CrossPATH Release 2.30 User`s Guide

CrossPATH Release 2.30 User`s Guide
CrossPATH®
User’s Guide
Radio Access Solutions
Models 77750, 77760
74016
Hardware Reference
Advanced Features
Operation
Diagnostics
Specifications
Software Release 2.30
Document #650-00521-05
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright © 2006, 2007, 2008 by Kentrox, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Specifications published here are current or planned as of the date of publication
of this document. Because we are continuously improving and adding features to
our products, Kentrox reserves the right to change specifications without prior
notice. You may verify product specifications by contacting our office.
In no event shall Kentrox be liable for any damages resulting from loss of data,
loss of use, or loss of profits. Kentrox further disclaims any and all liability for
indirect, incidental, special, consequential or other similar damages. This disclaimer of liability applies to all products, publications and services during and
after the warranty period.
Additional copyrights applicable to portions of this product:
Copyright © 2003 GlobespanVirata, Inc.
Copyright © 2003-2004 Ashley Laurent, Inc.
Copyright © 1989-2001 SNMP Research, Inc.
Copyright © 1995-1998 Eric Young ([email protected])
Copyright © 2003 Lucent Technologies Inc. and others. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 1998-2006 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1993 The Regents of the University of
California. All rights reserved.
Trademark
Information
Kentrox and CrossPATH are registered trademarks of Kentrox, Inc.
All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective owners.
Revision history
Registration,
warranty, support,
and services
2
Part #
Date
Description
650-00521-00
April 2005
Initial release, v1.00
650-00521-01
January 2006
Beta release, v1.20
650-00521-02
July 2006
Software update release, v2.00
650-00521-03
November 2006
Beta release, v2.10
650-00521-04
June 2007
Software update release, 2.20
650-00521-05
March 2008
Software update release, 2.30
To receive product news and announcements from Kentrox, please register your
Kentrox products at www.kentrox.com/register.
All Kentrox CrossPATH units carry a 2-year warranty beginning on the date of
shipment. Units found to be defective within the warranty period will be repaired
or replaced under the terms of the Kentrox Statement of Limited Warranty, which
can be viewed online at www.kentrox.com/warranty. All product returns to Kentrox must include a Return Authorization number, which you can obtain by calling
the Technical Assistance Center.
If you need
assistance
If you need assistance with this product or have questions not answered by this
manual, please call 800-733-5511 or visit our Support page on the Kentrox web
site at www.kentrox.com/services.
3
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
4
Preface
This manual covers usage instructions for the CrossPATH 3G 8-port (model
77750) and 16-port (model 77760) and the CrossPATH 4 (model 74016) units as
well as the TDM option modules. It also contains product specifications and system default values.
Who should use this
manual?
This manual is intended as a conceptual overview and reference for network operators and installers. The person responsible for managing the CrossPATH is
referred to in this document as the network operator.
Viewing this manual
as a PDF file
This manual is designed to be used as both a printed book and a PDF file, and
includes the following features for PDF viewing:
■
■
■
Cross-references are clickable hyperlinks that appear in blue text.
Chapters and section headings are represented as clickable bookmarks in the
left-hand pane of the Acrobat viewer.
Page numbering is consistent between the printed page and the PDF file to
help you easily select a range of pages for printing.
You can obtain PDF files of our manuals by visiting: http://www.kentrox.com/
library.
Related publications
The following provide additional information about this product:
■
Conventions used in
this manual
Additional documentation, including sample scripts and PDF versions of the
Installation Instructions and CLI Reference Guide, are located at the web site
or on the CD-ROM
■
CrossPATH 3G product: http://www.kentrox.com/products/crosspath_3g
■
CrossPATH 4 product: http://www.kentrox.com/products/crosspath_4
Variables
Italic type identifies variable syntax elements, such as values
or alphanumeric strings, that you can enter.
x|y
A vertical line (pipe) between elements means that the elements are mutually exclusive; you can select one and only
one of the elements.
[]
Brackets indicate items that are optional.
<>
Angle brackets indicate that items are required.
filenames
Filenames appear in Courier font, for example,
commands.txt.
commands
Command line interface commands also appear in Courier
font, for example, dhcp server set subnet.
5
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Admonishments
Key names
The names of keyboard keys are spelled as they appear on the
keyboard and bolded, for example, Esc, Enter.
Pathnames
The pathname to GUI pages as they exist on the “top level
tabs”, for example, Monitor > System.
Important safety admonishments are used throughout this manual to warn of possible hazards to persons or equipment. An admonishment identifies a possible
hazard and then explains what may happen if the hazard is not avoided. The
admonishments, in the form of Dangers, Warnings, and Cautions, must be followed at all times. These warnings are flagged by use of the triangular alert icon
(seen below), and are listed in descending order of severity of injury or damage
and likelihood of occurrence.
DANGER!
Danger is used to indicate the presence of a hazard that will cause severe personal injury, death, or substantial property damage if the hazard is not avoided.
WARNING!
Warning is used to indicate the presence of a hazard that can cause severe personal injury, death, or substantial property damage if the hazard is not avoided.
CAUTION!
Caution is used to indicate the presence of a hazard that will or can cause minor
personal injury or property damage if the hazard is not avoided.
6
Preface
General safety
precautions
This equipment has been designed to the highest quality standards of materials,
workmanship and safety. Do not bypass any of the safety features of this equipment or operate this equipment in an improper environment.
WARNING!
To avoid hazard from electrical shock and/or fire, adhere to the safety practices
listed in this section and identified within the instructions of this document.
Use caution when installing or modifying communication lines. Dangerous voltages may be present. It is unsafe to install communication wiring during a
lightning storm.
Always disconnect all communication lines at the network interface and power
connections from the power source before servicing or disassembling this
equipment.
All wiring external to the product(s) should follow the provisions of the current
local and national building codes or any wiring rules that apply.
The unit should be installed so that users have easy access to the power source that
the power cable is plugged into. This is important so that power can be removed
quickly if there is a problem with the CrossPATH.
WARNING!
Potentially hazardous voltages inside. Service should be performed only by qualified personnel.
ADVERTISSEMENT:
Tensions Dangereuses à l'intérieur. Confier la maintenance à une personne
qualifiée.
WARNING!
This equipment is electrically grounded only when it is connected to a grounded
DC power source.
WARNING!
Internal components are susceptible to ESD. Use appropriate precautions when
removing the front panel cover and installing optional modules.
7
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
8
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1
Introduction to the CrossPATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Where to go for more information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CrossPATH models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
CrossPATH 4 only features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T1 port with integrated CSU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Router features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Management access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Monitoring and reporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Quality of Service (QoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Diagnostics and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Compatibilities and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Large-scale deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 2
CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Front panel description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T1 ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T1 port redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T1 LEDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
LAN ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
RS-232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Data port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Status LEDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Power up and power down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Power up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Power on self-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
System restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Real time clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Power down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Chapter 3
CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Front panel description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Option module slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Data port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Alarm relay port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
LAN ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
T1 ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
T1 port redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
T1 LEDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Status LEDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Reset button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Rear panel description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Rear panel connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Power supply modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Management Ethernet port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
RS-232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Rear panel status LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Option modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
74155 12xDSX1 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
74170 16xDSX1 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Power up and power down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Power up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Power on self-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
System restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Real time clock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Power down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Power supply module installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Power supply monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Power status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Fan status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter 4
Configuring the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Installing and setting up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
10
Table of Contents
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Accessing the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
CrossPATH GUI features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Additional GUI buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
GUI mouse overs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
RS-232 access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Telnet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Navigating the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Using a script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Adding and managing users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
User accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
User access privileges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Setting options for remote management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Management access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Configuring and using SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Supported MIBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Defining SNMP system parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
SNMP community strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Creating a trap host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Creating a V1 manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Configuring system settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
System timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
System date and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Default route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Adding a system contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Updating the system software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Saving the system configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Remote file import/export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Restarting the system and restoring the configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Restarting the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Restoring and removing a configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Local logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Configuring logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Log contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Log size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Log lifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Severity levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Managing log contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
System log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Alarm log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
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Router data log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Finding Syslog clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Sample output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Chapter 5
T1 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Configuring T1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Configuration overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Configuring multiple T1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Configuring T1 interfaces individually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Configuring T1 redundant groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Monitoring T1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Monitoring T1 interfaces at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Monitoring individual T1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Monitoring T1 historical statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
T1 signal level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Monitoring T1 redundant groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
T1 interface diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Loopbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Activating and deactivating loopbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Chapter 6
DSX1 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
About DSX1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
74155 12xDSX1 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
74170 16xDSX1 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Configuring the option module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Resetting the option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Configuring DSX1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Configuration overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Configuring multiple DSX1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Configuring DSX1 interfaces individually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Configuring DSX1 redundant groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Monitoring individual DSX1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
DSX1 historical statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
DSX1 signal level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Monitoring DSX1 redundant groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
DSX1 interface diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
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Loopbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Activating and deactivating loopbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Chapter 7
T3 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
About T3 interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
74152 Dual DS3 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
74155 Dual DS3 12xDSX1 option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Configuring the option module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Resetting the option module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Configuring T3 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Configuring a T3 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
DS1 interface configuration summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Configure multiple DS1 interfaces on T3-# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Configure a DS1 interface individually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Configuring a T3 redundant group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Monitoring T3 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Monitoring a T3 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
T3 historical statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Monitoring DS1 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
DS1 historical statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
T3 interface diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Near end loopback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Apply to ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Current diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
DS1 diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Chapter 8
Dataport Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Configuring the data port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Specifying data port clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Enabling/disabling out (transmit) clock polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Enabling/disabling in (receive) clock polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Setting up DP LOS (data port loss of signal) processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Monitoring the data port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Dataport signal states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
T1 interface connected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Loopbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Chapter 9
TDM Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Configuring TDM connections (“cross-connects”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Add connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
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Monitoring TDM connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Chapter 10
Inband Management Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
About inband management interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Remote access method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Inband management interface concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface using the GUI. . 219
Configuring a frame relay interface using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Configuring a PPP inband management interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Configuring a PPP inband management interface using the GUI . . . . . . . . . . 225
Configuring a PPP interface using the CLI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Monitoring a Frame Relay inband management interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Monitoring a PPP inband management interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Chapter 11
Ethernet Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Configuring Ethernet interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Configuring Ethernet ports 1-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Configuring the Management Ethernet port (CrossPATH 4 only) . . . . . . . . . 238
Monitoring Ethernet interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Monitoring the CrossPATH 3G Ethernet port interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Monitoring the CrossPATH 4 Ethernet port interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Chapter 12
Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Routing in the CrossPATH router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
RIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Static routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Default route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Network address translation (NAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Using NAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Enabling NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Mapped IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Quality of Service (QoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Introducing QoS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Why use QoS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
What QoS can do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
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QoS in the CrossPATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Creating lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Creating QoS policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Configuring the WAN interface for QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Configuring the LAN interface for QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Changing DSCP mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
DiffServ overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
DHCP services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
DHCP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Configuring the DHCP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
DNS relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
DNS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
DNS relay agent configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Appendix A
System Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Physical interfaces specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Router function specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Network management interfaces specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Quality of Service (QoS) specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Supported SNMP MIB objects specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Physical specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Environmental specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Lightning specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Electrical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Certifications and compliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Appendix B
System Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Data port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
DHCP server configuration (Ethernet ports 1 - 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
DS0 channel configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
DS1 configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
DSX1 configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 IP configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
L2 switch configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
LAN QoS AF1 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
LAN QoS AF2 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
LAN QoS AF3 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
LAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
LAN QoS BE PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
15
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
LAN EF PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
LAN NC PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Management Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Management Ethernet DHCP server configuration (CrossPATH 4) . . . . . 293
Management Ethernet port configuration (CrossPATH 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Management Ethernet port IP configuration (CrossPATH 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Mapped IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Option module (CrossPATH 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
OSPF global configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
PHB DSCP mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Ping host configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
QoS configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
RIP global configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
SNMP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
SNTP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
System date and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
System contact information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
System logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
T1 ports configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
T1 ports IP configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
T3 ports configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
User accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
WAN QoS AF1 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
WAN QoS AF1 PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
WAN QoS AF2 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
WAN QoS AF2 PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
WAN QoS AF3 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
WAN QoS AF3 PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
WAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
WAN QoS AF4 PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
WAN QoS BE PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
WAN QoS BE PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
WAN QoS EF PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
WAN QoS EF PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
WAN QoS NC PHB class configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
WAN QoS NC PHB queue configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Appendix C
Cable Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Ethernet LAN pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
16
Table of Contents
Management Ethernet port pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
T1 port pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
T3 port cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
RS-232 pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Data port pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Appendix D
SNMP Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
SNMP overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
MIB-2 (RFC-1213) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
DS3-MIB (RFC-2496) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
IF-MIB (RFC-2863) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
SNMPv1 Traps/ SNMPv2c Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
KTX System MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Updating the software via SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
ktxSystemUpdateImage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Saving & restoring the system configuration for SNMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Installing a new configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Retrieving the current configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Restarting the system via SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
17
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
18
C
h
a
p
t
1
e
r
Introduction to the
CrossPATH
The CrossPATH* Radio Access Multiplexer enables wireless carriers to aggregate
and manage today’s existing networks while providing migration options to future
packet-based technologies. CrossPATH aggregates traffic to fully utilize the backhaul circuits already in place – eliminating the need to purchase additional T1s.
CrossPATH also supports up to 16 T1 ports and includes an integrated Quality of
Service router in a 1 RU package, reducing the amount of cell site equipment
required.
Table 1:
CrossPATH feature comparison
Feature
CrossPATH 3G
CrossPATH 4
8 T1 ports with integrated CSUs
3
16 T1 ports with integrated CSUs
3
3
Small 1RU package
3
3
Web GUI for easy installation
3
3
Enhanced remote management
3
3
Powerful network diagnostics
3
3
DS0 cross-connect functionality
3
3
Management Ethernet port
3
Hot-swappable redundant power modules
3
Expansion modules (NxT1, T3)
3
Managing equipment at cell sites is expensive. CrossPATH reduces this cost while
minimizing downtime with powerful remote management capabilities. Potential
T1 outages can be identified and diagnosed before they occur with built-in test
and diagnostic tools. Advanced diagnostics enable remote monitoring and display
T1 signal and voltage levels of each port in real time, ensuring quality and minimizing cell site downtime. This is available through an easy-to-use embedded
Graphical User Interface (GUI).
* CrossPATH refers to CrossPATH 3G and CrossPATH 4
19
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
CrossPATH grooms 2G and 3G cell site traffic to minimize backhaul costs, while
advanced remote management and diagnostics reduce truck rolls.
A command line interface (CLI) is included for remote Telnet or SSH access or
configuration scripting. Both the GUI and CLI are accessible through local interfaces or remotely via inband management interfaces over a single, 64 Kbps DS0
or up to two full T1’s.
With FCC-required electrical isolation and auto-recovery after lightning strikes or
power surges, the CrossPATH provides reliable service in harsh environments.
Unlike equipment from other manufacturers, the CrossPATH's robust design will
not degrade with each lightning strike. The CrossPATH recovers fully, resulting in
fewer outages and better protection for radio equipment.
20
Chapter 1: Introduction to the CrossPATH
Where to go for more information
Use Table 2 below to quickly navigate this manual. Additional links are included
on the front page of each chapter.
Table 2:
Quick navigation links
Description
Location
Product Introduction, usage
scenarios and deployment
planning
This chapter
Front panel ports and LEDs, cable
connections and power up/power
down
Chapter 2 “CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference”
Front and rear panel ports and
LEDs, cable connections and
power up/power down
Chapter 3 “CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference”
Using the GUI, using the CLI,
Chapter 4 “Configuring the System”
adding and managing users,
setting up remote management
and SNMP, setting up system-wide
parameters such as system date
and time, system contacts,
updating the software, saving and
exporting configuration files
Configuring and monitoring T1
Chapter 5 “T1 Interfaces”
interfaces, T1 interface diagnostics
Configuring and monitoring DSX1
interfaces, DSX1 interface
diagnostics
Chapter 6 “DSX1 Interfaces”
Chapter 7 “T3 Interfaces”
Configuring and monitoring T3
interfaces, T3 interface diagnostics
Configuring and monitoring the
dataport interface
Chapter 8 “Dataport Interface”
Configuring inband management
interfaces, Frame Relay, PPP
Chapter 9 “Inband Management Interfaces”
Configuring the cross-connects
Chapter 10 “TDM Connections”
Configuring and monitoring the
Ethernet interfaces
Chapter 11, “Ethernet Interfaces”
IP interfaces, Routing, NAT, DHCP, Chapter 12 “Router”
DNS, RIP and OSPF, realtime QoS
reports, QoS policy reports, latency
reports, and logs
Where to go for more information
21
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Related publications
The entire CrossPATH documentation set is described in Table 3:
Table 3:
22
Related publications
CrossPATH Documentation Set
Title
Part number
Description
CrossPATH
User’s Guide
650-00521-05
This document
CrossPATH 3G
Regulatory
Approvals
650-00522-00
Short document listing approvals from
relevant regulatory agencies
CrossPATH 4
Regulatory
Approvals
650-00543-00
Short document listing approvals from
relevant regulatory agencies
CrossPATH CLI 650-00523-04
Reference Guide
Comprehensive document describing each
Command Line Interface (CLI) command,
syntax, and variables, with examples and
cross-references, for advanced users only
CrossPATH
Release Notes
650-00524-05
Describes known issues and limitations at
time of release. Not shipped on
documentation CD, and available only on
the Kentrox website.
CrossPATH 3G
Installation
Instructions
650-00525-05
Short four-page installation overview
CrossPATH 3G
Data Sheet
05-03-049-06
Product description and specifications
CrossPATH 4
Installation
Instructions
650-00540-04
Short four-page installation overview
CrossPATH 4
Data Sheet
05-03-054-05
Product description and specifications
CrossPATH 4
Option Module
Installation
Instructions
650-00555-01
Short two-page installation overview
CrossPATH 4
Power Supply
Module
Installation
Instructions
650-00556-00
Short two-page installation overview
Chapter 1: Introduction to the CrossPATH
CrossPATH models
Table 4 and Table 5 summarize the available models by product. Table 6 lists the
available CrossPATH 4 accessories.
Table 4:
CrossPATH 3G models
CrossPATH 3G models Description
77750
8 TI ports, plus router
77760
16 T1 ports, plus router
Table 5:
CrossPATH 4 model
CrossPATH 4 model
Description
74016
16 T1 ports, plus router
Table 6:
CrossPATH 4 accessories
CrossPATH 4
accessory model
number
Description
74020
Power supply module
74152
Dual DS3 option module
74155
Dual DS3 +12 T1 option module
74170
16 T1 (DSX1) option module
Figure 1 and Figure 2 show an overview of CrossPATH units and the functions
they can provide.
CrossPATH models
23
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 1: One CrossPATH can replace multiple CSUs and reduce T1
backhaul circuits
Base Station
Radios
Fractional
T1s
T1s
To MSC
CrossPATH 4
V.35
e911 Locator Equipment
Figure 2:
The CrossPATH can accommodate both 2G and 3G radios
Base Station
Radios
Fractional
T1s
T3
MSC
T3
CrossPATH 4
Optional add/drop
V.35
e911 Locator Equipment
Read this chapter to discover how the CrossPATH’s feature integration provides a
simple, reliable, and high-quality solution to traffic management and security,
while saving your organization time and money.
24
CrossPATH models
Chapter 1: Introduction to the CrossPATH
Features
The CrossPATH Radio Access Multiplexer enables wireless carriers to aggregate
and manage today’s existing networks.
■
■
■
■
CrossPATH 4 only
features
T1 port with
integrated CSU
Router features
Up to 16 T1 ports in a compact, single rack-unit design
Supports 2G to 3G wireless traffic for incremental service upgrades without
additional hardware investments
Complete DS1/DS0 grooming and cross-connect functionality
Integrated CSU functionality on all T1 ports for built-in fault protection and
diagnostics
■
SNMP and traps support existing management systems
■
Integrated QoS router for Ethernet connectivity and management
■
V.35 support
■
RS-232 port
■
Port redundancy (77760 and 74016 models only)
■
Hot swappable redundant power supplies
■
Slot for option modules such as DS3
■
Management Ethernet port
■
Alarm relay contacts
■
Reset button on both front and rear panels
■
Internal temperature sensor
The CrossPATH includes a built-in Channel Service Unit (CSU) that provides:
■
T1 circuit termination
■
T1 and frame monitoring
■
Alarms and diagnostics
■
Best-in-class lightning protection on the base unit
The CrossPATH’s router supports common routing and networking protocols and
features extensive monitoring and reporting capabilities.
■
Static, RIP v1/v2 and OSPF support
■
PPP and Frame Relay
■
DHCP server
■
DNS client, relay
■
VLAN support for 8 LAN subnets
■
Complete QoS DiffServ implementation
■
Traffic reports and monitoring
■
Configurable WAN latency reports
Features
25
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
Traditional NAT
■
■
■
■
Management access
■
■
26
Features
Mapped IP (bi-directional) NAT to allow your LAN-side server to be
accessed from the WAN side
Network Address Port Translation (NAPT)
An intuitive graphical user interface (GUI), accessible via HTTP or HTTPS,
that makes it easier to set up and install the system, and makes system management, monitoring, and reporting accessible and understandable
RS-232, Telnet, and SSH connections for local or remote management via a
command line interface (CLI)
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for remote device
monitoring
Get feedback regarding traffic performance and system status in the form of
graphs, reports, and logs, including:
■
Overall system status
■
T1 cross-connects
■
Physical and link layer status and alarms
■
Real time and historical interface statistics
■
Real time and historical QoS policy reporting and statistics
■
System Log
■
Alarm Log
■
Router Data Log
■
Syslog
■
T1 signal monitoring
■
Frequency monitoring
■
Power supply monitoring (CrossPATH 4 only)
■
Temperature monitoring (CrossPATH 4 only)
■
Quality of Service
(QoS)
Shields your LAN’s internal IP addresses from the WAN
The CrossPATH gives you several options for accessing its features, including:
■
Monitoring and
reporting
Enables the use of private IP subnets behind a single public IP address,
allowing users access to the WAN from a private IP local network
T3 monitoring (CrossPATH 4 only, requires the 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option
module or the 74155 12xDSX1 option module)
The CrossPATH router’s QoS implementation is based on the IP Differentiated
Services (DiffServ) architecture. Traffic can be classified and monitored; the
information collected can be used to apply performance guarantees to the individual DiffServ classes.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the CrossPATH
The QoS feature set includes:
Diagnostics and
Testing
■
Support for all DiffServ classes
■
Configurable QoS marking and remarking on all ingressing traffic
■
Configurable policing of violating traffic
■
Configurable queue weighting and scheduling on all egressing traffic
■
Configurable QoS policies
■
Traffic reports and graphs
■
VoIP and video prioritization
Get feedback regarding traffic performance and system status in the form of
reports and tests, including:
■
Ping
■
Near-end and far-end loopbacks
■
BERT test patterns
■
QRSS
■
2^11-1
■
2^15-1
Features
27
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Compatibilities and standards
The CrossPATH has been developed with proven and reliable industry standards,
and is therefore compatible with other standards-based devices in your existing
network, as shown in Table 7. Refer to “System Specifications” on page 279 for a
more detailed list of standards followed in developing CrossPATH.
Table 7:
CrossPATH compatibility
Feature
Implementation
LAN protocols
■
Ethernet 10Base-T/100Base-Tx
WAN protocols
■
T1/FT1 Frame Relay (FR)
■
T1/FT1 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
■
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP Server)
■
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
■
Static routing
■
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) I and II
■
OSPF
■
DNS Client
■
DNS Relay Agent
■
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
■
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
■
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Network
configuration
protocols
Routing protocols
Domain Name
Service
Internet protocols
Network
management
28
Compatibilities and standards
■
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for T1 and
MIB II
■
Telnet
■
SSH
■
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Chapter 1: Introduction to the CrossPATH
Feature
Class of Service/
Quality of Service
Implementation
■
■
GUI Browsers
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) traffic classification
■
DiffServ codepoint (DSCP) bits
■
Source address
■
Source port
■
Destination address
■
Destination port
■
Protocol
DiffServ traffic conditioning
■
Metering
■
Marking
■
Policing
■
Queue/Scheduling
■
Congestion avoidance
■
Shaping
■
Internet Explorer 6.0 and later
■
Firefox 2.0 and later
Compatibilities and standards
29
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Large-scale deployment
For larger organizations where a significant number of units are deployed, it is
possible to pre-configure systems using Command Line Interface (CLI) scripts or
binary file imports, then distribute the units for installation at your base station or
cell site. A network operator can then perform the final configuration of specific
items remotely through the GUI or CLI.
Wireless carriers often have a common method of operation (MOP) within a given
region. Regional operation managers can easily determine a “typical configuration” or multiple configurations configured on a CrossPATH and save these
typical configurations. The technician can then load a saved configuration file,
modify custom items for that cell site, and be up and running quickly for quicker
installation and ensuring common configurations across the region.
This manual contains additional information about exporting and importing configuration files. Refer to “Saving the system configuration” on page 76.
In general, large-scale deployment should be planned by an experienced network
operator who is familiar with the features you are implementing. Thorough documentation of the process, especially in the planning stages, is recommended.
Alternatively, you can access the CLI and use your terminal emulator software to
send individual command lines from a script. Use this method if you do not have
Internet access to the unit, for example, if you are connecting through the RS-232
port.
You can also use the GUI to configure a CrossPATH unit, then export the running
configuration to a remote file, using the procedure in “Remote file import/export”
on page 76.
30
Large-scale deployment
C
h
a
p
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2
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CrossPATH 3G Hardware
Reference
This chapter provides the following information about the CrossPATH 3G:
■
■
Front panel description
■
T1 ports
■
LAN ports
■
RS-232 port
■
Data port
Power up and power down
31
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Front panel description
CrossPATH 3G ports and connections are located on the front panel for easy
access. The front panel ports and connections are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4,
and described in Table 8.
Figure 3:
77750 front panel
Figure 4:
77760 front panel
Table 8:
32
Front panel description
CrossPATH 3G front panel connectors
Feature
Description
T1 ports
Eight (model 77750) or sixteen (model 77760) short- or
long-haul interfaces on RJ48C connectors wired for a T1
interface. For cable specifications, see Table 56 on page
305.
10/100 Ethernet LAN
Four 10/100Base-Tx Ethernet interfaces (connected as a
four-port switch) on RJ45 connectors. For cable
specifications, see Table 54 on page 304.
RS-232
Supports RS-232 connection on an RJ45 connector with
DTE signals for the CLI. For cable specifications, see
Table 57 on page 305.
Reset
The Reset button is recessed and must be held for at
least three seconds to restart the system without a power
down.
Data port
26-pin serial data port used with V.35-compatible
equipment, such as e911 Locator equipment. For more
information, see Table 59 on page 306.
DC power
24-48 VDC external.
Chapter 2: CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference
T1 ports
The T1 interface ports, shown in Figure 5, support short-haul and long-haul interfaces and are compatible with the following Kentrox RJ48C cables:
■
Catalog #930xx143 (RJ48C plug to RJ48C plug, various lengths)
■
Catalog #930xx144 (RJ48C plug to RJ48C plug, crossover, various lengths)
An “xx” in the part number indicates this cable is available in various lengths.
Figure 5:
77760 T1 ports
See Table 56 on page 305 for the T1 connector pinouts.
T1 port redundancy
On the 77760 model, T1 ports can be connected together via a “Y” cable to form a
redundant group. Both of the T1 receive sides are monitoring the line but only one
port will transmit data; the other transmit port will be in a high impedance state.
T1 LEDs
Table 9:
CrossPATH 3G T1 LEDs description
T1 Condition
LED
No cross-connects are configured
None
Port has T1 cross-connects
configured, and T1 is good
Green
T1 Loss of Signal (LOS) or Out of
Frame (OOF)
Red
Receive yellow alarm (RAI) or receive Green (steady) and Red blinking
AIS
Local or remote loopback is activated Green blinking
or a bit error rate test (BERT) is active
on the port
The T1 port is configured as the
standby port in a redundant group
when the T1 port has no alarms
(CrossPATH 3G 77760 model only)
LAN ports
Green and Red, 2 seconds on and 1 second
off
The Ethernet LAN ports, shown in Figure 6, are auto-sensing, auto-polarity,
10Base-T/100Base-Tx compatible with all standard Ethernet equipment. Connect
to one of the ports for initial setup and configuration with Kentrox RJ45 twisted
pair cable (Catalog #93006212; CAT5E/UTP cable, 6' long, included with unit).
Figure 6 shows the LAN ports on the 77760; they are in the same location on the
77750. See Table 54 on page 304 for the Ethernet LAN connector pinouts.
Front panel description
33
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 6:
CrossPATH 3G Ethernet LAN ports
Table 10: CrossPATH 3G Ethernet port LEDs
RS-232 port
Ethernet Condition
10BT (Yellow)
Link (Green)
10Base-T mode
On
n/a
100Base-Tx mode
Off
n/a
Port is connected
n/a
On
Port is disconnected
n/a
Off
Port is transmitting or
receiving data
n/a
blinking
Use the RS-232 port, shown in Figure 7, for local access to the CLI. Connect to
the port using the Kentrox RJ45 twisted pair cable (Catalog #93006212, CAT5E/
UTP cable, 6' long).
NOTE
The RS-232 port is for CLI access only.
Figure 7:
CrossPATH 3G RS-232 port
Plug the connector adapter (Catalog #77910) into the 9-pin DB9 connector on the
back of most PCs (for example, the COM1 serial port). Then, use an RJ45 to RJ45
straight-through cable to connect the RS-232 port to the adapter.
Figure 7 shows the RS-232 port on the 77760. See Table 57 on page 305 for the
RS-232 connector pinouts, and Table 58 on page 306 for the RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinouts.
NOTE
The RS-232 port LEDs are not implemented.
34
Front panel description
Chapter 2: CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference
Data port
The 26-pin serial data port, shown in Figure 8, can be used with V.35-compatible
equipment, such as V.35 e911 locator equipment.
Figure 8:
CrossPATH 3G data port
There are no activity lights associated with the data port. See Table 59 on page 306
for the connector pinout.
Power cable
The system requires 24-48 VDC, 1.6A power, configured to connect to the power
termination plug supplied with the unit. Two power inputs can be installed. Refer
to the Installation Instructions for more information.
CAUTION!
The power cable functions as the power disconnect device and ground connection. Always plug in the power cable first (before T1, Ethernet) and disconnect it
last, so that the unit is grounded.
Status LEDs
Figure 9 shows the status LED indicators for the 77760 model. The operation of
the LEDs on the 77750 front panel is identical to the 77760.
Figure 9:
CrossPATH 3G front panel status LEDs
Front panel description
35
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
The LED indicators show Power, Alarm, and System status, which can be green,
red, or off. The Alarm LED represents the combined status of all represented
ports. For example, a missing cable from any T1 port will turn the Alarm LED
red. Each LED is described in Table 11.
Table 11: CrossPATH 3G front panel status LED indicators
Condition
LED
Power
Power is applied from either or both power inputs
Green
No power
Off
Alarm
Priority 1
Connection state not configured
Receive status = any
(off during power up)
Off
Priority 2
Red
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service (IS)
Receive status = LOS (Loss of Signal), LOF (Loss of
Frame), AIS (Alarm Indication Signal), RAI (Receive Alarm
Indication)
Priority 3
Green
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service (IS)
Receive status = Good signal conditions (on ports that are
in service)
System
Normal system operation
Green
Any non-interface related system fault condition, such as a Red
memory fault. Call Kentrox support if this condition
persists.
36
Front panel description
Chapter 2: CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference
Power up and power down
Power up
There is no power switch on the CrossPATH 3G. To supply power, ensure that the
unit is properly connected to the 24–48 VDC, 20 Watt, 1.6A power termination
plug that connects to the power module on the front panel. Do not substitute
power termination plugs.
The power cable is the disconnect device on the unit. Disconnect the power cable
from the DC power source if you detect power problems with the unit.
Power on self-test
During power up or a system restart, the unit executes a power on self-test
(POST), checking most of the major electronic circuit functions, including:
■
Front-panel LED lamp test
■
Memory test
■
Programmable Logic Device (PLD) test
■
Read/write Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (UART) test
■
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) load test
■
Ethernet initialization test
■
T1 initialization test
The front-panel SYS LED turns red if this test fails.
Reset
The Reset button is located on the front panel between the RS-232 port and the
data port. The Reset button is recessed to prevent an inadvertent restart, and must
be held for at least three seconds to restart the system without a power down. If
the button is held down for ten to twelve seconds, all system configuration values
are restored to the factory default values. For more information, see “Restarting
the system” on page 77.
System restart
As noted above, a POST is executed when the system is restarted. To initiate a
restart, use the following:
Real time clock
Front Panel
The Reset button
The GUI
Configure > System > System Restart
The CLI
system restart
The unit’s real time clock (RTC) maintains the current date and time, even during
power outages of no less than two hours. Manually set the time to use an internal
clock, or configure an SNTP server with which to synchronize the RTC. For more
information, see “Configuring system settings” on page 71.
Power up and power down
37
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Power down
Before you power down the unit, save the system configuration if you have made
changes that you’d like to keep:
■
Use the CLI command system config save, or
■
Use the GUI option Configure > System > Save & Restore
CAUTION!
If you have ANY cables connected to the Ethernet ports or T1 ports, disconnect
these cables before you power down the unit. Do not reconnect the cables until
after you have powered on the unit. The power connector provides a safety
ground path.
CAUTION!
Do not attempt to power down while a configuration save or software image
update is in progress. Doing so can make the unit inoperable.
To power down the unit, unplug the power cord from the power source.
38
Power up and power down
C
h
a
p
t
3
e
r
CrossPATH 4 Hardware
Reference
This chapter provides the following information about the CrossPATH 4:
■
Front panel description
■
Rear panel description
■
Power up and power down
39
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Front panel description
CrossPATH 4 ports and connections are located on the front and rear panels. The
front panel ports and connections are shown in Figure 10, and described in this
section.
NOTE
The rear panel is shown in Figure 14 and described in “Rear panel description”
on page 46.
Figure 10 shows the front-panel for the 74016 model.
Figure 10: 74016 Front Panel
(2)
(2)
T1
T1
(3)
(3)
(9)
(5)
(4)
(4)
(10)
(6)
T1
T1
(11)
(7)
(12)
(8)
FUSE:
FUSE:
T 3.15A,
T 3.15A,
250V
250V
ALM
ALM
NC
COM
NC
NO
COM
NO
NC
NO
COM
NC
COM
NO
PWR
PWR
RESET
RESET
SYS
SYS
(A)(A)
(B) (B)
(B) RTN
(1)
(1)
(A) SUP
RTN
(B)
(B) RTN
SUP
(B)
(1)(1)LAN
LAN (2)(2)
(A) SUP
(A) RTN
SUP
(A)
DATA
PORT
DATA
PORT
ACT
ACT
MAJOR MINOR
MINOR
MAJOR
Option module slot
(3)(3)
(4)(4)
(9)
(5)
(10)
(6)
(11)
(7)
(12)
(8)
(13)
(13)
(14)
(14)
(15)
(15)
(16)
(16)
24/48
VDC
24/48
VDC30W,1.6A
30W,1.6A
Option module slot exists for DS3 option modules and additional T1 interfaces.
For more information on the TDM option modules, see “Option modules” on page
50.
Connectors
Table 12: CrossPATH 4 front panel connectors
Data port
Feature
Description
Data port
26-pin serial data port used with V.35-compatible
equipment, such as e911 Locator equipment. For cable
specifications, see Table 59 on page 306.
Alarm relay port
The alarm port provides alarm relay contacts for an
external audible or visual alarm system.
10/100 Ethernet LAN
Four 10/100Base-Tx Ethernet interfaces (connected as a
four-port switch) on RJ45 connectors. For cable
specifications, see Table 54 on page 304.
T1 ports
Sixteen short- or long-haul interfaces on RJ48C
connectors wired for a T1 WAN interface. For cable
specifications, see Table 56 on page 305.
DC power
24-48 VDC external.
The 26-pin serial data port (“data port”) shown in Figure 11 can be used with
V.35-compatible equipment, such as V.35 e911 locator equipment.
There are no activity lights associated with the data port. See Table 59 on page 306
for the connector pinout.
40
Front panel description
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Alarm relay port
The alarm port shown in Figure 11 provides alarm relay contacts for an external
audible or visual alarm system.There are three alarm type levels: critical, major,
and minor. Both major and minor alarm relay contacts have both normally open or
normally closed connections. If both the minor and major alarm relays are active,
it is considered a critical alarm. Criticial, major, and minor alarm states are
detected based on the triggers in Table 13.
Table 13: Alarm relay states and triggers
Alarm State
Trigger
Critical Alarm State
■
Loss of power
■
Diagnostic self-test failure
■
During initial self test (POST)
■
After reset caused by pressing the “Reset” button
■
When a temperature sensor exceeds the threshold of 85C
■
When fan speed is outside the range 4800 +/- 1440 RPM
Major Alarm State
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
When a power module is installed and module power is
off
When an installed power module has detected a failure
When a connected, alarm-enabled T1 interface is in LOS,
LOF, or RX AIS alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled DSX1 interface is in
LOS, LOF, or RX AIS alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled DS3 interface is in
LOS, LOF, or RX AIS alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled DS1 interface is in
LOF or RX AIS alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled Dataport interface is in
LOS alarm
Minor Alarm State
■
When a temperature sensor exceeds the threshold of 75C
■
When fan speed is outside the range 4800 +/- 960 RPM
■
■
When a connected, alarm-enabled T1 interface has
exceeded the low signal alarm threshold
When a connected, alarm-enabled T1 interface is in RX
RAI alarm
Front panel description
41
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Alarm State
Trigger
■
■
■
■
■
■
LAN ports
When a connected, alarm-enabled DSX1 interface has
exceeded the low signal alarm threshold
When a connected, alarm-enabled DSX1 interface is in
RX RAI alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled DS1 interface is in
RAI alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled DS3 interface is in
RAI alarm
When a connected, alarm-enabled independent Ethernet
interface is unconnected
When all interfaces of an alarm-enabled independent
Ethernet Switch are unconnected
The Ethernet LAN ports shown in Figure 11 are auto-sensing, auto-polarity,
10Base-T/100Base-Tx compatible, with all standard Ethernet equipment. Connect
to one of the ports for initial setup and configuration with Kentrox RJ45 twisted
pair cable (Catalog #93006212; CAT5E/UTP cable, 6' long, included with unit).
The yellow 10BT light is on for 10Base-T mode and off when the port is in
100Base-Tx mode. The color of the LINK LED in this case is not applicable, and
is marked “n/a” in Table 14.
Figure 11 shows the LAN ports on the 74016. See Table 54 on page 304 for the
Ethernet LAN connector pinouts.
42
Front panel description
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Figure 11: CrossPATH 4 Ethernet LAN ports
MAJOR
LAN
(1)
(2)
NC
COM
NO
NC
COM
NO
DATA PORT
RESET
(3)
MINOR
(4)
NOTE
The default address of the four-port switch is 192.168.1.1, and the DHCP server
serves addresses 192.168.1.100 through 192.168.1.199.
Table 14: CrossPATH 4 Ethernet port LEDs
T1 ports
Ethernet condition
10BT (Yellow)
Activity (Green)
10Base-T mode
On
n/a
100Base-Tx mode
Off
n/a
Port is connected
n/a
On
Port is disconnected
n/a
Off
Port is transmitting or
receiving data
n/a
blinking
The T1 interface ports shown in Figure 12 support short-haul and long-haul interfaces and are compatible with the following Kentrox RJ48C cables:
■
Catalog #930xx143 (RJ48C plug to RJ48C plug, various lengths)
■
Catalog #930xx144 (RJ48C plug to RJ48C plug, crossover, various lengths)
An “xx” in the part number indicates this cable is available in various lengths.
Figure 12: 74016 T1 ports
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(5)
T1
(6)
T1
(3)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(5)
(13)
T1
(6)
(14)
(11)
T1
(15)
(12)
(7)
(8)
(16)
See Table 56 on page 305 for the T1 connector pinouts.
T1 port redundancy
T1 ports can be connected together via a “Y” cable to form a redundant group.
Both of the T1 receive sides are monitoring the line but only one port will transmit
data; the other transmit port will be in a high impedance state.
Front panel description
43
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
T1 LEDs
Table 15: CrossPATH 4 T1 LEDs description
T1 Condition
LED
No cross-connects are configured
None
Port has T1 cross-connects configured, and
T1 is good
Green
T1 Loss of Signal (LOS) or Out of Frame
(OOF)
Red
Receive yellow alarm (RAI) or receive AIS
Green (steady) and Red blinking
Local or remote loopback is activated or a bit Green blinking
error rate test (BERT) is active on the port
The T1 port is configured as the standby port Green and Red, 2 seconds on and 1
in a redundant group when the T1 port has no second off
alarms
Status LEDs
Figure 13 shows the status LED indicators for the 74016 model.
Figure 13: CrossPATH 4 front panel status LEDs
FUSE:
T 3.15A,
250V
(B)
(B) RTN
(B) SUP
SYS
(A) RTN
ALM
(A) SUP
PWR
(A)
ACT
24/48 VDC
30W,1.6A
The front panel LEDs consist of Power, Alarm, System, and Active status LED
indicators, which can be green, red, or off. The Alarm LED represents the combined status of all represented ports. For example, a missing cable from any T1
Port will turn the Alarm LED red. Each LED is described in Table 16.
Table 16: CrossPATH 4 front panel status LED indicators
Condition
LED
Power (PWR)
Power is applied from either or both power inputs
Green
No power
Off
Alarm (ALM)
Priority 1
Transmit State not configured
Receive status = any
(off during power up)
Off
Priority 2
Red
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service (IS)
Receive status = LOS (Loss of Signal), LOF (Loss of
Frame), AIS (Alarm Indication Signal), RAI (Receive Alarm
Indication)
44
Front panel description
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Table 16: CrossPATH 4 front panel status LED indicators (continued)
Condition
LED
Priority 3
Green
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service (IS)
Receive status = Good signal conditions (on ports that are
in service)
System (SYS)
Normal system operation
Green
Any non-interface related system fault condition, such as a Red
memory fault. Call Kentrox support if this condition
persists.
Active (ACT)
Power cable
Normal system operation
Green
Reserved for future use
Off
The Installation Instructions provide instructions on how to power on the system.
Before you connect any cables, read the caution below and “General safety precautions” on page 7.
CAUTION!
The power cable functions as the power disconnect device and ground connection. Always plug in the power cable first (before T1, Ethernet) and disconnect it
last, so that the unit is grounded.
Reset button
The Reset button is located between the LAN ports and the T1 ports. The button is
recessed and must be held for at least three seconds to restart the system without a
power down. If the button is held for ten to twelve seconds, all system configuration values are restored to the factory default values. For more information, see
“Restarting the system and restoring the configuration” on page 77.
Front panel description
45
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Rear panel description
The Management Ethernet port, the RS-232 port, and the power supply modules
are located on the rear panel. The rear panel ports for the 74016 model are shown
in Figure 14, and described in this section.
Rear panel
connectors
Figure 14: CrossPATH 4 rear panel shown w/optional 2nd power module
RS-232
A
R
PW
STAT
LM
SY
S
A
C
T
R
ES
ET
10/100 LAN
STAT
Table 17: CrossPATH 4 rear panel connectors
Power supply
modules
Feature
Description
Power supply modules
Power module input slots. The “A” module (standard) is
located close to the status LEDs and the “B” module
(optional) is located at the left edge of the panel, as shown
in Figure 15.
10/100 LAN
(Management Ethernet
Port)
One 10/100Base-Tx Ethernet interface on a RJ45
connector. For cable specifications, see Table 54 on page
304.
RS-232
Supports RS-232 connection on an RJ45 connector with
DTE signals for the CLI. For cable specifications, see
Table 57 on page 305.
The CrossPATH 4 comes with one power supply module (Catalog #74020). An
extra slot is available for redundant power source backup. Modules are hot-swappable in the sense that you can add or remove a second power module without
bringing the system down.
Figure 15: Power supply modules
STAT
Power Supply Module “B”
STAT
Power Supply Module “A”
For information on installing and swapping out power supply modules, see
“Power supply module installation” on page 53.
46
Rear panel description
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Table 18: Power supply STAT (Status) conditions
Management
Ethernet port
Condition
LED Color
Connected
Green
Input voltage for “A” module disconnected
Red
No input power to either module
Off
Power supply failure
Red
The Management Ethernet port, shown in Figure 14, is auto-sensing and 10BaseT/100Base-Tx compatible with all standard Ethernet equipment. Connect to the
port for initial setup and configuration with Kentrox RJ45 twisted pair cable (Catalog #93006212; CAT5E/UTP cable, 6' long, included with unit).
Only limited information is available from the Ethernet port LEDs. For example,
the yellow 10BT light is on for 10Base-T mode and off when the port is in
100Base-Tx mode. The color of the LINK LED in this case is not applicable, and
is marked “n/a” in the following table.
See Table 54 on page 304 for the Ethernet LAN connector pinouts.
Table 19: Management Ethernet port LEDs
Ethernet Condition
10BT (Yellow)
Link (Green)
10Base-T mode
On
n/a
100Base-Tx mode
Off
n/a
Port is connected
n/a
On
Port is disconnected
n/a
Off
Port is transmitting or
receiving data
n/a
blinking
NOTE
The management Ethernet port will have a default address of 192.168.2.1. When
the management port is configured for DHCP server operation, it will serve an
address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet. The DHCP server on this port can serve up to
253 IP addresses, but is set by default for 20 IP addresses.
RS-232 port
Use the RS-232 port, shown in Figure 16, for local access to the CLI. Connect to
the port using the Kentrox RJ45 twisted pair cable (Catalog #93006212, CAT5E/
UTP cable, 6' long).
NOTE
The RS-232 port is for CLI access only.
Rear panel description
47
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 16: RS-232 port
RS-232
SY
S
A
C
T
R
ES
ET
LM
A
PW
R
10/100 LAN
Plug the connector adapter (Catalog #77910) into the 9-pin DB9 connector on the
back of most PCs (for example, the COM1 serial port). Then, use an RJ45 to RJ45
straight-through cable to connect the RS-232 port to the adapter.
Figure 16 shows the RS-232 port on the 74016. See Table 57 on page 305 for the
RS-232 connector pinouts, and Table 58 on page 306 for the RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinouts.
NOTE
The RS-232 port LEDs are not implemented.
Reset
The rear panel reset button is located next to the management Ethernet port. The
button is recessed and must be held for at least three seconds to restart the system
without a power down. If the button is held for twelve seconds, all system configuration values are restored to the factory default values. For more information, see
“Restarting the system and restoring the configuration” on page 66.
Rear panel status
LEDs
The rear panel status LEDs work in unison with the status LEDs on the front
panel. The rear panel LEDs consist of Power, Alarm, System, and Active status
LED indicators, which can be green, red, or off. The Alarm LED represents the
combined status of all represented ports. For example, a missing cable from any
T1 port will turn the Alarm LED red, unless that port has been disabled. Each
LED is described in Table 20.
Figure 17: Rear Panel status LEDs
PW
R
A
LM
SY
S
A
C
T
R
ES
ET
10/100 LAN
48
Rear panel description
RS-232
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Table 20: Rear panel status LED descriptions
Condition
LED Color
Power (PWR)
Power is applied from either or both power inputs
Green
No power
Off
Alarm (ALM)
Priority 1
Transmit State not configured
Receive status = any
(off during power up)
Off
Priority 2
Red
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service
(IS)
Receive status = LOS (Loss of Signal), LOF (Loss of
Frame), AIS (Alarm Indication Signal), RAI (Receive
Alarm Indication)
Priority 3
Transmit State = Out of Service (OOS) or In Service
(IS)
Receive status = Good signal conditions (on ports
that are in service)
Green
System (SYS)
Normal system operation
Green
Any non-interface related system fault condition,
such as a memory fault. Call Kentrox support if this
condition persists.
Red
Active (ACT)
Normal system operation
Green
Reserved for future use
Red
Rear panel description
49
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Option modules
74152 TDM 2xDS3
option module
The 74152 option module provides CrossPATH 4 with DS3 capability to enable
wireless carriers to aggregate and manage today’s existing networks. DS3 is
referred to as T3 in command line options and in the GUI. The 74152 TDM
2xDS3 option module has two DS3 interfaces.
Figure 18: 74152 option module
RCV
XMT
RCV
XMT
P1
P2
Table 21: DS3 LEDs description
XMT LED
74155 12xDSX1
option module
50
Option modules
RCV LED
Description
Green
Green
No alarms or loopbacks active on port
(normal status)
Off
Off
Unit is booting, or there are no crossconnections to the DS3
Red / Green
(cycling)
Red / Green
(cycling)
Green
Red
Unit is performing its LED test
LOS or OOF alarm present, no loopbacks
active
Green
Red
Receiving RAI, no loopbacks active
(flashing at 1 Hz)
Green
Red
Receiving AIS, no loopbacks active
(flashing at 4 Hz)
Green
(flashing
2 seconds ON,
1 second OFF)
Green
(flashing
2 seconds ON,
1 second OFF)
Green
(flashing at 1 Hz)
Red or Green
depending on
alarm state
Port is configured as Standby Port, no
alarms or loopbacks active
Port is in Line Loopback or Payload
Loopback
The 74155 option module for CrossPATH 4 enables carriers to substantially
expand existing wireless networks, quickly and easily. The 74155 module
includes two DS3 and 12 T1 (DSX1) interfaces, enabling up to 28 T1s and two
DS3s in a single rack unit.
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Figure 19: 74155 option module
DS3
XMT
P1
74170 16xDSX1
option module
RCV
(17)
(18)
(19)
DSX1 (20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
XMT
P2
RCV
The 74170 option module provides CrossPATH 4 with an additional 16 T1
(DSX1) interfaces, enabling carriers to quickly and easily expand existing wireless networks. With the 74170 module, the CrossPATH 4 can support up to 32 T1s
in a single rack unit.
Figure 20: 74170 T1 ports
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
DSX1 (21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
Option modules
51
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Power up and power down
Power up
There is no power switch on the CrossPATH. To supply power, ensure that the unit
is properly connected using the provided 24–48 VDC, 30 Watt, 2A power termination plug as described in the Installation Instructions. Do not substitute power
termination plugs.
The power cable is the disconnect device on the unit. Disconnect the power cable
from the DC power source if you detect power problems with the unit.
Power on self-test
During power up or a system restart, the unit executes a power on self-test
(POST), checking most of the major electronic circuit functions, including:
■
Front-panel LED lamp test
■
Memory test
■
Programmable Logic Device (PLD) test
■
Read/write Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (UART) test
■
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) load test
■
Ethernet initialization test
■
T1 initialization test
The SYS LED on both panels turns red if this test fails.
Reset
There are two Reset buttons, one located on each panel. The front panel button is
located between the Ethernet LAN ports and the T1 ports and the rear panel button
is located between the Active LED and the Management Ethernet port.The Reset
button is recessed to prevent an inadvertent restart, and must be held for at least
three seconds to restart the system without a power down. If the button is held
down for ten-to-twelve seconds, all system configuration values are restored to
the factory default values. For more information, see “Saving the system configuration” on page 76.
System restart
As noted above, a POST is executed when the system is restarted. To initiate a
restart, use the following:
Real time clock
52
Power up and power down
Front Panel
The Reset button
The GUI
Configure > System > System Restart
The CLI
system restart
The unit’s real time clock (RTC) maintains the current date and time during power
outages of no less than two hours. Manually set the time to use an internal clock,
or configure an SNTP server with which to synchronize the RTC. For more information, see “Configuring system settings” on page 71.
Chapter 3: CrossPATH 4 Hardware Reference
Power down
Before you power down the unit, save the system configuration if you have made
changes that you’d like to keep:
■
Use the CLI command system config save, or
■
Use the GUI option Configure > System > Save & Restore
CAUTION!
If you have ANY cables connected to the Ethernet ports or T1 ports, disconnect
these cables before you power down the unit. Do not reconnect the cables until
after you have powered on the unit. The power connector provides a safety
ground path.
CAUTION!
Do not attempt to power down while a configuration save or software image
update is in progress. Doing so can make the unit inoperable.
To power down the unit, unplug the power cord from the power source.
Power supply
module installation
The CrossPATH 4 Power Supply Module Installation Instructions explain how to
perform a basic installation of the 74020 power supply module. A printed copy of
the CrossPATH 4 Power Supply Module Installation Instructions is included with
each 74020 power supply module, and an online PDF version is included on the
user documentation CD. There is a separate Installation Instructions document for
the CrossPATH 4 model.
The CrossPATH 4 Power Supply Module Installation Instructions cover:
Power supply
monitoring
■
Safety precautions
■
Preparing the power termination plug
■
Removing the cover or module (if replacing)
■
Installing the power supply module
■
Verifying successful installation
Monitor the condition of the power supplies, as shown in Figure 21, on the CrossPATH 4 using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > System
The CLI
system show power status
Power up and power down
53
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 21: Monitoring power supply modules
Slot
There are two slots for redundant power supplies: A and B. Slot A is closest to the
CrossPATH 4 label.
ID
The product ID number for the power supply module displays here. The default is
74020. An empty power module slot displays <empty>.
Power status
A green LED indicates that the power supply is functioning normally. A red LED
indicates that the power supply has a problem and is not supplying power correctly. A gray LED indicates that no power supply has been detected.
Fan status
A green LED indicates that the power supply fan is functioning normally. A red
LED indicates that the power supply fan has a problem.
54
Power up and power down
C
h
a
p
t
4
e
r
Configuring the System
This chapter provides a guide to the methods used to access and configure system
features:
■
Installing and setting up
■
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
■
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
■
Adding and managing users
■
Setting options for remote management
■
Configuring system settings
■
System date and time
■
Updating the system software
■
Saving the system configuration
■
Restarting the system and restoring the configuration
For management purposes, the system is accessible from the LAN and the WAN.
55
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Installing and setting up
The Installation Instructions explain how to perform a basic installation and configuration of the CrossPATH. A printed copy of the Installation Instructions is
included with each CrossPATH unit, and a PDF version is included on the user
documentation CD. Because the CrossPATH models vary in the features and connections provided, there are separate Installation Instructions for the CrossPATH
3G and CrossPATH 4 units.
The network operator needs to provide the installer with key configuration information for the T1 ports, LAN ports, router setup, and data ports—information
such as IP addresses, gateways, protocols, and so on. It is recommended that the
network operator read the Installation Instructions for a thorough understanding
of what the remote installer is required to do.
The Installation Instructions cover:
■
Requirements for safe installation
■
Site requirements and installation preparation
■
Step-by-step installation and basic configuration
■
Optional accessories available
Follow the instructions in the Installation Instructions before configuring system
features.
56
Installing and setting up
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
The CrossPATH features a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) to enable
access to all management and monitoring functions. Figure 22 shows the home
(default) page for the CrossPATH 4 model. The CrossPATH 3G home page is similar, but does not include option module information.
Figure 22: Graphical user interface (GUI), CrossPATH 4
Accessing the GUI
Initial access to the GUI is described in the Installation Instructions. The unit’s
default LAN IP address is 192.168.1.1, but you may change this during initial
configuration. If you are using the Management Ethernet port on the rear panel,
the default LAN IP address is 192.168.2.1, but you can change this during initial configuration.
Using HTTP to access the GUI
To access the GUI using HTTP, enter the appropriate IP address in the web
browser’s address field and press Enter. A login prompt for your user name and
password opens. The prompt varies depending on your browser.
Example: http://192.168.1.1
Using HTTPS to access the GUI
To access the GUI using HTTPS, enter the appropriate IP address in the web
browser’s address field and press Enter. A login prompt for your user name and
password opens. The prompt varies depending on your browser.
Example: https://192.168.1.1
NOTE
HTTPS access is enabled by default, and can be disabled or restricted on the Configure > System > Basic GUI page. For more information on remote management
access, see “Management access” on page 65. For more information on which
SSL encryptions are supported, see Table 39 on page 282.
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
57
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
TIP
See “System Specifications” on
page 279 for a list of compatible browsers.
The system is initially configured with a user named “admin,” with Admin user
rights and no password. Refer to “Adding and managing users” on page 63 and the
online help for instructions on setting up a password for the default user “admin.”
CrossPATH GUI
features
Each page of the GUI enables you to access a specific feature. The Monitor and
Configure button sets on the left side panel, as shown in Figure 23, are static and
arranged for easy navigation. When clicked, each button opens a top-level page
for that section. Within a section, there can be multiple pages. The available pages
are displayed in the “sub-level” tabs underneath the “top level” tabs.
Figure 23: GUI features
“top level” tabs
“sub-level” tabs
In general, the Monitor buttons give you access to real time traffic statistics, status, reports, logs, and test results. The Configure buttons allow you to configure
and manage basic and advanced features.
Additional GUI
buttons
Three additional buttons are located in the top right of the interface, as shown in
Figure 24. These buttons provide easy access to features you might occasionally
need.
Figure 24: Additional Buttons
58
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Click the Help button for information about the prompts, fields and configuration
options on the page you are currently viewing. Each time you go to a new page,
you must select Help again for information about the new page.
Click the Log Out button to exit the system.
If your network has access to a domain name server, click the Online Support
button to access the Kentrox Support web page.
GUI mouse overs
There are several places in the interface where “mouse overs” provide you with
additional information. For example, on the Monitor > System page, you can hold
the mouse cursor over each individual T1 interface, as shown in Figure 25. A
small dialog box displays with the T1 interface’s port name and circuit ID. If these
two items were not configured on the Configure > Interfaces pages, the rollover for
a T1 interface will display the default port name, and the circuit ID will be represented as “CktId:”.
Figure 25: Mouse over example, CrossPATH 4
The Monitor > Connections page also contains mouse overs to identify the circuit
ID of the interface. Elsewhere, the Port Name may be included as part of the table,
such as on the Configure > Connections page.
Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
59
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
GUI access is encouraged for the majority of users, but the CrossPATH also has
the flexibility to support a Command Line Interface (CLI). The CLI provides a
text-based capability to manage features. It is recommended that you use the CLI
instead of the GUI only in the following circumstances:
■
■
■
You are directed by technical support to use the CLI to recover from an event
where the GUI is not accessible, for example, if a software upgrade is interrupted by a power failure before completion.
You are using scripts to configure multiple systems for future deployment to
remote sites.
You are are more comfortable setting up advanced features outside the GUI.
CLI sessions may be started from the console RS-232 interface, via Telnet session, or via Secure Shell (SSH).
RS-232 access
Use the RS-232 port to make a connection to the system (for example, from DTE,
Data Terminal Equipment) via an RJ45 cable and RJ45 to DE9S cable adapter.
See “RS-232 port” on page 34 for more information on making this connection.
See “RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinout” on page 306 for the adapter cable
pinouts.
Open a terminal emulator on your console (for example, HyperTerminal). Use the
port settings, as shown in Table 22:
TIP
When accessing the CLI, configure your terminal emulator
for VT100.
Table 22: Terminal emulator port settings
Description
Value
Bits per second
9600 baud
Data bits
8 data bits
Parity
None
Stop bits
1 stop bit
Flow control
None
Press Enter to get the CLI login prompt. After logging in (typically, as “admin”),
your session is terminated when you log out, or when the session is idle for 15
minutes.
Telnet access
You can also access the CLI through an IP connection using Telnet. To do this:
1. Ensure that Telnet is enabled for access via the GUI on the Configure > System
> Basic page. (Telnet is enabled by default.)
60
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
TIP
You can use the SSH protocol
instead of Telnet to access the
CLI. SSH is more secure.
2. On your computer, open a Telnet session and connect to the system’s IP
address.
3. Enter your user name and password at the prompt. (If this is your first time
accessing the system, log in as “admin”. No password is present until you
configure one.)
4. When the session is terminated, the Telnet connection will be closed.
Navigating the CLI
In addition to typing commands directly in the CLI, you can also type “help”
(without the quotes) at the command-line prompt to list the following tips:
Command Completion
■
■
Press Tab halfway through typing a keyword to complete it, if it is unique.
Press ? halfway through typing a keyword to view all valid completions of
that prefix.
■
Press ? after typing a keyword to see a list of the words that can follow it.
■
Press ? at the top-level prompt to display a list of available command groups.
Cursor Movement
■
Use the Up and Down cursor keys to move backward and forward through the
command history.
■
Use the left cursor key, or CTRL+B, to move the cursor to the left.
■
Use the right cursor key, or CTRL+F, to move the cursor to the right.
■
Use CTRL+A and CTRL+E to move the cursor to the start and end of a line,
respectively.
Editing In Line
■
Use Backspace or Delete to erase the character to the left of the cursor.
■
Use CTRL+D to delete the character under the cursor.
■
Use CTRL+W to erase the current word, or from the beginning of the word
to the cursor if in mid-word.
■
Use CTRL+U or CTRL+X to erase to the beginning of the line.
■
Use CTRL+K to erase the line from the cursor to the end of line.
■
Use CTRL+T to transpose the character under the cursor with the preceding
character.
Also, note that:
■
■
■
Anything after a “#” in a command line is treated as a comment and ignored.
“\” (backslash) may be used to “escape” the next character, for example, if
you need to use “#” in a string parameter like a password.
Strings containing spaces may be quoted with single or double quotes. The
quote mark must be the first and last character in the parameter.
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
61
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Using a script
The CLI can also read a file containing a list of commands—in other words, a
script. The commands are processed in order as if they were typed on the console
or into a Telnet or SSH session. To use a script:
1. Prepare an ASCII text file containing the commands to be executed, for example, commands.txt. The commands should be the same commands and in
the same order as if you were entering them at the command line.
2. Start an FTP session from a remote PC.
TIP
If you do not have Internet
access to the system and can’t
FTP the file, use terminal
emulator software such as
PowerTerm. Many emulator
packages are capable of sending individual command lines
from a script.
3. Log in with a user account name and password with Admin access privileges
(see “Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI)” on page 57).
4. Set the FTP mode to ASCII by entering the ascii command.
5. “put” the text file to the device, for example:
put commands.txt
6. Use the CLI source command to execute the commands from the file. The
syntax of the command is:
source <filename>
So, to execute the script using this example, enter:
source commands.txt
62
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Adding and managing users
User accounts
At a minimum, at least one user account must have an access privilege of Admin.
If no account has the required minimum access privilege, such as at initial login or
in the case of an accidental deletion, an account is automatically created and
logged in with the Admin access privilege.
To create a user account, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced, then select Add User
The CLI
system add user
system set user password
Up to ten users can be granted access to the system, but only one user at a time
should access the GUI. The following must be set for each user:
■
■
Name. Names must be unique and can be up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
The name must start with a letter, but may include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that.
Password. Passwords may be up to 16 characters long and consist of letters,
digits, and any of the following characters: `[email protected]#$%^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,./
NOTE
When using the GUI, passwords are required on all accounts except the initial
Admin account.
■
Access privileges. The access level for each user. There are three levels available: View, Config, and Admin.
NOTE
When using the CLI, new users are automatically created with “View” privileges.
Use the system set user access command to change the access privileges,
if desired.
■
User access
privileges
Description. A description of the user, using up to 254 alphanumeric
characters.
The system provides three levels of user access privileges.
View access (the default) allows a user to:
■
View system configuration
■
View statistics
■
View performance data.
In general, a user with View access is not permitted to change any configuration
parameters or disrupt the system in any way.
Config access allows a user to:
■
View the system configuration
Adding and managing users
63
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
Update system software
■
Make changes to and save the system configuration
■
Make changes to their own password
■
Configure report parameters
■
Clear or reset the statistics and performance data
Admin access allows a user to do all Config functions plus:
■
Add, delete, and administer users for login
To set user access privileges, use the following:
64
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced, then select “edit” for that
user under the Configuration column
The CLI
system set user access
Adding and managing users
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Setting options for remote management
Management access
Many features are available for remote management, but must be explicitly
enabled for access. For your convenience, these options are enabled by default.
You can permit or deny access from “any” source address, or there is also an
option to permit from a particular source address.
These settings are enabled by default, but you may need to review or change the
settings for security reasons. To enable or disable any of the above access options,
use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Basic
The CLI
System level commands in the CLI Reference Guide
Figure 26: Graphical user interface (GUI), CrossPATH 4
■
Application. Management access options include:
Table 23: Management access options
Option
Description
FTP
Transferring images and command files
HTTP
GUI management
HTTPS
GUI management
ICMP
Ping
SNMP
Network management
SSH
CLI management
Telnet
CLI management
OSPF
Routing protocol
RIP
Routing protocol
Setting options for remote management
65
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
■
66
Enable. Check the checkboxes in this section to permit access from the
network.
Source Address. You can match the application to a specific address or source,
or leave it enabled for any source. If you select a user-entered name, fill in the
"Value" box that appears in the Value column of the table. The default is
"any."
Setting options for remote management
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Configuring and using SNMP
The CrossPATH supports Simple Network Management Protocol versions 1 and
2c (v1 and v2c) for network management.
In order to manage the system with SNMP, at least one SNMP manager must be
explicitly configured from the CLI or GUI. At factory default, an AIdirector
SNMP V1 Manager is automatically created.
To configure SNMP, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
SNMP configuration commands in the CLI Reference
Guide
NOTE
To use SNMP from the network side, enable SNMP in the Management Access
section on the Configure > System > Basic page.
The system’s SNMP implementation includes:
■
■
■
SNMP traps for alarms, GETs, and SETs on some basic MIB objects
Configuration of up to eight v1 managers, each with a distinct host address
and read or read/write community string
Configuration of up to eight trap host destinations
Supported MIBs
Supported MIBs and MIB objects are listed in “SNMP Support” on page 309. To
download supported MIBs and MIB objects, call the Technical Assistance Center
number, located in “If you need assistance” on page 3.
Defining SNMP
system parameters
The MIB II system parameters sysName, sysContact, and sysLocation can be configured using:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
SNMP and System level commands in the CLI Reference
Guide
On the Configure > System > Advanced page, the SNMP sysName, sysContact, and
sysLocation parameters correspond to the System Name, Contact Name and System Location fields, respectively. If you change these variables via SNMP, they
are reflected in the system contact fields. If you change the system contact information via the GUI or CLI, it is reflected in SNMP.
Configuring and using SNMP
67
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
SNMP community
strings
SNMP uses password-like community strings to determine if an SNMP packet
should be processed. The CrossPATH uses the standard default community
strings. You can change them if you want to restrict SNMP access. These are set
individually when creating trap hosts and v1 managers.
Table 24: SNMP community strings
Community
String
Creating a trap host
Default
Description
Read
public
This community string controls reading of MIB variables.
Write
private
This community string controls writing values to MIB
variables.
Trap
snmptrap
This community string is used by the network
management application to validate that the trap is from
an authorized host.
To create trap hosts, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced, then select Add Trap
Host
The CLI
SNMP commands in the CLI Reference Guide
Up to eight trap host destinations can be created:
■
The default trap community string is “trap.”
■
The trap host has a name and IP address to identify it.
NOTE
You need access privileges of Config or Admin to view and modify community
strings.
Figure 27: Graphical user interface (GUI), CrossPATH 4
68
Configuring and using SNMP
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
■
■
■
■
Creating a V1
manager
Name. Enter a unique name for the trap host. Enter up to 12 characters, starting with a letter, and the name may include digits, hyphens, and underscores
after that. This field is not available if you are editing an SNMP trap host. If
you need to edit an SNMP trap host name, you must delete the trap host and
re-enter the configuration with the new name.
IP Address. Enter the IP address, using dotted decimal notation, of the trap
host to which the system will direct the generated traps.
Community. Enter the community string to be included in the generated traps
directed to this trap host, using up to 25 characters. The string can consist of
letters, digits, and any of the following characters: [email protected]#$%^&*()_+={}[]:;<>?,./
Trap Version. Select the SNMP version the system will use to format the generated traps directed to this trap host.
To create trap hosts, v1 managers, and community strings, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced, then select Add Trap
Host
Configure > System > Advanced, then select Add V1
Manager
The CLI
SNMP commands in the CLI Reference Guide
Up to eight v1 managers can be created:
■
The default read community string is “public.”
■
The default write community string is empty.
■
An IP address of 0.0.0.0 will create an open read community.
NOTE
A V1 manager for AIdirector is configured on the CrossPATH 4 by default. If you
need to add eight V1 managers, delete this V1 manager before adding the eighth
V1 manager.
Figure 28: Adding a V1 manager
Configuring and using SNMP
69
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
■
■
■
70
Configuring and using SNMP
Name. Enter a unique name for the V1 manager you are adding. Enter up to
12 characters, starting with a letter, and the name may include digits, hyphens,
and underscores after that. You cannot edit an existing name; you must delete
it and re-enter the configuration with a new name.
IP Address. Enter the IP address, using dotted decimal notation, of the V1
manager.
Community. Enter up to 25 letters and numbers. The community string is
included in the messages from this V1 manager for authentication purposes.
The string can consist of letters, digits, and any of the following characters:
[email protected]#$%^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,.
SNMP Access. Select the SNMP access privileges from the list. You can limit
the V1 manager to only read current SNMP settings (Read-Only), or you can
allow it to change some of the SNMP settings (Read-Write).
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Configuring system settings
System timing
Select the T1 transmit timing source for each T1 associated with a System-Timed
T1 cross-connection on the Configure > System > Basic page. T1 cross-connections
are set up on the Configure > Connections page. The default values for both primary and secondary clocks are set to Local Clock. The Local Clock is an internal
clock source contained within the CrossPATH.
NOTE
If either the 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module or the 74155 12xDSX1 option
module is installed and configured, you can also select a T3 interface as the
source interface and select a DS1 within a T3 as the clock source.
Primary Clock
Select a primary clock from the list. The available clocks are the local clock,
found on the CrossPATH, or the T1 receive clocks found within each T1 interface
on your system.
Once the Primary Clock is verified, the system-timed connections will use this
timing reference to output data. If the Primary Clock's reference fails, the system
will switch to the Secondary Clock's reference source. Likewise, when both the
primary and secondary references fail, the CrossPATH will revert back to the
Local Clock. Once the secondary or primary clock sources recover, the unit will
revert back to the selected source.
NOTE
On a CrossPATH 4, if the 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module is installed and configured, you can also select a T3 interface as the source interface and select a DS1
within a T3 as the clock source. If the 74155 TDM 12xDSX1 option module is
installed and configured, you can also select a DSX1 interface as the source
interface.
Secondary Clock
The available clocks are the local clock, found on the CrossPATH, or the T1
receive clocks found within each T1 interface on your system.
NOTE
On a CrossPATH 4, if the 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module is installed and configured, you can also select a T3 interface as the source interface and select a DS1
within a T3 as the clock source. If the 74155 TDM 12xDSX1 option module is
installed and configured, you can also select a DSX1 interface as the source
interface.
System Reference Clock
The System Reference Clock specifies the currently selected clock reference. It is
selected by the system from the Primary Clock source, Secondary Clock source,
or Local Clock.
Configuring system settings
71
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
System date and
time
The time options enable you to set the unit’s real time clock (RTC), which keeps
the system date and time. You can manually set the date and time for the RTC, or
configure the unit as a Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) client to retrieve
the date and time from an SNTP server.
NOTE
In the case of a power interruption, the system date and time are maintained for
not less than two hours.
Setting the real time clock
To manually set the system time zone, system date and system time, use the
following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Basic
The CLI
system set sntp timezone
system set time
system set date
Local time zone
All International time zones, including Greenwich mean and the International
Dateline West, are listed in the Time Zone menu. Be sure to specify your local
time zone when setting the system clock. The default is Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT).
Using an SNTP server
SNTP is used to synchronize clocks on network devices. SNTP server use is
highly recommended to keep accurate time, as the RTC is only accurate to ±100
parts-per-million (about ± 9 seconds per day). Accuracy of time reporting in logs
is very important when coordinating events at different locations.
You can add one SNTP server address.
TIP
SNTP is enabled in unicast
mode only.
To add an SNTP server, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Basic
The CLI
system add sntp server
If you have configured the DNS client servers in Configure > System > Basic, you
can use the server name instead of the IP Address to add an SNTP server.
72
Configuring system settings
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Setting SNTP parameters using the Command Line Interface
You can use the command line interface to set parameters for polling, timeouts,
retries, and timezones, using the following:
The CLI
■
■
■
■
■
system
system
system
system
system
set
set
set
set
set
sntp
sntp
sntp
sntp
sntp
sync
pollintv
retries
timeout
timezone
The sync command forces the SNTP client to immediately synchronize the
local time using the configured SNTP server.
The pollintv parameter sets the SNTP client to automatically send a time synchronization request to the network at a specific poll interval.
The retries parameter specifies the number of retry attempts that are made if
no response is received from the SNTP server. If this is set, the timeout value
indicates how many seconds pass before a retry is attempted.
The timeout parameter specifies the number of seconds to wait for a response
from the SNTP server after submitting a Sync request.
The timezone parameter sets the local time zone abbreviation as a parameter
and configures the local system to be up to +/- 13 hours of the Universal Time
Coordinate (UTC).
NOTE
Resynchronization polling consists of sending synchronization requests to the
SNTP Server. If set to 0 minutes, which is the default, the effect is to disable
Resynchronization Polling.
Finding SNTP servers
If you do not already have an SNTP-compatible server in your network, several
are available for purchase and also as public-domain software. For example, NetTime (public-domain software from SourceForge.net™) is a simple, unobtrusive
time-synchronization client for Windows. NetTime retrieves the current time from
publicly-accessible SNTP servers at regular intervals, then relays the current time
to their clients when polled.
Find NetTime on the web at http://nettime.sourceforge.net/.
Default route
The default gateway address is important for routing and network access. For networks that do not have a static route assigned, traffic to these networks is sent to
the default gateway address.
■
■
Gateway IP Address. Enter the default gateway address in dotted decimal
notation (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx). To delete the existing gateway IP address, click
in this field and delete the IP address, then click the Apply button.
Interface. Select the interface to attach to the gateway address you entered
above.
Configuring system settings
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Adding a system
contact
You can store contact information for an individual or organization related to the
maintenance of the unit, using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
system set contact
In addition to the contact information, you have space to add additional information or comments.
The System Name, Contact Name and System Location fields are also used to
configure the SNMP agent. They correspond to the MIB II variables sysName,
sysContact and sysLocation, respectively. If you change these variables via
SNMP, they are reflected in the system contact fields. If you change the system
contact information via the GUI or CLI, it is reflected in SNMP.
For more information on SNMP, see “SNMP Support” on page 309.
74
Configuring system settings
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Updating the system software
When an updated software version is available, it can be downloaded from the
Kentrox web site and installed on the unit using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Software Update
The CLI
system update image
Image files end in the “.img” extension. Whether you are using the GUI or CLI
to update system software, you must be able to browse to the downloaded image
on an accessible local or network drive.
CLI users must first FTP the software image to the unit, and thus require FTP
access privileges. Use binary transfer mode and the put command to transfer the
image file to the unit’s base directory.
Restart the system to complete the software update.
CAUTION!
Installing software images is a potentially dangerous operation. If power is lost
during the update, the device will not be able to run normally and must be repaired
using a different procedure. Because of this risk, it is important to update the software only in a controlled, stable environment.
If you do experience a power loss during a software update and are unable to
reboot the unit, help is available on the web from the Kentrox Knowledge Base at
http://kb.kentrox.com/.
Updating the system software
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Saving the system configuration
As you make changes to the system configuration, the unit stores the changes to
RAM. Once you have tested your changes and are satisfied with the results, you
should save your changes to non-volatile Flash memory.
Save updates to the system configuration using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Save & Restore
The CLI
system config save
NOTE
Save the system configuration after making any changes. Otherwise, your changes
are lost if you lose power or forget to save before you restart the system.
Remote file import/
export
The system provides a mechanism to export your current running configuration or
your last saved configuration to a remote file using the GUI, which can be useful
in order to make a backup of complicated installations. The exported file can also
be imported to another CrossPATH system.
You can also import and export saved system configuration files using the CLI
and the GUI.
The GUI
Configure > System > Save & Restore > Remote File
Import/Export Operations
The CLI
system config commands in the CLI Reference
Guide
NOTE
Restart the system after importing or restoring a previously saved configuration.
76
Saving the system configuration
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Restarting the system and restoring the configuration
Restarting the
system
The system can be restarted in the following three ways:
The GUI
Configure > System > System Restart
The CLI
system restart
The unit
The Reset button
Using the GUI
When using the GUI to restart the unit, you have the option of also resetting the
unit to its factory defaults, or saving the current configuration.
Using the CLI
You can use the CLI to restart the unit or restore a saved configuration or the factory defaults.
Using the Reset button
When using the Reset button:
■
■
Hold the Reset button in for at least three seconds (until the SYS LED turns
solid red) to reboot the device immediately. The saved configuration is not
affected. Any unsaved configuration changes are lost.
Hold the Reset button for approximately 10 to 12 seconds or longer to reboot
the unit and force it to ignore the saved configuration and instead read the factory default configuration. The last-saved configuration is still present and
saved. If the unit is again rebooted at this point, it will read the last-saved
configuration.
NOTE
On the CrossPATH 4 unit, there is a reset button located on both the front panel
and the rear panel.
Restoring and
removing a
configuration
Using the GUI
When using the GUI to restore or remove the current configuration, you have the
following options:
■
■
Restore Previously Saved Configuration from Flash. Select this operation to
restore the last saved configuration from the system's Flash memory. This is
the equivalent of restarting the unit without saving the current configuration.
Restore Default Factory Configuration. Select this operation to restore the
system to its factory default settings. This changes only the running configuration of the unit. Resetting the unit to factory default using the GUI removes
all configuration files.
Restarting the system and restoring the configuration
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
You should also restart the system using Configure > System > System Restart in
order to completely eliminate any previous configuration settings after using
either option.
Factory defaults are listed in ‘System Defaults” on page 287. You cannot change
the factory default configuration.
Using the CLI
The system config restore command restores the system configuration from the
backup or the factory default configuration.
The following options are available:
■
system config restore backup. Restores the configuration from the
backup file.
■
■
system config restore factory. Restores the system factory defaults.
Resetting the unit to factory default settings using the CLI does not remove all
configuration files.
system config restore version. Restores a specific configuration
based on version or configuration file name.
78
Restarting the system and restoring the configuration
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Local logs
Configuring logs
Logs contain details about system events and alarms. Each event detected and
reported in the logs has an associated severity level. You can manage log contents
by filtering events based on a minimum severity level.
To set the severity level, and/or clear the contents of the logs, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
log set local
The Monitor > System page includes links to access the logs. For a description of
the local logs and severity levels, see “Local logs” on page 79.
Local logs contain details about system events and alarms, and include:
■
System log
■
Alarm log
■
Router data log
To manage and view the local logs, use the following:
Log contents
Log size
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
Monitor > Logs
Links to the various logs are also available on the Monitor
> System page.
The CLI
log set local <log> minlevel
Each line in a log represents an entry. An entry contains at least the following
information. Exceptions are noted if otherwise.
■
Severity (emergency, alert, error, critical, warning, notice, inform, or debug)
■
Timestamp
■
Source of the entry, for example, system or T1:T1-1
■
Condition — whether alarm is set or clear (Alarm Log only)
■
Text description of the entry
The maximum number of entries for each local log is:
■
System log: 100 entries
■
Alarm log: 50 entries
■
Router data log: 100 entries
NOTE
Older logged events are discarded as new ones are recorded. If you want to save
log contents, you may want to set up a Syslog client on another host.
Local logs
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Log lifetime
Logs are always enabled, but setting the severity level to none effectively disables
the log, since no events will be recorded. The logs are cleared in the following
circumstances:
■
After system restart or power down
■
By clicking the Clear button on each log page in the GUI
If a log is not cleared, new events replace older ones as described in “Log size” on
page 79.
Severity levels
Each event detected and reported in the logs has an associated severity level,
listed in Table 25.
Table 25: Event severity levels
Managing log
contents
Severity level
Description
0
None
1
Emergency
2
Alert
3
Critical
4
Error
5
Warning
6
Notice
7
Info
8
Debug
You can manage log contents by filtering events based on a minimum severity
level on the Configure > System > Advanced page, or by using the log set syslog minlevel command in the CLI.
All logs are initially configured to record events from severity levels 0-7. Debug
events are not logged. Change the minimum severity level if you are not concerned about reviewing log information at a certain level. For example, you may
not want to see Alarm events unless they are more serious than level 4, the Error
level.
80
Local logs
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
System log
The System log contains general information about the system status. Use the
System log to track information about events such as:
■
Users logging on and off
■
System configuration and reset status
■
Updates to the system software
■
Transmit clock status
■
System clock status
Configure the minimum severity level in the system log, using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
log set local SystemLog minlevel
Use the system log to view a summary of the alarm events, using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Logs > System Log
The CLI
log show local SystemLog
The information in Table 26 may not be all-inclusive.
Table 26:
System log events
Event
Severity
A force switch has occurred to the working port for
T1/E1 Redundant Group
7-info
A force switch has occurred to the protect port for
T1/E1 Redundant Group
7-info
A force switch has occurred to the working port for
T3/E3 Redundant Group
7-info
A force switch has occurred to the protect port for
T3/E3 Redundant Group
7-info
An automatic switch to the working port has
occurred for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
An automatic switch to the protect port has
occurred for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
An automatic switch to the working port has
occurred for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
An automatic switch to the protect port has
occurred for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
A switch to the working port due to RAI has
occurred for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
System log
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Table 26:
System log events (continued)
Event
Severity
A switch to the protect port due to RAI has occurred 5-warning
for T1/E1 Redundant Group
A switch back to the working port due to RAI has
occurred for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
A switch back to the protect port due to RAI has
occurred for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
A switch to the working port due to RAI has
occurred for T3/E3 Redundant Grou
5-warning
A switch to the protect port due to RAI has occurred 5-warning
for T3/E3 Redundant Group
82
System log
A switchback to the working port due to RAI has
occurred for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
A switchback to the protect port due to RAI has
occurred for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
Automatic watchdog reset
4-error
Broken link in dynamic file area
4-error
Broken link in fixed file area
4-error
Excessive Error Rate: defect is cleared
4-error
Excessive Error Rate: defect is set
4-error
Failed to initialize the framer device #
1- emergency
Flash partition format failure
3-critical
Flash file system invalid - bad checksum
4-error
Flash file system start offset value out of bounds
4-error
Flash memory - no volser found
4-error
Flash memory empty
4-error
Inspector defense
5-warning
Installing system software
5-warning
Interface attached
8-debug
Interface detached
8-debug
Interface down
8-debug
Interface up
8-debug
Invalid configuration
5-warning
Invalid IP fragment
5-warning
Invalid IP packet size
5-warning
LED test began
8-debug
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Table 26:
System log events (continued)
Event
Severity
LED test finished
8-debug
Loss of Receive clock: defect is cleared
4-error
Loss of Receive clock: defect is set
4-error
Loss of Signal: defect is cleared
4-error
Loss of Signal: defect is set
4-error
Loss of Signal: failure is cleared
3-critical
Loss of Signal: failure is set
3-critical
No existing session
5-warning
Normal power up
7-info
Option Module Configured
7-info
Option Module Installed
7-info
Option Module Removed
7-info
Out of frame: defect is cleared
4-error
Out of frame: defect is set
4-error
Out of frame: failure is cleared
3-critical
Out of frame: failure is set
3-critical
Out of memory
4-error
Overlength dynamic file - bad flash
4-error
Overlength fixed file - bad flash
4-error
Packet reassembly timeout
5-warning
Power supply inserted
7-info
Power supply removed
7-info
Remote Alarm Indication: defect is cleared
4-error
Remote Alarm Indication: defect is set
4-error
Repair on flash partition failed
3-critical
Repairing invalid flash partition
4-error
Require user authentication
5-warning
Security alert cleared
7-info
Statistics interval began
8-debug
System Clock Changed to Local clock
6-notice
System Clock Changed to Loop clock
6-notice
System reset done
7-info
System software installation failed
3-critical
System log
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Table 26:
84
System log
System log events (continued)
Event
Severity
System software installed successfully
5-warning
System time set
7-info
The T1/E1 port loopback is cleared
3-critical
The T1/E1 port loopback is set
3-critical
The T3/E3 port loopback is cleared
3-critical
The T3/E3 port loopback is set
3-critical
Unknown reset
4-error
User is logged in
7-info
User is logged out
7-info
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Alarm log
Use the alarm log to diagnose hardware problems, and protocol interface problems for both the near-end and far-end.
To draw your attention to potential problems, all alarm log entries in the GUI with
a severity of Error or greater are annotated with a red LED symbol. Warning
entries are associated with a yellow LED.
Configure the alarm log using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
log set local AlarmLog
Use the alarm log to view a summary of the alarm events, using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Logs > Alarm Log
The CLI
log show local AlarmLog
In addition to recording interface alarms, the Alarm Log contains entries for hardware events and failures, such as:
■
Connecting/disconnecting cables
■
LED test status
■
Framer status
■
QRSS BERT test
■
Loopbacks
A listing of the alarm log events is shown in Table 27.
Table 27: Alarm log events
Event
Severity
Alarm Indication Signal: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Alarm Indication Signal: Defect is Set
4-error
Alarm Indication Signal: Failure is Cleared
6-notice
Alarm Indication Signal: Failure is Set
3-critical
All Alarms Clear: all failures are cleared
3-critical
A New DLCI was added by the FRLM
3-critical
Connection made to Redundant Group
5-warning
Data Port input FIFO overflowed
5-warning
Data Port input FIFO underflowed
5-warning
Alarm log
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Table 27: Alarm log events (continued)
86
Alarm log
Event
Severity
Data Port output FIFO overflowed
5-warning
Data Port output FIFO underflowed
5-warning
A New DLCI was deleted by the FRLM
3-critical
DS1-1 thru DS1-28 are Unavailable
3-critical
Ethernet PHY connected
6-notice
Ethernet PHY disconnected
3-critical
Ethernet PHY operation changed to Full Duplex
6-notice
Ethernet PHY operation changed to Half Duplex
6-notice
Ethernet PHY operational speed changed to
100Base-T
6-notice
Ethernet PHY operational speed changed to
10Base-Tx
6-notice
Excessive Error Rate: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Excessive Error Rate: Defect is Set
4-error
Failed to Initialize the Framer device 1
1-emergency
Failed to Initialize the Framer device 2
1-emergency
Fan alarms (CrossPATH 4 only)
3-critical
Fan yellow alarm
5-warning
Flash partition format failure
3-critical
Interface Link Down
3-critical
Interface Link Up
6-notice
LED test began
8-debug
LED test finished
8-debug
Link is available for T1/E1 Redundant Group
3-critical
Link is available for T3/E3 Redundant Group
3-critical
Link is non-redundant for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
Link is non-redundant for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
Link is redundant for T1/E1 Redundant Group
5-warning
Link is redundant for T3/E3 Redundant Group
5-warning
Link is unavailable for T1/E1 Redundant Group
3-critical
Link is unavailable for T3/E3 Redundant Group
3-critical
Loss of Receive Clock: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Loss of Receive Clock: Defect is Set
4-error
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Table 27: Alarm log events (continued)
Event
Severity
Loss of Signal: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Loss of Signal: Defect is Set
4-error
Loss of Signal: Failure is Cleared
6-notice
Loss of Signal: Failure is Set
3-critical
Loss of Transmit Clock
4-error
Out of Frame: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Out of Frame: Defect is Set
4-error
Out of Frame: Failure is Cleared
6-notice
Out of Frame: Failure is Set
3-critical
Power Supply Alarm (CrossPATH 4 only)
3-critical
Receive Clock frequency out of range: Alarm is
Cleared
4-error
Receive Clock frequency out of range: Alarm is Set 4-error
Remote Alarm Indication: Defect is Cleared
6-notice
Remote Alarm Indication: Defect is Set
4-error
Temperature Alarm (CrossPATH 4 only)
3-critical
Temperature yellow alarm
5-warning
The DLCI became Active
3-critical
The DLCI became Inactive
3-critical
The T1/E1 port BERT is cleared
7- info
The T1/E1 port BERT is set
7 - info
The T1 link is available
3-critical
The T1 link is unavailable
3-critical
The T3/E3 link Alarms are Disabled
7-info
The T3/E3 link Alarms are Enabled
7-info
The T3/E3 link is available
3-critical
The T3/E3 link is unavailable
3-critical
The T3/E3 link is down
3-critical
The T3/E3 link is up
3-critical
T3/E3 Remote Alarm Indication failure received
3-critical
T3/E3 Alarm Indication Signal received
3-critical
T3/E3 Loss of Frame failure
3-critical
T3/E3 Loss of Signal failure
3-critical
Alarm log
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Table 27: Alarm log events (continued)
88
Alarm log
Event
Severity
T3/E3 framing mismatch detected
3-critical
T3/E3 framing mismatch clear
3-critical
T3/E3 idle detected
3-critical
T3/E3 idle clear
3-critical
T3/E3 Port Loopback is set
7-info
T3/E3 Port Loopback is cleared
7-info
Chapter 4: Configuring the System
Router data log
Use the router data log to view log entries generated by the system’s router.
To draw your attention to potential problems, all router data log entries with a
severity of Error or greater are annotated with a red LED symbol. Warning entries
are associated with a yellow LED.
Configure the router data log using the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced
The CLI
log set local RouterDataLog
Use the router data log to view a summary of the system router events using the
following:
The GUI
Monitor > Logs > Router Data Log
The CLI
log show local RouterDataLog
A listing of the router data log events is shown in Table 28.
Table 28: Router data log events
Event
Severity
Invalid configuration
5-warning
Invalid IP Packet Size
5-warning
No existing session
5-warning
Out of memory
4-error
Packet reassembly timeout
5-warning
Require user authentication
5-warning
Start secondary session
7-info
Start session
7-info
Terminate session - normal
7-info
Terminate session - out of memory
4-error
Terminate session - policy change
7-info
Terminate session - primary session terminated
7-info
Terminate session - timeout
5-warning
Router data log
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Syslog
Syslog is a TCP/IP protocol used to report system events. The CrossPATH can
report events to a host via Syslog by configuring the destination IP address using:
The GUI
Configure > System > Advanced, then make changes
under the Syslog section
The CLI
log set syslog ipaddress
All events, alarms, traps, messages, and so forth can be received by Syslog. Use
Syslog when:
■
■
You need to view log data and do not have access to the GUI.
You want to save log data over time. The internal logs are limited in size, and
the log data cannot be accessed once it is overwritten or the logs are cleared.
Finding Syslog
clients
Syslog can be used over either the LAN or WAN, but you will want to set up a
Syslog translator or client at the destination host to format, view, and save the log
data. Many are available for purchase or as public-domain software. For example,
Kiwi Syslog Daemon© (from Kiwi Enterprises) is available for Windows as
either freeware or as a full-featured licensed product.
Sample output
Examples of Syslog message output appear below. The format and content vary
depending on your client software.
2006-09-28
2006-09-28
2006-09-28
2006-09-28
2006-09-28
90
13:06:56Local2.Info192.168.8.2 CrossPATH 4 (2.10.12): router | inform | Start session: ICMP:8/0
13:06:57Local2.Info192.168.8.2 CrossPATH 4 (2.10.12): router | inform | Start session: UDP
13:06:58Local2.Info192.168.8.2 CrossPATH 4 (2.10.12): router | inform | Start session: ICMP
13:07:07Local2.Warning192.168.8.2 CrossPATH 4 (2.10.12): router | warning | Terminate session - timeout: UDP
13:07:24Local2.Info192.168.8.2 CrossPATH 4 (2.10.12): router | inform | Start session: UDP
Syslog
C
h
a
p
t
5
e
r
T1 Interfaces
■
Configuring T1 interfaces
■
Monitoring T1 interfaces
■
T1 interface diagnostics
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Configuring T1 interfaces
If you are just getting started with the CrossPATH, follow the Installation Instructions first. After the unit is operational, you may want to change some of the
system-wide settings. This chapter discusses configuration after following the
Installation Instructions:
■
Configuring T1 interfaces
■
Configuring T1 redundant groups
NOTE
Changes that you make to the system configuration must be saved, or they will be
lost after a power down or restart. To save your changes, go to the GUI Configure
> System > Save & Restore page, or use the CLI command system config save.
Refer to “Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface” on page 219
for information on configuring Frame Relay inband management interfaces,
“Configuring a PPP inband management interface” on page 225 for information on
configuring PPP inband management interfaces; “Configuring DSX1 interfaces”
on page 133 for information on configuring DSX1 interfaces, and “Configuring
T3 interfaces” on page 170 for information on configuring T3 interfaces.
The unit preconfigures each T1 interface with default values. Default values for
each T1 interface are listed in “T1 ports configuration” on page 298. Check with
your service provider to ensure that your configuration matches their required settings. Otherwise, you may receive excessive error rates and alarms.
Configuration
overview
You can see at a glance on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 page which interfaces
are in alarm and how the interfaces are configured. You can also set the key
parameters for the following:
■
■
92
Configuring T1 interfaces
Configuring multiple T1 interfaces: You can click on the “Configure Multiple
T1 Interfaces” link to configure multiple or all T1s with the same settings.
■
Set for Multiple T1 Interfaces
■
Set for All T1 Interfaces
Configuring T1 interfaces individually: You can click on the links in the Physical Port column for any T1 interface to edit that interface.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
Figure 29: T1 interface configuration summary
For descriptions of the columns shown in the interface summary, see “Monitoring
T1 interfaces at a glance” on page 104.
Configuring multiple
T1 interfaces
You can quickly set the options for multiple or all T1 interfaces, as shown in Figure 30:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Configure
Multiple T1 Interfaces
Figure 30: Configuring multiple T1 interfaces
■
Port Name. Enter a port name. All T1 interfaces have a default port name,
with the following format: T1-# Interface. Port names can be up to 30 characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following special
characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Configuring T1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a T1 service provider or network operator.
Set for Multiple T1 Interfaces
If you are configuring a system where multiple (but not all) T1 interfaces use the
same settings, you can quickly configure the multiple interfaces at the same time.
If there are settings which are different on at least one T1 interface, the field name
turns red and a question mark displays either in the field, or next to the checkbox.
To determine which interface(s) have different settings, go to Configure > Interfaces > T1 and review the T1 Interface Configuration Summary table, shown in
Figure 29 on page 93.
Set for All T1 Interfaces
If you are configuring a system where all T1 interfaces use the same settings, you
can quickly configure all the interfaces at the same time. Note that if there are settings which are different on at least one T1 interface, the field name turns red and
a question mark displays either in the field, or next to the checkbox. To determine
which interface(s) have different settings, go to Configure > Interfaces > T1 and
review the T1 Interface Configuration Summary table, shown in Figure 29 on page
93.
■
T1 Selector. This area contains two boxes: List Selections and Group List.
List Selections are the possible T1 interfaces you will choose from. The
Group List starts out empty until you build the list of T1 interfaces. To specify
what T1 interfaces to include in the group list, select the T1 interface from the
List Selections field and then click the >> button to move the T1 interface
from List Selections to Group List. Click the << button to remove a T1 interface from the Group List.
NOTE
If you are working with multiple T1 interfaces, you can select multiple interfaces
from either list by holding down the Shift key and clicking a range of interfaces, or
by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking multiple interfaces individually.
■
■
94
Configuring T1 interfaces
Line Type. Framing format used on the T1 line. Options are ESF and D4, with
ESF the default. In ESF mode, only every fourth bit of the framing pattern is
used for synchronization. In D4 mode, all the framing pattern bits are used for
synchronization. This setting must match on the transmit and receive ends. If
D4 is selected, the "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback" option is grayed out and
not configurable, because FDL loopbacks are not supported for the D4 line
type.
Line Coding. Encoding for transmission over the T1 line. Options are Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 Zero Substitution (B8ZS). The
default is B8ZS. AMI encoding is primarily used for voice applications, while
B8ZS is primarily used for data applications.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
■
Line Build Out. For T1 ports that connect to service provider facilities (such
as an NIU or smartjack), a long haul setting should be used. In most cases, this
should be 0 dB, and should only be changed as directed by the service provider. Settings other than 0 dB attenuate (diminish) the outgoing signal. For
T1 ports that connect to local Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), a short
haul setting should be used. Select the distance range that includes the actual
length of the cable between the CrossPATH and the CPE. For example, if the
CPE is 250 feet away, select 220 - 330 feet. Cable lengths up to 550 feet are
supported by the short haul options. Settings other than 0-110 feet amplify the
outgoing signal. Refer to Table 29 for line build out settings.
Table 29: Line build out settings
Short Haul Settings
0 - 110 feet
110 - 220 feet
220 - 330 feet
330 - 440 feet
440 - 550 feet
Long Haul Settings
0 dB
- 7.5 dB
- 15 dB
- 22.5 dB
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Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds in
the range 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or more errors has
occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds
counters exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm will
be generated. Setting this field to 0 will disable alarm generation.
Rx Signal Level Threshold. Set the Receive Signal Level Threshold in the
range 0 to -35 dB. When the signal level drops below this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm is generated. Setting this field to the lowest
value of -35 dB will disable the alarm generation. The default value is -35 dB.
Inhibit Remote Inband Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an inband loopback on this port. This is useful for
diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an FDL loopback on this port. This is useful for diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
NOTE
Configuring T1 interfaces
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If this option is grayed out, this T1 interface either has a line type of D4 or is part
of a Full T1-Through TDM connection. FDL loopbacks are not supported in
either instance.
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Loopback Timeout. The Loopback Timeout option will determine how long a
near-end or remote loopback will stay up when another external device has
sent a loopup code request to the CrossPATH unit. If set to 30 seconds and a
loopup code is received, the unit will keep the loop up for 30 seconds and then
drop it. If the Loopback Timeout is set to Never, then the unit keeps the loop
up until it receives a loopdown code or a user turns it off from the GUI or CLI.
The Loopback Timeout option is a drop-down menu with several options:
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30 sec
1 min
5 min
10 min
30 min
1 hr
1 day
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code. The CrossPATH unit responds to inband
loopup codes. The factory default loopup code is the T1.403 standard (10000)
repeating bit pattern. The CrossPATH will look for this repeating (10000) bit
pattern to be in the payload of a full T1. Once the code is detected for longer
than three seconds, the T1 interface that is receiving the code will go into a
line loopback state. The standard loopdown repeating bit pattern of (100) will
take down the loopback and restore the T1 back. You can also select three custom repeating bit pattern loopup codes via the GUI or the CLI. The standard
loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code. You can
loopup T1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard loopup
code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback code. You
can segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full T1 end to
end network. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom loopback codes:
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10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
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Configuring T1 interfaces
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "T1 idle." Clearing the checkbox will block AIS forwarding. AIS
forwarding only works when a full or fractional T1 is cross-connected. AIS
forwarding is sent down all 24 channels on a fractional T1 connection. The
default state is unchecked.
Alarms and Traps. Use these selections to enable or disable line status change
traps, link up/down traps, and out-of-frequency alarms. The default selection
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
is Disabled. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has been configured from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
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Line Status Change Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP
traps whenever the Line Status changes.
Link Up/Down Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP traps
whenever the DS1 link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarms. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-offrequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-of-frequency alarm generates a line status change trap.
Configuring T1 interfaces
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Configuring T1
interfaces
individually
Individual TI interfaces are configured using:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T1, then select a
T1 interface link to bring up the Edit T1
Configuration page for that interface
The CLI
interface list T1s
interface set t1 <name>
interface show t1 <name>
Figure 31: Configuring individual T1 interfaces
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Configuring T1 interfaces
Port Name. Enter a port name. All T1 interfaces have a default port name,
with the following format: T1-# Interface. Port names can be up to 30 characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following special
characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a T1 service provider or network operator.
Line Type. Framing format used on the T1 line. Options are ESF and D4, with
ESF the default. In ESF mode, only every fourth bit of the framing pattern is
used for synchronization. In D4 mode, all the framing pattern bits are used for
synchronization. This setting must match on the transmit and receive ends. If
D4 is selected, the "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback" option is grayed out and
not configurable, because FDL loopbacks are not supported for the D4 line
type.
Line Coding. Encoding for transmission over the T1 line. Options are Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 Zero Substitution (B8ZS). The
default is B8ZS. AMI encoding is primarily used for voice applications, while
B8ZS is primarily used for data applications.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
■
Line Build Out. For T1 ports that connect to service provider facilities (such
as an NIU or smartjack), a long haul setting should be used. In most cases, this
should be 0 dB, and should only be changed as directed by the service provider. Settings other than 0 dB attenuate (diminish) the outgoing signal. For
T1 ports that connect to local Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), a short
haul setting should be used. Select the distance range that includes the actual
length of the cable between the CrossPATH and the CPE. For example, if the
CPE is 250 feet away, select 220 - 330 feet. Cable lengths up to 550 feet are
supported by the short haul options. Settings other than 0-110 feet amplify the
outgoing signal. Refer to Table 30:
Table 30: Line build out settings
Short Haul Settings
0 - 110 feet
110 - 220 feet
220 - 330 feet
330 - 440 feet
440 - 550 feet
Long Haul Settings
0 dB
- 7.5 dB
- 15 dB
- 22.5 dB
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Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds in
the range 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or more errors has
occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds
counters exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm will
be generated. Setting this field to 0 will disable alarm generation.
Rx Signal Level Threshold. Set the Receive Signal Level Threshold in the
range 0 to -35 dB. When the signal level drops below this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm is generated. Setting this field to the lowest
value of -35 dB will disable the alarm generation.
Inhibit Remote Inband Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an inband loopback on this port. This is useful for
diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an FDL loopback on this port. This is useful for diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
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NOTE
If this option is grayed out, this T1 interface either has a line type of D4 or is part
of a Full T1-Through TDM connection. FDL loopbacks are not supported in
either instance.
■
Loopback Timeout. The Loopback Timeout option will determine how long a
near-end or remote loopback will stay up when another external device has
sent a loopup code request to the CrossPATH unit. If set to 30 seconds and a
loopup code is received, the unit will keep the loop up for 30 seconds and then
drop it. If the Loopback Timeout is set to Never, then the unit keeps the loop
up until it receives a loopdown code or a user turns it off from the GUI or CLI.
The Loopback Timeout option is a drop-down menu with several options:
30 sec
1 min
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5 min
■
10 min
■
30 min
■
1 hr
■
1 day
■
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code. The CrossPATH unit responds to inband
loopup codes. The factory default loopup code is the T1.403 standard (10000)
repeating bit pattern. The CrossPATH will look for this repeating (10000) bit
pattern to be in the payload of a full T1. Once the code is detected for longer
than three seconds, the T1 interface that is receiving the code will go into a
line loopback state. The standard loopdown repeating bit pattern of (100) will
take down the loopback and restore the T1 back. You can also select three custom repeating bit pattern loopup codes via the GUI or the CLI. The standard
loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code. You can
loopup T1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard loopup
code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback code. You
can segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full T1 endto-end network. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom loopback codes:
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10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
■
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "T1 idle." Clearing the checkbox will block AIS forwarding. AIS
forwarding only works when a full or fractional T1 is cross-connected. AIS
forwarding is sent down all 24 channels on a fractional T1 connection. When
two T1 interfaces on the unit are cross-connected, this setting determines how
the cross-connected interface behaves when the upstream interface goes into
an alarm state. The default state is unchecked.
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Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
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Alarms and Traps. Use these selections to enable or disable line status change
traps, link up/down traps, and out-of-frequency alarms. The default selection
is Disabled. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has been configured from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
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Configuring T1
redundant groups
Line Status Change Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP
traps whenever the Line Status changes.
Link Up/Down Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP traps
whenever the DS1 link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarms. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-offrequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-of-frequency alarm generates a line status change trap.
T1 interfaces can be connected together via a “Y” cable to form a redundant group
on the CrossPATH 3G 16-port model (77760) and the CrossPATH 4 model
(74016). Both of the T1 receive sides are monitoring the line but only one will
transmit data; the other transmit port will be in a high impedance state. If the
working port fails, the CrossPATH unit will automatically switch to the protect
port.
NOTE
If a T1 interface has a loopback or BERT diagnostic running, a redundant group
using that T1 interface cannot be created. Make sure there are no diagnostics running on any T1 interface before using that T1 interface in a redundant group.
Also, connections to the protect port must be deleted before a redundant group
can be successfully created. If the protect port you selected has a connection
before redundant group creation, the redundant group is not created.
To add a T1 interface redundant group, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups, then
click the Add T1 Redundant Group link
The CLI
interface add redundantT1Group workPort
T1-# protectPort T1-#
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Figure 32: Adding a T1 redundant group
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Working port. One port of a redundant pair of T1 interfaces. The working port
must be selected from interfaces T1-1 through T1-8. After a power cycle or
reboot the working port will be in active mode assuming that it has no alarms.
If revertive mode is set, the unit will automatically switch back to the working
port, once the alarms have cleared.
Protect Port. One port of a redundant pair of T1 interfaces. The protect port
must be selected from interfaces T1-9 through T1-16. After a power cycle or
reboot the protect port will be in standby mode, assuming that the working
port has no alarms.
Revertive mode. If the revertive checkbox is selected, the unit will automatically switch back to a good (no alarms) working port unless you force a
switch to the protect port using the Switch Active Port button on the Configure
> Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups page. Revertive mode will not resume
until you force a switch back to the working port. If revertive mode is not
enabled, and a switchover has occurred, the protect port will remain the active
link unless manually switched back to the working port, or the protect port
goes into alarm.
Switching the active port
To force the system to switch which T1 interface is the active port, go to the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups page, then click the Switch button in
the Switch Active Port column. This action is referred to as a “Forced Switch” and
puts the redundant group into a forced switch state. If you force the protect port to
be active, revertive mode is disabled until you manually switch back to the working port.
NOTE
If the inactive port is in alarm, the Switch Active Port button is greyed out and
forced switch functionality is disabled.
Deleting a redundant group
To delete the group, go to the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups
page, select the checkbox, and then click the Apply button.
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If the Delete column shows three dashes, then the redundant group is part of a
connection. That connection is either a TDM connection (Configure > Connections) or an inband management connection (Configure > Interfaces > Inband
Mgmt). The connection must be deleted before a redundant group can be deleted.
You can not delete a redundant group if it is in use.
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Monitoring T1 interfaces
Monitor the T1 interfaces for Rx signal level, status, alarms, statistics, and more
using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 to review a summary of the
status of all T1 interfaces in a single table
The CLI
interface show t1 <name> lineStatus
interface stats t1 <name> nearEnd current
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Monitoring T1
interfaces at a
glance
Monitoring T1 interfaces at a glance: You can see at a glance which interfaces
are in alarm or operating normally. Click on the link for any T1 interface to
access more information about the interface, including historical statistics and
diagnostics. For more information, see “T1 interface diagnostics” on page 118.
Monitoring individual T1 interfaces: You can click on the links in the Name
column for any T1 interface to access more information about the interface,
including historical statistics and diagnostics.
You can view status icons representing the alarm states for all T1 interfaces in one
table. Select any T1 interface link from the T1 status table, as shown in Figure 33,
to view the alarm states and counters for that T1 interface. On any T1 interface, a
gray status LED indicates that the interface has no associated connection.
Figure 33: Monitoring T1 interfaces
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Monitoring T1 interfaces
Name. The system-defined name for the T1 interface.
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the T1 circuit. A
green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates
the T1 circuit is unavailable.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
Transmit (Tx) status
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AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
RAI. An RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx) status
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LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED
icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > T1
page where you select a specific T1 interface to reach the Edit T1 Configuration
page for that interface. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED
icon indicates an EER alarm is present.
SIG LVL. The icon turns red when the signal level falls below the Rx Signal
Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# page.
Freq (Hz). The frequency offset is the offset of the received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The
CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays the offset from
the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the receive signal is outside the set Frequency threshold. The frequency offset displays in green text
when it is within normal parameters, and red text when it is outside the threshold. An out-of-frequency condition is declared when the received frequency is
more than 200 Hz high or low, (+/- 26 Hz).
Test Mode. This field describes whether you are in Loopback Active, BERT
Test Active, or None (no loopbacks or BERT testing).
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Redundancy (CrossPATH 3G 16-port and CrossPATH 4 models
only)
This section of the T1 Status Summary table lists if an individual T1 interface is in
a redundant group, the status of the interface (active or standby), and the interfaces configured in the redundant group. Redundant groups are configured on the
Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups page.
NOTE
This column is only visible on the CrossPATH 3G 16-port model (77760) and the
CrossPATH 4 model (74016), shown in Figure 33.
■
Redundant Group. Indicates the two T1 interfaces configured in a redundant
group. The first T1 interface will be an interface from T1-1 through T1-8. The
second T1 interface will be an interface from T1-9 through T1-16. The active
interface is shown in blue.
Protocol status
This section lists the protocol assigned to the interface, the type of protocol, and
the protocol status.
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Monitoring T1 interfaces
Name. The name of the protocol assigned to the interface. Examples are
None, TDM, and the name of the PPP or Frame Relay interface.
Type. Indicates the type of protocol assigned to the T1, such as Frame Relay,
PPP, or none.
Status. Indicates the status of the interface protocol. For PPP, the status shown
is the Link Control Protocol (LCP) state. For Frame Relay, the status shown is
the Link Management status.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
Monitoring
individual T1
interfaces
View interface configuration, alarm states, and counters for individual T1
interfaces on the Monitor > Interface > T1 > T1-# > Monitor page.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Monitor
The CLI
interface stats t1 <name> nearEnd current
monitor
Figure 34: Monitoring an individual T1 interface
T1 interface configuration
The information displayed in this section is gathered mostly from the Configure >
Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Edit T1 Configuration page.
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Port Name. This field displays the optional identifier for your T1 interface.
This information will display when you hover the mouse over a link to the T1
port.
Circuit ID. This optional field is also copied from the Configure > Interfaces
> T1 > T1-# page. This field is blank if no circuit ID has been entered. This
information will display when you hover the mouse over a link to the T1 port.
Transmit Clock Source. This field displays the clock the T1 uses as its transmit timing source. "System Timing" means that this interface is using the
current system clock source as its transmit timing source. To determine the
current system clock source, refer to the Configure > System > Basic page.
"Through Timing" means that this interface is using the receive clock of the
interface it is connected to as its transmit timing source. The transmit timing
source for a given interface changes only when a connection is created, modified, or deleted on that interface. If no connections have been made to a given
interface, the transmit timing source will be "System Timing."
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Rx Signal Level. The input signal level measurement is an approximation of
the received T1 input voltage for use in estimating cable length or detecting
weak T1 signals. The value in dB is relative to the nominal DS1 pulse amplitude specified in ANSI T1.403. The range is 0 dB to -35 dB with a typical
accuracy of +/- 2 dB. You can quickly determine if there are hardware issues
with the T1 line by monitoring this reading. Note that if no T1 line is connected, the interface typically displays an Rx Signal Level of -35db / .11V.
Rx Clock Frequency. The received clock frequency is the signal with which
incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the
incoming frequencies and displays the frequency and the offset from the nominal values. The frequency offset displays in green text when within normal
parameters, and red text when outside the threshold. An out-of-frequency
condition is declared when the received frequency is more than 200 Hz high
or low, (+/- 26 Hz). Dashes mean the value received is invalid (outside the
monitored frequency range), or there is no signal on the line.
Test Mode. This field reflects whether you have any loopbacks set or are in
BERT Test mode. Loopbacks and BERT testing are configured for that T1
line on the Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Diagnostics page.
Remote Loopbacks Allowed. Displays whether remote loopbacks are allowed
(Inband and/or FDL). If you need a loopback test to pass through this unit to
reach another system, deselect the checkbox for "Inhibit Remote Inband
Loopback" and/or "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback" on the Edit T1 Configuration page.
Loopback Timeout. Displays the current timeout set for near-end or remote
loopbacks. This setting is on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Edit T1
Configuration page.
Binary Inband Loopback Code. This field displays the custom code set for
inband loopbacks. The standard code is 10000. The Binary Inband Loopback
Code is set on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Edit T1 Configuration page.
AIS Forwarding. This field displays whether AIS forwarding is enabled or
disabled. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition. This
signal can be forwarded when conducting loopback tests throughout a system.
Refer to the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Edit T1 Configuration
page.
T1-# alarm states
T1 alarms are generated based on error events that occur on an input signal. Error
events are also referred to as signal conditions. For instance, a loss of signal event
(LOS) is also referred to as an LOS condition. A signal condition is a current,
instantaneous status of the received signal at the interface. The signal condition
may persist or may be intermittent.
If a signal condition persists or is intermittent but frequent, the condition is integrated into an alarm over a period of time (2.5 seconds). The alarm is cleared
when the condition is continually absent for 15 seconds or more.
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Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
This prevents alarms from being raised every time a signal condition occurs
briefly, and from being deactivated every time the signal condition temporarily
flickers off.
The alarm states are displayed in the GUI for the T1 interfaces. The color of the
associated GUI LED icon indicates the status of the alarm.
■
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the T1 circuit. A
green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates
the T1 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx) status
■
AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
■
RAI. An RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS.A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx) status
■
LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
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LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED
icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > T1
page. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates an
EER alarm is present.
SIG LVL. The icon turns red when the signal level falls below the Rx Signal
Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# page.
Freq (Hz). The LED turns red when the received frequency is outside the normal range for the interface. An out-of-frequency condition is declared when
the received frequency is more than 200 Hz high or low, (+/- 26 Hz). A green
LED indicates that the received frequency is within the normal range for the
interface.
Monitoring T1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
T1 WAN Counters
This table lists the number of times each event has occurred since the last reset.
Note that the values for Latched Rx Signal Level - Line, Rx Clock Frequency
Minimum Offset - Line, and Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line in this
table are the lowest/highest values since the last reset of the counters.
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Monitoring T1 interfaces
Errored seconds - Path (ES-P). A count of the one-second intervals containing any of the following: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)-6 errors,
Controlled Slips (CS) events, Severely Errored Framing (SEF) defects, or
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - Path (SES-P). For the ESF frame format, a count
of the one-second intervals with 320 or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more
SEF or AIS defects. For SF, a count of the one-second intervals with eight or
more FE events (if Ft and Fs bits are measured) or four or more FE events (if
Ft bits only are measured), or one or more SEF or AIS defects
Severely errored framing seconds - Path (SEFS-P). A count of the one-second
intervals containing one or more SEF defects or one or more AIS defects.
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path (ESB-P). A count of the one-second intervals
with no less than two, and no more than 319 CRC-6 errors, no SEF defects,
and no AIS defects.
Unavailable seconds (UAS). A count of the one-second intervals for which
the interface is unavailable. A interface is unavailable when it is in an LOS,
OOF, or AIS alarm for greater than 10 seconds.
Code violations - path (CV-P). A count of the frame synchronization bit errors
(FE) in the SF format, or a count of CRC-6 errors in the ESF format occurring
during a one-second interval.
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path. The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for
the interface. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during which
one or more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication or deletion of a frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference
between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Errored Seconds - Line. The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES) for the
interface. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line code
violation error events occurred or LOS was detected. A count of the one-second intervals with one or more BiPolar Violations (BPVs), one or more
Excessive Zeros (EXZs), or one or more Loss of Signal (LOS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - line (SES-L). A count of the one-second intervals
with 1544 or more BPVs plus EXZs, or one or more LOS defects.
Near End Failures - Path (FC-P). A count of the near-end path failure events.
A near-end path failure event begins when the first of either an LOF or AIS is
declared, and ends when both LOF and AIS failures are clear.
Degraded minutes (DM). A sixty-second interval in which there are no UAS
or SES periods, and there are 49 or more CRC-6 errors (CRC6), or line code
violations (BPV plus EXZ). A CRC-6 error is only applicable in ESF framing.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
■
■
■
■
Code Violations - Line. The number of Line Coding Violations (LCV) for the
T1 interface. A line coding violation is synonymous with a bipolar violation.
A bipolar violation for an AMI-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of
the same polarity as the previous pulse. A bipolar violation for a B8ZS-coded
signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse,
when that pulse is not part of the zero substitution code.
Rx Signal Level - Line. The input signal level measurement is an approximation of the received T1 input voltage. The range is 0 dB to -35 dB with a
typical accuracy of +/- 2 dB. The value for Rx Signal Level - Line in this table
is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
NOTE
Each interval is synchronized to the system time. If any error was reported in the
15-minute historical interval, the entire interval is considered errored.
Monitoring T1
historical statistics
To view detailed T1 historical statistics from the GUI for a particular T1 line, follow the path Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# and select the applicable time frame:
daily summary, 15-minute, daily statistics (last seven days).
The T1 statistics, or counters, are reported for the near end only. You can review
statistics broken down in the following ways:
Daily summary
These statistics are found under the Daily Summary tab. Counters for the T1 line
are totaled for an entire day, with the current day at the top of the table. You can
quickly determine any trends or changes. When the system has been up for more
than a week, only the past seven days are represented. Any incomplete days are
noted with an asterisk.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Daily Summary
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T1-#> nearEnd
currentDaily
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Figure 35: Daily summary tab
15-minute intervals
These statistics are found under the 15-Min tab. The statistics are logged in 96 15minute intervals, over the past 24 hours. You may see less than 96 entries if the
system restarted or the time changed during the interval.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > 15-Min
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T1-#> nearEnd
current15Min
Figure 36: 15-minute tab
Daily statistics
These statistics are found under the Date tabs, such as 12/20. Daily statistics are
kept for the past seven days. On the Daily Statistics page, you can review the
unit’s behavior on an hourly basis, over the past 24 hours. You will find a summary for that date at the top of the table.
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The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Date tab
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T1-#> nearEnd
intervalDaily <0-7> (0 is current day)
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
Figure 37: Daily statistics (date) tab
The statistics reported are delayed by ten seconds, except for the unavailable seconds (UAS) counter. For example, if you caused an error by pulling a T1 cable,
the errored seconds counter would increment after ten seconds. Path refers to the
logical end-to-end connection, and line refers to physical T1 line.
NOTE
You can place the cursor over a column heading in the GUI and let it “hover” in
order to get a more complete description of that counter.
■
■
■
■
■
■
Errored seconds - Path (ES-P). A count of the one-second intervals containing any of the following: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)-6 errors,
Controlled Slips (CS) events, Severely Errored Framing (SEF) defects, or
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - Path (SES-P). For the ESF frame format, a count
of the one-second intervals with 320 or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more
SEF or AIS defects. For D4, a count of the one-second intervals with eight or
more FE events (if Ft and Fs bits are measured) or four or more FE events (if
Ft bits only are measured), or one or more SEF or AIS defects.
Severely errored framing seconds - Path (SEFS-P). A count of the one-second
intervals containing one or more SEF defects or one or more AIS defects.
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path (ESB-P). A count of the one-second intervals
with no less than two, and no more than 319 CRC-6 errors, no SEF defects,
and no AIS defects.
Unavailable seconds (UAS). A count of the one-second intervals for which
the interface is unavailable. An interface is unavailable when it is in an LOS,
OOF, or AIS alarm for greater than 10 seconds.
Code violations - path (CV-P). A count of the frame synchronization bit errors
(FE) in the SF format, or a count of CRC-6 errors in the ESF format occurring
during a one-second interval.
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■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path (CSS-P). The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for the interface. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during
which one or more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication
or deletion of a frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the
received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Errored Seconds - Line (ES-L). The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES)
for the interface. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line
code violation error events occurred or LOS was detected. A count of the onesecond intervals with one or more BiPolar Violations (BPVs), one or more
Excessive Zeros (EXZs), or one or more Loss of Signal (LOS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - line (SES-L). A count of the one-second intervals
with 1544 or more BPVs plus EXZs, or one or more LOS defects.
Near End Failures - Path (FC-P). A count of the near-end path failure events.
A near-end path failure event begins when the first of either an LOF or AIS is
declared, and ends when both LOF and AIS failures are clear.
Degraded minutes (DM). A sixty-second interval in which there are no UAS
or SES periods, and there are 49 or more CRC-6 errors (CRC6), or line code
violations (BPV plus EXZ). A CRC-6 error is only applicable in ESF framing.
Code Violations - Line (CV-L). The number of Line Coding Violations (LCV)
for the T1 interface. A line coding violation is synonymous with a bipolar violation. A bipolar violation for an AMI-coded signal is the occurrence of a
pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse. A bipolar violation for a
B8ZS-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the
previous pulse, when that pulse is not part of the zero substitution code.
Rx Signal Level - Line (SIG-LVL). The input signal level measurement is an
approximation of the received T1 input voltage. The range is 0 dB to -35 dB
with a typical accuracy of +/- 2 dB. The value for Rx Signal Level - Line in
this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
NOTE
Each interval is synchronized to the system time. If any error was reported in the
15-minute historical interval, the entire interval is considered errored.
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T1 signal level
One of the key measurements to determine the health of your T1 line is to determine the signal level at the receiving end. The CrossPATH allows you to review
the strength of the Rx signal level from several places.
1. From the Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# page, you can review the Rx Signal
Level near the top of the page. The signal level is represented in decibels and
voltage. For example, an unconnected T1 connection would register as -35dB/
.11V.
2. On the same page, the T1 WAN Counters table lists the Rx Signal Level Line at the bottom of the table. This historical signal level number indicates
the lowest received signal level (highest negative dB level) since the counters
were reset. On a loss of signal condition, this signal level will hold at -35 dB
and stay there until the counters are reset.
Figure 38: Signal level on Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Monitor tab
3. From the Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# > Monitor tab, click the Daily Summary tab. The far-right column indicates the signal level under the heading
SIG-LVL. This number indicates the lowest received signal level (highest
negative dB level) for the particular historical time interval.You can click a
tab for a particular date, which might show the signal degrading over onehour increments, or you can check the past 24 hours under the 15-Min tab,
which records information from the counters in 15-minute increments.
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4. There is an LED icon for Signal Level shown on the Monitor > Interfaces > T1
Summary page, where all T1 lines are represented, as shown in Figure 33. You
can monitor the signal strength of all T1 lines in your system at a glance. The
icon turns red when the signal level drops below the Rx Signal Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# page. An alarm is
also recorded in the Alarm Log when the signal level falls below your configured threshold. The signal level alarm GUI LED is related to the signal level
alarm threshold that is set in the T1 interface configuration parameters. The
default value of -35 dB prevents any signal level threshold alarms.
Monitoring T1
redundant groups
Monitor the status of T1 redundant groups using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant Groups
The CLI
interface show t1 <name> lineStatus
interface stats t1 <name> redundantStatus
The T1 Redundant Groups Summary table, as shown in Figure 39, displays the
working port, protect port, revertive mode, and the forced switch status for all T1
redundant groups. Links to statistics and counters for each T1 interface are available by clicking on the link for that interface.
Green LEDs indicate no alarm condition. Gray LEDs indicate the interface is not
connected. Red indicates the T1 circuit is unavailable.
Figure 39: Monitoring T1 redundant groups
■
■
■
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Monitoring T1 interfaces
Working Port. Indicates the working port T1 interface. The default status of
the working port is active mode, assuming it has no alarms.
Protect Port. Indicates the protect port T1 interface. The default status of the
protect port is standby, unless the working port is in alarm, or you have forced
a switch from the working port.
Revertive. Indicates if the unit will automatically switch back to a good (no
alarms) working port, unless you force a switch to the protect port using the
Switch Active Port button on the Configure > Interfaces > T1 > Redundant
Groups page. Revertive mode will not resume until you force a switch back to
the working port.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
■
Forced Switch. Indicates if the redundant group is in a forced switch state. If
the redundant group is in forced switch, the active link will stay on the protect
port (and not revert to the working port), unless the protect port fails or the
group is forced back to the working port.
If you are monitoring the redundant group status on the front panel of the CrossPATH 3G 16-port unit (model 77760), see Table 9 on page 33 for information on
LED behavior for port redundancy.
If you are monitoring the redundant group status on the front panel of the CrossPATH 4 unit (model 74016), see Table 15 on page 44 for information on LED
behavior for port redundancy.
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T1 interface diagnostics
The system provides several diagnostic tools for isolating and solving problems.
This section discusses these tools and their use:
■
Ping
■
Loopbacks
■
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
For information about the Power On Self-Test (POST), refer to “Power up and
power down” on page 52.
For information about monitoring, refer to “Monitoring T1 interfaces” on page
104.
Ping
The ping protocol allows the user to determine IP connectivity and latency
between the CrossPATH and a remote host.
Activating ping
To activate ping, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Traffic > Ping, then enter an IP address and
press Enter to send or click the OK button
The CLI
ping host <IP address>
You can use a host name instead of an IP address if the DNS Client is configured.
NOTE
To ping a WAN interface, verify ICMP is enabled from the GUI Configure > System
> Basic page. ICMP is enabled by default.
Stopping ping
An automatic ping in progress can be halted by issuing the ping stop command
from the CLI. The GUI only issues one ping at a time, and the results are displayed as soon as the reply is returned. If the host did not acknowledge your ping,
a message is displayed indicating the ping request timed out, with the following
text: "1 transmitted, 0 received, 1 lost." The timeout is set to 1000 ms.
Interpreting the results
Use ping to determine whether or not a host is down, or to time the return of the
message as a performance benchmark. The time reflects the load on the remote
host, the congestion on the network, and the load on all intermediate hosts.
Using the CLI, you can specify several options to perform a more in-depth analysis. For example, you can configure the ToS byte, which includes DSCP bits, to
test networks that support the DiffServ architecture.
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Ping shows a summary of its results when it completes. This includes the number
of requests (pings) sent and received, and their minimum, maximum, and average
latency. A slow, heavily-used network or host has a large average latency or may
not respond at all.
Latency reports
You can set up and activate a latency report to collect multiple ping measurements. Latency reports utilize ping to determine host connectivity. They contain:
TIP
The DNS client must be configured if you wish to use a
remote host name instead of
the IP address.
■
■
■
■
The IP address or name of the host to ping
The maximum number of milliseconds to wait before a ping request is considered lost (timeout)
The average number of ICMP pings to send to the given host in a 15-minute
statistics interval
The DiffServ codepoint (DSCP) value to insert in the IP header ToS byte for
traffic prioritization (use only to measure DiffServ performance).
Once a network is configured, it may be useful to set up Latency Reports to monitor a collection of remote hosts to verify that they are active and that their
networks are performing as expected.
Once polling is enabled, all available latency reports are executed and measured
simultaneously. Each report collects statistics for the number of pings sent and
received, and their minimum, maximum, and average latency. The statistics are
collected in a 24-hour report divided into 15-minute intervals, and in a 7-day
report divided into 4-hour intervals.
Set up latency reports to monitor a collection of remote hosts and measure roundtrip latency between those hosts and the system, using the following:
TIP
You cannot add or delete
reports while ping measurements are running.
The GUI
Monitor > Traffic > Latency, then select Add Host
The CLI
ping
ping
ping
ping
add <name>
set <item#>
enable <item#>
poll start
Combined, these reports give a good long-term view of a network’s behavior as
well as detailed information during a day. Periods of high network use show larger
latencies (and lost pings), while off-peak hours may show very good performance.
These trends are useful for network planning and tuning.
Latency reports are also used to determine if the performance guarantees promised by your T1 service provider are being upheld. For more information on ping,
see “Ping” on page 118.
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Loopbacks
The CrossPATH provides loopbacks to support line segment testing. Line segment
testing allows you to probe the T1 circuit to isolate where data flow is being corrupted or disrupted. You can set all loopbacks locally, in your near-end device.
You can also set the line and payload loopbacks remotely, in a far-end device. If
you set a loopback in a far-end device, you can use the CrossPATH to run bit error
rate tests (BERTs) to test the T1 signal. In addition, the CrossPATH will respond
to standard and custom loop codes sent over the T1 from the far end. To activate
or deactivate loopbacks, see “Activating and deactivating loopbacks” on page 123.
During loopback testing, a signal is transmitted and returned to the sending device
after passing through all or a portion of the network. The returned signal is compared with the transmitted signal in order to evaluate the integrity of the
equipment or transmission path.
Loopbacks allow pieces of the network to be isolated and tested separately. Use
loopbacks to diagnose problems on the network, such as data corruption or faulty
equipment.
The CrossPATH can be set to respond to codes or allow them to pass through the
connection to a downstream device. To set this functionality, see “Configuring T1
interfaces” on page 92. To configure inband loopbacks, see “Configuring inband
loopbacks” on page 125.
The CrossPATH supports the following loopbacks:
■
Line loopbacks
■
Payload loopbacks
■
Inband codes (custom inband loopbacks)
NOTE
Make sure that external equipment is not in loop timing when a line loopback or
payload loopback is set. This causes clock instabilities that result in errors.
Line loopbacks
A line loopback takes the received data and loops it directly back on to the transmit side of the line.
T1 line loopback
The line loopback allows the carrier (or a far-end device) to test the T1 signal at
the network interface. When set to a line loopback, the system loops the incoming
T1 signal back to the network. The T1 signal does not penetrate the system (it is a
minimum penetration loopback), and does not pass through the framer. The signal, including framing and line coding errors, is returned to the network unaltered
and the carrier can test the looped signal for errors.
Figure 39 shows the data path during a line loopback.
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Figure 39: T1 line loopback diagram
FRAMER
CROSS
CONNECT
MATRIX
FRAMER
By testing the T1 signal through a line loopback as described above, the carrier (or
the far-end device) can determine if there are problems in the network line. What
they cannot determine, however, is if the problems are occurring on the input or
output side of the looped line. To further isolate the source of the problems from
one side of the line to the other, change from a line loopback to a payload
loopback.
Payload loopbacks
A payload loopback takes the received data and loops it back onto the transmit
side of the framer, after correcting bipolar violation (BPV) errors and frame bit
errors.
T1 payload loopback
The framing pattern sequence (FPS), and, if in extended super frame (ESF) mode,
the CRC-6 calculation and facility data link (FDL) bits are not looped back.
Instead they are corrected and reinserted by the framer.
While in payload loopback, data from the line is still received and processed by
the system.
Figure 40 shows the data paths during a payload loopback.
Figure 40: T1 payload loopback diagram
Framer
Cross
Connect
Matrix
Framer
The condition of the returned signal indicates the source (local or remote) of the
problem:
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Local Diagnostics
■
■
The line is okay if the returned signal contains no bit pattern errors, no BPVs,
and no CRC6 errors.
The problem is inbound and at the local end if the returned signal contains bit
pattern errors, CRC6 errors, and BPVs.
Remote Diagnostics
■
■
■
The problem is outbound to the CrossPATH (receive) and at the remote end if
the returned signal contains bit pattern errors, but no BPVs or CRC6 errors.
The problem is inbound from the CrossPATH (transmit) and at the remote end
if the returned signal contains bit pattern errors and CRC6 errors, but no
BPVs.
The problem is probably a remote clock slip if the returned signal contains bit
pattern errors and is bursty, but contains no BPVs and no CRC6 errors.
Figure 41: T1 payload loopback remote diagnostics diagram
Outbound (receive)
Test
Equipment
CrossPATH
Inbound (transmit)
Remote Diagnostics (technician at test equipment)
Inband codes
Inband codes are codes that are present in the full T1 payload as opposed to outof-band codes, which are present in the T1 framing overhead. You can select one
of three custom repeating bit pattern loopup codes via the GUI or the CLI. The
standard loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code. You
can loopup T1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard loopup
code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback code. You can
segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full T1 end to end network. These codes are selected in Configuration > Interfaces > T1 > T1-# or by
clicking the Configure Multiple T1 Interfaces link on the same GUI page to configure all or multiple T1 interfaces. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom
loopback codes:
■
■
■
10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
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To set the CrossPATH to respond to inband codes, use the following:
Inband codes
Activating and
deactivating
loopbacks
Configure > Interfaces > T1 > T1-#, then select one of the
customized codes in the Binary Inband Loopback Code
menu
Configure > Interfaces > T1 then click the Configure
Multiple T1 Interfaces link for multiple or all T1 interfaces
To activate loopbacks, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1, then select a T1 port and click
the Diagnostics tab
The CLI
interface diagnose t1 <t1> loopbackConfig
(near end)
interface diagnose t1 <t1> feLpbkReq (far end)
Figure 42 shows the Diagnostics tab for a selected T1 port.
Figure 42: Activating loopbacks using the GUI
Near end loopback
You can activate loopbacks on the near end by setting the following parameters:
■
■
Loopback Config. The options are Line Loopbacks, which loop the incoming
signal back to the network, and Payload Loopbacks, which pass the signal
through the framer before looping back.
Loopback Timeout. You can set the loopback to time out in a short amount of
time, such as 30 seconds, or set it to Never expire. When you set the timeout,
you see text below the field which tells when the request expires.
Click the Set button to activate the near end loopback.
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Far end loopback request
Far end Loopbacks are set on the remote device. You can send a far end loopback
request by setting the following parameters:
■
■
In-Band Mode. Select the type of loopback request (in-band codes or out of
band ESF messages). Check the checkbox for In-Band mode to send inband
loop-up codes to the far end. If this checkbox is left unchecked, and the interface is set for ESF framing mode, the unit can send either a line or payload
loopback request.
Loopback Config. Choose one of the following options:
■
■
■
■
LoopDown. Deactivates the loopback.
LoopUpPayload. Activates the payload loopback but passes the signal
through the framer before being looped back.
LoopUpLine. Activates the line loopback.
Loopback Timeout. This is the time interval to keep the loopback active. Normal traffic will not resume until the loopback is deactivated. When you set the
timeout, you see text below the field which tells when the request expires.
When the timeout expires on a far end loopback request, the unit will send a
loop-down code to restore the line back to normal.
Click the Send button to begin sending far end loopback requests.
In the GUI, the T1 Summary table on the Monitor > Interfaces > T1 page shows
Loopback in the Test Mode column, shown in Figure 43, while the loopback is in
progress.
Figure 43: T1 Status Summary during Active Loopback
When a loopback is deactivated, the affected interface returns to its original mode
of operation, or to its new configuration if the interface configuration was
changed while in loopback.
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Testing strategy for loopbacks
The strategy for testing network connections involves setting a loopback at one
point in a data path and sending a test signal to see if it comes back correctly. If it
does, set another loopback farther down the data path and send the test signal
again.
Repeat the procedure until the faulty connection is located, or until all the connections in the data path are confirmed.
Configuring inband loopbacks
To configure inband loopbacks, see “Configuring T1 interfaces” on page 92.
Bit Error Rate Test
(BERT)
Bit Error Rate Tests (BERT) sends a continuous stream of code down the line to
verify T1 signal integrity, by testing for a specified pattern. Once set, the local
interface tries to detect the returning BERT signal. A loopback is not required at
the far end, if that device can interpret the BERT pattern.
The BERT test replaces all current traffic on the T1 line. BERT is not implemented to support fractional connections. The BERT test will ignore fractional
connections and send traffic across the full T1 line using all 24 channels. You can
still send far-end loopbacks (if supported by the far-end) to verify lines, and you
can also set up near-end and far-end BERT, and both ends will synchronize across
the 24 channels. When you remove BERT testing, fractional operations will return
-- you do not lose your connections.
When BERT is enabled on a through-timed connection, both ends of the connection will be system-timed. Once BERT is disabled, both ends return to being
through-timed.
To set up BERT, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T1> T1 link then select the
Diagnostics tab for that T1 port
The CLI
interface diagnose t1 <name>
timeout <timeout value>
interface diagnose t1 <name>
interface diagnose t1 <name>
itErrCount
interface diagnose t1 <name>
BERT enabled
insert bitErr
clear recvB
show status
NOTE
The BERT test replaces all current traffic on the T1 line.
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Figure 44: BERT Monitor and Error Insertion display
You can configure BERT by setting the BERT Test Timeout parameter:
■
■
■
BERT Test Timeout. The BERT test will automatically expire according to this
setting.
BERT Test Pattern. Select the type of BERT test pattern to send. Options are:
QRSS (Quasi-Random Signal Source), 2^11-1, and 2^15-1. The 2^11-1 and
2^15-1 test patterns are pseudo-random patterns of the length specified by the
pattern name.
BERT Test expires in. This counter displays the status of the BERT Test and
shows how soon it expires. You must click the Refresh button to increment the
time.
Click the Activate button to begin the BERT test. Once you activate the test, the
button text toggles to "Deactivate." Normal traffic resumes once the test times out.
Once you activate the BERT test, the BERT Monitor and Error Insertion section
of this page displays the current status. To aid in long term testing, the Loss of Pattern Detected field will show if the BERT pattern was completely lost at some
time during the BERT test. You can review information about whether the system
is receiving a BERT pattern from another system, determine if the bit error count
is incrementing, or insert a bit error. You have to click the Refresh button to
update the status.
■
■
■
■
■
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Receiving BERT Test Pattern. Displays whether the system is receiving the
BERT test pattern from the far end system.
Loss of Pattern Detected During Test. Displays whether a loss of the BERT
test pattern has been detected.
Loss of Pattern Since Last BERT Status Poll. Displays whether there has been
a loss of the BERT test pattern since the last BERT status poll.
Receiving Bit Error Counts. Displays whether the system is receiving bit error
counts, up to 65,535. If none are received, value remains 0. The Bit Error
Count is reset using the Reset button.
Reset Counter. Click the Reset button to reset the Bit Error Count.
Chapter 5: T1 Interfaces
■
Bit Error to Insert. You can insert a bit error into the BERT pattern for
advanced diagnostics, by clicking the Insert button. To insert a bit error into
the BERT pattern for advanced diagnostics, you must first activate the BERT
Test, then enter the number of bit errors to insert. The default is one bit error.
Click the Insert button to begin the insertion.
To stop BERT, wait for timeout or click the Deactivate button.
While the test is active, results are available on screen. Once the test has been
completed, BERT test results can be viewed in the System Log on the Monitor >
Logs > System Log page.
T1 interface diagnostics
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128
T1 interface diagnostics
C
h
a
p
t
6
e
r
DSX1 Interfaces
■
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
■
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
■
DSX1 interface diagnostics
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About DSX1 interfaces
DSX1 interface support requires the 74155 12xDSX1 or the 74170 16xDSX1
option module, and is available for the CrossPATH 4 only. Connect to the interface using the Kentrox BNC cable (Catalog #01-96010010, BNC cable, 10' long).
DSX1 interfaces are different from T1 interfaces in the following ways:
■
DSX1 interfaces don’t support long haul line build out settings
■
DSX1 interfaces have a different signal level threshold
■
DSX1 interfaces typically have a different pinout than T1 interfaces, but the
Kentrox option modules use T1 pinout
The Option Module Installation Instructions explain how to perform a basic
installation and configuration of the TDM option modules. A printed copy of the
Option Module Installation Instructions is included with each option module, and
an online PDF version is included on the user documentation CD. There is a separate Installation Instructions document for the CrossPATH 4 model.
The Option Module Installation Instructions cover:
■
Safety precautions
■
Removing the front panel cover
■
Installing the option module
■
Verifying successful installation
Follow the Option Module Installation Instructions before configuring any option
module.
74155 12xDSX1
option module
The 74155 option module for CrossPATH 4 enables carriers to substantially
expand existing wireless networks, quickly and easily. The 74155 module
includes dual DS3 and twelve T1 (DSX1) interfaces, enabling up to 28 T1s and
two DS3s in a single rack unit.
Figure 45: 74155 option module
DS3
XMT
P1
74170 16xDSX1
option module
130
About DSX1 interfaces
RCV
(17)
(18)
(19)
DSX1 (20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
XMT
P2
RCV
The 74170 option module provides CrossPATH 4 with an additional 16 T1
(DSX1) interfaces, enabling carriers to quickly and easily expand existing wireless networks. With the 74170 module, the CrossPATH 4 can support up to 32 T1s
in a single rack unit.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Figure 46: 74170 option module
Configuring the
option module
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
DSX1 (21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
Once an option module is installed, the System Overview page displays the
installed module type, serial number, material number, and software version. The
configured module type must be selected in order to configure DSX1 interfaces,
by either using the Specify link on the Monitor > System page or going to the Configure > System > Option Slot page.
To configure the option module, as shown in Figure 51, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > System, then click on the Specify link or
Configure > System > Option Slot
The CLI
system set module slot1 type empty
system set module slot1 type tdm-12xDSX1
system set module slot1 type tdm-16xDSX1
Figure 51: System overview with installed option module
■
Installed Module Type. The type of option module installed. If an option module is installed, the part number is displayed.
About DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
Configured Module Type. The type of option module that is configured. Clicking the Specify link allows you to select the type of option module to
configure. You can use this field to prepare your system for actual hardware
installation; once you select a module, the software setups become available
on other pages of the system, even if the hardware has not yet been added.
The default is “empty.”
■
Serial Number. The serial number of the option module.
■
Material Number. The internal manufacturer number for the option module.
■
Software Version. The software version for the option module.
NOTE
If the appropriate tabs for module interface configuration do not appear, go to the
Monitor > System page and verify the module is in operational status. Then refresh
the CrossPATH user interface using the Refresh button to ensure module-specific
tabs are displayed.
Resetting the option
module
Occasionally, you might need to reset the option module without restarting the
CrossPATH 4.
To reset the option module software, use the following:
132
About DSX1 interfaces
The GUI
Configure > System > Option Slot, then click the Reset
button
The CLI
system restart optionModule
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
Configuration
overview
You can see at a glance on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 page which interfaces
are in alarm and how the interfaces are configured. You can also set the key
parameters for the following:
■
■
Configuring multiple DSX1 interfaces: You can click on the “Configure Multiple DSX1 Interfaces” link to configure multiple or all DSX1s with the same
settings.
■
Set for Multiple DSX1 Interfaces
■
Set for All DSX1 Interfaces
Configuring DSX1 interfaces individually: You can click on the links in the
Physical Port column for any DSX1 interface to edit that interface.
Figure 52: DSX1 interface configuration summary
For descriptions of the columns shown in the interface summary, see “Monitoring
DSX1 interfaces at a glance” on page 143.
Configuring multiple
DSX1 interfaces
You can quickly set the options for multiple or all DSX1 interfaces, as shown in
Figure 53:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > Configure
Multiple DSX1 Interfaces
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 53: Configuring multiple DSX1 interfaces
■
■
Port Name. Enter a port name. All DSX1 interfaces have a default port name,
with the following format: DSX1-# Interface. Port names can be up to 30
characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following
special characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a DSX1 service provider or
network operator.
NOTE
If there are settings which are different on at least one DSX1 interface, the field
name turns red and a question mark displays either in the field, or next to the
checkbox. To determine which interface(s) have different settings, go to Configure
> Interfaces > DSX1 and review the DSX1 Interface Configuration Summary table,
shown in Figure 52 on page 133.
Set for Multiple DSX1 Interfaces
If you are configuring a system where multiple (but not all) DSX1 interfaces use
the same settings, you can quickly configure the multiple interfaces at the same
time.
Set for All DSX1 Interfaces
If you are configuring a system where all DSX1 interfaces use the same settings,
you can quickly configure all the interfaces at the same time.
■
134
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
DSX1 Selector. This area contains two boxes: List Selections and Group List.
List Selections are the possible DSX1 interfaces you will choose from. The
Group List starts out empty until you build the list of DSX1 interfaces. To
specify what DSX1 interfaces to include in the group list, select the DSX1
interface from the List Selections field and then click the >> button to move
the DSX1 interface from List Selections to Group List. Click the << button to
remove a DSX1 interface from the Group List.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
NOTE
If you are working with multiple DSX1 interfaces, you can select multiple interfaces from either list by holding down the Shift key and clicking a range of
interfaces, or by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking multiple interfaces
individually.
■
■
■
Line Type. Framing format used on the DSX1 line. Options are ESF and D4,
with ESF the default. In ESF mode, only every fourth bit of the framing pattern is used for synchronization. In D4 mode, all the framing pattern bits are
used for synchronization. This setting must match on the transmit and receive
ends. If D4 is selected, the "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback" option is grayed
out and not configurable, because FDL loopbacks are not supported for the
D4 line type.
Line Coding. Encoding for transmission over the DSX1 line. Options are
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 Zero Substitution (B8ZS). The
default is B8ZS. AMI encoding is primarily used for voice applications, while
B8ZS is primarily used for data applications.
Line Build Out. The distance of the physical line is used to determine if the
signal is amplified. The carrier should provide the correct setting. If not, use 0
dB. For short haul settings, the line signal is amplified for longer cables or
older equipment that needs a higher signal level. Refer to Table 31:
Table 31: Short haul settings
Setting
0 - 110 feet
110 - 220 feet
220 - 330 feet
330 - 440 feet
440 - 550 feet
NOTE
DSX1 interfaces do not support long haul line build out settings.
■
■
Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds in
the range 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or more errors has
occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds
counters exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm will
be generated. Setting this field to 0 will disable alarm generation.
Rx Signal Level Threshold. Set the Receive Signal Level Threshold in the
range 0 to -14 dB. When the signal level drops below this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm is generated. Setting this field to the lowest
value of -14 dB will disable the alarm generation. The default value is -14 dB.
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
■
Inhibit Remote Inband Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an inband loopback on this port. This is useful for
diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an FDL loopback on this port. This is useful for diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
NOTE
If this option is grayed out, this DSX1 interface either has a line type of D4 or is
part of a Full T1-Through TDM connection. FDL loopbacks are not supported in
either instance.
■
Loopback Timeout. The Loopback Timeout option will determine how long a
near-end or remote loopback will stay up when another external device has
sent a loopup code request to the CrossPATH unit. If set to 30 seconds and a
loopup code is received, the unit will keep the loop up for 30 seconds and then
drop it. If the Loopback Timeout is set to Never, then the unit keeps the loop
up until it receives a loopdown code or a user turns it off from the GUI or CLI.
The Loopback Timeout option is a drop-down menu with several options:
30 sec
1 min
■
5 min
■
10 min
■
30 min
■
1 hr
■
1 day
■
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code. The CrossPATH unit responds to inband
loopup codes. The factory default loopup code is the T1.403 standard (10000)
repeating bit pattern. The CrossPATH will look for this repeating (10000) bit
pattern to be in the payload of a full DSX1. Once the code is detected for
longer than 3 seconds, the DSX1 port that is receiving the code will go into a
line loopback state. The standard loopdown repeating bit pattern of (100) will
take down the loopback and restore the DSX1 back. You can also select three
custom repeating bit pattern loopup codes via the GUI or the CLI. The standard loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code. You
can loopup DSX1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard
loopup code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback
code. You can segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full
DSX1 end to end network. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom loopback codes:
■
■
■
■
■
■
10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
136
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
■
■
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "DSX1 idle." Clearing the checkbox will block AIS forwarding.
AIS forwarding only works when a full or fractional DSX1 is cross-connected. AIS forwarding is sent down all 24 channels on a fractional DSX1
connection. The default state is unchecked.
Alarms and Traps. Use these selections to enable or disable line status, link
up/down traps, and out-of-frequency alarms. The default selection is Disabled. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has been configured
from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
■
■
■
Configuring DSX1
interfaces
individually
Line Status Change Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP
traps whenever the Line Status changes.
Link Up/Down Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP traps
whenever the DSX1 link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarms. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-offrequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-of-frequency alarm generates a line status change trap.
Individual DSX1 interfaces are configured using:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > DSX1, then select
a DSX1 port link to bring up the Edit DSX1
Configuration page for that port
The CLI
interface list T1s
interface set t1 <name>
interface show t1 <name>
Figure 54: Configuring DSX1 interfaces individually
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
■
■
■
■
Port Name. Enter a port name. All DSX1 interfaces have a default port name,
with the following format: DSX1-# Interface. Port names can be up to 30
characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following
special characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a DSX1 service provider or
network operator.
Line Type. Framing format used on the DSX1 line. Options are ESF and D4,
with ESF the default. In ESF mode, only every fourth bit of the framing pattern is used for synchronization. In D4 mode, all the framing pattern bits are
used for synchronization. This setting must match on the transmit and receive
ends. If D4 is selected, the "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback" option is grayed
out and not configurable, because FDL loopbacks are not supported for the
D4 line type.
Line Coding. Encoding for transmission over the DSX1 line. Options are
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) and Binary 8 Zero Substitution (B8ZS). The
default is B8ZS. AMI encoding is primarily used for voice applications, while
B8ZS is primarily used for data applications.
Line Build Out. The distance of the physical line is used to determine if the
signal is amplified. The carrier should provide the correct setting. If not, use 0
dB. For short haul settings, the line signal is amplified for longer cables or
older equipment that needs a higher signal level. Refer to Table 31:
Table 32: Short haul settings
Setting
0 - 110 feet
110 - 220 feet
220 - 330 feet
330 - 440 feet
440 - 550 feet
NOTE
DSX1 interfaces do not support long haul line build out settings.
■
■
138
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds in
the range 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or more errors has
occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds
counters exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm will
be generated. Setting this field to 0 will disable alarm generation.
Rx Signal Level Threshold. Set the Receive Signal Level Threshold in the
range 0 to -14 dB. When the signal level drops below this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm is generated. Setting this field to the lowest
value of -14 dB will disable the alarm generation. The default value is -14 dB.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
■
■
Inhibit Remote Inband Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an inband loopback on this port. This is useful for
diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback. Selecting the checkbox will prevent other
equipment from setting an FDL loopback on this port. This is useful for diagnosing systems where the CrossPATH is not the end device. Clear the
checkbox if you are the end device. The default state is unchecked.
NOTE
If this option is grayed out, this DSX1 interface either has a line type of D4 or is
part of a Full T1-Through TDM connection. FDL loopbacks are not supported in
either instance.
■
Loopback Timeout. The Loopback Timeout option will determine how long a
near-end or remote loopback will stay up when another external device has
sent a loopup code request to the CrossPATH unit. If set to 30 seconds and a
loopup code is received, the unit will keep the loop up for 30 seconds and then
drop it. If the Loopback Timeout is set to Never, then the unit keeps the loop
up until it receives a loopdown code or a user turns it off from the GUI or CLI.
The Loopback Timeout option is a drop-down menu with several options:
30 sec
1 min
■
5 min
■
10 min
■
30 min
■
1 hr
■
1 day
■
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code. The CrossPATH unit responds to inband
loopup codes. The factory default loopup code is the T1.403 standard (10000)
repeating bit pattern. The CrossPATH will look for this repeating (10000) bit
pattern to be in the payload of a full DSX1. Once the code is detected for
longer than 3 seconds, the DSX1 interface that is receiving the code will go
into a line loopback state. The standard loopdown repeating bit pattern of
(100) will take down the loopback and restore the DSX1 back. The standard
loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code. You can
loopup DSX1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard
loopup code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback
code. You can segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full
DSX1 end-to-end network. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom loopback codes:
■
■
■
■
■
■
10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
139
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
■
■
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "DSX1 idle." Clearing the checkbox will block AIS forwarding.
AIS forwarding only works when a full or fractional DSX1 is cross-connected. AIS forwarding is sent down all 24 channels on a fractional DSX1
connection. The default state is unchecked.
Alarms and Traps. Use these selections to enable or disable line status, link
up/down traps, and out-of-frequency alarms. The default selection is Disabled. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has been configured
from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
■
■
■
Configuring DSX1
redundant groups
Line Status Change Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP
traps whenever the Line Status changes.
Link Up/Down Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP traps
whenever the DSX1 link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarms. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-offrequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-of-frequency alarm generates a line status change trap.
DSX1 ports can be connected together via a “Y” cable to form a redundant group
on the CrossPATH 4 (74016). Both of the DSX1 receive sides are monitoring the
line but only one transmits data; the other transmit port is in a high impedance
state. If the working port fails, the CrossPATH unit automatically switches to the
protect port.
To add a DSX1 interface redundant group, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups, then
click the Add T1 Redundant Group link
The CLI
interface add redundantT1Group workPort
DSX1-# protectPort DSX1-#
NOTE
If a DSX1 interface has a loopback or BERT diagnostic running, a redundant
group using that DSX1 interface cannot be created. Make sure there are no diagnostics running on any DSX1 interface before using that DSX1 interface in a
redundant group. Also, connections to the protect port must be deleted before a
redundant group can be successfully created. If the protect port you selected has a
connection before redundant group creation, the redundant group is not created.
140
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Figure 55: Adding a DSX1 redundant group
■
■
■
Working port. One port of a redundant pair of DSX1 ports. The working port
must be selected from ports DSX1-17 through DSX1-22 on the 74155 option
module and between DSX1-17 through DSX1-24 on the 74170 option module. After a power cycle or reboot the working port will be in active mode
assuming that it has no alarms. If the revertive mode is set, the unit will automatically switch back to the working port, once the alarms have cleared.
Protect Port. One port of a redundant pair of DSX1 ports. The protect port
must be selected from ports DSX1-23 through DSX1-28 on the 74155 option
module and ports DSX1-25 through DSX1-32 on the 74170 option module.
After a power cycle or reboot the protect port will be in standby mode, assuming that the working port has no alarms.
Revertive mode. If the revertive checkbox is selected, the unit will automatically switch back to a good (no alarms) working port unless you force a
switch to the protect port using the Switch Active Port button on the Configure
> Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups page. Revertive mode will not
resume until you force a switch back to the working port. If revertive mode is
not enabled, and a switchover has occurred, the protect port will remain the
active link unless manually switched back to the working port, or the protect
port goes into alarm.
Once a redundant group is created, view the configuration summary of all current
redundant groups on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups page.
Switching the active port
To force the system to switch which DSX1 interface is the active port, click the
Switch button in the Switch Active Port column. If you force the protect port to be
active, revertive mode is disabled until you manually switch back to the working
port.
NOTE
If the inactive port is in alarm, the Switch Active Port button is greyed out and
forced switch functionality is disabled.
Configuring DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Deleting a redundant group
To delete the group, go to the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups
page, select the checkbox, and then click the Apply button.
If the Delete column shows three dashes, then the redundant group is either part of
a TDM connection (Configure > Connections) or acting as an inband management
interface (Configure > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt). The connection must be deleted
before a redundant group can be deleted. You can not delete a redundant group if
it is in use.
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Configuring DSX1 interfaces
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
Monitor the DSX1 interfaces for Rx signal level, status, alarms, statistics, and
more, using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 to review a summary of the
status of all DSX1 interfaces in a single table
The CLI
interface show t1 <name> lineStatus
interface stats t1 <name> nearEnd current
■
■
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces at a glance: The DSX1 Interface Summary table
allows you to quickly see which interfaces are in alarm or operating normally.
Click on the link for any DSX1 interface to access more information about the
DSX1 interface, including DSX1 historical statistics and diagnostics. For
more information, see “DSX1 interface diagnostics” on page 157.
Monitoring individual DSX1 interfaces: Click on the link for any DSX1 interface to access more information about the DSX1 interface, including DSX1
historical statistics and diagnostics.
Figure 56: Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
Monitoring DSX1
interfaces at a
glance
Status icons represent the alarm states for all DSX1 interfaces in one table. Select
any DSX1 interface link from the DSX1 status table, as shown in Figure 56, to
view the alarm states and counters for that DSX1 interface. On any DSX1 interface, a gray status LED indicates that the interface has no associated connection.
■
■
Name. The system-defined name for the DSX1 interface.
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the DSX1 circuit.
A green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates the DSX1 circuit is unavailable.
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Transmit (Tx) status
■
■
AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx) status
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
144
Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED
icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > DSX1
page where you select a specific DSX1 interface to reach the Edit DSX1 Configuration page for that port. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red
LED icon indicates an EER alarm is present.
SIG LVL. The icon turns red when the signal level falls below the Rx Signal
Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-#
page.
Freq (Hz). The frequency offset indicator shows the status of the received
clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the
CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays
the offset from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the
receive signal is outside the set Frequency threshold. The frequency offset
displays in green text when it is within normal parameters, and red text when
it is outside the threshold. An out-of-frequency condition is declared when the
received frequency is more than 200 Hz high or low, (+/- 26 Hz).
Test Mode. This field describes whether you are in NE Loopback or None
(two dashes).
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Redundant Group
This section of the DSX1 Interface Summary table lists if an individual DSX1
interface is in a redundant group, the status of the port (active or standby), and the
interfaces configured in the redundant group. Redundant groups are configured on
the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups page.
NOTE
This column is only visible on the CrossPATH 3G 16-port model (77760) and the
CrossPATH 4 16-port model (74016), shown in Figure 56 on page 143.
■
Redundant Group. Indicates the two DSX1 interfaces configured in a redundant group. The first DSX1 interface will be an interface from DSX1-17
through DSX1-22 on the 74155 12xDSX1 option module and DSX1-17
through DSX1-24 on the 74170 16xDSX1 option module. The second DSX1
interface will be an interface from DSX1-23 through DSX1-28 on the 74155
12xDSX1 option module and DSX1-25 through DSX1-32 on the 74170
16xDSX1 option module. The active interface is shown in blue.
Protocol status
This section lists the protocol assigned to the interface, the type of protocol, and
the protocol status.
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■
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Name. The name of the protocol assigned to the interface. Examples are
None, TDM, and the name of the PPP or Frame Relay interface.
Type. Indicates the type of protocol assigned to the DSX1 interface, such as
Frame Relay, PPP, or None.
Status. Indicates the status of the interface protocol.
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Monitoring
individual DSX1
interfaces
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for the DSX1
interface. This information is available by selecting an individual DSX1 interface
from the summary table.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Monitor
The CLI
interface stats t1 <name> nearEnd current
monitor
Figure 57: Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
DSX1 interface configuration
The information displayed in this section is gathered mostly from the Configure >
Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Edit DSX1 Configuration page.
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■
Port Name. This field displays the optional identifier for your DSX1 interface. This information will display when you hover the mouse over a link to
the DSX1 interface.
Circuit ID. This optional field is set on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 >
DSX1-# page. This field is blank if no circuit ID has been entered. This information will display when you hover the mouse over a link to the DSX1
interface.
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Transmit Clock Source. This field displays the clock that this DSX1 interface
is using to transmit its data. Loop means the interface is using the receive
clock, system means the interface is using the current system clock, and local
means the interface is using the internal unit clock.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
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Rx Signal Level. The input signal level measurement is an approximation of
the received DSX1 interface input voltage used in estimating cable length or
detecting weak DSX1 signals. The value in dB is relative to the nominal DS1
pulse amplitude specified in ANSI T1.403. The range is 0 dB to -14 dB with a
typical accuracy of +/- 2 dB. You can quickly determine if there are hardware
issues with the DSX1 line by monitoring this reading. If the DSX1 interface is
not connected, an Rx Signal Level of -14db is displayed.
Rx Clock Frequency. The received clock frequency is the signal with which
incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the
incoming frequencies and displays the frequency and the offset from the nominal values. The frequency offset displays in green text when within normal
parameters, and red text when outside the threshold. Dashes mean the value
received is invalid (outside the monitored frequency range), or there is no signal on the line.
Test Mode. This field reflects whether you have any loopbacks set or are in
BERT Test mode. Loopbacks and BERT testing are configured for the DSX1
interface on the Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Diagnostics page.
Potential values are Loopback Active, BERT Test Active, or None.
Remote Loopbacks Allowed. Displays whether the CrossPATH responds to the
specified remote loopbacks (Inband and/or FDL). If both types of remote
loopbacks are inhibited, "None" is displayed. For the CrossPATH to respond
to external loopback requests, go to the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1# > Edit DSX1 Configuration page to select or deselect "Inhibit Remote Inband
Loopback" and/or "Inhibit Remote FDL Loopback.” If the "Inhibit Remote
FDL Loopback" option is grayed out and not configurable, this DSX1 interface either has a line type of D4 or is part of a Full T1-Through TDM
connection.
Loopback Timeout. Displays the current timeout set for near-end or remote
loopbacks. This setting is on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Edit
DSX1 Configuration page.
Binary Inband Loopback Code. This field displays the custom code set for
inband loopbacks. The standard code is 10000. The Binary Inband Loopback
Code is set on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Edit DSX1 Configuration page.
AIS Forwarding. This field displays whether AIS forwarding is enabled or
disabled. Refer to the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Edit DSX1
Configuration page.
DSX1-# WAN Alarm States
DSX1 alarms are generated based on error events that occur on an input signal.
Error events are also referred to as signal conditions. For instance, a loss of signal
event (LOS) is also referred to as an LOS condition. A signal condition is a current, instantaneous status of the received signal at the interface. The signal
condition may persist or may be intermittent.
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If a signal condition persists or is intermittent but frequent, the condition is integrated into an alarm over a period of time (2.5 seconds). The alarm is cleared
when the condition is continually absent for 15 seconds or more.
This prevents alarms from being raised every time a signal condition occurs
briefly, and from being deactivated every time the signal condition temporarily
flickers off.
The alarm states are displayed in the GUI for the DSX1 interfaces. The color of
the associated GUI “LED” indicates the status of the alarm.
■
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the DSX1 circuit.
A green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates the DSX1 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx) status
■
AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
■
RAI. An RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS.A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx) status
■
LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
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■
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LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) condition persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED
icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > DSX1
page where you select a specific DSX1 interface to reach the Edit DSX1 Configuration page for that port. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red
LED icon indicates an EER alarm is present.
SIG LVL. The icon turns red when the signal level falls below the Rx Signal
Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-#
page.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
■
Freq (Hz). The LED turns red when the received frequency is outside the normal range for the interface. An out-of-frequency condition is declared when
the received frequency is more than 200 Hz high or low, (+/- 26 Hz). A green
LED indicates that the received frequency is within the normal range for the
interface.
DSX1 WAN Counters
This table lists the number of times each event has occurred since the last reset of
the counters. Note that the values for Latched Rx Signal Level - Line, Rx Clock
Frequency Minimum Offset - Line, and Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset Line in this table are the lowest/highest values since the last reset of the counters.
■
■
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■
■
■
■
■
■
Errored seconds - Path (ES-P). A count of the one-second intervals containing any of the following: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)-6 errors,
Controlled Slips (CS) events, Severely Errored Framing (SEF) defects, or
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - Path (SES-P). For the ESF frame format, a count
of the one-second intervals with 320 or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more
SEF or AIS defects. For SF, a count of the one-second intervals with eight or
more FE events (if Ft and Fs bits are measured) or four or more FE events (if
Ft bits only are measured), or one or more SEF or AIS defects.
Severely errored framing seconds - Path (SEFS-P). A count of the one-second
intervals containing one or more SEF defects or one or more AIS defects.
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path (ESB-P). A count of the one-second intervals
with no less than two, and no more than 319 CRC-6 errors, no SEF defects,
and no AIS defects.
Unavailable seconds (UAS). A count of the one-second intervals for which
the port is unavailable. A port is unavailable when it is in an LOS, OOF, or
AIS alarm for greater than 10 seconds.
Code violations - path (CV-P). A count of the frame synchronization bit errors
(FE) in the SF format, or a count of CRC-6 errors in the ESF format occurring
during a one-second interval.
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path (CSS-P). The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for the interface. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during
which one or more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication
or deletion of a frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the
received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Errored Seconds - Line (ES-L). The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES)
for the port. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line code
violation error events occurred or LOS was detected. A count of the one-second intervals with one or more BiPolar Violations (BPVs), one or more
Excessive Zeros (EXZs), or one or more Loss of Signal (LOS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - Line (SES-L). A count of the one-second intervals
with 1544 or more BPVs plus EXZs, or one or more LOS defects.
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Near End Failures - Path (FC-P). A count of the near-end path failure events.
A near-end path failure event begins when the first of either an LOF or AIS is
declared, and ends when both LOF and AIS failures are clear.
Degraded minutes (DM). A 60-second interval in which there are no UAS or
SES periods, and there are 49 or more CRC-6 errors (CRC6), or line code violations (BPV plus EXZ). A CRC-6 error is only applicable in ESF framing.
Code Violations - Line. The number of Line Coding Violations (LCV) for the
DSX1 port. A line coding violation is synonymous with a bipolar violation. A
bipolar violation for an AMI-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the
same polarity as the previous pulse. A bipolar violation for a B8ZS-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse,
when that pulse is not part of the zero substitution code.
Rx Signal Level - Line. The input signal level measurement is an approximation of the received T1 input voltage. The range is 0 dB to -14 dB with a
typical accuracy of +/- 2 dB. The value for Rx Signal Level - Line in this table
is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
NOTE
Each interval is synchronized to the system time. If any error was reported in the
15-minute historical interval, the entire interval is considered errored.
DSX1 historical
statistics
The CrossPATH maintains historical statistics using time intervals of 15 minutes
each, over the last 24 hours. If the system has been running for less than 24 hours,
the number of available intervals is less than 96.
The GUI displays statistics for the current 15-minute interval and the totals for the
previous 24 hours (or maximum number of available intervals). Each interval is
synchronized to CrossPATH system time, and new intervals begin every 15 minutes. For example, if the statistics for a module are zeroed at 8:14, the oldest
interval only contains data for one minute, because a new interval will start at
8:15. Partial intervals are noted by an asterisk in the time column. Statistics that
are dependent upon time, such as cell rates, are not available for partial intervals.
You can review statistics broken down in the following ways:
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Daily summary
These statistics are found under the Daily Summary tab. Counters for the DSX1
line are totaled for an entire day, with the current day at the top of the table. You
can quickly determine any trends or changes. When the system has been up for
more than a week, only the past seven days are represented. Any incomplete days
are noted with an asterisk.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Daily Summary
The CLI
interface stats t1 <DSX1-#> nearEnd
intervalDaily 0
Figure 58: Daily summary tab
15-minute intervals
These statistics are found under the 15-Min tab. The statistics are logged in 96 15minute intervals, over the past 24 hours. You may see less than 96 entries if the
system restarted or the time changed during the interval.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > 15-Min
The CLI
interface stats t1 <DSX1-#> nearEnd
interval15Min <0-96>
Figure 59: 15-minute tab
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Daily statistics
These statistics are found under the Date tabs, such as 12/20. Daily statistics are
kept for the past seven days. On the Daily Statistics page, you can review the
unit’s behavior on an hourly basis, over the past 24 hours. The top row of data on
this page shows a summary for the given date.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Date tab
The CLI
interface stats t1 <DSX1-#> nearEnd
intervalDaily <0-7> (0 is the current
day)
Figure 60: Daily statistics (date) tab
TIP
T1 statistics are based on
ANSI T1.403 and T1.231.
The statistics reported are delayed by ten seconds, except for the unavailable seconds (UAS) counter. For example, if you caused an error by pulling a DSX1
cable, the errored seconds counter would increment after ten seconds. Path refers
to the logical end-to-end connection, and line refers to the physical DSX1 line.
NOTE
You can mouse over a column heading in the GUI and get a more complete
description of that counter.
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Monitoring DSX1 interfaces
Errored seconds - Path (ES-P). A count of the one-second intervals containing any of the following: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)-6 errors,
Controlled Slips (CS) events, Severely Errored Framing (SEF) defects, or
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - Path (SES-P). For the ESF frame format, a count
of the one-second intervals with 320 or more CRC-6 errors, or one or more
SEF or AIS defects. For SF, a count of the one-second intervals with eight or
more FE events (if Ft and Fs bits are measured) or four or more FE events (if
Ft bits only are measured), or one or more SEF or AIS defects
Severely errored framing seconds - Path (SEFS-P). A count of the one-second
intervals containing one or more SEF defects or one or more AIS defects.
Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path (ESB-P). A count of the one-second intervals
with no less than two, and no more than 319 CRC-6 errors, no SEF defects,
and no AIS defects.
Unavailable seconds (UAS). A count of the one-second intervals for which
the port is unavailable. A port is unavailable when it is in an LOS, OOF, or
AIS alarm for greater than 10 seconds.
Code violations - path (CV-P). A count of the frame synchronization bit errors
(FE) in the SF format, or a count of CRC-6 errors in the ESF format occurring
during a one-second interval.
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path. The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for
the port. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during which one or
more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication or deletion of a
frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference between
the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Errored Seconds - Line. The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES) for the
port. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line code violation error events occurred or LOS was detected. A count of the one-second
intervals with one or more BiPolar Violations (BPVs), one or more Excessive
Zeros (EXZs), or one or more Loss of Signal (LOS) defects.
Severely errored seconds - line (SES-L). A count of the one-second intervals
with 1544 or more BPVs plus EXZs, or one or more LOS defects.
Near End Failures - Path (FC-P). A count of the near-end path failure events.
A near-end path failure event begins when the first of either an LOF or AIS is
declared, and ends when both LOF and AIS failures are clear.
Degraded minutes (DM). A sixty-second interval in which there are no UAS
or SES periods, and there are 49 or more CRC-6 errors (CRC6), or line code
violations (BPV plus EXZ). A CRC-6 error is only applicable in ESF framing.
Code Violations - Line (CV-L). The number of Line Coding Violations (LCV)
for the DSX1 port. A line coding violation is synonymous with a bipolar violation. A bipolar violation for an AMI-coded signal is the occurrence of a
pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse. A bipolar violation for a
B8ZS-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the
previous pulse, when that pulse is not part of the zero substitution code.
Rx Signal Level - Line (SIG-LVL). The input signal level measurement is an
approximation of the received T1 input voltage. The range is 0 dB to -14 dB
with a typical accuracy of +/- 2 dB. The value for Rx Signal Level - Line in
this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
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NOTE
Each interval is synchronized to the system time. If any error was reported in the
15-minute historical interval, the entire interval is considered errored. An incomplete time interval is indicated by an asterisk next to the date or time. The asterisk
can also indicate an invalid time interval or cleared historical statistics.
DSX1 signal level
One of the key measurements to determine the health of your DSX1 line is to
determine the signal level at the receiving end. The CrossPATH allows you to
review the strength of the Rx signal level from several places.
1. From the Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# page, you can review the Rx
Signal Level near the top of the page. The signal level is represented in decibels and voltage and displays as -14dB/1.2V.
2. On the same page, the DSX1 WAN Counters table lists the Latched Rx Signal Level - Line at the bottom of the table. This historical signal level number
indicates the lowest received signal level (highest negative dB level) since the
counters were reset. On a loss of signal condition, this signal level will hold at
-14 dB and stay there until the counters are reset.
Figure 61: Signal level on Monitor > Interfaces > DSX > DSX1-# >
Monitor tab
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3. From the Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Monitor tab, click on the Daily
Summary tab. The SIG-LVL column displays the signal level. This number
indicates the lowest received signal level (highest negative dB level) for the
particular historical time interval. You can click a tab for a particular date,
which might show the signal degrading over one-hour increments, or you can
check the past 24 hours under the Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# >
Monitor > 15-Min tab, which records information from the counters in 15minute increments.
4. There is an LED icon for Signal Level shown on the Monitor > Interfaces >
DSX1 page, where all DSX1 lines are represented, as shown in Figure 57. You
can monitor the signal strength of all DSX1 lines in your system at a glance.
The icon turns red when the signal level drops below the Rx Signal Level
Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# page.
An alarm is also recorded in the Alarm Log when the signal level falls below
your configured threshold. The signal level alarm GUI LED is related to the
signal level alarm threshold that is set in the DSX1 port configuration parameters. The default value of -14 dB prevents any signal level threshold alarms.
Monitoring DSX1
redundant groups
Monitor the status of DSX1 redundant groups using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > Redundant Groups
The CLI
interface show t1 <name> redundantStatus
The DSX1 Interface Redundant Groups Summary table, as shown in Figure 62,
displays the working port, protect port, revertive mode, and the forced switch status for all DSX1 redundant groups. Links to statistics and counters for each DSX1
interface are available by clicking on the link for that interface.
Green LEDs indicate no alarm condition. Gray LEDs indicate the interface is not
connected. Red indicates the DSX1 circuit is unavailable.
Figure 62: Monitoring DSX1 redundant groups
■
Working Port. Indicates the working port DSX1 interface. The default status
of the working port is Active mode, assuming it has no alarms.
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■
■
Protect Port. Indicates the protect port DSX1 interface. The default status of
the protect port is Standby, unless the working port is in alarm, or you have
forced a switch from the working port.
Revertive. Indicates if the unit will automatically switch back to a good (no
alarms) working port, . Revertive mode will not resume until you force a
switch back to the working port.
Forced Switch. Indicates if the redundant group’s traffic has been manually
switched to flow through the protect port. To force a switch to the protect port,
use the Switch Active Port button on the Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 >
Redundant Groups summary page. The active link will stay on the protect port
(and not revert to the working port), unless the protect port fails or the group
is forced back to the working port.
If you are monitoring the redundant group status on the front panel of the CrossPATH 4 unit (model 74016), see Table 15 on page 44 for information on physical
LED behavior for port redundancy.
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DSX1 interface diagnostics
The system provides diagnostic tools for isolating and solving problems. This section discusses these tools and their use:
■
Loopbacks
■
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
For information about monitoring, refer to “Monitoring DSX1 interfaces” on page
143.
Loopbacks
The CrossPATH provides loopbacks to support line segment testing. Line segment
testing assists in troubleshooting the DSX1 circuit by isolating where data flow is
being corrupted or disrupted. You can set all loopbacks locally, in your near-end
device. You can also set the line and payload loopbacks remotely, in a far-end
device. If you set a loopback in a far-end device, you can use the CrossPATH to
run bit error rate tests (BERTs) to test the DSX1 signal. In addition, the CrossPATH will respond to standard and custom loop codes sent over the DSX1 from
the far end.
During loopback testing, a signal is transmitted and returned to the sending device
after passing through all or a portion of the network. The returned signal is compared with the transmitted signal in order to evaluate the integrity of the
equipment or transmission path.
Use loopbacks to diagnose problems on the network, such as data corruption or
faulty equipment.
The CrossPATH can be set to respond to codes or allow them to pass through the
connection to a downstream device. To set this functionality, see “Configuring
DSX1 interfaces” on page 133.
The CrossPATH supports the following loopbacks on DSX1 interfaces:
■
Line loopbacks
■
Payload loopbacks
■
Inband codes (custom inband loopbacks)
NOTE
Make sure that external equipment is not in loop timing when a line loopback or
payload loopback is set. This causes clock instabilities that result in errors.
Line loopbacks
A line loopback takes the received data and loops it directly back on to the
transmit side of the line.
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DSX1 line loopback
The line loopback allows the carrier (or a far-end device) to test the DSX1 signal
at the network interface. When set to a line loopback, the system loops the incoming DSX1 signal back to the network. The DSX1 signal does not penetrate the
system (it is a minimum penetration loopback), and does not pass through the
framer. The signal, including framing and line coding errors, is returned to the network unaltered and the carrier can test the looped signal for errors.
Figure 63 shows the data path during a line loopback.
Figure 63: DSX1 line loopback diagram
FRAMER
CROSS
CONNECT
MATRIX
FRAMER
By testing the DSX1 signal through a line loopback as described above, the carrier
(or the far-end device) can determine if there are problems in the network line.
What they cannot determine, however, is if the problems are occurring on the
input or output side of the looped line. To further isolate the source of the problems from one side of the line to the other, change from a line loopback to a
payload loopback.
Payload loopbacks
A payload loopback takes the received data and loops it back on to the transmit
side of the framer, after correcting bipolar violation (BPV) errors and frame bit
errors.
DSX1 payload loopback
The framing pattern sequence (FPS), and, if in extended super frame (ESF) mode,
the CRC-6 calculation and facility data link (FDL) bits are not looped back.
Instead they are corrected and reinserted by the framer.
While in payload loopback, data from the line is still received and processed by
the system.
Figure 64 shows the data paths during a payload loopback.
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Figure 64: DSX1 payload loopback diagram
Framer
Cross
Connect
Matrix
Framer
The condition of the returned signal indicates the source (local or remote) of the
problem:
Local Diagnostics
■
■
The line is okay if the returned signal contains no bit pattern errors, no BPVs,
and no CRC6 errors.
The problem is inbound and at the local end if the returned signal contains bit
pattern errors, CRC6 errors, and BPVs.
Remote Diagnostics
■
■
■
The problem is outbound to the CrossPATH (receive) and at the remote end if
the returned signal contains bit pattern errors, but no BPVs or CRC6 errors.
The problem is inbound from the CrossPATH (transmit) and at the remote end
if the returned signal contains bit pattern errors and CRC6 errors, but no
BPVs.
The problem is probably a remote clock slip if the returned signal contains bit
pattern errors and is bursty, but contains no BPVs and no CRC6 errors.
Figure 65: DSX1 payload loopback remote diagnostics diagram
Outbound (receive)
Test
Equipment
CrossPATH
Inbound (transmit)
Remote Diagnostics (technician at test equipment)
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Inband codes
Inband codes are codes that are present in the full DSX1 payload as opposed to
out-of-band codes, which reside in the DSX1 framing overhead. You can select
one of three custom repeating bit pattern loopup codes via the GUI or the CLI.
The standard loopback code is ignored when you select a custom loopback code.
You can loopup DSX1 equipment beyond the CrossPATH unit with the standard
loopup code and loopback the CrossPATH unit with the custom loopback code.
You can segment the loopback testing to isolate problem areas in the full DSX1
end-to-end network. These codes are selected in Configuration > Interfaces > DSX1
> DSX1-#. The CrossPATH unit supports three custom loopback codes:
■
■
■
10100
10110
11110
NOTE
The loopdown code remains (100).
To set the CrossPATH to respond to inband codes, use the following:
Inband codes
Activating and
deactivating
loopbacks
Configure > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-#, then select one
of the customized codes in the Binary Inband Loopback
Code menu
To activate loopbacks, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1, then select a DSX1 interface
and click on the Diagnostics tab
The CLI
For DSX1:
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#>
loopbackConfig (near end)
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#> feLpbkReq (far
end)
Figure 66 shows the Diagnostics page for a selected DSX1 interface.
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Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
Figure 66: Activating loopbacks using the GUI
Near end loopback
You can activate loopbacks on the near end by setting the following parameters:
■
■
Loopback Config. The options are Line Loopbacks, which loop the incoming
signal back to the network, and Payload Loopbacks, which pass the signal
through the framer before looping back, or None.
Loopback Timeout. You can set the loopback to timeout in a short amount of
time, such as 30 seconds, or set it to Never expire. When you set the timeout,
you see text below the field which tells when the request expires.
Click the Set button to activate the near end loopback. To deactivate the loopback
before it times out, set Loopback Config to None and click the Set button.
Far end loopback requests
Far end loopback requests are set on the remote device. You can send a far end
loopback request by setting the following parameters:
■
■
In-Band Mode. Select the type of loopback request (in-band codes or out of
band ESF messages). Check the checkbox for In-Band mode to send inband
loop-up codes to the far end. If this checkbox is left unchecked, and the port is
set for ESF framing mode, the unit can send either a line or payload loopback
request.
Loopback Config. Choose one of the following options:
■
■
■
■
LoopDown. Deactivates the loopback.
LoopUpPayload. Activates the payload loopback but passes the signal
through the framer before being looped back.
LoopUpLine. Activates the line loopback.
Loopback Timeout. This is the time interval to keep the loopback active. Normal traffic will not resume until the loopback is deactivated. When you set the
timeout, you see text below the field which tells when the request expires.
When the timeout expires on a far end loopback request, the unit will send a
loop-down code to restore the line back to normal.
Click the Send button to begin sending far end loopback requests.
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In the GUI, the DSX1 Summary table on the Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 page
shows NE Loopback, shown in Figure 67, while the near end loopback is in
progress.
Figure 67: T1 Status Summary during Active Loopback
When a loopback is deactivated, the affected interface returns to its original mode
of operation, or to its new configuration if the interface configuration was
changed while in loopback.
Testing strategy for loopbacks
The strategy for testing network connections involves setting a loopback at one
point in a data path and sending a test signal to see if it comes back correctly. If it
does, set another loopback farther down the data path and send the test signal
again.
Repeat the procedure until the faulty connection is located, or until all the connections in the data path are confirmed.
Bit Error Rate Test
(BERT)
BERT sends a continuous stream of code down the line to verify DSX1 signal
integrity, by testing for a specified pattern. Once set, the local interface tries to
detect the returning BERT signal. A loopback is not required at the far end, if that
device can interpret the BERT pattern.
Note that the BERT test replaces all current traffic on the DSX1 line. BERT is not
implemented to support fractional connections. The BERT test will ignore fractional connections and send traffic across the full T1 line using all 24 channels.
You can still send far-end loopbacks (if supported by the far-end) to verify lines,
and you can also set up near-end and far-end Bit Error Rate Tests (BERT), and
both ends will synchronize across the 24 channels. Upon completion of a BERT
test, any fractional connections disrupted by the test resume normal operation.
When BERT is enabled on a through-timed connection, both ends of the connection will be system-timed. Once BERT is disabled, both ends return to being
through-timed.
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Chapter 6: DSX1 Interfaces
To set up BERT, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1> DSX1-# link, then select the
Diagnostics tab for that DSX1 interface
The CLI
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#> BERT enabled
timeout <timeout value>
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#> insert
bitErr
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#> clear recvB
itErrCount
interface diagnose t1 <dsx1-#> show status
Figure 68: BERT Monitor and Error Insertion display
You can configure BERT by setting the BERT Test Timeout and BERT Test Pattern parameters:
■
■
BERT Test Timeout. The BERT test will automatically expire according to this
setting.
BERT Test Pattern. Select the type of BERT test pattern to send. Options are:
QRSS (Quasi-Random Signal Source), 211-1, and 215-1. 211-1 and 215-1 test
patterns are pseudo-random patterns of the length specified by the pattern
name.
■
BERT Test expires in. This counter displays the status of the BERT Test and
shows how soon it expires. You must click the Refresh button to increment the
time.
Click the Activate button to begin the BERT test. Once you activate the test, the
button text toggles to "Deactivate." Normal traffic resumes once the test times out.
Once you activate the BERT test, the BERT Monitor and Error Insertion section
of this page displays the current status. To aid in long term testing, the Loss of Pattern Detected field will show if the BERT pattern was completely lost at some
time during the BERT test. You can review information about whether the system
is receiving a BERT pattern from another system, determine if the bit error count
is incrementing, or insert a bit error. Click the Refresh button to update the status.
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■
■
■
■
■
■
Receiving BERT Test Pattern. Displays whether the system is receiving a
BERT test pattern from another system.
Loss of Pattern Detected During Test. Displays whether a loss of the BERT
test pattern has been detected.
Loss of Pattern Since Last BERT Status Poll. Displays whether there has been
a loss of the BERT test pattern since the last BERT status poll.
Receiving Bit Error Counts. Displays whether the system is receiving bit error
counts, up to 65,535. If none are received, value remains 0. The Bit Error
Count is reset using the Reset button.
Reset Counter. Click the Reset button to reset the Bit Error Count.
Bit Error to Insert. You can insert a bit error into the BERT pattern for
advanced diagnostics, by clicking the Insert button. To insert a bit error into
the BERT pattern for advanced diagnostics, you must first activate the BERT
Test, then enter the number of bit errors to insert. The default is one bit error.
Click the Insert button to begin the insertion.
To stop BERT, wait for the test to timeout or click the Deactivate button.
While the test is active, results are available on screen. Once the test has been
completed, BERT test results can be viewed in the System Log on the Monitor >
Logs > System Log page.
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C
h
a
p
t
7
e
r
T3 Interfaces
■
Configuring T3 interfaces
■
Monitoring T3 interfaces
■
T3 interface diagnostics
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About T3 interfaces
DS3 interface support requires the 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module or the
74155 12xDSX1 option module, and is available for the CrossPATH 4 only. Connect to the port using the Kentrox BNC cable (Catalog #01-96010010, BNC cable,
10' long).
DS3, which stands for Digital Signal Level 3, equates to 28 T-1 lines or 44.736
million bits per second (roughly 43-45 Mbps upstream/downstream speeds).
DS3s have enough bandwidth to allow very large database transferring over busy
wide area networks and the capability of handling 672 simultaneous voice
conversations.
Table 33: Comparison chart
Signal Level
Physical
Layer
DS0
# of T1s
# of Voice
Circuits
Speed Mbps
1/24
1
.064
DS1
T1
1
24
1.544
DS3
T3
28
672
44.736
The designation "DS" refers to "Digital Signals" and describes the physical layer.
The designation "T" refers to the type of carrier that is being used.
Follow the Option Module Installation Instructions before configuring any option
module.
The Option Module Installation Instructions explain how to perform a basic
installation and configuration of the TDM option modules. A printed copy of the
Option Module Installation Instructions is included with each option module, and
an online PDF version is included on the user documentation CD. There is a separate Installation Instructions document for the CrossPATH 4 model.
The Option Module Installation Instructions cover:
74152 Dual DS3
option module
166
About T3 interfaces
■
Safety precautions
■
Removing the front panel cover
■
Installing the option module
■
Verifying successful installation
The 74152 option module provides CrossPATH 4 with DS3 capability to enable
wireless carriers to aggregate and manage today’s existing networks. DS3 is also
referred to as T3 in command line options and in the GUI. The 74152 TDM
2xDS3 option module, shown in Figure 69 on page 167 has two DS3 interfaces.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
Figure 69: 74152 TDM 2xDS3 option module
RCV
XMT
P1
74155 Dual DS3
12xDSX1 option
module
RCV
XMT
P2
The 74155 option module for CrossPATH 4 enables carriers to substantially
expand existing wireless networks, quickly and easily. The 74155 module, shown
in Figure 70, includes dual DS3 and twelve T1 (DSX1) interfaces, enabling up to
28 T1s and two DS3s in a single rack unit. This option module uses mini-BNC
connectors.
Figure 70: 74155 12xDSX1 option module
DS3
XMT
P1
Configuring the
option module
RCV
(17)
(18)
(19)
DSX1 (20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
XMT
P2
RCV
Once an option module is installed, the System Overview page displays the
installed module type, serial number, material number, and software version. The
configured module type must be selected in order to configure T3 interfaces, by
either using Configure > System > Option Slot, as shown in Figure 71, or by clicking
on the Specify link on the Monitor > System page as shown in Figure 72.
To configure the option module, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > System, then click on the Specify link or
Configure > System > Option Slot
The CLI
system set module slot1 type empty
system set module slot1 type tdm-2xds3
system set module slot1 type tdm-12xDSX1
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Figure 71: Option slot - module selection page
Figure 72: System overview with installed option module
Option Module Overview
These fields describe the option module configured and/or installed in your
system.
■
■
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About T3 interfaces
Installed Module Type. The type of option module installed. If an option module is installed, the part number is displayed.
Configured Module Type. The option module that is configured. Clicking the
Specify link allows you to select the option module to configure. You can use
this field to prepare your system for actual hardware installation; once you
select a module, the software setups become available on other pages of the
system, even if the hardware has not yet been added. The default is “empty.”
■
Serial Number. The serial number of the option module.
■
Material Number. The internal manufacturer number for the option module.
■
Software Version. The software version for the option module.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
NOTE
If the appropriate tabs for module interface configuration do not appear, go to the
Monitor > System Overview page and verify the module is in operational status.
Then refresh the CrossPATH user interface using the Refresh button to ensure
module-specific tabs are displayed.
Resetting the option
module
Occasionally, you might need to reset the option module without restarting the
CrossPATH 4.
To reset the option module software, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Option Slot, then click the Reset
button
The CLI
system restart optionModule
Once the Reset button is clicked, wait for the option module to become operational. A green LED icon is displayed, with the word (operational) next to the
LED icon, as shown in Figure 73.
Figure 73: Option slot - operational status
About T3 interfaces
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Configuring T3 interfaces
Configuring a T3
interface
T3 interface configuration summary
To configure a T3 interface, as shown in Figure 74, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T3, then enter information in the
T3 Interface Configuration Summary area and click Apply
The CLI
interface set t1 T3-1 or T3-2
If no T3 tab is available, make sure the option module configured type is set to
74152 TDM 2xDS3 or 74155 12xDSX1 on the Monitor > System page. If the module type is not configured, see “Configuring the option module” on page 167.
Figure 74: T3 interface configuration
There are a number of fields for configuring T3 interfaces, as outlined below:
T3 Interface Settings
■
Interface Name. The T3 interface identifier, either T3-1 or T3-2. This identifier is not user configurable.
■
■
■
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Configuring T3 interfaces
Port Name. Name you assign to identify the interface. Interface names can be
up to 30 characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the
following special characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a T3 service provider or network operator.
Transmit Clock. Select the clock for the T3 interface to use when transmitting
data. Options include System Clock (use the current system clock), Loop (use
the receive clock), or Local Clock (internal unit clock). Local Clock is the
default. System Clock timing is only recommended if the source clock accuracy is known to be 20 PPM or better.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
■
Line Build Out. The distance of the physical line is used to determine if the
signal is attenuated or amplified.The setting can be either Short Haul (0 - 225
ft), or Long Haul (> 225 ft). The default is Short Haul (0 - 225 ft). Refer to
Table 34:
Table 34: Line build out settings
■
■
Settings
Length
Short Haul
0 - 225 feet
Long Haul
> 225 feet
Framing. The framing mode of the T3 interface. Possible values are: C-bit &
M23. This setting must match on the transmit and receive ends.
Enable FEAC. Click the checkbox to enable Far End Alarm and Control
(FEAC). C-bits are used to send alarm or status information from far end terminals to near end terminals and to initiate remote loops.
Enable Alarms & Traps
■
Enable Alarms and Traps. You can enable or disable Alarms and Traps. Select
the checkbox here and configure an SNMP trap host on the Configure > System > Advanced page. If Line Status Change traps are also enabled, the
enabled out-of-frequency alarm will generate a line status change trap.
Alarms
■
Out of Freq. Indicates if the Out-of-Frequency alarm is enabled or disabled.
Note that you must also set up an SNMP trap host on the Configure > System >
Advanced page to fully enable this feature. An out-of-frequency condition
could be declared anywhere in the range of +/-895 Hz to +/-916 Hz.
Traps
■
Line Status Change. Indicates if the SNMP Line Status Traps are enabled or
disabled.
■
DS1 interface
configuration
summary
Link Up/Down. Indicates if SNMP Link up / link down traps are enabled or
disabled.
A T1 interface found within the T3 interface is referred to as a DS1 interface. You
can configure multiple or all DS1 interfaces with the same settings or configure
each DS1 interface individually.
You can see at a glance on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 page which DS1 interfaces are in alarm and how the interfaces are configured. You can also set the key
parameters for the following:
■
Configure multiple DS1 interfaces on T3-#: You can click on the “Configure
Multiple DS1 Interfaces on T3-1” or the “Configure Multiple DS1 Interfaces
on T3-2” link to configure multiple or all T1s with the same settings.
■
Set for Multiple DS1 interfaces
■
Set for All DS1 Interfaces
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■
Configure a DS1 interface individually: You can click on the links in the Physical Port column for any DS1 interface to edit that interface.
Figure 75: DS1 interface configuration summary
For descriptions of the columns shown in the configuration summary, see “Monitoring DS1 interfaces” on page 186.
Configure multiple
DS1 interfaces on
T3-#
Click on the link Configure Multiple DS1 Interfaces on T3-1 or Configure
Multiple DS1 Interfaces on T3-2 to go to the page where you can configure multiple or all DS1s with the same settings.
Figure 76: Configuring multiple DS1 interfaces
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Configuring T3 interfaces
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
■
■
Port Name. Enter a name or description of the DS1 interface in the Port Name
field. The default is "T3-#_DS1-# Interface." Port names can be up to 30 characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following
special characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID (optional). If the network provider assigned a circuit ID for each
interface, enter those in the Circuit ID fields. This field is optional, but it can
come in handy for reporting and monitoring.
NOTE
Note that if there are settings which are different on at least one DS1 interface, the
field name turns red and a question mark displays either in the field, or next to the
checkbox. To determine which interface(s) have different settings, go to Configure
> Interfaces > T3 and review the DS1 Interface Configuration Summary table,
shown in Figure 75 on page 172.
Set for Multiple DS1 interfaces
If you are configuring a system where multiple (but not all) DS1 interfaces use the
same settings, you can quickly configure the multiple interfaces at the same time.
Set for All DS1 Interfaces
If you are configuring a system where all interfaces use the same settings, you can
quickly configure all the interfaces at the same time.
■
DS1 Selector. This area contains two boxes: List Selections and Group List.
List Selections are the possible DS1 interfaces you will choose from. The
Group List starts out empty until you build the list of DS1 interfaces. To specify what DS1 interfaces to include in the group list, select the DS1 interface
from the List Selections field and then click the >> button to move the DS1
interface from List Selections to Group List. Click the << button to remove a
DS1 interface from the Group List.
NOTE
When working with multiple DS1 interfaces, you can select multiple interfaces
from either list by holding down the Shift key and clicking a range of interfaces, or
by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking multiple interfaces individually.
■
■
■
Frame Type. This field selects the DS1 framing. This field must match the service provider's equipment configuration. You can select either ESF or D4.
ESF is the default. This setting must match on the transmit and receive ends.
Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds,
using a value from 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive
Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or
more errors has occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm
will be generated. Setting this field to 0 (zero) will disable alarm generation.
Loopback Timeout. Select the amount of time you want the near-end or
remote loopback to remain active. Settings include 30 seconds, one minute,
five minutes, ten minutes, thirty minutes, one hour, and one day. You can also
leave the loopback active indefinitely by setting the timeout to Never.
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■
■
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "DS1 idle."
Alarms and Traps. Use this general Alarms and Traps setting to control the
overall alarm handling for the system. When enabled, any of alarms and traps
enabled generate alarms. If disabled, no alarms or traps will be sent, regardless of the settings. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has
been configured from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
■
■
■
Configure a DS1
interface
individually
Line Status Change Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP
traps whenever the Line Status changes.
Link Up/Down Trap. Selecting the checkbox will generate SNMP traps
whenever the DS1 link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarms. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-offrequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-of-frequency alarm generates a line status change trap.
To configure a DS1 interface for a T3 interface individually, as shown in Figure
77, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T3, then click the individual DS1
in the DS1 Interface Configuration Summary table
The CLI
interface set t1 T3-1_DS1-# or T3-2_DS1-#
Figure 77: Configuring a DS1 interface individually
■
■
174
Configuring T3 interfaces
Port Name. Name you assign to identify the interface. The default is "T3#_DS1-# Interface." Port names can be up to 30 characters, and can consist of
letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following special characters:
[email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Circuit ID (optional). Optional identification assigned by a T3 service provider or network operator.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
■
■
■
■
■
Frame Type. Framing format used on the T1/DS1 line. Options are ESF and
D4, with ESF the default. In ESF mode, only every fourth bit of the framing
pattern is used for synchronization. In D4 mode, all the framing pattern bits
are used for synchronization. This setting must match on the transmit and
receive ends.
Excessive Error Threshold. Set the Excessive Error Threshold in seconds,
using a value from 1-900. The default value is 13 seconds. The Excessive
Error Threshold counts the number of one second intervals in which one or
more errors has occurred. Whenever the Path Errored Seconds or the Unavailable Seconds exceed this threshold in a rolling 15-minute window, an alarm
will be generated. Setting this field to 0 (zero) will disable alarm generation.
Loopback Timeout. Select the amount of time you want the near-end or
remote loopback to remain active. Settings include 30 seconds, one minute,
five minutes, ten minutes, thirty minutes, one hour, and one day. You can also
leave the loopback active indefinitely by setting the timeout to Never.
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
Selecting the checkbox will ensure that the AIS is forwarded downstream
instead of "T1 idle." Clearing the checkbox will block AIS forwarding.
Alarms and Traps. You can enable or disable alarms and traps. Even though
you enable traps here, if you want to generate line status or link traps, you
must select the check boxes and configure an SNMP trap host at Configure >
System > Advanced.
■
■
■
Configuring a T3
redundant group
Line Status Change. When enabled and an SNMP trap host is configured,
you can generate traps to the trap host when the line status changes.
Link Up/Down. When enabled and an SNMP trap host is configured, you
can generate traps to the trap host when the link up/down state changes.
Out-of-Frequency Alarm. Selecting the checkbox generates an out-of-frequency alarm. If Line Status Change traps are enabled, the out-offrequency alarm will generate a line status change trap.
T3 ports can be connected together via a “Y” cable to form a redundant group on
the CrossPATH 4 (74016) with either the 74152 or the 74155 option module. Both
of the T3 receive sides are monitoring the line but only one will transmit data; the
other transmit port will be in a high impedance state. If the working port fails, the
CrossPATH unit will automatically switch to the protect port.
To add a T3 redundant group, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > T3 > Redundant Groups then
click Add T3 Redundant Group, click Revertive if desired
and then click Apply
The CLI
interface add redundantT3Group workPort T31 protectPort T3-2
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
If no T3 tab is available, make sure the Configured Module Type is set to 74152
TDM 2xDS3 or 74155 12xDSX1 and is operational in the System Status table on
the Monitor > System page. If the module type is not configured, see “Configuring
the option module” on page 167.
There are a number of fields for configuring a T3 redundant group, as outlined
below.
T3 Redundant Group Summary
■
■
Working port. The T3-1 port is the working port. After a power cycle or
reboot, the working port will be in active mode, assuming it has no alarms. If
revertive mode is set, the system will automatically switch back to the working port when it is no longer in alarm.
Protect Port. The T3-2 port is the protect port. After a power cycle or reboot,
the protect port will be in standby mode, assuming that the working port is not
in alarm. This port will automatically become the active port if the working
port goes into alarm, or if the user forces a switch to the protect port. The protect port will remain the active port until one of the following occurs:
if the redundant group is revertive, and the active port goes out of alarm
if the redundant group is not revertive, and you do a forced switch to the
working port which is not in alarm, or the protect port fails and the working port is not in alarm
Revertive mode. If this is selected, the unit will automatically switch back to a
good (no alarms) working port.
■
■
■
Control
■
■
Switch Active Port. Click the button to force the system to switch which T3
interface is the active port. This action is referred to as a “Forced Switch” and
puts the redundant group into a forced switch state. If you force the protect
port to be active, revertive mode is disabled until you manually switch back to
the working port.
Delete. To delete the group, select the checkbox and then click the Apply button. If the Delete column shows three dashes, then the redundant group is part
of a connection. The connection must be deleted before a redundant group can
be deleted. You can not delete a redundant group if it is in use.
Figure 78: T3 redundant group configuration
176
Configuring T3 interfaces
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
Adding the T3 redundant group
Click on the Add T3 Redundant Group link to create the T3 redundant group, then
click the Apply button to finish creating the redundant group. If revertive mode is
desired, click on the checkbox and click the Apply button. Once the redundant
group is successfully created, the Add T3 Redundant Group link is grayed out and
no longer available.
Figure 79: T3 redundant group configuration
NOTE
If a T3 interface has a loopback or BERT diagnostic running, a redundant group
using that T3 interface cannot be created. Make sure there are no diagnostics running on any T3 interface before using that T3 interface in a redundant group.
Also, connections to the protect port (T3-2) must be deleted before a redundant
group can be successfully created. If the protect port you selected has a connection, or is configured as an inband management interface before redundant group
creation, the redundant group is not created.
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Monitoring T3 interfaces
The CrossPATH makes it easy to monitor the T3 interfaces, DS1 interfaces within
the T3 interface, and traffic on your system. Monitoring the T3 and DS1 interfaces
involves reviewing the physical and data link layers for alarms, statistics, and
defects.
NOTE The DS1 interface section is documented separately from the T3 interface
section. See “Monitoring DS1 interfaces” on page 186 section for more
information.
Monitoring a T3
interface
T3 interface summary
You can review all T3 and DS1 interfaces in a single table. Graphical LEDs give
you quick overview of the status of the interfaces. On any T3 interface, a gray status LED indicates that the interface has no associated connection. Summary tables
show the current configuration for each interface or connection.
To view the T3 interface summary table, as shown in Figure 80, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3
The CLI
interface show t3 T3-# lineStatus
interface show t3 T3-# redundantStatus
Figure 80: T3 interface summary
■
■
Name. The system-defined name for the T3 interface.
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the T3 circuit. A
green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates
the T3 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx) status
■
■
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Monitoring T3 interfaces
AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
RAI. RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
Receive (Rx) status
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. RAI is transmitted by the device at the far end of the link when it detects
an error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem
with the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow
LED icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
Framing Mismatch. The DS3 framer is receiving a framing mode other than
the mode it was configured for. If the framer is configured for M23, but
receives C-bit (and vice-versa), it will declare a framing mismatch. A green
LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates the framing mode
being received is not the configured framing mode.
DS3 Idle. The DS3 idle signal allows DS3 circuits to stay out of service as
desired without triggering network alarms. The DS3 idle signal is a validly
framed DS3 signal with a payload consisting of a repeated 1100 signal. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates a DS3 idle
signal is being received.
Freq Offset (Hz). The frequency offset indicator shows the status of the
received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent
to the CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and
displays the offset from the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency, reporting
when the receive signal is outside the set frequency threshold. The frequency
offset displays in green text when it is within normal parameters, and red text
when it is outside the threshold. An out-of-frequency condition could be
declared anywhere in the range of +/-895 Hz to +/-916 Hz.
Test Mode. This field describes whether you are in NE Loopback or None
(two dashes).
Redundant group
If the redundant group columns (Port Status, Revertive, and Forced Switch) have
two dashes, the T3 interfaces have not been configured in a redundant group.
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Port Status. Indicates the status of the ports. A port is either in active or
standby mode. If the field is blank for a redundant group, that group is not
configured in a connection.
Revertive. Indicates if the T3 redundant group is revertive. Potential values
are Yes or No.
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Forced Switch. Indicates if the redundant group is in a forced switch. If the
redundant group is in a forced switch, the active link will stay on the protect
port (and not revert to the working port), unless the protect port fails or the
active link is forced back to the working port.
T3 interface status
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for the T3 interfaces. This information is available by selecting an individual T3 interface from
the summary table.
To view the status for an T3 interface, as shown in Figure 81, use the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3, then click on a T3-# interface
link
The CLI
interface stats t3 T3-# <time interval>
Figure 81: T3 interface status
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Port Name. The user-defined name for this T3 interface.
Circuit ID. Optional identification assigned by a T3 service provider or network operator.
Rx Clock Frequency. The received clock frequency is the signal with which
incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the
incoming frequencies and displays the frequency and the offset from the nominal values. Dashes mean the value received is invalid (outside the monitored
frequency range), or there is no signal on the line.
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Test Mode. This field displays “Loopback Active” when a diagnostic loopback is running on the interface or None (no loopbacks).
Transmit Clock Source. This field displays the clock that this T3 interface is
using to transmit its data. Loop means the interface is using the receive clock,
system means the interface is using the current system clock, and local means
the interface is using the internal unit clock.
Framing. The framing mode of the T3 port. Possible values are: C-bit & M23.
T3 WAN alarm states
T3 alarms are generated based on error events that occur on an input signal. Error
events are also referred to as signal conditions. For instance, a loss of signal event
(LOS) is also referred to as an LOS condition. A signal condition is a current,
instantaneous status of the received signal at the interface. The signal condition
may persist or may be intermittent.
If a signal condition persists or is intermittent but frequent, the condition is integrated into an alarm over a period of time (2.5 seconds). The alarm is cleared
when the condition is continually absent for 15 seconds or more.
This prevents alarms from being raised every time a signal condition occurs
briefly, and from being deactivated every time the signal condition temporarily
flickers off.
The alarm states are displayed in the GUI for the T3 interfaces. The color of the
associated GUI “LED” indicates the status of the alarm.
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Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the T3 circuit. A
green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates
the T3 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx)
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AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
RAI. RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS.A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx)
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LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
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AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. RAI is transmitted by the device at the far end of the link when it detects
an error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem
with the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow
LED icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
Framing Mismatch. The DS3 framer is receiving a framing mode other than
the mode it was configured for. If the framer is configured for M23, but
receives C-bit (and vice-versa), it will declare a framing mismatch. A green
LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates the framing mode
being received is not the configured framing mode.
DS3 Idle. The DS3 idle signal allows DS3 circuits to stay out of service as
desired without triggering network alarms. The DS3 idle signal is a validly
framed DS3 signal with a payload consisting of a repeated 1100 signal. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates a DS3 idle
signal is being received.
Freq Offset. The frequency offset is the offset of the received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The
CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays the offset from
the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the receive signal is
outside the set frequency threshold. An out-of-frequency condition could be
declared anywhere in the range of +/-895 Hz to +/-916 Hz. A green LED icon
indicates the frequency is not outside the normal range, and a red LED icon
indicates the received frequency is outside the normal range of the interface.
T3 WAN counters
This table shows the statistics counters for anomalies in the T3 interfaces. The statistics reported are delayed by ten seconds, except for the unavailable seconds
(UAS) counter. For example, if you caused an error by pulling a T3 cable, the
errored seconds counter would increment after ten seconds. Path refers to the logical end-to-end connection, and line refers to physical T3 line.
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P-Bit Parity Errors. The number of P-Bit bit parity errors for the interface.
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CP-Bit Parity Errors.The number of CP-Bit bit parity errors received.
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Excess Zeros. The number of excessive zero violations for the part. Excessive
zero transmission indicates there is no voltage on the line.
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Bipolar Violations. The number of bipolar violations for the interface. Bipolar
violations occur when two pulses of the same polarity occur without an intervening pulse of the opposite polarity.
Far-End Bit Errors. The number of errors indicating that a flawed block has
been detected at the receiving node.
Near-End Failures - Path.The number of failure events for the near-end path.
Failure events are defined as either an LOF alarm or an AIS alarm.
Far-End Failures - Path.The number of failure events for the far-end path.
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T3 historical
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Code Violations - Line. The number of bipolar violations received.
Errored Seconds - Line. The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES) for the
interface. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line code
violation error events occurred or LOS was detected.
Severely Errored Seconds - Line. The number of Severely Errored Seconds
(SES) for the interface.
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The
value in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The
value in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
P-Bit Code Violations - Path. The count of P-Bit parity errors for the
interface.
CP-Bit Code Violations - Path. The count of CP-Bit parity errors for the
interface.
P-Bit Errored Seconds - Path. A P-Bit errored second is a second with one or
more P-Bit coding violations, one or more out of frame defects, or a detected
incoming AIS.
CP-Bit Errored Seconds - Path. A CP-Bit errored second is a second with one
or more CP-Bit coding violations, one or more Out of Frame defects, or a
detected incoming AIS.
P-Bit Severely-Errored Seconds - Path. A P-Bit severely errored second is a
second with 44 or more P-Bit coding violations, one or more out of frame
defects, or a detected incoming AIS.
CP-Bit Severely-Errored Seconds - Path. A CP-Bit severely errored second is
a second with 44 or more CP-Bit coding violations, one or more out of frame
defects, or a detected incoming AIS.
SEF/AIS Seconds - Path. A severely errored framing second is a second with
one or more out of frame defects or a detected incoming AIS.
P-Bit Unavailable Seconds.The number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) for
the interface. An unavailable second (UAS) is a second during which the
interface is unable to transmit or receive traffic. While the interface is unavailable, the only performance statistics counter incremented is the count of
unavailable seconds.
CP-Bit Unavailable Seconds.The number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) for
the interface. While the interface is unavailable, the only performance statistics counter incremented is the count of unavailable seconds.
To view detailed T3 historical statistics from the GUI for a particular T3 line, follow the path Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-# . The T3 statistics, or counters, are
reported for the near end only.
You can review statistics broken down in the following ways:
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Daily summary
These statistics are found under the Daily Summary tab. Counters for the T3 line
are totaled for an entire day, with the current day at the top of the table. You can
quickly determine any trends or changes. When the system has been up for more
than a week, only the past seven days are represented. Any incomplete days are
noted with an asterisk.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-# > Daily Summary
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T3-#> intervalDaily 0
Figure 82: Daily summary tab
15-minute intervals
These statistics are found under the 15-Min tab. The statistics are logged in 96 15minute intervals, over the past 24 hours. You may see less than 96 entries if the
system restarted or the time changed during the interval.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > 15-Min
The CLI
interface stats t1 <DSX1-#> nearEnd
interval15Min <0-96>
Figure 83: 15-minute tab
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Daily statistics
These statistics are found under the Date tabs, such as 12/20. Daily statistics are
kept for the past seven days. On the Daily Statistics pages, you can review the
unit’s behavior on an hourly basis, over the past 24 hours. You will find a summary for that date at the top of the table.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > DSX1 > DSX1-# > Date tab
The CLI
interface stats t1 <DSX1-#> nearEnd
intervalDaily <0-7> (0 is the current
day)
Figure 84: Daily statistics (date) tab
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Monitoring DS1
interfaces
DS1 interface summary
To view the DS1 interface summary table, as shown in Figure 85, use the
following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3
The CLI
interface show t1 T3-#_DS1-# lineStatus
The DS1 Interface summary table allows you to review all DS1 interfaces in a single table. LEDs give you quick overview of the status of the interfaces and the
table gives a quick overview of each interface’s current status. On any DS1 interface, a gray status LED indicates that the interface has no associated connection.
Figure 85: DS1 interface summary
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Name. The system-defined name for the DS1 interface.
Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the DS1 circuit. A
green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon indicates
the DS1 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx)
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Tx AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
Tx RAI. RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS.A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
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Receive (Rx)
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Rx LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
Rx AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal
to the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5
seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and
a red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
Rx RAI. RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the DS1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow
LED icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > T3
page where you select a specific DS1 interface to reach the Edit DS1 Configuration page for that interface. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red
LED icon indicates an EER alarm is present.
Freq Offset. The frequency offset is the offset of the received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The
CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays the offset from
the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the receive signal is
outside the set Frequency threshold. The frequency offset displays in green
text when it is within normal parameters, and red text when it is outside the
threshold. An out-of-frequency condition could be declared anywhere in the
range of +/-200 Hz to +/-226 Hz.
Test Mode. Status of the current physical layer test mode. Shows if the interface is in loopback or BERT test, as set in Monitor > Interface > T3 > T3-#
_DS1-# > Diagnostics. The default value is None.
DS1 interface statistics
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for a specified
DS1 interface by selecting the interface from the summary table.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-#_DS-# > Monitor
The CLI
interface stats t3 T3-2_DS-1 currentDaily
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Figure 86: DS1 interface statistics
DS1 interface
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Port Name. Displays the user-defined port name.
Circuit ID. Displays the Circuit ID assigned by a T3 service provider or network operator.
Transmit Clock Source. This field displays the clock that a given DS1 interface is using to transmit its data. Loop means the interface is using the receive
clock, system means the interface is using the current system clock, and local
means the interface is using the internal unit clock.
Rx Clock Frequency. The received clock frequency is the signal with which
incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The CrossPATH monitors the
incoming frequencies and displays the frequency and the offset from the nominal values. The frequency offset displays in green text when within normal
parameters, and red text when outside the threshold. Dashes mean the value
received is invalid (outside the monitored frequency range), or there is no signal on the line.
Test Mode. Status of the current physical layer test mode. Shows if the interface is in loopback or BERT test, as set in Monitor > Interface > T3 > T3-#_DS1# > Diagnostics. The default value is None.
Loopback Timeout. Displays the current timeout set for near-end or remote
loopbacks. This setting is configured on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 >
T3-#_DS1-# > Edit Configuration page.
AIS Forwarding. The Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) is a signal transmitted
downstream, indicating that equipment upstream is in an alarm condition.
DS1 WAN alarm states
The alarm states are displayed in the GUI for the DS1 interfaces. The color of the
associated GUI “LED” indicates the status of the alarm. The table also lists the
color of the status LEDs.
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Available. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the DS1 circuit. A green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED icon
indicates the DS1 circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx)
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AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being transmitted.
RAI. An RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS.A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx)
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LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the DS1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow
LED icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > T3
page where you select a specific DS1 interface to reach the Edit DS1 Configuration page for that interface. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red
LED icon indicates an EER alarm is present.
Freq Offset. The frequency offset is the offset of the received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The
CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays the offset from
the 44,736,000 Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the receive signal is
outside the set Frequency threshold. A green LED icon indicates the frequency is not outside the normal range, and a red LED icon indicates the
received frequency is outside the normal range of the interface. An out-of-frequency condition could be declared anywhere in the range of +/-200 Hz to +/226 Hz.
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DS1 WAN counters
When a DS1 interface is connected, this table describes the error counters for that
DS1 interface. Counters that are not applicable to DS1 interfaces (Errored Seconds - Line, Severely Errored Seconds - Line, Code Violations - Line, and Current
Rx Signal Level - Line) are not described. Go to the Monitor > Connections for a
visual representation of system connections. Go to the Configure > Connections
and select the Edit link page to make changes.
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Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Errored Seconds (ES) for the interface. For ESF links, an errored second contains one or more path code
violations OR one or more out of frame defects OR one or more controlled
slip events OR a detected AIS defect. For D4 links, line code violations also
trigger an errored second. The DS1 ES count is not incremented during an
unavailable second.
Severely Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Severely Errored Seconds
(SES) for the interface. For ESF signals, a severely errored second contains
320 or more path code violations OR one or more out of frame or AIS defects.
For D4 signals, a severely errored second contains 1544 or more line code
violations, OR one or more framing error events or out of frame defects.
Severely Errored Framing Seconds. The number of Severely Errored Framing
Seconds (SEFS) for the interface. A severely errored framing second is a second with one or more out of frame or AIS defects.
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Bursty Errored Seconds (BES)
for the interface. A bursty errored second contains more than 1 and fewer than
320 path coding violation error events, and no severely errored frame or AIS
defects. Controlled slips are not included in determining bursty errored
seconds.
Unavailable Seconds. The number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) for the
interface. An unavailable second is a second during which the interface is
unable to transmit or receive traffic. While the interface is unavailable, the
only performance statistics counter incremented is the count of unavailable
seconds.
Code Violations - Path. The number of Path Coding Violations (PCV) for the
interface. A path coding violation is a frame synchronization bit error in D4
format, or a CRC error in ESF format.
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path. The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for
the interface. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during which
one or more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication or deletion of a frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference
between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Errored Seconds - Line. The number of Line Errored Seconds (LES) for the
interface. A line errored second is a second in which one or more line code
violation error events occurred or LOS was detected.
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Degraded Minutes. The number of Degraded Minutes for the interface. A
degraded minute is one in which the estimated bit error rate exceeds 1e-6 but
does not exceed 1e-3. Degraded minutes are determined by: collecting all
available seconds, removing any severely errored seconds, grouping the result
into 60-second-long periods, and counting a 60-second-long period (i.e., a
minute) as degraded if the error rate for the period exceeds 1e-6.
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statistics
Rx Clock Frequency Minimum Offset - Line. The minimum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the lowest value since the last reset of the counters.
Rx Clock Frequency Maximum Offset - Line. The maximum frequency offset
from the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval. The value
in this table is the highest value since the last reset of the counters.
To view detailed DS1 historical statistics from the GUI for a particular DS1 line,
follow the path Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-#_DS1-# . The DS1 statistics, or
counters, are reported for the near end only. You can review statistics broken
down in the following ways:
Daily summary
These statistics are found under the Daily Summary tab. Counters for the DS1 line
are totaled for an entire day, with the current day at the top of the table. You can
quickly determine any trends or changes. When the system has been up for more
than a week, only the past seven days are represented. Any incomplete days are
noted with an asterisk.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-#_DS1-# > Daily Summary
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T3-#_DS1-#>
currentDaily
Figure 87: Daily summary tab
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15-minute intervals
These statistics are found under the 15-Min tab. The statistics are logged in 96 15minute intervals, over the past 24 hours. You may see less than 96 entries if the
system restarted or the time changed during the interval.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > DS1-# > 15-Min
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T3-#_DS1-#> nearEnd
interval15Min <0-96>
Figure 88: 15-minute tab
Daily statistics
These statistics are found under the Date tabs, such as 12/20. Daily statistics are
kept for the past seven days. On the Daily Statistics page, you can review the
unit’s behavior on an hourly basis, over the past 24 hours. You will find a summary for that date at the top of the table.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > DS1-# > Date tab
The CLI
interface stats t1 <T3-#_DS1-#> nearEnd
intervalDaily <0-7> (0 is the current
day)
Figure 89: Daily statistics (date) tab
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Each interval is synchronized to the system time. If any error was reported in the
15-minute historical interval, the entire interval is considered errored.
The statistics reported are delayed by ten seconds, except for the unavailable seconds (UAS) counter. For example, if you caused an error by pulling a T3 cable,
the errored seconds counter would increment after ten seconds. Path refers to the
logical end-to-end connection, and line refers to physical DS1 line.
Counters that are not applicable to DS1 interfaces (Errored Seconds - Line,
Severely Errored Seconds - Line, Code Violations - Line, and Current Rx Signal
Level - Line) are not described.
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Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Errored Seconds (ES) for the interface. For ESF links, an errored second contains one or more path code
violations OR one or more out of frame defects OR one or more controlled
slip events OR a detected AIS defect. For D4 links, line code violations also
trigger an errored second. The DS1 or DSX1 ES count is not incremented during an unavailable second.
Severely Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Severely Errored Seconds
(SES) for the interface. For ESF signals, a severely errored second contains
320 or more path code violations OR one or more out of frame or AIS defects.
For D4 signals, a severely errored second contains 1544 or more line code
violations, OR one or more framing error events or out of frame defects.
Severely Errored Framing Seconds. The number of Severely Errored Framing
Seconds (SEFS) for the interface. A severely errored framing second is a second with one or more out of frame or AIS defects.
Bursty Errored Seconds - Path. The number of Bursty Errored Seconds (BES)
for the interface. A bursty errored second contains more than 1 and fewer than
320 path coding violation error events, and no severely errored frame or AIS
defects. Controlled slips are not included in determining bursty errored
seconds.
Unavailable Seconds. The number of Unavailable Seconds (UAS) for the
interface. An unavailable second (UAS) is a second during which the interface is unable to transmit or receive traffic. While the interface is unavailable,
the only performance statistics counter incremented is the count of unavailable seconds.
Code Violations - Path. The number of Path Coding Violations (PCV) for the
interface. A path coding violation is a frame synchronization bit error in D4
format, or a CRC error in ESF format.
Controlled Slip Seconds - Path. The number of Controlled Slip Seconds for
the interface. A controlled slip second is a one-second interval during which
one or more controlled slips occur. A controlled slip is the replication or deletion of a frame. A controlled slip may be performed when there is a difference
between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the received signal. A controlled slip does not cause an out-of-frame defect.
Near End Failures - Path (FC-P). A count of the near-end path failure events.
A near-end path failure event begins when the first of either an LOF or AIS is
declared, and ends when both LOF and AIS failures are clear.
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Degraded Minutes. The number of Degraded Minutes for the interface. A
degraded minute is one in which the estimated bit error rate exceeds 1e-6 but
does not exceed 1e-3. Degraded minutes are determined by: collecting all
available seconds, removing any severely errored seconds, grouping the result
into 60-second-long periods, and counting a 60-second-long period (i.e., a
minute) as degraded if the error rate for the period exceeds 1e-6.
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Freq Offset (Hz). The out-of-frequency threshold for a DS1 interface is fixed
at the standard maximum receive frequency offset of +/- 200 Hz (+/-130 ppm)
from the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency. The threshold is increased to +/213 Hz to avoid a false out-of-frequency condition due to the system.s +/-13
Hz (+/-8 ppm) measurement accuracy. This means an out-of-frequency condition could be declared for an incoming anywhere in the range of +/-200 Hz to
+/-226 Hz.
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MIN. The minimum frequency offset from the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval.
MAX. The maximum frequency offset from the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency during that time interval.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
T3 interface diagnostics
You can configure diagnostics for a T3 line or the DS1 interfaces within the T3
line. You can set a near end loopback. See “DS1 diagnostics” on page 197 for
information on configuring diagnostics for a DS1 interface.
Configure the T3 diagnostics using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-1 or T3-2, then click
Diagnostics tab
The CLI
interface diagnose t3 T3-1 or T3-2
Figure 90: T3 interface diagnostics
Near end loopback
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Port Name. This value is editable on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 page.
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Circuit ID. This value is editable on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 page.
This is the loopback set on your local interface.
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Apply to ...
Loopback Config. Select Line, Local, or Payload. Line loopbacks loop the
incoming signal back to the network. The signal, including framing and line
coding errors, is returned to the network unaltered. Local loopbacks loop all
data back to the cross-connect. As a result, if the T3 interface has no active
connections, there is no way to make use of the loopback. Payload loopbacks
are the same as line loopbacks, except the signal passes through the framer
before being looped back towards the line interface.
Loopback Timeout. The loopback will automatically expire according to this
setting. Normal traffic resumes once the loopback times out.
You can apply these diagnostics to a full T3 line, all DS1 interfaces, select DS1
interfaces for loopback, or clear loopbacks on all DS1 interfaces. When you
choose the “Select DS1s from List” option, you can select the DS1 interfaces to
include from the DS1 Selector.
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DS1 Selector
The DS1 Selector contains two selection lists: List Selections and Group List. The
DS1 Selector is used only when you’ve selected “Select DS1s from list” in the
Apply to section. The list on the left, List Selections, contains all the DS1 interfaces. The list on the right, Group List, contains all the DS1 interfaces you want to
include.
To specify what to include, select an interface from the List Selections field and
then use the >> button to move the individual DS1 interfaces from List Selections
to Group List. Use the << button to remove DS1 interfaces from the Group List.
If you are working with many DS1 interfaces, you can select multiple entries from
either list by holding down the Shift key and clicking a range of DS1s, or by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking multiple DS1s individually.
Click the Set button to activate the loopback and start the loopback timeout
counter.
Current diagnostics
This table shows the current diagnostics on the selected T3 interface and DS1
interfaces.
Figure 91: Current diagnostics on a T3 interface
Interface
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Interface. The selected T3 interface, either T3-1 or T3-2.
Loopback Config. The type of loopback config on the selected T3 interface.
The default value is None. Other options are local, line, and payload.
Expires. Displays the status of the loopback test and shows how soon it
expires. You must click the Refresh button to increment the time.
DS1 Interface
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Interface. Displays each individual DS1 interface or All DS1s.
Loopback Config. The type of loopback config on the selected DS1 interface.
The default value is None. Other options are line and payload.
Expires. Displays the status of the loopback test and shows how soon it
expires. Click the Refresh button to increment the time.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
DS1 diagnostics
You can configure diagnostics for a specific DS1 interface within a T3. You can
set a near end loopback, send a far end loopback, or activate a BERT test.
Configure the DS1 diagnostics using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-1_DS1-# or T3-2_DS1-#,
then click Diagnostics tab
The CLI
interface diagnose t1 T3-#_DS1-# bert
interface diagnose t1 T3-#_DS1-#
bertTestPattern <pattern>
Loopbacks
The CrossPATH provides loopbacks to support line segment testing. Line segment
testing allows you to probe the DS1 circuit to isolate where data flow is being corrupted or disrupted. You can set all loopbacks locally, in your near-end device.
You can also set the line and payload loopbacks remotely, in a far-end device. If
you set a loopback in a far-end device, you can use the CrossPATH to run bit error
rate tests (BERTs) to test the DS1 signal. In addition, the CrossPATH will respond
to standard and custom loop codes sent over the DS1 from the far end.
During loopback testing, a signal is transmitted and returned to the sending device
after passing through all or a portion of the network. The returned signal is compared with the transmitted signal in order to evaluate the integrity of the
equipment or transmission path.
Loopbacks allow pieces of the network to be isolated and tested separately. Use
loopbacks to diagnose problems on the network, such as data corruption or faulty
equipment.
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > T3 > T3-1_DS1-# or T3-2_DS1-# >
Diagnostics tab, then set Near End Loopback or Far End
Loopback Request
The CLI
interface diagnose t1 T3-#_DS1-#
feLpbkInbandESF
interface diagnose t1 T3-#_DS1-#
feLpbkReq
interface diagnose t1 T3-#_DS1-#
loopbackConfig <loopback type> timeout
<time interval>
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Figure 92: Diagnostics on a DS1 interface
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Port Name. This value is editable on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 > T3#_DS1-# page.
Circuit ID. This value is editable on the Configure > Interfaces > T3 > T3#_DS1-# page.
Near End Loopback
This is the loopback set on your local interface.
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Loopback Config. Select Line or Payload. Line loopbacks loop the incoming
signal back to the network. The signal, including framing and line coding
errors, is returned to the network unaltered. Payload loopbacks are the same
as line loopbacks, except the signal passes through the framer before being
looped back. The default is None.
Loopback Timeout. The loopback will automatically expire according to this
setting. Normal traffic resumes once the loopback times out.
Loopback expires in. This counter displays the status of the loopback test and
shows how soon it expires. You must click the Refresh button to increment the
time.
Set. This button activates the loopback and starts the loopback timeout
counter.
Far End Loopback Request
This is the loopback set on the far end device. This loopback is used for testing
remote devices on the DS1 line.
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In-Band Mode. The checkbox is enabled to send inband loop-up codes to the
far end and cannot be disabled.
Loopback Config. There are two options:
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LoopDown. LoopDown is used to deactivate the loopback.
LoopUpLine. Loops the incoming back to the network. The signal,
including errors, is returned to the network unaltered.
Chapter 7: T3 Interfaces
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Loopback Timeout. The loopback will automatically expire according to this
setting. Normal traffic resumes once the loopback times out.
Loopback expires in. This counter displays the status of the loopback request
and shows how soon it expires. Click the Refresh button to increment the
time.
Send. Click the Send button to begin sending the Far End loopback.
BERT Test
The BERT (Bit Error Rate Test) test sends a continuous stream of code down the
line to verify DS1 signal integrity, by testing for a specified pattern. Once set, the
local interface tries to detect the returning BERT signal. A loopback is not
required at the far end, if that device can interpret the BERT pattern.
Note that the BERT test replaces all current traffic on the DS1 line. BERT is not
implemented to support fractional connections. The BERT test will ignore fractional connections and send traffic across the full T1 line using all 24 channels.
You can still send far-end loopbacks (if supported by the far-end) to verify lines,
and you can also set up near-end and far-end Bit Error Rate Tests (BERT), and
both ends will synchronize across the 24 channels. When you remove BERT testing, fractional operations will return - you do not lose your connections.
When BERT is enabled on a through-timed connection, both ends of the connection will be system-timed. Once BERT is disabled, both ends return to being
through-timed.
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BERT Test Timeout. The BERT test will automatically expire according to this
setting. Normal traffic resumes once the test times out.
BERT Test Pattern. Select the type of BERT test pattern to send. Options are:
QRSS (Quasi-Random Signal Source), 2^11-1, and 2^15-1. 2^11-1 and 2^15-1
test patterns are pseudo-random patterns of the length specified by the pattern
name.
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BERT Test expires in. This counter displays the status of the BERT test and
shows how soon it expires. You must click the Refresh button to increment the
time.
Activate. Click the Activate button to begin the QRSS BERT test. Once you
activate the test, the button text toggles to "Deactivate."
BERT Monitor & Error Insertion
Once you activate the BERT test, the BERT Monitor and Error Insertion section
displays. You can review information about whether the system is receiving a
BERT test pattern from another system, determine if the bit error count is incrementing, or insert a bit error. To update the status, click the Refresh button.
You can only review BERT test information while the test is active. The information in this section is cleared as soon as the BERT test expires.
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Receiving BERT test pattern. Displays whether the system is receiving a
QRSS pattern from another system.
T3 interface diagnostics
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Loss of Pattern detected during test. Displays whether a loss of the BERT test
pattern has been detected.
Loss of Pattern since last BERT status Poll. Displays whether there has been a
loss of the BERT test pattern since the last BERT status poll.
Receiving Bit Error Counts. Displays whether the system is receiving bit error
counts, up to 65,535. If none are received, value remains 0. The Bit Error
Count is reset using the Reset button.
Reset Counter. Click the Reset button to reset the Bit Error Count.
Bit Error to Insert. You can insert a bit error into the BERT test pattern for
advanced diagnostics, by clicking the Insert button.
Chapter 8: Dataport Interface
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Configuring the data port
You can change characteristics of the data port, including timing characteristics
and loss-of-signal monitoring. You must configure the data port to match the configuration of the data terminal equipment (DTE) to which it is attached. Changing
these parameters may require changes at the far end or DTE.
Most applications can use the default values. Long DTE cables at high data rates
and other situations identified by your technical support representative may
require changing the settings from their default values.
To configure the data port, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Data Port
The CLI
interface list dps
interface set dp
interface show dp
Figure 93: Monitoring the data port interface
Fields that are unavailable for editing are not discussed.
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Configuring the data port
Port Name. Text string identifying the port name. Port names can be up to 30
characters, and can consist of letters, digits, spaces, and any of the following
characters: [email protected]#$^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/.
Loopback. Use loopbacks for diagnostics and troubleshooting. You can use a
local loopback or a line loopback. The data port must be cross-connected to a
T1 port to activate a loopback.
Clock Mode. Choose which clock signal is used to clock transmit data. If the
DTE equipment provides an external serial clock lead, you can choose External Clock. Otherwise, choose the default setting of No External Clock.
Out (Transmit) Clock Polarity. This tells you whether or not transmit clock
inversion is enabled at the data port. The default is "Normal," which means
that the transmit data is sampled on the falling edge of the clock signal. If
inversion is enabled, transmit data is sampled on the rising edge of the clock
signal.
Chapter 8: Dataport Interface
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Specifying data port
clocking
In (Receive) Clock Polarity. This tells you whether or not receive clock inversion is enabled. The default is "Normal," which means the receive data is
changed on the rising edge of the clock signal.If inversion is enabled, receive
data is changed on the falling edge of the clock signal.
DS0 Speed. DS0 speed can be set to 64K or 56K.
LOS Detect. This tells you which signals are currently being used to determine an LOS condition at the data port: RTS, DTR, RTS or DTR, BOTH, or
NONE.
Alarms and Traps. When enabled, alarms and traps are sent to a remote
SNMP host if SNMP is configured.
Link Up/Down trap. When enabled above and when an SNMP trap host is
configured, you can generate traps to the trap host when the link up/down
state changes.
You can specify the clock signal used to clock transmit (Tx) data at the data port.
Two clock selections are available: external and no external clock.
No external clock means that the transmit data is clocked by the data port’s internal clock, which is derived from the CrossPATH system reference clock.
External clocking means that the transmit data is clocked by a signal received on
the data port connector’s external clock pins.
External clocking is typically used:
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With long cables (exceeding 50-100 feet) at high data rates with DTE that
supports an external clock signal
If the CrossPATH is connected to a router or to some other DTE with cable
that supports the external clock (SCET - DTE source)
The normal operation of synchronous serial data ports provides for three clock
signals. Figure 94 shows an example of external clock signals at the data port.
Figure 94: External clock signals at the data port
Data Port (DCE)
Rx Data
Rx Clock
Tx Data
Tx Clock
External Clock (XCLK)
DTE
Requires a DTE and cable
capable of supplying XCLK
1. The DCE supplies the receive (Rx) clock signal synchronized with the receive
(Rx) data.
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2. The DCE also supplies the transmit (Tx) clock signal. The DTE normally
transmits its data synchronized to this signal. Most data terminal equipment
uses this signal.
3. The external clock signal is the Tx clock signal regenerated by the DTE and
synchronized with the DTE’s transmitted data. This option should be considered if data errors are being reported at the far end, but no physical layer
errors are reported. Propagation delay becomes a problem when you are using
a long data cable (exceeding 50-100 feet) at high data rates. Propagation delay
can cause significant phase shift between the Tx clock signal from the CrossPATH and the Tx data signal from the DTE.
NOTE
Not all data terminal equipment supports an external clock signal. You must have
terminal equipment capable of supplying this signal in order to use the external
data port clock option.
The default data port clock setting is for no external clock.
Enabling/disabling
out (transmit) clock
polarity
You can invert the transmit (Tx) clock signal and by doing so change the clock
edge being used to sample transmit (Tx) data at the data port. Transmit data is normally sampled on the falling edge of the transmit clock. If you invert the clock
signal, data is sampled on the rising edge of the clock.
The inversion is done on the data port TCLK signal when internal source clocking
is chosen and on the XCLK signal when external source clocking is chosen.
Sampling data on the falling edge of the clock is standard; you will seldom need to
invert the clock. If the far-end is experiencing data errors, or if the cable connecting the DTE to the data port is long enough to cause undue propagation delays,
you may need to invert the clock edge.
The default is normal transmit clock polarity (not inverted).
Enabling/disabling
in (receive) clock
polarity
You can invert the receive (Rx) clock signal and by doing so change the clock
edge being used to clock the receive (Rx) data from the data port to the DTE. Normally, receive data is changed on the rising edge of the receive clock. If inversion
is enabled, receive data is changed on the falling edge of the clock.
Changing receive data on the rising edge of the clock is standard; you will seldom
need to invert the clock. If the local DTE is receiving data errors, or if the cable
connecting the data port and DTE is long enough to cause undue propagation
delays, you may need to invert the clock edge.
The default is normal receive clock polarity (not inverted).
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Chapter 8: Dataport Interface
Setting up DP LOS
(data port loss of
signal) processing
You can specify which signals are monitored for LOS at the data port. You can
monitor the RTS signal, the DTR signal, both signals, either signal, or neither signal. To specify the signals use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Data Port
The CLI
interface set Dataport LOSdetect
Data port LOS can be used to identify cases when the CrossPATH and network are
operating correctly, but the DTE has failed, has lost power, or has been disconnected. The default for LOS Detect is none.
Configuring the data port
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Monitoring the data port
Data port is the logical interface for the V.35 serial data port, which can be used to
connect devices such as e911 locator equipment.
You can monitor the status of the signal and alarm states for the connected T1
interface (if present) using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Data Port
The CLI
interface show dp
Figure 95 shows the data port interface on the Monitor > Interfaces > Data Port
page.
Figure 95: Monitoring the data port interface
Dataport signal
states
Status LED indicators show the condition of the port's signals. Green LEDs indicate no alarm condition. Red LEDs indicate an alarm condition.
Status LED indicators show the condition of the data port's signals. Green LEDs
indicate no alarm condition. Red LEDs indicate an alarm condition and are
described below.
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Rx RTS. Signal is not available on the interface.
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Rx DTR. The data port is not connected.
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Rx LOS. No signal received for at least 2.5 seconds.
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Tx DCD. Indicates that the DCE is not ready to receive data from the DTE.
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Tx CTS. Inidcates to the DTE that data should not be transmitted.
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Monitoring the data port
LOC. Alarm indication signal transmitted; a problem exists with remote
equipment on the outbound path.
Tx DSR. The DCE is in a test mode (Local Loopback or Line Loopback) or
the internal self test has failed.
No Loopback. Indicates that the dataport is not in loopback.
Chapter 8: Dataport Interface
T1 interface
connected
When an interface (T1-#, DSX1-#, T3-#_DS-#) is cross-connected to the data
port, as shown in Figure 93 on page 202, the alarms states are displayed.
WAN alarm states
The color of the associated GUI LED icon indicates the status of the alarm.
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Avail. The available LED icon indicates the availability of the T1/DSX1/DS1
circuit. A green LED icon indicates the circuit is available, and a red LED
icon indicates the circuit is unavailable.
Transmit (Tx) status
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AIS. Transmits an AIS signal to the downstream device about an upstream
device with a loss of signal. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
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RAI. An RAI is transmitted when the system detects an LOS, LOF, or AIS. A
green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED icon indicates an RAI
alarm is being transmitted.
Receive (Rx) status
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LOS. An LOS indicates that no signal has been received on the interface for a
duration of 2.5 seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a
red LED icon indicates an LOS alarm is active.
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LOF. An LOF occurs when an Out Of Frame (OOF) defect persists for 2.5
seconds or more. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a red LED icon
indicates a LOF alarm is active.
AIS. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to
the next device downstream. If the AIS defect persists for more than 2.5 seconds, an AIS alarm is declared. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a
red LED icon indicates an AIS alarm is being received.
RAI. An RAI is sent by the device at the far end of the link when it detects an
error condition in its incoming signal, indicating that there is a problem with
the T1 transmission. A green LED icon indicates no alarm and a yellow LED
icon indicates an RAI alarm is being received.
EER. The EER indicates that the threshold for the number of errored seconds
has been exceeded during the past 15 minutes. The threshold is set with the
CLI interface set command, or on the GUI Configure > Interfaces > T1
page. A green LED icon indicates no alarm, and a red LED icon indicates an
EER alarm is present.
SIG LVL. The icon turns red when the signal level falls below the Rx Signal
Level Threshold, which is set on the Configure > Interfaces page for the interface type.
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Loopbacks
Freq Offset. The frequency offset is the offset of the received clock signal frequency, the signal with which incoming traffic is sent to the CrossPATH. The
CrossPATH monitors the incoming frequencies and displays the offset from
the 1,544,000 Hz nominal frequency, reporting when the receive signal is outside the set Frequency threshold. The frequency offset displays in green text
when it is within normal parameters, and red text when it is outside the
threshold.
The CrossPATH provides loopbacks to support line segment testing. Line segment
testing allows you to probe the T1 circuit to isolate where data flow is being corrupted or disrupted. You can set all loopbacks locally, in your near-end device.
You can also set the line and payload loopbacks remotely, in a far-end device. If
you set a loopback in a far-end device, you can use the CrossPATH to run bit error
rate tests (BERTs) to test the T1 signal. In addition, the CrossPATH will respond
to standard and custom loop codes sent over the T1 from the far end.
During loopback testing, a signal is transmitted and returned to the sending device
after passing through all or a portion of the network. The returned signal is compared with the transmitted signal in order to evaluate the integrity of the
equipment or transmission path.
Loopbacks allow pieces of the network to be isolated and tested separately. Use
loopbacks to diagnose problems on the network, such as data corruption or faulty
equipment.
The CrossPATH can be set to respond to codes or allow them to pass through the
connection to a downstream device. To set this functionality, see “Configuring T1
interfaces” on page 92.
The CrossPATH supports line loopbacks on the data port interface.
Activating and deactivating loopbacks
To activate loopbacks, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Data Port to configure data port
loopbacks (the data port must be cross-connected to a T1/
DSX1/DS1 interface to activate a loopback)
The CLI
interface set dp Dataport-1 loopbackConfig
lineAndLocalLoopback (line and local
loopbacks)
interface set dp Dataport-1 loopbackConfig
lineLoopback (line loopback)
interface set dp Dataport-1 loopbackConfig
localLoopback (local loopback)
The data port must be cross-connected to a port to activate
a loopback.
NOTE
Make sure that external equipment is not in loop timing when a line loopback is
set. This causes clock instabilities that result in errors.
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Chapter 8: Dataport Interface
Line loopbacks
A line loopback takes the received data and loops it directly back on to the transmit side of the line.
Data port line loopback
The line loopback setting on the V.35 dataport takes the data coming in from the
DTE equipment and sends it back towards the DTE. It is useful in testing the data
port interface and cabling.
Figure 96: Data port line loopback diagram
Framer
Dataport
Cross
Connect
Matrix
Monitoring the data port
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Chapter 9: TDM Connections
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Configuring TDM connections (“cross-connects”)
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Configuring TDM connections (“cross-connects”)
Each T1 line provides access to 24 DS0 channels. T1 lines can be cross-connected
in total to another T1 line, or the channels can be apportioned individually. For
example, you do not need to use all 24 channels from one T1 line to enable
remote management. To individually apportion the DS0 channels, the T1 line
must be “channelized” or configured as a fractional T1. When channelized, the
DS0 channels can then be cross-connected to channels on a different T1 port, or to
the data port interface.
Add connection
To add a connection, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Connections > TDM > Add TDM Connection
The CLI
connection add tdm
Figure 97: Configure connections page
Connection type-timing
The Connection Type-Timing can be set three different ways:
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Fractional T1-System divides the T1 port into 24 DS0 channels that can be
cross-connected to other T1 ports, or to the data port interface. The timing
source for the connection is set to the CrossPATH system reference clock.
Full T1-System cross-connects all DS0 channels from one T1 port to another
T1 port. The timing source for the connection is set to the CrossPATH system
reference clock.
Full T1-Through is similar to Full T1-System except that there is no timing
synchronization to any other T1 port. T1 framing, line coding, and timing is
passed through from one port to the other.
When configuring a connection, you map the ports and DS0 channels from the A
Side to the Z Side. You do not have to match channel ranges exactly; you only
have to match the number of channels in the range on each side of the connection.
Thus you could map channels 1-12 on T1-1 to channels 13-24 on T1-2.
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Chapter 9: TDM Connections
Only the available ports and redundant groups display in the Port menus, which
prevents you from connecting the wrong ports or redundant groups. If you select
Full T1-System or Full T1-Through timing, all channels on that T1 are connected,
so the DS0 range will not be available on the A Side or the Z Side.
Once you select an A Side port, and even before you enter the DS0 range, you can
change the Z Side port until you find one that is available in the range you have in
mind. The graphical representation updates and shows which channels are
available.
NOTE
Disable loopbacks before establishing any T1-to-T1 or T1-to-Dataport
connections.
A Side
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Physical Port. Select the A Side DSX1 port, DSX1 redundant group, T3 port,
T3 redundant group, T1 port or T1 redundant group to connect from.
DS1 Interface. If a T3 port or T3 redundant group was selected in the Physical
Port section, select the DS1 interface to use for the TDM connection.
DS0 Range. This option is only available with Fractional T1 connections.
Enter the range of DS0 channels for this port to connect to the A Side. For
example, enter "1-3" to select the channel range from channel 1 to channel 3.
Enter 4-4 to select the single channel 4. You must enter a contiguous range.
Z Side
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Physical Port. Select the Z Side DSX1 port, DSX1 redundant group, T3 port,
T3 redundant group, T1 port or T1 interface redundant group to connect from.
DS1 Interface. If a T3 port or T3 redundant group was selected in the Physical
Port section, select the DS1 interface to use for the TDM connection.
DS0 Range. This option is only available with Fractional T1 connections.
Enter the corresponding DS0 channel range on the port you are connecting to.
Your range must be within the range 1-24. The number of channels entered on
the Z Side must match the number of channels entered on the A Side. However, although the number of channels must match, you do not have to enter
the same channel range. For example, you could choose to connect A Side
channels 4-6 to Z Side channels 8-10.
NOTE
There is no effect on the logical order of the connections when using the GUI.
Connecting a T1 on the A Side to the data port interface on the Z Side is the same
as connecting the data port interface on the A Side to a T1 on the Z Side. However,
if you are using the CLI to establish the cross-connect, you must select the Data
port interface first.
Configuring TDM connections (“cross-connects”)
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Monitoring TDM connections
You can monitor your current connections from the Monitor > Connections table,
shown in Figure 98. Each current cross-connect is listed, with information about
the port name, DS0 range, timing mode, and rate of throughput (speed) for the
connection.
Figure 98: Monitor connections page
Each entry in the Connections table has a link to the Monitor > Interfaces > T1 page
for statistics and counters. The LEDs in the table give you a quick overview of the
status of the connections. In general, green LEDs indicate the connection is up,
and red LEDs indicate an error condition. However, you should note that if a data
port is cross-connected to a T3, DS1, DSX1, or T1 placed into loopback, the data
port's LED turns red.
TDM Connection Summary
The TDM Connection Summary table lists connection information for the A Side
port, name and DS0 range, redundant group status, timing, rate (speed) in kbps,
and Z Side port, name and DS0 range, and redundant group status.
■
■
■
■
■
■
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Monitoring TDM connections
A Side Port. Displays the A Side DSX1 port, DSX1 redundant group, T3 port,
T3 redundant group, T1 port or T1 redundant group to connect from.
A Side Name. The user-entered name of the interface on the A Side.
A Side DS0 Range. Displays the range of DS0 channels for this port to connect to the A Side.
A Side Redundant Group. Displays whether the A side port is part of a redundant group.
Timing. Indicates the timing source for the connection. Possible values are
System (for Full System and Fractional connections) or Through (for through
connections).
Rate (kbps). Indicates the bandwidth for the connection, based on the number
of DS0 channels configured.
Chapter 9: TDM Connections
■
■
■
■
Z Side Port. Displays the Z Side DSX1 port, DSX1 redundant group, T3 port,
T3 redundant group, T1 port or T1 redundant group to connect from.
Z Side Name. The user-entered name of the interface on the Z Side.
Z Side DS0 Range. Displays the range of DS0 channels for this port to connect
to the Z Side.
Z Side Redundant Group. Displays whether the Z side port is part of a redundant group.
If you want to modify any of the connections displayed on the Monitor > Connections page, go to the Configure > Connections page, where you can add a
connection, edit a connection or delete a connection.
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Monitoring TDM connections
C
h
a
p
t
e
10
r
Inband Management
Interfaces
This chapter describes how to configure and monitor inband management interfaces using Frame Relay and PPP on a T1 interface. You can have two total
interfaces, either 1 of each type or 2 of one type.
■
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
■
Configuring a PPP inband management interface
■
Monitoring a Frame Relay inband management interface
■
Monitoring a PPP inband management interface
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About inband management interfaces
CrossPATH can be accessed over an inband management interface using Frame
Relay or PPP. Configuring the CrossPATH for remote access allows the following:
■
Access the GUI remotely using HTTP.
■
Access the CLI remotely using Telnet or SSH.
■
■
Access the comprehensive suite of SNMP MIBs using an SNMP Manager.
The supported MIBs are MIB-II (RFC 1213), the DS1/E1 MIB (RFC 1406),
and the CrossPATH enterprise-specific MIB.
Receive SNMP Traps when system events occur.
Remote access
method
The in-band access supports up to two Telnet sessions. Telnet sessions timeout
after 15 minutes of inactivity.
Inband management
interface concerns
In addition to creating the inband management interface and creating the IP interface, there are a few more points to consider.
Encapsulation
The encapsulation method used must be the same for the hosts at both ends of a
connection. This may be a little tricky because not all vendors refer to encapsulation types in the same manner.
Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU)
Both hosts must agree not to transmit IP datagrams that exceed the smaller of the
two MTUs supported by the two IP interfaces. The current MTU for the CrossPATH is 1500 octets.
218
About inband management interfaces
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
Frame Relay uses variable-length packets, or frames, to transport data. Frame
Relay is a Layer 2 transport protocol and can be used to carry most higher-layer
protocols.
To configure Frame Relay, use the following:
Configuring a Frame
Relay inband
management
interface using the
GUI
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt > Frame tab, then
select Add Frame Relay IF
The CLI
interface add fr fr-1 router Router-2
interface add dlci dlci-1 fr fr-1 dlci 100
connection add frac_system rp Router-2 t1
<T1/DSX1/DS1 interface> 1-4
ip add interface qostype wan ipFr 1.2.3.4
255.255.255.0
ip attach ipFr dlci dlci-1
Figure 99: Configuring a frame relay inband management interface
using the GUI
Add Frame Relay Inband Configuration
In order to access the CrossPATH via an inband management interface, you must
apportion at least one DS0 channel. To increase the inband management performance, assign more DS0 channels to the interface. The maximum bandwidth that
can be allocated is 24 channels.
To configure the interface, select the following settings:
■
■
Physical Port. Select the T3 redundant group, T3 port, DSX1 interface,
DSX1 redundant group, T1 port or T1 redundant group to use.
DS1 Interface. If a T3 port or T3 redundant group was selected in the Physical
Port menu, select the DS1 interface to use.
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■
DS0 Range. Enter the range of DS0 channels for this port to connect to. You
must enter a contiguous range. To enter a single DS0, enter as a range (1-1).
DS0 Speed. Select either 56K or 64K. The default is 64K.
Frame Relay protocol configuration
To configure the Frame Relay interface, set the following options:
■
■
■
Frame Relay interface name. Use a unique name up to 16 alphanumeric characters, for example fr-1. When adding an interface name, the name must start
with a letter, but may include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that.
Remember to keep interface names short so that they display correctly in
tables and graphs.
SNMP Alias. You can provide an optional port name for identifying the interface. You can use up to 254 characters, including letters, digits, and any of the
following characters: [email protected]#$%^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/..
LMI Type. Check with your network operator or network carrier if Link Management is to be enabled. If not, select None. If Link Management is enabled,
select either the specific type of link management or AutoDetect. In AutoDetect mode, the device will detect and synchronize with the type of LM used by
the network. The default is AutoDetect. If the LMI Type is AutoDetect,
AnnexA, AnnexD, or LMI, clicking the link shows all discovered DLCIs. If
the LMI type is None, link management is disabled. If needed to match the
carrier, LMI Type can be set as follows:
■
■
■
Local management interface (LMI)
ITU-T Q933 Annex A
ANSI T1.617 Annex D
Link management settings
The default settings for link management are adequate for the majority of users.
The online help for each of these fields contains more information, including
defaults, minimum settings, and maximum settings (where applicable).
To configure the link management settings for Frame Relay, adjust the following
settings:
■
T391 Polling Interval [secs]. Enter the number of seconds between successive
status inquiry intervals.
default: 10
■
min: 5
■
max: 30
N391 Full Inquiry Interval [polling intervals]. Enter the number of T391
intervals before a Full Status inquiry message is sent.
■
■
■
■
■
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default: 6
min: 1
max: 255
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
■
N392 Error Threshold [errors]. Enter the number of unanswered status
inquiries the unit will accept before declaring the interface down.
default: 3
min: 1
■
max: 10
N393 Monitored Events [events]. Set the number of status polling intervals
(T391) over which the error threshold is counted. N393 must be greater than
or equal to N392.
■
■
■
default: 4
min: 1
■
max: 10
Link Up/Down Trap. Generate SNMP traps whenever the Frame Relay link
up/down state changes.
■
■
■
■
■
Frame Relay Status Trap. Enable SNMP trap generation whenever the Frame
Relay link management status changes.
Frame Relay Trap Rate [msecs]. Enter the number of milliseconds that must
elapse between the generation of SNMP traps.
■
■
■
default: 0 (no measured rate imposed on trap generation)
min: 0
max: 3600000
DLCI
Frame Relay packets are transferred over the network through permanent virtual
circuits established between two endpoint devices. At one endpoint, data is assembled into packets that contain a local Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)
address. The DLCI address defines a specific virtual circuit to another endpoint
device. The CrossPATH supports 16 DLCIs per Frame Relay interface.
NOTE
A frame relay inband management interface will not be displayed in the Inband
Management Interfaces Summary table on the Monitor > Interfaces > Inband
Mgmt GUI page if a DLCI has not been configured for the interface.
To configure DLCIs, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt > Frame, then
click the Add DLCI link
The CLI
interface set dlci
interface add
DLCI Configuration
■
■
Frame Relay Interface. Select the Frame Relay interface this DLCI will be
attached to.
DLCI I/F Name. Use a unique name up to 16 alphanumeric characters, for
example DLCI-101. When adding an interface name, the name must start with
a letter, but may include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that. When
editing a DLCI, the name displays but is grayed out.
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
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■
■
■
■
■
■
SNMP Alias. Enter an SNMP alias to define the interface. This alias is shown
as Port Name when monitoring inband management interfaces. Enter the
SNMP alias using up to 254 alphanumeric characters. The name must start
with a letter (i.e., an alpha character), but may also include digits, hyphens,
and underscores after that.
DLCI. This number is the DLCI value provided by your ISP, in the range from
16-1022. For example, a DLCI named DLCI-100 is identified here as '100'.
Encapsulation. Select frame encapsulation as either RFC-1490 or None. The
selection must match the encapsulation setting for the network provider's
equipment. The default is RFC-1490.
Committed Information Rate [kbps]. Committed Information Rate, in kbps, as
specified by your T1 service provider.
Far-end IP Address (Static). The IP address of the far-end device. The default
IP address is 0.0.0.0. To enter a static IP address, Enable Inverse Arp must
first be disabled, then click the field to enter the address.
Enable Inverse ARP. Select the checkbox to enable or disable InARP. The
default is to enable inverse ARP (InARP). InARP is typically used to resolve
the IP address on the far-end of a Frame Relay DLCI. Enable Inverse ARP
must be disabled to use a static IP address on the far-end.
Inverse ARP Poll Period (secs). Enter the number of seconds between successive status inquiry intervals. The default value is 10.
IP Configuration
■
■
Existing IP Interface. Select an existing interface or create a new interface.
IP I/F Name. Enter the IP interface name using up to 12 alphanumeric characters. The name must start with a letter (i.e., an alpha character), but may also
include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that. The name must be unique,
such as IP-32.
■
IP Address. Enter the network IP address.
■
Subnet Mask. Enter the network subnet mask.
The CrossPATH does not support multipoint IP configurations using Frame Relay.
Each DLCI supports a unique IP subnet.
When you subscribe to Frame Relay service, the carrier will assign DLCIs for
your connections. DLCI addresses must be obtained from your network carrier.
NAT Configuration
NAT configuration is only available when editing an IP interface.
■
■
■
222
Enable. Select the checkbox to enable NAT for the interface.
Global Address Select. Select an address from the available IP addresses or
select "userEntered" to enter a user-defined address in the Global Address
field.
Global Address. If you selected "userEntered" above, enter a specific address.
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
Configuring a frame
relay interface using
the CLI
Use the following sequence to configure a frame relay interface using the CLI.
List available router ports
To list the internal router ports available, use the command:
interface list routers
Create a new frame relay interface and attach to router port
Create a new PPP interface named, in this example, “TEST-2” and attach it to the
Router-1 port with the command:
interface add fr TEST-2 router Router-2 linkManagementType
LMI
Create an IP interface
Create an IP interface that will attach to this newly created frame relay interface
“TEST-2”. For this example, name the new IP interface “ipwan-fr” and assign it
an IP address.
NOTE
Do not use the address in this example, obtain your own unique IP address.
ip add interface qostype wan ipwan-fr 20.20.30.31
255.255.255.0
Create a DLCI
Create a frame-relay DLCI (data link connection identifier), using 1004 as the
DLCI with a name “test-dlci”.
interface add dlci test-dlci fr TEST-2 dlci 1004
Map the DLCI to the IP interface
ip attach ipwan-fr dlci test-dlci
Attach the router to a T1/DSX1/DS1 interface
Attach the router to an interface.
For the T1 example, attach it to the T1-4 interface using only 1 DS0 (channel 24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 T1-4 24-24
For the DSX1 example, attach it to the DSX1-17 interface using only 1 DS0
(channel 24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 DSX1-17 24-24
For the DS1 example, attach it to the T3-1_DS1-2 interface using only 1 DS0
(channel 24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 T3-1_DS1-2 24-24
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Set interface configurations on the frame relay interface (optional)
All options below are typed after the following command line example:
interface set fr TEST-2 ?
■
frTrapMaxRate. Set FrameRelay IF Trap rate in msecs: 0 (Disable)/13600000.
■
frTrapState. Set FrameRelay IF Trap State to Enable/Disable.
■
frlmDebug. Enable/Disable Link Management debug output.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
linkManagementN391. Set FrameRelay IF DLCMI N391 threshold value: 1255 cycles.
linkManagementN392. Set FrameRelay IF DLCMI N392 threshold value: 110 cycles.
linkManagementN393. Set FrameRelay IF DLCMI N393 window size value:
1-10.
linkManagementT391. Set FrameRelay IF DLCMI T391 timer value: 5-30
seconds.
linkManagementType. Set FrameRelay IF DLCMI protocol type.
linkUpDownTrapEnable. Enable/Disable SNMP link trap on the specified
interface.
portname. Set portname of the specified interface.
Set DLCI configuration (optional)
All options below are typed after the following command line example:
interface set dlci test-dlci ?
224
■
committedRate. Set committed rate (CIR) on the specific FR PVC.
■
dlci. Set a new dlci value on the specified interface.
■
encapsulation. Set Frame encapsulation type on the specified interface.
■
inArp. Set inARP enabled, disabled or polling time on the specified interface.
■
staticIp. Indicate what the far end IP address is for a given DLCI.
Configuring a Frame Relay inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
Configuring a PPP inband management interface
Point-to-Point protocol (PPP) is a negotiated data link layer protocol that enables
simple packet transfer between peers.
To configure a PPP interface, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt > PPP
The CLI
interface list routers
interface add ppp <name> router [ Router-1
| Router-2 ] dialout
ip add interface qostype { lan | wan }
<name> [<ipaddress> [<netmask>]]
ip attach <ip-name> ppp <ppp-name>
connection add frac_system rp [Router-1 |
Router-2] t1 <interface> <ds0Range>
Configuring a PPP
inband management
interface using the
GUI
Figure 100:Configuring a PPP inband management interface using the
GUI
Add PPP Inband Configuration
In order to access the CrossPATH via an inband management interface, you must
apportion at least one DS0 channel. To increase the inband management performance, assign more DS0 channels to the interface. The maximum bandwidth that
can be allocated is 24 channels.
To configure the interface, select the following settings:
■
Physical Port. Select the T3 redundant group, T3 port, DSX1 interface,
DSX1 redundant group, T1 port or T1 redundant group to use.
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■
■
■
DS1 Interface. If a T3 port or T3 redundant group was selected in the Physical
Port menu, select the DS1 interface to use for inband management.
DS0 Range. Enter the range of DS0 channels for this port to connect to. You
must enter a contiguous range. To enter a single DS0, enter as a range (1-1).
DS0 Speed. Select either 56K or 64K. The default is 64K.
PPP configuration
■
■
■
■
■
PPP I/F Name. Use a unique name up to 16 alphanumeric characters, for
example PPP-1. When adding an interface name, the name must start with a
letter, but may include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that.
SNMP Alias. Enter an optional alias used for SNMP reporting. This alias is
shown as the Port Name when monitoring management interfaces. You can
use up to 254 characters, including letters, digits, and any of the following
characters: [email protected]#$%^&*()_+-={}[]:;<>?,/..
Remote IP Type. Determines whether or not the IP address device at the far
end of the PPP link will be obtained dynamically (Dynamic), or if you must
enter it manually (Static). Select whether you are using a Static address or a
Dynamic address.
Remote IP. Enter the IP address using dotted decimal notation, if you selected
the Static IP type.
Link Up/Down Trap. Generates SNMP traps whenever the PPP link up/down
state changes. Traps will only be generated if an SNMP trap host has been
configured from the Configure > System > Advanced page.
LCP settings
The PPP default settings should be sufficient to enable and use PPP; however, you
can configure the Link Control Protocol (LCP) settings. LCP is used to establish,
configure, and test the data link connection.
■
■
■
■
LCP Max Conf [requests]. The maximum number of Configure requests that
can be sent without receiving a corresponding ACK, NAK or REJECT from
the peer before assuming that peer is unable to respond. The default value is
10 requests.
LCP Echo Interval [secs]. An LCP Echo packet (keep alive) will be sent at
the specified interval. The default value is 0 seconds, which disables keepalive signals.
LCP Max Fail [failures]. The maximum number of Configure-Nak packets
sent without sending a Configure-Ack before assuming that the configuration
is not converging. The default is 5.
LCP Max Term [requests]. Indicates the number of Terminate-Request packets sent without receiving a Terminate-Ack before assuming that the peer is
unable to respond. The default is 2.
IP Configuration
■
226
Existing IP Interface. Select an existing interface or create a new interface.
Configuring a PPP inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
■
IP I/F Name. Enter the IP interface name using up to 12 alphanumeric characters. The name must start with a letter (i.e., an alpha character), but may also
include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that. The name must be unique,
such as IP-32.
■
IP Address. Enter the network IP address.
■
Subnet Mask. Enter the network subnet mask.
■
IP MTU. IP MTU is only visible and selectable when editing a PPP inband
management interface. The IP MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the
maximum packet size transmitted without fragmentation. The default value
(1500) should be correct for most applications.
default: 1500
min: 576
■
max: 1500
TCP MSS Clamp. TCP MSS Clamp is only visible and selectable when editing a PPP inband management interface. The Transfer Control Protocol
Maximum Segment Size (TCP MSS) Clamp is enabled by default. If you set
the MTU below the maximum of 1500, the TCP MSS Clamp must remain
enabled for proper operation. This causes the system to adjust the Maximum
Segment Size used in TCP sessions to a value slightly below the IP MTU to
ensure adequate space for TCP and IP headers.
■
■
■
NAT Configuration
NAT configuration is only available when editing an IP interface.
■
■
■
Configuring a PPP
interface using the
CLI
Enable. Select the checkbox enable NAT for the interface.
Global Address Select. Select an address from the available IP addresses or
select "userEntered" to enter a user-defined address in the Global Address
field.
Global Address. If you selected "userEntered" above, enter a specific address.
Use the following sequence to configure a PPP interface using the CLI.
List available router ports
To list the internal router ports available, use the command:
interface list routers
Create a new PPP interface and attach to router port
Create a new PPP interface named, in this example, “TEST-1” and attach it to the
Router-1 port with the command:
interface add ppp TEST-1 router Router-1 dialout
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Create an IP interface
Create an IP interface that will attach to this newly created PPP interface “TEST1”. For this example, name the new IP interface “ipwan-ppp” and assign it an IP
address.
NOTE
Do not use the address in this example, obtain your own unique IP address
ip add interface qostype wan ipwan-ppp 20.20.20.21
255.255.255.0
Attach the IP interface to the PPP interface
Attach the newly created IP interface to the PPP interface that we created earlier
with the following command:
ip attach ipwan-ppp ppp TEST-1
Attach the router to an interface
Attach the router to a T1 port where the PPP connection is resident.
For the T1 example, attach it to the T1-3 port using only 1 DS0 (channel 24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 T1-3 24-24
For the DSX1 example, attach it to the DSX1-20 port using only 1 DS0 (channel
24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 DSX1-20 24-24
For the DS1 example, attach it to the T3-2_DS1-5 port using only 1 DS0 (channel
24).
connection add frac_system rp Router-1 t1 T3-2_DS1-5 24-24
Set interface configurations on the PPP interface (optional)
All options below are typed after the following command line example:
interface set ppp TEST-1 ?
■
lcpechoevery. Set the LCP keep alive time in seconds.
■
lcpmaxconf. Set the LCP max configuration parameter (Default: 10).
■
lcpmaxfail. Set the LCP max failure parameter (Default: 5).
■
lcpmaxterm. Set the LCP maximum terminate parameter (Default: 2).
■
228
linkUpDownTrapEnable. Set link trap enable/disable on the specified
interface.
■
portname. Set portname of the specified interface.
■
pppDebug. Enable/Disable LCP/IPCP negotiation output.
■
remoteIpAddr. Set Remote IP address.
■
remoteIpType. Set Remote IP address type.
■
restartLcp. Reset LCP and renegotiate with the peer.
Configuring a PPP inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
Monitoring a Frame Relay inband management interface
If you have created a Frame Relay inband management interface, you can monitor
Frame Relay and DLCI status using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt, then select Frame
Relay interface link
The CLI
interface show fr <name>
interface stats fr <name>
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for the interface.
This information is available by selecting an interface from the summary table.
NOTE
A frame relay inband management interface will not be displayed in the Inband
Management Interfaces Summary table on the Monitor > Interfaces > Inband
Mgmt GUI page if a DLCI has not been configured for the interface.
Figure 101 shows the Frame Relay interface statistics on the Monitor > Interfaces >
Inband Mgmt > individual Frame Relay link page.
Figure 101:Frame Relay inband management interface statistics
■
■
■
■
IP Address / Net Mask. Configured IP address and netmask values.
Port. The interface (T1, DSX1, or DS1) connected to this Frame Relay
interface.
Test Mode. Status of the current physical layer test mode. Shows if the interface is in loopback or BERT test, as set in Monitor > Interface > T1 > T1-# >
Diagnostics. The default value is None.
DS0 Speed. Indicates if the DS0 is set for 64 Kbps (64000 bps) or 56 Kbps
(56000 bps).
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■
Link Management Type. Indicates the link management type or none.
■
DLCI. Indicates the configured DLCI number.
■
CIR. Indicates the configured Committed Information Rate (CIR).
Alarm States
The Alarm States table uses LED icons to quickly show the alarm states. This
table provides a quick diagnostic check of the T1, T3, or DSX1 interface configured for inband management.
For more information, see “T1-# alarm states” on page 108 for T1 WAN alarm
states; “DSX1-# WAN Alarm States” on page 147 for DSX1 WAN alarm states;
“T3 WAN alarm states” on page 181 for T3 WAN alarm states; and “DS1 WAN
alarm states” on page 188 for DS1 interface WAN alarm states.
WAN counters
When an interface is connected, this table describes the error counters for that
interface. Go to the Monitor > Connections page for a visual representation of system connections. Go to the Configure > Connections page and select the Edit link
to make changes.
For more information, see “T1 WAN Counters” on page 110 for T1 WAN
counters; “DSX1 WAN Counters” on page 149 for DSX1 WAN counters; “T3
WAN counters” on page 182 for T3 WAN counters; and “DS1 WAN counters” on
page 190 for DS1 interface WAN counters.
Frame Relay & DLCI interface status
The GUI displays the status of Frame Relay Link Management, which consists of
the type of link management that has been configured and whether or not it is
running.
Frame Relay counters
If Frame Relay is enabled, the Frame Relay statistics are collected and maintained. These statistics are counted from the last restart from the CLI or GUI. The
GUI Clear button sets all of the counters to zero.
■
■
■
■
TxRateRT [kbps]. Real time transmission rate. Number of kilobits, per second, of data transmitted between last two refresh events.
Rx Octets. Total number of bytes received, excluding HDLC flags and FCS.
Tx Octets. Total number of bytes transmitted, excluding HDLC flags and
FCS.
■
Rx Frames. Number of frames received.
■
Tx Frames. Number of frames transmitted.
■
230
RxRate RT [kbps]. Real time received rate. Number of kilobits, per second, of
data received between last two refresh events.
Rx Discards. Number of received packets discarded due to short frames,
invalid header, and invalid DLCIs.
Monitoring a Frame Relay inband management interface
Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Tx Discards. Number of transmit packets discarded due to lack of transmit
buffers.
Rx Errors. Sum of Rx Overruns, Rx Aborts, Rx CRC errors, and frames discarded due to lack of receive buffers.
Tx Errors. Transmit packets discarded due to transmit underruns and other
protocol errors.
Rx Overruns. Frames lost due to receive overruns. A receive overrun occurs
when bytes are not read fast enough from the hardware and as a result, subsequent bytes are dropped.
Tx Underruns. Transmit frames due to underruns. A transmit underrun occurs
when the hardware is not given bytes fast enough, and as a result, an abort is
sent.
Rx Aborts. Aborted frames received. A frame is aborted when an HDLC abort
is received in the middle of a valid frame reception.
Rx CRC Errors. Received frames discarded due to an invalid CRC.
DLCI interface monitor counters
The DLCI Interface Monitor Counter displays the receive and transmit counters
accumulated since last restart.
■
■
■
■
RxRate RT [kbps]. Real time received rate. Number of kilobits, per second, of
data received between last two refresh events.
TxRateRT [kbps]. Real time transmission rate. Number of kilobits, per second, of data transmitted between last two refresh events.
Rx Octets. Total number of bytes received, excluding HDLC flags and FCS.
Tx Octets. Total number of bytes transmitted, excluding HDLC flags and
FCS.
■
Rx Frames. Number of frames received.
■
Tx Frames. Number of frames transmitted.
■
Rx DEs.The number of Discard Eligibility (DE) bits received.
■
Tx DEs.The number of Discard Eligibility (DE) bits transmitted.
■
■
■
Rx FECNs.The number of Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)
bits received.
Rx BECNs.The number of Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
(BECN) bits received.
Rx Discards. Number of received packets discarded due to short frames,
invalid header, and invalid DLCIs.
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Monitoring a PPP inband management interface
If you have created a PPP inband management interface, you can monitor the
interface using the following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt, then select PPP
interface link
The CLI
interface stats ppp <name>
interface show ppp <name>
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for the interface.
This information is available by selecting an interface from the summary table.
Figure 102 shows the PPP interface statistics, after selecting an eligible interface
from the IP Interface Summary table on the Monitor > Interfaces > Inband Mgmt
page.
Figure 102:PPP inband management interface statistics
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IP Address / Net Mask. Configured IP address and netmask values.
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Port. The interface (T1, DSX1, or DS1) connected to this PPP interface.
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Test Mode. Status of the current physical layer test mode. Shows if the interface is in loopback or BERT test, as set in Monitor > Interface > T1 > T1-# >
Diagnostics. The default value is None.
PPP Link Speed. Maximum speed available through the router port, in bps.
Alarm States
The Alarm States table uses LED icons to quickly show the alarm states. This
table provides a quick diagnostic check of the T1, T3, or DSX1 interface configured for inband management.
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Chapter 10: Inband Management Interfaces
For more information, see “T1-# alarm states” on page 108 for T1 WAN alarm
states; “DSX1-# WAN Alarm States” on page 147 for DSX1 WAN alarm states;
“T3 WAN alarm states” on page 181 for T3 WAN alarm states; and “DS1 WAN
alarm states” on page 188 for DS1 interface WAN alarm states.
WAN counters
When an interface is connected, this table describes the error counters for that
interface. Go to the Monitor > Connections page for a visual representation of system connections. Go to the Configure > Connections page and select the Edit link
to make changes.
For more information, see “T1 WAN Counters” on page 110 for T1 WAN
counters; “DSX1 WAN Counters” on page 149 for DSX1 WAN counters; “T3
WAN counters” on page 182 for T3 WAN counters; and “DS1 WAN counters” on
page 190 for DS1 interface WAN counters.
PPP status
The GUI displays the connection status (Dead, Establish, Terminate, Authenticate, or Network) and Link Control Protocol (LCP) state. LCP is used to establish,
configure, test, and terminate the data link connection. Review the LCP State to
determine problems with PPP negotiation. LCP negotiations can be monitored for
debugging through the CLI. This debugging session may effect system performance. Use the interface set ppp <name> pppDebug enable command
to view LCP negotiation information. (Use the same command with “disable” to
end the debug session.)
PPP counters
If PPP is enabled, the PPP statistics are collected and maintained. These statistics
are counted from the last restart from the CLI or GUI. The GUI Reset Counters
button sets all of the counters associated with this port to zero.
■
Received Rate Real time [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data
received between last two refresh events.
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Received Bytes. Number of bytes received at the port.
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Received Frames. Number of frames received at the port.
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Received Aborts. Aborted frames received. A frame is aborted when an
HDLC abort is received in the middle of a valid frame reception.
Received Frames with CRC errors. Received frames discarded due to invalid
CRC.
Received Invalid PPP Packets. Number of invalid PPP packets received.
Received packets larger than MRU. Number of packets received that are
larger than the maximum receive unit (MRU) for this interface.
Received packets dropped due to lack of buffers. Number of packets dropped
due to lack of receive buffers.
Transmitted Rate Real time [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data
transmitted between last two refresh events.
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Transmitted Bytes. Number of bytes transmitted.
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Transmitted Frames. Number of frames transmitted.
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Transmit packets discarded by the physical layer. Number of transmit packets
discarded due to lack of transmit buffers.
HDLC Transmit FIFO Underruns. Transmit frames due to underruns. A transmit underrun occurs when the hardware is not given bytes fast enough, and as
a result, an abort is sent.
HDLC Receive FIFO Overruns. Frames lost due to receive overruns. A
receive overrun occurs when bytes are not read fast enough from the hardware
and as a result, subsequent bytes are dropped.
Monitoring a PPP inband management interface
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Configuring Ethernet interfaces
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Configuring Ethernet interfaces
Configuring
Ethernet ports 1-4
TIP
For more information on configuring the Ethernet LAN
interface, see the online help.
The unit’s router supports four Ethernet 10/100 LAN ports connected as a fourport switch and considered one interface.
To configure the Ethernet Ports 1-4 interface, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Ethernet
The CLI
interface add
interface delete
interface list
interface set
interface show
ip add interface
ip attach
ip set interface
ip show interface
Ethernet MAC address
Media Access Control (MAC) addresses are unique to each device’s Ethernet
interface. The Ethernet interface has one individual MAC address that is preset by
the factory and cannot be changed.
Auto-polarity
Ethernet Ports 1-4 do not require crossover cables when hooking to another switch
or hub.
Port configuration
Figure 103 shows the port configuration on the Configure > Interfaces > Ethernet
page on a CrossPATH 3G.
Figure 103:Ethernet configuration
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Configuring Ethernet interfaces
Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
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■
■
Port. This is the automatically assigned port number (1-4) of the physical
Ethernet port.
Status. Shows the current link stat of the specified physical Ethernet port,
based on whether the cable is connected.
Physical Mode. The unit automatically senses the Ethernet LAN mode, either
10Base-T or 100Base-Tx. You can also set the mode explicitly for each port,
including full-duplex or half-duplex operation. Auto-negotiation works well
when the Ethernet port is connected to another 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx autonegotiation port. However, in the following connection scenarios, you want to
manually configure the mode on the Ethernet port.
The port you are connecting to does not use auto-negotiation and is manually configured as a full-duplex port. In this case, auto-negotiation
defaults to half-duplex since it does not know how the other port is configured. This causes excessive collision errors, and FCS/CRC errors on
the other port.
■
The port you are connecting to has incompatible auto-negotiation.
Although auto-negotiation is standard, there are many implementations
that are not completely compatible. Typically, these mismatches result in
failure to determine the correct duplex mode (for example, one port
decides it is in half-duplex and the other decides it is in full-duplex).
These problems are indicated on the Ethernet port by either excessive collisions on a half-duplex port, or FCS/CRC errors on a full-duplex port.
10/100. Shows current operating speed information for the specified physical
Ethernet port.
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■
■
Duplex. Shows current operating duplex information for the specified physical Ethernet port.
VLAN configuration
The last three columns in the table show information about the VLAN settings for
Ethernet Ports 1-4.
■
■
■
■
VLAN Link Mode. You can set the VLAN link to trunk mode or access mode.
In trunk mode, you can use one connection to transport many VLANs
between two switches. Use access mode when you want the interface to
belong to one and only one VLAN. The default is access mode.
lan. A checkbox indicates which ports are included in this VLAN.
New VLAN Name. To configure a new VLAN, enter the new VLAN name in
this field. Names can be up to 16 characters, must start with a letter, but can
have numbers, dashes, and underscores after that.
New VLAN ID. The VLAN ID is a number from 1-3999.
Once you have entered a new VLAN Name and new VLAN ID, use the checkboxes to configure a physical LAN port as part of the VLAN, then click Apply.
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Configuring the
Management
Ethernet port
(CrossPATH 4 only)
The CrossPATH 4 supports one Ethernet 10/100 LAN port as a management port
on the rear panel.
To configure the Management Ethernet port interface, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Ethernet
The CLI
interface list
interface set
interface show
ip add interface
ip attach
ip set interface
ip show interface
The Management Ethernet port requires a crossover cable when hooking to
another switch or hub.
NOTE
The Management Ethernet port cannot be configured as part of a VLAN.
Ethernet MAC address
Media Access Control (MAC) addresses are unique to each device’s Ethernet
Interface. The Management Ethernet interface has one individual MAC address
that is preset by the factory and cannot be changed.
Port configuration
Figure 104 shows the port configuration area on the Configure > Interfaces > Ethernet page on a CrossPATH 4.
Figure 104:Management Ethernet configuration
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■
238
Port. This is the automatically assigned port name of the physical Management Ethernet port.
Status. Shows the current link stat of the specified physical Ethernet port,
based on whether the cable is connected.
Configuring Ethernet interfaces
Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
■
Physical Mode. The unit automatically senses the Ethernet LAN mode, either
10Base-T or 100Base-Tx. You can also set the mode explicitly for each port,
including full-duplex or half-duplex operation. Auto-negotiation works well
when the Ethernet port is connected to another 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx autonegotiation port. However, in the following connection scenarios, you should
manually configure the mode on the Ethernet port.
The port you are connecting to does not use auto-negotiation and is manually configured as a full-duplex port. In this case, auto-negotiation
defaults to half-duplex since it does not know how the other port is configured. This causes excessive collision errors, and FCS/CRC errors on
the other port.
■
The port you are connecting to has incompatible auto-negotiation.
Although auto-negotiation is standard, there are many implementations
that are not completely compatible. Typically, these mismatches result in
failure to determine the correct duplex mode (for example, one port
decides it is in half-duplex and the other decides it is in full-duplex).
These problems are indicated on the Ethernet port by either excessive collisions on a half-duplex port, or FCS/CRC errors on a full-duplex port.
10/100. Shows current operating speed information for the specified physical
Ethernet port.
■
■
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Duplex. Shows current operating duplex information for the specified physical Ethernet port.
IP configuration
Internet Protocol (IP) is configured separately for Ethernet Ports 1-4 interfaces,
and the Management Ethernet port interface (CrossPATH 4 only). To configure IP,
use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Interfaces > Ethernet, then click the Edit link in
the IP Configuration area for the applicable interface
The CLI
ip set interface
ip add interface
ip set ip address
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■
■
IP I/F Name. Enter the IP interface name using up to 12 alphanumeric characters. The name must start with a letter (i.e., an alpha character), but may also
include digits, hyphens, and underscores after that. The name must be unique,
such as IP-32.
IP Address. The default LAN IP address for Ethernet Ports 1- 4 is
192.168.1.1.The default LAN IP address for the Management Ethernet port
(CrossPATH 4 only) is 192.168.2.1. This IP address can be changed to fit your
IP network design.
Subnet Mask. The net mask is 255.255.255.0. This net mask can be changed
to fit your IP network design.
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■
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IP Maximum Transmission Units (MTUs). The Maximum Transmission Unit
(MTU) is the largest possible unit of data that can be sent to or from an interface. For example, Ethernet version II has an MTU of 1500 bytes. Outgoing
packets that are longer than the MTU are fragmented, and incoming packets
are reassembled. When negotiating PPP options, the system tries to negotiate
the 1500-byte MTU first. If that is not accepted, it tries to negotiate the 1524byte MTU.
TCP MSS Clamp. If you set the MTU below the maximum of 1500, the Transfer Control Protocol Maximum Segment Size (TCP MSS) must remain
enabled for proper operation. The TCP MSS Clamp causes the unit’s router to
adjust the Maximum Segment Size used in TCP sessions to a value slightly
below the IP MTU, which ensures adequate space for TCP and IP headers.
Configuring Ethernet interfaces
Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
If you have created an Ethernet interface, you can monitor the interface using the
following:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Ethernet
The CLI
interface stats ppp
interface show ppp
You can review the status, statistics, defects, errors, and counters for the interface.
Monitoring the
CrossPATH 3G
Ethernet port
interfaces
■
Monitoring the CrossPATH 3G Ethernet port interfaces
■
Monitoring the CrossPATH 4 Ethernet port interfaces
Monitor the Ethernet ports for status, alarms, and statistics, using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Ethernet
The CLI
interface
interface
interface
interface
stats l2switch port <port#>
show l2switch port <port#>
stats ethernet <name>
show ethernet <name>
LAN LEDs
The front-panel LAN LEDs, shown in Figure 105, indicate LAN status. For a
complete description of these LEDs, see “LAN ports” on page 33.
Figure 105:LAN LEDs (CrossPATH 3G)
Ethernet ports status
The GUI shows the status of each of the Ethernet ports, including link connection
state, speed, and mode.
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Figure 106:Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
Ethernet Ports 1-4
This section decscribes the four Ethernet ports that are combined on a single
switch, located on the left side of the screen. Click the “Stats Display” radio button to show the physical port statistics for a specific port.
■
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■
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■
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Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
Common Port Name. The name of the interface, as assigned on the Configure
> Interfaces > Ethernet GUI page.
Port. The physical port number corresponding to the Ethernet interface.
Link Up/Down. Displays the current link state of the specific physical Ethernet port, based on whether or not a cable is connected with a valid Ethernet
signal. A red LED indicates the link is down and a green LED indicates a
cable is connected.
10/100. Shows current operating speed information for the specific physical
port. An LED icon represents the speed information, with a yellow LED icon
indicating 10Mbps mode, and a green LED icon indicating 100 Mbps mode.
Duplex. Shows whether the specific physical port is in half or full duplex
mode. An LED icon represents the duplex mode information, with a yellow
LED icon indicating half duplex mode, and a green LED icon indicating full
duplex mode.
Physical Mode. Shows the configured Ethernet mode for the physical port.
VLAN Link Mode. Shows which VLAN link mode option each physical port is
using: trunk or access.
Stats Display. Click the radio button to show the physical port statistics for a
specific port. The receive, transmit, and error counters display under the summary table on the left side of the GUI page.
Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
Ethernet port alarms
Alarms for all Ethernet ports are declared on the detection of defects. They are not
displayed on the Monitor > Interfaces page, but do appear in the Alarm Log. The
LAN events that produce Alarm Log entries on a per-port basis are the connection
or disconnection of a LAN cable, and changes to mode and speed.
For more information on the Alarm Log, see “Alarm log” on page 85.
Ethernet port statistics
The statistics are collected for all Ethernet ports. Statistics are available through
the GUI and through the CLI. Click the “Stats Display” radio button to show the
physical port statistics for a specific port.
NOTE
Since the physical Ethernet ports 1-4 are part of an integrated Ethernet switch,
not all traffic passing through a physical port may be to and/or from the router.
The router LAN statistics only include MAC layer statistics and not physical layer
statistics.
Receive Counters
■
RxRate RT [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data received between
last two refresh events.
■
Rx Octets. Number of bytes (octets) received, including framing characters.
■
Rx Packets. Number of Ethernet packets received.
■
■
■
■
Rx BroadcastPackets. Number of packets with a broadcast destination address
received.
Rx MulticastPackets. Number of packets with a multicast destination
received.
Rx UnicastPackets. Number of packets with a unicast destination address
received.
Rx Discards. Number of packets discarded even though no errors had been
detected to prevent their being delivered. One possible reason packets might
be discarded is to free up buffer space.
■
Rx Errors. Number of packets that could not be received due to errors.
■
Rx PauseFrames. Number of PAUSE frames received.
Transmit Counters
TxRateRT [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data transmitted between
last two refresh events.
■
■
Tx Octets. Number of bytes (octets) transmitted, including framing characters.
■
Tx Packets. Number of Ethernet packets transmitted.
■
■
Tx BroadcastPackets. Number of packets with a broadcast destination address
transmitted.
Tx MulticastPackets. Number of packets with a multicast destination address
transmitted.
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■
Tx UnicastPackets. Number of packets with a unicast destination address
transmitted.
Tx Discards. Number of packets discarded even though no errors had been
detected to prevent their being delivered. One possible reason why packets
might be discarded is to free up buffer space.
■
Tx Errors. Number of packets that could not be transmitted due to errors.
■
Tx PauseFrames. Number of PAUSE frames transmitted.
Error Counters
■
Alignment Errors. Number of LAN frames received on the interface that are
not an integral number of octets in length and do not pass the FCS check. This
usually indicates wiring problems.
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■
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■
■
■
■
■
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Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
FCS Errors. Number of LAN frames received with an incorrect CRC. This
sometimes happens when 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx auto-negotiation fails to
work.
Single Collision Frames. Number of successfully transmitted LAN frames for
which transmission was inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames. Number of successfully transmitted LAN frames
for which transmission was inhibited by more than one collision. This is usually the result of too much traffic on the LAN.
Late Collisions. Number of times that a collision is detected on a particular
interface later than 512 bit-times into the transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions. Number of LAN frames for which transmission on a
particular interface fails due to excessive collisions.
Internal MAC Receive Errors. Number of LAN frames for which transmission
on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
This is only counted as this type of error if it is not counted as part of a late
collision, excessive collision, or carrier sense error.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors. Number of LAN frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sublayer transmit
error. This is only counted as this type of error if it is not counted as part of a
late collision, excessive collision, or carrier sense error.
Frame Too Longs. Number of LAN frames that exceed the maximum permitted frame size; for the CrossPATH, this is 1518 bytes, or 1522 bytes for
VLAN-tagged frames.
Carrier Sense Errors. Loss of carrier signal for one or more bit times during
frame transmission.
Rx Unknown Protocols. Number of LAN frames received in an unknown
protocol.
Deferred Transmissions. Number of LAN frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular interface is delayed because the medium is busy.
Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
Monitoring the
CrossPATH 4
Ethernet port
interfaces
Monitor the Ethernet ports for status, alarms, and statistics, using:
The GUI
Monitor > Interfaces > Ethernet
The CLI
interface
interface
interface
interface
stats l2switch port <port#>
show l2switch port <port#>
stats ethernet <name>
show ethernet <name>
LAN LEDs
The front-panel LAN LEDs, shown in Figure 107, also indicate LAN status. For a
complete description of these LEDs, see “LAN ports” on page 33 for CrossPATH
3G and “LAN ports” on page 42 for CrossPATH 4.
Figure 107:LAN LEDs (CrossPATH 4)
(1)
(3)
LAN
(2)
(4)
Ethernet ports status
The GUI shows the status of each of the Ethernet ports, including link connection
state, speed, and mode. The LEDs indicate status in the Link Up/Down, 10/
100, and Duplex columns.
Figure 108:Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
Monitoring Ethernet interfaces
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Ethernet Ports 1-4
This section decscribes the four Ethernet ports that are combined on a single
switch, located on the left side of the screen. Click the “Stats Display” radio button to show the physical port statistics for a specific port.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Common Port Name. The name of the interface, as assigned on the Configure
> Interfaces > Ethernet GUI page.
Port. The physical port number corresponding to the Ethernet interface.
Link Up/Down. Displays the current link state of the specific physical Ethernet port, based on whether or not a cable is connected with a valid Ethernet
signal. A red LED indicates the link is down and a green LED indicates a
cable is connected.
10/100. Shows current operating speed information for the specific physical
port. An LED icon represents the speed information, with a yellow LED icon
indicating 10Mbps mode, and a green LED icon indicating 100 Mbps mode.
Duplex. Shows whether the specific physical port is in half or full duplex
mode. An LED icon represents the duplex mode information, with a yellow
LED icon indicating half duplex mode, and a green LED icon indicating full
duplex mode.
Physical Mode. Shows the configured Ethernet mode for the physical port.
VLAN Link Mode. Shows which VLAN link mode option each physical port is
using: trunk or access.
Stats Display. Click the radio button to show the physical port statistics for a
specific port. The receive, transmit, and error counters display under the summary table on the left side of the GUI page.
Management Ethernet port
This section describes the Management Ethernet port, located on the right side of
the screen.
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Port. The physical port name corresponding to the Ethernet interface.
Link Up/Down. Displays the current link state of the specific physical Ethernet port, based on whether or not a cable is connected with a valid Ethernet
signal.
10/100. Shows current operating speed information for the specific physical
port.
Duplex. Shows whether the specific physical port is in half or full duplex
mode.
Physical Mode. Shows the configured Ethernet mode for the physical port.
Statistics are displayed under the summary table on the right side of the GUI page.
The Management Ethernet port cannot be configured as part of a VLAN.
Ethernet port alarms
Alarms for all Ethernet ports are declared on the detection of defects. They are not
displayed on the Monitor > Interfaces page, but do appear in the Alarm Log. The
LAN events that produce Alarm Log entries on a per-port basis are the connection
or disconnection of a LAN cable, and changes to mode and speed.
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Chapter 11: Ethernet Interfaces
For more information on the Alarm Log, see “Alarm log” on page 85.
Ethernet port statistics
Receive Counters
■
RxRate RT [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data received between
last two refresh events.
■
Rx Octets. Number of bytes (octets) received, including framing characters.
■
Rx Packets. Number of Ethernet packets received.
■
■
■
■
Rx BroadcastPackets. Number of packets with a broadcast destination address
received.
Rx MulticastPackets. Number of packets with a multicast destination
received.
Rx UnicastPackets. Number of packets with a unicast destination address
received.
Rx Discards. Number of packets discarded even though no errors had been
detected to prevent their being delivered. One possible reason packets might
be discarded is to free up buffer space.
■
Rx Errors. Number of packets that could not be received due to errors.
■
Rx PauseFrames. Number of PAUSE frames received.
Transmit Counters
TxRateRT [kbps]. Number of kilobits, per second, of data transmitted between
last two refresh events.
■
■
Tx Octets. Number of bytes (octets) transmitted, including framing characters.
■
Tx Packets. Number of Ethernet packets transmitted.
■
■
■
■
Tx BroadcastPackets. Number of packets with a broadcast destination address
transmitted.
Tx MulticastPackets. Number of packets with a multicast destination address
transmitted.
Tx UnicastPackets. Number of packets with a unicast destination address
transmitted.
Tx Discards. Number of packets discarded even though no errors had been
detected to prevent their being delivered. One possible reason why packets
might be discarded is to free up buffer space.
■
Tx Errors. Number of packets that could not be transmitted due to errors.
■
Tx PauseFrames. Number of PAUSE frames transmitted.
Error Counters
■
Alignment Errors. Number of LAN frames received on the interface that are
not an integral number of octets in length and do not pass the FCS check. This
usually indicates wiring problems.
■
FCS Errors. Number of LAN frames received with an incorrect CRC. This
sometimes happens when 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx auto-negotiation fails to
work.
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Single Collision Frames. Number of successfully transmitted LAN frames for
which transmission was inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames. Number of successfully transmitted LAN frames
for which transmission was inhibited by more than one collision. This is usually the result of too much traffic on the LAN.
Late Collisions. Number of times that a collision is detected on a particular
interface later than 512 bit-times into the transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions. Number of LAN frames for which transmission on a
particular interface fails due to excessive collisions.
Internal MAC Receive Errors. Number of LAN frames for which transmission
on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
This is only counted as this type of error if it is not counted as part of a late
collision, excessive collision, or carrier sense error.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors. Number of LAN frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sublayer transmit
error. This is only counted as this type of error if it is not counted as part of a
late collision, excessive collision, or carrier sense error.
Frame Too Longs. Number of LAN frames that exceed the maximum permitted frame size; for the CrossPATH, this is 1518 bytes, or 1522 bytes for
VLAN-tagged frames.
Carrier Sense Errors. Loss of carrier signal for one or more bit times during
frame transmission
Rx Unknown Protocols. Number of LAN frames received in an unknown
protocol.
Deferred Transmissions. Number of LAN frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular interface is delayed because the medium is busy.
NOTE
Since the physical Ethernet ports 1-4 are part of an integrated Ethernet switch,
not all traffic passing through a physical port may be to and/or from the router.
The router LAN statistics only include MAC layer statistics and not physical layer
statistics.
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Network address translation (NAT)
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Quality of Service (QoS)
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DHCP services
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DNS relay
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DNS client
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Routing
The CrossPATH supports up to 11 IP interfaces, which include the Ethernet interfaces and the inband management interfaces.
Overview
Network devices—such as routers, switches, and workstations—are known as
hosts on your LAN. The physical network is called a subnet. Hosts from different
subnets communicate through routers that are connected to a WAN.
When a host wants to connect to the Internet or another network outside of its
LAN, it generates packets that contain the destination IP address of the remote
network. The IP packets are forwarded to the LAN gateway, which looks in its
routing table for the next router (hop) in the path to the remote network. The packets are forwarded to that router.
Routing tables store information about the next hop so that the router does not
have to maintain the complete path to a remote host.
Routing in the
CrossPATH router
To ensure that hosts can communicate, the CrossPATH supports the following
types of routing:
■
OSPF
■
RIP
■
Static routes
The system supports these features for both the LAN and WAN interfaces.
To configure and manage routing protocols, use the following:
ARP
The GUI
Configure > Router > OSPF
Configure > Router > RIP
The CLI
IP interfaces and routing commands in the CLI Reference
Guide
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps a destination IP address to its destination hardware address or its Ethernet MAC address.
When an incoming packet destined for a host machine on the LAN arrives at the
router, the system looks in its ARP table to find a MAC address that matches the
destination IP address on the packet. If it cannot find the address, it broadcasts an
ARP request packet across the LAN in an attempt to find the host.
If a host recognizes its address, it replies with its MAC address and the ARP table
is updated.
The ARP table contains a maximum of 64 entries. You cannot add static ARP
addresses to the table using the GUI. You can, however, enter static entries in the
ARP table using the CLI.
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Chapter 12: Router
To view ARP entries, use the following:
OSPF
The GUI
Configure > Router > Routes > Show ARP
The CLI
ip interface <name | number> list
proxyarpentries
ip interface add staticarpentry
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol used by large IP
networks to dynamically share information in the routing table among routers.
OSPF is commonly used in networks that span large geographical areas or have
more than 50 routers. OSPF is the more appropriate Interior Gateway Protocol
(IGP) choice for larger networks, and is used more frequently than the earlier
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) because OSPF scales better.
RFC 1583 was the first widely-implemented OSPF standard, but is superseded by
RFC 2328. Improvements in the OSPF standard include support for more Layer 2
network layer protocols, streamlined link state advertising, and enhanced security.
To construct the link state database (routing table) shared between routers, users
assign a cost value for each interface. Using the cost, OSPF computes the most
efficient route to each destination and selects the ideal route for network traffic
passing through the router.
HELLO packets are sent periodically between routers to indicate status. Route
information is exchanged between routers in Link State Advertisements (LSAs).
Using the LSAs, each router computes the shortest path to all destinations in the
network and responds to network changes.
OSPF can also redistribute static routes as AS-External (ASE) routes. ASEs may
be configured with their own cost and the selection of different route types may be
controlled through the use of preference values.
Security for LSAs is in the form of passwords or MD5 checksums.
RIP must be disabled before OSPF can be enabled and vice versa.
To configure OSPF, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > OSPF
The CLI
ip add ospf
Setting Up OSPF
The following is an overview for setting up OSPF:
1. Disable RIP. RIP must be disabled before OSPF can be enabled. Go to the
Configure > Router > RIP page. Clear the Enable RIP checkbox, then click
Apply.
2. Enable OSPF. Go to the Configure > Router > OSPF > Global Settings page.
Select the Enable OSPF checkbox. Enter the Router ID (IP Address) using
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dotted decimal notation, such as 1.1.1.1, then click OK. This number identifies the router to other routers and must be unique.
3. Add an OSPF Area. Go to the Configure > Router > OSPF > Area Summary
page. Select Add Area on the menu bar. Enter a unique area name such as
Area0. Enter the unique area ID using dotted-decimal notation, such as
0.0.0.0.
NOTE
Area 0.0.0.0 is a special OSPF backbone area and should be used for ports which
are attached to the OSPF backbone.
4. Associate interfaces which are going to be advertised via OSPF. Go to the
Configure > Router > OSPF > Area Summary page. From the OSPF Areas
Configuration section Controls list, select Associate Interfaces. Select the
interfaces which will be associated with the area from the Interfaces List and
select the left arrow to move them into the New Associations section, then
click OK.
5. Edit the interface. Go to the Configure > Router > OSPF > Area Summary
page. From the Attached Interface List Controls list, select Edit Interface. Use
the menu for Network Type and select the appropriate network type for the
OSPF application. For example, an Ethernet network type would be Broadcast, a Frame Relay network type would be Point-to-Point, and a PPP network
type would be Point-to-Point. OSPF neighbors must be manually added for
Point-to-Multipoint and NBMA (Non-Broadcast Multi Access) networks
only. Select the Enable Interface checkbox and click OK.
6. Check for discovered OSPF neighbors. Go to Configure > Router > OSPF >
Area Summary. From the Attached Interfaces List Controls list, select List
Neighbors. This will list all of the OSPF neighbors that have been discovered
or manually added. After neighbors have been discovered, the OSPF routers
will exchange routing information between them.
7. Verify your configuration. Go to Configure > Router > Routes > Show Active.
This will show all active routes including those discovered by OSPF.
Limitations
OSPF load balancing is not supported.
NOTE
The CrossPATH’s router cannot support OSPF and RIP at the same time. RIP
must be disabled before OSPF can be enabled, and vice versa.
RIP
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in smaller
networks to exchange routing table information among less than 50 routers.
Developed and popular in the 1980s, it has been replaced in large enterprises by
the link-state interior routing protocol Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).
The system supports RIP versions 1 and 2 (RIP v1 and RIP v2).
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RIP calculates routing tables based on the number of hops required for packets to
reach their destinations. Metrics such as load, bandwidth, latency, and Maximum
Transmission Units (MTUs) are not figured in the calculations. Only the cost in
hops and the next hop for every path to every destination is recorded.
Upon booting up, RIP routers broadcast their presence on the network using the
General RIP request message, alerting neighboring RIP routers to “advertise”
their own routing tables. The original router then dynamically builds its own routing table and broadcasts the information. Every 30 seconds the complete routing
table is broadcast to User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 520.
RIP does not support multipath routing, instead storing only the path with the lowest number of hops. The maximum number of hops supported is 15 — longer
routes are flagged with the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) message
“Destination Unreachable”.
OSPF must be disabled before RIP can be enabled and vice versa.
When to use RIP
TIP
When enabled, RIP updates
occur every 30 seconds.
Use RIP when you have several destinations to route to, since routers use RIP to
update each other with network changes. Note, however, that RIP is not typically
used for very large networks, since the longest path to a network cannot exceed 15
hops.
Use RIP v1 only if you have routers in your network that do not support RIP v2.
Configuring RIP
To configure RIP, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > RIP
The CLI
ip set interface rip
RIP can be configured individually for each IP interface. RIP configuration determines the following:
■
■
■
■
If an interface accepts RIP messages, and if so, which versions it accepts
(either v1 or v2, both, or none).
If an interface sends RIP messages, and if so, which versions it sends and in
what format.
If RIP v2 authentication mode is enabled and if so, asks for the password
information.
If split horizon mode is used to prevent routing loops. Split horizon prevents
the broadcast of routes back to the host from which it was sent.
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■
If routes are advertised about the interface, do one of the following:
■
■
■
Select never to never advertise routing information about the interface.
Select always to always advertise routing information about the interface.
Select routable if the interface address is in the public address space. RFC
1918 defines addresses for private Internets. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP
address space for private Internets:
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix)
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix)
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix)
■
■
Static routes
Whether or not to advertise the default route to other routers.
The default route cost; in other words, what is the maximum number of routers (hops) that can be traversed in that route. The RIP default route cost is not
configurable.
Static routes are manually entered into the router’s routing table and do not
change unless you change them. A static route specifies a destination network or
host, together with a subnet mask to indicate what range of addresses the network
covers, a next-hop gateway address, and the outbound router interface. If there is a
choice of routes for a destination, the route with the most specific mask is chosen.
Static routes can be used to augment dynamic routing (RIP or OSPF). If both a
static route and a routing protocol can reach a destination, the static route is chosen by preference.
The router cannot be an autonomous system border router for RIP or OSPF. This
means that the system cannot redistribute RIP routes as OSPF routes or vice versa.
It can, however, redistribute static routes as RIP or OSPF routes.
Use the router to create a static route to a destination network address via a gateway device or through an existing interface. You can also create a default route,
described next.
When to use static routes
Configure static routes when your network doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols (OSPF, RIP).
To configure static routes, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > Routes, then select Add Route
The CLI
ip add route
Adding static routes
Configure static routes directly to the destination IP address or through an existing
gateway and interface. You can also specify the cost.
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To configure static routes, use the following:
Default route
The GUI
Configure > Router > Routes > Add Route or edit under the
Configure column
The CLI
ip add route <name>
The default route is a type of static route used when the system receives a packet
for an unknown destination (in other words, there is no static or dynamic route for
the destination in the CrossPATH’s router table). Only one default route can be
created. To configure default routes, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Basic
The CLI
ip add defaultroute
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Network address translation (NAT)
Overview
Network Address Translation (NAT) converts private IP addresses on your LAN
into a public IP address on the WAN. This enables a host on your LAN to access
hosts on the WAN with the router’s public IP address. A host on the WAN can
then access the host on the LAN without knowing its local, private IP address.
There are two kinds of NAT: traditional and bi-directional, or Mapped IP. This
section discusses traditional NAT.
Using NAT
There are several reasons to use NAT. For example, NAT allows you to support a
larger number of local IP addresses than your WAN public IP addresses can
support.
NAT also has security benefits, as it is impossible to make a direct attack from the
WAN on a LAN host that is using NAT. However, care must be taken to avoid
attacks on the NAT device itself, in other words, the router.
NAPT
Network Address Port Translation (NAPT) is always enabled when NAT is
enabled. NAPT is NAT with port translation. While NAT translates a single, nonunique private address into a single, unique global address, NAPT translates multiple, non-unique private addresses into a single, unique global address, with
separate port numbers mapped to different sessions.
When a packet from the LAN needs to be delivered to a WAN host, the router
adds the LAN IP address and a corresponding port number to its internal translation table. It replaces the IP address with its own, and assigns a new port number.
The port number is dynamically selected from a pool of port numbers larger than
1024. The entry in the table is maintained until the connection is closed, so that
any returning packets can be forwarded to the originator. Figure 109 shows NAPT
at work.
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Network address translation (NAT)
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Enabling NAT
To enable or disable NAT, use the following:
Global:.
The GUI
Configure > Router > NAT and check/uncheck the NAT enable
checkbox
The CLI
NAT interface commands in the CLI Reference Guide
Per-Interface:
Mapped IP
The GUI
Configure > Router > NAT and select Edit NAT Config from the
Configuration list in the Interface NAT section
The CLI
nat interface <less_trusted_interface_name>
set [enabled | disabled]
Mapped IP, also known as bi-directional NAT, is a fixed mapping between a local
(private) and global (public) IP address. Mapped IP shields private LAN IP
addresses from WAN devices by letting you map a LAN host to a WAN public
address. Mapped IP allows you to select any global IP address provided by your
ISP. For example, use Mapped IP when you want to want to make your web server
accessible from the WAN, but do not want to expose the web server address to
hosts outside your LAN.
You can create up to 32 Mapped IPs per box. A total count of up to 5000 ports is
available across all 32 mapped IPs. A NAT port range is the number of TCP/UDP
ports used by the global application for which the IP Address translation occurs.
NOTE
When creating a new mapped IP with a port range of several hundred or more
ports, there may be a delay of several seconds for user traffic. When creating a
new mapped IP with a port range of 4500+ ports, the delay may be approximately
10 - 20 seconds.
Configuring Mapped IP
To create a Mapped IP pair, use the following:
TIP
Configure up to 32 mapped IP
definitions.
The GUI
Configure > Router > NAT and select Add Mapped IP from the
Configuration list
The CLI
NAT interface commands in the CLI Reference Guide
To configure Mapped IP, specify the local IP address, the global IP address that
you want to map it to, and the action that you want to take on the port number:
■
Map single public IP address (all ports) to single private IP address – select
Port Pass Through (i.e., port-passthru).
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■
Map public port to different private port – select Port Translate (i.e., porttranslate). Use this to hide a common application port behind an arbitrary
port. Specify both the local application and a global port number to which to
map the application. For example, you can translate the common port number
for HTTP (80) to an arbitrary port number to help prevent attacks from the
WAN aimed at your web server.
NOTE
Global IP addresses used for port pass through mapped IPs should not be the
same as the primary WAN IP address.
■
Keep the port number intact ( public and private port are the same) – select
Global Port (i.e., globalPort). Use this to expose a well-known service or port
to the WAN. You can select this combination from any IP Application groups
you have configured, as well as the pre-configured applications list.
NOTE
NAT must always be enabled for Mapped IP to work.
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Quality of Service (QoS)
This section describes how to configure the Quality of Service (QoS) feature. QoS
refers to the functional elements that offer performance guarantees and performance measurements for the traffic flowing through the system—in other words,
traffic management. QoS is an advanced feature that is of interest to network
administrators overseeing large networks with several different types of traffic.
On the CrossPATH, QoS only affects IP traffic such as T1 lines cross-connected
through a router port. QoS is enabled by default.
Introducing QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) is the ability of a network to guarantee different levels of
service (bandwidth, controlled latency, and so forth) to selected traffic—video in
contrast to email, for example. The goal is to provide priority to certain traffic
flows without making other flows fail.
Why use QoS?
As the use of IP WANs has grown more popular, the number and type of applications run over these networks has increased dramatically. In addition to email, file
transfers, and the Web, an ever-growing number of new applications are using IP,
multimedia being the most notable. However, the fundamental design of IP, based
on a connectionless, variable-sized packet forwarding paradigm, remains
unchanged.
Many of the new applications—video-conferencing, IP telephony, distance learning, and IP surveillance, to name a few—are very sensitive to bandwidth
availability, packet loss, delay, and jitter, and often demand differing quality levels. The Internet was not originally designed to handle any quality requirements
by applications, so often the applications do not perform well and provide poor
quality.
What QoS can do
With the right set of features, QoS can provide a much-needed quality improvement by meeting the differing quality demands of network applications. The ideal
QoS implementation allows you to:
■
■
■
QoS in the
CrossPATH
Classify traffic. Traffic classification consists of identifying the type of traffic
and, optionally, marking it as such.
Monitor traffic. Traffic monitoring should provide feedback on the classification effort, and help you determine if traffic is flowing smoothly.
Place performance guarantees on flows of traffic from both inside and outside
your LAN.
The goals of QoS are to:
■
Classify applications and provide resource guarantees to meet individual
application performance needs within the resource constraints. This is especially important in the LAN-to-WAN direction due to limited WAN
bandwidth.
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■
■
Provide traffic monitoring capability for the traffic passing through the
device. This is important to understand and fulfill the performance needs of an
application.
Act as a tool for traffic troubleshooting.
IP is an end-to-end network protocol and nearly all network applications use IP.
For this reason, the focus of QoS is in the IP layer, Layer 3. The unit’s QoS functionality is based on the IETF Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture. This
implementation of QoS provides you with more control over traffic management
than with standard DiffServ.
QoS architecture
Independent QoS control is provided on each IP interface and in each direction
(LAN-to-WAN, WAN-to-LAN) within the IP interface for greater flexibility and
scalability. The functionality provided in each IP interface is scaled up or down
based on the need to attain higher overall system performance. Details of these
differences are explained further in this chapter. A high level view of the QoS
architecture is shown in Figure 110.
Figure 110:QoS architecture overview
Generally, QoS processing is a two-stage process:
1. A packet entering the unit is subjected to traffic classification and conditioning in the ingress IP interface. This classification is performed by an IP header
multi-field (MF) classifier based on a user-defined flow specification. Ingress
traffic conditioning is immediately performed on the packet based on the userdefined QoS actions for that packet.
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2. The packet enters the egress IP interface after being forwarded by the IP forwarding engine. It is then subjected to traffic classification based strictly on
the Behavior Aggregate (BA) classifier (also known as the DiffServ codepoint) in the IP header. Once classified into one of the system-defined traffic
classes, traffic conditioning actions specific to that class are applied. The
packet is then transmitted (if permitted) to the Layer 2 interface.
This general concept is applied symmetrically on all IP interfaces. However, the
capabilities, classification rules, conditioning policies and behavior are independent on each interface. It should be noted that the same concept is applicable for
all traffic to and from the system as well as shown in Figure 110 on page 260. See
“DHCP services” on page 273 for a further description of the processing for each
interface.
Configuring QoS
QoS is enabled by default on each interface.
The CrossPATH supports IP layer traffic classification and conditioning from the
LAN-to-WAN, the WAN-to-LAN, and within the LAN.
To set up and manage QoS, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > IP QoS
The CLI
QoS commands in the CLI Reference Guide
Depending on how you want to use QoS, the general procedure for configuring
this feature is to:
Creating lists
■
Create Lists
■
Set up QoS policies
■
Configure the WAN and/or LAN interface
■
Edit PHB DSCP Mapping
■
Enable QoS
Use lists to simplify policy creation. A list is a named set of IP application information or IP address information. For example, you may create a list of IP
addresses. Then, you can use the list to configure a policy in one step, instead of
configuring an individual policy for each of those IP addresses.
This section describes the types of lists you can configure. In general, to create
and manage lists, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > System > Lists
The CLI
List commands in the CLI Reference Guide
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Types of lists
There are four types of lists, as shown in Table 35.
Table 35: List types
List type
Definition
IP Address
An IP Address list consists of:
■
■
The list name
A subnet address and mask, or a range of addresses
defined by the start and end addresses
For example, you can define an IP Address list called
“mySubnet,” with an IP address of 192.168.5.0 and a subnet
mask of 255.255.255.0.
IP Address Group
An IP Address Group list is a named list of defined IP Address
lists.
For example, you can define an IP Address Group list called
“myGroups” consisting of the IP address lists “mySubnet,”
“myLAN,” and “myOffice.”
IP Application
An IP Application list consists of:
■
■
The list name
Optional session configuration name (set in the CLI
only)
■
A range of values for the source port
■
A range of values for the destination port
■
The transport protocol
For example, you could define an IP Application list named
“smtp,” with the source port range of 0–65535, the destination
port range of 25–25, and TCP as the protocol.
IP Application
Group
An IP Application Group list consists of a named list of defined
IP Application lists. For example, you can define an IP
Application Group list called “myApps” consisting of the IP
Application lists “smtp,” “gopher,” and “Telnet.”
List names
Each list name must conform to the following naming conventions.
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List names must be unique. Do not rely on case-sensitivity to differentiate list
names. For example, you cannot create “MyList1” and “MYLIST1”.
List names can contain up to 16 characters. The first character must be an
alphabetic character. After that, you can use any combination of numbers and
letters, as well as hyphens and underscores. Spaces and other symbols cannot
be used.
Chapter 12: Router
Here are a few examples of valid and invalid list names.
Valid list name
Invalid list name
MyPolicy_1
MyList 1 (no spaces allowed)
MyPolicy1
1MyList (cannot start with a digit)
mylist-1
mylist-#1 (no symbols other than - and _ allowed)
Pre-defined lists
The system contains the following pre-defined IP Address lists:
■
■
iplan. The IP address is the CrossPATH router’s IP address, and the subnet
mask is 255.255.255.255.
any. The IP address and subnet mask are 0.0.0.0. This matches any address.
In addition, IP Application lists have been pre-configured for several common
network applications such as HTTP, FTP, IKE, TCP, UDP, and so on.
Using lists with policy creation
The general procedure for using lists to define packet flows for policies is to:
1. Create list objects as described above.
2. Configure the policy.
3. Enable the policy.
NOTE
If you reconfigure a list or list group, any policies using the list are automatically
updated. Also, if a list or list group is in use by a policy, you cannot delete the list
or list group.
Creating QoS
policies
A policy is a collection of user-defined attributes that, when matched with identical attributes of a data packet, determines an action to be performed on the packet
by the system. The system uses policies to help define the flow of traffic for QoS.
To create QoS policies, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > IP QoS, then select the interface and
click Add QoS Policy
The CLI
policy
policy
policy
policy
policy
etc.
add
set
set
set
set
qos
qos
qos
qos
qos
class
marking
match
rank
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QoS Policies require several steps to create and enable. Use this list as an overview of the process:
1. Create IP Address and IP Address Group objects, if necessary, or directly
enter the source and destination addresses. For more information on lists, see
“Using lists with policy creation” on page 263.
2. Create IP Application and IP Application Group objects, if necessary, or
directly enter the application information. For more information on lists, see
“Using lists with policy creation” on page 263.
3. Name the policy and add its attributes.
4. Specify the actions for a match. QoS policy match actions are described
below.
5. Enable the policy.
Policy names
Each policy name must conform to the following naming conventions.
■
■
Policy names must be unique. Do not rely on case-sensitivity to differentiate
policy names. For example, you cannot create “MyPolicy1” and “mypolicy1”.
Policy names can contain up to 16 characters. The first character must be an
alphabetic character. After that, you can use any combination of numbers and
letters, as well as hyphens and underscores. Spaces and other symbols cannot
be used.
Here are a few examples of valid and invalid policy names.
Valid policy name
Invalid policy name
MyPolicy_1
MyPolicy 1 (no spaces allowed)
MyPolicy1
1MyPolicy (cannot start with a digit)
mypolicy-1
mypolicy-#1 (no symbols other than - and _
allowed)
When QoS is enabled, every packet entering an interface is matched with a policy.
The match attributes for a QoS policy are:
■
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Rank. Specifies the precedence for packet matching, if more than one match
occurs. The lower the rank number, the higher the match precedence. For
example, the highest precedence is rank 0; the lowest is rank 65535.
Source Address. For inbound polices, this is the WAN-side global address. For
outbound policies, this is the LAN-side local address.
Destination Address. For inbound policies, this is the LAN-side local address.
For outbound policies, this is the WAN-side global address.
Application. IP application name or protocol/port combination. Use any for
all applications.
Chapter 12: Router
The GUI contains a pre-made application list for frequently-used applications.
You may need to configure your own application information. For more information, see “Pre-defined lists” on page 263, and visit the Kentrox web site.
■
DSCP Match Value. Use any for any DSCP value (if you are not concerned
about the DSCP value), or enter a decimal number for the DSCP value. The
GUI contains a pre-made list from which you can select a DSCP value that
corresponds to a standard PHB.
NOTE
IP Address lists and IP Application lists can be used for address and application
attributes. See “Creating lists” on page 261.
QoS policy match actions
For QoS, actions consist of enabling marking and/or policing/metering.
■
■
If marking is enabled, you must specify a DSCP value or select a standard
PHB. For packets that match the policy, the DSCP header bits are marked
with that value. For more information on marking, see “Marking” on page
271.
If policing is enabled, you must specify the minimum and maximum bandwidth for the policy (metering) and the policing action for bandwidth
violations. For more information on policing and metering, see “Policing” on
page 271 and “Metering” on page 271.
QoS policy matching
Two or more policies may not have the same rank. You must use a unique rank
number for each policy you create.
Matching algorithms
Policies allow the use of ranges, prefixes, and “don’t care” values for attributes, so
it is inevitable that some packets will match more than one policy. The system
uses the following algorithms to determine how to handle this type of
overlapping.
In most specific matches, these attributes are examined in order, and the policy
that matches them the closest wins:
■
Source IP. Smallest range/subnet or exact host.
■
Destination IP. Smallest range/subnet or exact host.
■
Transport Type. Exact value has higher precedence than “any.”
■
Destination Port Start/End. Smallest range.
■
Source Port Start/End. Smallest range.
QoS policies
When two or more matching policies have the same rank, usually the policy configured first in the list is selected. For more information on QoS policy matching,
see “Configuring QoS” on page 261.
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QoS policy limitations
You can create 16 QoS policies per interface.
Default QoS policies
The CrossPATH’s router is pre-configured with a default policy for QoS. The
default policies cannot be disabled, but they can be easily over-ridden by creating
a policy with a lower rank and thus higher priority.
TIP
Default policies are set to the
highest rank value, which
gives default policies the lowest priority.
If a packet does not meet the criteria of any class, it is matched with the default
policy.
Configuring the
WAN interface for
QoS
QoS is enabled on the WAN by default. It must be enabled whether you are performing ingress or egress processing.
To configure the WAN interface for QoS, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > IP QoS, then select the interface.
From this page, you can add a policy or edit a user-created
policy.
The CLI
qos set interface
qos show interface
qos stats interface
Enabling traffic shaping
The bandwidth setting for WAN interface configuration is used by the interface
shaper (see “Shaping” on page 272). You can explicitly set this value, or configure
it automatically based on the Layer 2 line rate.
The percentage of WAN interface bandwidth can also be set for each individual
PHB class by editing its class configuration. This takes effect only if shaping is
enabled for that class.
Enabling traffic scheduling
Traffic scheduling is enabled whenever QoS is enabled on the IP interface. The
WAN interface uses a combination of PQ and WFQ for scheduling, as described
in “Scheduling” on page 271. PQ is used only for the EF PHB class. To configure
scheduling bandwidth on individual PHBs, edit the individual class configuration
for each PHB class.
Enabling DSCP re-marking
To enable and configure DSCP re-marking, edit the individual class configuration
for each PHB class. For a description of re-marking, see “Re-marking” on page
272.
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Enabling queue configuration
Queue configuration uses WRED, as described in “Weighted Random Early
Detection (WRED)” on page 272. WRED applies to all PHB classes except EF,
and is enabled by default only on BE. Also, there are three sets of control settings
for each of the AF classes; see the online help for a brief description of each.
NOTE
Changes to QoS configuration are saved in the persistent database only when the
entire system configuration is saved.
Configuring the LAN
interface for QoS
QoS is enabled on the LAN by default. QoS must be enabled for the LAN whether
you are performing ingress or egress processing.
To configure the LAN interface for QoS, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > IP QoS, then select a LAN interface
and select Edit in the Controls column
The CLI
qos set interface
qos show interface
qos interface <ifname> stats
LAN processing is the same as WAN processing, except that:
■
Changing DSCP
mapping
No traffic shaper is available for the LAN. Therefore, setting the bandwidth
for the interface or for any individual PHB class, or enabling shaping for a
PHB class, has no effect.
■
The LAN side only supports a simple FIFO queue for traffic scheduling.
■
No queue management is supported.
By default, the unit uses the standard mapping for DSCP. If you need to, you can
change this on a per-interface basis, although it is not recommended.
To edit the DSCP mapping, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > IP QoS, then select an interface and
select the DSCP mapping tab
The CLI
qos interface <ifname> set map dscp
<dscpvalue> phb <phbname>
Figure 111 shows the default mapping.
Quality of Service (QoS)
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 111: PHB to DSCP mapping
DiffServ overview
DiffServ defines a field in the header of IP packets called the DiffServ codepoint
(DSCP). Hosts or routers sending traffic into a DiffServ network mark each transmitted packet with the appropriate DSCP. Within the network, routers use the
DSCP to classify packets and apply queueing or scheduling behavior (per-hop
behavior, or PHB) based on the results of the classification.
The DSCP is the first six bits of the IP type-of-service (ToS) byte. Since six bits
are used, the DSCP can have a decimal value of 0 through 63. Figure 111 shows
how these values map to the PHBs. Users can re-map, or re-classify, a DSCP to a
different PHB.
The following sections are specific to this implementation of DiffServ.
PHBs and service classes
The unit supports all PHBs required by the DiffServ standard. While PHB is the
behavior defined by DiffServ, “service class” is the actual implementation that
realizes the behavior. A single service class can be used to realize more than one
PHB.
In addition to supporting all PHBs, the CrossPATH implements seven service
classes, each with a distinct queue. These classes cannot be deleted, and no new
ones can be added.
The unit uses the standard PHB names based on the dominant PHB for which a
class is primarily intended. They are described below.
Expedited Forwarding (EF)
EF is for real time applications that are characterized by uniform, non-bursty, constant bit rate traffic, such as VoIP and certain video applications. These
applications require rate and low jitter guarantees, while tolerating some loss.
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Quality of Service (QoS)
Chapter 12: Router
The unit implements the EF PHB forwarding behavior using a low latency, priority queueing scheduling discipline. It assures low latency (and hence low jitter)
for EF traffic by assigning the highest priority for this queue in the priority queue
(PQ) scheduler. The EF PHB class also provides rate guarantees. However, oversubscription is not allowed. In other words, the EF class can only use the
minimum bandwidth guaranteed for itself. It cannot utilize available bandwidth
from other classes.
Assured Forwarding (AF)
AF is for low packet loss applications that do not require EF. Usually, these are
mission-critical applications with bursty, variable-rate traffic, like ERP, database
applications, and some video applications.
AF has four unique classes: AF1, AF2, AF3, and AF4. Each class exhibits identical forwarding treatment and is implemented using a Weighted-Fair Queueing
(WFQ) scheduling discipline (see “Scheduling” on page 271). With WFQ, each of
the four AF PHB classes is provided minimum rate guarantees. Loss is minimized
by the use of a queue to hold excess packets. Each of the four AF PHB classes
maintains its own independent queue. Above the minimum guaranteed rate, any of
the AF classes can utilize bandwidth not utilized by other classes in the system,
including EF. However, the maximum bandwidth used by an AF class is individually controlled by a traffic “shaper” assigned to that AF class (see “Shaping” on
page 272).
The AF class also allows each of the AF PHBs to further control the buffer
resources within a class using three levels of drop precedence (low, medium, and
high). For more information refer to “Weighted Random Early Detection
(WRED)” on page 272.
Class Selector (NC)
NC is utilized for network management and control, including routing protocols
(like RIP), and SNMP, SNTP, and other traffic directed specifically to and from a
network device such as a router.
The unit implements the NC PHB forwarding behavior using a WFQ scheduling
discipline (see “Scheduling” on page 271). Thus the NC class is provided minimum rate guarantees. Loss is minimized by the use of a queue to hold excess
packets. Above the minimum guaranteed rate, NC can utilize bandwidth not utilized by other classes in the system, including EF. However, the maximum
bandwidth used by the NC class is individually controlled by a traffic “shaper”
assigned to the NC class (see “Shaping” on page 272).
Best Effort (BE)
BE is the default PHB. Use BE if no other PHB is applicable, or for demoted traffic. It provides best effort service for data-centric applications that are neither time
critical nor mission critical and don’t require rate, jitter, or loss guarantees. BE is
usually used for your web server, email, FTP, and so on. BE can utilize unused
bandwidth from other classes if it is available.
Quality of Service (QoS)
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
The unit implements the BE PHB forwarding behavior using a WFQ scheduling
discipline (see “Scheduling” on page 271). Thus the BE class is provided minimum rate guarantees. Loss is minimized by the use of a queue to hold excess
packets. Above the minimum guaranteed rate, BE can utilize bandwidth not utilized by other classes in the system, including EF. However, the maximum
bandwidth used by the BE class is individually controlled by a traffic “shaper”
assigned to the BE class (see “Shaping” on page 272).
Default bandwidth for the service classes
By default, the unit allocates guaranteed bandwidth to the DiffServ PHB service
classes as shown in Table 36:
Table 36: DiffServ PHB Service Class Allocation
Class
Allocation
Percentage
EF
33%
AF1
12%
AF2
12%
AF3
12%
AF4
25%
NC
1%
BE
5%
Also by default, all packets are forwarded without any drop in either direction as
long as there is no congestion in the packet’s path.
Classification
The unit supports classifying traffic into flows to enable appropriate treatment.
Two types of packet classifiers are supported in both its LAN and router
interfaces:
■
■
The MF classifier classifies packets into user-defined flows based on multiple
fields (source address, destination address, protocol, source port, destination
port, and DSCP) in the IP header.
The BA classifier classifies packets into PHB service classes based strictly on
the DSCPs in the IP header. This is also referred to as the DSCP classifier.
Classification is configured via QoS policies. See “Configuring QoS” on page 261.
Conditioning
Traffic can be conditioned after it is classified. Conditioning consists of metering,
marking, policing, scheduling, and shaping.
The unit uses the combination of metering, marking, and policing to rate-limit any
user-defined flow at the ingress interface.
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Quality of Service (QoS)
Chapter 12: Router
Metering
Metering measures the flow and determines if the rate is within limits. The system
uses the DiffServ standard dual-rate tri-colored markers for metering.
Metering puts one of the following classifications on the traffic:
■
Conforming. The rate is at or below the minimum bandwidth.
■
Excess. The rate is between the minimum and maximum bandwidth.
■
Violating. The rate is above the maximum bandwidth.
The classifications are based on minimum and maximum bandwidth rates configured for the flow by the user as part of QoS policy configuration. See “QoS policy
match actions” on page 265.
Marking
Marking sets the DSCP, and can be enabled or disabled on a per-policy basis (see
“QoS policy match actions” on page 265). If marking is disabled, packets are
passed through to the forwarding function. If marking is enabled, you can specify
the PHB class or a DSCP value explicitly. Marking is not necessary if the source
application correctly marks DSCP.
If marking is set to one of the AF PHB classes, the drop precedence of the packet
is automatically marked based on the metering, in other words, conforming,
excess, or violating.
Policing
Policing, also known as rate-limiting, can be enabled or disabled on a per-policy
basis (See “QoS policy match actions” on page 265).
Policing allows you to rate-limit a flow by dropping excess and violating traffic,
or passing it to a forwarding engine for routing purposes. Forwarded packets are
neither queued nor re-ordered, but may be marked as described above.
Scheduling
Scheduling determines in which order the packets are processed from the queues
according to a scheduling algorithm. To support the multiple behavioral characteristics of the various PHBs, the following schedulers are used:
TIP
The system supports up to
seven queues on the WAN.
■
Priority Queue (PQ)
■
Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ)
■
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)
A combination of the PQ and WFQ schedulers is used on the WAN IP interface
for controlling packet transmission. WFQ provides minimum rate guarantees for
the BE, AF, and NC PHBs. PQ provides a minimum latency path for the EF PHB.
FIFO, and only FIFO, is used on the LAN IP interface.
Scheduling cannot be altered by the user.
Quality of Service (QoS)
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Shaping
Traffic shapers limit the maximum bandwidth and burst size used by a PHB class.
Each PHB (except EF) employs an independent shaper to guarantee that the maximum bandwidth configured for the class is not exceeded. Traffic shaping works
by queueing packets and scheduling packets from this queue at the configured
rate. This can help smooth bursty packet streams, remove jitter effects, and avoid
packet loss.
TIP
No shaper is provided on the
LAN IP interface.
The unit uses a separate interface-level shaper to control the maximum total bandwidth and burst size transmitted out of the WAN IP interface. This is typically set
to the line rate of the Layer 2 interface to which it is attached. You can override
this by configuring a different bandwidth, less than the Layer 2 interface line rate,
if necessary. For more information, see “Enabling traffic shaping” on page 266.
TIP
If a queue is full, any packets
received are dropped.
Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
The WRED algorithm is used to support packet discard on WAN queues. Packets
are dropped randomly between various sessions within a queue when the average
queue depth is within the WRED thresholds. The goal is to improve WAN utilization by breaking the global synchronization effect due to TCP during congestion.
Therefore, it is useful to TCP traffic only.
The CrossPATH provides WRED capability on a per-PHB basis on the WAN IP
interface. WRED is used on all PHB classes except EF. However, it is enabled by
default only on the BE class. For each of the AF classes, there are three sets of
WRED control settings, one of each of the drop precedences (low, medium, and
high) within an AF class.
The WRED thresholds can be modified as part of WAN configuration. For more
information, see “Enabling queue configuration” on page 267.
Re-marking
By default, when a packet is serviced and then transmitted by a PHB class, the
DSCP value is unchanged. Since multiple DSCPs can be mapped to a PHB service class, packets transmitted out of a given class can have different DSCP
markings. If this is undesirable, DSCP re-marking can be enabled for that PHB
class. All packets leaving that service class are re-marked with a specified DSCP
value.
The main reason to do this is for DiffServ compliance, as the next hop for the
routed traffic may interpret the DSCP differently. The output of the system should
comply with the downstream DiffServ domain, whether the next hop is headed out
to the WAN, or on the LAN to the Ethernet switch.
Enable re-marking as part of PHB class configuration for the LAN or WAN interface. For more information, see “Enabling DSCP re-marking” on page 266.
272
Quality of Service (QoS)
Chapter 12: Router
DHCP services
Overview
The CrossPATH’s router can be configured as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. DHCP client capabilities are not available.
TIP
The system cannot be enabled
as a DHCP server and relay
agent at the same time.
Use DHCP to assign dynamic IP addresses from an address pool to hosts on your
LAN. With dynamic addressing, the router manages host addresses, rather than
requiring you to manually configure each host address individually.
DHCP reduces network management overload and helps conserve limited IP
addresses. It is also very useful for allowing mobile employees to connect to a private network, as they do not need to have a static IP address assigned.
DHCP server
Use the router as a DHCP server to supply dynamic addresses (and other information) to local hosts, the DHCP clients, as shown in Figure 112.
Figure 112:Using the CrossPATH router as a DHCP server
DHCP Clients
132.168.2.29
CrossPATH
132.168.2.149
DHCP Server
Address Pool
.29
.149
.213
132.168.2.213
TIP
By default, the CrossPATH’s
router is a DHCP server on
the LAN.
The DHCP server can also be used with the Domain Name Service (DNS) relay
agent feature. For more information, see “Configuring the DHCP server” on page
273 and “DNS relay” on page 277.
NOTE
Only the LAN Ethernet ports and the Management Ethernet port (CrossPATH 4
only) can be DHCP servers.
Configuring the
DHCP server
TIP
If you are using the CLI,
enable the DHCP server using
the dhcp server enable command before configuration.
To configure the DHCP server:
■
Enable the DHCP server (enabled by default)
■
Modify the configuration information that the server distributes to clients
■
Modify and/or add to the range of IP addresses that make up the address pool
To do this, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP Server,then select Enable
DHCP Server in the Configuration menu
The CLI
DHCP server commands in the CLI Reference Guide
DHCP services
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
DHCP server is enabled by default for Ethernet Ports 1 - 4 and the Management
Ethernet port (CrossPATH 4 only). You can disable the DHCP server separately
for the ports on the front panel or the port on the rear panel.
To disable the DHCP server, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP Server then select Disable
DHCP Server from the Configuration menu
The CLI
DHCP server commands in the CLI Reference Guide
NOTE
If you need to change your LAN-side IP address and reconfigure the DHCP server
from the GUI on a host on the LAN side, read “Re-configuring the LAN IP address
and DHCP server” on page 275 to avoid losing access to the router.
Lease time
When a DHCP client requests dynamic configuration information from the DHCP
server, it asks to use that information for a specific period of time, called the lease
time. You can set the default time to use if the client does not request a lease time,
as well as the maximum time that the client can use the information.
Lease information, consisting of the client’s IP address, identification (MAC
address or other identification), and expiration information can be viewed using
the GUI or CLI:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP Server > Show All Leases
The CLI
dhcp server status
Subnet configuration
The following information is supplied, if requested, to DHCP clients:
■
■
■
■
■
274
DHCP services
Subnet IP address and mask. Keep in mind that when you configure the IP
address range or ranges for the address pool, the range must be contained
within this subnet.
Lease time. Maximum amount of time that clients can use the dynamic
address information, as described in “Lease time” on page 274.
Auto domain name. You can set the DHCP server to respond to a domain
name request with the LAN domain name of the router (configured in the
DNS relay feature), or you can specify a different domain name.
DNS server. The DHCP server in the router can relay a DNS request to the
main DNS server using its own address, then forward the DNS information
back to the requesting party. Use this with the DNS relay feature; see “DNS
relay agent configuration” on page 277. Or, you can add up to three DNS
server addresses.
Default gateway. You can use the DHCP server address as the default gateway
address to return in response to a DHCP client request. Or, you can specify
Chapter 12: Router
another address (usually the address of another router) as the default gateway
address.
Other DHCP options
Additional information that the system can return in response to requests from
DHCP clients includes addresses for servers such as email (POP) servers, time
(SNTP) servers, and so forth.
For a complete list of these options, see:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP Server help pages
The CLI
dhcp server set subnet
IP address ranges
To store a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP server to distribute to clients, specify
the start and end of the address range. A subnet can have up to four IP address
ranges. The ranges cannot overlap. The default amount of IP addresses is 100 for
Ethernet Ports 1 - 4 and 20 for the Management Ethernet port (CrossPATH 4
only), but the server can allocate up to 253 addresses.
The address ranges must be contained within the subnet, as stated in “Subnet configuration” on page 274.
To configure IP address ranges, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP Server, then select Edit DHCP
Server Interface under the Configuration menu
The CLI
dhcp server set subnet
Fixed hosts
Devices such as servers and routers need to be at fixed addresses. Fixed host mapping assigns specific IP addresses and lease times to specific clients based on the
client’s MAC address.
NOTE
Disallowing unknown client requests will allow you to set the router to respond to
DHCP requests from fixed hosts only.
Re-configuring the LAN IP address and DHCP server
Follow these steps if you are managing the router from the GUI on a LAN-side
host, and you want to change your LAN IP address and reconfigure the DHCP
server.
1. Check DHCP Server Enable, if the DHCP configuration parameters are not
shown.
2. Select Edit DHCP Server Interface from the Configure menu for the iplan or
ipmgmt interface.
DHCP services
275
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
3. Change the IP address and Subnet Mask to match the new LAN-side IP
address and subnet mask.
4. Enter the new IP address range for the DHCP Server in the IP Range 1 Start
and to fields.
5. To override the default server options, uncheck the “Use Default Server
Options” box and configure as needed. To view the current default server
options in a table format, browse to Configure > Router > DHCP and look at the
“Advanced DHCP Configuration” area.
6. On the LAN-side host from which you are running the GUI, open a command-line window and enter the ipconfig commands (for Windows/NT
OS) or ifconfig commands (for Unix/Linux OS) to re-configure the IP
address on the LAN-side host. Refer to your operating system documentation
for the exact command syntax. The host gets a new lease on the new LANside subnet.
7. Open the GUI at the new LAN-side address.
Reviewing DHCP server subnet assignments
When you configure a DHCP server to operate on an existing IP interface,
remember to review the DHCP Server subnet assignments.
To view DHCP Server subnet assignments, use the following:
276
DHCP services
The GUI
Configure > Router > DHCP, then select Edit DHCP Server
Interface under the Configuration menu in the DHCP
Server Interfaces table
The CLI
dhcp server show subnet <ip interface name>
Chapter 12: Router
DNS relay
Overview
The CrossPATH’s router can be configured as a Domain Name Service (DNS) client and a DNS relay agent when issuing commands from the router itself.
As a DNS client, the system:
■
■
Retrieves IP addresses for ping and SNTP entered as human-readable domain
names.
Supports resolution of incomplete domain names using a search domain list.
For example, in the case of “ping email”, the DNS client would use “ping
email.mycompany.com” if “mycompany.com” is in the domain search list.
The system supports up to six incomplete names in the search domain list for
a particular domain.
You can configure a list of up to two IP addresses for the DNS servers (typically
on the WAN) that the router can use.
As a DNS relay agent, the system passes DNS client requests to DNS servers.
To manage DNS clients and relay agents, use the following:
The GUI
Configure > Router > DNS Relay
The CLI
dns
dns
dns
dns
relay add server
relay set hostname
client add server
client add searchdomain
DNS client
To enable the router as a DNS client, enter the IP addresses of up to two DNS
servers and one search domain. Adding a search domain is optional.
Always enter the name of the primary DNS server first and the secondary DNS
server second.
If the router is not configured as a DNS client, you cannot use human-readable
domain names for ping, or SNTP.
DNS relay agent
configuration
The benefit of configuring the router as a DNS relay agent is that it caches the IP
addresses it retrieves for quicker DNS look-up. When this happens, the request
does not have to be sent out on the WAN. You must also configure the router as a
DNS server in the DHCP server configuration. See “Subnet configuration” on page
274 for more information.
Caching of addresses is shown below in Figure 113. Note that the address for
Request 1 had previously been cached, and the address for Request 2 had not. The
router caches the address for Request 2 after it is returned from the remote DNS
server.
DNS relay
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Figure 113:DNS client with DNS relay
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System Specifications
This chapter lists the CrossPATH system specifications. Unless specified otherwise, all specifications apply to both CrossPATH 3G and CrossPATH 4.
NOTE
Cables are described in “Cable Specifications” on page 303. Connectors are
described in “CrossPATH 3G Hardware Reference” on page 31 and “CrossPATH 4
Hardware Reference” on page 39.
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Physical interfaces specifications
Table 37: Physical interfaces specifications
Interface
Description
Ethernet LAN
■
Four ports, 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx, half- or fullduplex
■
Auto MDI/MDI-X Crossover for "Plug-and-Play"
■
Auto-negotiated speed and duplex (default), or
user- configurable
■
Auto-polarity
■
Two LEDs per port: speed and link/activity
■
Full-duplex IEEE 802.3x and half-duplex Back Pressure Flow Control
■
One port, 10Base-T or 100Base-Tx, half- or full-duplex
■
Auto-negotiated speed and duplex (default), or
user- configurable
■
Two LEDs: speed and link/activity
■
Full-duplex IEEE 802.3x and half-duplex Back Pressure Flow Control
■
8 T1/FT1 (DS1) (77750)
■
16 T1/FT1 (DS1) (77760, 74016)
■
32 T1 (74016 with 74170 16xDSX1 option module)
■
ESF/D4
■
2 T3s with 28 T1s per T3 (74016 with 74152 TDM
2xDS3)
■
2 T3s with 12 DSX1s (74016 with 74155 12xDSX1
option module)
■
PPP
■
Frame Relay/Frame Relay Link Management
■
LMI
■
Auto Detect
■
ITU Q.933 AnnexA
■
ANSI T1.617 AnnexD
■
Supports 9600 bps
■
Meets EIA/TIA-232 and V.28/V.24
■
V.35 DCE serial interface
Management Ethernet
LAN (CrossPATH 4
only)
T1
T3 (74016 with select
option modules only)
Router
RS-232
Data port
280
Physical interfaces specifications
Appendix A: System Specifications
Router function specifications
Table 38: Router functions
Function
Description
Routing
■
Static, 128 entries
■
RIP v1
■
RIP v2
■
OSPF
DHCP
■
DHCP server supports dynamic and
fixed hosts
DNS
■
Client for local name resolution
■
Relay agent
Protocols
■
IPv4
Logging
■
Router Data Log
NAT/NAPT
■
Traditional
Mapped IP (bidirectional NAT)
■
Port Pass Through
■
Port Translate
■
Global Port
Router function specifications
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Network management interfaces specifications
Table 39: Network management interfaces specifications
Interface
Description
SNMP
■
SNMP v1
■
SNMP v2c
■
Traps
■
MIBs
GUI
SSL
Accessible from LAN and WAN, browser-based, supports:
■
Internet Explorer 6.0 and later
■
Firefox 2.0 and later
For TLS 1.0 and SSL v3.0
■
RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
■
RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
■
RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
■
RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
For SSL v2.0
SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5
■
Command line
■
SSL_CK_RC2_128_WITH_MD5
■
RS-232
■
Telnet
SSH
■
Up to ten user accounts
■
Access restricted to one user at a time is
recommended
■
User accounts/access
282
Network management interfaces specifications
Appendix A: System Specifications
Quality of Service (QoS) specifications
Table 40: Quality of service specifications
QoS feature
Description
Queueing
■
Class-based weighted fair queueing
■
Automatic DiffServ/ToS prioritization
■
16 policies maximum per interface
■
64 policies maximum per system
■
QoS
■
Policy
Policies
Reports
Quality of Service (QoS) specifications
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Supported SNMP MIB objects specifications
Table 41: Supported SNMP MIB objects specifications
MIB
Tables
MIB-II
■
System Group
■
Interfaces Group
■
IP Group
■
ICMP Group
■
TCP Group
■
UDP Group
■
SNMP Group
■
MIB II Traps
■
ifTable
■
ifXTable
■
ifTestTable
■
ifRcvAddressTable
■
dsx1ConfigTable
■
dsx1CurrentTable
■
dsx1IntervalsTable
■
dsx1TotalsTable
■
DS1-MIB Traps
■
dsx3ConfigTable
■
dsx3CurrentTable
■
dsx3IntervalsTable
■
dsx3TotalsTable
■
rDlcmiTable
■
frDlcmi-MIB Traps
Interfaces
DS1
DS3
Frame Relay DTE
■
284
Supported SNMP MIB objects specifications
frameRelayTrap
Control Group
■
frCircuitTable
■
frErrTable
Appendix A: System Specifications
Physical specifications
Table 42: Physical specifications
Specification
Dimensions
1.7 in H x 17 in W x 11.9 in D
(44 mm H x 432 mm W x 303 mm D)
Weight (CrossPATH 3G)
5.5 lb (2.5 kg)
Weight (CrossPATH 4)
8.4 lb with one power supply module
9.1 lb with two power supply modules
9.8 lb with option module and 2 power supply
modules
Environmental specifications
Table 43: Environmental specifications
Temperature
Parameter
Specification
Storage
-40° to 70° C
(-40° to 158° F)
Operating
-40° to 65° C
(-40° to 149° F)
Startup
-40° to 65° C
(-40° to 149° F)
Humidity
5% to 95% relative
humidity,
noncondensing
Ventilation
At least 1/8" (.32 cm)
clearance above and
1" (2.54 cm) on each
side for ventilation
Physical specifications
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Lightning specifications
Table 44: Lightning specifications
Specification
Lightning
Withstands lightning surges defined per
Telcordia GR 1089 Issue 2 Section 4.5
Electrical specifications
Table 45: Electrical specifications
Power (CrossPATH 4 without option
module)
Power (CrossPATH 3G)
Parameter
Specification
Input voltage
24 - 48 VDC, 30 W, 2A
max
Consumption
<30 Watts
Input voltage
24 – 48 VDC, 20 W,
1.6A max
Consumption
< 20 Watts
Power interruption
Loss of power does
not change the saved
configuration settings.
Date/Time are
maintained for 2 hours
after power loss.
Certifications and compliances
Table 46: Certifications and compliances
Specification
■
ANSI/UL 60950-1-2002
■
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No 60950-1-03
Emissions
■
FCC 47 CFR 15 Class A
Terminal
■
FCC 47 CFR 68
■
IC CS-03
Safety
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Lightning specifications
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System Defaults
The tables in this chapter list the factory system defaults.
When using the GUI to restart the system from the Configure > System > System
Restart page, you can also restore the defaults by selecting Reset to Factory
Defaults. In the CLI, restore factory defaults via the system config restore
factory command. Some links are included below for easy reference, but the list
represented below does not include all tables.
■
DS1 configuration
■
Data port
■
DHCP server configuration (Ethernet ports 1 - 4)
■
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 configuration
■
L2 switch configuration
■
Management Ethernet DHCP server configuration (CrossPATH 4)
■
Option module (CrossPATH 4)
■
QoS configuration
■
SNMP configuration
■
SNTP configuration
■
T1 ports configuration
■
T3 ports configuration
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Data port
Option
Default value
Port Name
V.35 Data Port Interface
Interface
V.35
DCE/DTE Mode
DCE
Loopback
No Loopback
Clock Mode
No External Clock
Out Clock Polarity
Normal
In Clock Polarity
Normal
Transmit Data Polarity
Normal
Receive Data Polarity
Normal
DS0 Speed
64K
LOS Detect
None
Alarms and Traps
Enabled
DHCP server configuration (Ethernet ports 1 - 4)
288
Data port
Option
Default value
Default DHCP Subnet
192.168.1.0
Default IP address range
192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.100
DHCP server configuration
Enabled
Unknown client address assignment
Enabled
BOOTP query response
Enabled
Default lease time
43200 seconds
Maximum lease time
86400 seconds
Assign domain name
Disabled
Subnet default lease time
43200 seconds
Subnet maximum lease time
86400 seconds
Host is default gateway
Disabled
Host is DNS server
Disabled
Appendix B: System Defaults
DS0 channel configuration
Option
Default value
Bandwidth
24 channels, 1536 kbps
DS0 start channel
1
DS0 end channel
24
DS0 speed
64 kbps
Cross-connects
none
Option
Default value
Circuit ID
Blank (optional)
Transmit Clock
System Clock
Frame Type
ESF
Enable Alarms & Traps
Disabled
Line Status Change Trap Enable
Disabled
Link Up/Down Trap Enable
Disabled
DS1 configuration
DSX1 configuration
Option
Default value
Administrative mode
Not configurable
Description
DSX1 interface DSX1-#
Port Name
DSX1-# Interface
Line type
ESF
Line coding
B8ZS
Line build out
Short haul: 0-110 Ft
Excessive error threshold
13
Rx signal level threshold
-35 dB
Inhibit remote FDL loopback
Disabled
Remote loopback timeout
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code
10000
DS0 channel configuration
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Option
Default value
AIS Forwarding
Disabled
Alarms and traps
Enabled
Line status change trap
Disabled
Link up/down trap
Disabled
Out-of-frequency alarm
Disabled
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 configuration
Option
Default value
Port Name
LAN Layer 2 Switch Interface
Administrative mode
LinkUp
Alarms and Traps
Enabled
Link Up/Down Trap Enable
Enabled
L2 Switch mode
VLAN enabled
VLAN Link Mode
Access
VLAN ID
VID 1
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 IP configuration
Option
Default value
IP Address
192.168.1.1
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
IP MTU
1500
MSS Clamp
Enabled
L2 switch configuration
290
Option
Default value
Port Name
LAN Layer-2 Switch Interface
Link up/down trap
Disabled
10/100
100
Duplex
Half
Physical mode
AutoNegotiate
Ethernet ports 1 - 4 configuration
Appendix B: System Defaults
LAN QoS AF1 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
10 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN QoS AF2 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
18 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN QoS AF3 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
26 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN QoS AF1 PHB class configuration
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LAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
26 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN QoS BE PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
0 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN EF PHB class configuration
292
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
46 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
LAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration
Appendix B: System Defaults
LAN NC PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
0%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
FIFO
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
56 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
No
Management Access
Option
Default value
FTP
Enabled
HTTP
Enabled
HTTPS
Enabled
ICMP
Enabled
SNMP
Enabled
SSH
Enabled
Telnet
Enabled
OSPF
Enabled
RIP
Enabled
Management Ethernet DHCP server configuration (CrossPATH 4)
Option
Default value
Default DHCP Subnet
192.168.2.0
Default IP Address Range
192.168.2.100 - 192.168.2.119
DHCP server configuration
Enabled
Unknown client address assignment
Enabled
BOOTP query response
Enabled
Default lease time
43200 seconds
Maximum lease time
86400 seconds
LAN NC PHB class configuration
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Option
Default value
Assign domain name
Disabled
Subnet default lease time
43200 seconds
Subnet maximum lease time
86400 seconds
Host is default gateway
Disabled
Host is DNS server
Disabled
Management Ethernet port configuration (CrossPATH 4)
Option
Default value
Port Name
Rear Panel Ethernet Interface
Administrative mode
LinkUp
Management Ethernet port IP configuration (CrossPATH 4)
Option
Default value
IP Address
192.168.2.1
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
IP MTU
1500
MSS Clamp
Enabled
Option
Default value
Mapped IP Name
Empty
Port Operation
Global Port
Global IP
userEntered
Local IP
userEntered
Global Application
Empty
Global Port
Empty
Local Application
Disabled
Option
Default value
NAT Enable
Disabled
Mapped IP
NAT
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Management Ethernet port configuration (CrossPATH 4)
Appendix B: System Defaults
Option module (CrossPATH 4)
Option
Default value
Installed Module Type
Empty
Configured Module Type
Empty
OSPF global configuration
Option
Default value
Enable OSPF
Disabled
RFC 1583 Compatible
Disabled
Inter-area Preference
110
ASE Preference
110
ASE Cost
10
ASE Type
Type 2
SPF Hold Interval
5
Enable Static Route Redistribution to
ASE
Disabled
Enable Static Route Redistribution to
NSSA
Disabled
PHB DSCP mapping
Option
Default value
BE
0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19,
21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41,
42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54,
55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63
AF1
8,10,12,14
AF2
16, 18, 20, 22
AF3
24, 26, 28, 30
AF4
32, 34, 36, 38
EF
40, 46
NC
48, 56
Option module (CrossPATH 4)
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Ping host configuration
Option
Default value
Number of pings to send
4
Timeout
1000 ms
Payload size of the ICMP ping request.
32 bytes
DSCP value for header
0
Option
Default value
Enable QoS
Yes
Policies configured
1
Auto-configure bandwidth
Yes
Bandwidth
1.5 Mbps
QoS configuration
RIP global configuration
(RIP is enabled by default.)
Option
Default value
Advertise default route
Disabled
Default route cost
1
Advertise routing information
Routable
Authentication
Disabled
Route filtering
Disabled
Split horizon mode
poison
SNMP configuration
296
Ping host configuration
Option
Default value
System Name (CrossPATH 3G)
CrossPATH 3G
System Name (CrossPATH 4)
CrossPATH 4
System Location
“Customer Location”
Traphosts
Disabled
v1 managers
AIdirector, community: AIdirector; read/
write access
Appendix B: System Defaults
SNTP configuration
Option
Default value
SNTP host
Blank (disabled)
Polling interval
30 minutes
Packet retry attempts
2
Received packet response timeout value 5 seconds
Syslog
Option
Default value
Syslog : Minimum Severity Level
3 (Critical)
Syslog : IP Address 1, 2, 3
0.0.0.0
System date and time
Option
Default value
Month
1
Day
1
Year
2005
Hour
0
Minute
0
Second
0
Time zone
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
System contact information
Option
Default value
sysName (CrossPATH 3G)
CrossPATH 3G
sysName (CrossPATH 4)
CrossPATH 4
sysLocation
“Customer Location”
SNTP configuration
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System logs
Option
Default value
System Log : Minimum Severity Level
7 (inform)
System Log : Clear Log
Disabled
Alarm Log : Minimum Severity Level
7 (inform)
Alarm Log : Clear Log
Disabled
Router Data Log : Minimum Severity
Level
7 (inform)
Router Data Log : Clear Log
Disabled
T1 ports configuration
Option
Default value
Administrative mode
Not configurable
Description
T1 interface T1-#
Port Name
T1-# Interface
Line type
ESF
Line coding
B8ZS
Line build out
Short haul: 0-110 Ft
Excessive error threshold
13
Rx signal level threshold
-35 dB
Inhibit remote loopback
Disabled
Remote loopback timeout
Never
Binary Inband Loopback Code
10000
AIS Forwarding
Disabled
Alarms and traps
Enabled
Line status change trap
Disabled
Link up/down trap
Disabled
Out-of-frequency alarm
Disabled
T1 ports IP configuration
298
System logs
Option
Default value
IP MTU
1500
Appendix B: System Defaults
T3 ports configuration
Option
Default value
Transmit Clock
System Clock
Line Build Out
Short (0-225 ft)
Frame Type
C-bit
Enable Alarms & Traps
Disabled
Line Status Change Trap Enable
Disabled
Link Up/Down Trap Enable
Disabled
Option
Default value
Account name
admin
Account privilege
admin
Account password
None
User accounts
WAN QoS AF1 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
12%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
10 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS AF1 PHB queue configuration
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
No
T3 ports configuration
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WAN QoS AF2 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
12%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
18 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS AF2 PHB queue configuration
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
No
WAN QoS AF3 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
12%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
26 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS AF3 PHB queue configuration
300
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
No
WAN QoS AF2 PHB class configuration
Appendix B: System Defaults
WAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
25%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
34 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS AF4 PHB queue configuration
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
No
WAN QoS BE PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
5%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
0 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS BE PHB queue configuration
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
Yes
WAN QoS AF4 PHB class configuration
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WAN QoS EF PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
33%
Maximum bandwidth
33%
Scheduler type
PQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
46 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS EF PHB queue configuration
Option
Default value
Queue limit
2
Enable WRED
No
WAN QoS NC PHB class configuration
Option
Default value
Guaranteed bandwidth
1%
Maximum bandwidth
100%
Scheduler type
WFQ
Enable DSCP remarking
No
DSCP/precedence remarking type
DSCP
DSCP/precedence remarking value
56 (DSCP)
Enable shaping
Yes
WAN QoS NC PHB queue configuration
302
Option
Default value
Queue limit
64
Enable WRED
No
WAN QoS EF PHB class configuration
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Cable Specifications
For connections to a T1 network, use AT&T Type ABAM cable or equivalent
(individually-shielded twisted pair, rated at 100 Ohms at 1 MHz). For connections
to the Ethernet, use CAT5E/UTP cable.
Kentrox cables designed for each connector are described in the sections ‘Front
panel description” on page 32 for CrossPATH 3G and ‘Front panel description” on
page 40 for CrossPATH 4. The remainder of this chapter contains the pinouts for
each connector, if you want to build the cable yourself.
Figure 82 shows the location of pin 1 for the Ethernet, T1, and RS-232 cables.
Note that the retaining tab is at the bottom in this illustration.
Figure 82: Cable with 8-pin modular connector
Location
of Pin 1
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Ethernet LAN pinout
The Ethernet LAN ports 1 - 4 support Auto MDI/MDIX, which allows the Rx and
Tx pairs to be automatically switched. Table 54 shows the pinout.
Table 54: Ethernet LAN interface pinout
Pin number
Circuit name
Twisted pair
1
Rx +
TP–1
2
Rx –
TP–1
3
Tx +
TP–2
4
TP–3
5
TP–3
6
Tx –
TP–2
7
TP–4
8
TP–4
NOTE
The RJ45 Ethernet port actively terminates the wire pair on pins 4 and 5, and the
wire pair on pins 7 and 8 with a common-mode termination to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and susceptibility to common-mode sources.
Management Ethernet port pinout
Table 55 lists the management Ethernet port pinout.
Table 55: Management Ethernet port interface pinout
Pin number
Circuit name
Twisted pair
1
Tx +
TP–1
2
Tx –
TP–1
3
Rx +
TP–2
4
TP–3
5
TP–3
6
Rx –
TP–2
7
TP–4
8
TP–4
NOTE
The RJ45 Ethernet port actively terminates the wire pair on pins 4 and 5, and the
wire pair on pins 7 and 8 with a common-mode termination to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and susceptibility to common-mode sources.
304
Ethernet LAN pinout
Appendix C: Cable Specifications
T1 port pinout
Table 56 lists the T1 port pinout.
Table 56: T1 pinout
Pin number
Circuit name
1
RxD Data (R1)
2
RxD Data (T1)
3
No-Connect
4
TxD Data (R)
5
TxD Data (T)
6
No-Connect
7
No-Connect
8
No-Connect
NOTE
This cable requires a minimum of 26 AWG wire.
T3 port cable
For connections to a T3 network, use a standard BNC RG-59B cable (rated at 75
Ohms at nominal impedance) and a standard 75 Ohm BNC plug. Connect to the
port using the Kentrox BNC cable (Catalog #01-96010010, BNC cable, 10' long).
RS-232 pinout
The RS-232 connector pinout, shown in Table 57, is identical to the Cisco® DTE
pinout.
Table 57: RS-232 connector interface pinout
RJ45 Pin
DTE signal (Direction)
1
RTS (Out)
2
DTR (Out)
3
TXD (Out)
4
Ground
5
Ground
6
RXD (In)
7
DSR (In)
8
CTS (In)
T1 port pinout
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RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinout
This adapter (Kentrox PN# 77910) works with an RJ45-to-RJ45 straight cable to
provide a DTE interface to the RS-232 port. Refer to Table 58 for the pinout.
Table 58: RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinout
RJ45 Pin
DE9s pin
1
8
2
6
3
2
4
5
5
Not connected
6
3
7
4
8
7
Data port pinout
The data port uses a 26-pin DCE connector. Pinout for the data port is shown in
Table 59. When building this cable, make sure that paired signals use twisted pairs
within the cable (i.e., 2+14, 3+16, 11+24, etc.)
Table 59: Data port pinout
306
Pin Number
DCE Signal
DTE Signal
1
Frame ground
Frame ground
2
Tx Data (A) In
Rx Data (A) In
3
Rx Data (A) Out
Tx Data (A) Out
4
RTS In
CTS In
5
CTS Out
RTS Out
6
DSR Out
DTR Out
7
GND
GND
8
DCD Out
DCD In
9
Rx Clk (B) Out
SCTE (B) Out
10
Do Not Connect
11
SCTE (B) In
Rx Clk(B) In
12
Tx Clk (B) Out
Tx Clk (B) In
13
Do Not Connect
14
Tx Data (B) In
RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter pinout
Rx Data (B) In
Appendix C: Cable Specifications
Table 59: Data port pinout
Pin Number
DCE Signal
DTE Signal
15
Tx Clk (A) Out
Tx Clk (A) In
16
Rx Data (B) Out
Tx Data (B) Out
17
Rx Clk (A) Out
SCTE (A) Out
18
Do Not Connect
19
Do Not Connect
20
DTR In
21
Do Not Connect
22
Do Not Connect
23
Do Not Connect
24
SCTE (A) In
25
Do Not Connect
26
Not Connected
DSR In
Rx Clk (A) In
NOTE
The data port can be configured to invert any Clk or Data signal.
Data port pinout
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Data port pinout
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SNMP Support
The CrossPATH supports SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c, including several SNMP MIB
objects and Trap/Notifications. The tables in this appendix summarize SNMP and
Trap/Notification support.
■
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
■
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495)
■
DS3-MIB (RFC-2496)
■
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115)
■
IF-MIB (RFC-2863)
■
SNMPv1 Traps/ SNMPv2c Notification
■
KTX System MIB
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SNMP overview
The following information is helpful when reviewing the tables in this appendix.
■
The ipRouteTable reports the following:
■
■
■
■
■
310
SNMP overview
Static routes as type “netmgmt(3)”
RIP routes as “rip(8)”
Implicit routes to local interfaces as “local(2)”
The system uses the same community string in both Read/Write operations for
v1Managers with read-write access
Attempts to write (set) any MIB object not listed as Read/Write result in a
“GenErrors” response
■
Read indicates that the object is read-only
■
Read/Write indicates that the object has read and write capability
Appendix D: SNMP Support
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
Table 60: MIB-2 (RFC-1213) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
system group
sysDescr
Read
sysObjectID
Read
sysUpTime
Read
sysContact
Read / Write
sysName
Read / Write
sysLocation
Read / Write
sysServices
Read
interfaces group
ifNumber
Read
ifTable/ifEntry
ifIndex
Read
ifDescr
Read
ifType
Read
ifMtu
Read
ifSpeed
Read
ifPhysAddress
Read
ifAdminStatus
Read
ifOperStatus
Read
ifLastChange
Read
ifInOctets
Read
ifInUcastPkts
Read
ifInNUcastPkts
Read
ifInDiscards
Read
ifInErrors
Read
ifInUnknownProtos
Read
ifOutOctets
Read
ifOutUcastPkts
Read
ifOutNUcastPkts
Read
ifOutDiscards
Read
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
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Table 60: MIB-2 (RFC-1213) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
ifOutErrors
Read
ifOutQLen
Read
ifSpecific
Read
at group
atTable/atEntry
atIfIndex
Read
atPhysAddress
Read
atNetAddress
Read
ip group
ipForwarding
Read
ipDefaultTTL
Read
ipInReceives
Read
ipInHdrErrors
Read
ipInAddrErrors
Read
ipForwDatagrams
Read
ipInUnknownProtos
Read
ipInDiscards
Read
ipInDelivers
Read
ipOutRequests
Read
ipOutDiscards
Read
ipOutNoRoutes
Read
ipReasmTimeout
Read
ipReasmReqds
Read
ipReasmOKs
Read
ipReasmFails
Read
ipFragOKs
Read
ipFragFails
Read
ipFragCreates
Read
ipRoutingDiscards
Read
ipAddrTable/ipAddrEntry
312
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
ipAdEntAddr
Read
ipAdEntIfIndex
Read
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Table 60: MIB-2 (RFC-1213) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
ipAdEntNetMask
Read
ipAdEntBcastAddr
Read
ipAdEntReasmMaxSize
Read
Notes
ipRouteTable/ipRouteEntry
ipRouteDest
Read
ipRouteIfIndex
Read
ipRouteMetric1
Read
ipRouteMetric2
Read
ipRouteMetric3
Read
ipRouteMetric4
Read
ipRouteNextHop
Read
ipRouteType
Read
ipRouteProto
Read
ipRouteAge
Read
ipRouteMask
Read
ipRouteMetric5
Read
ipRouteInfo
Read
ipNetToMediaTable/
ipNetToMediaEntry
ipNetToMediaIfIndex
Read
ipNetToMediaPhysAddre
Read
ss
ipNetToMediaNetAddress Read
ipNetToMediaType
icmp group
Read
Not supported
tcp group
tcpRtoAlgorithm
Read
tcpRtoMin
Read
tcpRtoMax
Read
tcpMaxConn
Read
tcpActiveOpens
Read
tcpPassiveOpens
Read
tcpAttemptFails
Read
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
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Table 60: MIB-2 (RFC-1213) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
tcpEstabResets
Read
tcpCurrEstab
Read
tcpInSegs
Read
tcpOutSegs
Read
tcpRetransSegs
Read
tcpInErrs
Read
tcpOutRsts
Read
tcpConnTable/tcpConnEntry
tcpConnState
Read
tcpConnLocalAddress
Read
tcpConnLocalPort
Read
tcpConnRemAddress
Read
tcpConnRemPort
Read
udp group
udpInDatagrams
Read
udpNoPorts
Read
udpInErrors
Read
udpOutDatagrams
Read
updTable/udpEntry
udpLocalAddress
Read
udpLocalPort
Read
egp group
314
MIB-2 (RFC-1213)
Not supported
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495)
Table 61: DS1-MIB (RFC-2495) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
dsx1ConfigTable/dsx1ConfigEntry
dsx1LineIndex
Read
dsx1IfIndex
Read
dsx1TimeElapsed
Read
dsx1ValidIntervals
Read
dsx1LineType
Read
dsx1LineCoding
Read
dsx1SendCode
Read
dsx1CircuitIdentifier
Read
dsx1LoopbackConfig
Read
dsx1LineStatus
Read
dsx1SignalMode
Read
dsx1TransmitClockSource
Read
dsx1Fdl
Read
dsx1InvalidIntervals
Read
dsx1LineLength
Read
dsx1LineStatusLastChange
Read
dsx1LineStatusChangeTrapEnable Read / Write
dsx1LoopbackStatus
Read
dsx1Ds1ChannelNumber
Read
dsx1Channelization
Read
dsx1CurrentTable/dsx1CurrentEntry
dsx1CurrentIndex
Read
dsx1CurrentESs
Read
dsx1CurrentSESs
Read
dsx1CurrentSEFSs
Read
dsx1CurrentUASs
Read
dsx1CurrentCSSs
Read
dsx1CurrentPCVs
Read
dsx1CurrentLESs
Read
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495)
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Table 61: DS1-MIB (RFC-2495) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
dsx1CurrentBESs
Read
dsx1CurrentDMs
Read
dsx1CurrentLCVs
Read
dsx1IntervalTable/dsx1IntervalEntry
dsx1IntervalIndex
Read
dsx1IntervalNumber
Read
dsx1IntervalESs
Read
dsx1IntervalSESs
Read
dsx1IntervalSEFSs
Read
dsx1IntervalUASs
Read
dsx1IntervalCSSs
Read
dsx1IntervalPCVs
Read
dsx1IntervalLESs
Read
dsx1IntervalBESs
Read
dsx1IntervalDMs
Read
dsx1IntervalLCVs
Read
dsx1IntervalValidData
Read
dsx1TotalTable/dsx1TotalEntry
dsx1TotalIndex
Read
dsx1TotalESs
Read
dsx1TotalSESs
Read
dsx1TotalSEFSs
Read
dsx1TotalUASs
Read
dsx1TotalCSSs
Read
dsx1TotalPCVs
Read
dsx1TotalLESs
Read
dsx1TotalBESs
Read
dsx1TotalDMs
Read
dsx1TotalLCVs
Read
ds1Traps group
316
dsx1LineStatusChange
Read
dsx1FarEndCurrentTable
Not supported
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495)
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Table 61: DS1-MIB (RFC-2495) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
dsx1FarEndIntervalTable
Not supported
dsx1FarEndTotalTable
Not supported
dsx1FracTable
Not supported
dsx1Conformance group
dsx1ChanMappingTable
Notes
Not supported
Not supported
DS1-MIB (RFC-2495)
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DS3-MIB (RFC-2496)
Table 62: DS3-MIB (RFC-2496) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
dsx3ConfigTable/dsx3ConfigEntry
dsx3LineIndex
Read
dsx3IfIndex
Read
dsx3TimeElapsed
Read
dsx3ValidIntervals
Read
dsx3LineType
Read
dsx3LineCoding
Read
dsx3SendCode
Read
dsx3CircuitIdentifier
Read
dsx3LoopbackConfig
Read
dsx3LineStatus
Read
dsx3TransmitClockSource
Read
dsx3InvalidIntervals
Read
dsx3LineLength
Read
dsx3LineStatusLastChange
Read
dsx3LineStatusChangeTrapEnable Read / Write
dsx3LoopbackStatus
Read
dsx3Channelization
Read
dsx3Ds1ForRemoteLoop
Read
dsx3CurrentTable/dsx3CurrentEntry
318
dsx3CurrentIndex
Read
dsx3CurrentPESs
Read
dsx3CurrentPSESs
Read
dsx3CurrentSEFSs
Read
dsx3CurrentUASs
Read
dsx3CurrentPCVs
Read
dsx3CurrentLESs
Read
dsx3CurrentCCVs
Read
dsx3CurrentCESs
Read
dsx3CurrentCSESs
Read
DS3-MIB (RFC-2496)
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Table 62: DS3-MIB (RFC-2496) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
dsx3CurrentLCVs
CrossPATH
support
Notes
Read
dsx3IntervalTable/dsx3IntervalEntry
dsx3IntervalIndex
Read
dsx3IntervalNumber
Read
dsx3IntervalPESs
Read
dsx3IntervalPSESs
Read
dsx3IntervalSEFSs
Read
dsx3IntervalUASs
Read
dsx3IntervalCSSs
Read
dsx3IntervalPCVs
Read
dsx3IntervalLESs
Read
dsx3IntervalCCVs
Read
dsx3IntervalCESs
Read
dsx3IntervalCSESs
Read
dsx3IntervalLCVs
Read
dsx3IntervalValidData
Read
dsx3TotalTable/dsx3TotalEntry
dsx3TotalIndex
Read
dsx3TotalPESs
Read
dsx3TotalPSESs
Read
dsx3TotalSEFSs
Read
dsx3TotalUASs
Read
dsx3TotalCESs
Read
dsx3TotalCSESs
Read
dsx1TotalPCVs
Read
dsx1TotalLESs
Read
dsx1TotalCCVs
Read
dsx1TotalLCVs
Read
ds3Traps group
DS3-MIB (RFC-2496)
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Table 62: DS3-MIB (RFC-2496) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
320
CrossPATH
support
dsx3LineStatusChange
Read
dsx3FarEndCurrentTable
Not supported
dsx3FarEndIntervalTable
Not supported
dsx3FarEndTotalTable
Not supported
dsx3FracTable
Not supported
DS3-MIB (RFC-2496)
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115)
Table 63: FrameRelayDTE-MIB (RFC-2115) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
frameRelayTraps
frDLCIStatusChange
Read
frDlcmiTable/frDlcmiEntry
frDlcmiIfIndex
Read
frDlcmiState
Read
frDlcmiAddress
Read
frDlcmiAddressLen
Read
frDlcmiPollingInterval
Read
frDlcmiFullEnquiryInterval
Read
frDlcmiErrorThreshold
Read
frDlcmiMonitoredEvents
Read
frDlcmiMaxSupportedVCs
Read
frDlcmiMulticast
Read
frDlcmiStatus
Read
frDlcmiRowStatus
Read
frCircuitTable/frCircuitEntry
frCircuitIfIndex
Read
frCircuitDlci
Read
frCircuitState
Read
frCircuitReceivedFECNs
Read
frCircuitReceivedBECNs
Read
frCircuitSentFrames
Read
frCircuitSentOctets
Read
frCircuitReceivedFrames
Read
frCircuitReceivedOctets
Read
frCircuitCreationTime
Read
frCircuitLastTimeChange
Read
frCircuitCommittedBurst
Read
frCircuitExcessBurst
Read
frCircuitThroughput
Read
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115)
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Table 63: FrameRelayDTE-MIB (RFC-2115) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
frCircuitMulticast
Read
frCircuitType
Read
frCircuitDiscards
Read
frCircuitReceivedDEs
Read
frCircuitSentDEs
Read
frCircuitLogicalIfIndex
Read
frCircuitRowStatus
Read
frErrTable/frErrEntry
frErrIfIndex
Read
frErrType
Read
frErrData
Read
frErrTime
Read
frErrFaults
Read
frErrFaultTime
Read
frameRelayTrapControl group
frTrapState
Read / Write
frTrapMaxRate
Read / Write
frConformance group
Not supported
snmp group
322
snmpInPkts
Read
snmpOutPkts
Read
snmpInBadVersions
Read
snmpInBadCommunityNames
Read
snmpInBadCommunityUses
Read
snmpInASNParseErrs
Read
snmpInTooBigs
Read
snmpInNoSuchNames
Read
snmpInBadValues
Read
snmpInReadOnlys
Read
snmpInGenErrs
Read
snmpInTotalReqVars
Read
snmpInTotalSetVars
Read
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115)
Notes
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Table 63: FrameRelayDTE-MIB (RFC-2115) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
snmpInGetRequests
Read
snmpInGetNexts
Read
snmpInSetRequests
Read
snmpInGetResponses
Read
snmpInTraps
Read
snmpOutTooBigs
Read
snmpOutNoSuchNames
Read
snmpOutBadValues
Read
snmpOutGenErrs
Read
snmpOutGetRequests
Read
snmpOutGetNexts
Read
snmpOutSetRequests
Read
snmpOutGetResponses
Read
snmpOutTraps
Read
snmpEnableAuthenTraps
Read / Write
snmpSilentDrops
Read
snmpProxyDrops
Read
Notes
Frame Relay DTE-MIB (RFC-2115)
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IF-MIB (RFC-2863)
Table 64: IF-MIB (RFC-2863) support
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
ifMIBObjects
ifXTable/ifXEntry
ifName
Read
ifInMulticastPkts
Read
ifInBroadcastPkts
Read
ifOutMulticastPkts
Read
ifOutBroadcastPkts
Read
ifHCInOctets
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHCInUcastPkts
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHCInMulticastPkts
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHCInBroadcastPkts
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHcOutOctets
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHcOutUcastPkts
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHcOutMulticastPkts
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifHcOutBroadcastPths
Not supported
Use IfTable/ifEntry MIB object
ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable
Read / Write
ifHighSpeed
Read
ifPromiscuousMode
Read
ifConnectorPresent
Read
ifAlias
Read / Write
ifStackTable
Not supported
ifTestTable
Not supported
ifRcvAddressTable
Not supported
ifTableLastChange
Not supported
ifStackLastChange
Not supported
ifConformance group
Not supported
SNMPv1 Traps / SNMPv2c Notification
324
ColdStart (0)
Yes
WarmStart (1)
Not supported
LinkDown (2)
Yes
IF-MIB (RFC-2863)
Always enabled
Enabled / Disabled per port
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Table 64: IF-MIB (RFC-2863) support (continued)
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
LinkUp (3)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
Authentification Failure (4)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per system
EgpNeighborLossTrap (5)
Not supported
Dsx1LineStatusChange (6, enterprise 100)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
FrameRelayDLCIStatusChange (6, enterprise 101) Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
IF-MIB (RFC-2863)
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SNMPv1 Traps/ SNMPv2c Notification
Table 65: SNMPv1 Traps / SNMPv2c Notification
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
ColdStart (0)
Yes
Always enabled
WarmStart (1)
Not supported
LinkDown (2)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
LinkUp (3)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
Authentification Failure (4)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per system
EgpNeighborLossTrap (5)
Not supported
Dsx1LineStatusChange (6, enterprise 100)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
FrameRelayDLCIStatusChange (6, enterprise 101) Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
Ds3LineStatusChange (6)
Yes
Enabled / Disabled per port
KtxSysConfigSaveChangeTrap (6)
Yes
Always enabled - generated
when the configuration is saved
to flash.
NOTE
All trap messages are embedded with the trap sequence number, starting from the
cold start trap with sequence number 0. If there is any gap between the consecutive sequence number, it tells the remote management that the trap messages
containing missing sequence numbers are lost due to network issue, etcetera.
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SNMPv1 Traps/ SNMPv2c Notification
Appendix D: SNMP Support
KTX System MIB
Table 66: KTX System MIB
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
Notes
ktxSystemLastTrapSequenceNum Read
ktxSysInvCardIndex
Read
ktxSysInvCardExternalName
Read / Write
ktxSysInvCardManufacturer
Read
ktxSysInvCardPartNumber
Read
ktxSysInvCardSerialNumber
Read
ktxSysInvCardManufDate
Read
ktxSysInvCardSoftwareIndex
Read
ktxSysInvCardMarketingName
Read
ktxSysInvCardMarketingDesc
Read
ktxSysInvPortIndex
Read
ktxSysInvPortExternalName
Read
ktxSysInvPortStatumIndex
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareIndex
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareName
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareImageType
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareProductName
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareVersion
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareBuildDate
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareBuildId
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareReleaseMode
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareType
Read
ktxSysInvSoftwareRole
Read
ktxTrapHostIndex
Read
ktxTrapHostStatus
Read / Write
ktxTrapHostAddress
Read / Write
ktxTrapHostPort
Read / Write
ktxTrapHostCommunity
Read / Write
ktxTrapHostType
Read / Write
ktxSystemRestart
Read / Write
KTX System MIB
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Table 66: KTX System MIB
Updating the
software via SNMP
SNMP MIB Groups / Tables
CrossPATH
support
ktxIsConfigChanged
Read
ktxConfigOperation
Read / Write
ktxConfigStatus
Read
ktxSystemConfigCRC
Read
ktxSoftwareUpdate
Read / Write
ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus
Read
ktxSystemUpdateOptionModule
Read / Write
Steps to updating the software image
1. FTP the software image file (with .img suffix) using ‘put’ with binary
mode
2. Set ktxSystemUpdateImage to update (1) to start the update process
3. Read ktxSystemUpdateImage MIB object,
■
■
■
ktxSystemUpdateIm
age
Notes
If it is timed out or in-progress (2), wait and read again until it is idle (0)
or error (3)
If it is idle (0), the software update is completed successfully
If it is error (3), read ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus to see the error
message
Name: ktxSystemUpdateImage
Type: OBJECT-TYPE
OID: 1.3.6.1.4.1.181.1.20.8.1
Full path:
iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).private(4).enterprises(1).kentrox(181).ktxProducts(1).ktxSystem(20).ktxSoftw
areUpdate(8).ktxSystemUpdateImage(1)
Module: KTXSYSTEM-MIB
Parent: ktxSoftwareUpdate
Next sibling: ktxSystemUpdateOptionModule
Numerical syntax: Integer (32 bit)
Base syntax: INTEGER
Composed syntax: INTEGER
Status: current
Max access: read-write
Value list: 1: idle(0)
2: update(1)
3: in-progress(2)
4: error(3)
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KTX System MIB
Appendix D: SNMP Support
Update the firmware image. Writing update (1) updates the firmware from a temporary image file. This update (1) command can only be issued when it is in the
idle(0) state. The temporary file must be copied to the device first, and given a file
name with suffix .img.
Writing any other value, writing when there is no valid temporary file, or writing
when an update is already in-progress has no effect.
Reading this object returns in-progress (2) if an update is in-progress, and returns
idle (0) when it is a successful update or no update is in-progress.
If update fail, error (3) status will be returned. The detail string of update status
can be queried via ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus Mib object.
If the current state is error (3), write an idle (0) will reset the state to idle and clear
the error string in the ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus Mib object.
ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus MIB object
Name: ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus
Type: OBJECT-TYPE
OID: 1.3.6.1.4.1.181.1.20.8.3
Full path:
iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).private(4).enterprises(1).kentrox(181).ktxProducts(1).ktxSystem(20).ktxSoftw
areUpdate(8).ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus(3)
Module: KTXSYSTEM-MIB
Parent: ktxSoftwareUpdate
Prev sibling: ktxSystemUpdateOptionModule
Numerical syntax: Octets
Base syntax: OCTET STRING
Composed syntax: DisplayString
Status: current
Max access: read-only
Image status strings
The detail string of update status can be queried via the ktxSystemUpdateImageStatus Mib object.
#:Status_string
# is the status code (0..255) and Status_string is the description of status, as
shown in Table 67.
KTX System MIB
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Table 67: Status_string codes and description
Saving & restoring
the system
configuration for
SNMP
Code
Description
0
OK
1
pending
2
too_large // image too large
3
size_mismatch
4
int_error // Bad magic bytes
5
short // improbably short file
6
invalid_file
7
corrupt_archive
8
write_error
9
open_error
10
bad_digest
11
incompatible // HW/SW not compatible
12
incompatible_conf // SW load not
compatible with existing conf file
13
no_module
14
module_not_ready
100
You must first FTP a valid .img file to this
system
101
Failed to commit the update
102
Failed to start the update
On read, this object returns idle (1) if no configuration operation is running. It
returns error (6) when the operation has failed. Writing this object has no effect
unless the current read value is idle (1) or error (6). Writing other enumerated values initiates the following operations:
■
From the non-idle state, the following commands can be issued:
■
■
idle (1) - clear the error and reset the configuration state to idle
From idle (1) state the following commands can be issued:
saveConfig (2) - save the current running config to flash from
restoreFromSaved (3) - restore running config from flash
■
restoreDefaults (4) - restore running config from factory defaults
■
importConfig (5) - import from file im.conf.imp to running config
Writing any other value has no effect.
■
■
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KTX System MIB
Appendix D: SNMP Support
ktxConfigOperation MIB object
Name: ktxConfigOperation
Type: OBJECT-TYPE
OID: 1.3.6.1.4.1.181.1.20.7.1.2
Full path: iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).private(4).enterprises(1).kentrox(181).ktxProducts(1).ktxSystem
(20).ktxConfigManagement(7).ktxConfigSaveAndRestore(1).ktxConfigOperation(2)
Module: KTXSYSTEM-MIB
Parent: ktxConfigSaveAndRestore
Prev sibling: ktxIsConfigChanged
Next sibling: ktxConfigStatus
Numerical syntax: Integer (32 bit)
Base syntax: INTEGER
Composed syntax: INTEGER
Status: current
Max access: read-write
Value list: 1: idle(1)
2: saveConfig(2)
3: restoreFromSaved(3)
4: restoreDefaults(4)
5: importConfig(5)
6: error(6)
Installing a new
configuration
1. Copy the configuration to the device. It must be named im.conf.imp.
2. Read ktxConfigOperation, if at idle (1), go to step 3 else, wait or set
idle (1) state
3. Write importConfig(5) to this object.
Retrieving the
current
configuration
1. Read ktxConfigOperation, if at idle(1), go to step 2 else, wait or set
idle(1) state
2. Write saveConfig(2) to this object.
3. check the ktxConfigStatus object, if configuration OK status, go to step
4 else (error) set idle(1) and go to step 2 to retry.
4. Copy the saved configuration from the device
KTX System MIB
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
Restarting the
system via SNMP
To restart the system via SNMP, set ktxSystemRestart object to boot (2).
ktxSystemRestart MIB object
Name: ktxSystemRestart
Type: OBJECT-TYPE
OID: 1.3.6.1.4.1.181.1.20.6
Full path:
iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).private(4).enterprises(1).kentrox(181).ktxProducts(1).ktxSystem(20).ktxSyste
mRestart(6)
Module: KTXSYSTEM-MIB
Parent: ktxSystem
Prev sibling: ktxTrapHostTable
Next sibling: ktxConfigManagement
Numerical syntax: Integer (32 bit)
Base syntax: INTEGER
Composed syntax: INTEGER
Status: current
Max access: read-write
Value list: 1: up(1)
2: boot(2)
A write of boot (2) when this object is in up (1) state will cause the system to
reboot. Any other write will have no effect.
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KTX System MIB
Glossary
Every effort has been made to keep the glossary current and up to date. For more
information about terms found in the glossary, see “Newton’s Telecom Dictionary“
by Harry Newton.
10Base-T
10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables with a maximum length of 100
meters. See also “100Base-Tx”.
100Base-Tx
100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two pairs of shielded twisted pair or Category 4
twisted pair cables. See also “10Base-T”.
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A form of DSL technology in which the downstream data rate is much higher than the upstream data rate. See also “DSL”.
AF
Assured Forwarding. A DiffServ PHB/service class for low packet loss, mission-critical applications with bursty, variable-rate traffic. AF is divided into four unique subclasses. See also “DiffServ”, “PHB”.
AIS
Alarm Indication Signal. A signal condition and alarm indicating that the signal has
been lost somewhere upstream. When a device experiences a loss of signal, it transmits an AIS signal to the next device downstream.
alarm
A condition on a device that typically indicates a problem with a line.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol. Ethernet routing protocol that maps IP network
addresses to hardware (MAC) addresses. See also “MAC address”.
auto-negotiation
A mechanism that enables devices to negotiate the speed and mode (duplex or halfduplex) of an Ethernet link. Also known as auto-sensing.
BA classifier
Behavior Aggregate classifier, also known as the DiffServ codepoint. See “DSCP”.
BE
Best Effort. A DiffServ PHB/service class for data-centric applications that are neither time critical nor mission critical and don’t require rate, jitter, or loss guarantees,
such as email, FTP, and WWW. See also “DiffServ”, “PHB”.
BERT
Bit Error Rate Test. A procedure or device that measures the bit error rate for a given
transmission.
BES
Bursty Errored Second. Any second that is not a UAS and contains no LOS, AIS, or
OOF conditions, and between 2 and 319 (inclusive) error events.
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CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
BPV
Bipolar Violation. An unintentional disruption of the normal pattern of alternating
high and low signals on a line. In a bipolar violation, two high signals occur without
an intervening low signal, or vice versa. Some line coding methods include intentional bipolar events.
channel
In T1 terminology, a channel is one time slot, also called a DS0. A T1 line carries 24
channels, each with a bandwidth of 64 kbps. See also “FT1”, “T1”.
CLI
Command line interface. A user interface that involves the user typing one line of
instructions at a time at a command prompt. See also “GUI”.
client
An application that runs on a PC or workstation and requires another application,
called the server, to perform some of the processing.
cold-start trap
An SNMP trap that is sent when the unit has been power-cycled. See also trap.
congestion management
The function of detecting and reducing congestion in a network or device.
connection
A logical link or “cross-connect” between interfaces. Fractionalized T1 lines can
have connections to other T1 interfaces, the Router-1 interface, the Router-2 interface, and the Dataport-1 interface.
control port
A port (DCE) to which you can connect a terminal or modem, and that provides
access to management functions.
controlled slip
A situation in which one frame’s worth of data is either lost or replicated. Controlled
slips are an indication of network timing problems and typically occur when a CrossPATH is not using the same clock as the unit that generated the received signal.
CPE
Customer Premises Equipment. Equipment on the customer side of the point of
demarcation, as opposed to equipment that is on a carrier side. See also point of
demarcation.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check. A common technique for detecting data transmission
errors.
cross-connect
A mapping between two ports in the CrossPATH.
CSS
Controlled Slip Second. Any second that contains one or more controlled slips (see
also the definition for ES). CSSs are accumulated during unavailable seconds (UASs).
CSU
Channel Service Unit. See DSU/CSU.
CTS
Clear To Send. Hardware flow-control on a control port or data port. A CrossPATHCrossPATH can be set to monitor the data port for assertion of CTS. In this mode, if
CTS is not asserted, a data port loss of signal alarm is generated.
334
Glossary
data link layer
Layer 2 in the OSI model. Ensures that data is transferred correctly between adjacent
nodes in a WAN. See also “IP layer”, “physical layer”.
data port
A port on a DSU to which some or all of the channels of a DS1 line can be routed.
datagram
A packet of information used in a connectionless network service that is routed to its
destination using an address included in the datagram’s header.
DCE
Data Communications Equipment. A definition in the RS-232C standard that
describes the functions of the signals and the physical characteristics of an interface
for a communication device such as a modem.
default route
A type of static route used when a packet is received for an unknown destination. See also “static route”.
DF bit
“Don’t fragment” bit on the TCP/IP datagram header that specifies whether or not to
fragment the packet if it is larger than the MTU. See also “MTU”.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Assigns dynamic IP addresses to devices on a
network.
DiffServ
Differentiated Services. An Internet standard that differentiates traffic by user, service requirements, and other criteria; then marks packets so that network nodes can
provide different levels of service via priority queuing or bandwidth allocation, or by
choosing dedicated routes for specific traffic flows. See also “QoS”.
DLCI
Data Link Connection Identifier. The number of a private or switched virtual circuit
in a Frame Relay network that tells Frame Relay how to route the data. The DLCI
identifies which logical circuit the data travels over. See also “Frame Relay”.
DM
Degraded minute. A non-UAS and non-SES sixty-second period that contains 49 or
more CRC6 errors, or 49 or more BPVs.
DNS
Domain Name Service. Links names to IP addresses on the Internet and TCP/IP networks so that users do not have to remember IP addresses.
domain
A group of nodes on a network which are logically grouped as a unit.
dotted decimal notation
A convention which represents an IP address or netmask (a 32-bit binary number) as
a series of four decimal numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods.
DS0
Digital signal 0. A digital telecommunications circuit equivalent to Fractional T1,
with one channel and a rate of 64 Kpbs. See also “FT1”, “T1”.
DS1
Digital signal 1. A digital telecommunications circuit equivalent to T1, with 24 data
channels and a rate of 1.544 Mbps. See also “T1”.
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DS3
Digital signal 3. A digital signal level 3 carrier, transporting 28 DS1 level signals
within its payload and a rate of 44.736 Mbps. See also “T3”.
DSCP
DiffServ codepoint. The field in the IP header that indicates the type of service and
forwarding behavior at network hops. See also “DiffServ”.
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line. An access technology that enables high-speed data communication over existing copper telephone wires. See also “ADSL”.
DSU/CSU
A device that combines the functionality of a Data Service Unit (DSU) and a Channel Service Unit (CSU). A DSU is a communications device that connects Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) to a digital communication line, such as a T1. A CSU
provides line termination and signal regeneration.
DSX1
A DSX is a device used to interconnect T1 digital circuits.
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment. The source or destination of data in a communication connection.
DTR
Data Terminal Ready. Hardware flow-control on a control port or data port. A CrossPATH can be set to monitor the data port for assertion of DTR. In this mode, if DTR
is not asserted, a data port loss of signal alarm is generated.
dynamic
An action that takes place when it is needed, and not in advance. For example, a
dynamic IP address is assigned to a device only when that device requests an
address. The address is not permanent or fixed. See also “static”.
EER
Excessive Error Rate. An alarm which indicates that a threshold for the number of
errored seconds or unavailable seconds has been exceeded.
EF
Expedited Forwarding. DiffServ PHB/service class for real time applications that are
characterized by uniform, non-bursty, constant bit rate traffic, such as VoIP and certain video applications. See also “DiffServ”, “QoS”.
egress
The point at which QoS traffic leaves the CrossPATH’s router for the WAN or LAN.
See also “ingress”, “QoS”.
ES
Errored Second. A measurement of the quality of the signal on a T1 line defined as
any second that is not an unavailable second and that contains one or more CRC6
errors.
ESF
Extended Super Frame. T1 framing standard that provides frame synchronization,
cyclic redundancy, and data link bits.
Ethernet
A LAN protocol that runs over a variety of cable types.
336
Glossary
far-end
In a relationship between two devices in a circuit, the far-end device is the one that is
remote. See also near-end.
You are here
TI
Near-end device
Far-end device
FCS
Frame Check Sequence. Bits added to the end of a frame for error detection.
FE
Frame synchronization bit error on a T1 line.
FIFO
First-In-First-Out. A simple queueing scheme where packets are processed in the
order received. In the Router, FIFO is used for LAN IP QoS scheduling. See also
“scheduling”, “PQ”, “WFQ”.
flow
A stream of data packets transmitted between a source and destination.
fractional T1
A service in which the carrier provides only a subset of the full 24 channels of a T1
line.
frame
A discernible block of data that can be sent over a network in such a format that it is
meaningful to the receiver.
Frame Relay
A WAN protocol that uses data link switching over permanent or switched virtual
circuits. See also “FRLM”.
FRLM
Frame Relay Link Management. A service that monitors traffic between the Frame
Relay switch and a router to determine the status of the virtual circuits. See also
“Frame Relay”.
FT1
Fractional T1. A service in which the carrier provides only a subset of the full 24
channels of a T1 line. See also “DS0”, “T1”.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. An Internet file transfer service that operates over TCP/IP networks and allows you to to send commands for uploading and downloading files.
full-duplex
A type of transmission where data flows in both directions at the same time. This
requires two separate channels. See also “half-duplex”.
gateway
A device that provides a link between networks. A host can be configured so that one
gateway is selected over others when accessing another network; this is called the
“default gateway.”
global address
A host IP address as it is known to other hosts outside of its subnet or LAN. See also
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“local address”, “private address”, “public address”, “remote address”.
GUI
Graphical User Interface. A user interface that provides computer graphics to make a
product easier to use. See also “CLI”.
half-duplex
A type of transmission where data flows in only one direction at a time. See also
“full-duplex”.
host
A network device, for example, a router, workstation, or server.
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol. The WWW protocol that defines how messages are
formatted and transmitted, and what actions web servers and browsers should take in
response to commands.
hub
A common wiring point on an Ethernet network where any attached host may contact any other attached host or all attached hosts. Because a hub is a common wiring
point, all connected hosts receive all packets sent over the LAN. See also “hub and
node topology”, “node”.
hub and node topology
A Local Area Network (LAN) wherein all hosts are connected to a single hub or
switch. Also known as a hub and spoke topology.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol used to determine if a host is
alive and responding. An ICMP query is referred to as a ping. See also “ping”.
InARP
Inverse Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol allows a router to automatically
query the CrossPATH for the IP address of the management interface associated with
an in-band management connection over Frame Relay.
ingress
The point at which QoS traffic enters the CrossPATH’s router from either the WAN
or LAN. See also “egress”, “QoS”.
interface
A connection between different components of a system, usually performing some
kind of translation between protocols internal to the components. Used especially in
the context of network communication.
IP
Internet Protocol. A protocol that offers communication over the Internet.
IP address
An address (a unique 32-bit integer) assigned to a host that uses TCP/IP. The address
is used to identify host in an IP network. An example IP address is 192.228.32.14.
IP layer
Layer 3 in the OSI model, also known as the network layer. Routes and directs datagrams from one network to another. See also “data link layer”, “physical layer”.
IP netmask
A pattern of 32 bits that is combined with an IP address to determine which bits of an
IP address denote the network number and which denote the host number. Netmasks
338
Glossary
are useful for subdividing IP networks. IP netmasks are written in “dot” notation; for
instance, 255.255.255.0. See also IP address.
ISP
Internet Service Provider. A business that offers access subscriptions to the Internet.
LAN
Local Area Network. A system of networked equipment (such as computers, printers
and other peripherals) within the same building or a limited geographic area.
latency
The amount of time it takes a bit to be transmitted from source to destination.
LCP
Link Control Protocol. Built into PPP, LCP establishes, configures, and tests datalink Internet connections. See also “PPP”.
link-down trap
An SNMP trap that signifies that the T1 line has transitioned from a normal state to
an error state, or that a data port has been disconnected.
link-up trap
An SNMP trap that signifies that the T1 line or a data port has transitioned from an
error condition to a normal state.
list
A named set of IP application information or IP address information used to configure policies for managing QoS features.
LMI
Local Management Interface. A defined interface in the Frame Relay service that
provides an end-system user with network management information related to a local
access circuit. LMI messages are exchanged with the service provider's frame relay
switch.
local address
A host IP address as it is known to other hosts on its subnet or LAN. A local address
may or may not be private. See also “global address”, “private address”, “public
address”, “remote address”.
LOC
Loss Of Clock on V.35/EIA-530 and HSSI ports or Loss of Cell Synchronization on
IMA ports.
LOF
Loss of Frame. An alarm state that indicates that the device cannot synchronize itself
to the T1 line.
loopback
A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the
signal can be analyzed for errors. Typically, a loopback is set at various points in a
line until the section of the line that is causing the problem is discovered.
LOS
Loss of Signal. A signal condition and alarm in which the received signal at the network interface is lost.
MAC address
Media Access Control address. An address that each device connected to a LAN
must have.
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Mapped IP
Mapped IP, also known as bi-directional NAT, is a fixed mapping between a local
(private) and global (public) IP address.
marking
The QoS conditioning process that sets a packet’s DSCP header to one of the service
classes. See also “DSCP”, “QoS”, “re-marking”.
MD5
A hash function that produces 128-bit output.
MDI
Medium-dependent interface. An Ethernet port connection that allows network hosts
to connect to other hosts without a crossover cable. The CrossPATH’s Ethernet ports
1 - 4 support Auto MDI/MDIX. See also “MDIX”.
MDIX
Medium dependent interface crossover. An Ethernet port connection that allows network hosts to connect to other hosts using a crossover cable. The CrossPATH’s
Ethernet ports 1- 4 support Auto MDI/MDI-X, which allows the Rx and Tx pairs to
be automatically switched. See also “MDI”.
metering
The QoS conditioning process that measures traffic and determines if it is within
specified rate limits. See also “QoS”.
MF classifier
Multi-field classifier. The QoS traffic classifier that categorizes packets based on the
content of user-defined header fields. See also “DSCP”, “QoS”.
MIB
Management information Base. The information that SNMP can access, structured as
a hierarchy. In common usage, MIB refers to a sub-branch of the entire MIB.
MRU
Maximum Receive Unit. The maximum PPP packet size. This is fixed at 1500 bytes.
See also “MTU”, “PPP”.
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit. The maximum IP packet size that can be transmitted
from an interface. The Ethernet interface supports MTUs of 1500 and 1524 bytes.
See also “MRU”.
MSC
Mobile Switching Center.
NAT
Network Address Translation (NAT) converts private IP addresses on your LAN
into a public IP address on the WAN.
NAPT
Network Address Port Translation (NAPT) is always enabled when NAT is
enabled. NAPT is NAT with port translation.
NC
Network Control. Also known as Class Selector, a DiffServ PHB/service class used
for network management and control, including routing protocols (like RIP and
OSPF) and SNMP, SNTP, and other traffic directed specifically to and from a network device such as a router.
340
Glossary
near-end
In a relationship between two devices in a circuit, the near-end device is the one that
is local.
9/5!2%(%2%
.%!2%.$
$%6)#%
&!2%.$
$%6)#%
!
Figure 83: Near-end Device
netmask
Network mask. This is a setting that describes what ranges of IP addresses are considered by a host to be on the local network, and which must accessed through a
gateway or router device.
NIC
Network Interface Card. An adapter installed in your hardware to provide the connection point to a network.
NMS
Network Management System. A tool for configuring network devices and monitoring network performance, typically an SNMP-based tool.
NOCC
Network Operations Control Center. The site where distributed network management takes place.
node
A device connected to the network. In a CrossPATH site, all CrossPATH units connected via Ethernet to the CrossPATH hub are nodes.
NNTP
Network News Transport Protocol. Delivery protocol for the USENET newsgroup
service.
OID
Object Identifier. The address of a MIB variable.
option module
An expansion option that provides additional functionality.
ones (1s) density
A characteristic of a T1 line that refers to the rate at which 1s occur on the line.
Because a device such as CrossPATH cannot track a bit pattern using 0s, it loses synchronization if the 1s density is not high enough.
OOF
Out of Frame. A signal condition and alarm in which some or all of the DS1 framing
bits are lost.
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First. Popular link state dynamic routing protocol for large IP
networks with 50 or more routers.
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packet
A piece of information sent over a network.
PHB
Per-hop behavior. Specifies the forwarding treatment for packets on a DiffServ network.
physical layer
Layer 1 in the OSI model. The network hardware. See also “data link layer”, “IP
layer”.
ping
A protocol that is part of the TCP/IP suite, used to test the connectivity of the network. Ping sends a signal to a host or gateway, then listens for an echo response. See
also “ICMP”.
point of demarcation
The dividing line between a carrier and the customer premises that is governed by
strict standards that define the characteristics of the equipment on each side of the
demarcation. Equipment on one side of the point of demarcation is the responsibility
of the customer. Equipment on the other side of the point of demarcation is the
responsibility of the carrier.
policing
In QoS, policing is dropping packets from a data stream in order to make the traffic
comply with policy. See also “QoS”.
policy
Your organization’s rules for managing network resources. For example, policies
determine who can access resources, how traffic should be prioritized, how much
bandwidth should be allocated for applications, and so on.
port
A port can be a hardware interface for connecting devices, or a logical channel for an
application that runs on a network, for example, HTTP or Telnet.
POP
Post Office Protocol. Mail server protocol that works with SMTP and provides an
incoming message storage system. See also “SMTP”.
POST
Power on self-test. A suite of diagnostic tests performed by the system on its electronic circuits during power up.
PPP
Point-to-point protocol. Internet standard for transmitting network layer datagrams
over serial point-to-point links.
PQ
Priority queue. A QoS packet scheduling algorithm in which packets are transmitted
according to a priority hierarchy.
private address
A host IP address as it is known to other hosts on its subnet or LAN. The difference
between private and local addresses is that private address should never be known
outside of the LAN. See also “local address”, “global address”, “public address”,
“remote address”.
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Glossary
PRM
Performance Report Message. Messages that are received once per second from a
far-end device that report information about the condition of the far-end device.
protocol
A set of conventions that control the way that networks exchange information and
how equipment inter-operates.
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network.
public address
A host IP address that has been assigned by and registered with the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA). See also “private address”, “local address”, “global
address”, “remote address”.
QoS
Quality of Service. The ability to deliver traffic with a minimum amount of delay,
through classifying and defining behavior for the different types of traffic. See also
“DiffServ”.
QRSS
Quasi-Random Signal Source. A test pattern used to simulate a normal, random pattern of 1’s and 0’s. QRSS is used in BERT testing for T1 signal integrity.
RAI
Remote Alarm Indicator. An alarm sent by a device at the far end of the T1 link when
it loses frame synchronization with its received signal. See also “yellow alarm”.
rank
A policy match attribute that defines the order of packet matching. Rank consists of
an integer from 0 through 65535, where 0 is the highest priority.
real time clock
A clock that maintains the time of day (in contrast to a clock that is used to time the
electrical pulses on a circuit).
relay agent
A program that performs some information gathering or processing task in the background and passes it on to another program or device. For example, the Router
allows you to configure a DNS relay agent to pass DNS requests from the LAN to
the WAN.
re-marking
QoS processing may be configured to give different DSCP markings to service
classes. Re-marking is the process of marking a packet with the standard values
before it is transmitted out of an interface for downstream QoS compliance. See also
“DSCP”, “marking”.
remote address
A host IP address as it is known to other hosts outside of its subnet or LAN. See also
“global address”, “local address”, “private address”, “public address”.
RIP
Routing information Protocol. A common dynamic Internet routing protocol that
uses hops as a routing metric.
router
A network device that transfers packets of information from one network to another.
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RS-232
A standard interface for connecting serial devices.
RTC
Real Time Clock. An internal clock that maintains the time of day (in contrast to a
clock that is used to time the electrical pulses on a circuit).
RxD
Received Data. The control port and data port on CrossPATH units have an RxD line.
This line is defined from the DTE perspective, so RxD for a DCE port is actually
TxD. See also TxD.
scheduling
In QoS, scheduling determines in what order queued packets are processed. See also
“QoS”, “WFQ”.
script
A sequence of CLI commands stored in a file. See also “CLI”.
server
A device on a network that manages network resources. The Router can be used as a
DHCP server. See also “client”.
SEFS
Severely Errored Framing Second. A second with one or more Out of Frame defects
or a detected incoming AIS. See also “AIS”.
SES
Severely Errored Second. Any second that is not a UAS and contains an LOS condition, an AIS condition, an OOF condition, or 320 or more error events. See also
“AIS”, “UAS”.
SF
Super Frame. A T1 framing format that is composed of 12 frames of 192 bits each.
shaping
In QoS, shaping limits the maximum bandwidth and burst size used by a PHB class.
See also “QoS”.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A communication protocol that controls the exchange
of email messages between two mail servers.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A communication protocol used in TCP/IP
networks for network management.
SNMP agent
An SNMP agent can come in two forms: embedded or proxy. An embedded SNMP
agent is integrated into the physical hardware and software of this unit. The CrossPATH has an internal, integrated SNMP agent. Advantages to this approach are timeaccuracy of data and fast response time.
SNTP
Simple Network Time Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol used to synchronize network
device clocks with accurate time servers on the Internet.
SSH
Secure Shell. SSH (secure shell) is similar to telnet, in that it is an Internet protocol
that allows a user to connect to a remote host. SSH is more secure than Telnet because
SSH enables access via an encrypted link.
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Glossary
static
A pre-assigned, fixed entity such as a static IP address or static route. See also
“dynamic”.
static route
A route that is manually entered into the routing table.
subnet
A portion of a network that shares a common address component. A subnet mask is
used to divided IP networks into subnets.
subnet mask
A pattern of 32 bits that is combined with an IP address to determine which bits of an
IP address denote the network number and which denote the host number. Subnet
masks are useful for subdividing IP networks, and are written in “dot” notation; for
instance, 255.255.255.0. Subnet masks are also written in “slash” notation, such as
/24, where 24 is the number of network bits. /24 and 255.255.255.0 are equivalent.
See also “IP address”.
switch
In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.
Switches operate at the data link layer.
Syslog
TCP/IP protocol used to report system events.
Telnet
A TCP/IP protocol that defines a client/server mechanism for emulating directly-connected terminal connections.
T1
A specification for a transmission line. The specification details the input and output
characteristics and the bandwidth. T1 lines run at 1.544 Mbps and provide for 24 data
channels. In common usage, the term T1 is used interchangeably with “DS1”.
T3
A specification for a transmission line. The specification details the input and output
characteristics and the bandwidth. T3 lines run at 44.736 Mbps and provide 28 DS1
signals and 672 DS0 channels. In common usage, the term T3 is used interchangeably with “DS3”.
TCP
Transport Control Protocol. TCP is one of the two transport protocols in the TCP/IP
protocol suite. TCP is a complex, connection-based protocol that guarantees reliable
delivery of packets. Telnet uses TCP.
TCP/IP
A suite of protocols that includes IP, UDP, TCP, SNMP, Telnet, ICMP, and ping.
TCP/IP is the networking protocol of choice for the Internet and many private networks.
Telnet
Telnet is a TCP/IP protocol that defines a client/server mechanism for emulating
directly-connected terminal connections. CrossPATH implements a Telnet Server,
allowing other devices to establish connections with it. The CrossPATH does not
implement a Telnet Client (which would allow the CrossPATH to connect to other
devices).
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traffic
Flow of IP packets within and between networks.
trap
A trap is an unsolicited alert generated by SNMP. There are five standard trap types:
link up, link down, warm start, cold start, and enterprise-specific.
TxD
Transmit Data. The control port and data port on CrossPATH have a TxD line. This
line is defined from the DTE perspective, so TxD for a DCE port is actually RxD.
See also RxD.
UAS
Unavailable Second. A measurement of the signal quality of a T1 line. Unavailable
seconds start accruing when ten consecutive severely errored seconds occur.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. One of the two transport protocols in the TCP/IP protocol
suite. UDP is a send and forget protocol, which means there is no guarantee that the
datagram will reach its destination.
V.35
An interface specification for serial communications that can handle data at higher
speed than the RS-232C interface.
VoIP
Voice over IP. Sending analog voice traffic over IP networks.
WFQ
Weighted Fair Queueing. A QoS packet scheduling algorithm that provides minimum rate guarantees to most of the service classes. See also “scheduling”.
WAN
Wide Area Network. A network spanning a broad geographic area. A method of connecting local area networks (LANs). See also “LAN”.
warm-start trap
One of the five SNMP trap types. For Kentrox equipment, warm start traps indicate
that SNMP alarm messages or agents have been enabled.
WINS
Windows Internet Naming Service. Service that runs on NT Server-based networks,
and tracks hardware name-to-IP address mappings.
WRED
Weighted Random Early Detection. A QoS traffic congestion avoidance algorithm
that drops packets randomly based on user-defined thresholds. Used for TCP traffic
only. See also “QoS”.
Xon/Xoff
This is software flow control for the control ports. When a CrossPATH has too much
data coming in, it will transmit an Xoff (stop transmitting) character. If the device on
the other end understands flow control, it will stop transmitting until it receives an
Xon (resume transmitting) character. If the CrossPATH receives an Xoff, it stops
transmitting data until it receives an Xon.
yellow alarm
An alarm sent by a device at the far end of the T1 link when it loses frame synchronization with its received signal. See also “RAI”.
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Index
Numerics
10/100M ETHERNET LAN
connectors, 32, 40, 46
100Base-Tx
auto-negotiation failure, 237, 239
definition, 333
mode, 237, 239
10Base-T
auto-negotiation failure, 237, 239
definition, 333
mode, 237, 239
2^11-1, 126, 163
2^15-1, 126, 163
74152, 166
resetting the option module, 132,
169
A
accessing the GUI, 57
activating and deactivating loopbacks,
123, 160
activating ping, 118
active port
switching, 102, 141, 176
Add Connection, 212
adding
a system contact, 74
static routes, 254
users, 57
admin
access, 64
user, 58, 63
admonishments, 6
ADSL
definition, 333
advertising routes, 254
AF, 269
AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, 269
and marking, 271
and scheduling, 271
and WRED, 272
classes, 269
definition, 333
queue configuration, 267
AIS
definition, 333
AIS Forwarding, 96, 100, 137, 140
alarm
definition, 333
Ethernet LAN, 243, 246
logging, 79, 81, 85
out of frequency, 97, 101, 137, 140,
171, 174, 175
T3, 181
Alarm Log, 85, 89, 243
list of events, 85
number of entries, 79
alarms, 90
ARP
definition, 333
AS-External (ASE) routes, 251
Assured Forwarding
(see AF)
auto domain name, 274
auto-negotiation, 237, 239
definition, 333
failure, 237, 239
B
BA classifier, 261, 270
definition, 333
backhaul, 24
BE, 269
definition, 333
Behavior Aggregate
(see BA classifier)
BERT
definition, 333
DS1, 199
BERT Test
DSX1, 162
T1, 125
BES
definition, 333
Best Effort
(see BE)
bi-directional NAT
(see Mapped IP), 256
BPV, 110, 114, 121, 122, 149, 153,
158, 159
definition, 334
Browsers supported, 29
C
cables
and alarms, 85, 113, 152, 182, 193,
243, 246
power, 37, 46
T1 WAN, 33, 43
caching IP addresses for DNS, 277
changing
DSCP mapping, 267
T1 protocols, 195, 229
channel
definition, 334
DS0 configuration defaults, 289
CLI
accessing using RS-232, 60
accessing using Telnet, 60
and large-scale deployment, 30
definition, 334
getting local access to, 34, 47
navigating, 61
scripts, 62
source command, 62
client
definition, 334
DHCP, 273, 274, 275
SNTP, 72
Syslog, 79, 90
clocking
data port, 203
command line interface
(see CLI)
community strings, setting, 68
Config access, 63
configuration
importing and exporting, 76
saving, 38, 53, 76
Configure buttons, 58
configuring
a DHCP server, 273
a DNS client, 277
interfaces
DLCI, 237, 239
DSX1, 133
Ethernet, 236
Frame Relay, 219
IP interfaces, 239
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Management Ethernet, 238
PPP, 225
T1, 92
T3, 170
Mapped IP, 257
re-marking, 266
RIP, 253
SNMP, 63
connection
definition, 334
connector adapter, 306
connectors
Ethernet LAN, 32, 40, 46
T1, 32, 40
control port
definition, 334
controlled slip
definition, 334
conventions used in this manual, 5
CPE
definition, 334
CRC
definition, 334
errors, 122, 159, 237, 239
creating
a default route, 255
a static route, 254
lists, 261
QoS policies, 263
cross-connects, 212
CSS
definition, 334
CSU
definition, 334
CTS
definition, 334
D
data link layer
definition, 335
protocol, 225
Data Port, 35, 45
data port
clocking, 203
configuring, 202
definition, 335
Loss of Signal (DP LOS), 205
datagram
definition, 335
date
and power interruption, 286
and the RTC, 37, 52
348
setting, 72
DC Power, 32, 40
DC power, 7, 32, 37, 40, 52
DCE
definition, 335
default LAN IP address, 57
default route, 254
creating, 255
definition, 335
deployment planning, 28
DF bit
definition, 335
DHCP
auto domain name, 274
configuring a server, 273
definition, 335
subnet configuration, 274
using server as default gateway, 274
using with DNS, 273, 274
DHCP relay agent, 277
DHCP server, 273
address pool, 275
changing the IP interface, 276
defaults, 299
diagnostics
BERT, 125, 162, 199
DS1, 197
T1, 120, 157, 208
DiffServ, 260
and QoS, 260
definition, 335
dual-rate tri-colored markers, 271
overview, 268
PHBs and service classes, 268
traffic classification and
conditioning, 270
DLCI, 87
configuration, 221
definition, 335
monitoring, 229
DLCIs
total supported, 221
DM
definition, 335
DNS
and SNTP, 72
caching IP addresses, 277
definition, 335
using with DHCP, 274
domain
definition, 335
incomplete names, 277
name requests, 274
DS0
definition, 335
DS0 channel configuration, 289
DS1
configuring, 171
definition, 335
diagnostics, 197
mib, 315
monitoring, 186
statistics, 191
DS1 tributary
configuring, 174
DS3
about, 50, 166
configuring, 131, 167
definition, 336
mib, 318
DSCP
and traffic classification, 270
definition, 336
mapping with PHBs, 267
marking, 271
re-marking, 266, 272
setting the match value, 265
using in policies, 265
DSL
definition, 336
DSU/CSU
definition, 336
DSX1
configuring, 133
configuring interfaces individually,
137
configuring multiple interfaces, 133
diagnostics, 157
interface diagnostics, 157
line loopback, 158
monitoring interfaces, 143
monitoring redundant groups, 155
port redundancy, 140
redundant groups, 140
signal level, 154
WAN alarm states, 147
DTE
and RS-232 access, 60
Cisco pinout, 305
definition, 336
DTR
definition, 336
dynamic
definition, 336
Index
IP addressing, 273
port selection, 256
E
EER
definition, 336
EF, 268
and scheduling, 271
and shaping, 272
and WRED, 272
definition, 336
egress
definition, 336
QoS processing, 261
enabling
DSCP re-marking, 266
traffic shaping, 266
encapsulation, 218
equipment safety, 7
ES
definition, 336
ESF
definition, 336
Ethernet
definition, 336
initialization test, 37, 52
port mode, 237, 239
port speed, 237, 239
Ethernet LAN
alarms, 243, 246
cable, 33, 42, 47
cable pinout, 304
configuration, 236
defaults, 289
interface monitoring, 104, 143
physical ports, 32, 33, 35, 40, 42, 46,
47
port status, 241, 245
statistics, 243, 247
switch, 32, 40
Expedited Forwarding
(see EF)
F
factory defaults, 287
restoring, 78
far-end
definition, 337
FCS
definition, 337
errors, 237, 239
FE
definition, 337
FEAC, 171
features
monitoring and reporting, 26
QoS, 26
FIFO
definition, 337
Firefox, 29
fixed hosts, 275
flow
and QoS, 259
definition, 337
rate limiting, 271
traffic classification, 270
forced switch, 117, 156, 180
T1, 102, 141
T3, 176
FPGA load test, 37, 52
Fractional T1
(see FT1)
fractional T1
definition, 337
Fractional T1-System, 212
frame
definition, 337
Frame Relay
alarms, 230
configuration, 219
defaults, 297
definition, 337
monitoring, 195, 229
statistics, 230
Framer status, 85
frequency
frequency offset, 105, 109, 144, 149,
179, 182, 187, 189, 208
out of frequency alarm, 171
rx clock frequency, 147, 180, 188
frequency offset, 182, 187, 189
FRLM
definition, 337
status, 230
front-panel
LED lamp test, 37, 52
FT1
definition, 337
FTP
and updating system images, 75
definition, 337
Full T1-System timing, 212
Full T1-Through, 212
full-duplex, 237, 239
definition, 337
G
gateway
default gateway for DHCP, 274
definition, 337
global address
and NAPT, 256
definition, 337
for QoS policies, 264
Global Port, 258
Graphical User Interface
(see GUI)
GUI
access, 57
Configure buttons, 58
definition, 338
features, 58
Monitor buttons, 58
H
half-duplex, 237, 239
definition, 338
hardware reference, 31
HELLO packets, 251
host
address resolution, 250
addressing with Mapped IP, 257
addressing with NAT, 256
definition, 338
determining connectivity, 118, 119
dynamic addressing, 273
fixed, 275
routing on the LAN, 250
HTTP
definition, 338
I
ICMP
definition, 338
inband codes, 122, 160
in-band connections
encapsulation, 218
maximum transfer unit, 218
inband management
configuring Frame Relay (T1), 219
configuring PPP (T1), 225
monitoring Frame Relay (T1), 229
monitoring PPP (T1), 232
remote management over DS0s, 217
ingress
definition, 338
349
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
QoS processing, 260
initial configuration, 56
installation and setup, 39
interface
configuring Ethernet ports 1-4, 236
configuring T1, 92
configuring T3, 170
configuring T3 redundant group,
175
configuring the data port, 202
configuring the Management
Ethernet port, 238
definition, 338
monitoring cross-connects, 214
monitoring data port, 206
monitoring DS1, 186
monitoring DSX1 redundant groups,
155
monitoring Ethernet port (CP3G),
241
monitoring Ethernet port (CP4), 245
monitoring T1 redundant groups,
116
monitoring T3, 178
monitoring T3 redundant group, 179
Interior Gateway Protocol, 251
Internet Explorer, 29
IP
address
configuring a host for Syslog, 90
definition, 338
for ARP, 250
for DHCP configuration, 274
for DNS configuration, 274
for Mapped IP, 257, 340
for NAPT, 256
for open read community, 69
for static routes, 254
LAN default, 57, 239
ranges for DHCP, 275
Address Group list, 262
Address lists, 262
and QoS policies, 265
Application Group list, 262
Application lists, 262
and QoS policies, 265
definition, 338
layer
and QoS, 260
definition, 338
QoS traffic classification and
conditioning, 261
350
IP netmask
definition, 338
iplan list, 263
ISP
definition, 339
K
Kiwi Syslog Daemon©, 90
L
L2 Switch
defaults, 295
L2 Switch Configuration
defaults, 290
L2 Switch configuration
defaults, 290
LAN
definition, 339
LAN AF1 PHB
defaults, 291, 295
LAN AF2 PHB
defaults, 291
LAN AF3 PHB
defaults, 291, 295
LAN AF4 PHB
defaults, 292
LAN BE PHB
defaults, 292, 295
LAN EF PHB
defaults, 292
LAN NC PHB
defaults, 293
latency
and ping, 119
and QoS, 259, 269
and QoS scheduling, 271
definition, 339
Latency reports, 119
LCP, 226
and PPP monitoring, 233
definition, 339
LED test status, 85
LEDs
front panel, 35, 44
rear panel, 32, 40, 46
SYS, 36, 44, 49
line
loopbacks, 120, 157, 209
Link Control Protocol
(see LCP)
link-down trap
definition, 339
link-up trap
definition, 339
list
(see also lists), 261
definition, 339
iplan, 263
lists
and policy creation, 263
creating, 261
IP Address, 262
IP Address Group, 262
IP Application, 262
IP Application Group, 262
naming, 262
pre-defined, 263
LMI, 220
definition, 339
local address
and QoS policies, 264
definition, 339
local area network
(see LAN)
local management interface
(see LMI)
LOF
definition, 339
logs
Alarm Log, 243, 246
defaults, 298
lifetime, 80
managing, 79
Router Data Log, 89
severity level, 80
size, 79
Syslog, 90
System Log, 81
long-haul interfaces, 33, 43
loopbacks
activating and deactivating, 123, 160
binary inband loopback code, 96
definition, 339
DS1 line, 198
DS1 payload, 198
DSX line, 158
far end, 124, 161, 198
line, 120, 157, 209
near end, 123, 161, 195, 198
payload, 121, 158
remote loopback timeout, 100
T1 line, 120
T1 payload, 121, 158
T3 local, 195
Index
testing strategy, 125, 162
LOS
definition, 339
Loss of Signal
(see LOS)
Loss of Signal (LOS), 205
M
MAC address, 236, 238
and ARP, 250
and fixed hosts, 275
definition, 339
management access, 55
overview of features, 26
Management LAN
defaults, 290
managing log contents, 80
managing logs, 79
manual
conventions, 5
related, 5
viewing, 5
Mapped IP, 257, 340
configuring, 257
definition, 340
port translation, 257
using, 257
marking, 271
(see also re-marking), 272
and QoS policies, 265
definition, 340
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU),
253
MD5
definition, 340
MDI, 304
definition, 340
MDIX, 304
definition, 340
Media Access Control
(see MAC)
memory test, 37, 52
metering, 271
and marking, 271
and QoS policies, 265
definition, 340
MF classifier
definition, 340
QoS processing, 260
traffic classification, 270
MIB
definition, 340
DS1, 315
DS3, 318
IF, 324
RFC-2496, 318
supported, 67
MIBs
community strings, 68
Monitor buttons, 58
monitor connections, 214
most specific match, 261
MRU
definition, 340
MSC
definition, 340
MTU
configuring, 240
definition, 340
multi-field classifier
(see MF classifier)
N
naming
lists, 263
policies, 261
NAPT, 256
definition, 340
NAT
definition, 340
NAPT, 256, 340
traditional, 256
using, 256
navigating the CLI, 61
NC, 269
and scheduling, 271
definition, 340
ndant, 175
netmask
definition, 341
Network Interface Card
(see NIC)
NIC, 236, 238
definition, 341
NMS
definition, 341
NNTP
definition, 341
NOCC
definition, 341
O
OID
definition, 341
ones (1s) density
definition, 341
OOF
definition, 341
option module
74152, 166
configuring, 131, 167
configuring DS3, 50, 166, 167
configuring DSX1, 131
definition, 341
resetting, 132, 169
optional accessories, 56
OSPF, 251
and RIP, 252, 253
definition, 341
limitations, 252
load balancing, 252
OSPF global configuration
defaults, 299
out of frequency, 101, 137, 140, 174,
175
out of frequency alarm, 171
P
packet
definition, 342
passwords, 58
payload
loopbacks, 121, 158
PDF viewing of manuals, 5
permissions
(see user access privileges)
PHB, 268
(see also service classes)
definition, 342
mapping to DSCP, 267
PHB DSCP mapping
defaults, 295
physical layer
definition, 342
Ethernet LAN statistics, 243, 248
ping, 118
activating, 118
and Latency Reports, 119
definition, 342
ping reports, 119
Ping host configuration
defaults, 302
pinouts
Ethernet LAN interface, 304
RJ45 to DE9S connector adapter,
306
351
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
RS-232 interface, 305
T1 WAN interface, 305
PLD test, 37, 52
point of demarcation
definition, 342
Point-to-Point protocol
(see PPP)
policies, 263
and lists, 263
naming, 264
policing, 270
definition, 342
policy
definition, 342
names, 264
POP
definition, 342
port
(see also ports)
definition, 342
IP Application list values, 262
status, 36, 44, 48
translation, 257
(see also NAPT), 256, 340
Port Pass Through, 257
port redundancy, 25, 33, 43
Port Translate, 258
ports
Ethernet LAN, 32, 40, 46
RS-232, 32, 46
T1 WAN, 32, 40
POST, 37, 52
definition, 342
power cable, 37, 46
connector, 32, 40
power down, 37, 52
power on, 37, 52
power problems, 37, 52
power termination plug, 35, 37, 52
power-on self test
(see POST)
PPP
alarms, 233
configuring, 225
defaults, 295
definition, 342
MTU, 240
statistics, 233
status, 195, 196, 198, 219, 225, 229,
232
PPP configuration
defaults, 296
352
PQ, 271
definition, 342
scheduling on the WAN interface,
266
pre-defined lists, 263
private address
and NAPT, 256
definition, 342
privileges
(see user access privileges)
PRM
definition, 343
product
features, 25
protect port
T1 redundant group, 102, 141
T3 redundant group, 176
protocol
definition, 343
PSTN
definition, 343
public address, 257
definition, 343
Q
QoS
classification, 270
configuring the LAN interface, 267
configuring the WAN interface for,
266, 267
default policies, 266
definition, 343
overview of features, 26
processing, 260
QoS configuration
defaults, 296, 299
QRSS BERT Test, 125, 162
Quality of Service
(see QoS)
Quasi-Random Signal Source, 126,
163
R
RAI
definition, 343
rank
definition, 343
in QoS policies, 264, 265
read/write UART test, 37, 52
real time, 72
real time clock
definition, 343
real-time clock
(see RTC)
rear panel
connectors, 46
LEDs, 32, 40, 46
receive clock inversion, 204
redundancy
port, 33, 43
redundant, 33, 43, 46, 54, 81, 85, 86
redundant group, 175
T3, 175
redundant groups, 101, 140
T1, 101, 140
related publications, 5
relay agent
configuring for DNS, 277
definition, 343
DNS, 277
re-marking, 272
definition, 343
enabling, 266
remote access
Ethernet connection, 218
in-band ATM connection, 218
remote address
definition, 343
remote management, 218
reporting
overview of features, 26
reports
Latency Report, 119
Reset button, 37, 52, 77
resetting the system, 77
restarting the system, 77
restoring factory defaults, 77, 287
resynchronization polling, 73
revertive mode
T1, 102, 141
T3, 176
RFC 1918, 254
RFC-2495
MIB, 315
RIP, 252
and OSPF, 253
configuring, 253
default route cost, 254
definition, 343
RIP v1, v2, 252
split horizon mode, 253
when to use, 252
RIP global configuration
defaults, 296, 299
Index
route cost, 254
router
definition, 343
Router Data Log, 79, 89, 281, 298
routing
default route, 255
protocols, 250
RIP, 252
static routes, 254
Routing Information Protocol, 252
RS-232
accessing the CLI, 60
definition, 344
port, 32, 34, 46, 47
using to access the CLI, 34, 47
RTC, 37, 52
definition, 344
rx clock frequency, 188
RxD
definition, 344
S
safety precautions, 7
saving system configuration, 38, 53,
76, 92
scheduling
and QoS processing, 267
and shaping, 272
definition, 344
enabling, 266
FIFO, 267, 271
PQ, 266, 271
types, 271
WFQ, 269
script, 62
definition, 344
search domain list, 277
Secure Shell
(see SSH)
SEFS
definition, 344
server
definition, 344
DHCP, 273
DNS, 274, 277
SNTP, 37, 52, 72
service class
default bandwidth, 270
descriptions, 268
SES
definition, 344
setting passwords, 58
setting the DSCP, 271
severity level, log, 79, 80
SF
definition, 344
shaping, 267, 272
definition, 344
enabling, 266
short-haul interfaces, 33, 43
Simple Network Management
Protocol
(see SNMP)
Simple Network Time Protocol
(see SNTP)
site preparation, 56
SNMP, 67
configuring, 63, 67
defaults, 296
definition, 344
setting community strings, 68
support summary, 309
system parameters, 67, 74
traps, 68
v1 managers, 69
SNMP agent
definition, 344
SNMPv1Traps
mib, 326
SNMPv2c Notification
MIB, 326
SNTP, 72
defaults, 296, 299
definition, 344
server, 37, 52, 72
software
images, 75
source clocking data port, 203
split horizon mode, 253
SSH, 26, 344
static route, 254
adding, 254
definition, 345
when to use, 254
statistics
DS1, 187
Ethernet LAN, 243, 247
T1 interface, 111
subnet, 250
definition, 345
subnet mask
definition, 345
for IP Address lists, 262
for static routes, 254
switch
(see also LAN)
definition, 345
four port, 236
switch active port, 176
SYS LED, 36, 37, 44, 49, 52
sysContact parameter, 67, 74
sysLocation parameter, 67, 74
Syslog, 90
definition, 345
sysName parameter, 67, 74
system
configuration
importing and exporting, 76
saving, 38, 53, 76
contact, 74
reset, 37, 52
restart, 77
system contact information
defaults, 297
system date and time
defaults, 297
System Log, 81
System Log events, 81
system router events, 89
System status LED, 36, 44, 49
T
T1
15-minute intervals, 112, 151, 184,
192
alarms, 107, 230, 232
configuring interfaces individually,
98
configuring multiple interfaces, 93
daily statistics, 112, 152, 185, 192
daily summary, 111, 151, 184, 191
definition, 345
initialization test, 37, 52
interface diagnostics, 118
interface monitoring, 245
line loopback, 120
loopbacks, 120, 208
monitoring redundant groups, 116
out of frequency alarms, 97, 101
payload loopback, 121, 158
physical port, 33, 43
port redundancy, 101
protocols
changing, 195, 229
redundant groups, 101
signal level, 115
353
CrossPATH Release 2.30 User’s Guide
status, 104
T1 Ports
defaults, 295
T1 Ports configuration
defaults, 298
T1 signal level, 115, 154
T1 WAN
(see also WAN)
T1-Through timing, 213
T3
configuring, 170
definition, 345
interface statistics, 180
monitoring, 178
out of frequency alarms, 137, 140,
174, 175
port redundancy, 175
redundant groups, 174
TCP
definition, 345
TCP/IP
definition, 345
Telnet
definition, 345
terminal emulator, 60
testing strategy for loopbacks, 125,
162
time
setting, 72
Timestamp, 79
ToS byte, 118
traffic
classification, 259, 260, 270
conditioning, 260, 270
definition, 346
latency, 119
monitoring, 259
policing, 271
scheduling, 266, 271
shaping, 266, 272
transmit clock inversion, 204
trap
definition, 346
trap hosts, 68
Traps
MIB, 326
traps, 90
SNMP, 68
TxD
definition, 346
354
U
UAS, 113, 152, 182, 193
(see unavailable seconds)
definition, 346
user
access privileges
admin, 63, 64
config, 63
view, 63
accounts, 57
adding, 63
user access privileges
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 253
User name syntax, 63
using
CLI scripts, 62
NAT, 256
V
V.35
definition, 346
V.35 E-911 locator equipment, 35, 40
View access, 63
viewing manuals, 5
VoIP
definition, 346
service class for, 268
W
WAN
access permisssions, 65
accessing with NAT addresses, 256
and QoS scheduling, 271
configuring for QoS, 266
definition, 346
DSX1 Alarm States, 147
queues, 272
routing to, 250
see also T1 WAN
WAN AF1 PHB
defaults, 299
WAN AF2 PHB
defaults, 300
WAN AF3 PHB
defaults, 300
WAN AF4 PHB
defaults, 301
WAN Alarm States
DSX1, 147
WAN BE PHB
defaults, 301
WAN EF PHB
defaults, 302
WAN NC PHB
defaults, 302
warm-start trap
definition, 346
Weighted Random Early Detection
(see WRED)
Weighted-Fair Queueing
(see WFQ)
WFQ, 266, 269, 271
definition, 346
WINS
definition, 346
working port
T1 redundant group, 102, 141
T3 redundant group, 176
WRED, 272
definition, 346
queue configuration, 267
X
Xon/Xoff
definition, 346
Y
yellow alarm
definition, 346
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