ENGLISH I-IV [INCLUDING ADVANCED

ENGLISH I-IV [INCLUDING ADVANCED
ENGLISH I-IV [INCLUDING ADVANCED PLACEMENT]
GRADES 9-12
THE EWING PUBLIC SCHOOLS
1331 Lower Ferry Road
Ewing, NJ 08618
BOE Approval Date:
10/25/10
Kelly Kawalek, Supervisor and District Staff
Michael Nitti
Superintendent
In accordance with The Ewing Public Schools’ Policy 2230, Course Guides, this curriculum has been reviewed and
found to be in compliance with all policies and all affirmative action criteria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Unit 1: The Novel with Nonfiction Text Support (Pacing – 30 Days)
Lord of the Flies by William Golding [Benchmark Assessment]
1
6
Unit 2: The Epic (Pacing – 15 Days)
The Epic - Literary Essay [Benchmark Assessment]
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12
Unit 3: Drama (Pacing – 25 Days)
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare - [Benchmark Assessment]
13
18
Unit 4: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Research Paper: The Study of Shakespearian Drama
[Benchmark Assessment]
19
24
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition and
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Expository Essay Writing (Pacing – 15 Days)
Expository Writing Prompts - Supplied by the DOE (March 2010)
25
30
Unit 2: Argumentative/Persuasive Writing (Pacing – 15 Days)
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
32
36
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Themes
Comparative Analysis Focused on Theme [Benchmark Assessment]
37
43
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Research Paper [Benchmark Assessment]
45
49
English III: American Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Eras in American Literature and Connection to American History
Thematic Comparison [Benchmark Assessment]
50
58
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Research Paper [Benchmark Assessment]
60
65
English III: American Literature and Composition and
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Expository Essay Writing (Pacing – 15 Days)
Expository Writing Prompts - Supplied by the DOE (March 2010)
Expository Essay Organizer
67
72
73
Unit 2: Argumentative/Persuasive Writing (Pacing – 15 Days)
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
74
78
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Connecting British Literature (Anglo-Saxon Era through the
Eighteenth Century to Contemporary Society)
79
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 10 Days+)
Research Paper Scoring Guide
90
95
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Introduction to Poetry (Pacing – 5 Days)
Introduction to Poetry [Benchmark Assessment]
97
100
Unit 2: Beowulf (Pacing – 8 Days)
Beowulf Free-Response Question
101
105
Unit 3: Feminist Literature (Pacing – 15 Days)
Feminist Literature [Benchmark Assessment]
106
110
Unit 4: Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (Pacing – 10 Days)
The Canterbury Tales - Booklet and Presentation:
The Pilgrim’s Pages
111
Unit 5: Poetry: Part II (Pacing – 10 Days)
Poetry: Part II [Benchmark Assessment]
117
120
Unit 6: As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner (Pacing – 7 Days)
As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner - Comparative Essay:
A Character Analysis
121
116
124
Unit 7: Dystopian Novel – Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
(Pacing – 10 Days)
Brave New World by Aldous Huxley - AP-Modeled Passage Response
125
129
Unit 8: Shakespeare’s Hamlet (Pacing – 10 Days)
Shakespeare’s Hamlet [Benchmark Assessment]
130
133
Appendix A: Databases
Appendix B: New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric
134
135
1
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Unit 1: The Novel with Nonfiction Text Support (Pacing – 30 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
One of the goals of this unit is to instill in students a belief that the fiction assigned has
been selected on the basis of its ability to hold meaning for the student while resonating
with his or her intellectual experience. Another goal of this unit is to assist students in
learning the facets of critical reading. They should become more aware of word
function, narrative style, and technical devices. The teacher must assist students in
moving beyond and beneath the surface of a work of fiction. Since reading is a
symbiotic process, relative ideas must be noted, and the reader should and indeed must
be encouraged to differentiate between one-word images and more complex
descriptions. The third goal of this unit focuses on the moral issues that appear in
works of literature. Seldom does narration articulate these issues, and thus it requires
the teacher’s guidance for the student to become more sensitive to them and infer
meaning beyond the text. If students can be made aware of the moral dimensions of a
novel, they may even find a truth in fiction and thus make connections between the
fiction and their own lives. The Big Ideas embedded in this unit include:
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An author’s craft directly relates to an author’s use of specific literary elements.
There is a connection between a work of literature and the influence and
historical context of the author’s life.
Knowing the factual, historic information about events discussed in a text affects
the reader, his understanding of the work, and his appreciation of the work.
Individuals have the opportunity to influence any given situation; how one reacts
during times of injustice is determined by past experiences and present
situations. Such conflicts and resolutions often provide the backdrop of a writer’s
development of theme.
Enduring Understandings:
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Symbols, meanings, and motifs provide a significant contribution to the
development of meaning (i.e., theme) in a text.
Reading nonfiction texts helps to build background knowledge or to enhance the
reading experience, further enabling a reader to more thoroughly analyze
information provided in a work of fiction.
The historic era in which a work was composed, fiction or nonfiction, has a clear
impact on the content, characters, themes, and conflicts in the work.
Social class and socioeconomic status has an impact on an individual and his or
her relationships and interactions with others and has had such an impact
throughout history, throughout literature, and in modern society as well.
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Gender, age, race, and culture all impact an individual’s definition of his/her role
and others’ roles in society. Such definitions are often utilized by writers to
develop character, present conflict, and create theme in a work of literature.
There is an indelible connection between language and freedom, which can be
explored not only when reading literature but also by analyzing literature.
There are both positive and negative perspectives to man’s inherent nature;
neither of those perspectives is ever clear. Such perspectives provide
opportunities for conflict and thematic development in a work.
Essential Questions:
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What skills are required to read a nonfiction text in comparison and contrast with
a work of fiction?
How can a reader utilize information obtained through nonfiction reading to
enhance comprehension of a fictional text? Why is such information important?
How does the historical era in which a work was composed influence the content,
characters, themes, and conflicts present in the work?
How is a work of literature, fiction or nonfiction, a commentary and/or criticism on
the society in which it was composed?
What is society’s influence over the individual and his or her relationships and
decisions?
How do one’s social class and/or socioeconomic status influence one’s
relationships and experiences?
Stories, both fiction and nonfiction, utilize myriad literary elements, including but
not limited to symbols and motifs, and timeless themes to create believable
stories that are relevant commentaries on life.
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
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Works of literature are organized to include common literary elements; works of
nonfiction are organized utilizing common text features.
Strategic readers infer meaning from information provided in the text to best
understand a writer’s use of symbols, meanings, and motifs; each has an
influence on a text’s theme.
Reading nonfiction texts (i.e. biography of an author, information about an
historical time period, informational text about a specific event, etc.) enables a
reader to synthesize information and analyze a work of fiction more thoughtfully,
thus more accurately interpreting a writer’s message or theme.
Writers often include information related to social class, socioeconomic status,
gender, age, race, and/or culture in a work to provide information that enables a
reader to fully understand a work’s conflict or theme.
There are common themes that extend across works such as prejudice or
discrimination, freedom, perseverance, and man’s quest for good over evil.
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Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
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Read, analyze, and discuss memoir, autobiography, biography, and other
informational texts
Understand and analyze the elements and text features of nonfiction or
informational texts and discuss how each feature aids with comprehension
Utilize information presented in a nonfiction text and apply it to more thoroughly
understand a work of fiction (i.e. the influence a writer’s life had on a particular
work; a common theme shared across texts)
Extrapolate information presented in a text and use that information to infer
meaning (i.e. symbolic images, figurative language, imagery, etc.)
Discuss relationships among characters, especially character conflict, and
explain how such conflicts and resolutions help to develop the theme presented
in the work
Analyze the organizational structure of a work and discuss how the order of
events or manipulation of time can aid to a story’s emotion, suspense, mystery,
surprise, etc.
Compare works that share a common theme (i.e. Lord of the Flies and The Pact
both focusing on survival), focusing on the similarities between experiences as
well as differences between settings, resolutions, or other literary elements
Cite textual evidence to support an analysis of a text to help a reader support a
claim inferring beyond the text
Major Assessments:
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Tests/quizzes including written responses to open-ended questions
Graphic organizers
Essays (i.e. synthesize information about an author’s life and the time period in
which he lived and use that information to analyze a specific work)
Compare-contrast essay to synthesize information across literary works
Authentic assessments such as projects or Socratic discussion opportunities
Instructional Materials:
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Glencoe Literature, Level 4 (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
o Fictional Literature
The Lady or the Tiger? by Frank R. Stockton
The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell
The Cask of Amontillado (Edgar Allan Poe)
The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by James Thurber
The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant
Sweet Potato Pie by Eugenia Collier
o Nonfiction Works that Support Fictional Literature
from Black Boy by Richard Wright
from Night by Elie Wiesel
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It’s the Law—But What Happens When It’s Broken? By Dick Hyman
Core Books – Fiction
o Lord of the Flies (required text)
Biography of author William Golding, history of World War II, etc.
o The Contender by Robert Lipsyte
o Ransom by Lois Duncan
Core Books – Nonfiction
o The Pact by Doctors Sampson, Remeck and Hunt
o The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros
o The Pact by Drs. Sampson, Jenkins and Hunt
Interdisciplinary Connections:
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Informational texts connected to an author’s life or a literary era will provide
opportunities for nonfiction, cross-content reading focusing on specific historical
time periods.
Informational reading can be provided to help students understand technological
or scientific advancements made during a writer’s life or during a particular
literary era. Again, such information would create a greater context in which a
work was created.
When studying works within a specific literary era, it is helpful to provide
additional information such as the artwork or music of that era to help students
gain a greater picture of the arts of the time.
Technology Connections:
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Video adaptations of books (i.e. Lord of the Flies, The Cask of Amontillado, etc.)
Websites such as www.graphic.org, http://freeology.com/graphicorgs/, or
http://www.thinkport.org/technology/template.tp provide free graphic organizers
that can be used to build students’ reading skills.
The Three Doctors Foundation, the subjects of the memoir The Pact have a
website, www.thethreedoctors.org.
See Appendix A for a list of databases applicable for research in English
Language Arts
Accommodations or Modifications:
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Utilizing graphic organizers will help students extrapolate information (i.e.
biographical or historical information to help a student more thoroughly
understand information presented in a work of fiction). Utilizing organizers is a
best practice documented to support struggling readers.
Audio recordings of the novels or short stories provide support for struggling
readers or for auditory learners. It is important to note that an audio recording is
not intended to replace reading the work, rather as an additional support for
students.
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Video versions of literature read in class (i.e. Lord of the Flies) can be used to
support struggling readers. Providing multimodal learning opportunities will help
with comprehension for students who struggle with reading but who learn best
auditorially or visually. Again, a video is not intended to replace the reading of a
text; it is intended to provide additional learning opportunities.
Opportunities for pair-share learning will again support both struggling and gifted
learners.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text and can
differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ needs.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1; RL.9-10.2; RL.9-10.3; RL.9-10.4, RL.910.5; RL.9-10.6; RL.9-10.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.9-10.1; RI.9-10.2; RI.9-10.3; RI.9-10.5;
RI.9-10.6; RI.9-10.10
Writing Standards: W.9-10.4; W.9-10.5; W.9-10.7; W.9-10.8; W.9-10.9
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English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Lord of the Flies by William Golding [Benchmark Assessment]
Many readers of Lord of the Flies interpret that author William Golding sees no hope for
mankind; many believe that Golding sees evil as an inborn trait.
In a fully developed written response, explain why you agree or disagree with this
statement.
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First, make the argument that either Golding sees no hope and views evil as an
inborn trait, or disprove this claim.
Second, support your argument and your analysis with examples from the novel.
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English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Unit 2: The Epic (Pacing – 15 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Homer was not only a storyteller but he provided the Greeks with a sense of nationalism
and pride. The epic The Odyssey teaches what the ancient Greeks valued in their
heroes and also provides students with a model for what they themselves value in a
hero today, characteristics that were inspired by what was composed over a millennia
ago. It is imperative to additionally discuss and analyze gender roles as they were
accepted at that time versus and compared to what is acceptable and accepted today.
The rules of etiquette and hospitality are also significant elements to the tales and
provide an insight into the true lives, not merely the literary ones, of individuals living at
the time these works were composed. This will enable students to compare and
contrast not only works of literature from different eras but also the lives of actual
individuals, both historical and contemporary.
The Big Ideas embedded in this unit include:
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The skills required to read an epic differ from those of other texts.
The study of ancient Greece requires additional reading and research of that
historical and literary time period so the reader understands in a comprehensive
manner the subject, events, and themes of the texts.
The organizational structure of an epic provides necessary information that is
helpful to a reader.
An epic is an ancient genre whose themes, characters, and conflicts are all
applicable to the modern experience.
The archetypal hero and the heroic journey are universal elements in literature
throughout the ages.
Enduring Understandings:
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It is necessary to possess a specific set of skills, such as comprehension of
literary terms applicable to the epic, in order to discuss the work beyond factual
recall.
The concepts of fate and freewill and the developing attitude toward them impact
the characters, their development, their conflicts, their resolutions, as well as the
readers’ reactions to those characters and actions and events.
Past literary heroes and present day heroes share many connections.
The elements of epic poetry significantly contribute to the poem’s meaning and
message and provide the groundwork for both a literal and symbolic
comprehension and analysis of the work.
The oral storytelling tradition has produced and continues to produce stories and
poems that endure and express timeless, human, cultural truths.
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A hero is an ordinary human called to face extraordinary circumstance and
challenges.
Reflecting on the challenges one faces and overcomes can help one to define
oneself and understand one’s experiences.
Essential Questions:
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What are the characteristics of an epic and what has allowed epic poetry to
remain a significant genre in the modern world?
What is the difference between a literal and a symbolic journey?
In what ways does one search for his/her own identity and define him- or herself
within or in contrast to an accepted culture?
What is a hero, in literature and in real life?
How does modern literature allude to the literature of another time period?
What do poems and songs say about a culture?
What does a person learn about himself or herself by reflecting on the challenges
he/she faces and overcomes?
Do people control their own destiny or is it in the hands of a higher power?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
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Epic poems share common characteristics such as: an opening in medias res; an
invocation to the Muse; a concern with the fate of a nation or people; a
correspondingly large scale, often ranging around the world; the intervention of
supernatural figures, who are interested in the outcome of the action; extended
similes, generally called epic similes; long catalogues, whether of ships,
characters, or places; extensive battle scenes; and a few stock episodes,
including a visit to the underworld.
Differences exist between a literal and a symbolic journey.
Heroes/heroines share common qualities, even if the kind of hero/heroine differs.
Archetypal stages of a hero’s journey are presented throughout an epic work.
Modern literature connects to the literature of earlier time periods.
Past literary heroes and present day heroes share many commonalities.
Writers utilize narrative strategies and figurative language to assist with character
development, develop conflicts in poems, and present themes in a work.
Writers include details about the culture, mythology, and history of Homer’s world
in order to better develop an epic work.
Primary ideas and themes are present in all epic poems.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
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Research and analyze the historical and mythological origins of epic literature.
Characterize an individual as a hero and support the claim with use of text and
explanation in both written and oral form.
Analyze the archetypal stages of a hero’s journey.
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Evaluate a hero’s journey in terms of the heroic quest.
Identify and analyze the role of fate and freewill as a common theme in epic
poetry and thoroughly discuss its effect on the characters, character
development, and conflicts in a work of literature.
Relate how much control one has in the quest to reach one’s goal.
Identify, apply, and analyze the narrative strategies and figurative language
employed in an epic poem.
Understand and define students’ own relationship to their culture and their own
personal, individual journey.
Utilize textual support, cite textual evidence, and draw inferences from the text
when responding to an open-ended question.
Major Assessments:
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Test and/or quizzes (including written responses and reflections)
Article style writing
Debates
Journal writing (i.e. How is your high school career both a literal and
figurative/symbolic journey?)
Reenactment
Modernization
Scrapbook
Self-Created Odyssey
Instructional Materials:
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Glencoe, Level 4 (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
o Homer’s “The Odyssey”
o “An Ancient Gesture” by Edna St. Vincent Millay
o “Siren Song” by Margaret Atwood
o “Ithaca” by C.P. Cavafy
Core Books
o Odyssey by Homer
The Odyssey (film version)
O Brother Where Art Thou (film version)
Interdisciplinary Connections:
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To connect to history, students can read about ancient societies as background
information prior to reading epic poems. Such information would help to build
students’ nonfiction reading skills and provide background knowledge about
cultures and societies, which will provide insight when reading epic works.
Students can study the art work of ancient times such as ancient masks, Greek
vases, etc.
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Advancement in the areas of science and mathematics of ancient civilizations
can be studied.
Technology Connections:
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Heroes Are Made of This: Studying the Character of Heroes
http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/heroes-madethis-studying-784.html
Designed to explore the hero and the heroic in literature, this sequence of
activities can be used as a unit or as stand-alone activities.
How Have the Qualities of Heroes Changed Over Time?
http://www.htc.net/~thehuels/heroes.htm. This WebQuest will take you back in
time to Ancient Greece where you will learn about the lives of Greek heroes.
The Epic Hero: A PowerPoint Presentation:
http://www.hlschool.org/cwalkerweb/PPPARAETECH07/PowerPointParadise/J.%
20Snow%20Epic%20Hero.ppt. This presentation provides notes for students
focused on the definition of an epic hero, explaining the hero’s journey, and
providing additional Internet addresses for further research.
Homer’s Odyssey: A Guide to Understanding the Voyage of Odysseus through a
Study of Greek Mythology:
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/morse/homer_Odyssey/. This Web Quest is
designed to help students understand the mythology surrounding Homer’s.
Accommodations or Modifications:
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Utilizing graphic organizers will help students extrapolate information (i.e.
nonfiction reading to build background knowledge). Utilizing organizers is a best
practice documented to support struggling readers.
Audio and video support can be used to support struggling readers and to
challenge gifted thinkers. Providing multimodal learning opportunities will help
with comprehension for students who struggle with reading but who learn best
auditorially or visually. Additional videos or auditory readings can be provided for
gifted readers can push them beyond the text provided in the classroom as well.
Opportunities for pair-share learning will again support both struggling and gifted
learners.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text (i.e. Homer’s
Odyssey) and can differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ needs.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners
as well (i.e. graphic organizer vs. reflective response, both focused on the same
text).
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Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2, RL.9-10.3, RL.9-10.4; RL.910.6, RL.9-10.10
Writing Standards: W.9-10.4, W.9-10.5, W.9-10.9a; W.9-10.10
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English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
The Epic - Literary Essay [Benchmark Assessment]
Throughout our journey through literary works, we have encountered a number of
characters who fit the literary description of a “hero.”
Essay Prompt
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Select one hero whom you’ve encountered in your reading and explain the traits
that he/she possesses that make him/her heroic.
Then, compare him/her to other characters that you’ve read about who may
possess similar traits.
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English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Unit 3: Drama (Pacing – 25 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
In this unit students will be able to explore antiquity and the English Renaissance and
how it relates to Oedipus and Romeo and Juliet. Students will also examine
relationships found in the play to explore the interactions of individuals during these two
distinct time periods and compare to relationships during contemporary times. Finally
students will explore Shakespeare’s language and his influence on language today.
These concepts are important to instill in students the diverse influences on literature
and language they use and read about every day. Additionally students will be able to
make connections between the conflicts and influences on individuals and their
maturation in centuries past and their present experiences. The Big Ideas presented in
this unit of study are:
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There is a connection between a work of literature and the influences and/or
historical context of the author's life and era.
The skills required to read and comprehend a work of drama differ from those
required to read fiction or nonfiction texts.
The organizational structure of drama provides necessary information and is
helpful to a reader’s comprehension and analysis (i.e. list of characters,
prologues, and acts that follow a specific order).
The audience has the opportunity to reflect on decisions made by characters.
Dramatic texts set in a specific historical time period require additional reading
and research of that time period so the reader fully understands the subject,
events, conflicts, and themes of the text.
Enduring Understandings
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For one to fully comprehend the conflicts, themes, and author’s intention
presented in a dramatic work, connections must be drawn between the time
period in which a drama was written (i.e. Elizabethan, Ancient Greek, etc.) and
the themes of the drama.
Drama is a unique genre requiring readers to become more intimately involved
with the dialogue of the characters providing the characterization, rising action,
conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution contrary to other works of fiction and
non-fiction.
The understanding of standard dramatic conventions assists the audience in
comprehending the action of the play.
Setting has a direct impact and influence on character development, motivation,
conflicts, and associations.
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In order for a student to gain mastery of a dramatic text open dialogue must be
supported in the classroom to ensure creative, diverse analysis of characters,
conflict, action, etc. (i.e. whole group discussion, partner, turn and talk).
Essential Questions
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How does an extensive knowledge of a specific time period help a reader to
more fully understand the events that take place in a work of drama?
How does one artfully read a dramatic work? Is it meant to be read silently or
aloud? What is the difference?
What are dramatic, situational, and verbal irony, and how does each impact an
audience’s reaction to and comprehension of the action in a work of drama?
How does a person face conflict (i.e. emotion versus rational thought, love versus
lust, fate versus free will) and what does it reveal about the nature of his or her
character?
What could be done to reduce the tragic outcomes of the tragedians in Greek
and Shakespearean tragedies?
How could the themes of classic tragedies be connected to contemporary
society?
What is the difference between love and the perception of love?
What are the abstract concepts embedded in Romeo and Juliet? How do those
abstract concepts apply to other works of literature? To contemporary society?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
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There are specific characteristics and elements of Greek and Elizabethan drama;
it is important to understand these as well as the origins of drama to fully
appreciate the art.
Previous theatrical periods had a clear and specific influence on the development
of drama and dramatic structure.
There are required elements of a play which differ slightly from those specific to
Greek drama and the Elizabethan five act play.
Dramatic devices such as asides, soliloquies, monologues, irony, and stage
direction contribute to the progression of events and ultimately to the theme of a
literary work.
In a tragedy, one event often causes the next event to occur ultimately,
concluding in a tragic outcome.
How to predict what action a character may take based on their previous
reaction(s) to conflict.
There are literal, figurative, and literary definitions and applications of the theme
of love that are evident when analyzing myriad dramatic works.
The abstracts concepts in Romeo and Juliet orient themselves around the
concepts of love, forbidden love, familial obligations, and desire, concepts that
are applicable in contemporary works and in modern life.
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Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
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Identify various types of drama and explain how drama has changed over the
centuries.
Identify dramatic elements in Greek and Elizabethan tragedies including but not
limited to asides, soliloquies, monologues, irony, and stage direction, and
analyze their effect(s) on characterization, conflicts, theme, and narrative.
Compare classic views of tragedy with contemporary attitudes and examples.
Identify the catalyst for tragic outcomes and create alternate possible conclusions
given alternate triggers for the tragic “ripple effect”.
Identify abstract concepts across several tragic works (i.e. Romeo and Juliet and
Oedipus), support their existence with textual references (direct and indirect),
and compare and/or contrast concepts within and between works.
Major Assessments:
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Test and quizzes including written responses to open-ended questions
(benchmark)
Performances and visual interpretations
Group work
Essays (i.e. compare/contrast dramatic works sharing a common theme)
Instructional Materials:
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Glencoe Literature, Level 4 (Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
o Active Reading Strategies, Drama
o Understanding Shakespeare and Elizabethan Drama
o Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet” (required text)
o “The Miracle Worker”
Core Books
o Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet
o Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
Interdisciplinary Connections:
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Students can read about ancient Greece, specifically focusing on its society,
politics, and religion. They can also read about and research Elizabethan
England, focusing on society, politics, religion, and social class. Such reading
would provide powerful background knowledge to understand the context of
dramatic works studied in this unit.
Students can research how technology was utilized by the ancient Greeks to
adequately and appropriately perform their plays in front of a massive audience.
How did technology and architectural advancements enable Shakespeare’s
contemporaries to construct the Globe and other theaters in Elizabethan
England? What special effects were used in each type of drama and how did
16
•
those effects develop and become more/less complex through the centuries?
Ancient Greek art and architecture can be studied as well.
Technology Connections:
•
•
•
•
•
Websites such as www.readwritethink.org and www.webenglishteacher.com
provide numerous lesson plans focusing on teaching drama in the high school.
Lessons can be filtered by topic or by grade level; web quests and PowerPoint
presentations are available as well.
E-books?
The Life and Times of Mr. William Shakespeare:
http://www.gprc.ab.ca/employees/homepages/ghanna/. This site is an electronic
tribute to the great bard whose works still move us, centuries later.
Live and Times of William Shakespeare:
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/life.htm. This site synthesizes the primarily and
tangentially related sites regarding Shakespeare biographical and historical
materials, and the material related to the Elizabethan era in particular.
No Fear Shakespeare: http://nfs.sparknotes.com/. Here, students can read the
original text on one page, while utilizing a translated text on the adjacent page.
Accommodations or Modifications:
•
•
•
•
•
Informational videos can help to build students’ background knowledge, thus
providing support for them as they begin to read a dramatic work.
Video versions of dramatic works provide visual support for students who may
struggle when reading drama.
Audio readings of dramatic works are available through the EHS Media Center,
the Mercer County Library, or free for download online.
Graphic organizers can be provided for students to utilize when reading a
dramatic work. This would help to focus struggling readers on key pieces of
information while helping them to organize the information in a structured way.
Differentiating graphic organizers would allow a teacher to differentiate to meet
the needs of both struggling and gifted readers (i.e. a web versus a blank outline
for note-taking). Websites such as http://www.havefunteaching.com/readingworksheets/graphic-organizers provide an abundance of printable graphic
organizer options.
There are often many versions of the same text. For example, the full Romeo
and Juliet is available as a core book in the Book Room, but there is an “easy”
version that was translated into a narrative available online at http://www.worldenglish.org/stories_romeo_juliet.htm. Differentiating the text while holding all
students accountable for comprehending the text is one accommodation that
would benefit both struggling and gifted readers.
17
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2, RL.9-10.3, RL.9-10.4, RL.910.6, RL.9-10.9, RL.9-10.10
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.2a, WS.9-10.2b, WS.9-10.2c, WS.9-10.2d, WS.9-10.2e,
WS.9-10.2f, WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.7, WS.9-10.8
18
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare - Open-Ended Question
[Benchmark Assessment]
Although Romeo and Juliet was written in 1595, one could argue that it has stood the
test of time because it is still read and performed today. Why do you think that Romeo
and Juliet has stood the test of time? Using what you have learned in class, through
research, and while reading the dramatic work, explain why Romeo and Juliet is a work
that continues to play a part in 21st century classrooms.
19
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Unit 4: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Synthesizing information from a variety of different sources, connecting research to
literature, and supporting a thesis with details written in one’s own words or cited from
its original source is an essential skill in reading and writing. The Big Ideas included in
this unit of study are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A clearly written thesis statement will convey the main idea of an essay or
research paper.
Details extrapolated from different sources and from different kinds of sources
(i.e. books, newspapers, videos, radio addresses, speeches, internet resources,
etc.) must be used to support a thesis statement; synthesis of information from a
variety of sources is key.
Details obtained when reading an informational text may provide insight into the
analysis of a particular work or an author’s body of work.
Providing parenthetical citations for newly acquired information obtained through
research is necessary to avoid the accusation of plagiarism.
A works cited page is required to provide a source list when a research paper is
completed.
The skills acquired through the completion of an MLA-formatted research paper
are skills that will carry through high school and into college.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
The main idea of an entire research project must be summarized in one
sentence; this is called the thesis statement. The remainder of the research
paper must provide support for this statement.
Primary sources (i.e. speech, interview) differ from secondary sources (i.e.
biography, book, informational video) in that primary sources were created during
the time under study while secondary sources interpret or analyze primary
sources. Each has value, but each must be considered and used differently.
Plagiarism, also known as literary theft, is defined by Merriam-Webster in the
following way: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own;
to use (another's production) without crediting the source.
Parenthetical citations are used to credit an original writer for his or her words or
thoughts. Such citations must connect to works listed on a works cited page.
According to the Modern Language Association, “MLA style for documentation is
widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.”
Thus, MLA formatting is utilized in Language Arts and English classrooms
nationwide.
20
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
How does one summarize the thoughts presented in an entire research paper in
only one sentence?
What is the benefit of a primary source over a secondary source or vice versa?
How do you utilize secondary sources to support a literary analysis?
How were works of Shakespearian Drama influenced by the historical or social
contexts of the Renaissance?
How is plagiarism of literary works similar to copyright infringement related to
music lyrics?
When would one use APA format instead of MLA format when writing a research
paper?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The key ideas presented in a research essay or term paper must clearly connect
to and support the thesis statement.
The thesis statement must be supported with well-chosen, relevant, and
sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples.
Details to support the thesis must be synthesized from multiple print and digital
sources, all of which are credible and accurate.
Primary and secondary sources can be used to obtain information that will help a
reader to more thoroughly understand the life of a writer, the times in which an
author lived and wrote, and the work that a writer produced.
The historical and social context surrounding an author such as William
Shakespeare often influence a specific work or an entire body of work.
A works cited page and note cards help a writer to organize notes and sources in
order to organize the paper and avoid plagiarism.
Precise language and domain-specific vocabulary help the writer to sustain a
formal style and objective tone while managing the complexity of the research
topic.
Avoid plagiarism by following MLA format for citations (i.e. parenthetical citations
and a works cited page).
The conclusion of the research essay or term paper must flow logically from the
information presented or explanation provided.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
Craft a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the paper and is
supported by all ideas and details presented in the paper
Utilize well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete
details, quotations, and other examples to support the thesis statement
21
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources using
advanced search features; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source,
and quote or paraphrase the information.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, using each kind of source
appropriately, to support a literary analysis
Synthesize information related to the life of William Shakespeare, the historical
and social contexts surrounding him, and the development of Shakespearian
Drama.
Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions obtained through research and
provide explanations in one’s own wording
Utilize note cards and a works cited page when conducting research and taking
notes
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary that sustains a formal,
objective style to manage the complexity of the topic
Include parenthetical citations that connect to a works cited page, both following
MLA format
Draft a conclusion section that flows logically from the information and
explanations presented in the research essay or term paper
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Major Assessments:
•
Research paper (benchmark assessment)
o Works cited and note cards
o Outline
o Rough draft
o Teacher conference notes
o Peer conference notes
o Final draft
Instructional Materials:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EHS research manual available on the EHS website
MLA Handbook
Graphic organizers such as outlines
Citation Samples
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Research essay or term paper rubric, to be distributed at the beginning of the
project so students are aware of expectations
Research materials including online resources, district databases, books, and
videos
o NOTE: It is recommended that English teachers involve the Media Specialist
during the research process.
22
Interdisciplinary Connections:
•
When researching the life of a particular author, students will be required to
include the historical and/or social context surrounding the author at a particular
time in history. Cross-content reading, especially of nonfiction or informational
texts, is essential to complete the research project.
Technology Connections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Helpful websites
o
Shakespearian Drama PowerPoint presentation (which can be modified)
at www.graves.k12.ky.us/powerpoints/gchs/hskholt.ppt
o
Shakespearian Drama Vocabulary and Terms PowerPoint presentation
(which can be modified) at
http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/dblea/Shakespeare/Shakespearean%20Dram
a.ppt
o
Shakespeare Study Guides from Spark Notes at
http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/
Online resources and district databases to conduct research (see Appendix A)
Videos to add research opportunities for visual learners
Websites such as Easy Bib (www.easybib.com) and Works Cited for You
(www.workscited4u.com) help students to format a works cited page by asking
them to key information into blanks.
Websites such as StudyGuide.org (www.studyguide.org/MLAdocumentation.htm)
and the Purdue Online Writing Lab
(http://owl.english/purdue.edu/owl/search.php) provide links to help students see
samples of parenthetical citations as well as works cited pages.
Modern Language Association at www.mla.org. The Modern Language
Association explains MLA style and differentiates it from APA style. Students or
teachers can also purchase a copy of the MLA Handbook through this site.
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
Using graphic organizers such as blank outlines, note cards, or works cited
organizers will help students to focus on the correct information and will
ultimately help them to organize their research paper.
Exemplary research essays or essay templates provide support for struggling
readers and writers. Providing exemplary benchmarks is a best practice that
helps students to more thoroughly understand expectations and provides a
model for them to use as a guide.
Individual teacher conferences enable a teacher to provide specific feedback to
students; doing so supports the struggling writer while challenging the gifted
writer.
23
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.9
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.2a, WS.9-10.2b, WS.9-10.2c, WS.9-10.2d, WS.9-10.2e,
WS.9-10.2f, WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.8, WS.9-10.9a, WS.9-10.9b, WS.9-10.10
24
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Research Paper: The Study of Shakespearian Drama [Benchmark Assessment]
For the English I research paper, a number or project topic options are provided, all of
which connect to the study of Shakespearian Drama. The teacher may choose to
assign a specific topic from those listed below, or students may be given the option of
self-selecting a topic.
Research Paper Topic Options
•
•
•
•
•
Research the life and times (historical, political, and social) of William
Shakespeare
Discuss the development of the Globe Theater and discuss its impact on
Shakespearian Drama
Analyze the role of gender and discuss the impact that gender roles played in
Shakespearian Drama
Analyze the literary elements and poetic devices used in works of Shakespearian
Drama
Research the usage of Old English and discuss its impact on Shakespearian
Drama
Project Requirements
•
Typed, double spaced
•
12-point, Times New Roman
•
MLA format
•
Include parenthetical citations
•
Include a works cited page
25
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition and
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Expository Essay Writing (as defined by the N.J. Department of
Education) (Pacing – 15 Days taught as part of a 90 minute block)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will focus on the craft of expository essay writing (as defined by the New
Jersey Department of Education) and will help students to develop the skills needed to
effectively analyze a topic, supporting his or her thoughts using specific evidence from
literature, history, contemporary issues, or personal experience. Quotes or statements
presented for expository writing may be based upon teacher selected topics, or they can
be quotes taken from or connected to the literature read in English I or English II. The
Big Ideas embedded through this unit are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The purpose of expository essay writing is for the writer to draw from what he/she
already knows and from primary and secondary sources in order to analyze (not
define) a thought or quote.
The essay must focus on a clear topic, which is supported with relevant facts,
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
Thoughts must be organized logically and coherently.
A writer’s selection of words is one of the most important factors he/she must
consider when writing; precision of language and the use of domain-specific
vocabulary are essential.
A powerful conclusion is one that summarizes the main idea and reviews key
concepts, without repeating or introducing new ideas.
Strong essays must meet certain criteria (i.e. the opening and closing are
evident, main idea is clearly expressed and is supported with specific details,
word choice is powerful and language is skillfully used, voice is clear and
powerful, sentence structure is used correctly, a consistent verb tense is
maintained throughout a piece, and Standard English is used effectively) to be
considered proficient.
Writers continually revise and edit their work to improve their writing, specifically
focusing on organization, development, voice, word choice, sentence structure,
and the conventions of writing.
Enduring Understandings
•
Expository essay writing (as defined by the NJ DOE) requires one to analyze (not
define) a statement or quote that focuses on an abstract concept (i.e. fear,
imagination, etc.).
26
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A topic must be supported using relevant facts, definitions, concrete details,
quotations, or other information and examples, all of which should be taken from
literature, history, contemporary issues, or personal experiences.
Specific examples must be provided as support, and the writer must further
explain how each example provided connects to the statement or quote in
question.
Transition words or phrases must be used to assist with the organization and
fluency of the writing.
A writer’s voice and word choice must be passionate and powerful so his/her
message is clearly conveyed.
When writing in an academic setting, the rules of Standard English must be
applied.
Writing is never “done” and can always be improved. It is a recursive process, so
writers can move from stage to stage, either forward or backward.
The New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric (6-point) should be used to
guide one’s writing, as the criteria listed on said rubric are those demonstrated in
strong writing.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the purpose of expository writing? When would one be asked to write in
such a way?
What differentiates essay writing from other forms of writing (i.e. narrative,
nonfiction or research writing, etc.)?
What is the difference between discussing a statement or quote and analyzing it,
as is required in expository essay writing?
How does a writer support his or her thoughts without repeating himself or
herself? How does one use support to strengthen a work?
Why is it important to consider audience and purpose when organizing one’s
writing?
What does the literary term voice mean? How does one include voice in his or
her writing?
Why is vivid and precise use of language so important?
What is Standard English and why is it important to use Standard English in
academic writing?
Acquired Knowledge (The learner will know…)
•
•
The purpose of expository essay writing (i.e. on the HSPA assessment) is to
analyze a statement or quote, which is quite different from discussing it.
Specific evidence from works of literature, episodes in history, contemporary
issues or current events, or personal experiences are required to support an
analysis; each example must be clearly connected to the statement or quote and
an explanation of the connection must be thorough.
27
•
•
•
•
Key ideas must be connected to the topic and must flow with transitions from one
point to the next, creating cohesion and clarifying information and ideas.
Precise language, domain-specific wording and technical wording (where
appropriate) will help to sustain a formal objective style that is straightforward
and appropriate for a reader seeking information.
A concluding paragraph or section must flow logically from the information or
explanation provided, restate the main idea, and summarize key points, all
without repeating what was already stated or introducing new information.
The New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric is the assessment tool that
highlights the criteria used to evaluate expository writing on the HSPA.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Analyze a statement or quote using specific and relevant evidence
Support his/her thesis with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples
Utilize specific examples from literature, history, contemporary issues, or
personal experiences as support and explain how each specific example
supports his/her thesis
Connect all key ideas to the topic and/or writing prompt utilizing transitions, thus
clearly creating fluency and cohesion
Utilize precise language, domain-specific wording, and technical wording (where
appropriate) to communicate information in a formal, objective style
Include compositional risks (i.e. anecdote, rhetorical question, development of
mood, etc.) that create a voice appropriate to the audience and purpose
Draft a conclusion paragraph or section that flows logically from the information
or explanation presented in the essay and effectively concludes thoughts
presented in the work, all without repeating what was already stated or
introducing new information
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Utilize the New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric to self-assess his/her
writing and compare his/her score with the score assigned by a teacher
Benchmark or Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
•
Graphic organizer (benchmark)
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point (benchmark)
Teacher conference, observations, and anecdotal records
Writer’s notebook
Self-editing, peer-editing, or teacher-editing checklists
28
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point
Quotes or adages to serve as prompts
Graphic organizers
Sample prompts provided by the NJ DOE, available at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
Nathan Levy’s Thinking and Writing for the Brain!, Volume 1 and Volume 2
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
One method a writer can use to support his/her opinion is to use evidence from
history. Thus, including the history teacher in the discussion of expository writing
is key. Co-planning and co-teaching lessons on how to support one’s opinion
using evidence from history would provide a wonderful co-teaching opportunity.
Contemporary events that connect to historical or scientific topics also provide an
opportunity for cross-content reading and writing.
Technology Connections
•
•
New Jersey Department of Education sample NJ ASK Prompts at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
o NOTE: Teachers are cautioned not to search “expository writing” for lesson
plan ideas. Unfortunately, any information provided connected to expository
writing does not compare to the information provided through the NJ DOE
and expectations for the HSPA.
Students can be provided time on the computer to research a particular quote or
adage.
Accommodations or Modifications for Special Education, ESL or Gifted Learners
•
•
•
•
Quotes or adages provided as writing prompts can be differentiated based upon
student interest, difficulty of interpretation, etc. Students can also be asked to
choose the quote/adage or to bring a quote that is important to them as the focus
of an expository essay.
In the writing workshop, mini-lessons provide guidance for students to improve
their writing. Such mini-lessons are planned based upon the needs of the
students, thus incorporating differentiation into planning and instruction.
Individual conferences are held, at which time teachers model good writing and
provide individual instruction and/or feedback to students to meet each child’s
individual needs. Such a format supports the struggling writer while challenging
the gifted writer.
Models and mentor texts must be provided so that students struggling with a
concept or who are reluctant writers have exemplars surrounding them; individual
29
•
or small group conferences provide time for a teacher to help students make
connections between a mentor text(s) and their own writing.
Gifted writers and thinkers can be challenged to think beyond the literal by
providing them with insightful, powerful, somewhat challenging quotes as the
focus of explanatory essays. Students can also be given time to conduct
research on the history, interpretation, and use of selected quotes.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.2a, WS.9-10.2b, WS.9-10.2c, WS.9-10.2d, WS.9-10.2e,
WS.9-10.2f, WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.9
30
Expository Writing Prompts - Supplied by the DOE (March 2010)
English I: Writing Prompt
Although fear is a common human emotion, our response to it varies. Using an
example from literature, history, science, film, or your own experience or observation,
write an essay analyzing a particular response to fear and the effect of that response.
English II: Writing Prompt
In The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard, French writer Anatole France writes, “To know is
nothing at all; to imagine is everything.” Why might one argue that imagination is more
valuable than facts? Using an example from literature, history, science, film, or your
own experience or observation, write an essay analyzing the worth of imagination.
31
History
Literature
Quote or Statement
Current Events
Personal Experience
32
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition and
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Argumentative/Persuasive Writing (Pacing – 15 Days taught as part of a
90 minute block)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will focus on the craft of argumentative/persuasive writing and will help
students to develop the skills needed to effectively persuade an audience. Topics
presented for argumentative/persuasive written responses may be based upon ageappropriate controversial issues, current events, or controversial topics that reveal
themselves when reading the literature assigned during English I or English II classes.
The Big Ideas embedded through this unit are:
•
•
•
The purpose of persuasive essay writing is for the writer to clearly and powerfully
communicate his or her position to a reader.
Strong essays must meet certain criteria (i.e. the opening and closing are
evident, main idea is clearly expressed and is supported with specific details,
word choice is powerful and language is skillfully used, voice is clear and
powerful, sentence structure is used correctly, a consistent verb tense is
maintained throughout a piece, and Standard English is used effectively) to be
considered proficient.
Writers continually revise and edit their work to improve their writing, specifically
focusing on organization, development, voice, word choice, sentence structure,
and the conventions of writing.
Enduring Understandings
•
Argumentative/Persuasive writing can be compared to arguing and is often
considered arguing on paper.
•
Persuasive writing is often inspired by events or themes presented in a literary
work.
•
A writing task or scenario presented in a prompt will have an influence on a
writer’s use of tone, style, and technique.
•
A writer’s selection of words is one of the most important factors he/she must
consider when writing; precision of language is essential.
•
A writer’s voice must be passionate and powerful so his/her message is clearly
conveyed.
•
Writing is never “done” and can always be improved. It is a recursive process, so
writers can move from stage to stage, either forward or backward.
33
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the purpose of essay writing?
Why is argumentative/persuasive writing important?
What differentiates argumentative/persuasive writing from other forms of writing
(i.e. informational, expository, narrative, speculative)?
How can one utilize evidence from literature when supporting one’s position in an
argumentative/persuasive piece?
Why is it important to consider audience and purpose when organizing one’s
writing?
What does the literary term voice mean? How does one include voice in his or
her writing?
Why is vivid and precise use of language so important?
What is Standard English and why is it important to use Standard English in
academic writing?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An effective argument not only acknowledges the opposing point of view, but
also distinguishes it from the opposing claim and discredits it using logical
reasoning and detailed evidence from credible sources (i.e. I know there is
another side, and this is why it is wrong.)
To demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the topic, one must support a
claim with valid reasoning and detailed, relevant, and sufficient evidence from
credible sources.
Both claims and counterclaims must be presented fairly, evidence for each must
be supplied, and strengths and limitations of both are necessary. In doing so, a
clear argument can be developed based upon the strength of one particular side.
Predicting the audience’s knowledge and level of concern is essential and must
be addressed when presenting claims and counterclaims.
Argumentative/persuasive writing sustains a formal style and objective tone
based solely on fact, which can include personal experience.
The voice a writer projects in an argumentative/persuasive piece must be
passionate and convincing; the voice must match the purpose.
A concluding paragraph or section must flow from the argument and end
powerfully (i.e. call to action, symbolic ending, reconnection to the beginning,
etc.).
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
Provide both claims and counterclaims, anticipating the level of knowledge and
concerns of an audience and addressing such issues, culminating in an
argument or persuasive position
34
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use credible sources when supporting his or her position, fully explain the
relevance of both claims and counterclaims, and present a logical, detailed
explanation of his/her reasoning
Utilize transitions to create a natural flow among ideas, specifically noting the
differences between claims and counterclaims so the writer does not change
“positions”
Maintain an objective style and tone appropriate for the purpose and audience of
the piece
Create arguments based solely on fact, including (if appropriate) facts pertaining
to one’s personal experience
Write with a passionate, authentic, and convincing voice that is appropriate to the
purpose of the piece
Draft a conclusion section that flows naturally from the argument, ends
powerfully, and attempts to leave the reader thinking (i.e. call to action, symbolic
ending, circular ending, etc.)
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Benchmark or Major Assessments (indicate Benchmark Assessment in
parentheses)
•
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point (benchmark)
Graphic organizer such as a Roman Numeral outline
Teacher conference, observations, and anecdotal records
Writer’s notebook
Self-editing, peer-editing, or teacher-editing checklists
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point
Graphic organizers (i.e. those available using websites such as
http://www.worksheetplace.com/index.php?function=DisplayCategory&showCate
gory=Y&links=2&id=11&link1=43&link2=11)
Sample prompts provided by the NJ DOE, available at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Persuasive/argumentative essay prompts can connect to topics that are
presented in other content areas.
Environmental issues such as pollution and recycling can be addressed
Controversial issues connect to the first amendment and freedom of speech can
be discussed in history class
35
•
Seatbelt laws or drug testing in schools easily connect to content discussed in
health classes.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
New Jersey Department of Education Assessment Page at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
o Teachers can obtain study materials and released test questions for HSPA
assessments.
District databases such as Facts on File: Issues and Controversies
Professional websites such as Web English Teacher
(www.webenglishteacher.com) and Read Write Think (www.readwritethink.org)
provide a plethora of lesson plan ideas focusing on persuasive/argumentative
writing in the high school. A simple Google search will generate thousands of
hits as well.
Accommodations or Modifications for Special Education, ESL, or Gifted Learners
•
•
•
•
•
Writing prompts can be differentiated based upon student interest, difficulty of
content, etc. Students can also be asked to self-select the topic of their
persuasive/argumentative essay, especially when initially introducing form and
structure; providing choice has been shown to motivate reluctant writers.
In the writing workshop, mini-lessons provide guidance for students to improve
their writing. Such mini-lessons are planned based upon the needs of the
students, thus incorporating differentiation into planning and instruction.
Individual conferences are held, at which time teachers model good writing and
provide individual instruction and/or feedback to students to meet each child’s
individual needs. Such a format supports the struggling writer while challenging
the gifted writer.
Models and exemplary benchmarks must be provided so that students struggling
with a concept or who are reluctant writers have exemplars surrounding them;
individual or small group conferences provide time for a teacher to help students
make connections between a mentor text(s) and their own writing.
Gifted writers and thinkers can be challenged to write about content-based
persuasive or argumentative essays. This could potentially require gifted readers
and writers to conduct research, read nonfiction texts, synthesize information,
evaluate research for bias, form his/her own opinion, and then write a response
in a structured way.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.1a, WS.9-10.1b, WS.9-10.1c, WS.9-10.1d, WS.9-10.1e,
WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.9, WS.9-10.10
36
English I: Introduction to Literature and Composition
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
Writing Situation
Statistics show that teenagers get into trouble most often between 3:00 and 5:00 PM.
As a result, the school board has proposed changing the school day so that classes
begin at 10:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM. This proposal has created controversy among
students, teachers, and parents.
The school board has scheduled an open meeting and invited the public to voice
opinions on this controversial proposal. You decide to prepare a statement to read at
the meeting. Think carefully about your position on this proposal.
Directions for Writing
Write a statement to read at the school board meeting in which you support or oppose
the board’s proposal to change the hours of the school day. Support your position with
reasons, examples, facts, and/or other evidence. Convince the school board to take
your position seriously.
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
Writing Situation
Your state legislators have proposed a new law. It would be illegal for anyone other
than emergency personnel to stop or linger at an accident or crime scene. This
proposed law has caused a controversy in your state.
You decide to write a letter to your state legislator expressing your opinion on this
proposed law.
Directions for Writing
Write a letter to your state legislator either supporting or opposing a law that would
prohibit anyone but emergency personnel to stop at an accident or crime scene. Use
reasons, facts, examples, and other evidence to support your position.
37
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Themes
Why Is This Unit Important?
In English II, several themes are overarching and applicable to the majority of the
reading list. These topics include the nature of power, the tragic hero, and the search
for identity. Within these broad themes the literature has been broken up into more
specific themes: coming of age stories, issue of love and hate, the nature of truth, and
cautionary tales. Many stories fall into multiple thematic categories, so it is our goal for
students to be able to make connections between this wide array of literature, themes,
and their lives so students may see literature as a continuous dialogue in which the
authors are making commentaries about the society in which we live. The themes that
serve as focal points for literary study in English II are:
Theme 1: Coming of Age (20 days)
Theme 2: Love versus Hate (15 days)
Theme 3: The Nature of Truth (20 days)
Theme 4: Cautionary Tales (15 days)
The Big Ideas embedded in this unit include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Common themes are shared among works of literature and can often be
connected to contemporary society as well as one’s personal experience.
There is a connection between a work of literature and the influences/historical
context of the author’s life and the era in which the work was produced.
An author’s craft directly relates to his or her use of specific literary elements.
The organizational structure of a story (plot structure) provides necessary
information and is helpful to a reader (exposition, rising action, climax, falling
action, resolution, theme).
An individual needs to take responsibility for his or her own actions.
It is essential to recognize the realistic and serious effects and consequences of
one’s actions.
It is important for one to balance personal freedoms with collective security.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
Readers must reflect upon information provided in a text and infer beyond a text
to determine the theme of a work.
There are common themes that extend across myriad works of literature and can
often connect to current events and personal experiences.
The specific elements of a work of literature, and the conscious choices made by
the author, specifically and significantly impact the meaning of the work as well
as the connections made by the reader to the work.
38
•
•
•
Individualism should be celebrated as an essential quality in a democratic
society.
It is the responsibility of each individual to recognize and question attempts to
challenge his or her individuality.
Art is a means of expressing and celebrating individuality, but can also criticize
and caution society.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is there always a “correct” theme when analyzing a text?
In what manner do literary devices including but not limited to symbolism and
imagery contribute to the overall theme(s) of the works?
In what manner does the science fiction genre serve as a “word to the wise”?
What role does censorship play in the modern world?
In what manner does individuality and identity become essential in a world of
conformity?
How do a person’s thoughts or actions define his/her identity?
What role does society have in shaping the individual?
How important is intelligence to emotional well-being?
Is man inherently good or evil?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
Figurative language is used to furnish new effects or add fresh insights into an
idea or a subject.
Writers can play with time (i.e. flashback) to develop mood or to add suspense or
tension to a story.
Internal and external conflicts have an impact on individual characters and on a
work as a whole; in order to fully understand the theme of a work, a reader must
make connections between those conflicts and connect them to the society in
which the work was composed.
There are specific characteristics that classify a work as science fiction (i.e.
based on scientific principles and technology, make predictions about future life,
often deal with life in other worlds, comment on important societal issues).
Censorship was and still is pervasive in society, both directly and in a more
passive manner, and censorship has had a significant effect on individuals in
past and modern societies.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
Extrapolate examples of figurative language (i.e. hyperbole, imagery, metaphor,
oxymoron, personification, simile, symbol, understatement) and explain how the
language adds effect or insight to the idea, subject, or theme presented.
39
•
•
•
•
•
Identify how the use of various literary devices (i.e. alliteration, allusion,
onomatopoeia, personification, etc.) contribute to the themes, conflicts, and
characterizations in texts.
Analyze setting and characterization to construct meaning of how characters
influence the progression of plot and resolution of conflict.
Identify and analyze the components of propaganda and manipulation of
language and explain how such writing helps in the development of theme.
Identify the forms of political, social, sexual, and/or religious censorship that exist
in contemporary society.
Explain how censorship affects characters in literature and individuals in society.
Major Assessments:
•
•
•
•
•
Essay writing to compare themes or characters within or between works
(benchmark)
Journal Writing (i.e. Is man inherently good or evil? How did a character’s choice
directly or indirectly affected the outcome or progression of events in the novel?)
Creative writing (i.e. transform a passage into a different genre, rewrite dialogue
between characters, create an original story inspired by a particular text or a
thematic study)
Tests or quizzes including written responses to open-ended questions
PowerPoint on modern example of censorship (benchmark)
Instructional Materials:
Thematic Study
Coming of Age
Love Versus Hate
Glencoe Literature,
Course 5 (GlencoeMcGraw Hill, 2002)
• “Everyday Use” by
Alice Walker
• “What I Have Been
Doing Lately” by
Jamaica Kincaid
• “The Road Not Taken”
by Robert Frost
• “The False Gems” by
Guy de Maupassant
• “Tuesday Siesta” by
Gabriel Garcia
Marquez
• “The Californian’s
Tale” by Mark Twain
• Antigone by Sophocles
Core Books
• The Butterfly
Revolution by William
Butler
• Color of Water by
James McBride
(required text)
• Wuthering Heights by
Emily Bronte
• Animal Farm by
George Orwell
(required text)
• Maus by Art
Spiegleman
• Antigone by
Sophocles
Additional Texts
“Sympathy” by Paul
Laurence Dunbar
Taming of the Shrew by
William Shakespeare
(book or film)
40
Thematic Study
Glencoe Literature,
Course 5 (GlencoeMcGraw Hill, 2002)
• “Civil Peace” by
Chinua Achebe
• “Waltz of the Fat Man”
by Alberto Alvaro Rios
Core Books
• Julius Caesar by
William Shakespeare
(required text)
• 1984 by George
Orwell
The Nature of Truth
Cautionary Tales
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• “The Censors” by
Luisa Valenzuela
• “The Interlopers” by
Saki (H. H. Munro)
• “A Sound of Thunder”
by Ray Bradbury
• Fahrenheit 451 by Ray
Bradbury
• A Lesson Before
Dying by Ernest J.
Gaines
Additional Texts
• “Epitaph of a Tyrant”
by W.H. Auden
• “Kennedy is Killed by a
Sniper” by Tom Wicker
• “For Malcolm a Year
After” by Ethridge
Knight
• “What Can They” by
Julia Hartwig
• “No One Died in
Tiananmen Square” by
William Lutz
• Cool Hand Luke by
Donn Pearce (book or
film)
• “Shooting an
Elephant” by George
Orwell
Lecture and class discussion
Multi-media presentation
Supplemental resource material (study guides, handouts, etc)
Essay Writing
Role Playing
Journal Writing
Developing cross-curricular connections with texts
Teaching reading comprehension strategies
Teaching explicit vocabulary
Interdisciplinary Connections:
•
•
•
•
Nonfiction texts will be read in and among literature lessons (i.e. news stories,
journalistic articles).
Cross-content reading in the area of science and technology would undoubtedly
help students to understand the significance of symbols and images in science
fiction novels.
The history of totalitarian societies and those with mass censorship would
provide cross-content opportunities and would help students to more fully
understand the impact of such events within the construct of a thematic study.
The effects of censorship on the psyche and on individual identity and
responsibility would be an interesting connection to psychology and sociology.
41
Technology Connections:
•
•
Possible project options
o Students can be asked to create a PowerPoint presentation on a modern
(within the last decade) example of censorship explaining its effect(s) on
society as a whole and on individuals within that society.
o Students can be asked to create a MySpace or Facebook page for a main
character in work to include action, motivation, and dialogue with appropriate
character dialect, among other things.
Websites or Web Quests
o Theme 1: Coming of Age
Civil Rights Web Quest
• http://bcsd.k12.ny.us/middle/lmc/CivilRightsWebQuest/Intro.htm
The Color of Water: A Web Quest Dealing with Major Social Problems
in New York
• http://www2.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/tips/t4prod/kleinwq2.html
o Theme 2: Love versus Hate
Art Spiegleman and the Making of Maus
• http://www.pbs.org/pov/inheritance/photo_gallery_special_maus
.php
Web Quest: Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution
• http://classjump.com/mrspoguesenglishexperience/documents/6
010252519.doc
o Theme 3: The Nature of Truth
The 60 Second Times: Sixty Second Shakespeare
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/shakespeare/60secondshakespear
e/themes_juliuscaesar.shtml
Folger Shakespeare Library
• http://www.folger.edu/eduLesPlanArch.cfm
o Theme 4: Cautionary Tales
Censorship and Fahrenheit 451
• http://education.csm.edu/students/scostanzo/webquest.htm
A Research Guide for Students: Understanding Fahrenheit 451
• http://www.bydewey.com/451.html
Lesson Before Dying: A Web Quest for Grammar, Composition, and
Literature
• http://www.huffenglish.com/webquests/lesson.html
A Lesson Before Dying: A Web Quest Project
• https://cougar.collegiateva.org/cdouglas/lessonwebqstmain.html
Accommodations or Modifications:
•
Utilizing graphic organizers while reading will assist student in focusing on what
the teacher feels is key information. Dependent readers often struggle with what
42
•
•
•
•
is “important,” so providing a graphic organizer helps them to focus.
Differentiating graphic organizers holds all students accountable for extrapolating
key information from a text but provides flexibility for the teacher, allowing
him/her to meet the diverse needs of students within a classroom.
Many of the suggested readings and required titles are available on audio CD or
eBook download. Providing such resources allows auditory learners the ability to
learn within their preferred learning style. It is important to note that an audio
recording is not intended to replace reading the work, rather as an additional
support for students.
Video versions of literature read in class (i.e. Julius Caesar, Taming of the
Shrew, Cool Hand Luke) can be used to support struggling readers or to help
students learn the strategy of visualization when reading. It is important ton toe
that a video is not intended to replace reading the work, rather as an additional
support for students.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text and can
differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ need.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2, RL.9-10.3, RL.9-10.4, RL.910.5, RL.9-10.6, RL.9-10.9, RL.9-10.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.4,
RI.9-10.5, RI.9-10.6, RI.9-10.9, RI.9-10.10
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.2a, WS.9-10.2b, WS.9-10.2c, WS.9-10.2d, WS.9-10.2e,
WS.9-10.2f. WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.9a, WS.9-10.9b
43
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Comparative Analysis Focused on Theme [Benchmark Assessment]
Project Description
In English II, several themes are overarching and applicable to the majority of the
reading list. These topics include coming of age stories, issue of love and hate, the
nature of truth, and cautionary tales. Many of the works read in English II fall into
multiple thematic categories, so the purpose of this comparative analysis is for the
student to select one thematic study, make connections between texts, and ultimately
connect the theme to contemporary society.
Essay Prompt
•
•
•
Select two works read in English II and identify and explain a common theme
shared between them.
Fully explain the similarities and differences between the texts, again focusing on
characters, settings, conflicts or events surrounding your theme of choice.
Please note this is an analysis, not a book summary!
Finally, explain the role that your selected theme plays in the modern world and
in contemporary society.
Comparative Essay Scoring Guide
Content
•
•
•
•
4
6
8
10
One theme studied in English II (coming of age, love versus hate, the nature of
truth, and cautionary tales) is clearly identified and the two works selected for the
analysis are appropriate
Writing clearly explains the theme of choice and accurately identifies how the
theme develops in each story
Writing displays an in-depth analysis of the literary works (not a summary)
Writing conveys an in-depth analysis through the use of specific, detailed
evidence to support the writer’s main idea
Structure/Organization
•
•
•
•
•
2
1
2
3
4
5
Clear introduction, body, and conclusion
Logical and coherent sequence of ideas
One main idea per paragraph with development (supporting information)
Effective use of transitions, creating fluidity of ideas throughout
Writing maintains a clear intent and direction relative to validating the thesis
44
Grammar/Conventions
•
•
•
•
•
1
2
3
4
5
This paper was carefully edited to correct errors in spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization
Grammar and usage (i.e. subject-verb agreement) was clearly edited
Word choice is powerful
Sentences are complete and there is variety in sentence structure
Formal style and an objective tone were maintained throughout the essay (no
contractions, no personal pronouns, everything written in 3rd person)
45
English II: Themes in Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Synthesizing information from a variety of different sources, connecting research to
literature, and supporting a thesis with details written in one’s own words or cited from
its original source are essential skills in reading and writing. The Big Ideas included in
this unit of study are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A clearly written thesis statement will convey the main idea of an essay or
research paper.
Details extrapolated from different sources and from different kinds of sources
(i.e. books, newspapers, videos, radio addresses, speeches, internet resources,
etc.) must be used to support a thesis statement; synthesis of information from a
variety of sources is key.
Details obtained when reading an informational text may provide insight into the
analysis of a particular work or an author’s body of work.
Providing parenthetical citations for newly acquired information obtained through
research is necessary to avoid the accusation of plagiarism.
A works cited page is required to provide a source list when a research paper is
completed.
The skills acquired through the completion of an MLA-formatted research paper
are skills that will carry through high school and into college.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
The main idea of an entire research project must be summarized in one
sentence; this is called the thesis statement. The remainder of the research
paper must provide support for this statement.
Primary sources (i.e. speech, interview) differ from secondary sources (i.e.
biography, book, informational video) in that primary sources were created during
the time under study while secondary sources interpret or analyze primary
sources. Each has value, but each must be considered and used differently.
Plagiarism, also known as literary theft, is defined by Merriam-Webster in the
following way: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own;
to use (another's production) without crediting the source.
Parenthetical citations are used to credit an original writer for his or her words or
thoughts. Such citations must connect to works listed on a works cited page.
According to the Modern Language Association, “MLA style for documentation is
widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.”
Thus, MLA formatting is utilized in Language Arts and English classrooms
nationwide.
46
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
How does one summarize the thoughts presented in an entire research paper in
only one sentence?
What is the benefit of a primary source over a secondary source or vice versa?
How do you utilize secondary sources to support a literary analysis?
What impact does the historical and/or social context in which a statement is
made have on the meaning of that statement?
How is plagiarism of literary works similar to copyright infringement related to
music lyrics?
When would one use APA format instead of MLA format when writing a research
paper?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The key ideas presented in a research essay or term paper must clearly connect
to and support the thesis statement.
The thesis statement must be supported with well-chosen, relevant, and
sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples.
Details to support the thesis must be synthesized from multiple print and digital
sources, all of which are credible and accurate.
Primary and secondary sources can be used to obtain information that will help a
reader to more thoroughly understand the life of a writer, the times in which an
author lived and wrote, and the work that a writer produced.
The historical and social context surrounding a specific statement influences the
meaning of that statement.
A works cited page and note cards help a writer to organize notes and sources in
order to organize the paper and avoid plagiarism.
Precise language and domain-specific vocabulary help the writer to sustain a
formal style and objective tone while managing the complexity of the research
topic.
Avoid plagiarism by following MLA format for citations (i.e. parenthetical citations
and a works cited page).
The conclusion of the research essay or term paper must flow logically from the
information presented or explanation provided.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
Craft a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the paper and is
supported by all ideas and details presented in the paper
Utilize well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete
details, quotations, and other examples to support the thesis statement
47
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources using
advanced search features; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source,
and quote or paraphrase the information.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, using each kind of source
appropriately, to support a literary analysis
Synthesize information related to a specific quote, the historical events during the
time when that statement was made, and the social context in which the quote
was said and apply that information to a work of literature
Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions obtained through research and
provide explanations in one’s own wording
Utilize note cards and a works cited page when conducting research and taking
notes
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary that sustains a formal,
objective style to manage the complexity of the topic
Include parenthetical citations that connect to a works cited page, both following
MLA format
Draft a conclusion section that flows logically from the information and
explanations presented in the research essay or term paper
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Major Assessments
•
Research paper (benchmark assessment)
o Works cited and note cards
o Outline
o Rough draft
o Teacher conference notes
o Peer conference notes
o Final draft
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EHS research manual available on the EHS website
MLA Handbook
Graphic organizers such as outlines
Citation Samples
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Research essay or term paper rubric, to be distributed at the beginning of the
project so students are aware of expectations
Research materials including online resources, district databases, books, and
videos
o NOTE: It is recommended that English teachers involve the Media Specialist
during the research process.
48
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
When researching a particular quote, students will be required to include the
historical and/or social context surrounding statement at a particular time in
history. Cross-content reading, especially of nonfiction or informational texts, is
essential to complete the research project.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
•
•
•
Online resources and district databases to conduct research (see Appendix A)
Videos to add research opportunities for visual learners
Websites such as Easy Bib (www.easybib.com) and Works Cited for You
(www.workscited4u.com) help students to format a works cited page by asking
them to key information into blanks.
Websites such as StudyGuide.org (www.studyguide.org/MLAdocumentation.htm)
and the Purdue Online Writing Lab
(http://owl.english/purdue.edu/owl/search.php) provide links to help students see
samples of parenthetical citations as well as works cited pages.
Modern Language Association at www.mla.org. The Modern Language
Association explains MLA style and differentiates it from APA style. Students or
teachers can also purchase a copy of the MLA Handbook through this site.
The website http://www.dianahacker.com/pdfs/hacker-levi-mla.pdf provides a
sample MLA formatted research paper with margin notes typed in red to help
students understand the formatting.
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
Using graphic organizers such as blank outlines, note cards, or works cited
organizers will help students to focus on the correct information and will
ultimately help them to organize their research paper.
Exemplary research essays or essay templates provide support for struggling
readers and writers. Providing exemplary benchmarks is a best practice that
helps students to more thoroughly understand expectations and provides a
model for them to use as a guide.
Individual teacher conferences enable a teacher to provide specific feedback to
students; doing so supports the struggling writer while challenging the gifted one.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.9-10.1, RL.9-10.2
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.9-10.1, RI.9-10.2, RI.9-10.3, RI.9-10.9
Writing Standards: WS.9-10.2a, WS.9-10.2b, WS.9-10.2c, WS.9-10.2d, WS.9-10.2e,
WS.9-10.2f, WS.9-10.4, WS.9-10.5, WS.9-10.8, WS.9-10.9a, WS.9-10.9b, WS.9-10.10
49
English II: Themes in Literature/Composition
Research Paper [Benchmark Assessment]
Below are three quotes that are applicable to different works read in English II:
•
•
•
“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are
almost always bad men.” - Lord Acton
“All the war-propaganda, all the screaming and lies and hatred, comes invariably
from people who are not fighting.” - George Orwell
“It just seems clear to me that as long as we are all here, it's pretty clear that the
struggle is to share the planet, rather than divide it.” - Alice Walker
Research Paper Topic
Select one of the quotes listed above as the focus of your research:
•
•
•
Fully explain the meaning of the quote, who said it, and why it was said.
Explain the historical time period and social context in which it was said.
Connect the quote to at least one work of literature read in English II. Thoroughly
explain how the quote itself and the historical and social contexts surrounding the
quote apply to the work.
Project Requirements
•
•
•
•
•
Typed, double spaced
12-point, Times New Roman
MLA format
Include parenthetical citations
Include a works cited page
50
English III: American Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Eras in American Literature and the Connection to American History
Why Is This Unit Important?
Viewing American literature through the eyes of an historian helps a reader to make
connections between a specific time period, major events or shifts of that time period,
and the works that are highlighted to reflect the culture of the time period. Making such
connections helps a reader to more fully understand how literature can be used to
reflect culture, growth, challenge, and development, all as a reflection of an historical
time period. In order for students to truly gain an understanding of how our nation came
to be, it is imperative they fully comprehend the culture and experiences of its earliest
inhabitants and understand the changes that have taken place in America, as
evidenced through the literature of significant time periods. The eras discussed during
this unit of study are:
Literature of Early America: Beginnings to 1750 (4 days)
Early National Literature: 1750 – 1800 (4 days)
Nineteenth-Century Literature: 1800 – 1870 (7 days)
Age of Realism: 1850 – 1914 (7 days)
The Modern Age: 1914 – 1946 (20 days)
The Contemporary Period: 1946 – Present (25 days)
The Big Ideas embedded in this unit of study are:
•
•
•
•
•
Works are often written to reflect major changes or shifts in a society or among a
people; this is evident when connecting time periods in American history to the
literature of each era.
Writers use literature to communicate or persuade readers, often focusing on
issues of religion, politics, or overcoming oppression.
Common themes overlap works of literature; themes that extend across literary
eras must be discussed as they relate to the events or issues evident during
each specific era in question.
Nonfiction works such as speeches or pamphlets must be analyzed to determine
purpose and theme based upon the social, political, economic, and religious
context in which they were originally written and/or presented.
In literature as in society, America’s strength lies in its diversity.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
Works of literature reflect events occurring in a society at the time when they are
written.
Reading works of American literature through an historical lens will allow a
reader to gain a stronger understanding of societal, economic, political, or
religious changes to and shifts in American culture.
51
•
•
•
•
All literature is rooted in culture.
Many modern stories use ideas from past stories as a focus; common themes
extend across genres and across literary eras.
When comparing works across eras, it is imperative that a reader consider the
context in which each work was written to fully understand the theme.
Nonfiction works such as biographical or autobiographical pieces, speeches, or
pamphlets reflect an individual’s or group’s personal thoughts and/or experiences
at a particular time in history.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why is it important to reflect upon an historical time period by analyzing the
writings of that time period?
What makes reading literature of a time period different from reading a nonfiction
account of the time?
How is culture defined?
What has helped define American culture?
Where do people get their beliefs?
How are beliefs passed from one generation to another?
What is the oral tradition?
How does one identify theme when it is not explicitly stated?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
Reading works of literature, both fiction and nonfiction, help one to understand an
historical time period more thoroughly because they provide a personal insight
into social, political, economic, and religious events of the time.
“Culture consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics
common to the members of a particular group or society. Through culture, people
and groups define themselves, conform to society's shared values, and
contribute to society. Thus, culture includes many societal aspects: language,
customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products,
organizations, and institutions” (Culture and Societies Online).
The diversity for which America is known is also evidenced when reading
American literature.
Many works of literature share common themes, which must be inferred from
information provided in the text.
Common themes can extend across literary eras, but it is imperative to review
and evaluate a theme based upon the historical and societal context in which it
was written.
52
Acquired Skills (The learner will…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read works of literature from six different American literary eras: Literature of
Early America, Early National Literature, Nineteenth-Century Literature, Age of
Realism, the Modern Age, and the Contemporary Period.
Extrapolate key literary elements and explain how changing one element would
result in changes for the remaining elements (i.e. a different setting, a different
antagonist, a different decision made mid-story, etc.)
Analyze the writer’s use of figurative language and literary devices
Examine the style, tone, mood, and form of literary works from varying time
periods and discuss what the writing says about the era’s writers.
Connect works of literature, both fiction and nonfiction, to social, historical,
political, and/or religious events that occurred in America at the time when the
work was originally written.
Explain what a work says or tells about the culture it represents in the time period
when it was written.
Compare works from different authors from different cultures, ethnicities, or races
that were written during the same time period and explain what it says about
differences between groups at the time when it was written.
Compare works that share a common theme, from within the same time period or
across time periods, and explain what it tells about the era(s).
Benchmark or Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
Original writings mimicking the style of a particular time period (i.e. religious
influence of the early Americans, fragmentation of the Modernists, etc.)
Tests or quizzes including written responses to open-ended questions
Journals writing (response journal, reflective journal, character journal, etc.)
Essay writing (i.e. compare the events presented in a story or novel to present
day issues)
Instructional Materials (by Literary Era) [*Literature of Early America (Beginnings
to 1750)]
In order for students to truly gain an understanding of how our nation came to be, it is
imperative they fully comprehend the culture and experiences of its earliest inhabitants.
Therefore, this unit includes a study of Native American original myths, narrative
accounts of the Puritan settlers, as well as their poetry and significant sermons of the
era. Each of these elements is integral as they each contributed to the establishment of
the American we live in today.
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “The Earth on Turtle’s Back” An Onondaga Myth
o “from The Navajo Origin Legend”
o “A Journey through Texas” by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
53
o “Boulders Taller than the Great Tower of Seville” by Garcia Lopez de
Cardenas
o “from Of Plymouth Plantation” by William Bradford
o “To My Dear and Loving Husband” by Anne Bradstreet
o “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” by Jonathan Edwards
*Early National Literature (1750 – 1800)
The fight of the colonists to gain independence from England was documented in the
literature from this time period. Much of the writing was autobiographical and took the
form of speeches of pamphlets. America’s promise of a new birth of freedom, however,
existed side by side with the dehumanizing institution of slavery. Thus, this unit of study
includes readings that capture the colonists’ voices for freedom, speeches that extolled
the nation’s founding ideals of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and literary
works that describe the slave trade that contradicted to the colonists’ fight for freedom.
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “from The Autobiography” and “from Poor Richard’s Almanack” by Benjamin
Franklin
o “from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano” by Olaudah
Equiano
o The Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson
o “An Hymn to the Evening” and “To His Excellency, General Washington” by
Phyllis Wheatley
o Speech in the Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry
*Nineteenth-Century Literature (1800 – 1870)
By 1870, industrialism, explosive population and economic growth, and the Civil War
had all aged the nation’s spirit; American literature matured during this time as well. As
America expanded west, so too, did American literature, and advances in technology
spirited social change. The writers of this period would define the American voice—
personal, idiosyncratic, bold—the primary theme of most works was the quest of the
individual to define him- or herself. The Romantics and Transcendentalists evolved
from this time period in American literature. Thus, the readings in this unit include
writings by Romantic authors, who elevated imagination over reason and intuition over
fact, as well as works by Transcendentalists, who wrote literature that merged
philosophy with religion and felt that the most fundamental truths lie outside the
experience of the senses.
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “The Devil and Tom Walker” by Washington Irving
o “The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
o “Thanatopsis” by William Cullen Bryant
o “The Fall of the House of Usher” and “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
o “The Minister’s Black Veil” by Nathaniel Hawthorn
54
•
o “from Self-Reliance” and “Concord Hymn” by Ralph Waldo Emerson
o “from Walden” and “from Civil Disobedience” by Henry David Thoreau
Core Books
o The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne
*Age of Realism (1850 – 1914)
In the fifty years after the Civil War, physical expansion and industrialization
transformed the American landscape, economy, society, and identity; this also created
new extremes of wealth and poverty. And just as it dominated politics and preoccupied
the nation, the controversy over slavery influenced the literature of the day. Women,
African Americans, and workers agitated for change in their social, economic, and
political status. Thus, the works studied during this unit include wartime voices, the
Black spiritual, Frontier voices, Naturalism, and literature of discontent.
•
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “An Episode of War” by Stephen Crane
o “Willie Has Gone to War” by Stephen Foster and George Cooper
o “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot”
o “from My Bondage and My Freedom” by Frederick Douglass
o The Gettysburg Address and Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln
o “An Account of an Experience with Discrimination” by Sojourner Truth
o “from Life on the Mississippi” by Mark Twain
o “To Build a Fire” by Jack London
o “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin
Core Books
o The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
o Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters
*The Modern Age (1914 – 1946)
The America that entered the twentieth century was a nation achieving world
dominance while simultaneously losing some of its youthful innocence and brash
confidence. Two world wars, a dizzying decade of prosperity, a devastating worldwide
depression, and a renaissance in the small New York town of Harlem mark this era.
With these events came a new age American literature, one of artistic experimentation
and lasting literary achievement. The Modernists sought to capture the essence of
modern life in both the form and content of their work, and they dramatically altered the
complexion of American literature; proof of this acclaim is the number of Americans who
won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Thus, this unit of study will include works that
highlight the troubled times of the era as well as those that highlight the changes in
American literature.
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “The Great Figure” by William Carlos Williams
o “Winter Dreams” by F. Scott Fitzgerald
55
“The Turtle from The Grapes of Wrath” by John Steinbeck
“In Another Country” by Ernest Hemingway
“Ambush” by Tim O’Brien
“A Rose for Emily” and Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech by William Faulkner
“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” and “Acquainted With the Night”
by Robert Frost
Core Books
o The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
o A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
o Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck (required text)
o Black Boy by Richard Wright
o
o
o
o
o
•
*Contemporary Period (1946 – Present)
The years from the end of World War II to the present have been a time of change.
Great strides have been made in civil rights and women’s rights. These changes and
others have had an effect on American literature. The turbulence of contemporary
times has contributed to the development of Postmodernism, where some writers
explore new literary forms and techniques (i.e. dialogue alone, blending fiction and
nonfiction, experimenting with the physical appearance of their work) while others focus
on capturing contemporary life, addressing the impersonal and commercial nature of
today’s world. The writers of the Contemporary Period are proving that in literature as
in society, America’s strength lies in its diversity. The readings in this unit will reflect
such diversity in an ever-changing world.
•
•
The American Experience (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007)
o “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker
o “Hunger in New York City” by Simon J. Ortiz
o “What For” by Garrett Hongo
o “Loneliness…An American Malady” by Carson McCullers
o “Straw Into Gold: The Metamorphosis of the Everyday” by Sandra Cisneros
o “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tan
o “from Hiroshima” by John Hersey
o “Mirror” by Sylvia Plath
o Inaugural Address by John F. Kennedy
o “from Letter from Birmingham City Jail” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
o “Camouflaging the Chimera” by Yusef Komunyakaa
Core Books
o I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou
o A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (required text)
o The Secret Life of Bees by Sue Monk Kidd (required text)
o The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail Jerome Lawrence
o Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller
o The Crucible by Arthur Miller
o Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger
56
o Fences by August Wilson
o Piano Lesson by August Wilson
*Much of the description highlighted here is from The American Experience (Prentice
Hall, 2007).
Interdisciplinary Connections:
•
•
•
All of the units included in this study of literary eras will connect to American
history. One objective of this study is to look at literature through an historical
lens, so the cross-content reading and writing is imbedded.
Studying the technological advances that have influenced American society
would be an interesting way to include scientific study within the units presented
here.
When studying American history, the arts can be presented to show a visual
representation of a particular event, time period, etc.
Technology Connections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
American Literature Sites at http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/sites.htm
American Authors at http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/aufram.html
All American: Literature, History, and Culture at
http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/allam.htm
A Raisin in the Sun Web Quest at
http://slms.leesummit.k12.mo.us/wmorehead/Raisin%20in%20the%20Sun%20W
ebquest.doc
Sue Monk Kidd and the Secret Life of Bees: Lesson Plans on Web English
Teacher at http://www.webenglishteacher.com/kidd.html
Of Mice and Men Spark Notes at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/micemen/
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
Utilizing graphic organizers while reading will assist student in focusing on what
the teacher feels is key information. Dependent readers often struggle with what
is “important,” so providing a graphic organizer helps them to focus.
Differentiating graphic organizers holds all students accountable for extrapolating
key information from a text but provides flexibility for the teacher, allowing
him/her to meet the diverse needs of students within a classroom.
Many of the suggested readings and required titles are available on audio CD or
eBook download. Providing such resources allows auditory learners the ability to
learn within their preferred learning style. It is important to note that an audio
recording is not intended to replace reading the work, rather as an additional
support for students.
Video versions of literature read in class (i.e. The Crucible, The Scarlet Letter,
etc.) can be used to support struggling readers or to help students learn the
57
•
•
strategy of visualization when reading. It is important ton toe that a video is not
intended to replace reading the work, rather as an additional support for
students.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text and can
differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ need.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.6, RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.9, RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1, RI.11-12.2, RI.11-12.3, RI.1112.4, RI.11-12.5, RI.11-12.6, RI.11-12.7, RI.11-12.9, RI.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.11-12.2d, WS.1112.2e, WS.11-12.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.7, WS.11-12.9a, WS.1112.9b, WS.11-12.10
58
English III: American Literature and Composition
Thematic Comparison [Benchmark Assessment]
Project Description
You have spent the last several weeks reading many works of literature from different
American literary eras. As we’ve discussed, it is important for you to understand the
time period in which a work was written (social, political, economic, and/or religious) in
order to fully understand the author’s purpose and the work’s theme.
Essay Prompt
•
•
•
Choose one work (or two works from the same literary era) read during this
semester and identify and explain the theme.
Identify the literary time period in which the work was written and briefly explain
the social, political, economic, and/or religious influences that may have
influenced the work.
Connect the work itself with the historical information you’ve presented above.
How is this work reflective of the time period?
NOTE: The emphasis of this assignment is on the connection between and analysis of
the work and the time period; this is not intended to be a summary.
American Literature Essay Scoring Guide
Content
2
4
6
8
10
•
Correctly identifies a theme
•
One (or two) works selected for the analysis are appropriate
•
Writing clearly and thoroughly explains the historical time period (social, political,
economic, and/or religious) in which the work was written
•
Writing displays an in-depth analysis (not a summary) of the literary work(s) and
connection to the era
Structure/Organization
•
•
•
•
•
1
2
3
4
5
Clear introduction, body, and conclusion
Logical and coherent sequence of ideas
One main idea per paragraph with development (supporting information)
Effective use of transitions, creating fluidity of ideas throughout
Writing maintains a clear intent and direction relative to validating the thesis
59
Grammar/Conventions
•
•
•
•
•
1
2
3
4
5
This paper was carefully edited to correct errors in spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization
Grammar and usage (i.e. subject-verb agreement) was clearly edited
Word choice is powerful
Sentences are complete and there is variety in sentence structure
Formal style and an objective tone were maintained throughout the essay (no
contractions, no personal pronouns, everything written in 3rd person)
60
English III: American Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 15 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Synthesizing information from a variety of different sources, connecting research to
literature, and supporting a thesis with details written in one’s own words or cited from
its original source are essential skills in reading and writing. The Big Ideas included in
this unit of study are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A clearly written thesis statement will convey the main idea of an essay or
research paper.
Details extrapolated from different sources and from different kinds of sources
(i.e. books, newspapers, videos, radio addresses, speeches, internet resources,
etc.) must be used to support a thesis statement; synthesis of information from a
variety of sources is key.
Details obtained when reading an informational text may provide insight into the
analysis of a particular work or an author’s body of work.
Providing parenthetical citations for newly acquired information obtained through
research is necessary to avoid the accusation of plagiarism.
A works cited page is required to provide a source list when a research paper is
completed.
The skills acquired through the completion of an MLA-formatted research paper
are skills that will carry through high school and into college.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
The main idea of an entire research project must be summarized in one
sentence; this is called the thesis statement. The remainder of the research
paper must provide support for this statement.
Primary sources (i.e. speech, interview) differ from secondary sources (i.e.
biography, book, informational video) in that primary sources were created during
the time under study while secondary sources interpret or analyze primary
sources. Each has value, but each must be considered and used differently.
Plagiarism, also known as literary theft, is defined by Merriam-Webster in the
following way: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own;
to use (another's production) without crediting the source.
Parenthetical citations are used to credit an original writer for his or her words or
thoughts. Such citations must connect to works listed on a works cited page.
According to the Modern Language Association, “MLA style for documentation is
widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.”
Thus, MLA formatting is utilized in Language Arts and English classrooms
nationwide.
61
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How does one summarize the thoughts presented in an entire research paper in
only one sentence?
What is the benefit of a primary source over a secondary source or vice versa?
How do you utilize secondary sources to support a literary analysis?
Do writers use personal experiences as inspiration for their writing?
What impact does the historical and/or social context surrounding a work of
literature have on the work itself?
How is plagiarism of literary works similar to copyright infringement related to
music lyrics?
When would one use APA format instead of MLA format when writing a research
paper?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The key ideas presented in a research essay or term paper must clearly connect
to and support the thesis statement.
The thesis statement must be supported with the most significant and relevant
facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and
examples.
Details to support the thesis must be synthesized from multiple print and digital
sources, all of which are credible and accurate.
Complex ideas, concepts, and information must be organized so each idea builds
upon that which precedes it to create a unified whole (including formatting).
Primary and secondary sources must be used to obtain information that will help
a reader to more thoroughly understand the life of a writer, the times in which an
author lived and wrote, and the work that a writer produced.
The historical and social contexts surrounding a work of literature influence the
meaning of the writing.
A works cited page and note cards help a writer to organize notes and sources in
order to organize the paper and avoid plagiarism.
Precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as
metaphor, simile, and analogy help the writer to manage the complexity of a
subject.
It is necessary to sustain a formal style and objective tone while managing the
complexity of the research topic.
Avoid plagiarism by following MLA format for citations (i.e. parenthetical citations
and a works cited page).
The conclusion of the research essay or term paper must flow logically from the
information presented or explanation provided.
62
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Craft a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the paper and is
supported by all ideas and details presented in the paper
Utilize the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete
details, quotations, and other examples to support the thesis statement
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources using
advanced search features; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source,
and quote or paraphrase the information.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, using each kind of source
appropriately, to support a literary analysis
Synthesize information related to the life of an American author, the historical
events that occurred in his/her lifetime, and the social context in which he/she
lived and make connections between that research and a specific work of
literature written by the author
Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions obtained through research and
provide explanations in one’s own wording
Utilize note cards and a works cited page when conducting research and taking
notes
Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as
metaphor, simile, and analogy as an aide in managing the complexity of the
writing
Maintain a formal, objective style throughout the writing
Include parenthetical citations that connect to a works cited page, both following
MLA format
Draft a conclusion section that flows logically from the information and
explanations presented in the research essay or term paper
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Major Assessments:
•
Research paper (benchmark assessment)
o Works cited and note cards
o Outline
o Rough draft
o Teacher conference notes
o Peer conference notes
o Final draft
Instructional Materials:
•
•
EHS research manual available on the EHS website
MLA Handbook
63
•
•
•
•
•
Graphic organizers such as outlines
Citation Samples
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Research essay or term paper rubric, to be distributed at the beginning of the
project so students are aware of expectations
Research materials including online resources, district databases, books, and
videos
o NOTE: It is recommended that English teachers involve the Media Specialist
during the research process.
Interdisciplinary Connections:
•
When researching the life and times of an American author, students will be
required to include the historical and/or social context surrounding the author’s
life. Cross-content reading, especially of nonfiction or informational texts, is
essential to complete the research project.
Technology Connections:
•
•
•
•
•
Online resources and district databases to conduct research (see Appendix A)
Videos to add research opportunities for visual learners
Websites such as Easy Bib (www.easybib.com) and Works Cited for You
(www.workscited4u.com) help students to format a works cited page by asking
them to key information into blanks.
Websites such as StudyGuide.org (www.studyguide.org/MLAdocumentation.htm)
and the Purdue Online Writing Lab
(http://owl.english/purdue.edu/owl/search.php) provide links to help students see
samples of parenthetical citations as well as works cited pages.
Modern Language Association at www.mla.org. The Modern Language
Association explains MLA style and differentiates it from APA style. Students or
teachers can also purchase a copy of the MLA Handbook through this site.
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
Using graphic organizers such as blank outlines, note cards, or works cited
organizers will help students to focus on the correct information and will
ultimately help them to organize their research paper.
Teachers can differentiate the number of works required for the analysis (i.e. one
work, a novel and a poem, or a two full-length works)
Exemplary research essays or essay templates provide support for struggling
readers and writers. Providing exemplary benchmarks is a best practice that
helps students to more thoroughly understand expectations and provides a
model for them to use as a guide.
64
•
Individual teacher conferences enable a teacher to provide specific feedback to
students; doing so supports the struggling writer while challenging the gifted
writer.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.9
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1, RI.11-12.2, RI.11-12.9
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.11-12.2d, WS.1112.2e, WS.11-12.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.7, WS.11-12.8, WS.11-12.9a,
WS.11-12.9b, WS.11-12.10
65
English III: American Literature/Composition
Research Paper [Benchmark Assessment]
Project Description:
This research paper will focus on the life of an American author, the time period when
he or she lived, and the literary era in which that author wrote. The paper must
demonstrate an ANALYSIS of the author’s life and a SYNTHESIS of that information
(his/her life) with a work written by the author. Authors must be American authors and
must be approved by your teacher.
Research Questions:
•
•
•
How did the author’s life influence his/her writing?
How did time period in which he/she lived impact or influence his/her work?
How did the literary era in which he/she wrote impact his/her famous works of
literature?
Checklist:
Select an American author and get approval
Select and read one work written by this author; write summary
NOTE: If you are writing about a poet, you must select a minimum of two works
Research biographical information about the author
Research the time period in which he/she wrote (historical, social, political,
economic, and/or religious information)
Research the literary era (Puritan, Revolutionary, Romanticism, Transcendentalism, Realism, Modernist, Contemporary, etc.) in which he/she wrote
Draft term paper
Revise and edit draft
Revise again, specifically checking to make sure that all quoted or paraphrased
information is properly cited to avoid accusations of plagiarism
NOTE: The Ewing High School Research Paper Handbook can be found online
at www.ewing.k12.nj.us. This handbook explains how to write and cite using
MLA format.
Type final copy, using Times New Roman, 12-point font, one-inch margins
66
Requirements:
You will receive homework or classwork grades for checkpoints throughout the
research process (i.e. notes, draft, etc.)
The final copy of the research paper is worth 10% of the marking period grade.
Due dates will be announced when the paper is assigned; all late papers will lose
10-points per day.
All papers must be in MLA format (www.mla.org).
All must have a clear introduction, all body paragraphs must be clearly supported
with quotes (from the literary works) and citations (for the literary works AND for
researched information) using the proper MLA format. A conclusion paragraph
must be included as well.
All papers MUST have a works cited page (www.easybib.com).
Any plagiarized paper will result in a final grade of a zero for the paper.
Plagiarism, also known as literary theft, is defined by Merriam-Webster in the
following way: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own; to use
(another's production) without crediting the source.
According to Ewing Township Public School Regulation 5701 “Plagiarism is not
permitted in term papers, themes, essays, reports, images, take-home examinations,
and other academic work. Plagiarism is defined as stealing or use without
acknowledgment of the ideas, words, formulas, textual materials, on line services,
computer programs, etc. of another person, or in any way presenting the work of
another person as one's own.” The regulation continues, “A pupil found guilty of
academic dishonesty may be subjected to a full range of penalties including, but not
limited to, reprimand and loss of credit for all of the work that is plagiarized.”
Due Dates:
_______________________
Research in Computer Lab
_______________________
Notes to be checked
_______________________
Rough draft due
_______________________
Final paper due
67
English III American Literature and Composition and
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Expository Essay Writing (as defined by the N.J. Department of
Education) (Pacing – 15 Days taught as part of a 90 minute block)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will focus on the craft of expository essay writing (as defined by the New
Jersey Department of Education) and will help students to develop the skills needed to
effectively analyze a topic, supporting his or her thoughts using specific evidence from
literature, history, contemporary issues, or personal experience. Quotes or statements
presented for expository writing may be based upon teacher selected topics, or they can
be quotes taken from or connected to the literature read in English III or English IV. The
Big Ideas embedded through this unit are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The purpose of expository essay writing is for the writer to draw from what he/she
already knows and from primary and secondary sources in order to analyze (not
define) a thought or quote.
The essay must focus on a clear topic, which is supported with relevant facts,
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
Thoughts must be organized logically and coherently.
A writer’s selection of words is one of the most important factors he/she must
consider when writing; precision of language and the use of domain-specific
vocabulary are essential.
A powerful conclusion is one that summarizes the main idea and reviews key
concepts, without repeating or introducing new ideas.
Strong essays must meet certain criteria (i.e. the opening and closing are
evident, main idea is clearly expressed and is supported with specific details,
word choice is powerful and language is skillfully used, voice is clear and
powerful, sentence structure is used correctly, a consistent verb tense is
maintained throughout a piece, and Standard English is used effectively) to be
considered proficient.
Writers continually revise and edit their work to improve their writing, specifically
focusing on organization, development, voice, word choice, sentence structure,
and the conventions of writing.
Enduring Understandings
•
Expository essay writing (as defined by the NJ DOE) requires one to analyze (not
define) a statement or quote that focuses on an abstract concept (i.e. fear,
imagination, etc.).
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A topic must be supported using relevant facts, definitions, concrete details,
quotations, or other information and examples, all of which should be taken from
literature, history, contemporary issues, or personal experiences.
Specific examples must be provided as support, and the writer must further
explain how each example provided connects to the statement or quote in
question.
Transition words or phrases must be used to assist with the organization and
fluency of the writing.
A writer’s voice and word choice must be passionate and powerful so his/her
message is clearly conveyed.
When writing in an academic setting, the rules of Standard English must be
applied.
Writing is never “done” and can always be improved. It is a recursive process, so
writers can move from stage to stage, either forward or backward.
The New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric (6-point) should be used to
guide one’s writing, as the criteria listed on said rubric are those demonstrated in
strong writing.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the purpose of expository writing? When would one be asked to write in
such a way?
What differentiates essay writing from other forms of writing (i.e. narrative,
nonfiction or research writing, etc.)?
What is the difference between discussing/defining a statement/quote and
analyzing it, as is required in expository essay writing?
How does a writer support his or her thoughts without repeating himself or
herself? How does one use support to strengthen a work?
Why is it important to consider audience and purpose when organizing one’s
writing?
What does the literary term voice mean? How does one include voice in his or
her writing?
Why is vivid and precise use of language so important?
What is Standard English and why is it important to use Standard English in
academic writing?
Acquired Knowledge (The learner will know…)
•
•
The purpose of expository essay writing (i.e. on the HSPA assessment) is to
analyze a statement or quote, which is quite different from discussing it.
Specific evidence from works of literature, episodes in history, contemporary
issues or current events, or personal experiences are required to support an
analysis; each example must be clearly connected to the statement or quote and
an explanation of the connection must be thorough.
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•
•
•
•
Key ideas must be connected to the topic and must flow with transitions from one
point to the next, creating cohesion and clarifying information and ideas.
Precise language, domain-specific wording and technical wording (where
appropriate) will help to sustain a formal objective style that is straightforward
and appropriate for a reader seeking information.
A concluding paragraph or section must flow logically from the information or
explanation provided, restate the main idea, and summarize key points, all
without repeating what was already stated or introducing new information.
The New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric is the assessment tool that
highlights the criteria used to evaluate expository writing on the HSPA.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Analyze a statement or quote using specific and relevant evidence
Support his/her thesis with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples
Utilize specific examples from literature, history, contemporary issues, or
personal experiences as support and explain how each specific example
supports his/her thesis
Connect all key ideas to the topic and/or writing prompt utilizing transitions, thus
clearly creating fluency and cohesion
Utilize precise language, domain-specific wording, and technical wording (where
appropriate) to communicate information in a formal, objective style
Include compositional risks (i.e. anecdote, rhetorical question, development of
mood, etc.) that create a voice appropriate to the audience and purpose
Draft a conclusion paragraph or section that flows logically from the information
or explanation presented in the essay and effectively concludes thoughts
presented in the work, all without repeating what was already stated or
introducing new information
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Utilize the New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric to self-assess his/her
writing and compare his/her score with the score assigned by a teacher
Benchmark or Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
•
Graphic organizer (benchmark)
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point (benchmark)
Teacher conference, observations, and anecdotal records
Writer’s notebook
Self-editing, peer-editing, or teacher-editing checklists
70
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point
Quotes or adages to serve as prompts
Graphic organizers
Sample prompts provided by the NJ DOE, available at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
Nathan Levy’s Thinking and Writing for the Brain!, Volume 1 and Volume 2
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
One method a writer can use to support his/her opinion is to use evidence from
history. Thus, including the history teacher in the discussion of expository writing
is key. Co-planning and co-teaching lessons on how to support one’s opinion
using evidence from history would provide a wonderful co-teaching opportunity.
Contemporary events that connect to historical or scientific topics also provide an
opportunity for cross-content reading and writing.
Technology Connections
•
•
New Jersey Department of Education sample NJ ASK Prompts at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
o NOTE: Teachers are cautioned not to search “expository writing” for lesson
plan ideas. Unfortunately, any information provided connected to expository
writing does not compare to the information provided through the NJ DOE
and expectations for the HSPA.
Students can be provided time on the computer to research a particular quote or
adage.
Accommodations or Modifications for Special Education, ESL, or Gifted Learners
•
•
•
•
It is important to note that students enrolled in English IV may have already
passed HSPA, so their prompts may be differentiated to include quotes or
statements connected to the literature being read or to common themes
discussed in class.
Quotes or adages provided as writing prompts can be differentiated based upon
student interest, difficulty of interpretation, etc. Students can also be asked to
choose the quote/adage or to bring a quote that is important to them as the focus
of an expository essay.
In the writing workshop, mini-lessons provide guidance for students to improve
their writing. Such mini-lessons are planned based upon the needs of the
students, thus incorporating differentiation into planning and instruction.
Individual conferences are held, at which time teachers model good writing and
provide individual instruction and/or feedback to students to meet each child’s
71
•
•
individual needs. Such a format supports the struggling writer while challenging
the gifted writer.
Models and mentor texts must be provided so that students struggling with a
concept or who are reluctant writers have exemplars surrounding them; individual
or small group conferences provide time for a teacher to help students make
connections between a mentor text(s) and their own writing.
Gifted writers and thinkers can be challenged to think beyond the literal by
providing them with insightful, powerful, somewhat challenging quotes as the
focus of explanatory essays. Students can also be given time to conduct
research on the history, interpretation, and use of selected quotes.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.11-12.2d, WS.1112.2e, WS.11-12.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.10
72
English III American Literature and Composition
Expository Writing Prompts - Supplied by the DOE (March 2010)
English III: Writing Prompt
Change is something that makes many people uncomfortable. But according to
American author Maya Angelou, “If you don't like something, change it. If you can't
change it, change your attitude.” Using an example from literature, history, science,
film, or your own experience or observation, write an essay analyzing a specific change
that has taken place and discuss the effect of that change.
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Expository Writing Prompts - Supplied by the DOE (March 2010)
English IV: Writing Prompt
In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Lady Macduff exclaims, “When our actions do not, our fears
do make us traitors.” Using an example from literature, history, science, film, or your
own experience or observation, write an essay analyzing fear as a common emotion
that can hold one back from moving forward.
73
Expository Essay Organizer
Intro –
Thoughts on your concept
Thesis statement
Body paragraph 1 – Topic sentence stating your first idea
Explanation
Example (from lit, science, etc.)
Body paragraph 1 – Topic sentence stating your first idea
Explanation
Example (from lit, science, etc.)
Conclusion – Your connection to the concept
74
English III: American Literature and Composition and
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Argumentative/Persuasive Writing (Pacing – 15 Days taught as part of a
90 minute block)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will focus on the craft of argumentative/persuasive writing and will help
students to develop the skills needed to effectively persuade an audience. Topics
presented for argumentative/persuasive written responses may be based upon ageappropriate controversial issues, current events, or controversial topics that reveal
themselves when reading the literature assigned during English III or English IV
classes. The Big Ideas embedded through this unit are:
•
•
•
The purpose of persuasive essay writing is for the writer to clearly and powerfully
communicate his or her position to a reader.
Strong essays must meet certain criteria (i.e. the opening and closing are
evident, main idea is clearly expressed and is supported with specific details,
word choice is powerful and language is skillfully used, voice is clear and
powerful, sentence structure is used correctly, a consistent verb tense is
maintained throughout a piece, and Standard English is used effectively) to be
considered proficient.
Writers continually revise and edit their work to improve their writing, specifically
focusing on organization, development, voice, word choice, sentence structure,
and the conventions of writing.
Enduring Understandings
Students will understand that…
•
•
•
•
•
•
Argumentative/Persuasive writing can be compared to arguing and is often
considered arguing on paper.
Persuasive writing is often inspired by events or themes presented in a literary
work.
A writing task or scenario presented in a prompt will have an influence on a
writer’s use of tone, style, and technique.
A writer’s selection of words is one of the most important factors he/she must
consider when writing; precision of language is essential.
A writer’s voice must be passionate and powerful so his/her message is clearly
conveyed.
Writing is never “done” and can always be improved. It is a recursive process, so
writers can move from stage to stage, either forward or backward.
75
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is the purpose of essay writing?
Why is argumentative/persuasive writing important?
What differentiates argumentative/persuasive writing from other forms of writing
(i.e. informational, expository, narrative, speculative)?
How can one utilize evidence from literature when supporting one’s position in an
argumentative/persuasive piece?
Why is it important to consider audience and purpose when organizing one’s
writing?
What does the literary term voice mean? How does one include voice in his or
her writing?
Why is vivid and precise use of language so important?
What is Standard English and why is it important to use Standard English in
academic writing?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
An effective argument not only acknowledges both claims and counterclaims, but
also supplies the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out strengths
and limitations in both.
Providing the most reliable and relevant evidence as well as a fully elaborated
explanation is a writing tool that must be incorporated when trying to persuade an
audience.
Anticipating an audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible
biases and addressing them in the claim or counterclaim is a powerfully
persuasive tool.
Argumentative/persuasive writing sustains a formal style and objective tone
based solely on fact, which can include personal experience.
The voice a writer projects in an argumentative/persuasive piece must be
passionate and convincing; the voice must match the purpose.
A concluding paragraph or section must flow from the argument and end
powerfully (i.e. call to action, symbolic ending, reconnection to the beginning,
etc.).
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the
claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from counterclaim(s), and create an
organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaim(s), reasons, and
evidence
Use credible sources to obtain the most relevant supporting facts to support a
claim or counterclaim
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Utilize transitions to create a natural flow among ideas, specifically noting the
differences between claims and counterclaims so the writer does not change
“positions”
Maintain an objective style and tone appropriate for the purpose and audience of
the piece
Create arguments based solely on fact, including (if appropriate) facts pertaining
to one’s personal experience
Write with a passionate, authentic, and convincing voice that is appropriate to the
purpose of the piece
Draft a conclusion section that flows naturally from the argument, ends
powerfully, and attempts to leave the reader thinking (i.e. call to action, symbolic
ending, circular ending, etc.)
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
Benchmark or Major Assessments (indicate Benchmark Assessment in
parentheses)
•
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point (benchmark)
Graphic organizer such as a Roman Numeral outline
Teacher conference, observations, and anecdotal records
Writer’s notebook
Self-editing, peer-editing, or teacher-editing checklists
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
New Jersey Registered Holistic Scoring Rubric, 6-point
Graphic organizers
Sample prompts provided by the NJ DOE, available at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Persuasive/argumentative essay prompts can connect to topics that are
presented in other content areas.
Controversial issues that arise out of a thematic study related to American or
British literature can serve as a focus for additional reading.
Social, political, or religious issues that arise when reading American or British
literature can serve as the focus for additional cross-content reading.
77
Technology Connections
•
•
•
New Jersey Department of Education Assessment Page at
http://www.state.nj.us/education/assessment/hs/hspa/info/
o Teachers can obtain study materials and released test questions for HSPA
assessments.
District databases such as Facts on File: Issues and Controversies
Professional websites such as Web English Teacher
(www.webenglishteacher.com) and Read Write Think (www.readwritethink.org)
provide a plethora of lesson plan ideas focusing on persuasive/argumentative
writing in the high school. A simple Google search will generate thousands of
hits as well.
Accommodations or Modifications for Special Education, ESL, or Gifted Learners
•
•
•
•
•
•
It is important to note that students enrolled in English IV may have already
passed HSPA, so their prompts may be differentiated to include persuasive
topics or controversial issues connected to the literature being read or to
common themes discussed in class.
Writing prompts can be differentiated based upon student interest, difficulty of
content, etc. Students can also be asked to self-select the topic of their
persuasive/argumentative essay, especially when initially introducing form and
structure; providing choice has been shown to motivate reluctant writers.
In the writing workshop, mini-lessons provide guidance for students to improve
their writing. Such mini-lessons are planned based upon the needs of the
students, thus incorporating differentiation into planning and instruction.
Individual conferences are held, at which time teachers model good writing and
provide individual instruction and/or feedback to students to meet each child’s
individual needs. Such a format supports the struggling writer while challenging
the gifted writer.
Models and exemplary benchmarks must be provided so that students struggling
with a concept or who are reluctant writers have exemplars surrounding them;
individual or small group conferences provide time for a teacher to help students
make connections between a mentor text(s) and their own writing.
Gifted writers and thinkers can be challenged to write about content-based
persuasive or argumentative essays. This could potentially require gifted readers
and writers to conduct research, read nonfiction texts, synthesize information,
evaluate research for bias, form his/her own opinion, and then write a response
in a structured way.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.1a, WS.11-12.1b, WS.11-12.1c, WS.11-12.1d, WS.1112.1e, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.9a, WS.11-12.9b, WS.11-12.10
78
English III: American Literature and Composition
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
Writing Situation
To increase parental involvement in school life, your high school principal has decided
to eliminate suspension. Instead, students being disciplined will be required to bring
their parents to school to attend classes with the children for the duration of the
disciplinary action.
Your principal has invited students, parents, and teachers to express their opinions on
this matter. You decide to write a letter to the principal.
Directions for Writing
Write a letter to the principal either supporting or opposing the proposal to replace
suspension with parental involvement. Support your position with reasons, facts,
examples, and other evidence. Convince your principal to take your position seriously.
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Persuasive Writing Prompt (Released HSPA Prompt, NJ DOE)
Writing Situation
Your school has always had one speaker at graduation: the valedictorian, the person
with the highest GPA. Now the student body has petitioned to elect a student speaker,
one who is selected without consideration of grades. This petition has caused a
controversy in your school.
You decide to write a letter to your principal expressing your opinion on whether there
should be an elected graduation speaker who does not need to meet a grade
requirement.
Directions for Writing
Write a letter to your principal either supporting or opposing the petition. Use reasons,
facts, examples, and other evidence to support your position.
NOTE: It is important to note that students enrolled in English IV may have already
passed HSPA, so their prompts may be differentiated to include persuasive topics or
controversial issues connected to the literature being read or to common themes
discussed in class.
79
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Connecting British Literature (Anglo-Saxon Era through the Eighteenth
Century to Contemporary Society)
Why Is This Unit Important?
In order to fully understand a work of literature, one must be familiar with the historical,
social, political, and religious context in which it was written. It is also imperative that
one read classic works of literature from other cultures and work to make connections
between such works, contemporary society, and modern day issues. Throughout this
unit of study, students will read classic works of British literature while learning about
the historical facts and societal issues that impacted each work at the time it was
written. Further, students will work to connect specific works from varying time periods
in British history to contemporary works and/or societal issues. The literary periods
discussed during this unit of study are:
Required Periods
The Anglo-Saxon Period: A.D. 449 – 1066 (16 days)
The Medieval Period: 1066 – 1485 (18 days)
The Renaissance: 1485 – 1660 (16 days)
The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century: 1660 – 1798 (9 days)
If Time Permits
The Romantic Age: 1798 – 1832 (3 days)
The Victorian Age: 1832 – 1900 (3 days)
The Modern and Postmodern Periods: 1900 – Present (5 days)
The Big Ideas embedded throughout this unit of study are:
•
•
•
•
To fully understand a literary work, it is imperative that one is familiar with the
historical, social, political, and religious context in which it was written.
Modern literary works have been inspired by classical stories, and modern
poems reflect themes commonly seen in classical poetry.
Although it mirrors a culture different from the reader’s, British literature still
maintains the literary elements and structure familiar to and respected by
American readers.
Classic writers of the “great books” (i.e. Chaucer, Shakespeare, Austen, Conrad,
Kafka, Swift, etc.) included themes that are still important and applicable in
today’s modern world.
Enduring Understandings
•
The historical, social, political, and religious occurrences in a society impact the
literature and artistic works of that society in that particular time period.
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•
•
•
Many classical works were written centuries ago yet continue to influence
modern fiction, poetry, and prose.
American and British cultures differ, but the literary works created in each share
commonalities and can be appreciated regardless of cultural differences.
Classic works of literature such as those identified by Mortimer Adler as “the
Great Books” included themes that are applicable to contemporary society.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why is it important to reflect upon an historical time period by analyzing the
writings of that time period? What does a work of fiction or of nonfiction tell about
a particular place and time?
What impact do cultural influences have on an author’s work?
How is gender constructed in works of literature?
How does an understanding of universal themes in the literature of all cultures
help one to better understand oneself and the world around him or her?
What do works of literature say about fate and free will?
What were the social mores of medieval England, and how do they reveal
themselves in literary works such as The Canterbury Tales?
How and why are the “big ideas” of literature repeated through the centuries?
How do poetic devices help support meaning in a text?
What makes for effective satire? What is its purpose in society today?
Acquired Knowledge (The students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
One must approach a work of literature with an historical, social, and cultural eye
to fully understand the purpose and theme of the work.
The English language has developed over time, so it is important to understand
the language of a culture when reading a literary work written or set in a
particular time period.
Differentiating between historical truths and legendary misinformation is essential
when reading a text or discussing an historical legend.
There are parallels between historical and cultural practices of times past and the
modern era.
Reading works of literature is an active process that requires one to read
carefully, analyze thoughtfully, infer beyond the text, and constantly revise
thoughts and predictions based upon what is presented in the text.
It is imperative that a reader infer beyond the text to identify key themes, tones,
symbols, motifs, events, and ideas from selected works of literature.
The poetic devices of caesura, kenning, and alliteration were utilized in AngloSaxon poetry; each had a specific function and a distinct impact on poetry.
Dramatic literature and satire have consistently been used as cultural forces.
Literature has always been used to convey philosophical ideas, and the ideas
portrayed in philosophical texts can be related to and discussed in the context of
past society as well as in contemporary society.
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•
The characters and themes presented throughout history (i.e. Beowulf) can
connect to modern day people, issues, and/or lessons.
The works of William Shakespeare undoubtedly continue to influence
contemporary society.
Acquired Skills (The learner will…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explain how the historical context in which a work was written influenced the
work
Identify, explain, and analyze an author’s purpose, especially when considered
within the historical and social context of the time period
Connect literature of an historical era to the significant events of that era and
explain the connection between specific historical events and specific works of
literature
Differentiate between fact and legend when comparing a work of literature to an
historical subject or event (i.e. Arthurian legend)
Trace shifts in English language development
Evaluate, classify, and analyze the use of stock, stereotypical, and archetypal
characters and narrative frame in character development
Identify and analyze characteristics of an epic
Define hero, villain, and anti-hero using the information obtained through the
study of the epic hero cycle and compare classical heroes, villains, and antiheroes with those from contemporary literature and society
Analyze, interpret, and annotate poetry according to structure and form and
analyze poetic devices used in works such as Beowulf, “The Seafarer” and “Rime
of the Ancient Mariner”
Identify, analyze, and interpret satire and satirical aspects of texts
Identify and analyze sonnets including Shakespearean, Petrarchan, and
Spenserian
Identify modern examples of Shakespeare’s influence and thoroughly explain the
connection
Identify, analyze, and interpret a work of Gothic literature
Analyze and annotate ballads
Identify and explain the impact that diction, detail, syntax, point of view, narrative
structure, literary devices (i.e. rhyme scheme, metaphor, extended metaphor,
alliteration, etc.), and tone have on a particular work of literature
Engage in close reading for symbols, metaphorical language, and motifs
Benchmark and Major Assessments
•
•
•
Tests and quizzes included written responses to open-ended questions
Web Quests available online (i.e. focused on a particular text, a literary element
such as satire, or an era such as Renaissance)
Create a formal coat of arms with illustration, insignia, and detailed explanation
and compose a list of rules of conduct for modern order of knighthood
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Graphic Organizer and Written Response – compare and contrast characters
across literary works or to people in modern society
o Compare and contrast excerpts from “Morte d’Arthur” to “Sir Gawain and the
Green Knight” focusing on characters, theme, and literary style
o Compare and contrast a character from literary work (i.e. Beowulf, Grendel) to
a contemporary hero
o Compare and contrast Grendel to the creature from Frankenstein, Dracula,
and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Graphic Organizers (i.e. utilize a Venn Diagram or Cluster Diagram to organize
information such as background, historical and legendary information,
characters, themes, and literary style)
Create a sonnet following the parameters of a given sonnet form
Essay Writing
o Write a persuasive letter taking a stand on why Chaucer should not be
eliminated from the English curriculum; produce a protest poster as
accompaniment
o Compose a position paper and present an oral argument on a particular
stance on a given issue connected to the themes presented throughout the
literature reviewed in this unit
Letter Writing (i.e. compose a letter from King Hrothgar requesting Beowulf’s
assistance)
Journal Writing (i.e. character journals, reflection journals)
Compose a tabloid article adhering to the characteristics and requirements of
parody and satire
Text transformation (i.e. rewrite the soliloquy from Macbeth in different literary
genres or different spoken dialects)
Compose original riddles or kennings
Instructional Materials (a chronological study)
*The Anglo-Saxon Period (A.D. 449 –1066)
This unit will allow students to utilize various kinds of texts as well as the students’ own
personal experiences in order to connect the contemporary ideas of heroism, villainy,
and anti-heroism with the traditional epic hero cycle. The teacher will provide
appropriate background information on Beowulf in terms of history, literary devices, and
the influence of the concept of heroism and in doing so, the student will be expected to
analyze and question the traditional Anglo-Saxon view of heroism while at the same
time examining their own thoughts and assuming multiple perspectives within myriad
texts. Students will ultimately demonstrate an ability to connect traditional views of the
epic hero and compare them to more contemporary views of heroism.
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Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
• From Beowulf (required text)
translated by Burton Raffel
• “The Seafarer” translated by
Burton Raffel
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• From Beowulf (required text)
translated by Burton Raffel
• “The Seafarer” translated by
Burton Raffel
Core Books
• Beowulf translated by Seamus
Heaney (required text)
• Grendel by John Gardner
*The Medieval Period (1066 –1485)
This unit will enable students to comprehend texts from the Middle Ages, analyze the
characters and their motivations as well as the authors’ purposes in composing such
texts, and apply all of those elements to the modern day. Historically, King Arthur was a
stately, august ruler who fought to save England from the Saxons, influenced and
inspired the actions of the Knights of the Round Table, and was the ruler of Camelot.
He constructed Camelot based upon the elements of the chivalric code: honor, loyalty,
and chivalry. But, he was ultimately undone by the betrayal of those he loved the most.
Arthurian material has been continually reshaped and developed, reflecting aspects of
contemporary life, morality, and aspirations. Students can learn much from examining
the ideas people possessed then (i.e. how one should behave), which in many ways,
compare to today’s shared views.
Students will then focus their study on Geoffrey Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales.
Chaucer’s work provides an accurate cross-section of society in the Middle Ages. He
provides a deeply psychological view of humanity. He authentically and realistically
captures the human spirit inherent in people from all walks of life. In studying these
tales and these individuals, students will be able to parallel those who lived many
centuries ago with individuals students are familiar with in their everyday lives.
•
•
•
•
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
From The Canterbury Tales
“The Prologue” by Geoffrey
Chaucer (required text)
From The Canterbury Tales
“The Pardoner’s Tale” by
Geoffrey Chaucer (required
text)
From Sir Gawain and the
Green Knight translated by
Marie Borroff
From Morte d’Arthur by Sir
Thomas Malory
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• “The Prologue to The
Canterbury Tales” translated
by Neville Coghill (required
text)
• From “The Pardoner’s Tale”
(required text)
• From Sir Gawain and the
Green Knight translated by
Burton Raffel
• From Le Morte D’Arthur by Sir
Thomas Malory
Core Books
• Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight translated by Burton
Raffel
• Everyman: A Moral Play
(anonymous)
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*The Renaissance (1485 –1660)
England was slow to participate in the European Renaissance that started in Italy during
the fourteenth century. By mid-sixteenth century, many individuals of talent approached
Queen Elizabeth for a place on her court either to contribute what they could to
government, to distinguish themselves artistically, or both. English poetry began to
experience this renaissance first, but the greatest and most distinctive achievement of
Elizabethan literature was the drama. The sonnets of Shakespeare, Petrarch, and
Spenser, as well as Shakespeare’s plays challenge students with difficult language and
style, express profound knowledge of human behavior, desires, fears, and longings, and
offer insight into the world around us. In Shakespeare we find the great themes of life:
ambition, love, hatred, fear, revenge, and joy. And his stories have remained central to
our understanding of what it means to be human. Through his characters’ experiences,
students will be able to find truths that resonate in their own contemporary society.
Shakespeare feeds the imagination and holds up a mirror to an individual’s own power
to change him- or herself and the world in which they live. Shakespeare was also an
outstanding observer and communicator of human character. Many of those characters
have become immortal in the sense that they capture universal types; students today
continue to identify with them and with their struggles. It is this very connection that
students will make as they study the different types of sonnets, both classical and
contemporary, and Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
•
•
•
•
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
Spenserian, Shakespearian,
and Petrarchan sonnets
The Tragedy of Macbeth by
William Shakespeare (required
text)
“A Valediction: Forbidding
Mourning” by John Donne
“To His Coy Mistress” by
Andrew Marvell
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• Spenserian, Shakespearian,
and Petrarchan sonnets
• Macbeth by William
Shakespeare (required text)
• “A Valediction: Forbidding
Mourning” by John Donne
• “To His Coy Mistress” by
Andrew Marvell
Core Books
• Works by William
Shakespeare
o Hamlet
o King Lear
o Othello
o Richard III
o Twelfth Night
*The Restoration and Eighteenth Century (1660 – 1798)
This unit will introduce students to literature of a time of amazing expansion for England,
when England became a world power. A sense of new, expanding possibilities – as
well as modern problems – transformed the daily life of the British people and offered
them fresh ways of thinking about their relations to nature and to each other. Hence,
literature had to adapt to circumstances for which there was no precedent. The topics
contained in the literature of the Restoration and 18th century reflected and commented
upon alterations that have helped to shape today’s world. Neoclassicist literature
paralleled a period of conscious self-awareness; people looked at themselves and kept
asking “Am I playing my role correctly?” This is no different than today’s teenagers
attempting to define themselves and their roles in society and in the world at large. At
85
the same time, new social fluidity meant that genres like the newspaper and the
periodical, the novel, satires, ballads, and theater also found widespread audiences. At
the same time, as the era was an era of the Great Plague, the Great Fire, and
tremendous scientific advances, Gothic literature created feelings of gloom, mystery,
terror, suspense, and fear, and it sought to explore humanity’s darker side and arouse
questions in mankind about good versus evil, the role of the supernatural, the
experiences of fear and terror, and others, all universal themes that have been explored
directly and indirectly in previously studied literature.
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
• From “A Journal of the Plague
Year” by Daniel Defoe
• “On My First Son” by Ben
Jonson
• From “The Diary” by Samuel
Pepys
• “New Beginning” by Tracy
Chapman (song)
• “Introduction to Frankenstein”
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• From “A Journal of the Plague
Year” by Daniel Defoe
• A Modest Proposal by
Jonathan Swift
• From “The Diary of Samuel
Pepys”
Core Books
• Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
• A Modest Proposal by
Jonathan Swift
*The Romantic Age (1798 –1832)
British Romantic writers responded to the climate of their times. There was a newfound interest in the trials and dreams of the common people and their desire for radical
change. There was a deep attachment to nature and to a pure, simple past that was in
response to the misery and ugliness born of industrialization. For the Romantics, the
faith in science and reason that characterized the eighteenth-century no longer applied
in a world of tyranny and factories. The Romantic Movement took its name from its
interest in the medieval romances of myth, adventure, and passion, and the movement
affected not only literature but also all other arts such as music and painting. The
Romantics viewed nature as a wild, free force that could inspire poets to instinctive
spiritual understanding. And although poetry was the dominant literary form during the
Romantic Age, many significant prose works also appeared mainly in the form of essays
and novels.
86
•
•
•
•
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
“The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner” by Samuel Taylor
Coleridge
“She Walks in Beauty” by
George Gordon, Lord Byron
From “Don Juan” by George
Gordon, Lord Byron
“Ode to a Nightingale” and
“Ode to a Grecian Urn” by
John Keats
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
Core Books
• “The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner” by Samuel Taylor
Coleridge
• From Pride and Prejudice by
Jane Austin
• “She Walks in Beauty” by
George Gordon, Lord Byron
• “On This Day I Complete My
Thirty-Sixth Year” by George
Gordon, Lord Byron
• “When I Have Fears That I
May Cease to Be” by John
Keats
*The Victorian Age (1832 –1900)
During the sixty-four years of Queen Victoria’s reign, from 1837 to 1901, Britain’s
booming economy and rapid expansion encouraged great optimism. Factory towns
grew into large cities as Britain became the world leader in manufacturing. This spurred
the growth of two important classes—an industrial working class and a modern middle
class. When Victorian writers confronted these social and technological changes, a
literary movement called Realism was born. The literature of this movement focused on
ordinary people facing day-to-day problems of life, an emphasis that reflected the trend
toward democracy and the growing middle-class audience for literature. A related
movement, Naturalism, sought to put the spirit of scientific observation to literary use;
Naturalists wrote in gritty detail, often with an aim at social reform. The Victorian period
was dominated by an abundance of poetry, drama, fiction, and prose.
•
•
•
•
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
“Sonnet 43” by Elizabeth
Barrett Browning
From Hard Times by Charles
Dickens
From Jane Eyre by Charlotte
Bronte
From War and Peace by Leo
Tolstoy
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• “The Lady of Shalott” by Alfred
Lord Tennyson
• “Ah, Are You Digging My
Grave?” by Thomas Hardy
• “The Importance of Being
Earnest” by Oscar Wilde
Core Books
• Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte
• The Awakening by Kate
Chopin
• Heart of Darkness by Joseph
Conrad
• “The Importance of Being
Earnest” by Oscar Wilde
*The Modern and Postmodern Periods (1900 –Present)
Modernism, with its commitment to creating new forms, was perhaps the most important
artistic movement of the twentieth century. Many Modernists used images such as
87
symbols, leading to indirect, evocative work. They often presented experiences in
fragments, rather than as a coherent whole. The Postmodern period in English
literature refers to the time from 1965 to the present. In literature, as in other aspects of
British life, women have been highly visible and productive in recent decades.
Throughout both the Modern and Postmodern periods, writers have experimented with
dialogue, sequencing, and the relationships between literature and reality.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Timeless Voices, Timeless
Themes: The British
Tradition (Prentice Hall,
2002)
“”Journey of the Magi” by T.S.
Eliot
“The Diameter of a Bomb” by
Yehuda Amichai
“The Soldier” by Rupert
Brooke
“Wartime Speech” by Sir
Winston Churchill
“Defending Nonviolent
Resistance” by Mohandas K.
Gandhi
“Follower” by Seamus Heaney
“The Rights We Enjoy, the
Duties We Owe” by Tony Blair
“The Lady in the Looking
Glass: A Reflection” by Virginia
Woolf
“A Devoted Son” by Anita
Desai
Adventures in English
Literature (Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, 1996)
• From A Portrait of an Artist as
a Young Man by James Joyce
• “Dead Men’s Path” by Chinua
Achebe
• “When You Are Old” by
William Butler Yeats
• “Telephone Conversation” by
Wole Soyinka
• “You’ve Ruined My
Evening/You’ve Ruined My
Life” by Tom Raworth
• “University Days” by Tom
Raworth
• “Pygmalion” by Bernard Shaw
Core Books
• Portrait of an Artist as a Young
Man by James Joyce
• Metamorphosis by Franz
Kafka
• Brave New World by Aldous
Huxley
• Cry the Beloved Country by
Alan Paton
*Much of the description highlighted here is from Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes:
The British Experience (Prentice Hall, 2002).
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
All of the units included in this study of British literature will connect to European
history. One objective of this study is to look at literature through an historical
lens, so the cross-content reading and writing is embedded.
Studying the technological advances that have influenced British society and
ultimately the world would be an interesting way to include scientific study within
the units presented here.
When studying British historical time periods (i.e. the Renaissance), the arts can
be presented to show a visual representation of a particular event, time period,
etc.
88
Technology Connections
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Many of the classic works presented in this unit of study are available on Google
Books (some to preview, some full text)
Audio recordings of many of the works are available
District databases specifically focusing on the time periods discussed in English
IV
o ABC-CLIO Ancient and Medieval History
o Gale Biography in Context
o Gale World History in Context
o Facts on File Ancient and Medieval History Online
o Facts on File World Geography and Culture
o ProQuest History Study Center
Teacher resources
o Websites such as Web English Teacher (www.webenglishteacher.com) and
Read Write Think (www.readwritethink.org) provide lesson plans and
instructional materials not only focused on the works in this unit, but also on
the literary time periods, authors, literary devices, etc.
o “Geoffrey Chaucer Hath a Blog” at http://houseoffame.blogspot.com/
o “The Arthurian Legends…Where History and Mythology Blend Together” at
www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/arthur/arthurtg.html
Internet research on Shakespeare’s background
o Shakespeare’s Life
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/timeline/timeline.htm
http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/life/lifesubj.html
http://www.online-literature.com/Shakespeare
o Globe Theater
http://vitural.clemson.edu/caah/Shakespr/VRGLOBE/VRGlobe.htm
http://www.bardweb.net/globe.html
www.globelink.org/abouttheglobe/shakespeareantheater
o Elizabethan Society and Era
http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/society/societysubj.html
http://www.kingsmenshakespeare.org/set/history.pdf
http://elizabethan.org/compendium/index.html
o Historical Sources/Information for Macbeth
http://students.roanoke.edu/tnunez/actualstory.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/macbeth.shtml
Web Quests
o “Exploring Arthurian Legend” at
http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=235
o Frankenstein at
http://www.huffenglish.com/webquests/frankenstein/Home.html
o “In Search of the Monster in Frankenstein” at
http://mrsmurray.org/frankensteinwebquest.aspx
Film excerpts can be used to supplement instruction and to provide a visual
representation for students
89
•
o Excerpts from “Monty Python and the Search for the Holy Grail” (Michael
White Productions, 1975)
o Film “First Knight” (Columbia Pictures Corporation, 1995)
o Macbeth
o Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
Songs
o “New Beginnings” by Tracey Chapman (Eighteenth Century Literature)
o “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” by Iron Maiden
o “Wake Up” by Alanis Morissette (compare to Lady Macbeth)
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
Utilizing graphic organizers while reading will assist student in focusing on what
the teacher feels is key information. Dependent readers often struggle with what
is “important,” so providing a graphic organizer helps them to focus.
Differentiating graphic organizers holds all students accountable for extrapolating
key information from a text but provides flexibility for the teacher, allowing
him/her to meet the diverse needs of students within a classroom.
Many of the suggested readings and required titles are available on audio CD or
eBook download. Providing such resources allows auditory learners the ability to
learn within their preferred learning style. It is important to note that an audio
recording is not intended to replace reading the work, rather it is an additional
support for students.
Video versions of literature read in class (i.e. Frankenstein) can be used to
support struggling readers or to help students learn the strategy of visualization
when reading. It is important to note that a video is not intended to replace
reading the work, rather it an additional support for students.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text and can
differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ need.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
List of Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.6, RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.9, RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1, RI.11-12.2, RI.11-12.4, RI.1112.8, RI.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.1a, WS.11-12.1b, WS.11-12.1c, WS.11-12.1d, WS.1112.1e, WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.11-12.2d, WS.11-12.2e, WS.1112.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.7, WS.11-12.8, WS.11-12.9a, WS.11-12.10
90
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Writing a Research Paper (Pacing – 10 Days and Additional Time at Home)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Writing a research paper is often a daunting task for students. By dividing the process
up into easy to complete steps and providing detailed information to help complete each
step, this unit will make writing a research paper a less intimidating task and will prepare
students for the kinds of writing they will be expected to complete independently as they
further their education past high school. Writing a college-level research paper is no
easy task. It takes much practice and effort to produce high quality work. Students will
learn that the purpose of a custom written research paper is to sharpen critical thinking
and writing skills. The paper, to be analytically sound, must develop the supporting
arguments sufficiently enough to provide evidence for their original thesis. While the
focus of the project is the creation of a research paper, the step-by-step instruction for
completing the report revolves entirely around the writing process. The Big Ideas
embedded in this unit include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
In order for students to take ownership of knowledge, they must learn to
synthesize and rework raw information, use the most significant and relevant
details and facts, and write a logical, detailed, and thoughtful paper taking a clear
stance on an issue and adequately and appropriately supporting that stance.
Details extrapolated from different both primary and secondary sources and from
different kinds of sources (i.e. books, newspapers, videos, radio addresses,
speeches, internet resources, etc.) must be used to support a thesis statement;
synthesis of information from a variety of sources is key.
Providing parenthetical citations for newly acquired information obtained through
research is necessary to avoid the accusation of plagiarism.
A works cited page is required to provide a source list when a research paper is
completed.
The writing process is a fundamental skill applicable to all levels of formal
education and an imperative skill to apply in the professional world.
The ability to integrate information while at the same time coherently expressing,
supporting, and proving a point of view is vital in the real world.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
A strong thesis statement clearly conveys a perspective on a chosen research
subject; each detail must then support or expand upon that thesis.
Research skills, including evaluation of sources, paraphrasing and summarizing
relevant information and citation of sources used, and inclusion of said
information in an expository work are essential skills in both advanced education
and the professional world.
91
•
•
•
•
•
Primary sources (i.e. speech, interview) differ from secondary sources (i.e.
biography, book, informational video) in that primary sources were created during
the time under study while secondary sources interpret or analyze primary
sources. Each has value, but each must be considered and used differently.
Plagiarism, also known as literary theft, is defined by Merriam-Webster in the
following way: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own;
to use (another's production) without crediting the source.
Parenthetical citations are used to credit an original writer for his or her words or
thoughts. Such citations must connect to works listed on a works cited page.
According to the Modern Language Association, “MLA style for documentation is
widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature.”
Thus, MLA formatting is utilized in Language Arts and English classrooms
nationwide.
The composition of a focused, formal research paper is a skill that may be
applied to myriad occupations and educational goals for all students.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What are the necessary components for a clear, well developed research paper?
What is the difference between an unfocused thesis statement and a clear,
directed thesis? How does the composition of the latter assist a student in
developing a strong argument throughout his or her research paper?
What are the characteristics and identifiable features of a relevant source and
how might that source be most effectively utilized in a research paper?
What is the benefit of a primary source over a secondary source or vice versa?
How might the use of note cards, bibliography cards, and a formal outline aid a
student in organizing information to make a more effective argument in a
research paper?
What is the proper format for documenting and quoting information from sources
within the body of a research paper and how does a student avoid plagiarizing?
When would one use APA format instead of MLA format when writing a research
paper?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
The key ideas presented in a research essay or term paper must clearly connect
to and support the thesis statement.
The thesis statement must be supported with the most significant and relevant
facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and
examples.
The most significant and relevant details must be synthesized from multiple print
and digital sources and used to support the thesis.
Complex ideas, concepts, and information must be organized so each idea builds
upon that which precedes it to create a unified whole (including formatting such
as headings, figures, and tables).
92
•
•
•
•
•
•
Primary and secondary sources must be used to obtain information that will help
a reader to more thoroughly understand the life of a writer, the times in which an
author lived and wrote, and the work that a writer produced.
A works cited page and note cards help a writer to organize notes and sources in
order to organize the paper and avoid plagiarism.
Precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as
metaphor, simile, and analogy help the writer to manage the complexity of a
subject.
It is necessary to sustain a formal style and objective tone while managing the
complexity of the research topic.
Avoid plagiarism by following MLA format for citations (i.e. parenthetical citations
and a works cited page).
The conclusion of the research essay or term paper must flow logically from the
information presented or explanation provided.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Craft a clear thesis that conveys a clear perspective/point of view on the chosen
subject of research and is supported by all ideas and details presented in the
paper
Utilize the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete
details, quotations, and other examples to support the thesis statement
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources using
advanced search features; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source,
and quote or paraphrase the information.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources, using each kind of source
appropriately, to support a literary analysis
Create and properly format note cards and bibliography cards of approved
sources and information related to argument being presented in the research
paper
Logically group and sequence ideas in a formal outline and in expository writing
Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions obtained through research and
provide explanations in one’s own wording
Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as
metaphor, simile, and analogy as an aide in managing the complexity of the
writing
Maintain a formal, objective style throughout the writing
Include parenthetical citations that connect to a works cited page, both following
MLA format
Draft a conclusion section that flows logically from the information and
explanations presented in the research essay or term paper
Apply the rules of Standard English presented through mini-lessons as well as
those offered during teacher conferences when drafting and when editing his/her
draft
93
Major Assessments:
•
Research paper (benchmark assessment)
o Note cards and bibliography source cards
o Formal outline
o Rough draft
o Teacher conference notes
o Peer conference notes
o Final draft
Instructional Materials:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EHS research manual available on the EHS website
District databases for research (see Appendix A)
MLA Handbook
Graphic organizers such as outlines
Citation Samples
Self, peer, and teacher revising and editing checklists
Research essay or term paper rubric, to be distributed at the beginning of the
project so students are aware of expectations
Research materials including online resources, district databases, books, and
videos
o NOTE: It is recommended that English teachers involve the Media Specialist
during the research process.
Interdisciplinary Connections:
•
Research topics may ask students to connect a work of British literature to an
historical time period, so the content alone lends itself to cross-curricular reading.
Technology Connections:
•
•
•
•
•
Online resources and district databases to conduct research (see Appendix A)
Videos to add research opportunities for visual learners
Websites such as Easy Bib (www.easybib.com) and Works Cited for You
(www.workscited4u.com) help students to format a works cited page by asking
them to key information into blanks.
The Purdue Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/) provides great
information and resources with examples for everything having to do with
composing a research paper and proper MLA format for each step along the
way.
Websites such as StudyGuide.org (www.studyguide.org/MLAdocumentation.htm)
and the Purdue Online Writing Lab
(http://owl.english/purdue.edu/owl/search.php) provide links to help students see
samples of parenthetical citations as well as works cited pages.
94
•
Modern Language Association at www.mla.org. The Modern Language
Association explains MLA style and differentiates it from APA style. Students or
teachers can also purchase a copy of the MLA Handbook through this site.
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
Differentiating research topic is a wonderful way to accommodate the needs of
strong students and the needs of those who struggle. The research paper is the
benchmark assessment and the scoring guide is applied across classes, but the
research process can be completed with differentiated topics across classes or
between students within a class.
Using graphic organizers such as blank outlines, note cards, or works cited
organizers will help students to focus on the correct information and will
ultimately help them to organize their research paper.
Teachers can differentiate the number of works required for the analysis (i.e. one
work, a novel and a poem, or a two full-length works)
Exemplary research essays or essay templates provide support for struggling
readers and writers. Providing exemplary benchmarks is a best practice that
helps students to more thoroughly understand expectations and provides a
model for them to use as a guide.
Individual teacher conferences enable a teacher to provide specific feedback to
students; doing so supports the struggling writer while challenging the gifted
writer.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.9
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1, RI.11-12.2, RI.11-12.9
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.11-12.2d, WS.1112.2e, WS.11-12.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.7, WS.11-12.8, WS.11-12.9a,
WS.11-12.9b, WS.11-12.10
95
English IV: British Literature and Composition
Research Paper Scoring Guide
25 Points
20 Points
Easily
identifiable,
plausible,
novel,
sophisticated,
insightful, and
crystal clear
Promising, but
may be slightly
unclear or
lacking insight
or originality
Paragraph
Structure
and
Sentence
Support
Evident,
understandable
, appropriate
for thesis;
excellent
transitions;
solid topic
sentences,
paragraphs
supported
Generally clear
and
appropriate,
though
thoughts may
wander
occasionally;
may have a few
unclear
transitions or a
few paragraphs
without a
strong topic
sentence
Use of
Evidence
(Points
Earned x 2)
Primary source
information is
used to
buttress every
point with at
least one
example;
examples
support the
thesis and fit
within the
paragraph;
excellent
integration of
quoted material
Analysis
and
Commentary
(Points
Earned x 2)
Author clearly
relates
evidence to
topic sentence;
analysis is
fresh and
exciting, posing
new ways to
think about the
material
Introduction,
Thesis and
Conclusion
15 Points
May be unclear
(i.e. overuse of
vague terms),
appear
unoriginal, or
offer little that is
new; provides
little around
which to
structure the
paper
Generally
unclear, often
wanders or
jumps around;
few or weak
transitions,
many
paragraphs
may lack a
topic sentence
Examples are
used to support
most parts;
some evidence
does not
support points
or may appear
where
inappropriate;
quotes are well
integrated into
sentences
Examples are
used to support
some points;
points may lack
supporting
evidence or
evidence may
be used where
it is not
appropriate;
quotes may be
poorly
integrated into
sentences
Evidence is
often related to
topic
sentences,
though links
may not always
be very clear
Quotes appear
often without
analysis
relating them to
a topic
sentence, or
the analysis
offers nothing
beyond the
quote
10 Points
5 Points
Difficult to
identify at all;
may be a bland
restatement of
an obvious
point
No identifiable
or an utterly
incompetent
thesis
Unclear, often
because thesis
is weak or
nonexistent;
transitions are
confusing and
unclear; few
topic sentences
No evidence of
topic
sentences; no
supporting
statements;
lacks
sequencing
and structure
Very few or
weak
examples;
general failure
to support
statements or
evidence
seems to
support no
statement;
quotes are not
integrated into
sentences and
appear
“plopped in” in
an improper
manner
Very little or
very weak
attempt to
relate evidence
to argument;
may be no
identifiable
argument or no
evidence to
relate it to
Information is
mostly
inaccurate or
inappropriate;
there may be
little or no
relevance of
evidence; the
information
says too little or
too much
No identifiable
argument; little
or no evidence
presented; no
quotes
96
25 Points
Grammar
and
Mechanics
Sentence
structure,
grammar, and
diction are
excellent;
correct use of
punctuation
and citation
style; very few,
if any, errors in
spelling,
sentence
structure, or
punctuation
20 Points
Sentence
structure,
grammar, and
diction are
strong despite
occasional
lapses;
punctuation
and citation
style are often
used correctly;
some minor
errors in
spelling,
sentence
structure, or
punctuation
15 Points
10 Points
5 Points
Minor problems
in sentence
structure,
grammar
and/or diction;
Errors in
punctuation,
citation style,
and/or spelling
may be evident,
and there may
be errors in
sentence
structure
Major problems
in sentence
structure,
grammar, and
diction are
evident;
frequent major
errors in
citation style,
punctuation,
and spelling as
well as
sentence
structure
Rarely uses
correct spelling,
punctuation, or
citation style;
many sentence
fragments, runons, and
comma splices
may be evident
97
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 1: Introduction to Poetry (Pacing – 5 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will serve to prepare students to approach and analyze works of poetry. The
teacher will provide an introduction on how to approach various works of poetry in order
to increase students’ comfort level with analysis as well as increase their abilities to do
the same independently. The Big Ideas embedded through this unit include:
•
•
The purpose of poetry analysis is to read beyond the words; the words of the
poem are meant to communicate something emotional, not merely literal.
Themes of poetry may be communicated differently depending on the
composition style of the poet as well as the mode of the poem itself, including
different forms of poetry and songs.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
Poetry differs from prose chiefly in form and employment of various musical
devices and figurative language.
Poetry remains popular as a means of communication because of popularity of
form, musical devices, and figurative language as well as its ability to convey
varied messages, themes, and emotions in this form.
Literary devices such as figurative language, musical devices, imagery,
symbolism, theme, and tone help writers determine how their messages will be
received by the reader.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
How is poetry different from prose in both form and function?
Why is it different, concerning both the writer’s purpose and method and the
audiences’ perceptions?
What aims can best be accomplished through poetry rather than prose?
Why do people write poetry?
What does poetry mean to me?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
Literary devices including figurative language (metaphor, simile, personification),
musical devices (alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance, meter,
repetition, and rhyme), imagery, symbolism, theme, diction, syntax, paradox,
mood, and tone.
Poetic genres such as lyric poetry, narrative poetry, and dramatic poetry
98
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
Identify and analyze use of literary devices including figurative language
(metaphor, simile, and personification), musical devices (alliteration,
onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance, meter, repetition, and rhyme), imagery,
symbolism, theme, diction, syntax, paradox, mood, and tone.
Apply interpretive reading strategies such as marginal notations of poet’s use of
poetic devices (listed above) and taken together develop meanings and function.
Analyze given poetry using the above strategies to determine symbolism, theme,
and tone.
Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
•
Compose prewriting and thesis statement for AP poetry selection and freeresponse question (benchmark)
Compose formal, written response to above poetry selection
Peer-Edit rough draft of essay response
Polish rough draft for formal final draft submission
Submit final draft
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“A Noiseless Patient Spider” by Walt Whitman
“After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes” by Emily Dickinson
“Those Winter Sundays” by Robert Hayden
“The Bean Eaters” by Gwendolyn Brooks
“Autumn Refrain” by Wallace Stevens
“Cat’s Cradle” – music as poetry
“The Unknown Citizen” by W. H. Auden
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
Themes of individual poems can be connected to the historical era in which they
were composed. Students can analyze the commentary the poet is providing
considering major events, issues, and conflicts of said era.
Technology Connections
•
•
College Board provides sample poetry prompt passages, questions, and
exemplary responses online at
http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/english_lit/samp.html?englit.
You can access every poem and prompt on the AP Literature and Composition
AP Exam released by College Board from 1970 through 2009 online at
http://homepage.mac.com/mseffie/assignments/poem-a-day/Poetry_Essays.pdf.
99
•
There is a Google Book called AP English Literature and Composition for
Dummies, with a section specifically focusing on the poetry passage of the AP
Exam. This book can be accessed by typing the title on the Google Books main
page.
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
This one week unit of study is, in a sense, an accommodation itself. The unit of
poetry will be revisited later in the semester to better help all students analyze
the symbolic nature of poetry at a deeper level.
Students who struggle with analysis and continue to work at a literal level should
be offered additional support after school, perhaps through a tutoring session or
with a Partners in Learning tutor (if available).
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.4, RL.11-12.5,
RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.9a
100
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Introduction to Poetry [Benchmark Assessment]
Released by College Board
AP English Literature Free-Response Question
Suggested Time—40 minutes.
The question counts as one-third of the total essay section score.
Read the following poem carefully. Then, write a well-organized essay in which you
analyze the techniques the poet uses to convey his attitude toward the places he
describes.
Here
Swerving east, from rich industrial shadows
And traffic all night north; swerving through fields
Too thin and thistled to be called meadows,
And now and then a harsh-named halt, that shields
Workmen at dawn; swerving to solitude
Of skies and scarecrows, haystacks, hares and pheasants,
And the widening river's slow presence,
The piled gold clouds, the shining gull-marked mud,
Gathers to the surprise of a large town:
Here domes and statues, spires and cranes cluster
Beside grain-scattered streets, barge-crowded water,
And residents from raw estates, brought down
The dead straight miles by stealing flat-faced trolleys,
Push through plate-glass swing doors to their desires Cheap suits, red kitchen-ware, sharp shoes, iced lollies,
Electric mixers, toasters, washers, driers –
A cut-price crowd, urban yet simple, dwelling
Where only salesmen and relations come
Within a terminate and fishy-smelling
Pastoral of ships up streets, the slave museum,
Tattoo-shops, consulates, grim head-scarfed wives;
And out beyond its mortgaged half-built edges
Fast-shadowed wheat-fields, running high as hedges,
Isolate villages, where removed lives
Loneliness clarifies. Here silence stands
Like heat. Here leaves unnoticed thicken,
Hidden weeds flower, neglected waters quicken,
Luminously-peopled air ascends;
And past the poppies bluish neutral distance
Ends the land suddenly beyond a beach
Of shapes and shingle. Here is unfenced existence:
Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach.
(1964) “Here” from Collected Poems by Philip Larkin.
101
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 2: Beowulf (Pacing – 8 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
This unit will allow students to utilize various kinds of texts as well as the students’ own
personal experiences in order to connect the contemporary ideas of heroism, villainy
and anti-heroism with the traditional epic hero cycle. The teacher will provide
appropriate background information on Beowulf in terms of history, literary devices, and
the influence of the concept of heroism and in doing so, the student will be expected to
analyze and question the traditional Anglo-Saxon view of heroism while at the same
time examining their own thoughts and assuming multiple perspectives within myriad
texts. Students will ultimately demonstrate an ability to connect traditional views of the
epic hero and compare them to more contemporary views of heroism. The Big Ideas
embedded throughout this unit of study are:
•
•
•
While heroes, villains, and anti-heroes have appeared in literature for centuries,
the definition and application of each will vary based upon the culture and belief
system from which a work was written.
The traditional views of an epic hero can be compared to more contemporary
views of heroism.
Poetic and literary devices are used thoughtfully and intentionally by a writer to
develop a work and to assist a reader with complete comprehension of the work.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
The standards used to define heroes were established during the Anglo-Saxon
era, and the concept of a hero has been developed and has arguably evolved
throughout the ages.
There are many types of heroism, and definitions of heroism will vary based on
one’s culture, beliefs, and experiences.
The contrast between hero and villain was once quite clear, yet often those
characters share certain traits. The literary concept of an anti-hero developed
from the blurring of those lines.
The poetic devices employed by authors of epic poems as well as modern and
classic poetry aid in the construction of the works and in the audience’s
comprehension of the works.
Essential Questions:
•
•
How does one define heroism? How does society define heroism today versus
its definition in medieval Britain?
What impact do cultural influences have on an author’s work?
102
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is the difference between a hero and a villain a strict dichotomy or is it more a
spectrum of characteristics?
What are some accepted differences between heroes, anti-heroes, and villains?
How do we define monster?
How is the relationship between hero and monster important? Is it always the
same?
How and why are the “big ideas” of literature repeated through the centuries?
How do poetic devices help support meaning in the text?
How does Beowulf’s heroism compare and/or contrast to the heroism of more
contemporary personalities?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
There are common characteristics of the epic hero cycle.
The concept and characteristics of a hero have evolved throughout the centuries.
There are common definitions of hero, villain, and anti-hero that can be applied to
epic literature.
The historical background of the Anglo-Saxon era, paganism, the influx of
Christianity, and the warrior code influenced literature of that time period and
influence modern day literature written about that time.
The poetic devices of caesura, kenning, and alliteration were utilized in AngloSaxon poetry; each had a specific function and a distinct on the poetry.
The characters and themes presented in Beowulf, an adventure-packed poem
that embodied the traditions of eighth-century Anglo-Saxons, can connect to
modern day people, issues, or lessons.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify and analyze characteristics of an epic.
Define hero, villain, and anti-hero using the information obtained through the
study of the epic hero cycle and the development of heroes, villains, and antiheroes over time.
Compare and contrast classical heroes, villains, and anti-heroes with those from
contemporary literature and society.
Identify and analyze character traits and methods of characterization.
Define paganism and compare and contrast the pagan elements in Beowulf to
the Christian influences in the text.
Identify and analyze the effects of poetic techniques employed in Beowulf and
other literary works such as Anglo-Saxon riddles, The Seafarer, and Rime of the
Ancient Mariner.
Apply the characteristics of the epic hero cycle to Beowulf and Grendel in the
novel/excerpt Grendel, and the speaker in Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
Identify the major events and major factions at play during the Anglo-Saxon era.
103
Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Timed Writing – AP Free-Response Modeled Essay Prompt (Benchmark)
Letter writing connected to literature (i.e. letter from King Hrothgar requesting
Beowulf’s assistance)
Compose boast
Compose original riddles
Create original kenning
Comparison and/or contrast of Beowulf with contemporary heroes
Formal assessment on Beowulf including identification of poetic devices as well
as written responses to open-ended questions connecting key concepts to the
literature read during this unit of study
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
Copies of the Seamus Heaney translation of Beowulf
Speakers to play Old English oration of selections from the epic
Copies of handout with selected discussion topics (list of discussion topic follow)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
•
Cross-content reading related to the Anglo-Saxon era is essential to understood
literature such as Beowulf.
Informational texts connected to society and religion during the first millennia
would help students to more fully understand the literature of the time.
The connection of literature to music throughout history can be studied.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
•
•
Google Books provides free copies (may be to preview only) of both Beowulf and
Grendel online
Websites such as Web English Teacher (www.webenglishteacher.com) and
Read Write Think (www.readwritethink.org) provide lesson plans and
instructional materials on epic poetry, heroes, villains, and anti-heroes, and the
works discussed in this unit of study.
Film excerpts from films such as Underworld, Blade, Interview with a Vampire,
etc.
Internet connection for interactive Epic Hero Cycle exercise from
www.edsitement.net
District databases specifically focusing on the time periods discussed in English
IV
o
ABC-CLIO Ancient and Medieval History
o
Gale Biography in Context
o
Gale World History in Context
o
Facts on File Ancient and Medieval History Online
104
o
o
Facts on File World Geography and Culture
ProQuest History Study Center
Accommodations or Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
•
Students can be provided a graphic organizer to utilize when reading an
assigned text or section of a text to help them focus on key ideas. Such a
graphic organizer can be assessed and can then be used to support students on
a more formal class assessment.
Audio books are available for students who would benefit from an audio version
of a text.
Background information must be provided to help students connect literature to a
particular time period and to help them make connections to contemporary
issues.
Teachers can adopt and utilize different versions of the same text and can
differentiate the reading materials to meet students’ need.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1. RI.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.9a
105
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Beowulf
AP English Literature Free-Response Question
Suggested Time—50 minutes.
Choose one of the following prompts and create a strong essay, which will be scored
using the AP rubric for free response essays.
1.
Choose a character from a novel or play of recognized literary merit (Beowulf)
and write an essay in which you briefly describe the standards of the fictional
society in which the character exists and show how the character is affected by
and responds to those standards.
2.
Choose a work of literature written before 1900 (Beowulf). Write an essay in
which you present arguments for and against the work’s relevance for a person
in today’s society. Your own position should emerge in the course of your
response.
3.
In great literature, no scene of violence exists for its own sake. Choose a work of
literary merit (Beowulf) that confronts the reader or audience with a scene or
scenes of violence. In a well-organized essay, explain how the scene or scenes
contribute to the meaning of the work.
106
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 3: Feminist Literature (Pacing – 15 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
The majority of students’ readings throughout their high school careers have been from
the literary canon, and the majority of those authors and the authors of the “good books”
are white males. This unit provides students with the opportunity to read works from a
different voice, with different experiences to communicate.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
The female perspective in literature is distinctly different from that of the male
experience.
Literary devices including foils, setting, tone and tonal development, and
narrative style helps writers to develop characters as well as theme.
The use of ambiguous conclusions, a characteristic of feminist literature, enables
readers to form their own conclusions and connections to and with works of
literature.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
How is feminist literature distinct from standard works from the literary canon?
Why is it different, concerning both the writer’s purpose and method and the
audiences’ perceptions?
What is the function of a foil in literature?
How does the manner in which scenes are performed and the emphasis placed
alter the meaning and significance of integral scenes in a written work?
How can gender, race, age, or culture define a person’s role in society?
How can a person successfully define him- or herself as an individual?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
Key terms including: bildungsroman, realism, naturalism, foils, setting, diction,
rising action, plot points, climax, denouement, resolution, conclusion, irony,
problem play, retrospective plot, dramatic irony
The setting undoubtedly has an impact on varied elements of a work, in particular
the characters and the conflicts.
There is a relationship between symbols used in works of literature and how
those symbols are used to develop characterization, theme, and conflict.
There are elements of a problem play and a retrospective plot.
107
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
Analyze the impact of setting on characters and events
Discuss the impact of foils on the protagonist and ultimately on the theme of the
work
Evaluate various published critiques and analyses of read works and provide an
argument for whether or not they agree or disagree with the opinions in those
published commentaries
Connect the theme of different works within different genres including novella,
short story, play, and poem
Create a performance of a scene from a read play implementing differing
strategies for presentation to communicate various meanings
Major Assessments:
•
•
•
•
Extended response questions as a formal assessment tool for The Awakening
Extended response questions as a formal assessment tool for The Yellow
Wallpaper
AP Free Writing Topic to be completed in class
o Prompt: In some works of literature, mothers, or the concept of motherhood,
play central roles. Choose a novel or play of literary merit and write a wellorganized essay in which you discuss the maternal interaction between two
characters and how that relationship relates to a large theme represented in
the work.
Comparative analysis of at least two works read in this unit of study (benchmark)
Instructional Materials:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Awakening by Kate Chopin
A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen.
The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
We Wear the Mask by Paul Lawrence Dunbar
“Kate Chopin’s The Awakening: A Critical Reception”
“The Awakening and The Yellow Wallpaper: An Intertextual Comparison of the
Conventional Connotations of Marriage and Propriety”
Foil chart
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
It is imperative that students understand the political and social situation
surrounding each text read during this course of study. Without understanding
the historical context in which each work was written, students will not fully
understand the themes presented in the works.
Also connected to history, students can research the characteristics of the
women’s movement through the years from the turn of the nineteenth century to
108
•
present day; they can further explain how those characteristics contributed to the
commentary and criticism present in the works of female awakening.
Works of art created by female artists accompany much feminist literature and
can be viewed and analyzed as students read works from different literary and
historical eras.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
•
Google Books provides many books such as The Encyclopedia of Feminist
Literature by Kathy J. Whitson and Critical Responses to Feminism by Binod
Mishra. Some books are only available for preview and some in their entirety,
but all serve as additional sources for teachers and students.
“Feminism and Literature: A Guide for Research” at
http://www.lib.unc.edu/reference/hum/feminism.html
“Literary Resources: Feminism and Women’s Literature” at
http://ethnicity.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Lit/women.html
Excerpts from the film Thelma and Louise can be connected to themes present in
some of the works studied throughout this unit of study.
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Students can be provided a graphic organizer to utilize when reading an
assigned text or section of a text to help them focus on key ideas. Such a
graphic organizer can be assessed and can then be used to support students on
a more formal class assessment.
Audio books are available for students who would benefit from an audio version
of a text.
Background information must be provided to help students connect literature to a
particular time period and to help them make connections to contemporary
issues.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1, RI.11-12.7, RI.11-12.10
109
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.6, WS.11-12.7, WS.11-12.9a,
WS.11-12.10
110
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Feminist Literature [Benchmark Assessment]
A Comparative Analysis Essay
In this formal, five page essay, you are to write a comparative analysis of at least two of
the works read in this unit of study.
You must…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Select the works to be compared,
Generate the list of elements for comparison and/or contrast,
Develop a thesis statement,
Exchange first drafts with a peer for peer review and editing,
Make revisions based upon peer feedback,
Submit your revised draft to your instructor for his/her input and approval,
NOTE: When he/she returns your essay, he/she will also provide two published
analyses related to your works.
Incorporate the two published analyses provided by your instructor into your
essay,
Peer conference a second time, after the two analyses are incorporated into your
writing,
Submit your updated draft to your teacher one final time for his/her feedback, and
Submit your final copy on the due date assigned by your instructor.
111
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 4: Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (Pacing – 10 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
As one of the most revered works of collective narrative poetry, The Canterbury Tales is
a wonderful work that allows students to experience and appreciate the artistry,
creativity, and pure excellence of medieval literature. This unit will enable students to
comprehend texts from the Middle Ages, analyze the characters and their motivations
as well as the authors’ purposes in composing such texts, and apply all of those
elements to the modern day. Chaucer’s work provides an accurate cross-section of
society in the Middle Ages. He provides a deeply psychological view of humanity. He
authentically and realistically captures the human spirit inherent in people from all walks
of life. In studying these tales and these individuals, students will be able to parallel
those who lived many centuries ago with individuals students are familiar with in their
everyday lives. The Big Ideas embedded within the unit include:
•
•
•
A significant historical text can be analyzed both in its historical context and
within its contemporary application.
Individuals who existed in medieval times were not very different from people
today, and the relationships they had with one another and with the world around
them speak to modern relationships.
Humor and satire are not modern conventions; they were used just as effectively
during medieval times as they are today.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
One can effectively glean information about a culture from its literature.
Medieval literature is best understood in the context of three powerful influences
on medieval society: feudalism, the church and a code of conduct called
chivalry.
Medieval works drew from many sources, historical and contemporary, while
reflecting and ideals of their time.
Medieval English life presented various targets for satire.
Narrative frames are a specific historical sub-genre with unique traits.
Human nature changes very little over time.
Stereotypes and archetypes help one to make sense of his or her world by
enabling him or her to predict how people will behave.
Humor and entertainment are remarkably similar throughout several centuries of
literary development.
112
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How are the elements of an individual society reflected in works stemming from
that age?
How does one’s understanding of historical context and of cultural influences
impact one’s understanding of the medieval period?
How do stereotypes and archetypes inform one’s understanding of humanity?
What were the social mores of medieval England? How do they reveal
themselves in The Canterbury Tales and other selected readings?
How are works from the medieval time relevant to society today?
How are Chaucer’s Canterbury pilgrims relevant to today’s society?
How does the development of the English language reflect a changing culture?
What makes for effective satire? What is its purpose in society?
What is a ballad? Medieval romance? Allegory? Moral tale?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
One must approach a work of literature with an historical, social, and cultural eye
to fully understand the purpose and theme of the work.
The English language has developed over time, so it is important to understand
the language of a culture when reading a literary work written or set in a
particular time period.
There are parallels between historical and cultural practices of times past and the
modern era.
It is imperative that a reader infer beyond the text to identify key themes, tones,
symbols, motifs, events and ideas from selected works of literature.
Writers develop characters very purposefully, and the actions of and decisions
made by characters influence the progression of the plot and the development of
theme.
An understanding of the following key people and events will help a reader to
more thoroughly comprehend the Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas a’ Becket,
pilgrims and pilgrimage, Black Plague, and rising middle class.
Satire is defined as “trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and
discredit vice or folly” (Merriam-Webster); “its tone varies from tolerant
amusement to bitter indignation” (Encyclo Online Encyclopedia).
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
Explain how the historical context in which a work was written influenced the
work
Identify, explain, and analyze an author’s purpose, especially when considered
within the historical and social context of the time period
Connect The Canterbury Tales to the historical, social, and political contexts of
the Middle Ages
Trace shifts in English language development
113
•
•
•
•
•
Make connections between information presented in The Canterbury Tales and
modern day society or issues
Identify and explain the impact that tone, symbols, motifs, events, and ideas had
on the development of the theme or the impact they have on a particular work of
literature
Evaluate, classify, and analyze the use of stock, stereotypical, and archetypal
characters and narrative frame in character development
Define and identify Geoffrey Chaucer, Thomas a’ Becket, pilgrims and
pilgrimage, Black Plague, and rising middle class and connect each to the Tales
Identify, analyze, and interpret satire and satirical aspects of texts
Major Assessments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Canterbury Tale Booklet Group Activity: The Miller’s Tale, The Reeve’s Tale, or
The Wife of Bath’s Tale (benchmark)
Background investigation on Thomas Becket
Travel Brochure including background investigation on Medieval Social order and
pilgrimages
Topic organization chart focusing on feudalism
Story writing (i.e. narrate an incident mirroring inspiration for “The General
Prologue” modeling Chaucer’s rhyme scheme)
Analyze and present characterization derived from direct information and
inference of individual pilgrims
Persuasive letter writing (i.e. composition taking a stand on why Chaucer should
not be eliminated from the English curriculum; produce a protest poster as
accompaniment)
Test on Ballads
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer
Speakers to listen to the first 18 lines of the prologue read in Middle English
(found on-line; computer must have Real Audio)
“Reynard and Insengrin in the Well” from The Romance of Reynard the Fox,
anonymous
“Chaucer Aboard a Spaceship”, Naoshi Koriyama from Collected Poems
Baba Brinkman, “Rap Canterbury Tales”
“Geoffrey Chaucer Hath a Blog” http:houseoffame.blogspot.com
“A Knight’s Tale” (Columbia Pictures Corporation, 2001)
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
To connect with history, students can read informational texts related to the
Middle Ages, pilgrimages, and Thomas Becket. They can then apply that
114
information to concepts read in The Canterbury Tales, either during class
discussion or in writing.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
District databases specifically focusing on the time periods discussed in English
IV
ABC-CLIO Ancient and Medieval History
Gale Biography in Context
Gale World History in Context
Facts on File Ancient and Medieval History Online
Facts on File World Geography and Culture
ProQuest History Study Center
Helpful Websites
Chaucer Translator at
http://aspirations.english.cam.ac.uk/converse/primary/primary.acds
“Geoffrey Chaucer Hath a Blog” at http://houseoffame.blogspot.com/
History Learning Site at http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/becket.htm
Medieval Sourcebook: Parallel Texts of “The Prologue” at
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/CT-prolog-para.html
Texts and General Subjects on the Geoffrey Chaucer Page at
http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~chaucer/titles.htm
Canterbury: A Brief History and Virtual Tour at
http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~dvess/ids/medieval/canterbury/canterbury.shtml
#tour
“A Knight’s Tale” (Columbia Pictures Corporation, 2001)
Audio for Baba Brinkman’s “Rap Canterbury Tales”
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
Background information (i.e. Middle Ages) must be provided so students
understand the cultural, historical, and societal implications of the Tales. The
reading level of the informational texts provided can differ, but given this is an AP
course, all should be at or above grade level.
Students can be provided a graphic organizer to utilize when reading an
assigned tales or sections of a tale to help them focus on key ideas or to assist
with text translation. Such a graphic organizer can be assessed and can then be
used to support students on a more formal class assessment
The Canterbury Tales is available on audio CD or eBook download; it is also
available for free download (in part) online. Providing such resources allows
auditory learners the ability to learn within their preferred learning style. It is
important to note that an audio recording is not intended to replace reading the
work, rather as an additional support for students.
115
•
•
•
Differentiating the Tale a student reads is one way to accommodate for
differences in reading ability; it also provides the teacher an opportunity to
differentiate based upon student interest.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.6, RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Informational Texts: RI.11-12.1. RI.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.9a
116
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
The Canterbury Tales
Booklet and Presentation: The Pilgrim’s Pages
Students are invited to act as pages for one of the pilgrims presented in The Canterbury
Tales. Each student will be asked to prepare a written booklet and an oral presentation
fulfilling the following requirements:
Booklet—Includes in the following order, bound in a folder or by
some other creative means:
•
•
•
•
•
Title Page—This should be creative and include the name
of your pilgrim
Page 1—Name of pages and what actions each
performed in service of the pilgrim and the presentation
Page 2—Description of the pilgrim and in-depth
characterization
Page 3—Summary of the pilgrim’s tale including moral
Page 4—Artistic rendering of the pilgrim (must be original;
no clipart or internet art)
65 Total
Possible
Points
5
10
20
20
10
Visual Aid—Creatively and effectively teaches about pilgrim
Presentation—
•
Takes between 15 and 20 minutes (no longer)
•
Effectively examines the tale
•
Effectively examines the pilgrim
•
Incorporates the visual aid
•
All group members participate
•
20
TOTAL
100
15
Points
Earned
117
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 5: Poetry: Part II (Pacing – 10 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Now that students have been inundated with works of poetry, narrative and others, it is
time to begin some more formal analysis detailing poets’ use of particular poetic
techniques as well as the function of those techniques. This will enable students to gain
further appreciation of poetry as an art form and as a technique to attempt to
communicate greater understanding in the human psyche.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
Poetry differs from prose chiefly in form and employment of various musical
devices, figurative language, and structure.
Poetry remains popular as a means of communication because of popularity of
form, musical devices, and figurative language as well as its ability to convey
varied messages, themes, and emotions in this form.
Literary devices such as figurative language, musical devices, imagery,
symbolism, theme, tone, voice, transitions, connotation, paradox, irony, and
allegory help writers determine how their messages will be received by the
reader.
There is no fixed form of poetry.
Poems have multiple meanings.
Essential Questions
•
How is poetry different from prose in both form and function?
•
Why is it different, concerning both the writer’s purpose and method and the
audiences’ perceptions?
•
What aims can best be accomplished through poetry rather than prose?
•
Why do people write poetry?
•
What does poetry mean to me?
•
Why do different people find different meanings in the same poem?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
Poets utilize the following literary devices including figurative language
(metaphor, simile, personification), musical devices (alliteration, onomatopoeia,
assonance, consonance, meter, repetition, rhyme), imagery, symbolism, theme,
diction, syntax, paradox, mood, tone, and allusion when writing poems.
•
Poetic genres include lyric poetry, odes, narrative poetry, confessional poetry,
imagistic poetry, dramatic monologue, Cavalier poetry, and Romantic poetry.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
118
•
•
•
Identify and analyze a poet’s use of literary devices including figurative language
(metaphor, simile, personification), musical devices (alliteration, onomatopoeia,
assonance, consonance, meter, repetition, rhyme), imagery, symbolism, theme,
diction, syntax, paradox, mood, tone, and allusion.
Apply interpretive reading strategies such as marginal notations of a poet’s use
of poetic devices (listed above) and analyze the text and marginal notations to
develop meanings and function.
Analyze given poetry using the above strategies to determine symbolism, theme,
and tone.
Major Assessments
•
Poetry Test (benchmark)
o
Students will have fifty minutes to read one poem and answer ten APmodeled multiple choice questions, read a second poem and compose a
written response to an AP modeled prompt.
•
Timed Writing
o
“A Lecture Upon the Shadow”. Students will read the poem and respond
to questions pertaining to literal level, situation, structure, language and
diction, tone, significance of title, and implied theme; they will also provide
a reaction or response.
•
Sonnet Test
o
Teacher will distribute packet of 3 unlabeled sonnets. Students will
identify the type of sonnet for each from the distinguishing characteristics,
mark rhyme scheme, iambic pentameter and provide detailed explanation
of sonnet’s theme and the poet’s use of poetic techniques to communicate
that theme.
Instructional Materials
•
Works from Advanced Placement Poetry, The Center for Learning
o
“Daddy” by Patrick Middleton
o
“Happy Father’s Day” by Patrick Middleton
o
“Daddy” by Sylvia Plath
o
“Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats
o
“I Know I’m Not Sufficiently Obscure” by Ray Durem
o
Works by T.E. Hulme
o
“No Images” by Waring Cuney
o
“Root Cellar” by Theodore Roethke
o
Works by Alexander Pope
o
“Hope” by George Herbert
o
“Hope Is the Thing with Feathers” by Emily Dickinson
o
“The Wayfarer” by Stephen Crane
o
“Many Workmen” by Stephen Crane
o
“The World” by Henry Vaughan
o
“Naming of Parts” by Henry Reed
119
o
o
“Spring” by Gerard Manley Hopkins
“Sonnet 18” by Francesco Petrarch, translated by Noti
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
Themes of individual poems can be connected to the historical era in which they
were composed. Students can analyze the commentary the poet is providing
considering major events, issues, and conflicts of said era.
Technology Connections
•
•
•
College Board provides sample poetry prompt passages, questions, and
exemplary responses online at
http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/english_lit/samp.html?englit.
You can access every poem and prompt on the AP Literature and Composition
AP Exam released by College Board from 1970 through 2009 online at
http://homepage.mac.com/mseffie/assignments/poem-a-day/Poetry_Essays.pdf.
There is a Google Book called AP English Literature and Composition for
Dummies, with a section specifically focusing on the poetry passage of the AP
Exam. This book can be accessed by typing the title on the Google Books main
page.
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
This one week unit of study is, in a sense, an accommodation itself. The unit of
poetry will be revisited later in the semester to better help all students analyze
the symbolic nature of poetry at a deeper level.
Students who struggle with analysis and continue to work at a literal level should
be offered additional support after school, perhaps through a tutoring session or
with a Partners in Learning tutor (if available).
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.4, RL.11-12.5,
RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.9a
120
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Poetry: Part II [Benchmark Assessment]
Released by College Board (2008)
AP English Literature Free-Response Question
Suggested Time—40 minutes
In the two poems below, Keats and Longfellow reflect on similar concerns. Read the
poems carefully. Then write an essay in which you compare/contrast the two poems,
analyzing the poetic techniques each writer uses to explore his particular situation.
“When I Have Fears” by John Keats
When I have fears that I may cease to be
Before my pen has glean'd my teeming brain,
Before high-piled books, in charactery,
Hold like rich garners the full ripen'd grain;
When I behold, upon the night's starr'd face,
Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance,
And think that I may never live to trace
Their shadows, with the magic hand of chance;
And when I feel, fair creature of an hour,
That I shall never look upon thee more,
Never have relish in the faery power
Of unreflecting love;--then on the shore
Of the wide world I stand alone, and think
Till love and fame to nothingness do sink.
“Mezzo Cammin” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Half of my life is gone, and I have let
The years slip from me and have not fulfilled
The aspiration of my youth, to build
Some tower of song with lofty parapet.
Not indolence, nor pleasure, nor the fret
Of restless passions chat would not be stilled,
But sorrow, and a care that almost killed,
Kept me from what I may accomplish yet;
Though, half way up the hill, I see the Past
Lying beneath me with its sounds and sights,-A city in the twilight dim and vast,
With smoking roofs, soft bells, and gleaming lights.-And hear above me on the autumnal blast
The cataract of Death far thundering from the heights.
121
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 6: As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner (Pacing – 7 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
What makes this particular work so appropriate for high school students is that it is
constructed in a manner no student had most likely ever experienced. There are fifteen
separate narrative voices, with each chapter constructed as an interior monologue. The
focus of this unit will be on trust—who is saying what, what is that individual’s
motivation, who is telling the truth, is anyone lying, and what is actually going on? This
will enable students to develop the skill of deriving true meaning out of experience and
truth from their own experiences. The Big Ideas embedded throughout this unit are:
•
•
•
Writers utilize perspective or point of view, among other methods of
characterization, to fully develop characters.
A writer can develop characters to complement one another or as a foil for each
other; readers may connect to or reject a character in a work of literature as well.
Reading works of literature is an active process that requires one to read
carefully, analyze thoughtfully, and infer beyond the text.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
A novel is a carefully crafted work.
The effectiveness of a novel is determined by skilled use of multiple strategies.
Novels may inform, criticize and enlighten, as well as entertain.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
How powerful is language?
Does perspective alter truth? Does perspective alter reality?
Why is voice essential for identity?
What is a hero?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
•
Southern culture, humor, and the journey are all present in this work by Faulkner.
Writers utilize different narrative strategies including stream of consciousness,
interior monologue, voice, direct conflict, indirect conflict, logical fallacy, journey,
various archetypes, and use of italics to communicate artistically and effectively.
Literary devices including simile, metaphor, personification, apostrophe, diction,
imagery, and symbols are used by writers to add voice, passion, emotion, and
“life” to writing.
There are varied definitions of a modern hero.
122
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
Identify the differing narrators in the novel and examine characters’ developing
characterization from their own chapters and the description provided of them
from other narrators
Define archetypes and archetypal characters; categorize characters and explain
connections
Compare and contrast themes in given chapters with narrative voices and
examples of poetry
Identify examples of literary elements in a given passage including: simile,
metaphor, personification, apostrophe, diction, and imagery and explain the
effectiveness of the author’s and the speaker’s use of those elements
Explain the function of italicized sections
Major Assessments:
•
•
•
Compose a written, detailed character analysis, discussing the divergent
viewpoints (benchmark)
Characterization Activity (i.e. discuss Addie and explain the divergent
characterization between how the audience was meant to originally perceive her
and how other characters presented her and how she presents herself)
Students will complete a formal test including AP modeled multiple choice
questions, short answer, and one essay analyzing a given passage from the
novel
Instructional Materials:
•
•
•
•
As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner
Faulkner’s Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech, obtained online
“Come Forth” by Wendell Berry
“Some Things, Say the Wise Ones” by Mary Oliver
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Informational texts can be introduced (i.e. biography of Faulkner’s life, Nobel
Prize Acceptance Speech, etc.)
Students can be asked to read about the Modern Literary Era and connect
information provided in the novel to historical, social, or political issues that
occurred during Faulkner’s lifetime.
Technology Connections
•
Sparknotes for As I Lay Dying at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/asilay/
o NOTE: This information is accessible to students as well, so while it is an
excellent resource, the information obtained on this site should not be used to
123
•
•
assess comprehension or analytical abilities as students can obtain answers
from this site rather than produce original thinking.
Listen to audio or read Faulkner’s Noble Prize Acceptance Speech at
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1949/faulkner-speech.html
William Faulkner on the web at
http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~egjbp/faulkner/faulkner.html
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
Students can be assigned different chapters, thus different perspectives, to read.
Differentiation can be teacher directed or student selected, and it can be based
upon student reading level or student interest.
Students can be provided a graphic organizer to utilize when reading an
assigned chapter to help them focus on key ideas. Such a graphic organizer can
be assessed and can then be used to support students on a more formal class
assessment.
Audio books are available for students who would benefit from an audio version
of As I Lay Dying.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Applicable 2010 Core Curriculum State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.5,
RL.11-12.6, RL.11-12.10
Reading Standards for Writing: WS.11-12.2a, WS.11-12.2b, WS.11-12.2c, WS.1112.2d, WS.11-12.2e, WS.11-12.2f, WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.5, WS.11-12.9a
124
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner
Comparative Essay: A Character Analysis
Project Description
Isolation is experienced in varying degrees by Addie, Darl, Dewey Dell, and Jewel.
Each character has a special situation or quality that keeps each person from being
close to others. Although they have access to family, neighbors, and a doctor, they are
reluctant to ask for support and help from others; they are misunderstood; and they are
frustrated and often make poor choices.
Essay Prompt
Select any two of the four characters and describe the sources of their isolation and its
consequences. Evaluate the part isolation plays in the lives of the two characters you
chose and comment on the ways they handle their need to be connected to others. Do
you find times when they are capable of action for and with others? When do they
seem least able to work with others?
Write a five page, well-developed essay. You are encouraged to use external sources
to support your analysis, but it is not a requirement. Your essay must be in proper MLA
format (Times New Roman, 12 point font, double spaced) with citations.
125
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 7: Dystopian Novel – Brave New World by Aldous Huxley (Pacing – 10 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Students will have previously read Lord of the Flies (Golding), Fahrenheit 451
(Bradbury), and 1984 (Orwell) in English I and English II, so they should be familiar with
the general characteristics of a dystopian novel. Students will use their recollections of
these literary works to provide continuous comparison and contrast to the makeup of
the dystopia in the novel Brave New World. The Big Ideas embedded throughout this
unit include:
•
•
It is important to analyze what happens, to both the individual and to society,
when different worlds collide in order to avoid the negative consequences that
repeat throughout history.
Students must decipher what it is like to view the world through the eyes of
someone different than themselves.
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
Dystopian literature is often a commentary on today’s society and a speculation
about what society might look like if its members are not alert.
As technologies have developed, individuals have come to rely upon them,
changing their lives to the extent that many consider them necessities rather than
luxuries; this dependence can sometimes strip an individual of some of the things
that make one human.
Striking a balance between what is good for an individual and what is good for
society is a concern in democratic nations.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To what extent is society controlled by technology and science? How is this
control both good and bad?
How is consumerism both beneficial and harmful to society?
Are truth and happiness incompatible?
What roles do individuality and family have in society? Are they necessary?
What happens to individuals and individuality when different cultures come in
contact with one another?
In history, how has contact between cultures resulted in positive outcomes?
What have been the negative outcomes?
How can gender, race, age, or culture define a person’s role in society?
How can a person successfully define him/herself as an individual?
126
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
Historical figures and facts presented in the novel include Henry Ford, Pavlov,
Freud, the Model T; each has influenced society and the society presented in the
novel.
The technological advances imagined by Aldous Huxley compare with
technological advances realized by societal progress.
Propaganda and propaganda techniques serve as mechanisms behind the
political and social aspects of dystopian literature.
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
Analyze and evaluate present day society in terms of Huxley’s warnings
Compare and discriminate between ideas presented in the book and those
obtained through additional reading to determine their feelings about
consumerism, science, technology, truth, happiness, and the role of the
individual and of the family
Define literary elements of the novel including point of view, setting, and
characterization while developing an understanding of how these devices impact
the overall theme
Major Assessments
•
Creative Writing Assignment (choose one)
•
Students will compose a radio interview, a commentary, relating the
incident with the soma on the rooftop with John. Students will be
instructed to keep in mind the attitudes of the people of the World State
who would be listening to the radio interview.
•
Students will assume the identity of a person in the World State, going
back in future time. The persuasive letter is to propose a solution to
senility, a new plan for conditioning.
•
Students will complete a formal test including AP modeled multiple choice
questions, short answer, and one essay analyzing a given passage from
the novel. (benchmark)
Instructional Materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
“In Memory of My Dear Grandchild, Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August
1665 Being a Year and Half Old” by Anne Bradstreet
From “A Letter to John Adams” by Thomas Jefferson
From “Thanatopsis” by William Cullen Bryant
“Crossing the Bar” by Alfred, Lord Tennyson
“Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas
127
•
Excerpts from the films “Blade Runner”, “Brazil”, “Children of Men”, and/or “The
Matrix”
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
•
Analyze commentary and criticism of events of the era in which the novel was
composed and presented in the written work.
Connection to contemporary issues provides opportunity for students to read
nonfiction texts related to modern society and make connections between it and
the ideas presented in the novel. Such ideas can also connect to information
discussed in history class (i.e. some would argue the Patriot Act)
Technology Connections
•
•
•
Helpful websites
o Brave New World? A Defense of Paradise-Engineering at
http://www.huxley.net/
o Full copy of the text available online at http://www.huxley.net/bnw/
o Sparknotes for Brave New World at http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/bravenew/
NOTE: This information is accessible to students as well, so while it is
an excellent resource, the information obtained on this site should not
be used to assess comprehension or analytical abilities as students
can obtain answers from this site rather than produce original thinking.
YouTube Video: Aldous Huxley on Brave New World and Nineteen Eight Four at
www.youtube.com (not accessible through school network)
History of Dystopian Literature at
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1989412/the_history_of_dystopian_liter
ature.html
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
•
•
The full text of Brave New World is available online at
http://www.huxley.net/bnw/. This provides students the opportunity to upload the
text to an iPhone and have it read aloud using iPhone technology.
Students can be provided a graphic organizer to utilize when reading an
assigned chapter to help them focus on key ideas. Such a graphic organizer can
be assessed and can then be used to support students on a more formal class
assessment.
Audio books are available for students who would benefit from an audio version
of Brave New World.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
128
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1. RL.11-12.2. RL.11-12.3. RL.11-12.4.
RL.11-12.5. RL.11-12.6. RL.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.9a
129
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
AP-Modeled Passage Response
Assignment Instructions
Compose an appropriate, AP modeled response to the writing prompt below. You will
be scored using the AP free-response rubric, with 7 achieving the highest score. You
should include an introductory paragraph with a clear thesis statement, well organized
body paragraphs using specific examples from the excerpt and clear explanations, and
a concise concluding paragraph.
Read the passage in Chapter Five, beginning on page 49 with, “’Why do smokestacks
have those things like balconies around them?’ enquired Lenina” and ending on page
50 with, “’Yes, everybody’s happy now,’ echoed Lenina. They had heard the words
repeated a hundred and fifty times every night for twelve years.”
Writing Prompt
Write a well organized essay in which you analyze the essential contradictions in
Lenina’s character AND discuss how Huxley uses Lenina to undermine the idea that the
World State is perfect. Do not merely summarize the plot.
130
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Unit 8: Shakespeare’s Hamlet (Pacing – 10 Days)
Why Is This Unit Important?
Through reading, writing, discussing, listening, and viewing it is essential for students of
this age to determine how community and identity are an unavoidable part of the human
experience. Additionally, as students begin to forge their way into adulthood and the
many trials and tribulations of independence, it is essential they understand that the
manner in which a person faces conflict reveals the nature of his or her character and
that conflict itself may be an agent for positive or negative change. A person’s point of
view, often developed through both experience and secondary observation, affects how
that person deals with conflict and change. Such are the themes presented in
Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The Big Ideas embedded throughout this unit are:
Enduring Understandings
•
•
•
•
•
A character’s individual perspective is limited.
Much of our lives are built upon uncertainties and unknown quantities that are
taken for granted when people act or when they evaluate the actions of another.
The cost of vengeance may be great.
Shakespeare’s themes and stories are timeless and still appeal to readers nearly
four-hundred years after his death.
Communication often includes implicit information as well as explicit information.
Essential Questions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can uncertainties and conjecture influence one’s actions?
What is the price of revenge?
Is revenge ever justifiable?
How is one’s understanding limited by his or her perceptions?
How does an individual attempt to define his motives and ideas in relation to the
world?
How does appearance differ from reality?
Is Hamlet crazy?
Acquired Knowledge (Students will know…)
•
•
•
The development of characters and the progression of a plot lead to the
development of the theme in Hamlet.
Literary terms such as tragedy, soliloquy, foreshadowing, foils, imagery, and
symbolism must be understood to fully comprehend and appreciate this work.
Subtext and choices by actors and directors can influence an audience’s
understanding of and perception of drama.
131
Acquired Skills (Students will be able to…)
•
•
•
•
•
Evaluate how characters’ perceptions and understandings influence their actions
Develop an appreciation for Shakespeare’s use of language by analyzing his use
of and play with language
Understand that the text of Hamlet is a script containing textual and subtextual
signals, identify such signals, and explain how they contribute to the drama itself
Learn and use several close-reading techniques
Identify the themes presented in the work and recognize them as universal
themes, connecting them to other works, historical issues, and contemporary
society
Major Assessments:
•
•
•
•
•
Complete a timeline of events between “King Hamlet dies” and “Fortinbras is
named king”
Students will complete an in-class timed writing modeled after a past AP OpenEnded response questions (benchmark)
Soliloquy Analysis (i.e. analyze Hamlet’s “To be or not to be” soliloquy from both
Shakespeare’s writing and from the Kenneth Branaugh’s “Hamlet”; follow-up
activities could include additional analyses of the soliloquies in Act I.ii; Act II.ii;
Act III.ii; Act III.iii; Act IV.iv)
Extended Essay Response (i.e. Describe five characters from Hamlet; Is Hamlet
mad? Explain what you feel is the climax or turning point in the play; Is Hamlet a
hero?)
Group work to prepare for Socratic discussion (i.e. identify themes and motifs;
What effect do they have on the play? How does each character aptly describe
as a foil for Hamlet?)
Instructional Materials:
•
•
Hamlet by William Shakespeare
Kenneth Branagh’s version of Hamlet
Interdisciplinary Connections
•
Students can research or read informational texts related to the Elizabethan Era,
such as the philosophies espoused during the time period and/or the political
perspectives that were presented in the play.
Technology Connections
•
Film “Hamlet” (Castle Rock Productions, 1996)
132
Accommodations and Modifications
•
•
•
•
The film version of Hamlet (Castle Rock Productions) can be shown to students
to help with visualization and to help them understand the language spoken in
the text. It is important to note that the film should be shown to supplement the
reading of Hamlet, not as a replacement.
Allowing students to perform the drama helps students with interpretation.
Differentiated class assignments will help to meet the needs of various learners.
Any student with an accommodation specified in a 504 Plan or an IEP must have
those accommodations met in the classroom and on the AP exam. Preferential
seating, use of a computer, and extended time are often accommodations
granted to students; if you have a student with such accommodations, it is best to
have him or her utilize the accommodation every time a practice exam is given to
help prepare him/her for the true testing situation.
Applicable 2010 Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Reading Standards for Literature: RL.11-12.1, RL.11-12.2, RL.11-12.3, RL.11-12.4,
RL.11-12.5, RL.11-12.6, RL.11-12.7, RL.11-12.10
Writing Standards: WS.11-12.4, WS.11-12.9a
133
Advanced Placement (AP) English IV: Literature and Composition
Shakespeare’s Hamlet [Benchmark Assessment]
One definition of madness is “mental delusion or the eccentric behavior arising from it.”
But Emily Dickenson wrote, “Much madness is divinest Sense -- / To a discerning Eye”
Novelists and playwrights have often seen madness with a “discerning eye”.
Select a novel or play in which a character’s apparent madness or irrational behavior
plays an important role. Then write a well-organized essay in which you explain what
this delusion or eccentric behavior consists of and how it might be judged reasonable.
Explain the significance of the “madness” to the work as a whole. Do not merely
summarize the plot.
134
Appendix A
General Databases for English Classroom Use
Gale Literary Resource Center
•
•
biographical information, overviews, full-text literary criticism and reviews on
more than 130,000 writers in all disciplines
all time periods and literature from around the world included
Literature Resources from Gale
•
•
research authors and their works, literary movements and genres
user can search across several major literature databases to find the full text of
literary works, journal articles, literary criticism, reviews, biographical information
and overviews
LitFinder for Schools
•
•
spans history and geography to offer nearly 150,000 poems, short stories,
essays, speeches and plays representing the work of more than 80,000 authors
more than 660 nationalities are represented
ProQuest Language and Learning
•
•
biographical information, overviews, full-text literary criticism and reviews of
authors and their works
literary movements and genres are included as well
E-Books: Located in the Gale Virtual Reference Library link within the Gale databases
•
Art and Humanities Through the Eras
•
Feminism in Literature: A Gale Critical Companion
•
Gothic Literature: A Gale Critical Companion
•
Family in Society: Essential Primary Sources
•
Gender Issues and Sexuality: Essential Primary Sources
•
Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources
•
Human and Civil Rights: Essential Primary Sources
•
American History Through Literature, 1820-1920
•
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
•
Europe 1789-1914 Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire
•
Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction
•
Historic Events for Students: The Great Depression
•
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture
•
UXL American Decades
135
Appendix B
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