Diskeeper Home Edition User Manual

Diskeeper Home Edition User Manual
User Manual
Diskeeper® Home Edition
for Windows®
August 2003
This document describes the installation and operation of Executive Software
International’s Diskeeper, The Standard in Entire Network Defragmentation™ for
Microsoft® Windows. It is intended primarily for Windows system administrators
and managers.
Revision/Update Information:
This is a new manual
Software Versions:
Diskeeper 8.0 Home Edition
Operating Systems:
Windows XP Home Edition
Windows XP Media Center Edition
Windows Millennium Edition (Me)
Windows 98
Windows 95 (OSR 2 or higher)
Executive Software International, Inc., Burbank, California, USA
________________________
August 2003
__________
© 2002 – 2003 by Executive Software International, Inc.
The Software described in this document is owned by Executive Software
International, Inc. and is protected by United States copyright laws and international
treaty provisions. Therefore, you must treat the Software like any other copyrighted
material (e.g. a book or musical recording) except that you may either (a) make one
copy of the Software solely for backup or archival purposes, or (b) transfer the
Software to a single hard disk provided you keep the original solely for backup or
archival purposes. You may not copy the user documentation provided with the
Software, except for your own authorized use.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
The software and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use,
duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software
clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial
Computer Software-Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19 as applicable.
Manufacturer is Executive Software International, Inc., 7590 North Glenoaks
Boulevard, Burbank, California 91504.
Executive Software, Diskeeper, Sitekeeper, Undelete, “Set It and Forget It,” “Smart
Scheduling,” and “Focused development of system management tools,” and “The
Standard in Entire Network Defragmentation” are either registered trademarks or
trademarks of Executive Software International, Inc. in the United States and other
countries.
Microsoft, Active Directory, Windows, Windows NT and Windows Server 2003 are
either registered trademarks or trademarks owned by Microsoft Corporation in the
United States and/or other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Contents
iii
CONTENTS
PREFACE
VII
WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT
STRUCTURE OF THIS BOOK
INTRODUCTION
ABOUT FRAGMENTATION
OTHER IMPORTANT PRODUCTS
VII
VII
VII
VIII
IX
DISKEEPER INSTALLATION
1
BEFORE THE INSTALLATION
WINDOWS VERSIONS AND PLATFORMS SUPPORTED
FILE SYSTEMS SUPPORTED
DISKS SUPPORTED
RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE SHORT VERSION
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE DETAILS
INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
AFTER THE INSTALLATION
CHECK FOR UPDATE
REGISTERING DISKEEPER
ABOUT WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACKS
REPAIRING WINDOWS SYSTEMS
ABOUT THE DISKEEPER SERVICE
THE WINDOWS APPLICATION EVENT LOG
EVENT LOGGING UNDER WINDOWS 95/98/ME
UNINSTALLING DISKEEPER
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
GETTING STARTED
9
INTRODUCTION
QUICK TOUR
9
10
OVERVIEW OF DISKEEPER
19
DISKEEPER FEATURES
OTHER THINGS TO KNOW
DEFRAGMENTATION MODES
19
20
20
iv
Contents
EXCLUSION LIST
EVENT LOGGING
GETTING THE MOST FROM DISKEEPER
21
21
21
DISKEEPER OPERATION
23
THE DISKEEPER INTERFACE
INFORMATION PANE
THE PERFORMANCE PANE
THE RELIABILITY PANE
THE FRAGMENTATION PANE
VOLUME SECTION
FRAGMENTATION PERCENTAGE SECTION
FILE FRAGMENTATION SECTION
PAGING FILE FRAGMENTATION SECTION
DIRECTORY FRAGMENTATION SECTION
MASTER FILE TABLE (MFT) FRAGMENTATION SECTION
MOST FRAGMENTED FILES
SAVING A FRAGMENTATION REPORT
PRINTING A FRAGMENTATION REPORT
DRIVE MAP PANE
WHAT THE COLORS MEAN
SET IT AND FORGET IT PANE
SMART SCHEDULING
SCREEN SAVER MODE
COMMAND PANE
SET IT AND FORGET IT MENU
ANALYZE SELECTED DRIVE
DEFRAGMENT SELECTED DRIVE
CHANGE YOUR SETTINGS MENU
HELP MENU
DISK VOLUME PANE
TOOLBAR BUTTONS
SETTING AN EXCLUSION LIST
DISKEEPER INTERNAL EXCLUSION LIST
USING POWER MANAGEMENT
LOGGING DISKEEPER ACTIVITY
WINDOWS XP EVENT LOG
WINDOWS 95/98/ME EVENT LOG
SPECIFYING WHAT GETS LOGGED
23
24
24
27
29
29
30
31
31
32
32
33
35
35
35
35
36
40
42
43
44
46
47
47
49
50
52
53
55
56
57
57
57
58
THEORY OF OPERATION
65
Contents
v
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN GOALS
65
65
TABLE OF DISKEEPER EDITIONS
69
ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
71
SUPPORT SERVICES
77
GLOSSARY
79
INDEX
91
Preface
vii
Preface
What This Book is About
Welcome to the Diskeeper Home Edition User Manual. We realize software manuals
tend to be one of the least-favorite pieces of reading material around, so we intend to
make this one as painless as possible. This book will first help you get Diskeeper
quickly installed and running. Next, it describes the various Diskeeper features and
how to use them. Finally, it explains about disk fragmentation on your Windows
system.
Structure of This Book
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Chapter 1 describes how to install Diskeeper.
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Chapter 2 explains how to start using Diskeeper and how to see the amount of
fragmentation on your disk volumes.
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Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of Diskeeper.
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Chapter 4 explains the various features of Diskeeper in detail.
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Chapter 5 presents the theory of Diskeeper operation.
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Appendix A has tables showing the different Diskeeper editions, and the
operating systems, features and capacities they support.
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Appendix B provides answers to frequently asked questions.
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Appendix C explains how to contact your Executive Software Customer Service
Representative for Support Services.
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The Glossary provides definitions of technical terms used in this manual.
Introduction
Throughout its history, Diskeeper has improved with each new version. Diskeeper
Home Edition sets the standard in simplified disk defragmentation with innovative
new features and approaches to solving fragmentation problems for home users.
From its trademark “Set It and Forget It” scheduling to the comprehensive
performance and reliability analysis, Diskeeper Home Edition is designed to solve
your disk fragmentation problems permanently, and keep you informed about the
condition of all your disks.
viii
Preface
Diskeeper Home Edition is only one member of the comprehensive Diskeeper
family of defragmentation products. There are different Diskeeper editions for
everyone, from home users to huge enterprise IT departments.
The Diskeeper lineup also includes:
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Diskeeper Professional Edition
Diskeeper Server Standard Edition
Diskeeper Server Web Edition
Diskeeper Server Enterprise Edition
Diskeeper Server Datacenter Edition
Diskeeper Administrator Edition
See Appendix A for tables showing all the Diskeeper editions with the features and
operating system versions they support.
About Fragmentation
As used in this manual, the term disk fragmentation means two things:
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a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk volume are not
contiguous, but rather are broken up and scattered around the disk; and
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of
space here and there rather than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
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file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there,
requiring several disk accesses instead of just one; and
file creations take longer because space for the file must be allocated in little
pieces here and there instead of just one contiguous allocation.
The bottom line⎯fragmentation slows Windows system performance. The longer
you wait to defragment your disk volumes, the slower your computer runs.
With Diskeeper, all the disks in a Windows operating system can be kept
defragmented indefinitely. Diskeeper cleans them up and keeps them that way. This
includes disks with compressed, encrypted and sparse files on NTFS volumes.
Running either invisibly as a background job or as a manual defragmenter,
Diskeeper carefully rearranges files and free space on a disk volume so they consist
of as few pieces as possible. Because Diskeeper runs online, there is no need to lock
users off a disk while it is being defragmented.
Diskeeper is the complete “Set It and Forget It”® solution to the loss in system
performance caused by disk fragmentation!
Preface
ix
Other Important Products
Executive Software is known throughout the computer industry for its focused
development of system management tools. If you are running Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP or Windows Server 2003, you should also use:
Undelete® for Windows
Instantly recover files that have been accidentally deleted anywhere on your
network. Undelete sets up a Recovery Bin that caches all deletions—even versions
created between backups—and saves you the time and money of wading through
backups. Undelete also includes a recovery tool for files that have been deleted
before Undelete was installed. Data is your business. Complete your data protection
solution with Undelete, available from your local reseller or directly from Executive
Software.
Sitekeeper® System Management Software
Get at-a-glance updates on every software version, build, update and patch. Also see
detailed hardware information including processor speed, RAM, hard drive size,
logical free space and asset management tags from the BIOS and motherboard.
Install/uninstall programs with a few clicks of the mouse.
Installation
1
Chapter 1
Diskeeper Installation
This chapter provides information you need before, during, and after installing
Diskeeper.
Before the Installation
Windows Versions and Platforms Supported
Diskeeper Home Edition runs on the Intel® x86 platform (including Pentium™ and
compatible CPUs from other manufacturers) running Windows XP Home or Media
Center Editions, Windows Me, Windows 98, or Windows 95 (OSR 2 or higher).
File Systems Supported
Operating System
File Systems
Windows XP
NTFS, FAT16 and FAT32
Windows Me
Windows 98
Windows 95 (OSR 2 or higher)
FAT16 and FAT32
Note that the 12-bit FAT file system is not supported. (The 12-bit FAT file system is
used on FAT volumes smaller than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks).
2
Installation
Disks Supported
Diskeeper supports a wide range of SCSI and IDE disks, including:
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Primary Partitions
Extended Partitions
Logical Drives
Volume Sets
RAID Arrays
Mirrored Disks
Resource Requirements
The disk space requirements for Diskeeper depend on several factors. On most
systems, Diskeeper will need about 6.5 MB. Allow about 10 MB of extra free space
for temporary files during the installation. If Internet Explorer is not present on your
computer, some other needed files (hhupd.exe, 50comupd.exe, and wintdist.exe)
may be added. Further, your system may require a new or updated version of DCOM
(less than 3 MB) and/or MMC (less than 6 MB).
Additional Software Requirements
Diskeeper relies on both the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) and the
Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
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DCOM is used for communication between the various components that make
up Diskeeper. For example, when a Diskeeper defragmentation operation is
scheduled to begin, the Diskeeper controller module uses DCOM to send a
message to the defragmentation engine to begin the defragmentation process.
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The MMC provides a single point of control for system utilities such as
Diskeeper. The MMC is used as a central location for a variety of Microsoft and
third party administrative tools.
Note: In most cases, Windows 95 systems are not running either DCOM or the
MMC by default. On Windows 98/Me system, DCOM is installed by default
when the operating system is installed. The MMC normally has to be installed
separately, except on Windows XP systems, where it is already built into the
operating system. The Diskeeper setup process will automatically install DCOM
and/or the MMC on your computer, if needed.
Installation
3
Installation Procedure—The Short
Version
The Diskeeper installation is typically fast and simple. Here are the basic steps:
Note: On Windows XP, make sure you are logged onto an account that is a member
of the Administrators group.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer. (If
you are installing from a downloaded file, double-click the file you
downloaded.)
2.
Follow the screens displayed, answering the questions asked as prompted.
That’s it! It would still be a good idea to read “After the Installation” on page 6, but
you’re done with the installation.
Installation Procedure—The Details
Installation Overview
Diskeeper is installed by the SETUP.EXE program supplied on the Diskeeper CDROM. The SETUP.EXE program:
ƒ
Confirms that you have Administrator privileges (on Windows XP systems).
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Determines which Windows version you are running.
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Checks for sufficient space on the disk for the installation.
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Detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software.
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Copies the Diskeeper files to the destination directories, updates the Windows
registry, starts the Diskeeper service, and creates a link in the start menu for
Executive Software Diskeeper.
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Checks to see if a more recent version of Diskeeper is available. (Note this
operation requires an internet connection.)
Installation
4
Installation Procedure
Diskeeper can be installed from a CD-ROM, or it may be downloaded from the
Web. This procedure applies to both methods. Before you start the installation,
please note the following:
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Windows 95 machines must be OSR 2 or higher.
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Installing Diskeeper on Windows XP machines will not remove the built-in
defragmenter, but Diskeeper will automatically become the default
defragmenter. (The built-in defragmenter will be restored if you uninstall
Diskeeper.)
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To install Diskeeper on Windows XP systems, you must be logged into an
account that is a member of the Administrators group.
This installation procedure assumes you are installing from CD-ROM. If the
Diskeeper software was downloaded from the Web, double-click the executable file
in the directory into which it was downloaded and go directly to step 3.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer.
2.
The Windows AutoPlay feature automatically displays a screen that allows you
to install Diskeeper or choose from an assortment of trialware versions of
Executive Software products.
If you have disabled the AutoPlay feature, simply double-click the Setup.exe
file in the root-level folder on the CD-ROM and follow the instructions
displayed.
3.
4.
If you are installing an upgrade version of Diskeeper and do not have the
previous version currently installed on your computer, you will be asked to
verify your previous version. You can skip this step if you are installing a full or
trialware version of Diskeeper.
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If you do not have a full version installed, but have an ESD (Electronic
Software Distribution) version of Diskeeper on your system, you will be
asked for its location. This must be the only file located in the folder
location. When Setup has verified the version is valid, the installation will
continue.
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If you do not have a full version installed but have a CD of a full version,
you will be asked to insert the CD. After Setup checks the CD, you will
need to re-insert the CD you are installing the new version from. Press the
SHIFT key when inserting the older CD as well as the newer CD, to
disengage the AutoPlay feature.
Click Next when the welcome message appears.
Installation
5
5.
After you have read and accepted the license agreement, click Next to
continue.
6.
As an option, you can change the destination location for the Diskeeper files. By
default, Diskeeper is installed here:
\Program Files\Executive Software\Diskeeper
You can choose a different disk volume or directory for the installation as
follows:
a) Click Change.
b) Make the desired changes to the destination and click OK to accept the
new destination. If the directory you specify does not exist, a new
directory will be created.
c) Click Next.
7.
If Internet Explorer 4.01 or higher is not installed on your computer, another
installation program is started and a package of necessary components is
installed on your computer. Microsoft Management Console (MMC), which is
the interface for Diskeeper, requires these components. These components are a
small subset of Internet Explorer⎯not the complete Internet Explorer product.
Installing these components (hhupd.exe, 50comupd.exe, and wintdist.exe) will
not affect your current web browser. Note that you must restart your computer
after installing Diskeeper if these components are installed.
8.
If the MMC is not installed on your computer, the MMC Setup program is
started automatically. After the MMC files are installed, the Diskeeper Setup
program resumes.
9.
The Setup program checks to confirm DCOM is installed on your computer. If it
is not, the DCOM Setup program is begun. After a short period of copying files,
the DCOM installation is complete.
10. Setup detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software. (Any
previous Diskeeper settings are not saved.)
11. On a Windows XP system, after Setup is complete, you can immediately start
Diskeeper after clicking Finish. On Windows 95/98/Me systems, you may be
required to restart your computer before running Diskeeper.
12. To run Diskeeper, click the Windows Start button, select Programs, and then
Executive Software Diskeeper.
6
Installation
After the Installation
Check for Update
The first time you run Diskeeper, it automatically checks to see if a more recent
version of Diskeeper is available. If so, you are given the option to download and
install the newer version. When the download screen is displayed, click Run this
program from its current location to begin installing the update. Or, click Save
this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your
computer for later installation. (To install an update stored on your computer in this
manner, simply double-click the file you download and follow the instructions
displayed.)
You can check for Diskeeper updates any time you want. Use the Check for update
option in the Change your settings menu to see if a newer version of Diskeeper is
available.
Registering Diskeeper
After the Diskeeper installation is complete, you may be given the option to register
your Diskeeper purchase online. You can also register Diskeeper by mailing or
faxing the registration card that comes with the CD.
Be sure to register your Diskeeper purchase to receive the free 90 days of telephone
support included with Diskeeper.
About Windows XP Service Packs
Since Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into Windows XP that allow the safe
movement of files on a disk that is actively being accessed by users, there is no need
to upgrade Diskeeper each time you install a new Windows XP Service Pack
upgrade.
Repairing Windows Systems
Performing an emergency repair of a Windows system can possibly change or
disable certain system information or services, which may make it necessary to
reinstall Diskeeper after repairing your Windows system.
About the Diskeeper Service
Diskeeper is primarily designed as a “Set It and Forget It” disk defragmenter. In
order to accomplish this goal, it creates a Windows service. The service allows
Installation
7
Diskeeper to run in the background while other applications are running. As long
as your operating system is up and running, Diskeeper can defragment your disks,
whether you are logged on or not.
After installation, the Diskeeper service starts automatically each time your
computer is restarted. The Diskeeper service runs all the time, whether or not
defragmentation is occurring. This service consumes negligible system resources,
and in most cases will never need to be disabled.
The Windows Application Event Log
When running under Windows XP, Diskeeper places messages in the Windows
Application Event Log. By default, this log is 512 kilobytes in size and is set to
overwrite events older than 7 days old. Diskeeper can quickly fill the log file if these
default settings are used. To prevent this, perform these steps to change the size and
overwriting characteristics of the Application Event Log:
1.
Right-click the My Computer icon on your desktop and select Manage.
2.
When the Computer Management Console is displayed, select System Tools,
and then Event Viewer.
3.
Expand the Event Viewer (by double-clicking it) and select Application.
4.
Next, click the Action menu and select Properties.
a) Set the Maximum log size to 2048 KB.
b) Enable the Overwrite events as needed option.
c) Click OK.
Diskeeper allows you to specify what information is written to the Application Event
Log. For more information, see Windows XP Event Log on page 57.
Event Logging under Windows 95/98/Me
When running on Windows 95/98/Me, Diskeeper provides the option of logging
Diskeeper events into a text file. When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its
message are appended to the Diskeeper log file. These events are written as a text
file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored in the directory
folder where Diskeeper is installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size. When it
reaches this size, the log is purged completely and the event log is started from
scratch.
Installation
8
Uninstalling Diskeeper
To uninstall Diskeeper on Windows XP, you must be logged into an account that is a
member of the Administrators group.
Note that the controls may have slightly different names, depending on your version
of Windows.
Follow these steps to completely remove and uninstall Diskeeper from your
computer:
1.
From the Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. (On Windows
95/98/Me systems, click the Install/Uninstall tab.)
2.
Highlight the Diskeeper entry.
3.
Click Remove or Add/Remove (Windows 95/98/Me). This removes the
Diskeeper program files from your computer. In most cases, the Diskeeper
installation directory will not be removed.
4.
On Windows XP, systems, the Windows Disk Defragmenter is restored to the
state it was in before Diskeeper was installed.
5.
Manually delete the Diskeeper installation directory if it exists.
Note: If DCOM and/or the MMC have been installed on your computer, they will
not be removed when Diskeeper is uninstalled.
Getting Started
9
Chapter 2
Getting Started
This chapter explains how to analyze the fragmentation on a disk volume, save the
results, defragment the volume, and do a “before and after” comparison.
Introduction
Recent marketing research has shown that computer system performance and
reliability are major concerns among computer users. Disk fragmentation is a major
cause of these performance and reliability problems. Diskeeper is designed to not
only handle the fragmentation problem, but to give you information about the
performance and reliability status of your disk volumes.
Keep in mind the primary purpose of a defragmenter is not to make your disks look
“pretty”, but to improve the operating condition of your disk volumes. So while
Diskeeper does provide a graphic view of your disks and any fragmentation found,
more importantly, it shows you performance measurements and reliability data that
you can apply to proactively keep your disk volumes in top shape.
Diskeeper performs a comprehensive analysis of the fragmentation on your disk
volumes. After analyzing a disk, Diskeeper shows you the amount of performance
improvement you will get by defragmenting the disk, and rates the reliability of the
disk, based on the analysis results. Diskeeper also provides multiple methods by
which to see the extent of the fragmentation—several graphic displays giving a
graphic representation of the fragmentation on your volumes and a fragmentation
report view showing statistical information about the fragmentation on your
volumes.
After installing Diskeeper, you are ready to start Diskeeper and begin defragmenting
your disk volumes. In order to see the actual gains from defragmentation, analyze
the condition of your volumes before you begin defragmenting them. By reviewing
the Diskeeper displays both before and after running Diskeeper, you will be able to
see the actual reduction of file fragmentation and improvement in performance and
reliability.
10
Getting Started
Quick Tour
When you start Diskeeper for the first time after a successful installation, you’ll see
this welcoming message:
Read the message—it contains simple instructions on how to start using Diskeeper.
After you have read the message, you can prevent it from displaying in the future by
clearing the check box in the bottom left corner. Click OK to continue.
Getting Started
11
After the Welcome screen is displayed, Diskeeper checks to see if a more recent
version is available.
Click OK to check to see if an update is available for Diskeeper. (Note that you must
have an active internet connection in order for Diskeeper to check for a more recent
version.)
If a newer version of Diskeeper is available, you are given the option of
downloading it. When the download screen is displayed, click Run this program
from its current location to begin installing the update. Otherwise, click Save this
program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your
computer for later installation. (To install an update stored on your computer in this
manner, simply double-click the file you download and follow the instructions
displayed.)
You can also check for Diskeeper updates any time you want. Use the Check for
update option in the Diskeeper Help menu.
12
Getting Started
After checking for updates, it’s time to start learning about Diskeeper.
Toolbar
Menu Bar
Tab
Controls
Disk
Volume
Pane
Command
Pane
Status
Bar
Information
Pane
When you first start Diskeeper, the Performance tab pane is displayed. Like the other
tab-controlled panes, this one gives quite a bit of information. This pane gives
instructions for analyzing your drives, and also give you some background
information about the effects of fragmentation.
Let’s analyze a disk volume before we continue with the tour. Select a disk volume
and click Analyze selected drive, then Start in the Command pane.
Tip: You can also use the Analyze button
selected disk.
to start the analysis of the
Getting Started
13
After Diskeeper analyzes or defragments a disk volume, the Performance pane
displays a graph showing the performance loss on that disk due to fragmentation.
Here’s an example after analyzing drive C:
As you can see, the Performance pane now shows a performance analysis for drive
C. The upper bar graph shows the current read times for only the fragmented files on
the drive and the lower graph shows read times for all the files on the drive. The
graphs also show the expected optimum read time for both cases, based on drive
performance measurements. This view gives you a detailed picture of your disk
performance losses due to fragmentation, and the expected improvement you will
see after defragmentation.
It should be noted that the first performance analysis is based on pre-determined disk
performance values measured as a part of disk performance research done by
Executive Software. To get a more accurate performance measurement of your
actual disks, Diskeeper must scan your drives to measure their performance. Since
this measurement can briefly slow down your computer, this scan operation is
disabled by default, but you can turn it on easily. The Set performance data
options option is described in the Change your settings menu section on page 47.
14
Getting Started
Now that we see how the performance of drive C is impacted by fragmentation.
let’s look at reliability issues. Click the Reliability tab to see the Reliability pane:
Reliability
Tab
The Reliability pane gives a reliability analysis and rating, the reasons for that rating,
and recommendations for improving or maintaining the reliability of the disk
volume.
In this example, the reliability analysis for drive C shows a considerable amount of
fragmentation, warranting a “Warning” rating. The ratings are based on several
factors. You may see different conditions on your disks, such as too little free space
or a badly fragmented paging file.
Getting Started
15
Next, click the Fragmentation tab to see the Fragmentation pane:
Fragmentation
Tab
Useful information about the disk volume is shown in the Fragmentation pane. Note
that most of the information here can also be recorded in the Diskeeper Event Log.
For more information, see Logging Diskeeper Activity on page 57.
16
Getting Started
Now we’ll look at a picture of the fragmentation on drive C. Click the Drive Map
tab to open the Drive Map pane shown here:
Drive Map
Tab
The group of horizontal bars in the Drive Map pane gives a graphic representation of
the fragmentation of your disk volume. The color legend in the Command pane
shows what the colors in the display mean. Of particular interest in this example, the
red areas show the fragmented files on the disk.
Next, let’s defragment drive C and see what type of improvement Diskeeper can
provide. Click Defragment selected drive, then Start in the Command pane to start
the defragmentation process. (Notice that drive C is still selected)
Tip: You can also use the Defragment button
selected volume.
to start defragmenting the
You can watch the progress of the defragmentation if you keep the Drive Map pane
open while Diskeeper is defragmenting your disk.
Getting Started
17
After the defragmentation is complete, it’s time to see how Diskeeper has
improved the condition of the disk. Open the Performance pane by clicking the
Performance tab. You will see a display similar to this:
Performance
Tab
In this example, you can see that defragmenting drive C has restored its performance
back to the optimum level. The dotted lines in the graph display shows a good
“before and after” picture of your drive's performance.
18
Getting Started
Next, check the reliability rating (or index) after defragmentation. Click the
Reliability tab to open the Reliability pane. You’ll see a display similar to this:
Reliability
Tab
Now that drive C has been defragmented, its reliability index is “Healthy.”
A quick review of the Fragmentation pane and the Drive Map pane will also show
improvement to the condition of the disk. Keep in mind that badly-fragmented disks
may need more than one defragmentation run to completely handle the
fragmentation problem.
Now, if you set up and start scheduled “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs
for your disk volumes, Diskeeper can maintain your disks in optimum condition
automatically by running occasionally in the background without further
intervention from you! For more information, see page 36.
Overview of Diskeeper
19
Chapter 3
Overview of Diskeeper
This chapter provides important general information about Diskeeper.
Diskeeper Features
The following list summarizes the most important Diskeeper features:
Wide Array of Diskeeper Editions—Starting with version 8.0, the Diskeeper
family of products has been expanded to offer specialized defragmentation of
Windows operating systems ranging from Windows 95 through Windows Server
2003 Datacenter Edition. See the tables on page 69 for the complete Diskeeper
lineup.
New Descriptive Interface—The Diskeeper interface has been completely redesigned to be more intuitive and informative. Common commands are grouped
together in the Command pane, and a group of tabbed panes show you a wide
variety of information. Diskeeper shows you the condition of your disks, and
provides suggestions for improving or maintaining your disks.
Performance and Reliability Analysis—Diskeeper now collects and displays data
regarding the performance and reliability of your disk volumes. This information
allows you to be more proactive in the management and maintenance of your
computers. See pages 24 and 27 for more information about the Performance pane
and the Reliability pane.
Set It and Forget It Operation—Diskeeper is designed to operate without your
intervention. Set a schedule for the times you want Diskeeper to run, then sit back
and let Diskeeper take care of your disk fragmentation. Of course, you can also run
Diskeeper manually. (But you probably have better things to do with your time—
that’s what Set It and Forget It is for!)
Smart Scheduling®—This feature allows Diskeeper to automatically determine the
optimum defragmentation schedule for each disk volume individually, and adjust
that schedule as disk usage changes. Diskeeper Home Edition automatically sets up
Smart Scheduling for all your disk drives when it is installed.
Exclusion Lists—Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories
that will not be allowed to be processed by Diskeeper.
20
Overview of Diskeeper
Event Logging—Diskeeper can record information about its activity in a log file.
A wide variety of information can be saved for future reference.
Other Things to Know
ƒ
When running Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or Manual Defragmentation
modes, you can run other tasks while defragmentation is occurring.
ƒ
Diskeeper runs as a Windows Service and it optionally logs useful
defragmentation information into either the Windows Application Event Log
(under Windows XP) or to a text file (under Windows 95/98/Me).
ƒ
Diskeeper can be uninstalled in the standard manner using the Add/Remove
Programs applet in the Windows Control Panel. See page 8 for more
information.
ƒ
You must be logged into an account that is a member of the Administrators
group to run Diskeeper on Windows XP.
ƒ
Diskeeper relies on both the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) and
the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), both of which are available for
Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me. MMC and DCOM are built into
Windows XP. For more information about DCOM and the MMC, see the
Glossary.
Defragmentation Modes
Diskeeper Home Edition is designed to operate in two different ways—the “Manual
Defragmentation” and “Set It and Forget It” modes. Both modes run while your disk
volumes are online and available to other users.
Manual Defragmentation—Manual defragmentation gives you direct control over
Diskeeper operation. You have control over which disk volumes are defragmented
and when defragmentation is started and stopped.
in the
Highlight the disk volume of your choice, then click Defragment
Diskeeper toolbar to do a manual defragmentation. (Alternatively, you can click
Defragment selected drive, then Start in the Command pane, or right-click the
highlighted disk volume and select Defragment.)
Click Pause
, Resume
or Stop
in the Diskeeper toolbar if you
want to pause, resume or stop manual defragmentation at any time. These options
are also available in the Action menu. For more information, see Toolbar Buttons on
page 52.
Overview of Diskeeper
21
Set It and Forget It—“Set It and Forget It” allows Diskeeper to run
automatically in the background, either after hours or while users and other
processes are active on the system, according to a predetermined schedule you set.
You can use the Smart Scheduling option to allow Diskeeper to automatically
determine the optimum defragmentation schedule for your disk volumes. (Diskeeper
Home Edition automatically sets up Smart Scheduling for all your disk drives when
it is installed.)
Tip: Select Set It and Forget It from the Command pane to select from
several commonly-used schedules.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information, see page
36.
Exclusion List
In some cases, you may have files or directory folders you do not want to
defragment. For example, you may not want to defragment temporary files that will
soon be deleted. Any files or directories can be excluded from Diskeeper processing
by adding them to the exclusion list.
To use this feature, click Change your settings in the Command pane and select
Exclude selected files and folders, or select the same option from the Action menu.
For more information, see Setting an Exclusion List on page 53.
Event Logging
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file. Click
Change your settings in the Diskeeper Command pane then select Set event
logging options to alternately enable or disable the logging of various events to the
Diskeeper Event Log. The logging method varies, depending on the version of
Windows you are using. This option is also available from the Action menu. For
more information, see page 57.
Getting the Most from Diskeeper
Diskeeper provides a variety of features, all of which are designed to help you get
the best performance from your computer. While there are no “hard and fast” rules
governing the use of Diskeeper, here are some general guidelines that will help you
get the most from Diskeeper.
ƒ
When you first install Diskeeper, analyze all the disk volumes on your
computer. This gives you good information about the extent of fragmentation on
your computer.
Overview of Diskeeper
22
ƒ
ƒ
After you have analyzed your volumes, defragment them by running
Diskeeper in its Manual Defragmentation mode. This provides the fastest
method for defragmenting the files and free space on your volume. For more
information on how to analyze and defragment manually, see page 9.
Finally, schedule Diskeeper to run in the background in Set It and Forget It
mode. Running in the Set It and Forget It mode, Diskeeper works quietly,
keeping your disks in prime condition. (Diskeeper Home Edition automatically
sets up Smart Scheduling for all your disk drives when it is installed.) For more
information about scheduling Diskeeper, see page 40.
Diskeeper Operation
23
Chapter 4
Diskeeper Operation
This chapter describes how to operate Diskeeper.
The Diskeeper Interface
As explained in Chapter 2, the Diskeeper user interface is made up of several distinct
components. These are, in order of discussion:
ƒ
Information Pane—Shows information about your disks and lets you schedule
defragmentation
ƒ
Command Pane—Quick and easy access to commonly-used Diskeeper features
ƒ
Disk Volume Pane—Shows all the detected disk volumes and information
about them
ƒ
Toolbar—Another fast way to access common Diskeeper controls
ƒ
Menu Bar—Menu-based access to Diskeeper features
ƒ
Status Bar—Shows the status of any currently-running Diskeeper operations
24
Diskeeper Operation
Information Pane
The Information pane section of the Diskeeper display is the main “Operations
Center” for Diskeeper. Each tab pane shows a different aspect of your disks’
condition, or controls when Diskeeper runs.
Tabbed
Controls
Information
Pane
The Performance Pane
One of the main reasons for defragmenting a disk volume is to restore or maintain
the performance of the disk. As files become more and more fragmented, it takes
longer to read those files from the disk. Measuring the length of time it takes to read
a set of files from a disk (known as read time) is a common way of determining the
anticipated performance level of that disk.
Each time you analyze or defragment a disk, Diskeeper calculates the read time of
the disk in two ways. First, it shows the predicted time to read all the files on the
disk. Secondly, it shows the time to read only the fragmented files. Additionally, it
determines the optimum (fastest) read time potential for the disk.
It should be noted that by default, the performance analysis is based on predetermined disk performance values measured as a part of disk performance research
done by Executive Software. To get a more accurate performance measurement of
Diskeeper Operation
25
your actual disks, Diskeeper must scan your drives to measure their performance.
Since this measurement can briefly slow down your computer, this scan operation is
disabled by default, but you can turn it on easily. The Set performance data
options option is described in the Change your settings menu section on page 47.
When you first start Diskeeper, the Performance pane gives instructions for
analyzing your drives, and also give you some background information about the
effects of fragmentation. After a disk has been analyzed or defragmented, the
performance pane changes to show a graph illustrating the performance
characteristics of the disk, based on current read times calculated by Diskeeper—
both for all the files on the drive and for only the fragmented files on the drive. It
also shows the expected optimum read time for all the files and for only the
fragmented files. This view gives you a detailed picture of your performance losses
due to fragmentation, and the expected improvement you will see after
defragmentation.
The Performance pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The
disk highlighted in the disk volume pane is the disk described in the Performance
pane.
Using the Performance pane, you can see at a glance how much disk performance is
being lost to fragmentation, and equally important, you can confirm that Diskeeper is
keeping your disk performance at peak levels.
Here is an example of the Performance pane before running an analysis or
defragmentation:
Read the screen—it tells you how to get started analyzing your disks, and explains
the effects of fragmentation.
26
Diskeeper Operation
After you’ve analyzed a fragmented disk volume, the Performance pane takes on a
new look. Here’s an example:
Shows performance loss
to read only the
fragmented files
Shows performance loss to read
all the files – uneven graph bars
mean performance is being lost.
Recommendations
Summary of
findings
After the fragmented disk has been defragmented by Diskeeper, the Performance
pane helps show the real gain from defragmentation. Here’s an example:
Equal graph bars mean
optimum performance!
Diskeeper Operation
27
All the information on the Performance pane is dynamic—it changes based on the
condition of the disk.
The Reliability Pane
The Reliability pane gives a reliability analysis and rating, the reasons for that rating,
and recommendations for improving or maintaining the reliability of the disk
volume.
Executive Software has done extensive research into the causes of disk performance
and reliability problems. This research has shown these factors play a significant role
in regards to disk performance and reliability:
ƒ
Overall fragmentation1
ƒ
MFT fragmentation
ƒ
Paging file fragmentation
ƒ
Available free space
Diskeeper uses these factors to determine a disk reliability index each time it
analyzes or defragments a disk volume.
Disk reliability is rated into three categories—Healthy, Warning and Critical.
This table shows the Warning and Critical levels used in determining the reliability
index.
Reliability Factor
Warning Level
Critical Level
Overall Fragmentation
> 10% fragmentation
> 50% fragmentation
MFT Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>2000 fragments
Paging File Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>1500 fragments
Free Space
< 15% free space
< 5% free space
The Reliability pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The
disk highlighted in the disk volume pane is the disk shown in the Reliability pane.
1
Overall fragmentation is calculated by dividing the time required to read the fragmented files
on the volume by the time required to read all the files on the volume, and multiplying the
result by 100.
28
Diskeeper Operation
Here is an example of the Reliability pane view after analysis of a disk that needs
corrective action:
After analyzing a disk, the Reliability pane shows reliability index and the reasons
behind it, and offers suggestions for correcting any problems found. In this example,
the reliability analysis for drive C shows a high fragmentation level, warranting a
“Warning” rating.
Now here’s an example of the Reliability pane after defragmentation, showing a disk
in good condition:
Notice that after defragmentation, the Reliability pane again shows the reliability
index, but it changes to show the current condition of the disk. Recommendations for
maintaining the condition of the disk (or for further improvement, if necessary) are
also shown.
Like the Performance pane, the information shown in the Reliability pane is
dynamic, changing as the conditions on your disks change.
Diskeeper Operation
29
The Fragmentation Pane
The Fragmentation pane shows useful information about your disk volume after
either analysis or defragmentation. Note that most of the information shown in the
Fragmentation pane can also be recorded in the Diskeeper Event Log. For more
information, see Logging Diskeeper Activity on page 57.
The Fragmentation pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The
disk highlighted in the disk volume pane is the disk shown in the Fragmentation
pane.
Here is an example of the Fragmentation pane after analyzing a disk volume:
The Fragmentation pane shows this information:
Volume Section
Volume Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of
space on the disk volume. This includes files and free space, as well as disk space
used by the operating system (such as directory files and the Master File Table) but
not reported in “Used Space.”
Cluster Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the cluster size for
the volume. A disk cluster represents a number of disk sectors treated as a single
unit. The entire disk is divided into clusters, each one a minimum increment of
storage.
30
Diskeeper Operation
Used Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of
disk space (in kilobytes) currently occupied by files. This does not include zerolength files, or certain files used by the operating system, such as directory files and
the Master File Table.
Free Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of
free space on the disk volume.
Percent Free Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of
space on the disk volume that is free. This includes the free space in the area
reserved for the Master File Table (MFT) on NTFS volumes.
Fragmentation Percentage Section
Volume Fragmentation
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the overall
percentage of fragmentation on the disk volume.
The Volume fragmentation figure gives you an overall view of the fragmentation on
your volume, by taking both the file fragmentation level and the free space
fragmentation level into account. These two values are weighted depending on the
ratio of free space to used space on the disk. The formula is:
Fragmented space on the volume * 100 / Total space on the volume
Where Fragmented space on the volume is the summed cluster count of all
fragmented files times the bytes per clusters.
Data Fragmentation
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of
file fragmentation on the disk volume.
Data fragmentation is calculated like this:
Volume Fragmentation * Total Space on the Volume / Used Space on the
volume
Note: The calculations are for both Data fragmentation and Volume fragmentation
are done based on the uncompressed size of the files. If a volume has a large number
of fragmented compressed files, these values can exceed 100%. This is similar to
looking at files in Windows Explorer—if a large number of files are compressed, the
total size of the data can exceed the volume size. This is why you can compare the
Diskeeper Operation
31
volume size in Disk Management to the total number of bytes on a volume, and
they don’t “add up”.
File Fragmentation Section
Total Files
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of
files on the disk volume. This number does not include zero-length files or (in most
cases) files less than one cluster in size on NTFS volumes. Files less than one cluster
in size may be included, depending on the file size and the cluster size.
Average File Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the average size of
all the files on the disk volume. This number does not include any zero-length files
or paging files.
Total Fragmented Files
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of
fragmented files on the disk volume.
Total Excess Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of
file fragments on the disk volume. Contiguous files are not counted in this total, but
each additional piece of any fragmented file is counted.
Average Fragments per File
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the average number
of fragments per file on the disk volume. This is a good index of how fragmented the
files on the volume are.
If the average fragment per file figure is 1.00, the files are contiguous. If the figure is
1.10, then 10% of the files, on average, are in two pieces. 1.20 means 20%, 1.30
means 30%, etc. A figure of 2.00 means the files average two fragments each. 1.00
is the best figure attainable, indicating that all files or nearly all files are contiguous.
Paging File Fragmentation Section
Paging/Swap File Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the size of the
paging file (or swap file on Windows 95/98/Me systems) on the disk volume. This
section displays zero when no paging file is present.
32
Diskeeper Operation
Total Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of
fragments the paging file is broken into (if it exists on the disk volume).
Directory Fragmentation Section
Total Directories
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of
directories present on the disk volume.
Fragmented Directories
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of
fragmented directories on the disk volume.
Excess Directory Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of
directory fragments on the disk volume. Contiguous directories are not counted in
this total, but each additional piece of any fragmented directory is counted.
Master File Table (MFT) Fragmentation
Section
Total MFT Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the size of the
Master File Table (MFT).
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed for FAT
volumes in the text analysis display, and shows as zeros in the event log.
MFT Record Count
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of
individual file records found in the Master File Table (MFT). This figure will not
necessarily correspond with the number of files presently on the volume, since the
file records remain in the MFT, even after a file is deleted.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT
volumes.
Percent of MFT In Use
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of
the Master File Table (MFT) in use.
Diskeeper Operation
33
The MFT grows as the number of files on the volume increases, but is not reduced
in size when files are deleted from the volume.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT
volumes.
Total MFT Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of
fragments the Master File Table (MFT) is broken into.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT
volumes.
Most Fragmented Files
Click the …most fragmented files link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to
show a list of the most fragmented files on the disk volume. For each fragmented file
listed, this option shows:
Fragments
Shows the number of fragments associated with the most fragmented files on your
disk volume.
File Size
Shows the size of the most fragmented files on your disk volume.
File Name
Shows the names of the most fragmented files on your volume.
If these files are ones that users access frequently, the impact to your system
performance may be worse than indicated by the Average Fragments per File figure.
In addition to the names of the most fragmented files, the Most Fragmented Files
report also shows information explaining reasons why certain files were not moved
or defragmented. The following “tags” may be added to specific filenames in the
Most Fragmented Files listing:
34
Diskeeper Operation
Tag
Displayed
After
File
System
Description
[Cannot Open]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file cannot be opened (and
thus moved) by Diskeeper. This is
often the result of the access
controls (permissions) on the file
being set to prevent Diskeeper
from accessing it. File
permissions must allow SYSTEM
to have full control of a file in
order for Diskeeper to defragment
it.
[Excluded]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file is listed on one of the
Diskeeper exclusion lists. This
can be either the user-specified
exclusion list or the internal
exclusion list.
[Excess
Allocation]
Analysis and
Defragmentation
NTFS
Only
With the NTFS file system, a file
can be allocated more clusters
than its data is actually using. On
Windows NT 4 and Windows
2000, only the data portion of the
allocation can be defragmented.
As a result, even though a file is
reported as fragmented, the data
portion of the file may in fact be
contiguous. This most commonly
occurs with registry files and
(under Windows 2000) files that
have been decompressed. In some
cases, files of this type can be
defragmented after a system
restart
[Partially
Defragmented]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file has been partially
defragmented. Its fragments have
been reduced in number, but the
file is not yet contiguous.
Diskeeper Operation
35
Saving a Fragmentation Report
Click the Save report link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to save the
fragmentation report to a text file. When you click the link, a dialog box is displayed
allowing you to specify the name of the report and the location where you want to
store it.
The saved report shows all the information available from the Fragmentation pane.
Printing a Fragmentation Report
Click the Print report link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to print the
fragmentation report. When you click the link, a dialog box is displayed allowing
you to specify the printer on which you want to print the report.
The printed report shows all the information available from the Fragmentation pane.
Drive Map Pane
The Drive Map pane gives an overall view of the fragmentation on your disk
volume. See below for an example of a typical Drive Map pane display. (This
example shows a moderately fragmented volume).
The Drive Map pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The
disk highlighted in the disk volume pane is the disk reflected in the Drive Map pane.
What the Colors Mean
The group of horizontal bars in the Drive Map pane gives a graphic representation of
the fragmentation of your disk volume. The colors of the display indicate the type
and condition of the data on your volume.
Diskeeper Operation
36
ƒ
Green areas show unmovable system files. On Windows XP systems, green
areas particularly show the Master File Table (MFT), but also several other
unmovable files. These files cannot be moved safely by Diskeeper (or any other
defragmenter), except at boot-time.2 Keep in mind, however, although these
area are referred to as “system files”, these are not the files that make up the
operating system (which Diskeeper can successfully defragment online).
Instead, they make up the NTFS file system. The green areas of the display
appear only on NTFS volumes.
ƒ
Green-striped areas (on Windows XP systems only) show space on the volume
reserved for expansion of the MFT. This space is reserved when a volume is
formatted, and cannot be used by applications, including Diskeeper. However,
the operating system will write files to this area when the volume becomes
extremely full and no other free space is available. Windows provides the
capability for Diskeeper to move files out of this reserved area, but does not
allow Diskeeper to move files into it. These areas appear only on NTFS
volumes.
ƒ
Yellow areas show the paging file (for Windows XP) or the swap file (for
Windows 95/98/Me) if it exists on the volume.
ƒ
Light blue areas show the directory folders on the volume (and their fragments).
ƒ
Red areas show fragmented files.
ƒ
Dark blue areas show contiguous (non-fragmented) files.
ƒ
White areas show free space on the volume.
Set It and Forget It Pane
The “Set It and Forget It” feature allows Diskeeper to run automatically in the
background while users and other processes are active on the system. The Set It and
Forget It pane shows the details about any schedules you have set, and it’s where
you set custom defragmentation schedules for your disk volumes.
A defragmentation schedule specifies the times or days of the week that Diskeeper
will (or will not) be allowed to run. You can specify separate defragmentation
schedules for individual disk volumes, or you can create a single schedule for more
than one volume.
Click the Set It and Forget It option in the Command pane to pick from one of
several commonly-used schedules, or to create a custom schedule of times when “Set
2
Note that boot-time defragmentation is not available in Diskeeper Home Edition. See
Appendix A for a list of the different Diskeeper editions and the features they support.
Diskeeper Operation
It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs will be forced to run (or times they will not
be allowed to run). When you click the Set It and Forget It option, the Set It and
Forget It pane is displayed.
Schedules only affect “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs. Any active
defragmentation job previously started on a disk volume will complete. After it
completes, the new schedule takes effect.
When you use the Set It and Forget It pane, always select one or more volumes in
the disk volume pane before clicking any of the other Set It and Forget It controls.
You can select more than one volume by holding the CTRL key while clicking on
the volumes listed in the disk volume pane.
Here is an example of the Set It and Forget It pane you first start Diskeeper:
37
38
Diskeeper Operation
And here’s an example after choosing the Set a custom schedule option from the
Set It and Forget It menu:
Setting a custom schedule for one or more disks is easy. Here are the basic steps
after clicking Set It and Forget It in the Command pane and selecting Set a custom
schedule:
1. Select the
disk(s) to
schedule
2. Select the type
of schedule
3. Select which
days to run
4. Select the
starting time
5. Select the
ending time
6. Click the Set
Schedule button
Diskeeper Operation
39
The following controls are available in the Set It and Forget It pane:
Select type of schedule
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify how often Diskeeper
should run on the selected disk volumes. You can specify any of these run
frequencies:
One Time
Continuously
Every 2 hours
Every 4 hours
Every 8 hours
Every 12 hours
Every 24 hours
Every 48 hours
Every 72 hours
Smart Scheduling (see the description of Smart
Scheduling later in this chapter)
Screen Saver (see the description of Screen Saver
mode later in this chapter)
Select which days to run
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify days the Diskeeper job
will (or will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of
these time periods to control when Diskeeper is allowed to run:
Everyday
Except Everyday
Weekends
Except Weekends
Weekdays
Except Weekdays
Mondays
Except Mondays
Tuesdays
Except Tuesdays
Wednesdays
Except Wednesdays
Thursdays
Except Thursdays
40
Diskeeper Operation
Fridays
Except Fridays
Saturdays
Except Saturdays
Sundays
Except Sundays
Select a starting time
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify the beginning of a time
period the Diskeeper job will (or will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes.
You can specify any of these time periods to specify the beginning of a Diskeeper
schedule period:
All Day
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
Select an ending time
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify the end of a time period
the Diskeeper job will (or will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You
can specify any of these time periods to specify the end of a time period Diskeeper
will (or will not) be allowed to run:
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
Set Schedule
Click Set Schedule to accept the specified run schedule for the selected volumes.
You must click Set Schedule for each schedule you specify.
Any defragmentation job previously started on a volume will complete the current
run through the volume before the new schedule takes effect.
Clear Schedule
Click Clear Schedule to clear the currently active Set It and Forget It
defragmentation schedule on the selected volumes. If Diskeeper is in the process of
defragmenting a volume at the time the Clear Schedule button is clicked, it will run
to completion.
Smart Scheduling
With Smart Scheduling, you no longer have to decide how often to defragment your
disks—Diskeeper will automatically determine the optimum defragmentation
schedule for each of your disk volumes and adjust it accordingly. (Diskeeper Home
Edition automatically sets up Smart Scheduling for all your disk drives when it is
installed.)
Diskeeper Operation
41
The method used to determine how often Diskeeper should run is elegant in its
simplicity. When Smart Scheduling is enabled, Diskeeper keeps track of the number
of files moved every time it runs on each disk volume. When the number of
fragmented files moved during a defragmentation run increases, Diskeeper is
automatically scheduled to run more often. When the number of files moved
decreases, the time between defragmentation runs is increased.
The Smart Scheduling option is available within the Select type of schedule dropdown list in the Set It and Forget It pane.
You can also set exclusion times when the Smart Scheduling option will be
prevented from scheduling a defragmentation run. When Smart Scheduling is
selected, the Select which days to run drop-down option list will be limited to these
times:
Except Everyday
Except Weekends
Except Weekdays
Except Monday
Except Tuesday
Except Wednesday
Except Thursday
Except Friday
Except Saturday
Except Sunday
You can use the “starting” and “ending” time drop down lists to further define times
when the scheduling of automatic defragmentation runs will not be allowed. For
example, a schedule set like this:
Type of Schedule
Which Days
Smart Scheduling
Except Weekdays
Starting Time
Ending Time
1:00 am
3:00 am
will allow Diskeeper to automatically determine how often to run, but will also
prevent it from running between 1:00 am and 3:00 am on weekdays (i.e., when your
nightly backup is running).
42
Diskeeper Operation
Here’s another example, showing a Smart Schedule that will run everyday, but
only between the hours of 7:00 pm and 7:00 am:
Type of Schedule
Which Days
Smart Scheduling
everyday
Starting Time
Ending Time
7:00 pm
7:00 am
Tip: The Set It and Forget It option on the Command pane includes several
commonly-used defragmentation schedules, pre-configured and ready to use. See
page 44 for more information about the Set It and Forget It option in the Command
pane.
Screen Saver Mode
When enabled, Screen Saver mode automatically starts defragmenting the selected
disk volume(s) any time the screen saver starts on your computer. The
defragmentation operation is paused whenever keyboard or mouse activity is
detected on the computer. This option is available under the Select type of schedule
drop-down list in the Set It and Forget It pane. Note that you must have a screen
saver enabled for this option to function.
If you only have a single disk volume selected for Screen Saver mode, the
defragmentation operation is re-started at the logical "beginning" of the volume each
time the screen saver re-starts after being interrupted (by keyboard activity, for
example).
When more than one disk volume is selected for Screen Saver mode, the volumes
are handled in a round-robin manner. If a defragmentation pass is stopped, the
operation resumes on the next volume when the screen saver starts again. For
example, if you select volumes C and D for Screen Saver mode, when your screen
saver starts, Diskeeper begins a defragmentation pass on volume C. If that pass is
interrupted, and then the screen saver starts again, Diskeeper will begin a pass on
volume D.
If the screen saver has not been interrupted after Diskeeper completes the
defragmentation pass on each of the selected disk volumes, Diskeeper is
automatically scheduled to re-start the defragmentation operation in one hour.
Because of the "start and stop" nature of the Screen Saver mode, it is not
recommended on disk volumes that are heavily fragmented, unless you expect the
Diskeeper Operation
43
computer's screen saver to be on for several hours. In cases where your screen
saver activity is only for short periods of time, a thorough manual defragmentation
or scheduled Set It and Forget It defragmentation should be performed before
running Diskeeper in Screen Saver mode.
Command Pane
The Command pane is where you’ll find easy access to the commonly-used
Diskeeper features, as well as several shortcuts for performing common tasks.
Command
Pane
The Command pane is made up of these parts:
ƒ
Set It and Forget It Menu—Gives you several pre-configured defragmentation
schedules with just a few mouse clicks, or gives you the option to create your
own custom schedules
ƒ
Analyze Selected Drive—Start the analysis of the drive selected in the disk
volume pane
ƒ
Defragment Selected Drive—Start the manual defragmentation of the drive
selected in the disk volume pane
ƒ
Change Your Settings Menu—Change Diskeeper settings
Diskeeper Operation
44
ƒ
Help Menu—Get help about using Diskeeper
Set It and Forget It Menu
Click the Set It and Forget It menu in the Command pane to expand it and reveal
the different options available. Here’s an example:
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Set Smart Schedule
Use this option to quickly set a Smart Schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk
volume pane. A Smart Schedule lets Diskeeper automatically determine when it
should run on each disk. See page 44 for more information about Smart Scheduling.
Set Smart Schedule after hours
Similar to the Smart Scheduling option above, this option also quickly sets a Smart
Schedule for any selected disk(s). However, this specialized schedule will only run
after normal office hours. When set, this schedule will only allow defragmentation to
run between 10:00 pm and 4:00 am. Keep in mind though, since this is a Smart
Schedule, Diskeeper will only run as often as necessary to keep fragmentation
minimized on the chosen disks.
Set to run every night
Use this option to quickly set a schedule that runs every 2 hours, but only between
the hours of 10:00 pm and 4:00 am, for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane.
Set to run on weekends only
Diskeeper Operation
45
Use this option to quickly set a Smart Schedule, which runs only on Saturday and
Sunday, for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane.
Set Screen Saver mode
Use this option to quickly set defragmentation to run only when the screen saver is
active on your computer. Like the other options in the Set It and Forget It menu,
when clicked, this option is set for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane. See
page 42 for more information about Screen Saver mode.
Set a custom schedule
Use this option to set a custom schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume
pane. You can set the days and times when Diskeeper will (or will not) be allowed to
run. See page 36 for more information about creating a custom schedule.
Clear a Schedule
Use this option to clear a previously-set schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk
volume pane. This option removes any schedule set for the selected volume(s), but
any ongoing defragmentation jobs will continue until completion.
If you need to stop (but not clear) a scheduled defragmentation job when it is
running, simply highlight the volume in the disk volume pane and click the Stop
button in the toolbar.
46
Diskeeper Operation
Analyze Selected Drive
This option on the Command pane is self-explanatory—select a disk in the disk
volume pane, then click Analyze selected drive, then Start in the Command pane to
see the extent of fragmentation on the disk. After the analysis is complete, click the
different tab controls in the Information pane to see the condition of the disk.
Select a disk volume . . .
. . . click here to
open the menu . . .
. . . and click Start.
Tip: You can also use the Analyze button
selected disk.
to start the analysis of the
When you are analyzing a disk, the Command pane displays options to Pause,
Resume or Stop the analysis. You can also perform these functions with the
equivalent toolbar buttons.
Diskeeper Operation
47
Defragment Selected Drive
This option on the Command pane is also self-explanatory—select a disk in the disk
volume pane, then click Defragment selected drive in the Command pane to run a
manual defragmentation job on the disk. After the defragmentation is complete, click
the different tab controls in the Information pane to review the condition of the disk.
Select a disk volume . . .
. . . click here to
open the menu . . .
. . . and click Start.
Tip: You can also use the Defragment button
selected volume.
to start defragmenting the
When you are defragmenting a disk, the Command pane displays options to Pause,
Resume or Stop the defragmentation. You can also perform these functions with the
equivalent toolbar buttons.
Change Your Settings Menu
Click the Change your settings menu in the Command pane to expand it and reveal
the different options available.
48
Diskeeper Operation
Here’s an example:
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Exclude selected files and subfolders
Diskeeper allows you to specify files and directory folders that you do not want
moved. Click this option in the Change your settings menu to create or modify an
exclusion list.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information about
exclusion lists, see Setting an Exclusion List on page 53.
Set event logging options
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file. Click this
option in the Change your settings menu to alternately enable or disable the logging
of various events to the Diskeeper Event Log. The logging method varies, depending
on the version of Windows you are using.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information, see
Logging Diskeeper Activity on page 56.
Set power management options
This option is intended for users of laptop or portable computers. When enabled, this
option prevents Diskeeper from running when the computer switches to battery
power. Click this option in the Change your settings menu to enable or disable this
option.
This option is also available in the Action menu. For more information, see Using
Power Management on page 56.
Diskeeper Operation
49
Set performance data options
Use this option to enable or disable the scanning your disk drives to gather disk
performance data. When enabled, the scan runs one time on each disk volume
detected, and runs any time a new disk volume detected on your computer. This
option is disabled by default.
Diskeeper uses the data gathered during the performance data scan to measure the
performance of each of your disk drives. It uses this information to determine how
much performance you are losing due to fragmentation, and shows the results in the
Performance pane when you run an analysis or defragmentation.
Allowing this scan to take place improves the accuracy of the performance data
displayed by Diskeeper after the analysis or defragmentation of a disk. When this
option is disabled, Diskeeper uses default disk performance values when calculating
your performance loss due to fragmentation.
This performance scan may take as much as 1 to 10 minutes per volume to perform
an accurate scan and may temporarily slow down your computer, but only while the
scan is running.
Help Menu
Click the Help menu in the Command pane to expand it and see the different options
available. Here’s an example:
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Help Topics
Click this option to open the main Diskeeper Help system. The Diskeeper Help
provides quick access to useful information about Diskeeper.
About Diskeeper
50
Diskeeper Operation
Click this option to see information about the specific version and build number of
the Diskeeper version installed on your computer.
View Readme
Click this option to read the Diskeeper Readme.txt file. This file contains the most
current information about the version of Diskeeper installed on your computer, and
gives information that may not be included in the other published documentation.
The Diskeeper Readme file contains late-breaking information that could not be
included in other published documentation like this manual or the Diskeeper Help
system.
Diskeeper FAQs
Click this option to see to a list of Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs) about
Diskeeper, and the answers to them.
Check for update
Click this option to check for a more recent version of Diskeeper. If a newer version
of Diskeeper is available, you are given the option of downloading it. When the
download screen is displayed, click Run this program from its current location to
begin installing the update.
Otherwise, click Save this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update
installation package on your computer for later installation. (To install an update
stored on your computer in this manner, simply double-click the file you download
and follow the instructions displayed.)
Disk Volume Pane
The disk volume pane section of the Diskeeper display shows all the supported disks
detected on your computer.
The disk volume pane is a quick way to see:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Volume letter and name
Session status (shows what Diskeeper is doing or has done on the volume)
File system on the volume
Capacity of the volume
Diskeeper Operation
ƒ
ƒ
Free space available on the volume
Percentage of volume size that is free space
51
52
Diskeeper Operation
When you are viewing the Set It and Forget It pane, the columns in the disk
volume pane change to shows different information:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Volume letter and name
Next scheduled defragmentation
Schedule type
Days
Starting time
Ending time
Toolbar Buttons
By default, Diskeeper displays a toolbar of commonly-used controls above the disk
volume pane. (The toolbar and other display components can be hidden by using the
Customize option in the View menu.)
Note: Many of the functions described in this section can also be activated from the
menu that appears when you right-click on a selected disk volume in the disk volume
pane.
Analyze Button
Click Analyze
in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Analyze selected drive option in
the Command pane or on the Action menu to begin the analysis of the selected disk
volume.
Defragment Button
Click Defragment
in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Defragment selected drive
option in the Command pane or the Action menu to start the manual defragmentation
of the selected volume.
Diskeeper Operation
53
Pause Button
Click Pause
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Pause option in the Action menu
to temporarily pause a fragmentation analysis or the manual defragmentation of the
selected volume.
Resume Button
Click Resume
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Resume option in the Action
menu to continue a paused Diskeeper analysis or defragmentation operation.
Stop Button
Click Stop
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Stop option in the Action menu to
stop a fragmentation analysis or the manual defragmentation of the selected volume.
Any file movement in progress will be safely ended as Diskeeper stops.
Help Button
Click Help
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Help option in the Action menu to
access the Diskeeper Help system.
Setting an Exclusion List
Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories that will not be
allowed to be processed by Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or manual
defragmentation modes. For example, you might not want to defragment temporary
files that will soon be deleted.
Keep in mind that fragmented files that are excluded from defragmentation can
“skew” the analysis results displayed in the Performance and Reliability panes.
Choose the Exclude selected files and folders option from the Change your
settings menu in the Command pane to open the Exclude dialog box shown below:
(This option is also available from the Action menu.)
54
Diskeeper Operation
Note: Wildcard file specifications such as * or ? are allowed.
The following controls are available in the Exclude dialog box:
Files
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose specific files (by name) to be
excluded from defragmentation. Highlight the file(s) to be excluded, and then click
Add Files to add the file to the exclusion list.
Diskeeper Operation
55
Path
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose specific directories to be
excluded from defragmentation.
Select a directory by highlighting it, and then click Add Folder to add the directory
to the exclusion list.
When a directory folder is added to the exclusion list, any subdirectories below the
directory in the tree are also excluded.
Volumes
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose the disk volume from which
you want to exclude files or directories from defragmentation.
Add Files Button
Click Add Files to add the selected file(s) to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Add Folder Button
Click Add Folder to add the selected directory path to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Exclusion List Box
This box shows the files, directories, and volumes that will be excluded from
defragmentation.
Remove Button
Click Remove to remove specific files, directories, or volumes from the Diskeeper
exclusion list. To remove one or more items from the list, highlight the items in the
Exclusion List Box and click Remove.
Save Button
Click Save to save the exclusion list and return to Diskeeper.
Cancel Button
Click Cancel to cancel any changes you have made to the Diskeeper exclusion list
and return to the main Diskeeper display.
Help Button
Click Help for context-sensitive help about the Diskeeper file exclusion list option.
Diskeeper Internal Exclusion List
There are certain files that should not be moved under any circumstances. These files
may be system files or files related to specific applications. Moving these specific
56
Diskeeper Operation
files can cause system or application failure. As a result, Diskeeper uses an
“internal” exclusion list to ensure these files are always excluded from Diskeeper
processing. This list is fixed in memory and cannot be modified. These are the files
that are currently in the Diskeeper internal exclusion list:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
bootsect.dos
hiberfil.sys
memory.dmp
safeboot.fs
safeboot.csv
ƒ
safeboot.rsv
Note that these files are not displayed in the Diskeeper user-defined exclusion list.
See Diskeeper won't move some files no matter what I do. Is there a problem with
Diskeeper? on page 71 for more information about the Diskeeper internal exclusion
list.
Using Power Management
The Power Management option is intended for users of laptop or portable computers.
Use the Power management option in the Change your settings menu to enable or
disable this feature. (This option is also available from the Action menu.)
When this option is enabled and the computer is running on battery power, any
scheduled defragmentation jobs are postponed, and a message noting this is written
to the Windows Application Event Log. If you manually start a defragmentation job
when this option is enabled (and the computer is running on battery power), a
message is displayed asking if you want to continue, even though running Diskeeper
on battery power may reduce the available battery time.
Diskeeper Operation
57
When this option is enabled and the computer switches from normal power to
battery power, any ongoing scheduled analysis or defragmentation jobs are safely
stopped and a message noting this is written to the Windows Application Event Log.
If you are running Diskeeper manually and the computer switches to battery power
when this option is enabled, a message is displayed informing you that Diskeeper
has stopped running.
Logging Diskeeper Activity
Use the Set event logging options option from the Change your settings menu in
the Command pane to open the Event Logging dialog box. (This option is also
available from the Action menu.) Use this option to enable and disable the logging
of various Diskeeper events to the Windows Application Event Log.
Windows XP Event Log
When Diskeeper is running on Windows XP, a log of Diskeeper activity is stored in
the Application Event Log file.
When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the
Windows Application Event Log file, along with the date, time, user, and other
identifying information.
These events can then be viewed with the Windows Event Viewer by choosing the
Application option in the Log menu of the Event Viewer. This can be done on
either local computers or remote computers on your network. The Event Viewer is
found in the Computer Management Console on Windows XP.
By default, the Application Event Log is 512 kilobytes in size and is set to overwrite
events older than 7 days. Diskeeper may quickly fill the log file if these default
settings are used. To make this log a more useful size, perform the steps described in
“The Windows Application Event Log,” page 7.
Windows 95/98/Me Event Log
When Diskeeper is running on Windows 95/98/Me systems, it provides the option of
logging Diskeeper events into a text file. When Diskeeper logs an event, the event
and its message are appended to the Diskeeper log file. These events are written as a
text file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor
programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored by default in the
directory folder where Diskeeper is installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size.
When it reaches this size, the log is purged completely and the event log is started
from scratch.
58
Diskeeper Operation
Specifying What Gets Logged
Use the Set event logging options option from the Change your settings menu in
the Command pane to open the Event Logging dialog box. (This option is also
available from the Action menu.)
The Event Logging dialog box displays a list of events for which logging can be
enabled or disabled. Click the check boxes for the following options to alternately
enable or disable each option.
Service start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time the
Diskeeper service starts or stops. This option is enabled by default.
Defragmentation start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log whenever a
defragmentation run starts or stops. The Event Log entry for this option also includes
information about files that cannot be moved, either because the files are on a
Diskeeper exclusion list, or the files cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a
file from being opened include access controls or permissions on the file being set to
prevent Diskeeper from accessing it. File permissions must allow SYSTEM to have
full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it. See page 74 for more
information about setting access permissions.
Diskeeper Operation
59
This option is enabled by default.
Defragmented files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log listing each file that
is defragmented by Diskeeper. Note that enabling this option can cause the Event
Log to fill rather quickly, especially if Diskeeper defragments a high number of
fragmented files. (This will be particularly likely when Diskeeper is first run on a
volume, since Diskeeper will probably be defragmenting a large number of files.)
This option is not enabled by default.
Moved files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time a file is
moved for reasons other than to defragment the file. This would include cases where
files are moved in order to create more contiguous free space. This option also notes
when files could not be moved, such as files that are on a Diskeeper exclusion list or
files that cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a file from being opened
include access controls or permissions on the file being set to prevent Diskeeper
from accessing it. As mentioned previously, file permissions must allow SYSTEM to
have full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it. See page 74 for
more information about setting access permissions.
Here again, enabling this option can cause the Event Log to fill quickly. This option
is not enabled by default.
60
Diskeeper Operation
Disk information
On Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Application
Event Log at the end of each defragmentation run showing general information
about the disk volume that was defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event
Viewer as Diskeeper Event 15. When you double-click Diskeeper Event 15 in the
Event Viewer, information similar to this example is displayed. This option is not
enabled by default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the
Diskeeper EventLog.txt file containing the information shown in the example above.
This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 29.
Diskeeper Operation
61
File information
On Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at
the end of each defragmentation run showing information about the files on the disk
volume that was defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as
Diskeeper Event 16. When you double-click Diskeeper Event 16 in the Event
Viewer, information similar to this example is displayed. This option is not enabled
by default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the
Diskeeper EventLog.txt file containing the information shown in the example above.
This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 29.
62
Diskeeper Operation
Paging File information
On Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at
the end of each defragmentation run showing information about the paging file on
the volume that was defragmented (if it exists on the volume). This appears in the
Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 17. When you double-click Diskeeper
Event 17 in the Event Viewer, information similar to this example is displayed. This
option is not enabled by default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the
Diskeeper EventLog.txt file containing the information shown in the example above.
This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 29.
Diskeeper Operation
63
Directory information
On Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at
the end of each defragmentation run showing information about the directories on
the volume that was defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as
Diskeeper Event 18. When you double-click Diskeeper Event 18 in the Event
Viewer, information similar to this example is displayed. This option is not enabled
by default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the
Diskeeper EventLog.txt file containing the information shown in the example above.
This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 29.
64
Diskeeper Operation
MFT information
On Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at
the end of each defragmentation run showing information about the Master File
Table (MFT) on the volume that was defragmented. (Keep in mind, since only NTFS
volumes have an MFT, this information will only apply to NTFS volumes.) The
entry appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 19. When you
double-click Diskeeper Event 19 in the Event Viewer, information similar to this
example is displayed. This option is not enabled by default.
This option does not exist on Windows 95/98/Me machines, as MFT files are unique
to Windows NT through Windows Server 2003.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 29.
Theory of Operation
65
Chapter 5
Theory of Operation
This chapter describes the Diskeeper design goals and how those goals were met.
Introduction
As described in the introduction of this manual, the term disk fragmentation means
two things:
ƒ
a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk are not contiguous, but
rather are broken up and scattered around the disk volume; and
ƒ
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of
space here and there rather than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
ƒ
file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there,
requiring several disk accesses instead of just one; and
ƒ
file creation takes longer because space for the file must be allocated in little
pieces here and there instead of just one contiguous allocation.
Before the introduction of Diskeeper, there was no method for completely correcting
the problems of file and free space fragmentation on Windows NT computers or in a
mixed Windows network.
Design Goals
In designing Diskeeper for Windows, the following goals were established:
ƒ
The product must be completely safe to use.
ƒ
It must improve Windows system performance. It is not designed to make the
disk look “pretty”—it is designed to improve disk performance and, as a result,
overall system performance.
ƒ
It should process live disks without interfering with user access to files.
ƒ
It should run without operator intervention.
Theory of Operation
66
ƒ
It must defragment all possible files and consolidate free space into the
smallest possible number of large spaces.
Diskeeper defragments files and free space on a disk, allowing access to the files on
the disk at any time while Diskeeper is running.
Safety
Diskeeper is designed with safety as the highest priority.
To ensure the safe movement of files on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows
XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems, Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into the
operating system that were developed and implemented by Executive Software, and
fully incorporated into Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows
Server 2003 by Microsoft. On Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me
systems, Diskeeper uses similar mechanisms used by Microsoft and others.
By using these built-in mechanisms, Diskeeper maintains cache coherency, file
security and permissions information, and file content integrity no matter how
fragmented the files on the disk are.
The foremost design goal for Diskeeper is to make sure that no data is ever lost. To
accomplish this goal Diskeeper uses the following criteria for accessing files:
ƒ
the contents of data files are never modified under any circumstances
ƒ
only one file is processed at a time, not the whole disk
ƒ
each processing pass is independent of the other passes
ƒ
no information is stored on any other device or in a “scratch space”
ƒ
Diskeeper accesses a file in such a way that no user access can conflict with
Diskeeper during the critical portion of the relocation process
ƒ
file relocation is aborted if any error is encountered, leaving the file in its
original state
Diskeeper was designed to err on the side of caution. In other words, it only moves a
file on the volume when it is absolutely certain that no data will be lost, including
file attributes. The only change to file attribute-type information is the physical
location of the file on the volume. None of the file dates are changed and no other
fields in the file record header are used to store Diskeeper information.
Diskeeper never defragments or moves files that are specifically stored at a specific
physical location on the volume.
If anything causes your computer to crash while Diskeeper is running, or if you
abort the Diskeeper defragmentation run in the middle of the file relocation process,
no data is ever at risk.
Theory of Operation
67
Windows 95/98/Me Note: Stopping or pausing a Diskeeper job through its menus
or toolbars is completely safe. Note, however, that in the event of a system crash or
other non-standard termination of the Diskeeper process while it is running, it is
possible for free space and file information to be stored incorrectly. Executive
Software strongly recommends running the Windows Scandisk error checking utility
immediately when Diskeeper is stopped abnormally. Scandisk will correct any
potential file errors.
Performance
When running in the “Set It and Forget It” mode, Diskeeper is designed to run in the
background, without adversely affecting performance of your Windows computer.
Steps have been taken to assure that, by default, Diskeeper overhead has the lowest
possible impact on system performance. Diskeeper can be run at the lowest possible
Windows priority, using only otherwise unused CPU cycles. Diskeeper was
designed in such a way to ensure it will not interfere with other processes on your
Windows computer.
Process Live Disks
It is not acceptable to force users off the disk while performing routine
defragmentation. To do so would be a case of the cure being worse than the disease.
Access to fragmented files is better than no access at all.
The best solution is to defragment online with users active on the same disk volume.
Diskeeper was designed with this in mind. During most of the time Diskeeper is
processing a file, it shares the file with any other users that may access the same file.
The last step of processing the file, however, involves locking the file for a very
brief period, a matter of milliseconds. If another user requests a file that Diskeeper
has locked, that request is suspended for the brief period until Diskeeper releases the
file. Then the request is serviced. There is never an interruption of either process as a
result of this delay.
This solution allows Diskeeper to defragment open files safely, regardless of
whether they are open for read operations or for write operations.
No Operator Intervention
In keeping with the design goals, after Diskeeper has been started in the “Set It and
Forget It” mode, it runs automatically in the background, without the need for
operator intervention. It runs indefinitely, unless told otherwise by you.
Diskeeper Editions
Appendix A
Table of Diskeeper Editions
The table below shows the different editions of Diskeeper available, as well as the
features and capabilities of each:
69
70
Diskeeper Editions
This table shows the different Diskeeper editions available and the Windows
operating systems they support:
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
71
Appendix B
Answers to Frequently Asked
Questions
Why won’t my volume defragment completely?
This can be the result of several situations. If your volume is extremely full, there
may not be sufficient free space to defragment the files completely. In that case, we
recommend temporarily moving some of the files off the volume, particularly large
files. This temporary measure often allows Diskeeper the “working room” it needs to
complete the defragmentation process. It also allows Diskeeper to defragment the
free space on the volume, increasing the possibility that the temporarily-moved files
can be moved back to the volume in a contiguous or less fragmented condition.
Another cause for incomplete defragmentation on Windows XP systems can be a
security access situation. Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must have full
control over a file (or the directory folder it is in) in order for Diskeeper to have
access to move the file. This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the
Administrator account, and System access is necessary to defragment files safely.
This security feature is governed by the Windows XP C2 security requirements.
Included with Diskeeper is a batch file that sets the access permissions on a disk
volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. See How do I set access permissions to
allow Diskeeper to defragment my files? on page 74 for information about using this
batch procedure.
Diskeeper won't move some files no matter what I do. Is
there a problem with Diskeeper?
Diskeeper has a built-in list of files that it will not move under any circumstances.
This list is referred to as the Diskeeper internal exclusion list.
The most common reason for a file existing on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list
is safety. The file cannot or should not be moved in order to maintain the integrity of
your system.
For example, the file memory.dmp is on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list. This
file is on the exclusion list because the disk locations where this file is stored are
loaded by the kernel when the system boots and stored in memory. These disk
locations are then used to write the dump file should it need writing. If Diskeeper
were to move this file, then the system failed, the dump file would be written over
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Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
other files or in space considered to be free space. This could result in a very
corrupted disk.
The same situation applies to hiberfil.sys. When your system goes into hibernation
mode, the pre-fetched disk locations are overwritten with the hibernation data. If
Diskeeper moved hiberfil.sys out and moved other files into those disk locations,
then disk corruption would occur.
Why doesn't Diskeeper move all of the files into one place
on the volume?
Our primary philosophy with Diskeeper is improving and maintaining the
performance of your computer. The disk drives are the primary bottleneck in your
computer's performance. Diskeeper restores the disks to top speed by eliminating
fragmentation.
It is a common misconception that a defragmented disk should look very neat and
tidy in the Drive Map pane, with solid blue bars all the way across the screen
(representing fragmentation-free files) and the rest white space (representing
consolidated space).
Clearly, the speed of the disk (meaning how fast you can access the data on it) is
more important than the prettiness of the display or the consolidation of all the free
space into one place. Free space consolidation might be important if the next file that
you plan to create needs to be one gigantic contiguous file, but it has no effect on
performance. Because of this, Diskeeper uses algorithms that achieve the highest
speed from your drive regardless of the arrangement of the free spaces on the drive
and on the screen—and it does so without wasting time on excessive consolidation
of free space. We simply go for the fastest possible file access times and then stop.
Even so, you might ask why we don't continue and rearrange the files further to get a
neat display? Because it takes computer power to do so. We long ago decided that it
would be wrong for Diskeeper to consume more of your computer's performance
than it gives back. So Diskeeper defragments until the disk is in top shape
performance-wise and then stops. Any further work is a waste of your computer
resources.
Now this might not be important to you if you like to sit and watch the display as
Diskeeper defragments your drive, but it is a very big deal to large corporate data
centers and people who depend on their computers for their work. They need all the
performance they can get and can't hold up production while the defragmenter works
to enhance the “look” of the disk but not improve its performance. This is why
Diskeeper is designed to run in the background at the lowest possible priority, giving
way to any other program that needs to run. And it is also why Diskeeper stops
defragmenting when maximum performance has been achieved.
Can Diskeeper move directories?
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
73
On Windows 95/98/Me computers, and NTFS volumes Windows XP systems,
Diskeeper Home Edition can safely move and defragment directories.
Can Diskeeper defragment paging files?
Diskeeper Home Edition does not defragment active paging files, since paging files
must be open for exclusive use by Windows at all times.
Can Diskeeper defragment the Master File Table?
The Master File Table (MFT) is the area on an NTFS disk volume where Windows
XP keeps the necessary information for retrieving files from the disk volume. The
MFT also contains information such as file creation, modification, and backup dates
and times. Diskeeper Home Edition can safely defragment this critical system file
while Windows is running.
Why doesn’t Diskeeper completely consolidate the free
space on my volume?
Several factors can prevent the free space on a volume from being defragmented.
On NTFS volumes, a portion of the free space on the volume is reserved by
Windows for the Master File Table (MFT). For more information, see Why don’t my
files get moved to the beginning of the volume? on page 73.
Having all of the free space in a single, contiguous piece provides very little (if any)
performance benefit. Free space fragmented into hundreds of pieces will affect disk
performance, but free space that’s in a few pieces should not have any effect on the
performance of your volume.
Why don’t my files get moved to the beginning of the
volume?
On NTFS volumes, Windows XP reserves a portion of the free space on a disk
volume for the Master File Table (MFT). This free space is usually most noticeable
at the physical “beginning” of the volume (easily seen using Drive Map pane), but
space is also reserved for use by the MFT in other areas of the volume.
Since this space is reserved for exclusive use, Diskeeper will not move files into
these areas of the volume, but will move them out of these areas.
Why don't all of my NTFS volumes appear in the Diskeeper
Volume List?
Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must have full control over a file (or the
directory folder it is in) in order for Diskeeper to have access to move the file. This
is because the Diskeeper service runs under the Administrator account, and System
access is necessary to defragment files safely. This is a security feature governed by
the Windows XP C2 security requirements.
74
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
If the root-level directory folder does not have SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR
set for full control (as seen in the Permissions section under the Security tab in the
Properties dialog box) Diskeeper will not display the disk volume in the Volume list
under some circumstances.
How do I determine how often to run Diskeeper on my
volume?
This depends on many factors, including the level of file activity, the sizes and types
of files used, and the amount of free space available on the volume. While there are
no set rules on how often to defragment your disk volumes, here are some
guidelines.
ƒ
Of course, the first suggestion is to let the Diskeeper Smart Scheduling feature
automatically and dynamically determine the optimum run frequency for your
particular disk volumes. Smart Scheduling monitors the fragmentation levels of
your volumes and adjusts the defragmentation schedule to best fit your needs,
even as those needs change. See Smart Scheduling on page 40.
ƒ
Disk volumes on busy file servers should be defragmented more often than
those on single-user workstations. You may need to run Diskeeper on a server
volume as often as every two to four hours to maintain optimum system
performance, while on a workstation, you may only need to run Diskeeper once
a day or less. As a general rule, the busier the disk—the more often it will need
to be defragmented.
ƒ
To determine how often to run Diskeeper on your disk volumes, you can use the
logging function of Diskeeper to monitor the number of files moved during each
Diskeeper run. For information about how files that are moved by Diskeeper are
logged, see Logging Diskeeper Activity on page 57. In general, if Diskeeper
moves fewer than 50 files per run, you are running Diskeeper frequently enough
to maintain the performance of your Windows system at an optimum level. If
the number of files moved during each run is greater, or is increasing, schedule
Diskeeper to run more frequently. (Here again, you can automate this by letting
the Diskeeper Smart Scheduling feature control when to run Diskeeper.)
How do I set access permissions to allow Diskeeper to
defragment my files?
In order for Diskeeper to have access to move files, both SYSTEM and
ADMINISTRATOR must have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is
in). This version of Diskeeper includes a batch file that sets the access permissions
on a disk volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. This batch file is called
setdkacls.bat, and it is located in the directory folder where Diskeeper is installed.
If you find you have made files inaccessible to Diskeeper, or that you have some
files inaccessible to Diskeeper, open a command-prompt window, change directory
to the Diskeeper installation directory, and type:
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
75
setdkacls x:
where x: is the letter name of the disk volume on which you want to change access
permissions.
The setdkacls.bat procedure automates the following sequence of commands:
cd /d x:
cd \
cacls *
/e /t /c /g Administrators:F System:F
For more information about the cacls command, type cacls /? at a command prompt.
This batch procedure will only work if the account you are logged onto has been
granted access to the file(s) you are wanting to defragment.
Why doesn’t the free space reported by the post-analysis
(or post-defragmentation) summary pop-up screen match
what the Diskeeper Fragmentation pane shows?
Several post-analysis and post-defragmentation summary screens include
information about the amount of free space available on the volume for
defragmentation. This figure is based on the space available to Diskeeper, which
may be less than the total free space on an NTFS volume. NTFS volumes reserve a
percentage of the total volume for the Master File Table (MFT), which Diskeeper
cannot use for defragmenting files. Because of this, the figure shown in the
Diskeeper post-analysis and post-defragmentation summaries on NTFS volumes will
not match the total free space figure displayed in the Diskeeper fragmentation pane
(or other utilities like Disk Properties in Windows Explorer).
How can I run Diskeeper from an account that is not a
member of the Administrators group?
On Windows XP, if the account you are using is not a member of the Administrators
group, you will not be able to install or operate Diskeeper. We recommend that you
simply use the Set and Forget It feature to set a schedule to allow Diskeeper to run in
the background on all systems. Since the Set It and Forget It operation runs under
the SYSTEM process, there is no need for an administrator to be logged in when it is
running.
Do I need to have the Diskeeper service running all the
time?
Yes. DkService is the program that actually runs Diskeeper defragmentation jobs. It
monitors the Diskeeper schedule file and starts defragmentation jobs when they are
needed. If the Diskeeper service is disabled or not present, you will not be able to
run Diskeeper at all.
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Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
That said, if you look at the DkService process using Task Manager, you will see
that it uses only a few seconds of CPU time each week. The fact that it is running all
the time is not going to use up system resources, or cause any problems.
Since installing Diskeeper, the number of disk errors I get
has increased. Why is that?
Diskeeper tends to increase disk activity, and just by running, it can make weak
points in the system break. In this case, you have some disk error, most likely in the
free space where the Windows disk error checking utility (CHKDSK) cannot find it.
Run CHKDSK/R on your operating system volume at least, preferably on all
volumes. That should correct any errors. (CHKDSK/F may not correct this issue.)
If CHKDSK itself aborts when it reaches the bad block, it indicates a disk problem
which CHKDSK can't handle, and which will likely cause more trouble in the future.
You should back up the volume and reformat (or replace) it to prevent the possibility
of data loss due to drive failure.
If you are running Windows 95/98/ME, run Scandisk Thorough instead of
CHKDSK.
How can I find which version of Diskeeper I have installed?
Open Diskeeper, click the Action menu, then select About. This tells you which
Diskeeper edition, version and build is installed.
Support Services
77
Appendix C
Support Services
U.S. Support Services
Registered users are entitled to 90 days of free telephone support, as well as special
upgrade pricing, from Executive Software. Our free U.S. technical support is
available Monday through Friday during the first 90 days from 7:00 A.M. to 5:30
P.M. Pacific time. If you have not yet registered your Diskeeper for Windows
purchase, use the registration card in your Diskeeper box and do so now. Or, register
your purchase online via our Web site at:
http://www.executive.com
Most technical support questions can be answered from the Technical Support
section of our Web site at the address shown above.
You can also contact our technical support team via the Internet at:
[email protected]
Or via FAX at:
818-252-5514
If you are within your 90-day free support period, or have purchased telephone
support, you can call:
818-771-1600
When your 90-day free support period has expired, you can purchase the support
plan which best suits your needs. Executive Software offers 24-hour, 7-day support
plans. Contact Executive Software to find out which support options suit you best.
Executive Software’s address is:
Executive Software
7590 North Glenoaks Boulevard
Burbank, California 91504, USA
78
Support Services
European Support Services
Registered users are entitled to 90 days of free telephone support, as well as special
upgrade pricing, from Executive Software. Our free European technical support is
available Monday through Friday during the first 90 days from 8:30 to 17:30 GMT.
If you have not yet registered your Diskeeper for Windows purchase, use the
registration card in your Diskeeper box and do so now. Or, register your purchase
online via our Web site at:
http://www.execsoft.co.uk
Most technical support questions can be answered from the Technical Support
section of our Web site at the address shown above.
You can also contact our technical support team via the Internet at:
[email protected]
Or via FAX at:
+44 (0) 1342-327390
If you are within your 90-day free support period, or have purchased telephone
support, you can call:
+44 (0) 1342-327477
When your 90-day free support period has expired, you can purchase the support
plan which best suits your needs. Executive Software offers 24-hour, 7-day support
plans. Contact Executive Software to find out which support options suit you best.
Executive Software’s address is:
Executive Software UK Inc.
Kings House, Cantelupe Road
East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 3BE
England
Glossary
79
Glossary
access: To store data on, or retrieve data from, a disk drive or other peripheral
device. See also file.
administrator: See system administrator.
applet: A small application program that is usually built into an operating system or
a larger application program. For example, the built-in writing and drawing
programs that come with Windows are sometimes called “applets.”
application: A computer program, which causes a computer system to perform
some useful work for the user.
AutoPlay: A feature of some Windows applications on CD-ROM that causes the
program to start automatically when the CD-ROM is placed in the drive.
background processing: The execution of certain operations during momentary
lulls in the primary (foreground) process. An example of a background process is
printing while a word processor is waiting for keystrokes.
binary: From Latin “bini,” meaning two by two and “ary,” meaning of, or
pertaining to. Computers use the binary number system, which is a way of counting
in which only two digits (0 and 1) are used. Contrast with the familiar decimal
number system, in which we count with 10 digits (0 through 9).
bit: Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information handled by a computer.
Like a light switch, a bit is either on or off, which corresponds to a numerical value
of one or zero. Larger numbers are expressed by groups of bits. See also byte.
boot: Refers to the initial start-up of a computer, such as when you turn on the
computer’s power. From the word “bootstrap,” indicating the computer “lifts itself
by the bootstraps;” that is, it gets itself going.
boot-time: The time during which a computer boots; that is, the computer is starting
up and the operating system has not yet taken over control of the computer.
browser: A software program, such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, designed to
locate and view Web pages on the Internet. In addition to displaying text, modern
browsers also can display pictures and play sounds.
byte: A group of eight bits, which can represent a number from zero through 255, a
letter of the alphabet, or a variety of other things.
80
Glossary
cache: From the French word cacher, meaning “to hide.” A temporary storage
facility designed to speed things up by providing information to software that would
otherwise have to be obtained from a slower medium. Caches exist for Web
browsers, disk drives and CPUs. See also cache memory.
cache coherency: A condition where the data contained in the cache memories in a
computer with multiple processors is kept consistent at all times.
cache memory: In computers, a cache is a small amount of very fast memory that is
placed close to (or inside) the CPU chip, in order to improve performance. The
cache memory holds copies of recently accessed data. Because computer programs
often run the same instructions repeatedly, many times the CPU will find the data it
needs in the cache and therefore will run faster because it does not need to access the
computer’s main memory.
CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory. A stiff plastic disk commonly used
by software manufacturers to distribute software to customers. As the name implies,
the original contents of a CD-ROM cannot be changed.
central processing unit (CPU): The part of the computer hardware that controls the
computer’s overall operation and performs computations. Most modern CPUs are
built into a single integrated circuit or chip. See also Pentium, x86.
chip: See integrated circuit.
CHKDSK: A program (supplied with Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP,
and Windows Server 2003) that checks the integrity of a disk and corrects disk
errors such as lost clusters. See also scandisk.
client: In a computer network, a computer that uses the services of another
computer, called a server. For example, a client can “ask” a server to provide it with
needed data, or to print a file for the client. See also server, workstation.
cluster: Smallest addressable unit of space on a disk. A one-byte file will actually
use a cluster of disk space. The minimum size of a cluster depends on the size of the
disk volume. The FAT file system allows a maximum of 65,536 clusters per volume,
which means that the cluster size on a 64-megabyte disk volume is one kilobyte,
while a 128-megabyte volume uses two-kilobyte clusters. Thus, the FAT file system
can be very wasteful of disk space on large volumes. The NTFS file system does not
suffer from this limitation.
COM: Acronym for Component Object Model, a specification developed by
Microsoft for building software components that can be made into programs or add
functionality to existing programs running on Microsoft Windows platforms.
component: A small modular program that performs a specific function and is
designed to work interactively with other components and applications. See also
applet, COM, DCOM.
Glossary
81
contiguous: Adjacent; placed one after the other. A contiguous file is not
fragmented; that is, it takes up a single “chunk” of disk space. See also
fragmentation, defragmentation.
control file: A file (Diskeep.ctl) used by Diskeeper to keep track of and control
scheduled defragmentation of disk volumes. See also Set It and Forget It.
controller: A specialized electronic circuit, which serves as an interface between a
device, such as a disk drive, and a computer. See also IDE, SCSI.
CPU: see central processing unit.
data: Information, as processed by a computer. Plural of the Latin word datum,
meaning an item of information.
database: A collection of related information about a subject, organized in a useful
manner that provides a base or foundation for procedures such as retrieving
information, drawing conclusions, and making decisions.
datum: Singular of data.
DCOM: Acronym for Distributed Component Object Model, a version of the
Component Object Model (COM) software developed by Microsoft to support
objects distributed across a network. For example, the Set It and Forget It feature of
Diskeeper uses DCOM to start a scheduled defragmentation.
defragmentation: The reduction or elimination of fragmentation, by making files
and/or free disk space more contiguous.
device: A machine, such as a printer or a disk drive.
digit: From Latin “digitus,” meaning finger. Any of the numbers 0 through 9 in the
decimal number system, called a digit because people originally used their fingers
for counting. Computers use a binary number system with only two digits (0 and 1).
directory: A file that contains a catalog of files and other directories stored on a
disk, which allows you to organize your files into groups, making them easier to
find.
directory consolidation: A Diskeeper feature (available in Diskeeper Professional
and Server editions) which, at boot-time, gathers (almost) all directory entries on a
disk volume into a single area on the disk, instead of scattered in many places.
Directory consolidation makes defragmentation more effective than it would
otherwise be. Directory consolidation requires sufficient contiguous free disk space
into which the directories can be moved.
disk drive: A device containing one or more disks, treated as a unit by a computer.
82
Glossary
Diskeeper: A software product that increases system performance through disk
defragmentation. It eliminates resource-wasting file fragmentation safely, by
consolidating fragmented files and free space.
diskette: See floppy disk.
domain: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, a
group of workstations and servers, defined by an administrator, that share a
common directory database and allow a user to log onto any resource in the domain
with a single user ID and password. Each domain in a network has a unique name.
drive: See disk drive.
drive letter: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the naming convention
for disk drives, consisting of a letter, followed by a colon. Drives A: and B: are
normally reserved for floppy disk drives and C: typically indicates the first hard
drive. See also volume.
encrypted file: A file that has been scrambled and made unrecognizable by anyone
who does not have the proper “key” to decode it. The Windows 2000, Windows XP
and Windows Server 2003 Encrypting File System (EFS) allows users to encrypt
files and folders on an NTFS volume to prevent access by unauthorized individuals.
event logging: The process of recording audit information when certain events
occur, such as services starting and stopping, users logging on and off and accessing
resources. When running Diskeeper on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows
XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems, logged events can be viewed with the Event
Viewer utility (in Administrative Tools.) When run on Windows 95/98/Me systems,
Diskeeper logs events to a text file that can be viewed with a variety of text editor
programs such as Notepad.
Event Viewer: A utility available on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP,
and Windows Server 2003, which permits the viewing of logged events. See also
event logging.
extended partition: A type of partition that permits the limitation of four partitions
per disk drive to be overcome. A disk drive may be partitioned into a maximum of
four primary partitions, or three primary partitions plus an extended partition. One
or more logical drives may be created within an extended partition.
FAT: See file allocation table.
FAT file system: The file system used by MS-DOS and adapted for Windows to
store information on disks, which makes use of a file allocation table. There are
three types of FAT file system. The FAT12 (12-bit) is used on FAT volumes smaller
than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks—it is not supported by Diskeeper.
FAT16 can be found on all versions of Windows from Windows 95 through
Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, Windows Me,
Glossary
83
Windows 98, and the later OSR 2 version of Windows 95 also support FAT32;
Windows NT does not.
field: A subdivision of a record in a file. For example, a record in a customer file
may contain a name field, an address field and a phone number field.
file: A complete, named collection of data, such as a program, a set of data used by
a program, or a user-created document. See also record, field.
file allocation table (FAT): A table or list maintained by some operating systems, to
keep track of how files are stored on a disk.
file system: The method used by an operating system, of naming, accessing and
organizing files and directories on a disk. See also NTFS, FAT file system.
floppy disk: A removable storage medium, consisting of a small magnetic disk made
of flexible plastic, housed in a square protective envelope or cartridge. Originally,
floppy disks really were “floppy,” because they were enclosed in a paper envelope.
Also called a diskette, which is a better name for the more recent design that uses a
stiff plastic cartridge. Contrast with hard disk.
formatting: A method of preparing a disk surface for use by placing certain
magnetic patterns on it, which are used by the file system in storing and retrieving
data.
fragmentation: The word fragmentation means “the state of being fragmented.”
The word fragment means “a detached, isolated or incomplete part.” It is derived
from the Latin “fragmentum,” which in turn is derived from “frangere,” meaning
“break.” So, fragmentation means that something is broken into parts that are
detached, isolated or incomplete.
gigabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to approximately a billion
bytes. A gigabyte is two to the 30th power, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
graphical user interface (GUI): Pronounced “gooey.” A user interface, as used in
the Windows operating systems, which uses a mouse and graphic displays to interact
with the user, with the purpose to make the computer system easier to use than other
operating systems, such as MS-DOS.
GUI: See graphical user interface.
hard disk: One or more rigid metal platters, coated with magnetic material. Contrast
with floppy disk, or diskette, which is made of plastic. Also used to refer to the
physical unit that makes up a disk drive.
hardware: The physical parts of a computer system, including devices such as
printers and disk drives. Contrast with software.
84
Glossary
IDE: Integrated Device Electronics. One of two common types of interfaces
between a disk drive and a computer, where the controller is built into the disk drive,
which eliminates the need for a separate controller card in the computer. See also
SCSI.
integrated circuit: Also called a chip. A collection of electronic parts with a
specific purpose, built into a single physical package. See also central processing
unit.
Intel: Manufacturer of processor chips, known especially for the Pentium and x86
processors.
interface: The connection and interaction between hardware, software and/or the
user. For example, a disk controller provides a physical interface between a
computer and a disk drive. The keyboard, mouse and display are an interface
between a computer and the user.
Internet: A global network that links millions of computers. One popular section of
the Internet is the World Wide Web, which allows computer users to view text and
pictures with the aid of a browser, such as Internet Explorer. E-mail (electronic
mail) is another popular part of the Internet, which allows computer users to send
and receive written messages.
Internet Explorer: A software package developed by Microsoft for browsing the
Internet, but increasingly used with other applications.
job: A request to have the computer or its peripherals perform some activity. In
relation to Diskeeper, it is a request to have a disk defragmented.
log file: A file that keeps track of certain events as they occur. The Windows
NT/2000/XP operating system maintains several log files that can be viewed with the
Event Viewer. On Windows 95/98/Me systems, Diskeeper uses a specially created
text file for the same purpose. See also Event Logging.
logical drive: That portion of the space on a disk drive that is considered by the
software to be a single unit. In this context, logical means “conceptual.” because
there is no direct relationship between the name and a physical object. See also
partition, volume.
long filenames: In the DOS operating system, filenames were limited to a maximum
of eight characters, followed by a period and up to three characters to indicate the
type of file. This is also referred to as the 8.3 file naming convention. The Windows
95/98/Me, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003
operating systems allow filenames that are over 200 characters long. In addition,
these filenames may contain a mixture of upper- and lowercase characters and
embedded spaces.
Glossary
85
master file table (MFT): On an NTFS volume, the master file table is a file,
which contains information about all other files in that volume. This includes the
name of each file, its physical location on the disk, and other information.
media: A collective word for the physical material on which computer-based
information is stored, such as a CD-ROM or floppy disk. Media is the plural of
medium, but like data is often used in the singular form.
medium: See media.
memory: The computer’s temporary working storage, where program instructions
and data are kept, permitting the CPU to process the instructions.
MFT: See master file table.
Microsoft: A computer software company, with its head office in the state of
Washington; creators of the MS-DOS and Windows operating systems.
MMC: Microsoft Management Console. MMC can be used to create, save and open
administrative tools (called snap-ins), such as Diskeeper. MMC provides a common
user interface for system tools, as well as a system for managing hardware, software
and network components.
MS-DOS: Microsoft Disk Operating System. An operating system designed for a
small computer with a single user running one application program at a time.
multitasking: A feature of an operating system, where the computer can work on
more than one task at a time. See also background processing.
network: A group of computers that are connected together and capable of
exchanging data with each other. See also server, client.
NTFS: New Technology File System. A file system designed specifically for use
with Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003.
OEM: Acronym for original equipment manufacturer. The term is misleading,
because an OEM typically buys computers from another manufacturer, customizes
them for a particular application, and then sells them under the OEM’s own brand
name.
operating system: A collection of programs, which perform system functions and
control the running of application programs and the allocation of resources.
OSR 2: Acronym for OEM Service Release 2, a version of Windows 95 released in
late 1996, which features an improved file system, called FAT32, while the original
version of Windows 95 used FAT16.
86
Glossary
page file or paging file: An area of a disk that is set aside to hold data intended to
reside in the computer’s memory. Portions of the paging file are copied to memory
as needed. This mechanism requires a much smaller amount of physical memory
than would be required if the entire program were to be loaded into memory all at
once. See also swap file.
partition: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were
a separate physical unit. A computer with only one hard disk drive can have a single
partition, often called drive C:, or it can have several partitions, such as drive C:,
drive D:, and drive E:. See also volume, drive letter, primary partition, extended
partition, logical drive.
Pentium: The name of a type of processor, introduced by Intel in 1993. It is the
successor to the 80486 and equivalent to the 80586 chip in the x86 series.
peripheral device: (Related to periphery, roughly meaning “on the outside.”) A
device, such as a disk drive, printer, keyboard or mouse, connected to and used by a
computer.
permission: The ability of a user on a computer system to access or modify files,
especially those that he or she did not create. Permissions exist for security reasons,
to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information. The system administrator
assigns permissions, or “who has access to what.”
platform: The environment, in which a computer system operates, either based on
the computer’s CPU or its operating system. For example: the x86 platform, or the
Windows Server 2003 platform.
platter: A disk drive consists of one or more platters, each of which can receive
magnetic recordings on both sides. The platter spins like a phonograph record on a
turntable.
primary partition: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the disk space on a
disk drive may be divided into a maximum of four primary partitions; or three
primary partitions plus an extended partition, which in turn can contain one or more
logical drives.
priority: On a Windows system, several programs can appear to be running at once,
even though the CPU can only process one instruction at a time. With the help of the
operating system, the CPU processes a few instructions from one program, then a
few instructions of the next program, and so on, over and over. Without priority
assignments, each program would be given about the same amount of time in each
“time slot.” but by assigning priorities, the more important programs can be given
longer time intervals than the less important ones, allowing them to complete faster.
process: A program, along with the system resources the program requires to run. A
process represents a unit of resource ownership and work to be done. The operating
Glossary
87
system creates processes to keep track of resources and to ensure the proper
scheduling of tasks.
processor: See central processing unit.
program: A set of instructions that tell a computer what to do. Synonym: software.
RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A method of combining several disk
drives to make one large volume. Typically used on a network file server to achieve
faster access, greater protection against disk failure, or both.
record: A collection of related data items, treated as a unit. For example, in a file
containing information about a company’s customers, one record would consist of
the particulars (name, address, phone number, etc.) of one customer. See also field.
registry: A database that contains information about current hardware settings,
installed software, user preferences and associations between file types, and
applications that access those files.
resource: Any part of a computer system, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory,
which can be used by a program.
scandisk: A program (supplied with Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me)
that checks the integrity of a disk and corrects disk errors such as lost clusters. See
also CHKDSK.
SCSI: Small Computer System Interface. One of two common methods of
interfacing disk drives and other devices to computers. See also IDE.
server: On a computer network, a computer that makes resources available to other
computers (clients or workstations.) For example, all the computers on a network
can be set up to share a single high-speed printer, which is connected to the server.
Usually, the server is faster and more powerful than the client computers connected
to it.
service: A process that performs a specific system function and often provides an
application programming interface (API) for other processes to call. Diskeeper uses
a Windows service, which allows Diskeeper to run in the background while other
applications are running.
Service Pack: A collection of software used to issue corrections and updates to
software between major releases. Usually refers to compilations of corrections and
updates to a Windows operating system.
Set It and Forget It: A term that was created by Executive Software, which is a
registered trademark and hallmark of the company. A “Set It and Forget It” product
can operate transparently (unseen by the user) and in the background (concurrent
with other applications). After a schedule is set up for its operation, it thereafter
88
Glossary
performs its functions at predetermined times, without further intervention or
attention from the user or administrator.
Smart Scheduling: A feature, introduced with Diskeeper 6.0, which has a built-in
mechanism to determine how frequently a disk volume needs to be defragmented.
With Smart Scheduling, Diskeeper automatically schedules defragmentation runs to
occur more often when a disk volume becomes more fragmented, or less often when
it becomes less fragmented.
SMS: System Management Server. A software product from Microsoft, which
permits the system administrator on a Windows NT, Windows 2000 or Windows
Server 2003 network to do such things as install and run new software on different
computers on the network, all from a single location.
snap-in: A program, such as Diskeeper, that can be used with the Microsoft
Management Console (MMC). For more information, see the MMC Help facility.
software: A generic term for computer programs, taken collectively. Contrast with
hardware. Software can be categorized into application software and system
software.
sparse files: A method of storing large files—that contain mostly empty space and
not much data—in a way that uses much less disk space than would otherwise be
used. Sparse file support allows an application to create very large files without
committing disk space for every byte.
swap file: A file on a disk drive that Windows 95/98/Me uses to hold temporary data
that will not fit into memory. When needed, the operating system moves data from
the swap file to memory. See also paging file.
system: The collection of one or more computers and peripheral devices. Sometimes
used as a synonym for operating system, or the combination of hardware and
software, as a logical unit.
system administrator: The person in charge of maintaining a multi-user computer
system.
system file: In general, a file that is part of, or accessed by, the operating system.
The Diskeeper Drive Map display shows certain system files in green, particularly
the master file table (MFT) and several other files that cannot be moved safely by
Diskeeper (or any other defragmenter). These are not the files that make up the
Windows operating system, but the files that make up the NTFS file system.
task: A program or portion thereof that is run as an independent entity.
terabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to 2 to the 40th power or
approximately a thousand billion bytes (or a thousand gigabytes).
Glossary
89
trialware: A free software package from Executive Software, such as Diskeeper,
that has the same functionality as the official version of the software, but which
works for a limited time period, after which it expires. Trialware allows you to try
the software before making a buying decision.
utility: A program that provides basic services or functions.
volume: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were a
separate physical unit, or a combination of physical disks treated as a single unit. A
computer with only one hard disk drive can have a single volume, often called drive
C:, or it can have several volumes, such as drive C:, drive D:, and drive E:. See also
drive letter, logical drive, partition.
volume set: In Windows, a single logical drive, which is composed of up to 32 areas
of free space on one or more disk drives. Volume sets can be used to combine small
areas of free space on one or more disk drives into a larger logical drive, or to create
a single large logical drive out of two or more small disks.
Windows: A family of operating systems, first introduced by Microsoft in 1983,
with a graphical user interface and which ran on MS-DOS based computers. See
also Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and
Windows Server 2003.
Windows 2000: Originally named Windows NT 5.0, Windows 2000 is a family of
operating systems for desktop computers and network servers, announced by
Microsoft in 1998. Windows 2000 resembles Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 98, but
has many enhancements and new features. Windows 2000 is available in several
editions, ranging from Windows 2000 Professional to Windows 2000 Advanced
Server.
Windows 95: A version of Windows released in 1995. New features in Windows 95
with regard to its predecessor, Windows 3.1, include a new user interface and
support for 32-bit applications. See also OSR 2.
Windows 98: Successor to the Windows 95 operating system, Windows 98 features
support for the FAT32 file system, greater Internet integration, and supports recent
hardware developments.
Windows Me: Short for Windows Millennium Edition, an operating system released
by Microsoft in September 2000. Successor to Windows 98 and designed for home
use, Windows Me offers enhancements in the areas of digital media, user interface,
home networking, and the Internet.
Windows NT: An operating system released by Microsoft in 1993 (NT stands for
New Technology.) It has a similar graphical user interface to Windows, but it does
not run over MS-DOS and has been designed specifically for computer network
environments.
90
Glossary
Windows Server 2003: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2003 as the
follow-up version to Windows 2000 Server. Like its predecessor, it has a similar
graphical user interface to Windows, but it does not run over MS-DOS and has been
designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows Server 2003 is
available in Standard, Web, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions.
Windows XP: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2001 as the follow-up
version to Windows 2000. Like its predecessor, it has a similar graphical user
interface to other Windows versions, but it does not run over MS-DOS and has been
designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows XP is available
in several editions for different uses, such as Windows XP Professional for corporate
use, or Windows XP Home Edition for home users.
workgroup: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server
2003, a workgroup consists of one or more computers that do not participate in a
domain and are therefore responsible for their own security and administration.
workstation: A computer that has been set up for use by an individual typically
connected to a network. The term is also used to indicate a client computer, in
contrast with a server.
x86: Symbol to represent a series of CPUs, manufactured by Intel and others,
including model numbers 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486 and 80586 (Pentium). All of
the CPUs in this series have certain characteristics in common, which permits
software to be written that will run on any of them.
Index
91
Index
A
About Diskeeper option ........................49
About the Diskeeper Service...................7
Access permissions
setting ...............................................74
After the Installation ...............................6
Analysis
fragmentation......................................9
Analyze Button .....................................51
Analyze selected drive ..........................46
Application Event Log ..........See Logging
Automating Diskeeper ..........................36
AutoPlay .................................................4
Average File Size..................................31
Average Fragments per File ..................31
B
Background process ........ 7, 18, 21, 36, 67
Before the Installation.............................1
C
cache coherency ....................................66
CD-ROM ............................................3, 4
Check for updates ...................................6
Clear a schedule ....................................45
Colors, what they mean.........................36
Command pane .....................................43
Consolidating free space .......................73
Control, tabbed......................................24
Custom schedule ...................................45
D
DCOM ..............................................5, 20
Defragment Button................................51
Defragment selected drive ....................47
Defragmentation
and the Master File Table .................73
files not moved to beginning of disk.73
free space consolidation....................73
how often to run................................74
incomplete ........................................71
manual ..............................................20
modes................................................20
power management .....................48, 55
Set It and Forget It ............................21
Design Goals .........................................65
Disk space required .................................2
Disk Volume pane.................................50
Diskeeper
before and after comparison ...............9
design goals ......................................65
directories not moved .......................72
FAQs option .....................................50
features .............................................19
getting started .....................................9
getting the most from........................21
how often to run................................74
installation ..........................................1
interface ............................................23
logging activity .................................56
overview ...........................................19
program group ....................................3
reinstalling ..........................................6
seeing reduction in fragmentation.......9
service.................................................7
uninstalling .........................................8
Disks supported.......................................2
DkEventLog.txt.................................7, 56
Drive Map pane.....................................35
E
Event Log..............................See Logging
setting up the.......................................7
Event Logging
setting options...................................48
Event Viewer ........................................56
Exclusion List .......................................21
dialog box .........................................53
92
Index
internal ....................................... 54, 71
User-defined ...............................48, 52
Extended partitions .................................2
F
FAQs option..........................................50
File Systems Supported...........................1
Files not moved to beginning of disk ....73
Fragmentation
analysis ...............................................9
definition of .............................. viii, 65
effects of ................................... viii, 65
Fragmentation pane...............................29
Free Space
consolidation.....................................73
mismatch in reporting .......................75
Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs)
option................................................50
G
L
Logging
Application Event Log......7, 20, 21, 56
Defragmentation start and stop .........57
Defragmented files............................58
Directory information .......................62
Disk information...............................59
Diskeeper activity .............................56
File information ................................60
MFT information ..............................63
Moved files .......................................58
on Windows 95/98/Me........................7
Paging File information ....................61
Service start and stop ........................57
Specifying What Gets Logged..........57
Logical drives..........................................2
M
Getting Started ........................................9
Getting the most from Diskeeper ..........21
Glossary ................................................79
Master File Table (MFT) ......................73
Menu
Set It and Forget It ............................44
MMC.................................................5, 20
Most Fragmented Files..........................33
H
N
Help Button...........................................52
Help Topics option................................49
NTFS................................. viii, 30, 31, 36
P
I
Information pane ...................................24
Installation
after the...............................................6
before the ............................................1
details..................................................3
overview .............................................3
short version .......................................3
Installing
Service Packs......................................6
Interface
user ...................................................23
Paging File Defragmentation ................73
Partitions
extended..............................................2
primary ...............................................2
Pause Button .........................................52
Pentium processor ...................................1
Performance ..........................................67
Performance data...................................49
Performance pane..................................24
Platforms supported ................................1
Power management .........................48, 55
Preface ................................................. vii
Primary partitions....................................2
Process Live Disks ................................67
Index
Q
93
Europe...............................................78
U.S. ...................................................77
Quick Tour............................................10
T
R
Tabbed Control .....................................24
Theory of Operation..............................65
RAID arrays............................................2
Registering Diskeeper .............................6
Registry...................................................3
Reliability pane .....................................27
Repairing Windows.................................6
Resource requirements........................2, 7
Resume Button......................................52
Run every night.....................................44
Run weekends only ...............................44
Undelete ................................................ ix
Uninstalling Diskeeper............................8
Updates
checking for ..................................6, 50
User Interface........................................23
S
V
Safety ....................................................66
Schedule
clearing a ..........................................45
custom ..............................................45
Scheduling
Screen Saver mode ...........................42
Set It and Forget It ............................36
Smart Scheduling..............................40
Screen Saver mode..........................42, 45
Select schedule type..............................39
Service Pack........................................4, 6
Service, Diskeeper ..................................7
Set It and Forget It ................................36
pane ..................................................36
Set It and Forget It pane
controls .............................................39
Setting up the Application Event Log .....7
SETUP.EXE............................................3
Sitekeeper...............................................ix
Smart Scheduling ............................40, 44
after hours.........................................44
Specifying What Gets Logged ..............57
Stop Button ...........................................52
Support Services
Versions supported..................................1
View Readme option.............................49
Volume sets.............................................2
U
W
Windows
Application Event Log......................56
disks supported ...................................2
file systems supported.........................1
registry................................................3
repairing..............................................6
resource requirements .........................2
versions and platforms supported .......1
Windows 95/98/Me
Event Logging ....................................7
Windows XP
service packs.......................................6
X
X86 processor family ..............................1
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