BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009

BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
BP Statistical Review
of World Energy
June 2009
bp.com/statisticalreview
What’s inside?
1
Introduction
1
2
6
Group chief executive’s introduction
2008 in review
38
Reserves
Production
Consumption
Prices
Stocks
Refining
Trade movements
22 Natural gas
22
24
27
30
31
Reserves
Production
Consumption
Trade movements
Prices
32 Coal
32
32
34
35
36
Consumption
38 Hydroelectricity
Oil
6
8
11
16
17
18
20
36 Nuclear energy
Reserves
Prices
Production
Consumption
Consumption
40 Primary energy
40
41
43
Consumption
Consumption by fuel
R/P ratios
44 Appendices
44
44
45
Approximate conversion factors
Definitions
More information
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
About this Review
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BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
uses the following icons and colour coding to help
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For 58 years, the BP Statistical Review
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plus a number of extras, including:
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Approximate conversion
factors and definitions
See page 44.
View or order this
Review at
bp.com/statisticalreview
The data series for proved oil and gas reserves in BP Statistical Review of World
Energy June 2009 does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and
practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance,
under UK accounting rules contained in the Statement of Recommended
Practice, ‘Accounting for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, Production and
Decommissioning Activities’ (UK SORP) or as published by the US Securities and
Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP’s view of proved
reserves by country. Rather, the data series has been compiled using a
combination of primary official sources and third-party data.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
Group chief
executive’s introduction
Energy in 2008
followed the
economic
headlines
Tony Hayward Group Chief Executive
June 2009
Welcome to the 2009 edition of the BP Statistical Review
of World Energy.
2008 was a year of truly unprecedented
developments, for the world economy and in energy
markets. Prices for all forms of traded energy rose steeply,
some reaching record highs, and then fell dramatically.
Producers and consumers alike are wondering where
global energy markets are headed, and how to manage
the myriad issues around energy, including price volatility,
security and climate change.
In challenging times such as these, clear and
objective perspectives are needed, and this is what BP’s
Statistical Review has offered for 58 years. I hope you
will find this Review to be a useful source of information
on today’s energy situation – and a source of insight in
thinking about tomorrow’s.
As ever, the world economy is the key driver of energy
consumption. It is easy to forget that until the middle
of 2008, the economy continued to grow. In retrospect,
last year represented the end of one of the strongest
periods of economic growth ever recorded. However,
the economy had already started to slow, most likely
not unrelated to the high price of energy, and the financial
crisis in September then triggered a sharp recession –
with critical implications for global energy consumption.
Energy prices followed these economic headlines,
making for a year of very different parts. Oil prices
increased steadily early in the year, exceeding $140 per
barrel in early July – a record even on an inflation-adjusted
basis. But then prices collapsed, falling by more than 70%
by the end of the year. Market prices for natural gas and
coal followed similar trajectories. Over the whole of 2008,
average prices for all forms of primary energy increased
significantly, with annual oil prices rising for a seventh
consecutive year, a first in the nearly 150-year history of
the oil industry.
Primary energy consumption growth slowed in
2008, as did growth for each of the fossil fuels. All the
net growth in energy consumption came from the rapidly
industrializing non-OECD economies, with China alone
accounting for nearly three-quarters of global growth. For
the first time, non-OECD energy consumption surpassed
OECD consumption. For a sixth consecutive year, coal
was the fastest-growing fuel – with obvious implications
for global CO2 emissions.
The use of renewable fuels again rose rapidly,
often benefitting from government support. Although
renewable energy continues to play only a small role in
the world’s energy mix, the share is rising rapidly in
some countries and there are the beginnings of a material
impact. Data on renewable energy – ethanol production
as well as wind, solar and geothermal power generation
capacity – may be found at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
In 2008 the world was no longer supplyconstrained, as production growth exceeded that of
consumption for all fossil fuels, particularly later in the
year. Expanded OPEC production drove increases in
world oil supply, even as consumption declined. The
cost-effective development of unconventional gas,
enabled by technological innovation, drove the largestever increase in US natural gas supply, and for coal,
strong growth in China was once again a key driver.
Seen in this context, fundamental market forces help
to explain the downward pressure seen on energy
prices later in the year.
Our data confirms that the world has enough
proved reserves of oil, natural gas and coal to meet
the world’s needs for decades to come. The challenges
the world faces in growing supplies to meet future
demand are not below ground, they are above ground.
They are human, not geological.
I would like to thank all those around the world
who have been involved in preparing this Review – in
particular our government contacts in many countries
who helped to compile the data.
1
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
2008 in review
Global energy consumption growth slowed
in 2008, with slower economic growth and
higher average prices breaking a string of
five consecutive years of above-average
growth. Production growth exceeded that
of consumption for all fossil fuels.
For the year as a whole, prices for all
forms of traded energy rose substantially
despite sharp declines late in the year. Oil
prices reached inflation-adjusted record
highs, rising for a seventh consecutive year.
Internationally traded coal prices rose more
steeply than other fuels. Natural gas prices
in Europe and for Asia-Pacific liquefied
natural gas (LNG) rose in line with – or
more rapidly than – oil prices, while
North American price increases were
more moderate.
Non-OECD primary
energy consumption exceeded
OECD consumption for the
first time.
Shanghai, China
China accounted
for three-quarters
of global energy
consumption growth.
Primary energy consumption
+7.2%
China
–2.8%
US
2
Energy developments
World primary energy consumption – including
oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and hydro
power – grew by 1.4% in 2008, the slowest
growth since 2001. Non-OECD primary
energy consumption exceeded OECD
consumption for the first time. The AsiaPacific region accounted for 87% of the
world’s energy consumption growth. For the
third consecutive year, coal accounted for
the majority of primary energy consumption
growth. Chinese consumption growth slowed
for the fifth consecutive year, yet China
accounted for nearly three-quarters of global
growth. Energy consumption among exporting
regions remained robust, with above-average
growth in the Middle East and Africa.
Consumption in the US fell by 2.8%, the
largest decline since 1982.
Oil
Dated Brent averaged $97.26 per barrel in
2008, an increase of 34%. Other benchmark
crudes registered similar gains. Prices began
the year just below $100 and rose sharply
through mid-year, peaking above $144 in
early July. But with strong OPEC production
growth and the world economy – and oil
consumption – weakening, inventories
increased and prices declined sharply
thereafter, ending the year below $40.
An easing of refinery bottlenecks led to a
narrowing of crude quality differentials in
the second half of the year.
Global oil consumption declined by
0.6%, or by 420,000 barrels per day (b/d),
the first decline since 1993 and the largest
decline since 1982. Consumption in OECD
countries fell by 3.2% (1.5 million b/d), a third
consecutive year of decline – led by a drop
of 6.4%, or nearly 1.3 million b/d, in the US.
Outside the OECD, consumption growth
slowed to 1.1 million b/d, with continued
strong growth among oil exporting countries
partly offset by slower growth among
Asia-Pacific importers.
Oil production outside OPEC
fell by 1.4% or 610,000b/d, the
largest decline since 1992.
While oil consumption declined, global
oil production increased by 0.4%, or
380,000b/d. Although OPEC began cutting
production late in the year, average annual
production rose by 2.7%, or 990,000b/d.
Middle Eastern OPEC members accounted
for all of the net increase, with Saudi Arabian
production rising by nearly 400,000b/d and
Iraqi output rising by 280,000b/d.
Oil production outside OPEC fell by
1.4% or 610,000b/d, the largest decline
since 1992. OECD production fell by 4%, or
750,000b/d, with declines in North America
and Europe; Mexican production fell by
310,000b/d, the world’s largest decline.
Russian production fell by 90,000b/d, the
first decline since 1998. These declines were
partly offset by continued growth in Brazilian
output of 70,000b/d.
Refining capacity additions in 2008
totalled some 830,000b/d, with most of the
additions concentrated in the Asia-Pacific
region, especially China where capacity grew
by 2.9% (220,000b/d). However, global crude
runs fell by 250,000b/d because of lower oil
consumption. The biggest throughput changes
were a fall of 3.4% (510,000b/d) in the US,
partially offset by growth of 4.4% (290,000b/d)
in China. The combination of increasing
refining capacity and lower crude runs meant
Thunder Horse field,
Gulf of Mexico, US
US oil consumption
fell by 6.4% or nearly
1.3 million b/d.
that global refinery utilization in 2008 fell for
the third year running to 84.8%, the lowest
level since 2003.
Global oil trade fell by 1.7% or
930,000b/d, the first decline since 2002 and
the largest since 1987, driven by declining
consumption among importing countries
(especially in the OECD) and rising domestic
consumption among the world’s oil exporters.
Global oil consumption
–0.6%
The first decline
since 1993
3
Natural gas
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
2008 in review
Global gas consumption grew by 2.5%, below
the 10-year average. In North America, spot
gas prices for the year remained well below
oil prices and consumption grew by an
above-average 1.3%. Elsewhere only the
Middle East saw above-average growth,
driven by strong domestic consumption
among energy-exporting nations and a rapid
expansion of intra-regional trade. In OECD
Europe and the Asia-Pacific region, oil-indexed
gas prices rose more rapidly and consumption
growth was below average. Chinese
consumption grew by 15.8%, and China
accounted for the largest incremental growth
in world gas consumption.
In the US output rose by
7.5%, 10 times the 10-year
average and the strongest
volumetric growth on record.
LNG plant, North West
Shelf, Australia
Global natural gas trade
rebounded in 2008,
growing by 3.8%;
LNG trade for the year
fell slightly.
Natural gas share of world energy consumption
Natural gas accounts for
24.1% of world energy
use, the highest share
on record.
4
24.1%
Global gas production grew by 3.8%, above
the 10-year average of 3%. Strong growth
was driven by the US, which for the second
consecutive year accounted for the largest
increment to global production. In the US
output rose by 7.5%, 10 times the 10-year
average and the strongest volumetric growth
on record. The development of unconventional
resources and strong drilling activity (which
began to decline later in the year as prices
weakened) drove the US increase. Qatar
accounted for the second-largest increment
to supply as pipeline shipments to the UAE
continued to ramp up. EU production rose for
the first time since 2004, as increases in the
Netherlands and Denmark offset UK declines.
Global natural gas trade rebounded in
2008, growing by 3.8%, driven by growth in
pipeline shipments; LNG trade for the year
fell slightly. Pipeline trade increased by 5.5%;
the ramp-up of Qatari exports accounted for
36% of global growth, and shipments also
increased from Russia and several European
countries, more than offsetting declining
Canadian shipments to the US. Meanwhile,
breaking a recent pattern of strong growth,
global LNG shipments were limited by
constrained supply.
Other fuels
Global coal consumption slowed in 2008,
rising by a below-average 3.1%, yet coal
remained the fastest-growing fuel in the
world for a sixth consecutive year. In China
(the world’s largest consumer, with a 43%
share), consumption grew by 6.8%, below
the 10-year average but still sufficient
to account for 85% of global growth.
In liberalized energy markets, coal prices
in 2008 increased more rapidly than other
fossil fuels; consumption growth outside
China was a weak 0.6%. Growth was
below the 10-year average for every region
but South and Central America and Africa.
Nuclear output dropped by 0.7%,
a second consecutive global decline.
Japanese output fell by 10% due to the
lingering impact of a 2007 earthquake.
Hydroelectric generation grew by 2.8%, with
global growth above the 10-year average for
the fourth time in the past five years. Chinese
hydroelectric output grew by 20.3%, double
the 10-year average and sufficient to account
for all the global increase. Elsewhere
Coal was again the world’s fastest
growing fuel
hydroelectric output was weaker than
average, falling by 0.4%.
Renewable energy continued to grow
strongly. Global wind and solar generation
capacity increased by 29.9% and 69%,
respectively – both figures above the
10-year average. Driven by a favourable policy
environment, US wind capacity rose by
49.5%, surpassing Germany as the world’s
capacity leader. Ethanol production rose by
one-third driven by continued strong growth
in the US and Brazil.
+3.1%
World consumption
growth
Acknowledgements
We would like to express our gratitude to the many contacts
worldwide who provide the basic publicly-available data for
this publication.
Coal
In liberalized energy
markets, coal prices
in 2008 increased
more rapidly than
other fossil fuels.
5
Oil
Proved reserves
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Italy
Kazakhstan
Norway
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Chad
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC‡
Former Soviet Union
Canadian oil sands•
Proved reserves and oil sands
*More than 100 years.
At end 1988
Thousand
million
barrels
At end 1998
Thousand
million
barrels
At end 2007
Thousand
million
barrels
Thousand
million
tonnes
35.1
11.9
53.0
100.0
2.3
2.8
2.1
1.5
0.9
0.6
58.5
0.6
69.2
n/a
0.5
0.8
n/a
7.3
1.2
n/a
n/a
4.3
n/a
63.2
77.3
92.9
100.0
94.5
4.1
4.5
255.0
1.8
98.1
2.0
0.1
653.0
9.2
2.0
–
0.8
4.3
–
0.9
22.8
16.0
0.3
1.8
1.0
59.0
3.4
1.2
17.3
4.5
9.0
3.4
0.1
0.1
1.0
39.9
998.4
8.3
118.3
764.0
173.5
60.9
n/a
n/a
28.6
15.1
21.6
65.3
2.8
7.4
2.5
4.1
0.9
0.7
76.1
1.1
95.6
n/a
0.9
0.8
n/a
11.7
1.2
n/a
n/a
5.1
n/a
2.1
104.9
93.7
112.5
96.5
5.4
12.5
261.5
2.3
97.8
1.9
0.2
684.3
11.3
4.0
–
1.7
3.8
0.6
2.6
29.5
22.5
0.3
0.3
0.7
77.2
4.1
1.0
17.4
5.4
5.1
4.7
0.4
1.9
1.3
41.3
1068.5
8.9
89.2
827.2
157.6
83.8
n/a
n/a
30.5
28.6
12.2
71.3
2.6
12.6
1.5
4.0
1.1
0.9
99.4
1.4
123.5
7.0
1.1
0.9
39.8
8.2
0.5
80.4
0.6
3.4
0.6
2.1
144.6
138.2
115.0
101.5
5.6
27.4
264.2
2.5
97.8
2.7
0.1
755.0
12.2
13.5
0.9
1.9
4.1
1.7
3.2
43.7
36.2
6.7
0.6
0.6
125.3
4.2
1.1
16.1
5.5
4.0
5.5
0.5
3.4
1.1
41.3
1261.0
6.7
90.3
957.1
174.7
129.2
150.7
1411.7
3.7
4.4
1.6
9.7
0.4
1.7
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.1
14.3
0.2
17.6
1.0
0.1
0.1
5.3
0.9
0.1
10.8
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.3
19.2
18.9
15.5
14.0
0.8
2.9
36.3
0.3
13.0
0.3
†
102.0
1.5
1.8
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.2
0.4
5.7
4.9
0.9
0.1
0.1
16.6
0.5
0.1
2.1
0.8
0.5
0.7
0.1
0.6
0.1
5.6
170.8
0.8
12.0
129.8
23.6
17.4
24.5
195.3
At end 2008
Thousand
million
barrels
30.5
28.6
11.9
70.9
2.6
12.6
1.4
3.8
1.1
0.8
99.4
1.4
123.2
7.0
0.8
0.8
39.8
7.5
0.5
79.0
0.6
3.4
0.6
2.1
142.2
137.6
115.0
101.5
5.6
27.3
264.1
2.5
97.8
2.7
0.1
754.1
12.2
13.5
0.9
1.9
4.3
1.7
3.2
43.7
36.2
6.7
0.6
0.6
125.6
4.2
1.1
15.5
5.8
3.7
5.5
0.5
4.7
1.1
42.0
1258.0
6.3
88.9
955.8
174.4
127.8
150.7
1408.7
Share
of total
R/P
ratio
2.4%
2.3%
0.9%
5.6%
0.2%
1.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
7.9%
0.1%
9.8%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
3.2%
0.6%
12.4
24.1
10.3
14.8
10.5
18.2
6.0
20.3
25.5
15.2
*
27.7
50.3
20.9
7.7
21.1
70.0
8.3
13.3
21.8
8.0
6.0
14.6
13.4
22.1
86.9
*
99.6
20.9
54.1
66.5
17.2
89.7
23.9
10.6
78.6
16.7
19.7
19.4
21.3
16.4
12.9
37.0
64.6
45.6
38.1
18.5
12.0
33.4
20.4
16.9
11.1
20.7
10.2
19.8
3.9
40.8
12.8
14.5
42.0
7.7
13.2
71.1
14.8
27.2
◆
6.3%
◆
0.3%
◆
0.2%
11.3%
10.9%
9.1%
8.1%
0.4%
2.2%
21.0%
0.2%
7.8%
0.2%
◆
59.9%
1.0%
1.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.3%
3.5%
2.9%
0.5%
◆
◆
10.0%
0.3%
0.1%
1.2%
0.5%
0.3%
0.4%
◆
0.4%
0.1%
3.3%
100.0%
0.5%
7.1%
76.0%
13.9%
10.2%
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less than 0.05%.
‡Excludes Former Soviet Union.
•‘Remaining established reserves’, less reserves ’under active development’.
Notes: Proved reserves of oil – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from
known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves
would last if production were to continue at that rate.
Source of data – The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources, third-party data from the OPEC Secretariat, World Oil, Oil & Gas Journal and
an independent estimate of Russian reserves based on information in the public domain. Canadian proved reserves include an official estimate of 22.0 billion barrels for oil sands ‘under active
development’. Reserves include gas condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs) as well as crude oil.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand million barrels figures.
6
Proved reserves at end 2008
Thousand million barrels
42.0
70.9
Asia Pacific North America
123.2
S. & Cent. America
125.6
Africa
142.2
Europe & Eurasia
754.1
Middle East
Distribution of proved reserves in 1988, 1998 and 2008
Percentage
Middle East
Europe & Eurasia
Africa
S. & Cent. America
North America
Asia Pacific
4.0
3.9
65.4
64.0
3.3 59.9
5.6
6.1
10.0
9.8
8.9
6.9
5.9
7.7
1988
Total 998.4
thousand
million
barrels
1998
Total 1068.5
thousand
million
barrels
7.2
2008
Total 1258.0
thousand
million
barrels
10.0
9.8
11.3
7
Production*
Thousand barrels daily
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Italy
Kazakhstan
Norway
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Cameroon
Chad
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC‡
Former Soviet Union
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
8011
2672
3499
14182
890
1003
775
385
116
134
3480
125
6908
231
238
117
537
3138
137
6169
129
2807
191
506
14199
3855
2121
2232
905
701
9502
576
2643
380
49
22964
1461
731
105
–
264
857
83
337
1480
2167
12
85
63
7644
644
157
3212
737
1520
779
130
245
217
7641
73538
3553
21500
32277
33870
7391
7731
2604
3343
13678
847
1133
838
383
107
141
3126
124
6699
279
299
104
631
3139
133
6178
143
2909
191
474
14480
3603
2610
2085
911
723
8853
579
2511
405
48
22328
1515
745
95
–
266
827
100
340
1425
2066
63
84
56
7583
625
182
3213
736
1408
737
140
296
218
7556
72325
3684
21103
31054
33719
7552
7733
2721
3450
13904
819
1268
711
409
100
138
3239
130
6813
282
363
95
744
3346
131
6536
144
2667
177
465
14950
3818
2614
2206
959
757
9491
548
2626
450
48
23516
1578
746
88
–
254
781
91
327
1475
2155
174
78
56
7804
809
193
3252
726
1456
735
176
328
200
7874
74861
3493
21521
32569
34278
8014
7669
2677
3560
13906
830
1337
627
416
98
135
3142
137
6722
301
348
86
836
3418
130
7056
162
2476
171
465
15450
3794
2523
2148
961
754
9209
581
2534
455
47
23006
1562
742
81
–
234
758
177
301
1427
2274
217
71
53
7897
733
203
3306
727
1389
719
191
350
195
7813
74794
3285
21303
31914
34220
8660
7626
2858
3585
14069
818
1499
601
401
98
155
2895
152
6619
311
371
115
1018
3333
127
7698
182
2463
171
501
16289
3543
2116
1995
900
764
8928
548
2324
457
48
21623
1680
905
72
–
231
751
204
295
1375
2103
241
74
63
7994
730
210
3346
753
1289
757
204
354
193
7836
74431
3339
21430
30318
34580
9533
7400
3004
3789
14193
806
1555
564
427
92
164
2554
153
6314
313
368
116
1111
3264
123
8544
202
2257
166
509
16973
4183
1344
2329
824
879
10164
527
2611
448
48
23357
1852
862
67
24
215
749
242
240
1485
2263
265
68
71
8402
624
214
3401
756
1183
776
236
364
195
7750
76990
3128
21165
32136
34355
10499
7228
3085
3824
14137
754
1542
551
535
94
152
2907
144
6680
315
390
113
1297
3189
119
9287
193
2028
152
496
17579
4248
2030
2475
785
992
10638
495
2656
420
48
24788
1946
976
89
168
216
721
345
235
1624
2502
301
71
75
9268
582
210
3481
773
1129
793
223
427
186
7804
80256
2902
20766
34658
34191
11407
6895
3041
3760
13696
725
1716
554
541
111
171
2937
143
6899
452
377
127
1356
2969
114
9552
192
1809
126
468
17541
4233
1833
2618
782
1028
11114
450
2753
416
34
25262
2015
1246
82
173
246
696
373
234
1751
2580
305
73
72
9846
580
206
3627
738
1087
744
265
398
201
7845
81089
2659
19861
35736
33513
11839
6841
3208
3683
13732
716
1809
559
545
116
174
2808
141
6866
654
342
120
1426
2779
105
9769
186
1636
125
457
17598
4282
1999
2690
747
1110
10853
435
2971
380
32
25499
2003
1421
87
153
262
697
358
235
1834
2474
331
70
66
9992
554
221
3684
762
1017
717
286
367
203
7810
81497
2422
19458
36007
33171
12318
6847
3320
3471
13638
699
1833
561
520
114
154
2613
143
6636
869
311
122
1484
2556
99
9978
198
1638
114
451
17819
4322
2144
2636
701
1197
10449
415
2925
345
35
25168
2016
1720
82
144
222
710
368
230
1848
2356
468
97
59
10320
567
194
3743
770
969
743
309
337
229
7862
81443
2388
19148
35714
32930
12799
6736
3238
3157
13131
682
1899
618
514
120
149
2566
138
6685
914
287
108
1554
2455
99
9886
205
1544
111
427
17591
4325
2423
2784
728
1378
10846
398
2980
305
33
26200
1993
1875
84
127
249
722
361
235
1846
2170
480
89
54
10285
556
175
3795
766
1004
754
325
317
237
7928
81820
2239
18400
36705
32295
12821
-1.8%
-2.0%
-9.1%
-3.8%
-2.6%
3.6%
10.3%
-1.2%
4.0%
-5.0%
-1.9%
-2.7%
0.6%
4.2%
-7.7%
-10.9%
5.1%
-4.1%
-0.4%
-0.8%
3.8%
-6.3%
-2.7%
-5.3%
-1.3%
-0.2%
13.0%
5.3%
3.7%
13.2%
4.0%
-4.1%
2.0%
-11.6%
-5.7%
4.0%
-1.3%
9.1%
2.3%
-11.5%
12.3%
1.3%
-2.1%
2.2%
-0.1%
-8.0%
2.6%
-8.9%
-8.5%
-0.4%
-1.5%
-10.1%
1.4%
-0.5%
3.2%
1.8%
5.5%
-6.0%
3.1%
0.9%
0.4%
-6.6%
-4.0%
2.7%
-2.0%
0.2%
7.8%
4.0%
4.0%
15.8%
0.9%
2.4%
0.8%
0.7%
0.1%
0.2%
3.4%
0.2%
8.5%
1.1%
0.4%
0.1%
1.8%
2.9%
0.1%
12.4%
0.3%
1.8%
0.1%
0.5%
21.7%
5.3%
3.0%
3.5%
0.9%
1.5%
13.1%
0.5%
3.6%
0.4%
◆
31.9%
2.2%
2.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.9%
0.5%
0.3%
2.2%
2.7%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
12.4%
0.6%
0.2%
4.8%
0.9%
1.2%
0.9%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
9.7%
100.0%
2.7%
22.0%
44.8%
39.3%
16.0%
*Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and coal derivatives.
‡Excludes Former Soviet Union.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes per annum figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
8
Production*
Million tonnes
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Italy
Kazakhstan
Norway
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Angola
Cameroon
Chad
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
Libya
Nigeria
Sudan
Tunisia
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
OPEC
Non-OPEC‡
Former Soviet Union
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
368.1
125.1
173.5
666.7
44.0
49.8
38.5
19.6
5.7
6.7
179.6
6.2
350.0
11.4
11.6
5.6
25.9
149.6
6.6
304.3
6.4
132.6
8.2
24.2
686.5
190.8
104.2
110.0
44.7
33.6
455.7
28.6
123.5
18.0
2.3
1111.3
61.8
36.0
5.3
–
13.6
43.0
4.1
16.8
69.6
106.0
0.6
4.0
3.0
363.9
27.4
7.6
160.2
34.7
74.2
35.7
5.0
12.1
10.1
367.1
3545.4
168.5
1011.5
1564.4
1618.5
362.5
352.6
121.0
165.2
638.8
41.8
56.3
41.6
19.5
5.2
6.9
160.9
6.2
338.4
13.9
14.6
5.0
30.1
149.7
6.4
304.8
7.1
137.4
8.1
22.7
699.6
178.1
128.3
102.6
45.0
34.3
423.6
28.8
117.4
19.2
2.2
1079.4
63.9
36.7
4.8
–
13.7
41.4
5.0
17.0
67.0
100.8
3.1
4.0
2.7
360.0
26.7
8.9
160.2
34.6
68.6
33.9
5.4
14.6
10.2
363.1
3479.3
174.8
988.9
1501.5
1607.8
370.0
352.6
126.9
171.2
650.8
40.4
63.2
35.3
20.9
4.9
6.8
167.3
6.6
345.3
14.1
17.7
4.6
35.3
160.2
6.3
323.3
7.2
126.2
7.5
22.4
724.7
189.4
128.8
109.1
47.6
36.1
456.3
27.3
123.1
21.3
2.2
1141.2
66.8
36.9
4.5
–
13.1
38.8
4.5
16.4
69.5
105.4
8.6
3.7
2.7
370.9
35.3
9.4
162.6
34.2
71.5
33.7
7.0
16.2
9.4
379.2
3612.1
166.3
1011.1
1581.0
1637.7
393.4
349.2
126.1
176.6
651.8
41.5
66.3
31.0
21.2
4.8
6.5
161.6
6.9
339.9
15.0
17.0
4.1
40.1
162.0
6.2
348.1
8.0
116.7
7.2
22.2
746.6
186.5
123.9
105.8
47.5
35.7
440.6
28.9
118.2
21.5
2.2
1110.8
65.8
36.6
4.1
–
12.1
37.3
8.8
15.0
67.1
110.8
10.7
3.4
2.5
374.1
31.8
9.9
164.8
34.1
68.0
32.9
7.5
17.1
9.1
375.2
3598.4
155.6
999.5
1541.6
1632.2
424.6
346.8
135.0
178.4
660.2
40.9
74.4
29.7
20.4
4.8
7.5
148.8
7.8
334.2
15.4
18.1
5.5
48.2
157.3
6.1
379.6
9.0
115.9
7.2
23.6
786.0
172.7
104.0
98.2
44.5
35.2
425.3
27.2
108.4
21.5
2.2
1039.4
70.9
44.6
3.6
–
11.9
37.0
10.1
14.7
64.6
102.3
11.9
3.5
3.0
378.1
31.5
10.2
166.9
35.2
63.0
34.5
8.2
17.3
9.0
375.7
3573.6
158.2
1005.3
1458.4
1649.0
466.2
338.4
142.6
188.8
669.8
40.2
77.0
27.9
21.7
4.5
7.9
131.4
7.8
318.3
15.5
17.9
5.6
52.4
153.0
5.9
421.4
10.0
106.1
7.1
24.0
818.9
203.7
66.1
114.8
40.7
40.8
485.1
26.2
122.2
21.1
2.2
1123.0
79.0
42.5
3.4
1.2
11.1
36.8
12.0
12.0
69.8
110.3
13.1
3.2
3.5
397.8
26.6
10.5
169.6
35.4
57.7
35.6
9.6
17.7
9.1
371.8
3699.6
148.2
995.6
1545.1
1640.9
513.6
329.2
147.6
190.7
667.4
37.8
76.5
27.3
27.3
4.4
7.3
150.0
7.3
337.9
15.6
19.1
5.5
60.6
149.9
5.7
458.8
9.6
95.4
6.6
23.4
850.1
207.9
100.0
122.3
38.9
46.0
506.0
24.7
124.7
19.9
2.2
1192.7
83.6
48.2
4.5
8.8
11.2
35.4
17.1
11.8
76.6
121.9
14.9
3.4
3.6
440.9
24.8
10.3
174.1
36.3
55.2
36.5
9.1
20.8
8.7
375.8
3864.8
137.7
977.9
1669.7
1636.6
558.5
313.3
144.9
187.1
645.3
36.2
84.6
27.3
27.6
5.0
8.3
151.0
7.2
347.1
22.4
18.4
6.1
62.6
138.2
5.4
470.0
9.5
84.7
5.4
21.9
844.8
206.2
90.0
129.3
38.6
47.3
526.8
22.4
129.0
19.6
1.6
1210.8
86.4
61.2
4.2
9.1
12.7
33.9
18.5
11.7
82.1
125.4
15.0
3.4
3.5
467.2
24.5
10.1
180.8
34.6
53.0
33.9
10.8
19.4
9.3
376.4
3891.6
125.7
931.8
1715.4
1599.0
577.1
310.2
153.4
183.1
646.7
35.8
89.2
27.5
27.7
5.1
8.3
144.2
7.1
345.0
32.5
16.7
5.8
66.1
128.7
5.0
480.5
9.2
76.6
5.4
21.6
848.0
208.0
98.1
132.7
36.9
50.9
514.3
21.6
139.0
17.9
1.4
1221.0
86.2
69.7
4.4
8.0
13.5
33.7
17.7
11.7
85.6
120.0
16.3
3.3
3.2
473.3
23.4
10.8
183.7
35.8
49.9
32.5
11.8
17.8
9.3
375.0
3908.8
114.6
912.0
1726.3
1581.7
600.8
309.8
159.5
172.7
642.0
34.9
90.4
27.6
26.5
5.1
7.2
133.9
7.2
332.7
42.8
15.2
5.9
68.4
118.8
4.7
491.3
9.8
76.8
4.9
21.4
860.0
209.7
105.3
129.9
34.6
53.6
494.2
20.6
136.4
16.3
1.6
1202.2
86.5
84.3
4.2
7.5
11.5
34.1
18.2
11.5
86.0
114.2
23.1
4.6
2.9
488.5
24.1
9.5
186.7
36.2
47.4
33.6
12.7
16.4
10.5
377.0
3902.3
113.1
898.0
1707.8
1570.3
624.2
305.1
156.7
157.4
619.2
34.1
93.9
30.5
26.2
5.3
6.9
131.6
7.0
335.6
44.7
14.0
5.2
72.0
114.2
4.7
488.5
10.2
72.2
4.8
20.3
851.0
209.8
119.3
137.3
36.0
60.8
515.3
19.8
139.5
14.4
1.5
1253.7
85.6
92.2
4.3
6.7
12.9
34.6
17.9
11.8
86.2
105.3
23.7
4.2
2.7
488.1
23.8
8.5
189.7
36.1
49.1
34.3
13.4
15.4
10.9
381.2
3928.8
105.9
864.1
1758.3
1543.6
627.0
-1.8%
-2.0%
-9.1%
-3.8%
-2.6%
3.6%
10.3%
-1.2%
4.0%
-5.0%
-1.9%
-2.7%
0.6%
4.2%
-7.7%
-10.9%
5.1%
-4.1%
-0.4%
-0.8%
3.8%
-6.3%
-2.7%
-5.3%
-1.3%
-0.2%
13.0%
5.3%
3.7%
13.2%
4.0%
-4.1%
2.0%
-11.6%
-5.7%
4.0%
-1.3%
9.1%
2.3%
-11.5%
12.3%
1.3%
-2.1%
2.2%
-0.1%
-8.0%
2.6%
-8.9%
-8.5%
-0.4%
-1.5%
-10.1%
1.4%
-0.5%
3.2%
1.8%
5.5%
-6.0%
3.1%
0.9%
0.4%
-6.6%
-4.0%
2.7%
-2.0%
0.2%
7.8%
4.0%
4.0%
15.8%
0.9%
2.4%
0.8%
0.7%
0.1%
0.2%
3.4%
0.2%
8.5%
1.1%
0.4%
0.1%
1.8%
2.9%
0.1%
12.4%
0.3%
1.8%
0.1%
0.5%
21.7%
5.3%
3.0%
3.5%
0.9%
1.5%
13.1%
0.5%
3.6%
0.4%
◆
31.9%
2.2%
2.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.9%
0.5%
0.3%
2.2%
2.7%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
12.4%
0.6%
0.2%
4.8%
0.9%
1.2%
0.9%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
9.7%
100.0%
2.7%
22.0%
44.8%
39.3%
16.0%
*Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and coal derivatives.
‡Excludes Former Soviet Union.
than 0.05%.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
◆Less
9
Production by region
Million barrels daily
90
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
Europe & Eurasia
S. & Cent. America
North America
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
0
08
World oil production increased by 380,000b/d in 2008. OPEC production increased by 990,000b/d despite production cuts instituted late in the year. Saudi Arabia
saw the largest production increase, with output rising by 400,000b/d. Russian production fell by 90,000b/d, the first decline since 1998. OECD production fell by
750,000b/d, with Mexico registering the world’s largest decline (310,000b/d).
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios
Years
2008 by region
50
World
40
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
90
75
60
30
45
20
30
10
15
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
00
02
04
06
08
0
Global proved oil reserves in 2008 fell by 3 billion barrels to 1,258 billion barrels, with an R/P ratio of 42 years. Declines in Russia, Norway, China and other countries
offset increases in Vietnam, India and Egypt. The 2007 figure has been revised higher by 23.1 billion barrels, with the largest upward revisions in Venezuela and Angola.
10
0
Consumption*
Thousand barrels daily
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
18917
1913
1844
22674
467
2034
247
266
145
155
475
1152
4942
255
116
175
656
100
174
223
221
2016
2915
375
157
18
152
1974
176
76
854
215
424
322
242
2554
80
1381
338
279
640
75
302
1741
146
462
19831
1194
180
34
1262
283
1304
4258
194
559
450
1161
2364
825
76
4228
185
1963
914
5504
404
127
350
392
651
2030
786
691
432
19559
73628
14849
46569
3741
23319
19519
1926
1842
23286
445
2114
249
238
131
159
474
1166
4976
250
111
154
670
93
174
222
224
2044
2824
384
151
18
172
1980
147
63
880
216
431
330
195
2625
73
1423
337
271
638
80
272
1721
143
428
19745
1221
202
33
1302
271
1338
4367
187
573
461
1216
2438
843
68
4477
194
2134
980
5598
435
129
363
375
619
2178
964
698
447
20501
75313
14813
47467
3700
24146
19701
1937
1910
23548
431
2056
236
232
129
155
496
1173
4908
244
123
143
702
84
169
215
224
2007
2763
407
145
19
170
1956
158
49
897
201
427
324
203
2583
73
1452
318
263
677
79
255
1697
138
404
19568
1301
202
36
1426
255
1382
4602
192
564
475
1200
2432
837
66
4772
202
2254
1064
5557
435
131
373
348
654
2229
1003
669
479
21073
76132
14692
47651
3623
24859
19649
2023
1899
23571
405
2082
230
245
132
148
545
1223
5009
265
81
149
669
87
179
205
222
2023
2804
412
142
18
185
1946
186
56
942
213
415
327
217
2566
68
1508
318
281
645
83
273
1697
135
428
19747
1314
206
40
1471
292
1431
4754
200
548
486
1218
2452
845
80
4872
244
2284
1086
5422
442
134
366
347
716
2235
991
656
506
21225
76758
14861
47692
3627
25440
19761
2067
1837
23665
364
2063
228
222
131
147
594
1228
4977
271
74
145
691
98
174
200
226
1967
2714
416
140
19
182
1943
193
53
952
208
420
338
226
2606
76
1526
317
267
656
86
278
1693
130
454
19738
1413
222
54
1505
320
1433
4948
222
534
499
1228
2484
846
80
5288
268
2374
1138
5347
482
139
357
331
699
2282
999
705
528
21863
77675
14797
47675
3667
26333
20033
2132
1885
24050
372
1985
228
222
137
140
479
1267
4830
293
86
148
748
115
185
193
239
1965
2664
405
138
18
178
1927
183
51
962
219
435
317
199
2622
71
1559
332
259
662
95
286
1717
148
496
19915
1498
238
48
1616
333
1404
5138
231
550
512
1244
2537
851
83
5803
270
2420
1141
5440
473
149
321
331
668
2300
1069
746
537
22601
79071
14867
48276
3745
27050
20732
2248
1918
24898
388
1999
240
223
141
153
523
1271
4938
285
92
153
785
105
203
189
224
1978
2634
438
142
20
185
1873
187
55
1003
210
460
322
230
2619
68
1593
319
258
667
95
293
1764
134
512
20092
1558
266
53
1670
355
1467
5370
240
567
523
1269
2600
856
83
6772
316
2573
1225
5269
485
150
325
338
748
2283
1084
824
568
23899
81796
15032
49073
3760
28963
20802
2247
1974
25023
414
2048
254
230
168
152
576
1288
5129
294
108
146
815
109
211
195
233
1960
2605
436
163
21
196
1819
207
58
1070
212
479
331
223
2601
81
1619
315
262
656
100
294
1802
112
549
20285
1620
295
62
1756
376
1508
5617
251
629
526
1322
2728
886
94
6984
287
2569
1231
5343
469
154
312
315
794
2308
1090
852
596
24283
83065
15205
49490
3772
29804
20687
2246
1970
24904
432
2102
264
240
182
147
607
1323
5297
294
99
165
839
116
208
197
225
1956
2624
454
169
20
195
1813
227
59
1043
217
516
300
219
2709
82
1602
322
269
635
118
318
1785
105
562
20463
1693
267
75
1841
402
1539
5817
260
610
537
1290
2696
918
93
7382
305
2580
1173
5213
459
156
356
284
853
2317
1097
834
601
24620
83797
15211
49274
3948
30575
20680
2323
2027
25030
487
2274
346
234
196
154
665
1324
5681
278
92
157
832
117
206
196
226
1921
2393
445
169
21
198
1759
244
59
962
222
535
302
223
2706
86
1617
308
243
656
121
325
1714
111
585
20031
1693
269
90
2054
425
1554
6084
288
650
549
1288
2776
925
94
7742
324
2748
1201
5039
481
156
388
300
916
2389
1123
823
629
25277
84878
14746
48830
3973
32075
19419
2295
2039
23753
508
2397
358
234
204
172
719
1308
5901
278
71
159
836
120
210
189
225
1930
2505
438
169
19
190
1691
229
64
982
210
545
286
227
2797
89
1574
302
258
690
123
326
1704
113
610
20158
1730
300
104
2224
467
1599
6423
311
693
558
1319
2881
936
95
7999
294
2882
1217
4845
475
158
389
288
958
2291
1074
797
641
25339
84455
14765
47303
4045
33108
-6.4%
-1.0%
0.5%
-5.4%
4.1%
5.3%
3.8%
0.3%
4.0%
10.8%
8.1%
-1.3%
3.7%
-0.1%
-25.9%
0.9%
0.4%
2.1%
1.4%
-4.0%
-1.2%
0.7%
4.9%
-1.5%
-0.2%
-9.1%
-4.4%
-3.9%
-6.4%
9.4%
0.8%
-4.4%
2.6%
-5.1%
2.2%
3.1%
3.2%
-2.5%
-1.5%
6.4%
5.8%
1.7%
0.5%
-1.0%
1.5%
4.3%
0.6%
2.1%
11.7%
16.5%
8.1%
10.6%
2.7%
5.5%
8.3%
6.4%
1.7%
2.4%
3.8%
1.5%
1.9%
3.3%
-9.4%
4.8%
1.5%
-3.5%
-1.4%
1.2%
0.2%
-4.0%
5.0%
-4.9%
-4.8%
-4.1%
1.8%
0.2%
-0.6%
0.1%
-3.2%
1.5%
3.1%
22.5%
2.6%
2.3%
27.4%
0.6%
2.7%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.8%
1.6%
6.9%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
2.3%
3.0%
0.5%
0.2%
◆
0.2%
2.1%
0.3%
0.1%
1.2%
0.2%
0.6%
0.3%
0.3%
3.3%
0.1%
2.0%
0.4%
0.3%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%
2.0%
0.1%
0.7%
24.3%
2.1%
0.4%
0.1%
2.7%
0.6%
2.0%
7.8%
0.4%
0.8%
0.7%
1.6%
3.4%
1.1%
0.1%
9.6%
0.4%
3.4%
1.5%
5.6%
0.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.3%
1.3%
2.6%
1.3%
0.9%
0.8%
30.1%
100.0%
17.9%
55.5%
4.8%
39.7%
*Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is also included.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: Annual changes and shares are calculated using million tonnes per annum figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics on page 8 are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and
unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data.
11
Consumption*
Million tonnes
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
863.8
86.7
82.8
1033.3
22.1
90.0
11.4
12.0
6.6
7.4
21.6
56.2
227.3
12.3
5.9
8.6
31.6
4.8
8.3
10.7
10.5
95.0
136.6
18.3
7.4
0.9
7.4
94.7
8.5
3.8
39.4
10.0
19.9
15.5
12.0
123.7
3.8
66.4
16.2
13.0
29.6
3.4
14.3
80.7
7.1
22.2
942.2
57.5
9.1
1.4
61.4
14.4
63.3
207.1
8.2
27.3
21.3
55.0
111.8
37.0
3.7
197.0
8.9
92.5
43.5
253.6
18.8
5.9
17.6
19.1
33.3
93.9
39.1
33.0
20.5
917.4
3439.2
703.5
2151.7
181.1
1106.4
888.9
87.2
82.4
1058.4
21.0
92.5
11.5
10.6
6.0
7.5
21.3
56.8
227.3
12.1
5.7
7.6
32.4
4.5
8.2
10.6
10.7
96.4
132.4
18.7
7.1
0.9
8.3
94.4
7.0
3.1
40.6
10.1
19.9
15.9
9.5
126.2
3.4
68.4
16.1
12.6
29.5
3.6
12.7
79.4
6.9
20.8
935.5
58.8
10.3
1.4
63.4
13.7
64.8
212.4
8.1
27.8
21.8
57.7
115.4
38.0
3.3
209.6
9.3
100.3
46.8
257.3
20.1
6.0
18.2
18.0
31.6
100.7
47.2
33.4
21.2
960.9
3510.1
700.4
2188.5
177.8
1143.8
897.6
88.1
85.7
1071.4
20.3
91.6
10.8
10.5
5.8
7.4
22.5
57.0
225.9
11.8
6.3
7.0
33.9
3.9
7.9
10.4
10.7
94.9
129.8
19.9
6.8
0.9
8.2
93.5
7.4
2.4
41.7
9.4
20.0
15.5
10.0
123.5
3.4
70.0
15.2
12.2
31.1
3.6
12.0
78.6
6.7
19.5
928.1
62.5
10.4
1.5
68.1
12.8
67.1
222.3
8.5
27.2
22.5
56.9
115.1
37.7
3.2
223.6
9.7
106.1
50.7
255.5
20.1
6.1
18.8
16.6
33.5
103.2
49.1
31.7
22.8
988.4
3551.2
696.7
2199.7
173.2
1178.4
896.1
90.5
85.0
1071.6
19.1
92.9
10.5
11.1
5.9
7.0
24.8
59.6
230.9
12.8
4.0
7.3
32.2
4.0
8.4
9.8
10.5
95.5
131.6
20.1
6.7
0.9
9.0
92.8
8.9
2.7
43.7
9.7
19.2
15.8
10.6
122.3
3.2
72.7
15.2
13.1
29.9
3.7
12.7
78.4
6.5
20.7
934.5
62.6
10.5
1.7
69.3
14.6
69.3
228.1
8.8
26.1
23.0
57.6
115.4
38.1
3.9
227.9
11.8
107.0
51.6
247.5
20.3
6.2
18.3
16.5
36.4
103.1
47.4
30.6
24.0
990.6
3571.1
703.3
2197.6
172.6
1200.9
897.4
92.2
81.5
1071.1
17.1
91.6
10.4
10.0
5.9
6.9
27.0
59.8
228.7
13.0
3.7
7.1
33.5
4.5
8.1
9.6
10.9
92.9
127.4
20.3
6.4
0.9
8.8
92.9
9.3
2.5
43.8
9.4
19.4
16.2
10.6
123.5
3.5
73.8
15.2
12.4
30.6
3.8
13.1
78.0
6.3
21.9
933.5
67.1
11.4
2.4
70.6
15.9
69.4
236.7
9.7
25.2
23.6
58.0
116.7
38.0
3.9
247.4
12.9
111.3
54.2
243.6
22.1
6.4
17.9
15.5
35.5
104.7
47.6
33.1
25.0
1018.9
3605.5
699.8
2190.8
174.1
1240.6
912.3
95.9
83.7
1091.8
17.6
87.8
10.5
10.0
6.2
6.5
22.0
61.5
222.1
14.1
4.3
7.2
36.4
5.2
8.7
9.2
11.4
93.1
125.1
19.7
6.3
0.9
8.5
92.1
8.8
2.4
44.1
9.9
19.9
15.2
9.4
123.4
3.3
75.5
15.9
12.1
31.0
4.2
13.5
79.0
7.2
23.8
940.9
71.0
12.2
2.1
75.5
16.3
67.9
245.0
10.1
25.9
24.2
58.5
118.8
38.3
4.0
271.7
13.0
113.1
54.0
248.9
21.7
6.9
15.8
15.5
33.9
105.6
50.9
35.1
25.3
1053.7
3672.3
703.2
2223.0
176.7
1272.6
948.8
100.6
85.2
1134.6
18.4
88.4
11.1
10.1
6.3
7.2
24.2
61.8
227.5
13.8
4.6
7.4
38.4
4.7
9.5
9.1
10.6
94.0
124.0
21.4
6.5
1.0
8.9
89.7
9.0
2.6
46.2
9.6
21.1
15.4
10.9
123.3
3.2
77.6
15.3
12.0
31.0
4.2
13.9
81.7
6.5
24.5
951.6
73.7
13.7
2.3
79.5
17.4
70.7
257.2
10.6
26.8
24.8
59.8
122.0
38.8
4.0
318.9
15.4
120.2
58.1
241.1
22.4
6.9
16.0
15.9
38.1
104.9
51.3
39.1
26.7
1117.9
3810.8
713.2
2266.4
177.7
1366.8
951.4
100.3
87.7
1139.4
19.7
90.1
11.7
10.3
7.5
7.0
25.9
62.4
234.8
14.2
5.3
7.1
39.9
4.9
9.9
9.2
11.0
93.1
122.4
21.2
7.5
1.0
9.4
86.7
10.0
2.8
49.6
9.7
21.9
16.0
10.5
121.9
3.8
78.8
15.1
12.2
30.2
4.4
13.9
83.0
5.5
26.2
958.3
77.3
15.2
2.7
83.0
18.3
72.3
268.7
11.0
29.8
24.8
62.3
128.0
39.8
4.6
327.8
13.9
119.6
58.2
244.1
21.5
7.1
15.3
14.8
40.9
105.4
51.3
40.4
27.9
1132.6
3861.8
720.1
2281.6
177.5
1402.7
943.8
99.6
86.8
1130.2
20.6
92.8
12.3
10.8
8.2
6.8
27.4
64.1
243.0
14.2
4.9
8.0
41.1
5.2
9.8
9.3
10.6
93.0
123.6
22.2
7.8
1.0
9.3
86.7
11.0
2.8
49.0
10.0
23.3
14.4
10.3
127.1
4.0
78.1
15.5
12.6
29.5
5.3
15.0
82.3
5.1
26.9
968.5
80.8
13.6
3.3
87.4
19.5
73.7
278.3
11.5
28.7
25.3
60.9
126.3
41.4
4.5
346.1
14.9
120.4
55.2
237.5
21.0
7.2
17.6
13.3
44.0
105.5
51.7
39.3
28.1
1147.7
3894.0
721.8
2268.9
185.9
1439.2
942.3
102.8
89.4
1134.5
23.2
99.8
16.1
10.7
8.9
7.1
30.0
64.2
260.0
13.4
4.5
7.6
41.0
5.3
9.7
9.3
10.6
91.3
112.5
21.7
7.7
1.0
9.4
84.0
11.6
2.8
46.0
10.2
24.2
14.4
10.3
126.2
4.1
78.8
14.7
11.3
30.5
5.4
15.3
79.2
5.4
27.9
947.6
81.3
13.6
4.0
96.1
20.7
74.4
290.1
12.9
30.6
25.8
60.7
129.9
41.7
4.5
362.8
16.0
128.5
56.4
229.3
22.0
7.2
19.2
14.0
47.4
108.3
52.5
38.2
29.4
1177.4
3939.4
700.2
2246.1
186.2
1507.1
884.5
102.0
90.0
1076.6
24.2
105.3
16.8
10.7
9.3
7.9
32.5
63.6
270.3
13.4
3.3
7.7
41.3
5.4
9.9
8.9
10.5
92.2
118.3
21.4
7.7
0.9
9.0
80.9
10.9
3.1
46.5
9.8
24.9
13.7
10.6
130.4
4.3
77.1
14.5
12.1
32.3
5.5
15.5
78.7
5.5
29.2
955.5
83.3
15.3
4.6
104.2
22.9
76.6
306.9
14.0
32.6
26.3
62.3
135.2
42.5
4.6
375.7
14.5
135.0
57.4
221.8
21.8
7.3
19.3
13.4
49.9
103.3
50.1
36.7
30.0
1183.4
3927.9
702.6
2179.8
189.5
1558.6
-6.4%
-1.0%
0.5%
-5.4%
4.1%
5.3%
3.8%
0.3%
4.0%
10.8%
8.1%
-1.3%
3.7%
-0.1%
-25.9%
0.9%
0.4%
2.1%
1.4%
-4.0%
-1.2%
0.7%
4.9%
-1.5%
-0.2%
-9.1%
-4.4%
-3.9%
-6.4%
9.4%
0.8%
-4.4%
2.6%
-5.1%
2.2%
3.1%
3.2%
-2.5%
-1.5%
6.4%
5.8%
1.7%
0.5%
-1.0%
1.5%
4.3%
0.6%
2.1%
11.7%
16.5%
8.1%
10.6%
2.7%
5.5%
8.3%
6.4%
1.7%
2.4%
3.8%
1.5%
1.9%
3.3%
-9.4%
4.8%
1.5%
-3.5%
-1.4%
1.2%
0.2%
-4.0%
5.0%
-4.9%
-4.8%
-4.1%
1.8%
0.2%
-0.6%
0.1%
-3.2%
1.5%
3.1%
22.5%
2.6%
2.3%
27.4%
0.6%
2.7%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.8%
1.6%
6.9%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
2.3%
3.0%
0.5%
0.2%
*Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is also included.
◆Less
◆
0.2%
2.1%
0.3%
0.1%
1.2%
0.2%
0.6%
0.3%
0.3%
3.3%
0.1%
2.0%
0.4%
0.3%
0.8%
0.1%
0.4%
2.0%
0.1%
0.7%
24.3%
2.1%
0.4%
0.1%
2.7%
0.6%
2.0%
7.8%
0.4%
0.8%
0.7%
1.6%
3.4%
1.1%
0.1%
9.6%
0.4%
3.4%
1.5%
5.6%
0.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.3%
1.3%
2.6%
1.3%
0.9%
0.8%
30.1%
100.0%
17.9%
55.5%
4.8%
39.7%
than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics on page 9 are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and
unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand data.
12
Consumption by region
Million barrels daily
90
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
Europe & Eurasia
S. & Cent. America
North America
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
0
08
World oil consumption fell by 420,000b/d, the largest decline since 1982. OECD consumption fell by 1.5 million b/d, driven by a decline of nearly 1.3 million b/d in the US.
China again recorded the world’s largest incremental growth, rising by 260,000b/d. Consumption growth was above the 10-year average in the exporting regions of the
Middle East, South and Central America, Africa and the Former Soviet Union.
Consumption per capita 2008
Tonnes
0-0.75
0.75-1.5
1.5-2.25
2.25-3.0
> 3.0
13
Regional consumption by product group
Thousand barrels daily
North America
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total North America
of which: US
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total US
S. & Cent. America
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total S. & Cent. America
Europe
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Europe
Former Soviet Union
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Former Soviet Union
Middle East
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Middle East
Africa
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Africa
Asia Pacific
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Asia Pacific
of which: China
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total China
of which: Japan
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Japan
World
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total World
European Union
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total European Union
OECD
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total OECD
Other EMEs‡
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Fuel oil
Others
Total Other EMEs
2008
share
of total
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
9849
6450
1506
4869
22674
9998
6628
1415
5245
23286
10106
6811
1518
5112
23548
10211
6812
1411
5137
23571
10523
6655
1209
5278
23665
10675
6861
1271
5243
24050
10979
7133
1340
5446
24898
11020
7249
1396
5359
25023
11131
7297
1055
5420
24904
11205
7318
1082
5425
25030
10857
6924
946
5026
23753
-3.1%
45.7%
-5.4%
29.2%
-12.5%
4.0%
-7.4%
21.2%
-5.1% 100.0%
8579
5545
869
3924
18917
8716
5700
814
4290
19519
8813
5852
893
4143
19701
8890
5884
794
4082
19649
9167
5735
686
4172
19761
9275
5886
763
4109
20033
9518
6116
859
4239
20732
9548
6198
914
4143
20802
9599
6226
683
4178
20687
9597
6199
718
4166
20680
9220
5790
615
3794
19419
-3.9%
47.5%
-6.6%
29.8%
-14.4%
3.2%
-8.9%
19.5%
-6.1% 100.0%
1553
1641
866
882
4942
1668
1625
761
922
4976
1540
1617
801
950
4908
1517
1657
827
1009
5009
1506
1653
789
1029
4977
1496
1655
754
925
4830
1452
1776
740
971
4938
1551
1833
744
1002
5129
1637
1873
766
1021
5297
1746
2040
810
1086
5681
1801
2126
814
1160
5901
3.2%
30.5%
4.2%
36.0%
0.6%
13.8%
6.8%
19.7%
3.9% 100.0%
4315
6630
2195
2950
16090
4314
6690
2093
2948
16045
4194
6734
1967
3050
15946
4086
6991
1986
3056
16120
4025
6934
1995
3117
16071
3923
7137
1952
3158
16170
3875
7347
1888
3221
16331
3764
7595
1855
3298
16513
3615
7853
1773
3273
16514
3491
7763
1667
3137
16058
3365
7937
1633
3179
16114
-3.6%
20.9%
2.2%
49.3%
-2.0%
10.1%
1.4%
19.7%
0.3% 100.0%
893
1026
1046
775
3741
858
1022
937
882
3700
797
1008
765
1053
3623
851
1021
693
1062
3627
882
1048
670
1066
3667
937
1085
643
1080
3745
918
1108
578
1157
3760
934
1148
558
1132
3772
993
1208
615
1133
3948
1053
1274
511
1136
3973
1096
1324
455
1170
4045
4.1%
27.1%
4.0%
32.7%
-11.0%
11.2%
3.0%
28.9%
1.8% 100.0%
849
1471
1240
698
4258
859
1502
1295
712
4367
910
1567
1292
832
4602
949
1618
1319
868
4754
1011
1666
1329
941
4948
1059
1723
1317
1039
5138
1177
1767
1390
1036
5370
1241
1849
1463
1064
5617
1325
1950
1450
1092
5817
1326
2013
1532
1213
6084
1379
2124
1644
1276
6423
4.0%
21.5%
5.5%
33.1%
7.3%
25.6%
5.2%
19.9%
5.6% 100.0%
563
926
498
378
2364
570
971
501
396
2438
574
999
459
401
2432
585
1013
436
419
2452
580
1039
425
440
2484
605
1066
380
486
2537
632
1070
390
509
2600
637
1119
437
534
2728
617
1137
417
525
2696
634
1181
416
545
2776
666
1232
429
554
2881
5.1%
23.1%
4.3%
42.8%
3.1%
14.9%
1.7%
19.2%
3.8% 100.0%
5201
7234
3657
3467
19559
5486
7678
3713
3624
20501
5636
7813
3675
3949
21073
5771
7968
3481
4005
21225
6021
8108
3402
4331
21863
6283
8246
3547
4526
22601
6644
8774
3558
4923
23899
6781
9030
3552
4921
24283
6826
9089
3632
5073
24620
7147
9151
3614
5364
25277
7196
9496
3403
5244
25339
0.7%
28.4%
3.8%
37.5%
-5.9%
13.4%
-2.2%
20.7%
0.2% 100.0%
1280
1241
741
967
4228
1249
1467
771
990
4477
1270
1590
775
1136
4772
1256
1669
780
1167
4872
1352
1791
792
1352
5288
1489
1945
880
1489
5803
1673
2285
956
1858
6772
1776
2528
904
1777
6984
1853
2723
938
1867
7382
1983
2879
892
1988
7742
2175
3178
716
1930
7999
9.7%
27.2%
10.4%
39.7%
-19.8%
8.9%
-2.9%
24.1%
3.3% 100.0%
1611
1949
858
1086
5504
1702
1978
840
1078
5598
1735
1958
785
1079
5557
1720
1957
678
1067
5422
1759
1930
637
1021
5347
1788
1904
755
993
5440
1793
1856
660
960
5269
1822
1876
683
963
5343
1813
1758
664
979
5213
1790
1619
664
966
5039
1675
1500
712
959
4845
-6.4%
34.6%
-7.4%
31.0%
7.2%
14.7%
-0.7%
19.8%
-3.8% 100.0%
23224
25378
11007
14020
73628
23754
26115
10714
14730
75313
23758
26550
10477
15348
76132
23969
27080
10154
15555
76758
24549
27104
9818
16203
77675
24976
27773
9865
16457
79071
25676
28974
9884
17263
81796
25929
29823
10004
17308
83065
26145
30407
9708
17537
83797
26601
30740
9631
17905
84878
26359
31163
9324
17609
84455
-0.9%
1.4%
-3.2%
-1.7%
-0.5%
4006
6103
2060
2681
14849
4025
6170
1936
2683
14813
3923
6234
1785
2750
14692
3827
6463
1796
2775
14861
3763
6404
1792
2838
14797
3671
6592
1743
2861
14867
3619
6795
1703
2916
15032
3520
6996
1705
2985
15205
3367
7221
1651
2972
15211
3255
7109
1553
2829
14746
3139
7234
1516
2876
14765
-3.5%
21.3%
1.8%
49.0%
-2.4%
10.3%
1.6%
19.5%
0.1% 100.0%
16728
15749
4809
9284
46569
17027
16107
4650
9684
47467
17069
16276
4622
9683
47651
17064
16529
4403
9696
47692
17389
16295
4163
9828
47675
17495
16684
4294
9803
48276
17747
17095
4205
10026
49073
17753
17483
4237
10015
49490
17739
17676
3784
10074
49274
17764
17459
3692
9915
48830
17149
17088
3513
9552
47303
-3.5%
36.3%
-2.1%
36.1%
-4.8%
7.4%
-3.7%
20.2%
-3.1% 100.0%
5603
8603
5152
3961
23319
5869
8986
5128
4163
24146
5892
9265
5090
4611
24859
6055
9530
5057
4797
25440
6277
9761
4986
5309
26333
6544
10004
4928
5574
27050
7011
10771
5102
6079
28963
7241
11192
5209
6161
29804
7412
11523
5309
6330
30575
7785
12007
5428
6855
32075
8115
12751
5356
6886
33108
4.2%
24.5%
6.2%
38.5%
-1.3%
16.2%
0.5%
20.8%
3.2% 100.0%
‡E xcludes Former Soviet Union.
Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
‘Light distillates’ consists of aviation and motor gasolines and light distillate feedstock.
‘Middle distillates’ consists of jet and heating kerosenes, and gas and diesel oils (including marine bunkers).
‘Fuel oil’ includes marine bunkers and crude oil used directly as fuel.
‘Others’ consists of refinery gas, LPG, solvents, petroleum coke, lubricants, bitumen, wax, other refined products and refinery fuel and loss.
14
Change
2008 over
2007
1998
31.2%
36.9%
11.0%
20.8%
100.0%
Product consumption by region
Million barrels daily
Light distillates
Middle distillates
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
Former Soviet Union
Europe
S. & Cent. America
North America
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
35
35
30
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
Fuel oil
98
99
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
Others
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
35
35
30
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
Consumption growth was below the 10-year average for all fuel groups, with declines in three of the four reported categories. Middle distillates has been the
fastest-growing fuel group in five of the past six years, and was the only fuel group to grow globally in 2008.
15
Spot crude prices
Dubai
$/bbI*
US dollars per barrel
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Nigerian
Forcados
$/bbI
Brent
$/bbI†
1.90
2.83
10.41
10.70
11.63
12.38
13.03
29.75
35.69
34.32
31.80
28.78
28.06
27.53
13.10
16.95
13.27
15.62
20.45
16.63
17.17
14.93
14.74
16.10
18.52
18.23
12.21
17.25
26.20
22.81
23.74
26.78
33.64
49.35
61.50
68.19
94.34
–
–
–
–
12.80
13.92
14.02
31.61
36.83
35.93
32.97
29.55
28.78
27.56
14.43
18.44
14.92
18.23
23.73
20.00
19.32
16.97
15.82
17.02
20.67
19.09
12.72
17.97
28.50
24.44
25.02
28.83
38.27
54.52
65.14
72.39
97.26
West Texas
Intermediate
$/bbI‡
–
–
–
–
12.87
14.21
13.65
29.25
36.98
36.18
33.29
29.54
28.14
27.75
14.46
18.39
15.00
18.30
23.85
20.11
19.61
17.41
16.25
17.26
21.16
19.33
12.62
18.00
28.42
24.23
25.04
28.66
38.13
55.69
67.07
74.48
101.43
–
–
–
–
12.23
14.22
14.55
25.08
37.96
36.08
33.65
30.30
29.39
27.98
15.10
19.18
15.97
19.68
24.50
21.54
20.57
18.45
17.21
18.42
22.16
20.61
14.39
19.31
30.37
25.93
26.16
31.07
41.49
56.59
66.02
72.20
100.06
*1972-1985 Arabian Light, 1986-2008 Dubai dated.
†1976-1983 Forties, 1984-2008 Brent dated.
‡1976-1983 Posted WTI prices, 1984-2008 Spot WTI (Cushing) prices.
Crude oil prices 1861-2008
Loss of
Iranian
supplies
Growth of
Venezuelan
production
US dollars per barrel
World events
Russian
Pennsylvanian
oil exports
oil boom
began
Source: Platts.
Sumatra
production
began
Discovery of
Spindletop,
Texas
Fears of
shortage
in US
East Texas
field
discovered
Post-war
reconstruction
Netback
pricing
introduced
Suez
crisis
Iranian
revolution
Asian
financial
crisis
Iraq
invaded
Kuwait
Yom Kippur
war
Invasion
of Iraq
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1861-69
1870-79
$ 2008
$ money of the day
16
1880-89
1890-99
1900-09
1910-19
1920-29
1930-39
1940-49
1950-59
1960-69
1970-79
1980-89
1990-99
2000-08
0
1861-1944 US average.
1945-1983 Arabian Light posted at Ras Tanura.
1984-2008 Brent dated.
Rotterdam product prices
US Gulf Coast product prices
US dollars per barrel
US dollars per barrel
160
Gasoline
Gas oil
Heavy fuel oil
160
Gasoline
Gas oil
Heavy fuel oil
150
150
140
140
130
130
120
120
110
110
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
1991 to first quarter 1992: leaded gasoline.
From second quarter 1992: unleaded gasoline.
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
0
Source: Platts.
0
Source: Platts.
OECD total commercial oil stocks
Million barrels
2800
Jan 2007-Dec 2007
Jan 2008-Dec 2008
2003-2007 range
2700
2600
2500
2400
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
2300
Source: Monthly Oil Data Service © OECD/IEA, 2009.
17
Refinery capacities
Thousand barrels daily*
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Netherlands Antilles & Aruba
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Belgium
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
Netherlands
Norway
Russian Federation
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
16261
1844
1449
19554
648
1768
545
1215
1938
6114
732
1918
2206
403
2385
1266
310
5572
1247
422
713
1848
6239
25261
1505
634
921
1762
235
1145
6202
2846
810
4592
1356
1096
5144
1246
2598
732
890
1258
19722
79699
15262
43688
8578
27433
16512
1861
1449
19822
643
1796
545
1248
1976
6208
736
1933
2240
403
2485
1282
323
5439
1247
422
713
1777
6145
25145
1607
634
921
1823
290
1158
6433
2950
828
5401
2190
1119
5087
1246
2598
732
914
1344
21459
82017
15304
44041
8447
29529
16595
1861
1481
19937
624
1849
545
1291
1999
6308
770
1984
2262
403
2485
1282
318
5361
1247
422
713
1778
5981
25006
1607
639
740
1806
440
1158
6390
2879
828
5407
2219
1127
5010
1255
2598
732
1062
1403
21641
82161
15373
44197
8279
29685
16785
1917
1481
20183
612
1849
545
1291
1988
6285
785
1961
2274
412
2485
1283
307
5299
1247
422
713
1769
5930
24887
1607
644
759
1806
674
1160
6650
3140
815
5643
2261
1127
4705
1255
2598
874
1062
1512
21852
82997
15455
44141
8124
30732
16757
1923
1463
20143
609
1854
545
1291
2028
6327
803
1987
2286
412
2485
1287
310
5357
1333
422
713
1785
5844
25024
1607
644
809
1810
711
1238
6819
3222
829
5479
2303
1092
4721
1255
2598
1159
1062
1487
21984
83518
15692
44413
8021
31084
16894
1959
1463
20316
609
1915
545
1291
2017
6377
805
1967
2304
412
2485
1287
310
5371
1333
422
713
1813
5841
25063
1617
644
909
1890
645
1238
6943
3171
756
5487
2293
1057
4683
1255
2598
1159
1062
1416
21766
83635
15713
44500
8035
31100
17125
1915
1463
20503
610
1915
545
1306
2023
6399
782
1982
2320
412
2497
1289
310
5371
1358
422
693
1848
5877
25161
1652
644
931
2075
620
1238
7160
3110
763
6289
2558
1057
4567
1255
2598
1159
1062
1410
22718
85051
15787
44645
8075
32331
17339
1896
1463
20698
612
1916
545
1311
2041
6425
778
1978
2322
418
2515
1279
310
5421
1377
422
613
1819
5814
25067
1652
649
931
2100
620
1238
7190
3228
711
6587
2558
1057
4529
1255
2598
1159
1065
1438
22957
85565
15829
44692
8019
32854
17443
1914
1463
20821
614
1916
545
1311
2061
6447
774
1959
2390
425
2526
1279
310
5473
1377
422
613
1836
5675
25059
1737
665
931
2100
620
1268
7321
3066
694
7029
2872
1127
4542
1255
2633
1140
1092
1445
23829
86542
15875
44916
7965
33661
17594
1907
1463
20964
625
1935
585
1311
2070
6526
745
1962
2390
425
2497
1266
310
5522
1377
422
613
1819
5711
25060
1822
674
931
2100
625
1369
7521
3052
733
7511
2983
1157
4598
1255
2671
1197
1112
1454
24671
87794
15827
45145
8014
34635
17621
1951
1463
21035
625
1942
595
1311
2115
6588
745
1962
2366
425
2486
1261
310
5547
1377
422
613
1821
5750
25086
1832
681
931
2100
673
1375
7592
3228
734
7732
2992
1157
4650
1255
2712
1197
1187
1482
25098
88627
15788
45271
8079
35277
0.2%
2.3%
–
0.3%
–
0.4%
1.7%
–
2.2%
1.0%
–
–
-1.0%
–
-0.4%
-0.5%
–
0.5%
–
–
–
0.1%
0.7%
0.1%
0.5%
1.0%
–
–
7.7%
0.4%
0.9%
5.8%
0.1%
2.9%
0.3%
–
1.1%
–
1.5%
–
6.7%
1.9%
1.7%
0.9%
-0.3%
0.3%
0.8%
1.9%
19.9%
2.2%
1.7%
23.7%
0.7%
2.2%
0.7%
1.5%
2.4%
7.4%
0.8%
2.2%
2.7%
0.5%
2.8%
1.4%
0.3%
6.3%
1.6%
0.5%
0.7%
2.1%
6.5%
28.3%
2.1%
0.8%
1.1%
2.4%
0.8%
1.6%
8.6%
3.6%
0.8%
8.7%
3.4%
1.3%
5.2%
1.4%
3.1%
1.4%
1.3%
1.7%
28.3%
100.0%
17.8%
51.1%
9.1%
39.8%
*Atmospheric distillation capacity on a calendar-day basis.
Source: Includes data from Parpinelli Tecnon.
Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
Refinery throughputs
Thousand barrels daily*
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Australasia
China
Japan
Other Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
*Input to primary distillation units only.
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
14889
1709
1446
5120
19592
5639
2386
866
3060
4212
7974
66894
14092
39886
4519
22490
14804
1714
1378
5191
18997
5632
2343
880
3686
4149
8269
67043
13519
39345
4471
23226
15067
1765
1363
5337
19305
5430
2200
851
4218
4145
8884
68566
13767
39754
4583
24229
15128
1812
1398
5332
19457
5406
2440
847
4215
4107
9020
69161
13698
39762
4797
24602
14947
1862
1390
4941
19488
5482
2377
855
4395
3986
8796
68518
13477
39083
5060
24376
15304
1880
1436
5040
19991
5566
2301
823
4823
4118
9263
70545
13731
39888
5276
25381
15475
1957
1436
5430
20454
5805
2304
820
5382
4038
9916
73018
14089
40456
5413
27149
15220
1882
1415
5402
20845
6007
2477
757
5916
4136
10035
74093
14172
40269
5713
28111
15242
1835
1407
5356
20902
6276
2367
749
6155
4026
10392
74707
14002
40072
5900
28735
15156
1834
1395
5470
20705
6366
2470
767
6563
3995
10711
75432
13601
39578
6073
29781
14645
1796
1392
5479
20661
6403
2495
756
6851
3946
10754
75179
13549
38787
6173
30219
-3.4%
-2.1%
-0.2%
0.2%
-0.2%
0.6%
1.0%
-1.4%
4.4%
-1.2%
0.4%
-0.3%
-0.4%
-2.0%
1.7%
1.5%
19.5%
2.4%
1.9%
7.3%
27.5%
8.5%
3.3%
1.0%
9.1%
5.2%
14.3%
100.0%
18.0%
51.6%
8.2%
40.2%
Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
18
Source: Includes data from Energy Security Analysis, Inc. (ESAI).
Refinery utilization
Percentage
100
90
80
70
North America
S.& Cent. America
Europe
Former Soviet Union
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
World
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
60
08
50
Global oil demand fell in 2008 and so did refinery crude runs. The biggest reduction was in the US, where throughputs fell by 510,000b/d. Crude runs continued to grow in
China in support of domestic demand. Meanwhile global refining capacity grew by 830,000b/d, mainly in Asia Pacific. As a result, global average refinery utilization fell to
84.8%, the lowest level since 2003.
Regional refining margins
US dollars per barrel
26
USGC West Texas Sour Coking
NWE Brent Cracking
Singapore Dubai Hydrocracking
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
Note: The refining margins presented are benchmark margins for three major global refining centres: US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE – Rotterdam) and Singapore. In each case, they are
based on a single crude oil appropriate for that region and have optimized product yields based on a generic refinery configuration (cracking, hydrocracking or coking), again appropriate for that region.
The margins are on a semi-variable basis, i.e. the margin after all variable costs and fixed energy costs.
19
Trade movements
Thousand barrels daily
Imports
US
Europe
Japan
Rest of World*
Total World
Exports
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Former Soviet Union
Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
Asia Pacific‡
Rest of World*
Total World
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
10382
11017
5259
14438
41096
10550
10670
5346
15050
41616
11092
11070
5329
15880
43371
11618
11531
5202
16436
44787
11357
11895
5070
16291
44613
12254
11993
5314
17191
46752
12898
12538
5203
18651
49290
13525
13261
5225
19172
51182
13612
13461
5201
20287
52561
13632
13953
5032
22937
55554
12872
13751
4925
23078
54626
-5.6%
-1.4%
-2.1%
0.6%
-1.7%
23.6%
25.2%
9.0%
42.2%
100.0%
1011
1603
1770
3240
1344
3569
18702
2712
3094
3496
556
41097
956
1520
1739
3145
1851
4019
18341
2726
2985
3543
791
41616
890
1703
1814
3079
1967
4273
18944
2732
3293
3736
940
43371
910
1804
1882
3143
1947
4679
19098
2724
3182
3914
1506
44789
904
1959
1966
2965
2234
5370
18062
2620
3134
3848
1551
44613
921
2096
2115
2942
2066
6003
18943
2715
3612
3978
1361
46752
991
2148
2070
3233
1993
6440
19630
2917
4048
4189
1631
49290
1129
2201
2065
3528
2149
7076
19821
3070
4358
4243
1542
51182
1317
2330
2102
3681
2173
7155
20204
3225
4704
4312
1359
52561
1439
2457
1975
3570
2273
8334
19680
3336
4830
6004
1656
55554
1967
2498
1609
3616
2023
8184
20128
3260
4587
5392
1363
54626
36.7%
1.6%
-18.5%
1.3%
-11.0%
-1.8%
2.3%
-2.3%
-5.0%
-10.2%
-17.7%
-1.7%
3.6%
4.6%
2.9%
6.6%
3.7%
15.0%
36.8%
6.0%
8.4%
9.9%
2.5%
100.0%
China
India
Japan Singapore
Other
Asia
Pacific
Rest of
World
Total
*Includes unidentified trade.
‡Excludes Japan. Excludes trade between other Asia Pacific countries and India prior to 2007.
Note: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures.
Inter-area movements 2008
To
Million tonnes
From
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Former Soviet Union
Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & Southern Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Unidentified*
Total imports
US
Canada
Mexico
S. &
Cent.
America
–
121.7
64.7
119.4
43.4
23.8
119.7
32.6
90.9
–
1.8
0.8
0.3
–
–
5.3
12.3
636.6
13.1
–
1.4
1.0
8.3
1.6
6.3
8.9
5.2
–
†
†
–
–
†
†
2.5
48.4
17.0
–
–
1.3
5.7
0.2
0.6
0.2
†
–
†
–
–
0.5
†
0.6
–
26.0
25.4
0.1
4.3
–
4.8
3.0
5.8
5.1
15.0
†
–
4.0
1.6
0.1
1.0
1.5
–
71.9
24.4
1.6
7.7
25.2
–
318.5
127.6
101.3
49.5
0.6
†
0.3
3.3
1.2
2.4
2.5
14.9
680.9
1.8
–
–
1.1
16.9
1.1
44.5
1.0
4.5
–
–
0.4
–
–
1.6
0.5
–
73.4
0.8
–
–
–
†
0.6
5.4
0.3
–
–
–
0.2
–
2.6
12.1
20.0
1.7
43.6
0.8
†
–
16.5
0.2
22.4
92.0
4.2
39.1
10.6
0.9
–
0.2
4.9
4.5
21.4
–
217.8
0.7
†
1.9
5.8
0.5
2.0
107.6
4.3
16.6
0.8
0.2
0.1
–
0.6
2.9
5.8
–
149.7
3.6
0.1
–
0.1
1.4
8.2
196.9
0.4
1.1
4.9
2.6
1.3
1.4
–
1.4
20.7
0.2
244.2
4.3
†
0.1
7.8
5.3
5.0
53.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
3.5
2.1
6.8
4.6
–
38.0
–
130.9
1.4
†
–
0.1
1.4
6.6
238.3
3.1
6.7
0.6
6.6
9.2
20.0
2.4
49.2
–
–
345.7
1.6
†
†
0.1
9.7
11.8
3.1
–
0.1
–
†
0.3
0.8
0.1
0.8
0.2
–
28.6
94.6
123.6
80.0
178.3
97.6
404.8
1000.7
161.5
228.8
17.8
15.5
18.8
34.4
17.1
76.0
116.5
31.7
2697.8
–
2459
1299
2418
900
492
2398
665
1825
–
35
15
6
–
–
108
252
12872
270
–
28
21
168
33
125
179
105
–
†
†
–
–
†
1
51
981
352
–
–
26
118
4
12
4
1
–
†
–
–
11
1
12
–
541
529
3
88
–
100
61
116
103
301
†
–
83
32
2
22
32
–
1473
508
34
155
509
–
6428
2564
2039
992
12
1
6
70
24
50
52
307
13751
37
–
–
23
352
22
899
20
90
–
–
9
–
–
33
11
–
1496
16
–
–
–
1
12
108
5
–
–
–
5
–
54
250
403
35
889
16
†
–
334
5
453
1844
83
783
213
19
–
5
103
93
442
–
4393
14
†
38
116
11
40
2167
87
332
16
3
1
–
12
61
117
–
3016
75
1
–
1
29
165
3960
9
21
99
52
27
30
–
29
422
5
4925
89
†
1
163
110
105
1072
2
1
5
70
43
142
97
–
786
–
2685
29
†
–
1
28
133
4800
63
134
12
132
191
417
51
1026
–
–
7017
34
†
†
2
202
236
64
–
3
–
†
6
17
2
17
5
–
588
1967
2498
1609
3616
2023
8184
20128
3260
4587
357
312
388
718
356
1583
2391
650
54626
Europe
Africa
Australasia
Thousand barrels daily
From
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Former Soviet Union
Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & Southern Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Unidentified*
Total imports
*Includes changes in the quantity of oil in transit, movements not otherwise shown, unidentified military use, etc.
†Less than 0.05.
20
Major trade movements 2008
Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes)
318.5
5
43.4
22.4
24.4
23.8
121
1
21.7
1
12
27.6
49.5
196.9
6.9
90.9
101.3
10
0
32.6
64.7
92
92.0
92.
92
119.7
25.4
53.1
21.4
107
7.6
119.4
44.5
4.5
25.2
20.7
92
49
238.3
38.0
0
20.0
20.0
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
39.1
Imports and exports 2008
Crude
imports
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe
Former Soviet Union
Middle East
North Africa
West Africa
East & Southern Africa
Australasia
China
India
Japan
Singapore
Other Asia Pacific
Unidentified*
Total World
487.2
34.6
2.0
30.4
542.2
†
11.0
16.4
0.9
25.4
24.4
178.8
127.7
203.2
54.5
231.0
–
1969.9
Million tonnes
Product
Crude
imports
exports
149.5
13.8
24.0
41.4
138.7
7.1
9.7
8.2
13.5
9.0
19.2
39.0
22.0
41.0
76.4
114.6
0.8
727.9
6.9
96.4
72.8
123.8
14.0
311.3
895.0
130.7
223.0
17.0
13.7
3.7
†
–
2.0
46.5
12.8
1969.9
Product
exports
Crude
imports
87.7
27.2
7.2
54.5
83.5
93.5
105.7
30.8
5.8
0.8
1.8
15.0
34.4
17.1
74.0
70.1
18.9
727.9
9756
693
40
610
10859
1
220
329
18
509
489
3581
2557
4069
1092
4627
–
39451
Thousand barrels daily
Products
Crude
imports
exports
3116
288
500
864
2892
149
202
170
281
189
400
812
458
856
1593
2390
17
15175
139
1931
1459
2479
281
6235
17925
2618
4466
340
274
75
†
–
40
931
257
39451
Product
exports
1829
566
150
1136
1741
1948
2203
642
121
17
37
313
718
356
1542
1460
394
15175
*Includes changes in the quantity of oil in transit, movements not otherwise shown, unidentified military use, etc.
†Less than 0.05.
Note: Bunkers are not included as exports. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe) are excluded.
21
Natural gas
Proved reserves
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Kazakhstan
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Bahrain
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
At end 1988
Trillion
cubic
metres
At end 1998
Trillion
cubic
metres
At end 2007
Trillion
cubic
metres
Trillion
cubic
feet
4.76
2.67
2.08
9.51
0.77
0.15
0.11
0.13
0.34
0.29
2.86
0.15
4.79
n/a
0.08
0.36
0.33
n/a
1.73
2.30
0.17
0.17
n/a
n/a
n/a
0.59
n/a
38.81
44.53
0.19
14.20
2.69
1.38
0.28
4.62
5.02
0.11
5.66
0.16
†
34.34
3.23
0.33
0.83
2.48
0.82
7.68
1.11
0.35
0.32
0.92
0.60
2.56
1.49
0.27
0.65
0.13
0.20
n/a
0.27
8.86
109.72
3.65
16.57
38.46
4.65
1.75
0.85
7.24
0.69
0.15
0.22
0.20
0.25
0.56
4.15
0.14
6.35
0.81
0.10
0.26
0.27
1.81
1.77
3.79
0.14
0.36
43.51
2.51
1.02
0.76
1.58
0.40
59.09
0.14
24.10
3.19
1.48
0.57
10.90
6.07
0.24
6.00
0.48
†
53.17
4.08
1.02
1.32
3.51
0.84
10.77
1.65
0.30
0.38
1.37
0.67
2.18
2.41
0.29
0.61
0.43
0.42
0.17
0.51
11.39
148.01
3.77
16.17
51.48
6.73
1.63
0.51
8.88
0.44
0.71
0.27
0.12
0.33
0.48
4.84
0.07
7.27
1.16
0.07
0.14
0.13
1.85
1.39
2.88
0.11
0.63
43.32
2.43
0.93
0.34
1.59
0.43
57.39
0.09
28.13
3.17
1.78
0.98
25.46
7.30
0.28
6.44
0.49
0.05
74.17
4.50
2.07
1.54
5.22
1.21
14.54
2.41
0.37
0.34
2.26
1.06
3.00
2.39
0.49
0.85
0.44
0.32
0.48
0.40
14.80
177.05
2.91
16.56
51.50
237.7
57.7
17.6
313.1
15.6
25.1
11.5
4.0
11.8
17.0
170.9
2.4
258.2
42.3
1.9
4.2
4.2
64.4
49.1
102.7
3.9
22.2
1529.2
280.6
32.6
12.1
55.8
15.6
2220.8
3.0
1045.7
111.9
62.9
34.6
899.3
267.3
10.0
227.1
17.3
1.7
2680.9
159.1
76.6
54.4
184.2
43.3
517.5
88.6
13.1
12.4
86.7
38.5
112.5
84.3
17.5
30.1
15.6
10.7
19.7
13.9
543.5
6534.0
101.4
587.3
2013.1
At end 2008
Trillion
cubic
metres
6.73
1.63
0.50
8.87
0.44
0.71
0.33
0.11
0.33
0.48
4.84
0.07
7.31
1.20
0.06
0.12
0.12
1.82
1.39
2.91
0.11
0.63
43.30
7.94
0.92
0.34
1.58
0.44
62.89
0.09
29.61
3.17
1.78
0.98
25.46
7.57
0.28
6.43
0.49
0.05
75.91
4.50
2.17
1.54
5.22
1.23
14.65
2.51
0.37
0.35
2.46
1.09
3.18
2.39
0.49
0.85
0.44
0.30
0.56
0.39
15.39
185.02
2.87
16.63
57.00
Share
of total
R/P
ratio
3.6%
0.9%
0.3%
4.8%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
2.6%
11.6
9.3
9.1
10.9
10.0
51.0
23.6
12.4
98.5
12.2
*
17.5
46.0
81.3
5.5
9.2
14.2
60.3
20.6
29.3
27.1
54.6
72.0
*
49.2
4.9
25.4
43.2
57.8
6.3
*
*
*
40.7
*
96.9
51.8
*
*
18.4
*
52.1
36.9
96.9
*
66.2
68.2
65.6
21.4
28.8
32.3
35.6
45.7
38.2
39.9
22.7
*
10.5
70.1
22.1
37.4
60.4
15.1
14.6
71.8
◆
4.0%
0.6%
◆
0.1%
0.1%
1.0%
0.8%
1.6%
0.1%
0.3%
23.4%
4.3%
0.5%
0.2%
0.9%
0.2%
34.0%
◆
16.0%
1.7%
1.0%
0.5%
13.8%
4.1%
0.2%
3.5%
0.3%
◆
41.0%
2.4%
1.2%
0.8%
2.8%
0.7%
7.9%
1.4%
0.2%
0.2%
1.3%
0.6%
1.7%
1.3%
0.3%
0.5%
0.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
8.3%
100.0%
1.6%
9.0%
30.8%
*More than 100 years.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less than 0.05%.
n/a not available.
Notes: Proved reserves of natural gas – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future
from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves
would last if production were to continue at that rate.
Source of data – The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data from Cedigaz and the OPEC Secretariat.
22
Proved reserves at end 2008
Trillion cubic metres
7.31
8.87
S. & Cent. America North America
15.39
Asia Pacific
14.65
Africa
62.89
Europe & Eurasia
75.91
Middle East
Distribution of proved reserves in 1988, 1998 and 2008
Percentage
Middle East
Europe & Eurasia
Asia Pacific
Africa
North America
S. & Cent. America
4.4
31.3
4.3
35.9
4.8
4.9
4.0
41.0
8.7
7.3
7.9
7.0
8.1
1988
Total 109.72
trillion
cubic
metres
7.7
1998
Total 148.01
trillion
cubic
metres
8.3
2008
Total 185.02
trillion
cubic
metres
40.6
39.9
34.0
23
Production*
Billion cubic metres
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Kazakhstan
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Bahrain
Iran
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
New Zealand
Pakistan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
*Excluding gas flared or recycled.
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
538.7
173.4
38.4
750.5
29.6
2.8
6.3
6.3
8.6
32.3
2.9
88.8
5.1
7.6
16.7
17.4
7.2
64.8
44.2
3.6
14.0
534.8
12.0
16.3
90.2
49.6
12.3
895.8
8.4
50.0
9.5
5.2
19.6
46.8
5.3
37.1
3.2
185.0
76.6
14.0
6.4
5.1
5.1
107.2
30.4
7.8
10.8
23.3
24.5
64.6
38.5
1.8
4.6
17.8
17.5
0.9
3.3
245.7
2273.0
223.4
1041.8
625.3
605.9
533.3
176.8
37.1
747.2
34.6
2.3
7.4
5.2
11.7
27.4
3.5
92.0
5.4
7.8
17.8
16.0
9.0
60.2
48.5
3.4
14.0
534.6
20.6
16.4
99.1
50.3
11.5
914.7
8.7
56.4
8.6
5.5
22.1
46.2
5.4
38.5
3.4
194.7
86.0
16.8
5.0
6.0
5.8
119.7
30.8
8.3
11.2
25.2
25.1
70.0
40.8
1.7
5.3
20.3
19.2
1.3
3.3
262.6
2330.9
226.6
1047.2
636.6
647.0
543.2
182.2
37.8
763.2
37.4
3.2
7.5
5.9
14.1
27.9
3.7
99.7
5.1
8.2
16.9
15.2
10.4
58.1
49.7
3.7
13.8
528.7
42.5
16.2
108.4
51.1
11.2
939.2
8.8
60.2
9.6
8.7
23.7
49.8
5.5
38.4
3.4
208.1
84.4
21.0
5.9
12.5
6.3
130.1
31.2
10.0
11.3
27.2
26.4
65.2
45.3
3.4
5.6
21.5
20.2
1.6
3.3
272.1
2412.4
232.0
1071.0
654.4
687.0
555.5
186.5
37.4
779.4
37.1
4.7
7.7
6.1
15.2
29.6
3.9
104.3
5.0
8.4
17.0
14.0
10.5
62.4
53.9
3.9
13.6
526.2
46.4
16.6
105.8
52.0
11.0
946.7
9.1
66.0
10.5
14.0
27.0
53.7
5.0
44.9
3.0
233.3
78.2
25.2
6.2
14.9
6.8
131.3
32.5
10.7
11.4
30.3
26.4
63.3
46.9
7.0
5.9
22.7
19.6
2.0
3.6
282.4
2477.4
232.9
1093.8
657.1
726.5
536.0
187.9
38.9
762.8
36.1
4.9
9.2
6.2
17.3
28.4
3.8
106.0
4.7
8.4
17.0
13.4
10.2
60.3
65.5
4.0
13.2
538.8
48.4
16.9
103.6
51.9
11.3
967.6
9.5
75.0
9.5
15.0
29.5
56.7
6.1
43.4
2.6
247.2
80.4
27.3
5.9
14.2
7.5
135.3
32.6
11.4
11.5
32.7
27.6
69.7
48.3
8.4
5.6
24.6
20.5
2.4
5.3
300.6
2519.4
227.7
1083.9
671.2
764.3
540.8
184.7
41.2
766.6
41.0
6.4
10.0
6.1
24.7
25.2
3.6
117.1
4.6
8.0
17.7
12.7
12.6
58.1
73.1
4.0
13.0
561.4
53.5
17.5
102.9
52.0
10.7
1001.7
9.6
81.5
11.0
16.5
31.4
60.1
6.2
44.8
1.8
262.9
82.8
30.1
5.5
19.2
7.1
144.8
33.2
12.3
12.4
35.0
29.5
73.2
51.8
9.6
4.3
30.4
21.8
2.4
6.4
322.3
2615.5
223.6
1091.2
701.9
822.4
526.4
183.7
42.7
752.8
44.9
9.8
11.0
6.4
27.3
28.4
4.0
131.7
4.5
9.4
16.4
11.9
20.0
68.5
78.5
4.4
12.8
573.3
52.8
18.5
96.4
54.2
11.1
1032.5
9.8
84.9
11.9
18.5
39.2
65.7
6.4
46.3
2.5
285.1
82.0
33.0
8.1
22.8
9.3
155.2
35.3
13.2
12.2
41.5
29.2
70.3
53.9
10.2
3.8
34.5
22.4
4.2
6.2
336.8
2694.1
227.4
1088.0
723.5
882.6
511.1
187.4
45.0
743.6
45.6
11.9
11.0
6.7
30.3
27.4
4.9
137.9
5.2
10.4
15.8
11.1
22.6
62.5
85.0
4.3
12.4
580.1
57.0
18.8
88.2
54.0
10.7
1038.2
10.7
103.5
12.2
19.8
45.8
71.2
5.5
47.8
3.4
319.9
88.2
42.5
11.3
22.4
11.2
175.6
37.1
14.5
12.0
49.3
29.6
71.2
59.9
12.2
3.6
35.5
23.7
6.9
7.0
362.6
2777.8
211.9
1072.1
738.0
967.7
524.0
188.4
51.6
764.0
46.1
12.9
11.3
7.0
36.4
31.5
5.8
151.1
6.1
10.4
15.6
10.1
23.9
61.6
87.6
4.3
11.9
593.8
60.4
19.1
80.0
54.5
11.5
1050.7
11.3
108.6
12.5
23.7
50.7
73.5
5.7
49.0
4.1
339.1
84.5
54.7
13.2
28.4
11.8
192.6
38.9
15.3
12.6
58.6
29.3
70.3
59.7
12.6
3.7
36.1
24.3
6.8
10.5
378.5
2876.1
201.3
1086.6
758.0
1031.5
540.5
184.1
54.0
778.7
44.8
13.8
11.3
7.5
39.0
32.1
6.5
155.0
9.8
9.2
14.3
8.9
26.4
60.5
89.7
4.3
11.5
592.0
65.4
19.1
72.1
59.1
10.8
1053.3
11.8
111.9
12.1
24.1
63.2
74.4
5.6
50.4
4.1
357.6
84.8
55.7
15.3
35.0
13.6
204.4
40.0
16.3
12.3
69.2
30.1
67.6
60.8
13.5
4.1
36.5
26.0
7.1
13.0
396.3
2945.3
187.5
1092.1
772.2
1081.1
582.2
175.2
54.9
812.3
44.1
13.9
13.9
9.1
39.3
31.5
7.2
158.9
14.7
10.1
13.0
8.4
30.2
67.5
99.2
4.1
11.5
601.7
66.1
18.7
69.6
62.2
10.3
1087.3
13.4
116.3
12.8
24.1
76.6
78.1
5.5
50.2
4.1
381.1
86.5
58.9
15.9
35.0
18.5
214.8
38.3
17.3
12.1
76.1
30.6
69.7
62.5
12.4
3.8
37.5
28.9
7.9
14.1
411.2
3065.6
190.3
1136.6
793.7
1135.3
7.5%
-5.1%
1.3%
4.1%
-1.9%
0.5%
22.4%
19.8%
0.5%
-2.2%
11.6%
2.2%
50.0%
9.1%
-9.2%
-6.1%
13.9%
11.2%
10.4%
-6.6%
-0.3%
1.4%
0.7%
-2.3%
-3.7%
4.9%
-5.4%
2.9%
13.8%
3.6%
5.5%
-0.3%
20.9%
4.7%
-2.8%
-0.7%
-1.7%
6.3%
1.7%
5.4%
3.6%
-0.2%
35.7%
4.8%
-4.5%
6.0%
-1.2%
9.6%
1.4%
2.7%
2.5%
-8.5%
-6.3%
2.6%
10.7%
11.9%
8.5%
3.5%
3.8%
1.2%
3.9%
2.5%
4.7%
19.3%
5.7%
1.8%
26.7%
1.4%
0.5%
0.5%
0.3%
1.3%
1.0%
0.2%
5.2%
0.5%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
1.0%
2.2%
3.2%
0.1%
0.4%
19.6%
2.1%
0.6%
2.3%
2.0%
0.3%
35.4%
0.4%
3.8%
0.4%
0.8%
2.5%
2.5%
0.2%
1.6%
0.1%
12.4%
2.8%
1.9%
0.5%
1.1%
0.6%
7.0%
1.2%
0.6%
0.4%
2.5%
1.0%
2.3%
2.0%
0.4%
0.1%
1.2%
0.9%
0.3%
0.5%
13.4%
100.0%
6.2%
37.3%
25.8%
36.9%
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
Notes: As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 millibar (mbar); because it is derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average
conversion factor, it does not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms.
Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Natural gas production data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
24
Production*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Trinidad & Tobago
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Azerbaijan
Denmark
Germany
Italy
Kazakhstan
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Bahrain
Iran
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
Libya
Nigeria
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
Brunei
China
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
New Zealand
Pakistan
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
*Excluding gas flared or recycled.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
494.2
156.1
34.5
684.9
26.6
2.5
5.7
5.6
7.8
29.1
2.6
80.0
4.6
6.8
15.0
15.7
6.5
58.3
39.8
3.2
12.6
481.4
10.8
14.6
81.1
44.6
11.1
806.2
7.5
45.0
8.5
4.7
17.6
42.1
4.8
33.4
2.9
166.5
68.9
12.6
5.7
4.6
4.6
96.5
27.3
7.0
9.7
21.0
22.0
58.1
34.6
1.6
4.2
16.0
15.8
0.8
3.0
221.1
2055.1
201.1
947.1
562.7
545.3
487.4
159.1
33.4
679.9
31.1
2.0
6.7
4.7
10.6
24.7
3.1
82.8
4.9
7.0
16.1
14.4
8.1
54.2
43.6
3.1
12.6
481.1
18.6
14.8
89.2
45.3
10.3
823.2
7.8
50.7
7.8
4.9
19.8
41.6
4.9
34.6
3.1
175.3
77.4
15.1
4.5
5.4
5.2
107.7
27.7
7.5
10.1
22.7
22.6
63.0
36.8
1.5
4.8
18.3
17.3
1.2
2.9
236.3
2105.2
203.9
949.9
572.9
582.3
495.5
164.0
34.0
693.5
33.7
2.9
6.7
5.3
12.6
25.1
3.3
89.8
4.6
7.3
15.2
13.7
9.4
52.3
44.8
3.3
12.4
475.8
38.3
14.6
97.5
45.9
10.1
845.3
7.9
54.2
8.6
7.8
21.3
44.8
4.9
34.5
3.1
187.3
76.0
18.9
5.3
11.3
5.6
117.1
28.0
9.0
10.2
24.5
23.7
58.7
40.7
3.1
5.1
19.4
18.2
1.4
3.0
244.9
2177.8
208.8
970.5
589.0
618.3
508.2
167.8
33.7
709.7
33.4
4.2
6.9
5.5
13.7
26.6
3.5
93.9
4.5
7.5
15.3
12.6
9.5
56.2
48.5
3.5
12.2
473.6
41.8
14.9
95.2
46.8
9.9
852.1
8.2
59.4
9.5
12.6
24.3
48.3
4.5
40.4
2.7
209.9
70.4
22.7
5.6
13.4
6.1
118.2
29.2
9.7
10.3
27.3
23.8
57.0
42.2
6.3
5.3
20.4
17.7
1.8
3.2
254.2
2237.9
209.6
992.7
591.4
653.9
489.9
169.1
35.0
694.0
32.5
4.4
8.3
5.5
15.6
25.6
3.4
95.4
4.2
7.5
15.3
12.1
9.2
54.3
59.0
3.6
11.9
484.9
43.6
15.2
93.2
46.7
10.1
870.8
8.5
67.5
8.5
13.5
26.6
51.0
5.5
39.1
2.4
222.5
72.3
24.6
5.3
12.8
6.8
121.7
29.3
10.3
10.3
29.4
24.8
62.7
43.5
7.6
5.1
22.1
18.5
2.2
4.7
270.5
2274.9
205.0
983.0
604.1
687.9
496.2
166.2
37.0
699.4
36.9
5.7
9.0
5.5
22.3
22.7
3.3
105.4
4.2
7.2
15.9
11.5
11.3
52.2
65.8
3.6
11.7
505.2
48.1
15.8
92.6
46.8
9.6
901.5
8.7
73.4
9.9
14.9
28.3
54.1
5.6
40.3
1.6
236.6
74.5
27.1
5.0
17.3
6.4
130.3
29.9
11.1
11.1
31.5
26.6
65.9
46.6
8.6
3.9
27.4
19.6
2.1
5.8
290.1
2363.4
201.3
991.5
631.7
740.2
481.1
165.3
38.4
684.9
40.4
8.8
9.9
5.7
24.6
25.6
3.6
118.6
4.1
8.5
14.7
10.7
18.0
61.6
70.6
3.9
11.5
516.0
47.5
16.6
86.7
48.8
10.0
929.2
8.8
76.4
10.7
16.7
35.3
59.1
5.8
41.7
2.3
256.6
73.8
29.7
7.3
20.5
8.4
139.6
31.7
11.9
11.0
37.3
26.3
63.3
48.5
9.2
3.5
31.0
20.1
3.7
5.6
303.1
2432.1
204.6
986.6
651.2
794.3
468.1
168.7
40.5
677.3
41.1
10.7
9.9
6.0
27.3
24.7
4.5
124.1
4.7
9.4
14.2
10.0
20.3
56.3
76.5
3.9
11.2
522.1
51.3
16.9
79.4
48.6
9.7
934.4
9.6
93.2
11.0
17.8
41.2
64.1
4.9
43.0
3.1
287.9
79.4
38.3
10.2
20.2
10.1
158.1
33.4
13.1
10.8
44.4
26.7
64.1
54.0
11.0
3.2
32.0
21.3
6.2
6.3
326.3
2508.1
190.7
973.0
664.2
870.9
479.3
169.6
46.4
695.3
41.5
11.6
10.2
6.3
32.8
28.3
5.2
136.0
5.5
9.4
14.1
9.1
21.5
55.4
78.9
3.9
10.7
534.4
54.3
17.2
72.0
49.0
10.4
945.7
10.2
97.7
11.3
21.3
45.6
66.2
5.1
44.1
3.7
305.2
76.0
49.2
11.9
25.6
10.6
173.4
35.0
13.8
11.3
52.7
26.4
63.2
53.7
11.3
3.3
32.5
21.9
6.1
9.4
340.7
2596.3
181.2
985.7
682.2
928.4
494.5
165.7
48.6
708.8
40.3
12.4
10.2
6.8
35.1
28.9
5.8
139.5
8.8
8.3
12.9
8.0
23.8
54.5
80.7
3.9
10.4
532.8
58.9
17.2
64.9
53.2
9.7
947.9
10.6
100.7
10.9
21.6
56.9
67.0
5.1
45.4
3.7
321.9
76.3
50.1
13.8
31.5
12.2
184.0
36.0
14.6
11.0
62.3
27.1
60.9
54.7
12.2
3.7
32.8
23.4
6.4
11.7
356.7
2658.8
168.7
990.9
694.9
973.0
533.0
157.7
49.4
740.0
39.7
12.5
12.5
8.2
35.4
28.3
6.5
143.0
13.3
9.1
11.7
7.5
27.2
60.8
89.3
3.7
10.4
541.5
59.5
16.9
62.6
56.0
9.2
978.6
12.1
104.7
11.5
21.6
69.0
70.3
4.9
45.2
3.7
343.0
77.9
53.0
14.3
31.5
16.7
193.3
34.4
15.6
10.9
68.5
27.5
62.7
56.3
11.2
3.4
33.8
26.0
7.1
12.7
370.1
2768.0
171.3
1031.9
714.3
1021.8
7.5%
-5.1%
1.3%
4.1%
-1.9%
0.5%
22.4%
19.8%
0.5%
-2.2%
11.6%
2.2%
50.0%
9.1%
-9.2%
-6.1%
13.9%
11.2%
10.4%
-6.6%
-0.3%
1.4%
0.7%
-2.3%
-3.7%
4.9%
-5.4%
2.9%
13.8%
3.6%
5.5%
-0.3%
20.9%
4.7%
-2.8%
-0.7%
-1.7%
6.3%
1.7%
5.4%
3.6%
-0.2%
35.7%
4.8%
-4.5%
6.0%
-1.2%
9.6%
1.4%
2.7%
2.5%
-8.5%
-6.3%
2.6%
10.7%
11.9%
8.5%
3.5%
3.8%
1.2%
3.9%
2.5%
4.7%
19.3%
5.7%
1.8%
26.7%
1.4%
0.5%
0.5%
0.3%
1.3%
1.0%
0.2%
5.2%
0.5%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
1.0%
2.2%
3.2%
0.1%
0.4%
19.6%
2.1%
0.6%
2.3%
2.0%
0.3%
35.4%
0.4%
3.8%
0.4%
0.8%
2.5%
2.5%
0.2%
1.6%
0.1%
12.4%
2.8%
1.9%
0.5%
1.1%
0.6%
7.0%
1.2%
0.6%
0.4%
2.5%
1.0%
2.3%
2.0%
0.4%
0.1%
1.2%
0.9%
0.3%
0.5%
13.4%
100.0%
6.2%
37.3%
25.8%
36.9%
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
25
Production by region
Billion cubic metres
3200
Rest of World
Asia Pacific
Europe & Eurasia
North America
2800
2400
2000
1600
1200
800
400
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
World natural gas production grew by a robust 3.8% in 2008, the strongest volumetric growth since 1984. For the second consecutive year, the US recorded the
largest increase, with growth of 41.7tcm. Growth was below the 10-year average for all regions except North America and Europe and Eurasia. Canada recorded the
world’s largest decline.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios
Years
2008 by region
80
World
70
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
250
200
60
50
150
40
100
30
20
50
10
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
00
02
04
06
08
0
Global proved reserves of natural gas increased by 7.97tcm in 2008, and the R/P ratio increased to 60.4 years. Increases in Turkmenistan and Iran accounted for most
of the growth.
26
0
Consumption
Billion cubic metres
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
629.9
83.4
39.5
752.8
30.5
6.4
3.7
6.2
0.3
0.4
32.3
10.0
89.8
8.3
5.1
14.6
13.8
3.5
8.5
4.7
3.7
37.0
79.7
0.8
10.9
–
3.1
57.2
7.1
2.3
39.6
3.8
10.6
0.8
18.7
353.8
6.4
13.1
0.9
2.6
10.3
10.0
66.7
87.9
45.6
14.4
945.4
51.8
9.5
14.8
46.8
30.4
21.6
174.8
20.9
13.7
–
15.0
49.5
19.8
7.8
20.3
3.0
24.5
29.5
66.1
17.4
4.6
17.8
†
1.5
15.4
6.2
17.6
4.5
255.8
2268.2
414.3
1262.4
513.7
492.1
634.4
87.4
37.4
759.2
32.4
7.6
5.0
5.2
0.3
0.4
27.4
11.3
89.5
8.5
5.4
14.8
14.7
3.0
8.6
5.0
3.7
37.7
80.2
1.5
11.0
–
3.3
62.2
7.7
2.4
38.5
3.6
10.3
2.3
17.2
352.8
6.4
15.0
0.8
2.7
12.4
11.0
70.9
93.6
47.8
12.7
967.5
58.4
8.6
14.0
46.2
31.4
22.5
181.1
21.3
16.4
–
15.6
53.4
20.2
8.3
21.5
3.3
25.1
32.0
69.4
16.1
5.3
20.3
†
1.5
18.7
6.3
19.2
4.9
272.2
2322.8
428.6
1294.8
520.2
507.8
660.7
92.8
40.2
793.7
33.2
9.4
6.5
5.9
0.3
0.3
27.9
11.9
95.5
8.1
5.2
15.7
14.9
3.3
8.3
4.9
3.7
39.7
79.5
2.0
10.7
–
3.8
64.9
9.4
2.7
39.0
4.0
11.1
2.4
17.1
366.0
6.5
16.9
0.7
2.7
14.6
12.2
71.0
96.9
45.7
13.2
996.9
62.9
9.6
9.7
49.8
31.4
23.4
186.7
19.8
20.0
–
17.4
57.2
20.5
10.0
24.5
3.0
26.4
29.7
72.3
24.3
5.6
21.5
†
1.7
21.0
6.8
22.0
5.5
294.9
2424.8
440.1
1348.4
535.5
541.0
629.7
88.2
40.7
758.7
31.1
11.9
7.3
6.1
0.3
0.4
29.6
13.6
100.3
8.6
7.5
15.7
14.6
3.0
8.9
5.1
4.1
41.7
82.9
2.0
11.9
–
4.0
65.0
9.8
2.8
40.0
3.8
11.5
2.6
16.6
361.5
6.9
18.2
0.7
2.8
16.0
12.5
68.8
96.4
49.6
14.5
1010.0
70.1
10.5
11.0
53.7
37.9
23.7
206.8
20.5
24.5
–
17.6
62.6
22.0
10.7
27.4
3.0
26.4
31.0
74.3
25.8
5.9
22.7
0.1
4.6
23.1
7.3
24.8
5.8
314.9
2453.3
450.8
1331.7
536.5
585.1
651.5
90.2
45.8
787.4
30.3
14.1
7.4
6.1
0.2
0.4
28.4
14.4
101.4
8.5
7.5
16.1
14.8
2.7
8.7
5.1
4.0
41.7
82.6
2.1
11.8
–
4.1
64.6
10.8
2.9
39.8
4.0
11.2
3.1
17.2
377.3
6.5
20.8
0.8
2.8
17.4
12.9
67.7
95.1
50.9
13.6
1029.1
79.2
9.5
11.1
56.7
36.4
24.7
217.6
20.2
26.5
–
18.0
64.7
22.4
11.4
29.2
2.9
27.6
32.9
72.7
26.7
5.6
24.6
1.8
5.0
25.7
8.2
26.9
6.0
329.5
2529.7
451.5
1363.5
553.3
612.9
630.8
97.7
50.6
779.1
34.6
15.8
8.0
6.0
0.3
0.5
25.2
15.9
106.3
9.4
7.7
15.8
16.0
2.8
8.7
5.2
4.5
43.3
85.5
2.4
13.2
–
4.1
71.2
12.9
3.1
40.0
4.3
11.2
3.0
18.3
381.2
6.3
23.6
0.8
2.9
20.9
14.2
65.8
95.4
45.8
14.1
1053.9
82.9
11.0
12.2
60.1
37.9
25.0
229.0
21.4
29.7
–
20.4
71.5
22.4
12.3
33.9
1.8
29.5
35.2
79.8
27.1
4.3
30.4
2.7
5.4
26.9
8.4
28.8
6.5
355.6
2595.5
471.6
1384.6
554.3
656.6
634.0
95.1
53.4
782.4
37.9
18.7
8.7
6.3
0.3
0.9
28.4
16.2
117.4
9.5
8.3
17.9
16.5
2.8
9.1
5.2
4.3
44.5
85.9
2.7
13.0
–
4.1
73.9
14.9
3.1
40.9
4.6
13.1
3.8
17.5
389.9
6.1
27.4
0.8
3.0
22.1
15.0
71.0
97.4
43.4
15.6
1087.2
86.5
11.9
15.0
65.7
40.2
27.8
247.1
22.0
31.7
–
23.6
77.4
22.8
13.2
39.7
2.7
31.9
33.2
77.0
24.5
3.8
34.5
2.4
6.5
31.5
10.2
29.9
8.7
372.3
2683.9
485.0
1405.3
572.1
706.5
623.3
98.1
53.3
774.7
40.4
19.3
8.4
6.7
0.4
1.5
27.4
19.5
123.7
10.0
8.6
18.4
16.6
3.1
9.6
5.0
4.0
45.8
86.2
2.8
13.4
–
3.9
79.1
18.8
3.3
39.3
4.5
13.6
4.2
17.6
393.0
6.6
32.4
0.8
3.1
26.9
16.1
70.9
94.7
42.7
15.8
1110.6
105.0
12.2
18.7
71.2
42.1
30.1
279.2
23.2
31.6
–
24.5
79.4
21.9
14.5
46.8
2.7
35.7
35.2
78.6
29.3
3.6
35.5
3.3
6.5
33.7
10.3
32.5
12.1
402.2
2769.8
495.5
1414.8
580.9
774.1
614.1
96.9
60.9
771.9
41.8
20.6
7.8
7.0
0.7
1.8
31.5
24.0
135.2
9.4
9.1
19.0
17.0
3.2
9.3
5.1
4.2
44.1
87.2
3.2
12.7
–
4.5
77.4
20.3
3.2
38.1
4.4
13.7
4.1
18.1
419.2
6.0
33.7
0.9
3.0
30.5
18.4
65.1
90.1
41.9
16.3
1132.4
108.7
12.5
19.6
73.5
43.4
33.8
291.5
23.7
36.5
–
23.7
83.9
24.0
15.3
56.1
2.9
37.3
35.9
83.7
29.0
3.7
36.1
2.9
8.6
35.6
11.1
33.3
12.3
427.8
2842.7
488.9
1417.4
605.7
819.6
652.6
96.7
63.1
812.4
43.9
22.0
4.6
7.4
0.5
2.7
32.2
24.6
137.9
8.9
8.0
18.8
16.9
3.3
8.4
4.6
3.9
42.5
82.9
4.0
12.0
–
4.8
77.8
19.5
3.6
37.0
4.3
13.7
4.2
16.1
425.7
5.7
35.1
1.0
2.9
35.1
21.3
62.7
90.9
45.9
16.8
1138.3
113.0
12.1
19.7
74.4
49.3
34.8
303.3
24.3
38.4
–
26.5
89.2
24.9
16.3
69.5
2.2
40.1
34.0
90.2
28.5
4.1
36.5
3.4
8.6
38.5
11.8
35.4
13.0
456.8
2938.0
480.9
1466.7
615.1
856.1
657.2
100.0
67.2
824.4
44.5
25.2
2.6
8.2
0.6
3.4
32.4
26.3
143.0
9.5
9.3
19.2
17.0
3.3
8.7
4.6
4.0
44.2
82.0
4.2
12.0
–
5.0
77.7
20.6
3.2
38.6
4.4
13.9
4.6
14.5
420.2
5.7
39.0
1.0
3.1
36.0
19.0
59.7
93.9
48.7
17.1
1143.9
117.6
12.8
19.8
78.1
58.1
40.7
327.1
25.4
40.9
–
28.6
94.9
23.5
17.3
80.7
2.6
41.4
38.0
93.7
30.7
3.8
37.5
3.5
9.2
39.7
12.8
37.4
13.6
485.3
3018.7
490.1
1494.3
609.6
914.9
0.6%
3.2%
6.2%
1.3%
1.0%
14.2%
-43.2%
9.3%
7.4%
26.6%
0.3%
6.6%
3.5%
6.3%
16.0%
1.9%
0.5%
-0.3%
3.1%
0.5%
0.8%
3.7%
-1.3%
4.2%
-0.1%
–
4.3%
-0.4%
5.1%
-10.5%
3.9%
2.9%
1.4%
8.3%
-9.8%
-1.6%
1.1%
10.7%
-7.6%
5.4%
2.5%
-10.9%
-5.0%
3.0%
5.9%
1.2%
0.2%
3.8%
5.5%
0.4%
4.7%
17.5%
16.7%
7.6%
4.1%
6.3%
–
7.6%
6.1%
-5.7%
6.0%
15.8%
15.4%
3.0%
11.5%
3.6%
7.2%
-6.3%
2.6%
1.1%
6.6%
2.8%
8.4%
5.6%
4.3%
5.9%
2.5%
1.6%
1.7%
-1.2%
6.6%
22.0%
3.3%
2.2%
27.6%
1.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.3%
◆
0.1%
1.1%
0.9%
4.7%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
1.5%
2.7%
0.1%
0.4%
–
0.2%
2.6%
0.7%
0.1%
1.3%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.5%
13.9%
0.2%
1.3%
◆
0.1%
1.2%
0.6%
2.0%
3.1%
1.6%
0.6%
37.8%
3.9%
0.4%
0.7%
2.6%
1.9%
1.3%
10.8%
0.8%
1.3%
–
0.9%
3.1%
0.8%
0.6%
2.7%
0.1%
1.4%
1.3%
3.1%
1.0%
0.1%
1.2%
0.1%
0.3%
1.3%
0.4%
1.2%
0.4%
16.0%
100.0%
16.2%
49.7%
20.1%
30.2%
†Less than 0.05.
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Notes: Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent figures.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics on page 24 is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable
disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data.
As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013mbar); because it is derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor, it
does not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms.
Natural gas consumption data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
27
Consumption
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
575.3
75.1
35.5
685.9
27.5
5.7
3.3
5.6
0.3
0.4
29.1
9.0
80.8
7.5
4.6
13.1
12.4
3.1
7.7
4.3
3.3
33.3
71.7
0.8
9.8
–
2.8
51.5
6.4
2.1
35.6
3.4
9.5
0.7
16.8
318.5
5.7
11.8
0.8
2.4
9.2
9.0
60.0
79.1
41.0
12.9
850.8
46.6
8.5
13.3
42.1
27.4
19.4
157.3
18.8
12.3
–
13.5
44.6
17.8
7.0
18.2
2.7
22.0
26.5
59.5
15.7
4.2
16.0
†
1.4
13.8
5.6
15.8
4.1
230.3
2049.7
372.9
1144.6
462.3
442.8
577.3
78.6
33.6
689.6
29.1
6.8
4.5
4.7
0.3
0.4
24.7
10.2
80.6
7.6
4.9
13.4
13.3
2.7
7.7
4.5
3.3
33.9
72.1
1.3
9.9
–
3.0
56.0
6.9
2.2
34.7
3.2
9.3
2.0
15.5
317.5
5.8
13.5
0.8
2.4
11.1
9.9
63.8
84.2
43.0
11.4
870.8
52.5
7.8
12.6
41.6
28.3
20.3
163.0
19.2
14.8
–
14.1
48.0
18.2
7.5
19.3
3.0
22.6
28.8
62.5
14.5
4.8
18.3
†
1.4
16.8
5.7
17.3
4.4
245.0
2096.9
385.7
1171.7
468.2
457.0
600.4
83.5
36.2
720.0
29.9
8.5
5.8
5.3
0.3
0.3
25.1
10.7
85.9
7.3
4.7
14.2
13.4
2.9
7.5
4.4
3.4
35.7
71.5
1.8
9.7
–
3.4
58.4
8.5
2.5
35.1
3.6
10.0
2.1
15.4
329.4
5.8
15.2
0.7
2.4
13.1
11.0
63.9
87.2
41.1
11.9
897.2
56.6
8.6
8.7
44.8
28.3
21.0
168.1
17.9
18.0
–
15.7
51.5
18.5
9.0
22.1
2.7
23.7
26.8
65.1
21.9
5.1
19.4
†
1.6
18.9
6.1
19.8
4.9
265.4
2188.1
396.1
1219.3
481.9
486.9
573.9
79.4
36.7
689.9
28.0
10.7
6.6
5.5
0.3
0.3
26.6
12.2
90.2
7.7
6.8
14.1
13.2
2.7
8.0
4.6
3.7
37.5
74.6
1.8
10.7
–
3.6
58.5
8.8
2.5
36.0
3.4
10.4
2.3
14.9
325.4
6.2
16.4
0.6
2.5
14.4
11.2
61.9
86.7
44.6
13.0
909.0
63.1
9.5
9.9
48.3
34.1
21.3
186.1
18.5
22.1
–
15.9
56.4
19.8
9.7
24.7
2.7
23.8
27.9
66.8
23.2
5.3
20.4
0.1
4.1
20.8
6.6
22.3
5.2
283.4
2215.1
405.7
1205.7
482.8
526.6
593.7
81.2
41.2
716.0
27.2
12.7
6.6
5.5
0.2
0.4
25.6
12.9
91.2
7.7
6.8
14.5
13.4
2.4
7.8
4.6
3.6
37.5
74.3
1.9
10.6
–
3.7
58.1
9.7
2.6
35.8
3.6
10.1
2.8
15.5
339.6
5.8
18.8
0.7
2.5
15.6
11.6
60.9
85.6
45.8
12.2
926.2
71.3
8.5
10.0
51.0
32.8
22.2
195.8
18.2
23.9
–
16.2
58.2
20.2
10.3
26.3
2.6
24.8
29.6
65.4
24.0
5.1
22.1
1.6
4.5
23.1
7.4
24.2
5.4
296.5
2284.0
406.3
1234.4
498.0
551.6
577.0
87.9
45.5
710.4
31.1
14.2
7.2
5.4
0.2
0.5
22.7
14.3
95.7
8.5
7.0
14.3
14.4
2.5
7.8
4.7
4.0
39.0
77.0
2.2
11.9
–
3.7
64.1
11.6
2.8
36.0
3.9
10.1
2.7
16.5
343.1
5.7
21.3
0.7
2.6
18.8
12.8
59.2
85.8
41.2
12.7
948.5
74.6
9.9
11.0
54.1
34.1
22.5
206.1
19.3
26.7
–
18.4
64.4
20.2
11.1
30.5
1.7
26.6
31.7
71.8
24.4
3.9
27.4
2.4
4.8
24.2
7.6
26.0
5.9
320.1
2345.2
424.4
1255.4
498.8
591.0
577.9
85.6
48.0
711.4
34.1
16.8
7.8
5.7
0.3
0.8
25.6
14.6
105.7
8.5
7.5
16.1
14.9
2.5
8.2
4.7
3.9
40.1
77.3
2.4
11.7
–
3.7
66.5
13.4
2.8
36.8
4.1
11.8
3.4
15.7
350.9
5.5
24.7
0.7
2.7
19.9
13.5
63.9
87.7
39.1
14.0
978.5
77.9
10.7
13.5
59.1
36.2
25.0
222.4
19.8
28.5
–
21.3
69.6
20.5
11.9
35.7
2.4
28.7
29.8
69.3
22.0
3.5
31.0
2.1
5.9
28.4
9.2
26.9
7.8
335.1
2422.8
436.5
1272.1
514.9
635.8
569.1
88.3
48.0
705.4
36.4
17.4
7.5
6.0
0.3
1.4
24.7
17.6
111.3
9.0
7.7
16.5
14.9
2.8
8.6
4.5
3.6
41.3
77.6
2.5
12.1
–
3.5
71.2
16.9
2.9
35.3
4.0
12.3
3.8
15.8
353.7
5.9
29.1
0.7
2.8
24.2
14.5
63.8
85.2
38.4
14.2
999.6
94.5
11.0
16.8
64.1
37.8
27.1
251.3
20.9
28.4
–
22.1
71.4
19.7
13.1
42.1
2.4
32.1
31.7
70.7
26.4
3.2
32.0
3.0
5.9
30.4
9.3
29.3
10.9
362.0
2501.0
445.9
1281.4
522.8
696.7
560.0
87.3
54.8
702.1
37.6
18.5
7.0
6.3
0.7
1.6
28.3
21.6
121.7
8.5
8.2
17.1
15.3
2.9
8.4
4.6
3.8
39.7
78.5
2.9
11.5
–
4.0
69.7
18.2
2.9
34.3
4.0
12.3
3.7
16.3
377.3
5.4
30.3
0.8
2.7
27.4
16.5
58.6
81.1
37.7
14.7
1019.2
97.8
11.3
17.6
66.2
39.0
30.4
262.3
21.4
32.9
–
21.3
75.5
21.6
13.8
50.5
2.6
33.5
32.3
75.4
26.1
3.3
32.5
2.6
7.7
32.0
10.0
30.0
11.0
385.0
2565.8
440.0
1283.1
545.1
737.6
595.4
87.0
56.8
739.3
39.5
19.8
4.1
6.7
0.5
2.4
29.0
22.1
124.1
8.0
7.2
16.9
15.2
2.9
7.6
4.1
3.5
38.3
74.6
3.6
10.8
–
4.3
70.0
17.6
3.3
33.3
3.8
12.3
3.8
14.5
383.1
5.1
31.6
0.9
2.6
31.6
19.1
56.4
81.8
41.3
15.1
1024.5
101.7
10.9
17.7
67.0
44.4
31.3
273.0
21.9
34.5
–
23.9
80.3
22.4
14.6
62.6
2.0
36.0
30.6
81.2
25.7
3.7
32.8
3.1
7.7
34.7
10.6
31.8
11.7
411.2
2652.2
432.8
1328.1
553.6
770.5
600.7
90.0
60.5
751.2
40.0
22.7
2.3
7.3
0.5
3.1
29.1
23.6
128.7
8.5
8.4
17.3
15.3
2.9
7.8
4.1
3.6
39.8
73.8
3.8
10.8
–
4.5
69.9
18.5
2.9
34.7
4.0
12.5
4.1
13.1
378.2
5.2
35.1
0.9
2.8
32.4
17.1
53.8
84.5
43.8
15.4
1029.6
105.8
11.5
17.9
70.3
52.3
36.6
294.4
22.8
36.8
–
25.8
85.4
21.2
15.6
72.6
2.3
37.2
34.2
84.4
27.6
3.4
33.8
3.1
8.3
35.7
11.5
33.7
12.2
436.8
2726.1
441.1
1354.1
548.6
823.4
0.6%
3.2%
6.2%
1.3%
1.0%
14.2%
-43.2%
9.3%
7.4%
26.6%
0.3%
6.6%
3.5%
6.3%
16.0%
1.9%
0.5%
-0.3%
3.1%
0.5%
0.8%
3.7%
-1.3%
4.2%
-0.1%
–
4.3%
-0.4%
5.1%
-10.5%
3.9%
2.9%
1.4%
8.3%
-9.8%
-1.6%
1.1%
10.7%
-7.6%
5.4%
2.5%
-10.9%
-5.0%
3.0%
5.9%
1.2%
0.2%
3.8%
5.5%
0.4%
4.7%
17.5%
16.7%
7.6%
4.1%
6.3%
–
7.6%
6.1%
-5.7%
6.0%
15.8%
15.4%
3.0%
11.5%
3.6%
7.2%
-6.3%
2.6%
1.1%
6.6%
2.8%
8.4%
5.6%
4.3%
5.9%
2.5%
1.6%
1.7%
-1.2%
6.6%
22.0%
3.3%
2.2%
27.6%
1.5%
0.8%
0.1%
0.3%
◆
0.1%
1.1%
0.9%
4.7%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
1.5%
2.7%
0.1%
0.4%
–
0.2%
2.6%
0.7%
0.1%
1.3%
0.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.5%
13.9%
0.2%
1.3%
◆
0.1%
1.2%
0.6%
2.0%
3.1%
1.6%
0.6%
37.8%
3.9%
0.4%
0.7%
2.6%
1.9%
1.3%
10.8%
0.8%
1.3%
–
0.9%
3.1%
0.8%
0.6%
2.7%
0.1%
1.4%
1.3%
3.1%
1.0%
0.1%
1.2%
0.1%
0.3%
1.3%
0.4%
1.2%
0.4%
16.0%
100.0%
16.2%
49.7%
20.1%
30.2%
†Less than 0.05.
Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics on page 25 is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable
disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data.
28
Consumption by region
Billion cubic metres
3200
Rest of World
Asia Pacific
Europe & Eurasia
North America
2800
2000
2000
1600
1200
800
400
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
World natural gas consumption grew by 2.5% in 2008, below the historical average. Growth was broadly distributed, although only North America and the Middle East
saw above average growth in aggregate. China accounted for the largest increment to gas consumption, while Russia recorded the largest decline.
Consumption per capita 2008
Tonnes oil equivalent
0-0.5
0.5-1.0
1.0-1.5
1.5-2.0
> 2.0
29
North America
US
– 103.20
Canada
15.90
–
Mexico
10.28
–
S. & Cent. America
Argentina
–
–
Brazil
–
–
Chile
–
–
Others
–
–
Europe
Austria
–
–
Belgium
–
–
Bulgaria
–
–
Croatia
–
–
Czech Republic
–
–
Finland
–
–
France
–
–
Germany
–
–
Greece
–
–
Hungary
–
–
Ireland
–
–
Italy
–
–
Lithuania
–
–
Luxembourg
–
–
Netherlands
–
–
Poland
–
–
Portugal
–
–
Romania
–
–
Serbia
–
–
Slovakia
–
–
Spain
–
–
Switzerland
–
–
Turkey
–
–
United Kingdom
–
–
Others
–
–
Middle East
Iran
–
–
Jordan
–
–
United Arab Emirates –
–
Others
–
–
Africa
Tunisia
–
–
Other Africa
–
–
Asia Pacific
Singapore
–
–
Thailand
–
–
Total exports
26.18 103.20
My
an
ma
r
Mo
zam
biq
ue
Ind
on
es
ia
Ma
lay
sia
Lib
ya
Eg
yp
t
Alg
eri
a
Qa
tar
Ira
n
Ru
ssi
an
Fe
d
Tu
rkm
en
ist
Ot
an
h
& er Eu
Eu
r
o
ras pe
ia
Ne
the
rla
nd
s
No
rw
ay
Un
i
Kin ted
gd
om
Ge
rm
an
y
From
Be
lgiu
m
Me
xic
o
US
To
Ca
na
da
Billion cubic metres
Bo
livi
a
Ot
he
Am r S
eri & C
ca en
t
Trade movements 2008 by pipeline
Total
imports
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 104.41
– 15.90
– 10.28
– 0.89
– 10.90
–
–
–
–
–
0.13
0.69
0.97
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.89
11.03
0.69
0.97
– 5.80
1.70
–
– 3.10
– 1.06
– 6.60
– 4.50
0.60 8.80
1.60 36.20
– 2.80
– 8.90
5.00
–
0.70 24.50
– 3.09
–
–
0.90 4.33
– 7.20
–
–
– 3.50
– 2.15
– 5.60
–
–
– 0.35
– 23.55
–
–
– 2.38
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.23
–
–
0.16
2.40
0.40
0.50
–
–
–
–
2.14
1.50
–
1.00
–
–
0.10
0.40
2.95
–
0.91
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.80
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 24.44
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 1.93
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 8.97
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 0.41
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
9.87
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.10
18.25
3.10
1.29
8.61
4.50
36.66
87.10
3.20
11.50
5.00
75.31
3.09
1.20
18.00
9.80
1.93
4.50
2.15
5.60
10.87
3.19
32.30
35.42
3.79
–
–
–
–
–
2.72
–
0.14
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.90
2.72
15.40
1.84
1.25
0.50
–
–
–
–
–
3.20
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.25
3.70
–
–
–
–
–
–
5.80 17.10 37.50
–
–
2.86
–
–
9.87
–
–
3.20
6.65
–
6.65
1.62
–
1.62
1.21
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.80
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.60
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.12
–
1.20
– 1.10
0.70 7.90 7.95
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 2.01
–
–
–
2.40 8.00 15.90
– 20.50 26.40
–
–
–
2.10
–
–
–
–
–
1.10 8.70 6.00
–
–
–
0.60
–
–
4.40
– 6.23
1.10
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– 1.80
1.45 0.90 0.09
–
–
–
– 9.00 25.30
0.09
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
6.50
–
–
–
0.40
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.21 11.79
–
–
1.79
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.52 15.14 55.00 92.78 10.50 154.41
–
–
–
–
6.50 13.09
–
–
–
–
– 15.40
– 1.70
–
–
–
–
Notes: Flows are on a contractual basis and may not correspond to physical gas flows in all cases.
Data excludes trade within the Former Soviet Union, except the three Baltic States.
–
8.27
8.55
8.55
8.55 587.26
Source: Cedigaz (provisional).
Trade movements 2008 – liquefied natural gas
From
0.34
1.04
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
9.94
3.61
–
–
–
0.33
0.47
0.81
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.08
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.41
0.47
0.81
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.08
0.08
0.08
–
–
4.32
–
0.47
–0.40
–
–
–
0.05
0.18
–
–
0.08
0.25
–
–
–
1.05
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.17
–
–
2.65
–
–
–
–
5.12
–
0.12
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
7.60
0.70
1.56
–
4.90
4.25
0.37
0.08
1.06
0.16
–
–
4.91
0.08
0.08
–
–
–
–
–
0.08
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.53
–
–
–
3.60
–
–
2.58
7.47
0.98
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.49
12.59
0.94
1.56
2.63
28.73
5.31
1.04
–
–
0.97
–
–
0.97
–
0.24
0.67
0.84
0.22
17.36
–
0.09
–
0.08
–
0.00
–
0.08
0.17
–
–
2.19
–
0.35
4.25
6.04
0.09
10.90
–
7.98
10.91
11.62
1.10
39.68
–
0.13
7.41
–
–
7.54
0.17
0.65
1.12
0.47
0.08
21.87
0.25
0.26
2.21
2.13
0.08
14.06
0.16
0.44
1.64
1.33
1.53
5.18
–
–
–
–
–
0.53
0.24
0.41
2.36
0.16
1.36
20.54
3.61
0.16
15.94
0.53
–
20.24
–
–
8.22
0.98
–
9.20
–
–
18.79
4.06
4.00
26.85
0.01
–
17.47
8.31
3.61
29.40
4.44
10.79
92.13
36.55
12.07
226.51
Note: The negative entry for ‘from Belgium to Belgium’ represents the re-export of LNG which was delivered to Zeebrugge terminal and then reloaded
and shipped to other destinations.
30
Ma
lay
sia
–
–
Ind
on
es
ia
–
–
Bru
ne
i
1.56
1.12
Au
str
alia
–
–
Nig
eri
a
Lib
ya
–
–
Eg
yp
t
0.09
0.09
Alg
eri
a
–
–
UA
E
0.48
0.08
Qa
tar
–
–
Om
an
7.47
1.28
No
rw
ay
–
–
Be
lgiu
m
Eq
Gu uato
ine rial
a
North America
US
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Argentina
Dominican Republic
Puerto Rico
Europe
Belgium
France
Greece
Italy
Portugal
Spain
Turkey
United Kingdom
Asia Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan
Total exports
Tri
& nidad
To
ba
go
To
US
Billion cubic metres
Total
imports
Source: Cedigaz (provisional).
Major trade movements
Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres)
130.9
67.5
25.3
23.6
9.0
103.2
15.9
5.0
5.5 46.0
21.5
4.6
13.7
10.3
22.6
6.5
45.6
17.7
5.8
4.3
7.9
7.5
3.6
13.4
7.6
15.4
15.9
44.5
8.6
8.5
3.3
6.7
4.0
10.9
US
Canada
Mexico
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
3.2
Pipeline gas
LNG
Prices
US dollars per million Btu
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
LNG
Japan
cif
European
Union cif
5.23
4.10
3.35
3.34
3.28
3.64
3.99
3.62
3.52
3.18
3.46
3.66
3.91
3.05
3.14
4.72
4.64
4.27
4.77
5.18
6.05
7.14
7.73
12.55
3.83
3.65
2.59
2.36
2.09
2.82
3.18
2.76
2.53
2.24
2.37
2.43
2.65
2.26
1.80
3.25
4.15
3.46
4.40
4.56
5.95
8.69
8.93
12.61
Natural gas
UK
Heren NBP Index†
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1.87
1.96
1.86
1.58
2.71
3.17
2.37
3.33
4.46
7.38
7.87
6.01
10.79
US
Henry Hub‡
–
–
–
–
1.70
1.64
1.49
1.77
2.12
1.92
1.69
2.76
2.53
2.08
2.27
4.23
4.07
3.33
5.63
5.85
8.79
6.76
6.95
8.85
Canada
Alberta‡
–
–
–
–
–
1.05
0.89
0.98
1.69
1.45
0.89
1.12
1.36
1.42
2.00
3.75
3.61
2.57
4.83
5.03
7.25
5.83
6.17
7.99
Crude oil
OECD
countries cif
4.75
2.57
3.09
2.56
3.01
3.82
3.33
3.19
2.82
2.70
2.96
3.54
3.29
2.16
2.98
4.83
4.08
4.17
4.89
6.27
8.74
10.66
11.95
16.76
†Price is for NBP Day-Ahead Index. Source: ICIS Heren Energy Ltd.
‡Source: Natural Gas Week.
Note: Btu = British thermal units; cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices).
31
Coal
Proved reserves at end 2008
Million tonnes
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Brazil
Colombia
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Kazakhstan
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Spain
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
South Africa
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Middle East
Total Middle East & Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
New Zealand
North Korea
Pakistan
South Korea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
Anthracite
and
bituminous
Subbituminous
and lignite
Total
108950
3471
860
113281
–
6434
479
51
6964
5
1673
152
–
199
28170
6012
12
49088
200
–
15351
155
1025
102042
30408
502
929
1386
33225
36800
62200
54000
1721
355
33
300
1
133
–
150
115
155809
411321
8427
159012
93609
158700
129358
3107
351
132816
7059
380
–
603
8042
1991
2828
6556
3900
3103
3130
1490
410
107922
330
1814
18522
–
18208
170204
–
–
174
–
174
39400
52300
4600
2607
–
538
300
2069
–
1354
–
276
103444
414680
21143
193083
132386
89211
238308
6578
1211
246097
7059
6814
479
654
15006
1996
4501
6708
3900
3302
31300
7502
422
157010
530
1814
33873
155
19233
272246
30408
502
1103
1386
33399
76200
114500
58600
4328
355
571
600
2070
133
1354
150
391
259253
826001
29570
352095
225995
247911
Share
of total
28.9%
0.8%
0.1%
29.8%
0.9%
0.8%
0.1%
0.1%
1.8%
0.2%
0.5%
0.8%
0.5%
0.4%
3.8%
0.9%
0.1%
19.0%
0.1%
0.2%
4.1%
◆
2.3%
33.0%
3.7%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
4.0%
9.2%
13.9%
7.1%
0.5%
◆
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
◆
0.2%
◆
◆
31.4%
100.0%
3.6%
42.6%
27.4%
30.0%
R/P ratio
224
97
106
216
*
93
74
*
172
70
75
35
58
351
273
52
12
481
32
21
438
9
268
218
121
287
*
*
131
190
41
114
19
289
111
17
496
48
75
4
26
64
122
51
164
433
60
*More than 500 years.
Source of reserves data: World Energy Council, 2009.
than 0.05%.
Notes: Proved reserves of coal – Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known
deposits under existing economic and operating conditions.
Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of the year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last
if production were to continue at that rate.
◆Less
Prices
US dollars per tonne
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Northwest
Europe
marker price†
43.48
42.80
38.53
33.68
37.18
44.50
41.25
38.92
32.00
28.79
35.99
39.29
31.65
42.52
71.90
61.07
63.67
86.60
149.78
†S ource: McCloskey Coal Information Service.
‡Price is for CAPP 12,500Btu, 1.2 SO 2 coal, fob. Source: Platts.
Note: CAPP = Central Appalachian; cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices); fob = free on board.
32
US Central
Appalachian coal
spot price index‡
31.59
29.01
28.53
29.85
31.72
27.01
29.86
29.76
31.00
31.29
29.90
49.74
32.95
38.48
64.33
70.14
62.98
51.12
116.14
Japan coking
coal import
cif price
Japan steam
coal import
cif price
60.54
60.45
57.82
55.26
51.77
54.47
56.68
55.51
50.76
42.83
39.69
41.33
42.01
41.57
60.96
89.33
93.46
88.24
179.03
50.81
50.30
48.45
45.71
43.66
47.58
49.54
45.53
40.51
35.74
34.58
37.96
36.90
34.74
51.34
62.91
63.04
69.86
122.81
Proved reserves at end 2008
Thousand million tonnes (anthracite and bituminous coal shown in brackets)
1.4 (1.4)
Middle East
15.0 (7.0)
S. & Cent. America
32.0 (31.8)
Africa
246.1 (113.3)
North America
259.3 (155.8)
Asia Pacific
Production
Consumption
Million tonnes oil equivalent
Million tonnes oil equivalent
1998
2008
North
America
272.2 (102.0)
Europe & Eurasia
S. & Cent.
America
Europe &
Eurasia
Middle East
& Africa
Asia
Pacific
2100
2100
1950
1950
1800
1800
1650
1650
1500
1500
1350
1350
1200
1200
1050
1050
900
900
750
750
600
600
450
450
300
300
150
150
0
North
America
S. & Cent.
America
Europe &
Eurasia
Middle East
& Africa
Asia
Pacific
0
World coal consumption grew by 3.1% in 2008, the first below-average increase since 2002. Coal nonetheless remained the fastest-growing primary energy source
for the sixth consecutive year. China accounted for more than 85% of global growth even though Chinese consumption growth was below average.
33
Production*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Brazil
Colombia
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Kazakhstan
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
Spain
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Total Middle East
South Africa
Zimbabwe
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
New Zealand
Pakistan
South Korea
Thailand
Vietnam
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
603.2
40.8
4.8
648.8
2.0
21.9
4.7
0.8
29.5
5.0
26.0
3.6
61.3
8.1
3.0
36.0
79.6
5.7
103.9
9.3
13.9
39.9
25.0
16.7
437.0
0.6
127.1
3.5
1.4
132.0
149.8
628.7
126.5
38.3
2.0
2.0
1.5
2.0
6.1
6.4
15.7
978.9
2226.8
229.2
1036.0
180.8
1010.0
584.3
39.2
4.9
628.3
2.1
21.3
4.8
0.5
28.7
4.2
23.1
3.3
59.4
8.0
3.1
30.0
77.0
5.1
112.1
8.6
13.3
42.3
22.5
13.4
425.3
0.7
125.6
3.2
1.3
130.1
160.8
645.9
124.4
45.3
2.2
2.1
1.5
1.9
5.7
4.9
18.0
1012.8
2225.9
216.7
1015.2
185.5
1025.3
570.1
37.1
5.4
612.6
2.9
24.9
5.8
0.4
33.9
4.4
25.0
2.3
56.5
8.2
2.9
38.5
71.3
6.4
116.0
8.0
13.9
42.0
19.0
14.0
428.6
0.6
126.6
2.8
1.2
130.7
166.3
656.7
132.2
47.4
1.7
2.2
1.4
1.9
5.1
6.5
19.3
1040.8
2247.1
206.6
993.7
197.4
1056.0
590.3
37.6
5.3
633.2
2.1
28.5
5.6
0.5
36.8
4.4
25.4
1.5
54.1
8.5
2.9
40.7
71.7
7.1
122.6
7.6
14.2
43.5
19.4
14.4
438.2
0.5
126.1
2.9
1.2
130.2
179.9
697.6
133.6
56.5
1.8
2.4
1.5
1.7
5.6
7.5
19.7
1107.8
2346.7
205.1
1026.9
207.8
1112.1
570.1
34.9
5.3
610.2
1.9
25.7
5.9
0.4
33.9
4.4
24.3
1.1
55.0
9.1
2.7
37.8
71.3
6.6
117.3
7.2
11.5
42.8
18.2
15.3
424.6
0.4
124.1
2.5
1.3
128.0
184.5
733.7
138.5
63.6
0.8
2.7
1.6
1.5
5.7
9.2
19.3
1161.0
2358.1
202.5
1003.1
198.9
1156.1
553.6
32.2
4.6
590.4
1.8
32.5
5.1
0.5
39.9
4.6
24.2
1.3
54.1
9.5
2.8
43.3
71.4
7.0
127.1
6.8
10.5
41.7
17.2
15.8
437.2
0.6
134.1
1.8
1.6
137.5
190.1
868.4
144.4
70.3
0.7
3.2
1.5
1.5
5.3
10.8
20.0
1316.2
2521.8
201.2
986.9
212.8
1322.0
572.4
34.7
4.7
611.8
2.0
34.9
5.9
0.2
43.0
4.5
23.5
0.4
54.7
9.6
2.4
44.4
70.5
6.7
131.7
6.7
10.5
42.2
15.3
15.6
438.7
0.6
137.2
2.4
1.3
140.9
198.8
1012.1
155.7
81.4
0.7
3.2
1.5
1.4
5.6
14.7
21.7
1496.9
2732.0
196.3
1012.4
219.4
1500.2
580.2
35.6
5.2
620.9
2.4
38.4
5.3
0.3
46.3
4.1
23.5
0.2
53.2
9.4
2.0
44.2
68.7
6.6
139.2
6.4
12.8
40.9
12.5
14.7
438.4
0.6
137.7
1.9
1.2
140.7
206.5
1120.0
162.1
93.9
0.6
3.2
1.6
1.3
5.8
18.3
23.8
1637.1
2884.2
188.4
1022.8
225.5
1635.8
595.1
34.5
5.5
635.2
2.2
42.6
5.4
0.6
50.9
4.2
23.7
0.2
50.3
8.6
2.1
49.1
67.0
6.5
145.1
6.2
13.4
41.8
11.3
15.7
445.3
0.5
138.0
1.4
1.2
140.5
211.0
1205.1
170.2
119.2
0.7
3.5
1.7
1.3
5.3
21.8
24.1
1764.0
3036.3
181.8
1036.6
237.2
1762.5
587.7
36.9
6.0
630.6
2.3
45.4
5.9
0.5
54.0
4.7
23.4
0.2
51.5
9.0
2.0
50.0
62.3
6.7
148.2
6.0
15.8
39.9
10.3
16.7
447.0
0.5
139.6
1.4
1.1
142.1
218.5
1282.4
181.0
133.7
0.8
3.0
1.6
1.3
5.1
23.1
24.9
1875.4
3149.5
178.0
1038.1
239.2
1872.1
*Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal.
◆Less
than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Coal production data expressed in million tonnes is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
34
Change
2008 over
2008
2007
596.9
36.0
5.5
638.4
2.4
47.8
4.7
0.6
55.5
4.8
22.8
0.1
47.7
9.1
1.9
58.8
60.5
6.5
152.8
5.5
17.8
40.2
10.9
17.1
456.4
0.5
141.1
1.1
1.1
143.4
219.9
1414.5
194.3
141.1
0.7
3.1
1.9
1.3
5.1
23.6
25.3
2030.7
3324.9
171.5
1042.5
252.9
2029.6
1.3%
-2.6%
-8.6%
1.0%
7.6%
4.9%
-20.2%
36.3%
2.5%
1.3%
-3.0%
-50.1%
-7.7%
0.3%
-4.5%
17.1%
-3.3%
-3.2%
2.8%
-9.1%
12.6%
0.4%
5.0%
2.0%
1.8%
-0.3%
0.8%
-17.2%
-0.3%
0.6%
0.3%
10.0%
7.0%
5.3%
-14.0%
5.5%
14.8%
-4.0%
-1.3%
2.1%
1.6%
8.0%
5.3%
-3.9%
0.1%
5.4%
8.1%
2008
share
of total
18.0%
1.1%
0.2%
19.2%
0.1%
1.4%
0.1%
◆
1.7%
0.1%
0.7%
◆
1.4%
0.3%
0.1%
1.8%
1.8%
0.2%
4.6%
0.2%
0.5%
1.2%
0.3%
0.5%
13.7%
◆
4.2%
◆
◆
4.3%
6.6%
42.5%
5.8%
4.2%
◆
0.1%
0.1%
◆
0.2%
0.7%
0.8%
61.1%
100.0%
5.2%
31.4%
7.6%
61.0%
Consumption*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
545.7
30.8
5.9
582.3
0.8
11.4
3.7
2.8
–
0.4
544.9
30.5
6.0
581.4
0.9
11.9
3.9
2.4
–
0.5
0.1
0.6
20.1
3.2
–
0.1
6.9
6.6
19.0
4.7
3.6
14.3
80.2
9.1
3.4
0.1
1.6
11.6
19.8
0.1
7.7
0.7
61.0
3.6
6.7
101.0
4.3
20.5
2.0
0.1
22.6
–
38.5
34.3
0.9
16.4
504.5
1.0
–
–
–
–
5.7
6.7
0.5
0.6
82.3
6.5
89.9
46.2
569.0
31.8
6.2
606.9
0.8
12.5
3.0
2.7
–
0.5
552.2
34.0
6.8
593.0
0.6
12.2
2.3
2.7
–
0.4
552.0
31.6
7.6
591.1
0.5
11.5
2.4
2.5
–
0.4
562.5
33.4
8.6
604.5
0.7
11.8
2.3
2.4
–
0.4
574.2
31.7
9.1
614.9
0.9
12.7
2.6
2.3
–
0.5
†
†
†
†
566.1
29.9
7.0
603.0
0.8
12.8
2.6
2.0
–
0.5
–
1.9
20.5
2.9
565.7
31.0
9.4
606.1
0.3
12.5
3.2
2.4
–
0.4
0.1
2.1
20.9
2.8
573.2
32.3
9.1
614.6
0.4
13.4
3.3
2.7
–
0.5
0.1
2.2
22.5
3.1
†
0.5
19.7
3.0
–
0.4
7.9
8.2
20.5
5.6
3.4
16.1
84.8
8.8
3.4
0.1
1.9
11.6
22.9
0.1
9.4
0.7
63.8
3.6
7.0
100.7
4.5
17.7
2.0
0.1
24.0
–
36.9
38.6
1.2
20.9
529.5
1.0
–
–
–
–
5.8
6.8
0.5
0.8
83.4
7.0
91.6
45.8
0.1
651.9
4.4
136.1
9.3
88.4
1.6
1.1
2.1
2.7
–
36.1
23.6
7.3
21.3
1031.8
2261.7
323.5
1085.0
163.9
1012.8
†
656.2
3.9
135.8
11.6
91.5
1.8
1.2
2.1
2.9
–
38.2
24.8
7.9
24.0
1048.0
2250.7
306.1
1072.8
161.3
1016.6
0.6
20.1
3.2
–
0.1
7.6
6.3
21.0
4.0
3.5
13.9
84.9
9.2
3.2
0.1
1.8
13.0
23.2
0.1
8.6
0.7
57.6
4.5
7.0
105.2
4.0
21.6
1.9
0.1
25.5
–
38.8
36.7
1.0
17.3
525.6
1.1
–
–
–
–
6.2
7.3
0.5
0.6
81.9
6.4
89.4
46.5
0.3
667.4
3.7
144.2
13.7
98.9
1.9
1.1
2.0
4.3
–
43.0
28.7
7.8
25.5
1089.0
2338.4
315.3
1123.1
169.1
1046.2
0.7
19.0
2.9
†
0.1
7.6
6.9
21.2
4.2
4.0
12.1
85.0
9.3
3.4
0.1
1.9
13.7
22.5
0.1
8.5
0.6
58.0
3.7
7.2
102.4
4.1
19.5
2.0
0.1
21.8
–
39.4
38.9
1.1
16.5
518.7
1.1
–
–
–
–
7.2
8.3
0.6
0.7
80.6
7.3
89.3
47.9
0.4
681.3
4.9
145.2
16.7
103.0
2.6
1.3
2.1
4.5
–
45.7
30.6
8.8
26.4
1121.5
2349.7
315.5
1113.7
166.1
1069.9
1.0
18.3
3.0
†
0.1
6.7
6.5
20.6
4.2
4.4
12.4
84.6
9.8
3.1
0.1
1.8
14.2
22.8
0.1
8.9
0.5
56.7
4.1
7.6
103.0
4.0
21.9
2.2
0.1
21.2
–
38.3
35.7
1.0
18.7
518.6
1.1
–
–
–
–
7.6
8.7
0.9
0.7
83.5
7.2
92.4
51.3
0.4
713.8
5.4
151.8
18.0
106.6
3.6
1.3
2.4
4.7
–
49.1
32.7
9.2
25.9
1176.1
2405.2
314.0
1119.8
166.0
1119.3
2.1
19.6
2.9
†
0.1
6.5
7.1
20.8
5.7
5.8
13.3
87.2
9.4
3.4
0.1
1.7
15.3
25.2
0.2
9.1
0.5
57.7
3.8
7.8
104.0
4.2
20.5
2.2
0.1
21.8
–
39.0
38.1
1.0
19.6
533.9
1.1
–
–
–
–
7.9
9.0
0.8
0.9
89.3
6.4
97.4
50.5
0.4
853.1
6.6
156.8
17.9
112.2
4.2
1.9
2.9
4.7
–
51.1
35.1
9.4
26.5
1333.2
2597.6
323.9
1150.2
170.3
1277.1
†
0.1
6.4
6.9
20.5
4.6
5.3
12.8
85.4
9.0
3.1
0.1
1.8
17.1
26.5
0.2
9.1
0.6
57.3
3.7
7.4
99.5
4.1
21.0
2.3
0.1
23.0
–
39.1
36.6
1.2
20.1
527.8
1.0
–
–
–
–
8.0
9.0
0.8
0.9
94.5
7.2
103.4
53.1
0.4
983.0
6.6
172.3
20.2
120.8
5.7
2.0
3.8
5.0
–
53.1
36.6
10.4
29.6
1502.5
2766.2
318.8
1158.8
167.6
1439.8
†
1.8
20.8
2.8
†
0.1
6.1
6.9
19.8
3.7
3.1
13.3
82.1
8.8
2.7
0.1
1.8
17.0
27.2
0.2
8.7
0.5
55.7
3.8
7.6
94.2
3.9
21.2
2.2
0.1
26.1
–
37.5
37.4
1.1
18.4
514.1
1.2
–
–
–
–
7.9
9.1
0.6
1.0
91.9
7.3
100.8
54.9
0.4
1100.5
6.7
184.4
26.1
121.3
6.3
2.2
4.1
5.7
–
54.8
38.1
11.2
30.9
1647.6
2907.4
310.1
1169.1
161.1
1577.2
†
0.1
6.1
7.1
19.4
5.6
5.2
12.1
83.5
8.1
2.9
0.1
1.6
17.2
28.1
0.2
8.5
0.4
58.0
3.8
8.5
96.7
3.8
18.5
2.3
0.1
28.8
–
39.8
40.8
1.1
15.5
526.6
1.3
–
–
–
–
7.8
9.1
0.7
0.9
93.8
6.8
102.3
56.9
0.4
1215.0
7.0
195.4
24.2
119.1
7.3
2.2
4.2
5.5
–
54.8
39.6
12.4
33.2
1777.2
3042.3
317.3
1168.6
166.8
1706.9
†
0.1
5.5
7.8
20.0
4.7
4.6
12.3
85.7
8.5
2.9
0.1
1.5
17.2
30.8
0.2
9.0
0.4
57.9
3.3
7.4
93.5
3.8
20.2
2.2
0.1
31.0
–
39.7
38.2
1.4
15.7
528.9
1.3
–
–
–
–
8.1
9.3
0.7
1.0
97.7
6.2
105.7
55.8
0.4
1313.6
7.5
212.9
28.4
125.3
7.1
1.6
5.1
5.9
–
59.7
41.8
14.1
34.2
1913.5
3194.5
317.4
1189.4
166.5
1838.6
Change
2008 over
2008
2007
565.0
33.0
9.0
606.9
0.4
14.6
3.2
2.3
–
0.5
†
2.2
23.3
3.1
†
†
4.6
7.5
19.1
4.1
3.4
11.9
80.9
8.6
2.8
0.1
1.4
17.0
33.6
0.2
9.2
0.5
59.4
3.2
7.7
101.3
3.9
14.6
2.0
0.1
30.4
–
39.3
35.4
1.4
16.1
522.7
1.3
–
–
–
–
8.1
9.4
0.7
1.0
102.8
5.7
110.3
51.3
0.4
1406.3
7.0
231.4
30.2
128.7
5.0
2.1
6.7
6.2
–
66.1
40.2
15.4
34.6
2031.2
3303.7
301.2
1170.6
176.9
1956.3
2008
share
of total
-1.7%
2.0%
-2.1%
-1.5%
-0.3%
9.1%
-3.2%
-14.9%
–
-0.3%
-15.8%
1.7%
3.3%
2.6%
19.7%
-36.7%
-16.1%
-4.4%
-5.1%
-13.0%
-26.3%
-3.2%
-5.9%
0.3%
-3.7%
-8.3%
-8.0%
-1.7%
8.5%
-2.6%
2.1%
0.7%
2.2%
-4.9%
4.4%
8.1%
2.0%
-28.1%
-10.7%
-0.3%
-2.3%
–
-1.1%
-7.6%
2.0%
2.2%
-1.4%
2.1%
–
–
–
–
-0.3%
17.1%
1.0%
0.3%
18.4%
-0.4%
-1.3%
4.9%
-8.3%
4.0%
-8.3%
-0.3%
6.8%
-7.7%
8.4%
5.9%
2.4%
-29.6%
26.8%
30.3%
4.3%
–
10.4%
-4.2%
8.4%
0.7%
5.9%
3.1%
-5.4%
-1.9%
6.0%
6.1%
◆
◆
◆
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
–
◆
◆
0.1%
0.7%
0.1%
◆
◆
0.1%
0.2%
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%
0.4%
2.4%
0.3%
0.1%
◆
◆
0.5%
1.0%
◆
0.3%
◆
1.8%
0.1%
0.2%
3.1%
0.1%
0.4%
0.1%
◆
0.9%
–
1.2%
1.1%
◆
0.5%
15.8%
◆
–
–
–
–
0.2%
0.3%
◆
3.1%
0.2%
3.3%
1.6%
◆
42.6%
0.2%
7.0%
0.9%
3.9%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
–
2.0%
1.2%
0.5%
1.0%
61.5%
100.0%
9.1%
35.4%
5.4%
59.2%
*Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Note: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
35
Nuclear energy
Consumption*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
160.5
16.2
2.1
178.7
1.7
0.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.4
–
–
–
10.4
3.8
3.0
–
5.0
87.8
36.6
–
3.2
–
–
–
†
3.1
0.9
–
–
–
1.2
23.6
2.6
13.4
15.9
5.8
–
–
17.0
22.5
–
1.5
257.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.2
–
3.2
–
–
3.2
–
2.6
–
74.0
–
–
0.1
–
–
20.3
8.3
–
–
108.5
550.2
210.5
480.2
44.0
26.0
173.5
16.6
2.3
192.4
1.6
0.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.5
–
–
–
11.1
3.6
3.0
–
5.3
89.2
38.5
–
3.2
–
–
–
–
2.2
0.9
–
–
–
1.2
27.1
3.0
13.3
16.6
5.6
–
–
16.3
21.5
–
1.5
263.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.1
–
3.1
–
–
3.4
–
2.9
–
71.9
–
–
†
–
–
23.3
8.7
–
–
110.2
571.2
213.6
498.7
46.2
26.4
179.6
16.5
1.9
197.9
1.4
1.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.8
–
–
–
10.9
4.1
3.1
–
5.1
94.0
38.4
–
3.2
–
–
–
–
1.9
0.9
–
–
–
1.2
29.5
3.7
14.1
13.0
6.0
–
–
17.5
19.3
–
1.5
267.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.1
–
3.1
–
–
3.8
–
3.6
–
72.3
–
–
0.2
–
–
24.7
8.7
–
–
113.3
584.5
213.9
506.5
49.4
28.6
183.1
17.4
2.0
202.5
1.6
3.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
–
–
10.5
4.4
3.3
–
5.2
95.3
38.8
–
3.2
–
–
–
–
2.6
0.9
–
–
–
1.2
31.0
3.9
14.4
16.3
6.0
–
–
17.2
20.4
–
1.6
276.3
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.6
–
2.6
–
–
4.0
–
4.3
–
72.7
–
–
0.5
–
–
25.4
8.0
–
–
114.8
600.9
221.6
518.7
51.2
31.0
185.8
17.1
2.2
205.1
1.3
3.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
10.7
4.6
4.2
–
5.4
98.8
37.3
–
3.2
–
–
–
–
3.2
0.9
–
–
–
1.2
32.1
4.1
14.3
15.4
6.1
–
–
17.7
19.9
–
1.8
280.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
5.7
–
4.4
–
71.3
–
–
0.4
–
–
27.0
8.9
–
–
117.7
610.9
224.5
523.6
53.4
33.9
181.9
16.9
2.4
201.2
1.7
3.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.7
–
–
–
10.7
4.5
5.9
–
5.5
99.8
37.4
–
2.5
–
–
–
–
3.5
0.9
–
–
–
1.1
33.6
4.0
14.0
15.3
6.2
–
–
18.4
20.1
–
1.6
285.0
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
3.0
–
–
9.8
–
4.1
–
52.1
–
–
0.4
–
–
29.3
8.8
–
–
104.6
598.7
226.3
504.9
56.0
37.7
187.8
20.5
2.1
210.3
1.8
2.6
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
10.7
4.4
6.0
–
5.5
101.7
37.8
–
2.7
–
–
–
–
3.4
0.9
–
–
–
1.3
32.7
3.9
14.4
17.3
6.1
–
–
19.7
18.1
–
1.8
288.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.4
–
3.4
–
–
11.4
–
3.8
–
64.7
–
–
0.5
–
–
29.6
8.9
–
–
119.0
625.4
229.2
529.6
56.4
39.4
186.3
20.8
2.4
209.5
1.6
2.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.8
–
–
–
10.8
4.2
5.6
–
5.5
102.4
36.9
–
3.1
–
–
–
–
2.3
0.9
–
–
–
1.3
33.4
4.0
13.0
16.4
5.2
–
–
20.1
18.5
–
1.9
285.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.9
–
2.9
–
–
12.0
–
4.0
–
66.3
–
–
0.6
–
–
33.2
9.0
–
–
125.2
626.9
226.1
531.3
56.4
39.1
187.5
22.0
2.5
212.0
1.7
3.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
–
–
10.5
4.4
5.9
–
5.4
102.1
37.9
–
3.0
–
–
–
–
2.0
0.8
–
–
–
1.3
35.4
4.1
13.6
15.2
6.3
–
–
20.4
17.1
–
1.9
287.2
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.4
–
2.4
–
–
12.4
–
4.0
–
68.9
–
–
0.6
–
–
33.7
9.0
–
–
128.6
634.9
224.5
536.3
58.4
40.2
192.1
21.0
2.4
215.4
1.6
2.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
10.9
3.3
5.9
–
5.6
99.7
31.8
–
3.3
–
–
–
–
2.2
1.0
–
–
–
1.7
36.5
3.5
12.5
15.2
6.3
–
–
20.9
14.3
–
1.9
276.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
3.0
–
–
14.1
–
4.0
–
63.1
–
–
0.6
–
–
32.3
9.2
–
–
123.3
622.5
212.1
520.7
60.3
41.6
192.0
21.1
2.3
215.4
1.6
3.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
–
–
10.4
3.6
6.0
–
5.4
99.6
33.7
–
3.4
–
–
–
–
2.2
0.9
–
–
–
2.5
36.9
3.8
13.3
14.5
6.2
–
–
20.3
11.9
–
2.0
276.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
3.0
–
–
15.5
–
3.5
–
57.0
–
–
0.4
–
–
34.2
9.2
–
–
119.8
619.7
212.7
515.7
60.0
44.0
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
-0.3%
0.2%
-2.5%
-0.3%
1.4%
12.2%
–
–
–
–
–
–
8.3%
–
–
–
-5.4%
7.4%
1.2%
–
-2.9%
-0.3%
5.6%
–
0.7%
–
–
–
–
0.3%
-1.0%
–
–
–
45.2%
0.7%
8.6%
6.9%
-4.3%
-1.1%
–
–
-3.2%
-17.0%
–
5.6%
–0.2%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.6%
–
0.6%
–
–
9.8%
–
-13.2%
–
-10.0%
–
–
-25.4%
–
–
5.3%
0.4%
–
–
-3.1%
-0.7%
31.0%
3.4%
0.4%
34.8%
0.3%
0.5%
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.8%
–
–
–
1.7%
0.6%
1.0%
–
0.9%
16.1%
5.4%
–
0.5%
–
–
–
–
0.4%
0.2%
–
–
–
0.4%
6.0%
0.6%
2.2%
2.3%
1.0%
–
–
3.3%
1.9%
–
0.3%
44.7%
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.5%
–
0.5%
–
–
2.5%
–
0.6%
–
9.2%
–
–
0.1%
–
–
5.5%
1.5%
–
–
19.3%
100.0%
34.3%
83.2%
9.7%
7.1%
◆
-1.2%
-0.7%
5.5%
*Based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Nuclear energy data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
36
Consumption by region
Million tonnes oil equivalent
700
Rest of World
Asia Pacific
Europe & Eurasia
North America
600
500
400
300
200
100
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
Global nuclear power generation declined for a second consecutive year. Maintenance-related declines in Japan and the United Kingdom were only partly offset by
growth in China and a recovery in utilization in Germany and South Korea.
37
Hydroelectricity
Consumption*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
73.9
75.1
5.6
154.6
6.0
66.0
3.6
6.9
1.5
3.1
13.1
17.3
117.5
8.4
0.4
†
0.1
0.8
0.4
†
3.3
14.1
3.9
0.9
†
1.3
0.2
9.3
1.4
0.2
†
26.3
1.0
3.0
4.3
35.9
1.0
8.4
16.7
7.6
9.6
–
3.6
1.2
1.3
15.6
180.1
1.7
–
–
–
–
0.9
2.6
†
3.1
0.4
12.2
15.7
3.6
0.2
47.1
–
18.9
2.2
21.3
1.1
5.7
5.5
1.1
–
1.0
1.3
1.2
7.0
117.1
587.6
78.9
302.8
51.1
233.7
73.0
77.8
7.4
158.3
4.9
66.3
3.1
7.6
1.6
3.3
13.7
17.7
118.2
9.2
0.3
†
0.1
0.7
0.5
†
2.9
16.6
4.4
1.1
†
1.4
0.2
10.3
1.4
0.2
†
27.6
1.0
1.7
4.1
36.4
1.1
6.4
16.2
9.1
7.8
–
3.3
1.2
1.3
16.8
183.2
1.2
–
–
–
–
0.9
2.0
†
3.4
0.2
13.7
17.3
3.6
0.2
46.1
–
18.6
2.1
18.9
1.7
5.2
4.9
1.8
–
0.9
1.1
0.8
7.8
113.6
592.7
79.3
305.6
51.5
235.6
63.0
81.1
7.5
151.6
6.5
68.9
4.3
6.9
1.7
3.7
14.2
18.5
124.8
9.5
0.3
†
0.1
0.6
0.5
†
3.3
15.3
4.9
0.9
†
1.4
0.2
10.0
1.7
0.1
†
32.2
0.9
2.7
3.3
37.4
1.1
7.7
17.8
8.3
7.0
–
2.6
1.2
1.3
15.9
188.6
0.9
–
–
–
–
1.0
1.8
†
3.2
0.3
13.4
17.0
3.6
0.2
50.3
–
17.4
2.3
18.5
1.7
5.5
4.0
1.8
–
0.9
1.0
1.4
8.2
116.7
600.5
81.9
305.3
52.1
243.1
49.6
75.5
6.4
131.5
8.4
60.6
4.9
7.1
1.6
4.0
13.7
17.0
117.3
9.5
0.3
†
0.1
0.4
0.6
†
3.1
17.0
5.3
0.6
†
1.5
0.1
10.6
1.8
0.2
†
27.4
1.0
3.3
3.4
39.8
1.2
9.3
17.9
9.4
5.4
–
2.8
0.9
1.2
15.4
189.4
0.9
–
–
–
–
1.0
1.9
†
3.3
0.5
14.1
17.8
3.6
0.2
62.8
–
16.3
2.6
18.6
1.5
4.9
4.1
1.6
–
0.5
1.1
1.4
9.1
128.4
586.3
85.9
283.2
54.2
248.9
60.4
79.4
5.6
145.4
8.1
64.7
5.2
7.6
1.7
4.1
13.5
17.9
122.9
9.0
0.5
†
0.1
0.6
0.6
†
2.4
13.9
5.4
0.8
†
1.6
0.2
8.9
2.0
0.2
†
29.4
0.9
1.9
3.6
37.2
1.2
5.2
15.0
8.0
7.6
–
2.2
1.1
1.6
15.1
176.3
1.8
–
–
–
–
1.1
2.9
†
3.2
0.5
15.2
18.9
3.6
0.2
65.2
–
15.5
2.3
18.9
1.2
5.6
4.6
1.6
–
0.7
0.6
1.7
8.9
130.7
597.2
72.6
287.6
52.0
257.6
63.0
76.4
4.5
143.9
7.7
69.2
5.2
8.1
1.6
4.2
13.7
18.3
127.9
8.1
0.6
†
0.1
0.7
0.4
†
2.1
13.5
4.3
1.2
†
1.6
0.1
8.3
2.0
0.2
†
24.0
0.7
3.6
3.0
35.6
0.8
9.3
12.1
7.9
8.0
–
2.1
0.7
1.7
16.0
168.9
2.2
–
–
–
–
1.0
3.2
0.1
2.9
0.2
15.5
18.7
3.7
0.3
64.2
–
15.7
2.1
21.1
1.3
5.3
5.8
1.8
–
1.1
0.7
1.7
9.5
134.2
596.8
70.7
282.2
51.2
263.4
61.3
77.2
5.6
144.2
6.9
72.6
4.9
9.0
1.7
4.0
15.9
17.9
132.8
7.7
0.6
†
0.1
0.7
0.6
†
3.4
13.5
4.7
1.2
†
1.6
0.1
9.6
1.8
0.2
†
24.7
0.8
2.3
3.7
40.8
1.0
7.2
12.7
7.6
10.4
–
2.7
1.1
1.6
17.2
179.7
2.7
–
–
–
–
1.3
4.0
0.1
2.9
0.2
16.7
19.8
3.6
0.3
80.0
–
19.0
2.2
21.1
1.3
6.1
5.5
1.9
–
1.0
0.7
1.4
9.3
153.2
633.7
72.3
286.2
56.9
290.6
61.8
82.0
6.2
150.0
7.9
76.4
6.0
9.0
1.6
4.1
17.6
18.5
140.9
7.7
0.7
†
0.1
1.1
0.7
†
3.1
11.8
4.6
1.3
†
1.6
0.1
8.2
1.8
0.2
†
30.9
0.9
1.2
4.6
39.6
1.1
4.0
16.5
7.1
9.0
–
2.8
1.1
1.4
17.4
180.2
3.0
–
–
–
–
1.1
4.1
0.1
2.9
0.2
17.2
20.4
3.6
0.3
89.8
–
22.0
2.4
17.3
1.2
5.3
6.9
1.9
–
0.8
0.9
1.3
8.9
162.6
658.2
69.6
287.7
55.9
314.6
66.1
79.9
6.8
152.8
9.8
78.9
6.6
9.7
1.6
4.4
18.5
18.5
148.0
7.3
0.6
†
0.1
1.0
0.7
†
2.6
12.7
4.4
1.5
†
1.7
0.2
8.4
1.8
0.2
†
27.1
0.7
2.7
4.2
39.6
1.0
5.8
14.0
7.0
10.0
–
2.9
1.0
1.4
16.6
177.2
4.2
–
–
–
–
1.2
5.4
†
2.9
0.3
17.7
20.9
3.6
0.3
98.6
–
25.4
2.2
19.6
1.6
5.3
6.8
2.2
–
0.8
0.9
1.8
10.2
179.5
683.8
69.9
291.0
55.6
337.1
56.6
82.9
6.1
145.6
8.5
84.6
5.2
9.5
2.0
4.4
18.8
19.5
152.6
7.5
0.5
†
0.1
0.7
0.6
†
3.2
13.3
4.7
0.8
†
1.9
0.2
7.3
1.8
0.2
†
30.6
0.7
2.3
3.6
40.4
1.0
6.0
15.0
7.9
8.0
–
2.3
1.2
1.4
16.3
179.6
4.1
–
–
–
–
1.2
5.2
0.1
3.5
0.6
18.0
22.1
3.3
0.3
109.8
–
27.7
2.6
16.8
1.5
5.3
7.1
1.9
–
0.7
1.0
1.8
10.8
190.7
695.8
69.7
283.9
56.3
355.5
56.7
83.6
8.6
148.9
8.4
82.3
5.4
9.8
2.6
4.5
19.6
19.9
152.5
7.9
0.5
†
0.1
0.8
0.5
†
3.9
14.3
4.4
0.8
†
2.8
0.2
8.8
1.7
0.2
†
31.8
0.6
1.6
3.9
37.8
1.0
3.8
14.8
8.1
7.5
–
2.6
1.1
1.4
17.0
180.2
1.7
–
–
–
–
1.2
2.8
0.1
3.9
0.2
18.1
22.2
3.4
0.3
132.4
–
26.2
2.7
15.7
1.5
5.0
6.3
2.2
–
0.9
0.9
1.6
11.6
210.8
717.5
70.6
288.3
54.0
375.3
◆
0.6%
41.5%
2.0%
-1.4%
-3.0%
3.5%
3.8%
24.6%
0.8%
4.1%
1.6%
-0.3%
5.4%
-1.8%
-0.3%
20.9%
2.4%
-6.4%
-7.4%
20.4%
8.0%
-5.6%
3.3%
-0.7%
47.6%
45.2%
21.5%
-5.3%
3.0%
-4.9%
3.6%
-3.8%
-31.6%
6.7%
-6.7%
-5.6%
-37.8%
-1.2%
3.2%
-7.3%
–
11.9%
-1.6%
-3.9%
3.8%
0.1%
-58.5%
–
–
–
–
-0.4%
-45.6%
24.9%
10.9%
-69.3%
0.2%
0.2%
3.1%
1.7%
20.3%
–
-5.8%
6.0%
-6.9%
1.2%
-5.9%
-11.5%
14.2%
–
15.6%
-2.8%
-15.5%
7.6%
10.2%
2.8%
1.0%
1.2%
-4.4%
5.3%
7.9%
11.7%
1.2%
20.8%
1.2%
11.5%
0.8%
1.4%
0.4%
0.6%
2.7%
2.8%
21.3%
1.1%
0.1%
◆
◆
0.1%
0.1%
◆
0.5%
2.0%
0.6%
0.1%
◆
0.4%
◆
1.2%
0.2%
◆
◆
4.4%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
5.3%
0.1%
0.5%
2.1%
1.1%
1.0%
–
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
2.4%
25.1%
0.2%
–
–
–
–
0.2%
0.4%
◆
0.5%
◆
2.5%
3.1%
0.5%
◆
18.5%
–
3.6%
0.4%
2.2%
0.2%
0.7%
0.9%
0.3%
–
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
1.6%
29.4%
100.0%
9.8%
40.2%
7.5%
52.3%
*Based on gross primary hydroelectric generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern
thermal power station.
†Less than 0.05.
◆Less than 0.05%.
Notes: Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
Hydroelectricity data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
38
Consumption by region
Million tonnes oil equivalent
800
Asia Pacific
Africa
Middle East
Europe & Eurasia
S. & Cent. America
North America
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
0
Global hydroelectric output increased by an above-average 2.8% in 2008. China accounted for all the world’s net increase, with output rising by 20.3% on strong
capacity growth and increased rainfall.
39
Primary energy
Consumption*
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2219.2
283.9
131.9
2635.0
58.1
173.8
22.0
27.3
8.4
11.3
63.8
83.1
447.8
31.2
10.9
22.1
62.5
20.7
39.9
20.6
25.6
246.3
333.6
28.7
23.8
2.2
12.2
167.1
39.2
9.2
85.3
40.4
94.1
22.7
41.3
602.3
17.6
117.7
51.6
28.9
72.4
12.3
131.8
222.0
50.6
73.2
2759.9
106.8
17.7
14.7
103.5
41.7
89.4
373.9
27.5
43.5
108.2
87.6
266.9
104.2
11.0
917.4
16.0
272.1
81.5
496.9
37.2
16.9
41.2
22.9
34.7
165.1
77.9
57.2
52.9
2405.0
8888.5
1689.2
5164.3
902.4
2821.8
2257.6
290.8
131.7
2680.0
57.5
178.5
22.9
25.2
7.9
11.7
59.8
85.2
448.7
32.1
11.0
21.0
63.7
18.0
38.5
19.8
25.7
250.5
327.7
30.2
23.7
2.3
13.1
172.2
35.1
7.8
83.8
41.5
91.1
23.3
36.9
608.3
17.5
122.1
51.6
29.8
71.0
13.4
134.6
220.6
52.1
66.9
2757.1
113.5
18.1
13.9
105.0
42.0
91.6
384.2
27.9
46.6
107.3
92.0
273.7
106.0
11.0
934.7
16.2
280.1
89.3
502.0
38.1
17.2
43.4
22.7
32.9
180.0
87.4
59.4
57.3
2477.7
9021.5
1685.1
5237.2
905.0
2879.3
2309.5
300.9
137.4
2747.8
58.9
182.9
23.9
25.4
7.8
11.9
61.9
86.8
459.5
31.8
11.4
21.2
65.9
17.8
40.0
18.8
26.0
253.9
329.5
31.9
23.0
2.4
13.7
174.9
40.8
7.0
86.2
45.9
88.4
24.8
37.0
625.1
18.1
128.7
48.6
29.1
76.6
14.5
134.7
222.9
50.2
66.2
2806.9
121.1
19.0
10.2
112.9
41.1
95.3
399.5
26.9
49.0
107.9
92.4
276.1
106.2
12.7
967.3
16.1
295.1
93.5
510.2
45.5
17.8
44.3
22.6
35.0
190.7
93.6
60.6
61.4
2572.8
9262.6
1703.9
5353.9
925.7
2983.0
2254.9
296.7
136.8
2688.4
57.7
179.7
24.4
26.3
7.8
11.7
65.2
89.5
462.3
32.9
11.1
21.5
63.6
18.4
41.5
18.6
26.4
257.4
335.2
31.9
24.1
2.5
14.6
175.6
42.0
8.1
89.1
41.0
88.6
25.0
37.3
620.9
18.6
132.4
52.1
31.1
71.5
14.9
134.0
225.4
53.4
67.3
2827.9
127.7
20.0
11.5
117.7
48.7
98.8
424.4
27.9
52.1
106.7
94.9
281.5
109.4
14.1
1000.6
19.4
296.5
98.8
508.7
47.5
17.8
45.5
22.7
40.6
195.5
93.8
63.2
64.6
2638.7
9323.1
1731.9
5318.8
927.0
3077.3
2289.2
301.4
138.1
2728.7
54.3
183.6
24.7
25.7
7.8
11.8
66.1
91.7
465.7
32.8
10.9
21.7
64.4
18.6
41.5
18.4
26.7
255.5
329.1
32.8
23.4
2.6
14.4
174.2
43.8
8.6
89.5
42.9
87.1
25.0
38.6
635.3
18.7
133.9
48.5
29.1
75.1
15.4
132.2
220.3
54.7
69.7
2835.3
141.4
19.9
12.4
121.6
48.6
100.3
444.2
28.9
53.0
110.5
96.7
289.1
113.0
14.8
1058.3
20.8
307.8
104.0
505.7
50.9
18.4
47.4
23.4
40.0
204.6
97.2
68.2
65.3
2739.8
9502.8
1717.2
5356.3
943.5
3203.0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2296.7 2341.9 2342.7 2323.1 2359.6 2299.0
310.5
313.7
323.1
319.8
326.1
329.8
144.7
147.9
153.4
160.3
163.7
170.4
2751.9 2803.6 2819.2 2803.2 2849.4 2799.1
58.7
61.9
66.4
70.0
73.2
74.7
186.0
193.2
198.8
205.9
220.4
228.1
25.1
26.4
27.8
29.0
28.8
27.8
26.0
26.8
27.6
29.2
29.5
30.2
8.0
8.3
9.4
10.5
11.4
12.3
11.6
12.4
13.0
13.2
14.4
15.9
58.5
65.6
68.3
74.3
77.8
81.4
96.2
96.2
100.3
106.3
108.0
109.3
470.0
490.9
511.6
538.4
563.5
579.6
33.6
32.9
33.6
32.7
31.9
33.0
11.8
12.7
13.8
13.6
12.2
12.3
21.5
23.7
23.7
25.1
24.6
25.1
68.1
70.5
71.7
73.1
72.7
71.7
20.0
19.3
19.9
20.6
20.0
20.1
43.6
44.7
44.6
44.2
43.8
43.3
19.6
18.3
17.4
19.5
18.1
17.2
28.9
28.6
26.2
27.5
27.5
26.8
258.7
262.2
261.8
259.5
254.8
257.9
330.9
329.1
323.6
327.8
309.3
311.1
32.5
34.1
33.8
34.6
34.6
34.6
24.1
24.0
25.5
25.2
24.8
24.7
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.9
14.0
14.5
14.8
15.1
15.4
15.1
179.8
182.8
183.0
181.9
178.5
176.6
47.6
50.8
55.9
59.1
61.8
64.7
9.1
9.2
8.4
8.1
8.7
8.7
90.2
92.9
94.5
92.5
89.3
91.4
38.3
39.0
45.1
41.5
45.1
46.0
88.5
90.9
90.7
94.4
95.1
97.4
25.3
24.8
24.8
24.5
23.9
22.6
37.8
39.0
39.8
40.6
37.5
37.8
639.7
647.2
642.8
676.1
679.7
684.6
18.1
17.6
18.7
18.3
17.6
18.1
140.5
144.9
146.2
146.3
149.2
143.9
46.2
48.3
50.8
47.7
48.0
46.7
28.9
28.5
27.5
28.6
28.2
29.4
79.7
84.3
89.5
95.7
101.1
102.6
17.0
17.7
18.9
21.8
24.5
22.6
132.2
139.3
138.1
136.7
134.7
131.5
223.8
225.2
225.2
222.4
214.7
211.6
51.1
48.3
46.4
45.4
49.5
52.2
73.8
77.6
78.2
75.6
77.0
79.7
2877.2 2925.9 2937.7 2978.7 2956.9 2964.6
148.9
155.3
175.9
184.1
188.4
192.1
22.1
24.4
26.2
24.8
24.5
26.8
13.1
15.8
19.5
20.9
21.7
22.5
129.6
138.6
147.1
153.6
163.1
174.5
50.4
53.5
56.1
58.5
65.0
75.2
99.3
105.0
108.4
113.2
114.9
122.5
463.4
492.6
533.2
555.1
577.6
613.5
30.2
31.3
32.7
33.7
35.6
37.6
56.5
59.1
62.1
65.4
69.6
74.3
116.7
122.9
119.7
121.7
127.1
132.3
98.8
104.9
109.0
106.7
108.7
111.8
302.3
318.2
323.5
327.5
341.0
356.0
112.6
116.0
118.0
123.5
123.2
118.3
15.7
16.6
18.3
18.9
19.8
20.9
1229.3 1429.0 1572.2 1722.6 1862.8 2002.5
21.2
24.4
22.9
24.5
25.5
23.8
316.2
343.9
362.2
378.8
409.2
433.3
105.6
110.3
118.5
113.8
117.9
124.4
506.2
517.0
519.7
520.4
515.8
507.5
51.6
51.5
55.3
56.1
56.4
56.0
18.0
18.5
17.8
18.1
17.8
17.9
52.4
56.8
58.9
61.8
64.8
66.5
24.4
25.0
25.4
23.6
24.9
25.0
38.8
44.0
46.7
51.8
55.1
58.2
211.4
217.0
224.6
226.8
235.7
240.1
103.0
106.7
108.6
111.2
115.1
112.0
72.1
77.7
82.2
83.4
86.0
87.3
67.2
73.4
78.6
82.6
86.1
88.4
2945.8 3227.6 3430.0 3617.9 3816.0 3981.9
9810.5 10258.8 10555.3 10820.8 11104.4 11294.9
1748.6 1770.1 1771.8 1773.4 1732.2 1728.2
5415.7 5513.0 5551.2 5548.0 5568.3 5508.4
953.0
973.4
973.8 1011.7 1022.8 1028.9
3441.8 3772.3 4030.3 4261.1 4513.3 4757.5
Change
2008 over
2007
2008
share
of total
-2.8%
0.9%
3.8%
-2.0%
1.7%
3.2%
-3.8%
2.1%
7.8%
10.0%
4.2%
0.9%
2.6%
3.0%
-0.2%
1.5%
-1.6%
0.1%
-1.4%
-5.3%
-3.0%
0.9%
0.3%
-0.4%
-0.4%
26.2%
-1.8%
-1.3%
4.3%
-0.8%
2.1%
1.7%
2.2%
-5.5%
0.4%
0.4%
2.9%
-3.8%
-2.8%
3.7%
1.2%
-8.1%
-2.7%
-1.7%
5.0%
3.2%
20.4%
2.9%
1.5%
24.8%
0.7%
2.0%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.7%
1.0%
5.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.6%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
2.3%
2.8%
0.3%
0.2%
◆
1.7%
8.9%
3.3%
6.7%
15.3%
6.3%
5.9%
5.6%
6.5%
3.8%
2.5%
4.1%
-4.2%
4.9%
7.2%
-7.0%
5.6%
5.2%
-1.9%
-1.0%
-0.1%
2.2%
◆
5.3%
1.6%
-2.9%
1.3%
2.4%
4.1%
1.4%
-0.5%
-1.3%
0.3%
5.1%
◆
0.1%
1.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0.8%
0.4%
0.9%
0.2%
0.3%
6.1%
0.2%
1.3%
0.4%
0.3%
0.9%
0.2%
1.2%
1.9%
0.5%
0.7%
26.2%
1.7%
0.2%
0.2%
1.5%
0.7%
1.1%
5.4%
0.3%
0.7%
1.2%
1.0%
3.2%
1.0%
0.2%
17.7%
0.2%
3.8%
1.1%
4.5%
0.5%
0.2%
0.6%
0.2%
0.5%
2.1%
1.0%
0.8%
0.8%
35.3%
100.0%
15.3%
48.8%
9.1%
42.1%
*In this Review, primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels only. Excluded, therefore, are fuels such as wood, peat and animal waste that, though important in many countries, are
unreliably documented in terms of consumption statistics. Also excluded are wind, geothermal and solar power generation.
than 0.05%.
Notes: Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent.
Growth rates are adjusted for leap years.
◆Less
40
Consumption by fuel*
2007
Million tonnes oil equivalent
US
Canada
Mexico
Total North America
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
Venezuela
Other S. & Cent. America
Total S. & Cent. America
Austria
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Belgium & Luxembourg
Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Republic of Ireland
Italy
Kazakhstan
Lithuania
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Slovakia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Kingdom
Uzbekistan
Other Europe & Eurasia
Total Europe & Eurasia
Iran
Kuwait
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Other Middle East
Total Middle East
Algeria
Egypt
South Africa
Other Africa
Total Africa
Australia
Bangladesh
China
China Hong Kong SAR
India
Indonesia
Japan
Malaysia
New Zealand
Pakistan
Philippines
Singapore
South Korea
Taiwan
Thailand
Other Asia Pacific
Total Asia Pacific
Total World
of which: European Union
OECD
Former Soviet Union
Other EMEs
Oil
Natural
gas
Coal
942.3
102.8
89.4
1134.5
23.2
99.8
16.1
10.7
8.9
7.1
30.0
64.2
260.0
13.4
4.5
7.6
41.0
5.3
9.7
9.3
10.6
91.3
112.5
21.7
7.7
1.0
9.4
84.0
11.6
2.8
46.0
10.2
24.2
14.4
10.3
126.2
4.1
78.8
14.7
11.3
30.5
5.4
15.3
79.2
5.4
27.9
947.6
81.3
13.6
4.0
96.1
20.7
74.4
290.1
12.9
30.6
25.8
60.7
129.9
41.7
4.5
362.8
16.0
128.5
56.4
229.3
22.0
7.2
19.2
14.0
47.4
108.3
52.5
38.2
29.4
1177.4
3939.4
700.2
2246.1
186.2
1507.1
595.4
87.0
56.8
739.3
39.5
19.8
4.1
6.7
0.5
2.4
29.0
22.1
124.1
8.0
7.2
16.9
15.2
2.9
7.6
4.1
3.5
38.3
74.6
3.6
10.8
–
4.3
70.0
17.6
3.3
33.3
3.8
12.3
3.8
14.5
383.1
5.1
31.6
0.9
2.6
31.6
19.1
56.4
81.8
41.3
15.1
1024.5
101.7
10.9
17.7
67.0
44.4
31.3
273.0
21.9
34.5
–
23.9
80.3
22.4
14.6
62.6
2.0
36.0
30.6
81.2
25.7
3.7
32.8
3.1
7.7
34.7
10.6
31.8
11.7
411.2
2652.2
432.8
1328.1
553.6
770.5
573.2
32.3
9.1
614.6
0.4
13.4
3.3
2.7
–
0.5
0.1
2.2
22.5
3.1
†
0.1
5.5
7.8
20.0
4.7
4.6
12.3
85.7
8.5
2.9
0.1
1.5
17.2
30.8
0.2
9.0
0.4
57.9
3.3
7.4
93.5
3.8
20.2
2.2
0.1
31.0
–
39.7
38.2
1.4
15.7
528.9
1.3
–
–
–
–
8.1
9.3
0.7
1.0
97.7
6.2
105.7
55.8
0.4
1313.6
7.5
212.9
28.4
125.3
7.1
1.6
5.1
5.9
–
59.7
41.8
14.1
34.2
1913.5
3194.5
317.4
1189.4
166.5
1838.6
2008
Nuclear
Hydroenergy electricity
192.1
21.0
2.4
215.4
1.6
2.8
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.4
–
–
–
10.9
3.3
5.9
–
5.6
99.7
31.8
–
3.3
–
–
–
–
2.2
1.0
–
–
–
1.7
36.5
3.5
12.5
15.2
6.3
–
–
20.9
14.3
–
1.9
276.4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
3.0
–
–
14.1
–
4.0
–
63.1
–
–
0.6
–
–
32.3
9.2
–
–
123.3
622.5
212.1
520.7
60.3
41.6
Total
Oil
Natural
gas
Coal
56.6 2359.6
82.9
326.1
6.1
163.7
145.6 2849.4
8.5
73.2
84.6
220.4
5.2
28.8
9.5
29.5
2.0
11.4
4.4
14.4
18.8
77.8
19.5
108.0
152.6
563.5
7.5
31.9
0.5
12.2
†
24.6
0.1
72.7
0.7
20.0
0.6
43.8
†
18.1
3.2
27.5
13.3
254.8
4.7
309.3
0.8
34.6
†
24.8
1.9
3.0
0.2
15.4
7.3
178.5
1.8
61.8
0.2
8.7
†
89.3
30.6
45.1
0.7
95.1
2.3
23.9
3.6
37.5
40.4
679.7
1.0
17.6
6.0
149.2
15.0
48.0
7.9
28.2
8.0
101.1
–
24.5
2.3
134.7
1.2
214.7
1.4
49.5
16.3
77.0
179.6 2956.9
4.1
188.4
–
24.5
–
21.7
–
163.1
–
65.0
1.2
114.9
5.2
577.6
0.1
35.6
3.5
69.6
0.6
127.1
18.0
108.7
22.1
341.0
3.3
123.2
0.3
19.8
109.8 1862.8
–
25.5
27.7
409.2
2.6
117.9
16.8
515.8
1.5
56.4
5.3
17.8
7.1
64.8
1.9
24.9
–
55.1
0.7
235.7
1.0
115.1
1.8
86.0
10.8
86.1
190.7 3816.0
695.8 11104.4
69.7 1732.2
283.9 5568.3
56.3 1022.8
355.5 4513.3
884.5
102.0
90.0
1076.6
24.2
105.3
16.8
10.7
9.3
7.9
32.5
63.6
270.3
13.4
3.3
7.7
41.3
5.4
9.9
8.9
10.5
92.2
118.3
21.4
7.7
0.9
9.0
80.9
10.9
3.1
46.5
9.8
24.9
13.7
10.6
130.4
4.3
77.1
14.5
12.1
32.3
5.5
15.5
78.7
5.5
29.2
955.5
83.3
15.3
4.6
104.2
22.9
76.6
306.9
14.0
32.6
26.3
62.3
135.2
42.5
4.6
375.7
14.5
135.0
57.4
221.8
21.8
7.3
19.3
13.4
49.9
103.3
50.1
36.7
30.0
1183.4
3927.9
702.6
2179.8
189.5
1558.6
600.7
90.0
60.5
751.2
40.0
22.7
2.3
7.3
0.5
3.1
29.1
23.6
128.7
8.5
8.4
17.3
15.3
2.9
7.8
4.1
3.6
39.8
73.8
3.8
10.8
–
4.5
69.9
18.5
2.9
34.7
4.0
12.5
4.1
13.1
378.2
5.2
35.1
0.9
2.8
32.4
17.1
53.8
84.5
43.8
15.4
1029.6
105.8
11.5
17.9
70.3
52.3
36.6
294.4
22.8
36.8
–
25.8
85.4
21.2
15.6
72.6
2.3
37.2
34.2
84.4
27.6
3.4
33.8
3.1
8.3
35.7
11.5
33.7
12.2
436.8
2726.1
441.1
1354.1
548.6
823.4
565.0
33.0
9.0
606.9
0.4
14.6
3.2
2.3
–
0.5
†
2.2
23.3
3.1
†
†
4.6
7.5
19.1
4.1
3.4
11.9
80.9
8.6
2.8
0.1
1.4
17.0
33.6
0.2
9.2
0.5
59.4
3.2
7.7
101.3
3.9
14.6
2.0
0.1
30.4
–
39.3
35.4
1.4
16.1
522.7
1.3
–
–
–
–
8.1
9.4
0.7
1.0
102.8
5.7
110.3
51.3
0.4
1406.3
7.0
231.4
30.2
128.7
5.0
2.1
6.7
6.2
–
66.1
40.2
15.4
34.6
2031.2
3303.7
301.2
1170.6
176.9
1956.3
Nuclear
Hydroenergy electricity
192.0
21.1
2.3
215.4
1.6
3.1
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.8
–
–
–
10.4
3.6
6.0
–
5.4
99.6
33.7
–
3.4
–
–
–
–
2.2
0.9
–
–
–
2.5
36.9
3.8
13.3
14.5
6.2
–
–
20.3
11.9
–
2.0
276.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
3.0
–
3.0
–
–
15.5
–
3.5
–
57.0
–
–
0.4
–
–
34.2
9.2
–
–
119.8
619.7
212.7
515.7
60.0
44.0
Total
56.7 2299.0
83.6
329.8
8.6
170.4
148.9 2799.1
8.4
74.7
82.3
228.1
5.4
27.8
9.8
30.2
2.6
12.3
4.5
15.9
19.6
81.4
19.9
109.3
152.5
579.6
7.9
33.0
0.5
12.3
†
25.1
0.1
71.7
0.8
20.1
0.5
43.3
†
17.2
3.9
26.8
14.3
257.9
4.4
311.1
0.8
34.6
†
24.7
2.8
3.9
0.2
15.1
8.8
176.6
1.7
64.7
0.2
8.7
†
91.4
31.8
46.0
0.6
97.4
1.6
22.6
3.9
37.8
37.8
684.6
1.0
18.1
3.8
143.9
14.8
46.7
8.1
29.4
7.5
102.6
–
22.6
2.6
131.5
1.1
211.6
1.4
52.2
17.0
79.7
180.2 2964.6
1.7
192.1
–
26.8
–
22.5
–
174.5
–
75.2
1.2
122.5
2.8
613.5
0.1
37.6
3.9
74.3
0.2
132.3
18.1
111.8
22.2
356.0
3.4
118.3
0.3
20.9
132.4 2002.5
–
23.8
26.2
433.3
2.7
124.4
15.7
507.5
1.5
56.0
5.0
17.9
6.3
66.5
2.2
25.0
–
58.2
0.9
240.1
0.9
112.0
1.6
87.3
11.6
88.4
210.8 3981.9
717.5 11294.9
70.6 1728.2
288.3 5508.4
54.0 1028.9
375.3 4757.5
*In this Review, primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels only. Excluded, therefore, are fuels such as wood, peat and animal waste that, though important in many countries, are
unreliably documented in terms of consumption statistics. Also excluded are wind, geothermal and solar power generation.
†Less than 0.05.
Note: Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent.
41
World consumption
Million tonnes oil equivalent
12000
Coal
Hydroelectricity
Nuclear energy
Natural gas
Oil
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
0
08
World primary energy consumption grew by 1.4% in 2008, below the 10-year average. It was the weakest year since 2001. Oil remains the world’s dominant fuel, though
it has steadily lost market share to coal and natural gas in recent years. Oil’s share of the world total has fallen from 38.7% to 34.8% over the past decade. Oil consumption
and nuclear power generation declined last year, while natural gas and coal consumption, as well as hydroelectric generation, increased.
Regional consumption pattern 2008
Percentage
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
North America
S. & Cent. America
Europe & Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
Oil remains the world’s dominant fuel, holding the leading share of consumption in all regions except Europe and Eurasia, and Asia Pacific. Coal is the dominant fuel
in Asia Pacific and continues to increase its market share; the region accounts for 61.5% of global coal consumption, the largest global share for any fuel in any region.
Natural gas remains the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia.
42
0
Consumption per capita 2008
Tonnes oil equivalent
0-1.5
1.5-3.0
3.0-4.5
4.5-6.0
> 6.0
Fossil fuel reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios at end 2008
Years
500
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
400
300
200
100
OECD
Former Soviet Union
EMEs excl. Former Soviet Union
World
0
Coal remains the world’s most abundant fuel, with a global R/P ratio of more than 120 years. Among fossil fuels, coal reserves remain the most closely co-located with
key consuming centres in Asia Pacific and North America. Oil’s global R/P ratio has tended to rise over time, and has remained above 40 years since 1998.
43
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
Appendices
Approximate conversion factors
Crude oil*
Units
From
Tonnes (metric)
Kilolitres
Barrels
US gallons
Barrels per day
To
tonnes
(metric)
kilolitres
barrels
Multiply by
1
0.8581
0.1364
0.00325
–
1.165
1
0.159
0.0038
–
7.33
6.2898
1
0.0238
–
US
gallons
tonnes
per year
307.86
264.17
42
1
–
–
–
–
–
49.8
1 metric tonne = 2204.62lb
= 1.1023 short tons
1 kilolitre = 6.2898 barrels = 1 cubic metre
1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.187kJ = 3.968Btu
1 kilojoule (kJ) = 0.239kcal = 0.948Btu
1 British thermal unit (Btu) = 0.252kcal
= 1.055kJ
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 860kcal
= 3600kJ = 3412Btu
*Based on worldwide average gravity.
Calorific equivalents
Products
To convert
barrels
to tonnes
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Gasoline
Kerosene
Gas oil/diesel
Fuel oil
0.086
0.118
0.128
0.133
0.149
One tonne of oil equivalent equals approximately:
tonnes
kilolitres
to barrels
to tonnes
Multiply by
11.6
8.5
7.8
7.5
6.7
0.542
0.740
0.806
0.839
0.939
tonnes
to kilolitres
1.844
1.351
1.240
1.192
1.065
Natural gas (NG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG)
From
1 billion cubic metres NG
1 billion cubic feet NG
1 million tonnes oil equivalent
1 million tonnes LNG
1 trillion British thermal units
1 million barrels oil equivalent
To
billion cubic
metres NG
billion cubic million tonnes million tonnes
feet NG oil equivalent
LNG
Multiply by
1
0.028
1.11
1.36
0.028
0.15
Definitions
35.3
1
39.2
48.0
0.99
5.35
0.90
0.025
1
1.22
0.025
0.14
0.74
0.021
0.82
1
0.021
0.11
trillion British million barrels
thermal units oil equivalent
35.7
1.01
39.7
48.6
1
5.41
North Africa
Territories on the north coast of Africa from Egypt
to western Sahara.
West Africa
Territories on the west coast of Africa from Mauritania
to Angola, including Cape Verde, Chad.
Country groupings are made purely
for statistical purposes and are not intended
to imply any judgement about political or
economic standings.
East and Southern Africa
Territories on the east coast of Africa from Sudan to
Republic of South Africa. Also Botswana, Madagascar,
Malawi, Namibia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
North America
US (excluding Puerto Rico), Canada, Mexico.
Asia Pacific
Brunei, Cambodia, China, China Hong Kong SAR*,
Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia,
North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South Asia
(Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka), South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand,
Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, Oceania.
*Special Administrative Region.
Europe
European members of the OECD plus Albania,
Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Gibraltar,
Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia.
Former Soviet Union
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova,
Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Ukraine, Uzbekistan.
10 million kilocalories
42 gigajoules
40 million British
thermal units
Solid fuels
1.5 tonnes of hard coal
3 tonnes of lignite
Gaseous fuels
See Natural gas and
liquefied natural gas table
Electricity
12 megawatt-hours
One million tonnes of oil or oil equivalent produces
about 4400 gigawatt-hours (= 4.4 terawatt-hours)
of electricity in a modern power station.
6.60
0.19
7.33
8.97
0.18
1
Statistics published in this Review are taken from
government sources and published data. No use
is made of confidential information obtained by
BP in the course of its business.
South and Central America
Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and
South America.
Heat units
Australasia
Australia, New Zealand.
North Africa: Algeria, Libya.
West Africa: Angola, Nigeria.
Asia Pacific: Indonesia.
South America: Ecuador, Venezuela.
European Union members
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK.
Other EMEs (Emerging Market Economies)
South and Central America, Africa, Middle East,
non-OECD Asia, non-OECD Europe.
Methodology
The primary energy values of both nuclear and
hydroelectric power generation have been derived by
calculating the equivalent amount of fossil fuel required
to generate the same volume of electricity in a thermal
power station, assuming a conversion efficiency of
38% (the average for OECD thermal power generation).
Percentages
Calculated before rounding of actuals. All annual
changes and shares of totals are on a weight basis
except on pages 6, 14, 18, 20 and 22.
Europe and Eurasia
All countries listed above under the headings Europe
and Former Soviet Union.
OECD members
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK.
Other member countries: Australia, Canada, Japan,
Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, US.
Middle East
Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan,
Lebanon, Syria.
OPEC members
Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,
United Arab Emirates.
Tonnes
Metric equivalent of tons.
44
Rounding differences
Because of rounding, some totals may not agree
exactly with the sum of their component parts.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2009
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Acknowledgements
Data compilation Energy Academy and
Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation,
Heriot-Watt University, www.energy.hw.ac.uk
Design sasdesign.co.uk
Typesetting Orb Solutions, London
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45
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