once and copied),
mirrored (made once then copy-mirrored), or are unique (made once).
For example, look at the photograph. Identify the sub-parts (a.k.a “primitives”)
that could be modeled first. Notice that there are some are square ones and some
round ones. How would these be modeled? (With Box and Cylinder commands.)
Because the sides are parallel, much of this part could be constructed from extrusions. This is where a 2D outline is drawn and then thickened with the Extrude
command to make it 3D. There are some rounded edges that are made with the
Fillet command.
The 2D drawing provides the dimensions of the part.
Traditional Solid Modeling Commands
In this set of tutorials, you model the focus ring holder of a webcam. You use a variety of commands
to accomplish this. In this first tutorial, for instance, you use the traditional Extrude command,
which is one that dates back in CAD to the late 1980s; in a later tutorial, you use a newer approach
known as “direct modeling” to accomplish the same result — an extruded part.
To create extrusions, you first draw in 2D the outline of the part (on the x,y-plane), and then use
the Extrude command to thicken it in the z-direction. See the figure below. Extrusions always have
straight or slanted sides. (If you want a part to have curved sides, then revolve a 2D entity with the
Revolve command.)
2D object defines
base shape
Extrusion thickens the 2D
object to make it a 3D
model with straight sides
Extrusion
height
Left: 2D circle defining the diameter of the cylinder; right: Circle extruded to become a 3D cylinder
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 227
THE TRADITIONAL EXTRUSION METHOD
CommandExtrude
Ribbon
Solid | Create | Extrude
Menu
Models | 3D Solids | Extrude
Alias EXT
CommandSolidEdit
Ribbon
Solid | Edit | Shell
Menu Model | 3D Solid Editing | Shell
Alias ...
1.
2.
3.
Start BricsCAD.
When the Get Started dialog box appears, change the Units to “Metric.”
Click the the Mechanical workspace.
4. Notice that BricsCAD opens in 3D modeling mode. On the ribbon, click the Solid tab.
5.
Prepare for this drawing by changing the following settings through the status bar:
SettingToggle Comments
228
SNAP
Off
Entity snaps and dynamic dimensions are used in place of snap spacing
GRID
Off
Grid is not useful for this project
ESNAPOnTurn on Intersection snap; turn off all others
Inside BricsCAD V16
To ensure only the Intersection entity snap is on, you can use the Settings command, or else right-click the
ESNAP button the status bar, as shown below. Ensure all other ensaps are turned off.
6. Use the Units command to change the display precision of decimal places (linear units) to 1, because you will
be working with dimensions to the nearest 0.5mm.
7.
Close the Settings dialog box by clicking the X.
Change the visual style to “Shades of Gray,” which I find I like the best for 3D modeling. Follow these steps:
a. Enter the VisualStyles command. Notice the Drawing Explorer.
b. Click the space in front of Shades of Gray. (By the way, there are 256 shades of gray, not 50.)
c. Click the X to exit the Drawing Explorer.
8. Also, change the value of DelObj to 0. Recall from a previous lesson that this system variable determines
what happens to 2D entities after you convert them to 3D models. When set to 1, the program erases them; I
find it useful to keep them around.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 229
9. Start modeling by drawing the upper half of the part that looks square in shape. It is shown in gray in the
figure below.
You’ll work through these three commands in this order:
Rectangle command — defines the size and base of the square
Extrude command — changes the 2D square into a solid 3D box
SolidEdit command — hollows the 3D box by shelling it
a.
First, use the Rectangle command’s Dimension option to draw a 2D square sized 13x13mm:
: rectangle
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Rotated/Square/Thickness/Width/Area/Dimensions/<Select first
corner of rectangle>: d
Length to use for rectangles <13.0>: 13
Width to use for rectangles <13.0>: 13
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Rotated/Square/Thickness/Width/Area/Dimensions/<Select first
corner of rectangle>: 0,0
Other corner of rectangle: (Pick a point.)
b. Use the Zoom Extents to see it better.
c.
Now use the Extrude command to convert the square into a short 3D box. Specify a height of 3.5mm, as follows:
: extrude
Select entities: (Pick the inner square.)
Select entities: (Press ENTER to end entity selection.)
230
Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle] <1.0>: 3.5
Inside BricsCAD V16
10. Follow these steps to make the box hollow:
a. From the Model menu, choose Solid Editing and then Shell. “Shell” is an option of the SolidEdit command. It gives solid entities walls by uniformly removing the inside. Because the SolidEdit command has
many options, it is faster to get to the Shell option via the menu bar. The menu pick takes you directly
there:
: _solidedit
Enter a solids editing option Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit: _body
Enter a body editing option Imprint/seParate/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit: _shell
b. As prompted,. select the extruded box:
Select 3d solid: (Pick the box.)
c. Pick the top face to remove it entirely. BricsCAD does not give any indication when you choose the face,
and so you work somewhat blindly here. It is shown in blue in the figure below.
Select face to remove or Add/Undo/ALL: (Pick the face on top of the box)
Select face to remove or Add/Undo/ALL: (Press Enter to exit entity selection)
d. Specify the thickness of the walls, 0.5mm, for the remaining sides:
e.
Enter the shell offset distance: .5
And finally press Enter twice to exit the command:
Enter a body editing option Imprint/seParate/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit: (Press Enter)
Enter a solids editing option Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit: (Press Enter)
QUICK SUMMARY OF EXTRUDE COMMAND
BricsCAD Pro and Platinum include the Extrude command:
: extrude
Select entities: (Choose one or more 3D solids or 2D regions.)
Select entities: (Press ENTER to end entity selection.)
Specify height of extrusion or [Direction/Path/Taper angle] <1.0>: (Enter an option.)
Height — specifies the height of the extruded entities; positive values extrude in the positive z
direction, negative values go “downwards”
Direction — controls the direction of the extrusion, up or down along the z axis
Path — allows curved extrusions by specifying an entity that determines the path
Taper angle — gives sloping sides to the extrusion; positive angle slope inwards, negative angles outwards
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 231
Notice that the result is a hollow box, one with no top.
3D View Rotation
In the next tutorial, you add the round part underneath the box, as shown in gray below.
But first, you need to spin the model around so that you can see the bottom of the box. To do so, there
are several methods you could employ, but the easiest is the most direct way: real-time rotation.
1.
2.
3.
232
Position the cursor in the center of the box. The location of the cursor determines the center point about
which the model will rotate. This means it is important for you to roughly locate the cursor at the right point.
Hold down the Shift key. (If you don’t hold down Shift, then the model will pan instead of rotate.)
Hold down the middle mouse button, and then move the mouse. Notice the real-time rotation
cursor.
Inside BricsCAD V16
4. As you drag the cursor, notice that the entire model rotates. Once you see the bottom of the box, let go of
the mouse button and Shift key.
5.Press ESC to exit the command.
6. If necessary, use the Zoom Extents command to see the entire model.
EXTRUSION BY DIRECT MODELING
The bottom of the part has a hollow cylinder. In this part of the tutorial, you draw two circles and
then extrude them using direct modeling — this means you employ no 3D commands to do the
work. But first, this word of explanation of how to draw in 3D space.
Dynamic UCS
Now a crucial aspect to direct modeling is working with the correct plane. In 3D, a box shape has
six planes, but CAD can only draw on one of them: the one that is in the current x,y-plane. BricsCAD
provides a way for you to tell it on which face you wish to draw. This is called “dynamic UCS.” Here
is how it works.
1.
On the status bar, ensure DUCS is turned on. The letters should look black, not gray.
2.
To draw the circle on the bottom of the box, start the Circle command with the 2P option, as follows:
: circle
2Point/3Point/TanTanRad/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>: 2p
3.
Now, to see the effect of dynamic UCS, move the cursor around the visible faces of the box. Notice the two
things that happen: the face turns blue, and the UCS icon jumps to a different corner. This is dynamic UCS at
work. (Note that DUCS works only during drawing and editing commands.)
Left to right: As the cursor passes over a face (in blue), BricsCAD dynamically relocates the UCS (tri-color icon)
to the corner of the face, making the face a temporary x,y drawing plane; the UCS icon is positioned at the origin
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 233
In summary: As the cursor passes over a face during DUCS, the face turns blue to tell you that it is the current, temporary x,y drawing plane. The UCS icon is positioned at the current, temporary origin (0,0,0). DUCS
is available only during drawing and editing commands, because most of them operate only on an x,y plane.
4. To locate the circle, pick two points on the edges of the box, right at the middle of two facing edges. Use the
MIDpoint ensap to assist you.
a. Position the cursor over the bottom face of the box; it turns blue.
b. Move the cursor close to the edge illustrated below, but do not go beyond the edge! (When you go
beyond the edge, the DUCS jumps to the adjacent face. In effect, you are telling BricsCAD you want to
draw the circle on a different face.)
The crosshair cursor is hard to see in this figure, but it is near the edge while still on the bottom (blue) face
c.
Enter the MID esnap mode, and then pick a point near the edge:
First point on diameter: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick near point 1.)
d. Repeat the MID ensap mode, and pick a point near the opposite edge:
Second point on diameter: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick near point 2)
Pick point #1 near the
midpoint of this edge
Pick point #2 near the
midpoint of the opposite edge
5.
A second circle is needed to define the thickness of the 0.5mm wall. Instead of drawing it, make a copy using
the Offset command with an offset distance of 0.5mm, as follows:
: offset
Offset: Through point/Erase/<Distance> <0.5>: .5
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Inside BricsCAD V16
ENTER to stop/<Select entity>: (Select the black circle)
Both sides/<Side for parallel copy>: (Pick a point inside the circle)
ENTER to stop/<Select entity>: (Press Enter to end the command)
Offset this circle...
...by 0.5mm to the inside
Extruding Directly with the Quad Cursor
With the pair of 2D circles in place, you extrude them to create the 5mm-tall hollow cylinder using
the Quad cursor, unique to BricsCAD. It gives you instant access to commands right at the cursor.
In many cases, the commands are ones suitable to the highlighted element. (See the boxed text for
more on using this cursor.)
Making the hollow cylinder is done in three steps: (a) extrude the inside circle by more than 5mm
in height, (b) extrude the outside one by exactly 5mm, and then (c) subtract the longer one from the
shorter to make the hole. You extrude the smaller circle by a distance longer than 5mm, because its
height as a cylinder does not matter; indeed, in a later step, you “erase” it to make the hole.
Follow these steps:
1.
On the status bar, ensure that QUAD is turned on.
2.
Move the cursor over the smaller circle. Notice that it turns blue, and that a second cursor appears. This is the
Quad cursor, sporting a single icon (for now).
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 235
3.
The icon
on the cursor indicates the Extrude command. To confirm, pass the cursor over the icon. Notice
that the Quad cursor expands to show more commands; after a moment the tooltip appears explaining the
name and purpose of the button.
4. Click the Extrude
button, and then move the cursor. As you do, notice that the circle extrudes into a
cylinder (i.e., thickens in 3D). The direction you move the cursor determines the direction the circle extrudes,
upwards or down.
5. Notice the dynamic dimension next to the cylinder: a pair of arrowheads and text with blue background. It
allows you to enter precise distances; in this case, however, you don’t care about the precise height of this
cylinder, because its only purpose is to be cut out of the larger one to form a hole. But it is useful to ensure
the cylinder ends up longer than 5mm.
Watching the dynamic dimension, drag the extrusion so that it is longer than 5mm — like 7 or 8mm.
6. Then click. The cylinder is formed — without entering commands.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
7.
Repeat the direct modeling procedure for the larger circle. This time, however, enter 5 in the direct dimension.
Left: Extruding the outer circle into a 5mm cylinder; right: Two cylinders in place
8. Save your work with Ctrl+S, naming it “Focus-Bracket.dwg.”
Subtracting Solids To Make Holes
Command:Subtract
Ribbon:
Solid | Edit | Subtract
Menu:
Model | 3D Solids Editing | Subtract
Alias:
SU
You learned about Boolean operations in a previous lesson, where it was applied to 2D regions.
The same operations can be applied to 3D solids: union, subtract, and intersect. In this tutorial,
you create a hole by subtracting one cylinder from another.
The Subtract command is sensitive to the order in which entities are selected. Make
sure you pick the correct ones in the correct order: first the one that stays, and then the one
that will be removed (subtracted).
TIP
1.
With the two cylinders looking somewhat like a wedding cake, it is time to subtract the smaller one from the
larger one. Start the Subtract command, and then choose the cylinders in correct order:
: subtract
Select ACIS entity to subtract from: (Select the fatter, shorter cylinder)
Select ACIS entity to subtract from: (Press Enter to end entity selection)
1. Select the outer
cylinder first...
2. Select the inner
cylinder last...
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 237
2.
Now pick the cylinder to be removed (erased):
Select ACIS entities to subtract: (Select the smaller, longer cylinder)
Select ACIS entities to subtract: (Press Enter to end the command)
After you press Enter, the Subtract command ends and hollows out the cylinder successfully.
PushPull Modeling
A hole needs to be punched through the wall between the cylinder and the box. While developing
this tutorial, I tried a number of approaches to make the opening, and found the only good way
was to again draw a circle and use PushPull to turn it into a hole.
QUICK SUMMARY OF LOOKFROM COMMAND
: lookfrom
LookFrom [ON/OFF/Settings] <ON>: on
ON — turns on the Look From widget
OFF — turns off the Look From widget
Settings — displays the Settings dialog box at the Look From Control section
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Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
The easiest way to draw a circle (and other 2D entities) is in plan view. The quick way to switch between
static viewpoints — such as the plan and isometric viewpoints — is to use the Look From widget. To use it,
follow these steps:
a. Locate the Look From widget. Usually, it is in the upper right corner of the drawing area.
TIP
If the Look From widget is turned off, you can turn it on with the LookFrom command:
: lookfrom
LookFrom [ON/OFF/Settings] <ON>: on
b. Move the cursor into the center of the widget. Notice that the icon changes to show the top view of a
chair.
c. Click in the center of the widget. Notice that the viewpoint changes.
d. You may need to do a Zoom Extents to see the entire model.
2.
To draw the circle, use the same technique as before: employ the Circle command with the 2P option and
MIDpoint esnaps:
: c
2Point/3Point/TanTanRad/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>: 2p
First point on diameter: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick one edge)
Second point on diameter: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick the opposite edge)
3.
Using the Quad cursor, punch out the circle using direct modeling. You may find it easier to control the extrusion by clicking the Top Front Left position on the Look From widget.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 239
a.
Pass the cursor over the newly added circle. Notice that it turns blue.
b. Move the crosshair cursor into the Quad cursor. Notice that it expands to show more commands.
Choose the PushPull
button.
c. Drag the cursor down so that a hole appears. The distance you drag does not matter; all you need is for
the hole to appear.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
d. Click to finish the hole. This was quicker and easier than using the Extrude command!
Aligning the UCS
Command
Alias
UCS Face
...
The next step is to draw the rectangle needed for the arms that hold the two screw holes, one of
which is shown in gray in the figure below. This time you use PushPull to create an entity, instead
of a hole.
In this case, the 2D entity is a rectangle. Before drawing the rectangle, however, you align the UCS
on the face by another method: align UCS. This permanently reorients the UCS plane to a face —
permanent until you change it again. This is different from the temporary, dynamic UCS alignment
you used in the earlier part of this tutorial.
1.
Ensure QUAD is turned on in the status bar, and then move the crosshair cursor over a rectangular face.
Notice that it is highlighted in blue, and that the Quad cursor appears.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 241
2. Move the crosshair cursor into the Quad cursor. The crosshair turns into an arrow cursor.
3.
Move the arrow cursor into the blue Direct Modeling title bar. Notice that the Quad cursor expands to show
more icons.
4. Choose the Align UCS
button, and then press Enter. The UCS plane is now fixed on the face.
TIP If BricsCAD does not highlight the feature in which you are interested, then press the Tab key. Each
time you press Tab, a different feature laying under the cursor is highlighted. Press Tab enough times, and
the selection cycles around to the first one highlighted. See figure below.
Pulling, Instead of Pushing
CommanddmPushPull
Ribbon
Solid | Edit | Push/Pull
Menu
Model | Direct Modeling | Push/Pull
Draw a rectangle on the face, then pull it out with the direct PushPull operation. When it comes to
the screw holes, I want you to make a mistake so that I can show you that Bricsys also performs
direct editing — in this case, changing the diameter of a 3D hole without using commands.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
The arm has a rectangular cross-section of 2.5mm wide (length) by 2.0mm high (width). Draw its profile with
the Rectang command. I’ll give you the dimensions:
: rectang
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Rotated/Square/Thickness/Width/Area/Dimensions/
<Select first corner of rectangle>: 5.25,0
Other corner of rectangle: 7.75,2
7.75,2
5.25,0
2.
Use direct modeling to pull the profile to a length of 4.5mm.
Left to right: Choose the rectangle (a.k.a “profile”); select PushPull command and specify extrusion distance of 4.5mm; done!
3.
The screw hole hangs on the wing. It is made of a pair of cylinders, which (again) are made from a pair circles.
First, though, align the UCS to the bottom face of the wing, as illustrated below:
Remember to press Tab, if you find you have difficulty selecting the bottom face.
4. Drawing 2D entities in 3D can be tricky when the viewpoint is the plan view. By default, Bricsys will snap to
the nearest geometric feature; in 3D, this can too easily be the one you don’t want. To solve the problem,
turn on the OsnapZ system variable:
: osnapz
New current value for OSNAPZ (Off or On) <Off>: on
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 243
When on, all entity snaps set z = 0, so that the snapping takes place on the x,y-plane — and not at some
other higher or lower location.
OsnapZMeaning
Off
On
Snaps to the nearest z coordinate
Snaps to the elevation setting (usually 0; z = elevation)
5. Using the Isometric Views toolbar, change the viewpoint to the top (or plan) view.
6. Use the Circle command to draw the round profile:
: c
2Point/3Point/TanTanRad/Arc/Multiple/<Center of circle>: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick the midpoint of the edge.)
Diameter/<Radius> <1.3>: end
Snap to endpoint of: (Pick the end of the edge)
1. MIDpoint of edge
7.
2. ENDpoint of edge
When you rotate the view back to isometric, you see the circle placed on the bottom face — thanks to OsnapZ.
Use the Offset command to place a second circle, offset by 0.75mm. (This value is deliberately incorrect, and
you correct it later with direct editing.)
Source circle
Offset circle
(offset by 0.75mm)
8. As in the earlier tutorials, use direct modeling to extrude the two circles into cylinders:
a. Use Extrude to turn the outer circle in a cylinder with a height of precisely 3.5mm.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
b. Use PushPulll to turn the inner one to any height taller than 3.5mm; notice that it creates the hole automatically — no need to use the Subtract command!
9. The diameter of the hole is too large. It should be 1mm, but is currently 0.5mm. BricsCAD can edit solid models using direct editing. Here is how to correct the diameter of the hole:
a. Move the cursor over the edge of the hole. If the hole does not highlight in blue, then press the Tab key
until it does.
b. In the Quad cursor, choose the PushPull
button.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 245
c.
The hole must be changed to a diameter of 1.0mm. Drag the hole dynamically, or enter 1.0 in the dynamic dimension.
The hole is the correct size. Press Ctrl+S to save your work.
TIP To change the UCS back to “normal,” enter the UCS command, and then choose the World option:
: ucs
Specify origin of UCS or Face/NAmed/Entity/Previous/View/X/Y/Z/ZAxis/Move<World>: w
Filleting 3D Solids
The outer edge of the screw hole has a small fillet around the edge. With direct editing, you can
apply fillets interactively. Here’s how:
1.
246
Move the cursor over the edge of the cylinder. Remember: if you cannot select the outer edge, then press
Tab until BricsCAD highlights it. See the figure below.
Inside BricsCAD V16
2.
Choose the
Fillet button on the Quad cursor, and then enter 0.1 as the fillet radius.
...and then press Enter.
3.
Mirror the two new parts to place them on the other side, like this:
: mirror
Select entities to mirror: (Select the wing part and screw hole)
Select entities to mirror: (Press Enter to continue)
Start of mirror line: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick middle of rectangular part, as illustrated below)
End of mirror line: mid
End of mirror line: mid
Snap to midpoint of: (Pick a point on the other side)
Delete the original entities? <N> n
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 247
Joining Parts with Union
The 3D model consists of six solids. You can leave them as individuals, or join them into a single
body with the Union command.
1.
Use the Union command to merge all solids into one:
: union
Select ACIS entities to union: all
Select ACIS entities to union: (Press Enter to end the command)
TIP You can continue to directly edit the model, even after all its parts are joined by the Union command.
2.
Now that the model is one unified part, you can apply commands like MassProp and Properties to find out
the properties of this focusing bracket.
: massprop
Write analysis to a file? Yes/<No>: y
The report you see in the text window can be saved to a .mpr (mass properties report) file.
3.
Save the drawing.
Generating 2D Drawings
CommandViewBase
Ribbon
View | Annotate | Base Views
Menu
View | Generated Views | Generate Drawing Views
With the 3D model completed, it is time to generate engineering drawings from it. These are 2D
plans that often are used to check dimensions and give instructions to the manufacturer. BricsCAD
provides ways to generate the drawings automatically. Let’s see how this works.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
1.
To make the process somewhat easier, switch the workspace to Mechanical. On the status bar, right click the
2D workspace and then choose “Mechanical.” Notice the ribbon that appears is customized for mechanical
drawings with tabs like Sheet Metal and Assemblies.
2. Choose the Annotate tab. Notice the Drawing Views commands at the far left. You will work with them.
3. Click
Base Views button (or else the ViewBase command). This command automatically generates 2D
views of the 3D model — front, side, top, isometric — in a new layout. Follow these steps:
a.Press Enter to make drawings from the entire model:
: viewbase
Preset: “None”, View scale: “Adapt to paper size”
Select objects or [Entire model/preseTs] <Entire model>: (Press Enter)
b. Enter a name for a new layout, such as “Drawings.” I recommend that you don’t use existing layouts,
such as Layout1 or Layout2, as the result will not be what you expect.
c.
Enter new or existing layout name to make current <Layout2>: Drawings
Notice that BricsCAD switches to the new layout automatically, and then previews the 2D drawing being
generated from the 3D model. As you move the cursor, the 2D preview moves and changes its projection
to match the location:
Quadrant
2D Generated View
Upper left
Lower left
Upper right
Lower right
Top view
Front view
Side view
Isometric view
In this step of the the tutorial, position the cursor in the upper left quadrant, and then click.
Select position for base view [Scale/Tangent edges/Orientation/Projection type/
Isometric style/Exit] <Exit>: (Move the cursor to upper left, and then click)
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 249
d. The command repeats its prompt. Repeat the process: move the cursor to a quadrant of the layout, and
then click to position the view.
e.
Select position for projected view [Exit] <Exit>: (Move the cursor to lower left
quadrant, and then click to place the front view)
Select position for projected view [Exit] <Exit>: (Move the cursor to upper right
quadrant, and then click to place the side view)
Select position for projected view [Exit] <Exit>: (Move cursor to lower right
quadrant, and then click to place the isometric view)
When you are finished placing view, press Enter to end the command:
Select position for projected view [Exit] <Exit>: (Press Enter)
SLICING SECTIONS AND ADDING DETAILED VIEWS
CommandViewSection
Ribbon
View | Annotate | Section View
Menu
View | Generated Views | Generate Section View
CommandViewDetail
Ribbon
View | Annotate | Detail View
Menu
View | Generated Views | Detail View
With the 2D drawings in place, it is common to add sections that show the insides of models, which
are used to indicate its materials with hatch patterns. When necessary, detail views are also added
to show complex areas greatly enlarged.
Let’s add a cross-section view:
1.
2.
From the ribbon’s Annotative tab, click the
Section View button (or else enter the ViewSection command).
BricsCAD prompts you to choose a drawing view. The section view will be generated from the drawing, so
choose carefully! For this tutorial, click inside the viewport of the side view in the upper right quadrant.
: viewsection
Select drawing view: (Pick inside a viewport)
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Inside BricsCAD V16
Notice that BricsCAD highlights the viewport of the selected drawing.
TIP
When selecting the view, don’t select the viewport rectangle, as BricsCAD will just repeat the
prompt. Click inside the viewport, as shown by the crosshair cursor above.
3.
With the drawing view selected, it’s time to show BricsCAD which part of the drawing that you want the section to cut through. At the next prompt, pick two points outside the viewport, shown by the arrowheads in
the figure below:
Specify start point of section line: (Pick a point outside the viewport)
Specify end point of section line: (Pick a second point on the other side of the viewport)
I recommend holding down the Shift key to enforce ortho mode to create a section
line that’s precisely horizontal.
TIP
4. The final step is to position the section view:
Select position for section view: (Pick a point in the drawing)
BricsCAD automatically labels the section using the standard method of “A-A.” Engineers use the
A-A to see what is referenced elsewhere in the drawing.
It also indicates the scale factor of the section, 2:1.
Notice that hatching is applied automatically to the cross section. This reports two things:
•
•
Presence of hatching shows areas that are solid. Those without hatching are empty air.
Style of hatching indicates the type of material. Here you see “ANSI31” hatching, because it is the default pattern that represents iron.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 251
Here is the meaning of the ANSI hatch patterns included with BricsCAD:
Pattern Name
Example
Pattern Meaning
ANSI31 Iron, general purpose hatch
ANSI32 Steel
ANSI33 Bronze, brass, copper, composites
ANSI34 Rubber, plastic, electrical insulation
ANSI35 Defined by the legend
ANSI36 Defined by the legend
ANSI37
White metal, zinc, lead, babbit, and alloys of them
ANSI38
Magnesium, aluminum, and alloys of them
Creating Detail Views
To create a detail view, follow these steps:
1.
2.
From the ribbon’s Annotative tab, click the
Detail View button (or else enter the ViewDetail command).
BricsCAD prompts you to choose a drawing view. For this tutorial, click inside the viewport of the top view in
the upper left quadrant.
: viewdetail
Select drawing view: (Pick inside a viewport)
Notice that BricsCAD highlights the viewport of the selected drawing.
3.
Pick the center of the detail, as BricsCAD will use a circle as the view’s boundary:
252
Specify detail center on source view:(Pick the center of what will be detailed)
Inside BricsCAD V16
4. Now size the circle to indicate the extent of the detail. You can see the circle in the figure above, it has the
“B” reference attached.
5.
Select radius of detail view: (Drag the circle to size the detail area)
Position the detail view somewhere in the drawing:
Select position for detail view [Scale/Exit] <Exit>: (Pick a point)
BricsCAD automatically labels the detail using the standard method of “B,” which is used to referenced the source of the detail drawing. It also indicates the scale factor of the section, 4:1. You can
use the Scale option to make the detail larger or smaller.
TIPS
All of these generated drawings can be moved around the layout with the Move command.
To hide the viewport rectangles, start the Layer command and then freeze the “Drafting Viewports” layer,
as shown below.
Here is how the 2D plan now looks,with the viewports turned off and some drawings moved around
the layout.
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10 Direct 3D Modeling & Editing 253
Summary
You learned how to construct 3D models using traditional and modern commands for creating and
editing bodies. You also saw how to generate 2D drawings from the model, semi-automatically.
Next, you learn how to control the size and positioning of entities through constraints and parameters.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
CHAPTER 11
Dimensional & Geometric
Constraints
Here you learn how to create drawings that are constrained, where dimensions determine the sizes
of entities, and where geometry is locked, thereby determining the locations of entities relative to each
other. Together with constraints, parameters determine the positions of entities through formulae.
IN THIS CHAPTER
•
Applying dimensional constraints
•
Using 2D geometric constraints
•
Controlling constraints through parameters
KEY TERMS IN THIS CHAPTER
Constraint bar — describes the small tooltips that report the constraints applied to entities
Dimensional constraint — specifies the size of entities in a dimension-like manner
Geometric constraint — determines the geometric relationship between entities, much like a semi-permanent entity snap
Parameter — specifies a formula that determines relationships between constraints
NEW COMMANDS
CommandMenu BarRibbon
bmBrowser
Mechanical | Mechanical Browser ...
ConstraintBar
DimConstraint
GeomConstraint
Parametric | 2D Constraints Bar Parametric | 2D Constraints
Parametric | 2D Constraints
2D Constraints Bar
2D Constraints panel
2D Constraints panel
THIS CHAPTER’S MODEL
By the end of this lesson, your parametric drawing will look like this one:
Drawing files bracket-ragged.dwg and bracket-constrainted.dwg can be downloaded from www.upfrontezine.com/lb8
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Inside BricsCAD V16
Working with Constraints
BricsCAD allows you to control the size of entities in drawings through constraints. There are two
types of constraints: one of the types determines the size of entities, the other determines position.
•
•
Dimensional constraints regulate the sizes of entities, and the distances between them
Geometric constraints determine the position of entities relative to others
BricsCAD Classic and Pro provide 2D constraints. BricsCAD Platinum adds 3D constraints, which
are applied to faces and edges of 3D bodies but do not work with 2D entities. (Three-dimensional
constraints are not covered by this book.)
There are a number of commands for applying and removing constraints, but I find it easiest to
just use the 2D Constraints toolbar or the Parametric tab on the ribbon.
To see the toolbar, right-click any toolbar or ribbon, and then choose BRICSCAD | 2D Constraints:
Center group of 12 red buttons: geometric constraints; right group of 8 yellow buttons: dimensional constraints
To see the tab on the ribbon, switch to the “3D Modeling” workspace, and then choose the ribbon’s
Parametric tab:
Left: 2D constraints; right: 3D constraints and design intent (Platinum edition only)
ABOUT DIMENSIONAL CONSTRAINTS
The great thing about dimensional constraints is that you use them to control the size of entities.
For instance, apply a diameter dimensional constraint to a circle. Increase the value of the constraint, and BricsCAD forces the circle to become larger. To edit the value, you just double-click the
dimension text.
Left: Circle with diameter of 2000 units; center: Editing the value of the dimensional constraint;
right: New 4000-value of parameter forces circle to grow larger
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 257
You can place linear dimensional constraints between entities to control how far apart they are.
Decrease the value of the constraint, and BricsCAD moves them closer together; increase it, and
they are moved further apart. Again, to edit the value, just double-click the dimension text.
Left: Two circles separated by 5000 units; center: Distance being edited; right: Circles now separated by 2500 units
Better yet, the values of constraints can be determined by other constraints, and even by formulas.
For instance, you can make the diameter of a circle equal to the linear distance between two entities. When you change one dimension, the linked ones follow suit. For example, the figure below
shows that I made the value of dia1 (diameter of one circle) equal to d1 (distance between circles)
using a simple formula, dia1=d1.
Left: Diameter of first circle = distance between circles; right: Changing the distance to 2500 units makes the second circle smaller
To change the values of dimensional constraints, open the Mechanical Browser with the bmBrowser
command. To remove a dimensional constraint, simply select it and then press Del (or else use the
Erase command). A concise reference to all dimensional constraints is found in the boxed text on
the facing page.
Using Dimensional Constraints
Using dimensional constraints in drawings is very much like placing regular dimensions. Except
for the text, they look exactly like each other; you can apply dimension styles to them. The only
visual difference between the two is the ‘d1=’ text that prefixes the constraint value; this is how
you identify dimensions that are constraints.
Left: Associative dimension (top) and dimensional constraint (bottom) applied to the same line; right: Editing options for dimensional constraints are the same
as for associative dimensions
258
Inside BricsCAD V16
QUICK SUMMARY OF DIMENSIONAL CONSTRAINTS
There are two sets of commands for applying constraints. One is the all-purpose DimConstraint command, which is
useful for seeing a list of all modes,The other set consists of the individual commands, one for each dimensional constraint:
DIMCONSTRAINT COMMAND
: dimconstraint
Select associative dimension to convert or [LInear/Horizontal/Vertical/Aligned/ANgular/
Radial/Diameter] <LInear>: (Enter an option.)
DIMENSIONAL CONSTRAINT COMMANDS
The other set of commands consists of ones specific to each constraint mode, as listed in the table below.
Icon
Type of
Constraint
Command
LInear
DcLinear
Horizontal
DcHorizontal
Vertical
DcVertical
Aligned
DcAligned
ANgular DcAngular
Radial
DcRadius
Diameter
DcDiameter
...
DimConvert
Constraining Action
Horizontal or vertical distance
Horizontal (X) distance between two points
Vertical (Y) distance between two points
Distance between two points at any angle
Angle between two lines or linear polyline segments;
angle of an arc or polyline arc;
angle between three points on an entity
Radius of a circle, arc, or polyline arc
Diameter of a circle, arc, or polyline arc
Converts associative dimensions to dimensional constraints
Dimensional constraints are applied in the current UCS. Icons for dimensional constraints are found at the right end of
the 2D Constraints toolbar or ribbon tab:
Above: 2D Constraints toolbar; below: 2D Parametric tab
CONVERTING DIMENSIONS TO CONSTRAINTS
Dimensional constraints are very much like associative dimensions and, in fact, existing associative dimensions can be
converted to constraints with the DimConstraint command’s Select Associative Dimension to Convert option —
or the DimConvert command.
The command converts like to like. For instance, linear dimensions become linear constraints, radial dimensions become
radial constraints, and so on.
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 259
The difference between the two types of dimensions is this: whereas associative dimensions are
controlled by the entity, dimensional constraints do the controlling. They specify the sizes of entities, overruling what ever you may have drawn. Here is a tutorial to illustrate the differences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Start BricsCAD with a new drawing.
Draw a line with the Line command. The length is not critical.
Dimension the line with the DimLinear command.
Use the dcLinear command to apply a dimensional constraint to the same line. (‘dc’ is short for dimensional
constraint.)
: dclinear
Specify first constraint point or [Entity] <Entity>: (Press Enter)
Select an entity: (Choose the line.)
Specify dimension line location: (Move the cursor, and then click)
Dimension text <3730>: (Press Enter)
In the figure above, the two linear dimensions look identical — other than the ‘d1=’ name. The ‘d’ is
short for “distance,” and the ‘1’ indicates this is the first distance constraint placed in the drawing.
You can change this name through the Properties bar.
Continuing with the tutorial, you now edit the line and the dimensions to see how one affects the
other.
5.
260
Edit the line by stretching one of its end grips; see figure below. Notice that you cannot. This is because the
length of the line is “locked” by the dimensional constraint.
Inside BricsCAD V16
6. You can, however, use the center grip to move the line and its dimension as a unit. As well, you can stretch
the line vertically and it will change its angle, because the position and the height are not locked — only the
horizontal length is locked by dcLinear.
7.
Now change the value of the constraint to see what happens to the line:
a. Enter the DdEdit command, and then select the constraint value.
b. Enter a new value, such as 2500, and then twice press Enter to exit the dialog box.
Notice that the line changes its length to match the new value of the constraint, as does the distance measured by the associative dimension.
With it comes to dimensional constraints, their values control the entities’ sizes, and so the entities
cannot be edited directly.
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 261
ABOUT GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS
Whereas dimensional constraint control the size of entities and distances between them, geometric constraints control their positions in the drawings. They act like semi-permanent entity snaps.
Whereas esnaps are in effect only at the time that you create or edit an entity, geometric constraints
remain in effect forever — until you remove them.
For instance, horizontal constraints force entities to be horizontal. Draw a line at any angle, and
then apply the horizontal constraint: it snaps flat; see figure below.
Left: Line drawn at an arbitrary angle; right: Line snapped flat by horizontal constraint
When you try to rotate the entity, you can’t. It can be moved, shortened (or lengthened), but not
rotated, because it is constrained. When you copy a constrained entity, the copy takes on the same
constraint(s).
Identifying Geometric Constraints
Geometric constraints are identified by the small icon that floats near the associated entity. Pass
the cursor over the icon and three things appear:
•
•
•
Tooltip identifies the name of the constraint, “Horizontal”
X appears next to the tooltip; clicking it makes the icon disappear (the constraint remains in effect)
The associated entity is highlighted
Here is another for-instance: concentric constraints force circles to be concentric. Move one, and
the other moves with it.
Left: Two circles placed arbitrarily in the drawing; right: Larger circle made concentric to the first one
The gcConcentric command is order-dependent: the first entity you select is the master, meaning
that the second entity you select follows it. (Unlike dimensional constraints, geometric constrains
262
do not take formulae.)
Inside BricsCAD V16
QUICK SUMMARY OF 2D GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS
As with dimensional constraints, there are two sets of commands for applying geometric ones. One is the all-purpose
GeomConstraint command, which is useful for seeing a list of all modes:
: geomconstraint
Enter constraint type [Horizontal/Vertical/Perpendicular/PArallel/Tangent/SMooth/Coincident/CONcentric/COLlinear/Symmetric/Equal/Fix] <CONcentric>:
The other set of commands consists of ones specific to each constraint mode, as listed in the table below.
Type of
Icon
ConstraintCommandConstraining Action
Horizontal
GcHorizontal
Keeps entities horizontal (parallel to the x-axis)
Vertical GcVertical
Keeps entities vertical (parallel to the y-axis)
Perpendicular GcPerpendicular
Keeps entities perpendicular to one other
PArallel GcParallel
Keeps entities parallel to one another
Tangent GcTangent
keeps circular and straight entities tangent
SMooth GcSmooth
Keep splines smooth with splines, lines, arcs, polylines
Coincident GcCoincident
Keeps end points attached, such as of two lines
CONcentric GcConcentric
Keeps circles, arcs, ellipses, and elliptical arcs centered
COLlinear GcCollinear
Makes linear entities to lie in the same line
Symmetric GcSymmetric
Keeps entities or points symmetric about mirror lines
Equal GcEqual
Gives curved entities the same radius; open entities the same length
Fix GcFix
Keeps entities fixed in-place in the drawing
Note that some geometric constraints, such as Horizontal, are applied relative to the current UCS. Geometric constraints
are found on the left half of the 2D Constraints toolbar or 2D Parametric ribbon tab, as illustrated earlier:
ACCEPTABLE GEOMETRY
You can apply constraints to the following entities: lines, segments of polylines, circles, arcs, ellipses, elliptical arcs, and
splines. Constraint points can be applied to the following geometric features:
Entity
Constraint Points
Arcs
Endpoints, center points, and midpoints
Block insertions
Insertion point
CirclesCenter points
EllipsesCenter points
Elliptical arcs
Endpoints, center points, and midpoints
LinesEndpoints and midpoints
Polyline line and arc segments
Endpoints, midpoints, center points of arc segments
SplinesEndpoints
TablesInsertion point
Text, mtext, and attributes
Insertion point
Xref attachments
Insertion point
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 263
To remove a geometric constraint, you have to use the DelConstraint command; you cannot simply
“erase” geometric constraints.
All the kinds of dimensional constraints found in BricsCAD are listed in the boxed text on the facing page.
Using Geometric Constraints
The easiest way to understand geometric constraints is to work through a tutorial. Below, I drew a
rough sketch of a bracket. I drew it badly deliberately to show off the beneficial effect of constraints.
You can access the bracket-ragged.dwg file from www.worldcadaccess.com/lb8.
1.
2.
3.
Start BricsCAD with a new drawing.
Draw a shape similar to the one illustrated above with the Line, Arc, and Circle commands. The exact size and
exact placement of entities is not critical.
The 2D Constraints toolbar assists you in assigning geometric constraints to entities. Open it, as follows:
a. Right-click any toolbar.
b. From the shortcut menu, choose BRICSCAD, and then choose 2D Constraints.
4. The first step, usually, is to connect all lines with the gcCoincident command. This particular constraint mode
forces the endpoints of lines and arcs to stick together. The good news is that you don’t need to pick entities
individually:
a. From the 2D Constraints toolbar, choose the
Coincident button.
: _gccoincident
b. Use the command’s Autoconstrain option to connect all lines in one fell swoop:
Select first point or [Entity/Autoconstrain] <Entity>: a
Select entities: all
c.Press Enter to end the command:
264
Select entities: (Press Enter)
Inside BricsCAD V16
5.
Notice that tooltip-like
tags appear all over the drawing. They are known as “constraint bars,” and report
the types of geometric constraints applied to entities. In this case, the tags are all the same, because of the
coincident constraint.
6. Me, I find these bars annoying, because they clutter the drawing, and so I close them. You can, too:
• To turn off bars individually, click the x
that appears in the upper right corner of each bar
• To turn them off all at the same time, use the ConstraintBar command’s Hide option, as follows:
7.
: _constraintbar
Select option to [Show/Hide/Reset] constraints: h
Select entities or ENTER to select all: (Press Enter to hide all bars)
To see the effect of the Coincident constraint, drag a line. Notice the other lines that are connected to it. This
shows that Coincident is like a sticky bit of glue, making lines act like polylines.
8. Enter the U command to return the drawing as it was before.
9. To straighten out lines that are supposed to be horizontal, use the gcHorizontal command on the nearly
horizontal ones, as follows:
a. In the 2D Constraints toolbar, click the
Horizontal button, and then follow the prompts in the command bar:
: _gchorizontal
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 265
b. Select a nearly-horizontal line:
Select an entity or [2Points] <2Points>: (Choose a line)
Notice that it immediately goes precisely horizontal. The line changes its length as needed, so that it
remains attached to its neighbors.
c.
Repeat the command to make other lines horizontal.
Now you need to straighten out the vertical lines. Here you have some options. You could apply
any of these constraints:
•
•
•
Two vertical constraints to make all the near-vertical lines truly vertical
Two perpendicular constraints to make vertical lines perpendicular to the horizontal ones
One perpendicular and one parallel constraint to make one vertical line perpendicular to one horizontal one,
and then to make the remaining vertical one parallel to the first
Which approach you choose depends on your intent for the design: how do you want the lines to
relate to each other?
10. I consider approach #2 is best, because I want vertical lines to all be perpendicular to the horizontals. Here is
how to do this:
a. Click the
Perpendicular button to start the gcPerpendicular command.
: _gcperpendicular
b. For this type of constraint, the selection order matters. Essentially, the second entity selected is made
perpendicular to the first one. (The first is the master, the second is the slave.) Select a horizontal line:
c.
Select first entity: (Choose a horizontal line)
And then select an attached nearly-vertical one:
Select second entity: (Choose the vertical one)
Notice that the vertical line straightens out, because it is forced to be perpendicular to the horizontal one.
11. Repeat for the other nearly-vertical lines. The result should look similar to the figure below.
12. The circle needs a geometric constraint to fix its location. Use
point of the circle to that of the arc, as follows:
gcConcentric to match the center
: _gcconcentric
Select first entity: (Pick the circle)
Select second entity: (Pick the arc)
Normally, selection order matters with Concentric constraint: the second entity shifts its position to be
concentric with the first one selected. In this particular case, however, selection order did not matter,
because the arc is fixed in place (through the earlier Coincident constraint), and so BricsCAD forced the
circle to move.
13. Notice that the connection between the arc and the two tangent lines is not smooth. To force the arc’s
two ends smoothly meet the lines, use the gcTangent constraint, as follows:
: _gctangent
Select first entity: (Pick the arc)
Select second entity: (Pick a line)
Repeat for the second arc-line connection.
In the figure below, I overlapped the constrained drawing (shown in black) with the original
rough sketch (shown in gray). It is easy to see how constraints fixed it up!
Original sketch
Drawing cleaned up with
constraints
14. If you wish to see all the constraint bars again, turn them on like this:
: constraintbar
Select option to [Show/Hide/Reset] constraints: S
Select entities or ENTER to select all: (Press Enter)
15. With all the geometry fixed in place relative to one another, you can use dimensional constraints to size the
bracket. The drawing illustrated below provides the values of the dimensions.
As you enter the values, notice that parts stretch their sizes to accommodate.
• Use
dcHorizontal for horizontal dimensional constraints
: _dchorizontal
Specify first constraint point or [Entity] <Entity>: (Press Enter)
Select an entity: (Pick a line)
Specify dimension line location: (Pick a point)
Dimension text <17.993713>: 19
QUICK SUMMARY OF 3D CONSTRAINTS
The Platinum Edition of BricsCAD provides dimensional and geometric constraints work in three dimensions, as illustrated
by the 3D Constraints toolbar and the 3D Parametric ribbon tab:
Above: 3D Constraints toolbar
Below: 3D Parametric ribbon tab
The 3D constraints are applied with the dmConstraint3d command. (‘dm’ is short for direct modeling.)
: dmconstraint3d
Select type of 3D constraint [Fix/Coincident/CONcentric/Parallel/PErpendicular/Tangent/
RIgidSet/Distance/Radius/Angle]:
Type of
Icon
ConstraintCommandConstraining Action
3D Geometric Constraints
Fix
DmFix3d
Fixes solids, or edges or faces of solids
Coincident
DmCoincident3d
Fixes edges, faces, or an edge and a face of different solids
Concentric
DmConcentric3d
Fixes two cylindrical, spherical or conical surfaces
Parallel
DmParallel3d
Fixes two faces of a solid, or of different solids
Perpendicular
DmPerpendicular3d Fixes two faces of a solid, or of different solids
Tangent
DmTangent3d
Fixes a face and a curved surface of different solids
Rigid Set
DmRigidSet3d
Define a set of entities or sub-entities as a rigid body
3D Dimensional Constraints
Distance
DmDistance3d
Distance between two sub-entities of a solid or different solids
Radius
DmRadius3d
Radius of cylindrical surfaces or circular edges
Angle DmAngle3d 268
Inside BricsCAD V16
Angle between the faces of a solid or of different solids
•
•
Use
Use
dcVertical for vertical dimensional constraints
dcDiameter for diameter dimensional constraints
Summary
This concludes the tutorials on using constraints with BricsCAD. You learned how constraints can
be used to clean up drawings, as well as to quickly change the sizes of them.
chapter
11 Dimensional & Geometric Constraints 269
270
Inside BricsCAD V16
APPENDIX A
Concise Summary of
Command Aliases
The fastest way to operate BricsCAD commands is through aliases — if you can remember
them, because BricsCAD has aliases for nearly three hundred of its commands! Aliases are shortcuts
for command names. For instance, l is the alias for Line, while la is for Layer.
On the following pages, aliases are twice listed alphabetically: first, in order of alias name, and then
by command name.
While most aliases are true abbreviations, others provide continuity from history. For instance,
the Color command has these aliases: Colour, because AutoCAD includes the British spelling for
this command; DdColor and DdColour as the names for the first dialog box version; and SetColor
as the IntelliCAD name for this command.
One-Letter Aliases
Even if you can learn just a few of them, then your drafting will proceed faster. The table below
summarizes all of the one-letter aliases, and so could be considered to also be a list of some of the
most important commands.
CommandAlias
CommandAlias
arca
blockb
circlec
dimstyled
erasee
explodex
fillet
f
gridg
hatchh
inserti
joinj
linel
movem
mtextt
newn
offset
o
panp
redrawr
stretchs
uu (not an alias)
viewv
wblockw
zoomz
BRICSCAD ALIASES SORTED BY ALIAS NAME
AliasCommand Name
A
AliasCommand Name
D
aArc
aaArea
adAttDisp
alAlign
apAperture
arArray
array3d3dArray
atAttDef
-at-AttDef
-ateAttEdit
ateEAttEdit
axAttExt
-ax-AttEext
B
bBlock
-b-Block
baBase
backgroundsBackground
bhHatch
-bh-Hatch
bmBlipmode
boBoundary
-bo-Boundary
bpolyBoundary
brBreak
C
cCircle
cfgOptions
-chChange
chProperties
chaChamfer
clCopyLink
clipXClip
closeallWCloseAll
coCopy
colColor
-col-Color
colourColor
-colour-Color
config
Options
cpCopy
cuiCustomize
cylCylinder
272
Inside BricsCAD V16
ddattdefAttDef
ddattextAttExt
ddchpropProperties
ddcolorColor
ddcolourColor
ddesnapOSnap
ddinsertInsert
ddlmodesLayer
ddltypeLinetype
ddmodifyProperties
ddnewNewWiz
ddosnapOSnap
ddrenameRename
ddrmodesDSettings
ddstyleStyle
dducsExpUcs
dducspSetUcs
ddunitsUnits
ddviewView
deleteErase
diDist
divDivide
doDonut
doughnutDonut
drDraworder
dvDView
dwfoutExport
dxDxfOut
Dimensions
dDimStyle
dalDimAligned
danDimAngular
dbaDimBaseline
dceDimCenter
dcoDimContinue
ddiDimDiameter
ddimDimStyle
dedDimEdit
dimaliDimAligned
dimangDimAngular
dimbaseDimBaseline
dimcontDimContinue
dimdiaDimDiameter
dimedDimEdit
dimensionDim
dimhorizontalDimLinear
AliasCommand Name
dimlinDimlinear
dimordDimOrdinate
dimoverDimOverride
dimradDimRadius
dimrotatedDimLinear
dimstyDimStyle
dimtedDimTEdit
dimverticalDimLinear
dliDimLinear
dorDimOrdinate
dovDimOverride
draDimRadius
dsDimStyle
dstDimStyle
-dst-DimStyle
expdimstylesDimStyle
setdimDimStyle
E
eErase
edDdEdit
editlenLengthen
editplinePEdit
elEllipse
esnap-OSnap
exExtend
exitQuit
expExport
expfontsStyle
expimagesImage
explayersLayer
expltypesLinetype
expstyleStyle
expstylesStyle
expviewsView
expxrefsXRef
extExtrude
F
fFillet
face3dFace
fi
Filter
finish
Materials
fogRenderEnvironment
font-Style
freehandSketch
G
gGrid
geoGeographicLocation
grDdGrips
AliasCommand Name
H
hHatch
-h-Hatch
heHatchEdit
hiHide
I
iInsert
-i-Insert
iadImageAdjust
iatImageAttach
iclImageClip
idpointId
imImage
impImport
inIntersect
infInterfere
infline
Xline
insalInsertAligned
ioInsertObj
isIsoplane
isolateIsolateObjects
L
lLine
laLayer
-la-Layer
lasLayerState
leLeader
leadLeader
lenLengthen
liList
lightingLight
llLightlist
lsList
ltLinetype
-lt-Linetype
ltsLtScale
M
mMove
maMatchProp
matMaterials
matbMatBrowserOpen
mesh3dMesh
miMirror
mlMline
moProperties
msMSpace
msnapshotMSlide
appendix
A Concise Summary of Command Aliases 273
AliasCommand Name
AliasCommand Name
mtMText
mvMView
renRename
-ren-Rename
rendscrRenderWin
revRevolve
riReinit
rmDSettings
rmatMaterials
roRotate
roptionsRenderPresets
rrRender
N
nQNew
navvcubeLookFrom
O
oOffset
opOpen
orOrthogonal
orthoOrthogonal
osOSnap
-os-OSnap
P
pPan
-pPan
paPasteSpec
pePEdit
plPLine
planeSolid
planviewintApparent
poPoint
polPolygon
polylinePLine
ppreviewPreview
prProperties
prcPropertiesClose
prePreview
preferencesOptions
prefsOptions
propsProperties
psPSpace
psoPolySolid
puPurge
-pu-Purge
pyrPyramid
Q
qtQText
R
rRedraw
raRedrawAll
reRegen
reaRegenAll
recRectang
rectRectang
rectangleRectang
regRegion
274
Inside BricsCAD V16
S
sStretch
saSave
scScale
scrScript
seDdSelect
secSection
selgripSelGrips
setSetVar
setcolorColor
setesnapOSnap
setlayerLayMCur
setrenderRpPref
setuvMaterialMap
setvpointDdVpoint
shaShade
slSlice
snSnap
soSolid
spSpell
speSplinEdit
splSpline
ssmSheetSet
stStyle
suSubtract
sunSunProperties
T
tMText
-t-Text
taTablet
thThickness
tiTime
tolTolerance
torTorus
trTrim
txText
U
ucExpUcs
ucpSetUcs
AliasCommand Name
unUnits
-un-Units
undeleteOops
uneraseOops
unhideobjectsUnisolateObjects
unhideUnisolateObjects
unisolateUnisolateObjects
uniUnion
V
vView
-v-View
vbaVbaIde
viewctlDdVpoint
viewpointVPoint
-viewpointVPoint
viewportsVPorts
vlVpLayer
vpDdVpoint
-vpVPoint
-vpointVPoint
vportVPorts
vsVSlide
vscurrentShadeMode
vsnapshotVSlide
vwVPorts
AliasCommand Name
W
wWBlock
weWedge
wiWmfIn
woWmfOut
X
xExplode
xaXAttach
xbExpBlocks
-xbXBind
xlXLine
xrXRef
-xr-XRef
Z
zZoom
3
3a3dArray
3dlineLine
3dmirrorMirror3d
3drotateRotate3d
3f3dFace
3mMirror3d
3p3dPoly
3rRotate3d
appendix
A Concise Summary of Command Aliases 275
BRICSCAD ALIASES SORTED BY COMMAND NAME
Command Name
Alias(es)
A
Command Name
Alias(es)
DxfOutdx
Alignal
Apertureap
Apparentplanviewint
Arca
Areaaa
Arrayar
AttDef
at, ddattdef
-AttDef-at
AttDispad
AttEdit-ate
-AttEext-ax
AttExt
ax, ddattext
B
Backgroundbackgrounds
Baseba
Blipmodebm
Blockb
-Block-b
Boundary
bo, bpoly
-Boundary-bo
Breakbr
c
Chamfercha
Change-ch
Circlec
Color
col, colour, ddcolor, ddcolour, setcolor
-Color-colour,-col
Copy
co, cp
CopyLinkcl
Customizecui
Cylindercyl
D
DdEdited
DdGripsgr
DdSelectse
DdVpoint
setvpoint, viewctl, vp
Distdi
Dividediv
Donutdo
Donutdoughnut
Draworderdr
DSettings
ddrmodes, rm
DViewdv
276
Inside BricsCAD V16
Dimensions
Dimdimension
DimAngular
dimang, dan
DimAligned
dal, dimali
DimBaseline
dba, dimbase
DimCenterdce
DimContinue
dco, dimcont
DimDiameter
ddi, dimdia
DimEdit
ded, dimed
DimLinear
dimhorizontal, dimlin, dimrotated,
dimvertical, dli
DimOrdinate
dimord, dor
DimOverride
dimover, dov
DimRadius
dimrad, dra
DimStyle
expdimstyles, d, ddim, dimsty, ds, dst,
setdim
-DimStyle-dst
DimTEditdimted
E
EAttEditate
Ellipseel
Erase
delete, e
ExpBlocksxb
Explodex
Export
dwfout, exp
ExpUcs
dducs, uc
Extendex
Extrudeext
F
Filletf
Filter
fi
G
GeographicLocationgeo
Gridg
H
Hatch
bh, h
-Hatch-bh,-h
HatchEdithe
Hidehi
AliasCommand Name
I
Ididpoint
Image
expimages, im
ImageAttachiat
ImageAdjustiad
ImageClipicl
Importimp
Insert
ddinsert, i
-Insert-i
InsertAlignedinsal
InsertObjio
Interfereinf
Intersectin
IsolateObjectsisolate
Isoplaneis
L
Layer
ddlmodes, explayers, la
-Layer-la
LayerStatelas
LayMCursetlayer
Leader
le, lead
Lengthen
editlen, len
Lightlighting
Lightlistll
Line
3dline, l
Linetype
ddltype, expltypes, lt
-Linetype-lt
List
li, ls
LookFrom navvcube
LtScalelts
M
MatBrowserOpenmatb
MatchPropma
MaterialMapsetuv
Materials
finish, mat, rmat
Mirrormi
Mirror3d
3dmirror, 3m
Mlineml
Movem
MSlidemsnapshot
MSpacems
MText
mt, t
MViewmv
N
NewWizddnew
AliasCommand Name
O
Offseto
Oops
undelete, unerase
Openop
Options
cfg, config, preferences, prefs
Orthogonal
or, ortho
OSnap
ddesnap, ddosnap, os, setesnap
-OSnapesnap,-os
P
Panp,-p
PasteSpecpa
PEdit
editpline, pe
PLine
pl, polyline
Pointpo
Polygonpol
PolySolid pso
Preview
ppreview, pre
Properties
ch, ddchprop, ddmodify, mo, pr, props
PropertiesCloseprc
PSpaceps
Purgepu
-Purge-pu
Pyramidpyr
Q
QNewn
QTextqt
Quitexit
R
Rectang
rec, rect, rectangle
Redrawr
RedrawAllra
Regenre
RegenAllrea
Regionreg
Reinitri
Rename
ddrename, ren
-Rename-ren
Renderrr
RenderEnvironmentfog
RenderPresetsroptions
RenderWinrendscr
Revolverev
Rotatero
Rotate3d
3drotate, 3r
RpPrefsetrender
appendix
A Concise Summary of Command Aliases 277
AliasCommand Name
S
AliasCommand Name
V
Savesa
Scalesc
Scriptscr
Sectionsec
SelGripsselgrip
SetUcs
dducsp, ucp
SetVarset
Shadesha
ShadeModevscurrent
SheetSetssm
Sketchfreehand
Slicesl
Snapsn
Solid
plane, so
Spellsp
Splinespl
SplinEditspe
Stretchs
Style
ddstyle, expfonts, expstyle, expstyles, st
-Stylefont
Subtractsu
SunPropertiessun
T
Tabletta
-Text-t
Texttx
Thicknessth
Timeti
Tolerancetol
Torustor
Trimtr
U
VbaIdevba
View
ddview, expviews, v
-View-v
VpLayervl
VPointviewpoint,-viewpoint,-vp,-vpoint
VPorts
viewports, vport, vw
VSlide
vs, vsnapshot
W
WBlockw
WCloseAllcloseall
Wedgewe
WmfInwi
WmfOutwo
X
XAttachxa
XBind-xb
XClipclip
Xline
infline
XLinexl
XRef
expxrefs, xr
-XRef-xr
Z
Zoomz
3
3dArray
3a, array3d
3dFace
3f, face
3dMeshmesh
3dPoly3p
Unionuni
UnisolateObjects unhideobjects, unhide, unisolate
Units
ddunits, un
-Units-un
TIP
Some editing actions require no commands or aliases at all. Click an entity to move it, or its
grip points; double-click to change its properties.
278
Inside BricsCAD V16
APPENDIX B
Concise Summary of System
Variables and Settings
BricsCAD uses variables to store and report settings affecting the program and drawings.
There are two types of variables: system variables that mimic the names and values from AutoCAD,
and preference variables unique to BricsCAD. You access and change variables through a dialog box
(Settings command) or directly on the command line (SetVar command).
This appendix lists all 843 variable names from V16.2.05 in alphabetical order.
UPPERCASE text indicates the name is also found in AutoCAD as a system variable
MixedCase text means the variable is a preference, and so is unique to BricsCAD
Blue text shows the variable is new since the last edition of this ebook, or that a variable's value changed
StrikeThrough text indicates the variable was removed from BricsCAD
<login> refers to your computer login name
When you see R/O (read-only), it means that you cannot change the variable's value. The table
offers these other notations:
Format reports the format in which the value is saved:
•bool Boolean, either true or false, yes or no, 1 or 0
•int or short
Integer number, a number without decimal point with a maximum value of 32768
•long Long integer, an integer that can be larger than 32768
•pt2d 2D point, as x,y
•pt3d 3D point, as x,y,z
•real Real number, a number with decimal point
•str String (ie, text)
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
A
ACADLSPASDOCbool
0
ACADPREFIXstr
read-only"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Support\, C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Support\, C:\Program
Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Fonts\, C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Help\en_US\"
ACADVERstr
read-only "20.0 BricsCAD"
AcisHlrResolution
real
-1
ACISOUTVER
int 70
AcisSaveAsMode
int 0
AFLAGS
int 0
AllowTabExternalMove bool
1
AllowTabMove
bool
1
AllowTabSplit
bool
1
ANGBASE
real
0
ANGDIR
bool
0
ANNOALLVISIBLE
int 1
ANNOAUTOSCALE short
-4
AnnoSelectedint
read-only0
ANNOTATIVEDWG
bool
0
AntiAliasRender
short
2
AntiAliasScreen
short 1
APBOX
bool
0
APERTURE
int 10
AREAreal
read-only0
AREAPREC short
-1
AREAUNITS string
"in ft mi µm mm cm m km"
ARRAYASSOCIATIVITY bool
1
ARRAYEDITSTATE bool
read-only0
ATTDIA
bool
0
ATTMODE
int 1
AttractionDistance
int 3
ATTREQ
bool
1
AUDITCTL
bool
0
AuditErrorCountint
read-only0
AUNITS
int 0
AUPREC
int 0
AUTOCOMPLETEDELAY real
0.3
AUTOCOMPLETEMODE int 47
AUTOMENULOAD
bool
1
AutoResetScales
short
0
AutosaveChecksOnlyFirstBitDBMODbool
1
AUTOSNAP
int 119
AutoTrackingVecColor int 171
B
BACKGROUNDPLOT int 2
BACKZreal
read-only0
BASEFILE
str "Default-mm.dwt"
BINDTYPE
bool
0
BKGCOLOR
int 7
BKGCOLORPS
int 7
280
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
BLIPMODE
BlocksPath
BMREPORTPANEL BndLimit
bool
str
bool
long
Default Value
0
"C:\Users\<login>\Documents\"
0
1000
C
CACHELAYOUT
bool
1
CAMERADISPLAY
bool
0
CAMERAHEIGHT
real
0
CANNOSCALE
string
"1:1"
CANNOSCALEVALUEreal
read-only1
CDATEreal
read-only20160211.15522
CECOLOR
str "ByLayer"
CELTSCALE
real
1
CELTYPE
str "ByLayer"
CELWEIGHT
int -1
CETRANSPARECNY
str "ByLayer"
CGEOCS str
read-only""
CHAMFERA
real
0
CHAMFERB
real
0
CHAMFERC
real
0
CHAMFERD
real
0
CHAMMODE
int 0
ChapooLog
int 0
ChapooLogVerbose
boolean
0
ChapooOnModified
int
1
ChapooServer
str "https://my.chapoo.com/"
ChapooTempFolder
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Temp\Chapoo\"
ChapooUploadDependenciesshort
1
ChapooWebsite
str "http://www.chapoo.com/"
CIRCLERAD
real
0
CLAYER
str "0"
ClipBoardFormat
int 1
CLISTATEint
read-only1
CloseChecksOnlyFirstBitDBMODbool
0
CMATERIAL
str "ByLayer"
CMDACTIVEint
read-only1
CMDDIA
bool
1
CMDECHO
bool
1
CmdLineEditBgColor str "#fefefe"
CmdLineEditFgColor str "#202020"
CmdLineFontName
str "Consolas"
CmdLineFontSize
int 10
CmdLineListBgColor str "#ecf1ff"
CmdLineListFgColor
str "#000000"
CMDLNTEXT
str ":"
CMDNAMESstr
read-only"SETTINGS"
CMLJUST
int 0
CMLSCALE
real
1
CMLSTYLE
str "Standard"
COLORX
int 11
COLORY
int 112
COLORZ
int 150
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 281
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
COMAcadCompatibility bool
0
COMPASS
bool
0
CONSTRAINTBARDISPLAY short
3
ContinuousMotion
bool
0
COORDS
int 1
COPYMODE
int 0
CPLOTSTYLE
str "ByColor"
CPROFILEstr
read-only"Default"
CREATEVIEWPORTS
bool
1
CROSSINGAREACOLOR int 91
CTAB
str "Model"
CTABLESTYLE
str "Standard"
Ctrl3DMouse
short
1
CTRLMOUSE
int 1
CURSORSIZE
int 3
CVPORT
int 2
D
DATEreal
read-only2456335.6613464
DBCSTATEbool
read-only0
DBLCLKEDIT
bool
1
DBMODint
read-only0
DCTCUST
str ""
DCTMAIN
str "en_US.dic"
ddBetweenKnots
int 2
ddFastMode
bool
0
ddGridAspectRatio
real
0
ddMaxFacetEdgeLength real
0
ddMaxNumGridLines
long
10000
ddNormalTol
real
15
ddPointsPerEdge
long
0
ddSurfaceTol
real
0
ddUseFacetRES
bool
1
DEFAULTLIGHTING bool
0
DefaultLightShadowBlur short
8
DefaultNewSheetTemplatestr
""
DEFLPLSTYLE
str "Normal"
DEFPLSTYLE
str "ByColor"
DeleteTool
bool
1
DELOBJ
int 1
DEMANDLOAD
int 3
DGNFRAME
int 2
DGNOSNAP
bool
1
DIASTATbool
read-only0
DisplaySnapMarkerInAllViewsbool
0
DisplayTooltips
bool
1
DISPPAPERBKG
bool
1
DISPPAPERMARGINS
bool
1
DISPSILH
bool
0
DISTANCEreal
read-only0
DMAUTOUPDATE
bool
1
DmExtrudeMode
short
0
DMRECOGNIZE
int 0
282
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
DockPriority
int
DocTabPosition
short
DONUTID
real
DONUTOD
real
DRAGMODE
int
DragModeHide
short
DRAGMODEINTERRUPT short
DRAGOPEN
int
DRAGP1
int
DRAGP2
int
DRAGSNAP
bool
DrawingPath
str
DrawingViewPreset
str
DrawingViewPresetScalestr
DRAWORDERCTL
int
DWFFRAME
int
DWFOSNAP
bool
Default Value
1
0
0.5
1
2
0
1
1
10
25
0
"C:\Users\<login>\Documents\"
"none"
""
3
2
1
DwfVersion
int 2
DWGCHECK
int 0
DWGCODEPAGEstr
read-only"ANSI_1252"
DWGNAMEstr
read-only"Drawing1.dwg"
DWGPREFIXstr
read-only "C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\"
DWGTITLEDbool
read-only0
DXEVAL
int 12
DxfTextAdjustAlignment bool
0
DYNCONSTRAINTMODE bool
1
DYNDIGRIP
int 31
DynDimColorHot
int 142
DynDimColorHover
int 142
DynDimDistance
real
1
DynDimLineType
int 1
DYNDIVIS
int 1
DynInputTransparency int 65
DYNMODE
int 3
Dimensions
DIMADEC
DIMALT
DIMALTD
DIMALTF
DIMALTRND
DIMALTTD
DIMALTTZ
DIMANNO DIMALTU
DIMALTZ
DIMAPOST
DIMARCSYM
DIMASO
DIMASSOC
DIMASZ
DIMATFIT
DIMAUNIT
int
bool
int
real
real
int
bool
bool
read-only
int
int
str
int
bool
int
real
int
int
0
0
2
25.4
0
2
0
0
2
0
""
0
1
2
0.18
3
0
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 283
Variable Name
Format
R/O
DIMAZIN
DIMBLK
DIMBLK1
DIMBLK2
DIMCEN
DIMCLRD
DIMCLRE
DIMCLRT
DIMDEC
DIMDLE
DIMDLI
DIMDSEP
DIMEXE
DIMEXO
DIMFIT
DIMFRAC
DIMFXL
int
str
str
str
real
int
int
int
int
real
real
str
real
real
int
int
real
Default Value
0
""
""
""
0.09
0
0
0
4
0
0.38
"0"
0.18
0.0625
3
0
1
DIMFXLON
bool
0
DIMGAP
real
0.09
DIMJOGANG
real
0.7853981634
DIMJUST
int 0
DIMLDRBLK
str ""
DIMLFAC
real
1
DIMLIM
bool
0
DIMLTEX1
str ""
DIMLTEX2
str ""
DIMLTYPE
str ""
DIMLUNIT
int 2
DIMLWD
int -2
DIMLWE
int -2
DIMPOST
str ""
DIMRND
real
0
DIMSAH
bool
0
DIMSCALE
real
1
DIMSD1
bool
0
DIMSD2
bool
0
DIMSE1
bool
0
DIMSE2
bool
0
DIMSHO
bool
1
DIMSOXD
bool
0
DIMSTYLEstr
read-only"Standard"
DIMTAD
int 0
DIMTDEC
int 4
DIMTFAC
real
1
DIMTFILL
int 0
DIMTFILLCLR
str "BYBLOCK"
DIMTIH
bool
1
DIMTIX
bool
0
DIMTM
real
0
DIMTMOVE
int 0
DIMTOFL
bool
0
DIMTOH
bool
1
DIMTOL
bool
0
284
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
DIMTOLJ
DIMTP
DIMTSZ
DIMTVP
DIMTXSTY
DIMTXT
DIMTXTDIRECTION
DIMTZIN
DIMUNIT
DIMUPT
DIMZIN
int
real
real
real
str
real
bool
int
int
bool
int
1
0
0
0
"Standard"
0.18
0
0
2
0
0
bool
real
bool
bool
0
0
1
1
E
EDGEMODE
ELEVATION
EnableAttraction
EnableHyperlinkMenu
EnableHyperlinkTooltip bool
0
ERRNO
int 0
EXPERT
int 0
ExpInsAlign
bool
0
ExpInsAngle
real
0
ExpInsFixAngle
bool
1
ExpInsFixScale
bool
1
ExpInsScale
real
1
EXPLMODE
bool
1
EXPORTMODELSPACE int 0
EXPORTPAGESETUP
int 0
EXPORTPAPERSPACE int 0
EXTMAXpt3d
read-only-1.0000E+20,-1.0000E+20,-1.0000E+20
EXTMINpt3d
read-only1.0000E+20,1.0000E+20,1.0000E+20
EXTNAMES
bool
1
F
FACETRATIO
int 0
FACETRES
real
0.5
FEATURECOLORS bool
1
FIELDDISPLAY
bool
1
FIELDEVAL
int 31
FILEDIA
bool
1
FILLETRAD
real
0.5
FILLMODE
bool
1
FONTALT
str "simplex.shx"
FONTMAP
str "default.fmp"
FRAME
int 3
FRONTZreal
read-only0
FULLOPENint
read-only1
G
GEOLATLONGFORMAT int
GEOMARKERVISIBILITY bool
GetStarted
bool
1
1
1
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 285
Variable Name
Format
R/O
GLSWAPMODE
GradientColorBottom
GradientColorMiddle
GradientColorTop
GradientMode
GRIDAXISCOLOR
GRIDDISPLAY
GRIDMAJOR
GRIDMAJORCOLOR
GRIDMINORCOLOR
GRIDMODE
GRIDSTYLE
GRIDUNIT
GRIDXYZTINT
GRIPBLOCK
GRIPCOLOR
GRIPDYNCOLOR
int
str
str
str
str
int
int
int
int
int
bool
int
pt2d
int
bool
int
int
Default Value
2
"#d2d2d2"
"#fafafa"
"#ffffff"
"0"
252
3
5
253
254
0
0
1/2",1/2"
1
0
72
140
GRIPHOT
int 240
GRIPHOVER
int 150
GRIPOBJLIMIT
int 100
GRIPS
bool
1
GRIPSIZE
int 4
GRIPTIPS
bool
1
GsDeviceType
int 0
GsDeviceType2D 0
GsDeviceType3D 1
H
HALOGAP
int 0
HANDLESbool
read-only1
HANDSEED
str "64"
HIDEPRECISION
int 0
HIDETEXT
int 1
HIDEXREFSCALES
bool
1
HIGHLIGHT
bool
1
HIGHLIGHTCOLOR
int 142
HIGHLIGHTEFFECT
int 0
HomeGradientColorButtomshort
210,210,210
HomeGradientColorMiddleshort
250,250,250
HomeGradientColorTop short
White
HomeGradientMode str "0"
HorizonBkg_Enable
bool
1
HorizonBkg_GroundHorizonstr
"#878787"
HorizonBkg_GroundOriginstr
"#5F5F5F"
HorizonBkg_SkyHigh str "#239BFF"
HorizonBkg_SkyHorizonstr "#FFFFFF"
HorizonBkg_SkyLow str "#FAFAFF"
HPANG
real
0
HPANNOTATIVE
bool
0
HPASSOC
bool
1
HPBOUND
int 1
HPBOUNDRETAIN short
0
HPDOUBLE
bool
0
286
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
HPDRAWORDER
HPGAPTOL
HPLAYER HPLINETYPE HPNAME
HPOBJWARNING
HPORIGIN
HPSCALE
HPSEPARATE
HPSPACE
HPSTYLE
HPTRANSPARENCY HYPERLINKBASE
int
real
str
bool
str
long
pt2d
real
bool
real
int
str
str
Default Value
3
0
"."
0
""
10000
0",0"
1
0
1
0
"."
""
I
ImageCacheFolder
str
ImageCacheMaxMemory short
"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Temp\ImageCache\"
160
ImageDiskCache IMAGEFRAME
IMAGEHLT
ImageNotify
ImportCuiFileExists
IncludePlotStamp
INDEXCTL
INETLOCATION
INSBASE
INSNAME
INSUNITS
INSUNITSDEFSOURCE
INSUNITSDEFTARGET
INTERFERECOLOR
INTERFEREOBJVS
INTERFEREVPVS
INTERSECTIONCOLOR
INTERSECTIONDISPLAY
ISAVEBAK
ISAVEPERCENT
ISOLINES
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
"http://www.bricsys.com"
0",0",0"
""
1
0
0
"BYLAYER"
""
""
257
0
1
50
4
bool
int
bool
bool
short
bool
int
str
pt3d
str
int
int
int
str
str
str
int
bool
bool
int
int
L
LASTANGLE
real
0
LASTPOINT
pt3d
0",0",0"
LASTPROMPTstr
read-only ": SETTINGS"
LATITUDE
real
37.795
LAYERPMODE
bool
1
LAYLOCKFADECTL
short
50
LAYOUTREGENCTL
int 2
LENGTHUNITS stre
""
LENSLENGTH
real
50
LicExpDays
short
31
LICFLAGS
int 7
LICKEY str
read-only"7897-9999-0000-99999-0000"
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 287
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
LightGlyphColor
int 30
LIGHTGLYPHDISPLAY
bool
1
LIGHTINGUNITS
int 0
LightWebGlyphColor int 1
LIMCHECK
bool
0
LIMMAX
pt2d
1',9"
LIMMIN
pt2d
0",0"
LINEARBRIGHTNESS short
0
LINEARCONTRAST short
0
LISPINIT
int 1
LOCALE
str "en_US"
LocalRootFolder str
"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\"
LOCALROOTPREFIXstr
read-only"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\"
LOFTANG1
real
1.5707963268
LOFTANG2
real
1.5707963268
LOFTMAG1
real
0
LOFTMAG2
real
0
LOFTNORMALS
int 1
LOFTPARAM
int 7
LOGFILEMODE
bool
0
LOGFILENAMEstr
read-only""
LOGFILEPATHstr
read-only"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\"
LOGINNAMEstr
read-only"<login>"
LONGITUDE
real
-122.394
LookFromDirectionMode short
1
LookFromFeedback
short
1
LookFromZoomExtents bool
1
LTSCALE
real
1
LUNITS
int 4
LUPREC
int 4
LWDEFAULT
int 25
LWDISPLAY
bool
0
LWDISPSCALE
real
0.55
LWUNITS
int 1
M
MACROREC
bool
0
MACROTRACE bool
0
MassPropAccuracy
real
0.01
MAXACTVP
int 64
MAXHATCH
int 100000
MAXSORT
int 200
MAXTHREADS
int 0
MBUTTONPAN
int 1
MEASUREINIT
int 0
MEASUREMENT
int 0
MENUBAR bool
1
MENUCTL
bool
1
MENUECHO
int 0
MENUNAMEstr
read-only "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\Bricscad\V16x64\en_US\Support\default.
cui"
MESHTYPE
int 1
MiddleClickClose
bool
1
288
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
MILLISECSlong
read-only 436750804
MIRRTEXT
bool
1
MLEADERSCALE real
1
MODEMACRO
str ""
MSLTSCALE
short
1
MSOLESCALE
real
1
MTEXTCOLUMN short
0
MTEXTED
str ""
MTEXTFIXED
int 2
MTFLAGS
int 0
N
NAVVCUBEDISPLAY
NAVVCUBELOCATION
NAVVCUBEOPACITY
NAVVCUBEORIENT
NavVCubeSize
bool
int
int
int
short
3
0
50
1
4
NFILELIST
NOMUTT
NORTHDIRECTION
int
bool
real
10
0
0
O
OBJECTISOLATIONMODE short
0
OBSCUREDCOLOR
int 257
OBSCUREDLTYPE
int 0
OFFSETDIST
real
-1
OFFSETERASE
bool
0
OFFSETGAPTYPE
int 0
OLEFRAME
int 2
OLEHIDE
int 0
OLEQUALITY
int 0
OLESTARTUP
bool
0
OPMSTATEint
read-only1
ORTHOMODE
bool
0
OSMODE
int 4133
OSNAPCOORD
int 2
OSNAPZ
bool
0
OSOPTIONS
short
1
P
PanBuffer
PAPERUPDATE
PARAMETERCOPYMODE
PdfEmbeddedTtf
PdfExportSolidHatchType
PDFFRAME
PdfImageAntiAlias PdfImageCompression PdfHatchToBmpDpi
PdfImageDPI
PdfLayersSetting
PdfLayoutsToExport
bool
bool
short
bool
short
int
bool
short
short
short
int
int
1
0
1
1
2
1
1
1
300
300
1
0
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 289
Variable Name
Format
R/O
PdfNotify
bool
PDFOSNAP
bool
PdfPaperHeight
int
PdfPaperSizeOverride
bool
PdfPaperWidth
int
PdfRenderDPI
short
PdfShxTextAsGeometry bool
PdfSimpleGeomOptimizationbool
PdfTextIsSearchable bool
PdfTtfTextAsGeometry bool
PdfUsePlotStyles
bool
PdfZoomToExtentsMode bool
PDMODE
int
PDSIZE
real
PEDITACCEPT
bool
PELLIPSE
bool
PERIMETER
real
Default Value
0
1
297
0
210
300
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
PERSPECTIVE
bool
0
PFACEVMAX
int 4
PICKADD
bool
1
PICKAUTO
bool
3
PICKBOX
int 4
PICKDRAG
bool
0
PICKFIRST
bool
1
PICKSTYLE
int 1
PictureExportScale
real
1
_PKSER read-only""
PlacesBarFolder1
int 0
PlacesBarFolder2
int 1
PlacesBarFolder3
int 3
PlacesBarFolder4
int 5
PLATFORMstr
read-only "Microsoft Windows NT Version 6.2"
PLINECACHE
bool
0
PLINECONVERTMODE
short
0
PLINEGEN
bool
0
PLINETYPE
int 2
PLINEWID
real
0
PlotCfgPath
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\PlotConfig\"
PLOTID
str ""
PlotOutputPath
str ""
PLOTROTMODE 2
PlotStylePath
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\PlotStyles\"
PLOTTER
int 0
PLOTTRANSPARENCYOVERRIDE 1
PLQUIET
bool
0
POLARADDANG
str ""
POLARANG
real
90
POLARDIST
real
0
POLARMODE
int 0
POLYSIDES
int 4
POPUPSbool
read-only1
PreviewDelay
int 30
290
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
PREVIEWEFFECT
int 2
PREVIEWFILTER
int 5
PreviewTopdown
bool
0
PREVIEWTYPE
int 0
PreviewWndInOpenDlg bool
1
PrintFile
str "."
PRODUCTstr
read-only"Bricscad"
PROGBAR
bool
1
PROGRAMstr
read-only"BRICSCAD"
PROJECTIONTYPE short
0
PROJECTNAME
str ""
ProjectSearchPaths
str ""
PROJMODE
int 1
PROMPTMENU
int 3
PromptMenuFlags
int 1
PromptOptionFormat short
2
PROPUNITS short
103
PropUnitsVersion 1
PROXYGRAPHICS
bool
1
PROXYNOTICE
bool
1
PROXYSHOW
int 1
PROXYWEBSEARCH
int 1
PSLTSCALE
int 1
PSOLHEIGHT
real
4
PSOLWIDTH
real
0.25
PSTYLEMODEint
read-only1
PSTYLEPOLICY
int 1
PSVPSCALE
real
0
PUBLISHALLSHEETS
bool
1
PUCSBASE
str ""
Q
QAFLAGS
QTEXTMODE
QuadAperture
QuadCommandLaunch
QuadCommandSort
QuadDisplay
QuadExpandDelay
QuadExpandGroup
QuadGoTransparent
QuadHideDelay
QuadHideMargin
QuadIconSize
QuadIconSpace
QuadPopupCorner
QuadShowDelay
_QuadTabFlags QuadToolipDelay
QuadWarpPointer
QuadWidth
int
bool
short
short
short
bool
short
short
bool
int
short
short
short
short
short
short
short
short
short
0
0
20
1
0
0
110
0
0
1000
40
32
1
1
150
12
1200
4
5
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 291
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
R
R12SaveAccuracy
int 8
R12SaveDeviation
real
0
RASTERPREVIEW
bool
1
RE_INITint
read-only0
RealTimeSpeedUp
int 5
REALWORLDSCALE
bool
1
RecentPath
str "C:\Users\<login>\Documents\"
RedHiliteFull_Edge_Alphaint
100
RedHiliteFull_Edge_Colorstr
"#007AFF"
RedHiliteFull_Edge_ShowHiddenbool
0
RedHiliteFull_Edge_Smoothingbool
1
RedHiliteFull_Edge_Thicknessreal
2
RedHiliteFull_Face_Alphaint
10
RedHiliteFull_Face_Colorstr
"#007AFF"
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdgeGlow_Alphaint
75
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdgeGlow_Colorstr
"#FFFFFF"
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdgeGlow_Smoothingbool
1
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdgeGlow_Thicknessreal
3
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdge_Alphaint
100
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdge_Colorstr
"#007AFF"
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdge_ShowGlowbool
1
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdge_Smoothingbool
1
RedHilitePartial_SelectedEdge_Thicknessreal
2
RedHilitePartial_SelectedFace_Alphaint
10
RedHilitePartial_SelectedFace_Colorstr
"#007AFF"
RedHilitePartial_UnselectedEdge_Alphaint
20
RedHilitePartial_UnselectedEdge_Colorstr
"#007AFF"
RedHilitePartial_UnselectedEdge_ShowHiddenbool
1
RedHilitePartial_UnselectedEdge_Smoothingbool
1
RedHilitePartial_UnselectedEdge_Thicknessreal
1
RedHilite_HiddenEdge_Alphaint
50
RedHilite_HiddenEdge_Colorstr
"#FFFFFF"
RedHilite_HiddenEdge_Smoothingbool
1
RedHilite_HiddenEdge_Thicknessreal
1
RefeditLockNotInWorksetbool
0
REFEDITNAMEstr
read-only""
REGENMODE
bool
1
REMEMBERFOLDERS int 1
RenderMaterialPath
str "C:\ProgramData\..."
RenderMaterialStaticPath
str
"C:\Program Files\..."
RenderUsingHardware bool
1
RevCloudArcStyle
int 0
RevCloudMaxArcLength real
0.375
RevCloudMinArcLength real
0.375
RIBBONDOCKEDHEIGHT short
120
RIBBONSTATEbool
read-only0
RoamableRootFolder
str read-only"c:\users..."
ROAMABLEROOTPREFIXstr read-only"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\"
ROLLOVEROPACITY short
100
ROLLOVERTIPS short
1
RTDISPLAY
int 1
RTRotationSpeedFactor real
1
292
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
RTWalkSpeedFactor
RunAsLevel real
short
Default Value
1
2
S
SaveChangeToLayout
bool
1
SAVEFIDELITY
bool
1
SAVEFILEstr
read-only""
SAVEFILEPATH
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Temp\"
SaveFormat
int 1
SAVENAMEstr
read-only""
SAVEROUNDTRIP
bool
1
SAVETIME
int 60
SCREENBOXESint
read-only26
SCREENMODEint
read-only1
SCREENSIZEpt2d
read-only145'-8",73'-3"
SCRLHIST
int 256
SDI
int 0
SELECTIONANNODISPLAYbool
SELECTIONAREA
bool
SELECTIONAREAOPACITYint
SelectionModes
short
SELECTIONPREVIEW
int
SELECTSIMILARMODE int
SHADEDGE
int
SHADEDIF
int
SheetNumberLeadingZeroesint
SheetSetAutoBackup
bool
SheetSetTemplatePath str
SHORTCUTMENU
int
SHORTCUTMENUDURATION long
ShowDocTabs
bool
ShowFullPathInTitle
bool
SHOWLAYERUSAGE
bool
ShowScrollButtons
bool
ShowTabCloseButton
bool
ShowTabCloseButtonActivebool
ShowTabCloseButtonAll bool
ShowTabControls
bool
ShowWindowListButton bool
SHPNAME
str
SingletonMode
bool
SKETCHINC
real
SKPOLY
bool
SKYSTATUS
int
SMTARGETCAM str
SNAPANG
real
SNAPBASE
pt2d
SNAPISOPAIR
int
SnapMarkerColor
int
SnapMarkerSize
int
SnapMarkerThickness int
SNAPMODE
bool
1
1
25
0
3
130
3
70
1
1
"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Templates\Sheet
Sets\"
18
250
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
""
0
0.1
0
0
""
0
0",0"
0
20
6
2
0
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 293
Variable Name
Format
R/O
SNAPSTYL
int
SNAPTYPE
int
SNAPUNIT
pt2d
SOLIDCHECK
bool
SORTENTS
int
spaAdjustMode
int
spaGridAspectRatio
real
spaGridMode
int
spaMaxFacetEdgeLength real
spaMaxNumGridLines
long
spaMinUGridLines
long
spaMinVGridLines
long
spaNormalTol
real
spaSurfaceTol
real
spaTriangMode
int
spaUseFacetRES
bool
SPLFRAME
bool
SPLINESEGS
SPLINETYPE
SRCHPATH
0
0
1/2",1/2"
1
127
0
0
1
0
512
0
0
15
-1
1
1
0
8
6
"C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Support\, C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Support\, C:\Program
Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Fonts\, C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Help\en_US\"
SSFOUND
str ""
SSLOCATE
bool
1
SSMAUTOOPEN bool
1
SSMPOLLTIME short
15
SSMSHEETSTATUS short
2
SSMSTATE
int 0
StampFontSize
real
0.2
StampFontStyle
str "Arial"
StampFooter
str ""
StampHeader
str ""
StampUnits
int 0
STARTUP
int 1
STEPSIZE
real
6
STEPSPERSEC
real
2
SURFTAB1
int 6
SURFTAB2
int 6
SURFTYPE
int 6
SURFU
int 6
SURFV
int 6
SvgBlendedGradients int 0
SvgDefaultImageExtensionstr
".png"
SvgGenericFontFamily int 0
SvgHiddenLineRemovingint
0
SvgImageBase
str ""
SvgImageUrl
str ""
SvgLineWeightScale
real
1
SvgOutputHeight
int 768
SvgOutputWidth
int 1024
SvgPrecision
int 6
SYSCODEPAGEstr
read-only"ANSI_1252"
294
int
int
str
Default Value
Inside BricsCAD V16
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
T
TabControlHeight
int 25
TABMODE
bool
0
TabsFixedWidth
bool
0
TARGET
pt3d
0",0",0"
TDCREATEreal
read-only2456335.5399919
TDINDWGreal
read-only0.121354456
TDUCREATEreal
read-only2456335.8733252
TDUPDATEreal
read-only2456335.5399919
TDUSRTIMERreal
read-only0.121354456
TDUUPDATEreal
read-only2456335.8733252
TemplatePath
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Templates\"
TEMPPREFIX
str ""
TestFlags0
TEXTANGLE
real
0
TEXTEVAL
int 0
TEXTFILL
int 1
TEXTQLTY
int 50
TEXTSIZE
real
0.2
TEXTSTYLE
str "Standard"
TextureMapPath
str
"C:\Program Files (x86)\Bricsys\BricsCAD V16x64\Textures\1\"
THICKNESS
real
0
THUMBSIZE
short
1
TILEMODE
int 1
TILEMODELIGHTSYNCH bool
1
TIMEZONE
int -8000
Tips
short
1
ToolbarIconSize
short
16
TOOLPALETTEPATH
str "C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Support\ToolPalettes\"
TOOLTIPS 1
TPSTATEint
read-only0
TRACEWID
real
0.05
TRACKPATH
int 0
TRANSPARENCYDISPLAY bool
1
TREEDEPTH
int 3020
TREEMAX
long
10000000
TRIMMODE
bool
1
TSPACEFAC
real
1
TSPACETYPE
int 1
TSTACKALIGN
int 1
TSTACKSIZE
int 70
TTFASTEXT
int 3
U
UCSAXISANG
UCSBASE
UCSDETECT
UCSFOLLOW
UCSICON
UCSICONPOS
int
str
bool
bool
int
int
90
""
0
0
3
0
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 295
UCSNAMEstr
read-only""
UCSORGpt3d
read-only0",0",0"
UCSORTHO
bool
1
UCSVIEW
bool
1
UCSVP
bool
1
UCSXDIRpt3d
read-only1",0",0"
UCSYDIRpt3d
read-only0",1",0"
UNDOCTLint
read-only5
UNDOMARKSint
read-only0
UNITMODE
bool
0
USERI1 thru USERI5
int
0
USERR1 thru USERR5
real
0
USERS1 thru USERS5
str
""
UseSheetMetal short
2
UseStandardOpenFileDialogbool
0
V
VbaMacros
bool
1
VENDORNAMEstr
read-only"Bricsys"
_VERNUMstr
read-only "16.2.05 (UNICODE)"
VersionCustomizableFilesstr
"243"
VIEWCTR
pt3d read-only 10 7/16",4 1/2",0"
VIEWDIRpt3d
read-only0",0",1"
VIEWMODEint
read-only0
VIEWUPDATEAUTO
short
1
VIEWSIZEreal
read-only297
VIEWTWISTreal
read-only0
VISRETAIN
int 1
VOLUMEPREC short
-1
VOLUMEUNITS str
"in ft mi µm mm cm m km"
VPROTATEASSOC
bool
1
VSMAXpt3d
read-only-1.0000E+20,-1.0000E+20,-1.0000E+20
VSMINpt3d
read-only1.0000E+20,1.0000E+20,1.0000E+20
W
WarningMessages
WHIPARC
WHIPTHREAD
WINDOWAREACOLOR
WIPEOUTFRAME WMFBKGND
WMFFOREGND
WNDLMAIN
WNDLSCRL
WNDLSTAT
WNDLTABS
WNDLTEXT
WNDPMAIN
WNDPTEXT
WNDSMAIN
WNDSTEXT
WorkspaceSecurity
WORLDUCS
int
int
int
int
short
bool
bool
int
bool
bool
bool
int
pt2d
pt2d
pt2d
pt2d
bool
bool
65535
1
0
150
1
0
0
2
0
1
1
1
0",0"
3'-4",3’-4"
101'-2",66'-11"
118'-4",86'
1
1
Variable Name
Format
R/O
Default Value
WORLDVIEW
int 1
WRITESTATbool
read-only1
WSAUTOSAVE
bool
1
WSCURRENT
str
"2D Drafting"
X
XCLIPFRAME
XDwgFadeCtl
XEDIT
XFADECTL
XLOADCTL
XLOADPATH
XNotifyTime
XREFCTL
XRefNotify
int
short
bool
int
int
str
short
bool
bool
2
70
1
50
1
"C:\Users\<login>\Documents\"
5
0
1
int
short
60
0
short
short
11
5
Z
ZOOMFACTOR
ZOOMWHEEL #
3DOSMODE 3dSnapMarkerColor
appendix
A Concise Summary of System Variables and Settings 297
APPENDIX C
Concise Summary of
Command Names
THIS APPENDIX LISTS THE NAMES OF COMMANDS FOUND IN BRICSCAD V16. THE LIST OF 650
commands is sorted alphabetically by name, as well as in groupings of common commands as follows:
Chapoo Commands
288
Dimension Commands
289
Dimensional Constraint Commands
290
Direct Modeling Commands
290
Geometric Constraint Commands
292
Layer Commands
294
Sheet Metal Commands
299
ViewBase Commands
301
When a command has a hyphen prefix, such as -Color, the command runs at the command prompt.
Command names added since the initial V15 edition of this ebook are shown in blue. Command names
specific to the demo, Pro, and Platinum versions of BricsCAD are shown in boldface; these commands
are not available in the Standard version. Commands specific to Platinum version are noted as (platinum only) and those specific to Windows as (windows only).
A
About displays information about the program.
AcisIn imports 3D solids in SAT format (SAT is short for “save as text”).
AcisOut exports 3D solids and surface entities in SAT format.
AddInMan displays the VBA COM Add-In Manager dialog box (windows only).
AddSelected creates a new entity of the same type as an existing entity.
Ai_Box draws 3D boxes as mesh surfaces.
Ai_CircTan draws a circle tangent to three entities.
Ai_Cone draws 3D cones as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Cylinder draws 3D cylinders as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Dish draws 3D dishes as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Dome draws 3D domes (half-spheres) as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Pyramid draws 3D pyramids as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Sphere draws 3D spheres as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Torus draws 3D tori as mesh surfaces.
Ai_Wedge draws 3D wedges as mesh surfaces.
AiMleaderEditAdd adds leader lines to multi-leaders.
AiMleaderEditRemove removes leader lines from multi-leaders.
Align aligns entities with other entities in 2D and 3D space.
AlignSpace adjusts viewport angle, zoom factor, and pan position based on alignment points specified in model space and paper
space; operates in paper space only.
AnnReset resets all scale representations to the entity’s original positions
AnnUpdate updates annotative scale factors to match updates made with Style and DimStyle commands.
Aperture sets selection area for snapping to entities.
Apparent toggles Apparent intersection entity snap; snaps to the intersections of entities, even when they only appear to intersect in 3D space.
AppLoad loads DRX, LISP, and SDS applications to run inside BricsCAD; Mac and Linux load only LISP and SDS.
Arc draws arcs.
Array and -Array creates polar or rectangular arrays of entities.
ArrayClose ends the array editing session.
ArrayEdit edits entities and source entities of arrays.
ArrayPath distributes entity copies evenly along a path into multiple rows and levels.
ArrayPolar distributes entity copies evenly in a circular pattern about a center point or axis of rotation, using multiple rows
and levels.
ArrayRect distributes entity copies into any number of rows, columns, and levels.
AttDef and -AttDef defines attributes for blocks.
AttDisp toggles the display of attributes through all, none, or those normally visible.
AttEdit edits the values and properties of attributes.
AttExt and -AttExt exports data from attributes to text files.
300
Inside BricsCAD V16
AttRedef redefines blocks and updates associated attributes.
AttSync synchronizes attribute definitions in all references to a specified block definition.
Audit repairs open drawings in case of data corruption.
AutoComplete sets the options for autocomplete mode on the command line.
B
Base changes the drawing’s insertion point when when it is inserted into other drawings.
BAttMan manages the attributes of block definitions (short for Block Attribute Manager).
BHatch and -BHatch fills closed areas with repeating patterns, solid colors, or gradients.
BlipMode enables and disables display of marker blips.
Block and -Block groups entities into blocks (symbols).
BmpOut exports the current viewport as a BMP (bitmap) file.
Boundary and -Boundary draws a polyline that forms a boundary around the inside closed areas.
Box draws three-dimensional solid boxes.
Break removes portions of entities.
Browser opens the default Web browser.
BIM Commands
(Available in Platinum edition only)
BimAttachComposition attaches BIM compositions to solids.
BimClassify classifies an entity as a building element with a name and an internal guid (globally unique identifier).
BimConnect creates L-connections between faces of two solids.
BimDrag drags faces of solids; when dragging major faces, it preserves connections with minor faces; when dragging minor faces,
it optionally connects minor faces to major faces of other solids.
BimFlip flips the starting face from which the layers of a composition are set out.
BimGetStatisticalData reports statistics data of BIM objects in the current drawing.
BimIfcImport imports IFC files.
BimInsert inserts windows and doors in solids.
BimParameters lists and edits the parameters of inserted components.
BimReposition repositions inserts in face of solids.
BimSection creates BIM section entities.
BimSectionOpen opens the drawing file related to a BIM section entity; or the 3D BIM model related to a BIM section drawing.
BimSectionUpdate updates and exports BIM sections.
BimSkpImport imports SKP SketchUp files with optional stitching.
BimSplit splits segmented solids into separated solids automatically; splits solids using cutting faces.
BimUpdateThickness re-applies the overall thickness of a composition to the solid.
BimWindowUpdate updates openings made by windows or doors in solids in case the opening did not updated correctly
automatically.
ClipDisplay toggles the clipped display property of a section plane or a BIM section entity.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 301
BricsCAD Mechanical Commands
(Available in Platinum edition only)
BmBom inserts bill of material (BOM) tables in the current drawing.
BmBrowser toggles the visibility of the Mechanical Browser window.
BmDependencies lists all files, containing component definitions inserted in the assembly, in the command window.
BmDissolve dissolves a mechanical component inserted in the current drawing.
BmExternalize converts local components to external components.
BmForm creates a new mechanical component and inserts it into the current drawing; if necessary, run BmMech to initialize the
mechanical structure in the current drawing.
BmHardware inserts standard hardware parts as a mechanical component in the current drawing.
BmHide hides the visibility of mechanical components; hidden inserts are taken into account by commands such as BmBom and
BmMassProp.
BmInsert inserts an existing mechanical component as a virtual component into the current drawing.
BmLocalize converts external components to local components.
BmMassProp computes mass properties for the current model using densities assigned to the components (defined by the
Density property of the components and subcomponents).
BmMech converts the current drawing into a mechanical component.
BmNew creates a mechanical component as a new drawing file.
BmOpenCopy opens a copy of a component insert as a new drawing.
-BmParameters lists and edits parameters of inserted components.
BmRecover recovers broken mechanical structures.
BmReplace replaces a component insert.
BmShow shows previously hidden mechanical components.
BmUnmech converts the current mechanical component into a plain drawing.
BmUpdate reloads all referenced components from external files and updates BOM tables.
BmVStyle applies visual styles to mechanical component inserts.
BmXConvert converts X-Hardware solids in the current drawing to mechanical components.
C
Cal displays the operating system’s Calculator program.
Camera changes the viewpoint to perspective.
Center toggles Center entity snap; snaps to the center of circles, arcs, and other circular entities.
Chamfer bevels entities.
Change changes the position and properties of entities: endpoint, color, elevation, layer, linetype, linetype scale, lineweight, and
thickness.
ChProp changes just the properties of entities.
ChSpace moves entities from paper space to model space and vice versa.
Circle draws circles.
Close exits the current drawing, but not the program.
Color and -Color specifies the color for entities.
302
Inside BricsCAD V16
CommandLine opens the command bar.
CommandLineHide closes the command bar.
Cone draws three-dimensional solid cones.
ConvertCtb converts older CBT (color-based plot tables) files to newer STB (style-based plot tables) files.
ConvertOldLights converts old light definitions to the current format.
ConvertOldMaterials converts old material definitions to the current format.
ConvertPoly converts lightweight polylines to classic polylines (2D polylines) and vice versa.
ConvertPStyles converts drawings to from CTB (color-based plotting) to STB (plot styles).
Copy duplicates entities.
CopyBase copies entities with a specified reference point to the Clipboard.
CopyClip copies entities to the Clipboard.
CopyEData Copies extended entity data from one entity to others.
CopyHist copies the command history to the Clipboard.
CPageSetup edits the page setup of the current layout or model space.
CuiLoad loads CUI and CUIX (user interface customization), MNU (menu), MNS (LISP code), and ICM (IntelliCAD menu) files.
CuiUnload unloads customization groups from the user interface.
Customize customizes user interface elements, such as menus, toolbars, and shortcuts.
CutClip copies entities to the Clipboard and deletes the entities.
Cylinder draws three-dimensional solid cylinders.
Chapoo Commands
ChapooAccount reports the status of the Chapoo account at the command bar.
ChapooDownload downloads drawings from the Chapoo project to a local folder.
ChapooLogoff logs off from the Chapoo project.
ChapooLogon logs on to Chapoo.
ChapooOpen opens a drawing after downloading it from Chapoo.
ChapooProject opens the Chapoo project in the default browser.
ChapooUpload uploads the current drawing to Chapoo.
ChapooWeb connects to the Chapoo website.
D
DataExtraction exports entity properties, block attributes and drawing information to CSV (comma separated values) file.
DbList lists information about all entities in the drawing (short for “database listing”).
DdAttE edits the values of attributes through a dialog box (short for “dynamic dialog attribute editor”).
DdEdit edits single-line text, multi-line text, attribute definitions, and attribute text (short for “dynamic dialog editor”).
DdEModes sets default values for creating entities (short for “dynamic dialog entity modes”).
DdFilter creates a selection set of the entities selected.
DdGrips specifies the properties of grips through the Settings dialog box.
DdPType specifies the look and size of point entities, through the Settings dialog box (short for “dynamic dialog point type”).
C Concise Summary of Command Names 303
DdSelect specifies the properties for selecting entities, through the Settings dialog box.
DdSetVar displays the Settings dialog box to change the values of variables.
DdSTrack Sets the properties for snap tracking, through the Settings dialog box (short for “snap tracking”).
DdVPoint sets 3D viewpoints or plan view
Delay delays execution of the next command; for use with scripts only.
DelEData deletes extended entity data from the selected entity (short for “delete entity data”).
Dist reports the distance and angle between two points.
Distantlight places distant lights.
Divide places points or blocks along entities.
Donut draws circular polylines with width.
DragMode controls the appearance of objects while being dragged.
DrawOrder changes the display order of overlapping entities.
DrawOrderByLayer controls the draw order of overlapping objects through layer names.
DSettings displays the Settings dialog box for drafting settings (short for “drafting settings”).
DView changes the 3D viewpoint interactively, and turns on perspective mode (short for “dynamic view”).
DwgCodePage changes the code page for text in drawings.
DwgProps opens the Drawing Properties dialog box, showing the general information and user defined properties stored with
a drawing.
DxfIn imports DXF files (short for “drawing exchange format input”).
DxfOut exports drawings in ASCII or binary DXF format (short for “drawing interchange format output”).
Dimension Commands
Dim places and edits dimensions at the ‘Dimensioning command:’ prompt.
Dim1 executes a single dimension command at the ‘Dimensioning command:’ prompt.
DimAligned draws dimensions parallel to (aligned with) selected entities; works with lines, polylines, arcs, and circles.
DimAngular dimensions angles.
DimArc places arc length dimensions.
DimBaseline places multiple linear or angular dimensions starting at the same base point; command can only be used when at
least one other dimension is already in the drawing.
DimCenter places center marks at the center points of circles and arcs.
DimContinue continues linear and angular dimensions from the endpoint of the previous dimension.
DimDiameter dimensions the diameter of circles and arcs, and places a center mark.
DimDisassociate removes associativity from selected dimension entities.
DimEdit changes wording and angle of dimension text; changes the angle of extension lines.
DimLeader draws leaders.
DimLinear places linear dimensions horizontally, vertically, or rotated.
DimOrdinate measures x and y ordinate distances from a common origin, specified by the current UCS origin.
DimOverride overrides the values of the current dimension style.
DimRadius dimensions the radii of arcs and circles.
304
Inside BricsCAD V16
DimReassociate reassociates or associates dimensions to entities or points on entities.
DimRegen updates associative dimensions (short for “dimension regeneration”).
DimStyle and -DimStyle creates and modifies dimension styles through the Drawing Explorer.
DimStyleSet reports the current dimension style in the command bar.
DimTEdit changes the position of dimension text.
Dimensional Constraint Commands
CleanUnusedVariables purges variables not used by constraint expressions and not linked to dimensions.
DcAligned constrains the distance between two defining points on entities.
DcAngular constrains the angle between three constraint points on entities; or between two lines; or between two polyline
segments; or constrains the angles of arcs or polyline arcs.
DcConvert converts an associative dimension to a dimensional constraint.
DcDiameter constrains the diameters of circles, arc, or polyline arcs.
DcDisplay shows and hides dimensional constraints.
DcHorizontal constrains the horizontal distance between two defining points on entities.
DcLinear constrains horizontal or vertical distance between two defining points on entities.
DcRadial constrains the radius of circles, arcs, or polyline arcs.
DcVertical constrains the vertical distance between two defining points on entities.
DelConstraint removes all dimensional (and geometrical) constraints from an entity.
DimConstraint applies a dimensional constraint to an entity or between constraint points on entities; converts associative
dimensions to dynamic dimensions.
Direct Modeling Commands
(Available in Pro and Platinum editions only)
DmAngle3d applies angle constraints between the faces of a solid or of different solids.
DmChamfer creates an equal distance chamfer between adjacent faces.
DmCoincident3d applies coincident constraints between two edges, two faces, or an edge and a face of two different solids
(platinum only).
DmConcentric3D applies concentric constraints between two cylindrical, spherical, or conical surfaces (platinum only).
DmConstraint3D applies geometric relationships and dimensional constraints between sub-entities (such as faces, surfaces, and
edges) of 3D entities (platinum only).
DmDeformCurve deforms one or more connected faces of a 3D solid/surface by replacing their edges with given curves
(platinum only).
DmDeformMove deforms one or more connected faces of a 3D solid/surface by moving and rotating their edges (platinum only).
DmDeformPoint deforms as smoothly as possible (using G1 or G2 continuity) a region, one or more connected faces of a 3D
solid or a surface by moving a point lying on one of them in arbitrary 3D direction. (platinum only)
DmDelete deletes faces and solids.
DmDistance3d applies a distance constraint between two sub-entities of a solid or of different solids (platinum only).
DmExtrude creates 3D solids by extruding closed 2D entities, regions or closed boundaries.
DmFillet creates a smooth fillet between adjacent faces sharing a sharp edge.
DmFix3d applies a fixed constraint to a solid or to an edge or a face of a solid (platinum only).
C Concise Summary of Command Names 305
DmGroup creates new groups, edits them, and dissolves groups.
DmMove moves the selected solids, or faces or edges of a solid using a vector.
DmParallel3d applies a parallel constraint between two faces of a solid or of different solids (platinum only).
DmPerpendicular3d applies a perpendicular constraint between two faces of a solid or of different solids (platinum only).
DmPushPull adds or removes volume from a solid by moving a face.
DmRepair fixes inconsistencies in 3D geometry supported by ACIS kernel (3D solids, surfaces).
DmRadius3d applies a radius constraint to cylindrical surfaces or circular edges (platinum only).
DmRevolve creates 3D solids by revolution of closed 2D entities or regions about an axis.
DmRigidSet3d defines a set of entities or sub-entities as a rigid body (platinum only).
DmRotate rotates faces of a solid around an axis.
DmSelect selects edges and faces of 3D solids or surfaces based on their geometric properties.
DmSimplify simplifies the geometry and topology of 3D solid entities by removing unnecessary edges and vertices, merges seam
edges, and replaces the geometry of faces and edges by analytic surfaces and curves, if possible within the user-specified tolerance.
Run this command on imported 3D solid geometry.
DmStitch converts a set of region and surface entities that bound a watertight area to a 3D solid.
DmTangent3d applies a tangent constraint between a face and a curved surface of different solids (platinum only).
DmThicken creates 3D solids by thickening (i.e. adding thickness to) surfaces, their faces, and faces of 3D solids.
DmUpdate forces 3d constraints to update (platinum only).
E
EAttEdit edits the value and most properties of attributes (short for “enhanced attribute editor”).
EdgeSurf creates a 3D Coons mesh surface patch between four lines, forming a closed shape (short for “edge surface”).
EditEData creates and edits extended entity data (short for “edit entity data”).
Elev changes the default elevation and thickness.
Ellipse draws ellipses and elliptical arcs.
Endpoint toggles endpoint entity snap; snaps to the ends of open entities, such as line, arcs, and open polylines.
Erase erases selected entities from drawings; alternatively, press the Del key.
eTransmit creates a package of a drawing file and all its dependencies, such as external references, images, font files, plot configuration files, plot style tables and font map files.
ExpBlocks opens the Blocks section of the Drawing Explorer dialog box (short for “explorer blocks”).
ExpFolders opens the Drawing Explorer on the Folders tab.
Explode breaks complex objects into their component entities.
Explorer opens the Drawing Explorer dialog box, which controls Layers, Layer States, Linetypes, Multiline Styles, Text Styles, Dimension Styles,Table Styles, Coordinate Systems,Views,Visual Styles, Lights, Materials, Render Presets, Blocks, External References,
Images, Pdf Underlays, Dependencies, Page Setups and Section Planes.
Export saves entities in other file formats.
ExpUcs creates, modifies, and deletes named UCSes through the Drawing Explorer (short for “explore user-defined coordinate
systems”).
Extend extends entities to bounding edges defined by other entities.
Extension toggles extension entity snap, which snaps to the point where a line extended would intersect another entity.
Extrude extrudes closed entities as 3D solids and open ones as 3D surfaces.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
F
Field inserts text that is updated automatically when system variables change.
FileOpen opens drawing (DWG), template (DWT), and interchange (DXF) files from the command line.
Files opens the operating system’s file manager, such as Windows Explorer or Finder.
Fill fills areas with a solid color or color gradient
Fillet rounds entities.
Find finds and replaces text in notes, annotations, and dimension text.
Flatshot creates a hidden line representation of all 3D solids in model space as a block or a new drawing.
Flatten flattens 2D objects with thickness and allows to convert splines to polylines.
From enters relative coordinates with respect to a reference point whenever a command prompts to enter a point (transparent
command).
G
GCE snaps the the geometric center of entities.
GenerateBoundary creates closed polylines from faces of 3D solids, as well as from boundaries detected when the Enable
Boundary Detection of SelectionModes is activated.
GeographicLocation sets the geographic location of the drawing.
Gradient fills closed areas with gradient fills of one or two colors.
GraphScr switches from the text windows to the graphics windows (short for “graphics screen”).
Grid turns the grid display on or off and sets other grid options.
Group and -Group creates and modifies named groups of entities.
Geometric Constraint Commands
(See Direct Modeling commands for 3D constraints)
ConstraintBar shows, hides, and resets geometric constraint icons.
DelConstraint removes all geometrical (and dimensional) constraints from an entity.
GcCoincident constrains points on entities coincidently; or constrains a point on an entity to another entity.
GcCollinear constrains lines collinearly.
GcConcentric constrains the center points of arcs, circles, ellipses, and/or elliptical arcs to be coincident.
GcEqual constrains lines to have the same length, or arcs and circles to have the same radius.
GcFix constrains points on entities to fixed positions.
GcHorizontal constrains lines or linear polyline segments, or pairs of points on entities to be parallel to the x axis in the current
coordinate system.
GcParallel constrains two lines or linear polyLine segments to be parallel to each other.
GcPerpendicular constrains two lines or linear polyline segments to be perpendicular to each other.
GcSmooth constrains a spline to be fluidly continuous to another spline, or arc, or line, or polyline.
GcSymmetric constrains two entities, or two points on entities, to be symmetric about a line of symmetry.
GcTangent constrains one entity tangent to another.
GcVertical constrains lines or linear polyline segments, or pairs of points on entities to be parallel to the y axis in the current
coordinate system.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 307
H
Hatch and -Hatch fills a selected boundary with a pattern.
HatchEdit and -HatchEdit edits hatch patterns and gradient fills.
HatchGenerateBoundary generates a boundary around a hatch or gradient fill.
HatchToBack sets the draw order of all hatch entities in the drawing to display behind all other entities.
Helix draws 2D spirals or 3D helixes.
Help displays online help.
Hide removes hidden lines from 3D entities until the UnisolateObjects command is used.
HideObjects temporarily hides selected entities.
Hyperlink and -Hyperlink adds hyperlinks to entities or modifies existing hyperlinks.
HyperlinkOptions controls the display of the hyperlink cursor, shortcut menu, and tooltips.
I
Id reports the x,y,z coordinates of a picked point.
Image inserts raster images in drawings through the Drawing Explorer.
ImageAdjust adjusts the properties of images through the Properties palette.
ImageAttach attaches raster images to the drawing like xrefs.
ImageClip clips images.
ImageFrame toggles the frame around images.
ImageQuality determines the display quality of images attached to the drawing.
Import displays a dialog box for importing files into the drawing: DWG, DXF, DWT, and DAE (Collada) files. Platinum edition also
imports IFC and SKP (SketchUp) files. Additional formats can be imported when the option Communicator modules is purchased.
Imprint imprints 2D entities onto planar faces of 3D solids and surfaces; allows to create additional edges on
planar faces.
Insert and -Insert inserts blocks or another drawing into the current drawing.
InsertAligned inserts blocks repeatedly, and inserts mirrored blocks.
Insertion toggles Insertion entity snap; snaps to the insertion point of text and blocks.
InsertObj displays data from other programs in drawings, such as text documents, spreadsheets, and images (windows only).
Interfere checks interferences between solid models.
Intersect creates regions or 3D solids from the intersection of regions or 3D solids.
Intersection Toggles Intersection entity snap; snaps to the intersections of entities.
IsolateObjects hides all other entities from view.
Isoplane controls the isometric plane (left, right, or top) when isometric snap is used.
J
Join joins lines, lwpolylines, 2D polylines, 3D polylines, circular arcs, elliptical arcs, splines and helixes at common endpoints.
L
Layer: see Layer Commands below.
Layout creates, copies, renames, and deletes layouts.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
Leader draws leader lines that connect annotations to drawing entities.
Lengthen changes the length of open objects, such as lines and arcs.
LicenseManager provides access to all Bricsys software licenses, as shown below.
LicEnterKey enters the license key number (short for “licence enter key”).
LicProperties reports the BricsCAD license information; modifies and deactivates single user and volume license keys.
Light places lights in drawings.
Lightlist displays the lighting palette.
Limits sets the extents of the drawing and the grid.
Line draws straight line segments.
LineType and -LineType creates, loads, and sets linestyles.
List lists the properties of selected entities at the command line.
LiveSection toggles the Live Section property of a section plane.
Load loads compiled SHX shape files into the drawing.
Loft creates 3D solids passing through two or more cross sections.
LogFileOff turns off log file recording.
LogFileOn turns on log file recording.
LWeight sets lineweight options.
Layer Commands
LayCur moves the selected entities to the current layer.
Layer and -Layer controls layers and layer properties.
LayerP undoes previously applied changes to layer settings when LayerPMode is on (short for “layer previous”).
LayerPMode controls the tracking of changes made to layer settings.
LayerState saves and restores the properties of layers.
LayFrz freezes the layers associated with entities selected in the drawing (short for “layer freeze”).
LayIso isolates layers associated with entities selected in the drawing; locks or turns off all other layers (short for “layer isolate”).
LayLck locks the layers of selected entities.
LayMCur changes the working layer to that of a selected entity (short for “layer make current”).
LayOff turns off layers associated with entities selected in the drawing; off layers cannot be seen (short for “layer off”).
LayOn turns on all off layers (short for “layer off”).
LayThw thaws all frozen layers (short for “layer thaw”).
LayUlk unlocks the layer associated with an entity selected in the drawing (short for “layer unlock”).
LayUnIso restores layers isolated by the LayIso command (short for “layer unisolate”).
M
Mail attaches the current drawing to a new message with your computer’s default email client.
MapConnect sets up a connection with a Web Map Service, after the GeographicLocation command definesthe geographic
location in the drawing.
MassProp reports the area, perimeter, and other mathematical properties of 3D solids and 2D regions (short for
“mass properties”).
C Concise Summary of Command Names 309
MatBrowserClose closes the materials browser.
MatBrowserOpen opens the materials browser.
MatchProp assigns the properties of one entity to one or more other entities (short for “match properties”).
Materials creates materials and edits their properties through the Drawing Explorer.
Measure places points or blocks along entities.
Menu loads menu files to modify the user interface.
MenuLoad loads CUIX and CUI (user interface customization), MNU (menu), MNS (LISP code), and ICM (IntelliCAD menu) files.
MenuUnload unloads customization groups from the user interface.
Midpoint toggles Midpoint entity snap; snaps to the middle of lines, arcs, and other open entities.
MInsert inserts a block as a rectangular array; combines the -Insert and Array commands (short for “multiple insertion”).
Mirror draws mirror image copies of entities.
Mirror3D draws mirror images of entities about a plane in 3D space.
MLeader creates multileader entities using the current multileader style.
MLeaderEdit adds leader lines to and removes leader lines from a multileader entity.
MLeaderEditExt adds and removes leader lines, adds and removes vertices from a multileader entity.
MLeaderStyle creates and manages multileader styles through the Drawing Explorer.
MLine draws multilines.
MLStyle creates and edits multiline styles.
ModelerProperties and -ModelerProperties controls the various settings of the ACIS modeler through the Settings dialog box.
Move displaces entities a specified distance in a specified direction.
MTP snaps to the midpoint between two points.
N
Nearest toggles Nearest entity snap mode; snaps to the nearest geometry on entities.
NetLoad loads .NET applications.
New starts new drawing files.
NewSheetSet creates a new sheet set.
NewWiz starts new drawings with the New Drawing Wizard.
Node toggles Node entity snap mode; snaps to point entities.
None turns off all entity snap modes.
O
ObjectScale and -ObjectScale adds or removes supported scales for annotative entities.
Offset offsets linear entities in parallel orientation.
OleLinks adjusts links of OLE entities embedded in or linked to drawings (short for “object linking and embedding”). (windows only).
OleOpen opens OLE objects for modification (windows only).
OnWeb opens the Bricsys home page in your computer’s default Web browser.
Oops un-erases the last erased entity, including those erased by the Block command.
Open opens an existing drawing file.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
OpenSheetSet opens an existing sheet set.
Options configures program operating parameters.
Orthogonal constrains the pointer so it moves parallel to the axes of the current coordinate system.
OSnap and -OSnap sets entity snaps through the Settings dialog box or the command line (short for “object snap”).
Overkill and -Overkill deletes duplicate entities and overlapping lines, arcs or polylines and unifies partly overlapping or contiguous ones.
P
PageSetup creates and edits page setups for plotting drawings in the Drawing Explorer.
Pan and -Pan moves the drawing display in the active view tile.
Parameters and -Parameters create and edit constraint expressions and values.
PasteBlock inserts data from the Clipboard as block.
PasteClip inserts data from the Clipboard.
PasteOrig pastes entities from the clipboard at the coordinates from the source drawing.
PasteSpec pastes entities from the clipboard, after the user specifies the format.
PdfAdjust adjust the fade, contrast and monochrome settings of PDF underlays.
Pdfattach and -PdfAttach attaches PDF files as underlays into the drawing.
PdfClip clips PDF underlays.
PdfLayers controls the display of layers in PDF underlays.
PdfOptions controls the exporting of drawings in PDF format through the Settings dialog box.
PEdit edits polylines, 3D polylines, and 3D meshes (short for “polyline edit”).
PEditExt edits vertices and segments of a polyline.
Perpendicular toggles perpendicular entity snap mode.
PFace draws 3D multi-sided meshes; meant for use by programs (short for “polyface mesh”).
Plan sets plan view to construction plane.
PLine draws polyline lines, arcs, and splines with optional width (short for “polyline”).
PlotStyle sets the current plot style; works only when plot styles are enabled in drawings.
PlotterManager creates customized parameter PC3 files for printers and other output devices; executes the PlotConfig.exe
utility program.
Point draws point entities.
PointLight places point lights in drawings.
PolySolid creates 3D wall-like solids.
Preview shows a preview before printing the drawing.
Print plots the drawing to a plotter, printer, or file.
ProjectGeometry projects geometry like curves, and edges onto regions, surfaces, and 3D solids.
Properties displays the Properties palette to change drawing entity properties.
PropertiesClose closes the Properties palette.
ProfileManager sets current, create, copy, delete, import and export user profiles.
PSetupIn and -PSetupIn imports page setup definitions from another drawing.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 311
PSpace switches from model to paper space (short for “paper space”).
Publish and -Publish prints sheet lists of model space or paper space layouts; saves a sheet list to a file.
Purge removes unused named entities from drawings, such as unused layers and linetypes.
Pyramid draws three-dimensional solid pyramids.
Q
QLeader draws leaders; specifies properties through a dialog box.
QNew opens new drawings in BricsCAD (short for “quick new”).
QPrint prints the drawing with the default plot configuration, without displaying the Print dialog box (short for “quick print”).
QSave saves the drawing without displaying the Save dialog box (short for “quick save”).
QSelect composes a selection set using filters.
QText toggles the display of text as rectangles (short for “quick text”).
Quadrant toggles snaps to quadrant points of circles, arcs, and polyarcs.
Quick toggles snaps to the first entity geometry found; used together with at least one other entity snap mode.
Quit ends BricsCAD; optionally saves unsaved drawings.
R
Ray draws semi-infinite construction lines
ReAssocApp associates extended entity data with applications (short for “reassociate application”).
Recover repairs damaged drawings.
RecScript records keystrokes to an SCR file for playback with the Script command (short for “record script”).
Rectang draws a rectangular polyline.
Redefine restores built-in commands that have been undefined using the Undefine command.
Redo reverses the effects of a previous U command.
Redraw refreshes the display of the active view tile.
RedrawAll refreshes the display of all currently-open view tiles.
RedSdkInfo reports on rendering related hardware and driver specifications (short for “Red software development kit information”).
RefClose closes the in-situ block and xref editor.
RefEdit and -RefEdit edits blocks and externally-referenced drawings (short for “reference editor”).
RefSet adds and removes entities from the block or external reference being edited.
Regen regenerates the current viewport.
RegenAll regenerates all viewports.
RegenAuto determines when BricsCAD regenerates the drawing automatically.
Region converts an entity enclosing an area into a region.
ReInit reloads the PGP alias file (short for “re-initialize”).
Rename and -Rename changes the names of objects.
Render and -Render generates photorealistic renderings od 3D models using materials and lights.
RenderPresets creates and edits rendering presets, and to set the current render preset.
Resume resumes an interrupted script.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
RevCloud draws revision clouds commonly used for red-lining drawings.
Revolve draws 3D solids or surfaces by revolving 2D objects about an axis.
RevSurf creates 3D mesh surfaces by revolving open entities around a axis (usually a line).
Ribbon displays the ribbon user interface.
RibbonClose closes the ribbon.
Rotate rotates entities about a base point.
Rotate3D moves entities about a 3D axis.
RtRot, RtRotCtr, or RtRotF rotate the viewpoint in real time.
RScript reruns the currently loaded SCR script file (short for “repeat script”).
RtLook moves the viewpoint through a 3D scene (short for “real time looking”).
RtPan pans the view in real time.
RtRotX, RtRotY, or RtRotZ rotates the 3D viewpoint about the x, y, or z axis in real time.
RtUpDown tilts the viewpoint up, down, left, or right in real time.
RtWalk walk lefts, right, forward or backward through 3D scenes in real time.
RtZoom zooms into the drawing in real time.
RuleSurf draws ruled surfaces between two curves.
S
Save saves the drawing under the current file name or a specified name.
SaveAll saves all open drawings.
SaveAs saves an unnamed drawing with a file name or renames the current drawing.
SaveAsR12 saves drawings in DWG R12 format.
Scale enlarges or reduces specified entities equally in the X,Y, and Z directions.
ScaleListEdit and -ScaleListEdit edits the list of scale factors used by annotative scaling, sheet scales, and plot scales.
Script loads and runs SCR script files.
Scrollbar toggles the display of the horizontal and vertical scroll bars.
Section creates a cross section based on the intersection of a plane and 3D solids.
SectionPlane creates a section entity that creates sections of 3D solids.
SectionPlaneSettings defines the properties of section plane entities in the Drawing Explorer.
SectionPlaneToBlock saves the selected section plane as a 2D cross section / elevation block or a 3D cutaway
section block
Security determines whether VBA macros can run automatically; not available in the 64-bit version.
SecurityOptions sets a password to protect the drawing (windows only).
Select places selected entities in the ‘Previous’ selection set.
SelectAlignedFaces selects all faces in a model which are coplanar with a selected face.
SelectAlignedSolids Selects all solids in a model of which a face is coplanar with a selected face.
SelectConnectedFaces selects all faces in a model which are connected to a selected face.
SelectConnectedSolids selects all solids in a model which are connected to a selected face.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 313
SelectSimilar selects entities of the same type and properties.
SelGrips prompts to selects entities and then displays grips.
Settings displays the Settings dialog box for changing the values of variables.
SettingsSearch opens the Settings dialog box at the specified category, variable name, or user preference.
SetUCS sets the UCS to a viewpoint specified through a dialog box.
SetVar displays and changes the values of system variables (short for “set variables”).
Sh and Shell open the Windows command prompt window; runs other applications (short for “shell”).
Shade shades the drawing mode.
ShadeMode determines the shade mode.
Shape places shapes from SHX files in drawings.
SheetSet manages sheet sets.
SheetsetClose closes the new Sheet Set pane.
Singleton toggles whether multiple copies of BricsCAD can run at the same time.
Sketch draws freehand lines.
Slice slices 3D solids with a plane or surface.
Snap restricts pointer movements and pointing in the drawing to specified intervals.
Solid draws solid-filled 2D faces.
SolidEdit edits 3D solids and 2D regions.
SolProf creates hidden line representations of 3D solids in a layout viewport.
Spell checks the spelling of text in the drawing.
Sphere draws three-dimensional solid spheres.
Spline draws quadratic or cubic non-uniform rational Bezier spline (NURBS) curves.
SpotLight inserts spot lights into drawings.
Start runs operating system applications.
StatBar toggles the display of the status bar.
StlOut export 3D models in STL format for 3D printing (short for “stereolithography”).
StopScript stops recording of scripts begun with the RunScript command.
Stretch moves or stretches entities.
Style and -Style creates and edits text styles through the Drawing Explorer.
StylesManager creates and attaches plot style files.
Subtract creates a composite region or a 3D solid by subtraction.
SunProperties edits sun properties through the Drawing Explorer.
SupportFolder opens the C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Roaming\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Support folder.
SvgOptions controls the output as SVG files.
Sweep creates solid primitives or surfaces by sweeping two dimensional entities along a path.
SysWindows arranges windows.
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Inside BricsCAD V16
Sheet Metal Commands
(Available only in the Platinum edition with a separate license for Sheet Metal)
LicPropertiesSheetmetal reports the license state of the sheet metal module.
SmBendCreate converts hard edges (sharp edges between flange faces) into bends.
SmBendSwitch converts bends to lofted bends.
SmConvert automatically recognizes flanges and bends in a 3D solid.
SmDelete removes a bend or a junction by restoring the hard edge between two flanges; removes a flange with all the bends
adjacent to it.
SmDissolve removes sheet metal data from the selected features.
SmExport2d exports unfolded representations of sheet metal bodies as 2D profiles in DXF or DWG files.
SmExportOSM exports sheet metal solids to OSM files (short for “Open Sheet Metal”) used by CADMAN-B CAM systems.
SmFlangeBase creates base (initial) flanges of sheet metal parts from closed 2D entities.
SmFlangeConnect closes gaps between two arbitrarily oriented flanges.
SmFlangeEdge creates one or more flanges to a sheet metal part by pulling one or more edges of an existing flange.
SmFlangeEdge creates one or more flanges to a sheet metal part by pulling one or more edges of an existing flange.
SmFlangeRotate rotates a selected flange of a sheet metal part with automatic selection of the rotation axis depending on the
design intent.
SmFlangeSplit splits a flange along a line drawn on its face.
SmJunctionCreate converts hard edges (sharp edges between flange faces) and bends into junctions.
SmJunctionSwitch changes symmetrical junction features to overlapping faces.
SmLoft creates sheet metal part with lofted bends and flanges from two non-coplanar curves.
SmReliefCreate creates proper corner (three or more adjacent flanges) and bend reliefs (at the start and end of a flange edge).
SmReliefSwitch converts corner reliefs a circular, rectangular or V-type relief.Allows to change the parameters of existing corner
reliefs.
SmRepair restores the 3D solid model of a sheet metal part by thickening one of its sides: all thickness faces become perpendicular to flange faces.
SmRethicken restores the 3D solid model of a sheet metal part by thickening one of its sides (all thickness faces become perpendicular to flange faces).
SmSelectHardEdges selects all hard edges on sheet metal parts.
SmUnfold generates unfolded 2D or 3D representations of sheet metal parts.
T
Table and -Table draws tables in drawings.
Tabledit edits text in table cells.
TableExport exports the contents of a table entity to CSV (command separated values) files.
TableMod modifies the properties of table cells.
TableStyle creates and manages table styles through the Drawing Explorer.
Tablet configures and calibrates tablets, and toggles tablet mode (windows mode).
TabSurf draws tabulated surfaces from a path curve and a direction vector.
Tangent toggles tangent entity snap; snaps to the tangency of circles, arcs, ellipses and elliptical arcs.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 315
TemplateFolder opens the C:\Users\<login>\AppData\Local\Bricsys\BricsCAD\V16x64\en_US\Templates folder.
Text and -Text places lines of text in the drawing.
TextScr displays the text window showing command history (short for “text screen”).
TextToFront sets the draw order of all texts and dimensions in the drawing to display in front of all other entities.
Time reports on the time spent in the drawing.
Tolerance draws tolerances (datum indicators and basic dimension notation).
Toolbar and -Toolbar displays and hides toolbars.
ToolPalettes opens the Tool Palettes bar.
ToolPalettesClose Closes the Tool Palettes bar.
Torus draws three-dimensional torrid solids.
Trace draws traces.
Transparency toggles the transparency of monotone images; has nothing do with the transparency property
Trim trims entities at a cutting edge defined by other entities.
TxtExp explodes text into polyline segments.
U
U reverses the most recent command.
Ucs creates and displays named UCSes through the command bar (short for “user-defined coordinate system”).
UcsIcon toggles the display of the UCS icon.
Undefine disables built-in commands.
Undo restores deleted entities.
Union creates composite regions or solids by addition.
UnisolateObjects makes entities visible again following the IsolateObjects and HideObjects commands
Units and -Units sets coordinate and angle display formats and precision.
UpdateField forces the values of field text to update.
Url opens the default Web browser (short for “uniform resource locator”).
V
VbaIde opens the VBA editing window (short for “visual basic for applications integrated development environment”); not available in the 64-bit version (windows only).
VbaLoad and -VbaLoad loads VBA projects; not available in the 64-bit version (windows only)
VbaMan manages VBA projects (short for “visual basic for applications manager”); not available in the 64-bit version (windows only).
VbaRun and -VbaRun runs, creates, edits, and deletes VBA macros; not available in the 64-bit version (windows only).
VbaUnload unloads VBA projects; not available in the 64-bit version (windows only)
ViewRes sets the view resolution and toggles fast-zoom mode (short for “view resolution”).
Views and -Views saves, restores, and manages user-defined model and sheet views, and presets views.
VisualStyles and -VisualStyles creates and edits visual style definitions in the Drawing Explorer or at the command line.
VmlOut exports drawings in VML format embedded in Web pages (short for “vector markup language”).
VpClip clips viewports in layouts (short for “view port clipping”).
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Inside BricsCAD V16
VpLayer changes the properties of layers in the current paper space viewport (short for “view port layer”).
VPoint Changes the 3D viewpoint through a dialog box.
VPorts creates one or more viewports in model space (short for “viewports”).
VSlide displays images saved as SLD or WMF files (short for “view slide”).
ViewBase Commands
(Available in Pro and Platinum editions only)
ViewBase generates associative orthographic and standard isometric views of a 3D solid model in a paper space layout.
ViewDetail creates a detail view of a portion of a standard generated drawing at a larger scale.
ViewDetailStyle specifies the visual format of detail views and detail symbols.
ViewEdit changes the scale and hidden line visibility of drawing views; works in paper space only.
ViewExport exports the content of drawing views to Model space or to a new drawing; operates in paper space only.
ViewProj generates additional projected views from an existing drawing view.
ViewSection creates cross section views based on standard drawing views generated by the ViewBase command in a paper space
layout.
ViewSectionStyle specifies the visual format of section views and section lines.
ViewUpdate updates drawing views.
W
WBlock and -WBLock export blocks, selected entities, or the entire drawing as a DWG file.
WCascade, WClose, WCloseAll, WNext, and WPrev cascade the windows, close the current window, close all windows,
and switch to the next or previous windows.
Weblight places Web lights.
Wedge draws three-dimensional solids with a sloped face tapering along the X axis.
WhoHas reports the ownership of a drawing file.
WhTile, WiArrange, and WvTile tiles windows horizontally, arranges tiled windows in an overlapping manner, or tiles them
vertically.
WipeOut creates blank areas in drawings.
WmfOut exports the drawing in WMF (WIndows meta file), EMF (enhanced meta file), or SLD (slide) format.
WorkSets creates and loads named sets of drawing files.
Workspace sets the current workspace; creates, modifies, and saves workspaces.
X
XAttach attaches externally-referenced drawings.
XClip clips externally-referenced drawings.
XLine draws infinitely long lines.
XOpen opens externally-referenced drawings in a new window.
Xplode explodes entities, and provides control over the resulting entities.
XRef and -XRef attaches DWG files to the current drawing through the Drawing Explorer or the command line.
C Concise Summary of Command Names 317
Z
Zcenter toggles the 3D center entity snap; snaps to the center of planar or curved 3d faces.
Zknot toggles the 3D knot entity snap; snaps to a knot on a spline.
Zmidpoint toggles the 3D midpoint snap; snaps to the midpoint of a face edge.
Znearest toggles the 3D nearest entity snap; snaps to a point on the face of a 3D entity that is nearest to the cursor.
Znone disables all 3d snap modes.
Zoom increases or decreases the visible part of the drawing.
Zperpendicular toggles the 3D perpendicular entity snap; snaps to a point perpendicular to a face.
Zvertex toggles the 3D vertex entity snap; snaps to the closest vertex of a 3d entity.
#
? displays the Help window.
2dContext switches to a 2D drafting environment.
2dIntersection toggles apparent intersection entity snap; snaps to the intersections of entities, even when they only appear to
intersect in 3D space.
3D draws 3D polygon mesh objects: boxes, cones, cylinders, dishes, domes, pyramids, spheres, tori, wedges, or meshes.
3dArray constructs 3D rectangular arrays and rotated polar arrays.
3dContext switches to a 3D modeling environment.
3dConvert converts 3D solids to polyface meshes (Pro and Platinum).
3dFace draws 3D 4-edged faces with optional invisible edges.
3dIntersection toggles Intersection entity snap; snaps to the intersections of entities.
3dMesh draws 3D surface meshes.
3dOsnap and -3dOsnap sets the entity snap modes for 3D entities through the Settings dialog box.
3dPoly draws 3D polylines.
318
Inside BricsCAD V16
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