Mac OS X - about this site

Mac OS X - about this site







Under the Guidance of : Submitted by:

Udit Bhargava




Semester 2


Shift B

Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies

Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi

PSP Area, Plot No. 1, Sector 22, Rohini Delhi 110086


This is to certify that I have completed this Project titled “PRODUCT ANALYSIS AND


under the guidance of “” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Business

Administration at Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies, Delhi. This is an original piece of work and I have not submitted it earlier elsewhere.

Date Signature:

Name: Udit Bhargava

Place : Delhi Enroll. No: 12361101710



This is to certify that the project titled ―Marketing Strategies of Apple Inc.‖ is an academic work done by ― Udit Bhargava‖ submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor Of Business Administration from Maharaja Agrasen

Institute of Management Studies, Delhi, under my guidance & direction. To the best of my knowledge and belief the data & information presented by her in the project has not been submitted earlier.


Name of the Faculty Guide: Ms Priyanka Garg

Designation: Lecturer



I would like to say that I am feeling very overwhelmed and privileged to present the project.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation, the company's best-known for hardware.

Apple Inc. has always spelt trust - be it with the products themselves or with the service standards. They have built trust by aligning themselves with the needs of customers over the years of trust.

It bring outs the present and future marketing strategies of Apple Inc. and the factors leading to the success of it.

First of all, I would like to express my thanks to Dr. N.K. KAKKAR (director, MAIMS) for giving me such a wonderful opportunity to widen the horizons of my knowledge.

In no small measure, I would also like to gratefully thank to all those who gave me constructive suggestions for the improvement of all the aspect related to this project. In particular, I would like to thank Ms.Priyanka Garg for the guidance

I also owe a deep sense of gratitude to the faculty for their continuous encouragement.

Despite all efforts, I have no doubt that error and obscurities remain that seen to afflict all writing projects and for which I am culpable.





This project is an attempt to give knowledge about Apple India. It aims to make its reader well versed with each and every aspect of Apple India.

It throws light on the following:-

1. 1st Chapter there is Introduction, History, Products, and objectives of Apple.

2. 2nd chapter is about Marketing Strategies of Apple

3. 3 rd

Chapter of this report, research methodology of the report is mentioned.

4. 4th Chapter discusses the Findings and Analysis of the Project.

5. 5 th

Chapter includes the conclusion on the project.

6. 6th Chapter there is some of the limitations of project being face by me.

This project is overall an attempt to make you aware or to cover every possible aspect of

Apple in India and around the world.



Pg No.

Declaration I

Certificate II

Acknowledgement III

Executive Summary IV

Chapter 1 Introduction to Topic

1.1 Introduction 8

1.2 History 9

1.3 Products 17

Chapter 2

2.1 Competetive Structure of Apple

2.2Purpose of the Study Report 48

2.3 Objectives of the Study Report


Chapter 3 Research Methodology

3.1 Meaning of Research 51

3.2 Research Methodology 52

3.3 Data Sources 53

Chapter 3 Findings and Analysis

4.1 Economic Scale 56

4.2 Trends 62

Chapter 4 Conclusion 65

Chapter 5 Limitations 67






Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of

October 2010, the company operates 317 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit.

Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977, the company was previously named Apple Computer, Inc., for its first 30 years, but removed the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007, to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. As of

September 2010, Apple had 46,600 full time employees and 2,800 temporary full time employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of $65.23 billion.

For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States.Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world in 2008, 2009, and 2010. The company has also received widespread criticism for its contractors' labor, environmental, and business practices.



1976–1980: The early years

The Apple I, Apple's first product. Sold as an assembled circuit board, it lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case.

Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne,

[1] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak


and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer.

[14] market-priced at $666.66.


The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was

Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977


without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multi-millionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.


The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and an open architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II.


The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program.


VisiCalc created a business market for the

Apple II, and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the office.


According to Brian Bagnall, Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along.


By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The

Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.


Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December

1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock. Jobs was immediately convinced


that all future computers would use a GUI, and development of a GUI began for the Apple


In December 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public. When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor

Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. Several venture capitalists cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital gains.

1981–85: Lisa and Macintosh

The heroine from Apple's 1984 ad, set in a dystopian future modeled after the Orwell novel

Nineteen Eighty-Four, set the tone for the introduction of the Macintosh.

Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the

Lisa team due to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the

Macintosh. A turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship first and save Apple. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.

The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer


In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous

$1.5 million television commercial, "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a watershed event for Apple's success and a "masterpiece".


The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong.


The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package.

The Mac was particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.


A power struggle developed between Jobs and new CEO John Sculley in 1985.


Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties.


Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.


Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was in great part due to its leadership in the education sector, attributed to an implementation of the LOGO Programming Language by

Logo Computer Systems Inc., (LCSI), for the Apple II platform. The success of Apple and

LOGO in the education environment provided Apple with a broad base of loyal users around the world. The drive into education was accentuated in California by a momentous agreement concluded between Steve Jobs and Jim Baroux of LCSI, agreeing with the donation of one

Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state. The arrangement, (eventually replicated in Texas), established a strong and pervasive presence for

Apple in all schools throughout California, that ignited the acquisition of Apple IIs in schools across the country. The conquest of education became critical to Apple's acceptance in the home, as parents supported children‘s continued learning experience after school.

1986–93: Rise and fall

Timeline of Apple II family and Timeline of Macintosh models

The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first "portable" Macintosh computer, released in 1989.

Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in

1989, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer.


The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system, which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001.

The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue.


For some time, it appeared that Apple could do no wrong, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.


Following the success of the LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low end Quadra offering, and the ill-fated Performa line that was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price

Club, and Wal-Mart, the primary dealers for these models. The end result was disastrous for

Apple as consumers did not understand the difference between models.

During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and

TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Ultimately, all of this proved be too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide.

Apple saw the Apple II series as too expensive to produce, while taking away sales from the low end Macintosh.


In 1990 Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform.


Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993.

Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers while Apple was delivering a richly engineered, but expensive, experience.


Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Instead they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple

Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation.


The lawsuit dragged on for years before being thrown out of court. At the same time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines destroyed Apple's reputation and Sculley was replaced by Michael



1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention

The Newton was Apple's first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first in the industry. A financial flop, it helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and Apple's own iPhone in the future.

By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as the

A/UX. The Macintosh platform was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking, and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun

Microsystems. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run on more powerful hardware.


In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. The goal was to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and

Motorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind, thus countering Microsoft.

The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's PowerPC processor.


In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple, including massive layoffs.


After multiple failed attempts to improve

Mac OS, first with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor.


On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line.

At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock.


On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.


1998–2005: Return to profitability

Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino, California.

On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the

Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.


The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993.


Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software. In 1998, Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia's Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market.


The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers, and Final Cut Pro for professionals, the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007.


In 2002

Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake,

[56] as well as Emagic for their music productivity application Logic, which led to the


development of their consumer-level GarageBand application.


iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite.


The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass cube, housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store.

Mac OS X, based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment.

On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and

California. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. In

2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for $0.99 a song and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.


Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This began with the titanium PowerBook and was followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac.


2005–2007: The Intel transition

The MacBook Pro (15.4" widescreen) was Apple's first laptop with an Intel microprocessor.

It was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market.

At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006. On

January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use

Intel's Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips, over one year sooner than announced. The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition; the Mac Pro, MacBook, and MacBook Pro became their respective successors. On April 29, 2009, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips.

Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.

Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. Between early 2003 and

2006, the price of Apple's stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (splitadjusted) to over $80. In January 2006, Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell. Nine years prior, Dell's CEO Michael Dell said that if he ran Apple he would "shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders."

Although Apple's market share in computers has grown, it remains far behind competitors using Microsoft Windows, with only about 8% of desktops and laptops in the U.S.


2011–present: Post–Steve Jobs era

On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health. Chief operating officer Tim Cook took up Jobs' day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions for the company."[98] Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in market capitalization in 2010 with an 84 percent increase to $153.3 billion, and also became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world.[99] In June

2011, Apple unveiled the iCloud online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software.[100] It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain[101] that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer, many sellers), in that it can dictate terms to its suppliers.[102] Briefly in July 2011, due to the debt-ceiling crisis,

Apple's financial reserves were greater than those of the US Government. On August 24,

2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple.[104] He was replaced by Tim Cook and

Jobs became Apple's chairman. Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson, who continued with those titles.

On October 4, 2011, Apple announced the iPhone 4S, which includes an improved camera with 1080p video recording, a dual core A5 chip capable of 7 times faster graphics than the

A4, a voice recognition system named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud. It was released on October 14, 2011. On the day after the announcement, October 5, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple Inc.



Current products

See also: Timeline of Apple products and List of products discontinued by Apple Inc.

This is brief information about all apple products. The products have been discussed in detail in the later parts of the project.

Mac and accessories

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models, List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type, and List of Macintosh models by case type

The Mac mini, low-cost desktop computer.

Mac mini, consumer sub-desktop computer and server introduced in 2005.

iMac, consumer all-in-one desktop computer introduced in 1998.

Mac Pro, workstation-class desktop computer introduced in 2006, replacing the Power


MacBook, consumer notebook introduced in 2006, replacing the iBook, now only being sold to educational institutions.

MacBook Pro, professional notebook introduced in 2006, replacing the PowerBook.

MacBook Air, ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook introduced in 2008.

Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless networking products, Time Capsule, Cinema Display, Mighty Mouse, the Apple

Wireless Keyboard computer keyboard, and the Apple USB Modem




On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the iPad running a modified version of iOS. It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, magazines, ebooks, textbooks, photos, movies, TV shows videos, music, word processing documents, spreadsheets, video games, and most existing iPhone apps. It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the

App Store, iTunes Library, iBooks Store, contacts, and notepad. Content is downloadable via

Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer.AT&T was initially the sole US provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad.

On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced an updated iPad model which had a faster processor and two cameras on the front and back respectively. The iPad 2 also added support for optional

3G service provided by Verizon in addition to the existing offering by AT&T. However, the availability of the iPad 2 has been limited as a result of the devastating tsunami and ensuing earthquake in Japan in March 2011.


On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. It has evolved to include various models targeting the wants of different users. The iPod is the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin, with more than 220 million units shipped as of September 2009.[115] Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website.

Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod.

iPod Shuffle, ultraportable digital audio player first introduced in 2005, currently available in a 2 GB model.

iPod Nano, portable media player first introduced in 2005, currently available in 8 and

16 GB models. The latest generation has a FM radio, a pedometer, and a new multitouch interface that replaced the traditional iPod click wheel.


iPod Classic (previously named iPod from 2001 to 2007), portable media player first introduced in 2001, currently available in a 160 GB model.

iPod Touch, portable media player that runs iOS, first introduced in September 2007 after the iPhone went on sale. Currently available in 8, 32, and 64 GB models. The latest generation features the Apple A4 processor, a Retina Display, and dual cameras on the front and back. The back camera allows for HD video recording at 720p.


At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated[116] iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod.The original iPhone combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iOS, formerly iPhone OS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display, 4, 8, or 16 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and

Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g"). The iPhone first became available on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4

GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract.

On February 5, 2008, Apple updated the original iPhone to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models.[119] On June 9, 2008, at WWDC 2008, Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11, 2008.[120] This version added support for 3G networking, assisted-GPS navigation, and a price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version, which was available in both black and white. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the flat silver back, and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. Following complaints from many people, the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush jack to be compatible with more styles of headphones. The software capabilities changed as well, with the release of the new iPhone came the release of Apple's App Store; the store provided applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone. On April 24, 2009, the App

Store surpassed one billion downloads.

On June 8, 2009, at Apple's annual worldwide developers conference, the iPhone 3GS was announced, providing an incremental update to the device including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control. On

June 7, 2010, at WWDC 2010, the iPhone 4 was announced, which Apple says is its "'biggest leap we've taken" since the original iPhone.

The phone includes an all-new design, 960x640 display, Apple's A4 processor used in the iPad, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling. Shortly after the release of the iPhone 4, it was realized by consumers that the new iPhone had reception issues. This is due to the stainless steel band


around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phones cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. The current fix for this issue was a "Bumper Case" for the phone distributed for free to all iPhone 4 owners for a few months. In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume.

On October 4, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPhone 4S, which was released in the United States,

Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan on October 14, 2011, with other countries set to follow later in the year[124]. This was the first iPhone model to feature the Apple A5 chip, as well as the first offered on the Sprint network (joining AT&T and

Verizon Wireless as the United States carriers offering iPhone models). On October 19, 2011,

Apple announced an agreement with C Spire Wireless to sell the iPhone 4S with that carrier in the near future, marking the first time the iPhone was officially supported on a regional carrier's network[125].

Another notable feature of the iPhone 4S was Siri voice assistant technology, which Apple had acquired in 2010[126], as well as other features, including an updated 8 megapixel camera with new optics. Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days after its release, which made it not only the best iPhone launch in Apple's history, but the mostsuccessful launch of any mobile phone ever

Apple TV

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV, (previously known as the iTV), a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with highdefinition televisions. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. The

Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, includes outputs for HDMI and component video, and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p. On May 31, 2007 a

160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model and on January 15, 2008 a software update was released, which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple



Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, Mac OS X, the latest version being

Mac OS X Lion (version 10.7). Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its Mac OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, GarageBand, and iWeb. For presentation, page layout and word processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers. iTunes,

QuickTime media player, Safari web browser, and Software Update are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows.

Apple also offers a range of professional software titles. Their range of server software includes the operating system Mac OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; WebObjects, Java EE Web application server; and Xsan, a Storage


Area Network file system. For the professional creative market, there is Aperture for professional RAW-format photo processing; Final Cut Studio, a video production suite;

Logic, a comprehensive music toolkit and Shake, an advanced effects composition program.

Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly .Mac) that bundles personal web pages, email, Groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, and Learning Center online tutorials. MobileMe is a subscription-based internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync. Announced at MacWorld

Expo 2009, allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration.

Timeline of Apple products

Timeline of Apple products, Timeline of Apple II family, and Timeline of Macintosh models

Products on this timeline indicate introduction dates only and not necessarily discontinued dates, as new products begin on a contiguous product line.



Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in organizational hierarchy

(flat versus tall, casual versus formal attire, etc.). Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. Originally, the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM by default, thanks to the influence of its founders; Steve Jobs often walked around the


ffice barefoot even after

Apple was a Fortune 500 company. By the time of the "1984" TV ad, this trait had become a key way the company attempted to differentiate itself from its competitors.

As the company has grown and been led by a series of chief executives, each with his own idea of what Apple should be, some of its original character has arguably been lost, but Apple still has a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably draws talented people into its employ, especially after Jobs' return. To recognize the best of its employees,

Apple created the Apple Fellows program, awarding individuals who made extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple

Fellowship has so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson,[135] Steve

Capps,[136] Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al AlcornDon NormanRich Page, and

Steve Wozniak.

Numerous employees of Apple have cited that projects without Jobs' involvement often take longer than projects with his involvement.[141] Another presents the image of Jobs

"wandering the hall with a flame thrower in hand, asking random people 'do you work on



Apple aficionados wait in line around an Apple retail store in anticipation of a new product.

This branch is located on Fifth Avenue in New York City, with a glass cube housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that lead into the subterranean store.

While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product, Apple appears not to have gone out of its way to create it. At one time, Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company, but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established. Apple evangelist

Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon".[143]

Apple has, however, supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available.

Mac users would meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld

Conference & Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public until Apple pulled out of both events. While the conferences continue, Apple does not have official representation there. Mac developers, in turn, continue to gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference.


Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event.[144] The New York

City Fifth Avenue "Cube" store had a line as long as half a mile; a few Mac fans took the opportunity of the setting to propose marriage.[145] The Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated in the thousands with a line exceeding eight city blocks.[146]

John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: "People talk about technology, but Apple was a marketing company. It was the marketing company of the decade."

Research in 2002 by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer was usually more affluent and better educated than other PC company consumers. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc. products are more expensive than other PC products.

Corporate affairs

During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.[150] This trend was largely reversed in the late

1990s beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs.

Apple has since adopted USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of standards such as

USB.FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that has seen widespread industry adoption after it was standardized as IEEE 1394.Ever since the first Apple Store opened, Apple has sold third party accessories. This allows, for instance, Nikon and Canon to sell their Maccompatible digital cameras and camcorders inside the store. Adobe, one of Apple's oldest software partners, also sells its Mac-compatible software, as does Microsoft, who sells

Microsoft Office for the Mac. Books from John Wiley & Sons, who publishes the For

Dummies series of instructional books, are a notable exception, however. The publisher's line of books were banned from Apple Stores in 2005 because Steve Jobs disagreed with their decision to publish an unauthorized Jobs biography.



Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1

Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings that total

850,000 square feet (79,000 m


) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos.


In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200,000 m


) assembled from various contiguous plots. The new campus, also in Cupertino, will be about one mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus



Since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern 'Get a Mac' adverts, Apple has been recognized in the past for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products, though it has been criticized for the claims of some more recent campaigns, particularly 2005 Power Mac ads and iPhone ads in Britain.


Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s. From 1997–2002,

Apple used the slogan Think Different in advertising campaigns. The slogan had a lasting impact on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. Although the slogan has been retired, it is still closely associated with Apple. Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac", was used in 1998 to promote the iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod.


Apple‘s first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Almost immediately, though, this was replaced by Rob Janoff‘s ―rainbow Apple‖, the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. While Jobs liked the logo, he insisted it be in color, as a way to humanize the company.


The original hand drawn logo features Sir Isaac Newton, and one theory states that the symbol references his discoveries of gravity (the apple) and the separation of light by prisms

(the colors). Another explanation exists that the bitten apple pays homage to the mathematician Alan Turing, who committed suicide by eating an apple he had laced with cyanide.


Turing is regarded as one of the fathers of the computer. The rainbow colors of


the logo are rumored to be a reference to the rainbow flag, as a homage to Turing's homosexuality.

In 1998, with the roll out of the new iMac, Apple discontinued the rainbow theme — supposedly at the insistence of recently returned Jobs — and began to use monochromatic themes, nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation. However, no specific color is prescribed throughout Apple's software and hardware line. The logo's shape is one of the most recognized brand symbols in the world, identifies all Apple products and retail stores (the name "Apple" is not even present) and has been included as stickers in nearly all

Macintosh and iPod packages through the years.

The original

Apple logo featuring


Newton under the fabled apple tree.

The "glass"-

The monochromethemed logo

The rainbow

"bitten" logo, used from late theme it replaced.

1976 until the rainbow

It is still used and replaced in same shaped as often appears in

1998 by maintained the various colors on monochrome various products, themes. such as packaging and

The Aquathemed Apple logo, used from

2001 to 2003 on

Panther and also packaging and on Mac OS X on start-up of advertisements,

It first appears the iPhone, iPod and on early

2003 to present.

Touch, fifth versions of Mac logo, used from generation

OS X before




video iPod, iPod

Nano, and all subsequent advertisements in themed Apple versions of

2003. these products.


iPod Touch

Apple Products in Detail

2nd generation iPod touch with iPhone OS 3.0 Manufacturer Apple Inc.

The iPod Touch (stylized and marketed as lowercase iPod touch; also colloquially referred to as the iTouch,[8] by analogy to the iPhone) is a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device designed and marketed by Apple.

The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line. It is the first iPod with wireless access to the iTunes Store, and also has access to Apple's App Store, enabling content to be purchased and downloaded directly on the device. As of March 2011,

Apple has sold over 60 million iPod Touch units.

The iPod Touch runs iOS. The first major update after the initial release was iPhone OS 2.0 This update introduced the App Store, which allowed third-party applications for the first time. iPhone OS 2.0 debuted July 11,

2008. iPhone users received the update for free, while iPod Touch users had to pay for the update. The second major update to the operating system, iPhone OS 3.0, was released June

17, 2009. iPhone OS 3.0 added features such as cut, copy, and paste; data tethering; and push notification support. As with the previous major release, iPhone users received the update for free, while iPod Touch users had to pay for the update. iOS 4.0 was made available to the public on June 21, 2010. It was the first major iOS release to drop support for some devices; the first generation iPod Touch and original iPhone are not supported in iOS 4.0. The iPhone

3G and second generation iPod Touch had limited functionality under iOS 4.0, while the iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, third generation iPod Touch, and fourth generation iPod Touch had full functionality under iOS 4.0. The major features introduced in iOS 4.0 included iBooks,

FaceTime, and multitasking. iOS 5.0 was previewed to the public on June 6, 2011, and was released on October 12, 2011.


Timeline of iPod models iPod Nano

4th Generation iPod Nano

The iPod Nano (trademarked, marketed, and stylized as iPod nano) is a digital media player designed and marketed by Apple. The first generation of the iPod Nano was introduced in the end of 2005 as a replacement for the iPod Mini.[1] It uses flash memory for storage. The iPod

Nano has gone through six models, or generations, since its introduction. The current "sixth generation" iPod Nano supports FM radio, a pedometer, and a 39.1 millimetres (1.54 in) square 240×240 display with a multitouch interface.


Supported audio formats

AAC (16 to 320 kbps)

Protected AAC (from the iTunes Store)

MP3 (16 to 320 kbps, including variable bitrate files)

Audible (formats 2, 3 and 4)

Apple Lossless



Timeline of compact iPod models


iPod Classic

iPod Classic 6th generation

The iPod Classic (trademarked as iPod classic and known before its sixth generation as simply the iPod) is a portable media player marketed by Apple Inc. To date, there have been six generations of the iPod Classic, as well as a spin-off (the iPod Photo) that was later reintegrated into the main Classic line. All generations use a 1.8-inch hard drive for storage.

The "Classic" retronym was introduced with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod

Classic on 5 September 2007;


prior to this, an iPod Classic was simply referred to as an iPod


Technical information

User interface

The iPod's signature Click Wheel


iPods with color displays use anti-aliased graphics and text, with sliding animations. All iPods have five buttons and the later generations (4th and above) have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — a design which gives an uncluttered, minimalist interface. The buttons are:

Menu: to traverse backwards through the menus, toggle the backlight on older iPods,

 and jump to the main menu on newer iPods

Center: to select a menu item

Play / Pause: this doubles as an off switch when held

Skip Forward / Fast Forward

Skip Backwards / Fast Reverse

Timeline of full-size iPod models


Apple TV

Apple TV on display pre-release at the Macworld 2007 conference

Apple TV is a digital media receiver manufactured, marketed and sold by Apple. It is a small form-factor network appliance designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes store, YouTube, Flickr, MobileMe or any Mac OS X or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television. Apple TV can function as either a home theater-connected iPod device or a digital media receiver, depending on the needs of the user. It was first announced at a special press event in San Francisco, California on September 12, 2006, by Apple CEO Steve Jobs.

The devices started shipping on March 21, 2007.


This initial version shipped with 40 GB of storage. A second version with a larger 160 GB hard disk started shipping on May 31, 2007.


AppleTV is a network device that allows consumers to use an HDTV set to view photos, play music and watch video that originates from an Internet media service or a local network.

Internet media services include the iTunes Store, YouTube, Flickr, or MobileMe. By connecting directly to the iTunes Store, users can buy and rent movies, buy television shows, songs, albums, and music videos and subscribe to video and audio podcasts, much of the content in high definition. Consumers can browse and view YouTube videos and Flickr or

MobileMe photo albums.


Apple TV can also sync or stream photo, music and video content from a network-connected computer running iTunes.


Apple TV includes enhanced remote control and AirTunes capabilities.


Apple plans to continue offering new features through automatic software upgrades, leaving the door open to further utilization of its hardware capabilities and new software developments.


Internet media services

Apple TV offers basic media services with movie previews and YouTube videos. The Apple


TV provides YouTube integration by receiving direct streams from YouTube.


YouTube account is not required to browse and view YouTube videos, but it is good to configure for personalized options, such as viewing favorites.


With the 'Take 2' software update announced by Steve Jobs at Macworld 2008, Apple TV became capable of acting as a pure stand-alone device, no longer requiring a computer running iTunes on Mac OS X or Windows to stream or sync content to it. Jobs stated, "Apple

TV was designed to be an accessory for iTunes and your computer. It was not what people

[19] wanted. We learned what people wanted was movies, movies, movies." Users can access the iTunes store directly through Apple TV to purchase movies, music, music videos, and television shows.


Customers can also use Apple TV to rent regular or HD-quality movies


Until mid-March, 2009, iTunes HD movies could only be purchased from Apple



Consumers can browse and view podcasts from the iTunes store, saving podcasts as favorites.TWiT's Leo Laporte notes that the podcast support in the Apple TV puts podcasts on the same level as other media,


and this was substantiated by the fact that the standard podcast subscription process no longer applies with Apple TV. It is seen by industry experts as changing podcasts to video on demand services.


Internet photos can be viewed from MobileMe and Flickr accounts.


Apple TV will display the photos in a slide show, with automatic cross-dissolve transitions. The Ken Burns effect can also be configured for transitions.


Parental controls allow consumers to limit access to Internet media service content. Internet media is split into 4 categories: "Internet Photos", "YouTube", "Podcasts", and "Purchase and

Rental ". Each of the 4 categories is configured by a parental control of "Show", "Hide" or

"Ask" to prompt for a 4-digit preset code. In addition, Movies and TV shows can be restricted based on rating as well as explicit music and podcasts.




Rear connectors including power, USB for firmware updates, Ethernet, HDMI, component video and audio, and optical audio





Pentium M 1.0 GHz "Crofton" Processor



NVIDIA GeForce Go 7300 (64 MB VRAM)



256 MB of 400 MHz DDR2 SDRAM


Hard drive

40 or 160 GB hard disk



USB 2.0 (officially for diagnostic use only, though hackers have managed to allow connectivity of hard disks, mice, and keyboards)


 infrared receiver


Component Video.


Video and audio cables are not included with Apple TV.




10BASE-T/100BASE-T Ethernet

802.11 b, g, n wireless networking (AirPort)


1080p/1080i 60/50 Hz (but maximum video resolution is 720p)


720p 60/50 Hz


576p/576i 50 Hz (PAL)


480p/480i (480i is unofficially supported) 60 Hz


 digital optical audio

RCA analog stereo audio



Built-in universal 48W power supply



197x197x28 mm (7.7x7.7x1.1 in)



1.09 kg (2.4 lb)




The iPhone is a line of Internet and multimedia-enabled smartphones marketed by Apple Inc..

The first iPhone was unveiled by former Apple CEO Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007, and released on June 29, 2007. The 5th generation iPhone, the iPhone 4S, was announced on

October 4, 2011, and released on October 14, 2011, two days after the release of iOS 5.0, the

Apple operating system for handheld devices. An iPhone can function as a video camera

(video recording was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS was released), a camera phone, a portable media player, and an Internet client with email and web browsing capabilities, can send texts and receive visual voicemail, and has both Wi-Fi and 3G connectivity. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. Third-party as well as Apple application software is available from the App Store, which launched in mid-2008 and now has over 500,000[2]

"apps" approved by Apple. These apps have diverse functions, including games, reference,

GPS navigation, social networking, security and advertising for television shows, films, and celebrities. There are five generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the five major releases of iOS (formerly iPhone OS). The original iPhone was a GSM phone that established design precedents like screen size and button placement that have persisted through all models. The iPhone 3G added 3G cellular network capabilities and A-GPS location. The iPhone 3GS added a compass, faster processor, and higher resolution camera, including video recording at 480p. The iPhone 4 has a rear facing camera (720p video) and a front facing camera (at a lower resolution) for FaceTime video calling and for use in other apps like Skype. The iPhone 4 featured a higher-resolution 960x640 display; it was released on June 24, 2010. In the U.S., AT&T was the only authorized carrier until February 10, 2011, when a CDMA version of the iPhone 4 launched for Verizon. On October 4, 2011, Apple announced the iPhone 4S. The iPhone 4S added a higher resolution camera (8 megapixel) with 1080p video recording, face detection, and video stabilization, a faster, dual core processor, world phone capability (allowing a single handset to operate on networks based on both GSM/UMTS and CDMA technologies), and a natural language voice control system called Siri.[4] It will be available in 16 GB and 32 GB as well as a new 64 GB capacity. It was also announced that in the U.S. Sprint would begin carrying the iPhone 4 and iPhone 4S and C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S as well.


History & Availability

Worldwide iPhone availability:

Original iPhone was available; now iPhone 4

iPhone 3GS and 4

Coming soon

Development of the iPhone began in 2005 with Apple CEO Steve Jobs' direction that Apple engineers investigate touchscreens.[6] He also steered the original focus away from a tablet, like the iPad, and towards a phone.[7] Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with AT&T Mobility—Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months.[8] Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful[citation needed] collaboration with Motorola. Instead, Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house[9][10] and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue (until the iPhone 3G),[11] in exchange for four years of exclusive U.S. sales, until 2011.

Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007 at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. The iPhone went on sale in the United States on

June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.[12] The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media christening it the 'Jesus phone'.[13][14] The original iPhone was made available in the

UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008.

On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six.[15] Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories.[16] Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, starting with the U.S., Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost,[17] and 40% of users have household incomes over US$100,000.[18] In an attempt to gain a wider market,

Apple retained the 8 GB iPhone 3G at a lower price point. When Apple introduced the iPhone 4, the 3GS became the less expensive model. Apple reduced the price several times since the iPhone's release in 2007, at which time an 8 GB iPhone sold for $599. An iPhone

3GS with the same capacity now costs $49. However, these numbers are misleading, since all


iPhone units sold through AT&T require a two-year contract (costing several hundred dollars and including an early termination fee[19]), and a SIM lock.

Apple sold 6.1 million original iPhone units over five quarters.[20] Recorded sales have been growing steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.5 million iPhones were sold.[21] By 2010/2011, the iPhone has a market share of barely 4% of all cellphones, but Apple still pulls in more than 50% of the total profit that global cellphone sales generate.[22] Sales in Q4 2008 surpassed temporarily those of RIM's BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which made Apple briefly the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung.[23] Approximately 6.4 million iPhones are active in the

U.S. alone.[18] While iPhone sales constitute a significant portion of Apple's revenue, some of this income is deferred.

The back of the original iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal.[25]

The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16

GB model. They both are now discontinued. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity. The white model was discontinued in favor of a black 8 GB low-end model. The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and back with a stainless steel edge that serves as the antennas. It was at first available in black; the white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months later.

The iPhone has garnered positive reviews from critics like David Pogue and Walter

Mossberg. The iPhone attracts users of all ages,[18] and, besides consumer use, the iPhone has also been adopted for business purposes.

On January 11, 2011, Verizon announced during a media event that it had reached an agreement with Apple and would begin selling a CDMA2000 iPhone 4. Verizon said it would be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10.[30][31] In

February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.5 percent of all iPhone ad impressions[vague] in the U.S. on Millennial Media's mobile ad network.[32] On March 2,

2011, at the iPad 2 event, Apple announced that they have sold 100 million iPhones worldwide and the phone has been consistently recognised as one of the best phones on earth.[who?][33][34]. On Tuesday, September 27, Apple sent invitations for a press event to be held October 4, 2011 at 10:00AM at the Cupertino Headquarters to announce details of the next generation iPhone, which turned out to be iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the first 24 hours after its release in October 2011.[35] Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and the its high selling price, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue, surpassing long-time leader Nokia.[36] American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S on October 19,




Replacing the battery requires opening the iPhone unit and exposing the internal hardware

The iPhone features an internal rechargeable battery. Like an iPod, but unlike most other mobile phones, the battery is not user-replaceable.[54][63] The iPhone can be charged when connected to a computer for syncing across the included USB to dock connector cable, similar to charging an iPod. Alternatively, a USB to AC adapter (or "wall charger," also included) can be connected to the cable to charge directly from an AC outlet. A number of third-party accessories (car chargers, portable chargers, battery cases, stereo dock chargers, and even solar chargers) are also available.[citation needed]


Apple runs tests on preproduction units to determine battery life. Apple's website says that the battery life "is designed to retain up to 80 percent of its original capacity after 400 full charge and discharge cycles",[64] which is comparable to iPod batteries.

The battery life of early models of the iPhone has been criticized by several technology journalists as insufficient and less than Apple's claims This is also reflected by a J. D. Power and Associates customer satisfaction survey, which gave the "battery aspects" of the iPhone

3G its lowest rating of 2 out of 5 stars.

If the battery malfunctions or dies prematurely, the phone can be returned to Apple and replaced for free while still under warranty.[71] The warranty lasts one year from purchase and can be extended to two years with AppleCare. Though the battery replacement service and its pricing was not made known to buyers until the day the product was launched, it is similar to how Apple (and third parties) replace batteries for iPods. The Foundation for

Taxpayer and Consumer Rights, a consumer advocate group, has sent a complaint to Apple and AT&T over the fee that consumers have to pay to have the battery replaced.[72] Since

July 2007, third-party battery replacement kits have been available[74] at a much lower price than Apple's own battery replacement program. These kits often include a small screwdriver and an instruction leaflet, but as with many newer iPod models the battery in the original iPhone has been soldered in. Therefore a soldering iron is required to install the new battery.

The iPhone 3G uses a different battery fitted with a connector that is easier to replace.


The original iPhone and iPhone 3G feature a built-in Fixed focus 2.0 megapixel camera located on the back for still digital photos. It has no optical zoom, flash or autofocus, and does not support video recording (iPhone 3G does support video recording via third-party

App available on the App Store), however jailbreaking allows users to do so. Version 2.0 of iPhone OS introduced the capability to embed location data in the pictures, producing geocoded photographs.

The iPhone 3GS has a 3.2 megapixel camera, manufactured by OmniVision, featuring autofocus, auto white balance, and auto macro (up to 10 cm). It is also capable of capturing

640x480 (VGA resolution) video at 30 frames per second,[76] although compared to higherend CCD based video cameras it does exhibit the rolling shutter effect.[77] The video can then be cropped on the device itself and directly uploaded to YouTube, MobileMe, or other services

The iPhone 4 introduced a 5.0 megapixel camera (2592x1936 pixels), also located on the back, which is equipped with a backside illuminated sensor capable of capturing pictures in low-light conditions, as well as an LED flash capable of staying lit for video recording at

720p resolution, considered high-definition.[78] iPhone 4 is the first iPhone that has the high dynamic range photography feature.[79] In addition the iPhone 4 has a second camera on the front capable of VGA photos and SD video recording.

Regardless of the source, saved recordings may be synced to the host computer, attached to email, or (where supported) sent by MMS. Videos may be uploaded to YouTube directly.


The camera on the iPhone 4S is capable of shooting 8MP stills and record 1080p videos. The camera can now be accessed directly from the lock screen, and the volume up button as a shutter trigger. The built-in gyroscope is able to stabilize the camera while recording video.

Beta code pulled from iOS 5 suggests that the next feature to be released will allow users to capture a panoramic photo on their iPhone.[80]

On all five model generations, the phone can be configured to bring up the camera app by quickly pressing the home key twice.[81] On all iPhones running iOS 5 it can also be accessed from the lock screen directly.

Storage and SIM

The iPhone was initially released with two options for internal storage size: 4 GB or 8 GB.

On September 5, 2007, Apple discontinued the 4 GB models.[82] On February 5, 2008,

Apple added a 16 GB model.[83] The iPhone 3G was available in 16 GB and 8 GB. The iPhone 3GS came in 16 GB and 32 GB variants and still is available in 8 GB. The iPhone 4 is available in 16 GB and 32 GB variants, as well as a newly introduced 8 GB variant to be sold along side the iPhone 4S at a reduced price point. The iPhone 4S is available in three sizes:

16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB. All data is stored on the internal flash drive; the iPhone does not support expanded storage through a memory card slot, or the SIM card.

GSM Models of the iPhone use a SIM card to identify themselves to the GSM network. The

SIM sits in a tray, which is inserted into a slot at the top of the device. The SIM tray can be ejected with a paperclip or the "SIM eject tool" (a simple piece of die-cut sheet metal) included with the iPhone 3G and 3GS.[84][85] In most countries, the iPhone is usually sold with a SIM lock, which prevents the iPhone from being used on a different mobile network.[86]

The GSM iPhone 4 features a MicroSIM card that is located in a slot on the right side of the device.[87]

The CDMA model of the iPhone, like all CDMA phones, does not use a SIM.


Included items

The contents of the box of an iPhone 4. From left to right: lid, iPhone 4 in plastic holder, written documentation, and (top to bottom) headset, USB cable, wall charger.

All iPhone models include written documentation, and a dock connector to USB cable. The original and 3G iPhones also came with a cleaning cloth. The original iPhone included stereo headset (earbuds and a microphone) and a plastic dock to hold the unit upright while charging and syncing. The iPhone 3G includes a similar headset plus a SIM eject tool (the original model requires a paperclip). The iPhone 3GS includes the SIM eject tool and a revised headset, which adds volume buttons (not functional with previous iPhone versions).[57][92]

The iPhone 3G and 3GS are compatible with the same dock, sold separately, but not the original model's dock.[93] All versions include a USB power adapter, or "wall charger," which allows the iPhone to charge from an AC outlet. The iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS sold in

North America, Japan, Colombia, Ecuador, or Peru[94][95] include an ultracompact USB power adapter.

Model comparison

Model iPhone iPhone 3G iPhone 3GS iPhone 4 iPhone



Discontinued Discontinued Available

89 mm (3.5 in) glass LCD , 3:2 aspect ratio


Available Available


480 × 320 px ( HVGA ) at 163 ppi 960 × 640 px at 326 ppi


4, 8, or 16 GB 8, 16 or 32 GB

16, 32, or 64 GB

8 or 16 GB


CPU Core

620 MHz ( underclocked to 412 MHz)

ARM 1176JZ(F)-S


833 MHz

(underclocked (underclocked to 600 MHz)

1 GHz

ARM Cortex-


[98][99] to

800 MHz)


Apple A4


Dualcore App le A5











Connecti vity

Quad band GSM/ GPRS / ED

GE ( 850, 900, 1800,

1900 MHz )

In addition to previous:

Triband 3.6 Mbit/s UMTS / HS

DPA ( 850, 1900,

2100 MHz ),


In addition to previous:

7.2 Mbit/s


GSM model:

In addition to previous:

In addition to

5.76 Mbit/s H


UMTS/HSDPA at 800 and

900 MHz


] previous


14.4 Mbi t/s



CDMA model: band




V-DO Rev.


1900 MHz)

E ed dynamic ally switchin g dual antenna,


Combine d


MA capabilit y


USB 2.0

/ dock connector

In addition to previous: assisted GPS , includes earphones with mic

In addition to previous: voice control, digita l compass , Nike

+ , camera tap

In addition to previous:

3axis gyroscope


Dualmicrophone n

In addition to previous


Siri (beta

) voice



2.0 Megapixel , f/2.8

Still images only to focus (iOS

4.0+) includes earp hones with remote and microphone oise suppression , microSIM , rear camera LED fl ash assistant


Megapixel, f/2.8

VGA video at

30 frame/s

Rear: 8.0

Rear: 5.0


Megapixel, el, f/2.4 f/2.8



720p HD video

HD video at 30 frame/s at 30 frame/s

Front: 0.3

Megapixel (VGA)

480p VGA video at 30 frame/s

Material s

Aluminum, glass and black plastic

Glass, plastic, and steel; black or white

(white not available for 8 GB models)

Black or white aluminosilicate gla ss and stainless steel


Built-in, non removable, rechargeable lithium-ion polymer battery



4 and 8 GB: June 29,


16 GB: February 5,


July 11, 2008

GSM (Black):

16 and 32 GB:

June 24, 2010

CDMA (Black):

February 10,


June 19, 2009

Black 8 GB:

June 24, 2010

White: April

28, 2011

8 GB: October

4, 2011

(Available from Oct 14,


14, 2011


iPhone in India

Mobile phone carriers Bharti Airtel Ltd. and Aircel Ltd. on Friday brought Indian gadget freaks the Apple iPhone 4—almost a year after it was first released in the United States and at over three times the price.

Mobile phone carriers Bharti Airtel Ltd. and Aircel Ltd. launched the Apple iPhone 4 in India on Friday.

Gaurav Makhija, a manager at a Bharti Airtel store in New Delhi‘s Connaught Place commercial area told India Real Time that the iPhone that was launched in 35 cities across the country today.

―The slimmest smartphone has already become talk of the town and customers have shown incredible interest,‖ said Mr. Makhija, adding that the company received booking orders for at 50 iPhones this month.

Available in white and black, both Airtel and Aircel are charging 34,500 rupees ($763) for the version that comes with 16 gigabytes of memory and 40,900 rupees for the model with 32

GB inbuilt memory.The Airtel manager said the company is offering special deals to iPhone purchasers on talk time and Internet use for two years to reduce the pinch of buying the phone.

Apple Inc., the creator of iPod, iPhones and iPads, launched the iPhone 4 in the U.S. last year at a price of $199.

Soon after its U.S. launch, and despite glowing early reviews, iPhone4 came in for a lot of criticism over its antenna—Consumer Reports said it couldn‘t back the phone because of reception problems. iPhone 4s will not be launched till December 2011 in India. iPhone 4 has been a huge success in India being a high priced phone



The iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad run an operating system known as iOS (formerly iPhone

OS). It is a variant of the same Darwin operating system core that is found in Mac OS X.

Also included is the "Core Animation" software component from Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard.

Together with the PowerVR hardware (and on the iPhone 3GS, OpenGL ES 2.0), it is responsible for the interface's motion graphics. The operating system takes up less than half a gigabyte.[111] It is capable of supporting bundled and future applications from Apple, as well as from third-party developers. Software applications cannot be copied directly from

Mac OS X but must be written and compiled specifically for iOS.

Like the iPod, the iPhone is managed from a computer using iTunes. The earliest versions of the OS required version 7.3 or later, which is compatible with Mac OS X version 10.3.9

Panther or later, and 32-bit Windows XP or Vista.[112] The release of iTunes 7.6 expanded this support to include 64-bit versions of XP and Vista, and a workaround has been discovered for previous 64-bit Windows operating systems.[114] Apple provides free updates to the OS for the iPhone through iTunes,[111] and major updates have historically accompanied new models.[115] Such updates often require a newer version of iTunes — for example, the 3.0 update requires iTunes 8.2 — but the iTunes system requirements have stayed the same. Updates include both security patches and new features.[116] For example, iPhone 3G users initially experienced dropped calls until an update was issued


The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod or current Symbian S60 phones.

The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are always presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their order from iTunes. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users plenty of room to touch their selection. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access Cover Flow. Like on iTunes, this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. Alternatively, headset controls can be used to pause, play, skip, and repeat tracks. On the iPhone 3GS, the volume can be changed with the included



When making a call, the iPhone presents a number of options, including FaceTime on supported models. The screen is automatically disabled when held close to the face.

The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call holding, call merging, caller ID, and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. For example, if music is playing when a call is received, the music fades out, and fades back in when the call has ended. The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. The iPhone does not support video calling or videoconferencing on versions prior to the fourth generation, as there is only one camera on the opposite side of the screen.[122] The iPhone 4 supports video calling using either the front or back camera over Wi-Fi, a feature Apple calls

FaceTime.[123] The first two models only support voice dialing through third-party applications.[124] Voice control, available only on the iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4, allows users to say a contact's name or number and the iPhone will dial.[125]

The iPhone includes a visual voicemail (in some countries)[126] feature allowing users to view a list of current voicemail messages on-screen without having to call into their voicemail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a nonchronological order by choosing any message from an on-screen list


Internet connectivity

Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area

GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation (2G) wireless data standards. The iPhone

3G introduced support for third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6,[132] but not HSUPA networks, and only the iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 support HSDPA 7.2.[133] AT&T introduced 3G in July 2004,[134] but as late as 2007, Steve Jobs stated that it was still not widespread enough in the US, and the chipsets not energy efficient enough, to be included in the iPhone.[40][135] Support for 802.1X, an authentication system commonly used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 version update.

Unapproved third-party software and jailbreaking

The iPhone's operating system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptographic signature. This restriction can be overcome by "jailbreaking" the phone,[224] which involves replacing the iPhone's firmware with a slightly modified version that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple's technical protection measures.[225] Apple, in a statement to the United States Copyright Office in response to

EFF lobbying for a DMCA exception for this kind of hacking, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright infringement due to the necessary modification of system software.[226] However in 2010 Jailbreaking was declared officially legal in the US by the

DMCA. Jailbroken iPhones may be susceptible to computer viruses, but few such incidents have been reported



The iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content. Its size and weight fall between those of contemporary smartphones and laptop computers. The iPad runs the same operating system as the iPod Touch and iPhone—and can run its own applications as well as iPhone applications. Without modification, the iPad will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via the

Apple App Store (with the exception of programs that run inside the iPad's web browser).

Like iPhone and iPod Touch, the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display—a departure from most previous tablet computers, which used a pressure-triggered stylus—as well as a virtual onscreen keyboard in lieu of a physical keyboard. The iPad uses a wireless local area network ("Wi-Fi") connection to access local area networks and the Internet. Some models also have a 3G wireless network interface which can connect to HSPA or EV-DO data networks and on to the Internet. The device is managed and synced by iTunes running on a personal computer via USB cable.

Apple released the first iPad in April 2010, and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.[18]

During 2010, Apple sold 14.8 million iPads worldwide,[7][8][9] representing 75 percent of tablet PC sales at the end of 2010.[19]

By the release of the iPad 2 in March 2011, more than 15 million iPads had been sold – selling more than all other tablet PCs combined since the iPad's release. In 2011, it is expected to take 83 percent of the tablet computing market share in the United States. In

India also 47% of tablets are iPads.


First generation

Apple began taking pre-orders for the iPad from U.S. customers on March 12, 2010.The only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch from sound muting to that of a screen rotation lock.[35] The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3,

2010.[3][36] The Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30.[3][4][4] 3G service in the

United States is provided by AT&T and was initially sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price.[37][38] On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new customers with a 2 GB plan at slightly lower cost; existing customers would have the option to keep the unlimited plan.[39] The plans are activated on the iPad itself and can be canceled at any time.[40]

The iPad was initially only available online at The Apple Store as well as the company's retail locations. The iPad has since been available for purchase through many retailers including Amazon, Wal-Mart, Best Buy, Verizon, and AT&T. The iPad was launched in

Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Switzerland and the United

Kingdom on May 28.[5][41] Online pre-orders in those countries began on May 10.[4] Apple released the iPad in Austria, Belgium, Hong Kong, Ireland, Luxembourg, Mexico, The

Netherlands, New Zealand and Singapore on July 23, 2010.[42] Israel briefly prohibited importation of the iPad because of concerns that its Wi-Fi might interfere with other devices.[43] On September 17, 2010, the iPad officially launched in China.[44]

The device was initially popular with 300,000 iPads being sold on their first day of availability.[45] By May 3, 2010, Apple had sold a million iPads,[46] this was in half the time it took Apple to sell the same number of original iPhones.[47] During the October 18,

2010, Financial Conference Call, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had sold more iPads than

Macs for the Fiscal Quarter.[48] In total, Apple sold more than 15 million first generation iPads prior to the launch of the iPad 2.[20]

iPad 2

The iPad 2 is thinner and lighter than its predecessor, and is available in black or white

Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the iPad 2, the second generation of the device, at a

March 2, 2011, press conference, despite being on medical leave at the time.[49][50] About

33% thinner than its predecessor, the iPad 2 has a better processor, a dual core Apple A5 that

Apple says is twice as fast as its predecessor for CPU operations and up to nine times as fast for GPU operations. It includes front and back cameras that support the FaceTime video calling application, as well as a three-axis gyroscope. It retains the original's 10-hour battery life and has a similar pricing scheme.

The iPad 2 has been available for purchase, depending on stock availability, since March 11,

2011, at Apple retail stores in the United States, as well as to United States customers


shopping online at Apple's retail website.[51] The iPad 2 was released internationally in 25 other countries on March 25, 2011, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Mexico and the United Kingdom, but not Japan as originally scheduled due to the earthquake and tsunami.

iPad in India

On 20th April, Apple COO Tim Cook told investors that they would roll out the new iPad 2 model to 13 more countries.

Apple, transitioning to the new iPad 2 introduced on March 11, couldn‘t make enough to meet demand. The shortfall led to lower sales than analysts predicted. Apple is ramping up production as it prepares to start selling the tablet computer in 13 additional countries this month, Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook said on a conference call .

The press release said that

“iPad 2 with Wi-Fi will be available in Japan on April 28 and Hong Kong, India,

Israel, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey and

UAE on April 29 for a suggested retail price of $499 (US) for the 16GB model, $599

(US) for the 32GB model and $699 (US) for the 64GB model. iPad 2 with Wi-Fi + 3G will be available for a suggested retail price of $629 (US) for the 16GB model, $729

(US) for the 32GB model and $829 (US) for the 64GB model. iPad 2 with Wi-Fi will be available in China on May 6, and further international availability will be announced at a later date.”

Apple devices are launched at very high prices in India. Thus the main question was

Will Apple iPad see success in India

Apple iPhone has been a disaster in India – there are many reasons for it, but primarily being pricing. Indian consumers are are very price conscious lot. With iPad keeping the rates competitive and pricing them below Samsung Tab (its closest competitor currently), there sure is a potential for iPad to take off in India. But again there are plethora of tablets coming into market in coming months, some as low as 10k rupees.


Screen and input

The iPad's touchscreen display is a 1024 × 768 pixel, 19.7×14.8 cm liquid crystal display

(diagonal 9.7 in (24.6 cm)), with fingerprint- and scratch-resistant glass. Steve Jobs backed the choice of screen size, saying a 7-inch screen would be "too small to express the software" and that 10 inches was the minimum for a tablet screen.[53] Like the iPhone, the iPad is designed to be controlled by bare fingers; normal, non-conductive gloves and styli do not work,[54] although there are special gloves and capacitive styli designed for this use.

The display responds to other sensors: an ambient light sensor to adjust screen brightness and a 3-axis accelerometer to sense iPad orientation and switch between portrait and landscape modes. Unlike the iPhone and iPod Touch's built-in applications, which work in three orientations (portrait, landscape-left and landscape-right), the iPad's built-in applications support screen rotation in all four orientations, including upside-down.[57] Consequently, the device has no intrinsic "native" orientation; only the relative position of the home button changes.

There are four physical switches on the iPad, including a home button near the display that returns the user to the main menu, and three plastic physical switches on the sides: wake/sleep and volume up/down, plus a software-controlled switch whose function has changed with software updates. Originally the switch locked the screen to its current orientation, but the iOS 4.2 changed it to a mute switch, with rotation lock now available in an onscreen menu.[58] In the iOS 4.3 update, released with the iPad 2, a setting was added to allow the user to specify whether the side switch was used for rotation lock or mute.[13]

The original iPad had no camera; the iPad 2 has a front VGA camera and a rear-facing 720p camera, both capable of still images and 30fps video. The rear-facing camera has a 5x digital zoom for still images only. Both shoot photo and video in a 4:3 fullscreen aspect ratio, unlike the iPhone 4, which shoots in a 16:9 widescreen aspect ratio. Unlike the iPhone, the iPad does not support tap to focus.[59] The cameras allow FaceTime video messaging with iPhone

4, iPod Touch 4, and Snow Leopard/Lion Macs.[60]



The iPad can use Wi-Fi network trilateration from Skyhook Wireless to provide location information to applications such as Google Maps. The 3G model supports A-GPS to allow its position to be calculated with GPS or relative to nearby cellphone towers; it also has a black strip on the back to aid 3G reception.

Power and battery

The iPad uses an internal rechargeable lithium-ion polymer (LiPo) battery. The batteries are made in Taiwan by Simplo Technology (60%) and Dynapack International Technology.[66]

The iPad is designed to be charged with a high current of 2 amperes using the included 10 W

USB power adapter. While it can be charged by a standard USB port from a computer, these are limited to 500 milliamperes (0.5 amps). As a result, if the iPad is running while powered by a normal USB computer port, it may charge very slowly, or not at all. High-power USB ports found in newer Apple computers and accessories provide full charging capabilities.[67]

Apple claims that the battery for both generations of iPad can provide up to 10 hours of video, 140 hours of audio playback, or one month on standby. Like any rechargeable battery technology, the iPad's battery loses capacity over time, but is not designed to be userreplaceable. In a program similar to the battery-replacement program for the iPod and the original iPhone, Apple will replace an iPad that does not hold an electrical charge with a refurbished iPad for a fee of US$99 plus $6.95 shipping. As a different unit is supplied, user data are not preserved. The refurbished unit will have a new case.[70] The warranty on the refurbished unit may vary between jurisdictions.

Independent companies also provide a battery replacement service, returning the original unit with new battery but original case.[71] Alternatively it is possible for a technically competent user to buy and install a new battery, which may invalidate any remaining warranty on the iPad. The task does not require soldering, but is technically challenging.[72]

Storage and SIM

The iPad 3G, unlike the Wi-Fi model, has a black plastic piece on the underside which allows cellular signals to pass through it.

The iPad was released with three capacity options for storage: 16, 32, or 64 GB of internal flash memory. All data is stored on the internal flash memory, with no option to expand storage. Apple sells a "camera connection kit" with an SD card reader, but it can only be used to transfer photos and videos.[73]


The side of the Wi-Fi + 3G model has a micro-SIM slot (not mini-SIM). The 3G iPad can be used with any compatible GSM carrier, unlike the iPhone, which is usually sold 'locked' to specific carriers.[74] Japan is the exception to this, where the iPad 3G is locked to

Softbank.[75] In the U.S., data network access via T-Mobile's network is limited to slower

EDGE cellular speeds because T-Mobile's 3G Network uses different frequencies.[76][77]

The iPad 2 introduced a third tier of models with CDMA support for Verizon Wireless in the

United States, available separately from the AT&T capable version.[78]

Optional accessories

A Smart Cover can be used as a stand for the iPad 2 while the display is in use.

Apple offers several iPad accessories,[79] most of which are adapters for the proprietary 30pin dock connector, the iPad's only port besides the headphone jack.[13] A dock holds the iPad upright at an angle, and has a dock connector and audio line out port. Each generation of iPad requires a corresponding dock. A dock that included a physical keyboard is available only for the original iPad, but both generations are compatible with Bluetooth keyboards that also work with Macs and PCs. The iPad can be charged by a standalone power adapter ("wall charger") also used for iPods and iPhones, and a 10 W charger is included with the iPad.

Smart Covers are screen protectors that magnetically attach and align to the face of the iPad

2. The cover has three folds which allow it to convert into a stand, which is also held together by magnets.[84] While original iPad owners could purchase a black case that included a similarly folding cover, the Smart Cover is meant to be more minimal, easily detachable, and protects only the screen. Smart Covers have a microfiber bottom that cleans the front of the iPad, which wakes up when the cover is removed. There are five different colors of both polyurethane and leather, with leather being more expensive. Smart Covers are not compatible with the original iPad.


Technical specifications

Model iPad (original)

Announcement date

US Release date

Discontinued date

January 27, 2010


April 3, 2010


March 2, 2011


citation needed


Display iPad 2

March 2, 2011


March 11, 2011


In production

9.7 inches (25 cm) multitouch display at a resolution of 1024 ×

768 pixels with LED backlighting and a fingerprint and scratch-resistant coating



1 GHz Apple A4 system-on-achip


1 GHz (dynamically clocked) dualcore Apple A5 system on a chip







256 MB DDR RAM built into Apple

A4 package


512 MB DDR2 (1066 Mbit/s data rate )

RAM built into Apple A5 package


16, 32, or 64 GB


Wi-Fi ( 802.11a/b/g/n ), Bluetooth 2.1+EDR


3G cellular HSDPA , 2G cellular EDGE on 3G models




Apple location databases






Assisted GPS , Apple databases,


Cellular network



Environmental sensors

Accelerometer , ambient light sensor , magnetometer


Operating system


Additionally: gyroscope iOS 5.0

Built-in lithium-ion polymer battery ; (10 hours video,


140 hours audio,


1 month standby





Wi-Fi model: 680 g (1.5 lb)

3G model: 730 g (1.6 lb)

Wi-Fi model: 601 g (1.32 lb)

GSM 3G (AT&T) model: 613 g (1.35 lb)

CDMA 3G (Verizon) model: 607 g

(1.34 lb)

9.56×7.47×.528 in

(243×190×13.4 mm)


9.5×7.31×.346 in (240×186×8.8 mm)


Mechanical keys

Home, sleep, volume rocker, variable function switch (originally screen rotation lock, mute in iOS 4.2, either in 4.3)





Greenhouse Gas




130 kg CO2e

720p HD still and video camera

0.7 MP , 30 fps and 5x digital zoom

VGA-quality still camera, 0.3 MP

105 kg CO2e


MacBook Family

the original macbook

The MacBook is a brand of Macintosh notebook computers built by Apple Inc. First introduced in May 2006, it replaced the iBook and 12-inch PowerBook series of notebooks as a part of the Apple–Intel transition. Positioned as the low end of the MacBook family, the

Apple MacBook was aimed at the consumer and education markets.[2] It was the best-selling

Macintosh in history, and according to the sales-research organization NPD Group in October

2008, the mid-range model of the MacBook was the single best-selling laptop of any brand in

U.S. retail stores for the preceding five months.[3]

There have been three separate designs of the MacBook: the original model used a combination of polycarbonate and fiberglass casing that was modeled after the iBook G4.

The second type, introduced in October 2008 alongside the 15-inch MacBook Pro, used a similar unibody aluminum casing to the 15-inch Pro, and was updated and rebranded as the

13-inch MacBook Pro at the 2009 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in June 2009.[4]

A third design, introduced in October 2009, used a unibody polycarbonate shell as aluminum is now reserved for the higher-end MacBook Pro. On July 20, 2011, the MacBook was quietly discontinued for consumer purchase in favor of the new MacBook Air.[5] However,

Apple continues to sell the MacBook to educational institutions.


Like the MacBook Pro, the MacBook follows the same tapered design first seen in the

MacBook Air; however, it is rounder on the edges than previous laptops in the MacBook line.

This model has an all-white fingerprint-resistant glossy palm rest, unlike the grayish surface of its predecessor, and uses a multi-touch glass trackpad like the one found on the MacBook

Pro. The bottom of the MacBook features a rubberized non-slip finish. The built-in battery of the late 2009 revision, a feature introduced earlier in the year with the MacBook Pro, is claimed by Apple to last seven hours compared with five hours in the older models.


However, in tests conducted by Macworld, the battery was found to last only about four hours while playing video at full brightness with AirPort turned off.[38] However, Apple's battery life was calculated with the brightness at the middle setting and while browsing websites and editing word documents, not with video and at full brightness.[39] Gizmodo also reached about the same conclusion in their tests, but with AirPort turned on.[40] The battery included in the mid 2010 model holds an additional five watt-hours over the previous model's and is claimed to last up to ten hours.


Despite being hailed by Slashgear as "one of the best entry-level notebooks Apple have produced," the unibody MacBook has received criticism for its lack of a FireWire port and

SD card slot.[42] Nilay Patel of Engadget added that the USB ports were easily dented and the bottom of the laptop became worn and discolored after a few days. He also drew particular attention to the fact that the price was not lowered, stating that the small price difference between the MacBook and the MacBook Pro makes it a "wasted pricing opportunity."[43] However, most critics agree that the unibody MacBook's display is significantly better than its predecessor's. AppleInsider states that the new display "delivers significantly better color and viewing angle performance" than the previous MacBook, but still "not as vivid and wide-angle viewable as the MacBook Pro screens."

Timeline of Macbook Family


MacBook Air

The first-generation MacBook Air was a 13.3"-only model, previously promoted as the

World's Thinnest Notebook, introduced at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 15,

2008.[4] It featured a custom[5] Intel Merom CPU and Intel GMA graphics. In late 2008, the

CPU was updated to a faster, non-custom Penryn CPU and integrated Nvidia GeForce graphics while the hard drive capacity was increased and the micro-DVI video port was replaced by the Mini DisplayPort.[6] A mid-2009 refresh, introduced alongside the MacBook

Pro family, featured a slightly higher-capacity battery, and a faster Penryn CPU.[7]

On October 20, 2010, Apple released a redesigned 13.3" model, with improved enclosure, screen resolution, battery, and flash storage instead of a hard drive. In addition, a new 11.6" model was introduced, offering reduced cost, weight, battery life, and performance relative to the 13.3" model, but better performance than typical netbooks of the time.

On July 20, 2011, Apple released an updated model in the same form factor as the prior model. The new model was powered by new dual-core Intel Core i5 and i7 processors, had a backlit keyboard, Thunderbolt instead of Mini DisplayPort and Bluetooth was upgraded to v4.0. Maximum flash storage and memory options were almost identical.


The MacBook Air is designed for thinness; it is also lighter than most competing models.[16]

The computer features a glossy LED backlit display and a full-size keyboard, as well as a large trackpad that responds to iPad-related Multi-Touch gestures such as pinching, swiping, and rotating.[17] With the release of Mac OS X Snow Leopard, the Air's multi-touch trackpad also supports handwriting recognition of Chinese characters.[18]


On the 11-inch MacBook Air, the left side of the computer has a MagSafe power connector, a

USB port, a headphone jack, and a microphone.[1][17] The right side of the computer has a

USB port and a Mini DisplayPort, now replaced by a Thunderbolt port in the 2011 version.

On top of the screen bezel there is an iSight, which is now dubbed the FaceTime camera.

The MacBook Air was the first subcompact laptop offered by Apple since the full-featured

12" PowerBook G4 was discontinued in 2006. It was also Apple's first computer with an optional solid-state storage drive.[19] ArsTechnica found "moderate" performance improvements of the 64 GB[note 2] solid-state drive of the first generation Air over the standard 80 GB hard drive in tests. On October 14, 2008, new models were announced with improved capacities of 128 GB (solid-state) and 120 GB (hard drive). For the late 2010

MacBook Air, only flash storage is available, in 64 or 128 GB capacities on the 11" model, and 128 or 256 GB on the 13".

The CPU in the first-generation MacBook Air was a custom engineered Intel Core 2 Duo

Merom that was 40 percent of the size of the standard chip package.[20] For models of late-

2008,The CPU was replaced with a low-voltage Core 2 Duo Penryn chip with 6 MB of cache, running on a 1066 MHz bus.

The MacBook Air has no user-replaceable parts. The flash memory and battery are enclosed within the casing, with RAM soldered onto the logic board. The flash memory, engineered to be difficult to access, has a 128MB cache[22] and a mSATA connection to the logic board.[23] The battery can be replaced using normal screwdrivers, though it is unclear whether this process would void the computer's warranty. As part of the out-of-warranty service, Apple offers to replace the battery for a fee.Apple incorporated several features in the design of the MacBook Air, such as the reduction of toxic chemicals like lead, to make it more environmentally friendly. The MacBook Air contains no BFRs and PVC wiring, meets

Energy Star Version 5.0 requirements, has a recyclable enclosure, and is rated EPEAT Gold; its display is made from arsenic-free glass and does not contain mercury. To reduce the computer's size and weight, several features were sacrificed.


Launch and reception

CEO of Apple Steve Jobs introduced the first MacBook Air during a speech at the 2008

Keynote.[34] The MacBook Air was greeted with mixed reception when it was introduced.

The portability of the MacBook Air was praised in reviews, however, the compromise in features was criticized. The full-sized keyboard, weight, thinness, and Multi-Touch trackpad were appreciated in reviews, while the limited configuration options and ports, slow speed (in non-SSD models), non-user replaceable battery, small hard drive, and price were criticized.

MacBook Pro

The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by

Apple. It replaced the PowerBook G4 and was the second model, after the iMac, to be announced in the Apple–Intel transition. The MacBook Pro is the high end of the MacBook family and is currently produced with 13-, 15- and 17-inch screens.

There have been two designs for the MacBook Pro, both using aluminum. The first was largely a carry-over from the PowerBook G4, but used the Intel Core processors instead of

PowerPC G4 chips. A 15-inch model was released in January 2006, a 17-inch model in April, both of which received several updates and Core 2 Duo processors later in the year.

The second unibody model has a more tapered design and a casing made from a single block of aluminum. It debuted in October 2008 as the 15-inch MacBook Pro and the 13-inch aluminum unibody MacBook. The following January brought the design to the 17-inch model, along with the built-in battery that joined the rest of the MacBook Pro line in June.

Subsequent updates brought upgraded Intel Core i5 and i7 processors and introduced Intel's

Thunderbolt technology.



Reviewers applauded the MacBook Pro, which was speedier than the PowerBook G4, with two- or threefold improvements in performance in some areas.[3] For example, the 3D rendering program Cinema 4D XL was 3.3 times faster[3] and the boot-up time was more than halved.[4] The MacBook Pro generally outperformed the PowerBook G4 in performance analyzer utility tests, XBench and Cinebench.[4] Reviewers lauded the screen's maximum brightness, 67 percent higher than the PowerBook G4; the excellent horizontal viewing angles; the matte options; and the bright, crisp, and true colors.[5] Although the screen offered fewer vertical pixels (1,440 × 900 in the MacBook Pro instead of 1,440 × 960 in the

PowerBook), one reviewer called the screen "nothing less than stellar".[4] Reviewers praised the new MagSafe power adapter,[3] although one reviewer said it disconnected too easily in some instances.[4] They also praised the backlit keyboard, large trackpad, and the virtually silent operation of the machine. The new laptop also offered better wireless performance.

Reviewers criticized the decision to underclock the ATI Mobility Radeon X1600 graphics card by about 30 percent its original speed.[5] The notebook was also noted for running hot.

Users complained that upgrading system memory was harder than in older Apple notebooks.[4] Since the dimensions for the 15-inch MacBook Pro were tweaked slightly from the 15-inch PowerBook G4, older accessories such as notebook sleeves did not work with the new models.[4] Some users noted a slight flickering when the screen was on lower brightness settings.[4] Battery life remained about the same three-plus hours as in previous models, on par with or better than the competition.[4] Apple added 10 watt-hours (going from 50 in the

PowerBook G4 to 60), but the more powerful Core Duo CPU required more power.


Model Processor Memory FSB Storage RPM Graphics VRAM

Display resolution




2.4 GHz Core

2 Duo nVidia

2 GB 1066 MHz



5400 GeForce





1280 ×


$999 /

€899 /



Air 1.4 GHz

11 in


1.4 GHz Core

2 Duo


2 GB 1066 MHz


N/A nVidia






1366 ×







Air 1.86 GHz

1.86 GHz Core

2 Duo

13 in


2 GB 1066 MHz 256


N/A nVidia






1440 ×






Pro 2.3 GHz

13 in


2.3 GHz Core i5

Intel HD

4 GB 1333 MHz

320 GB


5400 Graphics





1280 ×





/ £939


Pro 2.7 GHz

13 in


2.7 GHz Core i7

Intel HD

4 GB 1333 MHz

500 GB


5400 Graphics





1280 ×








Pro 2.0 GHz

15 in


2.0 GHz


Core) Core i7

4 GB 2.5


Intel HD

500 GB



Graphics and






1440 ×








Pro 2.2 GHz

15 in


2.2 GHz


Core) Core i7

4 GB 2.5


750 GB



Intel HD

Graphics and






1440 ×








Mac OS X

Mac OS X is a series of Unix-based operating systems and graphical user interfaces developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since


Mac OS X, whose X is the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is a Unix-based graphical operating system,[8] built on technologies developed at

NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late

1996. From its sixth release, Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" and onward, every release of Mac

OS X gained UNIX 03 certification while running on Intel processors.

The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and a desktop-oriented version,

Mac OS X v10.0 "Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats: for example, Mac OS X v10.7 is usually referred to by Apple and users as

"Lion". The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and includes tools to facilitate management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines, and to provide access to network services. These tools include a mail transfer agent, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. It is pre-loaded on Apple's Xserve server hardware, but can be run on almost all of Apple's current selling computer models.[9]


Apple also produces specialized versions of Mac OS X for use on its consumer devices. iOS, which is based on Mac OS X, runs on the iPhone, iPod Touch,[10] iPad, and the 2nd generation Apple TV.[11] An unnamed variant of Mac OS X powered the 1st generation

Apple TV


The APIs that Mac OS X inherited from OpenStep are not backward compatible with earlier versions of Mac OS. These APIs were created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between

NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems and are now referred to by Apple as Cocoa. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for Nextstep or NeXT/Sun. The official OpenStep API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and

Application Kit and the first to use the "NS" prefix.[24] Apple's Rhapsody project would have required all new development to use these APIs, causing much outcry among existing

Mac developers. All Mac software that did not receive a complete rewrite to the new framework would run in the equivalent of the Classic environment. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon Application Programming Interface

(API) was created. Applications written with Carbon can be executed natively on both systems. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server

(now known as Mac OS X Server 1.x).

Mac OS X also used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package" – in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11,

2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10.4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface."


Since Mac OS X is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the *BSDs, Linux, or other Unix-like systems can be recompiled to run on it. Projects such as Homebrew, Fink,

MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. Since version 10.3,

Mac OS X has included, Apple's version of the X Window System graphical interface for Unix applications, as an optional component during installation.[38] Up to and including Mac OS X v10.4 (Tiger), Apple's implementation was based on the X11 Licensed

XFree86 4.3 and X11R6.6. All bundled versions of X11 feature a window manager which is similar to the Mac OS X look-and-feel and has fairly good integration with Mac OS X, also using the native Quartz rendering system. Earlier versions of Mac OS X (in which X11 has not been bundled) can also run X11 applications using XDarwin. With the introduction of version 10.5 Apple switched to the variant of X11.[39] Version Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" use Server version 1.10.x[40]

Mac OS X Version Information

Version Codename



Release Date

Most Recent


Rhapsody Developer


Grail1Z4 /


Mac OS X Server 1.0

Public Beta







August 31,


May 14, 1998

March 16,


1.2v3 (October 27,


September 13,


March 24,


10.0.4 (June 22,


July 18,



September 25,


10.1.5 (June 6,









Safari (web browser)

Jaguar May 6, 2002


August 24,


10.2.8 (October 3,



June 23,



October 24,


10.3.9 (April 15,


Tiger May 4, 2004


April 29, 2005

10.4.11 (November

14, 2007)


June 26,



October 26,


10.5.8 (August 5,


Snow Leopard June 9, 2008


August 28,


10.6.8 (June 23,



October 20,



July 20, 2011

10.7.2 (October 12,


Safari offers most features common to modern web browsers such as:

Tabbed browsing

Bookmark Management


A resizable web-search box in the toolbar which uses Google on the Mac and either

Google or Yahoo! on Windows

Pop-up ad blocking

History and bookmark search

Text search


Expandable text boxes

Automatic filling in of web forms

Built-in password management via Keychain

Subscribing to and reading web feeds

Quartz-style font-smoothing

The Web Inspector, a DOM Inspector-like utility that lets users and developers browse the Document Object Model of a web page


Support for CSS 3 web fonts

Support for CSS animation

Bookmark integration with Address Book

ICC colour profile support

Inline PDF viewing

Integration with iPhoto photo management

Mail integration

Ability to save parts of web pages as web clips for viewing on the Apple Dashboard.


iTunes is a media player computer program, used for playing, downloading, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop computers. It can also manage contents on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. iTunes can connect to the iTunes Store to purchase and download music, music videos, television shows, iPod games, audiobooks, podcasts, movies and movie rentals (not available in all countries), and ringtones (only available on iPhone and iPod Touch 4th Generation). It is also used to download application software from the App Store for the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch. iTunes has been criticized for not being able to transfer music from one portable device to another. iTunes was introduced by Apple Inc. on January 9, 2001.[3] The latest version, which is currently version 10.5, is available as a free download for Mac OS X v10.5 or later, as well as

Windows XP or later. In June 2010, Apple released a new privacy policy pertaining to the


capture and collection of users' real-time location information.[4] The information had been included in various device-specific EULAs since 2008, but was not included in Apple's general privacy policy until 2010.


iTunes includes visualizers. Shown here is the new visualizer in iTunes 8, including black orbs and moving specks of light. iTunes is an application that allows the user to manage audio and video on a personal computer, acting as a front end for Apple's QuickTime media player. Officially, using iTunes is required in order to manage the audio of an Apple iPod portable audio player, although alternative software does exist. Users can organize their music into playlists within one or more libraries, edit file information, record Compact Discs, copy files to a digital audio player, purchase music and videos through its built-in music store, download free podcasts, back up songs onto a CD or DVD, run a visualizer to display graphical effects in time to the music, and encode music into a number of different audio formats. There is also a large selection of free internet radio stations to listen to.

Library views

iTunes users may choose to view their music and video libraries in one of four ways: as a list, as a list with accompanying album artwork, in Cover Flow (a side-scrolling catalog of album artwork), or in Grid View.

The standard list view displays library files with many optional detail fields, including name, artist, album, genre, user rating, play count, and so forth. Item backgrounds alternate between white and a light blue-gray for readability.

The list with accompanying album artwork is much the same, only the list is broken up by albums, with the artwork as a header to the list. Although this allows users to browse content more visually, sorting the list view by name will accordingly break up the library into redundant instances of each album. Accordingly, as with Cover Flow view, the second view mode is most appropriate for users who sort their libraries by album.

Cover Flow displays all of the user's album art as CD covers in a slideshow format. It sorts the albums into artist, genre, etc. Compilation albums are only shown as a single album cover if the compilation tag for each of the album's tracks is turned on. If the song(s) from the album were imported from a 'mix' CD, the album artwork will be displayed as a default music note pictures.


File format support

iTunes 8 can currently read, write and convert between MP3, AIFF, WAV, MPEG-4, AAC and Apple Lossless. iTunes can also play any audio files that QuickTime can play (as well as some video formats), including Protected AAC files from the iTunes Store and audio books.

There is limited support for Vorbis and FLAC enclosed in an Ogg container (files using the

FLAC container format are not naturally supported) or Speex codecs with the Xiph

QuickTime Components. Because tag editing and album art is done within iTunes and not

Quicktime, these features will not work with these QuickTime components. iTunes currently will not play back HE-AAC/aacPlus audio streams correctly. HE-AAC/aacPlus format files will play back as 22 kHz AAC files (effectively having no high end over 11 kHz), and HE-

AAC streaming audio (which a number of Internet radio stations use) will not play back at all. The latest version of iTunes (Win/Mac) supports importing audio CDs with the default iTunes standard file format of AAC at 256 kbit/s, but users can choose from 16 kbit/s to

320 kbit/s constant bit rates (CBR) in either AAC or MP3.

Importing of audio CDs into MP3 or AAC formats can also be accomplished using variable bitrate (VBR) encoding. However, a double-blind experiment conducted in January 2004 of six MP3 encoders noted that the iTunes encoder came last, in that the quality of the files produced by iTunes was below par. It was stated in the final results that these tests only covered VBR encodings, thus iTunes may have performed better with a Constant bitrate



iTunes Store

Version 4 of iTunes introduced the iTunes Store, then named the iTunes Music Store, from which iTunes users can buy and download songs for use on a limited number of computers and an unlimited number of iPods. In previous years, purchased music from the iTunes Store were copy protected with Apple's FairPlay digital rights management (DRM) system which allows protected songs to be played on up to five computers at one time, as well as unlimited devices (iPod, AppleTV, etc.). DRM protected songs can not be played on computers not


authorized to the purchaser's iTunes account. At the 2009 Macworld Conference & Expo, it was announced that the iTunes Music Store would be DRM-free, with all songs digital rights management (DRM)-free by April 2009.[57]

Apple also announced changes in their price tier. They announced that songs will now cost

$0.69, $0.99, or $1.29, but did not elaborate on how they will be priced. Observers expected new hits to be $1.29 while older songs will be the cheaper $0.99 or $0.69 tier,[58] however many record labels have listed whole catalogs by artists with nothing but $1.29 songs, taking advantage of the price option. Due to this, there are very few songs in the iTunes store with a

$0.69 price tag.[59]

In the years since, films, television programs, music videos, podcasts, and the App Store (for the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad) have been added to iTunes' extensive store catalog.

On January 6, 2009, Phil Schiller announced in his Macworld 2009 keynote speech that over

6 billion songs had been downloaded since the service first launched on April 28, 2003,[60] making it the largest online music store in the world.

At the previous Macworld Expo 2008, Apple CEO Steve Jobs stated that the service had set a new single day record of 20 million songs on December 25, 2007. He also announced that the iTunes Store will offer over 1,000 movies for rental by the end of February.[61] The iTunes movie catalog includes content from 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros., Walt Disney Pictures,

Paramount Pictures, Universal Studios, and Sony Pictures Entertainment. These movies will also be transferable to all 6th generation iPods.[62]

On the February 24, 2010, Apple announced that over 10 billion tracks had been downloaded from the iTunes store.[63]

As of Tuesday, November 16, 2010, Beatles fans could download their entire catalog digitally via iTunes.[64] Artists whose music remains largely unavailable include Garth

Brooks, AC/DC, Kid Rock, Tool, and Bob Seger. Def Leppard albums are no longer available through iTunes.

Video support

On May 9, 2005, video support was introduced to iTunes with the release of iTunes 4.8.

Users can drag and drop movie clips from the computer into the iTunes Library for cataloguing and organization. They can be viewed in a small frame in the main iTunes display, in a separate window, or fullscreen. Before version 7 provided separate libraries for media types, videos were only distinguished from audio in the Library by a small icon resembling a TV screen and grouped with music in the library, organized by the same musical categories (such as "album" and "composer").

Originally, movies and TV shows were only available to U.S. customers, with the only video content available to non-U.S. customers being music videos and Pixar's short films. This feature is being extended to other countries as licensing issues are resolved.



Marketing Strategies of Apple


2.1 Competitive Structure of Apple

In recent years, it could be argued that most PC manufacturers were rivals to Apple, like Dell,

Alienware, Gateway etc. but of course you can also factor in Microsoft as a rival to their

Operating System (OS X/XP).

But in recent years they have branched out considerably, into online media (iTunes,

MobileMe, iPhone) so you can factor in Napster and other legal music download sites,

Hotmail and Gmail, and Nokia, Samsung, Blackberry and alike.

Also, they rival in the server markets with HP, Sun, SGI and IBM with regards to High

Performance Computing, Webserving, Centralised storage (which also brings further rivals like Brocade and Sanrad).

There's also networking, the Airport lines now rival Cisco, Netgear and alike.

So, they now have a very diverse range of products, and there are many rivals that are fighting with Apple in those markets.

Apple's Branding Strategy

Apple Inc. uses the Apple brand to compete across several highly competitive markets, including the personal computer industry with its Macintosh line of computers and related software, the consumer electronics industry with products such as the iPod, digital music distribution through its iTunes Music Store, the smart phone market with the Apple iPhone, and more recently magazine, book, games and applications publishing via the AppsStore for iPhone and the iPad tablet computing device. For marketers, the company is also establishing a very strong presence to rival Google in the advertising market, via its Apps business and iAd network.


Steve Jobs, Apple's Founder and Chairman, described Apple as a "mobile devices company"

- the largest one in the world (Apple's revenues are bigger than Nokia, Samsung, or Sony's mobility business).

For several years Apple's product strategy involved creating innovative products and services aligned with a "digital hub" strategy, whereby Apple Macintosh computer products function as the digital hub for digital devices, including the Apple iPod, personal digital assistants, cellular phones, digital video and still cameras, and other electronic devices. More recently, the full impact of a very well throught out brand strategy has come into focus - and one in which customer experience is central

Apple's core competence is delivering exceptional experience through superb user interfaces.

The company's product strategy is based around this, with iTunes, the iPhone with it's touch screen "gestures" that are re-used on the iPad, and the Apple Apps store all playing key roles.

The Apple Brand Personality

Apple has a branding strategy that focuses on the emotions. The Apple brand personality is about lifestyle; imagination; liberty regained; innovation; passion; hopes, dreams and aspirations; and power-to-the-people through technology. The Apple brand personality is also about simplicity and the removal of complexity from people's lives; people-driven product design; and about being a really humanistic company with a heartfelt connection with its customers.

The Apple brand is not just intimate with its customers, it's loved, and there is a real sense of community among users of its main product lines.

The brand equity and customer franchise which Apple embodies is extremely strong. The preference for Apple products amongst the "Mac community", for instance, not only kept the company alive for much of the 90's (when from a rational economic perspective it looked like a dead duck) but it even enables the company to sustain pricing that is at a premium to its competitors. It is arguable that without the price-premium which the Apple brand sustains in many product areas, the company would have exited the personal computer business several years ago. Small market share PC vendors with weaker brand equity have struggled to compete with the supply chain and manufacturing economics of Dell. However, Apple has made big advances in becoming more efficient with its manufacturing supply chain, logistics and operations, and it can be assumed that as far as like-for-like hardware manufacturing comparisons are comcerned, Apple's product costs are very similar to those of Dell. In terms


of price to the consumer, Apple's computer products have an additional cost advantage: the company does not have to pay another company for operating system licences..

The Apple Customer Experience

The huge promise of the Apple brand, of course presents Apple with an enormous challenge to live up to. The innovative, beautifully-designed, highly ergonomic, and technology-leading products which Apple delivers are not only designed to match the brand promise, but are fundamental to keeping it.

Apple fully understands that all aspects of the customer experience are important and that all brand touch-points must reinforce the Apple brand.

Apple has expanded and improved its distribution capabilities by opening its own retail stores in key cities around the world in up-market, quality shopping venues. Apple provides Apple

Mac-expert retail floor staff staff to selected resellers' stores (such as Australian department store David Jones); it has entered into strategic alliances with other companies to co-brand or distribute Apple's products and services (for example, HP who was selling a co-branded form of iPod and pre-loading iTunes onto consumer PCs and laptops though in retrospect this may now just have been a stepping-stone). Apple has also increased the accessibility of iPods through various resellers that do not currently carry Apple Macintosh systems (such as

Harvey Norman), and has increased the reach of its online stores.

The very successful Apple retail stores give prospective customers direct experience of

Apple's brand values. Apple Store visitors experience a stimulating, no-pressure environment where they can discover more about the Apple family, try out the company's products, and get practical help on Apple products at the shops' Guru Bars. Apple retail staff are helpful, informative, and let their enthusiasm show without being brash or pushy.

The overall feeling is one of inclusiveness by a community that really understands what good technology should look and feel like - and how it should fit into people's lives.

The iPod Halo Effect


Though Apple's iPhone and iTunes music business is profitable in its own right, Apple's venture into these product areas was based on a strategy of using the music business to help boost the appeal of Apple's computing business.

Apple is using iPod, iTunes, iPhone, and now iPad to reinforce and re-invigorate the Apple brand personality. At the same time, these product initiatives are growing a highly relevant, appealing brand image in the minds of consumer segments that Apple has not previously reached.

In a so-called iPod halo effect, Apple hoped that the popularity of iPod and iTunes among these new groups of customers would cause these segments to be interested in Apple's computer products. This does seem to have happened. Since the take-off of the iPod there has been a dramatic rise in Apple's computer sales and market share.

A couple of years ago, Apple's aspirations for the iPod halo effect was was highlighted most strongly when it used the slogan "from the creators of iPod" in its promotion of iMac G5 computers. In this instance, the Apple brand came full-circle - having been built into a branding system that originates in the personal computer market, then leveraged into the consumer electronics market, and then back into the consumer personal computer market.

This halo effect is extended with the hugely successful Apple iPad tablet computer. Great customer experience with iPhone (and familiarity with Apple's touch screen gesture controls), combined with a great product in its own right, has made iPod a huge success that in turn is drawing even more people to Apple's Mac computer products. In a move which also brings matters full circle, the Lion version of Mac OSX brings to the Mac the same touch screen gesture controls which iPad and iPod users have learned.

This is extension of a common user experience across Apple products has been further strengthened by the introduction of the Apps Store to Mac OSX in mid-2011. Mac users can now buy their OSX applications with the same convenience as iPad or iPhone users can buy iOS Apps.


Apple Brand Strength Now Creating Financial Success

So far, Apples' branding strategy is bearing fruit. For example, Apple reports that half of all computer sales through its retail channel are to people new to Macintosh, the company's sales and margins have been growing strongly since 2006, and Apple has achieved several "best ever" quarterly financial results in recent years. Leveraging the success of the iPod, Apple launched the iPhone (released in July 07) to extend the brand even further. Apple's buzz marketing efforts in the first half of 2007 were truly superb, culminating in the release of one of the most highly anticipated products for many years - and launching apple into a completely new market: mobile handsets. By July 2008 the buzz about the 3G iPhone resulted in over 1 million units being sold in the first 3 days of its release in over 20 countries around the world. This success was repeated in 2010 with the introduction of the iPad tablet computer, and in March 2011 with the launch of the iPad 2 which sold 1 million units within

24 hours.

Apple Re-entering the Corporate Market via the iPhone and iPad Halo


Though no-one at Apple would say so today, the next phase of Apple's strategy seems focused on the Corporate marketplace.

A long time ago, Apple had a fairly strong market share in large companies.

A long, long time ago (at the end of the 1970's) the first spreadsheet program (VisiCalc) was launched on the Apple II. The first PC (the IBM PC) to run a Microsoft operating system (PC

DOS) did not appear until 1981. When Microsoft launched its Excel spreadsheet in 1984 it appeared first on the just-released Apple Mac, such was Apple's presence among accounting and finance departments.

Even though Apple effectively stopped competing for corporate business during the 1990s, the Apple Mac is still used in corporate environments. Microsoft still has a vigorous applications development team totally dedicated to writing business software for the Apple

Mac. New versions of Microsoft Office for Apple Mac still come out approximately 2 years before similar functionality is placed in the next version of Microsoft Office for the Windows operating system.


Over the next few years it seems likely that Apple will re-focus on the Corporate marketplace: The company provides regular updates on the proportion of Fortune 500 companies which are either trialing or deploying iPhone (currently over 90%), and the iPad.

In 2009, when Apple announced "Snow Leopard" (the current version of the Apple Mac operating system) it included features allowing Mac computers to fully support Microsoft

Exchange. This enables corporate IT departments to support business users who wish to use

Apple Macs for their main email clients. Apple latest version, Mac OSX Lion (released in

Summer 2011) includes all the functionality needed to use a Mac as a business server.

Also, Microsoft continues to bring out advanced versions of Microsoft Office for Apple Mac, and - very significantly - in mid-2008 Apple announced a software upgrade for the iPhone which allows iPhones to be fully supported by Microsoft Exchange email servers. Corporate

IT departments can now include iPhones as email clients.

One aspect of Apple's strategy seems clear: to use the popularity of the iPhone and iPad to break back into large corporations, sell lots of those devices, and have Apple Mac back on the desks of large businesses (or more probably - in the laptop bags of middle and senior managers in most large businesses).

The Macbook Air and iPad are clearly designed for business markets as well as for consumers, and Apple continues to display its mastery in smoothly morphing customer experience and brand preference from one product category to another.

As we say; no one in Apple will currently admit to such ambitions, but Apple's branding strategy is clearly expanding to include business and corporate markets once again.

After Halos - Clouds

The next step in Apple's marketing strategy is the Apple iCloud, which delivers a seamless experience for using and sharing content across all your Apple devices (iPhone, iPod, iPad, or

Mac). iCloud enables a common "it just works" experience for using content across all of

Apple's mainstream products. iCloud positions the company for a future where customers experiences and their digtal lives transcend the hardware devices which they use, and enables

Apple to extend the brand experience well beyond individual products.

Apple has invested in a 500,000 (soon to be one million) square foot Apple data center in rural North Carolina. This data centre this will be used as the core of a data repository for

Apple's iCloud services, which will enable Apple to leverage it's customer franchise into an


even broader market space. Apple iCloud is one of many ways in which Apple and Google are fast becoming arch rivals.

Steve Jobs

If we talk about Apple success, about Apple great products, we need to talk about Steve Jobs.

Steve Jobs has been and is the great mind behind all this. Steve Jobs died on October 5 th

2011 this has been the biggest loss to apple till now. It is a fact that without Steve Jobs Apple would not have been a big success.

Steve Jobs is a genius, he is a magician, too. He is the most skilled guy in introducing new products - "... one more thing" - the most skilled in presenting the key features, and he is a great communicator.

Even more important, Steve Jobs has Vision. Vision in the strategy, Vision in the product

development, Vision in the alliances.



The process of objective self-study is necessary for any institution wishing to remain vital and vigorous and is particularly crucial for institutions of higher learning. Periodically reexamining the institution‘s purpose, mission, goals, planning, and assessment helps to maintain quality educational programs and fosters innovative thinking. Only by carefully examining the past and honestly evaluating the present can an institution effectively plan for the future.

The purpose of this Study was multi-faceted: to provide comprehensive examination of the nature of the educational programs at Maharaja Agrasen College of Management Studies; to revise, where necessary, characteristics of those programs; and to identify resources and strategies to assure continued development of quality educational programs.

Though the major purpose of this Study was to achieve reaffirmation of accreditation by showing compliance. This Self-Study Report will serve not only as an accounting of our compliance with the Criteria, but also as a springboard for continued examination of institutional effectiveness and as a guide for future planning and assessment efforts.



To review the variants offered by Apple inc.

To know the present and future strategies of Apple Inc.

To be familiar with Products of Apple in India & Worldwide.

To study about the Competetive Structure of Apple inc.






3.1 Meaning of Research

Redman and Mory define research as a ―systemized effort to gain new knowledge.‖ Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown.

Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense.

According to Clifford Woody, research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis



Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Research methodology constitutes of research methods, selection criterion of research methods, used in context of research study and explanation of using of a particular method or technique so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken, how the research problem has been formulated, why data have been collected and what particular technique of analyzing data has been used and a best of similar other question are usually answered when we talk of Research methodology concerning a research problem or study. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.

Sources of Data



The data is basically secondary in nature.

2. Some data has also been collected from the internet.



The data can be collected from two sources, i.e. Primary and Secondary



Primary research entails the use of immediate data in determining the survival of the market.

The popular ways to collect primary data consist of surveys, interviews and focus groups, which shows that direct relationship between potential customers and the companies.


Whereas secondary research is a means to reprocess and reuse collected information as an indication for betterments of the service or product. Both primary and secondary data are useful for businesses but both may differ from each other in various aspects.

I have collected entire data of this project from SECONDARY SOURCES like websites, books, newspapers and magazines




Findings & Analysis



Threat of Entry

Threat of Suppliers

Level of Threat in an


Threat of Rivalry

↑ ↑

Threat of Substitutes Threat of Buyers

Apple Inc. not only had to face a number of barriers to entry in the development of the iPhone but they must also worry about potential competitors overcoming them as well.

Although Apple currently has an advantage with its innovative products it must always be aware of the ease that a competitor can copy its products, especially in the extremely competitive field of cellular phones. However those new companies to the market will not only have to compete with the strong brand that Apple Inc. has built but will also have to face barriers more strenuous then what Apple had to face.

4.1 Economies of Scale

Apple Inc. had an existing experience in manufacturing mass-market consumer electronics devices, many of which share similar components of the iPhone; so Apple Inc. was not negatively affected by this barrier. Since Apple Inc. had the production lines and personnel to make advance electronic products such as, the iPod and their line of computers, it wasn‘t difficult to develop a production line capable of mass production of the iPhone. New entrants may not have that comfort as the cell phone market is almost defined by its mass-market environment. A new company entering this market would have one of two choices available: 1) They sell their product at a higher price to make up for the fact they can‘t sell the same volume as a company like Apple Inc. and must hope that the consumer sees the higher price as a indicator of better quality. Or 2) They sell their product at a lower price probably occurring a loss per unit in hopes of selling a high volume and banking on sales of


applications that can be purchased for the phone. In either situation it is extremely risky as both could lead to the company‘s collapse.

2. Access to Distribution Channels

Although Apple Inc. has had success with the distribution of its products it does face issues with this barrier due to the limited retailers of the iPhone and the fact that there is currently only one service provider. The iPhone is only available through a limited number of distribution channels those being Apple Inc. and AT&T stores and auction websites, like eBay, and it is only supported by the AT&T network. A future entrant to the market could create an advantage by make their product more available for multiple carriers and multiple retailers


3. Product Differentiation

In general this trait is favorable for Apple Inc. because the iPhone is significantly different than most of its competitors. First and foremost, the iPhone 3G is a revolutionary phone with a high call quality as its main point of parity. A list of the iPhone‘s highlighted features includes the iPod, Internet tool (Wi-Fi, 3G and EDGE network). Apple Inc. also has a certain amount of protection through the strength of its brand identity. The problem with cell phones is product differentiation can be emulated, to a certain extent. Cell phones are pretty uniform in functionality and use and not overly differentiated between each other. However, recently

LG with Verizon have just release the Dare, an iPhone like product, in hopes of attacking some of Apple‘s market share. Not to mention companies like, Samsung and Nokia, have released designs and plans to develop their own versions of an iPhone.

4. Capital Requirements

Since Apple Inc. had already been successful with their computers and the iPod they had an advantage with having the capital required to start mass production of a new product. Apple

Inc. also has experience with developing software and hardware, which gives them another advantage as they do not need to spend as much time and money in the research and development stages as a new phone manufacturer would. So, to most effectively compete with the iPhone they will need to invest significantly in certain areas. Apple Inc. itself did not face much resistance with this barrier because of their experience creating both software and hardware. Companies looking to enter this market with have difficult barriers to overcome in order to compete at the same level as Apple Inc. and unless a company has experience in developing consumer electronics it seems very unlikely that they can experience similar success.


5. Government Policy

Any company looking to enter this market has two governmental factors they must consider before entering the market: 1) the strength of current manufactures patents and 2) the regulatory obligations and approval requirements of the FCC (Apple Insider, 2007), which governs communication technologies in the United States. Apple has gained another advantage by acquiring a patent and FCC approval for the IPhone. This will make it more difficult for competitors to copy the iPhone but we are sure will not stop companies from developing their own versions of this successful product


6. Threat of Substitutes

Porter‘s five-force model validates that all forms of communication devices threaten the mobile phone industry as a whole. The iPhone‘s top priority is to provide its customers with a complete solution in the mobile phone industry with added features and benefits. Quoting

Steve Jobs ―the original iPhone, it combines three products in one — a revolutionary phone, a widescreen iPod, and a breakthrough Internet device with rich HTML email and a desktopclass web browser‖ (Steve Jobs, 2008). Examples of substitute industries include landlines, pagers, walkie talkies, computers, fax machines, and snail mail.

If the mobile phone industry cannot meet the needs of its customers at a reasonable price, then substitute products play a key threat. Landlines are evolving to be more of a direct competitor to the mobile phone industry, but they still provide its services at a different vantage point. Landlines are non-wireless receivers that are offered at a much lower cost than mobile phones. Computers (notebook and desktop) offer numerous options in the communication sector, which include electronic mail, live chat, and communication software.

Collectively, fax, snail mail, pagers, and walkie talkies make up a small portion of the market share, but still pose a threat for unsatisfied customers in the wireless industry.

The capacity of the PC market is constantly increasing because of the introduction of new products. Companies are constantly introducing new PCs that are more powerful than the ones already on the market. There were no new entrants worth mentioning, in other words, no new companies have entered the market and got a hold of a significant market share in 2001.

One ‗New Entrant‘ worth mentioning is a new product from Microsoft, namely Windows XP.

Although this product has not been released during the life of the Apple G4 Cube, it has been announced. Customers could decide not to purchase a Mac, but wait for Windows XP instead.


7. Threat of Buyers

The buyers market consists of a large amount of individuals or corporations that own one or multiple cell phones. Due to the large market, the lost of a buyer is not a key threat. When a buyer is purchasing a new cell phone, the process at times is overwhelming due to the wide variety of differentiated products. Buyers play an important role in the strategic pricing for a new cell phone because they have no obligations in purchasing a cell phone from a single supplier. Buyer‘s spending habits will change accordingly with the economy‘s position. For example, if economic profits are high then buyers are willing to spend versus saving their disposable income. Mobile phones have become integrated as a point of parity in the

American lifestyle, and economic profits will determine the price a buyer is willing to pay for a cell phone.

8. Threat of Rivalry

The number of competing firms within the mobile phone industry is increasing, while a few firms make up the majority of the market share. Provided by CNET is a list of suppliers that operate within the same industry as Apple‘s iPhone, and a count of their product offerings.

Direct competition includes all mobile phones that can be subcategorized as a basic, smart, camera, mp3, or videophone. The industries large selection of mobile phone manufacturers creates a strong threat of rivalry. The iPhone has made its debut as a smart phone targeting the higher-income demographic, but this does not eliminate the fact that all subcategories of cell phones contribute to the strengthening threat of rivalry. According to CNET Senior

Editor Kent German (2008), the editor‘s top cell phones include the LG Dare, RIM

BlackBerry Curve 8320, Nokia N95, Samsung Instinct, Sony Ericsson W760i, and the newest edition of direct competition comes from Google introducing the T-Mobile G1.


9. Threat of Suppliers

There are several suppliers of component parts in the mobile communication industry; therefore, manufacturers are able to make preferable purchasing agreements, allowing their manufacturing cost to then be reduced. The low cost from suppliers puts pressure on manufacturing to in turn pass on the savings to the end consumer. Other suppliers offer specific applications to be used on mobile phones, including the use of digital games

(Electronic Arts, 2008). Employees also are a key component as they supply knowledge and expertise to the development of mobile communication products. Without their skills, innovation would be limited, an imperative factor for survival in this industry. Research and development in this industry is vital to the success of a mobile communication product.

Suppliers in this industry are fundamental to a product‘s successful development and its competitive advantage.

Apple has had several suppliers to supply components for its G4 Cube. For example, in a cooperation with IBM and Motorola, Apple developed the PowerPC processor that is used in the G4 Cube. Furthermore Apple uses Graphics Cards from ATi and n VIDIA for implementation in the G4 Cube. Harman Kardon takes care of the sound system for the G4

Cube, and the Cube comes with preinstalled software from Microsoft (Internet Explorer and

Outlook) as well (Specification Sheet). All the rest of the components, like the memory or the hard drive come from Other Electronics Suppliers. These components are universal so can be used in any other PC and thus are not exclusive for this product.

Because Apple develops his own processor and its own software the soft- and hardware are made foreach other and it is impossible for suppliers to start manufacturing the G4 Cube by themselves bypassing apple


4.2 Trends


The Apple G4 Cube is a highly complex device containing many different components and materials. The complexity of this device is also demonstrated by the extra ordinary functions that were added by Apple.

Some examples of these functions that make it even more complex than a normal computer can be found \below:

∗ The on/off button is not a normal button working with pressure, but it is a touch-button.

∗ The G4 Cube is a computer without a fan, to avoid the produced sound of a fan. This means the computer has to get rid of the warmth that is produced in a different way. If this does not work, the consumer will not notice it, because he or she will not hear it.

∗ The CD-RW is not a normal drive, but has the effect of a toaster. This means it works vertically instead of horizontally.


∗ The G4 Cube is much smaller than other computers at that time, this meant everything had to be made much smaller which also causes higher complexity. The complexity of this product makes it even more difficult to prevent mistakes.

Product Understanding

The Apple Power Macs are made for professional users. These people want to work on their computer, they want it to be quick and functional. The Power Mac G4 Cube is slightly opposite, because it is made in such a way that people can ‗show‘ their computer. They can place it on the table and the appearance becomes as important as the functionality. So the

Power Mac G4 Cube is targeted at a slightly different group of consumers as the other Power


The people that were already users of Apple, did not understand why Apple broke their line of products that were so highly functional for their profession. The G4 Cube was made for people who could afford to spent more money for a computer that they could show off with.

Once the G4 Cube came on the market, it was seen as a luxury product.

At the same time, people could buy a better computer at a different company for the same amount of money. So those who preferred the functionality of Apple, could better spend their money on a different computer instead of buying the G4 Cube with the ‗beautiful appearance‘.


The headquarters of the Apple company are situated in California in the United States, but the manufacturing that is done by the company Foxconn takes place in China and Czech


The Apple G4 Cube has only been on the market in the United States of America in the years

2000 and 2001. When looking at other products of Apple, for example the iPod, iPhone or

Macbook, they are brought on the market in the US, but it takes a couple of months before the products enter the markets in Europe. It takes even longer for the products to be on the market in Asia and Australia. Because the G4 Cube has been on the market for a year, we can conclude that Apple has delayed the entering in the

Europian and Asian Market as a result of disappointing sales. Overall Apple does adjust the price of their products to the local market. This cannot be seen for the G4

Cube, because it did not enter the market globally, but a good example is the iPod which is a little cheaper in the Netherlands than it is in Germany







After doing a study of this project representing on Apple India , I have come to a conclusion that Apple is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system. the company operates 301 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.

As one success follows another, the company finds itself in a bewildering position. As the tech industry's perennial underdog, Apple was frequently scorned and dismissed by larger and more successful competitors like Microsoft or Dell. Now, with growing frequency, the company is seen by competitors and other industry players as a bully.

To sum up I would like to say that Apple India is serving its customer in an appreciated way and going to be in the list of best services providers in coming years.

Apple inc in Figures

Revenue US$ 108.249 billion (FY 2011)

Operating income US$ 33.790 billion (FY 2011)

Profit US$ 25.922 billion (FY 2011)

Total assets US$ 116.371 billion (FY 2011)

Total equity US$ 76.615 billion (FY 2011)

Employees 49,400 (2010)






1. Due to wide spread information of the data, the scope of project becomes very wide.

2. All the matter has been collected through secondary sources; hence, the errors might have crept in.

3. Given the time constraints, all the information could not be gathered.

4. Data being very vast, appropriate information could not be gathered to the point specific requirement needs.



The following sources have been sought for the preparation of this report.


Kotler, Philip. Marketing Management, 13th Edition, 2009, South Asian Perspective,

Dorling Kindersley, India

Kothari, C.R. Research methodology, 3 rd

edition, 1997, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.

Ltd, New Delhi.



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